WorldWideScience

Sample records for accurate mass measurements

  1. Accurate mass measurements on neutron-deficient krypton isotopes

    CERN Document Server

    Rodríguez, D; Äystö, J; Beck, D

    2006-01-01

    The masses of $^{72–78,80,82,86}$Kr were measured directly with the ISOLTRAP Penning trap mass spectrometer at ISOLDE/CERN. For all these nuclides, the measurements yielded mass uncertainties below 10 keV. The ISOLTRAP mass values for $^{72–75}$Kr being more precise than the previous results obtained by means of other techniques, and thus completely determine the new values in the Atomic-Mass Evaluation. Besides the interest of these masses for nuclear astrophysics, nuclear structure studies, and Standard Model tests, these results constitute a valuable and accurate input to improve mass models. In this paper, we present the mass measurements and discuss the mass evaluation for these Kr isotopes.

  2. Accurate mass measurements of very short-lived nuclei

    CERN Document Server

    Herfurth, F; Ames, F; Audi, G; Beck, D; Blaum, K; Bollen, G; Engels, O; Kluge, H J; Lunney, M D; Moores, R B; Oinonen, M; Sauvan, E; Bolle, C A; Scheidenberger, C; Schwarz, S; Sikler, G; Weber, C

    2002-01-01

    Mass measurements of /sup 34/Ar, /sup 73-78/Kr, and /sup 74,76/Rb were performed with the Penning-trap mass spectrometer ISOLTRAP. Very accurate Q/sub EC/-values are needed for the investigations of the F /sub t/-value of 0/sup +/ to 0/sup +/ nuclear beta -decays used to test the standard model predictions for weak interactions. The necessary accuracy on the Q/sub EC/-value requires the mass of mother and daughter nuclei to be measured with delta m/mmeasured nuclides presented here this has been reached. The /sup 34/Ar mass has been measured with a relative accuracy of 1.1.10/sup -8/. The Q/sub EC/-value of the /sup 34/Ar 0 /sup +/ to 0/sup +/ decay can now he determined with an uncertainty of about 0.01%. Furthermore, /sup 74/Rb is the shortest-lived nuclide ever investigated in a Penning trap. (18 refs).

  3. On uplimit of accurate measurement of tau mass

    CERN Document Server

    Mo, X H

    2016-01-01

    Tau lepton as one of three elementary leptons in nature, the measurement of its mass has ever been performed since its discovery. The present relative accuracy is already at the level of better than 10 to minus 4 and more effects are still made in order to increase the accuracy further. However, the analysis of available techniques for and expectable luminosity from e+e- collider indicates that the precision uplimit of tau mass is almost reached, which means that brand new approaches should be looked for if the great improvement is yearned for.

  4. Maximum Mass of Strange Stars and Pulsars with the Most Accurately Measured Masses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vartanyan, Yu. L.; Grigoryan, A. K.; Shahinyan, H. A.

    2015-06-01

    Strange quark matter (SQM) is studied using a bag model in which the transition to the SQM state takes place at energy densities of no more than twice the density in atomic nuclei. Thus, low mass neutron stars with a configuration consisting of SQM form a single family on a plot of the mass M of equilibrium superdense configurations as a function of central energy density ρ c (the M(ρ c ) curve). The bag model considered here depends on three constants: the vacuum pressure B, the quark-gluon interaction constant α c , and the strange quark mass m s . Sets of values of these constants are determined, which if used in the equation of state for SQM yield a maximal mass M max of the equilibrium quark configurations which exceeds the recently accurately determined mass of 2.01 M ⊙ for the binary radio pulsar PSR J0348+0432. The mass, radius, total baryon number, and red shift from the surface of the strange star are calculated for these configurations as a function of central energy density ρ c . The values of these integrated parameters are also calculated for each series with M max > 2.01 M ⊙ for superdense configurations with masses of 2.01, 1.97, and 1.44 solar masses, which have been determined with great accuracy from observations. It turns out that, according to the resulting equations of state, all of the three pulsars with the most accurately measured masses, may be possible candidate strange stars.

  5. Accurate on-line mass flow measurements in supercritical fluid chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarafder, Abhijit; Vajda, Péter; Guiochon, Georges

    2013-12-13

    This work demonstrates the possible advantages and the challenges of accurate on-line measurements of the CO2 mass flow rate during supercritical fluid chromatography (SFC) operations. Only the mass flow rate is constant along the column in SFC. The volume flow rate is not. The critical importance of accurate measurements of mass flow rates for the achievement of reproducible data and the serious difficulties encountered in supercritical fluid chromatography for its assessment were discussed earlier based on the physical properties of carbon dioxide. In this report, we experimentally demonstrate the problems encountered when performing mass flow rate measurements and the gain that can possibly be achieved by acquiring reproducible data using a Coriolis flow meter. The results obtained show how the use of a highly accurate mass flow meter permits, besides the determination of accurate values of the mass flow rate, a systematic, constant diagnosis of the correct operation of the instrument and the monitoring of the condition of the carbon dioxide pump. PMID:24210558

  6. Accurate correction of magnetic field instabilities for high-resolution isochronous mass measurements in storage rings

    CERN Document Server

    Shuai, P; Zhang, Y H; Litvinov, Yu A; Wang, M; Tu, X L; Blaum, K; Zhou, X H; Yuan, Y J; Audi, G; Yan, X L; Chen, X C; Xu, X; Zhang, W; Sun, B H; Yamaguchi, T; Chen, R J; Fu, C Y; Ge, Z; Huang, W J; Liu, D W; Xing, Y M; Zeng, Q

    2014-01-01

    Isochronous mass spectrometry (IMS) in storage rings is a successful technique for accurate mass measurements of short-lived nuclides with relative precision of about $10^{-5}-10^{-7}$. Instabilities of the magnetic fields in storage rings are one of the major contributions limiting the achievable mass resolving power, which is directly related to the precision of the obtained mass values. A new data analysis method is proposed allowing one to minimise the effect of such instabilities. The masses of the previously measured at the CSRe $^{41}$Ti, $^{43}$V, $^{47}$Mn, $^{49}$Fe, $^{53}$Ni and $^{55}$Cu nuclides were re-determined with this method. An improvement of the mass precision by a factor of $\\sim 1.7$ has been achieved for $^{41}$Ti and $^{43}$V. The method can be applied to any isochronous mass experiment irrespective of the accelerator facility. Furthermore, the method can be used as an on-line tool for checking the isochronous conditions of the storage ring.

  7. An accurate mass and radius measurement for an ultracool white dwarf

    CERN Document Server

    Parsons, S G; Marsh, T R; Bergeron, P; Copperwheat, C M; Dhillon, V S; Bento, J; Littlefair, S P; Schreiber, M R

    2012-01-01

    Studies of cool white dwarfs in the solar neighbourhood have placed a limit on the age of the Galactic disk of 8-9 billion years. However, determining their cooling ages requires the knowledge of their effective temperatures, masses, radii, and atmospheric composition. So far, these parameters could only be inferred for a small number of ultracool white dwarfs for which an accurate distance is known, by fitting their spectral energy distributions (SEDs) in conjunction with a theoretical mass-radius relation. However, the mass-radius relation remains largely untested, and the derived cooling ages are hence model-dependent. Here we report direct measurements of the mass and radius of an ultracool white dwarf in the double-lined eclipsing binary SDSS J013851.54-001621.6. We find M(WD)=0.529+/-0.010Msol and R(WD)=0.0131+/-0.0003Rsol. Our measurements are consistent with the mass-radius relation and we determine a robust cooling age of 9.5 billion years for the 3570K white dwarf. We find that the mass and radius o...

  8. Induced Dual-Nanospray: A Novel Internal Calibration Method for Convenient and Accurate Mass Measurement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yafeng; Zhang, Ning; Zhou, Yueming; Wang, Jianing; Zhang, Yiming; Wang, Jiyun; Xiong, Caiqiao; Chen, Suming; Nie, Zongxiu

    2013-09-01

    Accurate mass information is of great importance in the determination of unknown compounds. An effective and easy-to-control internal mass calibration method will dramatically benefit accurate mass measurement. Here we reported a simple induced dual-nanospray internal calibration device which has the following three advantages: (1) the two sprayers are in the same alternating current field; thus both reference ions and sample ions can be simultaneously generated and recorded. (2) It is very simple and can be easily assembled. Just two metal tubes, two nanosprayers, and an alternating current power supply are included. (3) With the low-flow-rate character and the versatility of nanoESI, this calibration method is capable of calibrating various samples, even untreated complex samples such as urine and other biological samples with small sample volumes. The calibration errors are around 1 ppm in positive ion mode and 3 ppm in negative ion mode with good repeatability. This new internal calibration method opens up new possibilities in the determination of unknown compounds, and it has great potential for the broad applications in biological and chemical analysis.

  9. Rapid yet accurate measurement of mass diffusion coefficients by phase shifting interferometer

    CERN Document Server

    Guo Zhi Xiong; Komiya, A

    1999-01-01

    The technique of using a phase-shifting interferometer is applied to the study of diffusion in transparent liquid mixtures. A quick method is proposed for determining the diffusion coefficient from the measurements of the location of fringes on a grey level picture. The measurement time is very short (within 100 s) and a very small transient diffusion field can be observed and recorded accurately with a rate of 30 frames per second. The measurement can be completed using less than 0.12 cc of solutions. The influence of gravity on the measurement of the diffusion coefficient is eliminated in the present method. Results on NaCl-water diffusion systems are presented and compared with the reference data. (author)

  10. Accurate mass measurements of $^{26}$Ne, $^{26-30}$Na, $^{29-33}$Mg performed with the MISTRAL spectrometer

    CERN Document Server

    Gaulard, C; Bachelet, C; De Simon, M S; Lunney, M D; Thibault, C; Vieira, N

    2006-01-01

    The minuteness of the nuclear binding energy requires that mass measurements be highly precise and accurate. Here we report on new measurements $^{29-33}$Mg and $^{26}$Na performed with the Mistral mass spectrometer at CERN's Isolde facility. Since mass measurements are prone to systematic errors, considerable effort has been devoted to their evaluation and elimination in order to achieve accuracy and not only precision. We have therefore conducted a campaign of measurements for calibration and error evaluation. As a result, we now have a satisfactory description of the Mistral calibration laws and error budget. We have applied our new understanding to previous measurements of $^{26}$Ne, $^{26-30}$Na and $^{29,32}$Mg for which re-evaluated values are reported.

  11. A Facility for Accurate Heat Load and Mass Leak Measurements on Superfluid Helium Valves

    CERN Document Server

    Bézaguet, Alain-Arthur; Ferlin, G; Losserand-Madoux, R; Perin, A; Vandoni, Giovanna; Van Weelderen, R

    1999-01-01

    The superconducting magnets of the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) will be protected by safety relief valves operating at 1.9 K in superfluid helium (HeII). A test facility was developed to precisely determine the heat load and the mass leakage of cryogenic valves with HeII at their inlet. The temperature of the valve inlet can be varied from 1.8 K to 2 K for pressures up to 3.5 bar. The valve outlet pipe temperature can be regulated between 5 K and 20 K. The heat flow is measured with high precision using a Kapitza-resistance heatmeter and is also crosschecked by a vaporization measurement. After calibration, a precision of 10 mW for heat flows up to 1.1 W has been achieved. The helium leak can be measured up to 15 mg/s with an accuracy of 0.2 mg/s. We present a detailed description of the test facility and the measurements showing its performances.

  12. Simultaneous measurement in mass and mass/mass mode for accurate qualitative and quantitative screening analysis of pharmaceuticals in river water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez Bueno, M J; Ulaszewska, Maria M; Gomez, M J; Hernando, M D; Fernández-Alba, A R

    2012-09-21

    A new approach for the analysis of pharmaceuticals (target and non-target) in water by LC-QTOF-MS is described in this work. The study has been designed to assess the performance of the simultaneous quantitative screening of target compounds, and the qualitative analysis of non-target analytes, in just one run. The features of accurate mass full scan mass spectrometry together with high MS/MS spectral acquisition rates - by means of information dependent acquisition (IDA) - have demonstrated their potential application in this work. Applying this analytical strategy, an identification procedure is presented based on library searching for compounds which were not included a priori in the analytical method as target compounds, thus allowing their characterization by data processing of accurate mass measurements in MS and MS/MS mode. The non-target compounds identified in river water samples were ketorolac, trazodone, fluconazole, metformin and venlafaxine. Simultaneously, this strategy allowed for the identification of other compounds which were not included in the library by screening the highest intensity peaks detected in the samples and by analysis of the full scan TOF-MS, isotope pattern and MS/MS spectra - the example of loratadine (histaminergic) is described. The group of drugs of abuse selected as target compounds for evaluation included analgesics, opioids and psychostimulants. Satisfactory results regarding sensitivity and linearity of the developed method were obtained. Limits of detection for the selected target compounds were from 0.003 to 0.01 μg/L and 0.01 to 0.5 μg/L, in MS and MS/MS mode, respectively - by direct sample injection of 100 μL.

  13. Accurate measurement of the kinetic coefficient of friction between a surface and a granular mass

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rademacher, F.J.C.

    1978-01-01

    A device has been developed for correct measurement of the kinematic coefficient of friction between a cohesionless granular material and a surface. Particle size may range from 0.5 up to about 9 mm, depending somewhat on the desired accuracy. Sliding velocity of the granules with respect to the sur

  14. Accurate quantification of creatinine in serum by coupling a measurement standard to extractive electrospray ionization mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Keke; Li, Ming; Li, Hongmei; Li, Mengwan; Jiang, You; Fang, Xiang

    2016-01-01

    Ambient ionization (AI) techniques have been widely used in chemistry, medicine, material science, environmental science, forensic science. AI takes advantage of direct desorption/ionization of chemicals in raw samples under ambient environmental conditions with minimal or no sample preparation. However, its quantitative accuracy is restricted by matrix effects during the ionization process. To improve the quantitative accuracy of AI, a matrix reference material, which is a particular form of measurement standard, was coupled to an AI technique in this study. Consequently the analyte concentration in a complex matrix can be easily quantified with high accuracy. As a demonstration, this novel method was applied for the accurate quantification of creatinine in serum by using extractive electrospray ionization (EESI) mass spectrometry. Over the concentration range investigated (0.166 ~ 1.617 μg/mL), a calibration curve was obtained with a satisfactory linearity (R(2) = 0.994), and acceptable relative standard deviations (RSD) of 4.6 ~ 8.0% (n = 6). Finally, the creatinine concentration value of a serum sample was determined to be 36.18 ± 1.08 μg/mL, which is in excellent agreement with the certified value of 35.16 ± 0.39 μg/mL. PMID:26759071

  15. Critical evaluation of screening techniques for emerging environmental contaminants based on accurate mass measurements with time-of-flight mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nurmi, Joonas; Pellinen, Jukka; Rantalainen, Anna-Lea

    2012-03-01

    Emerging contaminants from wastewater effluent samples were analysed, using posttarget and nontarget analysis techniques. The samples were analysed with an ultra performance liquid chromatograph-time-of-flight mass spectrometer (UPLC-TOF-MS), and the resulting data were processed with commercial deconvolution software. The method works well for posttarget analysis with prior information about the retention times of the compounds of interest. With positive polarity, 63 of 66 compounds and with negative polarity, 18 of 20 compounds were correctly identified in a spiked sample, while two compounds of a total of 88 fell out of the mass range. Furthermore, a four-stage process for identification was developed for the posttarget analysis lacking the retention time data. In the process, the number of candidate compounds was reduced by using the accurate mass of selected compounds in two steps (stages 1 and 2), structure-property relationships (stage 3) and isotope patterns of the analytes (stage 4). The process developed was validated by analysing wastewater samples spiked with 88 compounds. This procedure can be used to gain a preliminary indication of the presence of certain analytes in the samples. Nontarget analysis was tested by applying a theoretical mass spectra library for a wastewater sample spiked with six pharmaceuticals. The results showed a high number of false identifications. In addition, manual processing of the data was considered laborious and ineffective. Finally, the posttarget analysis was applied to a real wastewater sample. The analysis revealed the presence of six compounds that were afterwards confirmed with standard compounds as being correct. Three psycholeptics (nordiazepam, oxazepam and temazepam) could be tentatively identified, using the identification process developed. Posttarget analysis with UPLC-TOF-MS proved to be a promising method for analysing wastewater samples, while we concluded that the software for nontarget analysis will need

  16. Accurate thickness measurement of graphene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shearer, Cameron J.; Slattery, Ashley D.; Stapleton, Andrew J.; Shapter, Joseph G.; Gibson, Christopher T.

    2016-03-01

    Graphene has emerged as a material with a vast variety of applications. The electronic, optical and mechanical properties of graphene are strongly influenced by the number of layers present in a sample. As a result, the dimensional characterization of graphene films is crucial, especially with the continued development of new synthesis methods and applications. A number of techniques exist to determine the thickness of graphene films including optical contrast, Raman scattering and scanning probe microscopy techniques. Atomic force microscopy (AFM), in particular, is used extensively since it provides three-dimensional images that enable the measurement of the lateral dimensions of graphene films as well as the thickness, and by extension the number of layers present. However, in the literature AFM has proven to be inaccurate with a wide range of measured values for single layer graphene thickness reported (between 0.4 and 1.7 nm). This discrepancy has been attributed to tip-surface interactions, image feedback settings and surface chemistry. In this work, we use standard and carbon nanotube modified AFM probes and a relatively new AFM imaging mode known as PeakForce tapping mode to establish a protocol that will allow users to accurately determine the thickness of graphene films. In particular, the error in measuring the first layer is reduced from 0.1-1.3 nm to 0.1-0.3 nm. Furthermore, in the process we establish that the graphene-substrate adsorbate layer and imaging force, in particular the pressure the tip exerts on the surface, are crucial components in the accurate measurement of graphene using AFM. These findings can be applied to other 2D materials.

  17. Accurate thickness measurement of graphene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shearer, Cameron J; Slattery, Ashley D; Stapleton, Andrew J; Shapter, Joseph G; Gibson, Christopher T

    2016-03-29

    Graphene has emerged as a material with a vast variety of applications. The electronic, optical and mechanical properties of graphene are strongly influenced by the number of layers present in a sample. As a result, the dimensional characterization of graphene films is crucial, especially with the continued development of new synthesis methods and applications. A number of techniques exist to determine the thickness of graphene films including optical contrast, Raman scattering and scanning probe microscopy techniques. Atomic force microscopy (AFM), in particular, is used extensively since it provides three-dimensional images that enable the measurement of the lateral dimensions of graphene films as well as the thickness, and by extension the number of layers present. However, in the literature AFM has proven to be inaccurate with a wide range of measured values for single layer graphene thickness reported (between 0.4 and 1.7 nm). This discrepancy has been attributed to tip-surface interactions, image feedback settings and surface chemistry. In this work, we use standard and carbon nanotube modified AFM probes and a relatively new AFM imaging mode known as PeakForce tapping mode to establish a protocol that will allow users to accurately determine the thickness of graphene films. In particular, the error in measuring the first layer is reduced from 0.1-1.3 nm to 0.1-0.3 nm. Furthermore, in the process we establish that the graphene-substrate adsorbate layer and imaging force, in particular the pressure the tip exerts on the surface, are crucial components in the accurate measurement of graphene using AFM. These findings can be applied to other 2D materials.

  18. CLASH-VLT: CONSTRAINTS ON THE DARK MATTER EQUATION OF STATE FROM ACCURATE MEASUREMENTS OF GALAXY CLUSTER MASS PROFILES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sartoris, Barbara; Borgani, Stefano; Girardi, Marisa [Dipartimento di Fisica, Sezione di Astronomia, Università di Trieste, Via Tiepolo 11, I-34143 Trieste (Italy); Biviano, Andrea; Balestra, Italo; Nonino, Mario [INAF/Osservatorio Astronomico di Trieste, Via Tiepolo 11, I-34143 Trieste (Italy); Rosati, Piero [Dipartimento di Fisica e Scienze della Terra, Universita' di Ferrara, Via Saragat 1, I-44122 Ferrara (Italy); Umetsu, Keiichi; Czakon, Nicole [Institute of Astronomy and Astrophysics, Academia Sinica, P.O. Box 23-141, Taipei 10617, Taiwan (China); Bartelmann, Matthias [Zentrum für Astronomie der Universität Heidelberg, ITA, Albert-Ueberle-Str. 2, D-69120 Heidelberg (Germany); Grillo, Claudio [Dark Cosmology Centre, Niels Bohr Institute, University of Copenhagen, Juliane Maries Vej 30, DK-2100 Copenhagen (Denmark); Lemze, Doron; Medezinski, Elinor [Department of Physics and Astronomy, The Johns Hopkins University, 3400 North Charles Street, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States); Zitrin, Adi [Cahill Center for Astronomy and Astrophysics, California Institute of Technology, MS 249-17, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Mercurio, Amata [INAF/Osservatorio Astronomico di Capodimonte, Via Moiariello 16, I-80131 Napoli (Italy); Postman, Marc; Bradley, Larry; Coe, Dan [Space Telescope Science Institute, 3700 San Martin Drive, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States); Broadhurst, Tom [Department of Theoretical Physics, University of the Basque Country, P.O. Box 644, E-48080 Bilbao (Spain); Melchior, Peter, E-mail: sartoris@oats.inaf.it [Department of Physics, The Ohio State University, Columbus, OH 43210 (United States); and others

    2014-03-01

    A pressureless scenario for the dark matter (DM) fluid is a widely adopted hypothesis, despite the absence of direct observational evidence. According to general relativity, the total mass-energy content of a system shapes the gravitational potential well, but different test particles perceive this potential in different ways depending on their properties. Cluster galaxy velocities, being <mass. We exploit this phenomenon to constrain the equation of state (EoS) parameter of the fluid, primarily DM, contained in galaxy clusters. We use complementary information provided by the kinematic and lensing mass profiles of the galaxy cluster MACS 1206.2–0847 at z = 0.44, as obtained in an extensive imaging and spectroscopic campaign within the Cluster Lensing And Supernova survey with Hubble. The unprecedented high quality of our data set and the properties of this cluster are well suited to determine the EoS parameter of the cluster fluid. Since baryons contribute at most 15% to the total mass in clusters and their pressure is negligible, the EoS parameter we derive describes the behavior of the DM fluid. We obtain the most stringent constraint on the DM EoS parameter to date, w = (p{sub r} + 2 p{sub t} )/(3 c {sup 2}ρ) = 0.00 ± 0.15 (stat) ± 0.08 (syst), averaged over the radial range 0.5 Mpc ≤ r ≤ r {sub 200}, where p{sub r} and p{sub t} are the radial and tangential pressure, and ρ is the density. We plan to further improve our constraint by applying the same procedure to all clusters from the ongoing Cluster Lensing And Supernova Survey with Hubble-Very Large Telescope program.

  19. CLASH-VLT: Constraints on the Dark Matter Equation of State from Accurate Measurements of Galaxy Cluster Mass Profiles

    CERN Document Server

    Sartoris, Barbara; Rosati, Piero; Borgani, Stefano; Umetsu, Keiichi; Bartelmann, Matthias; Girardi, Marisa; Grillo, Claudio; Lemze, Doron; Zitrin, Adi; Balestra, Italo; Mercurio, Amata; Nonino, Mario; Postman, Marc; Czakon, Nicole; Bradley, Larry; Broadhurst, Tom; Coe, Dan; Medezinski, Elinor; Melchior, Peter; Meneghetti, Massimo; Merten, Julian; Annunziatella, Marianna; Benitez, Narciso; Czoske, Oliver; Donahue, Megan; Ettori, Stefano; Ford, Holland; Fritz, Alexander; Kelson, Dan; Koekemoer, Anton; Kuchner, Ulrike; Lombardi, Marco; Maier, Christian; Mou, Leonidas A; Munari, Emiliano; Presotto, Valentina; Scodeggio, Marco; Seitz, Stella; Tozzi, Paolo; Zheng, Wei; Ziegler, Bodo

    2014-01-01

    A pressureless scenario for the Dark Matter (DM) fluid is a widely adopted hypothesis, despite the absence of a direct observational evidence. According to general relativity, the total mass-energy content of a system shapes the gravitational potential well, but different test particles perceive this potential in different ways depending on their properties. Cluster galaxy velocities, being $\\ll$c, depend solely on the gravitational potential, whereas photon trajectories reflect the contributions from the gravitational potential plus a relativistic-pressure term that depends on the cluster mass. We exploit this phenomenon to constrain the Equation of State (EoS) parameter of the fluid, primarily DM, contained in galaxy clusters. We use the complementary information provided by the kinematic and lensing mass profiles of the galaxy cluster MACS 1206.2-0847 at $z=0.44$, as obtained in an extensive imaging and spectroscopic campaign within the CLASH survey. The unprecedented high quality of our data-set and the p...

  20. 38 CFR 4.46 - Accurate measurement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Accurate measurement. 4... RATING DISABILITIES Disability Ratings The Musculoskeletal System § 4.46 Accurate measurement. Accurate measurement of the length of stumps, excursion of joints, dimensions and location of scars with respect...

  1. Tandem Mass Spectrometry Measurement of the Collision Products of Carbamate Anions Derived from CO2 Capture Sorbents: Paving the Way for Accurate Quantitation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Phil; Fisher, Keith J.; Attalla, Moetaz Ibrahim

    2011-08-01

    The reaction between CO2 and aqueous amines to produce a charged carbamate product plays a crucial role in post-combustion capture chemistry when primary and secondary amines are used. In this paper, we report the low energy negative-ion CID results for several anionic carbamates derived from primary and secondary amines commonly used as post-combustion capture solvents. The study was performed using the modern equivalent of a triple quadrupole instrument equipped with a T-wave collision cell. Deuterium labeling of 2-aminoethanol (1,1,2,2,-d4-2-aminoethanol) and computations at the M06-2X/6-311++G(d,p) level were used to confirm the identity of the fragmentation products for 2-hydroxyethylcarbamate (derived from 2-aminoethanol), in particular the ions CN-, NCO- and facile neutral losses of CO2 and water; there is precedent for the latter in condensed phase isocyanate chemistry. The fragmentations of 2-hydroxyethylcarbamate were generalized for carbamate anions derived from other capture amines, including ethylenediamine, diethanolamine, and piperazine. We also report unequivocal evidence for the existence of carbamate anions derived from sterically hindered amines ( Tris(2-hydroxymethyl)aminomethane and 2-methyl-2-aminopropanol). For the suite of carbamates investigated, diagnostic losses include the decarboxylation product (-CO2, 44 mass units), loss of 46 mass units and the fragments NCO- ( m/z 42) and CN- ( m/z 26). We also report low energy CID results for the dicarbamate dianion (-O2CNHC2H4NHCO{2/-}) commonly encountered in CO2 capture solution utilizing ethylenediamine. Finally, we demonstrate a promising ion chromatography-MS based procedure for the separation and quantitation of aqueous anionic carbamates, which is based on the reported CID findings. The availability of accurate quantitation methods for ionic CO2 capture products could lead to dynamic operational tuning of CO2 capture-plants and, thus, cost-savings via real-time manipulation of solvent

  2. Accurate measurement of unsteady state fluid temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaremkiewicz, Magdalena

    2016-07-01

    In this paper, two accurate methods for determining the transient fluid temperature were presented. Measurements were conducted for boiling water since its temperature is known. At the beginning the thermometers are at the ambient temperature and next they are immediately immersed into saturated water. The measurements were carried out with two thermometers of different construction but with the same housing outer diameter equal to 15 mm. One of them is a K-type industrial thermometer widely available commercially. The temperature indicated by the thermometer was corrected considering the thermometers as the first or second order inertia devices. The new design of a thermometer was proposed and also used to measure the temperature of boiling water. Its characteristic feature is a cylinder-shaped housing with the sheath thermocouple located in its center. The temperature of the fluid was determined based on measurements taken in the axis of the solid cylindrical element (housing) using the inverse space marching method. Measurements of the transient temperature of the air flowing through the wind tunnel using the same thermometers were also carried out. The proposed measurement technique provides more accurate results compared with measurements using industrial thermometers in conjunction with simple temperature correction using the inertial thermometer model of the first or second order. By comparing the results, it was demonstrated that the new thermometer allows obtaining the fluid temperature much faster and with higher accuracy in comparison to the industrial thermometer. Accurate measurements of the fast changing fluid temperature are possible due to the low inertia thermometer and fast space marching method applied for solving the inverse heat conduction problem.

  3. Accurate mass error correction in liquid chromatography time-of-flight mass spectrometry based metabolomics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mihaleva, V.V.; Vorst, O.F.J.; Maliepaard, C.A.; Verhoeven, H.A.; Vos, de C.H.; Hall, R.D.; Ham, van R.C.H.J.

    2008-01-01

    Compound identification and annotation in (untargeted) metabolomics experiments based on accurate mass require the highest possible accuracy of the mass determination. Experimental LC/TOF-MS platforms equipped with a time-to-digital converter (TDC) give the best mass estimate for those mass signals

  4. Accurate, Empirical Radii and Masses of Planets with Gaia Parallaxes

    CERN Document Server

    Stassun, Keivan G; Gaudi, B Scott

    2016-01-01

    We present new, empirical measurements of the radii of 132 stars that host transiting planets. These stellar radii are determined using only direct observables---the bolometric flux at Earth, the stellar effective temperature, and the parallax newly provided by the Gaia first data release---and thus are virtually model independent, extinction being the only free parameter. We also determine each star's mass using our newly determined radius and the stellar density, itself a virtually model independent quantity from the previously published transit analysis. The newly determined stellar radii and masses are in turn used to re-determine the transiting planet radii and masses, once again using only direct observables. The uncertainties on the stellar radii and masses are typically 7% and 25%, respectively, and the resulting uncertainties on the planet radii and masses are 8% and 20%, respectively. These accuracies are generally larger than the previously published model-dependent precisions of 5% and 6% on the p...

  5. Mass Customization Measurements Metrics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Kjeld; Brunø, Thomas Ditlev; Jørgensen, Kaj Asbjørn;

    2014-01-01

    A recent survey has indicated that 17 % of companies have ceased mass customizing less than 1 year after initiating the effort. This paper presents measurement for a company’s mass customization performance, utilizing metrics within the three fundamental capabilities: robust process design, choice...... navigation, and solution space development. A mass customizer when assessing performance with these metrics can identify within which areas improvement would increase competitiveness the most and enable more efficient transition to mass customization....

  6. How accurate are your reported emissions measurements?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Macak J.J. III [Mostardi Platt Environmental (United States)

    2006-09-15

    Complying with permitted emissions limits may be the most significant operations risk for a power plant. As limits are slowly ratcheted downward, understanding the accuracy and variation of measured pollutant levels becomes even more important. To avoid misunderstandings, regulators and plant owners should factor measurement uncertainty into air quality permit numbers both as the permit is formulated and preceding any subsequent modifications. 4 figs., 2 tabs.

  7. Accurate particle position measurement from images

    CERN Document Server

    Feng, Yan; Liu, Bin; 10.1063/1.2735920

    2011-01-01

    The moment method is an image analysis technique for sub-pixel estimation of particle positions. The total error in the calculated particle position includes effects of pixel locking and random noise in each pixel. Pixel locking, also known as peak locking, is an artifact where calculated particle positions are concentrated at certain locations relative to pixel edges. We report simulations to gain an understanding of the sources of error and their dependence on parameters the experimenter can control. We suggest an algorithm, and we find optimal parameters an experimenter can use to minimize total error and pixel locking. Simulating a dusty plasma experiment, we find that a sub-pixel accuracy of 0.017 pixel or better can be attained. These results are also useful for improving particle position measurement and particle tracking velocimetry (PTV) using video microscopy, in fields including colloids, biology, and fluid mechanics.

  8. Organ mass measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The term, anatomical measurements, in the context of this Co-ordinated Research Programme refers to measurements of masses of internal organs, although the human body is composed of internal organs and tissues such as skeleton, muscle, skin and adipose. The mass of an organ containing a radionuclide (source organ), and the mass of a target organ which absorbs energy of the radiation, are essential parameters in the ICRP dosimetric model derived from the MIRD method. Twelve specific organs of interest were proposed at the Coordinated Research Programme Project Formulation Meeting (PFM) in 1988. A slightly different set of thirteen organs with potential significance for radiation protection were selected for study at the Research Co-ordination Meeting held at the Bhabha Atomic Research Centre in 1991. The dimensions of the organs could also be useful information, but were considered unimportant for internal dose assessment. Due to the strong concern about the unified method for collecting organ mass data at the PFM, a guide-line was established stressing the need for organ data from subjects that were healthy and normal, at least until shortly before death, or from sudden death cases, following the Japanese experience. In this report, masses of nine to thirteen organs are presented from seven participating countries. Three participants have also reported the organ masses as fractions of the total body mass

  9. Accurate measurement of liquid transport through nanoscale conduits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alibakhshi, Mohammad Amin; Xie, Quan; Li, Yinxiao; Duan, Chuanhua

    2016-04-01

    Nanoscale liquid transport governs the behaviour of a wide range of nanofluidic systems, yet remains poorly characterized and understood due to the enormous hydraulic resistance associated with the nanoconfinement and the resulting minuscule flow rates in such systems. To overcome this problem, here we present a new measurement technique based on capillary flow and a novel hybrid nanochannel design and use it to measure water transport through single 2-D hydrophilic silica nanochannels with heights down to 7 nm. Our results show that silica nanochannels exhibit increased mass flow resistance compared to the classical hydrodynamics prediction. This difference increases with decreasing channel height and reaches 45% in the case of 7 nm nanochannels. This resistance increase is attributed to the formation of a 7-angstrom-thick stagnant hydration layer on the hydrophilic surfaces. By avoiding use of any pressure and flow sensors or any theoretical estimations the hybrid nanochannel scheme enables facile and precise flow measurement through single nanochannels, nanotubes, or nanoporous media and opens the prospect for accurate characterization of both hydrophilic and hydrophobic nanofluidic systems.

  10. Accurate measurement of liquid transport through nanoscale conduits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alibakhshi, Mohammad Amin; Xie, Quan; Li, Yinxiao; Duan, Chuanhua

    2016-01-01

    Nanoscale liquid transport governs the behaviour of a wide range of nanofluidic systems, yet remains poorly characterized and understood due to the enormous hydraulic resistance associated with the nanoconfinement and the resulting minuscule flow rates in such systems. To overcome this problem, here we present a new measurement technique based on capillary flow and a novel hybrid nanochannel design and use it to measure water transport through single 2-D hydrophilic silica nanochannels with heights down to 7 nm. Our results show that silica nanochannels exhibit increased mass flow resistance compared to the classical hydrodynamics prediction. This difference increases with decreasing channel height and reaches 45% in the case of 7 nm nanochannels. This resistance increase is attributed to the formation of a 7-angstrom-thick stagnant hydration layer on the hydrophilic surfaces. By avoiding use of any pressure and flow sensors or any theoretical estimations the hybrid nanochannel scheme enables facile and precise flow measurement through single nanochannels, nanotubes, or nanoporous media and opens the prospect for accurate characterization of both hydrophilic and hydrophobic nanofluidic systems. PMID:27112404

  11. Accurate wall thickness measurement using autointerference of circumferential Lamb wave

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this paper, a method of accurately measuring the pipe wall thickness by using noncontact air-coupled ultrasonic transducer (NAUT) was presented. In this method, accurate measurement of angular wave number (AWN) is a key technique because the AWN is changes minutely with the wall thickness. An autointerference of the circumferential (C-) Lamb wave was used for accurate measurements of the AWN. Principle of the method was first explained. Modified method for measuring the wall thickness near a butt weld line was also proposed and its accuracy was evaluated within 6 μm error. It was also shown in the paper that wall thickness measurement was accurately carried out beyond the difference among the sensors by calibrating the frequency response of the sensors. (author)

  12. The Use of Accurate Mass Tags for High-Throughput Microbial Proteomics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We describe and demonstrate a global strategy that extends the sensitivity, dynamic range, comprehensiveness, and throughput of proteomic measurements based upon the use of peptide accurate mass tags (AMTs) produced by global protein enzymatic digestion. The two-stage strategy exploits Fourier transform-ion cyclotron resonance (FT-ICR) mass spectrometry to validate peptide AMTs for a specific organism, tissue or cell type from potential mass tags identified using conventional tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS) methods, providing greater confidence in identifications as well as the basis for subsequent measurements without the need for MS/MS, and thus with greater sensitivity and increased throughput. A single high resolution capillary liquid chromatography separation combined with high sensitivity, high resolution and ac-curate FT-ICR measurements has been shown capable of characterizing peptide mixtures of significantly more than 10 5 components with mass accuracies of -1 ppm, sufficient for broad protein identification using AMTs. Other attractions of the approach include the broad and relatively unbiased proteome coverage, the capability for exploiting stable isotope labeling methods to realize high precision for relative protein abundance measurements, and the projected potential for study of mammalian proteomes when combined with additional sample fractionation. Using this strategy, in our first application we have been able to identify AMTs for 60% of the potentially expressed proteins in the organism Deinococcus radiodurans

  13. Accurate, reliable control of process gases by mass flow controllers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hardy, J.; McKnight, T.

    1997-02-01

    The thermal mass flow controller, or MFC, has become an instrument of choice for the monitoring and controlling of process gas flow throughout the materials processing industry. These MFCs are used on CVD processes, etching tools, and furnaces and, within the semiconductor industry, are used on 70% of the processing tools. Reliability and accuracy are major concerns for the users of the MFCs. Calibration and characterization technologies for the development and implementation of mass flow devices are described. A test facility is available to industry and universities to test and develop gas floe sensors and controllers and evaluate their performance related to environmental effects, reliability, reproducibility, and accuracy. Additional work has been conducted in the area of accuracy. A gravimetric calibrator was invented that allows flow sensors to be calibrated in corrosive, reactive gases to an accuracy of 0.3% of reading, at least an order of magnitude better than previously possible. Although MFCs are typically specified with accuracies of 1% of full scale, MFCs may often be implemented with unwarranted confidence due to the conventional use of surrogate gas factors. Surrogate gas factors are corrections applied to process flow indications when an MFC has been calibrated on a laboratory-safe surrogate gas, but is actually used on a toxic, or corrosive process gas. Previous studies have indicated that the use of these factors may cause process flow errors of typically 10%, but possibly as great as 40% of full scale. This paper will present possible sources of error in MFC process gas flow monitoring and control, and will present an overview of corrective measures which may be implemented with MFC use to significantly reduce these sources of error.

  14. Accurate Fiber Length Measurement Using Time-of-Flight Technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terra, Osama; Hussein, Hatem

    2016-06-01

    Fiber artifacts of very well-measured length are required for the calibration of optical time domain reflectometers (OTDR). In this paper accurate length measurement of different fiber lengths using the time-of-flight technique is performed. A setup is proposed to measure accurately lengths from 1 to 40 km at 1,550 and 1,310 nm using high-speed electro-optic modulator and photodetector. This setup offers traceability to the SI unit of time, the second (and hence to meter by definition), by locking the time interval counter to the Global Positioning System (GPS)-disciplined quartz oscillator. Additionally, the length of a recirculating loop artifact is measured and compared with the measurement made for the same fiber by the National Physical Laboratory of United Kingdom (NPL). Finally, a method is proposed to relatively correct the fiber refractive index to allow accurate fiber length measurement.

  15. Handbook of mass measurement

    CERN Document Server

    Jones, Frank E

    2002-01-01

    "How much does it weigh?" seems a simple question. To scientists and engineers, however, the answer is far from simple, and determining the answer demands consideration of an almost overwhelming number of factors.With an intriguing blend of history, fundamentals, and technical details, the Handbook of Mass Measurement sets forth the details of achieving the highest precision in mass measurements. It covers the whole field, from the development, calibration, and maintenance of mass standards to detailed accounts of weighing designs, balances, and uncertainty. It addresses the entire measurement process and provides in-depth examinations of the various factors that introduce error.Much of the material is the authors'' own work and some of it is published here for the first time. Jones and Schoonover are both highly regarded veterans of the U.S. National Institute of Standards and Technology. With this handbook, they have provided a service and resource vital to anyone involved not only in the determination of m...

  16. Accurate Mass Determinations in Decay Chains with Missing Energy

    OpenAIRE

    Cheng, Hsin-Chia; Engelhardt, Dalit; Gunion, John F.; Han, Zhenyu; McElrath, Bob

    2008-01-01

    Many beyond the Standard Model theories include a stable dark matter candidate that yields missing / invisible energy in collider detectors. If observed at the Large Hadron Collider, we must determine if its mass and other properties (and those of its partners) predict the correct dark matter relic density. We give a new procedure for determining its mass with small error.

  17. How accurate is ultrasound in evaluating palpable breast masses?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mubuuke Aloysius Gonzaga

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Breast masses have become common in women. Such masses pose a potential threat to women especially in the era of increased cases of breast cancer worldwide. Breast carcinoma ranks first among the malignant tumors affecting females in many parts of the world with the rate of breast cancer being 1 in 8 in USA. There are currently more than 600 000 cancer deaths annually in Africa. By 2020, 70% of the 15 million new annual cancer cases will be in developing countries. Ultrasound is a relatively inexpensive and readily accessible imaging modality that can be utilized in the evaluation of clinically palpable breast masses. The purpose of this study was to find out the accuracy of ultrasound in the diagnosis of palpable breast masses. METHODS: Eighty palpable breast masses were evaluated at ultrasound and information about the characteristic features of the masses was recorded. An impression about the diagnosis was made and results were correlated with histology findings. RESULTS: The overall sensitivity of ultrasound in detecting breast lumps was 92.5%. The sensitivity and specificity of ultrasound for detecting breast carcinoma was 57.1% and 62.8% respectively with a positive predictive value of 68.1%, a negative predictive value of 99.5%, a positive likelihood ratio of 39 and a negative likelihood ratio of 0.07. Ultrasound reliably differentiated cystic from solid breast masses. CONCLUSION: Ultrasound is significant in differentiating cystic from solid breast masses. Ultrasound is also important in detecting suspicious breast masses and should therefore be used in the evaluation of symptomatic breast masses

  18. Measurement of Fracture Geometry for Accurate Computation of Hydraulic Conductivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chae, B.; Ichikawa, Y.; Kim, Y.

    2003-12-01

    Fluid flow in rock mass is controlled by geometry of fractures which is mainly characterized by roughness, aperture and orientation. Fracture roughness and aperture was observed by a new confocal laser scanning microscope (CLSM; Olympus OLS1100). The wavelength of laser is 488nm, and the laser scanning is managed by a light polarization method using two galvano-meter scanner mirrors. The system improves resolution in the light axis (namely z) direction because of the confocal optics. The sampling is managed in a spacing 2.5 μ m along x and y directions. The highest measurement resolution of z direction is 0.05 μ m, which is the more accurate than other methods. For the roughness measurements, core specimens of coarse and fine grained granites were provided. Measurements were performed along three scan lines on each fracture surface. The measured data were represented as 2-D and 3-D digital images showing detailed features of roughness. Spectral analyses by the fast Fourier transform (FFT) were performed to characterize on the roughness data quantitatively and to identify influential frequency of roughness. The FFT results showed that components of low frequencies were dominant in the fracture roughness. This study also verifies that spectral analysis is a good approach to understand complicate characteristics of fracture roughness. For the aperture measurements, digital images of the aperture were acquired under applying five stages of uniaxial normal stresses. This method can characterize the response of aperture directly using the same specimen. Results of measurements show that reduction values of aperture are different at each part due to rough geometry of fracture walls. Laboratory permeability tests were also conducted to evaluate changes of hydraulic conductivities related to aperture variation due to different stress levels. The results showed non-uniform reduction of hydraulic conductivity under increase of the normal stress and different values of

  19. First mass measurement at JYFLTRAP

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jokinen, A. [Department of Physics, PB 35 (YFL), FIN-40014 University of Jyvaeskylae (Finland); Eronen, T. [Department of Physics, PB 35 (YFL), FIN-40014 University of Jyvaeskylae (Finland); Hager, U. [Department of Physics, PB 35 (YFL), FIN-40014 University of Jyvaeskylae (Finland); Hakala, J. [Department of Physics, PB 35 (YFL), FIN-40014 University of Jyvaeskylae (Finland); Kolhinen, V. [Department of Physics, PB 35 (YFL), FIN-40014 University of Jyvaeskylae (Finland); Kopecky, S. [Department of Physics, PB 35 (YFL), FIN-40014 University of Jyvaeskylae (Finland); Rinta-Antila, S. [Department of Physics, PB 35 (YFL), FIN-40014 University of Jyvaeskylae (Finland); Szerypo, J. [Department of Physics, PB 35 (YFL), FIN-40014 University of Jyvaeskylae (Finland); Aeystoe, J. [Department of Physics, PB 35 (YFL), FIN-40014 University of Jyvaeskylae (Finland)

    2004-12-27

    The first mass measurements at JYFLTRAP facility are reviewed. Those are also first ever direct mass measurements of the heaviest Zr-isotopes. Results are compared to atomic mass evaluation data and the recent calculations. The first TOF-resonances from high-precision trap and an implication to high-precision mass measurements are discussed.

  20. Highly Accurate Measurement of the Electron Orbital Magnetic Moment

    CERN Document Server

    Awobode, A M

    2015-01-01

    We propose to accurately determine the orbital magnetic moment of the electron by measuring, in a Magneto-Optical or Ion trap, the ratio of the Lande g-factors in two atomic states. From the measurement of (gJ1/gJ2), the quantity A, which depends on the corrections to the electron g-factors can be extracted, if the states are LS coupled. Given that highly accurate values of the correction to the spin g-factor are currently available, accurate values of the correction to the orbital g-factor may also be determined. At present, (-1.8 +/- 0.4) x 10-4 has been determined as a correction to the electron orbital g-factor, by using earlier measurements of the ratio gJ1/gJ2, made on the Indium 2P1/2 and 2P3/2 states.

  1. The W Boson Mass Measurement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotwal, Ashutosh V.

    2016-10-01

    The measurement of the W boson mass has been growing in importance as its precision has improved, along with the precision of other electroweak observables and the top quark mass. Over the last decade, the measurement of the W boson mass has been led at hadron colliders. Combined with the precise measurement of the top quark mass at hadron colliders, the W boson mass helped to pin down the mass of the Standard Model Higgs boson through its induced radiative correction on the W boson mass. With the discovery of the Higgs boson and the measurement of its mass, the electroweak sector of the Standard Model is over-constrained. Increasing the precision of the W boson mass probes new physics at the TeV-scale. We summarize an extensive Tevatron (1984-2011) program to measure the W boson mass at the CDF and Dø experiments. We highlight the recent Tevatron measurements and prospects for the final Tevatron measurements.

  2. The W Boson Mass Measurement

    CERN Document Server

    Kotwal, Ashutosh V

    2016-01-01

    The measurement of the W boson mass has been growing in importance as its precision has improved, along with the precision of other electroweak observables and the top quark mass. Over the last decade, the measurement of the W boson mass has been led at hadron colliders. Combined with the precise measurement of the top quark mass at hadron colliders, the W boson mass helped to pin down the mass of the Standard Model Higgs boson through its induced radiative correction on the W boson mass. With the discovery of the Higgs boson and the measurement of its mass, the electroweak sector of the Standard Model is over-constrained. Increasing the precision of the W boson mass probes new physics at the TeV-scale. We summarize an extensive Tevatron (1984–2011) program to measure the W boson mass at the CDF and Dø experiments. We highlight the recent Tevatron measurements and prospects for the final Tevatron measurements.

  3. Quantitative proteomics using the high resolution accurate mass capabilities of the quadrupole-orbitrap mass spectrometer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallien, Sebastien; Domon, Bruno

    2014-08-01

    High resolution/accurate mass hybrid mass spectrometers have considerably advanced shotgun proteomics and the recent introduction of fast sequencing capabilities has expanded its use for targeted approaches. More specifically, the quadrupole-orbitrap instrument has a unique configuration and its new features enable a wide range of experiments. An overview of the analytical capabilities of this instrument is presented, with a focus on its application to quantitative analyses. The high resolution, the trapping capability and the versatility of the instrument have allowed quantitative proteomic workflows to be redefined and new data acquisition schemes to be developed. The initial proteomic applications have shown an improvement of the analytical performance. However, as quantification relies on ion trapping, instead of ion beam, further refinement of the technique can be expected.

  4. A Simple and Accurate Method for Measuring Enzyme Activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yip, Din-Yan

    1997-01-01

    Presents methods commonly used for investigating enzyme activity using catalase and presents a new method for measuring catalase activity that is more reliable and accurate. Provides results that are readily reproduced and quantified. Can also be used for investigations of enzyme properties such as the effects of temperature, pH, inhibitors,…

  5. A statistical method for assessing peptide identification confidence in accurate mass and time tag proteomics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanley, Jeffrey R; Adkins, Joshua N; Slysz, Gordon W; Monroe, Matthew E; Purvine, Samuel O; Karpievitch, Yuliya V; Anderson, Gordon A; Smith, Richard D; Dabney, Alan R

    2011-08-15

    Current algorithms for quantifying peptide identification confidence in the accurate mass and time (AMT) tag approach assume that the AMT tags themselves have been correctly identified. However, there is uncertainty in the identification of AMT tags, because this is based on matching LC-MS/MS fragmentation spectra to peptide sequences. In this paper, we incorporate confidence measures for the AMT tag identifications into the calculation of probabilities for correct matches to an AMT tag database, resulting in a more accurate overall measure of identification confidence for the AMT tag approach. The method is referenced as Statistical Tools for AMT Tag Confidence (STAC). STAC additionally provides a uniqueness probability (UP) to help distinguish between multiple matches to an AMT tag and a method to calculate an overall false discovery rate (FDR). STAC is freely available for download, as both a command line and a Windows graphical application.

  6. Accurate measurement of streamwise vortices using dual-plane PIV

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Waldman, Rye M.; Breuer, Kenneth S. [Brown University, School of Engineering, Providence, RI (United States)

    2012-11-15

    Low Reynolds number aerodynamic experiments with flapping animals (such as bats and small birds) are of particular interest due to their application to micro air vehicles which operate in a similar parameter space. Previous PIV wake measurements described the structures left by bats and birds and provided insight into the time history of their aerodynamic force generation; however, these studies have faced difficulty drawing quantitative conclusions based on said measurements. The highly three-dimensional and unsteady nature of the flows associated with flapping flight are major challenges for accurate measurements. The challenge of animal flight measurements is finding small flow features in a large field of view at high speed with limited laser energy and camera resolution. Cross-stream measurement is further complicated by the predominately out-of-plane flow that requires thick laser sheets and short inter-frame times, which increase noise and measurement uncertainty. Choosing appropriate experimental parameters requires compromise between the spatial and temporal resolution and the dynamic range of the measurement. To explore these challenges, we do a case study on the wake of a fixed wing. The fixed model simplifies the experiment and allows direct measurements of the aerodynamic forces via load cell. We present a detailed analysis of the wake measurements, discuss the criteria for making accurate measurements, and present a solution for making quantitative aerodynamic load measurements behind free-flyers. (orig.)

  7. Accurate measurement of ultrasonic velocity by eliminating the diffraction effect

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WEI Tingcun

    2003-01-01

    The accurate measurement method of ultrasonic velocity by the pulse interferencemethod with eliminating the diffraction effect has been investigated in VHF range experimen-tally. Two silicate glasses were taken as the specimens, their frequency dependences of longitu-dinal velocities were measured in the frequency range 50-350 MHz, and the phase advances ofultrasonic signals caused by diffraction effect were calculated using A. O. Williams' theoreticalexpression. For the frequency dependences of longitudinal velocities, the measurement resultswere in good agreement with the simulation ones in which the phase advances were included.It has been shown that the velocity error due to diffraction effect can be corrected very well bythis method.

  8. Measurements of neutrino mass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Direct experimental information of neutrino mass as derived from the study of nuclear and elementary-particle weak decays is reviewed. Topics include tritium beta decay; the 3He-T mass difference; electron capture decay of 163Ho and 158Tb; and limits on massive neutrinos from cosmology. 38 references

  9. A Statistical Method for Assessing Peptide Identification Confidence in Accurate Mass and Time Tag Proteomics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stanley, Jeffrey R.; Adkins, Joshua N.; Slysz, Gordon W.; Monroe, Matthew E.; Purvine, Samuel O.; Karpievitch, Yuliya V.; Anderson, Gordon A.; Smith, Richard D.; Dabney, Alan R.

    2011-07-15

    High-throughput proteomics is rapidly evolving to require high mass measurement accuracy for a variety of different applications. Increased mass measurement accuracy in bottom-up proteomics specifically allows for an improved ability to distinguish and characterize detected MS features, which may in turn be identified by, e.g., matching to entries in a database for both precursor and fragmentation mass identification methods. Many tools exist with which to score the identification of peptides from LC-MS/MS measurements or to assess matches to an accurate mass and time (AMT) tag database, but these two calculations remain distinctly unrelated. Here we present a statistical method, Statistical Tools for AMT tag Confidence (STAC), which extends our previous work incorporating prior probabilities of correct sequence identification from LC-MS/MS, as well as the quality with which LC-MS features match AMT tags, to evaluate peptide identification confidence. Compared to existing tools, we are able to obtain significantly more high-confidence peptide identifications at a given false discovery rate and additionally assign confidence estimates to individual peptide identifications. Freely available software implementations of STAC are available in both command line and as a Windows graphical application.

  10. Mass properties measurement system dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doty, Keith L.

    1993-01-01

    The MPMS mechanism possess two revolute degrees-of-freedom and allows the user to measure the mass, center of gravity, and the inertia tensor of an unknown mass. The dynamics of the Mass Properties Measurement System (MPMS) from the Lagrangian approach to illustrate the dependency of the motion on the unknown parameters.

  11. Accurate volume measurement system for plutonium nitrate solution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An accurate volume measurement system for a large amount of plutonium nitrate solution stored in a reprocessing or a conversion plant has been developed at the Plutonium Conversion Development Facility (PCDF) in the Power Reactor and Nuclear Fuel Development Corp. (PNC) Tokai Works. A pair of differential digital quartz pressure transducers is utilized in the volume measurement system. To obtain high accuracy, it is important that the non-linearity of the transducer is minimized within the measurement range, the zero point is stabilized, and the damping property of the pneumatic line is designed to minimize pressure oscillation. The accuracy of the pressure measurement can always be within 2Pa with re-calibration once a year. In the PCDF, the overall uncertainty of the volume measurement has been evaluated to be within 0.2 %. This system has been successfully applied to the Japanese government's and IAEA's routine inspection since 1984. (author)

  12. Calibration Techniques for Accurate Measurements by Underwater Camera Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shortis, Mark

    2015-12-07

    Calibration of a camera system is essential to ensure that image measurements result in accurate estimates of locations and dimensions within the object space. In the underwater environment, the calibration must implicitly or explicitly model and compensate for the refractive effects of waterproof housings and the water medium. This paper reviews the different approaches to the calibration of underwater camera systems in theoretical and practical terms. The accuracy, reliability, validation and stability of underwater camera system calibration are also discussed. Samples of results from published reports are provided to demonstrate the range of possible accuracies for the measurements produced by underwater camera systems.

  13. Methods for Accurate Free Flight Measurement of Drag Coefficients

    CERN Document Server

    Courtney, Elya; Courtney, Michael

    2015-01-01

    This paper describes experimental methods for free flight measurement of drag coefficients to an accuracy of approximately 1%. There are two main methods of determining free flight drag coefficients, or equivalent ballistic coefficients: 1) measuring near and far velocities over a known distance and 2) measuring a near velocity and time of flight over a known distance. Atmospheric conditions must also be known and nearly constant over the flight path. A number of tradeoffs are important when designing experiments to accurately determine drag coefficients. The flight distance must be large enough so that the projectile's loss of velocity is significant compared with its initial velocity and much larger than the uncertainty in the near and/or far velocity measurements. On the other hand, since drag coefficients and ballistic coefficients both depend on velocity, the change in velocity over the flight path should be small enough that the average drag coefficient over the path (which is what is really determined)...

  14. Accurate Runout Measurement for HDD Spinning Motors and Disks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Quan; Bi, Chao; Lin, Song

    As hard disk drive (HDD) areal density increases, its track width becomes smaller and smaller and so is non-repeatable runout. HDD industry needs more accurate and better resolution runout measurements of spinning spindle motors and media platters in both axial and radial directions. This paper introduces a new system how to precisely measure the runout of HDD spinning disks and motors through synchronously acquiring the rotor position signal and the displacements in axial or radial directions. In order to minimize the synchronizing error between the rotor position and the displacement signal, a high resolution counter is adopted instead of the conventional phase-lock loop method. With Laser Doppler Vibrometer and proper signal processing, the proposed runout system can precisely measure the runout of the HDD spinning disks and motors with 1 nm resolution and 0.2% accuracy with a proper sampling rate. It can provide an effective and accurate means to measure the runout of high areal density HDDs, in particular the next generation HDDs, such as, pattern media HDDs and HAMR HDDs.

  15. An Analytic Method for Measuring Accurate Fundamental Frequency Components

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nam, Soon Ryul; Park Jong Keun [Seoul National University, Seoul(Korea); Kang, Sang Hee [Myongji University, Seoul (Korea)

    2002-04-01

    This paper proposes an analytic method for measuring the accurate fundamental frequency component of a fault current signal distorted with a DC-offset, a characteristic frequency component, and harmonics. The proposed algorithm is composed of four stages: sine filer, linear filter, Prony's method, and measurement. The sine filter and the linear filter eliminate harmonics and the fundamental frequency component, respectively. Then Prony's method is used to estimate the parameters of the DC-offset and the characteristic frequency component. Finally, the fundamental frequency component is measured by compensating the sine-filtered signal with the estimated parameters. The performance evaluation of the proposed method is presented for a-phase to ground faults on a 345 kV 200 km overhead transmission line. The EMTP is used to generate fault current signals under different fault locations and fault inception angles. It is shown that the analytic method accurately measures the fundamental frequency component regardless of the characteristic frequency component as well as the DC-offset.(author). 19 refs., 4 figs., 4 tabs.

  16. Accurate measurement method for tube's endpoints based on machine vision

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Shaoli; Jin, Peng; Liu, Jianhua; Wang, Xiao; Sun, Peng

    2016-08-01

    Tubes are used widely in aerospace vehicles, and their accurate assembly can directly affect the assembling reliability and the quality of products. It is important to measure the processed tube's endpoints and then fix any geometric errors correspondingly. However, the traditional tube inspection method is time-consuming and complex operations. Therefore, a new measurement method for a tube's endpoints based on machine vision is proposed. First, reflected light on tube's surface can be removed by using photometric linearization. Then, based on the optimization model for the tube's endpoint measurements and the principle of stereo matching, the global coordinates and the relative distance of the tube's endpoint are obtained. To confirm the feasibility, 11 tubes are processed to remove the reflected light and then the endpoint's positions of tubes are measured. The experiment results show that the measurement repeatability accuracy is 0.167 mm, and the absolute accuracy is 0.328 mm. The measurement takes less than 1 min. The proposed method based on machine vision can measure the tube's endpoints without any surface treatment or any tools and can realize on line measurement.

  17. Atomic spectroscopy and highly accurate measurement: determination of fundamental constants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This document reviews the theoretical and experimental achievements of the author concerning highly accurate atomic spectroscopy applied for the determination of fundamental constants. A pure optical frequency measurement of the 2S-12D 2-photon transitions in atomic hydrogen and deuterium has been performed. The experimental setting-up is described as well as the data analysis. Optimized values for the Rydberg constant and Lamb shifts have been deduced (R = 109737.31568516 (84) cm-1). An experiment devoted to the determination of the fine structure constant with an aimed relative uncertainty of 10-9 began in 1999. This experiment is based on the fact that Bloch oscillations in a frequency chirped optical lattice are a powerful tool to transfer coherently many photon momenta to the atoms. We have used this method to measure accurately the ratio h/m(Rb). The measured value of the fine structure constant is α-1 = 137.03599884 (91) with a relative uncertainty of 6.7*10-9. The future and perspectives of this experiment are presented. This document presented before an academic board will allow his author to manage research work and particularly to tutor thesis students. (A.C.)

  18. Technological Basis and Scientific Returns for Absolutely Accurate Measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dykema, J. A.; Anderson, J.

    2011-12-01

    The 2006 NRC Decadal Survey fostered a new appreciation for societal objectives as a driving motivation for Earth science. Many high-priority societal objectives are dependent on predictions of weather and climate. These predictions are based on numerical models, which derive from approximate representations of well-founded physics and chemistry on space and timescales appropriate to global and regional prediction. These laws of chemistry and physics in turn have a well-defined quantitative relationship with physical measurement units, provided these measurement units are linked to international measurement standards that are the foundation of contemporary measurement science and standards for engineering and commerce. Without this linkage, measurements have an ambiguous relationship to scientific principles that introduces avoidable uncertainty in analyses, predictions, and improved understanding of the Earth system. Since the improvement of climate and weather prediction is fundamentally dependent on the improvement of the representation of physical processes, measurement systems that reduce the ambiguity between physical truth and observations represent an essential component of a national strategy for understanding and living with the Earth system. This paper examines the technological basis and potential science returns of sensors that make measurements that are quantitatively tied on-orbit to international measurement standards, and thus testable to systematic errors. This measurement strategy provides several distinct benefits. First, because of the quantitative relationship between these international measurement standards and fundamental physical constants, measurements of this type accurately capture the true physical and chemical behavior of the climate system and are not subject to adjustment due to excluded measurement physics or instrumental artifacts. In addition, such measurements can be reproduced by scientists anywhere in the world, at any time

  19. Accurate Sound Velocity Measurement in Ocean Near-Surface Layer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lizarralde, D.; Xu, B. L.

    2015-12-01

    Accurate sound velocity measurement is essential in oceanography because sound is the only wave that can propagate in sea water. Due to its measuring difficulties, sound velocity is often not measured directly but instead calculated from water temperature, salinity, and depth, which are much easier to obtain. This research develops a new method to directly measure the sound velocity in the ocean's near-surface layer using multi-channel seismic (MCS) hydrophones. This system consists of a device to make a sound pulse and a long cable with hundreds of hydrophones to record the sound. The distance between the source and each receiver is the offset. The time it takes the pulse to arrive to each receiver is the travel time.The errors of measuring offset and travel time will affect the accuracy of sound velocity if we calculated with just one offset and one travel time. However, by analyzing the direct arrival signal from hundreds of receivers, the velocity can be determined as the slope of a straight line in the travel time-offset graph. The errors in distance and time measurement result in only an up or down shift of the line and do not affect the slope. This research uses MCS data of survey MGL1408 obtained from the Marine Geoscience Data System and processed with Seismic Unix. The sound velocity can be directly measured to an accuracy of less than 1m/s. The included graph shows the directly measured velocity verses the calculated velocity along 100km across the Mid-Atlantic continental margin. The directly measured velocity shows a good coherence to the velocity computed from temperature and salinity. In addition, the fine variations in the sound velocity can be observed, which is hardly seen from the calculated velocity. Using this methodology, both large area acquisition and fine resolution can be achieved. This directly measured sound velocity will be a new and powerful tool in oceanography.

  20. SPECT-OPT multimodal imaging enables accurate evaluation of radiotracers for β-cell mass assessments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eter, Wael A; Parween, Saba; Joosten, Lieke; Frielink, Cathelijne; Eriksson, Maria; Brom, Maarten; Ahlgren, Ulf; Gotthardt, Martin

    2016-01-01

    Single Photon Emission Computed Tomography (SPECT) has become a promising experimental approach to monitor changes in β-cell mass (BCM) during diabetes progression. SPECT imaging of pancreatic islets is most commonly cross-validated by stereological analysis of histological pancreatic sections after insulin staining. Typically, stereological methods do not accurately determine the total β-cell volume, which is inconvenient when correlating total pancreatic tracer uptake with BCM. Alternative methods are therefore warranted to cross-validate β-cell imaging using radiotracers. In this study, we introduce multimodal SPECT - optical projection tomography (OPT) imaging as an accurate approach to cross-validate radionuclide-based imaging of β-cells. Uptake of a promising radiotracer for β-cell imaging by SPECT, (111)In-exendin-3, was measured by ex vivo-SPECT and cross evaluated by 3D quantitative OPT imaging as well as with histology within healthy and alloxan-treated Brown Norway rat pancreata. SPECT signal was in excellent linear correlation with OPT data as compared to histology. While histological determination of islet spatial distribution was challenging, SPECT and OPT revealed similar distribution patterns of (111)In-exendin-3 and insulin positive β-cell volumes between different pancreatic lobes, both visually and quantitatively. We propose ex vivo SPECT-OPT multimodal imaging as a highly accurate strategy for validating the performance of β-cell radiotracers. PMID:27080529

  1. Black-Hole Mass Measurements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vestergaard, Marianne

    2004-01-01

    The applicability and apparent uncertainties of the techniques currently available for measuring or estimating black-hole masses in AGNs are briefly summarized.......The applicability and apparent uncertainties of the techniques currently available for measuring or estimating black-hole masses in AGNs are briefly summarized....

  2. The Megamaser Cosmology Project. III. Accurate Masses of Seven Supermassive Black Holes in Active Galaxies with Circumnuclear Megamaser Disks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuo, C. Y.; Braatz, J. A.; Condon, J. J.; Impellizzeri, C. M. V.; Lo, K. Y.; Zaw, I.; Schenker, M.; Henkel, C.; Reid, M. J.; Greene, J. E.

    2011-01-01

    Observations of H2O masers from circumnuclear disks in active galaxies for the Megamaser Cosmology Project (MCP) allow accurate measurement of the mass of supermassive black holes (BH) in these galaxies. We present the Very Long Baseline Interferometry images and kinematics of water maser emission in six active galaxies: NGC 1194, NGC 2273, NGC 2960 (Mrk 1419), NGC 4388, NGC 6264 and NGC 6323. We use the Keplerian rotation curves of these six megamaser galaxies, plus a seventh previously published, to determine accurate enclosed masses within the central ~0.3 pc of these galaxies, smaller than the radius of the sphere of influence of the central mass in all cases. We also set lower limits to the central mass densities of between 0.12 × 1010 and 61 × 1010 M sun pc-3. For six of the seven disks, the high central densities rule out clusters of stars or stellar remnants as the central objects, and this result further supports our assumption that the enclosed mass can be attributed predominantly to a supermassive BH. The seven BHs have masses ranging between 0.75 × 107 and 6.5 × 107 M sun, with the mass errors dominated by the uncertainty of the Hubble constant. We compare the megamaser BH mass determination with BH mass measured from the virial estimation method. The virial estimation BH mass in four galaxies is consistent with the megamaser BH mass, but the virial mass uncertainty is much greater. Circumnuclear megamaser disks allow the best mass determination of the central BH mass in external galaxies and significantly improve the observational basis at the low-mass end of the M-σsstarf relation. The M-σsstarf relation may not be a single, low-scatter power law as originally proposed. MCP observations continue and we expect to obtain more maser BH masses in the future.

  3. A spectroscopic transfer standard for accurate atmospheric CO measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nwaboh, Javis A.; Li, Gang; Serdyukov, Anton; Werhahn, Olav; Ebert, Volker

    2016-04-01

    Atmospheric carbon monoxide (CO) is a precursor of essential climate variables and has an indirect effect for enhancing global warming. Accurate and reliable measurements of atmospheric CO concentration are becoming indispensable. WMO-GAW reports states a compatibility goal of ±2 ppb for atmospheric CO concentration measurements. Therefore, the EMRP-HIGHGAS (European metrology research program - high-impact greenhouse gases) project aims at developing spectroscopic transfer standards for CO concentration measurements to meet this goal. A spectroscopic transfer standard would provide results that are directly traceable to the SI, can be very useful for calibration of devices operating in the field, and could complement classical gas standards in the field where calibration gas mixtures in bottles often are not accurate, available or stable enough [1][2]. Here, we present our new direct tunable diode laser absorption spectroscopy (dTDLAS) sensor capable of performing absolute ("calibration free") CO concentration measurements, and being operated as a spectroscopic transfer standard. To achieve the compatibility goal stated by WMO for CO concentration measurements and ensure the traceability of the final concentration results, traceable spectral line data especially line intensities with appropriate uncertainties are needed. Therefore, we utilize our new high-resolution Fourier-transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy CO line data for the 2-0 band, with significantly reduced uncertainties, for the dTDLAS data evaluation. Further, we demonstrate the capability of our sensor for atmospheric CO measurements, discuss uncertainty calculation following the guide to the expression of uncertainty in measurement (GUM) principles and show that CO concentrations derived using the sensor, based on the TILSAM (traceable infrared laser spectroscopic amount fraction measurement) method, are in excellent agreement with gravimetric values. Acknowledgement Parts of this work have been

  4. Accurate and precise 40Ar/39Ar dating by high-resolution, multi-collection, mass spectrometry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Storey, Michael; Rivera, Tiffany; Flude, Stephanie

    analog enabling precise measurement of very small 36Ar signals for accurate correction for atmospheric-derived 40Ar; (iii) higher mass resolution allows pseudo resolution of hydrocarbon isobaric interferences from 36Ar through to 40Ar; (iv) multi-collection, allowing more data to be gathered in a fixed...

  5. Accurate measurement of streamwise vortices in low speed aerodynamic flows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waldman, Rye M.; Kudo, Jun; Breuer, Kenneth S.

    2010-11-01

    Low Reynolds number experiments with flapping animals (such as bats and small birds) are of current interest in understanding biological flight mechanics, and due to their application to Micro Air Vehicles (MAVs) which operate in a similar parameter space. Previous PIV wake measurements have described the structures left by bats and birds, and provided insight to the time history of their aerodynamic force generation; however, these studies have faced difficulty drawing quantitative conclusions due to significant experimental challenges associated with the highly three-dimensional and unsteady nature of the flows, and the low wake velocities associated with lifting bodies that only weigh a few grams. This requires the high-speed resolution of small flow features in a large field of view using limited laser energy and finite camera resolution. Cross-stream measurements are further complicated by the high out-of-plane flow which requires thick laser sheets and short interframe times. To quantify and address these challenges we present data from a model study on the wake behind a fixed wing at conditions comparable to those found in biological flight. We present a detailed analysis of the PIV wake measurements, discuss the criteria necessary for accurate measurements, and present a new dual-plane PIV configuration to resolve these issues.

  6. Accurate measurement of RF exposure from emerging wireless communication systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Isotropic broadband probes or spectrum analyzers (SAs) may be used for the measurement of rapidly varying electromagnetic fields generated by emerging wireless communication systems. In this paper this problematic is investigated by comparing the responses measured by two different isotropic broadband probes typically used to perform electric field (E-field) evaluations. The broadband probes are submitted to signals with variable duty cycles (DC) and crest factors (CF) either with or without Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing (OFDM) modulation but with the same root-mean-square (RMS) power. The two probes do not provide accurate enough results for deterministic signals such as Worldwide Interoperability for Microwave Access (WIMAX) or Long Term Evolution (LTE) as well as for non-deterministic signals such as Wireless Fidelity (WiFi). The legacy measurement protocols should be adapted to cope for the emerging wireless communication technologies based on the OFDM modulation scheme. This is not easily achieved except when the statistics of the RF emission are well known. In this case the measurement errors are shown to be systematic and a correction factor or calibration can be applied to obtain a good approximation of the total RMS power.

  7. Study of accurate volume measurement system for plutonium nitrate solution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hosoma, T. [Power Reactor and Nuclear Fuel Development Corp., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Works

    1998-12-01

    It is important for effective safeguarding of nuclear materials to establish a technique for accurate volume measurement of plutonium nitrate solution in accountancy tank. The volume of the solution can be estimated by two differential pressures between three dip-tubes, in which the air is purged by an compressor. One of the differential pressure corresponds to the density of the solution, and another corresponds to the surface level of the solution in the tank. The measurement of the differential pressure contains many uncertain errors, such as precision of pressure transducer, fluctuation of back-pressure, generation of bubbles at the front of the dip-tubes, non-uniformity of temperature and density of the solution, pressure drop in the dip-tube, and so on. The various excess pressures at the volume measurement are discussed and corrected by a reasonable method. High precision-differential pressure measurement system is developed with a quartz oscillation type transducer which converts a differential pressure to a digital signal. The developed system is used for inspection by the government and IAEA. (M. Suetake)

  8. Accurate measurement of RF exposure from emerging wireless communication systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Letertre, Thierry; Monebhurrun, Vikass; Toffano, Zeno

    2013-04-01

    Isotropic broadband probes or spectrum analyzers (SAs) may be used for the measurement of rapidly varying electromagnetic fields generated by emerging wireless communication systems. In this paper this problematic is investigated by comparing the responses measured by two different isotropic broadband probes typically used to perform electric field (E-field) evaluations. The broadband probes are submitted to signals with variable duty cycles (DC) and crest factors (CF) either with or without Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing (OFDM) modulation but with the same root-mean-square (RMS) power. The two probes do not provide accurate enough results for deterministic signals such as Worldwide Interoperability for Microwave Access (WIMAX) or Long Term Evolution (LTE) as well as for non-deterministic signals such as Wireless Fidelity (WiFi). The legacy measurement protocols should be adapted to cope for the emerging wireless communication technologies based on the OFDM modulation scheme. This is not easily achieved except when the statistics of the RF emission are well known. In this case the measurement errors are shown to be systematic and a correction factor or calibration can be applied to obtain a good approximation of the total RMS power.

  9. Radio Astronomers Set New Standard for Accurate Cosmic Distance Measurement

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-06-01

    A team of radio astronomers has used the National Science Foundation's Very Long Baseline Array (VLBA) to make the most accurate measurement ever made of the distance to a faraway galaxy. Their direct measurement calls into question the precision of distance determinations made by other techniques, including those announced last week by a team using the Hubble Space Telescope. The radio astronomers measured a distance of 23.5 million light-years to a galaxy called NGC 4258 in Ursa Major. "Ours is a direct measurement, using geometry, and is independent of all other methods of determining cosmic distances," said Jim Herrnstein, of the National Radio Astronomy Observatory (NRAO) in Socorro, NM. The team says their measurement is accurate to within less than a million light-years, or four percent. The galaxy is also known as Messier 106 and is visible with amateur telescopes. Herrnstein, along with James Moran and Lincoln Greenhill of the Harvard- Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics; Phillip Diamond, of the Merlin radio telescope facility at Jodrell Bank and the University of Manchester in England; Makato Inoue and Naomasa Nakai of Japan's Nobeyama Radio Observatory; Mikato Miyoshi of Japan's National Astronomical Observatory; Christian Henkel of Germany's Max Planck Institute for Radio Astronomy; and Adam Riess of the University of California at Berkeley, announced their findings at the American Astronomical Society's meeting in Chicago. "This is an incredible achievement to measure the distance to another galaxy with this precision," said Miller Goss, NRAO's Director of VLA/VLBA Operations. "This is the first time such a great distance has been measured this accurately. It took painstaking work on the part of the observing team, and it took a radio telescope the size of the Earth -- the VLBA -- to make it possible," Goss said. "Astronomers have sought to determine the Hubble Constant, the rate of expansion of the universe, for decades. This will in turn lead to an

  10. Accurate estimation of third-order moments from turbulence measurements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. J. Podesta

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Politano and Pouquet's law, a generalization of Kolmogorov's four-fifths law to incompressible MHD, makes it possible to measure the energy cascade rate in incompressible MHD turbulence by means of third-order moments. In hydrodynamics, accurate measurement of third-order moments requires large amounts of data because the probability distributions of velocity-differences are nearly symmetric and the third-order moments are relatively small. Measurements of the energy cascade rate in solar wind turbulence have recently been performed for the first time, but without careful consideration of the accuracy or statistical uncertainty of the required third-order moments. This paper investigates the statistical convergence of third-order moments as a function of the sample size N. It is shown that the accuracy of the third-moment <(δ v||3> depends on the number of correlation lengths spanned by the data set and a method of estimating the statistical uncertainty of the third-moment is developed. The technique is illustrated using both wind tunnel data and solar wind data.

  11. Rapid accurate isotopic measurements on boron in boric acid and boron carbide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duchateau, N L; Verbruggen, A; Hendrickx, F; De Bièvre, P

    1986-04-01

    A procedure is described whereby rapid and accurate isotopic measurements can be performed on boron in boric acid and boron carbide after fusion of these compounds with calcium carbonate. It allows the determination of the isotopic composition of boron in boric acid and boron carbide and the direct assay of boron or the (10)B isotope in boron carbide by isotope-dilution mass spectrometry.

  12. Downhole temperature tool accurately measures well bore profile

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper reports that an inexpensive temperature tool provides accurate temperatures measurements during drilling operations for better design of cement jobs, workovers, well stimulation, and well bore hydraulics. Valid temperature data during specific wellbore operations can improve initial job design, fluid testing, and slurry placement, ultimately enhancing well bore performance. This improvement applies to cement slurries, breaker activation for slurries, breaker activation for stimulation and profile control, and fluid rheological properties for all downhole operations. The temperature tool has been run standalone mounted inside drill pipe, on slick wire line and braided cable, and as a free-falltool. It has also been run piggyback on both directional surveys (slick line and free-fall) and standard logging runs. This temperature measuring system has been used extensively in field well bores to depths of 20,000 ft. The temperature tool is completely reusable in the field, ever similar to the standard directional survey tools used on may drilling rigs. The system includes a small, rugged, programmable temperature sensor, a standard body housing, various adapters for specific applications, and a personal computer (PC) interface

  13. Review of neutrino mass measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The current status of the experimental search for neutrino mass is reviewed, with emphasis on direct kinematic methods. New data on the /tau/ neutrino from the Argus collaboration have reduced the upper mass limit a factor of 2. The situation concerning the electron neutrino mass as measured in tritium beta decay is essentially unchanged from a year ago. Simpson and Hime report finding evidence for a 17-keV neutrino in the β decay of 35S. There may be evidence for neutrino mass and mixing in the SN1987a data. 62 refs., 4 figs

  14. Accurate Measurements of Aircraft Engine Soot Emissions Using a CAPS PMssa Monitor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onasch, Timothy; Thompson, Kevin; Renbaum-Wolff, Lindsay; Smallwood, Greg; Make-Lye, Richard; Freedman, Andrew

    2016-04-01

    We present results of aircraft engine soot emissions measurements during the VARIAnT2 campaign using CAPS PMssa monitors. VARIAnT2, an aircraft engine non-volatile particulate matter (nvPM) emissions field campaign, was focused on understanding the variability in nvPM mass measurements using different measurement techniques and accounting for possible nvPM sampling system losses. The CAPS PMssa monitor accurately measures both the optical extinction and scattering (and thus single scattering albedo and absorption) of an extracted sample using the same sample volume for both measurements with a time resolution of 1 second and sensitivity of better than 1 Mm-1. Absorption is obtained by subtracting the scattering signal from the total extinction. Given that the single scattering albedo of the particulates emitted from the aircraft engine measured at both 630 and 660 nm was on the order of 0.1, any inaccuracy in the scattering measurement has little impact on the accuracy of the ddetermined absorption coefficient. The absorption is converted into nvPM mass using a documented Mass Absorption Coefficient (MAC). Results of soot emission indices (mass soot emitted per mass of fuel consumed) for a turbojet engine as a function of engine power will be presented and compared to results obtained using an EC/OC monitor.

  15. Main-Sequence Effective Temperatures from a Revised Mass-Luminosity Relation Based on Accurate Properties

    CERN Document Server

    Eker, Z; Soydugan, E; Bilir, S; Gokce, E Yaz; Steer, I; Tuysuz, M; Senyuz, T; Demircan, O

    2015-01-01

    The mass-luminosity (M-L), mass-radius (M-R) and mass-effective temperature ($M-T_{eff}$) diagrams for a subset of galactic nearby main-sequence stars with masses and radii accurate to $\\leq 3\\%$ and luminosities accurate to $\\leq 30\\%$ (268 stars) has led to a putative discovery. Four distinct mass domains have been identified, which we have tentatively associated with low, intermediate, high, and very high mass main-sequence stars, but which nevertheless are clearly separated by three distinct break points at 1.05, 2.4, and 7$M_{\\odot}$ within the mass range studied of $0.38-32M_{\\odot}$. Further, a revised mass-luminosity relation (MLR) is found based on linear fits for each of the mass domains identified. The revised, mass-domain based MLRs, which are classical ($L \\propto M^{\\alpha}$), are shown to be preferable to a single linear, quadratic or cubic equation representing as an alternative MLR. Stellar radius evolution within the main-sequence for stars with $M>1M_{\\odot}$ is clearly evident on the M-R d...

  16. Accurate screening for synthetic preservatives in beverage using high performance liquid chromatography with time-of-flight mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiu Qin; Zhang, Feng; Sun, Yan Yan; Yong, Wei; Chu, Xiao Gang; Fang, Yan Yan; Zweigenbaum, Jerry

    2008-02-11

    In this study, liquid chromatography time-of-flight mass spectrometry (HPLC/TOF-MS) is applied to qualitation and quantitation of 18 synthetic preservatives in beverage. The identification by HPLC/TOF-MS is accomplished with the accurate mass (the subsequent generated empirical formula) of the protonated molecules [M+H]+ or the deprotonated molecules [M-H]-, along with the accurate mass of their main fragment ions. In order to obtain sufficient sensitivity for quantitation purposes (using the protonated or deprotonated molecule) and additional qualitative mass spectrum information provided by the fragments ions, segment program of fragmentor voltages is designed in positive and negative ion mode, respectively. Accurate mass measurements are highly useful in the complex sample analyses since they allow us to achieve a high degree of specificity, often needed when other interferents are present in the matrix. The mass accuracy typically obtained is routinely better than 3 ppm. The 18 compounds behave linearly in the 0.005-5.0mg.kg(-1) concentration range, with correlation coefficient >0.996. The recoveries at the tested concentrations of 1.0mg.kg(-1)-100mg.kg(-1) are 81-106%, with coefficients of variation preservatives in foodstuff. The method is suitable for routine quantitative and qualitative analyses of synthetic preservatives in foodstuff.

  17. Accurate screening for synthetic preservatives in beverage using high performance liquid chromatography with time-of-flight mass spectrometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li Xiuqin; Zhang Feng; Sun Yanyan; Yong Wei [Institute of Food Safety, Chinese Academy of Inspection and Quarantine, Jia 3, Gaobeidian North Road, Beijing 100025 (China); Chu Xiaogang [Institute of Food Safety, Chinese Academy of Inspection and Quarantine, Jia 3, Gaobeidian North Road, Beijing 100025 (China)], E-mail: lixq_sypu@yahoo.com; Fang Yanyan; Zweigenbaum, Jerry [Agilent Technologies, Inc., 2850 Centerville Road, Wilmington, Delaware (United States)

    2008-02-11

    In this study, liquid chromatography time-of-flight mass spectrometry (HPLC/TOF-MS) is applied to qualitation and quantitation of 18 synthetic preservatives in beverage. The identification by HPLC/TOF-MS is accomplished with the accurate mass (the subsequent generated empirical formula) of the protonated molecules [M + H]+ or the deprotonated molecules [M - H]-, along with the accurate mass of their main fragment ions. In order to obtain sufficient sensitivity for quantitation purposes (using the protonated or deprotonated molecule) and additional qualitative mass spectrum information provided by the fragments ions, segment program of fragmentor voltages is designed in positive and negative ion mode, respectively. Accurate mass measurements are highly useful in the complex sample analyses since they allow us to achieve a high degree of specificity, often needed when other interferents are present in the matrix. The mass accuracy typically obtained is routinely better than 3 ppm. The 18 compounds behave linearly in the 0.005-5.0 mg.kg{sup -1} concentration range, with correlation coefficient >0.996. The recoveries at the tested concentrations of 1.0 mg.kg{sup -1}-100 mg.kg{sup -1} are 81-106%, with coefficients of variation <7.5%. Limits of detection (LODs) range from 0.0005 to 0.05 mg.kg{sup -1}, which are far below the required maximum residue level (MRL) for these preservatives in foodstuff. The method is suitable for routine quantitative and qualitative analyses of synthetic preservatives in foodstuff.

  18. Assessing temporal flux of plant hormones in stored processing potatoes using high definition accurate mass spectrometry

    OpenAIRE

    José Juan Ordaz-Ortiz; Sofia Foukaraki; Leon Alexander Terry

    2015-01-01

    Plant hormones are important molecules which at low concentration can regulate various physiological processes. Mass spectrometry has become a powerful technique for the quantification of multiple classes of plant hormones because of its high sensitivity and selectivity. We developed a new ultrahigh pressure liquid chromatography–full-scan high-definition accurate mass spectrometry method, for simultaneous determination of abscisic acid and four metabolites phaseic acid, dihydrophaseic acid, ...

  19. Accurate and fast fiber transfer delay measurement based on phase discrimination and frequency measurement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, J. W.; Wang, B.; Gao, C.; Wang, L. J.

    2016-09-01

    An accurate and fast fiber transfer delay measurement method is demonstrated. As a key technique, a simple ambiguity resolving process based on phase discrimination and frequency measurement is used to overcome the contradiction between measurement accuracy and system complexity. The system achieves a high measurement accuracy of 0.2 ps with a 0.1 ps measurement resolution and a large dynamic range up to 50 km as well as no dead zone.

  20. Accurate Measurements of Aerosol Hygroscopic Growth over a Wide Range in Relative Humidity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rovelli, Grazia; Miles, Rachael E H; Reid, Jonathan P; Clegg, Simon L

    2016-06-30

    Using a comparative evaporation kinetics approach, we describe a new and accurate method for determining the equilibrium hygroscopic growth of aerosol droplets. The time-evolving size of an aqueous droplet, as it evaporates to a steady size and composition that is in equilibrium with the gas phase relative humidity, is used to determine the time-dependent mass flux of water, yielding information on the vapor pressure of water above the droplet surface at every instant in time. Accurate characterization of the gas phase relative humidity is provided from a control measurement of the evaporation profile of a droplet of know equilibrium properties, either a pure water droplet or a sodium chloride droplet. In combination, and by comparison with simulations that account for both the heat and mass transport governing the droplet evaporation kinetics, these measurements allow accurate retrieval of the equilibrium properties of the solution droplet (i.e., the variations with water activity in the mass fraction of solute, diameter growth factor, osmotic coefficient or number of water molecules per solute molecule). Hygroscopicity measurements can be made over a wide range in water activity (from >0.99 to, in principle, volatile solutes. The approach is benchmarked for binary and ternary inorganic solution aerosols with typical uncertainties in water activity of 0.9 and ∼±1% below 80% RH, and maximum uncertainties in diameter growth factor of ±0.7%. For all of the inorganic systems examined, the time-dependent data are consistent with large values of the mass accommodation (or evaporation) coefficient (>0.1). PMID:27285052

  1. First mass measurements at LHCb

    CERN Multimedia

    Bressieux, J

    2011-01-01

    The LHC opens new frontiers in heavy flavour physics through an unprecedented statistical reach for a variety of interesting states produced in pp collisions. The LHCb spectrometer provides a good mass resolution and is suitable for spectroscopy studies. We present first preliminary mass measurements of several $b$ hadrons and of the exotic $X(3872)$ meson, reconstructed in final states containing a $J/\\psi$ using the data collected in 2010 by the LHCb experiment. An important aspect of the analysis is the calibration of the momentum scale using $J/\\psi \\to \\mu^+ \\mu^-$ decays, as well as the control of systematic uncertainties. While the already very competitive mass measurements for the $B^+$, $B^0$ and $B^0_s$ mesons receive similar contributions from systematic and statistical uncertainties, those of the $\\Lambda_b$, $B^+_c$ and $X(3872)$ particles are dominated by statistical uncertainties, and will therefore substantially improve with more data in the future.

  2. Measuring neutrino mass without neutrinos!

    CERN Document Server

    Peach, Kenneth J

    2004-01-01

    Neutrinoless double beta decay offers the most precise (if challenging) way of measuring the absolute mass of the neutrino. Particle Physics met at the Rutherford Appleton Laboratory last autumn to discuss wether the UK should take a lead in setting up such an experiment

  3. Galaxy And Mass Assembly: accurate panchromatic photometry from optical priors using LAMBDAR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, A. H.; Robotham, A. S. G.; Bourne, N.; Driver, S. P.; Dunne, L.; Maddox, S. J.; Alpaslan, M.; Andrews, S. K.; Bauer, A. E.; Bland-Hawthorn, J.; Brough, S.; Brown, M. J. I.; Clarke, C.; Cluver, M.; Davies, L. J. M.; Grootes, M. W.; Holwerda, B. W.; Hopkins, A. M.; Jarrett, T. H.; Kafle, P. R.; Lange, R.; Liske, J.; Loveday, J.; Moffett, A. J.; Norberg, P.; Popescu, C. C.; Smith, M.; Taylor, E. N.; Tuffs, R. J.; Wang, L.; Wilkins, S. M.

    2016-07-01

    We present the Lambda Adaptive Multi-Band Deblending Algorithm in R (LAMBDAR), a novel code for calculating matched aperture photometry across images that are neither pixel- nor PSF-matched, using prior aperture definitions derived from high-resolution optical imaging. The development of this program is motivated by the desire for consistent photometry and uncertainties across large ranges of photometric imaging, for use in calculating spectral energy distributions. We describe the program, specifically key features required for robust determination of panchromatic photometry: propagation of apertures to images with arbitrary resolution, local background estimation, aperture normalization, uncertainty determination and propagation, and object deblending. Using simulated images, we demonstrate that the program is able to recover accurate photometric measurements in both high-resolution, low-confusion, and low-resolution, high-confusion, regimes. We apply the program to the 21-band photometric data set from the Galaxy And Mass Assembly (GAMA) Panchromatic Data Release (PDR; Driver et al. 2016), which contains imaging spanning the far-UV to the far-IR. We compare photometry derived from LAMBDAR with that presented in Driver et al. (2016), finding broad agreement between the data sets. None the less, we demonstrate that the photometry from LAMBDAR is superior to that from the GAMA PDR, as determined by a reduction in the outlier rate and intrinsic scatter of colours in the LAMBDAR data set. We similarly find a decrease in the outlier rate of stellar masses and star formation rates using LAMBDAR photometry. Finally, we note an exceptional increase in the number of UV and mid-IR sources able to be constrained, which is accompanied by a significant increase in the mid-IR colour-colour parameter-space able to be explored.

  4. Top Mass from Electroweak Measurements

    OpenAIRE

    Jacobsen, Bob

    1994-01-01

    The electroweak measurements made at LEP using 1989-1993 data are presented in preliminary form. The agreement with the Standard Model is satisfactory, and allows a combined fit to all available data for the masses of the top quark and standard Higgs boson. The fit yields M_t = 177 +11 -11 +18 -19 GeV/c2, where the second error reflects the uncertainty in the Higgs mass. Talk given at the XXIXth Rencontre de Moriond, `QCD and High Energy Hadronic Interactions', March 1994, Meribel France

  5. Fast and accurate mock catalogue generation for low-mass galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koda, Jun; Blake, Chris; Beutler, Florian; Kazin, Eyal; Marin, Felipe

    2016-06-01

    We present an accurate and fast framework for generating mock catalogues including low-mass haloes, based on an implementation of the COmoving Lagrangian Acceleration (COLA) technique. Multiple realisations of mock catalogues are crucial for analyses of large-scale structure, but conventional N-body simulations are too computationally expensive for the production of thousands of realizations. We show that COLA simulations can produce accurate mock catalogues with a moderate computation resource for low- to intermediate-mass galaxies in 1012 M⊙ haloes, both in real and redshift space. COLA simulations have accurate peculiar velocities, without systematic errors in the velocity power spectra for k ≤ 0.15 h Mpc-1, and with only 3-per cent error for k ≤ 0.2 h Mpc-1. We use COLA with 10 time steps and a Halo Occupation Distribution to produce 600 mock galaxy catalogues of the WiggleZ Dark Energy Survey. Our parallelized code for efficient generation of accurate halo catalogues is publicly available at github.com/junkoda/cola_halo.

  6. Fast and accurate mock catalogue generation for low-mass galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Koda, Jun; Beutler, Florian; Kazin, Eyal; Marin, Felipe

    2015-01-01

    We present an accurate and fast framework for generating mock catalogues including low-mass halos, based on an implementation of the COmoving Lagrangian Acceleration (COLA) technique. Multiple realisations of mock catalogues are crucial for analyses of large-scale structure, but conventional N-body simulations are too computationally expensive for the production of thousands of realisations. We show that COLA simulations can produce accurate mock catalogues with a moderate computation resource for low- to intermediate- mass galaxies in $10^{12} M_\\odot$ haloes, both in real and redshift space. COLA simulations have accurate peculiar velocities, without systematic errors in the velocity power spectra for k < 0.15 h/Mpc, and with only 3-per-cent error for k < 0.2 h/Mpc. We use COLA with 10 time steps and a Halo Occupation Distribution to produce 600 mock galaxy catalogues of the WiggleZ Dark Energy Survey. Our parallelized code for efficient generation of accurate halo catalogues is publicly available at ...

  7. Accurate Prediction of the Ammonia Probes of a Variable Proton-to-Electron Mass Ratio

    CERN Document Server

    Owens, Alec; Thiel, Walter; Špirko, Vladimir

    2015-01-01

    A comprehensive study of the mass sensitivity of the vibration-rotation-inversion transitions of $^{14}$NH$_3$, $^{15}$NH$_3$, $^{14}$ND$_3$, and $^{15}$ND$_3$ is carried out variationally using the TROVE approach. Variational calculations are robust and accurate, offering a new way to compute sensitivity coefficients. Particular attention is paid to the $\\Delta k=\\pm 3$ transitions between the accidentally coinciding rotation-inversion energy levels of the $\

  8. SPECT-OPT multimodal imaging enables accurate evaluation of radiotracers for β-cell mass assessments

    OpenAIRE

    Wael A. Eter; Saba Parween; Lieke Joosten; Cathelijne Frielink; Maria Eriksson; Maarten Brom; Ulf Ahlgren; Martin Gotthardt

    2016-01-01

    Single Photon Emission Computed Tomography (SPECT) has become a promising experimental approach to monitor changes in β-cell mass (BCM) during diabetes progression. SPECT imaging of pancreatic islets is most commonly cross-validated by stereological analysis of histological pancreatic sections after insulin staining. Typically, stereological methods do not accurately determine the total β-cell volume, which is inconvenient when correlating total pancreatic tracer uptake with BCM. Alternative ...

  9. SPECT-OPT multimodal imaging enables accurate evaluation of radiotracers for beta-cell mass assessments

    OpenAIRE

    Wael A. Eter; Parween, Saba; Joosten, Lieke; Frielink, Cathelijne; Eriksson, Maria; Brom, Maarten; Ahlgren, Ulf; Gotthardt, Martin

    2016-01-01

    Single Photon Emission Computed Tomography (SPECT) has become a promising experimental approach to monitor changes in beta-cell mass (BCM) during diabetes progression. SPECT imaging of pancreatic islets is most commonly cross-validated by stereological analysis of histological pancreatic sections after insulin staining. Typically, stereological methods do not accurately determine the total beta-cell volume, which is inconvenient when correlating total pancreatic tracer uptake with BCM. Altern...

  10. Direct measurements of neutrino masses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holzschuh, E. [Zurich Univ. (Switzerland). Inst. fuer Physik

    1996-11-01

    The direct measurements have so far given no indication for a nonzero (positive) mass of any of the three known neutrinos. The experiments measuring the tau and the muon neutrino are good shape. The tritium experiments are in an unfortunate situation. It is unclear to me whether the problems are experimental or theoretical or a combination of both. The electronic final states distribution have been calculated, but the results have never been tested experimentally. The most important question to be answered is about the validity of the sudden approximation. (author) 9 figs., 2 tabs., 16 refs.

  11. The Megamaser Cosmology Project. III. Accurate Masses of Seven Supermassive Black Holes in Active Galaxies with Circumnuclear Megamaser Disks

    CERN Document Server

    Kuo, C Y; Condon, J J; Impellizzeri, C M V; Lo, K Y; Zaw, I; Schenker, M; Henkel, C; Reid, M J; Greene, J E

    2010-01-01

    Observations of H$_2$O masers from circumnuclear disks in active galaxies for the Megamaser Cosmology Project allow accurate measurement of the mass of supermassive black holes (BH) in these galaxies. We present the Very Long Baseline Interferometry (VLBI) images and kinematics of water maser emission in six active galaxies: NGC~1194, NGC~2273, NGC~2960 (Mrk~1419), NGC~4388, NGC~6264 and NGC~6323. We use the Keplerian rotation curves of these six megamaser galaxies, plus a seventh previously published, to determine accurate enclosed masses within the central $\\sim0.3$ pc of these galaxies, smaller than the radius of the sphere of influence of the central mass in all cases. We also set lower limits to the central mass densities of between 0.12 and 60 $\\times 10^{10} M_{\\odot}$~pc$^{-3}$. For six of the seven disks, the high central densities rule out clusters of stars or stellar remnants as the central objects, and this result further supports our assumption that the enclosed mass can be attributed predominant...

  12. ACCURATE MEASUREMENT OF ROTA-RY MACHINE AXIS CENTER TRACE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    Four methods aiming at measuring rotary machine axis center trace are discussed in detail.The comparative analysis is made on some aspects such as measurement accuracy, on-machine characteristics, feasibility, practical operation convenience and the integrity of measurement information.In order to simplify measurement, the axis profile error is ignored in traditional condition, while the measurement accuracy will be reduced.The 3-point method that the axis profile error is firstly separated has better real time character, at the same time, not only the axis motion error but also the axis profile error can be measured.All of those information can be used to diagnose the fault origin.The analysis result is proved to be correct by the experiment.

  13. Accurate micro Hall effect measurements on scribe line pads

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Østerberg, Frederik Westergaard; Petersen, Dirch Hjorth; Wang, Fei;

    2009-01-01

    Hall mobility and sheet carrier density are important parameters to monitor in advanced semiconductor production. If micro Hall effect measurements are done on small pads in scribe lines, these parameters may be measured without using valuable test wafers. We report how Hall mobility can...... be extracted from micro four-point measurements performed on a rectangular pad. The dimension of the investigated pad is 400 × 430 ¿m2, and the probe pitches range from 20 ¿m to 50 ¿m. The Monte Carlo method is used to find the optimal way to perform the Hall measurement and extract Hall mobility most...

  14. Problems with Accurate Atomic Lfetime Measurements of Multiply Charged Ions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trabert, E

    2009-02-19

    A number of recent atomic lifetime measurements on multiply charged ions have reported uncertainties lower than 1%. Such a level of accuracy challenges theory, which is a good thing. However, a few lessons learned from earlier precision lifetime measurements on atoms and singly charged ions suggest to remain cautious about the systematic errors of experimental techniques.

  15. A new method and instrument for accurately measuring interval between ultrashort pulses

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhonggang Ji; Yuxin Leng; Yunpei Deng; Bin Tang; Haihe Lu; Ruxin Li; Zhizhan Xu

    2005-01-01

    @@ Using second-order autocorrelation conception, a novel method and instrument for accurately measuring interval between two linearly polarized ultrashort pulses with real time were presented. The experiment demonstrated that the measuring method and instrument were simple and accurate (the measurement error < 5 fs). During measuring, there was no moving element resulting in dynamic measurement error.

  16. High-resolution accurate mass spectrometry as a technique for characterization of complex lysimeter leachate samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hand, Laurence H; Marshall, Samantha J; Saeed, Mansoor; Earll, Mark; Hadfield, Stephen T; Richardson, Kevan; Rawlinson, Paul

    2016-06-01

    Lysimeter studies can be used to identify and quantify soil degradates of agrochemicals (metabolites) that have the potential to leach to groundwater. However, the apparent metabolic profile of such lysimeter leachate samples will often be significantly more complex than would be expected in true groundwater samples. This is particularly true for S-metolachlor, which has an extremely complex metabolic pathway. Consequently, it was not practically possible to apply a conventional analytical approach to identify all metabolites in an S-metolachlor lysimeter study, because there was insufficient mass to enable the use of techniques such as nuclear magnetic resonance. Recent advances in high-resolution accurate mass spectrometry, however, allow innovative screening approaches to characterize leachate samples to a greater extent than previously possible. Leachate from the S-metolachlor study was screened for accurate masses (±5 ppm of the nominal mass) corresponding to more than 400 hypothetical metabolite structures. A refined list of plausible metabolites was constructed from these data to provide a comprehensive description of the most likely metabolites present. The properties of these metabolites were then evaluated using a principal component analysis model, based on molecular descriptors, to visualize the entire chemical space and to cluster the metabolites into a number of subclasses. This characterization and principal component analysis evaluation enabled the selection of suitable representative metabolites that were subsequently used as exemplars to assess the toxicological relevance of the leachate as a whole. Environ Toxicol Chem 2016;35:1401-1412. © 2015 SETAC. PMID:26627902

  17. PRESAGE 3D dosimetry accurately measures Gamma Knife output factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klawikowski, Slade J.; Yang, James N.; Adamovics, John; Ibbott, Geoffrey S.

    2014-12-01

    Small-field output factor measurements are traditionally very difficult because of steep dose gradients, loss of lateral electronic equilibrium, and dose volume averaging in finitely sized detectors. Three-dimensional (3D) dosimetry is ideal for measuring small output factors and avoids many of these potential challenges of point and 2D detectors. PRESAGE 3D polymer dosimeters were used to measure the output factors for the 4 mm and 8 mm collimators of the Leksell Perfexion Gamma Knife radiosurgery treatment system. Discrepancies between the planned and measured distance between shot centers were also investigated. A Gamma Knife head frame was mounted onto an anthropomorphic head phantom. Special inserts were machined to hold 60 mm diameter, 70 mm tall cylindrical PRESAGE dosimeters. The phantom was irradiated with one 16 mm shot and either one 4 mm or one 8 mm shot, to a prescribed dose of either 3 Gy or 4 Gy to the 50% isodose line. The two shots were spaced between 30 mm and 60 mm apart and aligned along the central axis of the cylinder. The Presage dosimeters were measured using the DMOS-RPC optical CT scanning system. Five independent 4 mm output factor measurements fell within 2% of the manufacturer’s Monte Carlo simulation-derived nominal value, as did two independent 8 mm output factor measurements. The measured distances between shot centers varied by ±0.8 mm with respect to the planned shot displacements. On the basis of these results, we conclude that PRESAGE dosimetry is excellently suited to quantify the difficult-to-measure Gamma Knife output factors.

  18. Visual texture accurate material appearance measurement, representation and modeling

    CERN Document Server

    Haindl, Michal

    2013-01-01

    This book surveys the state of the art in multidimensional, physically-correct visual texture modeling. Features: reviews the entire process of texture synthesis, including material appearance representation, measurement, analysis, compression, modeling, editing, visualization, and perceptual evaluation; explains the derivation of the most common representations of visual texture, discussing their properties, advantages, and limitations; describes a range of techniques for the measurement of visual texture, including BRDF, SVBRDF, BTF and BSSRDF; investigates the visualization of textural info

  19. A capacitance servo control plunger for accurate lifetime measurement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The recoil distance Doppler shift method has been widely used in the study of nuclear structure to determine the level lifetime and absolute transition probabilities. A capacitance servo control plunger based on this method has been successfully developed by the Nuclear Structure Group of the China Institute of Atomic Energy. Three microscopes were employed to check the parallelism and can therefore guarantee a delicate measurement of the distance between the target and the stopper. This new plunger made a successful performance in the test experiment and the measured lifetime of the 2+→0+ transition in 78Kr is in agreement with the previous value. (authors)

  20. Highly Accurate Photogrammetric Measurements of the Planck Reflectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amiri Parian, J.; Gruen, Armin; Cozzani, Alessandro

    2006-06-01

    The Planck mission of the European Space Agency (ESA) is designed to image the anisotropies of the Cosmic Background Radiation Field over the whole sky. To achieve this aim, sophisticated reflectors are used as part of the Planck telescope receiving system. The system consists of secondary and primary reflectors which are sections of two different ellipsoids of revolution with mean diameters of 1 and 1.6 meters. Deformations of the reflectors which influence the optical parameters and the gain of receiving signals are investigated in vacuum and at very low temperatures. For this investigation, among the various high accuracy measurement techniques, photogrammetry was selected. With respect to the photogrammetric measurements, special considerations had to be taken into account in design steps, measurement arrangement and data processing to achieve very high accuracies. The determinability of additional parameters of the camera under the given network configuration, datum definition, reliability and precision issues as well as workspace limits and propagating errors from different sources are considered. We have designed an optimal photogrammetric network by heuristic simulation for the flight model of the primary and the secondary reflectors with relative precisions better than 1:1000000 and 1:400000 to achieve the requested accuracies. A least squares best fit ellipsoid method was developed to determine the optical parameters of the reflectors. In this paper we will report about the procedures, the network design and the results of real measurements.

  1. Measuring Fisher information accurately in correlated neural populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanitscheider, Ingmar; Coen-Cagli, Ruben; Kohn, Adam; Pouget, Alexandre

    2015-06-01

    Neural responses are known to be variable. In order to understand how this neural variability constrains behavioral performance, we need to be able to measure the reliability with which a sensory stimulus is encoded in a given population. However, such measures are challenging for two reasons: First, they must take into account noise correlations which can have a large influence on reliability. Second, they need to be as efficient as possible, since the number of trials available in a set of neural recording is usually limited by experimental constraints. Traditionally, cross-validated decoding has been used as a reliability measure, but it only provides a lower bound on reliability and underestimates reliability substantially in small datasets. We show that, if the number of trials per condition is larger than the number of neurons, there is an alternative, direct estimate of reliability which consistently leads to smaller errors and is much faster to compute. The superior performance of the direct estimator is evident both for simulated data and for neuronal population recordings from macaque primary visual cortex. Furthermore we propose generalizations of the direct estimator which measure changes in stimulus encoding across conditions and the impact of correlations on encoding and decoding, typically denoted by Ishuffle and Idiag respectively.

  2. Air toxics being measured more accurately, controlled more effectively

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-04-01

    In response to the directives of the Clean Air Act Amendments, Argonne National Laboratory is developing new or improved pollutant control technologies for industries that burn fossil fuels. This research continues Argonne`s traditional support for the US DOE Flue Gas Cleanup Program. Research is underway to measure process emissions and identify new and improved control measures. Argonne`s emission control research has ranged from experiments in the basic chemistry of pollution-control systems, through laboratory-scale process development and testing to pilot-scale field tests of several technologies. Whenever appropriate, the work has emphasized integrated or combined control systems as the best approach to technologies that offer low cost and good operating characteristics.

  3. Accurate Measurement of Heat Capacity by Differential Scanning Calorimetry

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-01-01

    Experience with high quality heat capacity measurement by differential scanning calorimetry is summarized and illustrated, pointing out three major causes of error: (1) incompatible thermal histories of the sample, reference and blank runs; (2) unstable initial and final isotherms; (3) incompatible differences between initial and final isotherm amplitudes for sample, reference and blank runs. Considering these problems, it is shown for the case of polyoxymethylene that accuracies in heat capacity of 0.1 percent may be possible.

  4. SPARC: Mass Models for 175 Disk Galaxies with Spitzer Photometry and Accurate Rotation Curves

    CERN Document Server

    Lelli, Federico; Schombert, James M

    2016-01-01

    We introduce SPARC (Spitzer Photometry & Accurate Rotation Curves): a sample of 175 nearby galaxies with new surface photometry at 3.6 um and high-quality rotation curves from previous HI/Halpha studies. SPARC spans a broad range of morphologies (S0 to Irr), luminosities (~5 dex), and surface brightnesses (~4 dex). We derive [3.6] surface photometry and study structural relations of stellar and gas disks. We find that both the stellar mass-HI mass relation and the stellar radius-HI radius relation have significant intrinsic scatter, while the HI mass-radius relation is extremely tight. We build detailed mass models and quantify the ratio of baryonic-to-observed velocity (Vbar/Vobs) for different characteristic radii and values of the stellar mass-to-light ratio (M/L) at [3.6]. Assuming M/L=0.5 Msun/Lsun (as suggested by stellar population models) we find that (i) the gas fraction linearly correlates with total luminosity, (ii) the transition from star-dominated to gas-dominated galaxies roughly correspond...

  5. Accurate blood flow measurements: are artificial tracers necessary?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian Poelma

    Full Text Available Imaging-based blood flow measurement techniques, such as particle image velocimetry, have become an important tool in cardiovascular research. They provide quantitative information about blood flow, which benefits applications ranging from developmental biology to tumor perfusion studies. Studies using these methods can be classified based on whether they use artificial tracers or red blood cells to visualize the fluid motion. We here present the first direct comparison in vivo of both methods. For high magnification cases, the experiments using red blood cells strongly underestimate the flow (up to 50% in the present case, as compared to the tracer results. For medium magnification cases, the results from both methods are indistinguishable as they give the same underestimation of the real velocities (approximately 33%, based on in vitro reference measurements. These results suggest that flow characteristics reported in literature cannot be compared without a careful evaluation of the imaging characteristics. A method to predict the expected flow averaging behavior for a particular facility is presented.

  6. On accurate differential measurements with electrochemical impedance spectroscopy

    CERN Document Server

    Kernbach, S; Kernbach, O

    2016-01-01

    This paper describes the impedance spectroscopy adapted for analysis of small electrochemical changes in fluids. To increase accuracy of measurements the differential approach with temperature stabilization of fluid samples and electronics is used. The impedance analysis is performed by the single point DFT, signal correlation, calculation of RMS amplitudes and interference phase shift. For test purposes the samples of liquids and colloids are treated by fully shielded electromagnetic generators and passive cone-shaped structures. Fluidic samples collected from different geological locations are also analysed. In all tested cases we obtained different results for impacted and non-impacted samples, moreover, a degradation of electrochemical stability after treatment is observed. This method is used in laboratory analysis of weak emissions and ensures a high repeatability of results.

  7. Accurate on line measurements of low fluences of charged particles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palla, L.; Czelusniak, C.; Taccetti, F.; Carraresi, L.; Castelli, L.; Fedi, M. E.; Giuntini, L.; Maurenzig, P. R.; Sottili, L.; Taccetti, N.

    2015-03-01

    Ion beams supplied by the 3MV Tandem accelerator of LABEC laboratory (INFN-Firenze), have been used to study the feasibility of irradiating materials with ion fluences reproducible to about 1%. Test measurements have been made with 7.5 MeV 7Li2+ beams of different intensities. The fluence control is based on counting ions contained in short bursts generated by chopping the continuous beam with an electrostatic deflector followed by a couple of adjustable slits. Ions are counted by means of a micro-channel plate (MCP) detecting the electrons emitted from a thin layer of Al inserted along the beam path in between the pulse defining slits and the target. Calibration of the MCP electron detector is obtained by comparison with the response of a Si detector.

  8. Accurate Measurement of Magnetic Resonance Imaging Gradient Characteristics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hui Liu

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Recently, gradient performance and fidelity has become of increasing interest, as the fidelity of the magnetic resonance (MR image is somewhat dependent on the fidelity of the gradient system. In particular, for high fidelity non-Cartesian imaging, due to non-fidelity of the gradient system, it becomes necessary to know the actual k-space trajectory as opposed to the requested trajectory. In this work we show that, by considering the gradient system as a linear time-invariant system, the gradient impulse response function (GIRF can be reliably measured to a relatively high degree of accuracy with a simple setup, using a small phantom and a series of simple experiments. It is shown experimentally that the resulting GIRF is able to predict actual gradient performance with a high degree of accuracy. The method captures not only the frequency response but also gradient timing errors and artifacts due to mechanical vibrations of the gradient system. Some discussion is provided comparing the method presented here with other analogous methods, along with limitations of these methods.

  9. Accurate lattice parameter measurements of stoichiometric uranium dioxide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leinders, Gregory, E-mail: gregory.leinders@sckcen.be [KU Leuven, Department of Chemistry, Celestijnenlaan 200F, P.O. Box 2404, B-3001 Heverlee (Belgium); Belgian Nuclear Research Centre (SCK-CEN), Institute for Nuclear Materials Science, Boeretang 200, B-2400 Mol (Belgium); Cardinaels, Thomas [Belgian Nuclear Research Centre (SCK-CEN), Institute for Nuclear Materials Science, Boeretang 200, B-2400 Mol (Belgium); Binnemans, Koen [KU Leuven, Department of Chemistry, Celestijnenlaan 200F, P.O. Box 2404, B-3001 Heverlee (Belgium); Verwerft, Marc [Belgian Nuclear Research Centre (SCK-CEN), Institute for Nuclear Materials Science, Boeretang 200, B-2400 Mol (Belgium)

    2015-04-15

    Highlights: • The lattice parameter of stoichiometric uranium dioxide has been re-evaluated. • The new value is substantially higher than the generally accepted value. • The new value has an improved precision. • Earlier published values on the lattice parameter of UO{sub 2} are carefully re-assessed. • High accuracy was obtained on both stoichiometry and lattice parameter measurements. - Abstract: The paper presents and discusses lattice parameter analyses of pure, stoichiometric UO{sub 2}. Attention was paid to prepare stoichiometric samples and to maintain stoichiometry throughout the analyses. The lattice parameter of UO{sub 2.000±0.001} was evaluated as being 547.127 ± 0.008 pm at 20 °C, which is substantially higher than many published values for the UO{sub 2} lattice constant and has an improved precision by about one order of magnitude. The higher value of the lattice constant is mainly attributed to the avoidance of hyperstoichiometry in the present study and to a minor extent to the use of the currently accepted Cu Kα{sub 1} X-ray wavelength value. Many of the early studies used Cu Kα{sub 1} wavelength values that differ from the currently accepted value, which also contributed to an underestimation of the true lattice parameter.

  10. Chemical Derivatization and Ultrahigh Resolution and Accurate Mass Spectrometry Strategies for "Shotgun" Lipidome Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryan, Eileen; Reid, Gavin E

    2016-09-20

    Lipids play critical structural and functional roles in the regulation of cellular homeostasis, and it is increasingly recognized that the disruption of lipid metabolism or signaling or both is associated with the onset and progression of certain metabolically linked diseases. As a result, the field of lipidomics has emerged to comprehensively identify and structurally characterize the diverse range of lipid species within a sample of interest and to quantitatively monitor their abundances under different physiological or pathological conditions. Mass spectrometry (MS) has become a critical enabling platform technology for lipidomic researchers. However, the presence of isobaric (i.e., same nominal mass) and isomeric (i.e., same exact mass) lipids within complex lipid extracts means that MS-based identification and quantification of individual lipid species remains a significant analytical challenge. Ultrahigh resolution and accurate mass spectrometry (UHRAMS) offers a convenient solution to the isobaric mass overlap problem, while a range of chromatographic separation, differential extraction, intrasource separation and selective ionization methods, or tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS) strategies may be used to address some types of isomeric mass lipid overlaps. Alternatively, chemical derivatization strategies represent a more recent approach for the separation of lipids within complex mixtures, including for isomeric lipids. In this Account, we highlight the key components of a lipidomics workflow developed in our laboratory, whereby certain lipid classes or subclasses, namely, aminophospholipids and O-alk-1'-enyl (i.e., plasmalogen) ether-containing lipids, are shifted in mass following sequential functional group selective chemical derivatization reactions prior to "shotgun" nano-ESI-UHRAMS analysis, "targeted" MS/MS, and automated database searching. This combined derivatization and UHRAMS approach resolves both isobaric mass lipids and certain categories of

  11. Identification of "Known Unknowns" Utilizing Accurate Mass Data and ChemSpider

    Science.gov (United States)

    Little, James L.; Williams, Antony J.; Pshenichnov, Alexey; Tkachenko, Valery

    2012-01-01

    In many cases, an unknown to an investigator is actually known in the chemical literature, a reference database, or an internet resource. We refer to these types of compounds as "known unknowns." ChemSpider is a very valuable internet database of known compounds useful in the identification of these types of compounds in commercial, environmental, forensic, and natural product samples. The database contains over 26 million entries from hundreds of data sources and is provided as a free resource to the community. Accurate mass mass spectrometry data is used to query the database by either elemental composition or a monoisotopic mass. Searching by elemental composition is the preferred approach. However, it is often difficult to determine a unique elemental composition for compounds with molecular weights greater than 600 Da. In these cases, searching by the monoisotopic mass is advantageous. In either case, the search results are refined by sorting the number of references associated with each compound in descending order. This raises the most useful candidates to the top of the list for further evaluation. These approaches were shown to be successful in identifying "known unknowns" noted in our laboratory and for compounds of interest to others.

  12. ACCURATE UNIVERSAL MODELS FOR THE MASS ACCRETION HISTORIES AND CONCENTRATIONS OF DARK MATTER HALOS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A large amount of observations have constrained cosmological parameters and the initial density fluctuation spectrum to a very high accuracy. However, cosmological parameters change with time and the power index of the power spectrum dramatically varies with mass scale in the so-called concordance ΛCDM cosmology. Thus, any successful model for its structural evolution should work well simultaneously for various cosmological models and different power spectra. We use a large set of high-resolution N-body simulations of a variety of structure formation models (scale-free, standard CDM, open CDM, and ΛCDM) to study the mass accretion histories, the mass and redshift dependence of concentrations, and the concentration evolution histories of dark matter halos. We find that there is significant disagreement between the much-used empirical models in the literature and our simulations. Based on our simulation results, we find that the mass accretion rate of a halo is tightly correlated with a simple function of its mass, the redshift, parameters of the cosmology, and of the initial density fluctuation spectrum, which correctly disentangles the effects of all these factors and halo environments. We also find that the concentration of a halo is strongly correlated with the universe age when its progenitor on the mass accretion history first reaches 4% of its current mass. According to these correlations, we develop new empirical models for both the mass accretion histories and the concentration evolution histories of dark matter halos, and the latter can also be used to predict the mass and redshift dependence of halo concentrations. These models are accurate and universal: the same set of model parameters works well for different cosmological models and for halos of different masses at different redshifts, and in the ΛCDM case the model predictions match the simulation results very well even though halo mass is traced to about 0.0005 times the final mass, when

  13. Identification of Microorganisms by High Resolution Tandem Mass Spectrometry with Accurate Statistical Significance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alves, Gelio; Wang, Guanghui; Ogurtsov, Aleksey Y.; Drake, Steven K.; Gucek, Marjan; Suffredini, Anthony F.; Sacks, David B.; Yu, Yi-Kuo

    2016-02-01

    Correct and rapid identification of microorganisms is the key to the success of many important applications in health and safety, including, but not limited to, infection treatment, food safety, and biodefense. With the advance of mass spectrometry (MS) technology, the speed of identification can be greatly improved. However, the increasing number of microbes sequenced is challenging correct microbial identification because of the large number of choices present. To properly disentangle candidate microbes, one needs to go beyond apparent morphology or simple `fingerprinting'; to correctly prioritize the candidate microbes, one needs to have accurate statistical significance in microbial identification. We meet these challenges by using peptidome profiles of microbes to better separate them and by designing an analysis method that yields accurate statistical significance. Here, we present an analysis pipeline that uses tandem MS (MS/MS) spectra for microbial identification or classification. We have demonstrated, using MS/MS data of 81 samples, each composed of a single known microorganism, that the proposed pipeline can correctly identify microorganisms at least at the genus and species levels. We have also shown that the proposed pipeline computes accurate statistical significances, i.e., E-values for identified peptides and unified E-values for identified microorganisms. The proposed analysis pipeline has been implemented in MiCId, a freely available software for Microorganism Classification and Identification. MiCId is available for download at http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/CBBresearch/Yu/downloads.html.

  14. Mass measurement of depleted uranium components with coincidence neutron count

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The technique of the mass measurement of depleted uranium components was studied with active and passive coincidence neutron count. A well neutron coincidence counter was used to measure the coincidence neutron counts of the depleted uranium components with various mass. Am-Be source was selected as the external neutron source for induced fission in the active measurement, and a shield was optimized to reduce the accidental coincidence counts. In the active measurement, the maximum relative deviation of the linear fit mass from the nominal mass of the depleted uranium components is 11.71%, compared to 4.05% in the passive measurement. It is proved that because of the weakening of the shape influence, the passive method is more accurate and reliable to measure the mass of depleted uranium components than the active method. (authors)

  15. Rapid and accurate biofuel moisture content gauging using magnetic resonance measurement technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jaervinen, T.

    2013-04-15

    Biomass is extensively utilised in energy production and as a raw material, such as for the production of liquid biofuels. All those processes will benefit if the moisture content of bio material is known in advance as accurately as possible under transient circumstances. Biofuel trade is increasingly based on the calorific value of fuels. In the first step, this also increases the need for rapid and accurate moisture content determination. During the last few years, large biofuel standardisation has been implemented, emphasising biofuel quality control at all stages of the utilisation chain. In principle, the moisture instrumental measurement can be utilised by many technologies and procedures. Typical techniques are infrared, radiofrequency, microwave, radiometric, electrical conductivity, capacitance, and impedance. Nuclear magnetic resonance (MR) and thermal neutron absorption are also applied. The MR measurement principle has been known and utilised already since the early 1950s. It has become the basic instrumental analysis tool in chemistry. It is also well-known as a very accurate method for analysing most compounds, especially substances containing hydrogen. The utilisation of MR metering is expanded extensively to medical diagnostics as a form of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Because of the precision of the MR principle, there have for a long time been efforts to apply it in new and different areas, and to make more user-friendly, smaller, and even portable devices. Such a device was designed by Vaisala a few years ago. VTT has utilised Vaisala's MR prototype for approximately one year for moisture content measurement of different biofuels. The first step in the use of an MR device for moisture determination was the definition of its measurement accuracy compared to the standard method (EN 14774). Those tests proved that the absolute precision seems to be comparable to the standard moisture content measurement method. It was also found out that

  16. Screening of the polyphenol content of tomato-based products through accurate-mass spectrometry (HPLC-ESI-QTOF).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vallverdú-Queralt, Anna; Jáuregui, Olga; Di Lecce, Giuseppe; Andrés-Lacueva, Cristina; Lamuela-Raventós, Rosa M

    2011-12-01

    Tomatoes, the second most important vegetable crop worldwide, are a key component in the so-called "Mediterranean diet" and its consumption has greatly increased worldwide over the past 2 decades, mostly due to a growing demand for tomato-based products such as ketchups, gazpachos and tomato juices. In this work, tomato-based products were analysed after a suitable work-up extraction procedure using liquid chromatography/electrospray ionisation-time of flight-mass spectrometry (HPLC-ESI-QTOF) with negative ion detection using information-dependent acquisition (IDA) to determine their phenolic composition. The compounds were confirmed by accurate mass measurements in MS and MS(2) modes. The elemental composition was selected according to the accurate masses and isotopic pattern. In this way, 47 compounds (simple phenolic and hydroxycinnamoylquinic acids and flavone, flavonol, flavanone and dihydrochalcone derivatives) were identified in tomato-based products, five of them, as far as was known, were previously unreported in tomatoes. The phenolic fingerprint showed that tomato-based products differ in phenolic composition, principally in protocatechuic acid-O-hexoside, apigenin and its glycosylated forms, quercetin-O-dihexoside, kaempferol-C-hexoside and eriodictyol-O-dihexoside. Gazpacho showed the highest number of phenolic compounds due to the vegetables added for its production. PMID:25212313

  17. Zero G Mass Measurement Device (ZGMMD) Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Zero Gravity Mass Measurement Device (ZGMMD) provides the ability to measure the mass of samples in a microgravity environment, like that found on the...

  18. Accurate Measurement of the in vivo Ammonium Concentration in Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hugo F. Cueto-Rojas

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Ammonium (NH4+ is the most common N-source for yeast fermentations, and N-limitation is frequently applied to reduce growth and increase product yields. While there is significant molecular knowledge on NH4+ transport and assimilation, there have been few attempts to measure the in vivo concentration of this metabolite. In this article, we present a sensitive and accurate analytical method to quantify the in vivo intracellular ammonium concentration in Saccharomyces cerevisiae based on standard rapid sampling and metabolomics techniques. The method validation experiments required the development of a proper sample processing protocol to minimize ammonium production/consumption during biomass extraction by assessing the impact of amino acid degradation—an element that is often overlooked. The resulting cold chloroform metabolite extraction method, together with quantification using ultra high performance liquid chromatography-isotope dilution mass spectrometry (UHPLC-IDMS, was not only more sensitive than most of the existing methods but also more accurate than methods that use electrodes, enzymatic reactions, or boiling water or boiling ethanol biomass extraction because it minimized ammonium consumption/production during sampling processing and interference from other metabolites in the quantification of intracellular ammonium. Finally, our validation experiments showed that other metabolites such as pyruvate or 2-oxoglutarate (αKG need to be extracted with cold chloroform to avoid measurements being biased by the degradation of other metabolites (e.g., amino acids.

  19. A feasibility study of UHPLC-HRMS accurate-mass screening methods for multiclass testing of organic contaminants in food.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-Ortega, Patricia; Lara-Ortega, Felipe J; García-Reyes, Juan F; Gilbert-López, Bienvenida; Trojanowicz, Marek; Molina-Díaz, Antonio

    2016-11-01

    The feasibility of accurate-mass multi-residue screening methods using liquid chromatography high-resolution mass spectrometry (UHPLC-HRMS) using time-of-flight mass spectrometry has been evaluated, including over 625 multiclass food contaminants as case study. Aspects such as the selectivity and confirmation capability provided by HRMS with different acquisition modes (full-scan or full-scan combined with collision induced dissociation (CID) with no precursor ion isolation), and chromatographic separation along with main limitations such as sensitivity or automated data processing have been examined. Compound identification was accomplished with retention time matching and accurate mass measurements of the targeted ions for each analyte (mainly (de)protonated molecules). Compounds with the same nominal mass (isobaric species) were very frequent due to the large number of compounds included. Although 76% of database compounds were involved in isobaric groups, they were resolved in most cases (99% of these isobaric species were distinguished by retention time, resolving power, isotopic profile or fragment ions). Only three pairs could not be resolved with these tools. In-source CID fragmentation was evaluated in depth, although the results obtained in terms of information provided were not as thorough as those obtained using fragmentation experiments without precursor ion isolation (all ion mode). The latter acquisition mode was found to be the best suited for this type of large-scale screening method instead of classic product ion scan, as provided excellent fragmentation information for confirmatory purposes for an unlimited number of compounds. Leaving aside the sample treatment limitations, the main weaknesses noticed are basically the relatively low sensitivity for compounds which does not map well against electrospray ionization and also quantitation issues such as those produced by signal suppression due to either matrix effects from coeluting matrix or from

  20. High-Precision Mass Measurements of Exotic Nuclei with the Triple-Trap Mass Spectrometer Isoltrap

    CERN Multimedia

    Blaum, K; Zuber, K T; Stanja, J

    2002-01-01

    The masses of close to 200 short-lived nuclides have already been measured with the mass spectrometer ISOLTRAP with a relative precision between 1$\\times$10$^{-7}$ and 1$\\times$10^{-8}$. The installatin of a radio-frequency quadrupole trap increased the overall efficiency by two orders of magnitude which is at present about 1%. In a recent upgrade, we installed a carbon cluster laser ion source, which will allow us to use carbon clusters as mass references for absolute mass measurements. Due to these improvements and the high reliability of ISOLTRAP we are now able to perform accurate high-precision mass measurements all over the nuclear chart. We propose therefore mass measurements on light, medium and heavy nuclides on both sides of the valley of stability in the coming four years. ISOLTRAP is presently the only instrument capable of the high precision required for many of the proposed studies.

  1. Cluster abundance in chameleon $f(R)$ gravity I: toward an accurate halo mass function prediction

    CERN Document Server

    Cataneo, Matteo; Lombriser, Lucas; Li, Baojiu

    2016-01-01

    We refine the mass and environment dependent spherical collapse model of chameleon $f(R)$ gravity by calibrating a phenomenological correction inspired by the parameterized post-Friedmann framework against high-resolution $N$-body simulations. We employ our method to predict the corresponding modified halo mass function, and provide fitting formulas to calculate the fractional enhancement of the $f(R)$ halo abundance with respect to that of General Relativity (GR) within a precision of $\\lesssim 5\\%$ from the results obtained in the simulations. Similar accuracy can be achieved for the full $f(R)$ mass function on the condition that the modeling of the reference GR abundance of halos is accurate at the percent level. We use our fits to forecast constraints on the additional scalar degree of freedom of the theory, finding that upper bounds competitive with current Solar System tests are within reach of cluster number count analyses from ongoing and upcoming surveys at much larger scales. Importantly, the flexi...

  2. Colorimetric measurement of triglycerides cannot provide an accurate measure of stored fat content in Drosophila.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bader Al-Anzi

    Full Text Available Drosophila melanogaster has recently emerged as a useful model system in which to study the genetic basis of regulation of fat storage. One of the most frequently used methods for evaluating the levels of stored fat (triglycerides in flies is a coupled colorimetric assay available as a kit from several manufacturers. This is an aqueous-based enzymatic assay that is normally used for measurement of mammalian serum triglycerides, which are present in soluble lipoprotein complexes. In this short communication, we show that coupled colorimetric assay kits cannot accurately measure stored triglycerides in Drosophila. First, they fail to give accurate readings when tested on insoluble triglyceride mixtures with compositions like that of stored fat, or on fat extracted from flies with organic solvents. This is probably due to an inability of the lipase used in the kits to efficiently cleave off the glycerol head group from fat molecules in insoluble samples. Second, the measured final products of the kits are quinoneimines, which absorb visible light in the same wavelength range as Drosophila eye pigments. Thus, when extracts from crushed flies are assayed, much of the measured signal is actually due to eye pigments. Finally, the lipoprotein lipases used in colorimetric assays also cleave non-fat glycerides. The glycerol backbones liberated from all classes of glycerides are measured through the remaining reactions in the assay. As a consequence, when these assay kits are used to evaluate tissue extracts, the observed signal actually represents the amount of free glycerols together with all types of glycerides. For these reasons, findings obtained through use of coupled colorimetric assays on Drosophila samples must be interpreted with caution. We also show here that using thin-layer chromatography to measure stored triglycerides in flies eliminates all of these problems.

  3. In-depth glycoproteomic characterization of γ-conglutin by high-resolution accurate mass spectrometry.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia Schiarea

    Full Text Available The molecular characterization of bioactive food components is necessary for understanding the mechanisms of their beneficial or detrimental effects on human health. This study focused on γ-conglutin, a well-known lupin seed N-glycoprotein with health-promoting properties and controversial allergenic potential. Given the importance of N-glycosylation for the functional and structural characteristics of proteins, we studied the purified protein by a mass spectrometry-based glycoproteomic approach able to identify the structure, micro-heterogeneity and attachment site of the bound N-glycan(s, and to provide extensive coverage of the protein sequence. The peptide/N-glycopeptide mixtures generated by enzymatic digestion (with or without N-deglycosylation were analyzed by high-resolution accurate mass liquid chromatography-multi-stage mass spectrometry. The four main micro-heterogeneous variants of the single N-glycan bound to γ-conglutin were identified as Man2(Xyl (Fuc GlcNAc2, Man3(Xyl (Fuc GlcNAc2, GlcNAcMan3(Xyl (Fuc GlcNAc2 and GlcNAc 2Man3(Xyl (Fuc GlcNAc2. These carry both core β1,2-xylose and core α1-3-fucose (well known Cross-Reactive Carbohydrate Determinants, but corresponding fucose-free variants were also identified as minor components. The N-glycan was proven to reside on Asn131, one of the two potential N-glycosylation sites. The extensive coverage of the γ-conglutin amino acid sequence suggested three alternative N-termini of the small subunit, that were later confirmed by direct-infusion Orbitrap mass spectrometry analysis of the intact subunit.

  4. In-Depth Glycoproteomic Characterization of γ-Conglutin by High-Resolution Accurate Mass Spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schiarea, Silvia; Arnoldi, Lolita; Fanelli, Roberto; De Combarieu, Eric; Chiabrando, Chiara

    2013-01-01

    The molecular characterization of bioactive food components is necessary for understanding the mechanisms of their beneficial or detrimental effects on human health. This study focused on γ-conglutin, a well-known lupin seed N-glycoprotein with health-promoting properties and controversial allergenic potential. Given the importance of N-glycosylation for the functional and structural characteristics of proteins, we studied the purified protein by a mass spectrometry-based glycoproteomic approach able to identify the structure, micro-heterogeneity and attachment site of the bound N-glycan(s), and to provide extensive coverage of the protein sequence. The peptide/N-glycopeptide mixtures generated by enzymatic digestion (with or without N-deglycosylation) were analyzed by high-resolution accurate mass liquid chromatography–multi-stage mass spectrometry. The four main micro-heterogeneous variants of the single N-glycan bound to γ-conglutin were identified as Man2(Xyl) (Fuc) GlcNAc2, Man3(Xyl) (Fuc) GlcNAc2, GlcNAcMan3(Xyl) (Fuc) GlcNAc2 and GlcNAc 2Man3(Xyl) (Fuc) GlcNAc2. These carry both core β1,2-xylose and core α1-3-fucose (well known Cross-Reactive Carbohydrate Determinants), but corresponding fucose-free variants were also identified as minor components. The N-glycan was proven to reside on Asn131, one of the two potential N-glycosylation sites. The extensive coverage of the γ-conglutin amino acid sequence suggested three alternative N-termini of the small subunit, that were later confirmed by direct-infusion Orbitrap mass spectrometry analysis of the intact subunit. PMID:24069245

  5. Isotopic Measurement of Uranium by Mass Spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The growing application of atomic energy creates a wider need for precise and accurate knowledge of the isotopic composition of uranium. This information is particularly of great importance in the accountability and transfer of enriched uranium for reactor and research applications involving millions of dollars worth of fissionable materials. Reliable isotopic measurements are also necessary to ensure compliance of fuel element compositions with the reactor design specifications and to permit calculation of process and fuel burn-up losses. Mass spectrometry methods, which far surpass the capabilities of other methods, Were developed for very precise isotopic determinations. These methods, ''Single Standard'' and ''Double Standard'', involve the comparison of measurements of an unknown sample to similar measurements on known standards. Use of the ''Double Standard'' method eliminates the effects of instrument bias, thus permitting isotopic determinations with precisions (95% limit of error) of the order of ± 0.02% of the values. Accuracies are limited only by the knowledge of the standard values used, which are referenced to the series of uranium isotopic standards available from the US National Bureau of Standards. The mass spectrometers are also useful for the absolute determination of isotopic composition of uranium, especially in forms other than UF6. Thermal ionization techniques using high-resolution (approximately 12-in. radius) spectrometers permit the absolute isotopic characterization of the minor isotopes (i.e. those less than 10 wt.%) with an accuracy and precision of about 0.5% of the values per analysis. These analyses are particularly useful in calibrating highly enriched and highly depleted uranium for subsequent use as blending materials in an isotopic standards programme. Both relative and absolute isotopic measurement methods are described as well as their application in the accountability and operational analytical programmes. These applications

  6. Fatty acids composition of Caenorhabditis elegans using accurate mass GCMS-QTOF.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henry, Parise; Owopetu, Olufunmilayo; Adisa, Demilade; Nguyen, Thao; Anthony, Kevin; Ijoni-Animadu, David; Jamadar, Sakha; Abdel-Rahman, Fawzia; Saleh, Mahmoud A

    2016-08-01

    The free living nematode Caenorhabditis elegans is a proven model organism for lipid metabolism research. Total lipids of C. elegans were extracted using chloroform and methanol in 2:1 ratio (v/v). Fatty acids composition of the extracted total lipids was converted to their corresponding fatty acids methyl esters (FAMEs) and analyzed by gas chromatography/accurate mass quadrupole time of flight mass spectrometry using both electron ionization and chemical ionization techniques. Twenty-eight fatty acids consisting of 12 to 22 carbon atoms were identified, 65% of them were unsaturated. Fatty acids containing 12 to17 carbons were mostly saturated with stearic acid (18:0) as the major constituent. Several branched-chain fatty acids were identified. Methyl-14-methylhexadecanoate (iso- 17:0) was the major identified branched fatty acid. This is the first report to detect the intact molecular parent ions of the identified fatty acids in C. elegans using chemical ionization compared to electron ionization which produced fragmentations of the FAMEs. PMID:27166662

  7. Fatty acids composition of Caenorhabditis elegans using accurate mass GCMS-QTOF.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henry, Parise; Owopetu, Olufunmilayo; Adisa, Demilade; Nguyen, Thao; Anthony, Kevin; Ijoni-Animadu, David; Jamadar, Sakha; Abdel-Rahman, Fawzia; Saleh, Mahmoud A

    2016-08-01

    The free living nematode Caenorhabditis elegans is a proven model organism for lipid metabolism research. Total lipids of C. elegans were extracted using chloroform and methanol in 2:1 ratio (v/v). Fatty acids composition of the extracted total lipids was converted to their corresponding fatty acids methyl esters (FAMEs) and analyzed by gas chromatography/accurate mass quadrupole time of flight mass spectrometry using both electron ionization and chemical ionization techniques. Twenty-eight fatty acids consisting of 12 to 22 carbon atoms were identified, 65% of them were unsaturated. Fatty acids containing 12 to17 carbons were mostly saturated with stearic acid (18:0) as the major constituent. Several branched-chain fatty acids were identified. Methyl-14-methylhexadecanoate (iso- 17:0) was the major identified branched fatty acid. This is the first report to detect the intact molecular parent ions of the identified fatty acids in C. elegans using chemical ionization compared to electron ionization which produced fragmentations of the FAMEs.

  8. Mass Measurement of Very Short Half-Lived Nuclei

    CERN Multimedia

    Duma, M; Iacob, V E; Thibault, C

    2002-01-01

    The MISTRAL (Mass measurements at ISolde with a Transmission RAdiofrequency spectrometer on-Line) experiment exploits a rapid measurement technique to make accurate mass determinations of very short-lived nuclei. The physics goals are to elucidate new nuclear structure effects and constrain nuclear mass models in regions of interest to nuclear astrophysics.\\\\ \\\\The spectrometer, installed in May 97, performed as promised in the proposal with mass resolution exceeding 100,000. In its first experiment in July 1998, neutron-rich Na isotopes having half-lives as short as 31 ms were measured. A second experiment in November 1998 enabled us to improve the measurement precision of the isotopes $^{26-30}$Na to about 20 keV. The measurement program continues as experiment IS 373.

  9. Zero G Mass Measurement Device (ZGMMD) Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Zero G Mass Measurement Device (ZGMMD) will provide the ability to quantify the mass of objects up to 2,000 grams, including live animal specimens in a zero G...

  10. Bone Mass Measurement: What the Numbers Mean

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... supported by your browser. Home Bone Basics Bone Mass Measurement: What the Numbers Mean Publication available in: ... been one or more osteoporotic fractures. Low Bone Mass Versus Osteoporosis The information provided by a BMD ...

  11. Measuring solar reflectance Part I: Defining a metric that accurately predicts solar heat gain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Levinson, Ronnen; Akbari, Hashem; Berdahl, Paul

    2010-05-14

    Solar reflectance can vary with the spectral and angular distributions of incident sunlight, which in turn depend on surface orientation, solar position and atmospheric conditions. A widely used solar reflectance metric based on the ASTM Standard E891 beam-normal solar spectral irradiance underestimates the solar heat gain of a spectrally selective 'cool colored' surface because this irradiance contains a greater fraction of near-infrared light than typically found in ordinary (unconcentrated) global sunlight. At mainland U.S. latitudes, this metric RE891BN can underestimate the annual peak solar heat gain of a typical roof or pavement (slope {le} 5:12 [23{sup o}]) by as much as 89 W m{sup -2}, and underestimate its peak surface temperature by up to 5 K. Using R{sub E891BN} to characterize roofs in a building energy simulation can exaggerate the economic value N of annual cool-roof net energy savings by as much as 23%. We define clear-sky air mass one global horizontal ('AM1GH') solar reflectance R{sub g,0}, a simple and easily measured property that more accurately predicts solar heat gain. R{sub g,0} predicts the annual peak solar heat gain of a roof or pavement to within 2 W m{sup -2}, and overestimates N by no more than 3%. R{sub g,0} is well suited to rating the solar reflectances of roofs, pavements and walls. We show in Part II that R{sub g,0} can be easily and accurately measured with a pyranometer, a solar spectrophotometer or version 6 of the Solar Spectrum Reflectometer.

  12. Body mass index and blood pressure measurement during pregnancy.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Hogan, Jennifer L

    2012-02-01

    OBJECTIVE: The accurate measurement of blood pressure requires the use of a large cuff in subjects with a high mid-arm circumference (MAC). This prospective study examined the need for a large cuff during pregnancy and its correlation with maternal obesity. METHODS: Maternal body mass index (BMI), fat mass, and MAC were measured. RESULTS: Of 179 women studied, 15.6% were obese. With a BMI of level 1 obesity, 44% needed a large cuff and with a BMI of level 2 obesity 100% needed a large cuff. CONCLUSION: All women booking for antenatal care should have their MAC measured to avoid the overdiagnosis of pregnancy hypertension.

  13. Selected top quark mass measurements at CMS

    CERN Document Server

    Bouvier, Elvire

    2016-01-01

    Selected measurements of the top quark mass are presented, obtained from CMS data collected in proton-proton collisions at the LHC at center-of-mass energies of 7, 8, and 13 TeV. ``Standard'' techniques are employed in each decay channel of top quark pair events and their results are combined. The mass of the top quark is also measured using several ``alternative'' methods, including measurements from shapes of top quark decay distributions in single top quark and top quark pair events as well as pole mass measurements.

  14. Galaxy And Mass Assembly (GAMA): Accurate Panchromatic Photometry from Optical Priors using LAMBDAR

    CERN Document Server

    Wright, A H; Bourne, N; Driver, S P; Dunne, L; Maddox, S J; Alpaslan, M; Andrews, S K; Bauer, A E; Bland-Hawthorn, J; Brough, S; Brown, M J I; Cluver, M; Davies, L J M; Holwerda, B W; Hopkins, A M; Jarrett, T H; Kafle, P R; Lange, R; Liske, J; Loveday, J; Moffett, A J; Norberg, P; Popescu, C C; Smith, M; Taylor, E N; Tuffs, R J; Wang, L; Wilkins, S M

    2016-01-01

    We present the Lambda Adaptive Multi-Band Deblending Algorithm in R (LAMBDAR), a novel code for calculating matched aperture photometry across images that are neither pixel- nor PSF-matched, using prior aperture definitions derived from high resolution optical imaging. The development of this program is motivated by the desire for consistent photometry and uncertainties across large ranges of photometric imaging, for use in calculating spectral energy distributions. We describe the program, specifically key features required for robust determination of panchromatic photometry: propagation of apertures to images with arbitrary resolution, local background estimation, aperture normalisation, uncertainty determination and propagation, and object deblending. Using simulated images, we demonstrate that the program is able to recover accurate photometric measurements in both high-resolution, low-confusion, and low-resolution, high-confusion, regimes. We apply the program to the 21-band photometric dataset from the ...

  15. Screening and confirmation criteria for hormone residue analysis using liquid chromatography accurate mass time-of-flight, Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance and orbitrap mass spectrometry techniques

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nielen, M.W.F.; Engelen, M.C. van; Zuiderent, R.; Ramaker, R.

    2007-01-01

    An emerging trend is recognised in hormone and veterinary drug residue analysis from liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LC/MS/MS) based screening and confirmation towards accurate mass alternatives such as LC coupled with time-of-flight (TOF), Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance (

  16. Dynamical Mass Measurements of Contaminated Galaxy Clusters Using Machine Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ntampaka, Michelle; Trac, Hy; Sutherland, Dougal; Fromenteau, Sebastien; Poczos, Barnabas; Schneider, Jeff

    2016-01-01

    Galaxy clusters are a rich source of information for examining fundamental astrophysical processes and cosmological parameters, however, employing clusters as cosmological probes requires accurate mass measurements derived from cluster observables. We study dynamical mass measurements of galaxy clusters contaminated by interlopers, and show that a modern machine learning (ML) algorithm can predict masses by better than a factor of two compared to a standard scaling relation approach. We create a mock catalog from Multidark's publicly-available N-body MDPL1 simulation where a simple cylindrical cut around the cluster center allows interlopers to contaminate the clusters. In the standard approach, we use a power law scaling relation to infer cluster mass from galaxy line of sight (LOS) velocity dispersion. The presence of interlopers in the catalog produces a wide, flat fractional mass error distribution, with width = 2.13. We employ the Support Distribution Machine (SDM) class of algorithms to learn from distributions of data to predict single values. Applied to distributions of galaxy observables such as LOS velocity and projected distance from the cluster center, SDM yields better than a factor-of-two improvement (width = 0.67). Remarkably, SDM applied to contaminated clusters is better able to recover masses than even a scaling relation approach applied to uncontaminated clusters. We show that the SDM method more accurately reproduces the cluster mass function, making it a valuable tool for employing cluster observations to evaluate cosmological models.

  17. Volume and mass measurements of liquids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The report comprises the 10 lectures given at the 74th PTB seminar, which represent the state of the art in the field of liquid flow measurement. The lectures deal with the overflow-pipette as the primary volume standard of PTB, gas elimination devices (compulsory in measuring assemblies with volume meters), measuring assemblies for the reception of milk, electromagnetic flowmeters, vortex-shedding meters, indirect mass measurement from volume and density, direct mass measurement (coriolis flowmeters), pipeline-measurements, level measurement at storage tanks with conventional and optical methods and a development aid project for the set up of test rigs in India. (orig.)

  18. Mass properties measurement system: Dynamics and statics measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doty, Keith L.

    1993-01-01

    This report presents and interprets experimental data obtained from the Mass Properties Measurement System (MPMS). Statics measurements yield the center-of-gravity of an unknown mass and dynamics measurements yield its inertia matrix. Observations of the MPMS performance has lead us to specific design criteria and an understanding of MPMS limitations.

  19. Accurate Quantification of Lipid Species by Electrospray Ionization Mass Spectrometry — Meets a Key Challenge in Lipidomics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kui Yang

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (ESI-MS has become one of the most popular and powerful technologies to identify and quantify individual lipid species in lipidomics. Meanwhile, quantitative analysis of lipid species by ESI-MS has also become a major obstacle to meet the challenges of lipidomics. Herein, we discuss the principles, advantages, and possible limitations of different mass spectrometry-based methodologies for lipid quantification, as well as a few practical issues important for accurate quantification of individual lipid species. Accordingly, accurate quantification of individual lipid species, one of the key challenges in lipidomics, can be practically met.

  20. Measuring Accurate Body Parameters of Dressed Humans with Large-Scale Motion Using a Kinect Sensor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sidan Du

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Non-contact human body measurement plays an important role in surveillance, physical healthcare, on-line business and virtual fitting. Current methods for measuring the human body without physical contact usually cannot handle humans wearing clothes, which limits their applicability in public environments. In this paper, we propose an effective solution that can measure accurate parameters of the human body with large-scale motion from a Kinect sensor, assuming that the people are wearing clothes. Because motion can drive clothes attached to the human body loosely or tightly, we adopt a space-time analysis to mine the information across the posture variations. Using this information, we recover the human body, regardless of the effect of clothes, and measure the human body parameters accurately. Experimental results show that our system can perform more accurate parameter estimation on the human body than state-of-the-art methods.

  1. Defining Allowable Physical Property Variations for High Accurate Measurements on Polymer Parts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mohammadi, Ali; Sonne, Mads Rostgaard; Madruga, Daniel González;

    2015-01-01

    high accurate measurements in non-controlled ambient. Most of polymer parts are manufactured by injection moulding and their inspection is carried out after stabilization, around 200 hours. The overall goal of this work is to reach ±5μm in uncertainty measurements a polymer products which...

  2. Precision Mass Measurement of Argon Isotopes

    CERN Multimedia

    Lunney, D

    2002-01-01

    % IS388\\\\ \\\\ A precision mass measurement of the neutron-deficient isotopes $^{32,33,34}$Ar is proposed. Mass values of these isotopes are of importance for: a) a stringent test of the Isobaric-Multiplet- Mass-Equation, b) a verification of the correctness of calculated charge-dependent corrections as used in super-allowed $\\beta$- decay studies aiming at a test of the CVC hypothesis, and c) the determination of the kinematics in electron-neutrino correlation experiments searching for scalar currents in weak interaction. The measurements will be carried out with the ISOLTRAP Penning trap mass spectrometer.

  3. Measuring the running top-quark mass

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Langenfeld, Ulrich; Uwer, Peter [Berlin Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Physik; Moch, Sven-Olaf [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Zeuthen (Germany)

    2010-06-15

    In this contribution we discuss conceptual issues of current mass measurements performed at the Tevatron. In addition we propose an alternative method which is theoretically much cleaner and to a large extend free from the problems encountered in current measurements. In detail we discuss the direct determination of the top-quark's running mass from the cross section measurements performed at the Tevatron. (orig.)

  4. Single-reference high-precision mass measurement with a multi-reflection time-of-flight mass spectrograph

    CERN Document Server

    Ito, Y; Wada, M; Naimi, S; Sonoda, T; Mita, H; Arai, F; Takamine, A; Okada, K; Ozawa, A; Wollnik, H

    2013-01-01

    A multi-reflection time-of-flight mass spectrograph, competitive with Penning trap mass spectrometers, has been built at RIKEN. We have performed a first online mass measurement, using 8Li+ (T1/2 = 838 ms). A new analysis method has been realized, with which, using only 12C+ references, the mass excess of 8Li was accurately determined to be 20947.6(15)(34) keV (dm/m = 6.6 x 10-7). The speed, precision and accuracy of this first online measurement exemplifies the potential for using this new type of mass spectrograph for precision measurements of short-lived nuclei.

  5. Top quark mass measurement at the Tevatron

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guimaraes da Costa, Joao; /Harvard U.

    2004-12-01

    The authors report on the latest experimental measurements of the top quark mass by the CDF and D0 Collaborations at the Fermilab Tevatron. They present a new top mass measurement using the t{bar t} events collected by the D0 Collaboration in Run I between 1994 and 1996. This result is combined with previous measurements to yield a new world top mass average. They also describe several preliminary results using up to 193 pb{sup -1} of t{bar t} events produced in {bar p}p collisions at {radical}s = 1.96 TeV during the Run II of the Tevatron.

  6. Top quark mass measurements at CDF

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maki, Tuula; /Helsinki U. /Helsinki Inst. of Phys.

    2007-10-01

    The top quark mass is interesting both as a fundamental parameter of the standard model as well as an important input to precision electroweak tests. The CDF Collaboration has measured the top quark mass with high precision in all decay channels with complementary methods. A combination of the results from CDF gives a top quark mass of 170.5{+-}1.3(stat.){+-}1.8(syst.) GeV/c{sup 2}.

  7. Reanalysing glacier mass balance measurement series

    OpenAIRE

    Zemp, M.; E. Thibert; Huss, M.; Stumm, D.; Rolstad Denby, C.; Nuth, C.; S. U. Nussbaumer; G. Moholdt; A. Mercer; Mayer, C.; Joerg, P. C.; P. Jansson; B. Hynek; Fischer, A.; Escher-Vetter, H.

    2013-01-01

    Glacier-wide mass balance has been measured for more than sixty years and is widely used as an indicator of climate change and to assess the glacier contribution to runoff and sea level rise. Until recently, comprehensive uncertainty assessments have rarely been carried out and mass balance data have often been applied using rough error estimation or without consideration of errors. In this study, we propose a framework for reanalysing glacier mass balance series that includes conceptual and ...

  8. No galaxy left behind: accurate measurements with the faintest objects in the Dark Energy Survey

    CERN Document Server

    Suchyta, E; Aleksić, J; Melchior, P; Jouvel, S; MacCrann, N; Crocce, M; Gaztanaga, E; Honscheid, K; Leistedt, B; Peiris, H V; Ross, A J; Rykoff, E S; Sheldon, E; Abbott, T; Abdalla, F B; Allam, S; Banerji, M; Benoit-Lévy, A; Bertin, E; Brooks, D; Burke, D L; Rosell, A Carnero; Kind, M Carrasco; Carretero, J; Cunha, C E; D'Andrea, C B; da Costa, L N; DePoy, D L; Desai, S; Diehl, H T; Dietrich, J P; Doel, P; Eifler, T F; Estrada, J; Evrard, A E; Flaugher, B; Fosalba, P; Frieman, J; Gerdes, D W; Gruen, D; Gruendl, R A; James, D J; Jarvis, M; Kuehn, K; Kuropatkin, N; Lahav, O; Lima, M; Maia, M A G; March, M; Marshall, J L; Miller, C J; Miquel, R; Neilsen, E; Nichol, R C; Nord, B; Ogando, R; Percival, W J; Reil, K; Roodman, A; Sako, M; Sanchez, E; Scarpine, V; Sevilla-Noarbe, I; Smith, R C; Soares-Santos, M; Sobreira, F; Swanson, M E C; Tarle, G; Thaler, J; Thomas, D; Vikram, V; Walker, A R; Wechsler, R H; Zhang, Y

    2015-01-01

    Accurate statistical measurement with large imaging surveys has traditionally required throwing away a sizable fraction of the data. This is because most measurements have have relied on selecting nearly complete samples, where variations in the composition of the galaxy population with seeing, depth, or other survey characteristics are small. We introduce a new measurement method that aims to minimize this wastage, allowing precision measurement for any class of stars or galaxies detectable in an imaging survey. We have implemented our proposal in Balrog, a software package which embeds fake objects in real imaging in order to accurately characterize measurement biases. We demonstrate this technique with an angular clustering measurement using Dark Energy Survey (DES) data. We first show that recovery of our injected galaxies depends on a wide variety of survey characteristics in the same way as the real data. We then construct a flux-limited sample of the faintest galaxies in DES, chosen specifically for th...

  9. Top Quark Mass Measurements at the LHC

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(INSPIRE)INSPIRE-00220136; The ATLAS collaboration

    2016-01-01

    The top quark mass ($m_{top}$) is a fundamental parameter of the Standard Model of Particle Physics (SM). As the heaviest of all SM particles with a mass close to the electroweak symmetry-breaking scale, the top quark plays a pivotal role in the theory of elementary particles. The exact value of the top quark mass has implications on a number of theoretical predictions, which motivates the need for precision measurements of $m_{top}$. This document highlights a number of such measurements carried out by the ATLAS and CMS collaborations based on the combined LHC Run 1 datasets at centre-of-mass energies of $\\sqrt{s}=7$ and $8$ TeV. A wide range of analysis strategies are employed for a number of final-state signatures. Measurements of both the top quark pole mass as well as the value of $m_{top}$ as defined by the Monte Carlo generator in simulated signal samples are discussed.

  10. Measuring Accurate Body Parameters of Dressed Humans with Large-Scale Motion Using a Kinect Sensor

    OpenAIRE

    Sidan Du; Yang Li; Yao Yu; Yu Zhou; Huanghao Xu

    2013-01-01

    Non-contact human body measurement plays an important role in surveillance, physical healthcare, on-line business and virtual fitting. Current methods for measuring the human body without physical contact usually cannot handle humans wearing clothes, which limits their applicability in public environments. In this paper, we propose an effective solution that can measure accurate parameters of the human body with large-scale motion from a Kinect sensor, assuming that the people are wearing clo...

  11. Accurate determination of selected pesticides in soya beans by liquid chromatography coupled to isotope dilution mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huertas Pérez, J F; Sejerøe-Olsen, B; Fernández Alba, A R; Schimmel, H; Dabrio, M

    2015-05-01

    A sensitive, accurate and simple liquid chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry method for the determination of 10 selected pesticides in soya beans has been developed and validated. The method is intended for use during the characterization of selected pesticides in a reference material. In this process, high accuracy and appropriate uncertainty levels associated to the analytical measurements are of utmost importance. The analytical procedure is based on sample extraction by the use of a modified QuEChERS (quick, easy, cheap, effective, rugged, safe) extraction and subsequent clean-up of the extract with C18, PSA and Florisil. Analytes were separated on a C18 column using gradient elution with water-methanol/2.5 mM ammonium acetate mobile phase, and finally identified and quantified by triple quadrupole mass spectrometry in the multiple reaction monitoring mode (MRM). Reliable and accurate quantification of the analytes was achieved by means of stable isotope-labelled analogues employed as internal standards (IS) and calibration with pure substance solutions containing both, the isotopically labelled and native compounds. Exceptions were made for thiodicarb and malaoxon where the isotopically labelled congeners were not commercially available at the time of analysis. For the quantification of those compounds methomyl-(13)C2(15)N and malathion-D10 were used respectively. The method was validated according to the general principles covered by DG SANCO guidelines. However, validation criteria were set more stringently. Mean recoveries were in the range of 86-103% with RSDs lower than 8.1%. Repeatability and intermediate precision were in the range of 3.9-7.6% and 1.9-8.7% respectively. LODs were theoretically estimated and experimentally confirmed to be in the range 0.001-0.005 mg kg(-1) in the matrix, while LOQs established as the lowest spiking mass fractionation level were in the range 0.01-0.05 mg kg(-1). The method reliably identifies and quantifies the

  12. Miniature Sensor for Aerosol Mass Measurements Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This SBIR project seeks to develop a miniature sensor for mass measurement of size-classified aerosols. A cascade impactor will be used to classify aerosol sample...

  13. Cosmological and Astrophysical Neutrino Mass Measurements

    CERN Document Server

    Abazajian, K N; Cooray, A; De Bernardis, F; Dodelson, S; Friedland, A; Fuller, G M; Hannestad, S; Keating, B G; Linder, E V; Lunardini, C; Melchiorri, A; Miquel, R; Pierpaoli, E; Pritchard, J; Serra, P; Takada, M; Wong, Y Y Y

    2011-01-01

    Cosmological and astrophysical measurements provide powerful constraints on neutrino masses complementary to those from accelerators and reactors. Here we provide a guide to these different probes, for each explaining its physical basis, underlying assumptions, current and future reach.

  14. Simplified fundamental force and mass measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, I. A.

    2016-08-01

    The watt balance relates force or mass to the Planck constant h, the metre and the second. It enables the forthcoming redefinition of the unit of mass within the SI by measuring the Planck constant in terms of mass, length and time with an uncertainty of better than 2 parts in 108. To achieve this, existing watt balances require complex and time-consuming alignment adjustments limiting their use to a few national metrology laboratories. This paper describes a simplified construction and operating principle for a watt balance which eliminates the need for the majority of these adjustments and is readily scalable using either electromagnetic or electrostatic actuators. It is hoped that this will encourage the more widespread use of the technique for a wide range of measurements of force or mass. For example: thrust measurements for space applications which would require only measurements of electrical quantities and velocity/displacement.

  15. Applicability of hydraulic dynamometer for measuring load mass on forwarders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pandur Zdravko

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In the last few years, with the start of wood biomass production from wood residues, the need for determining the quantity of extracted wood residuals on a landing site has appeared. The beginning of intensive usage of wood residues for wood biomass starts in lowland forest where all wood residues are extracted with forwarders. There are several ways to determine load mass on a forwarder, first and probably most accurate is the use of load cells which are installed between forwarder undercarriage and loading space. In Croatia, as far as it is known, there is no forwarder with such equipment, although manufacturers offer the installation of such equipment when buying a new forwarder. The second option is using a portable measuring platform (axle scale which was already used for research of axle loads of trucks and forwarders. The data obtained with the measuring platform are very accurate, while its deficiency is relatively great mass, large dimensions and high price. The third option is determining mass by using hydraulic dynamometer which is installed on crane between the rotator and the telescopic boom. The production and installation of such a system is very simple, and with the price it can easily compete with previously described measuring systems. The main deficiency of this system is its unsatisfying accuracy. The results of assortment mass measuring with hydraulic dynamometer installed on a hydraulic crane and discussion on factors influencing obtained results will be presented in this paper.

  16. Mass Flow Meter Analysis for Reliable Measuring

    OpenAIRE

    Kupanovac, Tihomir; Špoljarić, Željko; Valter, Zdravko

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to show how to analyze and correctly chose measuring device specially applied on mass flow meter based on Coriolis principle. In the beginning short description of Coriolis based mass flow meter is given. Furthermore, comparison analysis of two flow meters shows where are the problems of wrongly applied method in slurry fluid measurement in production of powder detergents plant. Analysis is made using RS Logix 500 program. In given diagrams which show causes of wrong ...

  17. Cosmological and astrophysical neutrino mass measurements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abazajian, K.N.; Calabrese, E.; Cooray, A.;

    2011-01-01

    Cosmological and astrophysical measurements provide powerful constraints on neutrino masses complementary to those from accelerators and reactors. Here we provide a guide to these different probes, for each explaining its physical basis, underlying assumptions, current and future reach.......Cosmological and astrophysical measurements provide powerful constraints on neutrino masses complementary to those from accelerators and reactors. Here we provide a guide to these different probes, for each explaining its physical basis, underlying assumptions, current and future reach....

  18. Accurate nuclear masses from a three parameter Kohn-Sham DFT approach (BCPM)

    CERN Document Server

    Baldo, M; Schuck, P; Viñas, X

    2012-01-01

    Given the promising features of the recently proposed Barcelona-Catania-Paris (BCP) functional \\cite{Baldo.08}, it is the purpose of this paper to still improve on it. It is, for instance, shown that the number of open parameters can be reduced from 4-5 to 2-3, i.e. by practically a factor of two. One parameter is tightly fixed by a fine-tuning of the bulk, a second by the surface energy. The third is the strength of the spin-orbit potential on which the final result does not depend within the scatter of the values used in Skyrme and Gogny like functionals. An energy rms value of 1.58 MeV is obtained from a fit of these three parameters to the 579 measured masses reported in the Audi and Waspra 2003 compilation. This rms value compares favorably with the one obtained using other successful mean field theories. Charge radii are also well reproduced when compared with experiment. The energies of some excited states, mostly the isoscalar giant monopole resonances, are studied within this model as well.

  19. Physical consequences of the alpha/beta rule which accurately calculates particle masses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Using the fine structure constant α (=1/137.036), the proton vs. electron mass ratio β (= 1836.2) and the integers m and n, the α/β rule: mparticle = α-n x β m x 27.2 eV/c2 allows almost exact calculation of particle masses. (K.O.Greulich, DPG Spring meeting 2014, Mainz, T99.4) With n=2, m=0 the electron mass becomes 510.79 keV/c2 (experimental 511 keV/c2) With n=2, m=1 the proton mass is 937.9 MeV/c2 (literature 938.3 MeV/c2). For n=3 and m=1 a particle with 128.6 GeV/c2 close to the reported Higgs mass, is expected. For n=14 and m=-1 the Planck mass results. The calculated masses for gauge bosons and for quarks have similar accuracy. All masses fit into the same scheme (the alpha/beta rule), indicating that non of these particle masses play an extraordinary role. Particularly, the Higgs Boson, often termed the *God particle* plays in this sense no extraordinary role. In addition, particle masses are intimately correlated with the fine structure constant α. If particle masses have been constant over all times, α must have been constant over these times. In addition, the ionization energy of the hydrogen atom (13.6 eV) needs to have been constant if particle masses have been unchanged or vice versa. In conclusion, the α/β rule needs to be taken into account when cosmological models are developed.

  20. Physical consequences of the alpha/beta rule which accurately calculates particle masses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Greulich, Karl Otto [Fritz Lipmann Institute, Beutenbergstr.11, D07745 Jena (Germany)

    2015-07-01

    Using the fine structure constant α (=1/137.036), the proton vs. electron mass ratio β (= 1836.2) and the integers m and n, the α/β rule: m{sub particle} = α{sup -n} x β m x 27.2 eV/c{sup 2} allows almost exact calculation of particle masses. (K.O.Greulich, DPG Spring meeting 2014, Mainz, T99.4) With n=2, m=0 the electron mass becomes 510.79 keV/c{sup 2} (experimental 511 keV/c{sup 2}) With n=2, m=1 the proton mass is 937.9 MeV/c{sup 2} (literature 938.3 MeV/c{sup 2}). For n=3 and m=1 a particle with 128.6 GeV/c{sup 2} close to the reported Higgs mass, is expected. For n=14 and m=-1 the Planck mass results. The calculated masses for gauge bosons and for quarks have similar accuracy. All masses fit into the same scheme (the alpha/beta rule), indicating that non of these particle masses play an extraordinary role. Particularly, the Higgs Boson, often termed the *God particle* plays in this sense no extraordinary role. In addition, particle masses are intimately correlated with the fine structure constant α. If particle masses have been constant over all times, α must have been constant over these times. In addition, the ionization energy of the hydrogen atom (13.6 eV) needs to have been constant if particle masses have been unchanged or vice versa. In conclusion, the α/β rule needs to be taken into account when cosmological models are developed.

  1. Importance of Accurate Measurements in Nutrition Research: Dietary Flavonoids as a Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Accurate measurements of the secondary metabolites in natural products and plant foods are critical to establishing diet/health relationships. There are as many as 50,000 secondary metabolites which may influence human health. Their structural and chemical diversity present a challenge to analytic...

  2. An improved technique for accurate heat capacity measurements on powdered samples using a commercial relaxation calorimeter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: → We have previously published a method for accurate PPMS eat capacity measurements. → The older method had a significant grease problem above 250 K. → Here we publish new results using copper strips instead of grease to pot the sample. → The new method now requires on two measurements instead of four. - Abstract: We have modified our earlier technique for accurate PPMS heat capacity measurements on powdered samples by means of applying Wakefield grease or small copper strips in the sample preparation instead of using Apiezon N high-vacuum grease. For the Wakefield grease measurements, we put a small amount of Wakefield thermal compound in a copper cup instead of potting with Apiezon N, and the accuracy of measurements on powdered benzoic acid was determined to be ±1% and ±4% in the temperature ranges of 10 K -1 . mol-1, which deviates 0.08% and -0.08% from the measurement results of our low-temperature adiabatic and semi-adiabatic calorimeters, respectively. We recommend that this technique become the standard for accurate heat capacity measurements on insulating powdered samples using a PPMS system and the corresponding thermodynamic calculations.

  3. Polyphenol Identification Based on Systematic and Robust High-Resolution Accurate Mass Spectroscopy Fragmentation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hooft, van der J.J.J.; Vervoort, J.J.M.; Bino, R.J.; Beekwilder, M.J.; Vos, de R.C.H.

    2011-01-01

    High-mass resolution multi-stage mass spectrometry (MSn) fragmentation was tested for differentiation and identification of metabolites, using a series of 121 polyphenolic molecules. The MSn fragmentation approach is based on the systematic breakdown of compounds, forming a so-called spectral tree.

  4. Impact of Precision Mass Measurements on Nuclear Physics and Astrophysics

    CERN Document Server

    Kreim, Susanne; Dilling, Jens; Litvinov, Yuri A

    2013-01-01

    Among all nuclear ground-state properties, atomic masses are highly specific for each particular combination of neutron and proton number, N and Z, respectively. The data obtained through mass measurements provide details of the nuclear interaction and thus apply to a variety of physics topics. Some of the most crucial questions to be addressed by mass spectrometry of unstable radionuclides are, on the one hand, nuclear forces and structure, describing phenomena such as the so-called neutron-halos or the evolution of magic numbers when moving towards the borders of nuclear existence. On the other hand, the understanding of the processes of element formation in the Universe poses a challenge and requires an accurate knowledge of nuclear astrophysics. Here, precision atomic mass values of a large number of exotic nuclei participating in nucleosynthesis processes are among the key input data in large-scale reaction network calculations.

  5. Accurate measurement of neodymium isotopic composition using Neptune MC-ICP-MS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yueheng YANG; Hongfu ZHANG; Liewen XIE; Fuyuan WU

    2008-01-01

    This paper reports the measurement of the Neodymium isotopic composition by Neptune Multiple Collector Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry (MC-ICP-MS) over the last two years. Although there is concomitant Cerium in the chemical separation process, this has no significant influence on the Neodymium analysis. As for the sample containing small amounts of Samarium (Sm/Nd<0.04), direct calibration for isobaric interference and mass discrimina-tion by the exponential law can be obtained by assuming that Samarium mass discrimination is the same as that of Neodymium. Geological samples after traditional chemi-cal separation were measured by Neptune MC-ICP-MS and Thermal Ionization Mass Spectrometry (TIMS) respectively. The results show that Neptune MC-ICP-MS can measure Neodymium isotopic composition as precisely the TIMS does and is even more effective and less time-consuming than the TIMS Method.

  6. Ratio method of measuring W boson mass

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guo, Feng [Stony Brook Univ., NY (United States)

    2010-08-01

    This dissertation describes an alternative method of measuring the W boson mass in DØ experiment. Instead of extracting MW from the fitting of W → ev fast Monte Carlo simulations to W → ev data as in the standard method, we make the direct fit of transverse mass between W → ev data and Z → ee data. One of the two electrons from Z boson is treated as a neutrino in the calculation of transverse mass. In ratio method, the best fitted scale factor corresponds to the ratio of W and Z boson mass (MW/MZ). Given the precisely measured Z boson mass, W mass is directly fitted from W → ev and Z → ee data. This dissertation demonstrates that ratio method is a plausible method of measuring the W boson mass. With the 1 fb-1 DØ Run IIa dataset, ratio method gives MW = 80435 ± 43(stat) ± 26(sys) MeV.

  7. Evaluation of Modified Pycnometric Method for Accurately Measuring the Density of Molten Nickel

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XIAO Feng; FANG Liang; FU Yuechao; YANG Lingchuan

    2004-01-01

    A modified pycnometric method has been developed to obtain accurate densities of molten nickel.The new method allows continuous measurement of density over a wide temperature range from a single experiment.The measurement error of the method was analyzed, and the total uncertainty of the measurement was estimated to be within ±0.34%. The measured density of molten nickel decreases linearly with increasing temperature over a range from the melting point to 1873K. The density at the melting point and the thermal expansion coefficient of molten nickel are 7.90Mg·m-3 and 1.92×10-4 K-1,respectively.

  8. Development of a high accurate gear measuring machine based on laser interferometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Hu; Xue, Zi; Yang, Guoliang; Huang, Yao; Wang, Heyan

    2015-02-01

    Gear measuring machine is a specialized device for gear profile, helix or pitch measurement. The classic method for gear measurement and the conventional gear measuring machine are introduced. In this gear measuring machine, the Abbe errors arisen from the angle error of guideways hold a great weight in affection of profile measurement error. For minimize of the Abbe error, a laser measuring system is applied to develop a high accurate gear measuring machine. In this laser measuring system, two cube-corner reflectors are placed close to the tip of probe, a laser beam from laser head is splited along two paths, one is arranged tangent to the base circle of gear for the measurement of profile and pitch, another is arranged parallel to the gear axis for the measurement of helix, both laser measurement performed with a resolution of 0.3nm. This approach not only improves the accuracy of length measurement but minimize the Abbe offset directly. The configuration of this improved measuring machine is illustrated in detail. The measurements are performed automatically, and all the measurement signals from guide rails, rotary table, probe and laser measuring system are obtained synchronously. Software collects all the data for further calculation and evaluation. The first measurements for a gear involute artifact and a helix artifact are carried out, the results are shown and analyzed as well.

  9. Rapid and accurate U-Th dating of ancient carbonates using inductively coupled plasma-quadrupole mass spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Here, the potential for rapid and accurate U-Th dating technique of marine aragonite skeletons (deep-sea corals, Lophelia pertusa) and secondary calcite deposits (speleothems and stalagmites) has been explored using inductively coupled plasma-quadrupole mass spectrometry (ICP-QMS). The analytical procedure includes a largely simplified chemical separation technique for uranium (U) and thorium (Th) using UTEVA resin. The developed technique permits simultaneous quantification of uranium [238U] and thorium [232Th] concentrations and their respective isotopic composition, required for U-series disequilibrium dating. Up to 50 U-Th dates per day can be achieved through ICP-QMS with δ234U and δ230Th reproducibility (2 σ) of 3-4 parts per thousand and 1%, respectively. The high sensitivity (≥3.0 x 105 cps/ppb) together with low background (≤0.5 cps) on each mass between 228 and 236 amu allowed U-Th dating of ancient deep-water corals (15-260 kyr) and stalagmites (30-85 kyr) at precision levels of less than 2%. Consequently, the combination of simplified chemistry using UTEVA with state-of-the-art ICP-QMS isotopic measurements that do not require a U-Th separation step now provides an extremely rapid and low-cost U-series dating technology. The level of precision is most convenient for numerous geochronological applications, such as the determination of climatic influences on ecosystem development and carbonate precipitation. As a first-example application we present ICP-QMS U-Th dates of North Atlantic deep-water coral fragments retrieved in the southeastern Porcupine Seabight (MD01-2463G. Mound Therese), indicating a purely interglacial growth of deep-water corals on so-called carbonate mounds over several climate cycles. (authors)

  10. Rapid and Accurate U-Th Dating of Ancient Carbonates using Inductively Coupled Plasma-Quadrupole Mass Spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Douville, Eric; Sallé, Eline; Frank, Norbert; Eisele, Markus; Pons-Branchu, Edwige; Ayrault, Sophie

    2010-05-01

    Here, the potential for rapid and accurate U-Th dating technique of marine aragonite skeletons (deep-sea corals, Lophelia pertusa) and secondary calcite deposits (speleothems and stalagmites) has been explored using inductively-coupled plasma-quadrupole mass spectrometry (ICP-QMS). The analytical procedure includes a largely simplified chemical separation technique for uranium (U) and thorium (Th) using UTEVA resin. The developed technique permits simultaneous quantification of uranium [238U] and thorium [232Th] concentrations and their respective isotopic composition, required for U-series disequilibrium dating. Up to 50 U-Th dates per day can be achieved through ICP-QMS with 234U and 230Th reproducibility (2sigma) of 3-4 permil and 1 percent, respectively. The high sensitivity (> 300 000 cps/ppb) together with low background (<0.5 cps) on each mass between 228-236 amu allowed U-Th dating of ancient deep water corals (15-260 kyrs) and stalagmites (30-85 kyrs) at precision levels of less than 2%. Consequently, the combination of simplified chemistry using UTEVA with state-of-the-art ICP-QMS isotopic measurements that do not require a U-Th separation step now provides an extremely rapid and low-cost U-series dating technology. The level of precision is most convenient for numerous geochronological applications, such as the determination of climatic influences on ecosystem development and carbonate precipitation. As a first-example application we present ICP-QMS U-Th dates of North Atlantic deep-water coral fragments retrieved in the southeastern Porcupine Seabight (MD01-2463G, Mound Thérèse), indicating a purely interglacial growth of deep-water corals on so-called carbonate mounds over several climate cycles.

  11. Defining allowable physical property variations for high accurate measurements on polymer parts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammadi, A.; Sonne, M. R.; Madruga, D. G.; De Chiffre, L.; Hattel, J. H.

    2016-06-01

    Measurement conditions and material properties have a significant impact on the dimensions of a part, especially for polymers parts. Temperature variation causes part deformations that increase the uncertainty of the measurement process. Current industrial tolerances of a few micrometres demand high accurate measurements in non-controlled ambient. Most of polymer parts are manufactured by injection moulding and their inspection is carried out after stabilization, around 200 hours. The overall goal of this work is to reach ±5μm in uncertainty measurements a polymer products which is a challenge in today`s production and metrology environments. The residual deformations in polymer products at room temperature after injection molding are important when micrometer accuracy needs to be achieved. Numerical modelling can give a valuable insight to what is happening in the polymer during cooling down after injection molding. In order to obtain accurate simulations, accurate inputs to the model are crucial. In reality however, the material and physical properties will have some variations. Although these variations may be small, they can act as a source of uncertainty for the measurement. In this paper, we investigated how big the variation in material and physical properties are allowed in order to reach the 5 μm target on the uncertainty.

  12. Improved plant economics through accurate feedwater flow measurement with the crossflow ultrasonic flowmeter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The crossflow ultrasonic flowmeter (UFM) improves nuclear power plant performance through more accurate and reliable feedwater flow measurement. Reactor power levels are typically monitored via secondary-side calorimetric calculations that depend on the accurate measurement of feedwater flow . The feedwater flow is measured with calibrated venturis in most plants. These are subject to chemical fouling and other mechanical problems. If the loss in accuracy of the feedwater flow measurement overstates the actual flow rate, the result is a direct loss in megawatts generated by the plant. This paper describes a new, innovative ultrasonic technique to improve the accuracy, stability and repeatability of ultrasonic flow measurements. By employing this advanced technology to provide a continuous correction to the venturi-measured feed water flow rate, plants have reported the recovery of between 5 and 25 MWe. This technology has been implemented in a new flowmeter called CROSSFLOW. The CROSSFLOW meter utilizes a mathematical process called cross-correlation to process the ultrasonic signal, which is modulated by the flow eddys to determine the velocity of the feedwater. It replaces the older, less accurate transit-time methodology. Comparisons with weigh tank test, calibrated plant instrumentation, and chemical tracer tests have demonstrated a repeatable accuracy of 0.21% or better with this advanced cross-correlation technology. The paper discusses the history of the cross-correlation technique and its theoretical basis, illustrates how this technique addresses the measurement sensitivities for various parameters, demonstrates the calculation of the accuracy of the meter, and discusses the recently completed NRC review of the CROSSFLOW System and methodology. The paper also discusses recent precision flow measurement applications being performed with CROSSFLOW at nuclear plants worldwide. Among these applications are the measurement of Reactor Coolant System flow and the

  13. Measuring the running top-quark mass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We present the first direct determination of the running top-quark mass based on the total cross section of top-quark pair-production as measured at the Tevatron. Our theory prediction for the cross section includes various next-to-next-to-leading order QCD contributions, in particular all logarithmically enhanced terms near threshold, the Coulomb corrections at two loops and all explicitly scale dependent terms at NNLO accuracy. The result allows for an exact and independent variation of the renormalization and factorization scales. For Tevatron and LHC we study its dependence on all scales, on the parton luminosity and on the top-quark mass using both the conventional pole mass definition as well as the running mass in the MS scheme. We extract for the top-quark an MS mass of m(μ=m) =160.0+3.3-3.2 GeV. (orig.)

  14. Measuring the running top-quark mass

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Langenfeld, U.; Moch, S. [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Zeuthen (Germany); Uwer, P. [Berlin Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Physik

    2009-06-15

    We present the first direct determination of the running top-quark mass based on the total cross section of top-quark pair-production as measured at the Tevatron. Our theory prediction for the cross section includes various next-to-next-to-leading order QCD contributions, in particular all logarithmically enhanced terms near threshold, the Coulomb corrections at two loops and all explicitly scale dependent terms at NNLO accuracy. The result allows for an exact and independent variation of the renormalization and factorization scales. For Tevatron and LHC we study its dependence on all scales, on the parton luminosity and on the top-quark mass using both the conventional pole mass definition as well as the running mass in the MS scheme. We extract for the top-quark an MS mass of m({mu}=m) =160.0{sup +3.3}{sub -3.2} GeV. (orig.)

  15. Precision measurement of W mass at LHC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The W mass allows for a precise cross check of the Standard Model (SM), and its uncertainty is the limiting factor for sensitivity to the SM Higgs mass and what may lie beyond. A precise W mass measurement is feasible at the LHC due to large number of events, not only for W decays, but also corresponding Z decays, which will be the key ingredients for precision calibration and understanding of systematic errors. Using statistics corresponding to 10 fb-1 of data at the LHC, we have investigated strategies for improving the uncertainty on the mass measurement beyond 15 MeV, including both theoretical and experimental effects. No single source of uncertainty necessarily contribute more than 5 MeV to the overall uncertainty

  16. Precision measurement of W mass at LHC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Petersen, Troels C. [Building 40-3D-002, CERN, Geneva (Switzerland)

    2008-03-15

    The W mass allows for a precise cross check of the Standard Model (SM), and its uncertainty is the limiting factor for sensitivity to the SM Higgs mass and what may lie beyond. A precise W mass measurement is feasible at the LHC due to large number of events, not only for W decays, but also corresponding Z decays, which will be the key ingredients for precision calibration and understanding of systematic errors. Using statistics corresponding to 10 fb{sup -1} of data at the LHC, we have investigated strategies for improving the uncertainty on the mass measurement beyond 15 MeV, including both theoretical and experimental effects. No single source of uncertainty necessarily contribute more than 5 MeV to the overall uncertainty.

  17. A simple and accurate model for Love wave based sensors: Dispersion equation and mass sensitivity

    OpenAIRE

    Jiansheng Liu

    2014-01-01

    Dispersion equation is an important tool for analyzing propagation properties of acoustic waves in layered structures. For Love wave (LW) sensors, the dispersion equation with an isotropic-considered substrate is too rough to get accurate solutions; the full dispersion equation with a piezoelectric-considered substrate is too complicated to get simple and practical expressions for optimizing LW-based sensors. In this work, a dispersion equation is introduced for Love waves in a layered struct...

  18. A method to measure the axion mass

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carboni, G.

    1981-05-01

    We have calculated the decay rate of the triplet state of positronium into axion + gamma, under the hypothesis that the axion mass is less than 1 MeV. The branching ratio is found to be ~3 × 10-8. We describe a possible experiment that could detect the axion and measure its mass. On leave from Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nuclear, Sezione di Pisa, Pisa, Italy.

  19. Measurement of the W boson mass

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abazov, Victor Mukhamedovich; /Dubna, JINR; Abbott, Braden Keim; /Oklahoma U.; Abolins, Maris A.; /Michigan State U.; Acharya, Bannanje Sripath; /Tata Inst.; Adams, Mark Raymond; /Illinois U., Chicago; Adams, Todd; /Florida State U.; Aguilo, Ernest; /Alberta U. /Simon Fraser U. /York U., Canada /McGill U.; Ahsan, Mahsana; /Kansas State U.; Alexeev, Guennadi D.; /Dubna, JINR; Alkhazov, Georgiy D.; /St. Petersburg, INP; Alton, Andrew K.; /Michigan U. /Augustana Coll., Sioux Falls /Northeastern U.

    2009-08-01

    The authors present a measurement of the W boson mass in W {yields} e{nu} decays using 1 fb{sup -1} of data collected with the D0 detector during Run II of the Fermilab Tevatron collider. With a sample of 499830 W {yields} e{nu} candidate events, they measure M{sub W} = 80.401 {+-} 0.043 GeV. This is the most precise measurement from a single experiment.

  20. Progress Toward Accurate Measurements of Power Consumptions of DBD Plasma Actuators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashpis, David E.; Laun, Matthew C.; Griebeler, Elmer L.

    2012-01-01

    The accurate measurement of power consumption by Dielectric Barrier Discharge (DBD) plasma actuators is a challenge due to the characteristics of the actuator current signal. Micro-discharges generate high-amplitude, high-frequency current spike transients superimposed on a low-amplitude, low-frequency current. We have used a high-speed digital oscilloscope to measure the actuator power consumption using the Shunt Resistor method and the Monitor Capacitor method. The measurements were performed simultaneously and compared to each other in a time-accurate manner. It was found that low signal-to-noise ratios of the oscilloscopes used, in combination with the high dynamic range of the current spikes, make the Shunt Resistor method inaccurate. An innovative, nonlinear signal compression circuit was applied to the actuator current signal and yielded excellent agreement between the two methods. The paper describes the issues and challenges associated with performing accurate power measurements. It provides insights into the two methods including new insight into the Lissajous curve of the Monitor Capacitor method. Extension to a broad range of parameters and further development of the compression hardware will be performed in future work.

  1. Measurement of the W boson mass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We present a preliminary measurement of the W boson mass using data collected by the D null experiment at the Fermilab Tevatron during the 1994-1995 collider run 1b. We use W → eν decays to extract the W mass from the observed spectrum of transverse mass of the electron (|η| 0 → ee decays to constrain our model of the detector response. We measure mW/mZ = 0.8815 ± 0.0011(stat) ± 0.0014(syst) and mW = 80.38 ± 0.07 (W stat) ± 0.13(syst) GeV. Combining this result with our previous measurement from the 1992-1993 data, we obtain mW = 80.37 ± 0.15 GeV (errors combined in quadrature)

  2. Rapid and accurate broadband absorption cross-section measurement of human bodies in a reverberation chamber

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A measurement methodology for polarization and angle of incidence averaged electromagnetic absorption cross-section using a reverberation chamber is presented. The method is optimized for simultaneous rapid and accurate determination of average absorption cross-section over the frequency range 1–15 GHz, making it suitable for use in human absorption and exposure studies. The typical measurement time of the subject is about 8 min with a corresponding statistical uncertainty of about 3% in the measured absorption cross-section. The method is validated by comparing measurements on a spherical phantom with Mie series calculations. The efficacy of the method is demonstrated with measurements of the posture dependence of the absorption cross-section of a human subject and an investigation of the effects of clothing on the measured absorption which are important considerations for the practical design of experiments for studies on human subjects. (paper)

  3. Accurate potential drop sheet resistance measurements of laser-doped areas in semiconductors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heinrich, Martin, E-mail: mh.seris@gmail.com [Solar Energy Research Institute of Singapore, National University of Singapore, Singapore 117574 (Singapore); NUS Graduate School for Integrative Science and Engineering, National University of Singapore, Singapore 117456 (Singapore); Kluska, Sven; Binder, Sebastian [Fraunhofer Institute for Solar Energy Systems (ISE), Heidenhofstrasse 2, D-79110 Freiburg (Germany); Hameiri, Ziv [The School of Photovoltaic and Renewable Energy Engineering, The University of New South Wales, Sydney NSW 2052 (Australia); Hoex, Bram [Solar Energy Research Institute of Singapore, National University of Singapore, Singapore 117574 (Singapore); Aberle, Armin G. [Solar Energy Research Institute of Singapore, National University of Singapore, Singapore 117574 (Singapore); NUS Graduate School for Integrative Science and Engineering, National University of Singapore, Singapore 117456 (Singapore); Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, National University of Singapore, Singapore 117456 (Singapore)

    2014-10-07

    It is investigated how potential drop sheet resistance measurements of areas formed by laser-assisted doping in crystalline Si wafers are affected by typically occurring experimental factors like sample size, inhomogeneities, surface roughness, or coatings. Measurements are obtained with a collinear four point probe setup and a modified transfer length measurement setup to measure sheet resistances of laser-doped lines. Inhomogeneities in doping depth are observed from scanning electron microscope images and electron beam induced current measurements. It is observed that influences from sample size, inhomogeneities, surface roughness, and coatings can be neglected if certain preconditions are met. Guidelines are given on how to obtain accurate potential drop sheet resistance measurements on laser-doped regions.

  4. Accurate Estimation of Low Fundamental Frequencies from Real-Valued Measurements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Mads Græsbøll

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, the difficult problem of estimating low fundamental frequencies from real-valued measurements is addressed. The methods commonly employed do not take the phenomena encountered in this scenario into account and thus fail to deliver accurate estimates. The reason for this is that the......In this paper, the difficult problem of estimating low fundamental frequencies from real-valued measurements is addressed. The methods commonly employed do not take the phenomena encountered in this scenario into account and thus fail to deliver accurate estimates. The reason...... for this is that they employ asymptotic approximations that are violated when the harmonics are not well-separated in frequency, something that happens when the observed signal is real-valued and the fundamental frequency is low. To mitigate this, we analyze the problem and present some exact fundamental frequency estimators...

  5. Precise and accurate measurements of strong-field photoionisation and a transferrable laser intensity calibration standard

    CERN Document Server

    Wallace, W C; Khurmi, C; U., Satya Sainadh; Calvert, J E; Laban, D E; Pullen, M G; Bartschat, K; Grum-Grzhimailo, A N; Wells, D; Quiney, H M; Tong, X M; Litvinyuk, I V; Sang, R T; Kielpinski, D

    2016-01-01

    Ionization of atoms and molecules in strong laser fields is a fundamental process in many fields of research, especially in the emerging field of attosecond science. So far, demonstrably accurate data have only been acquired for atomic hydrogen (H), a species that is accessible to few investigators. Here we present measurements of the ionization yield for argon, krypton, and xenon with percentlevel accuracy, calibrated using H, in a laser regime widely used in attosecond science. We derive a transferrable calibration standard for laser peak intensity, accurate to 1.3%, that is based on a simple reference curve. In addition, our measurements provide a much-needed benchmark for testing models of ionisation in noble-gas atoms, such as the widely employed single-active electron approximation.

  6. Accurate FRET Measurements within Single Diffusing Biomolecules Using Alternating-Laser Excitation

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Nam Ki; Kapanidis, Achillefs N.; Wang, You; Michalet, Xavier; Mukhopadhyay, Jayanta; Ebright, Richard H.; Weiss, Shimon

    2005-01-01

    Fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) between a donor (D) and an acceptor (A) at the single-molecule level currently provides qualitative information about distance, and quantitative information about kinetics of distance changes. Here, we used the sorting ability of confocal microscopy equipped with alternating-laser excitation (ALEX) to measure accurate FRET efficiencies and distances from single molecules, using corrections that account for cross-talk terms that contaminate the FRE...

  7. A Novel Multimode Waveguide Coupler for Accurate Power Measurement of Traveling Wave Tube Harmonic Frequencies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wintucky, Edwin G.; Simons, Rainee N.

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents the design, fabrication and test results for a novel waveguide multimode directional coupler (MDC). The coupler fabricated from two dissimilar waveguides is capable of isolating the power at the second harmonic frequency from the fundamental power at the output port of a traveling-wave tube (TWT). In addition to accurate power measurements at harmonic frequencies, a potential application of the MDC is in the design of a beacon source for atmospheric propagation studies at millimeter-wave frequencies.

  8. Precision measurement of $D$ meson mass differences

    CERN Document Server

    Aaij, R; Adeva, B; Adinolfi, M; Adrover, C; Affolder, A; Ajaltouni, Z; Albrecht, J; Alessio, F; Alexander, M; Ali, S; Alkhazov, G; Alvarez Cartelle, P; Alves Jr, A A; Amato, S; Amerio, S; Amhis, Y; Anderlini, L; Anderson, J; Andreassen, R; Appleby, R B; Aquines Gutierrez, O; Archilli, F; Artamonov, A; Artuso, M; Aslanides, E; Auriemma, G; Bachmann, S; Back, J J; Baesso, C; Balagura, V; Baldini, W; Barlow, R J; Barschel, C; Barsuk, S; Barter, W; Bauer, Th; Bay, A; Beddow, J; Bedeschi, F; Bediaga, I; Belogurov, S; Belous, K; Belyaev, I; Ben-Haim, E; Benayoun, M; Bencivenni, G; Benson, S; Benton, J; Berezhnoy, A; Bernet, R; Bettler, M -O; van Beuzekom, M; Bien, A; Bifani, S; Bird, T; Bizzeti, A; Bjørnstad, P M; Blake, T; Blanc, F; Blouw, J; Blusk, S; Bocci, V; Bondar, A; Bondar, N; Bonivento, W; Borghi, S; Borgia, A; Bowcock, T J V; Bowen, E; Bozzi, C; Brambach, T; van den Brand, J; Bressieux, J; Brett, D; Britsch, M; Britton, T; Brook, N H; Brown, H; Burducea, I; Bursche, A; Busetto, G; Buytaert, J; Cadeddu, S; Callot, O; Calvi, M; Calvo Gomez, M; Camboni, A; Campana, P; Campora Perez, D; Carbone, A; Carboni, G; Cardinale, R; Cardini, A; Carranza-Mejia, H; Carson, L; Carvalho Akiba, K; Casse, G; Cattaneo, M; Cauet, Ch; Charles, M; Charpentier, Ph; Chen, P; Chiapolini, N; Chrzaszcz, M; Ciba, K; Cid Vidal, X; Ciezarek, G; Clarke, P E L; Clemencic, M; Cliff, H V; Closier, J; Coca, C; Coco, V; Cogan, J; Cogneras, E; Collins, P; Comerma-Montells, A; Contu, A; Cook, A; Coombes, M; Coquereau, S; Corti, G; Couturier, B; Cowan, G A; Craik, D C; Cunliffe, S; Currie, R; D'Ambrosio, C; David, P; David, P N Y; Davis, A; De Bonis, I; De Bruyn, K; De Capua, S; De Cian, M; De Miranda, J M; De Paula, L; De Silva, W; De Simone, P; Decamp, D; Deckenhoff, M; Del Buono, L; Derkach, D; Deschamps, O; Dettori, F; Di Canto, A; Dijkstra, H; Dogaru, M; Donleavy, S; Dordei, F; Dosil Suárez, A; Dossett, D; Dovbnya, A; Dupertuis, F; Dzhelyadin, R; Dziurda, A; Dzyuba, A; Easo, S; Egede, U; Egorychev, V; Eidelman, S; van Eijk, D; Eisenhardt, S; Eitschberger, U; Ekelhof, R; Eklund, L; El Rifai, I; Elsasser, Ch; Elsby, D; Falabella, A; Färber, C; Fardell, G; Farinelli, C; Farry, S; Fave, V; Ferguson, D; Fernandez Albor, V; Ferreira Rodrigues, F; Ferro-Luzzi, M; Filippov, S; Fiore, M; Fitzpatrick, C; Fontana, M; Fontanelli, F; Forty, R; Francisco, O; Frank, M; Frei, C; Frosini, M; Furcas, S; Furfaro, E; Gallas Torreira, A; Galli, D; Gandelman, M; Gandini, P; Gao, Y; Garofoli, J; Garosi, P; Garra Tico, J; Garrido, L; Gaspar, C; Gauld, R; Gersabeck, E; Gersabeck, M; Gershon, T; Ghez, Ph; Gibson, V; Gligorov, V V; Göbel, C; Golubkov, D; Golutvin, A; Gomes, A; Gordon, H; Grabalosa Gándara, M; Graciani Diaz, R; Granado Cardoso, L A; Graugés, E; Graziani, G; Grecu, A; Greening, E; Gregson, S; Grünberg, O; Gui, B; Gushchin, E; Guz, Yu; Gys, T; Hadjivasiliou, C; Haefeli, G; Haen, C; Haines, S C; Hall, S; Hampson, T; Hansmann-Menzemer, S; Harnew, N; Harnew, S T; Harrison, J; Hartmann, T; He, J; Heijne, V; Hennessy, K; Henrard, P; Hernando Morata, J A; van Herwijnen, E; Hicks, E; Hill, D; Hoballah, M; Hombach, C; Hopchev, P; Hulsbergen, W; Hunt, P; Huse, T; Hussain, N; Hutchcroft, D; Hynds, D; Iakovenko, V; Idzik, M; Ilten, P; Jacobsson, R; Jaeger, A; Jans, E; Jaton, P; Jing, F; John, M; Johnson, D; Jones, C R; Jost, B; Kaballo, M; Kandybei, S; Karacson, M; Karbach, T M; Kenyon, I R; Kerzel, U; Ketel, T; Keune, A; Khanji, B; Kochebina, O; Komarov, I; Koopman, R F; Koppenburg, P; Korolev, M; Kozlinskiy, A; Kravchuk, L; Kreplin, K; Kreps, M; Krocker, G; Krokovny, P; Kruse, F; Kucharczyk, M; Kudryavtsev, V; Kvaratskheliya, T; La Thi, V N; Lacarrere, D; Lafferty, G; Lai, A; Lambert, D; Lambert, R W; Lanciotti, E; Lanfranchi, G; Langenbruch, C; Latham, T; Lazzeroni, C; Le Gac, R; van Leerdam, J; Lees, J -P; Lefèvre, R; Leflat, A; Lefrançois, J; Leo, S; Leroy, O; Lesiak, T; Leverington, B; Li, Y; Li Gioi, L; Liles, M; Lindner, R; Linn, C; Liu, B; Liu, G; Lohn, S; Longstaff, I; Lopes, J H; Lopez Asamar, E; Lopez-March, N; Lu, H; Lucchesi, D; Luisier, J; Luo, H; Machefert, F; Machikhiliyan, I V; Maciuc, F; Maev, O; Malde, S; Manca, G; Mancinelli, G; Marconi, U; Märki, R; Marks, J; Martellotti, G; Martens, A; Martin, L; Martín Sánchez, A; Martinelli, M; Martinez Santos, D; Martins Tostes, D; Massafferri, A; Matev, R; Mathe, Z; Matteuzzi, C; Maurice, E; Mazurov, A; McCarthy, J; McNab, A; McNulty, R; Meadows, B; Meier, F; Meissner, M; Merk, M; Milanes, D A; Minard, M -N; Molina Rodriguez, J; Monteil, S; Moran, D; Morawski, P; Morello, M J; Mountain, R; Mous, I; Muheim, F; Müller, K; Muresan, R; Muryn, B; Muster, B; Naik, P; Nakada, T; Nandakumar, R; Nasteva, I; Needham, M; Neufeld, N; Nguyen, A D; Nguyen, T D; Nguyen-Mau, C; Nicol, M; Niess, V; Niet, R; Nikitin, N; Nikodem, T; Nomerotski, A; Novoselov, A; Oblakowska-Mucha, A; Obraztsov, V; Oggero, S; Ogilvy, S; Okhrimenko, O; Oldeman, R; Orlandea, M; Otalora Goicochea, J M; Owen, P; Oyanguren, A; Pal, B K; Palano, A; Palutan, M; Panman, J; Papanestis, A; Pappagallo, M; Parkes, C; Parkinson, C J; Passaleva, G; Patel, G D; Patel, M; Patrick, G N; Patrignani, C; Pavel-Nicorescu, C; Pazos Alvarez, A; Pellegrino, A; Penso, G; Pepe Altarelli, M; Perazzini, S; Perego, D L; Perez Trigo, E; Pérez-Calero Yzquierdo, A; Perret, P; Perrin-Terrin, M; Pessina, G; Petridis, K; Petrolini, A; Phan, A; Picatoste Olloqui, E; Pietrzyk, B; Pilař, T; Pinci, D; Playfer, S; Plo Casasus, M; Polci, F; Polok, G; Poluektov, A; Polycarpo, E; Popov, D; Popovici, B; Potterat, C; Powell, A; Prisciandaro, J; Pugatch, V; Puig Navarro, A; Punzi, G; Qian, W; Rademacker, J H; Rakotomiaramanana, B; Rangel, M S; Raniuk, I; Rauschmayr, N; Raven, G; Redford, S; Reid, M M; dos Reis, A C; Ricciardi, S; Richards, A; Rinnert, K; Rives Molina, V; Roa Romero, D A; Robbe, P; Rodrigues, E; Rodriguez Perez, P; Roiser, S; Romanovsky, V; Romero Vidal, A; Rouvinet, J; Ruf, T; Ruffini, F; Ruiz, H; Ruiz Valls, P; Sabatino, G; Saborido Silva, J J; Sagidova, N; Sail, P; Saitta, B; Salzmann, C; Sanmartin Sedes, B; Sannino, M; Santacesaria, R; Santamarina Rios, C; Santovetti, E; Sapunov, M; Sarti, A; Satriano, C; Satta, A; Savrie, M; Savrina, D; Schaack, P; Schiller, M; Schindler, H; Schlupp, M; Schmelling, M; Schmidt, B; Schneider, O; Schopper, A; Schune, M -H; Schwemmer, R; Sciascia, B; Sciubba, A; Seco, M; Semennikov, A; Senderowska, K; Sepp, I; Serra, N; Serrano, J; Seyfert, P; Shapkin, M; Shapoval, I; Shatalov, P; Shcheglov, Y; Shears, T; Shekhtman, L; Shevchenko, O; Shevchenko, V; Shires, A; Silva Coutinho, R; Skwarnicki, T; Smith, N A; Smith, E; Smith, M; Sokoloff, M D; Soler, F J P; Soomro, F; Souza, D; Souza De Paula, B; Spaan, B; Sparkes, A; Spradlin, P; Stagni, F; Stahl, S; Steinkamp, O; Stoica, S; Stone, S; Storaci, B; Straticiuc, M; Straumann, U; Subbiah, V K; Swientek, S; Syropoulos, V; Szczekowski, M; Szczypka, P; Szumlak, T; T'Jampens, S; Teklishyn, M; Teodorescu, E; Teubert, F; Thomas, C; Thomas, E; van Tilburg, J; Tisserand, V; Tobin, M; Tolk, S; Tonelli, D; Topp-Joergensen, S; Torr, N; Tournefier, E; Tourneur, S; Tran, M T; Tresch, M; Tsaregorodtsev, A; Tsopelas, P; Tuning, N; Ubeda Garcia, M; Ukleja, A; Urner, D; Uwer, U; Vagnoni, V; Valenti, G; Vazquez Gomez, R; Vazquez Regueiro, P; Vecchi, S; Velthuis, J J; Veltri, M; Veneziano, G; Vesterinen, M; Viaud, B; Vieira, D; Vilasis-Cardona, X; Vollhardt, A; Volyanskyy, D; Voong, D; Vorobyev, A; Vorobyev, V; Voß, C; Voss, H; Waldi, R; Wallace, R; Wandernoth, S; Wang, J; Ward, D R; Watson, N K; Webber, A D; Websdale, D; Whitehead, M; Wicht, J; Wiechczynski, J; Wiedner, D; Wiggers, L; Wilkinson, G; Williams, M P; Williams, M; Wilson, F F; Wishahi, J; Witek, M; Wotton, S A; Wright, S; Wu, S; Wyllie, K; Xie, Y; Xing, F; Xing, Z; Yang, Z; Young, R; Yuan, X; Yushchenko, O; Zangoli, M; Zavertyaev, M; Zhang, F; Zhang, L; Zhang, W C; Zhang, Y; Zhelezov, A; Zhokhov, A; Zhong, L; Zvyagin, A

    2013-01-01

    Using three- and four-body decays of $D$ mesons produced in semileptonic $b$-hadron decays, precision measurements of $D$ meson mass differences are made together with a measurement of the $D^{0}$ mass. The measurements are based on a dataset corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 1.0 fb$^{-1}$ collected in $pp$ collisions at 7~TeV. Using the decay $D^0 \\rightarrow K^{+} K^{-} K^{-} \\pi^{+}$, the $D^0$ mass is measured to be \\begin{alignat*}{3} M(D^0) \\phantom{ghd} &=&~1864.75 \\pm 0.15 \\,({\\rm stat}) \\pm 0.11 \\,({\\rm syst}) \\, \\textrm{MeV}/c^2. \\end{alignat*} The mass differences \\begin{alignat*}{3} M(D^{+}) - M(D^{0}) &=& 4.76 \\pm 0.12 \\,({\\rm stat}) \\pm 0.07 \\,({\\rm syst}) \\, \\textrm{MeV}/c^2, \\\\ M(D^{+}_s) - M(D^{+}) &=& \\phantom{00}98.68 \\pm 0.03 \\,({\\rm stat}) \\pm 0.04 \\,({\\rm syst}) \\, \\textrm{MeV}/c^2 \\end{alignat*} are measured using the $D^0 \\rightarrow K^{+} K^{-} \\pi^{+} \\pi^{-}$ and $D^{+}_{(s)} \\rightarrow K^{+}K^{-} \\pi^{+}$ modes.

  9. Intravital spectral imaging as a tool for accurate measurement of vascularization in mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tsatsanis Christos

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Quantitative determination of the development of new blood vessels is crucial for our understanding of the progression of several diseases, including cancer. However, in most cases a high throughput technique that is simple, accurate, user-independent and cost-effective for small animal imaging is not available. Methods In this work we present a simple approach based on spectral imaging to increase the contrast between vessels and surrounding tissue, enabling accurate determination of the blood vessel area. This approach is put to test with a 4T1 breast cancer murine in vivo model and validated with histological and microvessel density analysis. Results We found that one can accurately measure the vascularization area by using excitation/emission filter pairs which enhance the surrounding tissue's autofluorescence, significantly increasing the contrast between surrounding tissue and blood vessels. Additionally, we found excellent correlation between this technique and histological and microvessel density analysis. Conclusions Making use of spectral imaging techniques we have shown that it is possible to accurately determine blood vessel volume intra-vitally. We believe that due to the low cost, accuracy, user-independence and simplicity of this technique, it will be of great value in those cases where in vivo quantitative information is necessary.

  10. Measurement of $b$-hadron masses

    CERN Document Server

    Aaij, R; Adeva, B; Adinolfi, M; Adrover, C; Affolder, A; Ajaltouni, Z; Albrecht, J; Alessio, F; Alexander, M; Alkhazov, G; Alvarez Cartelle, P; Alves, A A; Amato, S; Amhis, Y; Anderson, J; Appleby, R B; Aquines Gutierrez, O; Archilli, F; Arrabito, L; Artamonov, A; Artuso, M; Aslanides, E; Auriemma, G; Bachmann, S; Back, J J; Bailey, D S; Balagura, V; Baldini, W; Barlow, R J; Barschel, C; Barsuk, S; Barter, W; Bates, A; Bauer, C; Bauer, Th; Bay, A; Bediaga, I; Belogurov, S; Belous, K; Belyaev, I; Ben-Haim, E; Benayoun, M; Bencivenni, G; Benson, S; Benton, J; Bernet, R; Bettler, M-O; van Beuzekom, M; Bien, A; Bifani, S; Bird, T; Bizzeti, A; Bjørnstad, P M; Blake, T; Blanc, F; Blanks, C; Blouw, J; Blusk, S; Bobrov, A; Bocci, V; Bondar, A; Bondar, N; Bonivento, W; Borghi, S; Borgia, A; Bowcock, T J V; Bozzi, C; Brambach, T; van den Brand, J; Bressieux, J; Brett, D; Britsch, M; Britton, T; Brook, N H; Büchler-Germann, A; Burducea, I; Bursche, A; Buytaert, J; Cadeddu, S; Callot, O; Calvi, M; Calvo Gomez, M; Camboni, A; Campana, P; Carbone, A; Carboni, G; Cardinale, R; Cardini, A; Carson, L; Carvalho Akiba, K; Casse, G; Cattaneo, M; Cauet, Ch; Charles, M; Charpentier, Ph; Chiapolini, N; Ciba, K; Cid Vidal, X; Ciezarek, G; Clarke, P E L; Clemencic, M; Cliff, H V; Closier, J; Coca, C; Coco, V; Cogan, J; Collins, P; Comerma-Montells, A; Constantin, F; Contu, A; Cook, A; Coombes, M; Corti, G; Cowan, G A; Currie, R; D'Ambrosio, C; David, P; David, P N Y; De Bonis, I; De Capua, S; De Cian, M; De Lorenzi, F; De Miranda, J M; De Paula, L; De Simone, P; Decamp, D; Deckenhoff, M; Degaudenzi, H; Del Buono, L; Deplano, C; Derkach, D; Deschamps, O; Dettori, F; Dickens, J; Dijkstra, H; Diniz Batista, P; Domingo Bonal, F; Donleavy, S; Dordei, F; Dosil Suárez, A; Dossett, D; Dovbnya, A; Dupertuis, F; Dzhelyadin, R; Dziurda, A; Easo, S; Egede, U; Egorychev, V; Eidelman, S; van Eijk, D; Eisele, F; Eisenhardt, S; Ekelhof, R; Eklund, L; Elsasser, Ch; Elsby, D; Esperante Pereira, D; Estève, L; Falabella, A; Fanchini, E; Färber, C; Fardell, G; Farinelli, C; Farry, S; Fave, V; Fernandez Albor, V; Ferro-Luzzi, M; Filippov, S; Fitzpatrick, C; Fontana, M; Fontanelli, F; Forty, R; Frank, M; Frei, C; Frosini, M; Furcas, S; Gallas Torreira, A; Galli, D; Gandelman, M; Gandini, P; Gao, Y; Garnier, J-C; Garofoli, J; Garra Tico, J; Garrido, L; Gascon, D; Gaspar, C; Gauvin, N; Gersabeck, M; Gershon, T; Ghez, Ph; Gibson, V; Gligorov, V V; Göbel, C; Golubkov, D; Golutvin, A; Gomes, A; Gordon, H; Grabalosa Gándara, M; Gracianiv Diaz, R; Granado Cardoso, L A; Graugés, E; Graziani, G; Grecu, A; Greening, E; Gregson, S; Gui, B; Gushchin, E; Guz, Yu; Gys, T; Haefeli, G; Haen, C; Haines, S C; Hampson, T; Hansmann-Menzemer, S; Harji, R; Harnew, N; Harrison, J; Harrison, P F; Hartmann, T; He, J; Heijne, V; Hennessy, K; Henrard, P; Hernando Morata, J A; van Herwijnen, E; Hicks, E; Holubyev, K; Hopchev, P; Hulsbergen, W; Hunt, P; Huse, T; Huston, R S; Hutchcroft, D; Hynds, D; Iakovenko, V; Ilten, P; Imong, J; Jacobsson, R; Jaeger, A; Jahjah Hussein, M; Jans, E; Jansen, F; Jaton, P; Jean-Marie, B; Jing, F; John, M; Johnson, D; Jones, C R; Jost, B; Kaballo, M; Kandybei, S; Karacson, M; Karbach, T M; Keaveney, J; Kenyon, I R; Kerzel, U; Ketel, T; Keune, A; Khanji, B; Kim, Y M; Knecht, M; Kozlinskiy, A; Kravchuk, L; Kreplin, K; Kreps, M; Krocker, G; Krokovny, P; Kruse, F; Kruzelecki, K; Kucharczyk, M; Kvaratskheliya, T; La Thi, V N; Lacarrere, D; Lafferty, G; Lai, A; Lambert, D; Lambert, R W; Lanciotti, E; Lanfranchi, G; Langenbruch, C; Latham, T; Lazzeroni, C; Le Gac, R; van Leerdam, J; Lees, J-P; Lefèvre, R; Leflat, A; Lefrançois, J; Leroy, O; Lesiak, T; Li, L; Li Gioi, L; Lieng, M; Liles, M; Lindner, R; Linn, C; Liu, B; Liu, G; von Loeben, J; Lopes, J H; Lopez Asamar, E; Lopez-March, N; Lu, H; Luisier, J; Mac Raighne, A; Machefert, F; Machikhiliyan, I V; Maciuc, F; Maev, O; Magnin, J; Malde, S; Mamunur, R M D; Manca, G; Mancinelli, G; Mangiafave, N; Marconi, U; Märki, R; Marks, J; Martellotti, G; Martens, A; Martin, L; Martín Sánchez, A; Martinez Santos, D; Massafferri, A; Mathe, Z; Matteuzzi, C; Matveev, M; Maurice, E; Maynard, B; Mazurov, A; McGregor, G; McNulty, R; Meissner, M; Merk, M; Merkel, J; Messi, R; Miglioranzi, S; Milanes, D A; Minard, M-N; Molina Rodriguez, J; Monteil, S; Moran, D; Morawski, P; Mountain, R; Mous, I; Muheim, F; Müller, K; Muresan, R; Muryn, B; Muster, B; Musy, M; Mylroie-Smith, J; Naik, P; Nakada, T; Nandakumar, R; Nasteva, I; Nedos, M; Needham, M; Neufeld, N; Nguyen-Mau, C; Nicol, M; Niess, V; Nikitin, N; Nomerotski, A; Novoselov, A; Oblakowska-Mucha, A; Obraztsov, V; Oggero, S; Ogilvy, S; Okhrimenko, O; Oldeman, R; Orlandea, M; Otalora Goicochea, J M; Owen, P; Pal, K; Palacios, J; Palano, A; Palutan, M; Panman, J; Papanestis, A; Pappagallo, M; Parkes, C; Parkinson, C J; Passaleva, G

    2012-01-01

    Measurements of $b$-hadron masses are performed with the exclusive decay modes $B^+\\to J/\\psi K^+$, $B^0 \\to J/\\psi K^{*0}$, $B^0 \\to J/\\psi K^0_{\\rm S}$, $B_s^0 \\to J/\\psi\\phi$ and $\\Lambda^0_b\\to J/\\psi\\Lambda$ using an integrated luminosity of 35 pb$^{-1}$ collected in $pp$ collisions at a centre-of-mass energy of 7 TeV by the LHCb experiment. The momentum scale is calibrated with $J/\\psi \\to \\mu^+\\mu^-$ decays and verified to be known to a relative precision of $2 \\times 10^{-4}$ using other two-body decays. The results are more precise than previous measurements, particularly in the case of the $B^0_s$ and $\\Lambda^0_b$ masses.

  11. In Pursuit of Highly Accurate Atomic Lifetime Measurements of Multiply Charged Ions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trabert, E

    2009-06-01

    Accurate atomic lifetime data are useful for terrestrial and astrophysical plasma diagnostics. At accuracies higher than those required for these applications, lifetime measurements test atomic structure theory in ways complementary to spectroscopic energy determinations. At the highest level of accuracy, the question arises whether such tests reach the limits of modern theory, a combination of quantum mechanics and QED, adn possibly point to physics beyond the Standard Model. If high-precision atomic lifetime measurements, especially on multiply charged ions, have not quite reached this high accuracy yet, then what is necessary to attain this goal?

  12. Measurement of caudate nucleus area - a more accurate measurement for Huntington's disease?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Caudate nucleus atrophy occurs in Huntington's disease and methods of measuring this have been described using axial CT, but these are indirect and lack sensitivity. We measured caudate nucleus area (blind to the subjects' clinical state) in 30 subjects with or at risk of Huntington's disease, and in 100 normal age matched controls. Fifteen subjects with established symptomatic Huntington's disease, 3 with early symptoms, and 3 presymptomatic subjects (2 showing a high probability for the Huntington's disease gene on genetic testing, and one who has since developed symptoms) were correctly identified. Three normal (gene negative) family members were also correctly identified. Outcome is awaited in 6. CT caudate area measurement is simple and reproducible and we have found it to be a useful confirmatory test for Huntington's disease. (orig.)

  13. Mass measurements and superallowed beta decay

    CERN Document Server

    Hardy, J C; Towner, I S

    2005-01-01

    A recent Penning-trap measurement of the masses of 46V and 46Ti leads to a Qec value that disagrees significantly with the previously accepted value, and destroys overall consistency among the nine most precisely characterized T=1 superallowed beta emitters. This raises the possibility of a systematic discrepancy between Penning-trap measurements and the reaction-based measurements upon which the Qec values depended in the past. We carefully re-analyze (n,gamma) and (p,gamma) reaction measurements in the 24 \\leq A \\leq 28 mass region, and compare the results to very precise Penning-trap measurements of the stable nuclei 24Mg, 26Mg and 28Si. We thus determine upper limits to possible systematic effects in the reaction results, and go on to establish limits for the mass of radioactive 26Al, to which future on-line Penning-trap measurements can be compared. We stress the urgency of identifying or ruling-out possible systematic effects.

  14. Improved dynamic compensation for accurate cutting force measurements in milling applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scippa, A.; Sallese, L.; Grossi, N.; Campatelli, G.

    2015-03-01

    Accurate cutting-force measurements appear to be the key information in most of the machining related studies as they are fundamental in understanding the cutting processes, optimizing the cutting operations and evaluating the presence of instabilities that could affect the effectiveness of cutting processes. A variety of specifically designed transducers are commercially available nowadays and many different approaches in measuring cutting forces are presented in literature. The available transducers, though, express some limitations since they are conditioned by the vibration of the surrounding system and by the transducer's natural frequency. These parameters can drastically affect the measurement accuracy in some cases; hence an effective and accurate tool is required to compensate those dynamically induced errors in cutting force measurements. This work is aimed at developing and testing a compensation technique based on Kalman filter estimator. Two different approaches named "band-fitting" and "parallel elaboration" methods, have been developed to extend applications of this compensation technique, especially for milling purpose. The compensation filter has been designed upon the experimentally identified system's dynamic and its accuracy and effectiveness has been evaluated by numerical and experimental tests. Finally its specific application in cutting force measurements compensation is described.

  15. No Galaxy Left Behind: Accurate Measurements with the Faintest Objects in the Dark Energy Survey

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suchyta, E. [The Ohio State Univ., Columbus, OH (United States). et al.

    2015-07-29

    Accurate statistical measurement with large imaging surveys has traditionally required throwing away a sizable fraction of the data. This is because most measurements have have relied on selecting nearly complete samples, where variations in the composition of the galaxy population with seeing, depth, or other survey characteristics are small. We introduce a new measurement method that aims to minimize this wastage, allowing precision measurement for any class of stars or galaxies detectable in an imaging survey. We have implemented our proposal in Balrog, a software package which embeds fake objects in real imaging in order to accurately characterize measurement biases. We also demonstrate this technique with an angular clustering measurement using Dark Energy Survey (DES) data. We first show that recovery of our injected galaxies depends on a wide variety of survey characteristics in the same way as the real data. We then construct a flux-limited sample of the faintest galaxies in DES, chosen specifically for their sensitivity to depth and seeing variations. Using the synthetic galaxies as randoms in the standard LandySzalay correlation function estimator suppresses the effects of variable survey selection by at least two orders of magnitude. Now our measured angular clustering is found to be in excellent agreement with that of a matched sample drawn from much deeper, higherresolution space-based COSMOS imaging; over angular scales of 0.004° < θ < 0.2 ° , we find a best-fit scaling amplitude between the DES and COSMOS measurements of 1.00 ± 0.09. We expect this methodology to be broadly useful for extending the statistical reach of measurements in a wide variety of coming imaging surveys.

  16. Measuring accurately liquid and tissue surface tension with a compression plate tensiometer

    CERN Document Server

    Mgharbel, Abbas; Rieu, Jean-Paul

    2009-01-01

    Apparent tissue surface tension allows the quantification of cell-cell cohesion and was reported to be a powerful indicator for the cellular rearrangements that take place during embryonic development or for cancer progression. The measurement is realized with a parallel compression plate tensiometer using the capillary laws. Although it was introduced more than a decade ago, it is based on various geometrical or physical approximations. Surprisingly, these approximations have never been tested. Using a novel tensiometer, we compare the two currently used methods to measure tissue surface tension and propose a third one, based on a local polynomial fit (LPF) of the profile of compressed droplets or cell aggregates. We show the importance of measuring the contact angle between the plate and the drop/aggregate to obtain real accurate measurement of surface tension when applying existing methods. We can suspect that many reported values of surface tension are greatly affected because of not handling this paramet...

  17. Stellar mass-to-light ratios from galaxy spectra: how accurate can they be?

    CERN Document Server

    Gallazzi, Anna

    2009-01-01

    Stellar masses play a crucial role in the exploration of galaxy properties and the evolution of the galaxy population. In this paper, we explore the minimum possible uncertainties in stellar mass-to-light (M/L) ratios from the assumed star formation history (SFH) and metallicity distribution, with the goals of providing a minimum set of requirements for observational studies. We use a large Monte Carlo library of SFHs to study as a function of galaxy spectral type and signal-to-noise ratio (S/N) the statistical uncertainties of M/L values using either absorption-line data or broad band colors. The accuracy of M/L estimates can be significantly improved by using metal-sensitive indices in combination with age-sensitive indices, in particular for galaxies with intermediate-age or young stellar populations. While M/L accuracy clearly depends on the spectral S/N ratio, there is no significant gain in improving the S/N much above 50/pix and limiting uncertainties of 0.03 dex are reached. Assuming that dust is accu...

  18. Dynamic Bayesian Network for Accurate Detection of Peptides from Tandem Mass Spectra.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halloran, John T; Bilmes, Jeff A; Noble, William S

    2016-08-01

    A central problem in mass spectrometry analysis involves identifying, for each observed tandem mass spectrum, the corresponding generating peptide. We present a dynamic Bayesian network (DBN) toolkit that addresses this problem by using a machine learning approach. At the heart of this toolkit is a DBN for Rapid Identification (DRIP), which can be trained from collections of high-confidence peptide-spectrum matches (PSMs). DRIP's score function considers fragment ion matches using Gaussians rather than fixed fragment-ion tolerances and also finds the optimal alignment between the theoretical and observed spectrum by considering all possible alignments, up to a threshold that is controlled using a beam-pruning algorithm. This function not only yields state-of-the art database search accuracy but also can be used to generate features that significantly boost the performance of the Percolator postprocessor. The DRIP software is built upon a general purpose DBN toolkit (GMTK), thereby allowing a wide variety of options for user-specific inference tasks as well as facilitating easy modifications to the DRIP model in future work. DRIP is implemented in Python and C++ and is available under Apache license at http://melodi-lab.github.io/dripToolkit . PMID:27397138

  19. A measurement of the tau mass

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Albrecht, H.; Ehrlichmann, H.; Hamacher, T.; Hofmann, R.P.; Kirchhoff, T.; Nau, A.; Nowak, S.; Schroeder, H.; Schulz, H.D.; Walter, M.; Wurth, R. (Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany)); Appuhn, R.D.; Hast, C.; Kolanoski, H.; Lange, A.; Lindner, A.; Mankel, R.; Schieber, M.; Siegmund, T.; Spaan, B.; Thurn, H.; Toepfer, D.; Walther, A.; Wegener, D. (Dortmund Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Physik); Paul

    1992-06-01

    Using the ARGUS detector at the DORIS II storage ring, a new measurement of the mass of the {tau} lepton has been obtained. An analysis of the tan pseudomass spectrum for decays of the type {tau}{sup -} {yields} {pi}{sup -}{pi}{sup -}{pi}{sup +}{nu}{sub {tau}} finds m{sub {tau}} = (1776.3 {+-} 2.4 {+-} 1.4) MeV/c{sup 2}. This result also leads to an improvement of the upper limit on the {nu}{sub {tau}} mass to m{sub {nu}{tau}} < 31 MeV/c{sup 2} at the 95% confidence level. (orig.).

  20. Experiment for a precision neutrino mass measurement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We describe an experiment which is designed to determine the electron neutrino mass to better than 2 eV. Key features of the experiment are a high activity frozen tritium source and a high resolution electrostatic spectrometer designed to make a careful measurement of the tritium beta decay end point spectrum. The goal is to determine the neutrino mass to better than 1 eV statistically in a four day run. A series of these runs will allow study of potential systematics. The construction phase is nearly complete and preliminary data will be taken in late spring

  1. Particle Image Velocimetry Measurements in Anatomically-Accurate Models of the Mammalian Nasal Cavity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rumple, C.; Richter, J.; Craven, B. A.; Krane, M.

    2012-11-01

    A summary of the research being carried out by our multidisciplinary team to better understand the form and function of the nose in different mammalian species that include humans, carnivores, ungulates, rodents, and marine animals will be presented. The mammalian nose houses a convoluted airway labyrinth, where two hallmark features of mammals occur, endothermy and olfaction. Because of the complexity of the nasal cavity, the anatomy and function of these upper airways remain poorly understood in most mammals. However, recent advances in high-resolution medical imaging, computational modeling, and experimental flow measurement techniques are now permitting the study of airflow and respiratory and olfactory transport phenomena in anatomically-accurate reconstructions of the nasal cavity. Here, we focus on efforts to manufacture transparent, anatomically-accurate models for stereo particle image velocimetry (SPIV) measurements of nasal airflow. Challenges in the design and manufacture of index-matched anatomical models are addressed and preliminary SPIV measurements are presented. Such measurements will constitute a validation database for concurrent computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulations of mammalian respiration and olfaction. Supported by the National Science Foundation.

  2. The road towards accurate optical width measurements at the industrial level

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bodermann, Bernd; Köning, Rainer; Bergmann, Detlef; Buhr, Egbert; Hässler-Grohne, Wolfgang; Flügge, Jens; Bosse, Harald

    2013-04-01

    Optical vision systems require both unidirectional and bidirectional measurements for the calibrations and the verification of the tool performance to enable accurate measurements traceable to the SI unit Metre. However, for bidirectional measurements up to now the national metrology institutes are unable to provide internationally recognized calibrations of suitable standards. Furthermore often users are not aware of the specific difficulties of these measurements. In this paper the current status and limitations of bidirectional optical measurements at the industrial level are summarised and compared to state-of-the-art optical linewidth measurements performed at PTB on measurement objects of semiconductor industry. It turns out, that for optical widths measurements at an uncertainty level below 1 μm edge localisation schemes are required, which are based on tool and sample dependent threshold values, which usually need to be determined by a rigorous simulation of the microscopic image. Furthermore the calibration samples and structures must have a sufficient quality, e. g. high edge angle and low edge roughness and the structure materials and their material parameters have to be known. The experience obtained within the accreditation process of industrial labs for width calibrations shows that, in order to be able to achieve a desired measurement uncertainties of about 100 nm, the imaging system needs to have a monochromatic Koehler illumination, numerical aperture larger than 0.5, a magnification greater than 50x and the ability to control the deviation of the focus position to better than 100 nm.

  3. Interpreting $W$ mass measurements in the SMEFT

    CERN Document Server

    Bjørn, Mikkel

    2016-01-01

    Measurements of the $W^\\pm$ mass ($m_W$) provide an important consistency check of the Standard Model (SM) and constrain the possibility of physics beyond the SM. Precision measurements of $m_W$ at hadron colliders are inferred from kinematic distributions of transverse variables. We examine how this inference is modified when considering the presence of physics beyond the SM expressed in terms of local contact operators. We show that Tevatron measurements of $m_W$ using transverse variables are transparent and applicable as consistent constraints in the Standard Model Effective Field theory (SMEFT) and find the extra error introduced in these measurements due to SMEFT higher dimensional operators to be subdominant to the current experimental systematic errors. This means that the leading challenge to interpreting these measurements in the SMEFT is the pure theoretical uncertainty in how these measurements are mapped to Lagrangian parameters. We stress the need to avoid using naive combinations of Tevatron an...

  4. Accurate determination of ultra-trace impurities, including europium, in ultra-pure barium carbonate materials through inductively coupled plasma-tandem mass spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Shuchao; Zeng, Xiangcheng; Dai, Xuefeng; Hu, Yongping; Li, Gang; Zheng, Cunjiang

    2016-09-01

    Impurities, especially ultra-trace europium (Eu), in ultra-pure barium carbonate materials were accurately determined through inductively coupled plasma-tandem mass spectrometry (ICP-MS/MS). Two reaction modes, namely, mass shift (with O2 as reaction gas) and on-mass modes(with NH3/He and He as reaction gases), were extensively investigated using Eu+ as target analyte. The use of Eu+ → EuO2+, instead of Eu+ → EuO+, as ion pairs in mass shift mode eliminated polyatomic interferences based on Ba matrix ions (135Ba16O2+ on 151Eu16O+ and 137Ba16O2+ on 153Eu16O+). This procedure exhibited enhanced sensitivity and selectivity. When the ICP-MS/MS was operated in NH3 on-mass mode, Eu+ can be determined in its original mass in interference-free conditions because NH3 did not react with Eu+ but with BaO+ to form a neutral product (BaO). The two reaction modes, especially NH3 on mass mode, were validated to be accurate because their resultant isotope ratios of 153Eu/151Eu matched well with that of the natural abundance ratio. The proposed ICP-MS/MS method is a sensitive technique with a limit of detection as low as 2.0 ng L- 1 for 153Eu+. Compared with conventional single-quadrupole (SQ) ICP-MS, both NH3 on-mass mode and O2 mass shift mode in ICP-MS/MS can be used to accurately determine Eu+ in ultra-pure BaCO3 materials. The detected concentration of Eu+ was 4.0 ng L- 1 to 15 ng L- 1, with spiked recoveries ranging from 100%-110%. ICP-MS/MS was also used to eliminate polyatomic interferences, particularly Ba-based interferences, prior to measurement of Gd and Sm. Impurities, including Na, Mg, Al, K, Mn, Fe, Cr, Sr, and Cs, in ultra-pure BaCO3 materials were also determined using ICP-MS/MS in conventional SQ mode.

  5. Accurate Young's modulus measurement based on Rayleigh wave velocity and empirical Poisson's ratio

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Mingxia; Feng, Zhihua

    2016-07-01

    This paper presents a method for Young's modulus measurement based on Rayleigh wave speed. The error in Poisson's ratio has weak influence on the measurement of Young's modulus based on Rayleigh wave speed, and Poisson's ratio minimally varies in a certain material; thus, we can accurately estimate Young's modulus with surface wave speed and a rough Poisson's ratio. We numerically analysed three methods using Rayleigh, longitudinal, and transversal wave speed, respectively, and the error in Poisson's ratio shows the least influence on the result in the method involving Rayleigh wave speed. An experiment was performed and has proved the feasibility of this method. Device for speed measuring could be small, and no sample pretreatment is needed. Hence, developing a portable instrument based on this method is possible. This method makes a good compromise between usability and precision.

  6. A simple and accurate measurement method of current density of an electron accelerator for irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    For simple and accurate measurement of the current distribution in a broad beam from electron accelerators, a method for detecting the charge absorbed in a graphite target exposed to the air has been examined. The present report means to solve several fundamental problems. The effective incidence area of the absorber is strictly defined by the design of the geometrical arrangement of the absorber assembly. Electron backscattering from the absorber is corrected with backscattering coefficients in consideration of oblique incidence on the absorber. The influence of ionic charge produced in air is ascribed to the contact potential between the absorber and the guard, and correction methods are proposed. (orig.)

  7. Accurate determination of silver nanoparticles in animal tissues by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Veverková, Lenka [Regional Centre of Advanced Technologies and Materials, Department of Analytical Chemistry, Faculty of Science, Palacky University, 17.listopadu 12, CZ 771 46 Olomouc (Czech Republic); Hradilová, Šárka [Regional Centre of Advanced Technologies and Materials, Department of Physical Chemistry, Faculty of Science, Palacky University, 17.listopadu 12, CZ 771 46 Olomouc (Czech Republic); Milde, David, E-mail: david.mlde@upol.cz [Regional Centre of Advanced Technologies and Materials, Department of Analytical Chemistry, Faculty of Science, Palacky University, 17.listopadu 12, CZ 771 46 Olomouc (Czech Republic); Panáček, Aleš [Regional Centre of Advanced Technologies and Materials, Department of Physical Chemistry, Faculty of Science, Palacky University, 17.listopadu 12, CZ 771 46 Olomouc (Czech Republic); Skopalová, Jana [Regional Centre of Advanced Technologies and Materials, Department of Analytical Chemistry, Faculty of Science, Palacky University, 17.listopadu 12, CZ 771 46 Olomouc (Czech Republic); Kvítek, Libor [Regional Centre of Advanced Technologies and Materials, Department of Physical Chemistry, Faculty of Science, Palacky University, 17.listopadu 12, CZ 771 46 Olomouc (Czech Republic); Petrželová, Kamila [Regional Centre of Advanced Technologies and Materials, Department of Analytical Chemistry, Faculty of Science, Palacky University, 17.listopadu 12, CZ 771 46 Olomouc (Czech Republic); National Reference Laboratory for Chemical Elements, Department of Residues in Kroměříž, State Veterinary Institute Olomouc, Hulínská 2286, CZ 767 60 Kroměříž (Czech Republic); and others

    2014-12-01

    This study examined recoveries of silver determination in animal tissues after wet digestion by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. The composition of the mineralization mixture for microwave assisted digestion was optimized and the best recoveries were obtained for mineralization with HNO{sub 3} and addition of HCl promptly after digestion. The optimization was performed on model samples of chicken meat spiked with silver nanoparticles and a solution of ionic silver. Basic calculations of theoretical distribution of Ag among various silver-containing species were implemented and the results showed that most of the silver is in the form of soluble complexes AgCl{sub 2}{sup −} and AgCl{sub 3}{sup 2−} for the optimized composition of the mineralization mixture. Three animal tissue certified reference materials were then analyzed to verify the trueness and precision of the results. - Highlights: • We performed detailed optimization of microwave assisted digestion procedure of animal tissue used prior to Ag determination by ICP-MS. • We provide basic equilibrium calculations to give theoretical explanation of results from optimization of tested mineralization mixtures. • Results from method validation that was done by analysis of several matrix CRMs are presented.

  8. Accurate determination of silver nanoparticles in animal tissues by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study examined recoveries of silver determination in animal tissues after wet digestion by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. The composition of the mineralization mixture for microwave assisted digestion was optimized and the best recoveries were obtained for mineralization with HNO3 and addition of HCl promptly after digestion. The optimization was performed on model samples of chicken meat spiked with silver nanoparticles and a solution of ionic silver. Basic calculations of theoretical distribution of Ag among various silver-containing species were implemented and the results showed that most of the silver is in the form of soluble complexes AgCl2− and AgCl32− for the optimized composition of the mineralization mixture. Three animal tissue certified reference materials were then analyzed to verify the trueness and precision of the results. - Highlights: • We performed detailed optimization of microwave assisted digestion procedure of animal tissue used prior to Ag determination by ICP-MS. • We provide basic equilibrium calculations to give theoretical explanation of results from optimization of tested mineralization mixtures. • Results from method validation that was done by analysis of several matrix CRMs are presented

  9. CLASH-VLT: Insights on the mass substructures in the Frontier Fields Cluster MACS J0416.1-2403 through accurate strong lens modeling

    CERN Document Server

    Grillo, C; Rosati, P; Mercurio, A; Balestra, I; Munari, E; Nonino, M; Caminha, G B; Lombardi, M; De Lucia, G; Borgani, S; Gobat, R; Biviano, A; Girardi, M; Umetsu, K; Coe, D; Koekemoer, A M; Postman, M; Zitrin, A; Halkola, A; Broadhurst, T; Sartoris, B; Presotto, V; Annunziatella, M; Maier, C; Fritz, A; Vanzella, E; Frye, B

    2014-01-01

    We present a detailed mass reconstruction and a novel study on the substructure properties in the core of the CLASH and Frontier Fields galaxy cluster MACS J0416.1-2403. We show and employ our extensive spectroscopic data set taken with the VIMOS instrument as part of our CLASH-VLT program, to confirm spectroscopically 10 strong lensing systems and to select a sample of 175 plausible cluster members to a limiting stellar mass of log(M_*/M_Sun) ~ 8.6. We reproduce the measured positions of 30 multiple images with a remarkable median offset of only 0.3" by means of a comprehensive strong lensing model comprised of 2 cluster dark-matter halos, represented by cored elliptical pseudo-isothermal mass distributions, and the cluster member components. The latter have total mass-to-light ratios increasing with the galaxy HST/WFC3 near-IR (F160W) luminosities. The measurement of the total enclosed mass within the Einstein radius is accurate to ~5%, including systematic uncertainties. We emphasize that the use of multip...

  10. Ocean Lidar Measurements of Beam Attenuation and a Roadmap to Accurate Phytoplankton Biomass Estimates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Yongxiang; Behrenfeld, Mike; Hostetler, Chris; Pelon, Jacques; Trepte, Charles; Hair, John; Slade, Wayne; Cetinic, Ivona; Vaughan, Mark; Lu, Xiaomei; Zhai, Pengwang; Weimer, Carl; Winker, David; Verhappen, Carolus C.; Butler, Carolyn; Liu, Zhaoyan; Hunt, Bill; Omar, Ali; Rodier, Sharon; Lifermann, Anne; Josset, Damien; Hou, Weilin; MacDonnell, David; Rhew, Ray

    2016-06-01

    Beam attenuation coefficient, c, provides an important optical index of plankton standing stocks, such as phytoplankton biomass and total particulate carbon concentration. Unfortunately, c has proven difficult to quantify through remote sensing. Here, we introduce an innovative approach for estimating c using lidar depolarization measurements and diffuse attenuation coefficients from ocean color products or lidar measurements of Brillouin scattering. The new approach is based on a theoretical formula established from Monte Carlo simulations that links the depolarization ratio of sea water to the ratio of diffuse attenuation Kd and beam attenuation C (i.e., a multiple scattering factor). On July 17, 2014, the CALIPSO satellite was tilted 30° off-nadir for one nighttime orbit in order to minimize ocean surface backscatter and demonstrate the lidar ocean subsurface measurement concept from space. Depolarization ratios of ocean subsurface backscatter are measured accurately. Beam attenuation coefficients computed from the depolarization ratio measurements compare well with empirical estimates from ocean color measurements. We further verify the beam attenuation coefficient retrievals using aircraft-based high spectral resolution lidar (HSRL) data that are collocated with in-water optical measurements.

  11. CYP450 phenotyping and metabolite identification of quinine by accurate mass UPLC-MS analysis: a possible metabolic link to blackwater fever

    OpenAIRE

    Marcsisin, Sean R; Jin, Xiannu; Bettger, Theresa; McCulley, Nicholas; Sousa, Jason C; Shanks, G Dennis; Tekwani, Babu L.; Sahu, Rajnish; Reichard, Gregory A; Sciotti, Richard J; Melendez, Victor; Pybus, Brandon S

    2013-01-01

    Background The naturally occurring alkaloid drug, quinine is commonly used for the treatment of severe malaria. Despite centuries of use, its metabolism is still not fully understood, and may play a role in the haemolytic disorders associated with the drug. Methods Incubations of quinine with CYPs 1A2, 2C9, 2C19, 2D6, and 3A4 were conducted, and the metabolites were characterized by accurate mass UPLC-MSE analysis. Reactive oxygen species generation was also measured in human erythrocytes inc...

  12. Precision mass measurements utilizing beta endpoints

    CERN Document Server

    Moltz, D M; Kern, B D; Noma, H; Ritchie, B G; Toth, K S

    1981-01-01

    A technique for precise determination of beta endpoints with an intrinsic germanium detector has been developed. The energy calibration is derived from gamma -ray photopeak measurements. This analysis procedure has been checked with a /sup 27/Si source produced in a (p, n) reaction on a /sup 27/Al target and subsequently applied to mass separated samples of /sup 76/Rb, /sup 77/Rb and /sup 78/Rb. Results indicate errors <50 keV are obtainable. (29 refs).

  13. Generalized weighted ratio method for accurate turbidity measurement over a wide range.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Hongbo; Yang, Ping; Song, Hong; Guo, Yilu; Zhan, Shuyue; Huang, Hui; Wang, Hangzhou; Tao, Bangyi; Mu, Quanquan; Xu, Jing; Li, Dejun; Chen, Ying

    2015-12-14

    Turbidity measurement is important for water quality assessment, food safety, medicine, ocean monitoring, etc. In this paper, a method that accurately estimates the turbidity over a wide range is proposed, where the turbidity of the sample is represented as a weighted ratio of the scattered light intensities at a series of angles. An improvement in the accuracy is achieved by expanding the structure of the ratio function, thus adding more flexibility to the turbidity-intensity fitting. Experiments have been carried out with an 850 nm laser and a power meter fixed on a turntable to measure the light intensity at different angles. The results show that the relative estimation error of the proposed method is 0.58% on average for a four-angle intensity combination for all test samples with a turbidity ranging from 160 NTU to 4000 NTU.

  14. An Accurate Volume Measurement of Solid Lesions by correcting Partial Volume Effects on CT images

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bitty S. Varghese

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Under digital image processing, medical images have lots of applications like oncological diagnosis of tumors and chemotherapy. Computed Tomography (CT images are used to capture images of solid lesions like lung or liver. For oncological chemotherapy based therapeutics, estimation of size of tumor is the main task to determine whether the treatment is in right path or not. This means that, after chemotherapy, tumor either grows or shrinks. Due to irregular growth of tumor, diameter of tumor is not a standard parameter to determine the size. Volume is the appropriate method to identify the size. But partial volume artifacts, which arise due to low resolution of imaging device, reduces the accuracy of measurement. Partial volume correction (PVC which extracts the necessary information from the segmented output resolves this problem. This paper presents a different perspective of accurate volumetric measurement by correcting partial volume effect at the borders of segmentation result.

  15. Highly accurate thickness measurement of multi-layered automotive paints using terahertz technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krimi, Soufiene; Klier, Jens; Jonuscheit, Joachim; von Freymann, Georg; Urbansky, Ralph; Beigang, René

    2016-07-01

    In this contribution, we present a highly accurate approach for thickness measurements of multi-layered automotive paints using terahertz time domain spectroscopy in reflection geometry. The proposed method combines the benefits of a model-based material parameters extraction method to calibrate the paint coatings, a generalized Rouard's method to simulate the terahertz radiation behavior within arbitrary thin films, and the robustness of a powerful evolutionary optimization algorithm to increase the sensitivity of the minimum thickness measurement limit. Within the framework of this work, a self-calibration model is introduced, which takes into consideration the real industrial challenges such as the effect of wet-on-wet spray in the painting process.

  16. Generalized weighted ratio method for accurate turbidity measurement over a wide range.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Hongbo; Yang, Ping; Song, Hong; Guo, Yilu; Zhan, Shuyue; Huang, Hui; Wang, Hangzhou; Tao, Bangyi; Mu, Quanquan; Xu, Jing; Li, Dejun; Chen, Ying

    2015-12-14

    Turbidity measurement is important for water quality assessment, food safety, medicine, ocean monitoring, etc. In this paper, a method that accurately estimates the turbidity over a wide range is proposed, where the turbidity of the sample is represented as a weighted ratio of the scattered light intensities at a series of angles. An improvement in the accuracy is achieved by expanding the structure of the ratio function, thus adding more flexibility to the turbidity-intensity fitting. Experiments have been carried out with an 850 nm laser and a power meter fixed on a turntable to measure the light intensity at different angles. The results show that the relative estimation error of the proposed method is 0.58% on average for a four-angle intensity combination for all test samples with a turbidity ranging from 160 NTU to 4000 NTU. PMID:26699060

  17. Accurate electrical resistance measurement of the crystallization kinetics of amorphous alloys

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    An accurate four-line ac electrical resistance measurement (ERM)apparatus was developed. By using the ERM the crystallization kinetics of amorphous Ni80P20, FeZr2, Fe86B14 alloys were investigated. The experimental results show that the ERM can identify the early stage of crystallization in amorphous alloys. The ERM detects a crystallization temperature range obviously wider than the DSC does, indicating that the ERM is more sensitive to the structure evolution in crystallization. For the eutectic or polymorphic crystallization, three distinct processes can be identified from the measured resistance variation: (i) crystal nucleation, (ii) subsequent growth of crystal nuclei, and (iii) coarsening of the crystallites. In the early stage of the primary crystallization, the ERM results reflect the nucleation information as well.

  18. ACCURATE: Greenhouse Gas Profiles Retrieval from Combined IR-Laser and Microwave Occultation Measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Proschek, Veronika; Kirchengast, Gottfried; Schweitzer, Susanne; Fritzer, Johannes

    2010-05-01

    The new climate satellite concept ACCURATE (Atmospheric Climate and Chemistry in the UTLS Region And climate Trends Explorer) enables simultaneous measurement of profiles of greenhouse gases, isotopes, wind and thermodynamic variables from Low Earth Orbit (LEO) satellites. The measurement principle applied is a combination of the novel LEO-LEO infrared laser occultation (LIO) technique and the already better studied LEO-LEO microwave occultation (LMO) technique. Resulting occultation events are evenly distributed around the world, have high vertical resolution and accuracy and are stable over long time periods. The LIO uses near-monochromatic signals in the short-wave infrared range (~2-2.5 μm for ACCURATE). These signals are absorbed by various trace species in the Earth's atmosphere. Profiles of the concentration of the absorbing species can be derived from signal transmission measurements. Accurately known temperature, pressure and humidity profiles derived from simultaneously measured LMO signals are essential pre-information for the retrieval of the trace species profiles. These LMO signals lie in the microwave band region from 17-23 GHz and, optionally, 178-195 GHz. The current ACCURATE mission design is arranged for the measurement of six greenhouse gases (GHG) (H2O, CO2, CH4, N2O, O3, CO) and four isotopes (13CO2, C18OO, HDO, H218O), with focus on the upper troposphere/lower stratosphere region (UTLS, 5-35 km). Wind speed in line-of-sight can be derived from a line-symmetric transmission difference which is caused by wind-induced Doppler shift. By-products are information on cloud layering, aerosol extinction, and scintillation strength. We introduce the methodology to retrieve GHG profiles from quasi-realistic forward-simulated intensities of LIO signals and thermodynamic profiles retrieved in a preceding step from LMO signals. Key of the retrieval methodology is the differencing of two LIO transmission signals, one being GHG sensitive on a target

  19. Wide-band mass measurements with a multi-reflection time-of-flight mass spectrograph

    CERN Document Server

    Schury, P; Wada, M; Wollnik, H

    2013-01-01

    We characterize the mass bandwidth of the a multi-reflection time-of-flight mass spectrograph, showing both the functional and useful mass bandwidth. We then demonstrate the use of a multi-reflection time-of-flight mass spectrograph to perform mass measurements in mass bands much wider than the mass bandwidth.

  20. Accurate mass fragment library for rapid analysis of pesticides on produce using ambient pressure desorption ionization with high-resolution mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kern, Sara E; Lin, Lora A; Fricke, Frederick L

    2014-08-01

    U.S. food imports have been increasing steadily for decades, intensifying the need for a rapid and sensitive screening technique. A method has been developed that uses foam disks to sample the surface of incoming produce. This work provides complimentary information to the extensive amount of published pesticide fragmentation data collected using LCMS systems (Sack et al. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, 59, 6383-6411, 2011; Mol et al. Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry, 403, 2891-2908, 2012). The disks are directly analyzed using transmission-mode direct analysis in real time (DART) ambient pressure desorption ionization coupled to a high resolution accurate mass-mass spectrometer (HRAM-MS). In order to provide more certainty in the identification of the pesticides detected, a library of accurate mass fragments and isotopes of the protonated parent molecular ion (the [M+H]⁺) has been developed. The HRAM-MS is equipped with a quadrupole mass filter, providing the capability of "data-dependent" fragmentation, as opposed to "all -ion" fragmentation (where all of the ions enter a collision chamber and are fragmented at once). A temperature gradient for the DART helium stream and multiple collision energies were employed to detect and fragment 164 pesticides of varying chemical classes, sizes, and polarities. The accurate mass information of precursor ([M+H]⁺ ion) and fragment ions is essential in correctly identifying chemical contaminants on the surface of imported produce. Additionally, the inclusion of isotopes of the [M+H]⁺ in the database adds another metric to the confirmation process. The fragmentation data were collected using a Q-Exactive mass spectrometer and were added to a database used to process data collected with an Exactive mass spectrometer, an instrument that is more readily available for this screening application. The commodities investigated range from smooth-skinned produce such as apples to rougher surfaces like broccoli

  1. Accurate Mass Fragment Library for Rapid Analysis of Pesticides on Produce Using Ambient Pressure Desorption Ionization with High-Resolution Mass Spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kern, Sara E.; Lin, Lora A.; Fricke, Frederick L.

    2014-08-01

    U.S. food imports have been increasing steadily for decades, intensifying the need for a rapid and sensitive screening technique. A method has been developed that uses foam disks to sample the surface of incoming produce. This work provides complimentary information to the extensive amount of published pesticide fragmentation data collected using LCMS systems (Sack et al. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, 59, 6383-6411, 2011; Mol et al. Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry, 403, 2891-2908, 2012). The disks are directly analyzed using transmission-mode direct analysis in real time (DART) ambient pressure desorption ionization coupled to a high resolution accurate mass-mass spectrometer (HRAM-MS). In order to provide more certainty in the identification of the pesticides detected, a library of accurate mass fragments and isotopes of the protonated parent molecular ion (the [M+H]+) has been developed. The HRAM-MS is equipped with a quadrupole mass filter, providing the capability of "data-dependent" fragmentation, as opposed to "all -ion" fragmentation (where all of the ions enter a collision chamber and are fragmented at once). A temperature gradient for the DART helium stream and multiple collision energies were employed to detect and fragment 164 pesticides of varying chemical classes, sizes, and polarities. The accurate mass information of precursor ([M+H]+ ion) and fragment ions is essential in correctly identifying chemical contaminants on the surface of imported produce. Additionally, the inclusion of isotopes of the [M+H]+ in the database adds another metric to the confirmation process. The fragmentation data were collected using a Q-Exactive mass spectrometer and were added to a database used to process data collected with an Exactive mass spectrometer, an instrument that is more readily available for this screening application. The commodities investigated range from smooth-skinned produce such as apples to rougher surfaces like broccoli. The

  2. Fourier Transform Mass Spectrometry and Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Analysis for the Rapid and Accurate Characterization of Hexacosanoylceramide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, Charles W.; Simonsick, William J.; Bogusky, Michael J.; Celikay, Recep W.; Guare, James P.; Newton, Randall C.

    2016-01-01

    Ceramides are a central unit of all sphingolipids which have been identified as sites of biological recognition on cellular membranes mediating cell growth and differentiation. Several glycosphingolipids have been isolated, displaying immunomodulatory and anti-tumor activities. These molecules have generated considerable interest as potential vaccine adjuvants in humans. Accurate analyses of these and related sphingosine analogues are important for the characterization of structure, biological function, and metabolism. We report the complementary use of direct laser desorption ionization (DLDI), sheath flow electrospray ionization (ESI) Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry (FTICR MS) and high-field nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) analysis for the rapid, accurate identification of hexacosanoylceramide and starting materials. DLDI does not require stringent sample preparation and yields representative ions. Sheath-flow ESI yields ions of the product and byproducts and was significantly better than monospray ESI due to improved compound solubility. Negative ion sheath flow ESI provided data of starting materials and products all in one acquisition as hexacosanoic acid does not ionize efficiently when ceramides are present. NMR provided characterization of these lipid molecules complementing the results obtained from MS analyses. NMR data was able to differentiate straight chain versus branched chain alkyl groups not easily obtained from mass spectrometry. PMID:27367671

  3. Fourier Transform Mass Spectrometry and Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Analysis for the Rapid and Accurate Characterization of Hexacosanoylceramide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charles W. Ross

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Ceramides are a central unit of all sphingolipids which have been identified as sites of biological recognition on cellular membranes mediating cell growth and differentiation. Several glycosphingolipids have been isolated, displaying immunomodulatory and anti-tumor activities. These molecules have generated considerable interest as potential vaccine adjuvants in humans. Accurate analyses of these and related sphingosine analogues are important for the characterization of structure, biological function, and metabolism. We report the complementary use of direct laser desorption ionization (DLDI, sheath flow electrospray ionization (ESI Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry (FTICR MS and high-field nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR analysis for the rapid, accurate identification of hexacosanoylceramide and starting materials. DLDI does not require stringent sample preparation and yields representative ions. Sheath-flow ESI yields ions of the product and byproducts and was significantly better than monospray ESI due to improved compound solubility. Negative ion sheath flow ESI provided data of starting materials and products all in one acquisition as hexacosanoic acid does not ionize efficiently when ceramides are present. NMR provided characterization of these lipid molecules complementing the results obtained from MS analyses. NMR data was able to differentiate straight chain versus branched chain alkyl groups not easily obtained from mass spectrometry.

  4. Fourier Transform Mass Spectrometry and Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Analysis for the Rapid and Accurate Characterization of Hexacosanoylceramide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, Charles W; Simonsick, William J; Bogusky, Michael J; Celikay, Recep W; Guare, James P; Newton, Randall C

    2016-01-01

    Ceramides are a central unit of all sphingolipids which have been identified as sites of biological recognition on cellular membranes mediating cell growth and differentiation. Several glycosphingolipids have been isolated, displaying immunomodulatory and anti-tumor activities. These molecules have generated considerable interest as potential vaccine adjuvants in humans. Accurate analyses of these and related sphingosine analogues are important for the characterization of structure, biological function, and metabolism. We report the complementary use of direct laser desorption ionization (DLDI), sheath flow electrospray ionization (ESI) Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry (FTICR MS) and high-field nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) analysis for the rapid, accurate identification of hexacosanoylceramide and starting materials. DLDI does not require stringent sample preparation and yields representative ions. Sheath-flow ESI yields ions of the product and byproducts and was significantly better than monospray ESI due to improved compound solubility. Negative ion sheath flow ESI provided data of starting materials and products all in one acquisition as hexacosanoic acid does not ionize efficiently when ceramides are present. NMR provided characterization of these lipid molecules complementing the results obtained from MS analyses. NMR data was able to differentiate straight chain versus branched chain alkyl groups not easily obtained from mass spectrometry.

  5. Fourier Transform Mass Spectrometry and Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Analysis for the Rapid and Accurate Characterization of Hexacosanoylceramide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, Charles W; Simonsick, William J; Bogusky, Michael J; Celikay, Recep W; Guare, James P; Newton, Randall C

    2016-01-01

    Ceramides are a central unit of all sphingolipids which have been identified as sites of biological recognition on cellular membranes mediating cell growth and differentiation. Several glycosphingolipids have been isolated, displaying immunomodulatory and anti-tumor activities. These molecules have generated considerable interest as potential vaccine adjuvants in humans. Accurate analyses of these and related sphingosine analogues are important for the characterization of structure, biological function, and metabolism. We report the complementary use of direct laser desorption ionization (DLDI), sheath flow electrospray ionization (ESI) Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry (FTICR MS) and high-field nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) analysis for the rapid, accurate identification of hexacosanoylceramide and starting materials. DLDI does not require stringent sample preparation and yields representative ions. Sheath-flow ESI yields ions of the product and byproducts and was significantly better than monospray ESI due to improved compound solubility. Negative ion sheath flow ESI provided data of starting materials and products all in one acquisition as hexacosanoic acid does not ionize efficiently when ceramides are present. NMR provided characterization of these lipid molecules complementing the results obtained from MS analyses. NMR data was able to differentiate straight chain versus branched chain alkyl groups not easily obtained from mass spectrometry. PMID:27367671

  6. Top mass measurements at the Tevatron run II

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Velev, Gueorgui V.; /Fermilab

    2005-10-01

    The latest top quark mass measurements by the CDF and D0 experiments are presented here. The mass has been determined in the dilepton (t{bar t} {yields} e{mu}, ee, {mu}{mu} + jets + E{sub T}) and lepton plus jets (t{bar t} {yields} e or {mu} + jets + E{sub T}) final states. The most accurate single result from lepton plus jets channel is 173.5{sub -3.6}{sup +3.7}(stat. + Jet Energy Scale Systematic) {+-} 1.3(syst.) GeV/c{sup 2}, which is better than the combined CDF and D0 Run I average. A preliminary and unofficial average of the best experimental Run II results gives M{sub top} = 172.7 {+-} 3.5 GeV/c{sup 2}.

  7. Limitations on Precision Cosmology using Mass Measurements of Galaxy Clusters

    CERN Document Server

    Hallman, E J; Burns, J O; Norman, M L; Hallman, Eric J.; Motl, Patrick M.; Burns, Jack O.; Norman, Michael L.

    2005-01-01

    We critically analyze the role of clusters of galaxies as probes for precision cosmology. Using synthetic observations of numerically simulated clusters viewed through their X-ray emission and thermal Sunyaev-Zeldovich effect (SZE), we reduce the observations to attain measurements of the cluster gas mass. We utilize both parametric models such as the isothermal cluster model and non-parametric models that involve the geometric deprojection of the cluster emission assuming spherical symmetry. We are thus able to quantify the possible sources of uncertainty and systematic bias associated with the common simplifying assumptions used in reducing real cluster observations including isothermality and hydrostatic equilibrium. We find that intrinsic variations in clusters limit the precision of observational gas mass estimation to ~10% to 80% confidence excluding instrumental effects. For the full cluster sample, methods that use SZE profiles out to roughly the virial radius are the most accurate and precise way to ...

  8. An accurate measurement of the baryonic Tully-Fisher relation with heavily gas-dominated ALFALFA galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Papastergis, E; van der Hulst, J M

    2016-01-01

    We use a sample of 97 galaxies selected from the ALFALFA 21cm survey to make an accurate measurement of the baryonic Tully-Fisher relation (BTFR). These galaxies are specifically selected to be heavily gas-dominated (Mgas/M* >~ 2.7) and to be oriented edge-on. The former property ensures that the error on the galactic baryonic mass is small, despite the large systematic uncertainty involved in galactic stellar mass estimates. The latter property means that rotational velocities can be derived directly from the width of the 21cm emission line, without any need for inclination corrections. The resulting linewidth-based BTFR has a slope of alpha = 3.58 +- 0.11, a value that is in agreement with previous literature results. The relation is remarkably tight, with almost all galaxies being located within a perpendicular distance of +- 0.1 dex from the best fit line. The low observational error budget for our sample allows us to establish that, despite its tightness, the measured linewidth-based BTFR has some small ...

  9. Accurate measurements of 129I concentration by isotope dilution using MC-ICPMS for half-life determination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Determining the 129I concentration, a long-lived radionuclide present in spent nuclear fuel, is a major issue for nuclear waste disposal purpose. 129I also has to be measured in numerous environmental, nuclear and biological samples. To be able to accurately determine the 129I concentration, an analytical method based on the use of a multicollector-inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometer (MC-ICPMS) combined with an isotope dilution technique using an 127I spike, was developed. First, the influence of different media (HNO3, NaOH and TMAH) on natural 127I signal intensity and stability and on memory effects was studied. Then an analytical procedure was developed by taking into account the correction of blanks and interferences. Tellurium was chosen for instrumental mass bias correction, as no certified standards with suitable 127I/129I ratio are available. Finally, the results, reproducibility and uncertainties obtained for the 129I concentration determined by isotope dilution with a 127I spike are presented and discussed. The final expanded relative uncertainty obtained for the iodine-129 concentration was lower than 0.7% (k = 1). This precise 129I determination in association with further activity measurements of this nuclide on the same sample will render it possible to determine a new value of the 129I half-life with a reduced uncertainty (0.76%, k = 1).

  10. Accurate measurements of {sup 129}I concentration by isotope dilution using MC-ICPMS for half-life determination

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Isnard, Helene; Nonell, Anthony; Marie, Mylene [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique et aux Energies alternatives (CEA), Gif Sur Yvette (France). DEN, DPC, SEARS, LANIE; Chartier, Frederic [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique et aux Energies alternatives (CEA), Gif Sur Yvette (France). DEN, DPC

    2016-05-01

    Determining the {sup 129}I concentration, a long-lived radionuclide present in spent nuclear fuel, is a major issue for nuclear waste disposal purpose. {sup 129}I also has to be measured in numerous environmental, nuclear and biological samples. To be able to accurately determine the {sup 129}I concentration, an analytical method based on the use of a multicollector-inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometer (MC-ICPMS) combined with an isotope dilution technique using an {sup 127}I spike, was developed. First, the influence of different media (HNO{sub 3}, NaOH and TMAH) on natural {sup 127}I signal intensity and stability and on memory effects was studied. Then an analytical procedure was developed by taking into account the correction of blanks and interferences. Tellurium was chosen for instrumental mass bias correction, as no certified standards with suitable {sup 127}I/{sup 129}I ratio are available. Finally, the results, reproducibility and uncertainties obtained for the {sup 129}I concentration determined by isotope dilution with a {sup 127}I spike are presented and discussed. The final expanded relative uncertainty obtained for the iodine-129 concentration was lower than 0.7% (k = 1). This precise {sup 129}I determination in association with further activity measurements of this nuclide on the same sample will render it possible to determine a new value of the {sup 129}I half-life with a reduced uncertainty (0.76%, k = 1).

  11. Measurement of b-hadron masses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aaij, R. [Nikhef National Institute for Subatomic Physics, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Abellan Beteta, C. [Universitat de Barcelona, Barcelona (Spain); Adeva, B. [Universidad de Santiago de Compostela, Santiago de Compostela (Spain); Adinolfi, M. [H.H. Wills Physics Laboratory, University of Bristol, Bristol (United Kingdom); Adrover, C. [CPPM, Aix-Marseille Universite, CNRS/IN2P3, Marseille (France); Affolder, A. [Oliver Lodge Laboratory, University of Liverpool, Liverpool (United Kingdom); Ajaltouni, Z. [Clermont Universite, Universite Blaise Pascal, CNRS/IN2P3, LPC, Clermont-Ferrand (France); Albrecht, J.; Alessio, F. [European Organization for Nuclear Research (CERN), Geneva (Switzerland); Alexander, M. [School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Glasgow, Glasgow (United Kingdom); Alkhazov, G. [Petersburg Nuclear Physics Institute (PNPI), Gatchina (Russian Federation); Alvarez Cartelle, P. [Universidad de Santiago de Compostela, Santiago de Compostela (Spain); Alves, A.A. [Sezione INFN di Roma La Sapienza, Roma (Italy); Amato, S. [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), Rio de Janeiro (Brazil); Amhis, Y. [Ecole Polytechnique Federale de Lausanne (EPFL), Lausanne (Switzerland); Anderson, J. [Physik-Institut, Universitaet Zuerich, Zuerich (Switzerland); Appleby, R.B. [School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Manchester, Manchester (United Kingdom); Aquines Gutierrez, O. [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Kernphysik (MPIK), Heidelberg (Germany); Archilli, F. [Laboratori Nazionali dell' INFN di Frascati, Frascati (Italy); European Organization for Nuclear Research (CERN), Geneva (Switzerland); Arrabito, L. [CC-IN2P3, CNRS/IN2P3, Lyon-Villeurbanne (France); and others

    2012-02-28

    Measurements of b-hadron masses are performed with the exclusive decay modes B{sup +}{yields}J/{psi}K{sup +}, B{sup 0}{yields}J/{psi}K{sup Low-Asterisk 0}, B{sup 0}{yields}J/{psi}K{sub S}{sup 0}, B{sub s}{sup 0}{yields}J/{psi}{phi} and {Lambda}{sub b}{sup 0}{yields}J/{psi}{Lambda} using an integrated luminosity of 35 pb{sup -1} collected in pp collisions at a centre-of-mass energy of 7 TeV by the LHCb experiment. The momentum scale is calibrated with J/{psi}{yields}{mu}{sup +}{mu}{sup -} decays and verified to be known to a relative precision of 2 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -4} using other two-body decays. The results are more precise than previous measurements, particularly in the case of the B{sub s}{sup 0} and {Lambda}{sub b}{sup 0} masses.

  12. Comprehensive two-dimensional liquid chromatography tandem diode array detector (DAD) and accurate mass QTOF-MS for the analysis of flavonoids and iridoid glycosides in Hedyotis diffusa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Duxin; Schmitz, Oliver J

    2015-01-01

    The analysis of chemical constituents in Chinese herbal medicines (CHMs) is a challenge because of numerous compounds with various polarities and functional groups. Liquid chromatography coupled with quadrupole time-of-flight (QTOF) mass spectrometry (LC/MS) is of particular interest in the analysis of herbal components. One of the main attributes of QTOF that makes it an attractive analytical technique is its accurate mass measurement for both precursor and product ions. For the separation of CHMs, comprehensive two-dimensional chromatography (LCxLC) provides much higher resolving power than traditional one-dimensional separation. Therefore, a LCxLC-QTOF-MS system was developed and applied to the analysis of flavonoids and iridoid glycosides in aqueous extracts of Hedyotis diffusa (Rubiaceae). Shift gradient was applied in the two-dimensional separation in the LCxLC system to increase the orthogonality and effective peak distribution area of the analysis. Tentative identification of compounds was done by accurate mass interpretation and validation by UV spectrum. A clear classification of flavonol glycosides (FGs), acylated FGs, and iridoid glycosides (IGs) was shown in different regions of the LCxLC contour plot. In total, five FGs, four acylated FGs, and three IGs were tentatively identified. In addition, several novel flavonoids were found, which demonstrates that LCxLC-QTOF-MS detection also has great potential in herbal medicine analysis. PMID:25171829

  13. Accurate mass screening and identification of emerging contaminants in environmental samples by liquid chromatography-hybrid linear ion trap Orbitrap mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hogenboom, A C; van Leerdam, J A; de Voogt, P

    2009-01-16

    The European Reach legislation will possibly drive producers to develop newly designed chemicals that will be less persistent, bioaccumulative or toxic. If this innovation leads to an increased use of more hydrophilic chemicals it may result in higher mobilities of chemicals in the aqueous environment. As a result, the drinking water companies may face stronger demands on removal processes as the hydrophilic compounds inherently are more difficult to remove. Monitoring efforts will also experience a shift in focus to more water-soluble compounds. Screening source waters on the presence of (emerging) contaminants is an essential step in the control of the water cycle from source to tap water. In this article, some of our experiences are presented with the hybrid linear ion trap (LTQ) FT Orbitrap mass spectrometer, in the area of chemical water analysis. A two-pronged strategy in mass spectrometric research was employed: (i) exploring effluent, surface, ground- and drinking-water samples searching for accurate masses corresponding to target compounds (and their product ions) known from, e.g. priority lists or the scientific literature and (ii) full-scan screening of water samples in search of 'unknown' or unexpected masses, followed by MS(n) experiments to elucidate the structure of the unknowns. Applications of both approaches to emerging water contaminants are presented and discussed. Results are presented for target analysis search for pharmaceuticals, benzotriazoles, illicit drugs and for the identification of unknown compounds in a groundwater sample and in a polar extract of a landfill soil sample (a toxicity identification evaluation bioassay sample). The applications of accurate mass screening and identification described in this article demonstrate that the LC-LTQ FT Orbitrap MS is well equipped to meet the challenges posed by newly emerging polar contaminants. PMID:18771771

  14. Isotopic Ratio Outlier Analysis of the S. cerevisiae Metabolome Using Accurate Mass Gas Chromatography/Time-of-Flight Mass Spectrometry: A New Method for Discovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiu, Yunping; Moir, Robyn; Willis, Ian; Beecher, Chris; Tsai, Yu-Hsuan; Garrett, Timothy J; Yost, Richard A; Kurland, Irwin J

    2016-03-01

    Isotopic ratio outlier analysis (IROA) is a (13)C metabolomics profiling method that eliminates sample to sample variance, discriminates against noise and artifacts, and improves identification of compounds, previously done with accurate mass liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry (LC/MS). This is the first report using IROA technology in combination with accurate mass gas chromatography/time-of-flight mass spectrometry (GC/TOF-MS), here used to examine the S. cerevisiae metabolome. S. cerevisiae was grown in YNB media, containing randomized 95% (13)C, or 5%(13)C glucose as the single carbon source, in order that the isotopomer pattern of all metabolites would mirror the labeled glucose. When these IROA experiments are combined, the abundance of the heavy isotopologues in the 5%(13)C extracts, or light isotopologues in the 95%(13)C extracts, follows the binomial distribution, showing mirrored peak pairs for the molecular ion. The mass difference between the (12)C monoisotopic and the (13)C monoisotopic equals the number of carbons in the molecules. The IROA-GC/MS protocol developed, using both chemical and electron ionization, extends the information acquired from the isotopic peak patterns for formulas generation. The process that can be formulated as an algorithm, in which the number of carbons, as well as the number of methoximations and silylations are used as search constraints. In electron impact (EI/IROA) spectra, the artifactual peaks are identified and easily removed, which has the potential to generate "clean" EI libraries. The combination of chemical ionization (CI) IROA and EI/IROA affords a metabolite identification procedure that enables the identification of coeluting metabolites, and allowed us to characterize 126 metabolites in the current study. PMID:26820234

  15. Measurement of neutrino masses from relative velocities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Hong-Ming; Pen, Ue-Li; Chen, Xuelei; Inman, Derek; Yu, Yu

    2014-09-26

    We present a new technique to measure neutrino masses using their flow field relative to dark matter. Present day streaming motions of neutrinos relative to dark matter and baryons are several hundred km/s, comparable with their thermal velocity dispersion. This results in a unique dipole anisotropic distortion of the matter-neutrino cross power spectrum, which is observable through the dipole distortion in the cross correlation of different galaxy populations. Such a dipole vanishes if not for this relative velocity and so it is a clean signature for neutrino mass. We estimate the size of this effect and find that current and future galaxy surveys may be sensitive to these signature distortions. PMID:25302878

  16. Penning trap mass measurements of $^{99-109}$Cd with the ISOLTRAP mass spectrometer, and implications for the rp process

    CERN Document Server

    Breitenfeldt, M; Beck, D; Blaum, K; George, S; Herfurth, F; Herlert, A; Kellerbauer, A G; Kluge, H-J; Kowalska, M; Lunney, D; Naimi, S; Neidherr, D; Schatz, H; Schwarz, S; Schweikhard, L

    2009-01-01

    Penning trap mass measurements on neutron-deficient Cd isotopes $^{99-109}$Cd have been performed with the ISOLTRAP mass spectrometer at ISOLDE/CERN, all with relative mass uncertainties below $3 \\times 10^{-8}$. A new mass evaluation has been performed. The mass of $^{99}$Cd has been determined for the first time which extends the region of accurately known mass values towards the doubly magic nucleus $^{100}$Sn. The implication of the results on the reaction path of the $rp$ process in stellar X-ray bursts is discussed. In particular, the uncertainty of the abundance and the overproduction created by the $rp$-process for the mass A = 99 is demonstrated by reducing the uncertainty of the proton-separation energy of $^{100}$In $S_{p}(^{100}$In) by a factor of 2.5.

  17. Measuring Intermediate-Mass Black-Hole Binaries with Advanced Gravitational Wave Detectors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veitch, John; Pürrer, Michael; Mandel, Ilya

    2015-10-01

    We perform a systematic study to explore the accuracy with which the parameters of intermediate-mass black-hole binary systems can be measured from their gravitational wave (GW) signatures using second-generation GW detectors. We make use of the most recent reduced-order models containing inspiral, merger, and ringdown signals of aligned-spin effective-one-body waveforms to significantly speed up the calculations. We explore the phenomenology of the measurement accuracies for binaries with total masses between 50M(⊙) and 500M(⊙) and mass ratios between 0.1 and 1. We find that (i) at total masses below ∼200M(⊙), where the signal-to-noise ratio is dominated by the inspiral portion of the signal, the chirp mass parameter can be accurately measured; (ii) at higher masses, the information content is dominated by the ringdown, and total mass is measured more accurately; (iii) the mass of the lower-mass companion is poorly estimated, especially at high total mass and more extreme mass ratios; and (iv) spin cannot be accurately measured for our injection set with nonspinning components. Most importantly, we find that for binaries with nonspinning components at all values of the mass ratio in the considered range and at a network signal-to-noise ratio of 15, analyzed with spin-aligned templates, the presence of an intermediate-mass black hole with mass >100M(⊙) can be confirmed with 95% confidence in any binary that includes a component with a mass of 130M(⊙) or greater. PMID:26551801

  18. Accurate and automatic extrinsic calibration method for blade measurement system integrated by different optical sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Wantao; Li, Zhongwei; Zhong, Kai; Shi, Yusheng; Zhao, Can; Cheng, Xu

    2014-11-01

    Fast and precise 3D inspection system is in great demand in modern manufacturing processes. At present, the available sensors have their own pros and cons, and hardly exist an omnipotent sensor to handle the complex inspection task in an accurate and effective way. The prevailing solution is integrating multiple sensors and taking advantages of their strengths. For obtaining a holistic 3D profile, the data from different sensors should be registrated into a coherent coordinate system. However, some complex shape objects own thin wall feather such as blades, the ICP registration method would become unstable. Therefore, it is very important to calibrate the extrinsic parameters of each sensor in the integrated measurement system. This paper proposed an accurate and automatic extrinsic parameter calibration method for blade measurement system integrated by different optical sensors. In this system, fringe projection sensor (FPS) and conoscopic holography sensor (CHS) is integrated into a multi-axis motion platform, and the sensors can be optimally move to any desired position at the object's surface. In order to simple the calibration process, a special calibration artifact is designed according to the characteristics of the two sensors. An automatic registration procedure based on correlation and segmentation is used to realize the artifact datasets obtaining by FPS and CHS rough alignment without any manual operation and data pro-processing, and then the Generalized Gauss-Markoff model is used to estimate the optimization transformation parameters. The experiments show the measurement result of a blade, where several sampled patches are merged into one point cloud, and it verifies the performance of the proposed method.

  19. Measuring nonlinear oscillations using a very accurate and low-cost linear optical position transducer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donoso, Guillermo; Ladera, Celso L.

    2016-09-01

    An accurate linear optical displacement transducer of about 0.2 mm resolution over a range of ∼40 mm is presented. This device consists of a stack of thin cellulose acetate strips, each strip longitudinally slid ∼0.5 mm over the precedent one so that one end of the stack becomes a stepped wedge of constant step. A narrowed light beam from a white LED orthogonally incident crosses the wedge at a known point, the transmitted intensity being detected with a phototransistor whose emitter is connected to a diode. We present the interesting analytical proof that the voltage across the diode is linearly dependent upon the ordinate of the point where the light beam falls on the wedge, as well as the experimental validation of such a theoretical proof. Applications to nonlinear oscillations are then presented—including the interesting case of a body moving under dry friction, and the more advanced case of an oscillator in a quartic energy potential—whose time-varying positions were accurately measured with our transducer. Our sensing device can resolve the dynamics of an object attached to it with great accuracy and precision at a cost considerably less than that of a linear neutral density wedge. The technique used to assemble the wedge of acetate strips is described.

  20. Accurate Measurement of the Effects of All Amino-Acid Mutations on Influenza Hemagglutinin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doud, Michael B.; Bloom, Jesse D.

    2016-01-01

    Influenza genes evolve mostly via point mutations, and so knowing the effect of every amino-acid mutation provides information about evolutionary paths available to the virus. We and others have combined high-throughput mutagenesis with deep sequencing to estimate the effects of large numbers of mutations to influenza genes. However, these measurements have suffered from substantial experimental noise due to a variety of technical problems, the most prominent of which is bottlenecking during the generation of mutant viruses from plasmids. Here we describe advances that ameliorate these problems, enabling us to measure with greatly improved accuracy and reproducibility the effects of all amino-acid mutations to an H1 influenza hemagglutinin on viral replication in cell culture. The largest improvements come from using a helper virus to reduce bottlenecks when generating viruses from plasmids. Our measurements confirm at much higher resolution the results of previous studies suggesting that antigenic sites on the globular head of hemagglutinin are highly tolerant of mutations. We also show that other regions of hemagglutinin—including the stalk epitopes targeted by broadly neutralizing antibodies—have a much lower inherent capacity to tolerate point mutations. The ability to accurately measure the effects of all influenza mutations should enhance efforts to understand and predict viral evolution. PMID:27271655

  1. Accurate measurement of bromine contents in plastic samples by instrumental neutron activation analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, I J; Lee, K S; Hwang, E; Min, H S; Yim, Y H

    2013-03-26

    Accurate measurements of bromine contents in plastic samples were made by the direct comparator instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA). Individual factors affecting the measurements were comprehensively evaluated and compensated, including the volatility loss of bromine from standard comparators, the background bromine level in the filter papers used for preparation of the standard comparators, nuclear interference, γ-ray spectral interference and the variance among replicates of the samples. Uncertainty contributions from those factors were thoroughly evaluated and included in the uncertainty budgeting of the INAA measurement. (81)Br was chosen as the target isotope, and the INAA measurements for bromine were experimentally confirmed to exhibit good linearity within a bromine content range of 10-170 μg. The established method has been applied to the analysis of eight plastic samples: four commercially available certified reference materials (CRMs) of polyethylene and polystyrene and four acrylonitrile butadiene styrene (ABS) samples prepared as the candidate reference materials (KRISS CRM 113-01-012, -013, -014 and -015). The bromine contents of the samples were calculated at three different γ-ray energies and compared, showing good agreement. The results of the four CRMs also showed good consistency with their certified values within the stated uncertainties. Finally, the bromine contents of the ABS samples were determined with expanded uncertainties (at a 95% level of confidence) between 2.5% and 5% in a bromine content range of 25-900 mg kg(-1). PMID:23498117

  2. Precision mass measurements of highly charged ions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwiatkowski, A. A.; Bale, J. C.; Brunner, T.; Chaudhuri, A.; Chowdhury, U.; Ettenauer, S.; Frekers, D.; Gallant, A. T.; Grossheim, A.; Lennarz, A.; Mane, E.; MacDonald, T. D.; Schultz, B. E.; Simon, M. C.; Simon, V. V.; Dilling, J.

    2012-10-01

    The reputation of Penning trap mass spectrometry for accuracy and precision was established with singly charged ions (SCI); however, the achievable precision and resolving power can be extended by using highly charged ions (HCI). The TITAN facility has demonstrated these enhancements for long-lived (T1/2>=50 ms) isobars and low-lying isomers, including ^71Ge^21+, ^74Rb^8+, ^78Rb^8+, and ^98Rb^15+. The Q-value of ^71Ge enters into the neutrino cross section, and the use of HCI reduced the resolving power required to distinguish the isobars from 3 x 10^5 to 20. The precision achieved in the measurement of ^74Rb^8+, a superallowed β-emitter and candidate to test the CVC hypothesis, rivaled earlier measurements with SCI in a fraction of the time. The 111.19(22) keV isomeric state in ^78Rb was resolved from the ground state. Mass measurements of neutron-rich Rb and Sr isotopes near A = 100 aid in determining the r-process pathway. Advanced ion manipulation techniques and recent results will be presented.

  3. CLASH-VLT: INSIGHTS ON THE MASS SUBSTRUCTURES IN THE FRONTIER FIELDS CLUSTER MACS J0416.1–2403 THROUGH ACCURATE STRONG LENS MODELING

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grillo, C. [Dark Cosmology Centre, Niels Bohr Institute, University of Copenhagen, Juliane Maries Vej 30, DK-2100 Copenhagen (Denmark); Suyu, S. H.; Umetsu, K. [Institute of Astronomy and Astrophysics, Academia Sinica, P.O. Box 23-141, Taipei 10617, Taiwan (China); Rosati, P.; Caminha, G. B. [Dipartimento di Fisica e Scienze della Terra, Università degli Studi di Ferrara, Via Saragat 1, I-44122 Ferrara (Italy); Mercurio, A. [INAF - Osservatorio Astronomico di Capodimonte, Via Moiariello 16, I-80131 Napoli (Italy); Balestra, I.; Munari, E.; Nonino, M.; De Lucia, G.; Borgani, S.; Biviano, A.; Girardi, M. [INAF - Osservatorio Astronomico di Trieste, via G. B. Tiepolo 11, I-34143, Trieste (Italy); Lombardi, M. [Dipartimento di Fisica, Università degli Studi di Milano, via Celoria 16, I-20133 Milano (Italy); Gobat, R. [Laboratoire AIM-Paris-Saclay, CEA/DSM-CNRS-Universitè Paris Diderot, Irfu/Service d' Astrophysique, CEA Saclay, Orme des Merisiers, F-91191 Gif sur Yvette (France); Coe, D.; Koekemoer, A. M.; Postman, M. [Space Telescope Science Institute, 3700 San Martin Drive, Baltimore, MD 21208 (United States); Zitrin, A. [Cahill Center for Astronomy and Astrophysics, California Institute of Technology, MS 249-17, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Halkola, A., E-mail: grillo@dark-cosmology.dk; and others

    2015-02-10

    We present a detailed mass reconstruction and a novel study on the substructure properties in the core of the Cluster Lensing And Supernova survey with Hubble (CLASH) and Frontier Fields galaxy cluster MACS J0416.1–2403. We show and employ our extensive spectroscopic data set taken with the VIsible Multi-Object Spectrograph instrument as part of our CLASH-VLT program, to confirm spectroscopically 10 strong lensing systems and to select a sample of 175 plausible cluster members to a limiting stellar mass of log (M {sub *}/M {sub ☉}) ≅ 8.6. We reproduce the measured positions of a set of 30 multiple images with a remarkable median offset of only 0.''3 by means of a comprehensive strong lensing model comprised of two cluster dark-matter halos, represented by cored elliptical pseudo-isothermal mass distributions, and the cluster member components, parameterized with dual pseudo-isothermal total mass profiles. The latter have total mass-to-light ratios increasing with the galaxy HST/WFC3 near-IR (F160W) luminosities. The measurement of the total enclosed mass within the Einstein radius is accurate to ∼5%, including the systematic uncertainties estimated from six distinct mass models. We emphasize that the use of multiple-image systems with spectroscopic redshifts and knowledge of cluster membership based on extensive spectroscopic information is key to constructing robust high-resolution mass maps. We also produce magnification maps over the central area that is covered with HST observations. We investigate the galaxy contribution, both in terms of total and stellar mass, to the total mass budget of the cluster. When compared with the outcomes of cosmological N-body simulations, our results point to a lack of massive subhalos in the inner regions of simulated clusters with total masses similar to that of MACS J0416.1–2403. Our findings of the location and shape of the cluster dark-matter halo density profiles and on the cluster substructures provide

  4. Measurement of the W mass at LEP

    CERN Document Server

    Przysiezniak, H

    2000-01-01

    The mass of the W boson is measured using W pair events collected with the ALEPH, DELPHI, L3 and OPAL detectors at LEP2. Three methods are used: the cross section method, the lepton energy spectrum method and the direct reconstruction method, where the latter is described more in detail. For data collected at E/sub cm/=161, 172 and 183 GeV, the following combined preliminary result is obtained: M/sub W//sup LEP/=80.37+or-0.08 GeV/c/sup 2/. (5 refs).

  5. Extracting accurate strain measurements in bone mechanics: A critical review of current methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grassi, Lorenzo; Isaksson, Hanna

    2015-10-01

    Osteoporosis related fractures are a social burden that advocates for more accurate fracture prediction methods. Mechanistic methods, e.g. finite element models, have been proposed as a tool to better predict bone mechanical behaviour and strength. However, there is little consensus about the optimal constitutive law to describe bone as a material. Extracting reliable and relevant strain data from experimental tests is of fundamental importance to better understand bone mechanical properties, and to validate numerical models. Several techniques have been used to measure strain in experimental mechanics, with substantial differences in terms of accuracy, precision, time- and length-scale. Each technique presents upsides and downsides that must be carefully evaluated when designing the experiment. Moreover, additional complexities are often encountered when applying such strain measurement techniques to bone, due to its complex composite structure. This review of literature examined the four most commonly adopted methods for strain measurements (strain gauges, fibre Bragg grating sensors, digital image correlation, and digital volume correlation), with a focus on studies with bone as a substrate material, at the organ and tissue level. For each of them the working principles, a summary of the main applications to bone mechanics at the organ- and tissue-level, and a list of pros and cons are provided. PMID:26099201

  6. An Accurate Method for Measuring Airplane-Borne Conformal Antenna's Radar Cross Section

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Shuxia; Zhang, Lei; Wang, Yafeng; Hu, Chufeng

    2016-09-01

    The airplane-borne conformal antenna attaches itself tightly with the airplane skin, so the conventional measurement method cannot determine the contribution of the airplane-borne conformal antenna to its radar cross section (RCS). This paper uses the 2D microwave imaging to isolate and extract the distribution of the reflectivity of the airplane-borne conformal antenna. It obtains the 2D spatial spectra of the conformal antenna through the wave spectral transform between the 2D spatial image and the 2D spatial spectrum. After the interpolation from the rectangular coordinate domain to the polar coordinate domain, the spectral domain data for the variation of the scatter of the conformal antenna with frequency and angle is obtained. The experimental results show that the measurement method proposed in this paper greatly enhances the airplane-borne conformal antenna's RCS measurement accuracy, essentially eliminates the influences caused by the airplane skin and more accurately reveals the airplane-borne conformal antenna's RCS scatter properties.

  7. Can structured data fields accurately measure quality of care? The example of falls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David A. Ganz, MD, PhD

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available By automating collection of data elements, electronic health records may simplify the process of measuring the quality of medical care. Using data from a quality improvement initiative in primary care medical groups, we sought to determine whether the quality of care for falls and fear of falling in outpatients aged 75 and older could be accurately measured solely from codable (non-free-text data in a structured visit note. A traditional medical record review by trained abstractors served as the criterion standard. Among 215 patient records reviewed, we found a structured visit note in 54% of charts within 3 mo of the date patients had been identified as having falls or fear of falling. The reliability of an algorithm based on codable data was at least good (kappa of at least 0.61 compared with full medical record review for three care processes recommended for patients with two falls or one fall with injury in the past year: orthostatic vital signs, vision test/eye examination, and home safety evaluation. However, the automated algorithm routinely underestimated quality of care. Performance standards based on automated measurement of quality of care from electronic health records need to account for documentation occurring in nonstructured form.

  8. To quark mass measurements at the Tevatron

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maria Florencia Canelli

    2003-10-15

    We present two new measurements of the top-quark mass. Using the same methodology applied in Run I, the CDF experiment uses 72 pb{sup -1} of Run II data to measure M{sub top} = 171.2 {+-} 13.4{sub stat} {+-} 99{sub syst} GeV/c{sup 2}. On the other hand, the D0 experiment, using 125 pb{sup -1} from Run I, and applying a new method that extracts information from data through a direct calculation of a probability for each event, obtains M{sub top} = 180.1 {+-} 3.6{sub stat} {+-} 4.0{sub syst} GeV/c{sup 2}.

  9. High resolution/accurate mass (HRMS) detection of anatoxin-a in lake water using LDTD-APCI coupled to a Q-Exactive mass spectrometer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy-Lachapelle, Audrey; Solliec, Morgan; Sinotte, Marc; Deblois, Christian; Sauvé, Sébastien

    2015-01-01

    A new innovative analytical method combining ultra-fast analysis time with high resolution/accurate mass detection was developed to eliminate the misidentification of anatoxin-a (ANA-a), a cyanobacterial toxin, from the natural amino acid phenylalanine (PHE). This was achieved by using the laser diode thermal desorption-atmospheric pressure chemical ionization (LDTD-APCI) coupled to the Q-Exactive, a high resolution/accurate mass spectrometer (HRMS). This novel combination, the LDTD-APCI-HRMS, allowed for an ultra-fast analysis time (0.999). Enhancement of signal to noise ratios relative to a standard triple-quadrupole method was demonstrated with lower detection and quantification limit values of 0.2 and 0.6 μg/L using the Q-Exactive. Accuracy and interday/intraday relative standard deviations were below 15%. The new method was applied to 8 different lake water samples with signs of cyanobacterial blooms. This work demonstrates the possibility of using an ultra-fast LDTD-APCI sample introduction system with an HRMS hybrid instrument for quantitative purposes with high selectivity in complex environmental matrices. PMID:25476385

  10. Measuring intermediate mass black hole binaries with advanced gravitational wave detectors

    CERN Document Server

    Veitch, John; Mandel, Ilya

    2015-01-01

    We perform a systematic study to explore the accuracy with which the parameters of intermediate-mass black-hole binary systems can be measured from their gravitational wave (GW) signatures using second-generation GW detectors. We make use of the most recent reduced-order models containing inspiral, merger and ringdown signals of aligned-spin effective-one-body waveforms (SEOBNR) to significantly speed up the calculations. We explore the phenomenology of the measurement accuracies for binaries with total masses between 50 and 500 $M_\\odot$ and mass ratios between 0.1 and 1. We find that (i) at total masses below ~200 $M_\\odot$, where the signal-to-noise-ratio is dominated by the inspiral portion of the signal, the chirp mass parameter can be accurately measured; (ii) at higher masses, the information content is dominated by the ringdown, and total mass is measured more accurately; (iii) the mass of the lower-mass companion is poorly estimated, especially at high total mass and more extreme mass ratios; (iv) sp...

  11. High-Frequency CTD Measurements for Accurate GPS/acoustic Sea-floor Crustal Deformation Measurement System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tadokoro, K.; Yasuda, K.; Taniguchi, S.; Uemura, Y.; Matsuhiro, K.

    2015-12-01

    The GPS/acoustic sea-floor crustal deformation measurement system has developed as a useful tool to observe tectonic deformation especially at subduction zones. One of the factors preventing accurate GPS/acoustic sea-floor crustal deformation measurement is horizontal heterogeneity of sound speed in the ocean. It is therefore necessary to measure the gradient directly from sound speed structure. We report results of high-frequency CTD measurements using Underway CTD (UCTD) in the Kuroshio region. We perform the UCTD measurements on May 2nd, 2015 at two stations (TCA and TOA) above the sea-floor benchmarks installed across the Nankai Trough, off the south-east of Kii Peninsula, middle Japan. The number of measurement points is six at each station along circles with a diameter of 1.8 nautical miles around the sea-floor benchmark. The stations TCA and TOA are located on the edge and the interior of the Kuroshio current, respectively, judging from difference in sea water density measured at the two stations, as well as a satellite image of sea-surface temperature distribution. We detect a sound speed gradient of high speeds in the southern part and low speeds in the northern part at the two stations. At the TCA station, the gradient is noticeable down to 300 m in depth; the maximum difference in sound speed is +/- 5 m/s. The sound speed difference is as small as +/- 1.3 m/s at depths below 300 m, which causes seafloor benchmark positioning error as large as 1 m. At the TOA station, the gradient is extremely small down to 100 m in depth. The maximum difference in sound speed is less than +/- 0.3 m/s that is negligible small for seafloor benchmark positioning error. Clear gradient of high speed is observed to the depths; the maximum difference in sound speed is +/- 0.8-0.9 m/s, causing seafloor benchmark positioning error of several tens centimeters. The UCTD measurement is effective tool to detect sound speed gradient. We establish a method for accurate sea

  12. Multiclass semi-volatile compounds determination in wine by gas chromatography accurate time-of-flight mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-Cabo, T; Rodríguez, I; Ramil, M; Silva, A; Cela, R

    2016-04-15

    The performance of gas chromatography (GC) with accurate, high resolution mass spectrometry (HRMS) for the determination of a group of 39 semi-volatile compounds related to wine quality (pesticide residues, phenolic off-flavours, phenolic pollutants and bioactive stilbenes) is investigated. Solid-phase extraction (SPE) was used as extraction technique, previously to acetylation (phenolic compounds) and dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction (DLLME) concentration. Compounds were determined by GC coupled to a quadrupole time-of-flight (QTOF) MS system through an electron ionization (EI) source. The final method attained limits of quantification (LOQs) at the very low ng mL(-1) level, covering the range of expected concentrations for target compounds in red and white wines. For 38 out of 39 compounds, performance of sample preparation and determination steps were hardly affected by the wine matrix; thus, accurate recoveries were achieved by using pseudo-external calibration. Levels of target compounds in a set of 25 wine samples are reported. The capabilities of the described approach for the post-run identification of species not considered during method development, without retention time information, are illustrated and discussed with selected examples of compounds from different classes. PMID:26971021

  13. Multiclass semi-volatile compounds determination in wine by gas chromatography accurate time-of-flight mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-Cabo, T; Rodríguez, I; Ramil, M; Silva, A; Cela, R

    2016-04-15

    The performance of gas chromatography (GC) with accurate, high resolution mass spectrometry (HRMS) for the determination of a group of 39 semi-volatile compounds related to wine quality (pesticide residues, phenolic off-flavours, phenolic pollutants and bioactive stilbenes) is investigated. Solid-phase extraction (SPE) was used as extraction technique, previously to acetylation (phenolic compounds) and dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction (DLLME) concentration. Compounds were determined by GC coupled to a quadrupole time-of-flight (QTOF) MS system through an electron ionization (EI) source. The final method attained limits of quantification (LOQs) at the very low ng mL(-1) level, covering the range of expected concentrations for target compounds in red and white wines. For 38 out of 39 compounds, performance of sample preparation and determination steps were hardly affected by the wine matrix; thus, accurate recoveries were achieved by using pseudo-external calibration. Levels of target compounds in a set of 25 wine samples are reported. The capabilities of the described approach for the post-run identification of species not considered during method development, without retention time information, are illustrated and discussed with selected examples of compounds from different classes.

  14. Incentives Increase Participation in Mass Dog Rabies Vaccination Clinics and Methods of Coverage Estimation Are Assessed to Be Accurate.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abel B Minyoo

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In this study we show that incentives (dog collars and owner wristbands are effective at increasing owner participation in mass dog rabies vaccination clinics and we conclude that household questionnaire surveys and the mark-re-sight (transect survey method for estimating post-vaccination coverage are accurate when all dogs, including puppies, are included. Incentives were distributed during central-point rabies vaccination clinics in northern Tanzania to quantify their effect on owner participation. In villages where incentives were handed out participation increased, with an average of 34 more dogs being vaccinated. Through economies of scale, this represents a reduction in the cost-per-dog of $0.47. This represents the price-threshold under which the cost of the incentive used must fall to be economically viable. Additionally, vaccination coverage levels were determined in ten villages through the gold-standard village-wide census technique, as well as through two cheaper and quicker methods (randomized household questionnaire and the transect survey. Cost data were also collected. Both non-gold standard methods were found to be accurate when puppies were included in the calculations, although the transect survey and the household questionnaire survey over- and under-estimated the coverage respectively. Given that additional demographic data can be collected through the household questionnaire survey, and that its estimate of coverage is more conservative, we recommend this method. Despite the use of incentives the average vaccination coverage was below the 70% threshold for eliminating rabies. We discuss the reasons and suggest solutions to improve coverage. Given recent international targets to eliminate rabies, this study provides valuable and timely data to help improve mass dog vaccination programs in Africa and elsewhere.

  15. Incentives Increase Participation in Mass Dog Rabies Vaccination Clinics and Methods of Coverage Estimation Are Assessed to Be Accurate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minyoo, Abel B; Steinmetz, Melissa; Czupryna, Anna; Bigambo, Machunde; Mzimbiri, Imam; Powell, George; Gwakisa, Paul; Lankester, Felix

    2015-12-01

    In this study we show that incentives (dog collars and owner wristbands) are effective at increasing owner participation in mass dog rabies vaccination clinics and we conclude that household questionnaire surveys and the mark-re-sight (transect survey) method for estimating post-vaccination coverage are accurate when all dogs, including puppies, are included. Incentives were distributed during central-point rabies vaccination clinics in northern Tanzania to quantify their effect on owner participation. In villages where incentives were handed out participation increased, with an average of 34 more dogs being vaccinated. Through economies of scale, this represents a reduction in the cost-per-dog of $0.47. This represents the price-threshold under which the cost of the incentive used must fall to be economically viable. Additionally, vaccination coverage levels were determined in ten villages through the gold-standard village-wide census technique, as well as through two cheaper and quicker methods (randomized household questionnaire and the transect survey). Cost data were also collected. Both non-gold standard methods were found to be accurate when puppies were included in the calculations, although the transect survey and the household questionnaire survey over- and under-estimated the coverage respectively. Given that additional demographic data can be collected through the household questionnaire survey, and that its estimate of coverage is more conservative, we recommend this method. Despite the use of incentives the average vaccination coverage was below the 70% threshold for eliminating rabies. We discuss the reasons and suggest solutions to improve coverage. Given recent international targets to eliminate rabies, this study provides valuable and timely data to help improve mass dog vaccination programs in Africa and elsewhere. PMID:26633821

  16. Incentives Increase Participation in Mass Dog Rabies Vaccination Clinics and Methods of Coverage Estimation Are Assessed to Be Accurate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinmetz, Melissa; Czupryna, Anna; Bigambo, Machunde; Mzimbiri, Imam; Powell, George; Gwakisa, Paul

    2015-01-01

    In this study we show that incentives (dog collars and owner wristbands) are effective at increasing owner participation in mass dog rabies vaccination clinics and we conclude that household questionnaire surveys and the mark-re-sight (transect survey) method for estimating post-vaccination coverage are accurate when all dogs, including puppies, are included. Incentives were distributed during central-point rabies vaccination clinics in northern Tanzania to quantify their effect on owner participation. In villages where incentives were handed out participation increased, with an average of 34 more dogs being vaccinated. Through economies of scale, this represents a reduction in the cost-per-dog of $0.47. This represents the price-threshold under which the cost of the incentive used must fall to be economically viable. Additionally, vaccination coverage levels were determined in ten villages through the gold-standard village-wide census technique, as well as through two cheaper and quicker methods (randomized household questionnaire and the transect survey). Cost data were also collected. Both non-gold standard methods were found to be accurate when puppies were included in the calculations, although the transect survey and the household questionnaire survey over- and under-estimated the coverage respectively. Given that additional demographic data can be collected through the household questionnaire survey, and that its estimate of coverage is more conservative, we recommend this method. Despite the use of incentives the average vaccination coverage was below the 70% threshold for eliminating rabies. We discuss the reasons and suggest solutions to improve coverage. Given recent international targets to eliminate rabies, this study provides valuable and timely data to help improve mass dog vaccination programs in Africa and elsewhere. PMID:26633821

  17. CALIBRATION OF X-RAY IMAGING DEVICES FOR ACCURATE INTENSITY MEASUREMENT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haugh, M J; Charest, M R; Ross, P W; Lee, J J; Schneider, M B; Palmer, N E; Teruya, A T

    2012-02-16

    National Security Technologies (NSTec) has developed calibration procedures for X-ray imaging systems. The X-ray sources that are used for calibration are both diode type and diode/fluorescer combinations. Calibrating the X-ray detectors is key to accurate calibration of the X-ray sources. Both energy dispersive detectors and photodiodes measuring total flux were used. We have developed calibration techniques for the detectors using radioactive sources that are traceable to the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST). The German synchrotron at Physikalische Technische Bundestalt (PTB) is used to calibrate silicon photodiodes over the energy range from 50 eV to 60 keV. The measurements on X-ray cameras made using the NSTec X-ray sources have included quantum efficiency averaged over all pixels, camera counts per photon per pixel, and response variation across the sensor. The instrumentation required to accomplish the calibrations is described. X-ray energies ranged from 720 eV to 22.7 keV. The X-ray sources produce narrow energy bands, allowing us to determine the properties as a function of X-ray energy. The calibrations were done for several types of imaging devices. There were back illuminated and front illuminated CCD (charge coupled device) sensors, and a CID (charge injection device) type camera. The CCD and CID camera types differ significantly in some of their properties that affect the accuracy of X-ray intensity measurements. All cameras discussed here are silicon based. The measurements of quantum efficiency variation with X-ray energy are compared to models for the sensor structure. Cameras that are not back-thinned are compared to those that are.

  18. Accurate, in vivo NIR measurement of skeletal muscle oxygenation through fat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Chunguang; Zou, Fengmei; Ellerby, Gwenn E. C.; Scott, Peter; Peshlov, Boyan; Soller, Babs R.

    2010-02-01

    Noninvasive near infrared (NIR) spectroscopic measurement of muscle oxygenation requires the penetration of light through overlying skin and fat layers. We have previously demonstrated a dual-light source design and orthogonalization algorithm that corrects for inference from skin absorption and fat scattering. To achieve accurate muscle oxygen saturation (SmO2) measurement, one must select the appropriate source-detector distance (SD) to completely penetrate the fat layer. Methods: Six healthy subjects were supine for 15min to normalize tissue oxygenation across the body. NIR spectra were collected from the calf, shoulder, lower and upper thigh muscles with long SD distances of 30mm, 35mm, 40mm and 45mm. Spectral preprocessing with the short SD (3mm) spectrum preceded SmO2 calculation with a Taylor series expansion method. Three-way ANOVA was used to compare SmO2 values over varying fat thickness, subjects and SD distances. Results: Overlying fat layers varied in thickness from 4.9mm to 19.6mm across all subjects. SmO2 measured at the four locations were comparable for each subject (p=0.133), regardless of fat thickness and SD distance. SmO2 (mean+/-std dev) measured at calf, shoulder, low and high thigh were 62+/-3%, 59+/-8%, 61+/-2%, 61+/-4% respectively for SD distance of 30mm. In these subjects no significant influence of SD was observed (p=0.948). Conclusions: The results indicate that for our sensor design a 30mm SD is sufficient to penetrate through a 19mm fat layer and that orthogonalization with short SD effectively removed spectral interference from fat to result in a reproducible determination of SmO2.

  19. Fast and accurate measurement of diffusion coefficient by Taylor's dispersion analysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    This investigation aimed at improving the performance of Taylor's dispersion analysis for the fast and accurate measurement of diffusion coefficient of a minute solute in various solvents. The investigation was carried out on a capillary electrophoresis instrument by monitoring the UV absorption peak of a solute pulse and calculating the diffusion coefficient by peak efficiency. With L-phenylalanine as a main testing solute, some key factors were afterward disclosed including especially the capillary size, carrier flow velocity, injection volume and capillary conditioning. Peak tailing, large volume of sample injection and slow migration were found to underestimate the diffusion coefficient while very fast migration and high sample concentration caused overestimation. At a moderate flow velocity of 0.1―1 cm/s with a capillary of 72.44 μm I.D.×60 cm (50 cm effective) maintained at 25℃, the diffusion coefficient of aqueous L-phenylalanine was determined, giving a value of 7.02×10-6 cm2/s with error<2% and relative standard deviation<0.2% (n=3). The method was shown to be applicable to the measurement of various samples such as aqueous phenylalanine, acetone, phenol, toluene and benzene, and nonaqueous benzene (in ethanol or 1-butanol).

  20. An accurate low current measurement circuit for heavy iron beam current monitor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heavy-ion beams at 106 particles per second have been applied to the treatment of deep-seated inoperable tumors in the therapy terminal of the Heavy Ion Research Facility in Lanzhou (HIRFL) which is located at the Institute of Modern Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences (IMP, CAS). An accurate low current measurement circuit following a Faraday cup was developed to monitor the beam current at pA range. The circuit consisted of a picoammeter with a bandwidth of 1 kHz and a gated integrator (GI). A low input bias current precision amplifier and new guarding and shielding techniques were used in the picoammeter circuit which allowed as to measure current less than 1 pA with a current gain of 0.22 V/pA and noise less than 10 fA. This paper will also describe a novel compensation approach which reduced the charge injection from switches in the GI to 10−18 C, and a T-switch configuration which was used to eliminate leakage current in the reset switch.

  1. Accurate measurement of interferometer group delay using field-compensated scanning white light interferometer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wan, Xiaoke; Wang, Ji; Ge, Jian

    2010-10-10

    Interferometers are key elements in radial velocity (RV) experiments in astronomy observations, and accurate calibration of the group delay of an interferometer is required for high precision measurements. A novel field-compensated white light scanning Michelson interferometer is introduced as an interferometer calibration tool. The optical path difference (OPD) scanning was achieved by translating a compensation prism, such that even if the light source were in low spatial coherence, the interference stays spatially phase coherent over a large interferometer scanning range. In the wavelength region of 500-560 nm, a multimode fiber-coupled LED was used as the light source, and high optical efficiency was essential in elevating the signal-to-noise ratio of the interferogram signal. The achromatic OPD scanning required a one-time calibration, and two methods using dual-laser wavelength references and an iodine absorption spectrum reference were employed and cross-verified. In an experiment measuring the group delay of a fixed Michelson interferometer, Fourier analysis was employed to process the interferogram data. The group delay was determined at an accuracy of 1×10(-5), and the phase angle precision was typically 2.5×10(-6) over the wide wavelength region.

  2. Accurately measuring volume of soil samples using low cost Kinect 3D scanner

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Sterre, Boy-Santhos; Hut, Rolf; van de Giesen, Nick

    2013-04-01

    The 3D scanner of the Kinect game controller can be used to increase the accuracy and efficiency of determining in situ soil moisture content. Soil moisture is one of the principal hydrological variables in both the water and energy interactions between soil and atmosphere. Current in situ measurements of soil moisture either rely on indirect measurements (of electromagnetic constants or heat capacity) or on physically taking a sample and weighing it in a lab. The bottleneck in accurately retrieving soil moisture using samples is the determining of the volume of the sample. Currently this is mostly done by the very time consuming "sand cone method" in which the volume were the sample used to sit is filled with sand. We show that 3D scanner that is part of the 150 game controller extension "Kinect" can be used to make 3D scans before and after taking the sample. The accuracy of this method is tested by scanning forms of known volume. This method is less time consuming and less error-prone than using a sand cone.

  3. Development and evaluation of a liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry method for rapid, accurate quantitation of malondialdehyde in human plasma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sobsey, Constance A; Han, Jun; Lin, Karen; Swardfager, Walter; Levitt, Anthony; Borchers, Christoph H

    2016-09-01

    Malondialdhyde (MDA) is a commonly used marker of lipid peroxidation in oxidative stress. To provide a sensitive analytical method that is compatible with high throughput, we developed a multiple reaction monitoring-mass spectrometry (MRM-MS) approach using 3-nitrophenylhydrazine chemical derivatization, isotope-labeling, and liquid chromatography (LC) with electrospray ionization (ESI)-tandem mass spectrometry assay to accurately quantify MDA in human plasma. A stable isotope-labeled internal standard was used to compensate for ESI matrix effects. The assay is linear (R(2)=0.9999) over a 20,000-fold concentration range with a lower limit of quantitation of 30fmol (on-column). Intra- and inter-run coefficients of variation (CVs) were 36h at 5°C. Standards spiked into plasma had recoveries of 92-98%. When compared to a common LC-UV method, the LC-MS method found near-identical MDA concentrations. A pilot project to quantify MDA in patient plasma samples (n=26) in a study of major depressive disorder with winter-type seasonal pattern (MDD-s) confirmed known associations between MDA concentrations and obesity (p<0.02). The LC-MS method provides high sensitivity and high reproducibility for quantifying MDA in human plasma. The simple sample preparation and rapid analysis time (5x faster than LC-UV) offers high throughput for large-scale clinical applications. PMID:27437618

  4. A particle-tracking approach for accurate material derivative measurements with tomographic PIV

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novara, Matteo; Scarano, Fulvio

    2013-08-01

    The evaluation of the instantaneous 3D pressure field from tomographic PIV data relies on the accurate estimate of the fluid velocity material derivative, i.e., the velocity time rate of change following a given fluid element. To date, techniques that reconstruct the fluid parcel trajectory from a time sequence of 3D velocity fields obtained with Tomo-PIV have already been introduced. However, an accurate evaluation of the fluid element acceleration requires trajectory reconstruction over a relatively long observation time, which reduces random errors. On the other hand, simple integration and finite difference techniques suffer from increasing truncation errors when complex trajectories need to be reconstructed over a long time interval. In principle, particle-tracking velocimetry techniques (3D-PTV) enable the accurate reconstruction of single particle trajectories over a long observation time. Nevertheless, PTV can be reliably performed only at limited particle image number density due to errors caused by overlapping particles. The particle image density can be substantially increased by use of tomographic PIV. In the present study, a technique to combine the higher information density of tomographic PIV and the accurate trajectory reconstruction of PTV is proposed (Tomo-3D-PTV). The particle-tracking algorithm is applied to the tracers detected in the 3D domain obtained by tomographic reconstruction. The 3D particle information is highly sparse and intersection of trajectories is virtually impossible. As a result, ambiguities in the particle path identification over subsequent recordings are easily avoided. Polynomial fitting functions are introduced that describe the particle position in time with sequences based on several recordings, leading to the reduction in truncation errors for complex trajectories. Moreover, the polynomial regression approach provides a reduction in the random errors due to the particle position measurement. Finally, the acceleration

  5. Sitting and standing blood pressure measurements are not accurate for the diagnosis of orthostatic hypotension.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Cooke, J

    2012-01-31

    INTRODUCTION: Orthostatic hypotension (OH) is associated with troublesome symptoms and increased mortality. It is treatable and deserving of accurate diagnosis. This can be time consuming. The current reference standard for its diagnosis is head-up tilt (HUT) testing with continuous beat-to-beat plethysmography. Our objective was to assess the accuracy of sit-stand testing with semi-automatic sphygmomanometry for the diagnosis of OH. DESIGN: Retrospective test of diagnostic accuracy. METHODS: This was a retrospective study performed using a database maintained by a busy syncope unit. HUT testing was performed using an automated tilt table with Finometer monitoring. A 3 min 70 degrees HUT was performed following 5 min supine. Sitting blood pressure (BP) was measured following 3 min rest. Standing BP was measured within 30 s of assuming the upright posture. The results of sit-stand testing were compared with HUT testing as a reference standard. Both tests happened within 5 min of each other and patients underwent no intervention between tests. RESULTS: From a total of 1452 consecutive HUTs, we identified 730 with pre-test measures of sitting and standing BP. The mean age of this group was 70.57 years (SD = 15.1), 62% were female. The sensitivity of sit-stand testing was calculated as 15.5%, specificity as 89.9%, positive predictive value as 61.7%, negative predictive value as 50.2% and the likelihood ratio as 1.6. The area under the Receiver Operator Curve was 0.564. CONCLUSION: We have demonstrated that sit-stand testing for OH has very low diagnostic accuracy. We recommend that the more time-consuming reference standard method of diagnosis be used if the condition is suspected.

  6. Measurement of the top quark mass

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Varnes, E.W.

    1997-12-31

    This dissertation describes the measurement of the top quark mass m{sub t} using events recorded during a 125 pb{sup -1} exposure of the D0 detector to {radical}s=1.8 TeV {anti p}p collisions. Six events consistent with the hypothesis t{anti t} {yields} bW{sup +}, {anti b}W{sup -} {yields} b{anti l}{nu}, {anti b}l{anti {nu}} form the dilepton sample. The kinematics of such events may be reconstructed for any assumed mt, and the likelihood of each such solution evaluated. A measurement of m{sub t} based on these relative solution likelihoods gives m{sub t} = 169.9 {+-} 14.8 (stat.) {+-} 3. 8 (syst.) GeV/c{sup 2}. A 2C kinematic fit is performed on a sample of 77 events consistent with t{anti t} {yields} bW{sup +}, {anti b}W{sup -} {yields} b{anti l}{nu}, {anti b}q{anti q} , and this, in combination with an estimate on the likelihood that each event is top, yields m{sub t} = 173.3 {+-} 5.6 (stat.) {+-} 6.2 (syst.) GeV/c{sup 2} . A combination of these two measurements gives m{sub t} = 173.1 {+-} 5.2 (stat.) {+-} 5.7 (syst.) GeV/c{sup 2}.

  7. Measurement of the top quark mass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This dissertation describes the measurement of the top quark mass mt using events recorded during a 125 pb-1 exposure of the D0 detector to √s=1.8 TeV anti pp collisions. Six events consistent with the hypothesis t anti t → bW+, anti bW- → b anti lν, anti bl anti ν form the dilepton sample. The kinematics of such events may be reconstructed for any assumed mt, and the likelihood of each such solution evaluated. A measurement of mt based on these relative solution likelihoods gives mt = 169.9 ± 14.8 (stat.) ± 3. 8 (syst.) GeV/c2. A 2C kinematic fit is performed on a sample of 77 events consistent with t anti t → bW+, anti bW- → b anti lν, anti bq anti q , and this, in combination with an estimate on the likelihood that each event is top, yields mt = 173.3 ± 5.6 (stat.) ± 6.2 (syst.) GeV/c2 . A combination of these two measurements gives mt = 173.1 ± 5.2 (stat.) ± 5.7 (syst.) GeV/c2

  8. Flow angle from intermediate mass fragment measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rami, F.; Crochet, P.; Dona, R.; De Schauenburg, B.; Wagner, P.; Alard, J.P.; Andronic, A.; Basrak, Z.; Bastid, N.; Belyaev, I.; Bendarag, A.; Berek, G.; Best, D.; Caplar, R.; Devismes, A.; Dupieux, P.; Dzelalija, M.; Eskef, M.; Fodor, Z.; Gobbi, A.; Grishkin, Y.; Herrmann, N.; Hildenbrand, K.D.; Hong, B.; Kecskemeti, J.; Kirejczyk, M.; Korolija, M.; Kotte, R.; Lebedev, A.; Leifels, Y.; Merlitz, H.; Mohren, S.; Moisa, D.; Neubert, W.; Pelte, D.; Petrovici, M.; Pinkenburg, C.; Plettner, C.; Reisdorf, W.; Schuell, D.; Seres, Z.; Sikora, B.; Simion, V.; Siwek-Wilczynska, K.; Stoicea, G.; Stockmeir, M.; Vasiliev, M.; Wisniewski, K.; Wohlfarth, D.; Yushmanov, I.; Zhilin, A

    1999-02-15

    Directed sideward flow of light charged particles and intermediate mass fragments was measured in different symmetric reactions at bombarding energies from 90 to 800 A MeV. The flow parameter is found to increase with the charge of the detected fragment up to Z = 3-4 and then turns into saturation for heavier fragments. Guided by simple simulations of an anisotropic expanding thermal source, we show that the value at saturation can provide a good estimate of the flow angle, {theta}{sub flow}, in the participant region. It is found that {theta}{sub flow} depends strongly on the impact parameter. The excitation function of {theta}{sub flow} reveals striking deviations from the ideal hydrodynamical scaling. The data exhibit a steep rise of {theta}{sub flow} to a maximum at around 250 - 400 A MeV, followed by a moderate decrease as the bombarding energy increases further.

  9. Fat mass measured by DXA varies with scan velocity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Black, Eva; Petersen, Liselotte; Kreutzer, Martin;

    2002-01-01

    To study the influence of scan velocities of DXA on the measured size of fat mass, lean body mass, bone mineral content and density, and total body weight.......To study the influence of scan velocities of DXA on the measured size of fat mass, lean body mass, bone mineral content and density, and total body weight....

  10. An accurate measurement of the baryonic Tully-Fisher relation with heavily gas-dominated ALFALFA galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papastergis, E.; Adams, E. A. K.; van der Hulst, J. M.

    2016-09-01

    We use a sample of 97 galaxies selected from the Arecibo legacy fast ALFA (ALFALFA) 21 cm survey to make an accurate measurement of the baryonic Tully-Fisher relation (BTFR). These galaxies are specifically selected to be heavily gas-dominated (Mgas/M∗ ≳ 2.7) and to be oriented edge-on. The former property ensures that the error on the galactic baryonic mass is small, despite the large systematic uncertainty involved in galactic stellar mass estimates. The latter property means that rotational velocities can be derived directly from the width of the 21 cm emission line, without any need for inclination corrections. We measure a slope for the linewidth-based BTFR of α = 3.75 ± 0.11, a value that is somewhat steeper than (but in broad agreement with) previous literature results. The relation is remarkably tight, with almost all galaxies being located within a perpendicular distance of ± 0.1 dex from the best fit line. The low observational error budget for our sample enables us to establish that, despite its tightness, the measured linewidth-based BTFR has some small (i.e., non-zero) intrinsic scatter. We furthermore find a systematic difference in the BTFR of galaxies with "double-horned" 21 cm line profiles - suggestive of flat outer galactic rotation curves - and those with "peaked" profiles - suggestive of rising rotation curves. When we restrict our sample of galaxies to objects in the former category, we measure a slightly steeper slope of α = 4.13 ± 0.15. Overall, the high-accuracy measurement of the BTFR presented in this article is intended as a reliable observational benchmark against which to test theoretical expectations. Here we consider a representative set of semi-analytic models and hydrodynamic simulations in the lambda cold dark matter (ΛCDM) context, as well as modified Newtonian dynamics (MOND). In the near future, interferometric follow-up observations of several sample members will enable us to further refine the BTFR measurement, and

  11. Accurate measurements of {sup 210}Pb in industrial wastes for environmental radiation risk assessment purpose

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bonczyk, Michal; Michalik, Boguslaw [Central Mining Institute, Silesian Centre for Environmental Radioactivity, Plac Gwarkow 1, 40-166 Katowice (Poland)

    2014-07-01

    Lead {sup 210}Pb is a naturally occurring radioactive nuclide element of the uranium ({sup 238}U) radioactive series. It is produced as a result of the decay of so-called short-lived progenies of {sup 222}Rn, i.e. {sup 214}Po (99.98%) and {sup 214}Bi by {sup 219}Tl (0.02%). Activity concentration of lead {sup 210}Pb could vary independently from parent radionuclides due to its physical and chemical properties, especially, due to its half-life (T{sub 1/2} = 22,3 years). Hence, its behaviour in natural environment is very complex and difficult in forecasting. Lead {sup 210}Pb in substantial amount occurs in mining, gas and oil extraction industry wastes, which are deposited in natural environment very often. Due to lack of secular equilibrium proper radiation risk assessment requires accurate concentration of {sup 210}Pb in such materials. The laboratory measurements seem to be the only reliable method in environmental radioactivity monitoring. One of the methods is gamma-ray spectrometry, which is very fast and cost-effective method to determine {sup 210}Pb concentration. On the other hand, the self-attenuation of gamma ray from {sup 210}Pb (46,5 keV) is significant and not depends only on sample density as well the chemical composition (sample matrix) is crucial. Current work describes how the self-attenuation correction factors in the case of {sup 210}Pb concentration analysis in mining wastes are important when environmental radiation risk assessment is carried out. The measurements were done for such industrial wastes as mine sediments which contain significant amount of elements with high Z-number (Barium, Lead, etc.) Experimentally obtained correction factors range between 0.51-6.96 cm{sup 2}/g. Neglecting this factor can cause a significant error or underestimations in radiological risk assessment. (authors)

  12. MELIFT - A new device for accurate measurements in a snow rich environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dorninger, M.

    2012-04-01

    A deep snow pack, remote locations, no external power supply and very low temperatures are often the main ingredients when it comes to the deployment of meteorological stations in mountainous terrain. The accurate position of the sensor related to the snow surface is normally not known. A new device called METLIFT overcomes the problems. WMO recommends a height between 1.2 m and 2 m above ground level for the measurement of air temperature and humidity. The height above ground level is specified to take care of the possible strong vertical temperature and humidity gradients at the lowest layers in the atmosphere. Especially in snow rich and remote locations it may be hardly possible to follow this advice. Therefore most of the meteorological stations in mountainous terrain are situated at mountain tops where strong winds will blow off the snow or in valleys where a daily inspection of the sensors is possible. In other unpopulated mountainous areas, e.g. basins, plateaus, the distance of the sensor to the snow surface is not known or the sensor will be snow-covered. A new device was developed to guarantee the sensor height above surface within the WMO limits in harsh and remote environments. An ultrasonic snow height sensor measures the distance to the snow surface. If it exceeds certain limits due to snow accumulation or snow melt the lift adapts its height accordingly. The prototype of METLIFT has been installed in Lower Austria at an altitude of 1000m. The lift is 6 m high and can pull out for another 4 m. Sensor arms are mounted every meter to allow the connection of additional sensors or to measure a profile of a certain parameter of the lowest 5 m above surface. Sensors can be added easily since cable wiring is provided to each sensor arm. Horizontal winds are measured at 7 m height above surface. METLIFT is independent of external power supply. Three lead gel accumulators recharged by three solar panels provide the energy necessary for the sensors, the data

  13. Experiment to measure the electron neutrino mass using frozen tritium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The authors are performing an experiment to determine the electron neutrino mass with the precision of a few eV by measuring the tritium beta decay energy distribution near the endpoint. Key features of the experiment are a 2 eV resolution electrostatic spectometer and a high-activity frozen tritium source. It is important that the source have electronic wavefunctions which can be accurately calculated. These calculations have been made for tritium and the HeT+ daughter ion and allow determination of branching fractions to 0.1% and energy of the excited states to 0.1 eV. The authors discuss the excited final molecular state calculations and describe the experimental apparatus

  14. Use of niobium for accurate relative fast neutron fluence measurements at the pressure vessel in a WWER-440 NPP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The reaction 93Nb (n,n') /sup 93m/Nb, with low threshold energy (approximately 0.9 MeV) was used in a novel way to obtain both absolute and accurate, relative experimental estimates for the fast neutron (threshold) fluence at the inner wall of the pressure vessel (PV) in a WWER-440 type PWR reactor. Niobium was separated using chemical methods from steel samples containing 0.5...1% niobium, which had been scraped from the inner wall of the Loviisa NPP. Irradiated niobium foils from the surveillance chains (SC) were also treated in a similar way. Niobium from the liquid samples was then electro-deposited in very thin layers on copper discs. The amount of niobium deposited was determined by spectrophotometry and liquid scintillation measurements. The accuracy of the mass determination was further checked by an additional and independent method. The absolute activity of the niobium deposits was determined by measuring the 16.6 and 18.6 keV X-ray emission with a calibrated Si(Li) detector. The threshold flux PHI/sub T/ (> 0.9 MeV) was then obtained. The results indicate that the relative fluence estimates (PV/SC), which are sufficient for relating the measured embrittlement of the SC steel samples to the embrittlement of the PV, can be obtained with many times reduced in-accuracy (from tens of per cent to less than ten per cent) as compared to separate absolute estimates and estimate obtained by normalizing the calculated fluxes to conform with the measured results at the SC. (author)

  15. An accurate air temperature measurement system based on an envelope pulsed ultrasonic time-of-flight technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Y S; Huang, Y P; Huang, K N; Young, M S

    2007-11-01

    A new microcomputer based air temperature measurement system is presented. An accurate temperature measurement is derived from the measurement of sound velocity by using an ultrasonic time-of-flight (TOF) technique. The study proposes a novel algorithm that combines both amplitude modulation (AM) and phase modulation (PM) to get the TOF measurement. The proposed system uses the AM and PM envelope square waveform (APESW) to reduce the error caused by inertia delay. The APESW ultrasonic driving waveform causes an envelope zero and phase inversion phenomenon in the relative waveform of the receiver. To accurately achieve a TOF measurement, the phase inversion phenomenon was used to sufficiently identify the measurement pulse in the received waveform. Additionally, a counter clock technique was combined to compute the phase shifts of the last incomplete cycle for TOF. The presented system can obtain 0.1% TOF resolution for the period corresponding to the 40 kHz frequency ultrasonic wave. Consequently, with the integration of a humidity compensation algorithm, a highly accurate and high resolution temperature measurement can be achieved using the accurate TOF measurement. Experimental results indicate that the combined standard uncertainty of the temperature measurement is approximately 0.39 degrees C. The main advantages of this system are high resolution measurements, narrow bandwidth requirements, and ease of implementation.

  16. Rapid Screening of Bovine Milk Oligosaccharides in a Whey Permeate Product and Domestic Animal Milks by Accurate Mass Database and Tandem Mass Spectral Library.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hyeyoung; Cuthbertson, Daniel J; Otter, Don E; Barile, Daniela

    2016-08-17

    A bovine milk oligosaccharide (BMO) library, prepared from cow colostrum, with 34 structures was generated and used to rapidly screen oligosaccharides in domestic animal milks and a whey permeate powder. The novel library was entered into a custom Personal Compound Database and Library (PCDL) and included accurate mass, retention time, and tandem mass spectra. Oligosaccharides in minute-sized samples were separated using nanoliquid chromatography (nanoLC) coupled to a high resolution and sensitive quadrupole-Time of Flight (Q-ToF) MS system. Using the PCDL, 18 oligosaccharides were found in a BMO-enriched product obtained from whey permeate processing. The usefulness of the analytical system and BMO library was further validated using milks from domestic sheep and buffaloes. Through BMO PCDL searching, 15 and 13 oligosaccharides in the BMO library were assigned in sheep and buffalo milks, respectively, thus demonstrating significant overlap between oligosaccharides in bovine (cow and buffalo) and ovine (sheep) milks. This method was shown to be an efficient, reliable, and rapid tool to identify oligosaccharide structures using automated spectral matching. PMID:27428379

  17. Accurate Mass MS/MS/MS Analysis of Siderophores Ferrioxamine B and E1 by Collision-Induced Dissociation Electrospray Mass Spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sidebottom, Ashley M.; Karty, Jonathan A.; Carlson, Erin E.

    2015-11-01

    Siderophores are bacterially secreted, small molecule iron chelators that facilitate the binding of insoluble iron (III) for reuptake and use in various biological processes. These compounds are classified by their iron (III) binding geometry, as dictated by subunit composition and include groups such as the trihydroxamates (hexadentate ligand) and catecholates (bidentate). Small modifications to the core structure such as acetylation, lipid tail addition, or cyclization, make facile characterization of new siderophores difficult by molecular ion detection alone (MS1). We have expanded upon previous fragmentation-directed studies using electrospray ionization collision-induced dissociation tandem mass spectrometry (ESI-CID-MS/MS/MS) and identified diagnostic MS3 features from the trihydroxamate siderophore class for ferrioxamine B and E1 by accurate mass. Diagnostic features for MS3 include C-C, C-N, amide, and oxime cleavage events with proposed losses of water and -CO from the iron (III) coordination sites. These insights will facilitate the discovery of novel trihydroxamate siderophores from complex sample matrices.

  18. Analysis of the neurotoxic plasticizer n-butylbenzenesulfonamide by gas chromatography combined with accurate mass selected ion monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duffield, P; Bourne, D; Tan, K; Garruto, R M; Duncan, M W

    1994-01-01

    The plasticizer, n-butylbenzenesulfonamide (NBBS), is reported to be neurotoxic when inoculated intracisternally or intraperitoneally into rabbits. Because NBBS is commonly used in the production of polyamide (nylon) plastics and is soluble in water, the disposal of NBBS-containing plastics in landfill sites could result in NBBS appearing in the leachate. Further, NBBS could also be leached from packaging into their contents. To allow us to examine the risks posed by NBBS in the environment, we have developed a quantitative assay for this compound. The assay employs a one-step extraction into dichloromethane followed by gas chromatography with accurate mass selected ion recording. The assay incorporates [13C6]NBBS as an internal standard to allow precise quantitation, and four separate ion chromatograms are recorded. NBBS was found in some Australian domestic solidwaste landfill leachate (from less than 0.3 to 94.6 ng/mL), but ground water in the vicinity of a landfill had only trace quantities of NBBS. NBBS was also quantitated in some bottled and cask wines, and levels varied from not detected to 2.17 ng/mL (n = 14). Additional studies are required to assess the public health risks associated with the use of NBBS as a plasticizer. PMID:7861748

  19. Infrared Thermometer: an accurate tool for temperature measurement during renal surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giovanni Scala Marchini

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Purpose To evaluate infrared thermometer (IRT accuracy compared to standard digital thermometer in measuring kidney temperature during arterial clamping with and without renal cooling. Materials and Methods 20 pigs weighting 20Kg underwent selective right renal arterial clamping, 10 with (Group 1 - Cold Ischemia with ice slush and 10 without renal cooling (Group 2 - Warm Ischemia. Arterial clamping was performed without venous clamping. Renal temperature was serially measured following clamping of the main renal artery with the IRT and a digital contact thermometer (DT: immediate after clamping (T0, after 2 (T2, 5 (T5 and 10 minutes (T10. Temperature values were expressed in mean, standard deviation and range for each thermometer. We used the T student test to compare means and considered p < 0.05 to be statistically significant. Results In Group 1, mean DT surface temperature decrease was 12.6 ± 4.1°C (5-19°C while deep DT temperature decrease was 15.8 ± 1.5°C (15-18°C. For the IRT, mean temperature decrease was 9.1 ± 3.8°C (3-14°C. There was no statistically significant difference between thermometers. In Group 2, surface temperature decrease for DT was 2.7 ± 1.8°C (0-4°C and mean deep temperature decrease was 0.5 ± 1.0°C (0-3°C. For IRT, mean temperature decrease was 3.1 ± 1.9°C (0-6°C. No statistically significant difference between thermometers was found at any time point. conclusions IRT proved to be an accurate non-invasive precise device for renal temperature monitoring during kidney surgery. External ice slush cooling confirmed to be fast and effective at cooling the pig model. IRT = Infrared thermometer DT = Digital contact thermometer D:S = Distance-to-spot ratio

  20. Regarding the detectability and measurement of coronal mass ejections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Howard Timothy A.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In this review I discuss the problems associated with the detection and measurement of coronal mass ejections (CMEs. CMEs are important phenomena both scientifically, as they play a crucial role in the evolution of the solar corona, and technologically, as their impact with the Earth leads to severe space weather activity in the form of magnetic storms. I focus on the observation of CMEs using visible white light imagers (coronagraphs and heliospheric imagers, as they may be regarded as the binding agents between different datasets and different models that are used to reconstruct them. Our ability to accurately measure CMEs observed by these imagers is hampered by many factors, from instrumental to geometrical to physical. Following a brief review of the history of CME observation and measurement, I explore the impediments to our ability to measure them and describe possible means for which we may be able to mitigate those impediments. I conclude with a discussion of the claim that we have reached the limit of the information that we can extract from the current generation of white light imagers, and discuss possible ways forward regarding future instrument capabilities.

  1. Accurate wavelength prediction of photonic crystal resonant reflection and applications in refractive index measurement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hermannsson, Pétur Gordon; Vannahme, Christoph; Smith, Cameron L. C.;

    2014-01-01

    In the past decade, photonic crystal resonant reflectors have been increasingly used as the basis for label-free biochemical assays in lab-on-a-chip applications. In both designing and interpreting experimental results, an accurate model describing the optical behavior of such structures is essen......In the past decade, photonic crystal resonant reflectors have been increasingly used as the basis for label-free biochemical assays in lab-on-a-chip applications. In both designing and interpreting experimental results, an accurate model describing the optical behavior of such structures...

  2. New Beta-delayed Neutron Measurements in the Light-mass Fission Group

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A new accurate determination of beta-delayed neutron emission probabilities from nuclei in the low mass region of the light fission group has been performed. The measurements were carried out using the BELEN 4π neutron counter at the IGISOL-JYFL mass separator in combination with a Penning trap. The new results significantly improve the uncertainties of neutron emission probabilities for 91Br, 86As, 85As, and 85Ge nuclei

  3. Masses of the components of SB2 binaries observed with Gaia. III. Accurate SB2 orbits for 10 binaries and masses of HIP 87895

    CERN Document Server

    Kiefer, Flavien; Arenou, Frédéric; Pourbaix, Dimitri; Famaey, Benoit; Guillout, Patrick; Lebreton, Yveline; Gómez-Morán, Ada Nebot; Mazeh, Tsevi; Salomon, Jean-Baptiste; Soubiran, Caroline; Tal-Or, Lev

    2016-01-01

    In anticipation of the Gaia astrometric mission, a large sample of spectroscopic binaries has been observed since 2010 with the SOPHIE spectrograph at the Haute--Provence Observatory. Our aim is to derive the orbital elements of double-lined spectroscopic binaries (SB2s) with an accuracy sufficient to finally obtain the masses of the components with relative errors as small as 1 % when the astrometric measurements of Gaia are taken into account. In this paper we present the results from five years of observations of 10 SB2 systems with periods ranging from 37 to 881 days. Using the TODMOR algorithm we computed radial velocities from the spectra, and then derived the orbital elements of these binary systems. The minimum masses of the components are then obtained with an accuracy better than 1.2 % for the ten binaries. Combining the radial velocities with existing interferometric measurements, we derived the masses of the primary and secondary components of HIP 87895 with an accuracy of 0.98 % and 1.2 % respect...

  4. Measurement of Black Hole Mass Radio-Loud Quasars

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Cheng-Yue Su; Z.-F. Chen; R.-L. He; C.-H. Zhang; T.-T. Wang

    2011-03-01

    In this work, we construct a sample of 1585 radio-loud quasars to measure their black hole masses using broad emission lines. We compare our black hole masses with the virial black hole masses measured by Shen et al. (2010).We find that there is a large deviation between them if our black hole mass is measured from the CIV broad emission line. Whereas, if our black hole mass is measured from broad emission line of Mg II or H, both the values are consistent.

  5. In-situ measurements of material thermal parameters for accurate LED lamp thermal modelling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vellvehi, M.; Perpina, X.; Jorda, X.; Werkhoven, R.J.; Kunen, J.M.G.; Jakovenko, J.; Bancken, P.; Bolt, P.J.

    2013-01-01

    This work deals with the extraction of key thermal parameters for accurate thermal modelling of LED lamps: air exchange coefficient around the lamp, emissivity and thermal conductivity of all lamp parts. As a case study, an 8W retrofit lamp is presented. To assess simulation results, temperature is

  6. Towards precise top mass measurement at LHC

    CERN Document Server

    Kawabata, Sayaka

    2015-01-01

    The top quark mass plays an important role in a variety of discussions both within and beyond the Standard Model. However, a precise determination of a theoretically well-defined top quark mass is still missing. Towards a precise determination of a theoretically well-defined top quark mass at the LHC, we propose a method which uses lepton energy distribution and has a boost-invariant nature. We investigate its experimental viability by performing a simulation analysis for ttbar production process and lepton+jets decay channel at the leading order. We estimate several major uncertainties in the top mass determination with this method and they amount to 1.7 GeV with an integrated luminosity of 100 fb^{-1} at sqrt{s}=14 TeV. The uncertainties should be reduced by considering the next-to-leading order corrections to the method.

  7. Preservation of the D0 W mass measurement to incorporate future PDF and physics models

    CERN Document Server

    Cúth, Jakub

    2015-01-01

    The D0 experiment at the Fermilab Tevatron Collider provided in recent years one of the most accurate measurements of the W boson mass. The precise knowledge of the W boson mass, to- gether with the mass of the Higgs Boson and the top quark, provides one of the most crucial tests of the Standard Model of particle physics. The uncertainties of this measurement are currently dominated by the limited knowledge of the parton density functions, which will improve in future years. Therefore, a dedicated effort is being made by the D0 Collaboration to preserve the W boson mass analysis for a future reevaluation with improved proton descriptions and other im- provements in the modeling of W boson production and decay. We give an overview of this effort and discuss the underlying technical infrastructure. In addition, we also present a reevaluation of the W boson mass measurement based on R Ldt = 4 : 3 fb...

  8. First direct Penning trap mass measurements on nobelium and lawrencium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The mass measurements of the three nobelium isotopes 252-254No and the lawrencium isotope 255Lr measured with the Penning trap mass spectrometer SHIPTRAP/GSI have been evaluated. These were the first direct mass measurements of transfermium elements ever performed. The results mark the first step in the exploration of masses of even heavier nuclides which is planned at SHIPTRAP. The main objective is to measure the endpoints of α-decay chains starting from superheavy nuclei in the region of the predicted island of stability. The SHIPTRAP results were compared with previous measurements based on α-decay chains and new literature values were obtained.

  9. Validity of Ski Skating Center-of-Mass Displacement Measured by a Single Inertial Measurement Unit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myklebust, Håvard; Gløersen, Øyvind; Hallén, Jostein

    2015-12-01

    In regard to simplifying motion analysis and estimating center of mass (COM) in ski skating, this study addressed 3 main questions concerning the use of inertial measurement units (IMU): (1) How accurately can a single IMU estimate displacement of os sacrum (S1) on a person during ski skating? (2) Does incorporating gyroscope and accelerometer data increase accuracy and precision? (3) Moreover, how accurately does S1 determine COM displacement? Six world-class skiers roller-ski skated on a treadmill using 2 different subtechniques. An IMU including accelerometers alone (IMU-A) or in combination with gyroscopes (IMU-G) were mounted on the S1. A reflective marker at S1, and COM calculated from 3D full-body optical analysis, were used to provide reference values. IMU-A provided an accurate and precise estimate of vertical S1 displacement, but IMU-G was required to attain accuracy and precision of < 8 mm (root-mean-squared error and range of displacement deviation) in all directions and with both subtechniques. Further, arm and torso movements affected COM, but not the S1. Hence, S1 displacement was valid for estimating sideways COM displacement, but the systematic amplitude and timing difference between S1 and COM displacement in the anteroposterior and vertical directions inhibits exact calculation of energy fluctuations.

  10. EVALUATION OF OPPORTUNITIES OF SOLAR ENERGETICS ON THE BASIS OF ACCURATE GROUND-BASED MEASUREMENTS OF SOLAR RADIATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aculinin A.

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Expected quantity of a solar energy received by solar panel is estimated on the basis of accurate measurements of solar radiation in Kishinev. Optimal orientation of solar panels and apparent volume of the electric power generated by solar panels are determined.

  11. A system for accurate on-line measurement of total gas consumption or production rates in microbioreactors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leeuwen, van Michiel; Heijnen, Joseph J.; Gardeniers, Han; Oudshoorn, Arthur; Noorman, Henk; Visser, Jan; Wielen, van der Luuk A.M.; Gulik, van Walter M.

    2009-01-01

    A system has been developed, based on pressure controlled gas pumping, for accurate measurement of total gas consumption or production rates in the nmol/min range, applicable for on-line monitoring of bioconversions in microbioreactors. The system was validated by carrying out a bioconversion with k

  12. EVALUATION OF OPPORTUNITIES OF SOLAR ENERGETICS ON THE BASIS OF ACCURATE GROUND-BASED MEASUREMENTS OF SOLAR RADIATION

    OpenAIRE

    Aculinin A.; Smikov V.

    2008-01-01

    Expected quantity of a solar energy received by solar panel is estimated on the basis of accurate measurements of solar radiation in Kishinev. Optimal orientation of solar panels and apparent volume of the electric power generated by solar panels are determined.

  13. Optical coherence tomography enables accurate measurement of equine cartilage thickness for determination of speed of sound.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puhakka, Pia H; Te Moller, Nikae C R; Tanska, Petri; Saarakkala, Simo; Tiitu, Virpi; Korhonen, Rami K; Brommer, Harold; Virén, Tuomas; Jurvelin, Jukka S; Töyräs, Juha

    2016-08-01

    Background and purpose - Arthroscopic estimation of articular cartilage thickness is important for scoring of lesion severity, and measurement of cartilage speed of sound (SOS)-a sensitive index of changes in cartilage composition. We investigated the accuracy of optical coherence tomography (OCT) in measurements of cartilage thickness and determined SOS by combining OCT thickness and ultrasound (US) time-of-flight (TOF) measurements. Material and methods - Cartilage thickness measurements from OCT and microscopy images of 94 equine osteochondral samples were compared. Then, SOS in cartilage was determined using simultaneous OCT thickness and US TOF measurements. SOS was then compared with the compositional, structural, and mechanical properties of cartilage. Results - Measurements of non-calcified cartilage thickness using OCT and microscopy were significantly correlated (ρ = 0.92; p measurement of articular cartilage thickness. Although SOS measurements lacked accuracy in thin equine cartilage, the concept of SOS measurement using OCT appears promising.

  14. Dual electrospray ionization source for confident generation of accurate mass tags using liquid chromatography Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nepomuceno, Angelito I; Muddiman, David C; Bergen, H Robert; Craighead, James R; Burke, Michael J; Caskey, Patrick E; Allan, Jonathan A

    2003-07-15

    Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry (FT-ICR-MS) has rapidly established a prominent role in proteomics because of its unparalleled resolving power, sensitivity and ability to achieve high mass measurement accuracy (MMA) simultaneously. However, space-charge effects must be quantitatively, routinely, and confidently corrected because they are known to profoundly influence MMA. We argue that the most effective way to account for space-charge effects is to introduce an internal mass calibrant (IMC) using a dual electrospray ionization (ESI) source where the IMC is added from a separate ESI emitter. The major disadvantage of our initial dual ESI source to achieve high MMA, and arguably the only one, was the time required to switch between the analyte emitter and IMC emitter (i.e., >300 ms). While this "switching time" was acceptable for direct infusion experiments, it did not lend itself to high-throughput applications or when conducting on-line liquid separations. In this report, we completely redesigned the dual ESI source and demonstrate several key attributes. First, the new design allows for facile alignment of ESI emitters, undetectable vibration, and the ability to extend to multiple emitters. Second, the switching time was reduced to IMC to be accumulated "simultaneously" in the external ion reservoir and injected as a single ion packet into the ion cyclotron resonance cell, eliminating the need for a separate accumulation and ion injection event for the IMC. Third, by using a high concentration of the IMC, the residence time on this emitter could be reduced to approximately 80 ms, allowing for more time spent accumulating analyte ions of significantly lower concentration. Fourth, multiplexed on-line separations can be carried out providing increased throughput. Specifically, the new dual ESI source has demonstrated its ability to produce a stable ion current over a 45-min time period at 7 T resulting in mass accuracies of 1.08 ppm +/- 0

  15. Accurate Measurement of the Relative Abundance of Different DNA Species in Complex DNA Mixtures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeong, Sangkyun; Yu, Hyunjoo; Pfeifer, Karl

    2012-01-01

    A molecular tool that can compare the abundances of different DNA sequences is necessary for comparing intergenic or interspecific gene expression. We devised and verified such a tool using a quantitative competitive polymerase chain reaction approach. For this approach, we adapted a competitor array, an artificially made plasmid DNA in which all the competitor templates for the target DNAs are arranged with a defined ratio, and melting analysis for allele quantitation for accurate quantitation of the fractional ratios of competitively amplified DNAs. Assays on two sets of DNA mixtures with explicitly known compositional structures of the test sequences were performed. The resultant average relative errors of 0.059 and 0.021 emphasize the highly accurate nature of this method. Furthermore, the method's capability of obtaining biological data is demonstrated by the fact that it can illustrate the tissue-specific quantitative expression signatures of the three housekeeping genes G6pdx, Ubc, and Rps27 by using the forms of the relative abundances of their transcripts, and the differential preferences of Igf2 enhancers for each of the multiple Igf2 promoters for the transcription. PMID:22334570

  16. High precision mass measurements for wine metabolomics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roullier-Gall, Chloé; Witting, Michael; Gougeon, Régis; Schmitt-Kopplin, Philippe

    2014-11-01

    An overview of the critical steps for the non-targeted Ultra-High Performance Liquid Chromatography coupled with Quadrupole Time-of-Flight Mass Spectrometry (UPLC-Q-ToF-MS) analysis of wine chemistry is given, ranging from the study design, data preprocessing and statistical analyses, to markers identification. UPLC-Q-ToF-MS data was enhanced by the alignment of exact mass data from FTICR-MS, and marker peaks were identified using UPLC-Q-ToF-MS². In combination with multivariate statistical tools and the annotation of peaks with metabolites from relevant databases, this analytical process provides a fine description of the chemical complexity of wines, as exemplified in the case of red (Pinot noir) and white (Chardonnay) wines from various geographic origins in Burgundy.

  17. Accurate determination of Curium and Californium isotopic ratios by inductively coupled plasma quadrupole mass spectrometry (ICP-QMS) in 248Cm samples for transmutation studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The French Atomic Energy Commission has carried out several experiments including the mini-INCA (INcineration of Actinides) project for the study of minor-actinide transmutation processes in high intensity thermal neutron fluxes, in view of proposing solutions to reduce the radiotoxicity of long-lived nuclear wastes. In this context, a Cm sample enriched in 248Cm (∼97 %) was irradiated in thermal neutron flux at the High Flux Reactor (HFR) of the Laue-Langevin Institute (ILL). This work describes a quadrupole ICP-MS (ICP-QMS) analytical procedure for precise and accurate isotopic composition determination of Cm before sample irradiation and of Cm and Cf after sample irradiation. The factors that affect the accuracy and reproducibility of isotopic ratio measurements by ICP-QMS, such as peak centre correction, detector dead time, mass bias, abundance sensitivity and hydrides formation, instrumental background, and memory blank were carefully evaluated and corrected. Uncertainties of the isotopic ratios, taking into account internal precision of isotope ratio measurements, peak tailing, and hydrides formations ranged from 0.3% to 1.3%. This uncertainties range is quite acceptable for the nuclear data to be used in transmutation studies.

  18. Electromagnetic calorimeter and accurate measurement with the ATLAS detector of the LHC collider; Calorimetrie electromagnetique et mesures de precision avec le detecteur ATLAS aupres du collisionneur LHC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pralavorio, P

    2007-06-15

    The main purpose of the ATLAS experiment is the understanding of the underlying mechanisms that drive the breaking of the electro-weak symmetry through the discovery of Higgs bosons. An important element to achieve this aim was the design of an electromagnetic calorimeter able to investigate the decay channels: H {yields} {gamma}{gamma} and H {yields} 4e. The high performance of the calorimeter will allow us to get a better accuracy on the measuring values of W and top masses which is essential to indirectly constrain the mass of the Higgs. In the same way, accurate measurements of top and W properties during the decays of top and tWb vertex will be necessary to question the standard model and to see beyond. The author has been working for 9 years in the ATLAS project, he has been involved in the design, construction, qualification and testing phases of the electromagnetic calorimeter of ATLAS. This document is a detailed presentation of the calorimeter, of its qualification and of its expectations when LHC is operating. This document is organized into 4 chapters: 1) assets and weaknesses of the standard model, 2) the ATLAS experiment, 3) the electromagnetic calorimeter, and 4) accurate measurements with ATLAS. This document presented before an academic board will allow its author to manage research works and particularly to tutor thesis students. (A.C.)

  19. Gravitational mass attraction measurement for drag-free references

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swank, Aaron J.

    Exciting new experiments in gravitational physics are among the proposed future space science missions around the world. Such future space science experiments include gravitational wave observatories, which require extraordinarily precise instruments for gravitational wave detection. In fact, future space-based gravitational wave observatories require the use of a drag free reference sensor, which is several orders of magnitude more precise than any drag free satellite launched to date. With the analysis methods and measurement techniques described in this work, there is one less challenge associated with achieving the high-precision drag-free satellite performance levels required by gravitational wave observatories. One disturbance critical to the drag-free performance is an acceleration from the mass attraction between the spacecraft and drag-free reference mass. A direct measurement of the gravitational mass attraction force is not easily performed. Historically for drag-free satellite design, the gravitational attraction properties were estimated by using idealized equations between a point mass and objects of regular geometric shape with homogeneous density. Stringent requirements are then placed on the density distribution and fabrication tolerances for the drag-free reference mass and satellite components in order to ensure that the allocated gravitational mass attraction disturbance budget is not exceeded due to the associated uncertainty in geometry and mass properties. Yet, the uncertainty associated with mass properties and geometry generate an unacceptable uncertainty in the mass attraction calculation, which make it difficult to meet the demanding drag-free performance requirements of future gravitational wave observatories. The density homogeneity and geometrical tolerances required to meet the overall drag-free performance can easily force the use of special materials or manufacturing processes, which are impractical or not feasible. The focus of

  20. The mass accretion rate of galaxy clusters: a measurable quantity

    CERN Document Server

    De Boni, Cristiano; Diaferio, Antonaldo; Giocoli, Carlo; Baldi, Marco

    2015-01-01

    We explore the possibility of measuring the mass accretion rate of galaxy clusters by using dense galaxy redshift surveys of their outer regions. By approximating the accretion with the infall of a spherical shell, the mass accretion rate only depends on the mass profile of the cluster in a thin shell at radii larger than $R_{200}$. This approximation is rather crude in hierarchical clustering scenarios, where both smooth accretion and aggregation of smaller dark matter haloes contribute to the mass accretion of clusters. Nevertheless, in the redshift range $z=[0,1]$, our prescription returns an average mass accretion rate within $20 \\%$ of the average rate derived with the more realistic merger trees of dark matter haloes extracted from $N$-body simulations. The mass accretion rate of galaxy clusters has been the topic of numerous detailed numerical and theoretical investigations, but so far it has remained inaccessible to measurements in the real Universe. Our result suggests that measuring the mass accreti...

  1. Added mass matrix estimation of beams partially immersed in water using measured dynamic responses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Fushun; Li, Huajun; Qin, Hongde; Liang, Bingchen

    2014-09-01

    An added mass matrix estimation method for beams partially immersed in water is proposed that employs dynamic responses, which are measured when the structure is in water and in air. Discrepancies such as mass and stiffness matrices between the finite element model (FEM) and real structure could be separated from the added mass of water by a series of correction factors, which means that the mass and stiffness of the FEM and the added mass of water could be estimated simultaneously. Compared with traditional methods, the estimated added mass correction factors of our approach will not be limited to be constant when FEM or the environment of the structure changed, meaning that the proposed method could reflect the influence of changes such as water depth, current, and so on. The greatest improvement is that the proposed method could estimate added mass of water without involving any water-related assumptions because all water influences are reflected in measured dynamic responses of the structure in water. A five degrees-of-freedom (dofs) mass-spring system is used to study the performance of the proposed scheme. The numerical results indicate that mass, stiffness, and added mass correction factors could be estimated accurately when noise-free measurements are used. Even when the first two modes are measured under the 5 percent corruption level, the added mass could be estimated properly. A steel cantilever beam with a rectangular section in a water tank at Ocean University of China was also employed to study the added mass influence on modal parameter identification and to investigate the performance of the proposed method. The experimental results demonstrated that the first two modal frequencies and mode shapes of the updated model match well with the measured values by combining the estimated added mass in the initial FEM.

  2. Technical Note: PRESAGE three-dimensional dosimetry accurately measures Gamma Knife output factors

    OpenAIRE

    Klawikowski, Slade J.; Yang, James N.; Adamovics, John; Ibbott, Geoffrey S.

    2014-01-01

    Small-field output factor measurements are traditionally very difficult because of steep dose gradients, loss of lateral electronic equilibrium, and dose volume averaging in finitely sized detectors. Three-dimensional (3D) dosimetry is ideal for measuring small output factors and avoids many of these potential challenges of point and two-dimensional detectors. PRESAGE 3D polymer dosimeters were used to measure the output factors for the 4 mm and 8 mm collimators of the Leksell Perfexion Gamma...

  3. Precision mass measurements of radioactive nuclei at JYFLTRAP

    CERN Document Server

    Rahaman, S; Eronen, T; Hager, U; Hakala, J; Jokinen, A; Kankainen, A; Moore, I D; Pentillä, H; Rinta-Antila, S; Rissanen, J; Saastamoinen, A; Sonoda, T; Weber, C; Äystö, J

    2007-01-01

    The Penning trap mass spectrometer JYFLTRAP was used to measure the atomic masses of radioactive nuclei with an uncertainty better than 10 keV. The atomic masses of the neutron-deficient nuclei around the N = Z line were measured to improve the understanding of the rp-process path and the SbSnTe cycle. Furthermore, the masses of the neutron-rich gallium (Z = 31) to palladium (Z = 46) nuclei have been measured. The physics impacts on the nuclear structure and the r-process paths are reviewed. A better understanding of the nuclear deformation is presented by studying the pairing energy around A = 100.

  4. W mass and width measurements at the Tevatron

    CERN Document Server

    Nurse, Emily

    2007-01-01

    I present a measurement of the W boson mass (M_W) and width (G_W) using 200 and 350 pb-1 of CDF Run II data respectively. The measurements, performed in both the electron and muon decay channels, rely on a fit to the W transverse mass distribution. We measure M_W = 80413 +/- 48 MeV and G_W = 2032 +/- 71 MeV which represent the world's single most precise measurements to date.

  5. [Limb-length measurements using wooden boards: an accurate and experience-independent method

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pakvis, D.F.M.; Jaarsma, R.L.; Kampen, A. van

    2003-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To determine the precision and reliability of the indirect limb-length measurement, and the inter-observer variance between doctors differing in level of experience. DESIGN: Descriptive. METHOD: Indirect limb-length measurement by placing 0.5 cm-thick wooden boards under the foot of the s

  6. Surface EMG measurements during fMRI at 3T : Accurate EMG recordings after artifact correction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Duinen, Hiske; Zijdewind, Inge; Hoogduin, H; Maurits, N

    2005-01-01

    In this experiment, we have measured surface EMG of the first dorsal interosseus during predefined submaximal isometric contractions (5, 15, 30, 50, and 70% of maximal force) of the index finger simultaneously with fMRI measurements. Since we have used sparse sampling fMRI (3-s scanning; 2-s non-sca

  7. Finding the Density of Objects without Measuring Mass and Volume

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mumba, Frackson; Tsige, Mesfin

    2007-01-01

    A simple method based on the moment of forces and Archimedes' principle is described for finding density without measuring the mass and volume of an object. The method involves balancing two unknown objects of masses M[subscript 1] and M[subscript 2] on each side of a pivot on a metre rule and measuring their corresponding moment arms. The object…

  8. Measuring laser power as a force: a new paradigm to accurately monitor optical power during laser-based machining operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Paul; Simonds, Brian; Sowards, Jeffrey; Hadler, Joshua

    2016-03-01

    In laser manufacturing operations, accurate measurement of laser power is important for product quality, operational repeatability, and process validation. Accurate real-time measurement of high-power lasers, however, is difficult. Typical thermal power meters must absorb all the laser power in order to measure it. This constrains power meters to be large, slow and exclusive (that is, the laser cannot be used for its intended purpose during the measurement). To address these limitations, we have developed a different paradigm in laser power measurement where the power is not measured according to its thermal equivalent but rather by measuring the laser beam's momentum (radiation pressure). Very simply, light reflecting from a mirror imparts a small force perpendicular to the mirror which is proportional to the optical power. By mounting a high-reflectivity mirror on a high-sensitivity force transducer (scale), we are able to measure laser power in the range of tens of watts up to ~ 100 kW. The critical parameters for such a device are mirror reflectivity, angle of incidence, and scale sensitivity and accuracy. We will describe our experimental characterization of a radiation-pressure-based optical power meter. We have tested it for modulated and CW laser powers up to 92 kW in the laboratory and up to 20 kW in an experimental laser welding booth. We will describe present accuracy, temporal response, sources of measurement uncertainty, and hurdles which must be overcome to have an accurate power meter capable of routine operation as a turning mirror within a laser delivery head.

  9. PRESAGE 3D dosimetry accurately measures Gamma Knife output factors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Small-field output factor measurements are traditionally very difficult because of steep dose gradients, loss of lateral electronic equilibrium, and dose volume averaging in finitely sized detectors. Three-dimensional (3D) dosimetry is ideal for measuring small output factors and avoids many of these potential challenges of point and 2D detectors. PRESAGE 3D polymer dosimeters were used to measure the output factors for the 4 mm and 8 mm collimators of the Leksell Perfexion Gamma Knife radiosurgery treatment system. Discrepancies between the planned and measured distance between shot centers were also investigated. A Gamma Knife head frame was mounted onto an anthropomorphic head phantom. Special inserts were machined to hold 60 mm diameter, 70 mm tall cylindrical PRESAGE dosimeters. The phantom was irradiated with one 16 mm shot and either one 4 mm or one 8 mm shot, to a prescribed dose of either 3 Gy or 4 Gy to the 50% isodose line. The two shots were spaced between 30 mm and 60 mm apart and aligned along the central axis of the cylinder. The Presage dosimeters were measured using the DMOS-RPC optical CT scanning system. Five independent 4 mm output factor measurements fell within 2% of the manufacturer’s Monte Carlo simulation-derived nominal value, as did two independent 8 mm output factor measurements. The measured distances between shot centers varied by ±0.8 mm with respect to the planned shot displacements. On the basis of these results, we conclude that PRESAGE dosimetry is excellently suited to quantify the difficult-to-measure Gamma Knife output factors. (note)

  10. Accurate on-chip measurement of the Seebeck coefficient of high mobility small molecule organic semiconductors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. N. Warwick

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available We present measurements of the Seebeck coefficient in two high mobility organic small molecules, 2,7-dioctyl[1]benzothieno[3,2-b][1]benzothiophene (C8-BTBT and 2,9-didecyl-dinaphtho[2,3-b:2′,3′-f]thieno[3,2-b]thiophene (C10-DNTT. The measurements are performed in a field effect transistor structure with high field effect mobilities of approximately 3 cm2/V s. This allows us to observe both the charge concentration and temperature dependence of the Seebeck coefficient. We find a strong logarithmic dependence upon charge concentration and a temperature dependence within the measurement uncertainty. Despite performing the measurements on highly polycrystalline evaporated films, we see an agreement in the Seebeck coefficient with modelled values from Shi et al. [Chem. Mater. 26, 2669 (2014] at high charge concentrations. We attribute deviations from the model at lower charge concentrations to charge trapping.

  11. Accurate evaluation of viscoelasticity of radial artery wall during flow-mediated dilation in ultrasound measurement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakai, Yasumasa; Taki, Hirofumi; Kanai, Hiroshi

    2016-07-01

    In our previous study, the viscoelasticity of the radial artery wall was estimated to diagnose endothelial dysfunction using a high-frequency (22 MHz) ultrasound device. In the present study, we employed a commercial ultrasound device (7.5 MHz) and estimated the viscoelasticity using arterial pressure and diameter, both of which were measured at the same position. In a phantom experiment, the proposed method successfully estimated the elasticity and viscosity of the phantom with errors of 1.8 and 30.3%, respectively. In an in vivo measurement, the transient change in the viscoelasticity was measured for three healthy subjects during flow-mediated dilation (FMD). The proposed method revealed the softening of the arterial wall originating from the FMD reaction within 100 s after avascularization. These results indicate the high performance of the proposed method in evaluating vascular endothelial function just after avascularization, where the function is difficult to be estimated by a conventional FMD measurement.

  12. Accurate measurement of the main refractive indices and thermo-optical coefficients of the calcite crystal

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shuang Zhao; Fuquan Wu; Haifeng Wang; Weigang Zhong; Xiuzhen Li; Hengjing Tang; Meng Shi; Hongyan Deng

    2007-01-01

    The main refractive indices of calcite crystal are measured by the means of auto-collimation, and the thermo-optical coefficients are calculated. The coefficient expression of Sellmeier equation is obtained by solving Sellmeier equation strictly and the refractive indices of different wavelengths are calculated, which accord with experimental esultsery well. The measured main refractive indices of calcite at 488-nm wavelength are identical with the values obtained by Sellmeier equation.

  13. External urethral sphincter pressure measurement: an accurate method for the diagnosis of detrusor external sphincter dyssynergia?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos H Suzuki Bellucci

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Combined pelvic floor electromyography (EMG and videocystourethrography (VCUG during urodynamic investigation are the most acceptable and widely agreed methods for diagnosing detrusor external sphincter dyssynergia (DESD. Theoretically, external urethral sphincter pressure (EUSP measurement would provide enough information for the diagnosis of DESD and could simplify the urodynamic investigation replacing combined pelvic floor EMG and VCUG. Thus, we evaluated the diagnostic accuracy of EUSP measurement for DESD. PATIENTS #ENTITYSTARTX00026; METHODS: A consecutive series of 72 patients (36 women, 36 men with neurogenic lower urinary tract dysfunction able to void spontaneously was prospectively evaluated at a single university spinal cord injury center. Diagnosis of DESD using EUSP measurement (index test versus combined pelvic floor EMG and VCUG (reference standard was assessed according to the recommendations of the Standards for Reporting of Diagnostic Accuracy Initiative. RESULTS: Using EUSP measurement (index test and combined pelvic floor EMG and VCUR (reference standard, DESD was diagnosed in 10 (14% and in 41 (57% patients, respectively. More than half of the patients presented discordant diagnosis between the index test and the reference standard. Among 41 patients with DESD diagnosed by combined pelvic floor EMG and VCUR, EUSP measurement identified only 6 patients. EUSP measurement had a sensitivity of 15% (95% CI 5%-25%, specificity of 87% (95% CI 76%-98%, positive predictive value of 60% (95% CI 30%-90%, and negative predictive value of 56% (95% CI 44%-68% for the diagnosis of DESD. CONCLUSIONS: For diagnosis of DESD, EUSP measurement is inaccurate and cannot replace combined pelvic floor EMG and VCUR.

  14. Three dimensional accurate morphology measurements of polystyrene standard particles on silicon substrate by electron tomography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayashida, Misa; Kumagai, Kazuhiro; Malac, Marek

    2015-12-01

    Polystyrene latex (PSL) nanoparticle (NP) sample is one of the most widely used standard materials. It is used for calibration of particle counters and particle size measurement tools. It has been reported that the measured NP sizes by various methods, such as Differential Mobility Analysis, dynamic light scattering (DLS), optical microscopy (OM), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and atomic force microscopy (AFM), differ from each other. Deformation of PSL NPs on mica substrate has been reported in AFM measurements: the lateral width of PSL NPs is smaller than their vertical height. To provide a reliable calibration standard, the deformation must be measured by a method that can reliably visualize the entire three dimensional (3D) shape of the PSL NPs. Here we present a method for detailed measurement of PSL NP 3D shape by means of electron tomography in a transmission electron microscope. The observed shape of the PSL NPs with 100 nm and 50 nm diameter were not spherical, but squished in direction perpendicular to the support substrate by about 7.4% and 12.1%, respectively. The high difference in surface energy of the PSL NPs and that of substrate together with their low Young modulus appear to explain the squishing of the NPs without presence of water film.

  15. Fast and Accurate Measurement of Entropy Profiles of Commercial Lithium-Ion Cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We report on an effective approach to speed up the measurement of thermodynamic characterization curves (entropy of reaction ΔrS(x)) of rechargeable batteries, in particular commercial 18650 lithium ion cells. We propose and demonstrate a measurement and data processing protocol that reduces the time required to record entropy profiles from time scales of weeks to time scales of hours – without loss in accuracy. For time consuming studies such as investigations on ageing of battery cells, entropy profile measurements thus become as feasible as conventional electrochemical characterisation techniques like dV/dQ or cyclic voltammetry. We demonstrate this at the examples of two ageing protocols applied to a commercial high power and a commercial high energy cell, respectively: (i) accelerated calendric aging by storing cells at 100% state of charge at 60 °C and (ii) continuous cycling with a 1C current at 25 °C

  16. Accurate DOSY measure of out-of-equilibrium systems by permutated DOSY (p-DOSY)

    CERN Document Server

    Oikonomou, Maria; Velders, Aldrik H; Delsuc, Marc-André

    2015-01-01

    NMR spectroscopy is a perfect tool for monitoring in-situ chemical reactions. In particular, DOSY measurement is well suited to characterize transient species by the determination of their sizes. However, here we bring to light a difficulty in the DOSY experiments performed on out-of-equilibrium systems. On such a system, the evolution of the concentration of species interferes with the measurement process, and creates a bias on the diffusion coefficient determination that may lead to erroneous interpretations. We show that a random permutation of the series of gradient strengths used during the DOSY experiment allows to average out this bias. This approach, that we name p-DOSY does not require changes in the the pulse sequences nor in the processing software, and restores completely the full accuracy of the measure. This technique is demonstrated on the monitoring of the anomerization reaction of $\\alpha$ to $\\beta$ glucose.

  17. Pulsed Frequency Shifted Feedback Laser for Accurate Long Distance Measurements: Beat Order Determination

    CERN Document Server

    Pique, Jean-Paul

    2012-01-01

    Long-distance measurements (10 m - 1000 m) with an accuracy of 10-7 is a challenge for many applications. We show that it is achievable with Frequency Shifted Feedback (FSF) laser interferometry technique, provided that the determination of the radio frequency beat order be made without ambiguity and on a time scale compatible with atmospheric applications. Using the pulsed-FSF laser that we developed for laser guide star application, we propose and test, up to 240 m, a simple method for measuring the beat order in real time. The moving-comb and Yatsenko models are also discussed. The first of these models fails to interpret our long-distance interferometry results. We show that the accuracy of long-distance measurements depends primarily on the stabilization of the acoustic frequency of the modulator.

  18. A method to measure the density of seawater accurately to the level of 10-6

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Hannes; Wolf, Henning; Hassel, Egon

    2016-04-01

    A substitution method to measure seawater density relative to pure water density using vibrating tube densimeters was realized and validated. Standard uncertainties of 1 g m-3 at atmospheric pressure, 10 g m-3 up to 10 MPa, and 20 g m-3 to 65 MPa in the temperature range of 5 °C to 35 °C and for salt contents up to 35 g kg-1 were achieved. The realization was validated by comparison measurements with a hydrostatic weighing apparatus for atmospheric pressure. For high pressures, literature values of seawater compressibility were compared with substitution measurements of the realized apparatus.

  19. Inflation model building with an accurate measure of e-folding

    CERN Document Server

    Chongchitnan, Sirichai

    2016-01-01

    We revisit the problem of measuring the number of e-folding during inflation. It has become standard practice to take the logarithmic growth of the scale factor as a measure of the amount of inflation. However, this is only an approximation for the true amount of inflation required to solve the horizon and flatness problems. The aim of this work is to quantify the error in this approximation, and show how it can be avoided. We present an alternative framework for inflation model building using the inverse Hubble radius, aH, as the key parameter. We show that in this formalism, the correct number of e-folding arises naturally as a measure of inflation. As an application, we present an interesting model in which the entire inflationary dynamics can be solved analytically and exactly, and, in special cases, reduces to the familiar class of power-law models.

  20. ACCUWIND - Accurate wind speed measurements in wind energy - Summary report[Cup and sonic anemometers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Friis Pedersen, T.; Dahlberg, J.Aa.; Cuerva, A.; Mouzakis, F.; Busche, P.; Eecen, P.; Sanz-Andres, A.; Franchini, S.; Markkilde Petersen, S.

    2006-07-15

    The cup anemometer is at present the standard instrument used for mean wind speed measurement in wind energy. It is being applied in high numbers around the world for wind energy assessments. It is also applied exclusively for accredited power performance measurements for certification and verification purposes, and for purposes of optimisation in research and development. The revised IEC standard on power performance measurements has now included requirements for classification of cup anemometers. The basis for setting up such requirements of cup anemometers is two EU projects SITEPARIDEN and CLASSCUP from which the proposed classification method for cup anemometers was developed for the IEC standard. While cup anemometers at present are the standard anemometer being used for average wind speed measurements, sonic anemometers have been developed significantly over the last years, and prices have come down. The application of sonic anemometers may increase in wind energy if they prove to have comparable or better operational characteristics compared to cup anemometers, and if similar requirements to sonic anemometers are established as for cup anemometers. Sonic anemometers have historically been used by meteorologists for turbulence measurements, but have also found a role on wind turbine nacelles for wind speed and yaw control purposes. The report on cup and sonic anemometry deals with establishment of robustness in assessment and classification by focus on methods and procedures for analysis of characteristics of cup and sonic anemometers. The methods and procedures provide a platform, hopefully for use in meeting the requirements of the IEC standard on power performance measurements, as well as for development of improved instruments. (au)

  1. A flux monitoring method for easy and accurate flow rate measurement in pressure-driven flows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siria, Alessandro; Biance, Anne-Laure; Ybert, Christophe; Bocquet, Lydéric

    2012-03-01

    We propose a low-cost and versatile method to measure flow rate in microfluidic channels under pressure-driven flows, thereby providing a simple characterization of the hydrodynamic permeability of the system. The technique is inspired by the current monitoring method usually employed to characterize electro-osmotic flows, and makes use of the measurement of the time-dependent electric resistance inside the channel associated with a moving salt front. We have successfully tested the method in a micrometer-size channel, as well as in a complex microfluidic channel with a varying cross-section, demonstrating its ability in detecting internal shape variations.

  2. Program package for accurate 3D field reconstruction from boundary measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The problem of the magnetic field reconstruction inside a subregion in R3 from magnetic measurements on the closed boundary of this subregion is considered. The efficiency of the proposed method, algorithm and associated software for the precision magnet system is discussed. The results of the software verification, numerical experiments as well as the ones of the field reconstruction using boundary measurements in the magnet M1 of the separator COMBAS are given. Requirements to the position accuracy of sensors consistent with the required accuracy of the magnetic field reconstruction are defined. Recommendations on the magnetic scheme design for the field mapping are given. (author)

  3. Accurate measurement of the transition dipole moment of self-assembled quantum dots

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stobbe, Søren; Johansen, Jeppe; Nikolaev, I.S.;

    2007-01-01

    Here we present quantitative measurements of the dipole moment of an ensemble of self-assembled quantum dots employing a modified optical local density of states (LDOS). The LDOS is controlled by varying the distance from the QDs to a semiconductor/air interface.......Here we present quantitative measurements of the dipole moment of an ensemble of self-assembled quantum dots employing a modified optical local density of states (LDOS). The LDOS is controlled by varying the distance from the QDs to a semiconductor/air interface....

  4. Measurement of rock mass deformation with grouted coaxial antenna cables

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dowding, C. H.; Su, M. B.; O'Connor, K.

    1989-01-01

    Techniques presented herein show how reflected voltage pulses from coaxial antenna cable grouted in rock masses can be employed to quantify the type and magnitude of rock mass deformation. This measurement is similar to that obtained from a combined full profile extensometer (to measure local extension) and inclinometer (to measure local shearing). Rock mass movements deform the grouted cable, which locally changes cable capacitance and thereby the reflected wave form of the voltage pulse. Thus, by monitoring changes in these reflection signatures, it is possible to monitor rock mass deformation. This paper presents laboratory measurements necessary to quantitatively interpret the reflected voltage signatures. Cables were sheared and extended to correlate measured cable deformation with reflected voltage signals. Laboratory testing included development of grout mixtures with optimum properties for field installation and performance of a TDR (Time Domain Reflectometry) monitoring system. Finally, the interpretive techniques developed through laboratory measurements were applied to previously collected field data to extract hitherto unrealized information.

  5. Carbon clusters for absolute mass measurements at ISOLTRAP

    CERN Document Server

    Blaum, K; Herfurth, F; Kellerbauer, A G; Kluge, H J; Kuckein, M; Sauvan, E; Scheidenberger, C; Schweikhard, L

    2002-01-01

    The cyclotron frequencies of singly charged carbon clusters C/sub n //sup +/ (n >or= 2) were measured with the Penning-trap mass spectrometer ISOLTRAP at ISOLDE/CERN. The present limit of mass accuracy delta m/m = 1.2.10/sup -8/ and the extent of the mass- dependent systematic shift ( delta m/m)/sub sys/ = 1.7(0.6).10/sup -10//u.(m - m/sub ref/) of the setup were investigated for the first time. In addition, absolute mass measurements by use of pure clusters of the most abundant carbon isotope /sup 12/C are now possible at ISOLTRAP. (15 refs).

  6. HEASARC Astronomical Archive: GLIESE2MAS - Gliese Catalog Stars with Accurate Coordinates and 2MASS Cross-Identifications

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This table contains precise epoch 2000 coordinates and cross-identifications to sources in the 2MASS Point Source Catalog for nearly all stars in the Gliese,...

  7. An affordable and accurate conductivity probe for density measurements in stratified flows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carminati, Marco; Luzzatto-Fegiz, Paolo

    2015-11-01

    In stratified flow experiments, conductivity (combined with temperature) is often used to measure density. The probes typically used can provide very fine spatial scales, but can be fragile, expensive to replace, and sensitive to environmental noise. A complementary instrument, comprising a low-cost conductivity probe, would prove valuable in a wide range of applications where resolving extremely small spatial scales is not needed. We propose using micro-USB cables as the actual conductivity sensors. By removing the metallic shield from a micro-B connector, 5 gold-plated microelectrodes are exposed and available for 4-wire measurements. These have a cell constant ~550m-1, an intrinsic thermal noise of at most 30pA/Hz1/2, as well as sub-millisecond time response, making them highly suitable for many stratified flow measurements. In addition, we present the design of a custom electronic board (Arduino-based and Matlab-controlled) for simultaneous acquisition from 4 sensors, with resolution (in conductivity, and resulting density) exceeding the performance of typical existing probes. We illustrate the use of our conductivity-measuring system through stratified flow experiments, and describe plans to release simple instructions to construct our complete system for around 200.

  8. Accurate phasor measurement for transmission line protection in the presence of shunt capacitor banks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nam, Soon-Ryul; Kang, Sang-Hee [Department of Electrical Engineering and Next-Generation Power Technology Center, Myongji University (Korea); Park, Jong-Keun [School of Electrical Engineering, Seoul National University (Korea)

    2007-10-15

    This paper proposes a phasor measurement algorithm for transmission systems compensated with shunt capacitor banks. Since the shunt capacitor banks tend to lower the resonant frequencies, the dominant component, which has the lowest resonant frequency, is insufficiently attenuated by a low-pass filter and has an adverse influence on the phasor measurement of the fundamental component in a fault current signal. This paper theoretically investigates the dominant frequency in the presence of shunt capacitor banks and presents a phasor measurement algorithm immune to the dominant component and DC-offset. The performance of the algorithm is evaluated for a-phase to ground (a-g) faults on a 154-kV transmission system compensated with shunt capacitor banks. The evaluation results indicate that the algorithm can measure the phasor reliably and satisfactorily, although the fault current signal is distorted with the dominant component and DC-offset. The paper concludes by describing the hardware implementation of the algorithm on a prototype unit based on a digital signal processor. (author)

  9. An evaluation of effective radiuses of bulk-wave ultrasonic transducers as circular piston sources for accurate velocity measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arakawa, Mototaka; Kushibiki, Jun-ichi; Aoki, Naoya

    2004-05-01

    The effective radius of a bulk-wave ultrasonic transducer as a circular piston source, fabricated on one end of a synthetic silica (SiO2) glass buffer rod, was evaluated for accurate velocity measurements of dispersive specimens over a wide frequency range. The effective radius was determined by comparing measured and calculated phase variations due to diffraction in an ultrasonic transmission line of the SiO2 buffer rod/water-couplant/SiO2 standard specimen, using radio-frequency (RF) tone burst ultrasonic waves. Fourteen devices with different device parameters were evaluated. The velocities of the nondispersive standard specimen (C-7940) were found to be 5934.10 +/- 0.35 m/s at 70 to 290 MHz, after diffraction correction using the nominal radius (0.75 mm) for an ultrasonic device with an operating center frequency of about 400 MHz. Corrected velocities were more accurately found to be 5934.15 +/- 0.03 m/s by using the effective radius (0.780 mm) for the diffraction correction. Bulk-wave ultrasonic devices calibrated by this experimental procedure enable conducting extremely accurate velocity dispersion measurements. PMID:15217227

  10. Describing and compensating gas transport dynamics for accurate instantaneous emission measurement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weilenmann, Martin; Soltic, Patrik; Ajtay, Delia

    Instantaneous emission measurements on chassis dynamometers and engine test benches are becoming increasingly usual for car-makers and for environmental emission factor measurement and calculation, since much more information about the formation conditions can be extracted than from the regulated bag measurements (integral values). The common exhaust gas analysers for the "regulated pollutants" (carbon monoxide, total hydrocarbons, nitrogen oxide, carbon dioxide) allow measurement at a rate of one to ten samples per second. This gives the impression of having after-the-catalyst emission information with that chronological precision. It has been shown in recent years, however, that beside the reaction time of the analysers, the dynamics of gas transport in both the exhaust system of the car and the measurement system last significantly longer than 1 s. This paper focuses on the compensation of all these dynamics convoluting the emission signals. Most analysers show linear and time-invariant reaction dynamics. Transport dynamics can basically be split into two phenomena: a pure time delay accounting for the transport of the gas downstream and a dynamic signal deformation since the gas is mixed by turbulence along the way. This causes emission peaks to occur which are smaller in height and longer in time at the sensors than they are after the catalyst. These dynamics can be modelled using differential equations. Both mixing dynamics and time delay are constant for modelling a raw gas analyser system, since the flow in that system is constant. In the exhaust system of the car, however, the parameters depend on the exhaust volume flow. For gasoline cars, the variation in overall transport time may be more than 6 s. It is shown in this paper how all these processes can be described by invertible mathematical models with the focus on the more complex case of the car's exhaust system. Inversion means that the sharp emission signal at the catalyst out location can be

  11. An X-band waveguide measurement technique for the accurate characterization of materials with low dielectric loss permittivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Kenneth W; Scott, Mark M; Reid, David R; Bean, Jeffrey A; Ellis, Jeremy D; Morris, Andrew P; Marsh, Jeramy M

    2016-05-01

    In this work, we present a new X-band waveguide (WR90) measurement method that permits the broadband characterization of the complex permittivity for low dielectric loss tangent material specimens with improved accuracy. An electrically long polypropylene specimen that partially fills the cross-section is inserted into the waveguide and the transmitted scattering parameter (S21) is measured. The extraction method relies on computational electromagnetic simulations, coupled with a genetic algorithm, to match the experimental S21 measurement. The sensitivity of the technique to sample length was explored by simulating specimen lengths from 2.54 to 15.24 cm, in 2.54 cm increments. Analysis of our simulated data predicts the technique will have the sensitivity to measure loss tangent values on the order of 10(-3) for materials such as polymers with relatively low real permittivity values. The ability to accurately characterize low-loss dielectric material specimens of polypropylene is demonstrated experimentally. The method was validated by excellent agreement with a free-space focused-beam system measurement of a polypropylene sheet. This technique provides the material measurement community with the ability to accurately extract material properties of low-loss material specimen over the entire X-band range. This technique could easily be extended to other frequency bands. PMID:27250447

  12. Development of a scattering probability method for accurate vapor fraction measurements by neutron radiography

    CERN Document Server

    Joo, H

    1999-01-01

    Recent test results indicated drawbacks associated with the simple exponential attenuation method (SEAM) as currently applied to neutron radiography measurements to determine vapor fractions in a hydrogenous two-phase flow in a metallic conduit. The scattering component of the neutron beam intensity exiting the flow system is not adequately accounted for by SEAM, and this leads to inaccurate results. To properly account for the scattering effect, a neutron scattering probability method (SPM) is developed. The method applies a neutron-hydrogen scattering kernel to scattered thermal neutrons that leave the incident beam in narrow conduits but eventually show up elsewhere in the measurements. The SPM has been tested with known vapor (void) distributions within an acrylic disk and a water/vapor channel. The vapor (void) fractions deduced by SPM are in good agreement with the known exact values. Details of the scattering correction method and the test results are discussed.

  13. Simultaneous and accurate measurement of the dielectric constant at many frequencies spanning a wide range

    CERN Document Server

    Pérez-Aparicio, Roberto; Cottinet, Denis; Tanase, Marius; Metz, Pascal; Bellon, Ludovic; Naert, Antoine; Ciliberto, Sergio

    2015-01-01

    We present an innovative technique which allows the simultaneous measurement of the dielectric constant of a material at many frequencies, spanning a four orders of magnitude range chosen between 10 --2 Hz and 10 4 Hz. The sensitivity and accuracy are comparable to those obtained using standard single frequency techniques. The technique is based on three new and simple features: a) the precise real time correction of the amplication of a current amplier; b) the specic shape of the excitation signal and its frequency spectrum; and c) the precise synchronization between the generation of the excitation signal and the acquisition of the dielectric response signal. This technique is useful in the case of relatively fast dynamical measurements when the knowledge of the time evolution of the dielectric constant is needed.

  14. Accurate measurements and design standards: consistency of design and the travel of 'facts' between heterogeneous groups

    OpenAIRE

    Velkar, Aashish

    2007-01-01

    Design standards are carriers and creators of facts, enabling facts about product value to travel between groups, and assisting in the creation of product value by establishing a reference or comparison against which product attributes are compared. However, when design standards are not consistent, facts about product value may not travel well, even when designs can be expressed or measured with a high degree of precision. Examining the evidence from British iron and steel industry in the ni...

  15. Digital Integrator for Fast Accurate Measurement of Magnetic Flux by Rotating Coils

    CERN Document Server

    Arpaia, P; Spiezia, G

    2007-01-01

    A fast digital integrator (FDI) with dynamic accuracy and a trigger frequency higher than those of a portable digital integrator (PDI), which is a state-of-the-art instrument for magnetic measurements based on rotating coils, was developed for analyzing superconducting magnets in particle accelerators. Results of static and dynamic metrological characterization show how the FDI prototype is already capable of overcoming the dynamic performance of PDI as well as covering operating regions that used to be inaccessible

  16. Switched integration amplifier-based photocurrent meter for accurate spectral responsivity measurement of photometers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Seongchong; Hong, Kee-Suk; Kim, Wan-Seop

    2016-03-20

    This work introduces a switched integration amplifier (SIA)-based photocurrent meter for femtoampere (fA)-level current measurement, which enables us to measure a 107 dynamic range of spectral responsivity of photometers even with a common lamp-based monochromatic light source. We described design considerations and practices about operational amplifiers (op-amps), switches, readout methods, etc., to compose a stable SIA of low offset current in terms of leakage current and gain peaking in detail. According to the design, we made six SIAs of different integration capacitance and different op-amps and evaluated their offset currents. They showed an offset current of (1.5-85) fA with a slow variation of (0.5-10) fA for an hour under opened input. Applying a detector to the SIA input, the offset current and its variation were increased and the SIA readout became noisier due to finite shunt resistance and nonzero shunt capacitance of the detector. One of the SIAs with 10 pF nominal capacitance was calibrated using a calibrated current source at the current level of 10 nA to 1 fA and at the integration time of 2 to 65,536 ms. As a result, we obtained a calibration formula for integration capacitance as a function of integration time rather than a single capacitance value because the SIA readout showed a distinct dependence on integration time at a given current level. Finally, we applied it to spectral responsivity measurement of a photometer. It is demonstrated that the home-made SIA of 10 pF was capable of measuring a 107 dynamic range of spectral responsivity of a photometer. PMID:27140564

  17. On the Design of Accurate Spatial and Temporal Temperature Measurements in Sea Ice

    OpenAIRE

    Meyer, Karsten

    2012-01-01

    Studies on sea ice have become increasingly popular among researchers in the last decades, due to its effect on the global climate and the challenges it presents for arctic engineering. The research is in demand of reliable data acquisition on various properties, in this case the temperature gradient in forming sea ice.This project continues the development of a spatial temperature instrument, which intends to provide measurements with an accuracy of 0.01°C, making the researchers able t...

  18. A Robust Method of Vehicle Stability Accurate Measurement Using GPS and INS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miao, Zhibin; Zhang, Hongtian; Zhang, Jinzhu

    2015-12-01

    With the development of the vehicle industry, controlling stability has become more and more important. Techniques of evaluating vehicle stability are in high demand. Integration of Global Positioning System (GPS) and Inertial Navigation System (INS) is a very practical method to get high-precision measurement data. Usually, the Kalman filter is used to fuse the data from GPS and INS. In this paper, a robust method is used to measure vehicle sideslip angle and yaw rate, which are two important parameters for vehicle stability. First, a four-wheel vehicle dynamic model is introduced, based on sideslip angle and yaw rate. Second, a double level Kalman filter is established to fuse the data from Global Positioning System and Inertial Navigation System. Then, this method is simulated on a sample vehicle, using Carsim software to test the sideslip angle and yaw rate. Finally, a real experiment is made to verify the advantage of this approach. The experimental results showed the merits of this method of measurement and estimation, and the approach can meet the design requirements of the vehicle stability controller.

  19. Optical aperture area determination for accurate illuminance and luminous efficacy measurements of LED lamps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dönsberg, Timo; Mäntynen, Henrik; Ikonen, Erkki

    2016-06-01

    The measurement uncertainty of illuminance and, consequently, luminous flux and luminous efficacy of LED lamps can be reduced with a recently introduced method based on the predictable quantum efficient detector (PQED). One of the most critical factors affecting the measurement uncertainty with the PQED method is the determination of the aperture area. This paper describes an upgrade to an optical method for direct determination of aperture area where superposition of equally spaced Gaussian laser beams is used to form a uniform irradiance distribution. In practice, this is accomplished by scanning the aperture in front of an intensity-stabilized laser beam. In the upgraded method, the aperture is attached to the PQED and the whole package is transversely scanned relative to the laser beam. This has the benefit of having identical geometry in the laser scanning of the aperture area and in the actual photometric measurement. Further, the aperture and detector assembly does not have to be dismantled for the aperture calibration. However, due to small acceptance angle of the PQED, differences between the diffraction effects of an overfilling plane wave and of a combination of Gaussian laser beams at the circular aperture need to be taken into account. A numerical calculation method for studying these effects is discussed in this paper. The calculation utilizes the Rayleigh-Sommerfeld diffraction integral, which is applied to the geometry of the PQED and the aperture. Calculation results for various aperture diameters and two different aperture-to-detector distances are presented.

  20. Regular, Fast and Accurate Airborne In-Situ Methane Measurements Around the Tropopause

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dyroff, Christoph; Rauthe-Schöch, Armin; Schuck, Tanja J.; Zahn, Andreas

    2013-04-01

    We present a laser spectrometer for automated monthly measurements of methane (CH4) mixing ratios aboard the CARIBIC passenger aircraft. The instrument is based on a commercial fast methane analyzer (FMA, Los Gatos Res.), which was modified for fully unattended employment. A laboratory characterization was performed and the results with emphasis on the precision, cross sensitivity to H2O, and accuracy are presented. An in-flight calibration strategy is described, that utilizes CH4 measurements obtained from flask samples taken during the same flights. By statistical comparison of the in-situ measurements with the flask samples we derive a total uncetrainty estimate of ~ 3.85 ppbv (1?) around the tropopause, and ~ 12.4 ppbv (1?) during aircraft ascent and descent. Data from the first two years of airborne operation are presented that span a large part of the northern hemispheric upper troposphere and lowermost stratosphere, with occasional crossings of the tropics on flights to southern Africa. With its high spatial resolution and high accuracy this data set is unprecedented in the highly important atmospheric layer of the tropopause.

  1. Investigation of a ten-path ultrasonic flow meter for accurate feedwater measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tawackolian, K.; Büker, O.; Hogendoorn, J.; Lederer, T.

    2014-07-01

    The flow instruments used in thermal power plants cannot be calibrated directly for the actual process conditions, since no traceable calibration facility with known uncertainty is available. A systematic investigation of the relevant influence parameters is therefore needed. It was found in earlier investigations that the dominant influences on the measurement uncertainty are the flow velocity profile and the temperature. In the present work, we report on our experimental study of the temperature and Reynolds number dependence of a new ten-path ultrasonic flow meter prototype. An improved measuring program is developed that allows for a systematic characterization. Special emphasis was placed on producing and validating well defined velocity profiles on a precision calibration flow rig. It was also for the first time intended and validated to generate fully developed Reynolds-similar velocity profiles for different temperatures so that the two main influence parameters, namely temperature and Reynolds number, can be clearly characterized separately. Since such ideal measurement conditions are not found in practical applications, the approach is also tested for a disturbed flow condition. A well defined disturbance is generated with a new flow disturber.

  2. Influence and measurement of mass ablation in ICF implosions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spears, B K; Hicks, D; Velsko, C; Stoyer, M; Robey, H; Munro, D; Haan, S; Landen, O; Nikroo, A; Huang, H

    2007-09-05

    Point design ignition capsules designed for the National Ignition Facility (NIF) currently use an x-ray-driven Be(Cu) ablator to compress the DT fuel. Ignition specifications require that the mass of unablated Be(Cu), called residual mass, be known to within 1% of the initial ablator mass when the fuel reaches peak velocity. The specifications also require that the implosion bang time, a surrogate measurement for implosion velocity, be known to +/- 50 ps RMS. These specifications guard against several capsule failure modes associated with low implosion velocity or low residual mass. Experiments designed to measure and to tune experimentally the amount of residual mass are being developed as part of the National Ignition Campaign (NIC). Tuning adjustments of the residual mass and peak velocity can be achieved using capsule and laser parameters. We currently plan to measure the residual mass using streaked radiographic imaging of surrogate tuning capsules. Alternative techniques to measure residual mass using activated Cu debris collection and proton spectrometry have also been developed. These developing techniques, together with bang time measurements, will allow us to tune ignition capsules to meet NIC specs.

  3. Top-quark mass measurements using jet rates at LHC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moch S.

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available This work presents a new method to measure the top-quark mass in hadronic collisions[1]. The method uses the sensitivity of the tt¯+1$tar t + 1$-jet production on the top-quark mass. In detail we study the ℛ distribution defined as the tt¯+1$tar t + 1$-jet normalized cross section differential in the invariant mass of the total system and calculated at NLO accuracy. We prove that the ℛ distribution has a high sensitivity to the top-quark mass. Furthermore we investigate and quantify the impact of the dominant theoretical and experimental uncertainties. The results obtained show, that the method has the potential to be competitive in precision with established approaches and allows a complementary measurement of the top-quark mass at hadron colliders. We emphasize that in the proposed method the mass parameter is uniquely defined through one-loop renormalization.

  4. Examining factors that may influence accurate measurement of testosterone in sea turtles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graham, Katherine M; Mylniczenko, Natalie D; Burns, Charlene M; Bettinger, Tammie L; Wheaton, Catharine J

    2016-01-01

    Differences in reported testosterone concentrations in male sea turtle blood samples are common in the veterinary literature, but may be accounted for by differences in sample handling and processing prior to assay. Therefore, our study was performed to determine best practices for testosterone analysis in male sea turtles (Caretta caretta and Chelonia mydas). Blood samples were collected into 5 collection tube types, and assay validation and measured testosterone concentrations were compared across different sample storage (fresh, refrigerated 1 week, or frozen), extraction (unextracted or ether-extracted), and processing treatment (untreated, homogenized, or dissociation reagent) conditions. Ether-extracted and dissociation reagent-treated samples validated in all conditions tested and are recommended for use, as unextracted samples validated only if assayed fresh. Dissociation reagent treatment was simpler to perform than ether extraction and resulted in total testosterone concentrations ~2.7-3.5 times greater than free testosterone measured in ether-extracted samples. Sample homogenization did not affect measured testosterone concentrations, and could be used to increase volume in gelled samples. An annual seasonal testosterone increase was observed in both species when ether extraction or dissociation reagent treatment was used. Annual deslorelin implant treatments in a Chelonia mydas male resulted in suppression of seasonal testosterone following the fourth treatment. Seasonal testosterone patterns resumed following discontinuation of deslorelin. Comparison of in-house and commercially available enzyme immunoassay kits revealed similar patterns of seasonal testosterone increases and deslorelin-induced suppression. Our study highlights the importance of methodological validation and provides laboratorians with best practices for testosterone enzyme immunoassay in sea turtles.

  5. The dark art of light measurement: accurate radiometry for low-level light therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hadis, Mohammed A; Zainal, Siti A; Holder, Michelle J; Carroll, James D; Cooper, Paul R; Milward, Michael R; Palin, William M

    2016-05-01

    Lasers and light-emitting diodes are used for a range of biomedical applications with many studies reporting their beneficial effects. However, three main concerns exist regarding much of the low-level light therapy (LLLT) or photobiomodulation literature; (1) incomplete, inaccurate and unverified irradiation parameters, (2) miscalculation of 'dose,' and (3) the misuse of appropriate light property terminology. The aim of this systematic review was to assess where, and to what extent, these inadequacies exist and to provide an overview of 'best practice' in light measurement methods and importance of correct light measurement. A review of recent relevant literature was performed in PubMed using the terms LLLT and photobiomodulation (March 2014-March 2015) to investigate the contemporary information available in LLLT and photobiomodulation literature in terms of reporting light properties and irradiation parameters. A total of 74 articles formed the basis of this systematic review. Although most articles reported beneficial effects following LLLT, the majority contained no information in terms of how light was measured (73%) and relied on manufacturer-stated values. For all papers reviewed, missing information for specific light parameters included wavelength (3%), light source type (8%), power (41%), pulse frequency (52%), beam area (40%), irradiance (43%), exposure time (16%), radiant energy (74%) and fluence (16%). Frequent use of incorrect terminology was also observed within the reviewed literature. A poor understanding of photophysics is evident as a significant number of papers neglected to report or misreported important radiometric data. These errors affect repeatability and reliability of studies shared between scientists, manufacturers and clinicians and could degrade efficacy of patient treatments. Researchers need a physicist or appropriately skilled engineer on the team, and manuscript reviewers should reject papers that do not report beam measurement

  6. The dark art of light measurement: accurate radiometry for low-level light therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hadis, Mohammed A; Zainal, Siti A; Holder, Michelle J; Carroll, James D; Cooper, Paul R; Milward, Michael R; Palin, William M

    2016-05-01

    Lasers and light-emitting diodes are used for a range of biomedical applications with many studies reporting their beneficial effects. However, three main concerns exist regarding much of the low-level light therapy (LLLT) or photobiomodulation literature; (1) incomplete, inaccurate and unverified irradiation parameters, (2) miscalculation of 'dose,' and (3) the misuse of appropriate light property terminology. The aim of this systematic review was to assess where, and to what extent, these inadequacies exist and to provide an overview of 'best practice' in light measurement methods and importance of correct light measurement. A review of recent relevant literature was performed in PubMed using the terms LLLT and photobiomodulation (March 2014-March 2015) to investigate the contemporary information available in LLLT and photobiomodulation literature in terms of reporting light properties and irradiation parameters. A total of 74 articles formed the basis of this systematic review. Although most articles reported beneficial effects following LLLT, the majority contained no information in terms of how light was measured (73%) and relied on manufacturer-stated values. For all papers reviewed, missing information for specific light parameters included wavelength (3%), light source type (8%), power (41%), pulse frequency (52%), beam area (40%), irradiance (43%), exposure time (16%), radiant energy (74%) and fluence (16%). Frequent use of incorrect terminology was also observed within the reviewed literature. A poor understanding of photophysics is evident as a significant number of papers neglected to report or misreported important radiometric data. These errors affect repeatability and reliability of studies shared between scientists, manufacturers and clinicians and could degrade efficacy of patient treatments. Researchers need a physicist or appropriately skilled engineer on the team, and manuscript reviewers should reject papers that do not report beam measurement

  7. A Measurement of the Black-Hole Mass in NGC 1097 using ALMA

    CERN Document Server

    Onishi, Kyoko; Sheth, Kartik; Kohno, Kotaro

    2015-01-01

    We present an estimate of the mass of the supermassive black hole (SMBH) in the nearby type-1 Seyfert galaxy \\object{NGC 1097} using Atacamma Large Millimeter/Submillimeter Array (ALMA) observations of dense gas kinematics. Dense molecular gas dynamics are traced with ${\\rm HCN} (J=1-0)$ and ${\\rm HCO^{+}} (J=1-0)$ emission lines. Assuming a host galaxy inclination of $46^{\\circ}$, we derive a SMBH mass, $M_{\\rm BH}=1.40^{+0.27}_{-0.32} \\times 10^{8}M_{\\odot}$, and an I-band mass to light ratio to be $5.14^{+0.03}_{-0.04}$, using ${\\rm HCN} (J=1-0)$. The estimated parameters are consistent between the two emission lines. The measured SMBH mass is in good agreement with the SMBH mass and bulge velocity dispersion relationship. Our result showcases ALMA's potential for deriving accurate SMBH masses, especially for nearby late-type galaxies. Larger samples and accurate SMBH masses will further elucidate the relationship between the black hole (BH) and host galaxy properties and constrain the coevolutionary growt...

  8. Uncertainties and re-analysis of glacier mass balance measurements

    OpenAIRE

    Zemp, M.; E. Thibert; Huss, M.; Stumm, D.; Rolstad Denby, C.; Nuth, C.; S. U. Nussbaumer; G. Moholdt; A. Mercer; Mayer, C.; Joerg, P. C.; P. Jansson; B. Hynek; Fischer, A.; Escher-Vetter, H.

    2013-01-01

    Glacier-wide mass balance has been measured for more than sixty years and is widely used as an indicator of climate change and to assess the glacier contribution to runoff and sea level rise. Until present, comprehensive uncertainty assessments have rarely been carried out and mass balance data have often been applied using rough error estimation or without error considerations. In this study, we propose a framework for re-analyzing glacier mass balance series including conceptual and ...

  9. Recent Advances in Highly Accurate Range Measurements with TerraSAR-X

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eineder, Michael; Balss, Ulrich; Gisinger, Christoph; Cong, Xiao Ying; Brcic, Ramon; Steigenberger, Peter

    2013-04-01

    Earth surface displacement measurement from space using Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) imagery is an interesting alternative to SAR interferometry (InSAR). The advantages are that 2D information can be retrieved (InSAR only 1D), absolute displacements can be retrieved (no reference point required) and it is very robust (phase unwrapping not required). On the other hand, the accuracy is limited by the pixel resolution, the object contrast, the orbit accuracy, by wave propagation distortion and by geodetic effects. Therefore the accuracy was more in the meter / decimeter level in the past, compared to millimeter accuracy of InSAR. During the recent years our team established a test and validation site at the geodetic observatory Wettzell, Germany and developed compensation methods to reduce the overall error of absolute range measurements from decimeters to only one centimeter. The methods include correction of dry and wet atmospheric delays, ionospheric corrections, solid earth tides, continental drift, atmospheric pressure loading and ocean tidal loading. For more one year a radar reflector was monitored and each image evaluated. Our presentation gives and overview of methods and achieved results. Futhermore, examples of real world applications and an outlook on more applications is given such as phase unwrapping augmentation.

  10. Individual-Based Allometric Equations Accurately Measure Carbon Storage and Sequestration in Shrublands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Norman W.H. Mason

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Many studies have quantified uncertainty in forest carbon (C storage estimation, but there is little work examining the degree of uncertainty in shrubland C storage estimates. We used field data to simulate uncertainty in carbon storage estimates from three error sources: (1 allometric biomass equations; (2 measurement errors of shrubs harvested for the allometry; and (3 measurement errors of shrubs in survey plots. We also assessed uncertainty for all possible combinations of these error sources. Allometric uncertainty had the greatest independent effect on C storage estimates for individual plots. The largest error arose when all three error sources were included in simulations (where the 95% confidence interval spanned a range equivalent to 40% of mean C storage. Mean C sequestration (1.73 Mg C ha–1 year–1 exceeded the margin of error produced by the simulated sources of uncertainty. This demonstrates that, even when the major sources of uncertainty were accounted for, we were able to detect relatively modest gains in shrubland C storage.

  11. Accurate low-rank matrix recovery from a small number of linear measurements

    CERN Document Server

    Candes, Emmanuel J

    2009-01-01

    We consider the problem of recovering a lowrank matrix M from a small number of random linear measurements. A popular and useful example of this problem is matrix completion, in which the measurements reveal the values of a subset of the entries, and we wish to fill in the missing entries (this is the famous Netflix problem). When M is believed to have low rank, one would ideally try to recover M by finding the minimum-rank matrix that is consistent with the data; this is, however, problematic since this is a nonconvex problem that is, generally, intractable. Nuclear-norm minimization has been proposed as a tractable approach, and past papers have delved into the theoretical properties of nuclear-norm minimization algorithms, establishing conditions under which minimizing the nuclear norm yields the minimum rank solution. We review this spring of emerging literature and extend and refine previous theoretical results. Our focus is on providing error bounds when M is well approximated by a low-rank matrix, and ...

  12. Comparative Ebulliometry: a Simple, Reliable Technique for Accurate Measurement of the Number Average Molecular Weight of Macromolecules. Preliminary Studies on Heavy Crude Fractions Ébulliométrie comparative : technique simple et fiable pour déterminer précisément la masse molaire moyenne en nombre des macromolécules. Etudes préliminaires sur des fractions lourdes de bruts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Behar E.

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available This article is divided into two parts. In the first part, the authors present a comparison of the major techniques for the measurement of the molecular weight of macromolecules. The bibliographic results are gathered in several tables. In the second part, a comparative ebulliometer for the measurement of the number average molecular weight (Mn of heavy crude oil fractions is described. The high efficiency of the apparatus is demonstrated with a preliminary study of atmospheric distillation residues and resins. The measurement of molecular weights up to 2000 g/mol is possible in less than 4 hours with an uncertainty of about 2%. Cet article comprend deux parties. Dans la première, les auteurs présentent une comparaison entre les principales techniques de détermination de la masse molaire de macromolécules. Les résultats de l'étude bibliographique sont rassemblés dans plusieurs tableaux. La seconde partie décrit un ébulliomètre comparatif conçu pour la mesure de la masse molaire moyenne en nombre (Mn des fractions lourdes des bruts. Une illustration de l'efficacité de cet appareil est indiquée avec l'étude préliminaire de résidus de distillation atmosphérique et de résines. En particulier, la mesure de masses molaires pouvant atteindre 2000 g/mol est possible en moins de 4 heures avec une incertitude expérimentale de l'ordre de 2 %.

  13. The Kilogram and Measurements of Mass and Force.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jabbour, Z J; Yaniv, S L

    2001-01-01

    This paper describes the facilities, measurement capabilities, and ongoing research activities in the areas of mass and force at the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST). The first section of the paper is devoted to mass metrology and starts with a brief historical perspective on the developments that led to the current definition of the kilogram. An overview of mass measurement procedures is given with a brief discussion of current research on alternative materials for mass standards and surface profiles of the U.S. national prototype kilograms. A brief outlook into the future possible redefinition of the unit of mass based on fundamental principles is included. The second part of this paper focuses on the unit of force and describes the realization of the unit, measurement procedures, uncertainty in the realized force, facilities, and current efforts aimed at the realization of small forces.

  14. Mass measurements near the $r$-process path using the Canadian Penning Trap mass spectrometer

    OpenAIRE

    Van Schelt, J.; Lascar, D.; G. Savard; Clark, J. A.; Caldwell, S.; Chaudhuri, A.; Fallis, J.; Greene, J. P.; Levand, 1 A. F.; Li, G.; Sharma, K. S.; Sternberg, M. G.; Sun, T.; Zabransky, B. J.

    2012-01-01

    The masses of 40 neutron-rich nuclides from Z = 51 to 64 were measured at an average precision of $\\delta m/m= 10^{-7}$ using the Canadian Penning Trap mass spectrometer at Argonne National Laboratory. The measurements, of fission fragments from a $^{252}$Cf spontaneous fission source in a helium gas catcher, approach the predicted path of the astrophysical $r$ process. Where overlap exists, this data set is largely consistent with previous measurements from Penning traps, storage rings, and ...

  15. Analysis of Partial Volume Effects on Accurate Measurement of the Hippocampus Volume

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Maryam Hajiesmaeili; Jamshid Dehmeshki; Tim Ellis

    2014-01-01

    Hippocampal volume loss is an important biomarker in distinguishing subjects with Alzheimer’s disease (AD) and its measurement in magnetic resonance images (MRI) is influenced by partial volume effects (PVE). This paper describes a post-processing approach to quantify PVE for correction of the hippocampal volume by using a spatial fuzzyC-means (SFCM) method. The algorithm is evaluated on a dataset of 20 T1-weighted MRI scans sampled at two different resolutions. The corrected volumes for left and right hippocampus (HC) which are 23% and 18% for the low resolution and 6% and 5% for the high resolution datasets, respectively are lower than hippocampal volume results from manual segmentation. Results show the importance of applying this technique in AD detection with low resolution datasets.

  16. Accurate fault location algorithm on power transmission lines with use of two-end unsynchronized measurements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed Dine

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a new approach to fault location on power transmission lines. This approach uses two-end unsynchronised measurements of the line and benefits from the advantages of digital technology and numerical relaying, which are available today and can easily be applied for off-line analysis. The approach is to modify the apparent impedance method using a very simple first-order formula. The new method is independent of fault resistance, source impedances and pre-fault currents. In addition, the data volume communicated between relays is sufficiently small enough to be transmitted easily using a digital protection channel. The proposed approach is tested via digital simulation using MATLand the applied test results corroborate the superior performance of the proposed approach.

  17. Accurate Simulation of 802.11 Indoor Links: A "Bursty" Channel Model Based on Real Measurements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agüero Ramón

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available We propose a novel channel model to be used for simulating indoor wireless propagation environments. An extensive measurement campaign was carried out to assess the performance of different transport protocols over 802.11 links. This enabled us to better adjust our approach, which is based on an autoregressive filter. One of the main advantages of this proposal lies in its ability to reflect the "bursty" behavior which characterizes indoor wireless scenarios, having a great impact on the behavior of upper layer protocols. We compare this channel model, integrated within the Network Simulator (ns-2 platform, with other traditional approaches, showing that it is able to better reflect the real behavior which was empirically assessed.

  18. Combined atomic force microscopy and voltage pulse technique to accurately measure electrostatic force

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inami, Eiichi; Sugimoto, Yoshiaki

    2016-08-01

    We propose a new method of extracting electrostatic force. The technique is based on frequency modulation atomic force microscopy (FM-AFM) combined with a voltage pulse. In this method, the work that the electrostatic field does on the oscillating tip is measured through the cantilever energy dissipation. This allows us to directly extract capacitive forces including the longer range part, to which the conventional FM-AFM is insensitive. The distance-dependent contact potential difference, which is modulated by local charges distributed on the surfaces of the tip and/or sample, could also be correctly obtained. In the absence of local charges, our method can perfectly reproduce the electrostatic force as a function of the distance and the bias voltage. Furthermore, we demonstrate that the system serves as a sensitive sensor enabling us to check the existence of the local charges such as trapped charges and patch charges.

  19. Evapotranspiration: Mass balance measurements compared with flux estimation methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evapotranspiration (ET) may be measured by mass balance methods and estimated by flux sensing methods. The mass balance methods are typically restricted in terms of the area that can be represented (e.g., surface area of weighing lysimeter (LYS) or equivalent representative area of neutron probe (NP...

  20. An X-Band Waveguide Measurement Technique for the Accurate Characterization of Materials with Low Dielectric Loss Permittivity

    CERN Document Server

    Allen, Kenneth W; Reid, David R; Bean, Jeffrey A; Ellis, Jeremy D; Morris, Andrew P; Marsh, Jeramy M

    2016-01-01

    In this work, we present a new X-band waveguide (WR90) measurement method that permits the broadband characterization of the complex permittivity for low dielectric loss tangent material specimens with improved accuracy. An electrically-long polypropylene specimen that partially fills the cross-section is inserted into the waveguide and the transmitted scattering parameter (S21) is measured. The extraction method relies on computational electromagnetic simulations, coupled with a genetic algorithm, to match the experimental S21 measurement. The sensitivity of the technique to sample length was explored by simulating specimen lengths from 2.54 to 15.24 cm, in 2.54 cm increments. Analysis of our simulated data predicts the technique will have the sensitivity to measure loss tangent values on the order of 10e-3 for materials such as polymers with relatively low real permittivity values. The ability to accurately characterize low-loss dielectric material specimens of polypropylene is demonstrated experimentally. ...

  1. Accurate quantitation of pentaerythritol tetranitrate and its degradation products using liquid chromatography-atmospheric pressure chemical ionization-mass spectrometry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brust, H.; Asten, A. van; Koeberg, M.; Dalmolen, J.; Heijden, A.E.D.M. van der; Schoenmakers, P.

    2014-01-01

    After an explosion of pentaerythritol tetranitrate (PETN), its degradation products pentaerythritol trinitrate (PETriN), dinitrate (PEDiN) and mononitrate (PEMN) were detected using liquid chromatography-atmospheric-pressure chemical-ionization-mass spectrometry (LC-APCI-MS). Discrimination between

  2. Report of the working group on precision measurements - measurements of the W boson mass and width.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brock, R.; Erler, J.; Kim, Y.-K.; Marciano, W.; Ashmanskas, W.; Baur, U.; Ellison, J.; Lancaster, M.; Nodulman, L.; Rha, J.; Waters, D.; Womersley, J.

    2000-11-29

    We discuss the prospects for measuring the W mass and width in Run II. The basic techniques used to measure M{sub W} are described and the statistical, theoretical and detector-related uncertainties are discussed in detail. Alternative methods of measuring the W mass at the Tevatron and the prospects for M{sub W} measurements at other colliders are also described.

  3. Standardization of vitrinite reflectance measurements in shale petroleum systems: How accurate are my Ro data?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hackley, Paul C.

    2014-01-01

    Vitrinite reflectance generally is considered the most robust thermal maturity parameter available for application to hydrocarbon exploration and petroleum system evaluation. However, until 2011 there was no standardized methodology available to provide guidelines for vitrinite reflectance measurements in shale. Efforts to correct this deficiency resulted in publication of ASTM D7708-11: Standard test method for microscopical determination of the reflectance of vitrinite dispersed in sedimentary rocks. In 2012-2013, an interlaboratory exercise was conducted to establish precision limits for the measurement technique. Six samples, representing a wide variety of shale, were tested in duplicate by 28 analysts in 22 laboratories from 14 countries. Samples ranged from immature to overmature (Ro 0.31-1.53%), from organic-rich to organic-lean (1-22 wt.% total organic carbon), and contained Type I (lacustrine), Type II (marine), and Type III (terrestrial) kerogens. Repeatability values (difference between repetitive results from same operator, same conditions) ranged from 0.03-0.11% absolute reflectance, whereas reproducibility values (difference between results obtained on same test material by different operators, different laboratories) ranged from 0.12-0.54% absolute reflectance. Repeatability and reproducibility degraded consistently with increasing maturity and decreasing organic content. However, samples with terrestrial kerogens (Type III) fell off this trend, showing improved levels of reproducibility due to higher vitrinite content and improved ease of identification. Operators did not consistently meet the reporting requirements of the test method, indicating that a common reporting template is required to improve data quality. The most difficult problem encountered was the petrographic distinction of solid bitumens and low-reflecting inert macerals from vitrinite when vitrinite occurred with reflectance ranges overlapping the other components. Discussion among

  4. Accurate Measurements of Free Flight Drag Coefficients with Amateur Doppler Radar

    CERN Document Server

    Courtney, Elya; Courtney, Michael

    2016-01-01

    In earlier papers, techniques have been described using optical chronographs to determine free flight drag coefficients with an accuracy of 1-2%, accomplished by measuring near and far velocities of projectiles in flight over a known distance. Until recently, Doppler radar has been prohibitively expensive for many users. This paper reports results of exploring potential applications and accuracy using a recently available, inexpensive (< $600 US) amateur Doppler radar system to determine drag coefficients for projectiles of various sizes (4.4 mm to 9 mm diameter) and speeds (M0.3 to M3.0). In many cases, drag coefficients can be determined with an accuracy of 1% or better if signal-to-noise ratio is sufficient and projectiles vary little between trials. It is also straightforward to design experiments for determining drag over a wide range of velocities. Experimental approaches and limitations are described. Overall, the amateur radar system shows greater accuracy, ease of use, and simplicity compared with...

  5. Accurate electrical resistance measurement of the crystallization kinetics of amorphous alloys

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG; Yaping

    2001-01-01

    [1]Kobayashi, H.?Yasukochi, K., Maximum and minimum heat flux and temperature fluctuation in film-boiling states in superfluid helium, Adv. Cryog. Eng., 1980, 25: 372.[2]Kobayashi, H.?Yasukochi, K., A sample configuration effect on the heat transfer from metal surfaces to pressurized He II, Proc. ICEC, 1980, 8: 217.[3]Schwerdtner, M. V., Stamm, G., Tosi, A. N. et al. The boiling-up process in He II. Optical measurements and visualization, Cryogenics, 1992, 32: 775.[4]Schwerdtner, M. V., Poppes, W., Schmidt, D. W., Distortion of temperature signals in He II due to probe geometry, and a new improved probe, Cryogenics, 1989, 29: 132.[5]Shimazaki, T., Murakami, M.?Iida, T., Second sound wave heat transfer, thermal boundary layer formation and boiling: highly transient heat transport phenomena in He II, Cryogenics, 1995, 35: 645.[6]Zhang, P., Study of physical mechanism of film boiling in He II, Doctoral dissertation, Shanghai Jiaotong University, China, 1998.[7]Arp, V., State equation of liquid helium-4 from 0.8 to 2.5K, J. Low Temp. Phys., 1990, 79: 93.[8]Zhang, P., Kimura, S., Murakami, M. et al., Non-planar and non-linear second sound wave in He II, Chinese Physics Letters, 2000, 17: 43.

  6. Body Mass Index and the Measurement of Obesity

    OpenAIRE

    Madden, David

    2006-01-01

    This paper proposes a new method of measuring obesity using Body Mass Index (BMI) data. Conventional measures which simply count the number of individuals with BMI in excess of an upper limit ignore the extent by which individuals exceed BMI limits and also the increased risk ratios for various conditions associated very high levels of BMI. This paper suggests that measures currently used in the poverty literature can be usefully applied to measure obesity and provide us with measures which m...

  7. Distributed Capacitive Sensor for Sample Mass Measurement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toda, Risaku; McKinney, Colin; Jackson, Shannon P.; Mojarradi, Mohammad; Manohara, Harish; Trebi-Ollennu, Ashitey

    2011-01-01

    Previous robotic sample return missions lacked in situ sample verification/ quantity measurement instruments. Therefore, the outcome of the mission remained unclear until spacecraft return. In situ sample verification systems such as this Distributed Capacitive (DisC) sensor would enable an unmanned spacecraft system to re-attempt the sample acquisition procedures until the capture of desired sample quantity is positively confirmed, thereby maximizing the prospect for scientific reward. The DisC device contains a 10-cm-diameter pressure-sensitive elastic membrane placed at the bottom of a sample canister. The membrane deforms under the weight of accumulating planetary sample. The membrane is positioned in close proximity to an opposing rigid substrate with a narrow gap. The deformation of the membrane makes the gap narrower, resulting in increased capacitance between the two parallel plates (elastic membrane and rigid substrate). C-V conversion circuits on a nearby PCB (printed circuit board) provide capacitance readout via LVDS (low-voltage differential signaling) interface. The capacitance method was chosen over other potential approaches such as the piezoelectric method because of its inherent temperature stability advantage. A reference capacitor and temperature sensor are embedded in the system to compensate for temperature effects. The pressure-sensitive membranes are aluminum 6061, stainless steel (SUS) 403, and metal-coated polyimide plates. The thicknesses of these membranes range from 250 to 500 m. The rigid substrate is made with a 1- to 2-mm-thick wafer of one of the following materials depending on the application requirements glass, silicon, polyimide, PCB substrate. The glass substrate is fabricated by a microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) fabrication approach. Several concentric electrode patterns are printed on the substrate. The initial gap between the two plates, 100 m, is defined by a silicon spacer ring that is anodically bonded to the glass

  8. The need for preoperative baseline arm measurement to accurately quantify breast cancer-related lymphedema.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Fangdi; Skolny, Melissa N; Swaroop, Meyha N; Rawal, Bhupendra; Catalano, Paul J; Brunelle, Cheryl L; Miller, Cynthia L; Taghian, Alphonse G

    2016-06-01

    Breast cancer-related lymphedema (BCRL) is a feared outcome of breast cancer treatment, yet the push for early screening is hampered by a lack of standardized quantification. We sought to determine the necessity of preoperative baseline in accounting for temporal changes of upper extremity volume. 1028 women with unilateral breast cancer were prospectively screened for lymphedema by perometry. Thresholds were defined: relative volume change (RVC) ≥10 % for clinically significant lymphedema and ≥5 % including subclinical lymphedema. The first postoperative measurement (pseudo-baseline) simulated the case of no baseline. McNemar's test and binomial logistic regression models were used to analyze BCRL misdiagnoses. Preoperatively, 28.3 and 2.9 % of patients had arm asymmetry of ≥5 and 10 %, respectively. Without baseline, 41.6 % of patients were underdiagnosed and 40.1 % overdiagnosed at RVC ≥ 5 %, increasing to 50.0 and 54.8 % at RVC ≥ 10 %. Increased pseudo-baseline asymmetry, increased weight change between baselines, hormonal therapy, dominant use of contralateral arm, and not receiving axillary lymph node dissection (ALND) were associated with increased risk of underdiagnosis at RVC ≥ 5 %; not receiving regional lymph node radiation was significant at RVC ≥ 10 %. Increased pseudo-baseline asymmetry, not receiving ALND, and dominant use of ipsilateral arm were associated with overdiagnosis at RVC ≥ 5 %; increased pseudo-baseline asymmetry and not receiving ALND were significant at RVC ≥ 10 %. The use of a postoperative proxy even early after treatment results in poor sensitivity for identifying BCRL. Providers with access to patients before surgery should consider the consequent need for proper baseline, with specific strategy tailored by institution. PMID:27154787

  9. Measurement of boron isotopes by negative thermal ionization mass spectrometry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    The isobaric interference for boron isotopic measurement by negative thermal ionization mass spectrometry (NTIMS) has been studied. The result shows that the CNO- is not only from the organic material, but also from nitrate in loading reagent in NTIMS. Monitoring the mass 43 ion intensity and 43/42 ratio of blank are also necessary for the boron isotopic measurement by NTIMS, other than is only boron content.

  10. Evidence for Broad-Line Region Outflows and Their Impact on Black Hole Mass Measurements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Denney, K. D.; Assef, R. J.; Horne, K.;

    2012-01-01

    could not be fully and accurately interpreted from the 1D velocity-resolved reverberation signal. From the VDM, an outflow component to the emission remains possible but appears to be in addition to an underlying, disk-like BLR structure consistent in size with the measured reverberation lag. The black...... hole (BH) mass derived from this data is therefore secure from any uncertainties possibly derived from gravitationally unbound gas contributing to the emission. Additionally, we demonstrate that BLR emission from the C IV ¿1549 broad emission line can reliably be used as a virial BH mass estimator...

  11. A top quark mass measurement using a matrix element method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Linacre, Jacob Thomas [St. John' s College, Annapolis, MD (United States)

    2009-01-01

    A measurement of the mass of the top quark is presented, using top-antitop pair (t$\\bar{t}$) candidate events for the lepton+jets decay channel. The measurement makes use of Tevatron p$\\bar{p}$ collision data at centre-of-mass energy √s = 1.96 TeV, collected at the CDF detector. The top quark mass is measured by employing an unbinned maximum likelihood method where the event probability density functions are calculated using signal (t$\\bar{t}$) and background (W+jets) matrix elements, as well as a set of parameterised jet-to-parton mapping functions. The likelihood function is maximised with respect to the top quark mass, the fraction of signal events, and a correction to the jet energy scale (JES) of the calorimeter jets. The simultaneous measurement of the JES correction (ΔJES) provides an in situ jet energy calibration based on the known mass of the hadronically decaying W boson. Using 578 lepton+jets candidate events corresponding to 3.2 fb -1 of integrated luminosity, the top quark mass is measured to be mt = 172.4± 1.4 (stat+ΔJES) ±1.3 (syst) GeV=c2, one of the most precise single measurements to date.

  12. Rapid and Accurate Identification of Animal Species in Natural Leather Goods by Liquid Chromatography/Mass Spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Izuchi, Yukari; Takashima, Tsuneo; Hatano, Naoya

    2016-01-01

    The demand for leather goods has grown globally in recent years. Industry revenue is forecast to reach $91.2 billion by 2018. There is an ongoing labelling problem in the leather items market, in that it is currently impossible to identify the species that a given piece of leather is derived from. To address this issue, we developed a rapid and simple method for the specific identification of leather derived from cattle, horses, pigs, sheep, goats, and deer by analysing peptides produced by the trypsin-digestion of proteins contained in leather goods using liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry. We determined species-specific amino acid sequences by liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry analysis using the Mascot software program and demonstrated that collagen α-1(I), collagen α-2(I), and collagen α-1(III) from the dermal layer of the skin are particularly useful in species identification. PMID:27313979

  13. Rapid and Accurate Identification of Animal Species in Natural Leather Goods by Liquid Chromatography/Mass Spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Izuchi, Yukari; Takashima, Tsuneo; Hatano, Naoya

    2016-01-01

    The demand for leather goods has grown globally in recent years. Industry revenue is forecast to reach $91.2 billion by 2018. There is an ongoing labelling problem in the leather items market, in that it is currently impossible to identify the species that a given piece of leather is derived from. To address this issue, we developed a rapid and simple method for the specific identification of leather derived from cattle, horses, pigs, sheep, goats, and deer by analysing peptides produced by the trypsin-digestion of proteins contained in leather goods using liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry. We determined species-specific amino acid sequences by liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry analysis using the Mascot software program and demonstrated that collagen α-1(I), collagen α-2(I), and collagen α-1(III) from the dermal layer of the skin are particularly useful in species identification.

  14. Rapid and Accurate Identification of Animal Species in Natural Leather Goods by Liquid Chromatography/Mass Spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Izuchi, Yukari; Takashima, Tsuneo; Hatano, Naoya

    2016-01-01

    The demand for leather goods has grown globally in recent years. Industry revenue is forecast to reach $91.2 billion by 2018. There is an ongoing labelling problem in the leather items market, in that it is currently impossible to identify the species that a given piece of leather is derived from. To address this issue, we developed a rapid and simple method for the specific identification of leather derived from cattle, horses, pigs, sheep, goats, and deer by analysing peptides produced by the trypsin-digestion of proteins contained in leather goods using liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry. We determined species-specific amino acid sequences by liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry analysis using the Mascot software program and demonstrated that collagen α-1(I), collagen α-2(I), and collagen α-1(III) from the dermal layer of the skin are particularly useful in species identification. PMID:27313979

  15. The Black Hole Mass Function from Gravitational Wave Measurements

    CERN Document Server

    Kovetz, Ely D; Breysse, Patrick C; Kamionkowski, Marc

    2016-01-01

    We examine how future gravitational-wave measurements from merging black holes (BHs) can be used to infer the shape of the black-hole mass function, with important implications for the study of star formation and evolution and the properties of binary BHs. We model the mass function as a power law, inherited from the stellar initial mass function, and introduce lower and upper mass cutoff parameterizations in order to probe the minimum and maximum BH masses allowed by stellar evolution, respectively. We initially focus on the heavier BH in each binary, to minimize model dependence. Taking into account the experimental noise, the mass measurement errors and the uncertainty in the redshift-dependence of the merger rate, we show that the mass function parameters, as well as the total rate of merger events, can be measured to <10% accuracy within a few years of advanced LIGO observations at its design sensitivity. This can be used to address important open questions such as the upper limit on the stellar mass ...

  16. Measuring Physical Inactivity: Do Current Measures Provide an Accurate View of “Sedentary” Video Game Time?

    OpenAIRE

    Simon Fullerton; Taylor, Anne W.; Eleonora Dal Grande; Narelle Berry

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Measures of screen time are often used to assess sedentary behaviour. Participation in activity-based video games (exergames) can contribute to estimates of screen time, as current practices of measuring it do not consider the growing evidence that playing exergames can provide light to moderate levels of physical activity. This study aimed to determine what proportion of time spent playing video games was actually spent playing exergames. METHODS: Data were collected via a cross-...

  17. Measuring Physical Inactivity: Do Current Measures Provide an Accurate View of “Sedentary” Video Game Time?

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    Background. Measures of screen time are often used to assess sedentary behaviour. Participation in activity-based video games (exergames) can contribute to estimates of screen time, as current practices of measuring it do not consider the growing evidence that playing exergames can provide light to moderate levels of physical activity. This study aimed to determine what proportion of time spent playing video games was actually spent playing exergames. Methods. Data were collected via a cross-...

  18. Measurement of the mass difference between t and t quarks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aaltonen, T; Álvarez González, B; Amerio, S; Amidei, D; Anastassov, A; Annovi, A; Antos, J; Apollinari, G; Appel, J A; Apresyan, A; Arisawa, T; Artikov, A; Asaadi, J; Ashmanskas, W; Auerbach, B; Aurisano, A; Azfar, F; Badgett, W; Barbaro-Galtieri, A; Barnes, V E; Barnett, B A; Barria, P; Bartos, P; Bauce, M; Bauer, G; Bedeschi, F; Beecher, D; Behari, S; Bellettini, G; Bellinger, J; Benjamin, D; Beretvas, A; Bhatti, A; Binkley, M; Bisello, D; Bizjak, I; Bland, K R; Blumenfeld, B; Bocci, A; Bodek, A; Bortoletto, D; Boudreau, J; Boveia, A; Brau, B; Brigliadori, L; Brisuda, A; Bromberg, C; Brucken, E; Bucciantonio, M; Budagov, J; Budd, H S; Budd, S; Burkett, K; Busetto, G; Bussey, P; Buzatu, A; Calancha, C; Camarda, S; Campanelli, M; Campbell, M; Canelli, F; Canepa, A; Carls, B; Carlsmith, D; Carosi, R; Carrillo, S; Carron, S; Casal, B; Casarsa, M; Castro, A; Catastini, P; Cauz, D; Cavaliere, V; Cavalli-Sforza, M; Cerri, A; Cerrito, L; Chen, Y C; Chertok, M; Chiarelli, G; Chlachidze, G; Chlebana, F; Cho, K; Chokheli, D; Chou, J P; Chung, W H; Chung, Y S; Ciobanu, C I; Ciocci, M A; Clark, A; Compostella, G; Convery, M E; Conway, J; Corbo, M; Cordelli, M; Cox, C A; Cox, D J; Crescioli, F; Cuenca Almenar, C; Cuevas, J; Culbertson, R; Dagenhart, D; d'Ascenzo, N; Datta, M; de Barbaro, P; De Cecco, S; De Lorenzo, G; Dell'Orso, M; Deluca, C; Demortier, L; Deng, J; Deninno, M; Devoto, F; d'Errico, M; Di Canto, A; Di Ruzza, B; Dittmann, J R; D'Onofrio, M; Donati, S; Dong, P; Dorigo, M; Dorigo, T; Ebina, K; Elagin, A; Eppig, A; Erbacher, R; Errede, D; Errede, S; Ershaidat, N; Eusebi, R; Fang, H C; Farrington, S; Feindt, M; Fernandez, J P; Ferrazza, C; Field, R; Flanagan, G; Forrest, R; Frank, M J; Franklin, M; Freeman, J C; Funakoshi, Y; Furic, I; Gallinaro, M; Galyardt, J; Garcia, J E; Garfinkel, A F; Garosi, P; Gerberich, H; Gerchtein, E; Giagu, S; Giakoumopoulou, V; Giannetti, P; Gibson, K; Ginsburg, C M; Giokaris, N; Giromini, P; Giunta, M; Giurgiu, G; Glagolev, V; Glenzinski, D; Gold, M; Goldin, D; Goldschmidt, N; Golossanov, A; Gomez, G; Gomez-Ceballos, G; Goncharov, M; González, O; Gorelov, I; Goshaw, A T; Goulianos, K; Gresele, A; Grinstein, S; Grosso-Pilcher, C; Group, R C; Guimaraes da Costa, J; Gunay-Unalan, Z; Haber, C; Hahn, S R; Halkiadakis, E; Hamaguchi, A; Han, J Y; Happacher, F; Hara, K; Hare, D; Hare, M; Harr, R F; Hatakeyama, K; Hays, C; Heck, M; Heinrich, J; Herndon, M; Hewamanage, S; Hidas, D; Hocker, A; Hopkins, W; Horn, D; Hou, S; Hughes, R E; Hurwitz, M; Husemann, U; Hussain, N; Hussein, M; Huston, J; Introzzi, G; Iori, M; Ivanov, A; James, E; Jang, D; Jayatilaka, B; Jeon, E J; Jha, M K; Jindariani, S; Johnson, W; Jones, M; Joo, K K; Jun, S Y; Junk, T R; Kamon, T; Karchin, P E; Kato, Y; Ketchum, W; Keung, J; Khotilovich, V; Kilminster, B; Kim, D H; Kim, H S; Kim, H W; Kim, J E; Kim, M J; Kim, S B; Kim, S H; Kim, Y K; Kimura, N; Kirby, M; Klimenko, S; Kondo, K; Kong, D J; Konigsberg, J; Kotwal, A V; Kreps, M; Kroll, J; Krop, D; Krumnack, N; Kruse, M; Krutelyov, V; Kuhr, T; Kurata, M; Kwang, S; Laasanen, A T; Lami, S; Lammel, S; Lancaster, M; Lander, R L; Lannon, K; Lath, A; Latino, G; Lazzizzera, I; LeCompte, T; Lee, E; Lee, H S; Lee, J S; Lee, S W; Leo, S; Leone, S; Lewis, J D; Lin, C-J; Linacre, J; Lindgren, M; Lipeles, E; Lister, A; Litvintsev, D O; Liu, C; Liu, Q; Liu, T; Lockwitz, S; Lockyer, N S; Loginov, A; Lucchesi, D; Lueck, J; Lujan, P; Lukens, P; Lungu, G; Lys, J; Lysak, R; Madrak, R; Maeshima, K; Makhoul, K; Maksimovic, P; Malik, S; Manca, G; Manousakis-Katsikakis, A; Margaroli, F; Marino, C; Martínez, M; Martínez-Ballarín, R; Mastrandrea, P; Mathis, M; Mattson, M E; Mazzanti, P; McFarland, K S; McIntyre, P; McNulty, R; Mehta, A; Mehtala, P; Menzione, A; Mesropian, C; Miao, T; Mietlicki, D; Mitra, A; Miyake, H; Moed, S; Moggi, N; Mondragon, M N; Moon, C S; Moore, R; Morello, M J; Morlock, J; Movilla Fernandez, P; Mukherjee, A; Muller, Th; Murat, P; Mussini, M; Nachtman, J; Nagai, Y; Naganoma, J; Nakano, I; Napier, A; Nett, J; Neu, C; Neubauer, M S; Nielsen, J; Nodulman, L; Norniella, O; Nurse, E; Oakes, L; Oh, S H; Oh, Y D; Oksuzian, I; Okusawa, T; Orava, R; Ortolan, L; Pagan Griso, S; Pagliarone, C; Palencia, E; Papadimitriou, V; Paramonov, A A; Patrick, J; Pauletta, G; Paulini, M; Paus, C; Pellett, D E; Penzo, A; Phillips, T J; Piacentino, G; Pianori, E; Pilot, J; Pitts, K; Plager, C; Pondrom, L; Potamianos, K; Poukhov, O; Prokoshin, F; Pronko, A; Ptohos, F; Pueschel, E; Punzi, G; Pursley, J; Rahaman, A; Ramakrishnan, V; Ranjan, N; Redondo, I; Renton, P; Rescigno, M; Rimondi, F; Ristori, L; Robson, A; Rodrigo, T; Rodriguez, T; Rogers, E; Rolli, S; Roser, R; Rossi, M; Rubbo, F; Ruffini, F; Ruiz, A; Russ, J; Rusu, V; Safonov, A; Sakumoto, W K; Sakurai, Y; Santi, L; Sartori, L; Sato, K; Saveliev, V; Savoy-Navarro, A; Schlabach, P; Schmidt, A; Schmidt, E E; Schmidt, M P

    2011-04-15

    We present a direct measurement of the mass difference between t and t quarks using tt candidate events in the lepton+jets channel, collected with the CDF II detector at Fermilab's 1.96 TeV Tevatron pp Collider. We make an event by event estimate of the mass difference to construct templates for top quark pair signal events and background events. The resulting mass difference distribution of data is compared to templates of signals and background using a maximum likelihood fit. From a sample corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 5.6  fb(-1), we measure a mass difference, ΔM(top) = M(t) - M(t) = -3.3 ± 1.4(stat) ± 1.0(syst)  GeV/c2, approximately 2 standard deviations away from the CPT hypothesis of zero mass difference.

  19. A Critical Assessment of Stellar Mass Measurement Methods

    CERN Document Server

    Mobasher, Bahram; Ferguson, Henry C; Acquaviva, Viviana; Barro, Guillermo; Finkelstein, Steven L; Fontana, Adriano; Gruetzbauch, Ruth; Johnson, Seth; Lu, Yu; Papovich, Casey J; Pforr, Janine; Salvato, Mara; Somerville, Rachel S; Wiklind, Tommy; Wuyts, Stijn; Ashby, Matthew L N; Bell, Eric; Conselice, Christopher J; Dickinson, Mark E; Faber, Sandra M; Fazio, Giovanni; Finlator, Kristian; Galametz, Audrey; Gawiser, Eric; Giavalisco, Mauro; Grazian, Andrea; Grogin, Norman A; Guo, Yicheng; Hathi, Nimish; Kocevski, Dale; Koekemoer, Anton M; Koo, David C; Newman, Jeffrey A; Reddy, Naveen; Santini, Paola; Wechsler, Risa H

    2015-01-01

    In this paper we perform a comprehensive study of the main sources of random and systematic errors in stellar mass measurement for galaxies using their Spectral Energy Distributions (SEDs). We use mock galaxy catalogs with simulated multi-waveband photometry (from U-band to mid-infrared) and known redshift, stellar mass, age and extinction for individual galaxies. Given different parameters affecting stellar mass measurement (photometric S/N ratios, SED fitting errors, systematic effects, the inherent degeneracies and correlated errors), we formulated different simulated galaxy catalogs to quantify these effects individually. We studied the sensitivity of stellar mass estimates to the codes/methods used, population synthesis models, star formation histories, nebular emission line contributions, photometric uncertainties, extinction and age. For each simulated galaxy, the difference between the input stellar masses and those estimated using different simulation catalogs, $\\Delta\\log(M)$, was calculated and use...

  20. Measurement of the Higgs boson mass with the ATLAS detector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Garay Walls F. M.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A summary of the latest results on the combined measurement of the Higgs boson mass in the H → ZZ* → 4l and the H → γγ decay channels with the ATLAS detector is presented. The analysis uses 25 fb−1 of pp collision data recorded by the ATLAS detector at the CERN Large Hadron Collider at centre-of-mass energies of 7TeV and 8 TeV during 2011 and 2012. The combined measured value of the Higgs boson mass is mH = 125.36 ± 0.37 (stat ± 0.18 (syst GeV.

  1. Precision measurement of a particle mass at the linear collider

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Milstene, C.; /Fermilab; Freitas, A.; /Zurich U.; Schmitt, M.; /Northwestern U.; Sopczak, A.; /Lancaster U.

    2007-06-01

    Precision measurement of the stop mass at the ILC is done in a method based on cross-sections measurements at two different center-of-mass energies. This allows to minimize both the statistical and systematic errors. In the framework of the MSSM, a light stop, compatible with electro-weak baryogenesis, is studied in its decay into a charm jet and neutralino, the Lightest Supersymmetric Particle (LSP), as a candidate of dark matter. This takes place for a small stop-neutralino mass difference.

  2. MEASUREMENT OF GALAXY CLUSTER INTEGRATED COMPTONIZATION AND MASS SCALING RELATIONS WITH THE SOUTH POLE TELESCOPE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saliwanchik, B. R.; Montroy, T. E. [Physics Department, Center for Education and Research in Cosmology and Astrophysics, Case Western Reserve University, Cleveland, OH 44106 (United States); Aird, K. A. [University of Chicago, 5640 South Ellis Avenue, Chicago, IL 60637 (United States); Bayliss, M. [Department of Physics, Harvard University, 17 Oxford Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Benson, B. A.; Bleem, L. E.; Carlstrom, J. E.; Chang, C. L.; Crawford, T. M.; Crites, A. T. [Kavli Institute for Cosmological Physics, University of Chicago, 5640 South Ellis Avenue, Chicago, IL 60637 (United States); Bocquet, S.; Desai, S. [Department of Physics, Ludwig-Maximilians-Universität, Scheinerstr. 1, D-81679 München (Germany); Brodwin, M. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Missouri, 5110 Rockhill Road, Kansas City, MO 64110 (United States); Cho, H. M. [NIST Quantum Devices Group, 325 Broadway, Mailcode 817.03, Boulder, CO 80305 (United States); Clocchiatti, A. [Departamento de Astronomia y Astrofisica, Pontificia Universidad Catolica (Chile); De Haan, T.; Dobbs, M. A.; Dudley, J. P. [Department of Physics, McGill University, 3600 Rue University, Montreal, QC H3A 2T8 (Canada); Foley, R. J.; Forman, W. R., E-mail: benjamin.saliwanchik@case.edu [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); and others

    2015-02-01

    We describe a method for measuring the integrated Comptonization (Y {sub SZ}) of clusters of galaxies from measurements of the Sunyaev-Zel'dovich (SZ) effect in multiple frequency bands and use this method to characterize a sample of galaxy clusters detected in the South Pole Telescope (SPT) data. We use a Markov Chain Monte Carlo method to fit a β-model source profile and integrate Y {sub SZ} within an angular aperture on the sky. In simulated observations of an SPT-like survey that include cosmic microwave background anisotropy, point sources, and atmospheric and instrumental noise at typical SPT-SZ survey levels, we show that we can accurately recover β-model parameters for inputted clusters. We measure Y {sub SZ} for simulated semi-analytic clusters and find that Y {sub SZ} is most accurately determined in an angular aperture comparable to the SPT beam size. We demonstrate the utility of this method to measure Y {sub SZ} and to constrain mass scaling relations using X-ray mass estimates for a sample of 18 galaxy clusters from the SPT-SZ survey. Measuring Y {sub SZ} within a 0.'75 radius aperture, we find an intrinsic log-normal scatter of 21% ± 11% in Y {sub SZ} at a fixed mass. Measuring Y {sub SZ} within a 0.3 Mpc projected radius (equivalent to 0.'75 at the survey median redshift z = 0.6), we find a scatter of 26% ± 9%. Prior to this study, the SPT observable found to have the lowest scatter with mass was cluster detection significance. We demonstrate, from both simulations and SPT observed clusters that Y {sub SZ} measured within an aperture comparable to the SPT beam size is equivalent, in terms of scatter with cluster mass, to SPT cluster detection significance.

  3. Top Quark Mass Measurements at ATLAS and CMS

    CERN Document Server

    McCarthy, Tom; The ATLAS collaboration

    2016-01-01

    The top quark mass ($m_{top}$) is a fundamental parameter of the Standard Model of Particle Physics (SM). As the heaviest of all known SM particles with a mass close to the EW symmetry breaking scale, the top quark plays a pivotal role in the theory of elementary particles. The exact value of the top quark mass has implications on a number of theoretical predictions, which motivates the need for precision measurements of $m_{top}$. This presentation highlights a number of such precision measurements carried out by the ATLAS and CMS collaborations at centre-of-mass energies of $\\sqrt{s}=7$ and $8$ TeV from the combined LHC Run I datasets. A wide range of analysis strategies are employed in a number of channels. Measurements of both the top quark pole mass and $m_{top}$ as defined by the Monte Carlo generator in simulated signal samples are shown. Finally, a summary of combinations of the LHC measurements is presented, together with a look toward top quark mass measurements at $\\sqrt{s}=13$ TeV.

  4. Measuring the Mass Distribution in Z is Approximately 0.2 Cluster Lenses with XMM, HST and CFHT

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-01-01

    Being the most massive gravitationally bound objects in the Universe, clusters of galaxies are prime targets for studies of structure formation and evolution. Specifically the comoving space density of virialized clusters of a given mass (or X-ray temperature), but also the frequency and degree of substructure, as well as the shape of the cluster mass profile are quantities whose current values and evolution as a function of lookback time can provide important constraints on the cosmological and physical parameters of structure formation theories. The project funded by NASA grant NAG 5-10041 intended to take such studies to a new level by combining observations of a well-selected cluster sample by three state-of-the-art telescopes: HST, to accurately measure the mass distribution in the cluster core (approx. 0.5 h(sup -1)(sub 50) Mpc) via strong gravitational lensing; CFHT, to measure the large scale mass distribution out to approx. 3 Mpc via weak lensing; and XMM, to measure the gas density and temperature distribution accurately on intermediate scales mass measurements through accurate, spatially resolved X-ray temperature measurements (particularly in the cosmologically most sensitive range of kT> 5 keV) is central to the questions outlined above. This set of observations promised to yield the best cluster mass measurements obtained so far for a representative sample, thus allowing us to: 1) Measure the high-mass end of the local cluster mass function; 2) Test predictions of a universal cluster mass profile; 3) calibrate the mass-temperature and temperature-luminosity relations for clusters and the scatter around these relations, which is vital for studies of cluster evolution using the X-ray temperature and X-ray luminosity functions.

  5. Measurements of the τ mass and the mass difference of the τ+ and τ- at BABAR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aubert, B.; Karyotakis, Y.; Lees, J. P.; Poireau, V.; Prencipe, E.; Prudent, X.; Tisserand, V.; Tico, J. Garra; Grauges, E.; Martinelli, M.; Palano, A.; Pappagallo, M.; Eigen, G.; Stugu, B.; Sun, L.; Battaglia, M.; Brown, D. N.; Kerth, L. T.; Kolomensky, Yu. G.; Lynch, G.; Osipenkov, I. L.; Tackmann, K.; Tanabe, T.; Hawkes, C. M.; Soni, N.; Watson, A. T.; Koch, H.; Schroeder, T.; Asgeirsson, D. J.; Fulsom, B. G.; Hearty, C.; Mattison, T. S.; McKenna, J. A.; Barrett, M.; Khan, A.; Randle-Conde, A.; Blinov, V. E.; Bukin, A. D.; Buzykaev, A. R.; Druzhinin, V. P.; Golubev, V. B.; Onuchin, A. P.; Serednyakov, S. I.; Skovpen, Yu. I.; Solodov, E. P.; Todyshev, K. Yu.; Bondioli, M.; Curry, S.; Eschrich, I.; Kirkby, D.; Lankford, A. J.; Lund, P.; Mandelkern, M.; Martin, E. C.; Stoker, D. P.; Atmacan, H.; Gary, J. W.; Liu, F.; Long, O.; Vitug, G. M.; Yasin, Z.; Sharma, V.; Campagnari, C.; Hong, T. M.; Kovalskyi, D.; Mazur, M. A.; Richman, J. D.; Beck, T. W.; Eisner, A. M.; Heusch, C. A.; Kroseberg, J.; Lockman, W. S.; Martinez, A. J.; Schalk, T.; Schumm, B. A.; Seiden, A.; Wang, L.; Winstrom, L. O.; Cheng, C. H.; Doll, D. A.; Echenard, B.; Fang, F.; Hitlin, D. G.; Narsky, I.; Ongmongkolku, P.; Piatenko, T.; Porter, F. C.; Andreassen, R.; Mancinelli, G.; Meadows, B. T.; Mishra, K.; Sokoloff, M. D.; Bloom, P. C.; Ford, W. T.; Gaz, A.; Hirschauer, J. F.; Nagel, M.; Nauenberg, U.; Smith, J. G.; Wagner, S. R.; Ayad, R.; Toki, W. H.; Wilson, R. J.; Feltresi, E.; Hauke, A.; Jasper, H.; Karbach, T. M.; Merkel, J.; Petzold, A.; Spaan, B.; Wacker, K.; Kobel, M. J.; Nogowski, R.; Schubert, K. R.; Schwierz, R.; Bernard, D.; Latour, E.; Verderi, M.; Clark, P. J.; Playfer, S.; Watson, J. E.; Andreotti, M.; Bettoni, D.; Bozzi, C.; Calabrese, R.; Cecchi, A.; Cibinetto, G.; Fioravanti, E.; Franchini, P.; Luppi, E.; Munerato, M.; Negrini, M.; Petrella, A.; Piemontese, L.; Santoro, V.; Baldini-Ferroli, R.; Calcaterra, A.; de Sangro, R.; Finocchiaro, G.; Pacetti, S.; Patteri, P.; Peruzzi, I. M.; Piccolo, M.; Rama, M.; Zallo, A.; Contri, R.; Guido, E.; Lo Vetere, M.; Monge, M. R.; Passaggio, S.; Patrignani, C.; Robutti, E.; Tosi, S.; Chaisanguanthum, K. S.; Morii, M.; Adametz, A.; Marks, J.; Schenk, S.; Uwer, U.; Bernlochner, F. U.; Klose, V.; Lacker, H. M.; Lueck, T.; Volk, A.; Bard, D. J.; Dauncey, P. D.; Tibbetts, M.; Behera, P. K.; Charles, M. J.; Mallik, U.; Cochran, J.; Crawley, H. B.; Dong, L.; Eyges, V.; Meyer, W. T.; Prell, S.; Rosenberg, E. I.; Rubin, A. E.; Gao, Y. Y.; Gritsan, A. V.; Guo, Z. J.; Arnaud, N.; Béquilleux, J.; D'Orazio, A.; Davier, M.; Derkach, D.; da Costa, J. Firmino; Grosdidier, G.; Le Diberder, F.; Lepeltier, V.; Lutz, A. M.; Malaescu, B.; Pruvot, S.; Roudeau, P.; Schune, M. H.; Serrano, J.; Sordini, V.; Stocchi, A.; Wormser, G.; Lange, D. J.; Wright, D. M.; Bingham, I.; Burke, J. P.; Chavez, C. A.; Fry, J. R.; Gabathuler, E.; Gamet, R.; Hutchcroft, D. E.; Payne, D. J.; Touramanis, C.; Bevan, A. J.; Clarke, C. K.; di Lodovico, F.; Sacco, R.; Sigamani, M.; Cowan, G.; Paramesvaran, S.; Wren, A. C.; Brown, D. N.; Davis, C. L.; Denig, A. G.; Fritsch, M.; Gradl, W.; Hafner, A.; Alwyn, K. E.; Bailey, D.; Barlow, R. J.; Jackson, G.; Lafferty, G. D.; West, T. J.; Yi, J. I.; Anderson, J.; Chen, C.; Jawahery, A.; Roberts, D. A.; Simi, G.; Tuggle, J. M.; Dallapiccola, C.; Salvati, E.; Cowan, R.; Dujmic, D.; Fisher, P. H.; Henderson, S. W.; Sciolla, G.; Spitznagel, M.; Yamamoto, R. K.; Zhao, M.; Patel, P. M.; Robertson, S. H.; Schram, M.; Biassoni, P.; Lazzaro, A.; Lombardo, V.; Palombo, F.; Stracka, S.; Cremaldi, L.; Godang, R.; Kroeger, R.; Sonnek, P.; Summers, D. J.; Zhao, H. W.; Simard, M.; Taras, P.; Nicholson, H.; de Nardo, G.; Lista, L.; Monorchio, D.; Onorato, G.; Sciacca, C.; Raven, G.; Snoek, H. L.; Jessop, C. P.; Knoepfel, K. J.; Losecco, J. M.; Wang, W. F.; Corwin, L. A.; Honscheid, K.; Kagan, H.; Kass, R.; Morris, J. P.; Rahimi, A. M.; Sekula, S. J.; Wong, Q. K.; Blount, N. L.; Brau, J.; Frey, R.; Igonkina, O.; Kolb, J. A.; Lu, M.; Rahmat, R.; Sinev, N. B.; Strom, D.; Strube, J.; Torrence, E.; Castelli, G.; Gagliardi, N.; Margoni, M.; Morandin, M.; Posocco, M.; Rotondo, M.; Simonetto, F.; Stroili, R.; Voci, C.; Del Amo Sanchez, P.; Ben-Haim, E.; Bonneaud, G. R.; Briand, H.; Chauveau, J.; Hamon, O.; Leruste, Ph.; Marchiori, G.; Ocariz, J.; Perez, A.; Prendki, J.; Sitt, S.; Gladney, L.; Biasini, M.; Manoni, E.; Angelini, C.; Batignani, G.; Bettarini, S.; Calderini, G.; Carpinelli, M.; Cervelli, A.; Forti, F.; Giorgi, M. A.; Lusiani, A.; Morganti, M.; Neri, N.; Paoloni, E.; Rizzo, G.; Walsh, J. J.; Pegna, D. Lopes; Lu, C.; Olsen, J.; Smith, A. J. S.; Telnov, A. V.; Anulli, F.; Baracchini, E.; Cavoto, G.; Faccini, R.; Ferrarotto, F.; Ferroni, F.; Gaspero, M.; Jackson, P. D.; Gioi, L. Li; Mazzoni, M. A.

    2009-11-01

    We present the result from a precision measurement of the mass of the τ lepton, Mτ, based on 423fb-1 of data recorded at the Υ(4S) resonance with the BABAR detector. Using a pseudomass endpoint method, we determine the mass to be 1776.68±0.12(stat)±0.41(syst)MeV. We also measure the mass difference between the τ+ and τ-, and obtain (Mτ+-Mτ-)/MAVGτ=(-3.4±1.3(stat)±0.3(syst))×10-4, where MAVGτ is the average value of Mτ+ and Mτ-.

  6. Accurate measurements of carbon monoxide in humid air using the cavity ring-down spectroscopy (CRDS technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Chen

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Accurate measurements of carbon monoxide (CO in humid air have been made using the cavity ring-down spectroscopy (CRDS technique. The measurements of CO mole fractions are determined from the strength of its spectral absorption in the near infrared region (∼1.57 μm after removing interferences from adjacent carbon dioxide (CO2 and water vapor (H2O absorption lines. Water correction functions that account for the dilution and pressure-broadening effects as well as absorption line interferences from adjacent CO2 and H2O lines have been derived for CO2 mole fractions between 360–390 ppm. The line interference corrections are independent of CO mole fractions. The dependence of the line interference correction on CO2 abundance is estimated to be approximately −0.3 ppb/100 ppm CO2 for dry mole fractions of CO. Comparisons of water correction functions from different analyzers of the same type show significant differences, making it necessary to perform instrument-specific water tests for each individual analyzer. The CRDS analyzer was flown on an aircraft in Alaska from April to November in 2011, and the accuracy of the CO measurements by the CRDS analyzer has been validated against discrete NOAA/ESRL flask sample measurements made on board the same aircraft, with a mean difference between integrated in situ and flask measurements of −0.6 ppb and a standard deviation of 2.8 ppb. Preliminary testing of CRDS instrumentation that employs new spectroscopic analysis (available since the beginning of 2012 indicates a smaller water vapor dependence than the models discussed here, but more work is necessary to fully validate the performance. The CRDS technique provides an accurate and low-maintenance method of monitoring the atmospheric dry mole fractions of CO in humid air streams.

  7. First direct mass measurements on nobelium and lawrencium with the Penning trap mass spectrometer SHIPTRAP

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dworschak, Michael Gerhard

    2009-12-08

    The Penning trap mass spectrometer SHIPTRAP at GSI Darmstadt was set up for high-precision mass measurements of heavy radionuclides produced in fusion evaporation reactions and separated from the primary beam by the velocity filter SHIP. It consists of a gas stopping cell for the deceleration of the high energetic reaction products, an RFQ cooler and buncher for cooling and accumulation of the ions, and a double Penning trap system to perform mass measurements. The mass is determined by measuring the cyclotron frequency of the ion of interest in a strong homogeneous magnetic field and comparing it to the frequency of a well-known reference ion. With this method relative uncertainties in the order of 10{sup -8} can be achieved. Recently, mass measurements of the three nobelium isotopes {sup 252-254}No (Z=102) and the lawrencium isotope {sup 255}Lr (Z=103) were performed successfully. These were the first direct mass measurements of transuranium elements ever per- formed. The production rate of the atoms of interest was about one per second or less. The results of the measurements on nobelium confirm the previous mass values which were deduced from Q{sub {alpha}} values. In the case of {sup 255}Lr the mass excess value, which was previously only estimated from systematic trends, was for the first time directly measured. These results mark the first step in the exploration of the region of transuranium elements which is planned at SHIPTRAP. The main objective is to fix the endpoints of {alpha} decay chains which are originating from superheavy elements close to the predicted island of stability. (orig.)

  8. Investigation and Comparison of Localization and Accurate Industrial Measurement through ¬Classic and Modern Mapping Methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyed Abdolreza Adnani

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is investigation and comparison of localization and accurate industrial measurement through classic and modern mapping methods. in this research and it is proved that if the objective is to determine the coordinates of an event or the geometry of an object, there is no need to align and the coordinates of points on a target, which is generally an ultimate objective of a local mapping project, can be reached and can save the necessary time for aligning and deploying device only through measuring the lengths and angles in Theodolite orthogonal framework. Existence of error in measurement and the need for a unit and close-to-truth response for measured quantities are among the most important issues of measurement science, so that it is possible to determine the accuracy and reliability of mapping projects only through these issues and proper application of mathematical language. Observations of total station (Horizontal angle, vertical angle and oblique length are performed in the Local Astronomy Coordinate System which can be time consuming and cause disruption in core activity of industrial sector according to the time required to locate and align device. Alignment in Goniometer and Distance Measurement or Total Station tools are investigated. Numerical results of this research indicate the complete success of presented method. Thus, this paves the ways for application of total station as a quick tool in open industrial environments and provided theory can create the industrial capabilities for ¬classic mapping.

  9. An accurate Rb density measurement method for a plasma wakefield accelerator experiment using a novel Rb reservoir

    Science.gov (United States)

    Öz, E.; Batsch, F.; Muggli, P.

    2016-09-01

    A method to accurately measure the density of Rb vapor is described. We plan on using this method for the Advanced Wakefield (AWAKE) (Assmann et al., 2014 [1]) project at CERN , which will be the world's first proton driven plasma wakefield experiment. The method is similar to the hook (Marlow, 1967 [2]) method and has been described in great detail in the work by Hill et al. (1986) [3]. In this method a cosine fit is applied to the interferogram to obtain a relative accuracy on the order of 1% for the vapor density-length product. A single-mode, fiber-based, Mach-Zenhder interferometer will be built and used near the ends of the 10 meter-long AWAKE plasma source to be able to make accurate relative density measurement between these two locations. This can then be used to infer the vapor density gradient along the AWAKE plasma source and also change it to the value desired for the plasma wakefield experiment. Here we describe the plan in detail and show preliminary results obtained using a prototype 8 cm long novel Rb vapor cell.

  10. Optical measurement of a micro coriolis mass flow sensor

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kristiansen, L.; Mehendale, A.; Brouwer, D.M.; Zwikker, J.M.; Klein, M.E.

    2009-01-01

    Haneveld [1,2] demonstrated a micro Coriolis mass flow sensor, operating in the measurement range of 0 to 1 g/hr achieving a resolution in the order of 10 mg/hr using a laser vibrometer. Equipped with an integrated capacitive [3] readout the measurement uncertainty amounted to 2% of the full scale r

  11. Investigating Young Children's Learning of Mass Measurement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheeseman, Jill; McDonough, Andrea; Ferguson, Sarah

    2014-01-01

    This paper reports results of a design experiment regarding young children's concepts of mass measurement. The research built on an earlier study in which a framework of "growth points" in early mathematics learning and a related, task-based, one-to-one interview to assess children's understanding of the measurement of mass…

  12. High frequency body mass measurement, feedback, and health behaviors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kooreman, P.; Scherpenzeel, A.

    2014-01-01

    We analyze weight and fat percentage measurements of respondents in an online general population panel in the Netherlands, collected using wireless scales, with an average frequency of 1.6 measurements per week. First, we document the existence of a weekly cycle; body mass is lowest on Fridays and h

  13. Self-aliquoting microarray plates for accurate quantitative matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pabst, Martin; Fagerer, Stephan R; Köhling, Rudolf; Küster, Simon K; Steinhoff, Robert; Badertscher, Martin; Wahl, Fabian; Dittrich, Petra S; Jefimovs, Konstantins; Zenobi, Renato

    2013-10-15

    Matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometry (MALDI-MS) is a fast analysis tool employed for the detection of a broad range of analytes. However, MALDI-MS has a reputation of not being suitable for quantitative analysis. Inhomogeneous analyte/matrix co-crystallization, spot-to-spot inhomogeneity, as well as a typically low number of replicates are the main contributing factors. Here, we present a novel MALDI sample target for quantitative MALDI-MS applications, which addresses the limitations mentioned above. The platform is based on the recently developed microarray for mass spectrometry (MAMS) technology and contains parallel lanes of hydrophilic reservoirs. Samples are not pipetted manually but deposited by dragging one or several sample droplets with a metal sliding device along these lanes. Sample is rapidly and automatically aliquoted into the sample spots due to the interplay of hydrophilic/hydrophobic interactions. With a few microliters of sample, it is possible to aliquot up to 40 replicates within seconds, each aliquot containing just 10 nL. The analyte droplet dries immediately and homogeneously, and consumption of the whole spot during MALDI-MS analysis is typically accomplished within few seconds. We evaluated these sample targets with respect to their suitability for use with different samples and matrices. Furthermore, we tested their application for generating calibration curves of standard peptides with α-cyano-4-hdydroxycinnamic acid as a matrix. For angiotensin II and [Glu(1)]-fibrinopeptide B we achieved coefficients of determination (r(2)) greater than 0.99 without the use of internal standards. PMID:24003910

  14. Compact Sensitive Piezoelectric Mass Balance for Measurement of Unconsolidated Materials in Space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sherrit, Stewart; Trebi-Ollennu, Ashitey; Bonitz, Robert; Bar-Cohen, Yoseph; Yen, Jesse T.

    2010-01-01

    In many in-situ instruments information about the mass of the sample could aid in the interpretation of the data and portioning instruments might require an accurate sizing of the sample mass before dispensing the sample. In addition, on potential sample return missions a method to directly assess the captured sample size would be required to determine if the sampler could return or needs to continue attempting to acquire sample. In an effort to meet these requirements piezoelectric balances were developed using flextensional actuators which are capable of monitoring the mass using two methods. A piezoelectric balance could be used to measure mass directly by monitoring the voltage developed across the piezoelectric which is linear with force, or it could be used in resonance to produce a frequency change proportional to the mass change. In this case of the latter, the piezoelectric actuator/balance would be swept in frequency through its fundamental resonance. If a mass is added to the balance the resonance frequency would shift down proportionally to the mass. By monitoring the frequency shift the mass could be determined. This design would allow for two independent measurements of the mass. In microgravity environments spacecraft thrusters could be used to provide acceleration in order to produce the required force for the first technique or to bring the mass into contact with the balance in the second approach. In addition, the measuring actuators, if driven at higher voltages, could be used to fluidize the powder to aid sample movement. In this paper, we outline some of our design considerations and present the results of a few prototype balances that we have developed.

  15. Using MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry as a rapid and accurate diagnostic tool in infective endocarditis: a case report of a patient with mitral valve infective endocarditis caused by Abiotrophia defectiva

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holler, Jon Gitz; Pedersen, Line; Calum, Henrik;

    2011-01-01

    A case of infective endocarditis caused by Abiotrophia defectiva is presented. The use of MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry as a rapid and accurate diagnostic tool in infective endocarditis is discussed.......A case of infective endocarditis caused by Abiotrophia defectiva is presented. The use of MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry as a rapid and accurate diagnostic tool in infective endocarditis is discussed....

  16. Measuring Physical Inactivity: Do Current Measures Provide an Accurate View of “Sedentary” Video Game Time?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fullerton, Simon; Taylor, Anne W.; Dal Grande, Eleonora; Berry, Narelle

    2014-01-01

    Background. Measures of screen time are often used to assess sedentary behaviour. Participation in activity-based video games (exergames) can contribute to estimates of screen time, as current practices of measuring it do not consider the growing evidence that playing exergames can provide light to moderate levels of physical activity. This study aimed to determine what proportion of time spent playing video games was actually spent playing exergames. Methods. Data were collected via a cross-sectional telephone survey in South Australia. Participants aged 18 years and above (n = 2026) were asked about their video game habits, as well as demographic and socioeconomic factors. In cases where children were in the household, the video game habits of a randomly selected child were also questioned. Results. Overall, 31.3% of adults and 79.9% of children spend at least some time playing video games. Of these, 24.1% of adults and 42.1% of children play exergames, with these types of games accounting for a third of all time that adults spend playing video games and nearly 20% of children's video game time. Conclusions. A substantial proportion of time that would usually be classified as “sedentary” may actually be spent participating in light to moderate physical activity. PMID:25002974

  17. Measuring Physical Inactivity: Do Current Measures Provide an Accurate View of “Sedentary” Video Game Time?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simon Fullerton

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Measures of screen time are often used to assess sedentary behaviour. Participation in activity-based video games (exergames can contribute to estimates of screen time, as current practices of measuring it do not consider the growing evidence that playing exergames can provide light to moderate levels of physical activity. This study aimed to determine what proportion of time spent playing video games was actually spent playing exergames. Methods. Data were collected via a cross-sectional telephone survey in South Australia. Participants aged 18 years and above (n=2026 were asked about their video game habits, as well as demographic and socioeconomic factors. In cases where children were in the household, the video game habits of a randomly selected child were also questioned. Results. Overall, 31.3% of adults and 79.9% of children spend at least some time playing video games. Of these, 24.1% of adults and 42.1% of children play exergames, with these types of games accounting for a third of all time that adults spend playing video games and nearly 20% of children’s video game time. Conclusions. A substantial proportion of time that would usually be classified as “sedentary” may actually be spent participating in light to moderate physical activity.

  18. Accurate measurements of cross-plane thermal conductivity of thin films by dual-frequency time-domain thermoreflectance (TDTR).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Puqing; Huang, Bin; Koh, Yee Kan

    2016-07-01

    Accurate measurements of the cross-plane thermal conductivity Λcross of a high-thermal-conductivity thin film on a low-thermal-conductivity (Λs) substrate (e.g., Λcross/Λs > 20) are challenging, due to the low thermal resistance of the thin film compared with that of the substrate. In principle, Λcross could be measured by time-domain thermoreflectance (TDTR), using a high modulation frequency fh and a large laser spot size. However, with one TDTR measurement at fh, the uncertainty of the TDTR measurement is usually high due to low sensitivity of TDTR signals to Λcross and high sensitivity to the thickness hAl of Al transducer deposited on the sample for TDTR measurements. We observe that in most TDTR measurements, the sensitivity to hAl only depends weakly on the modulation frequency f. Thus, we performed an additional TDTR measurement at a low modulation frequency f0, such that the sensitivity to hAl is comparable but the sensitivity to Λcross is near zero. We then analyze the ratio of the TDTR signals at fh to that at f0, and thus significantly improve the accuracy of our Λcross measurements. As a demonstration of the dual-frequency approach, we measured the cross-plane thermal conductivity of a 400-nm-thick nickel-iron alloy film and a 3-μm-thick Cu film, both with an accuracy of ∼10%. The dual-frequency TDTR approach is useful for future studies of thin films.

  19. Accurate measurements of cross-plane thermal conductivity of thin films by dual-frequency time-domain thermoreflectance (TDTR).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Puqing; Huang, Bin; Koh, Yee Kan

    2016-07-01

    Accurate measurements of the cross-plane thermal conductivity Λcross of a high-thermal-conductivity thin film on a low-thermal-conductivity (Λs) substrate (e.g., Λcross/Λs > 20) are challenging, due to the low thermal resistance of the thin film compared with that of the substrate. In principle, Λcross could be measured by time-domain thermoreflectance (TDTR), using a high modulation frequency fh and a large laser spot size. However, with one TDTR measurement at fh, the uncertainty of the TDTR measurement is usually high due to low sensitivity of TDTR signals to Λcross and high sensitivity to the thickness hAl of Al transducer deposited on the sample for TDTR measurements. We observe that in most TDTR measurements, the sensitivity to hAl only depends weakly on the modulation frequency f. Thus, we performed an additional TDTR measurement at a low modulation frequency f0, such that the sensitivity to hAl is comparable but the sensitivity to Λcross is near zero. We then analyze the ratio of the TDTR signals at fh to that at f0, and thus significantly improve the accuracy of our Λcross measurements. As a demonstration of the dual-frequency approach, we measured the cross-plane thermal conductivity of a 400-nm-thick nickel-iron alloy film and a 3-μm-thick Cu film, both with an accuracy of ∼10%. The dual-frequency TDTR approach is useful for future studies of thin films. PMID:27475589

  20. Accurate measurements of cross-plane thermal conductivity of thin films by dual-frequency time-domain thermoreflectance (TDTR)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Puqing; Huang, Bin; Koh, Yee Kan

    2016-07-01

    Accurate measurements of the cross-plane thermal conductivity Λcross of a high-thermal-conductivity thin film on a low-thermal-conductivity (Λs) substrate (e.g., Λcross/Λs > 20) are challenging, due to the low thermal resistance of the thin film compared with that of the substrate. In principle, Λcross could be measured by time-domain thermoreflectance (TDTR), using a high modulation frequency fh and a large laser spot size. However, with one TDTR measurement at fh, the uncertainty of the TDTR measurement is usually high due to low sensitivity of TDTR signals to Λcross and high sensitivity to the thickness hAl of Al transducer deposited on the sample for TDTR measurements. We observe that in most TDTR measurements, the sensitivity to hAl only depends weakly on the modulation frequency f. Thus, we performed an additional TDTR measurement at a low modulation frequency f0, such that the sensitivity to hAl is comparable but the sensitivity to Λcross is near zero. We then analyze the ratio of the TDTR signals at fh to that at f0, and thus significantly improve the accuracy of our Λcross measurements. As a demonstration of the dual-frequency approach, we measured the cross-plane thermal conductivity of a 400-nm-thick nickel-iron alloy film and a 3-μm-thick Cu film, both with an accuracy of ˜10%. The dual-frequency TDTR approach is useful for future studies of thin films.

  1. W mass measurements using fully hadronic events at LEP2

    CERN Document Server

    Schmidt-Kärst, S

    2001-01-01

    Since 1996 each LEP experiment recorded data corresponding to an integrated luminosity around 460-500 pb/sup -1/ at centre-of-mass energies between 161 GeV and 202 GeV. The experimental methods to measure the mass of the W boson in the fully hadronic channel are discussed and the preliminary combined value of the four LEP experiments is presented M/sub W/(qqqq) = 80 432 +or- 0 073 GeV. The LEP combined result for the mass of the W boson, obtained from all channels and all data recorded at centre-of-mass energies above the W- pair threshold, is M/sub W/ = 80 427 +or- 0 046 GeV. The width of the W boson is measured to be Gamma /sub W/ = 2 12 +or- 0 11 GeV..

  2. Measuring cluster masses with CMB lensing: a statistical approach

    CERN Document Server

    Melin, Jean-Baptiste

    2014-01-01

    We present a method for measuring the masses of galaxy clusters using the imprint of their gravitational lensing signal on the cosmic microwave background (CMB) temperature anisotropies. The method first reconstructs the projected gravitational potential with a quadratic estimator and then applies a matched filter to extract cluster mass. The approach is well-suited for statistical analyses that bin clusters according to other mass proxies. We find that current experiments, such as Planck, the South Pole Telescope and the Atacama Cosmology Telescope, can practically implement such a statistical methodology, and that future experiments will reach sensitivities sufficient for individual measurements of massive systems. As illustration, we use simulations of Planck observations to demonstrate that it is possible to constrain the mass scale of a set of 62 massive clusters with prior information from X-ray observations, similar to the published Planck ESZ-XMM sample. We examine the effect of the thermal (tSZ) and ...

  3. A black-hole mass measurement from molecular gas kinematics in NGC4526.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Timothy A; Bureau, Martin; Cappellari, Michele; Sarzi, Marc; Blitz, Leo

    2013-02-21

    The masses of the supermassive black holes found in galaxy bulges are correlated with a multitude of galaxy properties, leading to suggestions that galaxies and black holes may evolve together. The number of reliably measured black-hole masses is small, and the number of methods for measuring them is limited, holding back attempts to understand this co-evolution. Directly measuring black-hole masses is currently possible with stellar kinematics (in early-type galaxies), ionized-gas kinematics (in some spiral and early-type galaxies) and in rare objects that have central maser emission. Here we report that by modelling the effect of a black hole on the kinematics of molecular gas it is possible to fit interferometric observations of CO emission and thereby accurately estimate black-hole masses. We study the dynamics of the gas in the early-type galaxy NGC 4526, and obtain a best fit that requires the presence of a central dark object of 4.5(+4.2)(-3.1) × 10(8) solar masses (3σ confidence limit). With the next-generation millimetre-wavelength interferometers these observations could be reproduced in galaxies out to 75 megaparsecs in less than 5 hours of observing time. The use of molecular gas as a kinematic tracer should thus allow one to estimate black-hole masses in hundreds of galaxies in the local Universe, many more than are accessible with current techniques. PMID:23364690

  4. A black-hole mass measurement from molecular gas kinematics in NGC4526.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Timothy A; Bureau, Martin; Cappellari, Michele; Sarzi, Marc; Blitz, Leo

    2013-02-21

    The masses of the supermassive black holes found in galaxy bulges are correlated with a multitude of galaxy properties, leading to suggestions that galaxies and black holes may evolve together. The number of reliably measured black-hole masses is small, and the number of methods for measuring them is limited, holding back attempts to understand this co-evolution. Directly measuring black-hole masses is currently possible with stellar kinematics (in early-type galaxies), ionized-gas kinematics (in some spiral and early-type galaxies) and in rare objects that have central maser emission. Here we report that by modelling the effect of a black hole on the kinematics of molecular gas it is possible to fit interferometric observations of CO emission and thereby accurately estimate black-hole masses. We study the dynamics of the gas in the early-type galaxy NGC 4526, and obtain a best fit that requires the presence of a central dark object of 4.5(+4.2)(-3.1) × 10(8) solar masses (3σ confidence limit). With the next-generation millimetre-wavelength interferometers these observations could be reproduced in galaxies out to 75 megaparsecs in less than 5 hours of observing time. The use of molecular gas as a kinematic tracer should thus allow one to estimate black-hole masses in hundreds of galaxies in the local Universe, many more than are accessible with current techniques.

  5. Atomic mass measurements of short-lived nuclides around the doubly-magic $^{208}$Pb

    CERN Document Server

    Weber, C; Beck, D; Blaum, K; Bollen, G; Herfurth, F; Kellerbauer, A G; Kluge, H -J; Lunney, D; Schwarz, S

    2008-01-01

    Accurate atomic mass measurements of neutron-deficient and neutron-rich nuclides around the doubly-magic $^{208}$Pb and of neutron-rich cesium isotopes were performed with the Penning trap mass spectrometer ISOLTRAP at ISOLDE/CERN. The masses of $^{145,147}$Cs, $^{181,183}$Tl, $^{186}$Tl$^{m}$, $^{187}$Tl, $^{196}$Tl$^{m}$, $^{205}$Tl, $^{197}$Pb$^{m}$, $^{208}$Pb, $^{190-197}$Bi, $^{209,215,216}$Bi, $^{203,205,229}$Fr, and $^{214,229,230}$Ra were determined. The obtained relative mass uncertainty in the range of $2 \\times 10^{-7}$ to $2 \\times 10^{-8}$ is not only required for safe identification of isomeric states but also allows mapping the detailed structure of the mass surface. A mass adjustment procedure was carried out and the results included into the Atomic Mass Evaluation. The resulting separation energies are discussed and the mass spectrometric and laser spectroscopic data are examined for possible correlations.

  6. Nuclear symmetry energy at subnormal densities from measured nuclear masses

    OpenAIRE

    Min LIU; Wang, Ning; Li, Zhuxia; Zhang, Fengshou

    2010-01-01

    The symmetry energy coefficients for nuclei with mass number A=20~250 are extracted from more than 2000 measured nuclear masses. With the semi-empirical connection between the symmetry energy coefficients of finite nuclei and the nuclear symmetry energy at reference densities, we investigate the density dependence of symmetry energy of nuclear matter at subnormal densities. The obtained results are compared with those extracted from other methods.

  7. Mass improvement of land cadastre data using new measurements

    OpenAIRE

    Ovca, Miha

    2015-01-01

    The diploma thesis represents the land cadastre in Slovenia, which was initially established for the purpose of land taxation. Nowadays, the land cadastre has different functions and is the basis for real property management. Different periods of land cadastre development have been represented, which brought also different approaches to land cadastre maintenance. The emphasis has been given on the procedure of mass new cadastral measurements, which gives the possibility to mass im...

  8. Can endocranial volume be estimated accurately from external skull measurements in great-tailed grackles (Quiscalus mexicanus?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Corina J. Logan

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available There is an increasing need to validate and collect data approximating brain size on individuals in the field to understand what evolutionary factors drive brain size variation within and across species. We investigated whether we could accurately estimate endocranial volume (a proxy for brain size, as measured by computerized tomography (CT scans, using external skull measurements and/or by filling skulls with beads and pouring them out into a graduated cylinder for male and female great-tailed grackles. We found that while females had higher correlations than males, estimations of endocranial volume from external skull measurements or beads did not tightly correlate with CT volumes. We found no accuracy in the ability of external skull measures to predict CT volumes because the prediction intervals for most data points overlapped extensively. We conclude that we are unable to detect individual differences in endocranial volume using external skull measurements. These results emphasize the importance of validating and explicitly quantifying the predictive accuracy of brain size proxies for each species and each sex.

  9. Accurate human limb angle measurement: sensor fusion through Kalman, least mean squares and recursive least-squares adaptive filtering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Inertial sensors are widely used in human body motion monitoring systems since they permit us to determine the position of the subject's limbs. Limb angle measurement is carried out through the integration of the angular velocity measured by a rate sensor and the decomposition of the components of static gravity acceleration measured by an accelerometer. Different factors derived from the sensors' nature, such as the angle random walk and dynamic bias, lead to erroneous measurements. Dynamic bias effects can be reduced through the use of adaptive filtering based on sensor fusion concepts. Most existing published works use a Kalman filtering sensor fusion approach. Our aim is to perform a comparative study among different adaptive filters. Several least mean squares (LMS), recursive least squares (RLS) and Kalman filtering variations are tested for the purpose of finding the best method leading to a more accurate and robust limb angle measurement. A new angle wander compensation sensor fusion approach based on LMS and RLS filters has been developed

  10. Measurement of the top quark mass in the dilepton channel

    CERN Document Server

    Abazov, V M; Abolins, M; Acharya, B S; Adams, M; Adams, T; Agelou, M; Aguiló, E; Ahn, S H; Ahsan, M; Alexeev, G D; Alkhazov, G; Alton, A; Alverson, G; Alves, G A; Anastasoaie, M; Andeen, T; Anderson, S; Andrieu, B; Anzelc, M S; Arnoud, Y; Arov, M; Askew, A; Åsman, B; Assis-Jesus, A C S; Atramentov, O; Autermann, C; Avila, C; Ay, C; Badaud, F; Baden, A; Bagby, L; Baldin, B; Bandurin, D V; Banerjee, P; Banerjee, S; Barberis, E; Bargassa, P; Baringer, P; Barnes, C; Barreto, J; Bartlett, J F; Bassler, U; Bauer, D; Beale, S; Bean, A; Begalli, M; Begel, M; Belanger-Champagne, C; Bellantoni, L; Bellavance, A; Benítez, J A; Beri, S B; Bernardi, G; Bernhard, R; Berntzon, L; Bertram, I; Besançon, M; Beuselinck, R; Bezzubov, V A; Bhat, P C; Bhatnagar, V; Binder, M; Biscarat, C; Black, K M; Blackler, I; Blazey, G; Blekman, F; Blessing, S; Bloch, D; Bloom, K; Blumenschein, U; Böhnlein, A; Boeriu, O; Bolton, T A; Borissov, G; Bos, K; Bose, T; Brandt, A; Brock, R; Brooijmans, G; Bross, A; Brown, D; Buchanan, N J; Buchholz, D; Bühler, M; Büscher, V; Burdin, S; Burke, S; Burnett, T H; Busato, E; Buszello, C P; Butler, J M; Calfayan, P; Calvet, S; Cammin, J; Caron, S; Carvalho, W; Casey, B C K; Cason, N M; Castilla-Valdez, H; Chakrabarti, S; Chakraborty, D; Chan, K M; Chandra, A; Charles, F; Cheu, E; Chevallier, F; Cho, D K; Choi, S; Choudhary, B; Christofek, L; Claes, D; Clement, B; Clément, C; Coadou, Y; Cooke, M; Cooper, W E; Coppage, D; Corcoran, M; Cousinou, M C; Cox, B; Crepe-Renaudin, S; Cutts, D; Cwiok, M; Da Motta, H; Das, A; Das, M; Davies, B; Davies, G; Davis, G A; De, K; de Jong, P; De Jong, S J; De La Cruz-Burelo, E; De Oliveira Martins, C; Degenhardt, J D; Déliot, F; Demarteau, M; Demina, R; Demine, P; Denisov, D; Denisov, S P; Desai, S; Diehl, H T; Diesburg, M; Doidge, M; Dominguez, A; Dong, H; Dudko, L V; Duflot, L; Dugad, S R; Duggan, D; Duperrin, A; Dyer, J; Dyshkant, A; Eads, M; Edmunds, D; Edwards, T; Ellison, J; Elmsheuser, J; Elvira, V D; Eno, S; Ermolov, P; Evans, H; Evdokimov, A; Evdokimov, V N; Fatakia, S N; Feligioni, L; Ferapontov, A V; Ferbel, T; Fiedler, F; Filthaut, F; Fisher, W; Fisk, H E; Fleck, I; Ford, M; Fortner, M; Fox, H; Fu, S; Fuess, S; Gadfort, T; Galea, C F; Gallas, E; Galyaev, E; García, C; García-Bellido, A; Gardner, J; Gavrilov, V; Gay, A; Gay, P; Gelé, D; Gelhaus, R; Gerber, C E; Gershtein, Yu; Gillberg, D; Ginther, G; Gollub, N; Gómez, B; Goussiou, A; Grannis, P D; Greenlee, H; Greenwood, Z D; Gregores, E M; Grenier, G; Gris, P; Grivaz, J F; Grünendahl, S; Grünewald, M W; Guo, F; Guo, J; Gutíerrez, G; Gutíerrez, P; Haas, A; Hadley, N J; Haefner, P; Hagopian, S; Haley, J; Hall, I; Hall, R E; Han, L; Hanagaki, K; Hansson, P; Harder, K; Harel, A; Harrington, R; Hauptman, J M; Hauser, R; Hays, J; Hebbeker, T; Hedin, D; Hegeman, J G; Heinmiller, J M; Heinson, A P; Heintz, U; Hensel, C; Herner, K; Hesketh, G; Hildreth, M D; Hirosky, R; Hobbs, J D; Hoeneisen, B; Hoeth, H; Hohlfeld, M; Hong, S J; Hooper, R; Houben, P; Hu, Y; Hubacek, Z; Hynek, V; Iashvili, I; Illingworth, R; Ito, A S; Jabeen, S; Jaffré, M; Jain, S; Jakobs, K; Jarvis, C; Jenkins, A; Jesik, R; Johns, K; Johnson, C; Johnson, M; Jonckheere, A; Jonsson, P; Juste, A; Käfer, D; Kahn, S; Kajfasz, E; Kalinin, A M; Kalk, J M; Kalk, J R; Kappler, S; Karmanov, D; Kasper, J; Kasper, P; Katsanos, I; Kau, D; Kaur, R; Kehoe, R; Kermiche, S; Khalatyan, N; Khanov, A; Kharchilava, A I; Kharzheev, Yu M; Khatidze, D; Kim, H; Kim, T J; Kirby, M H; Klima, B; Kohli, J M; Konrath, J P; Kopal, M; Korablev, V M; Kotcher, J; Kothari, B; Koubarovsky, A; Kozelov, A V; Krop, D; Kryemadhi, A; Kühl, T; Kumar, A; Kunori, S; Kupco, A; Kurca, T; Kvita, J; Lammers, S; Landsberg, G L; Lazoflores, J; Le Bihan, A C; Lebrun, P; Lee, W M; Leflat, A; Lehner, F; Lesne, V; Lévêque, J; Lewis, P; Li, J; Li, Q Z; Lima, J G R; Lincoln, D; Linnemann, J; Lipaev, V V; Lipton, R; Liu, Z; Lobo, L; Lobodenko, A; Lokajícek, M; Lounis, A; Love, P; Lubatti, H J; Lynker, M; Lyon, A L; Maciel, A K A; Madaras, R J; Mättig, P; Magass, C; Magerkurth, A; Magnan, A M; Makovec, N; Mal, P K; Malbouisson, H B; Malik, S; Malyshev, V L; Mao, H S; Maravin, Y; Martens, M; McCarthy, R; Meder, D; Melnitchouk, A; Mendes, A; Mendoza, L; Merkin, M; Merritt, K W; Meyer, A; Meyer, J; Michaut, M; Miettinen, H; Millet, T; Mitrevski, J; Molina, J; Mondal, N K; Monk, J; Moore, R W; Moulik, T; Muanza, G S; Mulders, M; Mulhearn, M; Mundal, O; Mundim, L; Mutaf, Y D; Nagy, E; Naimuddin, M; Narain, M; Naumann, N A; Neal, H A; Negret, J P; Neustroev, P; Nöding, C; Nomerotski, A; Novaes, S F; Nunnemann, T; O'Dell, V; O'Neil, D C; Obrant, G; Oguri, V; Oliveira, N; Onoprienko, D; Oshima, N; Otec, R; Oteroy-Garzon, G J; Owen, M; Padley, P; Parashar, N; Park, S J; Park, S K; Parsons, J; Partridge, R; Parua, N; Patwa, A; Pawloski, G; Perea, P M; Pérez, E; Peters, K; Petroff, P; Petteni, M; Piegaia, R; Piper, J; Pleier, M A; Podesta-Lerma, P L M; Podstavkov, V M; Pogorelov, Y; Pol, M E; Pompos, A; Pope, B G; Popov, A V; Potter, C; Prado da Silva, W L; Prosper, H B; Protopopescu, S D; Qian, J; Quadt, A; Quinn, B; Rangel, M S; Rani, K J; Ranjan, K; Ratoff, P N; Renkel, P; Reucroft, S; Rijssenbeek, M; Ripp-Baudot, I; Rizatdinova, F K; Robinson, S; Rodrigues, R F; Royon, C; Rubinov, P; Ruchti, R; Rud, V I; Sajot, G; Sánchez-Hernández, A; Sanders, M P; Santoro, A F S; Savage, G; Sawyer, L; Scanlon, T; Schaile, A D; Schamberger, R D; Scheglov, Y; Schellman, H; Schieferdecker, P; Schmitt, C; Schwanenberger, C; Schwartzman, A; Schwienhorst, R; Sekaric, J; Sen-Gupta, S; Severini, H; Shabalina, E; Shamim, M; Shary, V; Shchukin, A A; Shephard, W D; Shivpuri, R K; Shpakov, D; Siccardi, V; Sidwell, R A; Simák, V; Sirotenko, V I; Skubic, P L; Slattery, P F; Smith, R P; Snow, G R; Snow, J; Snyder, S; Söldner-Rembold, S; Song, X; Sonnenschein, L; Sopczak, A; Sosebee, M; Soustruznik, K; Souza, M; Spurlock, B; Stark, J; Steele, J; Stolin, V; Stone, A; Stoyanova, D A; Strandberg, J; Strandberg, S; Strang, M A; Strauss, M; Ströhmer, R; Strom, D; Strovink, M; Stutte, L; Sumowidagdo, S; Svoisky, P; Sznajder, A; Talby, M; Tamburello, P; Taylor, W; Telford, P; Temple, J; Tiller, B; Titov, M; Tokmenin, V V; Tomoto, M; Toole, T; Torchiani, I; Towers, S; Trefzger, T; Trincaz-Duvoid, S; Tsybychev, D; Tuchming, B; Tully, C; Turcot, A S; Tuts, P M; Unalan, R; Uvarov, L; Uvarov, S; Uzunyan, S; Vachon, B; vanden Berg, P J; Van Kooten, R; Van Leeuwen, W M; Varelas, N; Varnes, E W; Vartapetian, A H; Vasilyev, I A; Vaupel, M; Verdier, P; Vertogradov, L S; Verzocchi, M; Villeneuve-Séguier, F; Vint, P; Vlimant, J R; Von Törne, E; Voutilainen, M; Vreeswijk, M; Wahl, H D; Wang, L; Wang, M H L; Warchol, J; Watts, G; Wayne, M; Weber, G; Weber, M; Weerts, H; Wermes, N; Wetstein, M; White, A; Wicke, D; Wilson, G W; Wimpenny, S J; Wobisch, M; Womersley, J; Wood, D R; Wyatt, T R; Xie, Y; Xuan, N; Yacoob, S; Yamada, R; Yan, M; Yasuda, T; Yatsunenko, Y A; Yip, K; Yoo, H D; Youn, S W; Yu, C; Yu, J; Yurkewicz, A; Zatserklyaniy, A; Zeitnitz, C; Zhang, D; Zhao, T; Zhou, B; Zhu, J; Zielinski, M; Zieminska, D; Zieminski, A; Zutshi, V; Zverev, E G; al, et

    2007-01-01

    We present a measurement of the top quark mass in the dilepton channel based on approximately 370/pb of data collected by the D0 experiment during Run II of the Fermilab Tevatron collider. We employ two different methods to extract the top quark mass. We show that both methods yield consistent results using ensemble tests of events generated with the D0 Monte Carlo simulation. We combine the results from the two methods to obtain a top quark mass m_t = 178.1 +/- 8.2 GeV. The statistical uncertainty is 6.7 GeV and the systematic uncertainty is 4.8 GeV.

  11. Two old ways to measure the electron-neutrino mass

    CERN Document Server

    De Rújula, A

    2013-01-01

    Three decades ago, the measurement of the electron neutrino mass in atomic electron capture (EC) experiments was scrutinized in its two variants: single EC and neutrino-less double EC. For certain isotopes an atomic resonance enormously enhances the expected decay rates. The favoured technique, based on calorimeters as opposed to spectrometers, has the advantage of greatly simplifying the theoretical analysis of the data. After an initial surge of measurements, the EC approach did not seem to be competitive. But very recently, there has been great progress on micro-calorimeters and the measurement of atomic mass differences. Meanwhile, the beta-decay neutrino-mass limits have improved by a factor of 15, and the difficulty of the experiments by the cube of that figure. Can the "calorimetric" EC theory cope with this increased challenge? I answer this question affirmatively. In so doing I briefly review the subject and extensively address some persistent misunderstandings of the underlying quantum physics.

  12. Mass Measurements of Isolated Objects from Space-based Microlensing

    CERN Document Server

    Zhu, Wei; Gould, A; Udalski, A; Han, C; Shvartzvald, Y; Ranc, C; Jorgensen, U G; Poleski, R; Bozza, V; Beichman, C; Bryden, G; Carey, S; Gaudi, B S; Henderson, C B; Pogge, R W; Porritt, I; Wibking, B; Yee, J C; Pawlak, M; Szymanski, M K; Skowron, J; Mroz, P; Kozlowski, S; Wyrzykowski, L; Pietrukowicz, P; Pietrzynski, G; Soszynski, I; Ulaczyk, K; Choi, J Y; Park, H; Jung, Y K; Shin, I -G; Albrow, M D; Park, B -G; Kim, S -L; Lee, C -U; Kim, D -J; Lee, Y; Friedmann, M; Kaspi, S; Maoz, D; Hundertmark, M; Street, R A; Tsapras, Y; Bramich, D M; Cassan, A; Dominik, M; Bachelet, E; Dong, Subo; Jaimes, R Figuera; Horne, K; Mao, S; Menzies, J; Schmidt, R; Snodgrass, C; Steele, I A; Wambsganss, J; Skottfelt, J; Andersen, M I; Burgdorf, M J; Ciceri, S; D'Ago, G; Evans, D F; Gu, S -H; Hinse, T C; Kerins, E; Korhonen, H; Kuffmeier, M; Mancini, L; Peixinho, N; popovas, A; Rabus, M; Rahvar, S; Rasmussen, R T; Scarpetta, G; Southworth, J; Surdej, J; von Essen, C; Wang, Y -B; Wertz, O

    2015-01-01

    We report on the mass and distance measurements of two single-lens events from the 2015 \\emph{Spitzer} microlensing campaign. With both finite-source effect and microlens parallax measurements, we find that the lens of OGLE-2015-BLG-1268 is a $47\\pm7$ $M_{\\rm J}$ brown dwarf at $5.4\\pm1.0$ kpc, and that the lens of OGLE-2015-BLG-0763 is a $0.50\\pm0.04$ $M_\\odot$ star at $6.9\\pm1.0$ kpc. We show that the probability to definitively measure the mass of isolated microlenses, including isolated stellar mass black holes and free floating planets, is dramatically increased once simultaneous ground- and space-based observations are conducted.

  13. Direct mass measurements of neutron-deficient xenon isotopes using the ISOLTRAP mass spectrometer

    CERN Document Server

    Dilling, J; Beck, D; Bollen, G; Herfurth, F; Kellerbauer, A G; Kluge, H J; Moore, R B; Scheidenberger, C; Schwarz, S; Sikler, G

    2004-01-01

    The masses of the noble-gas Xe isotopes with 114 $\\leq$ A $\\leq$ 123 have been directly measured for the first time. The experiments were carried out with the ISOLTRAP triple trap spectrometer at the online mass separator ISOLDE/CERN. A mass resolving power of the Penning trap spectrometer of $m/\\Delta m$ of close to a million was chosen resulting in an accuracy of $\\delta m \\leq 13$ keV for all investigated isotopes. Conflicts with existing, indirectly obtained, mass data by several standard deviations were found and are discussed. An atomic mass evaluation has been performed and the results are compared to information from laser spectroscopy experiments and to recent calculations employing an interacting boson model.

  14. A precise mass measurement of the intermediate-mass binary pulsar PSR J1802-2124

    CERN Document Server

    Ferdman, Robert D; Kramer, Michael; McLaughlin, Maura A; Lorimer, Duncan R; Nice, David J; Manchester, Richard N; Hobbs, George; Lyne, Andrew G; Camilo, Fernando; Possenti, Andrea; Demorest, Paul B; Cognard, Ismael; Desvignes, Gregory; Theureau, Gilles; Faulkner, Andrew; Backer, Donald C

    2010-01-01

    PSR J1802-2124 is a 12.6-ms pulsar in a 16.8-hour binary orbit with a relatively massive white dwarf (WD) companion. These properties make it a member of the intermediate-mass class of binary pulsar (IMBP) systems. We have been timing this pulsar since its discovery in 2002. Concentrated observations at the Green Bank Telescope, augmented with data from the Parkes and Nancay observatories, have allowed us to determine the general relativistic Shapiro delay. This has yielded pulsar and white dwarf mass measurements of 1.24(11) and 0.78(4) solar masses (68% confidence), respectively. The low mass of the pulsar, the high mass of the WD companion, the short orbital period, and the pulsar spin period may be explained by the system having gone through a common-envelope phase in its evolution. We argue that selection effects may contribute to the relatively small number of known IMBPs.

  15. Ultrasonic Measurement of Change in Elasticity due to Endothelium Dependent Relaxation Response by Accurate Detection of Artery-Wall Boundary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaneko, Takuya; Hasegawa, Hideyuki; Kanai, Hiroshi

    2007-07-01

    Ross hypothesized that an endothelial dysfunction is considered to be an initial step in atherosclerosis. Endothelial cells, which release nitric oxide (NO) in response to shear stress from blood flow, have a function of relaxing smooth muscle in the media of the arterial wall. For the assessment of the endothelial function, there is a conventional method in which the change in the diameter of the brachial artery caused by flow-mediated dilation (FMD) is measured with ultrasound. However, despite the fact that the collagen-rich hard adventitia does not respond to NO, the conventional method measures the change in diameter depending on the mechanical property of the entire wall including the adventitia. Therefore, we developed a method of measuring the change in the thickness and the elasticity of the brachial artery during a cardiac cycle using the phased tracking method for the evaluation of the mechanical property of only the intima-media region. In this study, the initial positions of echoes from the lumen-intima and media-adventitia boundaries are determined using complex template matching to accurately estimate the minute change in the thickness and the elasticity of the brachial and radial arteries. The ambiguity in the determination of such boundaries was eliminated using complex template matching, and the change in elasticity measured by the proposed method was larger than the change in inner diameter obtained by the conventional method.

  16. High-precision particle mass measurements using the KEDR detector at the VEPP-4M collider

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levichev, E. B.; Skrinsky, A. N.; Tikhonov, Yu A.; Todyshev, K. Yu

    2014-01-01

    A review is presented of experiments performed using the KEDR detector at the VEPP-4M accelerator complex for the precise measurement of particle masses. The resonant depolarization method, proposed in 1975 at the G I Budker Institute of Nuclear Physics of the RAS Siberian Branch for measuring beam energy, has undergone further development in the experiments described; an unprecedented accuracy of 5\\times 10^{-7} has been achieved. Application of this method together with measurement of the Compton backscattering energy allowed a series of experiments to be carried out which have provided the world's most accurate mass values for the J/{\\rm\\psi}, {\\psi(2S)}, {\\psi(3770)}, and D^{+/- } mesons for the {\\tau}-lepton.

  17. The electron mass from $g$-factor measurements on hydrogen-like carbon $^{12}$C$^{5+}$

    CERN Document Server

    Köhler, Florian; Kracke, Anke; Werth, Günter; Quint, Wolfgang; Blaum, Klaus

    2016-01-01

    The electron mass in atomic mass units has been determined with a relative uncertainty of $2.8\\cdot 10^{-11}$, which represents a 13-fold improvement of the 2010 CODATA value. The underlying measurement principle combines a high-precision measurement of the Larmor-to-cyclotron frequency ratio on a single hydrogen-like carbon ion in a Penning trap with a corresponding very accurate $g$-factor calculation. Here, we present the measurement results in detail, including a comprehensive discussion of the systematic shifts and their uncertainties. A special focus is set on the various sources of phase jitters, which are essential for the understanding of the applied line-shape model for the $g$-factor resonance.

  18. Observation and Mass Measurement of the Baryon $\\Xi^-_b$

    CERN Document Server

    Aaltonen, T; Adelman, J; Affolder, T; Akimoto, T; Albrow, M G; Amerio, S; Amidei, D; Anastassov, A; Anikeev, K; Annovi, A; Antos, J; Aoki, M; Apollinari, G; Arisawa, T; Artikov, A; Ashmanskas, W; Attal, A; Aurisano, A; Azfar, F; Azzi-Bacchetta, P; Azzurri, P; Bacchetta, N; Badgett, W; Barbaro-Galtieri, A; Barnes, V E; Barnett, B A; Baroiant, S; Bartsch, V; Bauer, G; Beauchemin, P H; Bedeschi, F; Behari, S; Bellettini, G; Bellinger, J; Belloni, A; Benjamin, D; Beretvas, A; Beringer, J; Berry, T; Bhatti, A; Binkley, M; Bisello, D; Bizjak, I; Blair, R E; Blocker, C; Blumenfeld, B; Bocci, A; Bodek, A; Boisvert, V; Bölla, G; Bolshov, A; Bortoletto, D; Boudreau, J; Boveia, A; Brau, B; Brigliadori, L; Bromberg, C; Brubaker, E; Budagov, Yu; Budd, H S; Budd, S; Burkett, K; Busetto, G; Bussey, P; Buzatu, A; Byrum, K L; Cabrera, S; Campanelli, M; Campbell, M; Canelli, F; Canepa, A; Carrillo, S; Carlsmith, D; Carosi, R; Carron, S; Casal, B; Casarsa, M; Castro, A; Catastini, P; Cauz, D; Cavalli-Sforza, M; Cerri, A; Cerrito, L; Chang, S H; Chen, Y C; Chertok, M; Chiarelli, G; Chlachidze, G; Chlebana, F; Cho, I; Cho, K; Chokheli, D; Chou, J P; Choudalakis, G; Chuang, S H; Chung, K; Chung, W H; Chung, Y S; Cilijak, M; Ciobanu, C I; Ciocci, M A; Clark, A; Clark, D; Coca, M; Compostella, G; Convery, M E; Conway, J; Cooper, B; Copic, K; Cordelli, M; Cortiana, G; Crescioli, F; Cuenca-Almenar, C; Cuevas-Maestro, J; Culbertson, R; Cully, J C; Da Ronco, S; Datta, M; D'Auria, S; Davies, T; Dagenhart, D; De Barbaro, P; De Cecco, S; Deisher, A; De Lentdecker, G; De Lorenzo, G; Dell'Orso, Mauro; Delli Paoli, F; Demortier, L; Deng, J; Deninno, M; De Pedis, D; Derwent, P F; Di Giovanni, G P; Dionisi, C; Di Ruzza, B; Dittmann, J R; D'Onofrio, M; Dorr, C; Donati, S; Dong, P; Donini, J; Dorigo, T; Dube, S; Efron, J; Erbacher, R; Errede, D; Errede, S; Eusebi, R; Fang, H C; Farrington, S; Fedorko, I; Fedorko, W T; Feild, R G; Feindt, M; Fernández, J P; Field, R; Flanagan, G; Forrest, R; Forrester, S; Franklin, M; Freeman, J C; Furic, I; Gallinaro, M; Galyardt, J; García, J E; Garberson, F; Garfinkel, A F; Gay, C; Gerberich, H; Gerdes, D; Giagu, S; Giannetti, P; Gibson, K; Gimmell, J L; Ginsburg, C; Giokaris, N; Giordani, M; Giromini, P; Giunta, M; Giurgiu, G; Glagolev, V; Glenzinski, D; Gold, M; Goldschmidt, N; Goldstein, J; Golossanov, A; Gómez, G; Gómez-Ceballos, G; Goncharov, M; González, O; Gorelov, I; Goshaw, A T; Goulianos, K; Gresele, A; Grinstein, S; Grosso-Pilcher, C; Group, R C; Grundler, U; Guimarães da Costa, J; Gunay-Unalan, Z; Haber, C; Hahn, K; Hahn, S R; Halkiadakis, E; Hamilton, A; Han, B Y; Han, J Y; Handler, R; Happacher, F; Hara, K; Hare, D; Hare, M; Harper, S; Harr, R F; Harris, R M; Hartz, M; Hatakeyama, K; Hauser, J; Hays, C; Heck, M; Heijboer, A; Heinemann, B; Heinrich, J; Henderson, C; Herndon, M; Heuser, J; Hidas, D; Hill, C S; Hirschbuehl, D; Höcker, A; Holloway, A; Hou, S; Houlden, M; Hsu, S C; Huffman, B T; Hughes, R E; Husemann, U; Huston, J; Incandela, J; Introzzi, G; Iori, M; Ivanov, A; Iyutin, B; James, E; Jang, D; Jayatilaka, B; Jeans, D; Jeon, E J; Jindariani, S; Johnson, W; Jones, M; Joo, K K; Jun, S Y; Jung, J E; Junk, T R; Kamon, T; Karchin, P E; Kato, Y; Kemp, Y; Kephart, R; Kerzel, U; Khotilovich, V; Kilminster, B; Kim, D H; Kim, H S; Kim, J E; Kim, M J; Kim, S B; Kim, S H; Kim, Y K; Kimura, N; Kirsch, L; Klimenko, S; Klute, M; Knuteson, B; Ko, B R; Kondo, K; Kong, D J; Konigsberg, J; Korytov, A; Kotwal, A V; Kraan, A C; Kraus, J; Kreps, M; Kroll, J; Krumnack, N; Kruse, M; Krutelyov, V; Kubo, T; Kuhlmann, S E; Kuhr, T; Kulkarni, N P; Kusakabe, Y; Kwang, S; Laasanen, A T; Lai, S; Lami, S; Lammel, S; Lancaster, M; Lander, R L; Lannon, K; Lath, A; Latino, G; Lazzizzera, I; LeCompte, T; Lee, J; Lee, J; Lee, Y J; Lee, S W; Lefèvre, R; Leonardo, N; Leone, S; Levy, S; Lewis, J D; Lin, C; Lin, C S; Lindgren, M; Lipeles, E; Lister, A; Litvintsev, D O; Liu, T; Lockyer, N S; Loginov, A; Loreti, M; Lu, R S; Lucchesi, D; Lujan, P; Lukens, P; Lungu, G; Lyons, L; Lys, J; Lysak, R; Lytken, E; Mack, P; MacQueen, D; Madrak, R; Maeshima, K; Makhoul, K; Mäki, T; Maksimovic, P; Malde, S; Malik, S; Manca, G; Manousakis, A; Margaroli, F; Marginean, R; Marino, C; Marino, C P; Martin, A; Martin, M; Martin, V; Martínez, M; Martinez-Ballarin, R; Maruyama, T; Mastrandrea, P; Masubuchi, T; Matsunaga, H; Mattson, M E; Mazini, R; Mazzanti, P; McFarland, K S; McIntyre, P; McNulty, R; Mehta, A; Mehtälä, P; Menzemer, S; Menzione, A; Merkel, P; Mesropian, C; Messina, A; Miao, T; Miladinovic, N; Miles, J; Miller, R; Mills, C; Milnik, M; Mitra, A; Mitselmakher, G; Miyamoto, A; Moed, S; Moggi, N; Mohr, B; Moon, C S; Moore, R; Morello, M; Movilla-Fernández, P A; Mülmenstädt, J; Mukherjee, A; Müller, T; Mumford, R; Murat, P; Mussini, M; Nachtman, J; Nagano, A; Naganoma, J; Nakamura, K; Nakano, I; Napier, A; Necula, V

    2007-01-01

    We report the observation and measurement of the mass of the bottom, strange baryon $\\Xi^-_b$ through the decay chain $\\Xi^-_b \\to J/\\psi \\Xi^-$, where $J/\\psi \\to \\mu^+ \\mu^-$, $\\Xi^- \\to \\Lambda \\pi^-$, and $\\Lambda \\to p \\pi^-$. Evidence for observation is based on a signal whose probability of arising from the estimated background is $6.6 \\times 10^{-15}$, or 7.7 Gaussian standard deviations. The $\\Xi^-_b$ mass is measured to be $5792.9\\pm 2.5$ (stat.) $\\pm 1.7$ (syst.) MeV/$c^2$.

  19. Measurement of the top mass at the LHC

    CERN Document Server

    Balli, Fabrice; The ATLAS collaboration

    2015-01-01

    The top quark is the most massive fundamental particle ever observed. As such, it plays a particular role in the theories of elementary constituents of matter. The motivation for a precise measurement of the top quark mass ensues from this role. The ATLAS and CMS experiments at the LHC have taken part in this effort and achieve precisions below the GeV, using data collected during the years 2011 and 2012, at a centre-of-mass energy $\\sqrt{s}$ of 7 TeV and 8 TeV respectively. This document reviews the measurements performed by the two collaborations at the time of writing.

  20. A highly efficient measure of mass segregation in star clusters

    CERN Document Server

    Olczak, C; Henning, Th

    2011-01-01

    Investigations of mass segregation are of vital interest for the understanding of the formation and dynamical evolution of stellar systems on a wide range of spatial scales. Our method is based on the minimum spanning tree (MST) that serves as a geometry-independent measure of concentration. Compared to previous such approaches we obtain a significant refinement by using the geometrical mean as an intermediate-pass. It allows the detection of mass segregation with much higher confidence and for much lower degrees of mass segregation than other approaches. The method shows in particular very clear signatures even when applied to small subsets of the entire population. We confirm with high significance strong mass segregation of the five most massive stars in the Orion Nebula Cluster (ONC). Our method is the most sensitive general measure of mass segregation so far and provides robust results for both data from simulations and observations. As such it is ideally suited for tracking mass segregation in young sta...

  1. Mass measurement of halo nuclides and beam cooling with the mass spectrometer Mistral

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Halo nuclides are a spectacular drip-line phenomenon and their description pushes nuclear theories to their limits. The most critical input parameter is the nuclear binding energy; a quantity that requires excellent measurement precision, since the two-neutron separation energy is small at the drip-line by definition. Moreover halo nuclides are typically very short-lived. Thus, a high accuracy instrument using a quick method of measurement is necessary. MISTRAL is such an instrument; it is a radiofrequency transmission mass spectrometer located at ISOLDE/CERN. In July 2003 we measured the mass of the Li11, a two-neutron halo nuclide. Our measurement improves the precision by a factor 6, with an error of 5 keV. Moreover the measurement gives a two-neutron separation energy 20% higher than the previous value. This measurement has an impact on the radius of the nucleus, and on the state of the two valence neutrons. At the same time, a measurement of the Be11 was performed with an uncertainty of 4 keV, in excellent agreement with previous measurements. In order to measure the mass of the two-neutron halo nuclide Be14, an ion beam cooling system is presently under development which will increase the sensitivity of the spectrometer. The second part of this work presents the development of this beam cooler using a gas-filled Paul trap. (author)

  2. Necessary Conditions for Accurate, Transient Hot-Wire Measurements of the Apparent Thermal Conductivity of Nanofluids are Seldom Satisfied

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antoniadis, Konstantinos D.; Tertsinidou, Georgia J.; Assael, Marc J.; Wakeham, William A.

    2016-08-01

    The paper considers the conditions that are necessary to secure accurate measurement of the apparent thermal conductivity of two-phase systems comprising nanoscale particles of one material suspended in a fluid phase of a different material. It is shown that instruments operating according to the transient hot-wire technique can, indeed, produce excellent measurements when a finite element method (FEM) is employed to describe the instrument for the exact geometry of the hot wire. Furthermore, it is shown that an approximate analytic solution can be employed with equal success, over the time range of 0.1 s to 1 s, provided that (a) two wires are employed, so that end effects are canceled, (b) each wire is very thin, less than 30 \\upmu m diameter, so that the line source model and the corresponding corrections are valid, (c) low values of the temperature rise, less than 4 K, are employed in order to minimize the effect of convection on the heat transfer in the time of measurement of 1 s, and (d) insulated wires are employed for measurements in electrically conducting or polar liquids to avoid current leakage or other electrical distortions. According to these criteria, a transient hot-wire instrument has been designed, constructed, and employed for the measurement of the enhancement of the thermal conductivity of water when TiO2 or multi-wall carbon nanotubes (MWCNT) are added. These new results, together with a critical evaluation of other measurements, demonstrate the importance of proper implementation of the technique.

  3. Accurate measurements of carbon monoxide in humid air using the cavity ring-down spectroscopy (CRDS technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Chen

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Accurate measurements of carbon monoxide (CO in humid air have been made using the cavity ring-down spectroscopy (CRDS technique. The measurements of CO mole fractions are determined from the strength of its spectral absorption in the near-infrared region (~1.57 μm after removing interferences from adjacent carbon dioxide (CO2 and water vapor (H2O absorption lines. Water correction functions that account for the dilution and pressure-broadening effects as well as absorption line interferences from adjacent CO2 and H2O lines have been derived for CO2 mole fractions between 360–390 ppm and for reported H2O mole fractions between 0–4%. The line interference corrections are independent of CO mole fractions. The dependence of the line interference correction on CO2 abundance is estimated to be approximately −0.3 ppb/100 ppm CO2 for dry mole fractions of CO. Comparisons of water correction functions from different analyzers of the same type show significant differences, making it necessary to perform instrument-specific water tests for each individual analyzer. The CRDS analyzer was flown on an aircraft in Alaska from April to November in 2011, and the accuracy of the CO measurements by the CRDS analyzer has been validated against discrete NOAA/ESRL flask sample measurements made on board the same aircraft, with a mean difference between integrated in situ and flask measurements of −0.6 ppb and a standard deviation of 2.8 ppb. Preliminary testing of CRDS instrumentation that employs improved spectroscopic model functions for CO2, H2O, and CO to fit the raw spectral data (available since the beginning of 2012 indicates a smaller water vapor dependence than the models discussed here, but more work is necessary to fully validate the performance. The CRDS technique provides an accurate and low-maintenance method of monitoring the atmospheric dry mole fractions of CO in humid air streams.

  4. Measuring consistent masses for 25 Milky Way globular clusters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kimmig, Brian; Seth, Anil; Ivans, Inese I.; Anderton, Tim; Gregersen, Dylan [Physics and Astronomy Department, University of Utah, SLC, UT 84112 (United States); Strader, Jay [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI 48824 (United States); Caldwell, Nelson [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States)

    2015-02-01

    We present central velocity dispersions, masses, mass-to-light ratios (M/Ls ), and rotation strengths for 25 Galactic globular clusters (GCs). We derive radial velocities of 1951 stars in 12 GCs from single order spectra taken with Hectochelle on the MMT telescope. To this sample we add an analysis of available archival data of individual stars. For the full set of data we fit King models to derive consistent dynamical parameters for the clusters. We find good agreement between single-mass King models and the observed radial dispersion profiles. The large, uniform sample of dynamical masses we derive enables us to examine trends of M/L with cluster mass and metallicity. The overall values of M/L and the trends with mass and metallicity are consistent with existing measurements from a large sample of M31 clusters. This includes a clear trend of increasing M/L with cluster mass and lower than expected M/Ls for the metal-rich clusters. We find no clear trend of increasing rotation with increasing cluster metallicity suggested in previous work.

  5. Total evaporation measurements of plutonium with a Thermal Quadrupole Mass Spectrometer (THQ)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    On site verification of isotopic distributions of samples prepared at nuclear reprocessing or fuel fabrication plants requires a measurement procedure which is as independent as possible from varying sample preparation procedures or sample concentrations. With conventional peak jumping data collection, mass fractionation effects are dependent upon the total mass of sample taken and amount of that sample evaporated. This requires the sample concentrations to be maintained in a narrow range to allow accurate correction of the fractionation. This effect can be reduced or eliminated if the ion currents or relative ion ratios are summed while the sample is totally evaporated. Measurement of the ion currents for a total evaporation of the sample using a single collector requires a mass spectrometer capable of rapidly scanning or peak jumping the isotopes of interest. This is accomplished using a quadrupole mass spectrometer. A software package written to give a special peak jumping sequence combined with incremental increases of evaporation (sample) filament current makes it possible to evaporate about 98% of the sample. The amount of Pu on the filament is 100 nanograms. Reproducibility of the 240/239 of 0.3% and accuracies of 0.2% (coefficients of variation) have been measured. The measurement is described and results of measurement of standards and actual samples are presented. (author)

  6. Measurement of the mass difference between top and antitop quarks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aaltonen, T.; Amerio, S.; Amidei, D.; Anastassov, A.; Annovi, A.; Antos, J.; Apollinari, G.; Appel, J. A.; Arisawa, T.; Artikov, A.; Asaadi, J.; Ashmanskas, W.; Auerbach, B.; Aurisano, A.; Azfar, F.; Badgett, W.; Bae, T.; Barbaro-Galtieri, A.; Barnes, V. E.; Barnett, B. A.; Barria, P.; Bartos, P.; Bauce, M.; Bedeschi, F.; Behari, S.; Bellettini, G.; Bellinger, J.; Benjamin, D.; Beretvas, A.; Bhatti, A.; Bland, K. R.; Blumenfeld, B.; Bocci, A.; Bodek, A.; Bortoletto, D.; Boudreau, J.; Boveia, A.; Brigliadori, L.; Bromberg, C.; Brucken, E.; Budagov, J.; Budd, H. S.; Burkett, K.; Busetto, G.; Bussey, P.; Butti, P.; Buzatu, A.; Calamba, A.; Camarda, S.; Campanelli, M.; Canelli, F.; Carls, B.; Carlsmith, D.; Carosi, R.; Carrillo, S.; Casal, B.; Casarsa, M.; Castro, A.; Catastini, P.; Cauz, D.; Cavaliere, V.; Cavalli-Sforza, M.; Cerri, A.; Cerrito, L.; Chen, Y. C.; Chertok, M.; Chiarelli, G.; Chlachidze, G.; Cho, K.; Chokheli, D.; Ciocci, M. A.; Clark, A.; Clarke, C.; Convery, M. E.; Conway, J.; Corbo, M.; Cordelli, M.; Cox, C. A.; Cox, D. J.; Cremonesi, M.; Cruz, D.; Cuevas, J.; Culbertson, R.; d'Ascenzo, N.; Datta, M.; De Barbaro, P.; Demortier, L.; Deninno, M.; Devoto, F.; d'Errico, M.; Di Canto, A.; Di Ruzza, B.; Dittmann, J. R.; D'Onofrio, M.; Donati, S.; Dorigo, M.; Driutti, A.; Ebina, K.; Edgar, R.; Elagin, A.; Erbacher, R.; Errede, S.; Esham, B.; Eusebi, R.; Farrington, S.; Fernández Ramos, J. P.; Field, R.; Flanagan, G.; Forrest, R.; Franklin, M.; Freeman, J. C.; Frisch, H.; Funakoshi, Y.; Garfinkel, A. F.; Garosi, P.; Gerberich, H.; Gerchtein, E.; Giagu, S.; Giakoumopoulou, V.; Gibson, K.; Ginsburg, C. M.; Giokaris, N.; Giromini, P.; Giurgiu, G.; Glagolev, V.; Glenzinski, D.; Gold, M.; Goldin, D.; Golossanov, A.; Gomez, G.; Gomez-Ceballos, G.; Goncharov, M.; González López, O.; Gorelov, I.; Goshaw, A. T.; Goulianos, K.; Gramellini, E.; Grinstein, S.; Grosso-Pilcher, C.; Group, R. C.; Guimaraes da Costa, J.; Hahn, S. R.; Han, J. Y.; Happacher, F.; Hara, K.; Hare, M.; Harr, R. F.; Harrington-Taber, T.; Hatakeyama, K.; Hays, C.; Heinrich, J.; Herndon, M.; Hocker, A.; Hong, Z.; Hopkins, W.; Hou, S.; Hughes, R. E.; Husemann, U.; Huston, J.; Introzzi, G.; Iori, M.; Ivanov, A.; James, E.; Jang, D.; Jayatilaka, B.; Jeon, E. J.; Jindariani, S.; Jones, M.; Joo, K. K.; Jun, S. Y.; Junk, T. R.; Kambeitz, M.; Kamon, T.; Karchin, P. E.; Kasmi, A.; Kato, Y.; Ketchum, W.; Keung, J.; Kilminster, B.; Kim, D. H.; Kim, H. S.; Kim, J. E.; Kim, M. J.; Kim, S. B.; Kim, S. H.; Kim, Y. K.; Kim, Y. J.; Kimura, N.; Kirby, M.; Knoepfel, K.; Kondo, K.; Kong, D. J.; Konigsberg, J.; Kotwal, A. V.; Kreps, M.; Kroll, J.; Kruse, M.; Kuhr, T.; Kurata, M.; Laasanen, A. T.; Lammel, S.; Lancaster, M.; Lannon, K.; Latino, G.; Lee, H. S.; Lee, J. S.; Leo, S.; Leone, S.; Lewis, J. D.; Limosani, A.; Lipeles, E.; Liu, H.; Liu, Q.; Liu, T.; Lockwitz, S.; Loginov, A.; Lucchesi, D.; Lueck, J.; Lujan, P.; Lukens, P.; Lungu, G.; Lys, J.; Lysak, R.; Madrak, R.; Maestro, P.; Malik, S.; Manca, G.; Manousakis-Katsikakis, A.; Margaroli, F.; Marino, P.; Martínez, M.; Matera, K.; Mattson, M. E.; Mazzacane, A.; Mazzanti, P.; McNulty, R.; Mehta, A.; Mehtala, P.; Mesropian, C.; Miao, T.; Mietlicki, D.; Mitra, A.; Miyake, H.; Moed, S.; Moggi, N.; Moon, C. S.; Moore, R.; Morello, M. J.; Mukherjee, A.; Muller, Th.; Murat, P.; Mussini, M.; Nachtman, J.; Nagai, Y.; Naganoma, J.; Nakano, I.; Napier, A.; Nett, J.; Neu, C.; Nigmanov, T.; Nodulman, L.; Noh, S. Y.; Norniella, O.; Oakes, L.; Oh, S. H.; Oh, Y. D.; Oksuzian, I.; Okusawa, T.; Orava, R.; Ortolan, L.; Pagliarone, C.; Palencia, E.; Palni, P.; Papadimitriou, V.; Parker, W.; Pauletta, G.; Paulini, M.; Paus, C.; Phillips, T. J.; Piacentino, G.; Pianori, E.; Pilot, J.; Pitts, K.; Plager, C.; Pondrom, L.; Poprocki, S.; Potamianos, K.; Prokoshin, F.; Pranko, A.; Ptohos, F.; Punzi, G.; Ranjan, N.; Redondo Fernández, I.; Renton, P.; Rescigno, M.; Riddick, T.; Rimondi, F.; Ristori, L.; Robson, A.; Rodriguez, T.; Rolli, S.; Ronzani, M.; Roser, R.; Rosner, J. L.; Ruffini, F.; Ruiz, A.; Russ, J.; Rusu, V.; Safonov, A.; Sakumoto, W. K.; Sakurai, Y.; Santi, L.; Sato, K.; Saveliev, V.; Savoy-Navarro, A.; Schlabach, P.; Schmidt, E. E.; Schwarz, T.; Scodellaro, L.; Scuri, F.; Seidel, S.; Seiya, Y.; Semenov, A.; Sforza, F.; Shalhout, S. Z.; Shears, T.; Shepard, P. F.; Shimojima, M.; Shochet, M.; Shreyber-Tecker, I.; Simonenko, A.; Sinervo, P.; Sliwa, K.; Smith, J. R.; Snider, F. D.; Sorin, V.; Song, H.; Stancari, M.; Denis, R. St.; Stelzer, B.; Stelzer-Chilton, O.; Stentz, D.; Strologas, J.; Sudo, Y.; Sukhanov, A.; Suslov, I.; Takemasa, K.; Takeuchi, Y.; Tang, J.; Tecchio, M.; Teng, P. K.; Thom, J.; Thomson, E.; Thukral, V.; Toback, D.; Tokar, S.; Tollefson, K.; Tomura, T.; Tonelli, D.; Torre, S.; Torretta, D.; Totaro, P.; Trovato, M.; Ukegawa, F.; Uozumi, S.; Vázquez, F.; Velev, G.; Vellidis, C.; Vernieri, C.; Vidal, M.; Vilar, R.; Vizán, J.; Vogel, M.; Volpi, G.; Wagner, P.; Wallny, R.; Wang, S. M.; Warburton, A.; Waters, D.; Wester, W. C., III; Whiteson, D.; Wicklund, A. B.; Wilbur, S.; Williams, H. H.; Wilson, J. S.; Wilson, P.; Winer, B. L.; Wittich, P.; Wolbers, S.; Wolfe, H.; Wright, T.; Wu, X.; Wu, Z.; Yamamoto, K.; Yamato, D.; Yang, T.; Yang, U. K.; Yang, Y. C.; Yao, W.-M.; Yeh, G. P.; Yi, K.; Yoh, J.; Yorita, K.; Yoshida, T.; Yu, G. B.; Yu, I.; Zanetti, A. M.; Zeng, Y.; Zhou, C.; Zucchelli, S.

    2013-03-01

    We present a measurement of the mass difference between top (t) and antitop (t¯) quarks using tt¯ candidate events reconstructed in the final state with one lepton and multiple jets. We use the full data set of Tevatron s=1.96TeV proton-antiproton collisions recorded by the CDF II detector, corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 8.7fb-1. We estimate event by event the mass difference to construct templates for top pair signal events and background events. The resulting mass difference distribution in data compared to signal and background templates using a likelihood fit yields ΔMtop=Mt-Mt¯=-1.95±1.11(stat)±0.59(syst)GeV/c2 and is in agreement with the standard model prediction of no mass difference.

  7. Dynamical Mass Measurements of Contaminated Galaxy Clusters Using Machine Learning

    CERN Document Server

    Ntampaka, M; Sutherland, D J; Fromenteau, S; Poczos, B; Schneider, J

    2015-01-01

    We study dynamical mass measurements of galaxy clusters contaminated by interlopers and show that a modern machine learning (ML) algorithm can predict masses by better than a factor of two compared to a standard scaling relation approach. We create two mock catalogs from Multidark's publicly-available N-body MDPL1 simulation, one with perfect galaxy cluster membership information and the other where a simple cylindrical cut around the cluster center allows interlopers to contaminate the clusters. In the standard approach, we use a power law scaling relation to infer cluster mass from galaxy line of sight (LOS) velocity dispersion. Assuming perfect membership knowledge, this unrealistic case produces a wide fractional mass error distribution, with width = 0.87. Interlopers introduce additional scatter, significantly widening the error distribution further (width = 2.13). We employ the Support Distribution Machine (SDM) class of algorithms to learn from distributions of data to predict single values. Applied to...

  8. Prospects for Measurement of the Neutrino Mass Hierarchy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patterson, R. B.

    2015-10-01

    The unknown neutrino mass hierarchy—whether the ν3 mass eigenstate is the heaviest or the lightest—represents a major gap in our knowledge of neutrino properties. Determining the hierarchy is a critical step toward further precision measurements in the neutrino sector. The hierarchy is also central to interpreting the next generation of neutrinoless double-β decay results, plays a role in numerous cosmological and astrophysical questions, and serves as a powerful model discriminant for theories of neutrino mass generation and unification. Various current and planned experiments claim sensitivity for establishing the neutrino mass hierarchy. I review the most promising of these here, paying special attention to points of concern and consolidating the projected sensitivities into an outlook for the years ahead.

  9. Top quark mass measurements at and above threshold at CLIC

    CERN Document Server

    Seidel, Katja; Tesar, Michal; Poss, Stephane

    2013-01-01

    We present a study of the expected precision of the top quark mass determination, measured at a linear $e^+e^-$ collider based on CLIC technology. GEANT4-based detector simulation and full event reconstruction including realistic physics and beam-induced background levels are used. Two different techniques to measure the top mass are studied: The direct reconstruction of the invariant mass of the top quark decay products and the measurement of the mass together with the strong coupling constant in a threshold scan, in both cases including first studies of expected systematic uncertainties. For the direct reconstruction, experimental uncertainties around 100 MeV are achieved, which are at present not matched by a theoretical understanding on a similar level. With a threshold scan, total uncertainties of around 100 MeV are achieved, including theoretical uncertainties in a well-defined top mass scheme. For the threshold scan, the precision at ILC is also studied to provide a comparison of the two linear collide...

  10. Physical effects involved in the measurements of neutrino masses with future cosmological data

    CERN Document Server

    Archidiacono, Maria; Lesgourgues, Julien; Poulin, Vivian

    2016-01-01

    Future Cosmic Microwave Background experiments together with upcoming galaxy and 21-cm surveys will provide extremely accurate measurements of different cosmological observables located at different epochs of the cosmic history. The new data will be able to constrain the neutrino mass sum with the best precision ever. In order to exploit the complementarity of the different redshift probes, a deep understanding of the physical effects driving the impact of massive neutrinos on CMB and large scale structures is required. The goal of this work is to describe these effects, assuming a summed neutrino mass close to its minimum allowed value. We find that parameter degeneracies can be removed by appropriate combinations, leading to robust and model independent constraints. A joint forecast of the sensitivity of Euclid and DESI surveys together with a CORE-like CMB experiment leads to a $1\\sigma$ uncertainty of $7$~meV on the summed neutrino mass. However this particular combination gives rise to a peculiar degener...

  11. Using an SLR inversion to measure the mass balance of Greenland before and during GRACE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonin, Jennifer

    2016-04-01

    The GRACE mission has done an admirable job of measuring large-scale mass changes over Greenland since its launch in 2002. However before that time, measurements of large-scale ice mass balance were few and far between, leading to a lack of baseline knowledge. High-quality Satellite Laser Ranging (SLR) data existed a decade earlier, but normally has too low a spatial resolution to be used for this purpose. I demonstrate that a least squares inversion technique can reconstitute the SLR data and use it to measure ice loss over Greenland. To do so, I first simulate the problem by degrading today's GRACE data to a level comparable with SLR, then demonstrating that the inversion can re-localize Greenland's contribution to the low-resolution signal, giving an accurate time series of mass change over all of Greenland which compares well with the full-resolution GRACE estimates. I then utilize that method on the actual SLR data, resulting in an independent 1994-2014 time series of mass change over Greenland. I find favorable agreement between the pure-SLR inverted results and the 2012 Ice-sheet Mass Balance Inter-comparison Exercise (IMBIE) results, which are largely based on the "input-output" modeling method before GRACE's launch.

  12. Skeletal muscle mass and quality: evolution of modern measurement concepts in the context of sarcopenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heymsfield, Steven B; Gonzalez, M Cristina; Lu, Jianhua; Jia, Guang; Zheng, Jolene

    2015-11-01

    The first reports of accurate skeletal muscle mass measurement in human subjects appeared at about the same time as introduction of the sarcopenia concept in the late 1980s. Since then these methods, computed tomography and MRI, have been used to gain insights into older (i.e. anthropometry and urinary markers) and more recently developed and refined methods (ultrasound, bioimpedance analysis and dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry) of quantifying regional and total body skeletal muscle mass. The objective of this review is to describe the evolution of these methods and their continued development in the context of sarcopenia evaluation and treatment. Advances in these technologies are described with a focus on additional quantifiable measures that relate to muscle composition and 'quality'. The integration of these collective evaluations with strength and physical performance indices is highlighted with linkages to evaluation of sarcopenia and the spectrum of related disorders such as sarcopenic obesity, cachexia and frailty. Our findings show that currently available methods and those in development are capable of non-invasively extending measures from solely 'mass' to quality evaluations that promise to close the gaps now recognised between skeletal muscle mass and muscle function, morbidity and mortality. As the largest tissue compartment in most adults, skeletal muscle mass and aspects of muscle composition can now be evaluated by a wide array of technologies that provide important new research and clinical opportunities aligned with the growing interest in the spectrum of conditions associated with sarcopenia. PMID:25851205

  13. Skeletal muscle mass and quality: evolution of modern measurement concepts in the context of sarcopenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heymsfield, Steven B; Gonzalez, M Cristina; Lu, Jianhua; Jia, Guang; Zheng, Jolene

    2015-11-01

    The first reports of accurate skeletal muscle mass measurement in human subjects appeared at about the same time as introduction of the sarcopenia concept in the late 1980s. Since then these methods, computed tomography and MRI, have been used to gain insights into older (i.e. anthropometry and urinary markers) and more recently developed and refined methods (ultrasound, bioimpedance analysis and dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry) of quantifying regional and total body skeletal muscle mass. The objective of this review is to describe the evolution of these methods and their continued development in the context of sarcopenia evaluation and treatment. Advances in these technologies are described with a focus on additional quantifiable measures that relate to muscle composition and 'quality'. The integration of these collective evaluations with strength and physical performance indices is highlighted with linkages to evaluation of sarcopenia and the spectrum of related disorders such as sarcopenic obesity, cachexia and frailty. Our findings show that currently available methods and those in development are capable of non-invasively extending measures from solely 'mass' to quality evaluations that promise to close the gaps now recognised between skeletal muscle mass and muscle function, morbidity and mortality. As the largest tissue compartment in most adults, skeletal muscle mass and aspects of muscle composition can now be evaluated by a wide array of technologies that provide important new research and clinical opportunities aligned with the growing interest in the spectrum of conditions associated with sarcopenia.

  14. Toward Precision Measurement of Central Black Hole Masses

    CERN Document Server

    Peterson, Bradley M

    2010-01-01

    We review briefly direct and indirect methods of measuring the masses of black holes in galactic nuclei, and then focus attention on supermassive black holes in active nuclei, with special attention to results from reverberation mapping and their limitations. We find that the intrinsic scatter in the relationship between the AGN luminosity and the broad-line region size is very small, ~0.11 dex, comparable to the uncertainties in the better reverberation measurements. We also find that the relationship between reverberation-based black hole masses and host-galaxy bulge luminosities also seems to have surprisingly little intrinsic scatter, ~0.17 dex. We note, however, that there are still potential systematics that could affect the overall mass calibration at the level of a factor of a few.

  15. A New Top Mass Measurement in The Dilepton Channel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trovato, Marco; /INFN, Pisa /Pisa U.

    2008-01-01

    The top quark discovery completed the present picture of the fundamental constituents of the nature. Since then, the Collider Detector at Fermilab and D0 Collaborations have been spending great efforts to measure its properties better. About 30 times larger than the second heaviest quark, the mass of the top has been measured with increased statistic and more and more sophisticated techniques in order to reduce as much as possible its uncertainty. This is because the top is expected to play a fundamental role in the Standard Model. The value of its mass sets boundaries on the mass of the unobserved Higgs boson, and perhaps more appealing, studies of its properties might lead to the discovery of new physics.

  16. Charged Kaon Mass Measurement using the Cherenkov Effect

    CERN Document Server

    Graf, N; Abrams, R J; Akgun, U; Aydin, G; Baker, W; Barnes, P D; Bergfeld, T; Beverly, L; Bujak, A; Carey, D; Dukes, C; Duru, F; Feldman, G J; Godley, A; Gülmez, E; Günaydın, Y O; Gustafson, H R; Gutay, L; Hartouni, E; Hanlet, P; Hansen, S; Heffner, M; Johnstone, C; Kaplan, D; Kamaev, O; Kilmer, J; Klay, J; Kostin, M; Lange, D; Ling, J; Longo, M J; Lu, L C; Materniak, C; Messier, M D; Meyer, H; Miller, D E; Mishra, S R; Nelson, K; Nigmanov, T; Norman, A; Onel, Y; Paley, J M; Park, H K; Penzo, A; Peterson, R J; Raja, R; Rajaram, D; Ratnikov, D; Rosenfeld, C; Rubin, H; Seun, S; Solomey, N; Soltz, R; Swallow, E; Schmitt, R; Subbarao, P; Torun, Y; Tope, T E; Wilson, K; Wright, D; Wu, K

    2009-01-01

    The two most recent and precise measurements of the charged kaon mass use X-rays from kaonic atoms and report uncertainties of 14 ppm and 22 ppm yet differ from each other by 122 ppm. We describe the possibility of an independent mass measurement using the measurement of Cherenkov light from a narrow-band beam of kaons, pions, and protons. This technique was demonstrated using data taken opportunistically by the Main Injector Particle Production experiment at Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory which recorded beams of protons, kaons, and pions ranging in momentum from +37 GeV/c to +63 GeV/c. The measured value is 491.3 +/- 1.7 MeV/c^2, which is within 1.4 sigma of the world average. An improvement of two orders of magnitude in precision would make this technique useful for resolving the ambiguity in the X-ray data and may be achievable in a dedicated experiment.

  17. CLASSIFYING BENIGN AND MALIGNANT MASSES USING STATISTICAL MEASURES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Surendiran

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Breast cancer is the primary and most common disease found in women which causes second highest rate of death after lung cancer. The digital mammogram is the X-ray of breast captured for the analysis, interpretation and diagnosis. According to Breast Imaging Reporting and Data System (BIRADS benign and malignant can be differentiated using its shape, size and density, which is how radiologist visualize the mammograms. According to BIRADS mass shape characteristics, benign masses tend to have round, oval, lobular in shape and malignant masses are lobular or irregular in shape. Measuring regular and irregular shapes mathematically is found to be a difficult task, since there is no single measure to differentiate various shapes. In this paper, the malignant and benign masses present in mammogram are classified using Hue, Saturation and Value (HSV weight function based statistical measures. The weight function is robust against noise and captures the degree of gray content of the pixel. The statistical measures use gray weight value instead of gray pixel value to effectively discriminate masses. The 233 mammograms from the Digital Database for Screening Mammography (DDSM benchmark dataset have been used. The PASW data mining modeler has been used for constructing Neural Network for identifying importance of statistical measures. Based on the obtained important statistical measure, the C5.0 tree has been constructed with 60-40 data split. The experimental results are found to be encouraging. Also, the results will agree to the standard specified by the American College of Radiology-BIRADS Systems.

  18. Improvements to TITAN's mass measurement and decay spectroscopy capabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lascar, D.; Kwiatkowski, A. A.; Alanssari, M.; Chowdhury, U.; Even, J.; Finlay, A.; Gallant, A. T.; Good, M.; Klawitter, R.; Kootte, B.; Li, T.; Leach, K. G.; Lennarz, A.; Leistenschneider, E.; Mayer, A. J.; Schultz, B. E.; Schupp, R.; Short, D. A.; Andreoiu, C.; Dilling, J.; Gwinner, G.

    2016-06-01

    The study of nuclei farther from the valley of β -stability than ever before goes hand-in-hand with shorter-lived nuclei produced in smaller abundances than their less exotic counterparts. The measurement, to high precision, of nuclear masses therefore requires innovations in technique in order to keep up. TRIUMF's Ion Trap for Atomic and Nuclear science (TITAN) facility deploys three ion traps, with a fourth in the commissioning phase, to perform and support Penning trap mass spectrometry and in-trap decay spectroscopy on some of the shortest-lived nuclei ever studied. We report on recent advances and updates to the TITAN facility since the 2012 EMIS conference. TITAN's charge breeding capabilities have been improved and in-trap decay spectroscopy can be performed in TITAN's Electron Beam Ion Trap (EBIT). Higher charge states can improve the precision of mass measurements, reduce the beam-time requirements for a given measurement, improve beam purity, and open the door to access isotopes not available from the ISOL method via in-trap decay and recapture. This was recently demonstrated during TITAN's mass measurement of 30 Al. The EBIT's decay spectroscopy setup was commissioned with a successful branching ratio and half-life measurement of 124 Cs. Charge breeding in the EBIT increases the energy spread of the ion bunch sent to the Penning trap for mass measurement, so a new Cooler PEnning Trap (CPET), which aims to cool highly charged ions with an electron plasma, is undergoing offline commissioning. Already CPET has demonstrated the trapping and self-cooling of a room-temperature electron plasma that was stored for several minutes. A new detector has been installed inside the CPET magnetic field which will allow for in-magnet charged particle detection.

  19. Precise Measurement of Separation Between Two Spherical Source Masses

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈德才; 罗俊; 胡忠坤; 赵亮

    2004-01-01

    A driving gauge method is performed to determine the separation between two spherical source masses in the measurement of Newtonian gravitational constant G. The experimental result shows that the uncertainty of determining the separation is about 0.35μm, which would contribute an uncertainty of 7.3ppm to the value of G.

  20. Measuring the top quark mass in the channel: A study

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Rajwant Kaur; Suman B Beri; J M Kohli

    2001-10-01

    We describe a simple method to measure the top quark mass in the $t\\overline{t}$→ WbW$\\overline{b}$→ channel that may be useful in Run II of DØ detector. The method is validated by applying it to the Run Ib data.

  1. A NEW MEASUREMENT OF THE W BOSON MASS FROM CDF

    CERN Multimedia

    Ashutosh Kotwal

    CDF has measured the W boson mass using approx. 200pb-1 of data collected at  s = 1.96 TeV. The preliminary result mW = 80.413 ± 0.034(stat) ± 0.034(syst) GeV supports and strengthens the hypothesis of a light Higgs boson, based on the global electroweak fit in the standard model framework. The total measurement uncertainty of 48 MeV makes this result the most precise single measurement of the W boson mass to date. The mass of the W boson is a very interesting quantity. Experimentally, it can be measured precisely because of the two-body decay of the W boson into a charged lepton and a neutrino. Theoretically, it receives self-energy corrections due to vacuum fluctuations involving virtual particles. Thus the W boson mass probes the particle spectrum in nature, including those particles that have yet to be observed directly. The hypothetical particle of most immediate interest is the Higgs boson, representing the quantum of the Higgs field that spontaneously acquires a vacuu...

  2. Measurement of the W mass with the ATLAS detector

    OpenAIRE

    Petersen, Troels C.

    2008-01-01

    We investigate the posibility of improving the W mass measurement at ATLAS. Given the high statistics of both W and Z bosons expected at the LHC, we estimate that a precision of 7 MeV per channel can be reached with 10 fb-1 of data.

  3. Challenges in W mass measurements with ATLAS and CMS

    CERN Document Server

    Vranjes, Nenad; The ATLAS collaboration

    2016-01-01

    The mass of the W boson is an important parameter of the Standard Model of particle physics. In this proceedings experimental and theoretical challenges that need to be faced in order to achieve precision of the order of 10 MeV are discussed. The status of various experimental studies related to this measurement are presented.

  4. Can the masses of isolated planetary-mass gravitational lenses be measured by terrestrial parallax?

    CERN Document Server

    Freeman, M; Abe, F; Albrow, M D; Bennett, D P; Bond, I A; Botzler, C S; Bray, J C; Cherrie, J M; Christie, G W; Dionnet, Z; Gould, A; Han, C; Heyrovsky, D; McCormick, J M; Moorhouse, D M; Muraki, Y; Natusch, T; Rattenbury, N J; Skowron, J; Sumi, T; Suzuki, D; Tan, T -G; Tristram, P J; Yock, P C M

    2014-01-01

    Recently Sumi et al. (2011) reported evidence for a large population of planetary-mass objects (PMOs) that are either unbound or orbit host stars in orbits > 10 AU. Their result was deduced from the statistical distribution of durations of gravitational microlensing events observed by the MOA collaboration during 2006 and 2007. Here we study the feasibility of measuring the mass of an individual PMO through microlensing by examining a particular event, MOA-2011-BLG-274. This event was unusual as the duration was short, the magnification high, the source-size effect large and the angular Einstein radius small. Also, it was intensively monitored from widely separated locations under clear skies at low air masses. Choi et al. (2012) concluded that the lens of the event may have been a PMO but they did not attempt a measurement of its mass. We report here a re-analysis of the event using re-reduced data. We confirm the results of Choi et al. and attempt a measurement of the mass and distance of the lens using the...

  5. Precision top-quark mass measurement at CDF.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aaltonen, T; Alvarez González, B; Amerio, S; Amidei, D; Anastassov, A; Annovi, A; Antos, J; Apollinari, G; Appel, J A; Arisawa, T; Artikov, A; Asaadi, J; Ashmanskas, W; Auerbach, B; Aurisano, A; Azfar, F; Badgett, W; Bae, T; Barbaro-Galtieri, A; Barnes, V E; Barnett, B A; Barria, P; Bartos, P; Bauce, M; Bedeschi, F; Behari, S; Bellettini, G; Bellinger, J; Benjamin, D; Beretvas, A; Bhatti, A; Bisello, D; Bizjak, I; Bland, K R; Blumenfeld, B; Bocci, A; Bodek, A; Bortoletto, D; Boudreau, J; Boveia, A; Brigliadori, L; Bromberg, C; Brucken, E; Budagov, J; Budd, H S; Burkett, K; Busetto, G; Bussey, P; Buzatu, A; Calamba, A; Calancha, C; Camarda, S; Campanelli, M; Campbell, M; Canelli, F; Carls, B; Carlsmith, D; Carosi, R; Carrillo, S; Carron, S; Casal, B; Casarsa, M; Castro, A; Catastini, P; Cauz, D; Cavaliere, V; Cavalli-Sforza, M; Cerri, A; Cerrito, L; Chen, Y C; Chertok, M; Chiarelli, G; Chlachidze, G; Chlebana, F; Cho, K; Chokheli, D; Chung, W H; Chung, Y S; Ciocci, M A; Clark, A; Clarke, C; Compostella, G; Convery, M E; Conway, J; Corbo, M; Cordelli, M; Cox, C A; Cox, D J; Crescioli, F; Cuevas, J; Culbertson, R; Dagenhart, D; d'Ascenzo, N; Datta, M; de Barbaro, P; Dell'Orso, M; Demortier, L; Deninno, M; Devoto, F; d'Errico, M; Di Canto, A; Di Ruzza, B; Dittmann, J R; D'Onofrio, M; Donati, S; Dong, P; Dorigo, M; Dorigo, T; Ebina, K; Elagin, A; Eppig, A; Erbacher, R; Errede, S; Ershaidat, N; Eusebi, R; Farrington, S; Feindt, M; Fernandez, J P; Field, R; Flanagan, G; Forrest, R; Frank, M J; Franklin, M; Freeman, J C; Funakoshi, Y; Furic, I; Gallinaro, M; Garcia, J E; Garfinkel, A F; Garosi, P; Gerberich, H; Gerchtein, E; Giagu, S; Giakoumopoulou, V; Giannetti, P; Gibson, K; Ginsburg, C M; Giokaris, N; Giromini, P; Giurgiu, G; Glagolev, V; Glenzinski, D; Gold, M; Goldin, D; Goldschmidt, N; Golossanov, A; Gomez, G; Gomez-Ceballos, G; Goncharov, M; González, O; Gorelov, I; Goshaw, A T; Goulianos, K; Grinstein, S; Grosso-Pilcher, C; Group, R C; Guimaraes da Costa, J; Hahn, S R; Halkiadakis, E; Hamaguchi, A; Han, J Y; Happacher, F; Hara, K; Hare, D; Hare, M; Harr, R F; Hatakeyama, K; Hays, C; Heck, M; Heinrich, J; Herndon, M; Hewamanage, S; Hocker, A; Hopkins, W; Horn, D; Hou, S; Hughes, R E; Hurwitz, M; Husemann, U; Hussain, N; Hussein, M; Huston, J; Introzzi, G; Iori, M; Ivanov, A; James, E; Jang, D; Jayatilaka, B; Jeon, E J; Jindariani, S; Jones, M; Joo, K K; Jun, S Y; Junk, T R; Kamon, T; Karchin, P E; Kasmi, A; Kato, Y; Ketchum, W; Keung, J; Khotilovich, V; Kilminster, B; Kim, D H; Kim, H S; Kim, J E; Kim, M J; Kim, S B; Kim, S H; Kim, Y K; Kim, Y J; Kimura, N; Kirby, M; Klimenko, S; Knoepfel, K; Kondo, K; Kong, D J; Konigsberg, J; Kotwal, A V; Kreps, M; Kroll, J; Krop, D; Kruse, M; Krutelyov, V; Kuhr, T; Kurata, M; Kwang, S; Laasanen, A T; Lami, S; Lammel, S; Lancaster, M; Lander, R L; Lannon, K; Lath, A; Latino, G; LeCompte, T; Lee, E; Lee, H S; Lee, J S; Lee, S W; Leo, S; Leone, S; Lewis, J D; Limosani, A; Lin, C-J; Lindgren, M; Lipeles, E; Lister, A; Litvintsev, D O; Liu, C; Liu, H; Liu, Q; Liu, T; Lockwitz, S; Loginov, A; Lucchesi, D; Lueck, J; Lujan, P; Lukens, P; Lungu, G; Lys, J; Lysak, R; Madrak, R; Maeshima, K; Maestro, P; Malik, S; Manca, G; Manousakis-Katsikakis, A; Margaroli, F; Marino, C; Martínez, M; Mastrandrea, P; Matera, K; Mattson, M E; Mazzacane, A; Mazzanti, P; McFarland, K S; McIntyre, P; McNulty, R; Mehta, A; Mehtala, P; Mesropian, C; Miao, T; Mietlicki, D; Mitra, A; Miyake, H; Moed, S; Moggi, N; Mondragon, M N; Moon, C S; Moore, R; Morello, M J; Morlock, J; Movilla Fernandez, P; Mukherjee, A; Muller, Th; Murat, P; Mussini, M; Nachtman, J; Nagai, Y; Naganoma, J; Nakano, I; Napier, A; Nett, J; Neu, C; Neubauer, M S; Nielsen, J; Nodulman, L; Noh, S Y; Norniella, O; Oakes, L; Oh, S H; Oh, Y D; Oksuzian, I; Okusawa, T; Orava, R; Ortolan, L; Pagan Griso, S; Pagliarone, C; Palencia, E; Papadimitriou, V; Paramonov, A A; Patrick, J; Pauletta, G; Paulini, M; Paus, C; Pellett, D E; Penzo, A; Phillips, T J; Piacentino, G; Pianori, E; Pilot, J; Pitts, K; Plager, C; Pondrom, L; Poprocki, S; Potamianos, K; Prokoshin, F; Pranko, A; Ptohos, F; Punzi, G; Rahaman, A; Ramakrishnan, V; Ranjan, N; Redondo, I; Renton, P; Rescigno, M; Riddick, T; Rimondi, F; Ristori, L; Robson, A; Rodrigo, T; Rodriguez, T; Rogers, E; Rolli, S; Roser, R; Ruffini, F; Ruiz, A; Russ, J; Rusu, V; Safonov, A; Sakumoto, W K; Sakurai, Y; Santi, L; Sato, K; Saveliev, V; Savoy-Navarro, A; Schlabach, P; Schmidt, A; Schmidt, E E; Schwarz, T; Scodellaro, L; Scribano, A; Scuri, F; Seidel, S; Seiya, Y; Semenov, A; Sforza, F; Shalhout, S Z; Shears, T; Shepard, P F; Shimojima, M; Shochet, M; Shreyber-Tecker, I; Simonenko, A; Sinervo, P; Sliwa, K; Smith, J R; Snider, F D; Soha, A; Sorin, V; Song, H; Squillacioti, P; Stancari, M; St Denis, R; Stelzer, B; Stelzer-Chilton, O; Stentz, D; Strologas, J; Strycker, G L; Sudo, Y; Sukhanov, A; Suslov, I; Takemasa, K; Takeuchi, Y; Tang, J; Tecchio, M; Teng, P K; Thom, J; Thome, J; Thompson, G A; Thomson, E; Toback, D; Tokar, S; Tollefson, K; Tomura, T; Tonelli, D; Torre, S; Torretta, D; Totaro, P; Trovato, M; Ukegawa, F; Uozumi, S; Varganov, A; Vázquez, F; Velev, G; Vellidis, C; Vidal, M; Vila, I; Vilar, R; Vizán, J; Vogel, M; Volpi, G; Wagner, P; Wagner, R L; Wakisaka, T; Wallny, R; Wang, S M; Warburton, A; Waters, D; Wester, W C; Whiteson, D; Wicklund, A B; Wicklund, E; Wilbur, S; Wick, F; Williams, H H; Wilson, J S; Wilson, P; Winer, B L; Wittich, P; Wolbers, S; Wolfe, H; Wright, T; Wu, X; Wu, Z; Yamamoto, K; Yamato, D; Yang, T; Yang, U K; Yang, Y C; Yao, W-M; Yeh, G P; Yi, K; Yoh, J; Yorita, K; Yoshida, T; Yu, G B; Yu, I; Yu, S S; Yun, J C; Zanetti, A; Zeng, Y; Zhou, C; Zucchelli, S

    2012-10-12

    We present a precision measurement of the top-quark mass using the full sample of Tevatron √s = 1.96 TeV proton-antiproton collisions collected by the CDF II detector, corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 8.7 fb(-1). Using a sample of tt¯ candidate events decaying into the lepton+jets channel, we obtain distributions of the top-quark masses and the invariant mass of two jets from the W boson decays from data. We then compare these distributions to templates derived from signal and background samples to extract the top-quark mass and the energy scale of the calorimeter jets with in situ calibration. The likelihood fit of the templates from signal and background events to the data yields the single most-precise measurement of the top-quark mass, M(top)=172.85±0.71(stat)±0.85(syst) GeV/c(2).

  6. Refining Mass Measurements of Kepler Planets with Keck/HIRES.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isaacson, Howard T.; Marcy, Geoffrey W.; Howard, Andrew

    2015-12-01

    We present improved radial velocity mass measurements from Keck/HIRES for exoplanets detected by NASA’s Kepler Mission. Since Kepler’s launch 6 years ago, ~30 planetary systems have been monitored with radial velocities, resulting in measured masses for many planets between 1.0 and 4.0 Earth radii. The resulting planet masses have been used to determine the transition between planets with a rocky interior and those with a lower density interior which requiring significant H/He atmospheres. We provide updated masses and densities for those planets published in Marcy et al (2014) based on two additional observing seasons with HIRES of the Kepler field. These radial velocities also reveal non-transiting planets in systems with previously found transiting planets. One such system has a non-transiting planet with a period between two transiting planets, providing a constraint on the co-planarity of the system. Finally, we provide an updated mass-radius relation, showing the distinction between planets that must have a substantial iron-silicate interior, and those requiring significant contributions from volatiles such as hydrogen and helium.

  7. A precise measurement of the top quark mass

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mohr, Brian N. [Univ. of California, Los Angeles, CA (United States)

    2007-04-01

    We present a measurement of the mass of the top quark using data from proton-antiproton collisions recorded at the CDF experiment in Run II of the Fermilab Tevatron. Events are selected from the single lepton plus jets final state (t$\\bar{t}$ → W+bW-$\\bar{b}$ → ℓvbq$\\bar{q}$'$\\bar{b}$). The top quark mass is extracted using a calculation of the probability density for a t$\\bar{t}$ final state to resemble a data event. This probability density is a function of both top quark mass and energy scale of calorimeter jets, constrained in situ with the hadronic W boson mass. Using 167 events observed in 955 pb-1 integrated luminosity, we achieve the single most precise measurement of top quark mass to date of 170.8 ± 2.2 (stat.) ± 1.4 (syst.) GeV/c2, where the quoted statistical uncertainty includes uncertainty from the determination of the jet energy scale.

  8. Analytical Validation of Accelerator Mass Spectrometry for Pharmaceutical Development: the Measurement of Carbon-14 Isotope Ratio.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Keck, B D; Ognibene, T; Vogel, J S

    2010-02-05

    Accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS) is an isotope based measurement technology that utilizes carbon-14 labeled compounds in the pharmaceutical development process to measure compounds at very low concentrations, empowers microdosing as an investigational tool, and extends the utility of {sup 14}C labeled compounds to dramatically lower levels. It is a form of isotope ratio mass spectrometry that can provide either measurements of total compound equivalents or, when coupled to separation technology such as chromatography, quantitation of specific compounds. The properties of AMS as a measurement technique are investigated here, and the parameters of method validation are shown. AMS, independent of any separation technique to which it may be coupled, is shown to be accurate, linear, precise, and robust. As the sensitivity and universality of AMS is constantly being explored and expanded, this work underpins many areas of pharmaceutical development including drug metabolism as well as absorption, distribution and excretion of pharmaceutical compounds as a fundamental step in drug development. The validation parameters for pharmaceutical analyses were examined for the accelerator mass spectrometry measurement of {sup 14}C/C ratio, independent of chemical separation procedures. The isotope ratio measurement was specific (owing to the {sup 14}C label), stable across samples storage conditions for at least one year, linear over 4 orders of magnitude with an analytical range from one tenth Modern to at least 2000 Modern (instrument specific). Further, accuracy was excellent between 1 and 3 percent while precision expressed as coefficient of variation is between 1 and 6% determined primarily by radiocarbon content and the time spent analyzing a sample. Sensitivity, expressed as LOD and LLOQ was 1 and 10 attomoles of carbon-14 (which can be expressed as compound equivalents) and for a typical small molecule labeled at 10% incorporated with {sup 14}C corresponds to 30 fg

  9. Pendulum mass affects the measurement of articular friction coefficient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akelman, Matthew R; Teeple, Erin; Machan, Jason T; Crisco, Joseph J; Jay, Gregory D; Fleming, Braden C

    2013-02-01

    Friction measurements of articular cartilage are important to determine the relative tribologic contributions made by synovial fluid or cartilage, and to assess the efficacy of therapies for preventing the development of post-traumatic osteoarthritis. Stanton's equation is the most frequently used formula for estimating the whole joint friction coefficient (μ) of an articular pendulum, and assumes pendulum energy loss through a mass-independent mechanism. This study examines if articular pendulum energy loss is indeed mass independent, and compares Stanton's model to an alternative model, which incorporates viscous damping, for calculating μ. Ten loads (25-100% body weight) were applied in a random order to an articular pendulum using the knees of adult male Hartley guinea pigs (n=4) as the fulcrum. Motion of the decaying pendulum was recorded and μ was estimated using two models: Stanton's equation, and an exponential decay function incorporating a viscous damping coefficient. μ estimates decreased as mass increased for both models. Exponential decay model fit error values were 82% less than the Stanton model. These results indicate that μ decreases with increasing mass, and that an exponential decay model provides a better fit for articular pendulum data at all mass values. In conclusion, inter-study comparisons of articular pendulum μ values should not be made without recognizing the loads used, as μ values are mass dependent. PMID:23122223

  10. CAN THE MASSES OF ISOLATED PLANETARY-MASS GRAVITATIONAL LENSES BE MEASURED BY TERRESTRIAL PARALLAX?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Freeman, M.; Botzler, C. S.; Bray, J. C.; Cherrie, J. M.; Rattenbury, N. J. [Department of Physics, University of Auckland, Private Bag 92019, Auckland 1142 (New Zealand); Philpott, L. C. [Department of Earth, Ocean and Atmospheric Sciences, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, British Columbia V6T 1Z4 (Canada); Abe, F.; Muraki, Y. [Solar-Terrestrial Environment Laboratory, Nagoya University, Nagoya 464-8601 (Japan); Albrow, M. D. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Canterbury, P.O. Box 4800, Christchurch 8020 (New Zealand); Bennett, D. P. [Department of Physics, 225 Nieuwland Science Hall, University of Notre Dame, Notre Dame, IN 46556 (United States); Bond, I. A. [Institute for Information and Mathematical Sciences, Massey University, Private Bag 102-904, Auckland 1330 (New Zealand); Christie, G. W.; Natusch, T. [Auckland Observatory, PO Box 180, Royal Oak, Auckland 1345 (New Zealand); Dionnet, Z. [Université d' Orsay, bat 470, F-91400 Orsay (France); Gould, A. [Department of Astronomy, Ohio State University, 140 West 18th Avenue, Columbus, OH 43210 (United States); Han, C. [Department of Physics, Chungbuk National University, 410 Seongbong-Rho, Hungduk-Gu, Chongju 371-763 (Korea, Republic of); Heyrovský, D. [Institute of Theoretical Physics, Charles University in Prague, Faculty of Mathematics and Physics, V Holesovickach 2, 18000 Prague (Czech Republic); McCormick, J. M. [Farm Cove Observatory, 2/24 Rapallo Place, Pakuranga, Auckland 2012 (New Zealand); Moorhouse, D. M. [Kumeu Observatory, Kumeu (New Zealand); Skowron, J., E-mail: mfre070@aucklanduni.ac.nz [Warsaw University Observatory, Al. Ujazdowskie 4, 00-478, Warszawa (Poland); and others

    2015-02-01

    Recently Sumi et al. reported evidence for a large population of planetary-mass objects (PMOs) that are either unbound or orbit host stars in orbits ≥10 AU. Their result was deduced from the statistical distribution of durations of gravitational microlensing events observed by the MOA collaboration during 2006 and 2007. Here we study the feasibility of measuring the mass of an individual PMO through microlensing by examining a particular event, MOA-2011-BLG-274. This event was unusual as the duration was short, the magnification high, the source-size effect large, and the angular Einstein radius small. Also, it was intensively monitored from widely separated locations under clear skies at low air masses. Choi et al. concluded that the lens of the event may have been a PMO but they did not attempt a measurement of its mass. We report here a re-analysis of the event using re-reduced data. We confirm the results of Choi et al. and attempt a measurement of the mass and distance of the lens using the terrestrial parallax effect. Evidence for terrestrial parallax is found at a 3σ level of confidence. The best fit to the data yields the mass and distance of the lens as 0.80 ± 0.30 M {sub J} and 0.80 ± 0.25 kpc respectively. We exclude a host star to the lens out to a separation ∼40 AU. Drawing on our analysis of MOA-2011-BLG-274 we propose observational strategies for future microlensing surveys to yield sharper results on PMOs including those down to super-Earth mass.

  11. Recent advances in thermal desorption-gas chromatography-mass spectrometery method to eliminate the matrix effect between air and water samples: application to the accurate determination of Henry's law constant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Yong-Hyun; Kim, Ki-Hyun

    2014-05-16

    Accurate values for the Henry's law constants are essential to describe the environmental dynamics of a solute, but substantial errors are recognized in many reported data due to practical difficulties in measuring solubility and/or vapor pressure. Despite such awareness, validation of experimental approaches has scarcely been made. An experimental approach based on thermal desorption-gas chromatography-mass spectrometery (TD-GC-MS) method was developed to concurrently allow the accurate determination of target compounds from the headspace and aqueous samples in closed equilibrated system. The analysis of six aromatics and eight non-aromatic oxygenates was then carried out in a static headspace mode. An estimation of the potential bias and mass balance (i.e., sum of mass measured individually from gas and liquid phases vs. the mass initially added to the system) demonstrates compound-specific phase dependency so that the best results are obtained by aqueous (less soluble aromatics) and headspace analysis (more soluble non-aromatics). Accordingly, we were able to point to the possible sources of biases in previous studies and provide the best estimates for the Henry's constants (Matm(-1)): benzene (0.17), toluene (0.15), p-xylene (0.13), m-xylene (0.13), o-xylene (0.19), styrene (0.27); propionaldehyde (9.26), butyraldehyde (6.19), isovaleraldehyde (2.14), n-valeraldehyde (3.98), methyl ethyl ketone (10.5), methyl isobutyl ketone (3.93), n-butyl acetate (2.41), and isobutyl alcohol (22.2). PMID:24704185

  12. Measurements of the tau Mass and Mass Difference of the tau^+ and tau^- at BABAR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aubert, B.; Karyotakis, Y.; Lees, J.P.; Poireau, V.; Prencipe, E.; Prudent, X.; Tisserand, V.; /Annecy, LAPP; Garra Tico, J.; Grauges, E.; /Barcelona U., ECM; Martinelli, M.; Palano, A.; Pappagallo, M.; /INFN, Bari /Bari U.; Eigen, G.; Stugu, B.; Sun, L.; /Bergen U.; Battaglia, M.; Brown, D.N.; Kerth, L.T.; Kolomensky, Yu.G.; Lynch, G.; Osipenkov, I.L.; /UC, Berkeley /Birmingham U. /Ruhr U., Bochum /British Columbia U. /Brunel U. /Novosibirsk, IYF /UC, Irvine /UC, Riverside /UC, San Diego /UC, Santa Barbara /UC, Santa Cruz /Caltech /Cincinnati U. /Colorado U. /Colorado State U. /Dortmund U. /Dresden, Tech. U. /Ecole Polytechnique /Edinburgh U. /INFN, Ferrara /Ferrara U. /INFN, Ferrara /INFN, Ferrara /Ferrara U. /INFN, Ferrara /INFN, Ferrara /Ferrara U. /Frascati /INFN, Genoa /Genoa U. /INFN, Genoa /INFN, Genoa /Genoa U. /INFN, Genoa /INFN, Genoa /Genoa U. /Harvard U. /Heidelberg U. /Humboldt U., Berlin /Imperial Coll., London /Iowa State U. /Iowa State U. /Johns Hopkins U. /Orsay, LAL /LLNL, Livermore /Liverpool U. /Queen Mary, U. of London /Royal Holloway, U. of London /Louisville U. /Mainz U., Inst. Kernphys. /Manchester U. /Maryland U. /Massachusetts U., Amherst /MIT /McGill U. /INFN, Milan /Milan U. /INFN, Milan /INFN, Milan /Milan U. /Mississippi U. /Montreal U. /Mt. Holyoke Coll. /INFN, Naples /Naples U. /INFN, Naples /INFN, Naples /Naples U. /NIKHEF, Amsterdam /NIKHEF, Amsterdam /Notre Dame U. /Ohio State U. /Oregon U. /INFN, Padua /Padua U. /INFN, Padua /INFN, Padua /Padua U. /Paris U., VI-VII /Pennsylvania U. /INFN, Perugia /Perugia U. /INFN, Pisa /Pisa U. /INFN, Pisa /Pisa, Scuola Normale Superiore /INFN, Pisa /Pisa U. /INFN, Pisa /Princeton U. /INFN, Rome /INFN, Rome /Rome U. /INFN, Rome /INFN, Rome /Rome U. /INFN, Rome /INFN, Rome /Rome U. /INFN, Rome /INFN, Rome /Rome U. /INFN, Rome /Rostock U. /Rutherford /DAPNIA, Saclay /SLAC /South Carolina U. /Stanford U., Phys. Dept. /SUNY, Albany /Tel Aviv U. /Tennessee U. /Texas U. /Texas U., Dallas /INFN, Turin /Turin U. /INFN, Trieste /Trieste U. /Valencia U. /Victoria U. /Warwick U. /Wisconsin U., Madison

    2009-10-30

    The authors present the result of a precision measurement of the mass of the {tau} lepton, M{sub {tau}}, based on 423 fb{sup -1} of data recorded at the {Upsilon}(4S) resonance with the BABAR detector. Using a pseudomass endpoint method, they determine the mass to be 1776.68 {+-} 0.12(stat) {+-} 0.41(syst) MeV. They also measure the mass difference between the {tau}{sup +} and {tau}{sup -}, and obtain (M{sub {tau}{sup +}} - M{sub {tau}{sup -}})/M{sub AVG}{sup {tau}} = (-3.4 {+-} 1.3(stat) {+-} 0.3(syst)) x 10{sup -4}, where M{sub AVG}{sup {tau}} is the average value of M{sub {tau}{sup +}} and M{sub {tau}{sup -}}.

  13. ON-LINE SELF-CALIBRATING SINGLE CRYSTAL SAPPHIRE OPTICAL SENSOR INSTRUMENTATION FOR ACCURATE AND RELIABLE COAL GASIFIER TEMPERATURE MEASUREMENT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kristie Cooper; Gary Pickrell; Anbo Wang

    2003-11-01

    This report summarizes technical progress over the second six month period of the Phase II program ''On-Line Self-Calibrating Single Crystal Sapphire Optical Sensor Instrumentation for Accurate and Reliable Coal Gasifier Temperature Measurement'', funded by the Federal Energy Technology Center of the U.S. Department of Energy, and performed by the Center for Photonics Technology of the Bradley Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering at Virginia Tech. The outcome of the first phase of this program was the selection of broadband polarimetric differential interferometry (BPDI) for further prototype instrumentation development. This approach is based on the measurement of the optical path difference (OPD) between two orthogonally polarized light beams in a single-crystal sapphire disk. The objective of this program is to bring the BPDI sensor technology, which has already been demonstrated in the laboratory, to a level where the sensor can be deployed in the harsh industrial environments and will become commercially viable. Research efforts were focused on evaluating corrosion effects in single crystal sapphire at temperatures up to 1400 C, and designing the sensor mechanical packaging with input from Wabash River Power Plant. Upcoming meetings will establish details for the gasifier field test.

  14. ON-LINE SELF-CALIBRATING SINGLE CRYSTAL SAPPHIRE OPTICAL SENSOR INSTRUMENTATION FOR ACCURATE AND RELIABLE COAL GASIFIER TEMPERATURE MEASUREMENT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kristie Cooper; Gary Pickrell; Anbo Wang; Zhengyu Huang

    2004-04-01

    This report summarizes technical progress over the third six month period of the Phase II program ''On-Line Self-Calibrating Single Crystal Sapphire Optical Sensor Instrumentation for Accurate and Reliable Coal Gasifier Temperature Measurement'', funded by the Federal Energy Technology Center of the U.S. Department of Energy, and performed by the Center for Photonics Technology of the Bradley Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering at Virginia Tech. The outcome of the first phase of this program was the selection of broadband polarimetric differential interferometry (BPDI) for further prototype instrumentation development. This approach is based on the measurement of the optical path difference (OPD) between two orthogonally polarized light beams in a single-crystal sapphire disk. The objective of this program is to bring the BPDI sensor technology, which has already been demonstrated in the laboratory, to a level where the sensor can be deployed in the harsh industrial environments and will become commercially viable. Research efforts were focused on sensor probe design and machining, sensor electronics design, software algorithm design, sensor field installation procedures, and sensor remote data access and control. Field testing will begin in the next several weeks.

  15. ON-LINE SELF-CALIBRATING SINGLE CRYSTAL SAPPHIRE OPTICAL SENSOR INSTRUMENTATION FOR ACCURATE AND RELIABLE COAL GASIFIER TEMPERATURE MEASUREMENT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kristie Cooper; Gary Pickrell; Anbo Wang

    2003-04-01

    This report summarizes technical progress over the first six months of the Phase II program ''On-Line Self-Calibrating Single Crystal Sapphire Optical Sensor Instrumentation for Accurate and Reliable Coal Gasifier Temperature Measurement'', funded by the Federal Energy Technology Center of the U.S. Department of Energy, and performed by the Center for Photonics Technology of the Bradley Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering at Virginia Tech. The outcome of the first phase of this program was the selection of broadband polarimetric differential interferometry (BPDI) for further prototype instrumentation development. This approach is based on the measurement of the optical path difference (OPD) between two orthogonally polarized light beams in a single-crystal sapphire disk. The objective of this program is to bring the BPDI sensor technology, which has already been demonstrated in the laboratory, to a level where the sensor can be deployed in the harsh industrial environments and will become commercially viable. Research efforts were focused on analyzing and testing factors that impact performance degradation of the initially designed sensor prototype, including sensing element movement within the sensing probe and optical signal quality degradation. Based these results, a new version of the sensing system was designed by combining the sapphire disk sensing element and the single crystal zirconia right angle light reflector into one novel single crystal sapphire right angle prism. The new sensor prototype was tested up to 1650 C.

  16. 精确水尺计量技巧探讨%Accurate Measurement Techniques and Discussion about Draft

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭广正; 于照世

    2011-01-01

    Draught survey is a method by using ship load and unload goods of draft to calculate the weight change unloaded.Although in the account heavy on precision is rougher,the method is simple,and saves time and effort,and it is widely applicable to the lower value of bulk for weight.So how to put the draft for more accurate measurement of some? We'll look at some of the measurement techniques.%水尺计重(Draught survey)是利用船舶装卸货物的水尺变化来计算载货重量的一种方法。虽然在计重精度上是较粗略的,但方法简便,省时省力,因此广泛适用于价值较低的大宗散货的计重。把水尺计量作得更精确一些,计量中就需要一些技巧。

  17. A novel method to predict visual field progression more accurately, using intraocular pressure measurements in glaucoma patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asaoka, Ryo; Fujino, Yuri; Murata, Hiroshi; Miki, Atsuya; Tanito, Masaki; Mizoue, Shiro; Mori, Kazuhiko; Suzuki, Katsuyoshi; Yamashita, Takehiro; Kashiwagi, Kenji; Shoji, Nobuyuki

    2016-01-01

    Visual field (VF) data were retrospectively obtained from 491 eyes in 317 patients with open angle glaucoma who had undergone ten VF tests (Humphrey Field Analyzer, 24-2, SITA standard). First, mean of total deviation values (mTD) in the tenth VF was predicted using standard linear regression of the first five VFs (VF1-5) through to using all nine preceding VFs (VF1-9). Then an ‘intraocular pressure (IOP)-integrated VF trend analysis’ was carried out by simply using time multiplied by IOP as the independent term in the linear regression model. Prediction errors (absolute prediction error or root mean squared error: RMSE) for predicting mTD and also point wise TD values of the tenth VF were obtained from both approaches. The mTD absolute prediction errors associated with the IOP-integrated VF trend analysis were significantly smaller than those from the standard trend analysis when VF1-6 through to VF1-8 were used (p < 0.05). The point wise RMSEs from the IOP-integrated trend analysis were significantly smaller than those from the standard trend analysis when VF1-5 through to VF1-9 were used (p < 0.05). This was especially the case when IOP was measured more frequently. Thus a significantly more accurate prediction of VF progression is possible using a simple trend analysis that incorporates IOP measurements. PMID:27562553

  18. On-Line Self-Calibrating Single Crystal Sapphire Optical Sensor Instrumentation for Accurate and Reliable Coal Gasifier Temperature Measurement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kristie Cooper; Anbo Wang

    2007-03-31

    This report summarizes technical progress October 2006 - March 2007 on the Phase II program ''On-Line Self-Calibrating Single Crystal Sapphire Optical Sensor Instrumentation for Accurate and Reliable Coal Gasifier Temperature Measurement'', funded by the Federal Energy Technology Center of the U.S. Department of Energy, and performed by the Center for Photonics Technology of the Bradley Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering at Virginia Tech. The outcome of the first phase of this program was the selection of broadband polarimetric differential interferometry (BPDI) for further prototype instrumentation development. This approach is based on the measurement of the optical path difference (OPD) between two orthogonally polarized light beams in a single-crystal sapphire disk. During the second phase, an alternative high temperature sensing system based on Fabry-Perot interferometry was developed that offers a number of advantages over the BPDI solution. The objective of this program is to bring the sensor technology, which has already been demonstrated in the laboratory, to a level where the sensor can be deployed in the harsh industrial environments and will become commercially viable. The sapphire wafer-based interferometric sensing system that was installed at TECO's Polk Power Station remained in operation for seven months. Our efforts have been focused on monitoring and analyzing the real-time data collected, and preparing for a second field test.

  19. ON-LINE SELF-CALIBRATING SINGLE CRYSTAL SAPPHIRE OPTICAL SENSOR INSTRUMENTATION FOR ACCURATE AND RELIABLE COAL GASIFIER TEMPERATURE MEASUREMENT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kristie Cooper; Gary Pickrell; Anbo Wang; Zhengyu Huang; Yizheng Zhu

    2005-04-01

    This report summarizes technical progress October 2004-March 2005 on the Phase II program ''On-Line Self-Calibrating Single Crystal Sapphire Optical Sensor Instrumentation for Accurate and Reliable Coal Gasifier Temperature Measurement'', funded by the Federal Energy Technology Center of the U.S. Department of Energy, and performed by the Center for Photonics Technology of the Bradley Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering at Virginia Tech. The outcome of the first phase of this program was the selection of broadband polarimetric differential interferometry (BPDI) for further prototype instrumentation development. This approach is based on the measurement of the optical path difference (OPD) between two orthogonally polarized light beams in a single-crystal sapphire disk. The objective of this program is to bring the BPDI sensor technology, which has already been demonstrated in the laboratory, to a level where the sensor can be deployed in the harsh industrial environments and will become commercially viable. Due to the difficulties described on the last report, field testing of the BPDI system has not continued to date. However, we have developed an alternative high temperature sensing solution, which is described in this report.

  20. Non-targeted screening for contaminants in paper and board food-contact materials using effect-directed analysis and accurate mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bengtström, Linda; Rosenmai, Anna Kjerstine; Trier, Xenia; Jensen, Lisbeth Krüger; Granby, Kit; Vinggaard, Anne Marie; Driffield, Malcolm; Højslev Petersen, Jens

    2016-06-01

    Due to large knowledge gaps in chemical composition and toxicological data for substances involved, paper and board food-contact materials (P&B FCM) have been emerging as a FCM type of particular concern for consumer safety. This study describes the development of a step-by-step strategy, including extraction, high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) fractionation, tentative identification of relevant substances and in vitro testing of selected tentatively identified substances. As a case study, we used two fractions from a recycled pizza box sample which exhibited aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) activity. These fractions were analysed by gas chromatography (GC) and ultra-HPLC (UHPLC) coupled to quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometers (QTOF MS) in order tentatively to identify substances. The elemental composition was determined for peaks above a threshold, and compared with entries in a commercial mass spectral library for GC-MS (GC-EI-QTOF MS) analysis and an in-house built library of accurate masses for substances known to be used in P&B packaging for UHPLC-QTOF analysis. Of 75 tentatively identified substances, 15 were initially selected for further testing in vitro; however, only seven were commercially available and subsequently tested in vitro and quantified. Of these seven, the identities of three pigments found in printing inks were confirmed by UHPLC tandem mass spectrometry (QqQ MS/MS). Two pigments had entries in the database, meaning that a material relevant accurate mass database can provide a fast tentative identification. Pure standards of the seven tentatively identified substances were tested in vitro but could not explain a significant proportion of the AhR-response in the extract. Targeted analyses of dioxins and PCBs, both well-known AhR agonists, was performed. However, the dioxins could explain approximately 3% of the activity observed in the pizza box extract indicating that some very AhR active substance(s) still remain to be

  1. Geoelectrical Measurement of Multi-Scale Mass Transfer Parameters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Day-Lewis, Frederick David [U.S. Geological Survey; Singha, Kamini [Colorado School of Mines; Johnson, Timothy C. [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory; Haggerty, Roy [Oregon State; Binley, Andrew [Lancaster University; Lane, John W. [US Geological Survey

    2014-11-25

    Mass transfer affects contaminant transport and is thought to control the efficiency of aquifer remediation at a number of sites within the Department of Energy (DOE) complex. An improved understanding of mass transfer is critical to meeting the enormous scientific and engineering challenges currently facing DOE. Informed design of site remedies and long-term stewardship of radionuclide-contaminated sites will require new cost-effective laboratory and field techniques to measure the parameters controlling mass transfer spatially and across a range of scales. In this project, we sought to capitalize on the geophysical signatures of mass transfer. Previous numerical modeling and pilot-scale field experiments suggested that mass transfer produces a geoelectrical signature—a hysteretic relation between sampled (mobile-domain) fluid conductivity and bulk (mobile + immobile) conductivity—over a range of scales relevant to aquifer remediation. In this work, we investigated the geoelectrical signature of mass transfer during tracer transport in a series of controlled experiments to determine the operation of controlling parameters, and also investigated the use of complex-resistivity (CR) as a means of quantifying mass transfer parameters in situ without tracer experiments. In an add-on component to our grant, we additionally considered nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) to help parse mobile from immobile porosities. Including the NMR component, our revised study objectives were to: 1. Develop and demonstrate geophysical approaches to measure mass-transfer parameters spatially and over a range of scales, including the combination of electrical resistivity monitoring, tracer tests, complex resistivity, nuclear magnetic resonance, and materials characterization; and 2. Provide mass-transfer estimates for improved understanding of contaminant fate and transport at DOE sites, such as uranium transport at the Hanford 300 Area. To achieve our objectives, we implemented a 3

  2. Mass Measurements of Isolated Objects from Space-based Microlensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Wei; Calchi Novati, S.; Gould, A.; Udalski, A.; Han, C.; Shvartzvald, Y.; Ranc, C.; Jørgensen, U. G.; Poleski, R.; Bozza, V.; Beichman, C.; Bryden, G.; Carey, S.; Gaudi, B. S.; Henderson, C. B.; Pogge, R. W.; Porritt, I.; Wibking, B.; Yee, J. C.; SPITZER Team; Pawlak, M.; Szymański, M. K.; Skowron, J.; Mróz, P.; Kozłowski, S.; Wyrzykowski, Ł.; Pietrukowicz, P.; Pietrzyński, G.; Soszyński, I.; Ulaczyk, K.; OGLE Group; Choi, J.-Y.; Park, H.; Jung, Y. K.; Shin, I.-G.; Albrow, M. D.; Park, B.-G.; Kim, S.-L.; Lee, C.-U.; Cha, S.-M.; Kim, D.-J.; Lee, Y.; KMTNET Group; Friedmann, M.; Kaspi, S.; Maoz, D.; WISE Group; Hundertmark, M.; Street, R. A.; Tsapras, Y.; Bramich, D. M.; Cassan, A.; Dominik, M.; Bachelet, E.; Dong, Subo; Figuera Jaimes, R.; Horne, K.; Mao, S.; Menzies, J.; Schmidt, R.; Snodgrass, C.; Steele, I. A.; Wambsganss, J.; RoboNeT Team; Skottfelt, J.; Andersen, M. I.; Burgdorf, M. J.; Ciceri, S.; D'Ago, G.; Evans, D. F.; Gu, S.-H.; Hinse, T. C.; Kerins, E.; Korhonen, H.; Kuffmeier, M.; Mancini, L.; Peixinho, N.; Popovas, A.; Rabus, M.; Rahvar, S.; Tronsgaard, R.; Scarpetta, G.; Southworth, J.; Surdej, J.; von Essen, C.; Wang, Y.-B.; Wertz, O.; MiNDSTEP Group

    2016-07-01

    We report on the mass and distance measurements of two single-lens events from the 2015 Spitzer microlensing campaign. With both finite-source effect and microlens parallax measurements, we find that the lens of OGLE-2015-BLG-1268 is very likely a brown dwarf (BD). Assuming that the source star lies behind the same amount of dust as the Bulge red clump, we find the lens is a 45 ± 7 {M}{{J}} BD at 5.9 ± 1.0 kpc. The lens of of the second event, OGLE-2015-BLG-0763, is a 0.50 ± 0.04 {M}ȯ star at 6.9 ± 1.0 kpc. We show that the probability to definitively measure the mass of isolated microlenses is dramatically increased once simultaneous ground- and space-based observations are conducted.

  3. Measurement of the Top Quark Mass at CDF II

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kovalev, Andrew N

    2003-11-01

    The authors describe a measurement of the top quark mass using events with two charged leptons collected by the CDF II Detector from p{bar p} collisions with {radical}s = 1.96 TeV at the Fermilab Tevatron. The posterior probability distribution of the top quark pole mass is calculated using the differential cross-section for the t{bar t} production and decay expressed with respect to observed leptons and jets momenta. The presence of background events in the collected sample is modeled using calculations of the differential cross-sections for major background processes. This measurement represents the first application of this method to events with two charged leptons. In a data sample with integrated luminosity of 340 pb{sup -1}, they observe 33 candidate events and measure M{sub top} = 165.2 {+-} 61.{sub stat} {+-} 3.4{sub syst} GeV/c{sup 2}.

  4. Mercury mass measurement in fluorescent lamps via neutron activation analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viererbl, L.; Vinš, M.; Lahodová, Z.; Fuksa, A.; Kučera, J.; Koleška, M.; Voljanskij, A.

    2015-11-01

    Mercury is an essential component of fluorescent lamps. Not all fluorescent lamps are recycled, resulting in contamination of the environment with toxic mercury, making measurement of the mercury mass used in fluorescent lamps important. Mercury mass measurement of lamps via instrumental neutron activation analysis (NAA) was tested under various conditions in the LVR-15 research reactor. Fluorescent lamps were irradiated in different positions in vertical irradiation channels and a horizontal channel in neutron fields with total fluence rates from 3×108 cm-2 s-1 to 1014 cm-2 s-1. The 202Hg(n,γ)203Hg nuclear reaction was used for mercury mass evaluation. Activities of 203Hg and others induced radionuclides were measured via gamma spectrometry with an HPGe detector at various times after irradiation. Standards containing an Hg2Cl2 compound were used to determine mercury mass. Problems arise from the presence of elements with a large effective cross section in luminescent material (europium, antimony and gadolinium) and glass (boron). The paper describes optimization of the NAA procedure in the LVR-15 research reactor with particular attention to influence of neutron self-absorption in fluorescent lamps.

  5. Measurement of the mass and width of the W boson

    CERN Document Server

    Abbiendi, G; Åkesson, P F; Alexander, G; Allison, J; Amaral, P; Anagnostou, G; Anderson, K J; Asai, S; Axen, D A; Bailey, I; Barberio, E; Barillari, T; Barlow, R J; Batley, J Richard; Bechtle, P; Behnke, T; Bell, K W; Bell, P J; Bella, G; Bellerive, A; Benelli, G; Bethke, Siegfried; Biebel, O; Boeriu, O; Bock, P; Boutemeur, M; Braibant, S; Brown, R M; Burckhart, H J; Campana, S; Carnegie, R K; Carter, A A; Carter, J R; Chang, C Y; Charlton, D G; Ciocca, C; Csilling, A; Cuffiani, M; Dado, S; de Roeck, A; De Wolf, E A; Desch, Klaus; Dienes, B; Donkers, M; Dubbert, J; Duchovni, E; Duckeck, G; Duerdoth, I P; Etzion, E; Fabbri, Franco Luigi; Fanfani, A; Ferrari, P; Fiedler, F; Fleck, I; Ford, M; Frey, A; Gagnon, P; Gary, J W; Geich-Gimbel, C; Giacomelli, G; Giacomelli, P; Giunta, M; Goldberg, J; Gross, E; Grunhaus, Jacob; Gruwé, M; Günther, P O; Sen-Gupta, A; Hajdu, C; Hamann, M; Hanson, G G; Harel, A; Hauschild, M; Hawkes, C M; Hawkings, R; Hemingway, R J; Herten, G; Heuer, R D; Hill, J C; Hoffman, K; Horváth, D; Igo-Kemenes, P; Ishii, K; Jeremie, H; Jovanovic, P; Junk, T R; Kanzaki, J; Karlen, Dean A; Kawagoe, K; Kawamoto, T; Keeler, R K; Kellogg, R G; Kennedy, B W; Kluth, S; Kobayashi, T; Kobel, M; Komamiya, S; Kramer, T; Krieger, P; Von Krogh, J; Kühl, T; Kupper, M; Lafferty, G D; Landsman, Hagar Yaël; Lanske, D; Lellouch, D; Letts, J; Levinson, L; Lillich, J; Lloyd, S L; Loebinger, F K; Lü, J; Ludwig, A; Ludwig, J; Mader, W; Marcellini, S; Martin, A J; Masetti, G; Mashimo, T; Mättig, P; McKenna, J A; McPherson, R A; Meijers, F; Menges, W; Merritt, F S; Mes, H; Meyer, N; Michelini, A; Mihara, S; Mikenberg, G; Miller, D J; Mohr, W; Montanari, A; Mori, T; Mutter, A; Nagai, K; Nakamura, I; Nanjo, H; Neal, H A; Nisius, R; O'Neale, S W; Oh, A; Oreglia, M J; Orito, S; Pahl, C; Pásztor, G; Pater, J R; Pilcher, J E; Pinfold, J L; Plane, D E; Pooth, O; Przybycien, M B; Quadt, A; Rabbertz, K; Rembser, C; Renkel, P; Roney, J M; Rozen, Y; Runge, K; Sachs, K; Saeki, T; Sarkisyan-Grinbaum, E; Schaile, A D; Schaile, O; Scharff-Hansen, P; Schieck, J; Schörner-Sadenius, T; Schröder, M; Schumacher, M; Seuster, R; Shears, T G; Shen, B C; Sherwood, P; Skuja, A; Smith, A M; Sobie, R J; Söldner-Rembold, S; Spanó, F; Stahl, A; Strom, D; Ströhmer, R; Tarem, S; Tasevsky, M; Teuscher, R; Thomson, M A; Torrence, E; Toya, D; Tran, P; Trigger, I; Trócsányi, Z L; Tsur, E; Turner-Watson, M F; Ueda, I; Ujvári, B; Vollmer, C F; Vannerem, P; Vertesi, R; Verzocchi, M; Voss, H; Vossebeld, Joost Herman; Ward, C P; Ward, D R; Watkins, P M; Watson, A T; Watson, N K; Wells, P S; Wengler, T; Wermes, N; Wilson, G W; Wilson, J A; Wolf, G; Wyatt, T R; Yamashita, S; Zer-Zion, D; Zivkovic, L

    2006-01-01

    The mass and width of the W boson are measured using e+e- -> W+W- events from the data sample collected by the OPAL experiment at LEP at centre-of-mass energies between 170 GeV and 209 GeV. The mass (mw) and width (gw) are determined using direct reconstruction of the kinematics of W+W- -> qqbarlv and W+W- -> qqbarqqbar events. When combined with previous OPAL measurements using W+W- -> lvlv events and the dependence on mw of the WW production cross-section at threshold, the results are determined to be mw = 80.415 +- 0.042 +- 0.030 +- 0.009 GeV gw = 1.996 +- 0.096 +- 0.102 +- 0.003 GeV where the first error is statistical, the second systematic and the third due to uncertainties in the value of the LEP beam energy. By measuring mw with several different jet algorithms in the qqbarqqbar channel, a limit is also obtained on possible final-state interactions due to colour reconnection effects in W+W- -> qqbarqqbar events. The consistency of the results for the W mass and width with those inferred from other ele...

  6. Measurement of the mass of the τ lepton

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The mass of the τ lepton has been measured at the Beijing Electron-Positron Collider using the Beijing Spectrometer. A search near threshold for e+e-→τ+τ- was performed. Candidate events were identified by requiring that one τ decay via τ→eν bar ν, and the other via τ→μν bar ν. The mass value, obtained from a fit to the energy dependence of the τ+τ- cross section, is mτ=1776.9-0.5+0.4±0.2 MeV

  7. Measuring neutrino mass with radioactive ions in a storage ring

    CERN Document Server

    Lindroos, Mats; Orme, Christopher; Schwetz, Thomas

    2009-01-01

    We propose a method to measure the neutrino mass kinematically using beams of ions which undergo beta decay. The idea is to tune the ion beam momentum so that in most decays, the electron is forward moving with respect to the beam, and only in decays near the endpoint is the electron moving backwards. Then, by counting the backward moving electrons one can observe the effect of neutrino mass on the beta spectrum close to the endpoint. In order to reach sensitivities for $m_\

  8. High-precision topography measurement through accurate in-focus plane detection with hybrid digital holographic microscope and white light interferometer module.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liżewski, Kamil; Tomczewski, Sławomir; Kozacki, Tomasz; Kostencka, Julianna

    2014-04-10

    High-precision topography measurement of micro-objects using interferometric and holographic techniques can be realized provided that the in-focus plane of an imaging system is very accurately determined. Therefore, in this paper we propose an accurate technique for in-focus plane determination, which is based on coherent and incoherent light. The proposed method consists of two major steps. First, a calibration of the imaging system with an amplitude object is performed with a common autofocusing method using coherent illumination, which allows for accurate localization of the in-focus plane position. In the second step, the position of the detected in-focus plane with respect to the imaging system is measured with white light interferometry. The obtained distance is used to accurately adjust a sample with the precision required for the measurement. The experimental validation of the proposed method is given for measurement of high-numerical-aperture microlenses with subwavelength accuracy.

  9. Mass transfer effects in hygroscopic measurements of aerosol particles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. N. Chan

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The tandem differential mobility analyzer (TDMA has been widely utilized to measure the hygroscopicity of laboratory-generated and atmospheric submicrometer particles. An important concern in investigating the hygroscopicity of the particles is if the particles have attained equilibrium state in the measurements. We present a literature survey to investigate the mass transfer effects in hygroscopicity measurements. In most TDMA studies, a residence time in the order of seconds is used for humidification (or dehumidification. NaCl and (NH42SO4 particles are usually used to verify the equilibrium measurements during this residence time, which is presumed to be sufficient for other particles. There have been observations that not all types of submicrometer particles, including atmospheric particles, attain their equilibrium sizes within this time scale. We recommend that experimentation with different residence times be conducted and that the residence time should be explicitly stated in future TDMA measurements. Mass transfer effects may also exist in the measurements of other properties related to the water uptake of atmospheric particles such as relative humidity dependent light scattering coefficients and cloud condensation nuclei activity.

  10. Measurement of the mass difference between top and antitop quarks

    CERN Document Server

    Chatrchyan, Serguei; Sirunyan, Albert M; Tumasyan, Armen; Adam, Wolfgang; Bergauer, Thomas; Dragicevic, Marko; Erö, Janos; Fabjan, Christian; Friedl, Markus; Fruehwirth, Rudolf; Ghete, Vasile Mihai; Hammer, Josef; Hörmann, Natascha; Hrubec, Josef; Jeitler, Manfred; Kiesenhofer, Wolfgang; Krammer, Manfred; Liko, Dietrich; Mikulec, Ivan; Pernicka, Manfred; Rahbaran, Babak; Rohringer, Christine; Rohringer, Herbert; Schöfbeck, Robert; Strauss, Josef; Taurok, Anton; Teischinger, Florian; Wagner, Philipp; Waltenberger, Wolfgang; Walzel, Gerhard; Widl, Edmund; Wulz, Claudia-Elisabeth; Mossolov, Vladimir; Shumeiko, Nikolai; Suarez Gonzalez, Juan; Bansal, Sunil; Cerny, Karel; Cornelis, Tom; De Wolf, Eddi A; Janssen, Xavier; Luyckx, Sten; Maes, Thomas; Mucibello, Luca; Ochesanu, Silvia; Roland, Benoit; Rougny, Romain; Selvaggi, Michele; Van Haevermaet, Hans; Van Mechelen, Pierre; Van Remortel, Nick; Van Spilbeeck, Alex; Blekman, Freya; Blyweert, Stijn; D'Hondt, Jorgen; Gonzalez Suarez, Rebeca; Kalogeropoulos, Alexis; Maes, Michael; Olbrechts, Annik; Van Doninck, Walter; Van Mulders, Petra; Van Onsem, Gerrit Patrick; Villella, Ilaria; Charaf, Otman; Clerbaux, Barbara; De Lentdecker, Gilles; Dero, Vincent; Gay, Arnaud; Hreus, Tomas; Léonard, Alexandre; Marage, Pierre Edouard; Reis, Thomas; Thomas, Laurent; Vander Velde, Catherine; Vanlaer, Pascal; Adler, Volker; Beernaert, Kelly; Cimmino, Anna; Costantini, Silvia; Garcia, Guillaume; Grunewald, Martin; Klein, Benjamin; Lellouch, Jérémie; Marinov, Andrey; Mccartin, Joseph; Ocampo Rios, Alberto Andres; Ryckbosch, Dirk; Strobbe, Nadja; Thyssen, Filip; Tytgat, Michael; Vanelderen, Lukas; Verwilligen, Piet; Walsh, Sinead; Yazgan, Efe; Zaganidis, Nicolas; Basegmez, Suzan; Bruno, Giacomo; Ceard, Ludivine; Delaere, Christophe; Du Pree, Tristan; Favart, Denis; Forthomme, Laurent; Giammanco, Andrea; Hollar, Jonathan; Lemaitre, Vincent; Liao, Junhui; Militaru, Otilia; Nuttens, Claude; Pagano, Davide; Pin, Arnaud; Piotrzkowski, Krzysztof; 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Müntel, Mait; Raidal, Martti; Rebane, Liis; Tiko, Andres; Azzolini, Virginia; Eerola, Paula; Fedi, Giacomo; Voutilainen, Mikko; Härkönen, Jaakko; Heikkinen, Mika Aatos; Karimäki, Veikko; Kinnunen, Ritva; Kortelainen, Matti J; Lampén, Tapio; Lassila-Perini, Kati; Lehti, Sami; Lindén, Tomas; Luukka, Panja-Riina; Mäenpää, Teppo; Peltola, Timo; Tuominen, Eija; Tuominiemi, Jorma; Tuovinen, Esa; Ungaro, Donatella; Wendland, Lauri; Banzuzi, Kukka; Korpela, Arja; Tuuva, Tuure; Besancon, Marc; Choudhury, Somnath; Dejardin, Marc; Denegri, Daniel; Fabbro, Bernard; Faure, Jean-Louis; Ferri, Federico; Ganjour, Serguei; Givernaud, Alain; Gras, Philippe; Hamel de Monchenault, Gautier; Jarry, Patrick; Locci, Elizabeth; Malcles, Julie; Millischer, Laurent; Nayak, Aruna; Rander, John; Rosowsky, André; Shreyber, Irina; Titov, Maksym; Baffioni, Stephanie; Beaudette, Florian; Benhabib, Lamia; Bianchini, Lorenzo; Bluj, Michal; Broutin, Clementine; Busson, Philippe; Charlot, Claude; Daci, Nadir; Dahms, Torsten; Dobrzynski, Ludwik; Granier de Cassagnac, Raphael; Haguenauer, Maurice; Miné, Philippe; Mironov, Camelia; Ochando, Christophe; Paganini, Pascal; Sabes, David; Salerno, Roberto; Sirois, Yves; Veelken, Christian; Zabi, Alexandre; Agram, Jean-Laurent; Andrea, Jeremy; Bloch, Daniel; Bodin, David; Brom, Jean-Marie; Cardaci, Marco; Chabert, Eric Christian; Collard, Caroline; Conte, Eric; Drouhin, Frédéric; Ferro, Cristina; Fontaine, Jean-Charles; Gelé, Denis; Goerlach, Ulrich; Juillot, Pierre; Karim, Mehdi; Le Bihan, Anne-Catherine; Van Hove, Pierre; Fassi, Farida; Mercier, Damien; Beauceron, Stephanie; Beaupere, Nicolas; Bondu, Olivier; Boudoul, Gaelle; Brun, Hugues; Chasserat, Julien; Chierici, Roberto; Contardo, Didier; Depasse, Pierre; El Mamouni, Houmani; Fay, Jean; Gascon, Susan; Gouzevitch, Maxime; Ille, Bernard; Kurca, Tibor; Lethuillier, Morgan; Mirabito, Laurent; Perries, Stephane; Sordini, Viola; Tosi, Silvano; Tschudi, Yohann; Verdier, Patrice; Viret, Sébastien; Tsamalaidze, Zviad; 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Szillasi, Zoltan; Karancsi, János; Raics, Peter; Trocsanyi, Zoltan Laszlo; Ujvari, Balazs; Beri, Suman Bala; Bhatnagar, Vipin; Dhingra, Nitish; Gupta, Ruchi; Jindal, Monika; Kaur, Manjit; Kohli, Jatinder Mohan; Mehta, Manuk Zubin; Nishu, Nishu; Saini, Lovedeep Kaur; Sharma, Archana; Singh, Jasbir; Singh, Supreet Pal; Ahuja, Sudha; Bhardwaj, Ashutosh; Choudhary, Brajesh C; Kumar, Ashok; Kumar, Arun; Malhotra, Shivali; Naimuddin, Md; Ranjan, Kirti; Sharma, Varun; Shivpuri, Ram Krishen; Banerjee, Sunanda; Bhattacharya, Satyaki; Dutta, Suchandra; Gomber, Bhawna; Jain, Sandhya; Jain, Shilpi; Khurana, Raman; Sarkar, Subir; Abdulsalam, Abdulla; Choudhury, Rajani Kant; Dutta, Dipanwita; Kailas, Swaminathan; Kumar, Vineet; Mohanty, Ajit Kumar; Pant, Lalit Mohan; Shukla, Prashant; Aziz, Tariq; Ganguly, Sanmay; Guchait, Monoranjan; Gurtu, Atul; Maity, Manas; Majumder, Gobinda; Mazumdar, Kajari; Mohanty, Gagan Bihari; Parida, Bibhuti; Sudhakar, Katta; Wickramage, Nadeesha; Banerjee, Sudeshna; Dugad, Shashikant; 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Marcellini, Stefano; Masetti, Gianni; Meneghelli, Marco; Montanari, Alessandro; Navarria, Francesco; Odorici, Fabrizio; Perrotta, Andrea; Primavera, Federica; Rossi, Antonio; Rovelli, Tiziano; Siroli, Gianni; Travaglini, Riccardo; Albergo, Sebastiano; Cappello, Gigi; Chiorboli, Massimiliano; Costa, Salvatore; Potenza, Renato; Tricomi, Alessia; Tuve, Cristina; Barbagli, Giuseppe; Ciulli, Vitaliano; Civinini, Carlo; D'Alessandro, Raffaello; Focardi, Ettore; Frosali, Simone; Gallo, Elisabetta; Gonzi, Sandro; Meschini, Marco; Paoletti, Simone; Sguazzoni, Giacomo; Tropiano, Antonio; Benussi, Luigi; Bianco, Stefano; Colafranceschi, Stefano; Fabbri, Franco; Piccolo, Davide; Fabbricatore, Pasquale; Musenich, Riccardo; Benaglia, Andrea; De Guio, Federico; Di Matteo, Leonardo; Fiorendi, Sara; Gennai, Simone; Ghezzi, Alessio; Malvezzi, Sandra; Manzoni, Riccardo Andrea; Martelli, Arabella; Massironi, Andrea; Menasce, Dario; Moroni, Luigi; Paganoni, Marco; Pedrini, Daniele; Ragazzi, Stefano; Redaelli, Nicola; Sala, Silvano; Tabarelli de Fatis, Tommaso; Buontempo, Salvatore; Carrillo Montoya, Camilo Andres; Cavallo, Nicola; De Cosa, Annapaola; Dogangun, Oktay; Fabozzi, Francesco; Iorio, Alberto Orso Maria; Lista, Luca; Meola, Sabino; Merola, Mario; Paolucci, Pierluigi; Azzi, Patrizia; Bacchetta, Nicola; Bellan, Paolo; Bisello, Dario; Branca, Antonio; Carlin, Roberto; Checchia, Paolo; Dorigo, Tommaso; Gasparini, Fabrizio; Gozzelino, Andrea; Kanishchev, Konstantin; Lacaprara, Stefano; Lazzizzera, Ignazio; Margoni, Martino; Meneguzzo, Anna Teresa; Nespolo, Massimo; Perrozzi, Luca; Pozzobon, Nicola; Ronchese, Paolo; Simonetto, Franco; Torassa, Ezio; Tosi, Mia; Vanini, Sara; Zotto, Pierluigi; Zumerle, Gianni; Gabusi, Michele; Ratti, Sergio P; Riccardi, Cristina; Torre, Paola; Vitulo, Paolo; Bilei, Gian Mario; Fanò, Livio; Lariccia, Paolo; Lucaroni, Andrea; Mantovani, Giancarlo; Menichelli, Mauro; Nappi, Aniello; Romeo, Francesco; Saha, Anirban; Santocchia, Attilio; Taroni, Silvia; Azzurri, Paolo; Bagliesi, Giuseppe; Boccali, Tommaso; Broccolo, Giuseppe; Castaldi, Rino; D'Agnolo, Raffaele Tito; Dell'Orso, Roberto; Fiori, Francesco; Foà, Lorenzo; Giassi, Alessandro; Kraan, Aafke; Ligabue, Franco; Lomtadze, Teimuraz; Martini, Luca; Messineo, Alberto; Palla, Fabrizio; Palmonari, Francesco; Rizzi, Andrea; Serban, Alin Titus; Spagnolo, Paolo; Squillacioti, Paola; Tenchini, Roberto; Tonelli, Guido; Venturi, Andrea; Verdini, Piero Giorgio; Barone, Luciano; Cavallari, Francesca; Del Re, Daniele; Diemoz, Marcella; Fanelli, Cristiano; Grassi, Marco; Longo, Egidio; Meridiani, Paolo; Micheli, Francesco; Nourbakhsh, Shervin; Organtini, Giovanni; Pandolfi, Francesco; Paramatti, Riccardo; Rahatlou, Shahram; Sigamani, Michael; Soffi, Livia; Amapane, Nicola; Arcidiacono, Roberta; Argiro, Stefano; Arneodo, Michele; Biino, Cristina; Botta, Cristina; Cartiglia, Nicolo; Castello, Roberto; Costa, Marco; Demaria, Natale; Graziano, Alberto; Mariotti, Chiara; Maselli, Silvia; Migliore, Ernesto; Monaco, Vincenzo; Musich, Marco; Obertino, Maria Margherita; Pastrone, Nadia; Pelliccioni, Mario; Potenza, Alberto; Romero, Alessandra; Ruspa, Marta; Sacchi, Roberto; Solano, Ada; Staiano, Amedeo; Vilela Pereira, Antonio; Visca, Lorenzo; Belforte, Stefano; Cossutti, Fabio; Della Ricca, Giuseppe; Gobbo, Benigno; Marone, Matteo; Montanino, Damiana; Penzo, Aldo; Schizzi, Andrea; Heo, Seong Gu; Kim, Tae Yeon; Nam, Soon-Kwon; Chang, Sunghyun; Chung, Jin Hyuk; Kim, Dong Hee; Kim, Gui Nyun; Kong, Dae Jung; Park, Hyangkyu; Ro, Sang-Ryul; Son, Dong-Chul; Son, Taejin; Kim, Jae Yool; Kim, Zero Jaeho; Song, Sanghyeon; Jo, Hyun Yong; Choi, Suyong; Gyun, Dooyeon; Hong, Byung-Sik; Jo, Mihee; Kim, Hyunchul; Kim, Tae Jeong; Lee, Kyong Sei; Moon, Dong Ho; Park, Sung Keun; Seo, Eunsung; Choi, Minkyoo; Kang, Seokon; Kim, Hyunyong; Kim, Ji Hyun; Park, Chawon; Park, Inkyu; Park, Sangnam; Ryu, Geonmo; Cho, Yongjin; Choi, Young-Il; Choi, Young Kyu; Goh, Junghwan; Kim, Min Suk; Kwon, Eunhyang; Lee, Byounghoon; Lee, Jongseok; Lee, Sungeun; Seo, Hyunkwan; Yu, Intae; Bilinskas, Mykolas Jurgis; Grigelionis, Ignas; Janulis, Mindaugas; Juodagalvis, Andrius; Castilla-Valdez, Heriberto; De La Cruz-Burelo, Eduard; Heredia-de La Cruz, Ivan; Lopez-Fernandez, Ricardo; Magaña Villalba, Ricardo; Martínez-Ortega, Jorge; Sánchez-Hernández, Alberto; Villasenor-Cendejas, Luis Manuel; Carrillo Moreno, Salvador; Vazquez Valencia, Fabiola; Salazar Ibarguen, Humberto Antonio; Casimiro Linares, Edgar; Morelos Pineda, Antonio; Reyes-Santos, Marco A; Krofcheck, David; Bell, Alan James; Butler, Philip H; Doesburg, Robert; Reucroft, Steve; Silverwood, Hamish; Ahmad, Muhammad; Asghar, Muhammad Irfan; Hoorani, Hafeez R; Khalid, Shoaib; Khan, Wajid Ali; Khurshid, Taimoor; Qazi, Shamona; Shah, Mehar Ali; Shoaib, Muhammad; Brona, Grzegorz; Bunkowski, Karol; Cwiok, Mikolaj; Dominik, Wojciech; Doroba, Krzysztof; Kalinowski, Artur; Konecki, Marcin; Krolikowski, Jan; Bialkowska, Helena; Boimska, Bozena; Frueboes, Tomasz; Gokieli, Ryszard; Górski, Maciej; Kazana, Malgorzata; Nawrocki, Krzysztof; Romanowska-Rybinska, Katarzyna; Szleper, Michal; Wrochna, Grzegorz; Zalewski, Piotr; Almeida, Nuno; Bargassa, Pedrame; David Tinoco Mendes, Andre; Faccioli, Pietro; Ferreira Parracho, Pedro Guilherme; Gallinaro, Michele; Musella, Pasquale; Seixas, Joao; Varela, Joao; Vischia, Pietro; Belotelov, Ivan; Bunin, Pavel; Gavrilenko, Mikhail; Golutvin, Igor; Gorbunov, Ilya; Kamenev, Alexey; Karjavin, Vladimir; Kozlov, Guennady; Lanev, Alexander; Malakhov, Alexander; Moisenz, Petr; Palichik, Vladimir; Perelygin, Victor; Shmatov, Sergey; Smirnov, Vitaly; Volodko, Anton; Zarubin, Anatoli; Evstyukhin, Sergey; Golovtsov, Victor; Ivanov, Yury; Kim, Victor; Levchenko, Petr; Murzin, Victor; Oreshkin, Vadim; Smirnov, Igor; Sulimov, Valentin; Uvarov, Lev; Vavilov, Sergey; Vorobyev, Alexey; Vorobyev, Andrey; Andreev, Yuri; Dermenev, Alexander; Gninenko, Sergei; Golubev, Nikolai; Kirsanov, Mikhail; Krasnikov, Nikolai; Matveev, Viktor; Pashenkov, Anatoli; Tlisov, Danila; Toropin, Alexander; Epshteyn, Vladimir; Erofeeva, Maria; Gavrilov, Vladimir; Kossov, Mikhail; Lychkovskaya, Natalia; Popov, Vladimir; Safronov, Grigory; Semenov, Sergey; Stolin, Viatcheslav; Vlasov, Evgueni; Zhokin, Alexander; Belyaev, Andrey; Boos, Edouard; Bunichev, Viacheslav; Dubinin, Mikhail; Dudko, Lev; Gribushin, Andrey; Klyukhin, Vyacheslav; Kodolova, Olga; Lokhtin, Igor; Markina, Anastasia; Obraztsov, Stepan; Perfilov, Maxim; Petrushanko, Sergey; Popov, Andrey; Sarycheva, Ludmila; Savrin, Viktor; Andreev, Vladimir; Azarkin, Maksim; Dremin, Igor; Kirakosyan, Martin; Leonidov, Andrey; Mesyats, Gennady; Rusakov, Sergey V; Vinogradov, Alexey; Azhgirey, Igor; Bayshev, Igor; Bitioukov, Sergei; Grishin, Viatcheslav; Kachanov, Vassili; Konstantinov, Dmitri; Korablev, Andrey; Krychkine, Victor; Petrov, Vladimir; Ryutin, Roman; Sobol, Andrei; Tourtchanovitch, Leonid; Troshin, Sergey; Tyurin, Nikolay; Uzunian, Andrey; Volkov, Alexey; Adzic, Petar; Djordjevic, Milos; Ekmedzic, Marko; Krpic, Dragomir; Milosevic, Jovan; Aguilar-Benitez, Manuel; Alcaraz Maestre, Juan; Arce, Pedro; Battilana, Carlo; Calvo, Enrique; Cerrada, Marcos; Chamizo Llatas, Maria; Colino, Nicanor; De La Cruz, Begona; Delgado Peris, Antonio; Diez Pardos, Carmen; Domínguez Vázquez, Daniel; Fernandez Bedoya, Cristina; Fernández Ramos, Juan Pablo; Ferrando, Antonio; Flix, Jose; Fouz, Maria Cruz; Garcia-Abia, Pablo; Gonzalez Lopez, Oscar; Goy Lopez, Silvia; Hernandez, Jose M; Josa, Maria Isabel; Merino, Gonzalo; Puerta Pelayo, Jesus; Quintario Olmeda, Adrián; Redondo, Ignacio; Romero, Luciano; Santaolalla, Javier; Soares, Mara Senghi; Willmott, Carlos; Albajar, Carmen; Codispoti, Giuseppe; de Trocóniz, Jorge F; Cuevas, Javier; Fernandez Menendez, Javier; Folgueras, Santiago; Gonzalez Caballero, Isidro; Lloret Iglesias, Lara; Piedra Gomez, Jonatan; Vizan Garcia, Jesus Manuel; Brochero Cifuentes, Javier Andres; Cabrillo, Iban Jose; Calderon, Alicia; Chuang, Shan-Huei; Duarte Campderros, Jordi; Felcini, Marta; Fernandez, Marcos; Gomez, Gervasio; Gonzalez Sanchez, Javier; Jorda, Clara; Lobelle Pardo, Patricia; Lopez Virto, Amparo; Marco, Jesus; Marco, Rafael; Martinez Rivero, Celso; Matorras, Francisco; Munoz Sanchez, Francisca Javiela; Rodrigo, Teresa; Rodríguez-Marrero, Ana Yaiza; Ruiz-Jimeno, Alberto; Scodellaro, Luca; Sobron Sanudo, Mar; Vila, Ivan; Vilar Cortabitarte, Rocio; Abbaneo, Duccio; Auffray, Etiennette; Auzinger, Georg; Baillon, Paul; Ball, Austin; Barney, David; Bernet, Colin; Bianchi, Giovanni; Bloch, Philippe; Bocci, Andrea; Bonato, Alessio; Breuker, Horst; Camporesi, Tiziano; Cerminara, Gianluca; Christiansen, Tim; Coarasa Perez, Jose Antonio; D'Enterria, David; De Roeck, Albert; Di Guida, Salvatore; Dobson, Marc; Dupont-Sagorin, Niels; Elliott-Peisert, Anna; Frisch, Benjamin; Funk, Wolfgang; Georgiou, Georgios; Giffels, Manuel; Gigi, Dominique; Gill, Karl; Giordano, Domenico; Giunta, Marina; Glege, Frank; Gomez-Reino Garrido, Robert; Govoni, Pietro; Gowdy, Stephen; Guida, Roberto; Hansen, Magnus; Harris, Philip; Hartl, Christian; Harvey, John; Hegner, Benedikt; Hinzmann, Andreas; Innocente, Vincenzo; Janot, Patrick; Kaadze, Ketino; Karavakis, Edward; Kousouris, Konstantinos; Lecoq, Paul; Lenzi, Piergiulio; Lourenco, Carlos; Maki, Tuula; Malberti, Martina; Malgeri, Luca; Mannelli, Marcello; Masetti, Lorenzo; Meijers, Frans; Mersi, Stefano; Meschi, Emilio; Moser, Roland; Mozer, Matthias Ulrich; Mulders, Martijn; Nesvold, Erik; Nguyen, Matthew; Orimoto, Toyoko; Orsini, Luciano; Palencia Cortezon, Enrique; Perez, Emmanuelle; Petrilli, Achille; Pfeiffer, Andreas; Pierini, Maurizio; Pimiä, Martti; Piparo, Danilo; Polese, Giovanni; Quertenmont, Loic; Racz, Attila; Reece, William; Rodrigues Antunes, Joao; Rolandi, Gigi; Rommerskirchen, Tanja; Rovelli, Chiara; Rovere, Marco; Sakulin, Hannes; Santanastasio, Francesco; Schäfer, Christoph; Schwick, Christoph; Segoni, Ilaria; Sekmen, Sezen; Sharma, Archana; Siegrist, Patrice; Silva, Pedro; Simon, Michal; Sphicas, Paraskevas; Spiga, Daniele; Spiropulu, Maria; Stoye, Markus; Tsirou, Andromachi; Veres, Gabor Istvan; Vlimant, Jean-Roch; Wöhri, Hermine Katharina; Worm, Steven; Zeuner, Wolfram Dietrich; Bertl, Willi; Deiters, Konrad; Erdmann, Wolfram; Gabathuler, Kurt; Horisberger, Roland; Ingram, Quentin; Kaestli, Hans-Christian; König, Stefan; Kotlinski, Danek; Langenegger, Urs; Meier, Frank; Renker, Dieter; Rohe, Tilman; Sibille, Jennifer; Bäni, Lukas; Bortignon, Pierluigi; Buchmann, Marco-Andrea; Casal, Bruno; Chanon, Nicolas; Chen, Zhiling; Deisher, Amanda; Dissertori, Günther; Dittmar, Michael; Dünser, Marc; Eugster, Jürg; Freudenreich, Klaus; Grab, Christoph; Lecomte, Pierre; Lustermann, Werner; Marini, Andrea Carlo; Martinez Ruiz del Arbol, Pablo; Mohr, Niklas; Moortgat, Filip; Nägeli, Christoph; Nef, Pascal; Nessi-Tedaldi, Francesca; Pape, Luc; Pauss, Felicitas; Peruzzi, Marco; Ronga, Frederic Jean; Rossini, Marco; Sala, Leonardo; Sanchez, Ann - Karin; Starodumov, Andrei; Stieger, Benjamin; Takahashi, Maiko; Tauscher, Ludwig; Thea, Alessandro; Theofilatos, Konstantinos; Treille, Daniel; Urscheler, Christina; Wallny, Rainer; Weber, Hannsjoerg Artur; Wehrli, Lukas; Aguilo, Ernest; Amsler, Claude; Chiochia, Vincenzo; De Visscher, Simon; Favaro, Carlotta; Ivova Rikova, Mirena; Millan Mejias, Barbara; Otiougova, Polina; Robmann, Peter; Snoek, Hella; Tupputi, Salvatore; Verzetti, Mauro; Chang, Yuan-Hann; Chen, Kuan-Hsin; Go, Apollo; Kuo, Chia-Ming; Li, Syue-Wei; Lin, Willis; Liu, Zong-Kai; Lu, Yun-Ju; Mekterovic, Darko; Singh, Anil; Volpe, Roberta; Yu, Shin-Shan; Bartalini, Paolo; Chang, Paoti; Chang, You-Hao; Chang, Yu-Wei; Chao, Yuan; Chen, Kai-Feng; Dietz, Charles; Grundler, Ulysses; Hou, George Wei-Shu; Hsiung, Yee; Kao, Kai-Yi; Lei, Yeong-Jyi; Lu, Rong-Shyang; Majumder, Devdatta; Petrakou, Eleni; Shi, Xin; Shiu, Jing-Ge; Tzeng, Yeng-Ming; Wang, Minzu; Adiguzel, Aytul; Bakirci, Mustafa Numan; Cerci, Salim; Dozen, Candan; Dumanoglu, Isa; Eskut, Eda; Girgis, Semiray; Gokbulut, Gul; Hos, Ilknur; Kangal, Evrim Ersin; Karapinar, Guler; Kayis Topaksu, Aysel; Onengut, Gulsen; Ozdemir, Kadri; Ozturk, Sertac; Polatoz, Ayse; Sogut, Kenan; Sunar Cerci, Deniz; Tali, Bayram; Topakli, Huseyin; Vergili, Latife Nukhet; Vergili, Mehmet; Akin, Ilina Vasileva; Aliev, Takhmasib; Bilin, Bugra; Bilmis, Selcuk; Deniz, Muhammed; Gamsizkan, Halil; Guler, Ali Murat; Ocalan, Kadir; Ozpineci, Altug; Serin, Meltem; Sever, Ramazan; Surat, Ugur Emrah; Yalvac, Metin; Yildirim, Eda; Zeyrek, Mehmet; Deliomeroglu, Mehmet; Gülmez, Erhan; Isildak, Bora; Kaya, Mithat; Kaya, Ozlem; Ozkorucuklu, Suat; Sonmez, Nasuf; Cankocak, Kerem; Levchuk, Leonid; Bostock, Francis; Brooke, James John; Clement, Emyr; Cussans, David; Flacher, Henning; Frazier, Robert; Goldstein, Joel; Grimes, Mark; Heath, Greg P; Heath, Helen F; Kreczko, Lukasz; Metson, Simon; Newbold, Dave M; Nirunpong, Kachanon; Poll, Anthony; Senkin, Sergey; Smith, Vincent J; Williams, Thomas; Basso, Lorenzo; Bell, Ken W; Belyaev, Alexander; Brew, Christopher; Brown, Robert M; Cockerill, David JA; Coughlan, John A; Harder, Kristian; Harper, Sam; Jackson, James; Kennedy, Bruce W; Olaiya, Emmanuel; Petyt, David; Radburn-Smith, Benjamin Charles; Shepherd-Themistocleous, Claire; Tomalin, Ian R; Womersley, William John; Bainbridge, Robert; Ball, Gordon; Beuselinck, Raymond; Buchmuller, Oliver; Colling, David; Cripps, Nicholas; Cutajar, Michael; Dauncey, Paul; Davies, Gavin; Della Negra, Michel; Ferguson, William; Fulcher, Jonathan; Futyan, David; Gilbert, Andrew; Guneratne Bryer, Arlo; Hall, Geoffrey; Hatherell, Zoe; Hays, Jonathan; Iles, Gregory; Jarvis, Martyn; Karapostoli, Georgia; Lyons, Louis; Magnan, Anne-Marie; Marrouche, Jad; Mathias, Bryn; Nandi, Robin; Nash, Jordan; Nikitenko, Alexander; Papageorgiou, Anastasios; Pela, Joao; Pesaresi, Mark; Petridis, Konstantinos; Pioppi, Michele; Raymond, David Mark; Rogerson, Samuel; Rompotis, Nikolaos; Rose, Andrew; Ryan, Matthew John; Seez, Christopher; Sharp, Peter; Sparrow, Alex; Tapper, Alexander; Vazquez Acosta, Monica; Virdee, Tejinder; Wakefield, Stuart; Wardle, Nicholas; Whyntie, Tom; Barrett, Matthew; Chadwick, Matthew; Cole, Joanne; Hobson, Peter R; Khan, Akram; Kyberd, Paul; Leggat, Duncan; Leslie, Dawn; Martin, William; Reid, Ivan; Symonds, Philip; Teodorescu, Liliana; Turner, Mark; Hatakeyama, Kenichi; Liu, Hongxuan; Scarborough, Tara; Henderson, Conor; Rumerio, Paolo; Avetisyan, Aram; Bose, Tulika; Fantasia, Cory; Heister, Arno; St John, Jason; Lawson, Philip; Lazic, Dragoslav; Rohlf, James; Sperka, David; Sulak, Lawrence; Alimena, Juliette; Bhattacharya, Saptaparna; Cutts, David; Ferapontov, Alexey; Heintz, Ulrich; Jabeen, Shabnam; Kukartsev, Gennadiy; Landsberg, Greg; Luk, Michael; Narain, Meenakshi; Nguyen, Duong; Segala, Michael; Sinthuprasith, Tutanon; Speer, Thomas; Tsang, Ka Vang; Breedon, Richard; Breto, Guillermo; Calderon De La Barca Sanchez, Manuel; Chauhan, Sushil; Chertok, Maxwell; Conway, John; Conway, Rylan; Cox, Peter Timothy; Dolen, James; Erbacher, Robin; Gardner, Michael; Houtz, Rachel; Ko, Winston; Kopecky, Alexandra; Lander, Richard; Mall, Orpheus; Miceli, Tia; Nelson, Randy; Pellett, Dave; Rutherford, Britney; Searle, Matthew; Smith, John; Squires, Michael; Tripathi, Mani; Vasquez Sierra, Ricardo; Andreev, Valeri; Cline, David; Cousins, Robert; Duris, Joseph; Erhan, Samim; Everaerts, Pieter; Farrell, Chris; Hauser, Jay; Ignatenko, Mikhail; Plager, Charles; Rakness, Gregory; Schlein, Peter; Tucker, Jordan; Valuev, Vyacheslav; Weber, Matthias; Babb, John; Clare, Robert; Dinardo, Mauro Emanuele; Ellison, John Anthony; Gary, J William; Giordano, Ferdinando; Hanson, Gail; Jeng, Geng-Yuan; Liu, Hongliang; Long, Owen Rosser; Luthra, Arun; Nguyen, Harold; Paramesvaran, Sudarshan; Sturdy, Jared; Sumowidagdo, Suharyo; Wilken, Rachel; Wimpenny, Stephen; Andrews, Warren; Branson, James G; Cerati, Giuseppe Benedetto; Cittolin, Sergio; Evans, David; Golf, Frank; Holzner, André; Kelley, Ryan; Lebourgeois, Matthew; Letts, James; Macneill, Ian; Mangano, Boris; Muelmenstaedt, Johannes; Padhi, Sanjay; Palmer, Christopher; Petrucciani, Giovanni; Pieri, Marco; Ranieri, Riccardo; Sani, Matteo; Sharma, Vivek; Simon, Sean; Sudano, Elizabeth; Tadel, Matevz; Tu, Yanjun; Vartak, Adish; Wasserbaech, Steven; Würthwein, Frank; Yagil, Avraham; Yoo, Jaehyeok; Barge, Derek; Bellan, Riccardo; Campagnari, Claudio; D'Alfonso, Mariarosaria; Danielson, Thomas; Flowers, Kristen; Geffert, Paul; Incandela, Joe; Justus, Christopher; Kalavase, Puneeth; Koay, Sue Ann; Kovalskyi, Dmytro; Krutelyov, Vyacheslav; Lowette, Steven; Mccoll, Nickolas; Pavlunin, Viktor; Rebassoo, Finn; Ribnik, Jacob; Richman, Jeffrey; Rossin, Roberto; Stuart, David; To, Wing; West, Christopher; Apresyan, Artur; Bornheim, Adolf; Chen, Yi; Di Marco, Emanuele; Duarte, Javier; Gataullin, Marat; Ma, Yousi; Mott, Alexander; Newman, Harvey B; Rogan, Christopher; Timciuc, Vladlen; Traczyk, Piotr; Veverka, Jan; Wilkinson, Richard; Yang, Yong; Zhu, Ren-Yuan; Akgun, Bora; Carroll, Ryan; Ferguson, Thomas; Iiyama, Yutaro; Jang, Dong Wook; Liu, Yueh-Feng; Paulini, Manfred; Vogel, Helmut; Vorobiev, Igor; Cumalat, John Perry; Drell, Brian Robert; Edelmaier, Christopher; Ford, William T; Gaz, Alessandro; Heyburn, Bernadette; Luiggi Lopez, Eduardo; Smith, James; Stenson, Kevin; Ulmer, Keith; Wagner, Stephen Robert; Agostino, Lorenzo; Alexander, James; Chatterjee, Avishek; Eggert, Nicholas; Gibbons, Lawrence Kent; Heltsley, Brian; Hopkins, Walter; Khukhunaishvili, Aleko; Kreis, Benjamin; Mirman, Nathan; Nicolas Kaufman, Gala; Patterson, Juliet Ritchie; Ryd, Anders; Salvati, Emmanuele; Sun, Werner; Teo, Wee Don; Thom, Julia; Thompson, Joshua; Vaughan, Jennifer; Weng, Yao; Winstrom, Lucas; Wittich, Peter; Winn, Dave; Abdullin, Salavat; Albrow, Michael; Anderson, Jacob; Bauerdick, Lothar AT; Beretvas, Andrew; Berryhill, Jeffrey; Bhat, Pushpalatha C; Bloch, Ingo; Burkett, Kevin; Butler, Joel Nathan; Chetluru, Vasundhara; Cheung, Harry; Chlebana, Frank; Elvira, Victor Daniel; Fisk, Ian; Freeman, Jim; Gao, Yanyan; Green, Dan; Gutsche, Oliver; Hahn, Alan; Hanlon, Jim; Harris, Robert M; Hirschauer, James; Hooberman, Benjamin; Jindariani, Sergo; Johnson, Marvin; Joshi, Umesh; Kilminster, Benjamin; Klima, Boaz; Kunori, Shuichi; Kwan, Simon; Lincoln, Don; Lipton, Ron; Lueking, Lee; Lykken, Joseph; Maeshima, Kaori; Marraffino, John Michael; Maruyama, Sho; Mason, David; McBride, Patricia; Mishra, Kalanand; Mrenna, Stephen; Musienko, Yuri; Newman-Holmes, Catherine; O'Dell, Vivian; Prokofyev, Oleg; Sexton-Kennedy, Elizabeth; Sharma, Seema; Spalding, William J; Spiegel, Leonard; Tan, Ping; Taylor, Lucas; Tkaczyk, Slawek; Tran, Nhan Viet; Uplegger, Lorenzo; Vaandering, Eric Wayne; Vidal, Richard; Whitmore, Juliana; Wu, Weimin; Yang, Fan; Yumiceva, Francisco; Yun, Jae Chul; Acosta, Darin; Avery, Paul; Bourilkov, Dimitri; Chen, Mingshui; Das, Souvik; De Gruttola, Michele; Di Giovanni, Gian Piero; Dobur, Didar; Drozdetskiy, Alexey; Field, Richard D; Fisher, Matthew; Fu, Yu; Furic, Ivan-Kresimir; Gartner, Joseph; Hugon, Justin; Kim, Bockjoo; Konigsberg, Jacobo; Korytov, Andrey; Kropivnitskaya, Anna; Kypreos, Theodore; Low, Jia Fu; Matchev, Konstantin; Milenovic, Predrag; Mitselmakher, Guenakh; Muniz, Lana; Remington, Ronald; Rinkevicius, Aurelijus; Sellers, Paul; Skhirtladze, Nikoloz; Snowball, Matthew; Yelton, John; Zakaria, Mohammed; Gaultney, Vanessa; Lebolo, Luis Miguel; Linn, Stephan; Markowitz, Pete; Martinez, German; Rodriguez, Jorge Luis; Adams, Todd; Askew, Andrew; Bochenek, Joseph; Chen, Jie; Diamond, Brendan; Gleyzer, Sergei V; Haas, Jeff; Hagopian, Sharon; Hagopian, Vasken; Jenkins, Merrill; Johnson, Kurtis F; Prosper, Harrison; Veeraraghavan, Venkatesh; Weinberg, Marc; Baarmand, Marc M; Dorney, Brian; Hohlmann, Marcus; Kalakhety, Himali; Vodopiyanov, Igor; Adams, Mark Raymond; Anghel, Ioana Maria; Apanasevich, Leonard; Bai, Yuting; Bazterra, Victor Eduardo; Betts, Russell Richard; Callner, Jeremy; Cavanaugh, Richard; Dragoiu, Cosmin; Evdokimov, Olga; Garcia-Solis, Edmundo Javier; Gauthier, Lucie; Gerber, Cecilia Elena; Hofman, David Jonathan; Khalatyan, Samvel; Lacroix, Florent; Malek, Magdalena; O'Brien, Christine; Silkworth, Christopher; Strom, Derek; Varelas, Nikos; Akgun, Ugur; Albayrak, Elif Asli; Bilki, Burak; Chung, Kwangzoo; Clarida, Warren; Duru, Firdevs; Griffiths, Scott; Lae, Chung Khim; Merlo, Jean-Pierre; Mermerkaya, Hamit; Mestvirishvili, Alexi; Moeller, Anthony; Nachtman, Jane; Newsom, Charles Ray; Norbeck, Edwin; Olson, Jonathan; Onel, Yasar; Ozok, Ferhat; Sen, Sercan; Tiras, Emrah; Wetzel, James; Yetkin, Taylan; Yi, Kai; Barnett, Bruce Arnold; Blumenfeld, Barry; Bolognesi, Sara; Fehling, David; Giurgiu, Gavril; Gritsan, Andrei; Guo, Zijin; Hu, Guofan; Maksimovic, Petar; Rappoccio, Salvatore; Swartz, Morris; Whitbeck, Andrew; Baringer, Philip; Bean, Alice; Benelli, Gabriele; Grachov, Oleg; Kenny Iii, Raymond Patrick; Murray, Michael; Noonan, Daniel; Radicci, Valeria; Sanders, Stephen; Stringer, Robert; Tinti, Gemma; Wood, Jeffrey Scott; Zhukova, Victoria; Barfuss, Anne-Fleur; Bolton, Tim; Chakaberia, Irakli; Ivanov, Andrew; Khalil, Sadia; Makouski, Mikhail; Maravin, Yurii; Shrestha, Shruti; Svintradze, Irakli; Gronberg, Jeffrey; Lange, David; Wright, Douglas; Baden, Drew; Boutemeur, Madjid; Calvert, Brian; Eno, Sarah Catherine; Gomez, Jaime; Hadley, Nicholas John; Kellogg, Richard G; Kirn, Malina; Kolberg, Ted; Lu, Ying; Marionneau, Matthieu; Mignerey, Alice; Peterman, Alison; Rossato, Kenneth; Skuja, Andris; Temple, Jeffrey; Tonjes, Marguerite; Tonwar, Suresh C; Twedt, Elizabeth; Bauer, Gerry; Bendavid, Joshua; Busza, Wit; Butz, Erik; Cali, Ivan Amos; Chan, Matthew; Dutta, Valentina; Gomez Ceballos, Guillelmo; Goncharov, Maxim; Hahn, Kristan Allan; Kim, Yongsun; Klute, Markus; Lee, Yen-Jie; Li, Wei; Luckey, Paul David; Ma, Teng; Nahn, Steve; Paus, Christoph; Ralph, Duncan; Roland, Christof; Roland, Gunther; Rudolph, Matthew; Stephans, George; Stöckli, Fabian; Sumorok, Konstanty; Sung, Kevin; Velicanu, Dragos; Wenger, Edward Allen; Wolf, Roger; Wyslouch, Bolek; Xie, Si; Yang, Mingming; Yilmaz, Yetkin; Yoon, Sungho; Zanetti, Marco; Cooper, Seth; Cushman, Priscilla; Dahmes, Bryan; De Benedetti, Abraham; Franzoni, Giovanni; Gude, Alexander; Haupt, Jason; Kao, Shih-Chuan; Klapoetke, Kevin; Kubota, Yuichi; Mans, Jeremy; Pastika, Nathaniel; Rusack, Roger; Sasseville, Michael; Singovsky, Alexander; Tambe, Norbert; Turkewitz, Jared; Cremaldi, Lucien Marcus; Kroeger, Rob; Perera, Lalith; Rahmat, Rahmat; Sanders, David A; Avdeeva, Ekaterina; Bloom, Kenneth; Bose, Suvadeep; Butt, Jamila; Claes, Daniel R; Dominguez, Aaron; Eads, Michael; Jindal, Pratima; Keller, Jason; Kravchenko, Ilya; Lazo-Flores, Jose; Malbouisson, Helena; Malik, Sudhir; Snow, Gregory R; Baur, Ulrich; Godshalk, Andrew; Iashvili, Ia; Jain, Supriya; Kharchilava, Avto; Kumar, Ashish; Shipkowski, Simon Peter; Smith, Kenneth; Alverson, George; Barberis, Emanuela; Baumgartel, Darin; Chasco, Matthew; Haley, Joseph; Trocino, Daniele; Wood, Darien; Zhang, Jinzhong; Anastassov, Anton; Kubik, Andrew; Mucia, Nicholas; Odell, Nathaniel; Ofierzynski, Radoslaw Adrian; Pollack, Brian; Pozdnyakov, Andrey; Schmitt, Michael; Stoynev, Stoyan; Velasco, Mayda; Won, Steven; Antonelli, Louis; Berry, Douglas; Brinkerhoff, Andrew; Hildreth, Michael; Jessop, Colin; Karmgard, Daniel John; Kolb, Jeff; Lannon, Kevin; Luo, Wuming; Lynch, Sean; Marinelli, Nancy; Morse, David Michael; Pearson, Tessa; Ruchti, Randy; Slaunwhite, Jason; Valls, Nil; Warchol, Jadwiga; Wayne, Mitchell; Wolf, Matthias; Ziegler, Jill; Bylsma, Ben; Durkin, Lloyd Stanley; Hill, Christopher; Hughes, Richard; Killewald, Phillip; Kotov, Khristian; Ling, Ta-Yung; Puigh, Darren; Rodenburg, Marissa; Vuosalo, Carl; Williams, Grayson; Winer, Brian L; Adam, Nadia; Berry, Edmund; Elmer, Peter; Gerbaudo, Davide; Halyo, Valerie; Hebda, Philip; Hegeman, Jeroen; Hunt, Adam; Laird, Edward; Lopes Pegna, David; Lujan, Paul; Marlow, Daniel; Medvedeva, Tatiana; Mooney, Michael; Olsen, James; Piroué, Pierre; Quan, Xiaohang; Raval, Amita; Saka, Halil; Stickland, David; Tully, Christopher; Werner, Jeremy Scott; Zuranski, Andrzej; Acosta, Jhon Gabriel; Huang, Xing Tao; Lopez, Angel; Mendez, Hector; Oliveros, Sandra; Ramirez Vargas, Juan Eduardo; Zatserklyaniy, Andriy; Alagoz, Enver; Barnes, Virgil E; Benedetti, Daniele; Bolla, Gino; Bortoletto, Daniela; De Mattia, Marco; Everett, Adam; Hu, Zhen; Jones, Matthew; Koybasi, Ozhan; Kress, Matthew; Laasanen, Alvin T; Leonardo, Nuno; Maroussov, Vassili; Merkel, Petra; Miller, David Harry; Neumeister, Norbert; Shipsey, Ian; Silvers, David; Svyatkovskiy, Alexey; Vidal Marono, Miguel; Yoo, Hwi Dong; Zablocki, Jakub; Zheng, Yu; Guragain, Samir; Parashar, Neeti; Adair, Antony; Boulahouache, Chaouki; Cuplov, Vesna; Ecklund, Karl Matthew; Geurts, Frank JM; Padley, Brian Paul; Redjimi, Radia; Roberts, Jay; Zabel, James; Betchart, Burton; Bodek, Arie; Chung, Yeon Sei; Covarelli, Roberto; de Barbaro, Pawel; Demina, Regina; Eshaq, Yossof; Garcia-Bellido, Aran; Goldenzweig, Pablo; Gotra, Yury; Han, Jiyeon; Harel, Amnon; Korjenevski, Sergey; Miner, Daniel Carl; Vishnevskiy, Dmitry; Zielinski, Marek; Bhatti, Anwar; Ciesielski, Robert; Demortier, Luc; Goulianos, Konstantin; Lungu, Gheorghe; Malik, Sarah; Mesropian, Christina; Arora, Sanjay; Barker, Anthony; Chou, John Paul; Contreras-Campana, Christian; Contreras-Campana, Emmanuel; Duggan, Daniel; Ferencek, Dinko; Gershtein, Yuri; Gray, Richard; Halkiadakis, Eva; Hidas, Dean; Hits, Dmitry; Lath, Amitabh; Panwalkar, Shruti; Park, Michael; Patel, Rishi; Rekovic, Vladimir; Richards, Alan; Robles, Jorge; Rose, Keith; Salur, Sevil; Schnetzer, Steve; Seitz, Claudia; Somalwar, Sunil; Stone, Robert; Thomas, Scott; Cerizza, Giordano; Hollingsworth, Matthew; Spanier, Stefan; Yang, Zong-Chang; York, Andrew; Eusebi, Ricardo; Flanagan, Will; Gilmore, Jason; Kamon, Teruki; Khotilovich, Vadim; Montalvo, Roy; Osipenkov, Ilya; Pakhotin, Yuriy; Perloff, Alexx; Roe, Jeffrey; Safonov, Alexei; Sakuma, Tai; Sengupta, Sinjini; Suarez, Indara; Tatarinov, Aysen; Toback, David; Akchurin, Nural; Damgov, Jordan; Dudero, Phillip Russell; Jeong, Chiyoung; Kovitanggoon, Kittikul; Lee, Sung Won; Libeiro, Terence; Roh, Youn; Volobouev, Igor; Appelt, Eric; Engh, Daniel; Florez, Carlos; Greene, Senta; Gurrola, Alfredo; Johns, Willard; Kurt, Pelin; Maguire, Charles; Melo, Andrew; Sheldon, Paul; Snook, Benjamin; Tuo, Shengquan; Velkovska, Julia; Arenton, Michael Wayne; Balazs, Michael; Boutle, Sarah; Cox, Bradley; Francis, Brian; Goodell, Joseph; Hirosky, Robert; Ledovskoy, Alexander; Lin, Chuanzhe; Neu, Christopher; Wood, John; Yohay, Rachel; Gollapinni, Sowjanya; Harr, Robert; Karchin, Paul Edmund; Kottachchi Kankanamge Don, Chamath; Lamichhane, Pramod; Sakharov, Alexandre; Anderson, Michael; Bachtis, Michail; Belknap, Donald; Borrello, Laura; Carlsmith, Duncan; Cepeda, Maria; Dasu, Sridhara; Gray, Lindsey; Grogg, Kira Suzanne; Grothe, Monika; Hall-Wilton, Richard; Herndon, Matthew; Hervé, Alain; Klabbers, Pamela; Klukas, Jeffrey; Lanaro, Armando; Lazaridis, Christos; Leonard, Jessica; Loveless, Richard; Mohapatra, Ajit; Ojalvo, Isabel; Pierro, Giuseppe Antonio; Ross, Ian; Savin, Alexander; Smith, Wesley H; Swanson, Joshua

    2012-01-01

    A measurement of the mass difference between the top and the antitop quark (Delta m(t) = m(t) - m(anti-t)) is performed using events with a muon or an electron and at least four jets in the final state. The analysis is based on data collected by the CMS experiment at the LHC, corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 4.96 +/- 0.11 inverse femtobarns, and yields the value of Delta m(t) = -0.44 +/- 0.46 (stat) +/- 0.27 (syst) GeV. This result is consistent with equality of particle and antiparticle masses required by CPT invariance, and provides a significantly improved precision relative to existing measurements.

  11. A Precision Measurement of the Lambda_c Baryon Mass

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aubert, B.; Barate, R.; Boutigny, D.; Couderc, F.; Karyotakis, Y.; Lees, J.P.; Poireau, V.; Tisserand, V.; Zghiche, A.; /Annecy, LAPP; Grauges, E.; /Barcelona, IFAE; Palano, A.; Pappagallo, M.; Pompili, A.; /Bari U. /INFN, Bari; Chen, J.C.; Qi, N.D.; Rong, G.; Wang, P.; Zhu, Y.S.; /Beijing, Inst. High Energy Phys.; Eigen, G.; Ofte, I.; Stugu, B.

    2005-07-06

    The {Lambda}{sub c}{sup +} baryon mass is measured using {Lambda}{sub c}{sup +} {yields} {Lambda}K{sub S}{sup 0}K{sup +} and {Lambda}{sub c}{sup +} {yields} {Sigma}{sup 0}K{sub S}{sup 0}K{sup +} decays reconstructed in 232 fb{sup -1} of data collected with the BABAR detector at the PEP-II asymmetric-energy e{sup +}e{sup -} storage ring. The {Lambda}{sub c}{sup +} mass is measured to be 2286.46 {+-} 0.14 MeV/c{sup 2}. The dominant systematic uncertainties arise from the amount of material in the tracking volume and from the magnetic field strength.

  12. Measurement of the mass difference between top and antitop quarks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chatrchyan, Serguei [Yerevan Physics Inst. (Armenia); et al.

    2012-06-01

    A measurement of the mass difference between the top and the antitop quark (Delta m(t) = m(t) - m(anti-t)) is performed using events with a muon or an electron and at least four jets in the final state. The analysis is based on data collected by the CMS experiment at the LHC, corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 4.96 +/- 0.11 inverse femtobarns, and yields the value of Delta m(t) = -0.44 +/- 0.46 (stat) +/- 0.27 (syst) GeV. This result is consistent with equality of particle and antiparticle masses required by CPT invariance, and provides a significantly improved precision relative to existing measurements.

  13. On-Line Self-Calibrating Single Crystal Sapphire Optical Sensor Instrumentation for Accurate and Reliable Coal Gasifier Temperature Measurement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kristie Cooper; Gary Pickrell; Anbo Wang

    2005-11-01

    This report summarizes technical progress April-September 2005 on the Phase II program ''On-Line Self-Calibrating Single Crystal Sapphire Optical Sensor Instrumentation for Accurate and Reliable Coal Gasifier Temperature Measurement'', funded by the Federal Energy Technology Center of the U.S. Department of Energy, and performed by the Center for Photonics Technology of the Bradley Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering at Virginia Tech. The outcome of the first phase of this program was the selection of broadband polarimetric differential interferometry (BPDI) for further prototype instrumentation development. This approach is based on the measurement of the optical path difference (OPD) between two orthogonally polarized light beams in a single-crystal sapphire disk. The objective of this program is to bring the sensor technology, which has already been demonstrated in the laboratory, to a level where the sensor can be deployed in the harsh industrial environments and will become commercially viable. Due to the difficulties described on the last report, field testing of the BPDI system has not continued to date. However, we have developed an alternative high temperature sensing solution, which is described in this report. The sensing system will be installed and tested at TECO's Polk Power Station. Following a site visit in June 2005, our efforts have been focused on preparing for that field test, including he design of the sensor mechanical packaging, sensor electronics, the data transfer module, and the necessary software codes to accommodate this application.. We are currently ready to start sensor fabrication.

  14. Serum lipoprotein lipase mass: Clinical significance of its measurement

    OpenAIRE

    Kobayashi, Junji; Nohara, Atsushi; Kawashiri, Masaaki; Inazu, Akihiro; Koizumi, Junji; Nakajima, Katsuyuki; Mabuchi, Hiroshi

    2007-01-01

    Lipoprotein lipase (LPL) is a lipolytic enzyme involved in catalyzing hydrolysis of triglycerides (TG) in chylomicrons and very low-density lipoprotein (VLDL) particles. Over the last decade, increasing attention has been paid to the clinical significance of measuring serum LPL protein mass without heparin injection to the study subjects. In earlier studies, this marker was utilized to classify LPL deficient subjects, which is an extremely rare metabolic disorder with a frequency of one in on...

  15. LEAD SLOWING DOWN SPECTROSCOPY FOR DIRECT Pu MASS MEASUREMENTS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The direct measurement of Pu in previously irradiated fuel assemblies is a recognized need in the international safeguards community. A suitable technology could support more timely and independent material control and accounting (MC and A) measurements at nuclear fuel storage areas, the head-end of reprocessing facilities, and at the product-end of recycled fuel fabrication. Lead slowing down spectroscopy (LSDS) may be a viable solution for directly measuring not only the mass of 239Pu in fuel assemblies, but also the masses of other fissile isotopes such as 235U and 241Pu. To assess the potential viability of LSDS, an LSDS spectrometer was modeled in MCNP5 and 'virtual assays' of nominal PWR assemblies ranging from 0 to 60 GWd/MTU burnup were completed. Signal extraction methods, including the incorporation of nonlinear fitting to account for self-shielding effects in strong resonance regions, are described. Quantitative estimates of Pu uncertainty are given for simplistic and more realistic fuel isotopic inventories calculated using ORIGEN. A discussion of additional signal-perturbing effects that will be addressed in future work, and potential signal extraction approaches that could improve Pu mass uncertainties, are also discussed

  16. Improvements to TITAN's Mass Measurement and Decay Spectroscopy Capabilities

    CERN Document Server

    Lascar, D; Chowdhury, U; Finlay, A; Gallant, A T; Good, M; Klawitter, R; Kootte, B; Leach, K G; Lennarz, A; Leistenschneider, E; Schultz, B E; Schupp, R; Short, D A; Andreoiu, C; Dilling, J; Gwinner, G

    2015-01-01

    The study of nuclei farther from the valley of $\\beta$-stability goes hand-in-hand with shorter-lived nuclei produced in smaller abundances than their more stable counterparts. The measurement, to high precision, of nuclear masses therefore requires innovations in technique in order to keep up. TRIUMF's Ion Trap for Atomic and Nuclear science (TITAN) facility deploys three ion traps, with a fourth in the commissioning phase, to perform and support Penning trap mass spectrometry and in-trap decay spectroscopy on some of the shortest-lived nuclei ever studied. We report on recent advances and updates to the TITAN facility since the 2012 EMIS Conference. TITAN's charge breeding capabilities have been improved and in-trap decay spectroscopy can be performed in TITAN's electron beam ion trap (EBIT). Higher charge states can improve the precision of mass measurements, reduce the beam-time requirements for a given measurement, improve beam purity and opens the door to access, via in-trap decay and recapture, isotope...

  17. Geoelectrical Measurement of Multi-Scale Mass Transfer Parameters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Day-Lewis, Frederick; Singha, Kamini; Haggerty, Roy; Johnson, Tim; Binley, Andrew; Lane, John

    2014-01-16

    Mass transfer affects contaminant transport and is thought to control the efficiency of aquifer remediation at a number of sites within the Department of Energy (DOE) complex. An improved understanding of mass transfer is critical to meeting the enormous scientific and engineering challenges currently facing DOE. Informed design of site remedies and long-term stewardship of radionuclide-contaminated sites will require new cost-effective laboratory and field techniques to measure the parameters controlling mass transfer spatially and across a range of scales. In this project, we sought to capitalize on the geophysical signatures of mass transfer. Previous numerical modeling and pilot-scale field experiments suggested that mass transfer produces a geoelectrical signature—a hysteretic relation between sampled (mobile-domain) fluid conductivity and bulk (mobile + immobile) conductivity—over a range of scales relevant to aquifer remediation. In this work, we investigated the geoelectrical signature of mass transfer during tracer transport in a series of controlled experiments to determine the operation of controlling parameters, and also investigated the use of complex-resistivity (CR) as a means of quantifying mass transfer parameters in situ without tracer experiments. In an add-on component to our grant, we additionally considered nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) to help parse mobile from immobile porosities. Including the NMR component, our revised study objectives were to: 1. Develop and demonstrate geophysical approaches to measure mass-transfer parameters spatially and over a range of scales, including the combination of electrical resistivity monitoring, tracer tests, complex resistivity, nuclear magnetic resonance, and materials characterization; and 2. Provide mass-transfer estimates for improved understanding of contaminant fate and transport at DOE sites, such as uranium transport at the Hanford 300 Area. To achieve our objectives, we implemented a 3

  18. Measurement of $R_{b}$ using a Vertex Mass Tag

    CERN Document Server

    Abe, K; Akagi, T; Allen, N J; Ash, W W; Aston, D; Baird, K G; Baltay, C; Band, H R; Barakat, M B; Baranko, G; Bardon, O; Barklow, T L; Bashindzhagian, G L; Bazarko, A O; Ben-David, R; Benvenuti, Alberto C; Bilei, G M; Bisello, D; Blaylock, G; Bogart, J R; Bolen, B; Bolton, T; Bower, G R; Brau, J E; Breidenbach, M; Bugg, W M; Burke, D; Burnett, T H; Burrows, P N; Busza, W; Calcaterra, A; Caldwell, D O; Calloway, D; Camanzi, B; Carpinelli, M; Cassell, R; Castaldi, R; Castro, A; Cavalli-Sforza, M; Chou, A; Church, E; Cohn, H O; Coller, J A; Cook, V; Cotton, R; Cowan, R F; Coyne, D G; Crawford, G; de Oliveira, A; Damerell, C J S; Daoudi, M; De Groot, N; De Sangro, R; Dell'Orso, R; Dervan, P J; Dima, M; Dong, D N; Du, P Y C; Dubois, R; Eisenstein, B I; Elia, R; Etzion, E; Fahey, S; Falciai, D; Fan, C; Fernández, J P; Fero, M J; Frey, R; Gillman, T; Gladding, G; González, S; Hart, E L; Harton, J L; Hasan, A; Hasegawa, Y; Hasuko, K; Hedges, S J; Hertzbach, S S; Hildreth, M D; Huber, J; Huffer, M E; Hughes, E W; Hwang, H; Iwasaki, Y; Jackson, D J; Jacques, P; Jaros, J A; Jiang, Z Y; Johnson, A S; Johnson, J R; Johnson, R A; Junk, T R; Kajikawa, R; Kalelkar, M; Kang, H J; Karliner, I; Kawahara, H; Kendall, H W; Kim, Y D; King, M E; King, R; Kofler, R R; Krishna, N M; Kroeger, R S; Labs, J F; Langston, M; Lath, A; Lauber, J A; Leith, D W G S; Lia, V; Liu, M X; Liu, X; Loreti, M; Lu, A; Lynch, H L; Ma, J; Mancinelli, G; Manly, S; Mantovani, G C; Markiewicz, T W; Maruyama, T; Masuda, H; Mazzucato, E; McKemey, A K; Meadows, B T; Messner, R; Mockett, P M; Moffeit, K C; Moore, T B; Müller, D; Nagamine, T; Narita, S; Nauenberg, U; Neal, H; Nussbaum, M; Ohnishi, Y; Oishi, N; Onoprienko, D; Osborne, L S; Panvini, R S; Park, C H; Park, H; Pavel, T J; Peruzzi, I; Piccolo, M; Piemontese, L; Pieroni, E; Pitts, K T; Plano, R J; Prepost, R; Prescott, C Y; Punkar, G D; Quigley, J; Ratcliff, B N; Reeves, T W; Reidy, J; Reinertsen, P L; Rensing, P E; Rochester, L S; Rowson, P C; Russell, J J; Saxton, O H; Schalk, T; Schindler, R H; Schumm, B A; Schwiening, J; Sen, S; Serbo, V V; Shaevitz, M H; Shank, J T; Shapiro, G; Sherden, D J; Shmakov, K D; Simopoulos, C; Sinev, N B; Smith, S R; Smy, M B; Snyder, J A; Stängle, H; Stamer, P; Steiner, H; Steiner, R; Strauss, M G; Su, D; Suekane, F; Sugiyama, A; Suzuki, S; Swartz, M; Szumilo, A; Takahashi, T; Taylor, F E; Torrence, E; Trandafir, A I; Turk, J D; Usher, T; Vavra, J; Vannini, C; Vella, E; Venuti, J P; Verdier, R; Verdini, P G; Wagner, D L; Wagner, S R; Waite, A P; Watts, S J; Weidemann, A W; Weiss, E R; Whitaker, J S; White, S L; Wickens, F J; Williams, D C; Williams, S H; Willocq, S; Wilson, R J; Wisniewski, W J; Woods, M; Word, G B; Wyss, J; Yamamoto, R K; Yamartino, J M; Yang, X; Yashima, J; Yellin, S J; Young, C C; Yuta, H; Zapalac, G; Zdarko, R W; Zhou, J

    1998-01-01

    We report a new measurement of Rb = Gamma(Z0->b-bbar) / Gamma(Z0->hadrons) using a double tag technique, where the b hemisphere selection is based on the reconstructed mass of the B hadron decay vertex. The measurement was performed using a sample of 130k hadronic Z0 events, collected with the SLD at the SLC. The method utilizes the 3-D vertexing abilities of the CCD pixel vertex detector and the small stable SLC beams to obtain a high b-tagging efficiency and purity. We obtain Rb=0.2142+/-0.0034(stat.)+/-0.0015(syst.)+/-0.0002(R_c).

  19. Initial measurements with the SUERC accelerator mass spectrometer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Freeman, Stewart E-mail: toodeep@suerc.gla.ac.uk; Xu, Sheng; Schnabel, Christoph; Dougans, Andrew; Tait, Andrew; Kitchen, Richard; Klody, George; Loger, Roger; Pollock, Tom; Schroeder, James; Sundquist, Mark

    2004-08-01

    {sup 10}Be, {sup 14}C, {sup 36}Cl and {sup 129}I test measurements have been made with a new Pelletron-based accelerator mass spectrometer operating at up to 5.2 MV. All ion detection was with a versatile gas ionization detector. Low-background radiocarbon measurements with 2% scatter of identical samples was performed with both spectrometer ion sources. {sup 10}Be/Be backgrounds of 3 x 10{sup -15} were achieved using a gas cell adjoining the detector for {sup 10}B suppression. High sample-throughput Cl AMS with {sup 36}Cl/Cl backgrounds of 4 x 10{sup -15} was accomplished.

  20. Thermodynamic Activity Measurements with Knudsen Cell Mass Spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Copland, Evan H.; Jacobson, Nathan S.

    2001-01-01

    Coupling the Knudsen effusion method with mass spectrometry has proven to be one of the most useful experimental techniques for studying the equilibrium between condensed phases and complex vapors. The Knudsen effusion method involves placing a condensed sample in a Knudsen cell, a small "enclosure", that is uniformly heated and held until equilibrium is attained between the condensed and vapor phases. The vapor is continuously sampled by effusion through a small orifice in the cell. A molecular beam is formed from the effusing vapor and directed into a mass spectrometer for identification and pressure measurement of the species in the vapor phase. Knudsen cell mass spectrometry (KCMS) has been used for nearly fifty years now and continues to be a leading technique for obtaining thermodynamic data. Indeed, much of the well-established vapor specie data in the JANAF tables has been obtained from this technique. This is due to the extreme versatility of the technique. All classes of materials can be studied and all constituents of the vapor phase can be measured over a wide range of pressures (approximately 10(exp -4) to 10(exp -11) bar) and temperatures (500-2800 K). The ability to selectively measure different vapor species makes KCMS a very powerful tool for the measurement of component activities in metallic and ceramic solutions. Today several groups are applying KCMS to measure thermodynamic functions in multicomponent metallic and ceramic systems. Thermodynamic functions, especially component activities, are extremely important in the development of CALPHAD (Calculation of Phase Diagrams) type thermodynamic descriptions. These descriptions, in turn, are useful for modeling materials processing and predicting reactions such as oxide formation and fiber/matrix interactions. The leading experimental methods for measuring activities are the Galvanic cell or electro-motive force (EMF) technique and the KCMS technique. Each has specific advantages, depending on

  1. First Run II Measurement of the W Boson Mass

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aaltonen, T.; /Helsinki Inst. of Phys.; Abulencia, A.; /Illinois U., Urbana; Adelman, J.; /Chicago U., EFI; Akimoto, T.; /Tsukuba U.; Albrow, Michael G.; /Fermilab; Alvarez Gonzalez, B.; /CSIC, Catalunya; Amerio, S.; /Padua U.; Amidei, Dante E.; /Michigan U.; Anastassov, A.; /Rutgers U., Piscataway; Annovi, A.; /Frascati; Antos, J.; /Comenius U. /Fermilab

    2007-08-01

    We describe a measurement of the W boson mass m{sub W} using 200 pb{sup -1} of {radical}s = 1.96 TeV p{bar p} collision data taken with the CDF II detector. With a sample of 63,964 W {yields} e{nu} candidates and 51,128 W {yields} {mu}{nu} candidates, we measure m{sub W} = [80.413 {+-} 0.034(stat.) {+-} 0.034 (sys.) = 80.413 {+-} 0.048] GeV/c{sup 2}. This is the single most precise m{sub W} measurement to date. When combined with other measured electroweak parameters, this result further constrains the properties of new unobserved particles coupling to W and Z bosons.

  2. First Run II Measurement of the W Boson Mass

    CERN Document Server

    Aaltonen, T; Adelman, J; Akimoto, T; Albrow, M G; Alvarez-Gonzalez, B; Amerio, S; Amidei, D; Anastassov, A; Annovi, A; Antos, J; Apollinari, G; Apresyan, A; Arisawa, T; Artikov, A; Ashmanskas, W; Attal, A; Aurisano, A; Azfar, F; Azzi-Bacchetta, P; Azzurri, P; Bacchetta, N; Badgett, W; Barbaro-Galtieri, A; Barnes, V E; Barnett, B A; Baroiant, S; Bartsch, V; Bauer, G; Beauchemin, P H; Bedeschi, F; Bednar, P; Behari, S; Bellettini, G; Bellinger, J; Belloni, A; Benjamin, D; Beretvas, A; Beringer, J; Berry, T; Bhatti, A; Binkley, M; Bisello, D; Bizjak, I; Blair, R E; Blocker, C; Blumenfeld, B; Bocci, A; Bodek, A; Boisvert, V; Bölla, G; Bolshov, A; Bortoletto, D; Boudreau, J; Boveia, A; Brau, B; Brigliadori, L; Bromberg, C; Brubaker, E; Budagov, Yu; Budd, H S; Budd, S; Burkett, K; Busetto, G; Bussey, P; Buzatu, A; Byrum, K L; Cabrera, S; Campanelli, M; Campbell, M; Canelli, F; Canepa, A; Carlsmith, D; Carosi, R; Carrillo, S; Carron, S; Casal, B; Casarsa, M; Castro, A; Catastini, P; Cauz, D; 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    2007-01-01

    We describe a measurement of the W boson mass mW using 200/pb of root-s = 1.96 TeV p-pbar collision data taken with the CDF II detector. With a sample of 63,964 W -> e nu candidates and 51,128 W -> mu nu candidates, we measure mW = [80.413 +- 0.034 (stat) +- 0.034 (sys) = 80.413 +- 0.048] GeV/c^2. This is the single most precise mW measurement to date. When combined with other measured electroweak parameters, this result further constrains the properties of unobserved particles coupling to W and Z bosons.

  3. A technique for accurately determining the cusp-region polar cap boundary using SuperDARN HF radar measurements

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    G. Chisham

    Full Text Available Accurately measuring the location and motion of the polar cap boundary (PCB in the high-latitude ionosphere can be crucial for studies concerned with the dynamics of the polar cap, e.g. the measurement of reconnection rates. The Doppler spectral width characteristics of backscatter received by the SuperDARN HF radars have been previously used for locating and tracking the PCB in the cusp region. The boundary is generally observed in meridional beams of the SuperDARN radars and appears as a distinct change between low spectral width values observed equatorward of the cusp region, and high, but variable spectral width values observed within the cusp region. To identify the spectral width boundary (SWB between these two regions, a simple algorithm employing a spectral width threshold has often been applied to the data. However, there is not, as yet, a standard algorithm, or spectral width threshold, which is universally applied. Nor has there been any rigorous assessment of the accuracy of this method of boundary determination. This study applies a series of