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Sample records for accurate gps time-linked

  1. High accurate time system of the Low Latitude Meridian Circle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Jing; Wang, Feng; Li, Zhiming

    In order to obtain the high accurate time signal for the Low Latitude Meridian Circle (LLMC), a new GPS accurate time system is developed which include GPS, 1 MC frequency source and self-made clock system. The second signal of GPS is synchronously used in the clock system and information can be collected by a computer automatically. The difficulty of the cancellation of the time keeper can be overcomed by using this system.

  2. Review of current GPS methodologies for producing accurate time series and their error sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Xiaoxing; Montillet, Jean-Philippe; Fernandes, Rui; Bos, Machiel; Yu, Kegen; Hua, Xianghong; Jiang, Weiping

    2017-05-01

    The Global Positioning System (GPS) is an important tool to observe and model geodynamic processes such as plate tectonics and post-glacial rebound. In the last three decades, GPS has seen tremendous advances in the precision of the measurements, which allow researchers to study geophysical signals through a careful analysis of daily time series of GPS receiver coordinates. However, the GPS observations contain errors and the time series can be described as the sum of a real signal and noise. The signal itself can again be divided into station displacements due to geophysical causes and to disturbing factors. Examples of the latter are errors in the realization and stability of the reference frame and corrections due to ionospheric and tropospheric delays and GPS satellite orbit errors. There is an increasing demand on detecting millimeter to sub-millimeter level ground displacement signals in order to further understand regional scale geodetic phenomena hence requiring further improvements in the sensitivity of the GPS solutions. This paper provides a review spanning over 25 years of advances in processing strategies, error mitigation methods and noise modeling for the processing and analysis of GPS daily position time series. The processing of the observations is described step-by-step and mainly with three different strategies in order to explain the weaknesses and strengths of the existing methodologies. In particular, we focus on the choice of the stochastic model in the GPS time series, which directly affects the estimation of the functional model including, for example, tectonic rates, seasonal signals and co-seismic offsets. Moreover, the geodetic community continues to develop computational methods to fully automatize all phases from analysis of GPS time series. This idea is greatly motivated by the large number of GPS receivers installed around the world for diverse applications ranging from surveying small deformations of civil engineering structures (e

  3. The application of GPS time information in the telemetry ground station

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Songtao; Zhang Yusong; Sun Xiurui

    2001-01-01

    GPS time information is a kind of practicable information resource that can be shared all over the world. Now it is the most accurate wireless time information. The major of this paper is the application information of GPS time information in telemetry. The main point introduces how to make use of the GPS time information to produce GPS-IRIG-B time code for proving ground and how to send time information to related equipment in telemetry ground station

  4. Integrating GPS, GYRO, vehicle speed sensor, and digital map to provide accurate and real-time position in an intelligent navigation system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Qingquan; Fang, Zhixiang; Li, Hanwu; Xiao, Hui

    2005-10-01

    The global positioning system (GPS) has become the most extensively used positioning and navigation tool in the world. Applications of GPS abound in surveying, mapping, transportation, agriculture, military planning, GIS, and the geosciences. However, the positional and elevation accuracy of any given GPS location is prone to error, due to a number of factors. The applications of Global Positioning System (GPS) positioning is more and more popular, especially the intelligent navigation system which relies on GPS and Dead Reckoning technology is developing quickly for future huge market in China. In this paper a practical combined positioning model of GPS/DR/MM is put forward, which integrates GPS, Gyro, Vehicle Speed Sensor (VSS) and digital navigation maps to provide accurate and real-time position for intelligent navigation system. This model is designed for automotive navigation system making use of Kalman filter to improve position and map matching veracity by means of filtering raw GPS and DR signals, and then map-matching technology is used to provide map coordinates for map displaying. In practical examples, for illustrating the validity of the model, several experiments and their results of integrated GPS/DR positioning in intelligent navigation system will be shown for the conclusion that Kalman Filter based GPS/DR integrating position approach is necessary, feasible and efficient for intelligent navigation application. Certainly, this combined positioning model, similar to other model, can not resolve all situation issues. Finally, some suggestions are given for further improving integrated GPS/DR/MM application.

  5. GPS Water Vapor Tomography Based on Accurate Estimations of the GPS Tropospheric Parameters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Champollion, C.; Masson, F.; Bock, O.; Bouin, M.; Walpersdorf, A.; Doerflinger, E.; van Baelen, J.; Brenot, H.

    2003-12-01

    The Global Positioning System (GPS) is now a common technique for the retrieval of zenithal integrated water vapor (IWV). Further applications in meteorology need also slant integrated water vapor (SIWV) which allow to precisely define the high variability of tropospheric water vapor at different temporal and spatial scales. Only precise estimations of IWV and horizontal gradients allow the estimation of accurate SIWV. We present studies developed to improve the estimation of tropospheric water vapor from GPS data. Results are obtained from several field experiments (MAP, ESCOMPTE, OHM-CV, IHOP, .). First IWV are estimated using different GPS processing strategies and results are compared to radiosondes. The role of the reference frame and the a priori constraints on the coordinates of the fiducial and local stations is generally underestimated. It seems to be of first order in the estimation of the IWV. Second we validate the estimated horizontal gradients comparing zenith delay gradients and single site gradients. IWV, gradients and post-fit residuals are used to construct slant integrated water delays. Validation of the SIWV is under progress comparing GPS SIWV, Lidar measurements and high resolution meteorological models (Meso-NH). A careful analysis of the post-fit residuals is needed to separate tropospheric signal from multipaths. The slant tropospheric delays are used to study the 3D heterogeneity of the troposphere. We develop a tomographic software to model the three-dimensional distribution of the tropospheric water vapor from GPS data. The software is applied to the ESCOMPTE field experiment, a dense network of 17 dual frequency GPS receivers operated in southern France. Three inversions have been successfully compared to three successive radiosonde launches. Good resolution is obtained up to heights of 3000 m.

  6. GPS Position Time Series @ JPL

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owen, Susan; Moore, Angelyn; Kedar, Sharon; Liu, Zhen; Webb, Frank; Heflin, Mike; Desai, Shailen

    2013-01-01

    Different flavors of GPS time series analysis at JPL - Use same GPS Precise Point Positioning Analysis raw time series - Variations in time series analysis/post-processing driven by different users. center dot JPL Global Time Series/Velocities - researchers studying reference frame, combining with VLBI/SLR/DORIS center dot JPL/SOPAC Combined Time Series/Velocities - crustal deformation for tectonic, volcanic, ground water studies center dot ARIA Time Series/Coseismic Data Products - Hazard monitoring and response focused center dot ARIA data system designed to integrate GPS and InSAR - GPS tropospheric delay used for correcting InSAR - Caltech's GIANT time series analysis uses GPS to correct orbital errors in InSAR - Zhen Liu's talking tomorrow on InSAR Time Series analysis

  7. GPS Precision Timing at CERN

    CERN Document Server

    Beetham, C G

    1999-01-01

    For the past decade, the Global Positioning System (GPS) has been used to provide precise time, frequency and position co-ordinates world-wide. Recently, equipment has become available specialising in providing extremely accurate timing information, referenced to Universal Time Co-ordinates (UTC). This feature has been used at CERN to provide time of day information for systems that have been installed in the Proton Synchrotron (PS), Super Proton Synchrotron (SPS) and the Large Electron Positron (LEP) machines. The different systems are described as well as the planned developments, particularly with respect to optical transmission and the Inter-Range Instrumentation Group IRIG-B standard, for future use in the Large Hadron Collider (LHC).

  8. Research in Application of Geodetic GPS Receivers in Time Synchronization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Q.; Zhang, P.; Sun, Z.; Wang, F.; Wang, X.

    2018-04-01

    In recent years, with the development of satellite orbit and clock parameters accurately determining technology and the popularity of geodetic GPS receivers, Common-View (CV) which proposed in 1980 by Allan has gained widespread application and achieved higher accuracy time synchronization results. GPS Common View (GPS CV) is the technology that based on multi-channel geodetic GPS receivers located in different place and under the same common-view schedule to receiving same GPS satellite signal at the same time, and then calculating the time difference between respective local receiver time and GPST by weighted theory, we will obtain the difference between above local time of receivers that installed in different station with external atomic clock. Multi-channel geodetic GPS receivers have significant advantages such as higher stability, higher accuracy and more common-view satellites in long baseline time synchronization application over the single-channel geodetic GPS receivers. At present, receiver hardware delay and surrounding environment influence are main error factors that affect the accuracy of GPS common-view result. But most error factors will be suppressed by observation data smoothing and using of observation data from different satellites in multi-channel geodetic GPS receiver. After the SA (Selective Availability) cancellation, using a combination of precise satellite ephemeris, ionospheric-free dual-frequency P-code observations and accurately measuring of receiver hardware delay, we can achieve time synchronization result on the order of nanoseconds (ns). In this paper, 6 days observation data of two IGS core stations with external atomic clock (PTB, USNO distance of two stations about 6000 km) were used to verify the GPS common-view theory. Through GPS observation data analysis, there are at least 2-4 common-view satellites and 5 satellites in a few tracking periods between two stations when the elevation angle is 15°, even there will be at least

  9. RESEARCH IN APPLICATION OF GEODETIC GPS RECEIVERS IN TIME SYNCHRONIZATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Q. Zhang

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, with the development of satellite orbit and clock parameters accurately determining technology and the popularity of geodetic GPS receivers, Common-View (CV which proposed in 1980 by Allan has gained widespread application and achieved higher accuracy time synchronization results. GPS Common View (GPS CV is the technology that based on multi-channel geodetic GPS receivers located in different place and under the same common-view schedule to receiving same GPS satellite signal at the same time, and then calculating the time difference between respective local receiver time and GPST by weighted theory, we will obtain the difference between above local time of receivers that installed in different station with external atomic clock. Multi-channel geodetic GPS receivers have significant advantages such as higher stability, higher accuracy and more common-view satellites in long baseline time synchronization application over the single-channel geodetic GPS receivers. At present, receiver hardware delay and surrounding environment influence are main error factors that affect the accuracy of GPS common-view result. But most error factors will be suppressed by observation data smoothing and using of observation data from different satellites in multi-channel geodetic GPS receiver. After the SA (Selective Availability cancellation, using a combination of precise satellite ephemeris, ionospheric-free dual-frequency P-code observations and accurately measuring of receiver hardware delay, we can achieve time synchronization result on the order of nanoseconds (ns. In this paper, 6 days observation data of two IGS core stations with external atomic clock (PTB, USNO distance of two stations about 6000 km were used to verify the GPS common-view theory. Through GPS observation data analysis, there are at least 2–4 common-view satellites and 5 satellites in a few tracking periods between two stations when the elevation angle is 15°, even

  10. Link establishment criterion and topology optimization for hybrid GPS satellite communications with laser crosslinks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Lun; Wei, Sixiao; Tian, Xin; Hsieh, Li-Tse; Chen, Zhijiang; Pham, Khanh; Lyke, James; Chen, Genshe

    2018-05-01

    In the current global positioning system (GPS), the reliability of information transmissions can be enhanced with the aid of inter-satellite links (ISLs) or crosslinks between satellites. Instead of only using conventional radio frequency (RF) crosslinks, the laser crosslinks provide an option to significantly increase the data throughput. The connectivity and robustness of ISL are needed for analysis, especially for GPS constellations with laser crosslinks. In this paper, we first propose a hybrid GPS communication architecture in which uplinks and downlinks are established via RF signals and crosslinks are established via laser links. Then, we design an optical crosslink assignment criteria considering the practical optical communication factors such as optical line- of-sight (LOS) range, link distance, and angular velocity, etc. After that, to further improve the rationality of establishing crosslinks, a topology control algorithm is formulated to optimize GPS crosslink networks at both physical and network layers. The RF transmission features for uplink and downlink and optical transmission features for crosslinks are taken into account as constraints for the optimization problem. Finally, the proposed link establishment criteria are implemented for GPS communication with optical crosslinks. The designs of this paper provide a potential crosslink establishment and topology control algorithm for the next generation GPS.

  11. GPS time series at Campi Flegrei caldera (2000-2013

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prospero De Martino

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The Campi Flegrei caldera is an active volcanic system associated to a high volcanic risk, and represents a well known and peculiar example of ground deformations (bradyseism, characterized by intense uplift periods, followed by subsidence phases with some episodic superimposed mini-uplifts. Ground deformation is an important volcanic precursor, and, its continuous monitoring, is one of the main tool for short time forecast of eruptive activity. This paper provides an overview of the continuous GPS monitoring of the Campi Flegrei caldera from January 2000 to July 2013, including network operations, data recording and processing, and data products. In this period the GPS time series allowed continuous and accurate tracking of ground deformation of the area. Seven main uplift episodes were detected, and during each uplift period, the recurrent horizontal displacement pattern, radial from the “caldera center”, suggests no significant change in deformation source geometry and location occurs. The complete archive of GPS time series at Campi Flegrei area is reported in the Supplementary materials. These data can be usefull for the scientific community in improving the research on Campi Flegrei caldera dynamic and hazard assessment.

  12. A GPS Sensing Strategy for Accurate and Energy-Efficient Outdoor-to-Indoor Handover in Seamless Localization Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yungeun Kim

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Indoor localization systems typically locate users on their own local coordinates, while outdoor localization systems use global coordinates. To achieve seamless localization from outdoors to indoors, a handover technique that accurately provides a starting position to the indoor localization system is needed. However, existing schemes assume that a starting position is known a priori or uses a naïve approach to consider the last location obtained from GPS as the handover point. In this paper, we propose an accurate handover scheme that monitors the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR of the effective GPS satellites that are selected according to their altitude. We also propose an energy-efficient handover mechanism that reduces the GPS sampling interval gradually. Accuracy and energy efficiency are experimentally validated with the GPS logs obtained in real life.

  13. The Performance Analysis of a Real-Time Integrated INS/GPS Vehicle Navigation System with Abnormal GPS Measurement Elimination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jhen-Kai Liao

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available The integration of an Inertial Navigation System (INS and the Global Positioning System (GPS is common in mobile mapping and navigation applications to seamlessly determine the position, velocity, and orientation of the mobile platform. In most INS/GPS integrated architectures, the GPS is considered to be an accurate reference with which to correct for the systematic errors of the inertial sensors, which are composed of biases, scale factors and drift. However, the GPS receiver may produce abnormal pseudo-range errors mainly caused by ionospheric delay, tropospheric delay and the multipath effect. These errors degrade the overall position accuracy of an integrated system that uses conventional INS/GPS integration strategies such as loosely coupled (LC and tightly coupled (TC schemes. Conventional tightly coupled INS/GPS integration schemes apply the Klobuchar model and the Hopfield model to reduce pseudo-range delays caused by ionospheric delay and tropospheric delay, respectively, but do not address the multipath problem. However, the multipath effect (from reflected GPS signals affects the position error far more significantly in a consumer-grade GPS receiver than in an expensive, geodetic-grade GPS receiver. To avoid this problem, a new integrated INS/GPS architecture is proposed. The proposed method is described and applied in a real-time integrated system with two integration strategies, namely, loosely coupled and tightly coupled schemes, respectively. To verify the effectiveness of the proposed method, field tests with various scenarios are conducted and the results are compared with a reliable reference system.

  14. Comparison of two-way satellite time transfer and GPS common-view time transfer between OCA and TUG

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirchner, Dieter; Thyr, U.; Ressler, H.; Robnik, R.; Grudler, P.; Baumont, Francoise S.; Veillet, Christian; Lewandowski, Wlodzimierz W.; Hanson, W.; Clements, A.

    1992-01-01

    For about one year the time scales UTC(OCA) and UTC(TUG) were compared by means of GPS and two-way satellite time transfer. At the end of the experiment both links were independently 'calibrated' by measuring the differential delays of the GPS receivers and of the satellite earth stations by transportation of a GPS receiver and of one of the satellite terminals. The results obtained by both methods differ by about 3 ns, but reveal a seasonal variation of about 8 ns peak-to-peak which is likely the result of a temperature-dependence of the delays of the GPS receivers used. For the comparison of both methods the stabilities of the timescales are of great importance. Unfortunately, during the last three months of the experiment a less stable clock had to be used for the generation of UTC(TUG).

  15. Comparison of GLONASS and GPS Time Transfers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daly, P.; Koshelyaevsky, N. B.; Lewandowski, W.; Petit, G.; Thomas, C.

    1993-01-01

    The Russian global space navigation system GLONASS could provide a technique similar to GPS for international time comparison. The main limitation to its use for time transfer is the lack of commercially available time receivers. The University of Leeds built a GPS/GLONASS receiver five years ago and since then has provided continuous information about GLONASS time and its comparison with GPS time. For the last two years the VNIIFTRI and several other Russian time laboratories have used Russian-built GLONASS navigation receivers for time comparisons. Since June 1991, the VNIIFTRI has operated a GPS time receiver which offers, for the first time, an opportunity for the direct comparison of time transfers using GPS and GLONASS. This seven-month experiment shows that even with relatively imprecise data recording and processing, in terms of time metrology, GLONASS can provide continental time transfer at a level of several tens of nanoseconds.

  16. Evaluation of some software measuring displacements using GPS in real-time

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langbein, John

    2006-01-01

    For the past decade, the USGS has been monitoring deformation at various locations in the western United States using continuous GPS. The main focus of these measurements are estimates of displacement averaged over one day. Essentially, these consist of recording at 30 seconds intervals the carrier-frequency phase-data (equivalent to travel-time) between a GPS receiver and the GPS satellite network. In turn, these observations, which are converted to pseudo—ranges, are processed using one of the “research grade” programs (GIPSY, Zumberge et al., or GAMIT, wwwgpsg.mit.edu/~simon/gtgk) to estimate the position of the GPS receiver averaged over 24 hours. However, it is possible and desirable to estimate the position of the receiver (actually the antenna) more frequently and to do this within a few seconds of the time actual measurement (known as real-time). A recent example, the 2004 Magnitude 6, Parkfield, California earthquake, demonstrated that having GPS estimates of position more frequently than simply a daily average is required if one requires discrimination between co-seismic and post-seismic deformation (Langbein et al., 2006). The high-rate estimates of position obtained at Parkfield show that post-seismic deformation started less than one-hour after the mainshock and that this deformation was roughly the same magnitude as the co-seismic deformation. The high-rate solutions for Parkfield were done by others including Yehuda Bock at UCSD and Kristine Larson at U. of Colorado, but not the USGS. The Parkfield experience points out the need for an in-house capability by the USGS to be able to accurately measure co-seismic displacements and other rapid, deformation signals using GPS. This applies to both the Earthquake and Volcano Hazard programs. Although at many locations where we monitor deformation, we have strainmeters and tiltmeters in addition to GPS which, in principle, are far more sensitive to rapid deformation over periods of less than a day

  17. Automated time activity classification based on global positioning system (GPS) tracking data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Jun; Jiang, Chengsheng; Houston, Douglas; Baker, Dean; Delfino, Ralph

    2011-11-14

    than the rule-based model under the condition of biased or poor quality training data. Our models can successfully identify indoor and in-vehicle travel points from the raw GPS data, but challenges remain in developing models to distinguish outdoor static points and walking. Accurate training data are essential in developing reliable models in classifying time-activity patterns.

  18. The use of the AOA TTR-4P GPS receiver in operation at the BIPM for real-time restitution of GPS time

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Claudine

    1994-01-01

    The Global Positioning System is an outstanding tool for the dissemination of time. Using mono-channel C/A-code GPS time receivers, the restitution of GPS time through the satellite constellation presents a peak-to-peak discrepancy of several tens of nanoseconds without SA but may be as high as several hundreds of nanoseconds with SA. As a consequence, civil users are more and more interested in implementing hardware and software methods for efficient restitution of GPS time, especially in the framework of the project of a real-time prediction of UTC (UTCp) which could be available in the form of time differences (UTCp - GPS time). Previous work, for improving the real-time restitution of GPS time with SA, to the level obtained without SA, focused on the implementation of a Kalman filter based on past data and updated at each new observation. An alternative solution relies upon the statistical features of the noise brought about by SA; it has already been shown that the SA noise is efficiently reduced by averaging data from numerous satellites observed simultaneously over a sufficiently long time. This method was successfully applied to data from a GPS time receiver, model AOA TTR-4P, connected to the cesium clock kept at the BIPM. This device, a multi-channel, dual frequency, P-code GPS time receiver, is one of the first TTR-4P units in operation in a civil laboratory. Preliminary comparative studies of this new equipment with conventional GPS time receivers are described in this paper. The results of an experimental restitution of GPS time, obtained in June 1993, are also detailed: 3 to 6 satellites were observed simultaneously with a sample interval of 15 s, an efficient smoothing of SA noise was realized by averaging data on all observed satellites over more than 1 hour. When the GPS system is complete in 1994, 8 satellites will be observable continuously from anywhere in the world and the same level of uncertainty will be obtained using a shorter averaging

  19. The use of ionospheric tomography and elevation masks to reduce the overall error in single-frequency GPS timing applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rose, Julian A. R.; Tong, Jenna R.; Allain, Damien J.; Mitchell, Cathryn N.

    2011-01-01

    accurate when satellites at lower elevations continue to be included: using a mask between 10° and 20°. MIDAS offers the most accurate and least variable single-frequency timing solution and accuracies to within 10 ns are achieved for fixed GPS receiver situations. Future improvements are anticipated by combining both GPS and Galileo data towards computing a timing solution.

  20. One-Centimeter Orbits in Near-Real Time: The GPS Experience on OSTM/JASON-2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haines, Bruce; Armatys, Michael; Bar-Sever, Yoaz; Bertiger, Willy; Desai, Shailen; Dorsey, Angela; Lane, Christopher; Weiss, Jan

    2010-01-01

    The advances in Precise Orbit Determination (POD) over the past three decades have been driven in large measure by the increasing demands of satellite altimetry missions. Since the launch of Seasat in 1978, both tracking-system technologies and orbit modeling capabilities have evolved considerably. The latest in a series of precise (TOPEX-class) altimeter missions is the Ocean Surface Topography Mission (OSTM, also Jason-2). GPS-based orbit solutions for this mission are accurate to 1-cm (radial RMS) within 3-5 hrs of real time. These GPS-based orbit products provide the basis for a near-real time sea-surface height product that supports increasingly diverse applications of operational oceanography and climate forecasting.

  1. An accurate Kriging-based regional ionospheric model using combined GPS/BeiDou observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdelazeem, Mohamed; Çelik, Rahmi N.; El-Rabbany, Ahmed

    2018-01-01

    In this study, we propose a regional ionospheric model (RIM) based on both of the GPS-only and the combined GPS/BeiDou observations for single-frequency precise point positioning (SF-PPP) users in Europe. GPS/BeiDou observations from 16 reference stations are processed in the zero-difference mode. A least-squares algorithm is developed to determine the vertical total electron content (VTEC) bi-linear function parameters for a 15-minute time interval. The Kriging interpolation method is used to estimate the VTEC values at a 1 ° × 1 ° grid. The resulting RIMs are validated for PPP applications using GNSS observations from another set of stations. The SF-PPP accuracy and convergence time obtained through the proposed RIMs are computed and compared with those obtained through the international GNSS service global ionospheric maps (IGS-GIM). The results show that the RIMs speed up the convergence time and enhance the overall positioning accuracy in comparison with the IGS-GIM model, particularly the combined GPS/BeiDou-based model.

  2. A Framework For Using GPS Data In Physical Activity And Sedentary Behavior Studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jankowska, Marta M; Schipperijn, Jasper; Kerr, Jacqueline

    2015-01-01

    Global Positioning Systems (GPS) are increasingly applied in activity studies, yet significant theoretical and methodological challenges remain. This paper presents a framework for integrating GPS data with other technologies to create dynamic representations of behaviors in context. Utilizing more...... accurate and sensitive measures to link behavior and environmental exposures allows for new research questions and methods to be developed. SUMMARY: Global Positioning Systems can be linked with other technologies to create dynamic representations of behaviors in context....

  3. MIDAS robust trend estimator for accurate GPS station velocities without step detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blewitt, Geoffrey; Kreemer, Corné; Hammond, William C.; Gazeaux, Julien

    2016-03-01

    Automatic estimation of velocities from GPS coordinate time series is becoming required to cope with the exponentially increasing flood of available data, but problems detectable to the human eye are often overlooked. This motivates us to find an automatic and accurate estimator of trend that is resistant to common problems such as step discontinuities, outliers, seasonality, skewness, and heteroscedasticity. Developed here, Median Interannual Difference Adjusted for Skewness (MIDAS) is a variant of the Theil-Sen median trend estimator, for which the ordinary version is the median of slopes vij = (xj-xi)/(tj-ti) computed between all data pairs i > j. For normally distributed data, Theil-Sen and least squares trend estimates are statistically identical, but unlike least squares, Theil-Sen is resistant to undetected data problems. To mitigate both seasonality and step discontinuities, MIDAS selects data pairs separated by 1 year. This condition is relaxed for time series with gaps so that all data are used. Slopes from data pairs spanning a step function produce one-sided outliers that can bias the median. To reduce bias, MIDAS removes outliers and recomputes the median. MIDAS also computes a robust and realistic estimate of trend uncertainty. Statistical tests using GPS data in the rigid North American plate interior show ±0.23 mm/yr root-mean-square (RMS) accuracy in horizontal velocity. In blind tests using synthetic data, MIDAS velocities have an RMS accuracy of ±0.33 mm/yr horizontal, ±1.1 mm/yr up, with a 5th percentile range smaller than all 20 automatic estimators tested. Considering its general nature, MIDAS has the potential for broader application in the geosciences.

  4. Urban Link Travel Time Prediction Based on a Gradient Boosting Method Considering Spatiotemporal Correlations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Faming Zhang

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The prediction of travel times is challenging because of the sparseness of real-time traffic data and the intrinsic uncertainty of travel on congested urban road networks. We propose a new gradient–boosted regression tree method to accurately predict travel times. This model accounts for spatiotemporal correlations extracted from historical and real-time traffic data for adjacent and target links. This method can deliver high prediction accuracy by combining simple regression trees with poor performance. It corrects the error found in existing models for improved prediction accuracy. Our spatiotemporal gradient–boosted regression tree model was verified in experiments. The training data were obtained from big data reflecting historic traffic conditions collected by probe vehicles in Wuhan from January to May 2014. Real-time data were extracted from 11 weeks of GPS records collected in Wuhan from 5 May 2014 to 20 July 2014. Based on these data, we predicted link travel time for the period from 21 July 2014 to 25 July 2014. Experiments showed that our proposed spatiotemporal gradient–boosted regression tree model obtained better results than gradient boosting, random forest, or autoregressive integrated moving average approaches. Furthermore, these results indicate the advantages of our model for urban link travel time prediction.

  5. Reduction in the ionospheric error for a single-frequency GPS timing solution using tomography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cathryn N. Mitchell

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available

    Times;">Abstract

    Times;">Single-frequency Global Positioning System (GPS receivers do not accurately compensate for the ionospheric delay imposed upon a GPS signal. They rely upon models to compensate for the ionosphere. This delay compensation can be improved by measuring it directly with a dual-frequency receiver, or by monitoring the ionosphere using real-time maps. This investigation uses a 4D tomographic algorithm, Multi Instrument Data Analysis System (MIDAS, to correct for the ionospheric delay and compares the results to existing single and dualfrequency techniques. Maps of the ionospheric electron density, across Europe, are produced by using data collected from a fixed network of dual-frequency GPS receivers. Single-frequency pseudorange observations are corrected by using the maps to find the excess propagation delay on the GPS L1 signals. Days during the solar maximum year 2002 and the October 2003 storm have been chosen to display results when the ionospheric delays are large and variable. Results that improve upon the use of existing ionospheric models are achieved by applying MIDAS to fixed and mobile single-frequency GPS timing solutions. The approach offers the potential for corrections to be broadcast over a local region, or provided via the internet and allows timing accuracies to within 10 ns to be achieved.



  6. GPS coordinate time series measurements in Ontario and Quebec, Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samadi Alinia, Hadis; Tiampo, Kristy F.; James, Thomas S.

    2017-06-01

    New precise network solutions for continuous GPS (cGPS) stations distributed in eastern Ontario and western Québec provide constraints on the regional three-dimensional crustal velocity field. Five years of continuous observations at fourteen cGPS sites were analyzed using Bernese GPS processing software. Several different sub-networks were chosen from these stations, and the data were processed and compared to in order to select the optimal configuration to accurately estimate the vertical and horizontal station velocities and minimize the associated errors. The coordinate time series were then compared to the crustal motions from global solutions and the optimized solution is presented here. A noise analysis model with power-law and white noise, which best describes the noise characteristics of all three components, was employed for the GPS time series analysis. The linear trend, associated uncertainties, and the spectral index of the power-law noise were calculated using a maximum likelihood estimation approach. The residual horizontal velocities, after removal of rigid plate motion, have a magnitude consistent with expected glacial isostatic adjustment (GIA). The vertical velocities increase from subsidence of almost 1.9 mm/year south of the Great Lakes to uplift near Hudson Bay, where the highest rate is approximately 10.9 mm/year. The residual horizontal velocities range from approximately 0.5 mm/year, oriented south-southeastward, at the Great Lakes to nearly 1.5 mm/year directed toward the interior of Hudson Bay at stations adjacent to its shoreline. Here, the velocity uncertainties are estimated at less than 0.6 mm/year for the horizontal component and 1.1 mm/year for the vertical component. A comparison between the observed velocities and GIA model predictions, for a limited range of Earth models, shows a better fit to the observations for the Earth model with the smallest upper mantle viscosity and the largest lower mantle viscosity. However, the

  7. Design and implementation of the GPS subsystem for the Radio Aurora eXplorer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spangelo, Sara C.; Bennett, Matthew W.; Meinzer, Daniel C.; Klesh, Andrew T.; Arlas, Jessica A.; Cutler, James W.

    2013-06-01

    This paper presents the design and implementation of the Global Positioning System (GPS) subsystem for the Radio Aurora eXplorer (RAX) CubeSat. The GPS subsystem provides accurate temporal and spatial information necessary to satisfy the science objectives of the RAX mission. There are many challenges in the successful design and implementation of a GPS subsystem for a CubeSat-based mission, including power, size, mass, and financial constraints. This paper presents an approach for selecting and testing the individual and integrated GPS subsystem components, including the receiver, antenna, low noise amplifier, and supporting circuitry. The procedures to numerically evaluate the GPS link budget and test the subsystem components at various stages of system integration are described. Performance results for simulated tests in the terrestrial and orbital environments are provided, including start-up times, carrier-to-noise ratios, and orbital position accuracy. Preliminary on-orbit GPS results from the RAX-1 and RAX-2 spacecraft are presented to validate the design process and pre-flight simulations. Overall, this paper provides a systematic approach to aid future satellite designers in implementing and verifying GPS subsystems for resource-constrained small satellites.

  8. Fundamentals of GPS Receivers A Hardware Approach

    CERN Document Server

    Doberstein, Dan

    2012-01-01

    While much of the current literature on GPS receivers is aimed at those intimately familiar with their workings, this volume summarizes the basic principles using as little mathematics as possible, and details the necessary specifications and circuits for constructing a GPS receiver that is accurate to within 300 meters. Dedicated sections deal with the features of the GPS signal and its data stream, the details of the receiver (using a hybrid design as exemplar), and more advanced receivers and topics including time and frequency measurements. Later segments discuss the Zarlink GPS receiver chip set, as well as providing a thorough examination of the TurboRogue receiver, one of the most accurate yet made. Guiding the reader through the concepts and circuitry, from the antenna to the solution of user position, the book’s deployment of a hybrid receiver as a basis for discussion allows for extrapolation of the core ideas to more complex, and more accurate designs. Digital methods are used, but any analogue c...

  9. Near real-time GPS applications for tsunami early warning systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Falck

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available GPS (Global Positioning System technology is widely used for positioning applications. Many of them have high requirements with respect to precision, reliability or fast product delivery, but usually not all at the same time as it is the case for early warning applications. The tasks for the GPS-based components within the GITEWS project (German Indonesian Tsunami Early Warning System, Rudloff et al., 2009 are to support the determination of sea levels (measured onshore and offshore and to detect co-seismic land mass displacements with the lowest possible latency (design goal: first reliable results after 5 min. The completed system was designed to fulfil these tasks in near real-time, rather than for scientific research requirements. The obtained data products (movements of GPS antennas are supporting the warning process in different ways. The measurements from GPS instruments on buoys allow the earliest possible detection or confirmation of tsunami waves on the ocean. Onshore GPS measurements are made collocated with tide gauges or seismological stations and give information about co-seismic land mass movements as recorded, e.g., during the great Sumatra-Andaman earthquake of 2004 (Subarya et al., 2006. This information is important to separate tsunami-caused sea height movements from apparent sea height changes at tide gauge locations (sensor station movement and also as additional information about earthquakes' mechanisms, as this is an essential information to predict a tsunami (Sobolev et al., 2007.

    This article gives an end-to-end overview of the GITEWS GPS-component system, from the GPS sensors (GPS receiver with GPS antenna and auxiliary systems, either onshore or offshore to the early warning centre displays. We describe how the GPS sensors have been installed, how they are operated and the methods used to collect, transfer and process the GPS data in near real-time. This includes the sensor system design, the communication

  10. GPS Time Synchronization in School-Network Cosmic Ray Detectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berns, H.-G.; Burnett, T. H.; Gran, R.; Wilkes, R. J.

    2004-06-01

    The QuarkNet DAQ card for school-network cosmic ray detectors provides a low-cost alternative to using standard particle and nuclear physics fast pulse electronics modules. The board, which can be produced at a cost of less than $500.00 (USD), produces trigger time and pulse edge time data for 2- to 4-fold coincidence levels via a universal RS232 serial port interface, usable with any PC. Individual detector stations, each consisting of four scintillation counter modules, front-end electronics, and a GPS receiver, produce a stream of data in form of ASCII text strings in identifiable set of formats for different functions. The card includes a low-cost GPS receiver module, which permits time-stamping event triggers to about 50 nanosecond accuracy in UTC between widely separated sites. The technique used for obtaining precise GPS time employs the 1PPS signal, which is not normally available to users of the commercial GPS module. We had the stock model slightly custom-modified to access this signal. The method for deriving time values was adapted from methods developed for the K2K long-baseline neutrino experiment. Performance of the low-cost GPS module used is compared to that of a more expensive unit with known quality.

  11. Real-time GPS seismology using a single receiver: method comparison, error analysis and precision validation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xingxing

    2014-05-01

    Earthquake monitoring and early warning system for hazard assessment and mitigation has traditional been based on seismic instruments. However, for large seismic events, it is difficult for traditional seismic instruments to produce accurate and reliable displacements because of the saturation of broadband seismometers and problematic integration of strong-motion data. Compared with the traditional seismic instruments, GPS can measure arbitrarily large dynamic displacements without saturation, making them particularly valuable in case of large earthquakes and tsunamis. GPS relative positioning approach is usually adopted to estimate seismic displacements since centimeter-level accuracy can be achieved in real-time by processing double-differenced carrier-phase observables. However, relative positioning method requires a local reference station, which might itself be displaced during a large seismic event, resulting in misleading GPS analysis results. Meanwhile, the relative/network approach is time-consuming, particularly difficult for the simultaneous and real-time analysis of GPS data from hundreds or thousands of ground stations. In recent years, several single-receiver approaches for real-time GPS seismology, which can overcome the reference station problem of the relative positioning approach, have been successfully developed and applied to GPS seismology. One available method is real-time precise point positioning (PPP) relied on precise satellite orbit and clock products. However, real-time PPP needs a long (re)convergence period, of about thirty minutes, to resolve integer phase ambiguities and achieve centimeter-level accuracy. In comparison with PPP, Colosimo et al. (2011) proposed a variometric approach to determine the change of position between two adjacent epochs, and then displacements are obtained by a single integration of the delta positions. This approach does not suffer from convergence process, but the single integration from delta positions to

  12. Real-Time Single-Frequency GPS/MEMS-IMU Attitude Determination of Lightweight UAVs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eling, Christian; Klingbeil, Lasse; Kuhlmann, Heiner

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, a newly-developed direct georeferencing system for the guidance, navigation and control of lightweight unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs), having a weight limit of 5 kg and a size limit of 1.5 m, and for UAV-based surveying and remote sensing applications is presented. The system is intended to provide highly accurate positions and attitudes (better than 5 cm and 0.5∘) in real time, using lightweight components. The main focus of this paper is on the attitude determination with the system. This attitude determination is based on an onboard single-frequency GPS baseline, MEMS (micro-electro-mechanical systems) inertial sensor readings, magnetic field observations and a 3D position measurement. All of this information is integrated in a sixteen-state error space Kalman filter. Special attention in the algorithm development is paid to the carrier phase ambiguity resolution of the single-frequency GPS baseline observations. We aim at a reliable and instantaneous ambiguity resolution, since the system is used in urban areas, where frequent losses of the GPS signal lock occur and the GPS measurement conditions are challenging. Flight tests and a comparison to a navigation-grade inertial navigation system illustrate the performance of the developed system in dynamic situations. Evaluations show that the accuracies of the system are 0.05∘ for the roll and the pitch angle and 0.2∘ for the yaw angle. The ambiguities of the single-frequency GPS baseline can be resolved instantaneously in more than 90% of the cases. PMID:26501281

  13. GPS test range mission planning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Iris P.; Hancock, Thomas P.

    The principal features of the Test Range User Mission Planner (TRUMP), a PC-resident tool designed to aid in deploying and utilizing GPS-based test range assets, are reviewed. TRUMP features time history plots of time-space-position information (TSPI); performance based on a dynamic GPS/inertial system simulation; time history plots of TSPI data link connectivity; digital terrain elevation data maps with user-defined cultural features; and two-dimensional coverage plots of ground-based test range assets. Some functions to be added during the next development phase are discussed.

  14. Comparison of GLONASS and GPS time transfers between two west European time laboratories and VNIIFTRI

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daly, P.; Koshelyaevsky, N. B.; Lewandowski, Wlodzimierz; Petit, Gerard; Thomas, Claudine

    1992-01-01

    The University of Leeds built a Global Positioning System/Global Orbiting Navigation Satellite System (GPS/GLONASS) receiver about five years ago and since then has provided continuous information about GLONASS time and its comparison with GPS time. For the last two years, VNIIFTRI (All Union Institute for Physical, Technical and Radiotechnical Measurements) and some other Soviet time laboratories have used Soviet built GLONASS navigation receivers for time comparisons. Since June 1991, VNIIFTIR has been operating a GPS time receiver on loan from the BIPM (Bureau International des Poids et Mesures). This offered, for the first time, an opportunity for direct comparison of time transfers using GPS and GLONASS. This experiment shows that even with relatively imprecise data recording and processing, in terms of time metrology, GLONASS can provide continental time transfer at a level of several tens of nanoseconds.

  15. GPS measurements in Satakunta area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poutanen, M.; Nyberg, S.; Ahola, J.

    2010-10-01

    background of the GPS measurements, introduce the GeoSatakunta GPS network, discuss the GPS processing and present the results of the time series analysis. More measurement campaigns are anticipated in the future but it is not necessary to carry out measurements as frequently. Observing every 2-3 years one can monitor long-term trends but the epoch of abrupt movements are not possible to get accurately. The GPS network can be used also as a reference for the cities and municipalities in the area. It is the most accurately measured regional network in Finland and its free access and open structure allows the use for many common purposes. (orig.)

  16. Study of the GPS inter-frequency calibration of timing receivers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Defraigne, P.; Huang, W.; Bertrand, B.; Rovera, D.

    2018-02-01

    When calibrating Global Positioning System (GPS) stations dedicated to timing, the hardware delays of P1 and P2, the P(Y)-codes on frequencies L1 and L2, are determined separately. In the international atomic time (TAI) network the GPS stations of the time laboratories are calibrated relatively against reference stations. This paper aims at determining the consistency between the P1 and P2 hardware delays (called dP1 and dP2) of these reference stations, and to look at the stability of the inter-signal hardware delays dP1-dP2 of all the stations in the network. The method consists of determining the dP1-dP2 directly from the GPS pseudorange measurements corrected for the frequency-dependent antenna phase center and the frequency-dependent ionosphere corrections, and then to compare these computed dP1-dP2 to the calibrated values. Our results show that the differences between the computed and calibrated dP1-dP2 are well inside the expected combined uncertainty of the two quantities. Furthermore, the consistency between the calibrated time transfer solution obtained from either single-frequency P1 or dual-frequency P3 for reference laboratories is shown to be about 1.0 ns, well inside the 2.1 ns uB uncertainty of a time transfer link based on GPS P3 or Precise Point Positioning. This demonstrates the good consistency between the P1 and P2 hardware delays of the reference stations used for calibration in the TAI network. The long-term stability of the inter-signal hardware delays is also analysed from the computed dP1-dP2. It is shown that only variations larger than 2 ns can be detected for a particular station, while variations of 200 ps can be detected when differentiating the results between two stations. Finally, we also show that in the differential calibration process as used in the TAI network, using the same antenna phase center or using different positions for L1 and L2 signals gives maximum differences of 200 ps on the hardware delays of the separate

  17. Relativistic Time Transfer for Inter-satellite Links

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xie, Yi, E-mail: yixie@nju.edu.cn [Department of Astronomy, School of Astronomy and Space Sciences, Nanjing University, Nanjing (China); Shanghai Key Laboratory of Space Navigation and Position Techniques, Shanghai (China); Key Laboratory of Modern Astronomy and Astrophysics, Nanjing University, Ministry of Education, Nanjing (China)

    2016-04-26

    Inter-Satellite links (ISLs) will be an important technique for a global navigation satellite system (GNSS) in the future. Based on the principles of general relativity, the time transfer in an ISL is modeled and the algorithm for onboard computation is described. It is found, in general, satellites with circular orbits and identical semi-major axes can benefit inter-satellite time transfer by canceling out terms associated with the transformations between the proper times and the Geocentric Coordinate Time. For a GPS-like GNSS, the Shapiro delay is as large as 0.1 ns when the ISL passes at the limb of the Earth. However, in more realistic cases, this value will decrease to about 50 ps.

  18. Study on index system of GPS interference effect evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Kun; Zeng, Fangling; Zhao, Yuan; Zeng, Ruiqi

    2018-05-01

    Satellite navigation interference effect evaluation is the key technology to break through the research of Navigation countermeasure. To evaluate accurately the interference degree and Anti-jamming ability of GPS receiver, this text based on the existing research results of Navigation interference effect evaluation, build the index system of GPS receiver effectiveness evaluation from four levels of signal acquisition, tracking, demodulation and positioning/timing and establish the model for each index. These indexes can accurately and quantitatively describe the interference effect at all levels.

  19. VLBI and GPS-based Time-Transfer Using CONT08 Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rieck, Carsten; Haas, Ruediger; Jaldehag, Kenneth; Jahansson, Jan

    2010-01-01

    One important prerequisite for geodetic Very Long Baseline Interferometry (VLBI) is the use of frequency standards with excellent short term stability. This makes VLBI stations, which are often co-located with Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) receiving stations, interesting for studies of time- and frequency-transfer techniques. We present an assessment of VLBI time-transfer based on the data of the two week long consecutive IVS CONT08 VLBI campaign by using GPS Carrier Phase (GPSCP). CONT08 was a 15 day long campaign in August 2008 that involved eleven VLBI stations on five continents. For CONT08 we estimated the worst case VLBI frequency link stability between the stations of Onsala and Wettzell to 1e-15 at one day. Comparisons with GPSCP confirm the VLBI results. We also identify time-transfer related challenges of the VLBI technique as used today.

  20. Operating Time Division for a Bus Route Based on the Recovery of GPS Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jian Wang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Bus travel time is an important source of data for time of day partition of the bus route. However, in practice, a bus driver may deliberately speed up or slow down on route so as to follow the predetermined timetable. The raw GPS data collected by the GPS device equipped on the bus, as a result, cannot reflect its real operating conditions. To address this concern, this study first develops a method to identify whether there is deliberate speed-up or slow-down movement of a bus. Building upon the relationships between the intersection delay, link travel time, and traffic flow, a recovery method is established for calculating the real bus travel time. Using the dwell time at each stop and the recovered travel time between each of them as the division indexes, a sequential clustering-based time of day partition method is proposed. The effectiveness of the developed method is demonstrated using the data of bus route 63 in Harbin, China. Results show that the partition method can help bus enterprises to design reasonable time of day intervals and significantly improve their level of service.

  1. Toward Continuous GPS Carrier-Phase Time Transfer: Eliminating the Time Discontinuity at an Anomaly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Jian; Levine, Judah; Weiss, Marc

    2015-01-01

    The wide application of Global Positioning System (GPS) carrier-phase (CP) time transfer is limited by the problem of boundary discontinuity (BD). The discontinuity has two categories. One is "day boundary discontinuity," which has been studied extensively and can be solved by multiple methods [1-8]. The other category of discontinuity, called "anomaly boundary discontinuity (anomaly-BD)," comes from a GPS data anomaly. The anomaly can be a data gap (i.e., missing data), a GPS measurement error (i.e., bad data), or a cycle slip. Initial study of the anomaly-BD shows that we can fix the discontinuity if the anomaly lasts no more than 20 min, using the polynomial curve-fitting strategy to repair the anomaly [9]. However, sometimes, the data anomaly lasts longer than 20 min. Thus, a better curve-fitting strategy is in need. Besides, a cycle slip, as another type of data anomaly, can occur and lead to an anomaly-BD. To solve these problems, this paper proposes a new strategy, i.e., the satellite-clock-aided curve fitting strategy with the function of cycle slip detection. Basically, this new strategy applies the satellite clock correction to the GPS data. After that, we do the polynomial curve fitting for the code and phase data, as before. Our study shows that the phase-data residual is only ~3 mm for all GPS satellites. The new strategy also detects and finds the number of cycle slips by searching the minimum curve-fitting residual. Extensive examples show that this new strategy enables us to repair up to a 40-min GPS data anomaly, regardless of whether the anomaly is due to a data gap, a cycle slip, or a combination of the two. We also find that interference of the GPS signal, known as "jamming", can possibly lead to a time-transfer error, and that this new strategy can compensate for jamming outages. Thus, the new strategy can eliminate the impact of jamming on time transfer. As a whole, we greatly improve the robustness of the GPS CP time transfer.

  2. An Accurate Link Correlation Estimator for Improving Wireless Protocol Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Zhiwei; Xu, Xianghua; Dong, Wei; Bu, Jiajun

    2015-01-01

    Wireless link correlation has shown significant impact on the performance of various sensor network protocols. Many works have been devoted to exploiting link correlation for protocol improvements. However, the effectiveness of these designs heavily relies on the accuracy of link correlation measurement. In this paper, we investigate state-of-the-art link correlation measurement and analyze the limitations of existing works. We then propose a novel lightweight and accurate link correlation estimation (LACE) approach based on the reasoning of link correlation formation. LACE combines both long-term and short-term link behaviors for link correlation estimation. We implement LACE as a stand-alone interface in TinyOS and incorporate it into both routing and flooding protocols. Simulation and testbed results show that LACE: (1) achieves more accurate and lightweight link correlation measurements than the state-of-the-art work; and (2) greatly improves the performance of protocols exploiting link correlation. PMID:25686314

  3. Dynamic Travel Time Prediction Models for Buses Using Only GPS Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Fan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Providing real-time and accurate travel time information of transit vehicles can be very helpful as it assists passengers in planning their trips to minimize waiting times. The purpose of this research is to develop and compare dynamic travel time prediction models which can provide accurate prediction of bus travel time in order to give real-time information at a given downstream bus stop using only global positioning system (GPS data. Historical Average (HA, Kalman Filtering (KF and Artificial Neural Network (ANN models are considered and developed in this paper. A case has been studied by making use of the three models. Promising results are obtained from the case study, indicating that the models can be used to implement an Advanced Public Transport System. The implementation of this system could assist transit operators in improving the reliability of bus services, thus attracting more travelers to transit vehicles and helping relieve congestion. The performances of the three models were assessed and compared with each other under two criteria: overall prediction accuracy and robustness. It was shown that the ANN outperformed the other two models in both aspects. In conclusion, it is shown that bus travel time information can be reasonably provided using only arrival and departure time information at stops even in the absence of traffic-stream data.

  4. Kinematic-PPP using Single/Dual Frequency Observations from (GPS, GLONASS and GPS/GLONASS) Constellations for Hydrography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farah, Ashraf

    2018-03-01

    Global Positioning System (GPS) technology is ideally suited for inshore and offshore positioning because of its high accuracy and the short observation time required for a position fix. Precise point positioning (PPP) is a technique used for position computation with a high accuracy using a single GNSS receiver. It relies on highly accurate satellite position and clock data that can be acquired from different sources such as the International GNSS Service (IGS). PPP precision varies based on positioning technique (static or kinematic), observations type (single or dual frequency) and the duration of observations among other factors. PPP offers comparable accuracy to differential GPS with safe in cost and time. For many years, PPP users depended on GPS (American system) which considered the solely reliable system. GLONASS's contribution in PPP techniques was limited due to fail in maintaining full constellation. Yet, GLONASS limited observations could be integrated into GPS-based PPP to improve availability and precision. As GLONASS reached its full constellation early 2013, there is a wide interest in PPP systems based on GLONASS only and independent of GPS. This paper investigates the performance of kinematic PPP solution for the hydrographic applications in the Nile river (Aswan, Egypt) based on GPS, GLONASS and GPS/GLONASS constellations. The study investigates also the effect of using two different observation types; single-frequency and dual frequency observations from the tested constellations.

  5. High-precision coseismic displacement estimation with a single-frequency GPS receiver

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Bofeng; Zhang, Xiaohong; Ren, Xiaodong; Li, Xingxing

    2015-07-01

    To improve the performance of Global Positioning System (GPS) in the earthquake/tsunami early warning and rapid response applications, minimizing the blind zone and increasing the stability and accuracy of both the rapid source and rupture inversion, the density of existing GPS networks must be increased in the areas at risk. For economic reasons, low-cost single-frequency receivers would be preferable to make the sparse dual-frequency GPS networks denser. When using single-frequency GPS receivers, the main problem that must be solved is the ionospheric delay, which is a critical factor when determining accurate coseismic displacements. In this study, we introduce a modified Satellite-specific Epoch-differenced Ionospheric Delay (MSEID) model to compensate for the effect of ionospheric error on single-frequency GPS receivers. In the MSEID model, the time-differenced ionospheric delays observed from a regional dual-frequency GPS network to a common satellite are fitted to a plane rather than part of a sphere, and the parameters of this plane are determined by using the coordinates of the stations. When the parameters are known, time-differenced ionospheric delays for a single-frequency GPS receiver could be derived from the observations of those dual-frequency receivers. Using these ionospheric delay corrections, coseismic displacements of a single-frequency GPS receiver can be accurately calculated based on time-differenced carrier-phase measurements in real time. The performance of the proposed approach is validated using 5 Hz GPS data collected during the 2012 Nicoya Peninsula Earthquake (Mw 7.6, 2012 September 5) in Costa Rica. This shows that the proposed approach improves the accuracy of the displacement of a single-frequency GPS station, and coseismic displacements with an accuracy of a few centimetres are achieved over a 10-min interval.

  6. Are part timers real GPs? Attitudes of general practitioners toward those who work part time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazza, D; Northfield, S

    2000-09-01

    Current attitudes within the medical profession suggest that one cannot be a 'real' doctor unless one works full time. The aim of this study was to determine the views and attitudes of a sample of GPs toward part time practice. As part of a larger study, GPs in two divisions in metropolitan Melbourne were sent a questionnaire based survey. GPs were asked to rate statements about part time practice using a Likert scale. The response rate was 55% (n = 246). The majority of GPs disagreed with the statement 'part time GPs are not real GPs' but feelings were mixed about whether part timers covered the same range of clinical content as full timers. One fifth of respondents questioned the competence of part time GPs. Male GPs, those over 55 years and full timers were more likely to hold negative views toward part time general practice. Our results show a 'generational' pattern toward part time practice. With the increasing numbers of women entering general practice, these attitudes will need to change to accommodate the fact that more GPs will be choosing to work part time in the future.

  7. Use of link to mammography screening information and link sharing strategies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mukai, Thomas; Bro, Flemming; Olesen, Frede

    2011-01-01

    -43%) reported use of the link. The difference between the two strategies was 15% (95% CI: 8-22%) (Pused the link prior to the screening event, and 37% (95% CI: 30-43%) used the link afterwards. The difference was 9% (95% CI: 0-17%) (P=0.035). Among the GPs in group 1, 40% (95% CI......Introduction: The Internet is increasingly being used for disseminating knowledge in health care. Often this is done through a ‘Uniform Resource Locator’ (URL), better known as a link. There are three ways of sharing a link: verbally, in print or electronically. Furthermore, timing and exposure...... in Central Denmark Region, we constructed a website containing screening programme information for GPs. We inserted the link to this website in different media and divided the GPs into three groups: Group 1 received a letter prior to the screening event and an electronic test result after the screening...

  8. An Accurate GPS-IMU/DR Data Fusion Method for Driverless Car Based on a Set of Predictive Models and Grid Constraints.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shiyao; Deng, Zhidong; Yin, Gang

    2016-02-24

    A high-performance differential global positioning system (GPS)  receiver with real time kinematics provides absolute localization for driverless cars. However, it is not only susceptible to multipath effect but also unable to effectively fulfill precise error correction in a wide range of driving areas. This paper proposes an accurate GPS-inertial measurement unit (IMU)/dead reckoning (DR) data fusion method based on a set of predictive models and occupancy grid constraints. First, we employ a set of autoregressive and moving average (ARMA) equations that have different structural parameters to build maximum likelihood models of raw navigation. Second, both grid constraints and spatial consensus checks on all predictive results and current measurements are required to have removal of outliers. Navigation data that satisfy stationary stochastic process are further fused to achieve accurate localization results. Third, the standard deviation of multimodal data fusion can be pre-specified by grid size. Finally, we perform a lot of field tests on a diversity of real urban scenarios. The experimental results demonstrate that the method can significantly smooth small jumps in bias and considerably reduce accumulated position errors due to DR. With low computational complexity, the position accuracy of our method surpasses existing state-of-the-arts on the same dataset and the new data fusion method is practically applied in our driverless car.

  9. White Rabbit Precision Time Protocol on Long-Distance Fiber Links.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dierikx, Erik F; Wallin, Anders E; Fordell, Thomas; Myyry, Jani; Koponen, Petri; Merimaa, Mikko; Pinkert, Tjeerd J; Koelemeij, Jeroen C J; Peek, Henk Z; Smets, Rob

    2016-07-01

    The application of White Rabbit precision time protocol (WR-PTP) in long-distance optical fiber links has been investigated. WR-PTP is an implementation of PTP in synchronous Ethernet optical fiber networks, originally intended for synchronization of equipment within a range of 10 km. This paper discusses the results and limitations of two implementations of WR-PTP in the existing communication fiber networks. A 950-km WR-PTP link was realized using unidirectional paths in a fiber pair between Espoo and Kajaani, Finland. The time transfer on this link was compared (after initial calibration) against a clock comparison by GPS precise point positioning (PPP). The agreement between the two methods remained within [Formula: see text] over three months of measurements. Another WR-PTP implementation was realized between Delft and Amsterdam, the Netherlands, by cascading two links of 137 km each. In this case, the WR links were realized as bidirectional paths in single fibers. The measured time offset between the starting and end points of the link was within 5 ns with an uncertainty of 8 ns, mainly due to the estimated delay asymmetry caused by chromatic dispersion.

  10. GPS/Loran-C interoperability for time and frequency applications: A survey of the times of arrival of Loran-C transmissions via GPS common mode/common view satellite observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Penrod, Bruce; Funderburk, Richard; Dana, Peter

    1990-01-01

    The results from this survey clearly indicate that the Global Positioning System (GPS) time transfer capability is superior to that of the Loran-C system for absolute timing accuracy, and that even with the most careful calibration of the Loran-C receiver delay and propagation path, inexplicable time of arrival (TOA) biases remain which are larger than the variations across all of the transmitters. Much more data covering years would be needed to show that these biases were stable enough to be removed with a one time site calibration. The synchronization of the transmissions is excellent, all showing low parts in 10(exp 13) offsets versus the United States Naval Observatory (USNO) master clock. With the exception of the Searchlight transmitter, all of the transmissions exhibit timing stabilities over the entire period of less than 300 ns RMS which is at the observed levels of GPS under selective availability (SA). The Loran-C phase instabilities take place over a much greater time interval than those being forced onto the GPS signals under SA, providing for better medium to short term frequency stability. Data show that all but the most distant transmitters offer better than three parts in 10(exp 11) stability at this averaging time. It is in the frequency control area where GPS/Loran-C interoperation will offer some synergistic advantages over GPS alone under SA.

  11. Linking GPS Telemetry Surveys and Scat Analyses Helps Explain Variability in Black Bear Foraging Strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lesmerises, Rémi; Rebouillat, Lucie; Dussault, Claude; St-Laurent, Martin-Hugues

    2015-01-01

    Studying diet is fundamental to animal ecology and scat analysis, a widespread approach, is considered a reliable dietary proxy. Nonetheless, this method has weaknesses such as non-random sampling of habitats and individuals, inaccurate evaluation of excretion date, and lack of assessment of inter-individual dietary variability. We coupled GPS telemetry and scat analyses of black bears Ursus americanus Pallas to relate diet to individual characteristics and habitat use patterns while foraging. We captured 20 black bears (6 males and 14 females) and fitted them with GPS/Argos collars. We then surveyed GPS locations shortly after individual bear visits and collected 139 feces in 71 different locations. Fecal content (relative dry matter biomass of ingested items) was subsequently linked to individual characteristics (sex, age, reproductive status) and to habitats visited during foraging bouts using Brownian bridges based on GPS locations prior to feces excretion. At the population level, diet composition was similar to what was previously described in studies on black bears. However, our individual-based method allowed us to highlight different intra-population patterns, showing that sex and female reproductive status had significant influence on individual diet. For example, in the same habitats, females with cubs did not use the same food sources as lone bears. Linking fecal content (i.e., food sources) to habitat previously visited by different individuals, we demonstrated a potential differential use of similar habitats dependent on individual characteristics. Females with cubs-of-the-year tended to use old forest clearcuts (6-20 years old) to feed on bunchberry, whereas females with yearling foraged for blueberry and lone bears for ants. Coupling GPS telemetry and scat analyses allows for efficient detection of inter-individual or inter-group variations in foraging strategies and of linkages between previous habitat use and food consumption, even for cryptic

  12. Linking GPS Telemetry Surveys and Scat Analyses Helps Explain Variability in Black Bear Foraging Strategies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rémi Lesmerises

    Full Text Available Studying diet is fundamental to animal ecology and scat analysis, a widespread approach, is considered a reliable dietary proxy. Nonetheless, this method has weaknesses such as non-random sampling of habitats and individuals, inaccurate evaluation of excretion date, and lack of assessment of inter-individual dietary variability. We coupled GPS telemetry and scat analyses of black bears Ursus americanus Pallas to relate diet to individual characteristics and habitat use patterns while foraging. We captured 20 black bears (6 males and 14 females and fitted them with GPS/Argos collars. We then surveyed GPS locations shortly after individual bear visits and collected 139 feces in 71 different locations. Fecal content (relative dry matter biomass of ingested items was subsequently linked to individual characteristics (sex, age, reproductive status and to habitats visited during foraging bouts using Brownian bridges based on GPS locations prior to feces excretion. At the population level, diet composition was similar to what was previously described in studies on black bears. However, our individual-based method allowed us to highlight different intra-population patterns, showing that sex and female reproductive status had significant influence on individual diet. For example, in the same habitats, females with cubs did not use the same food sources as lone bears. Linking fecal content (i.e., food sources to habitat previously visited by different individuals, we demonstrated a potential differential use of similar habitats dependent on individual characteristics. Females with cubs-of-the-year tended to use old forest clearcuts (6-20 years old to feed on bunchberry, whereas females with yearling foraged for blueberry and lone bears for ants. Coupling GPS telemetry and scat analyses allows for efficient detection of inter-individual or inter-group variations in foraging strategies and of linkages between previous habitat use and food consumption, even

  13. Accurate Localization of Communicant Vehicles using GPS and Vision Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Georges CHALLITA

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available The new generation of ADAS systems based on cooperation between vehicles can offer serious perspectives to the road security. The inter-vehicle cooperation is made possible thanks to the revolution in the wireless mobile ad hoc network. In this paper, we will develop a system that will minimize the imprecision of the GPS used to car tracking, based on the data given by the GPS which means the coordinates and speed in addition to the use of the vision data that will be collected from the loading system in the vehicle (camera and processor. Localization information can be exchanged between the vehicles through a wireless communication device. The creation of the system must adopt the Monte Carlo Method or what we call a particle filter for the treatment of the GPS data and vision data. An experimental study of this system is performed on our fleet of experimental communicating vehicles.

  14. Development of a Real-Time GPS/Seismic Displacement Meter: Applications to Civilian Infrastructure in Orange and Western Riverside Counties, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bock, Yehuda

    2005-01-01

    develop both the wireless networks and the integrated, seamless, and transparent information management system that will deliver seismic, geodetic, oceanographic, hydrological, ecological, and physical data to a variety of end users in real-time in the San Diego region. CSRC is interested in providing users access to real-time, accurate GPS data for a wide variety of applications including RTK surveying/GIS and positioning of moving platforms such as aircraft and emergency vehicles. SCIGN is interested in upgrading sites to high-frequency real-time operations for rapid earthquake response and GPS seismology. The successful outcome of the project will allow the implementation of similar systems elsewhere, particularly in plate boundary zones with significant populations and civilian infrastructure. CSRC would like to deploy the GPS/Seismic System in other parts of California, in particular San Diego, Los Angeles County and the San Francisco Bay Area.

  15. Real-Time Vehicle Data Logging System Using GPS And GSM

    OpenAIRE

    Win Minn Thet; MyoMaung Maung; Hla Myo Tun

    2015-01-01

    Abstract This paper proposes and implements a low cost Vehicle Data Logging System using GPS and GSM. This system allows a user to trace the present and past positions recorded in SD card. This system also reads the current position of the vehicle using GPS the data is sent via GSM service from the GSM network. The vehicles position including the driving speed the UTC time and data are stored in the SD card for live and past tracking. All of that GPS data is sent to PIC 18F4520 by the Uni...

  16. A Mobile GPS Application: Mosque Tracking with Prayer Time Synchronization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashim, Rathiah; Ikhmatiar, Mohammad Sibghotulloh; Surip, Miswan; Karmin, Masiri; Herawan, Tutut

    Global Positioning System (GPS) is a popular technology applied in many areas and embedded in many devices, facilitating end-users to navigate effectively to user's intended destination via the best calculated route. The ability of GPS to track precisely according to coordinates of specific locations can be utilized to assist a Muslim traveler visiting or passing an unfamiliar place to find the nearest mosque in order to perform his prayer. However, not many techniques have been proposed for Mosque tracking. This paper presents the development of GPS technology in tracking the nearest mosque using mobile application software embedded with the prayer time's synchronization system on a mobile application. The prototype GPS system developed has been successfully incorporated with a map and several mosque locations.

  17. GPS Composite Clock Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Wright, James R.

    2008-01-01

    The GPS composite clock defines GPS time, the timescale used today in GPS operations. GPS time is illuminated by examination of its role in the complete estimation and control problem relative to UTC/TAI. The phase of each GPS clock is unobservable from GPS pseudorange measurements, and the mean phase of the GPS clock ensemble (GPS time) is unobservable. A new and useful observability definition is presented, together with new observability theorems, to demonstrate explicitly that GPS time is...

  18. Contents of GPS Data Files

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sullivan, John P. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Carver, Matthew Robert [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Norman, Benjamin [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2016-12-09

    There are no very detailed descriptions of most of these instruments in the literature – we will attempt to fix that problem in the future. The BDD instruments are described in [1]. One of the dosimeter instruments on CXD boxes is described in [2]. These documents (or web links to them) and a few others are in this directory tree. The cross calibration of the CXD electron data with RBSP is described in [3]. Each row in the data file contains the data from one time bin from a CXD or BDD instrument along with a variety of parameters derived from the data. Time steps are commandable but 4 minutes is a typical setting. These instruments are on many (but not all) GPS satellites which are currently in operation. The data come from either BDD instruments on GPS Block IIR satellites (SVN41 and 48), or else CXD-IIR instruments on GPS Block IIR and IIR-M satellites (SVN53-61) or CXD-IIF instruments on GPS block IIF satellites (SVN62-73). The CXD-IIR instruments on block IIR and IIR(M) satellites use the same design.

  19. Integrating GIS and GPS in environmental remediation oversight

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaletsky, K.; Earle, J.R.; Schneider, T.A.

    1996-01-01

    This paper presents findings on Ohio EPA Office of Federal Facilities Oversight's (OFFO) use of GIS and GPS for environmental remediation oversight at the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) Fernald Site. The Fernald site is a former uranium metal production facility within DOE's nuclear weapons complex. Significant uranium contamination of soil and groundwater is being remediated under state and federal regulations. OFFO uses GIS/GPS to enhance environmental monitoring and remediation oversight. These technologies are utilized within OFFO's environmental monitoring program for sample location and parameter selection, data interpretation and presentation. GPS is used to integrate sample data into OFFO's GIS and for permanently linking precise and accurate geographic data to samples and waste units. It is important to identify contamination geographically as all visual references (e.g., buildings, infrastructure) will be removed during remediation. Availability of the GIS allows OFFO to perform independent analysis and review of DOE contractor generated data, models, maps, and designs. This ability helps alleviate concerns associated with open-quotes black boxclose quotes models and data interpretation. OFFO's independent analysis has increased regulatory confidence and the efficiency of design reviews. GIS/GPS technology allows OFFO to record and present complex data in a visual format aiding in stakeholder education and awareness. Presented are OFFO's achievements within the aforementioned activities and some reasons learned in implementing the GIS/GPS program. OFFO's two years of GIS/GPS development have resulted in numerous lessons learned and ideas for increasing effectiveness through the use of GIS/GPS

  20. Evaluating the performance of a low-cost GPS in precision agriculture applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Kjeld; Larsen, Morten; Simonsen, Tom

    2012-01-01

    Field Robots are often equipped with a Real Time Kinematic (RTK) GPS to obtain precise positioning. In many precision agriculture applications, however, the robot operates in semi-structured environments like orchards and row crops, where local sensors such as computer vision and laser range...... scanners can produce accurate positioning relative to the crops. GPS is then primarily needed for robust inter-row navigation. This work evaluates a new low-cost GPS. Static tests were used to test the absolute accuracy. To test the GPS in a precision agriculture environment it was installed on a robot...

  1. A GPS-based Real-time Road Traffic Monitoring System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanti, Kamal Kumar

    In recent years, monitoring systems are astonishingly inclined towards ever more automatic; reliably interconnected, distributed and autonomous operation. Specifically, the measurement, logging, data processing and interpretation activities may be carried out by separate units at different locations in near real-time. The recent evolution of mobile communication devices and communication technologies has fostered a growing interest in the GIS & GPS-based location-aware systems and services. This paper describes a real-time road traffic monitoring system based on integrated mobile field devices (GPS/GSM/IOs) working in tandem with advanced GIS-based application software providing on-the-fly authentications for real-time monitoring and security enhancement. The described system is developed as a fully automated, continuous, real-time monitoring system that employs GPS sensors and Ethernet and/or serial port communication techniques are used to transfer data between GPS receivers at target points and a central processing computer. The data can be processed locally or remotely based on the requirements of client’s satisfaction. Due to the modular architecture of the system, other sensor types may be supported with minimal effort. Data on the distributed network & measurements are transmitted via cellular SIM cards to a Control Unit, which provides for post-processing and network management. The Control Unit may be remotely accessed via an Internet connection. The new system will not only provide more consistent data about the road traffic conditions but also will provide methods for integrating with other Intelligent Transportation Systems (ITS). For communication between the mobile device and central monitoring service GSM technology is used. The resulting system is characterized by autonomy, reliability and a high degree of automation.

  2. Localization system for use in GPS denied environments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trueblood, J. J. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2017-02-01

    The military uses to autonomous platforms to complete missions to provide standoff for the warfighters. However autonomous platforms rely on GPS to provide their global position. In many missions spaces the autonomous platforms may encounter GPS denied environments which limits where the platform operates and requires the warfighters to takes its place. GPS denied environments can occur due to tall building, trees, canyon wall blocking the GPS satellite signals or a lack of coverage. An Inertial Navigation System (INS) uses sensors to detect the vehicle movement and direction its traveling to calculate the vehicle. One of biggest challenges with an INS system is the accuracy and accumulation of errors over time of the sensors. If these challenges can be overcome the INS would provide accurate positioning information to the autonomous vehicle in GPS denied environments and allow them to provide the desired standoff for the warfighters.

  3. IMPELEMENTASI SISTEM PEMANTAUAN OBJEK BERGERAK DENGAN MEMANFAATKAN FREKUENSI RADIO MENGGUNAKAN GPS (GLOBAL POSITIONING SYSTEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Budi Triandi

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available GPS was developed by the United States Department of Defense as a reliable means for accurate navigation. The system provides highly accurate position and velocity information and precise time on a continuous global basis to an unlimited number of properly equipped users. By using combined GPS receiver and microcontroller together with radio system, we can design a monitoring system for our vehicles and display the result on the computer. This system consists of a master module that transmits and receives signals from computer and two slave modules to collect GPS data from vehicles. The result of experiment shows that this system is able to track the vehicle on digital map with accuracy as high as 95%.Keywords: GPS, microcontroller, monitoring, RF

  4. GPS Imaging suggests links between climate, magmatism, seismicity, and tectonics in the Sierra Nevada-Long Valley Caldera-Walker Lane system, western United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammond, W. C.; Blewitt, G.; Kreemer, C.; Smith, K.

    2017-12-01

    The Walker Lane is a region of complex active crustal transtension in the western Great Basin of the western United States, accommodating about 20% of the 50 mm/yr relative motion between the Pacific and North American plates. The Long Valley caldera lies in the central Walker Lane in eastern California, adjacent to the eastern boundary of the Sierra Nevada/Great Valley microplate, and experiences intermittent inflation, uplift, and volcanic unrest from the magma chamber that resides at middle crustal depths. Normal and transform faults accommodating regional tectonic transtension pass by and through the caldera, complicating the interpretation of the GPS-measured strain rate field, estimates of fault slip rates, and seismic hazard. Several dozen continuously recording GPS stations measure strain and uplift in the area with mm precision. They observe that the most recent episode of uplift at Long Valley began in mid-2011, continuing until late 2016, raising the surface by 100 mm in 6 years. The timing of the initiation of uplift coincides with the beginning of severe drought in California. Furthermore, the timing of a recent pause in uplift coincides with the very wet 2016-2017 winter, which saw approximately double normal snow pack. In prior studies, we showed that the timing of changes in geodetically measured uplift rate of the Sierra Nevada coincides with the timing of drought conditions in California, suggesting a link between hydrological loading and Sierra Nevada elevation. Here we take the analysis three steps further to show that changes in Sierra Nevada uplift rate coincide in time with 1) enhanced inflation at the Long Valley caldera, 2) shifts in the patterns and rates of horizontal tensor strain rate, and 3) seismicity patterns in the central Walker Lane. We use GPS solutions from the Nevada Geodetic Laboratory and the new GPS Imaging technique to produce robust animations of the time variable strain and uplift fields. The goals of this work are to

  5. Effect of removing the common mode errors on linear regression analysis of noise amplitudes in position time series of a regional GPS network & a case study of GPS stations in Southern California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Weiping; Ma, Jun; Li, Zhao; Zhou, Xiaohui; Zhou, Boye

    2018-05-01

    The analysis of the correlations between the noise in different components of GPS stations has positive significance to those trying to obtain more accurate uncertainty of velocity with respect to station motion. Previous research into noise in GPS position time series focused mainly on single component evaluation, which affects the acquisition of precise station positions, the velocity field, and its uncertainty. In this study, before and after removing the common-mode error (CME), we performed one-dimensional linear regression analysis of the noise amplitude vectors in different components of 126 GPS stations with a combination of white noise, flicker noise, and random walking noise in Southern California. The results show that, on the one hand, there are above-moderate degrees of correlation between the white noise amplitude vectors in all components of the stations before and after removal of the CME, while the correlations between flicker noise amplitude vectors in horizontal and vertical components are enhanced from un-correlated to moderately correlated by removing the CME. On the other hand, the significance tests show that, all of the obtained linear regression equations, which represent a unique function of the noise amplitude in any two components, are of practical value after removing the CME. According to the noise amplitude estimates in two components and the linear regression equations, more accurate noise amplitudes can be acquired in the two components.

  6. An improved grey model for the prediction of real-time GPS satellite clock bias

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Z. Y.; Chen, Y. Q.; Lu, X. S.

    2008-07-01

    In real-time GPS precise point positioning (PPP), real-time and reliable satellite clock bias (SCB) prediction is a key to implement real-time GPS PPP. It is difficult to hold the nuisance and inenarrable performance of space-borne GPS satellite atomic clock because of its high-frequency, sensitivity and impressionable, it accords with the property of grey model (GM) theory, i. e. we can look on the variable process of SCB as grey system. Firstly, based on limits of quadratic polynomial (QP) and traditional GM to predict SCB, a modified GM (1,1) is put forward to predict GPS SCB in this paper; and then, taking GPS SCB data for example, we analyzed clock bias prediction with different sample interval, the relationship between GM exponent and prediction accuracy, precision comparison of GM to QP, and concluded the general rule of different type SCB and GM exponent; finally, to test the reliability and validation of the modified GM what we put forward, taking IGS clock bias ephemeris product as reference, we analyzed the prediction precision with the modified GM, It is showed that the modified GM is reliable and validation to predict GPS SCB and can offer high precise SCB prediction for real-time GPS PPP.

  7. Calibration of Galileo signals for time metrology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Defraigne, Pascale; Aerts, Wim; Cerretto, Giancarlo; Cantoni, Elena; Sleewaegen, Jean-Marie

    2014-12-01

    Using global navigation satellite system (GNSS) signals for accurate timing and time transfer requires the knowledge of all electric delays of the signals inside the receiving system. GNSS stations dedicated to timing or time transfer are classically calibrated only for Global Positioning System (GPS) signals. This paper proposes a procedure to determine the hardware delays of a GNSS receiving station for Galileo signals, once the delays of the GPS signals are known. This approach makes use of the broadcast satellite inter-signal biases, and is based on the ionospheric delay measured from dual-frequency combinations of GPS and Galileo signals. The uncertainty on the so-determined hardware delays is estimated to 3.7 ns for each isolated code in the L5 frequency band, and 4.2 ns for the ionosphere-free combination of E1 with a code of the L5 frequency band. For the calibration of a time transfer link between two stations, another approach can be used, based on the difference between the common-view time transfer results obtained with calibrated GPS data and with uncalibrated Galileo data. It is shown that the results obtained with this approach or with the ionospheric method are equivalent.

  8. FPGA-based real-time embedded system for RISS/GPS integrated navigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdelfatah, Walid Farid; Georgy, Jacques; Iqbal, Umar; Noureldin, Aboelmagd

    2012-01-01

    Navigation algorithms integrating measurements from multi-sensor systems overcome the problems that arise from using GPS navigation systems in standalone mode. Algorithms which integrate the data from 2D low-cost reduced inertial sensor system (RISS), consisting of a gyroscope and an odometer or wheel encoders, along with a GPS receiver via a Kalman filter has proved to be worthy in providing a consistent and more reliable navigation solution compared to standalone GPS receivers. It has been also shown to be beneficial, especially in GPS-denied environments such as urban canyons and tunnels. The main objective of this paper is to narrow the idea-to-implementation gap that follows the algorithm development by realizing a low-cost real-time embedded navigation system capable of computing the data-fused positioning solution. The role of the developed system is to synchronize the measurements from the three sensors, relative to the pulse per second signal generated from the GPS, after which the navigation algorithm is applied to the synchronized measurements to compute the navigation solution in real-time. Employing a customizable soft-core processor on an FPGA in the kernel of the navigation system, provided the flexibility for communicating with the various sensors and the computation capability required by the Kalman filter integration algorithm.

  9. IMPELEMENTASI SISTEM PEMANTAUAN OBJEK BERGERAK DENGAN MEMANFAATKAN FREKUENSI RADIO MENGGUNAKAN GPS (GLOBAL POSITIONING SYSTEM)

    OpenAIRE

    Budi Triandi

    2010-01-01

    GPS was developed by the United States Department of Defense as a reliable means for accurate navigation. The system provides highly accurate position and velocity information and precise time on a continuous global basis to an unlimited number of properly equipped users. By using combined GPS receiver and microcontroller together with radio system, we can design a monitoring system for our vehicles and display the result on the computer. This system consists of a master module that transmits...

  10. Timing Comparisons for GLEs and High-energy Proton Events using GPS Proton Measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernstein, V.; Winter, L. M.; Carver, M.; Morley, S.

    2017-12-01

    The newly released LANL GPS particle sensor data offers a unique snapshot of access of relativistic particles into the geomagnetic field. Currently, 23 of the 31 operational GPS satellites host energetic particle detectors which can detect the arrival of high-energy solar protons associated with Ground Level Enhancements (GLEs). We compare the timing profiles of solar energetic proton detections from GPS satellites as well as from ground-based Neutron Monitors and GOES spacecraft at geostationary orbit in order to understand how high-energy protons from the Sun enter the geomagnetic field and investigate potential differences in arrival time of energetic protons at GPS satellites as a function of location. Previous studies could only use one or two spacecraft at a similar altitude to track the arrival of energetic particles. With GPS data, we can now test whether the particles arrive isotropically, as assumed, or whether there exist differences in the timing and energetics viewed by each of the individual satellites. Extensions of this work could lead to improvements in space weather forecasting that predict more localized risk estimates for space-based technology.

  11. GPS-Aided Video Tracking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Udo Feuerhake

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Tracking moving objects is both challenging and important for a large variety of applications. Different technologies based on the global positioning system (GPS and video or radio data are used to obtain the trajectories of the observed objects. However, in some use cases, they fail to provide sufficiently accurate, complete and correct data at the same time. In this work we present an approach for fusing GPS- and video-based tracking in order to exploit their individual advantages. In this way we aim to combine the reliability of GPS tracking with the high geometric accuracy of camera detection. For the fusion of the movement data provided by the different devices we use a hidden Markov model (HMM formulation and the Viterbi algorithm to extract the most probable trajectories. In three experiments, we show that our approach is able to deal with challenging situations like occlusions or objects which are temporarily outside the monitored area. The results show the desired increase in terms of accuracy, completeness and correctness.

  12. Directional Networking in GPS Denied Environments - Time Synchronization

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-03-14

    RF-based measurements to synchronize time and measure node range.  Satellite Doppler: Using Doppler measurements from multiple satellites along...with satellite catalog data to determine time and position.  LTE : Use existing LTE base-stations for time and position.  Differential GPS: A...Opportunistic Signals: Opportunistically take advantage of existing RF signals (i.e., FM radio, DTV, LTE , etc.) transmitted from known locations

  13. Effect of GPS errors on Emission model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lehmann, Anders; Gross, Allan

    n this paper we will show how Global Positioning Services (GPS) data obtained from smartphones can be used to model air quality in urban settings. The paper examines the uncertainty of smartphone location utilising GPS, and ties this location uncertainty to air quality models. The results presented...... in this paper indicates that the location error from using smartphones is within the accuracy needed to use the location data in air quality modelling. The nature of smartphone location data enables more accurate and near real time air quality modelling and monitoring. The location data is harvested from user...

  14. Comparison of global positioning system (GPS) tracking and parent-report diaries to characterize children's time-location patterns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elgethun, Kai; Yost, Michael G; Fitzpatrick, Cole T E; Nyerges, Timothy L; Fenske, Richard A

    2007-03-01

    Respondent error, low resolution, and study participant burden are known limitations of diary timelines used in exposure studies such as the National Human Exposure Assessment Survey (NHEXAS). Recent advances in global positioning system (GPS) technology have produced tracking devices sufficiently portable, functional and affordable to utilize in exposure assessment science. In this study, a differentially corrected GPS (dGPS) tracking device was compared to the NHEXAS diary timeline. The study also explored how GPS can be used to evaluate and improve such diary timelines by determining which location categories and which respondents are least likely to record "correct" time-location responses. A total of 31 children ages 3-5 years old wore a dGPS device for all waking hours on a weekend day while their parents completed the NHEXAS diary timeline to document the child's time-location pattern. Parents misclassified child time-location approximately 48% of the time using the NHEXAS timeline in comparison to dGPS. Overall concordance between methods was marginal (kappa=0.33-0.35). The dGPS device found that on average, children spent 76% of the 24-h study period in the home. The diary underestimated time the child spent in the home by 17%, while overestimating time spent inside other locations, outside at home, outside in other locations, and time spent in transit. Diary data for time spent outside at home and time in transit had the lowest response concordance with dGPS. The diaries of stay-at-home mothers and mothers working unskilled labor jobs had lower concordance with dGPS than did those of the other participants. The ability of dGPS tracking to collect continuous rather than categorical (ordinal) data was also demonstrated. It is concluded that automated GPS tracking measurements can improve the quality and collection efficiency of time-location data in exposure assessment studies, albeit for small cohorts.

  15. The performance of GPS time and frequency transfer: comment on ‘A detailed comparison of two continuous GPS carrier-phase time transfer techniques’

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petit, Gérard; Defraigne, Pascale

    2016-06-01

    The paper ‘A detailed comparison of two continuous GPS carrier-phase time transfer techniques’ (Yao et al 2015 Metrologia 52 666) presents the revised RINEX-shift (RRS) method, a technique using ‘classical precise point positioning (PPP)’ solutions on sliding batches and aiming at providing continuous time links. The authors claim the superiority of the RRS technique with respect to ‘classical PPP’ in terms of frequency stability and solving for discontinuities due to data gaps. It is shown here that these conclusions do not rely on physical principles, and are erroneous as they are driven by misinterpreted or corrupted PPP solutions. Using state-of-the-art PPP computation on the same data sets used in Yao et al’s paper (2015 Metrologia 52 666), we show that the stability of RRS is at best similar to that of ‘classical PPP’ (within statistical uncertainties). Furthermore, the RRS method of removing discontinuities in case of data gaps by interpolating the phase data should not be applied systematically as it can cause erroneous clock solutions when the data gaps are associated with a true phase discontinuity.

  16. Analysis of Seasonal Signal in GPS Short-Baseline Time Series

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Kaihua; Jiang, Weiping; Chen, Hua; An, Xiangdong; Zhou, Xiaohui; Yuan, Peng; Chen, Qusen

    2018-04-01

    Proper modeling of seasonal signals and their quantitative analysis are of interest in geoscience applications, which are based on position time series of permanent GPS stations. Seasonal signals in GPS short-baseline (paper, to better understand the seasonal signal in GPS short-baseline time series, we adopted and processed six different short-baselines with data span that varies from 2 to 14 years and baseline length that varies from 6 to 1100 m. To avoid seasonal signals that are overwhelmed by noise, each of the station pairs is chosen with significant differences in their height (> 5 m) or type of the monument. For comparison, we also processed an approximately zero baseline with a distance of pass-filtered (BP) noise is valid for approximately 40% of the baseline components, and another 20% of the components can be best modeled by a combination of the first-order Gauss-Markov (FOGM) process plus white noise (WN). The TEM displacements are then modeled by considering the monument height of the building structure beneath the GPS antenna. The median contributions of TEM to the annual amplitude in the vertical direction are 84% and 46% with and without additional parts of the monument, respectively. Obvious annual signals with amplitude > 0.4 mm in the horizontal direction are observed in five short-baselines, and the amplitudes exceed 1 mm in four of them. These horizontal seasonal signals are likely related to the propagation of daily/sub-daily TEM displacement or other signals related to the site environment. Mismodeling of the tropospheric delay may also introduce spurious seasonal signals with annual amplitudes of 5 and 2 mm, respectively, for two short-baselines with elevation differences greater than 100 m. The results suggest that the monument height of the additional part of a typical GPS station should be considered when estimating the TEM displacement and that the tropospheric delay should be modeled cautiously, especially with station pairs with

  17. Combined GPS/GLONASS Precise Point Positioning with Fixed GPS Ambiguities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Lin; Cai, Changsheng; Santerre, Rock; Zhu, Jianjun

    2014-01-01

    Precise point positioning (PPP) technology is mostly implemented with an ambiguity-float solution. Its performance may be further improved by performing ambiguity-fixed resolution. Currently, the PPP integer ambiguity resolutions (IARs) are mainly based on GPS-only measurements. The integration of GPS and GLONASS can speed up the convergence and increase the accuracy of float ambiguity estimates, which contributes to enhancing the success rate and reliability of fixing ambiguities. This paper presents an approach of combined GPS/GLONASS PPP with fixed GPS ambiguities (GGPPP-FGA) in which GPS ambiguities are fixed into integers, while all GLONASS ambiguities are kept as float values. An improved minimum constellation method (MCM) is proposed to enhance the efficiency of GPS ambiguity fixing. Datasets from 20 globally distributed stations on two consecutive days are employed to investigate the performance of the GGPPP-FGA, including the positioning accuracy, convergence time and the time to first fix (TTFF). All datasets are processed for a time span of three hours in three scenarios, i.e., the GPS ambiguity-float solution, the GPS ambiguity-fixed resolution and the GGPPP-FGA resolution. The results indicate that the performance of the GPS ambiguity-fixed resolutions is significantly better than that of the GPS ambiguity-float solutions. In addition, the GGPPP-FGA improves the positioning accuracy by 38%, 25% and 44% and reduces the convergence time by 36%, 36% and 29% in the east, north and up coordinate components over the GPS-only ambiguity-fixed resolutions, respectively. Moreover, the TTFF is reduced by 27% after adding GLONASS observations. Wilcoxon rank sum tests and chi-square two-sample tests are made to examine the significance of the improvement on the positioning accuracy, convergence time and TTFF. PMID:25237901

  18. Combined GPS/GLONASS Precise Point Positioning with Fixed GPS Ambiguities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lin Pan

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Precise point positioning (PPP technology is mostly implemented with an ambiguity-float solution. Its performance may be further improved by performing ambiguity-fixed resolution. Currently, the PPP integer ambiguity resolutions (IARs are mainly based on GPS-only measurements. The integration of GPS and GLONASS can speed up the convergence and increase the accuracy of float ambiguity estimates, which contributes to enhancing the success rate and reliability of fixing ambiguities. This paper presents an approach of combined GPS/GLONASS PPP with fixed GPS ambiguities (GGPPP-FGA in which GPS ambiguities are fixed into integers, while all GLONASS ambiguities are kept as float values. An improved minimum constellation method (MCM is proposed to enhance the efficiency of GPS ambiguity fixing. Datasets from 20 globally distributed stations on two consecutive days are employed to investigate the performance of the GGPPP-FGA, including the positioning accuracy, convergence time and the time to first fix (TTFF. All datasets are processed for a time span of three hours in three scenarios, i.e., the GPS ambiguity-float solution, the GPS ambiguity-fixed resolution and the GGPPP-FGA resolution. The results indicate that the performance of the GPS ambiguity-fixed resolutions is significantly better than that of the GPS ambiguity-float solutions. In addition, the GGPPP-FGA improves the positioning accuracy by 38%, 25% and 44% and reduces the convergence time by 36%, 36% and 29% in the east, north and up coordinate components over the GPS-only ambiguity-fixed resolutions, respectively. Moreover, the TTFF is reduced by 27% after adding GLONASS observations. Wilcoxon rank sum tests and chi-square two-sample tests are made to examine the significance of the improvement on the positioning accuracy, convergence time and TTFF.

  19. Performance of GPS-devices for environmental exposure assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beekhuizen, Johan; Kromhout, Hans; Huss, Anke; Vermeulen, Roel

    2013-01-01

    Integration of individual time-location patterns with spatially resolved exposure maps enables a more accurate estimation of personal exposures to environmental pollutants than using estimates at fixed locations. Current global positioning system (GPS) devices can be used to track an individual's location. However, information on GPS-performance in environmental exposure assessment is largely missing. We therefore performed two studies. First, a commute-study, where the commute of 12 individuals was tracked twice, testing GPS-performance for five transport modes and two wearing modes. Second, an urban-tracking study, where one individual was tracked repeatedly through different areas, focused on the effect of building obstruction on GPS-performance. The median error from the true path for walking was 3.7 m, biking 2.9 m, train 4.8 m, bus 4.9 m, and car 3.3 m. Errors were larger in a high-rise commercial area (median error=7.1 m) compared with a low-rise residential area (median error=2.2 m). Thus, GPS-performance largely depends on the transport mode and urban built-up. Although ~85% of all errors were 50 m. Modern GPS-devices are useful tools for environmental exposure assessment, but large GPS-errors might affect estimates of exposures with high spatial variability.

  20. GPS Time Series and Geodynamic Implications for the Hellenic Arc Area, Greece

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hollenstein, Ch.; Heller, O.; Geiger, A.; Kahle, H.-G.; Veis, G.

    The quantification of crustal deformation and its temporal behavior is an important contribution to earthquake hazard assessment. With GPS measurements, especially from continuous operating stations, pre-, co-, post- and interseismic movements can be recorded and monitored. We present results of a continuous GPS network which has been operated in the Hellenic Arc area, Greece, since 1995. In order to obtain coordinate time series of high precision which are representative for crustal deformation, a main goal was to eliminate effects which are not of tectonic origin. By applying different steps of improvement, non-tectonic irregularities were reduced significantly, and the precision could be improved by an average of 40%. The improved time series are used to study the crustal movements in space and time. They serve as a base for the estimation of velocities and for the visualization of the movements in terms of trajectories. Special attention is given to large earthquakes (M>6), which occurred near GPS sites during the measuring time span.

  1. Simulating GPS radio signal to synchronize network--a new technique for redundant timing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shan, Qingxiao; Jun, Yang; Le Floch, Jean-Michel; Fan, Yaohui; Ivanov, Eugene N; Tobar, Michael E

    2014-07-01

    Currently, many distributed systems such as 3G mobile communications and power systems are time synchronized with a Global Positioning System (GPS) signal. If there is a GPS failure, it is difficult to realize redundant timing, and thus time-synchronized devices may fail. In this work, we develop time transfer by simulating GPS signals, which promises no extra modification to original GPS-synchronized devices. This is achieved by applying a simplified GPS simulator for synchronization purposes only. Navigation data are calculated based on a pre-assigned time at a fixed position. Pseudo-range data which describes the distance change between the space vehicle (SV) and users are calculated. Because real-time simulation requires heavy-duty computations, we use self-developed software optimized on a PC to generate data, and save the data onto memory disks while the simulator is operating. The radio signal generation is similar to the SV at an initial position, and the frequency synthesis of the simulator is locked to a pre-assigned time. A filtering group technique is used to simulate the signal transmission delay corresponding to the SV displacement. Each SV generates a digital baseband signal, where a unique identifying code is added to the signal and up-converted to generate the output radio signal at the centered frequency of 1575.42 MHz (L1 band). A prototype with a field-programmable gate array (FPGA) has been built and experiments have been conducted to prove that we can realize time transfer. The prototype has been applied to the CDMA network for a three-month long experiment. Its precision has been verified and can meet the requirements of most telecommunication systems.

  2. Signal existence verification (SEV) for GPS low received power signal detection using the time-frequency approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jan, Shau-Shiun; Sun, Chih-Cheng

    2010-01-01

    The detection of low received power of global positioning system (GPS) signals in the signal acquisition process is an important issue for GPS applications. Improving the miss-detection problem of low received power signal is crucial, especially for urban or indoor environments. This paper proposes a signal existence verification (SEV) process to detect and subsequently verify low received power GPS signals. The SEV process is based on the time-frequency representation of GPS signal, and it can capture the characteristic of GPS signal in the time-frequency plane to enhance the GPS signal acquisition performance. Several simulations and experiments are conducted to show the effectiveness of the proposed method for low received power signal detection. The contribution of this work is that the SEV process is an additional scheme to assist the GPS signal acquisition process in low received power signal detection, without changing the original signal acquisition or tracking algorithms.

  3. Hacking GPS

    CERN Document Server

    Kingsley-Hughes, Kathie

    2005-01-01

    * This is the "user manual" that didn't come with any of the 30 million GPS receivers currently in use, showing readers how to modify, tweak, and hack their GPS to take it to new levels!* Crazy-cool modifications include exploiting secret keycodes, revealing hidden features, building power cords and cables, hacking the battery and antenna, protecting a GPS from impact and falls, making a screen protector, and solar-powering a GPS* Potential power users will take the function and performance of their GPS to a whole new level by hacking into the firmware and hacking into a PC connection with a GPS* Fear not! Any potentially dangerous mod (to the device) is clearly labeled, with precautions listed that should be taken* Game time! Readers can check out GPS games, check into hacking geocaching, and even use a GPS as a metal detector

  4. Comparison of time series of integrated water vapor measured using radiosonde, GPS and microwave radiometer at the CNR-IMAA Atmospheric Observatory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amato, Franceso; Rosoldi, Marco; Madonna, Fabio

    2015-04-01

    Information about the amount and spatial distribution of atmospheric water vapor is essential to improve our knowledge of weather forecasting and climate change. Water vapor is highly variable in space and time depending on the complex interplay of several phenomena like convection, precipitation, turbulence, etc. It remains one of the most poorly characterized meteorological parameters. Remarkable progress in using of Global Navigation Satellite Systems (GNSS), in particular GPS, for the monitoring of atmospheric water vapor has been achieved during the last decades. Various studies have demonstrated that GPS could provide accurate water vapor estimates for the study of the atmosphere. Different GPS data processing provided within the scientific community made use of various tropospheric models that primarily differs for the assumptions on the vertical refractivity profiles and the mapping of the vertical delay with elevation angles. This works compares several models based on the use of surface meteorological data. In order to calculate the Integrated Water Vapour (IWV), an algorithm for calculating the zenith tropospheric delay was implemented. It is based upon different mapping functions (Niell, Saastamoinen, Chao and Herring Mapping Functions). Observations are performed at the Istituto di Metodologie per l'Analisi Ambientale (IMAA) GPS station located in Tito Scalo, Potenza (40.60N, 15.72E), from July to December 2014, in the framework of OSCAR project (Observation System for Climate Application at Regional scale). The retrieved values of the IWV using the GPS are systematically compared with the other estimation of IWV collected at CIAO (CNR-IMAA Atmospheric Observatory) using the other available measurement techniques. In particular, in this work the compared IWV are retrieved from: 1. a Trimble GPS antenna (data processed by the GPS-Met network, see gpsmet.nooa.gov); 2. a Novatel GPS antenna (data locally processed using a software developed at CIAO); 3

  5. Roll Attitude Determination of Spin Projectile Based on GPS and Magnetoresistive Sensor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dandan Yuan

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Improvement in attack accuracy of the spin projectiles is a very significant objective, which increases the overall combat efficiency of projectiles. The accurate determination of the projectile roll attitude is the recent objective of the efficient guidance and control. The roll measurement system for the spin projectile is commonly based on the magnetoresistive sensor. It is well known that the magnetoresistive sensor produces a sinusoidally oscillating signal whose frequency slowly decays with time, besides the possibility of blind spot. On the other hand, absolute sensors such as GPS have fixed errors even though the update rates are generally low. To earn the benefit while eliminating weaknesses from both types of sensors, a mathematical model using filtering technique can be designed to integrate the magnetoresistive sensor and GPS measurements. In this paper, a mathematical model is developed to integrate the magnetoresistive sensor and GPS measurements in order to get an accurate prediction of projectile roll attitude in a real flight time. The proposed model is verified using numerical simulations, which illustrated that the accuracy of the roll attitude measurement is improved.

  6. Age-related differences in working hours among male and female GPs: an SMS-based time use study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Hassel, Daniël; van der Velden, Lud; de Bakker, Dinny; Batenburg, Ronald

    2017-12-19

    In several countries, the number of hours worked by general practitioners (GPs) has decreased, raising concern about current and impending workforce shortages. This shorter working week has been ascribed both to the feminisation of the workforce and to a younger generation of GPs who prefer more flexible working arrangements. There is, however, limited insight into how the impact of these determinants interact. We investigated the relative importance of differences in GPs' working hours in relation to gender, age, and employment position. An analysis was performed on real-time monitoring data collected by sending SMS text messages to 1051 Dutch GPs, who participated during a 1-week time use study. We used descriptive statistics, independent sample t-tests, and one-way ANOVA analysis to compare the working time of different GP groups. A path analysis was conducted to examine the difference in working time by gender, age, employment position, and their combinations. Female GPs worked significantly fewer hours than their male peers. GPs in their 50s worked the highest number of hours, followed by GPs age 60 and older. GPs younger than 40 worked the lowest number of hours. This relationship between working hours and age was not significantly different for women and men. As shown by path analysis, female GPs consistently worked fewer hours than their male counterparts, regardless of their age and employment position. The relationship between age and working hours was largely influenced by gender and employment position. The variation in working hours among GPs can be explained by the combination of gender, age, and employment position. Gender appears to be the most important predictor as the largest part of the variation in working hours is explained by a direct effect of this variable. It has previously been reported that the difference in working hours between male and female GPs had decreased over time. However, our findings suggest that gender remains a critical

  7. Development of a Real-Time GPS/Seismic Displacement Meter: Seismic Component and Communications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vernon, F.; Bock, Y.

    2002-12-01

    In two abstracts, we report on an ongoing effort to develop an Integrated Real-Time GPS/Seismic System for Orange and Western Riverside Counties, California, spanning three major strike-slip faults in southern California (San Andreas, San Jacinto, and Elsinore) and significant populations and civilian infrastructure. The system relying on existing GPS and seismic networks will collect and analyze GPS and seismic data for the purpose of estimating and disseminating real-time positions and total ground displacements (dynamic, as well as static) covering all phases of the seismic cycle, from fractions of seconds to years. Besides its intrinsic scientific use as a real-time displacement meter (transducer), the GPS/Seismic System will be a powerful tool for local and state decision makers for risk mitigation, disaster management, and structural monitoring (dams, bridges, and buildings). Furthermore, the GPS/Seismic System will become an integral part of California's spatial referencing and positioning infrastructure, which is complicated by tectonic motion, seismic displacements, and land subsidence. This development is taking place under the umbrella of the California Spatial Reference Center, in partnership with local (The Counties, Riverside County Flood and Water Conservation District, Southern California Metropolitan Water District), state (Caltrans), and Federal agencies (NGS, NASA, USGS), the geophysics community (SCEC2/SCIGN), and the private sector (RBF Consulting). The project is leveraging considerable funding, resources, and research and development from SCIGN, CSRC and two NSF-funded IT projects at UCSD and SDSU: RoadNet (Real-Time Observatories, Applications and Data Management Network) and the High Performance Wireless Research and Education Network (HPWREN). These two projects are funded to develop both the wireless networks and the integrated, seamless, and transparent information management system that will deliver seismic, geodetic, oceanographic

  8. Comparison of GPS and GLONASS Common-View Time Transfers

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-12-01

    interest as an excellent additional source. For the past three years VNIIFTRI (Mendeleevo, Moscow Region, Russian Federation) and some other Russian time...Standard Form 298 (Rev. 8-98) Prescribed by ANSI Std Z39-18 comparisons. Since June 1991, VNIIFTRI has operated a commercial GPS time receiver on...loan from the BIPM. Since February 1992, the BIPM has operated Russian GLONASS receiver on loan from the VNIIFTRI . Thii provides, for the first time

  9. A New Method for Identifying Hazardous Road Locations Using GPS and Accelerometer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reinau, Kristian Hegner; Andersen, Camilla Sloth; Agerholm, Niels

    2016-01-01

    and validated through a case study of Aalborg city, where HRLs identified on the basis of accident statistics are compared to the HCLs identified with the new method on a dataset of more than 36.531 hours of driving tracked with accelerometer and GPS, containing 131 million GPS and 1.1 billion acceleration...... a new method relying on GPS data and accelerometer data. The method developed in this article is superior to previous methods since it utilizes acceleration measurements to identify both a deceleration and a significant drop in speed by integrating acceleration measurements over time in a moving time......-window. This calculation is combined with measurements of jerks to distinguish between planned decelerations and unplanned decelerations, which occurs when drivers react to hazardous situations. Finally, using GPS data, the unplanned decelerations identified are linked to specific locations. The method is tested...

  10. Application of Seasonal Trend Loess to GPS data in Cascadia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bal, A.; Bartlow, N. M.

    2016-12-01

    Plate Boundary Observatory GPS stations provide crucial data for the study of slow slip events and volcanic hazards in the Cascadia region. However, these GPS stations also record seasonal changes in deformation caused by hydrologic, atmospheric, and other seasonal loading. Removing these signals is necessary for accurately modeling the tectonic sources of deformation. Traditionally, seasonal trends in data been accounted for by fitting and removing sine curves from the data. However, not all seasonal trends follow a sinusoidal shape. Seasonal Trend Loess, or STL, is a filtering procedure for a decomposing a time series into trend, seasonal, and remainder components (Cleveland et. al, Journal of Official Statistics, 1990). STL has a simple design that consists of a sequence of applications of the loess smoother which allows for fast computation of large amounts of trend and seasonal smoothing. STL allows for non-sinusoidal shapes in seasonal deformation signals, and allows for evolution of seasonal signals over time. We applied Seasonal Trend Loess to GPS data from the Cascadia region. We compared our results to a traditional sine wave fit for seasonal removal at selected stations, including stations with slow slip event and volcanic signals. We hope that the STL method may be able to more accurately differentiate seasonal and tectonic deformation signals.

  11. Real-time GPS Signal Simulator

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — With a minimal FTE investment and no additional procurement funds, the development of a low fidelity orbital GPS Signal simulator would is possible.  This IRAD...

  12. Mobility assessment of a rural population in the Netherlands using GPS measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klous, Gijs; Smit, Lidwien A M; Borlée, Floor; Coutinho, Roel A; Kretzschmar, Mirjam E E; Heederik, Dick J J; Huss, Anke

    2017-08-09

    The home address is a common spatial proxy for exposure assessment in epidemiological studies but mobility may introduce exposure misclassification. Mobility can be assessed using self-reports or objectively measured using GPS logging but self-reports may not assess the same information as measured mobility. We aimed to assess mobility patterns of a rural population in the Netherlands using GPS measurements and self-reports and to compare GPS measured to self-reported data, and to evaluate correlates of differences in mobility patterns. In total 870 participants filled in a questionnaire regarding their transport modes and carried a GPS-logger for 7 consecutive days. Transport modes were assigned to GPS-tracks based on speed patterns. Correlates of measured mobility data were evaluated using multiple linear regression. We calculated walking, biking and motorised transport durations based on GPS and self-reported data and compared outcomes. We used Cohen's kappa analyses to compare categorised self-reported and GPS measured data for time spent outdoors. Self-reported time spent walking and biking was strongly overestimated when compared to GPS measurements. Participants estimated their time spent in motorised transport accurately. Several variables were associated with differences in mobility patterns, we found for instance that obese people (BMI > 30 kg/m 2 ) spent less time in non-motorised transport (GMR 0.69-0.74) and people with COPD tended to travel longer distances from home in motorised transport (GMR 1.42-1.51). If time spent walking outdoors and biking is relevant for the exposure to environmental factors, then relying on the home address as a proxy for exposure location may introduce misclassification. In addition, this misclassification is potentially differential, and specific groups of people will show stronger misclassification of exposure than others. Performing GPS measurements and identifying explanatory factors of mobility patterns may assist

  13. Accuracy of Single Frequency GPS Observations Processing In Near Real-time With Use of Code Predicted Products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wielgosz, P. A.

    In this year, the system of active geodetic GPS permanent stations is going to be estab- lished in Poland. This system should provide GPS observations for a wide spectrum of users, especially it will be a great opportunity for surveyors. Many of surveyors still use cheaper, single frequency receivers. This paper focuses on processing of single frequency GPS observations only. During processing of such observations the iono- sphere plays an important role, so we concentrated on the influence of the ionosphere on the positional coordinates. Twenty consecutive days of GPS data from 2001 year were processed to analyze the accuracy of a derived three-dimensional relative vec- tor position between GPS stations. Observations from two Polish EPN/IGS stations: BOGO and JOZE were used. In addition to, a new test station - IGIK was created. In this paper, the results of single frequency GPS observations processing in near real- time are presented. Baselines of 15, 27 and 42 kilometers and sessions of 1, 2, 3, 4, and 6 hours long were processed. While processing we used CODE (Centre for Orbit De- termination in Europe, Bern, Switzerland) predicted products: orbits and ionosphere info. These products are available in real-time and enable near real-time processing. Software Bernese v. 4.2 for Linux and BPE (Bernese Processing Engine) mode were used. These results are shown with a reference to dual frequency weekly solution (the best solution). Obtained GPS positional time and GPS baseline length dependency accuracy is presented for single frequency GPS observations.

  14. A Real-Time Capable Software-Defined Receiver Using GPU for Adaptive Anti-Jam GPS Sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seo, Jiwon; Chen, Yu-Hsuan; De Lorenzo, David S.; Lo, Sherman; Enge, Per; Akos, Dennis; Lee, Jiyun

    2011-01-01

    Due to their weak received signal power, Global Positioning System (GPS) signals are vulnerable to radio frequency interference. Adaptive beam and null steering of the gain pattern of a GPS antenna array can significantly increase the resistance of GPS sensors to signal interference and jamming. Since adaptive array processing requires intensive computational power, beamsteering GPS receivers were usually implemented using hardware such as field-programmable gate arrays (FPGAs). However, a software implementation using general-purpose processors is much more desirable because of its flexibility and cost effectiveness. This paper presents a GPS software-defined radio (SDR) with adaptive beamsteering capability for anti-jam applications. The GPS SDR design is based on an optimized desktop parallel processing architecture using a quad-core Central Processing Unit (CPU) coupled with a new generation Graphics Processing Unit (GPU) having massively parallel processors. This GPS SDR demonstrates sufficient computational capability to support a four-element antenna array and future GPS L5 signal processing in real time. After providing the details of our design and optimization schemes for future GPU-based GPS SDR developments, the jamming resistance of our GPS SDR under synthetic wideband jamming is presented. Since the GPS SDR uses commercial-off-the-shelf hardware and processors, it can be easily adopted in civil GPS applications requiring anti-jam capabilities. PMID:22164116

  15. A Real-Time Capable Software-Defined Receiver Using GPU for Adaptive Anti-Jam GPS Sensors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dennis Akos

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Due to their weak received signal power, Global Positioning System (GPS signals are vulnerable to radio frequency interference. Adaptive beam and null steering of the gain pattern of a GPS antenna array can significantly increase the resistance of GPS sensors to signal interference and jamming. Since adaptive array processing requires intensive computational power, beamsteering GPS receivers were usually implemented using hardware such as field-programmable gate arrays (FPGAs. However, a software implementation using general-purpose processors is much more desirable because of its flexibility and cost effectiveness. This paper presents a GPS software-defined radio (SDR with adaptive beamsteering capability for anti-jam applications. The GPS SDR design is based on an optimized desktop parallel processing architecture using a quad-core Central Processing Unit (CPU coupled with a new generation Graphics Processing Unit (GPU having massively parallel processors. This GPS SDR demonstrates sufficient computational capability to support a four-element antenna array and future GPS L5 signal processing in real time. After providing the details of our design and optimization schemes for future GPU-based GPS SDR developments, the jamming resistance of our GPS SDR under synthetic wideband jamming is presented. Since the GPS SDR uses commercial-off-the-shelf hardware and processors, it can be easily adopted in civil GPS applications requiring anti-jam capabilities.

  16. Development of Real-Time Precise Positioning Algorithm Using GPS L1 Carrier Phase Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeong-Ho Joh

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available We have developed Real-time Phase DAta Processor(RPDAP for GPS L1 carrier. And also, we tested the RPDAP's positioning accuracy compared with results of real time kinematic(RTK positioning. While quality of the conventional L1 RTK positioning highly depend on receiving condition, the RPDAP can gives more stable positioning result because of different set of common GPS satellites, which searched by elevation mask angle and signal strength. In this paper, we demonstrated characteristics of the RPDAP compared with the L1 RTK technique. And we discussed several improvement ways to apply the RPDAP to precise real-time positioning using low-cost GPS receiver. With correcting the discussed weak points in near future, the RPDAP will be used in the field of precise real-time application, such as precise car navigation and precise personal location services.

  17. Time Manager Software for a Flight Processor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zoerne, Roger

    2012-01-01

    Data analysis is a process of inspecting, cleaning, transforming, and modeling data to highlight useful information and suggest conclusions. Accurate timestamps and a timeline of vehicle events are needed to analyze flight data. By moving the timekeeping to the flight processor, there is no longer a need for a redundant time source. If each flight processor is initially synchronized to GPS, they can freewheel and maintain a fairly accurate time throughout the flight with no additional GPS time messages received. How ever, additional GPS time messages will ensure an even greater accuracy. When a timestamp is required, a gettime function is called that immediately reads the time-base register.

  18. Assessment Study of Using Online (CSRS) GPS-PPP Service for Mapping Applications in Egypt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abd-Elazeem, Mohamed; Farah, Ashraf; Farrag, Farrag

    2011-09-01

    Many applications in navigation, land surveying, land title definitions and mapping have been made simpler and more precise due to accessibility of Global Positioning System (GPS) data, and thus the demand for using advanced GPS techniques in surveying applications has become essential. The differential technique was the only source of accurate positioning for many years, and remained in use despite of its cost. The precise point positioning (PPP) technique is a viable alternative to the differential positioning method in which a user with a single receiver can attain positioning accuracy at the centimeter or decimeter scale. In recent years, many organizations introduced online (GPS-PPP) processing services capable of determining accurate geocentric positions using GPS observations. These services provide the user with receiver coordinates in free and unlimited access formats via the internet. This paper investigates the accuracy of the Canadian Spatial Reference System (CSRS) Precise Point Positioning (PPP) (CSRS-PPP) service supervised by the Geodetic Survey Division (GSD), Canada. Single frequency static GPS observations have been collected at three points covering time spans of 60, 90 and 120 minutes. These three observed sites form baselines of 1.6, 7, and 10 km, respectively. In order to assess the CSRS-PPP accuracy, the discrepancies between the CSRS-PPP estimates and the regular differential GPS solutions were computed. The obtained results illustrate that the PPP produces a horizontal error at the scale of a few decimeters; this is accurate enough to serve many mapping applications in developing countries with a savings in both cost and experienced labor.

  19. TerraSAR-X precise orbit determination with real-time GPS ephemerides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wermuth, Martin; Hauschild, Andre; Montenbruck, Oliver; Kahle, Ralph

    TerraSAR-X is a German Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) satellite, which was launched in June 2007 from Baikonour. Its task is to acquire radar images of the Earth's surface. In order to locate the radar data takes precisely, the satellite is equipped with a high-quality dual-frequency GPS receiver -the Integrated Geodetic and Occultation Receiver (IGOR) provided by the GeoForschungsZentrum Potsdam (GFZ). Using GPS observations from the IGOR instrument in a reduced dynamic precise orbit determination (POD), the German Space Operations Center (DLR/GSOC) is computing rapid and science orbit products on a routine basis. The rapid orbit products arrive with a latency of about one hour after data reception with an accuracy of 10-20 cm. Science orbit products are computed with a latency of five days achieving an accuracy of about 5cm (3D-RMS). For active and future Earth observation missions, the availability of near real-time precise orbit information is becoming more and more important. Other applications of near real-time orbit products include the processing of GNSS radio occulation measurements for atmospheric sounding as well as altimeter measurements of ocean surface heights, which are nowadays employed in global weather and ocean circulation models with short latencies. For example after natural disasters it is necessary to evaluate the damage by satellite images as soon as possible. The latency and quality of POD results is mainly driven by the availability of precise GPS ephemerides. In order to have high-quality GPS ephemerides available at real-time, GSOC has developed the real-time clock estimation system RETICLE. The system receives NTRIP-data streams with GNSS observations from the global tracking network of IGS in real-time. Using the known station position, RETICLE estimates precise GPS satellite clock offsets and drifts based on the most recent available IGU predicted orbits. The clock offset estimates have an accuracy of better than 0.3 ns and are

  20. A new analytical method for the classification of time-location data obtained from the global positioning system (GPS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Taehyun; Lee, Kiyoung; Yang, Wonho; Yu, Seung Do

    2012-08-01

    Although the global positioning system (GPS) has been suggested as an alternative way to determine time-location patterns, its use has been limited. The purpose of this study was to evaluate a new analytical method of classifying time-location data obtained by GPS. A field technician carried a GPS device while simulating various scripted activities and recorded all movements by the second in an activity diary. The GPS device recorded geological data once every 15 s. The daily monitoring was repeated 18 times. The time-location data obtained by the GPS were compared with the activity diary to determine selection criteria for the classification of the GPS data. The GPS data were classified into four microenvironments (residential indoors, other indoors, transit, and walking outdoors); the selection criteria used were used number of satellites (used-NSAT), speed, and distance from residence. The GPS data were classified as indoors when the used-NSAT was below 9. Data classified as indoors were further classified as residential indoors when the distance from the residence was less than 40 m; otherwise, they were classified as other indoors. Data classified as outdoors were further classified as being in transit when the speed exceeded 2.5 m s(-1); otherwise, they were classified as walking outdoors. The average simple percentage agreement between the time-location classifications and the activity diary was 84.3 ± 12.4%, and the kappa coefficient was 0.71. The average differences between the time diary and the GPS results were 1.6 ± 2.3 h for the time spent in residential indoors, 0.9 ± 1.7 h for the time spent in other indoors, 0.4 ± 0.4 h for the time spent in transit, and 0.8 ± 0.5 h for the time spent walking outdoors. This method can be used to determine time-activity patterns in exposure-science studies.

  1. Real Time Monitoring of GPS-IGU orbits and clocks as a tool to disseminate corrections to GPS-Broadcast Ephemerides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thaler, G.; Opitz, M.; Weber, R.

    2009-04-01

    Nowadays RTIGS and NTRIP have become standards for real time GNSS based positioning applications. The IGS (International GNSS Service) Real-Time Working Group disseminates via Internet (RTIGS) raw observation data of a subset of stations of the IGS network. This observation data can be used to establish a real-time integrity monitoring of the IGS predicted orbits (Ultra Rapid (IGU-) Orbits) and clocks, according to the recommendations of the IGS Workshop 2004 in Bern and in a further step correction terms for improving the accuracy of the GPS broadcast ephemerides can be calculated. The Institute for "Geodesy and Geophysics" of the TU-Vienna develops in cooperation with the IGS Real-Time Working Group the software "RTR- Control", which currently provides a real-time integrity monitoring of predicted IGU Satellite Clock Corrections to GPS Time. The real-time orbit calculation and monitoring of the predicted IGU satellite orbits is currently in a testing phase and will be operable in the near future. A kinematic model and calculated ranges to the satellites are combined in a KALMAN-Filter approach. Currently the most recent GPS- Satellite Clock Corrections are published in Real Time via Internet. A 24 - hour clock RINEX file and the IGU SP3 files modified for the associated clock corrections are stored on the ftp-server of the institute. To perform the task of calculating corrections to the broadcast ephemerides three programs are used, which are BNC (BKG Ntrip Client) and BNS (BKG Ntrip State Space Server) from BKG (Bundesamt für Kartographie und Geoinformation) as well as RTR-Control. BNC receives the GPS-broadcast ephemerides from the Ntrip-Caster and forwards them to BNS. RTR-Control calculates the satellite clocks and in future also the satellite orbits and forwards them in SP3-format to BNS. BNS calculates the correction terms to the broadcast ephemerides and delivers it in RTCM 3.x format (proprietary message 4056) back to the Ntrip-caster. Subsequently

  2. UNAVCO GPS High-Rate and Real-Time Products and Services: Building a next generation geodetic network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mencin, David; Meertens, Charles; Mattioli, Glen; Feaux, Karl; Looney, Sara; Sievers, Charles; Austin, Ken

    2013-04-01

    Recent advances in GPS technology and data processing are providing position estimates with centimeter-level precision at high-rate (1-5 Hz) and low latency (transforming rapid event characterization, early warning, as well as hazard mitigation and response. Other scientific and operational applications for high-rate GPS also include glacier and ice sheet motions, tropospheric modeling, and better constraints on the dynamics of space weather. UNAVCO, through community input and the recent Plate Boundary Observatory (PBO) NSF-ARRA Cascadia initiative, has nearly completed the process of upgrading a total of 373 PBO GPS sites to real-time high-rate capability and these streams are now being archived in the UNAVCO data center. Further, through the UNAVCO core proposal (GAGE), currently under review at NSF, UNAVCO has proposed upgrading a significant portion of the ~1100 GPS stations that PBO currently operates to real-time high-rate capability to address community science and operational needs. In addition, in collaboration with NOAA, 74 of these stations will provide meteorological data in real-time, primarily to support watershed and flood analyses for regional early-warning systems related to NOAA's work with California Department of Water Resources. In preparation for this increased emphasis on high-rate GPS data, UNAVCO hosted an NSF funded workshop in Boulder, CO on March 26-28, 2012, which brought together 70 participants representing a spectrum of research fields with a goal to develop a community plan for the use of real-time GPS data products within the UNAVCO and EarthScope communities. These data products are expected to improve and expand the use of real-time, high-rate GPS data over the next decade.

  3. Real-Time Vehicle Data Logging System Using GPS And GSM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Win Minn Thet

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract This paper proposes and implements a low cost Vehicle Data Logging System using GPS and GSM. This system allows a user to trace the present and past positions recorded in SD card. This system also reads the current position of the vehicle using GPS the data is sent via GSM service from the GSM network. The vehicles position including the driving speed the UTC time and data are stored in the SD card for live and past tracking. All of that GPS data is sent to PIC 18F4520 by the Universal Asynchronous ReceiverTransmitter UART and also store in SD card. GSM also uses UART to transmit. To know the position of the vehicle the owner sends a request through a SMS. The SMS sends to the authorized person through the GSM network. The travel history of the vehicle are stored in a file on an SD card in FAT format.This system is very useful for car tracking for adolescent driver being checked by parent speed limit exceeding leaving a specific area. V The developed system is easy to use requires no additional hardware and permits the selection of the amount of data and the time intervals between the data recordings. In addition the collected data can easily be transferred to a computer via a connected serial port.

  4. A New Algorithm for ABS/GPS Integration Based on Fuzzy-Logic in Vehicle Navigation System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Amin Zadeh

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available GPS based vehicle navigation systems have difficulties in tracking vehicles in urban canyons due to poor satellite availability. ABS (Antilock Brake System Navigation System consists of self-contained optical encoders mounted on vehicle wheels that can continuously provide accurate short-term positioning information. In this paper, a new concept regarding GPS/ABS integration, based on Fuzzy Logic is presented. The proposed algorithm is used to identify GPS position accuracy based on environment and vehicle dynamic knowledge. The GPS is used as reference during the time it is in a good condition and replaced by ABS positioning system when GPS information is unreliable. We compare our proposed algorithm with other common algorithm in real environment. Our results show that the proposed algorithm can significantly improve the stability and reliability of ABS/GPS navigation system.

  5. Assessing the precision of a time-sampling-based study among GPs: balancing sample size and measurement frequency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Hassel, Daniël; van der Velden, Lud; de Bakker, Dinny; van der Hoek, Lucas; Batenburg, Ronald

    2017-12-04

    Our research is based on a technique for time sampling, an innovative method for measuring the working hours of Dutch general practitioners (GPs), which was deployed in an earlier study. In this study, 1051 GPs were questioned about their activities in real time by sending them one SMS text message every 3 h during 1 week. The required sample size for this study is important for health workforce planners to know if they want to apply this method to target groups who are hard to reach or if fewer resources are available. In this time-sampling method, however, standard power analyses is not sufficient for calculating the required sample size as this accounts only for sample fluctuation and not for the fluctuation of measurements taken from every participant. We investigated the impact of the number of participants and frequency of measurements per participant upon the confidence intervals (CIs) for the hours worked per week. Statistical analyses of the time-use data we obtained from GPs were performed. Ninety-five percent CIs were calculated, using equations and simulation techniques, for various different numbers of GPs included in the dataset and for various frequencies of measurements per participant. Our results showed that the one-tailed CI, including sample and measurement fluctuation, decreased from 21 until 3 h between one and 50 GPs. As a result of the formulas to calculate CIs, the increase of the precision continued and was lower with the same additional number of GPs. Likewise, the analyses showed how the number of participants required decreased if more measurements per participant were taken. For example, one measurement per 3-h time slot during the week requires 300 GPs to achieve a CI of 1 h, while one measurement per hour requires 100 GPs to obtain the same result. The sample size needed for time-use research based on a time-sampling technique depends on the design and aim of the study. In this paper, we showed how the precision of the

  6. Generation of real-time mode high-resolution water vapor fields from GPS observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Chen; Penna, Nigel T.; Li, Zhenhong

    2017-02-01

    Pointwise GPS measurements of tropospheric zenith total delay can be interpolated to provide high-resolution water vapor maps which may be used for correcting synthetic aperture radar images, for numeral weather prediction, and for correcting Network Real-time Kinematic GPS observations. Several previous studies have addressed the importance of the elevation dependency of water vapor, but it is often a challenge to separate elevation-dependent tropospheric delays from turbulent components. In this paper, we present an iterative tropospheric decomposition interpolation model that decouples the elevation and turbulent tropospheric delay components. For a 150 km × 150 km California study region, we estimate real-time mode zenith total delays at 41 GPS stations over 1 year by using the precise point positioning technique and demonstrate that the decoupled interpolation model generates improved high-resolution tropospheric delay maps compared with previous tropospheric turbulence- and elevation-dependent models. Cross validation of the GPS zenith total delays yields an RMS error of 4.6 mm with the decoupled interpolation model, compared with 8.4 mm with the previous model. On converting the GPS zenith wet delays to precipitable water vapor and interpolating to 1 km grid cells across the region, validations with the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer near-IR water vapor product show 1.7 mm RMS differences by using the decoupled model, compared with 2.0 mm for the previous interpolation model. Such results are obtained without differencing the tropospheric delays or water vapor estimates in time or space, while the errors are similar over flat and mountainous terrains, as well as for both inland and coastal areas.

  7. Design of complete software GPS signal simulator with low complexity and precise multipath channel model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Arul Elango

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The need for GPS data simulators have become important due to the tremendous growth in the design of versatile GPS receivers. Commercial hardware and software based GPS simulators are expensive and time consuming. In this work, a low cost simple novel GPS L1 signal simulator is designed for testing and evaluating the performance of software GPS receiver in a laboratory environment. A typical real time paradigm, similar to actual satellite derived GPS signal is created on a computer generated scenario. In this paper, a GPS software simulator is proposed that may offer a lot of analysis and testing flexibility to the researchers and developers as it is totally software based primarily running on a laptop/personal computer without the requirement of any hardware. The proposed GPS simulator allows provision for re-configurability and test repeatability and is developed in VC++ platform to minimize the simulation time. It also incorporates Rayleigh multipath channel fading model under non-line of sight (NLOS conditions. In this work, to efficiently design the simulator, several Rayleigh fading models viz. Inverse Discrete Fourier Transform (IDFT, Filtering White Gaussian Noise (FWFN and modified Sum of Sinusoidal (SOS simulators are tested and compared in terms of accuracy of its first and second order statistical metrics, execution time and the later one is found to be as the best appropriate Rayleigh multipath model suitable for incorporating with GPS simulator. The fading model written in ‘MATLAB’ engine has been linked with software GPS simulator module enable to test GPS receiver’s functionality in different fading environments.

  8. Arctic Tides from GPS on sea-ice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kildegaard Rose, Stine; Skourup, Henriette; Forsberg, René

    2013-01-01

    The presence of sea-ice in the Arctic Ocean plays a significant role in the Arctic climate. Sea-ice dampens the ocean tide amplitude with the result that global tidal models perform less accurately in the polar regions. This paper presents, a kinematic processing of global positioning system (GPS....... The results show coherence between the GPS buoy measurements, and the tide model. Furthermore, we have proved that the reference ellipsoid of WGS84, can be interpolated to the tidal defined zero level by applying geophysical corrections to the GPS data....

  9. Convergence Time and Positioning Accuracy Comparison between BDS and GPS Precise Point Positioning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ZHANG Xiaohong

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available BDS/GPS data from MGEX were processed by TriP 2.0 software developed at Wuhan University. Both static and kinematic float PPP are tested by adopting precise satellite orbits and clocks provided by Research Center of GNSS, Wuhan University. The results show that the convergence time of BDS static PPP is about 80min while kinematic PPP is about 100min. For 3h observations, static positioning accuracy of 5 cm and kinematic positioning accuracy of 8 cm in horizontal, about 12 cm in vertical can be achieved. Similar to GPS PPP, precision in east component is worse than north. At present, BDS PPP needs longer convergence time than GPS PPP to reach an absolute positioning accuracy of cm~dm due to the lack of global tracking stations and the limited accuracy of orbit and clock products.

  10. Rapid Modeling of and Response to Large Earthquakes Using Real-Time GPS Networks (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crowell, B. W.; Bock, Y.; Squibb, M. B.

    2010-12-01

    Real-time GPS networks have the advantage of capturing motions throughout the entire earthquake cycle (interseismic, seismic, coseismic, postseismic), and because of this, are ideal for real-time monitoring of fault slip in the region. Real-time GPS networks provide the perfect supplement to seismic networks, which operate with lower noise and higher sampling rates than GPS networks, but only measure accelerations or velocities, putting them at a supreme disadvantage for ascertaining the full extent of slip during a large earthquake in real-time. Here we report on two examples of rapid modeling of recent large earthquakes near large regional real-time GPS networks. The first utilizes Japan’s GEONET consisting of about 1200 stations during the 2003 Mw 8.3 Tokachi-Oki earthquake about 100 km offshore Hokkaido Island and the second investigates the 2010 Mw 7.2 El Mayor-Cucapah earthquake recorded by more than 100 stations in the California Real Time Network. The principal components of strain were computed throughout the networks and utilized as a trigger to initiate earthquake modeling. Total displacement waveforms were then computed in a simulated real-time fashion using a real-time network adjustment algorithm that fixes a station far away from the rupture to obtain a stable reference frame. Initial peak ground displacement measurements can then be used to obtain an initial size through scaling relationships. Finally, a full coseismic model of the event can be run minutes after the event, given predefined fault geometries, allowing emergency first responders and researchers to pinpoint the regions of highest damage. Furthermore, we are also investigating using total displacement waveforms for real-time moment tensor inversions to look at spatiotemporal variations in slip.

  11. Remote reference processing in MT survey using GPS clock; MT ho ni okeru GPS wo mochiita jikoku doki system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamane, K; Inoue, J; Takasugi, S [Geothermal Energy Research and Development Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan); Kosuge, S [DRICO Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)

    1996-05-01

    A report is given about the application of a synchronizing system using clock signals from GPS satellites to a remote reference method which is a technique to reject noise from the MT method. This system uses the C/A code out of the L1 band waves from NAVSTAR/GPS satellites. The new system was operated in MT method-using investigations conducted at China Peninsula, Aichi Prefecture, and Izu Peninsula, Shizuoka Prefecture, with the reference points placed several 100km away in Iwate Prefecture on both occasions. It was found as the result that it is basically possible to catch signals from the GPS at any place, that the signals are accurate enough to be applied to time synchronization for the MT method, and that the signals assure a far remote reference method with a separation of several 100km between the sites involved. The referencing process at high frequencies whose feasibility had been doubted proved a success when highly correlated signals were exchanged between two stations over a distance of several 100km. 5 refs., 9 figs.

  12. Feathered Detectives: Real-Time GPS Tracking of Scavenging Gulls Pinpoints Illegal Waste Dumping.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joan Navarro

    Full Text Available Urban waste impacts human and environmental health, and waste management has become one of the major challenges of humanity. Concurrently with new directives due to manage this human by-product, illegal dumping has become one of the most lucrative activities of organized crime. Beyond economic fraud, illegal waste disposal strongly enhances uncontrolled dissemination of human pathogens, pollutants and invasive species. Here, we demonstrate the potential of novel real-time GPS tracking of scavenging species to detect environmental crime. Specifically, we were able to detect illegal activities at an officially closed dump, which was visited recurrently by 5 of 19 GPS-tracked yellow-legged gulls (Larus michahellis. In comparison with conventional land-based surveys, GPS tracking allows a much wider and cost-efficient spatiotemporal coverage, even of the most hazardous sites, while GPS data accessibility through the internet enables rapid intervention. Our results suggest that multi-species guilds of feathered detectives equipped with GPS and cameras could help fight illegal dumping at continental scales. We encourage further experimental studies, to infer waste detection thresholds in gulls and other scavenging species exploiting human waste dumps.

  13. BIPM Time Activities Update

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-11-01

    VNIIFTRI and the PTB [7]. GPS time transfer represents today about 85% of the time links for TAI; in this technique, we make use of different types...campaign visited the PTB, the VNIIFTRI , and the AOS [8]. Already in 1996, the use of GLONASS in standard CGGTTS Common-View mode was proposed, but...are compared on regular basis to GPS and TWSTFT methods [16]. Also, with the agreement of the CCTF (2009), the link between the PTB and VNIIFTRI

  14. A New Indoor Positioning System Architecture Using GPS Signals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Rui; Chen, Wu; Xu, Ying; Ji, Shengyue

    2015-04-29

    The pseudolite system is a good alternative for indoor positioning systems due to its large coverage area and accurate positioning solution. However, for common Global Positioning System (GPS) receivers, the pseudolite system requires some modifications of the user terminals. To solve the problem, this paper proposes a new pseudolite-based indoor positioning system architecture. The main idea is to receive real-world GPS signals, repeat each satellite signal and transmit those using indoor transmitting antennas. The transmitted GPS-like signal can be processed (signal acquisition and tracking, navigation data decoding) by the general receiver and thus no hardware-level modification on the receiver is required. In addition, all Tx can be synchronized with each other since one single clock is used in Rx/Tx. The proposed system is simulated using a software GPS receiver. The simulation results show the indoor positioning system is able to provide high accurate horizontal positioning in both static and dynamic situations.

  15. Reinforced Ultra-Tightly Coupled GPS/INS System for Challenging Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xueyun Wang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Among all integration levels currently available for Global Positioning System (GPS and Inertial Navigation System (INS Integrated System, ultra-tightly coupled (UTC GPS/INS system is the best choice for accurate and reliable navigation. Nevertheless the performance of UTC GPS/INS system degrades in challenging environments, such as jamming, changing noise of GPS signals, and high dynamic maneuvers. When low-end Inertial Measurement Units (IMUs based on MEMS sensors are employed, the performance degradation will be more severe. To solve this problem, a reinforced UTC GPS/INS system is proposed. Two techniques are adopted to deal with jamming and high dynamics. Firstly, adaptive integration Kalman filter (IKF based on fuzzy logics is developed to reinforce the antijamming ability. The parameters of membership functions (MFs are adjusted and optimized through self-developed neutral network. Secondly, a Doppler frequency error estimator based on Kalman filter is designed to improve the navigation performance under high dynamics. A complete simulation platform is established to evaluate the reinforced system. Results demonstrate that the proposed system architecture significantly improves navigation performance in challenging environments and it is a more advanced solution to accurate and reliable navigation than traditional UTC GPS/INS system.

  16. Children's GPS-determined versus self-reported transport in leisure time and associations with parental perceptions of the neighborhood environment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vanwolleghem, Griet; Schipperijn, Jasper; Gheysen, Freja

    2016-01-01

    measured transport in leisure time and filled out a diary to assess self-reported transport in leisure time. Parents completed a questionnaire to assess parental perceptions of the neighborhood environment. Pearson correlations and t-tests were used to test for concurrent validity and differences between...... GPS-determined and self-reported transport in leisure time. Generalized linear models were used to determine the associations between the parental perceptions of the neighborhood environment and GPS-determined transport in leisure time. RESULTS: Overall, children under-reported their walking......BACKGROUND: This study aimed to examine both GPS-determined and self-reported walking, cycling and passive transport in leisure time during week- and weekend-days among 10 to 12-year old children. Comparisons between GPS-determined and self-reported transport in leisure time were investigated...

  17. The lesser evil? Initiating a benzodiazepine prescription in general practice: a qualitative study on GPs' perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anthierens, Sibyl; Habraken, Hilde; Petrovic, Mirko; Christiaens, Thierry

    2007-12-01

    Chronic benzodiazepine (BZD) use is widespread and linked with adverse effects. There is consensus concerning the importance of initiating BZD as a crucial moment. Nevertheless specific research in this field is lacking. This paper addresses the views of GPs on why they start prescribing BZDs to first-time users. Qualitative study with five focus groups analysed using a systematic content analysis. Regions of Ghent and Brussels in Belgium. A total of 35 general practitioners. The GPs' perspective on their initiating of BZD prescribing. GPs reported that they are cautious in initiating BZD usage. At the same time, GPs feel overwhelmed by the psychosocial problems of their patients. They show empathy by prescribing. They feel in certain situations there are no other solutions and they experience BZDs as the lesser evil. They admit to resorting to BZDs because of time restraint and lack of alternatives. GPs do not perceive the addictive nature of BZD consumption as a problem with first-time users. GPs do not specifically mention patients' demand as an element for starting. The main concern of GPs is to help the patient. GPs should be aware of the addictive nature of BZD even in low doses and a non-pharmacological approach should be seen as the best first approach. If GPs decide to prescribe a BZD they should make plain to the patient that the medication is only a "temporary" solution with clear agreements with regard to medication withdrawal.

  18. Optimizing the De-Noise Neural Network Model for GPS Time-Series Monitoring of Structures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mosbeh R. Kaloop

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The Global Positioning System (GPS is recently used widely in structures and other applications. Notwithstanding, the GPS accuracy still suffers from the errors afflicting the measurements, particularly the short-period displacement of structural components. Previously, the multi filter method is utilized to remove the displacement errors. This paper aims at using a novel application for the neural network prediction models to improve the GPS monitoring time series data. Four prediction models for the learning algorithms are applied and used with neural network solutions: back-propagation, Cascade-forward back-propagation, adaptive filter and extended Kalman filter, to estimate which model can be recommended. The noise simulation and bridge’s short-period GPS of the monitoring displacement component of one Hz sampling frequency are used to validate the four models and the previous method. The results show that the Adaptive neural networks filter is suggested for de-noising the observations, specifically for the GPS displacement components of structures. Also, this model is expected to have significant influence on the design of structures in the low frequency responses and measurements’ contents.

  19. GPS or travel diary: Comparing spatial and temporal characteristics of visits to fast food restaurants and supermarkets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scully, Jason Y; Vernez Moudon, Anne; Hurvitz, Philip M; Aggarwal, Anju; Drewnowski, Adam

    2017-01-01

    To assess differences between GPS and self-reported measures of location, we examined visits to fast food restaurants and supermarkets using a spatiotemporal framework. Data came from 446 participants who responded to a survey, filled out travel diaries of places visited, and wore a GPS receiver for seven consecutive days. Provided by Public Health Seattle King County, addresses from food permit data were matched to King County tax assessor parcels in a GIS. A three-step process was used to verify travel-diary reported visits using GPS records: (1) GPS records were temporally matched if their timestamps were within the time window created by the arrival and departure times reported in the travel diary; (2) the temporally matched GPS records were then spatially matched if they were located in a food establishment parcel of the same type reported in the diary; (3) the travel diary visit was then GPS-sensed if the name of food establishment in the parcel matched the one reported in the travel diary. To account for errors in reporting arrival and departure times, GPS records were temporally matched to three time windows: the exact time, +/- 10 minutes, and +/- 30 minutes. One third of the participants reported 273 visits to fast food restaurants; 88% reported 1,102 visits to supermarkets. Of these, 77.3 percent of the fast food and 78.6 percent supermarket visits were GPS-sensed using the +/-10-minute time window. At this time window, the mean travel-diary reported fast food visit duration was 14.5 minutes (SD 20.2), 1.7 minutes longer than the GPS-sensed visit. For supermarkets, the reported visit duration was 23.7 minutes (SD 18.9), 3.4 minutes longer than the GPS-sensed visit. Travel diaries provide reasonably accurate information on the locations and brand names of fast food restaurants and supermarkets participants report visiting.

  20. GPS Interference Mitigation Using Derivative-free Kalman Filter-based RNN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. L. Mao

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The global positioning system (GPS with accurate positioning and timing properties has become integral part of all applications around the world. Radio frequency interference can significantly decrease the performance of GPS receivers or even completely prohibit the acquisition or tracking of satellites. The approaches of system performances that can be further enhanced by preprocessing to reject the jamming signal will be investigated. A recurrent neural network (RNN predictor for the GPS anti-jamming applications will be proposed. The adaptive RNN predictor is utilized to accurately predict the narrowband waveform based on an unscented Kalman filter (UKF-based algorithm. The UKF algorithm as a derivative-free alternative to the extended Kalman filter (EKF in the framework of state-estimation is adopted to achieve better performance in terms of convergence rate and quality of solution. The adaptive RNN filter can be successfully applied for the suppression of interference with a number of different narrowband formats, i.e. continuous wave interference (CWI, multi-tone CWI, swept CWI and pulsed CWI, to emulate realistic circumstances. Simulation results show that the proposed UKF-based scheme can offer the superior performances to suppress the interference over the conventional methods by computing mean squared prediction error (MSPE and signal-to-noise ratio (SNR improvements.

  1. Tracking Small Satellites using Translated GPS

    OpenAIRE

    Lefevre, Don; Mulally, Daniel

    1991-01-01

    This paper discusses using translated GPS for tracking small satellites, the technical trade-offs involved, and the position and timing accuracies which are achievable using translated GPS. The Global Positioning System (GPS) uses the relative times-of-arrival of multiple spread-spectrum signals at an antenna to determine the position of the antenna. The system can also determine the time the antenna was at that position. The direct sequence spread spectrum signals are transmitted from GPS sa...

  2. GPS Imaging of Time-Variable Earthquake Hazard: The Hilton Creek Fault, Long Valley California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammond, W. C.; Blewitt, G.

    2016-12-01

    The Hilton Creek Fault, in Long Valley, California is a down-to-the-east normal fault that bounds the eastern edge of the Sierra Nevada/Great Valley microplate, and lies half inside and half outside the magmatically active caldera. Despite the dense coverage with GPS networks, the rapid and time-variable surface deformation attributable to sporadic magmatic inflation beneath the resurgent dome makes it difficult to use traditional geodetic methods to estimate the slip rate of the fault. While geologic studies identify cumulative offset, constrain timing of past earthquakes, and constrain a Quaternary slip rate to within 1-5 mm/yr, it is not currently possible to use geologic data to evaluate how the potential for slip correlates with transient caldera inflation. To estimate time-variable seismic hazard of the fault we estimate its instantaneous slip rate from GPS data using a new set of algorithms for robust estimation of velocity and strain rate fields and fault slip rates. From the GPS time series, we use the robust MIDAS algorithm to obtain time series of velocity that are highly insensitive to the effects of seasonality, outliers and steps in the data. We then use robust imaging of the velocity field to estimate a gridded time variable velocity field. Then we estimate fault slip rate at each time using a new technique that forms ad-hoc block representations that honor fault geometries, network complexity, connectivity, but does not require labor-intensive drawing of block boundaries. The results are compared to other slip rate estimates that have implications for hazard over different time scales. Time invariant long term seismic hazard is proportional to the long term slip rate accessible from geologic data. Contemporary time-invariant hazard, however, may differ from the long term rate, and is estimated from the geodetic velocity field that has been corrected for the effects of magmatic inflation in the caldera using a published model of a dipping ellipsoidal

  3. Using GPS to Detect Imminent Tsunamis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Y. Tony

    2009-01-01

    A promising method of detecting imminent tsunamis and estimating their destructive potential involves the use of Global Positioning System (GPS) data in addition to seismic data. Application of the method is expected to increase the reliability of global tsunami-warning systems, making it possible to save lives while reducing the incidence of false alarms. Tsunamis kill people every year. The 2004 Indian Ocean tsunami killed about 230,000 people. The magnitude of an earthquake is not always a reliable indication of the destructive potential of a tsunami. The 2004 Indian Ocean quake generated a huge tsunami, while the 2005 Nias (Indonesia) quake did not, even though both were initially estimated to be of the similar magnitude. Between 2005 and 2007, five false tsunami alarms were issued worldwide. Such alarms result in negative societal and economic effects. GPS stations can detect ground motions of earthquakes in real time, as frequently as every few seconds. In the present method, the epicenter of an earthquake is located by use of data from seismometers, then data from coastal GPS stations near the epicenter are used to infer sea-floor displacements that precede a tsunami. The displacement data are used in conjunction with local topographical data and an advanced theory to quantify the destructive potential of a tsunami on a new tsunami scale, based on the GPS-derived tsunami energy, much like the Richter Scale used for earthquakes. An important element of the derivation of the advanced theory was recognition that horizontal sea-floor motions contribute much more to generation of tsunamis than previously believed. The method produces a reliable estimate of the destructive potential of a tsunami within minutes typically, well before the tsunami reaches coastal areas. The viability of the method was demonstrated in computational tests in which the method yielded accurate representations of three historical tsunamis for which well-documented ground

  4. Allocation of time under different payment systems by GPs in Europe.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boerma, W.; Groenewegen, P.; Spreeuwenberg, P.

    2003-01-01

    Background: Payment of GPs is relevant from two points of view: fair payment and effects on the quality of care. Fair pay is especially important in capitation systems (does the amount correctly reflect the invested work). Secondly, payment affects the allocation of time, and thus indirect the

  5. Continuing medical education and burnout among Danish GPs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brøndt, Anders; Sokolowski, Ineta; Olesen, Frede

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: There has been minimal research into continuing medical education (CME) and its association with burnout among GPs. AIM: The aim of this study was to investigate the association between participating in CME and experiencing burnout in a sample of Danish GPs. DESIGN OF STUDY: Cross......-sectional questionnaire study. SETTING: All 458 active GPs in 2004, in the County of Aarhus, Denmark were invited to participate. METHOD: Data on CME activities were obtained for all GPs and linked to burnout which was measured using the Maslach Burnout Inventory - Human Services Survey. The relationship between CME...... activity and burnout was calculated as prevalence ratios (PR) in a generalised linear model. RESULTS: In total, 379 (83.5%) GPs returned the questionnaire. The prevalence of burnout was about 25%, and almost 3% suffered from 'high burnout'. A total of 344 (92.0%) GPs were members of a CME group...

  6. GPS operations at Olkiluoto in 2011

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koivula, H.; Kallio, U.; Nyberg, S.; Jokela, J.; Poutanen, M.

    2012-06-01

    The Finnish Geodetic Institute has studied crustal deformations at Olkiluoto, Kivetty and Romuvaara in co-operation with Posiva Oy since 1995. At Olkiluoto a total of 32 GPS campaigns have been carried out at inner network since 1995 and 17 campaigns at outer network since 2003. Kivetty and Romuvaara were not measured in 2011. In the Olkiluoto inner network 80 percent of the estimated change rates are smaller than 0.10 mm/a. One third of the change rates are statistically significant. They are mainly related to the Olkiluoto permanent station (GPS1) and to the pillars GPS6 and GPS13. The change rates related to GPS6 are not realistic due to the site-specific changes affecting the time series. The maximum change rate (-0.20 mm/a ± 0.05 mm/a) is related to GPS13. The time series of GPS13 is half the length of other pillars and therefore, the change rates are more uncertain. In the Olkiluoto outer network the maximum and statistically significant change rate is between GPS1-GPS11 (0.39 mm/a ± 0.06 mm/a). Pillar GPS12 was not observed this year. The change rates of baselines GPS1-GPS14 and GPS1-GPS15 are first time statistically significant. The change rates indicate a small movement of the GPS1 pillar. The baseline GPS1-GPS11 crosses an old fracture zone locating in the direction of the Eurajoensalmi, which might be a reason for the deformation. On the other hand, the Onkalo excavations in the vicinity of the Olkiluoto permanent station (GPS1) may cause some movement. Electronic distance measurements have been performed at Olkiluoto at the baseline GPS7-GPS8 using the Mekometer since 2002. The measurements have been carried out simultaneously with GPS campaigns. Based on 19 measurements in 10 years, the trends of the two time series seems to be similar. Due to unmodelled or dismodelled geometrical offsets and the scale difference between GPS measurements and EDM there is about 0.3 mm difference between distances GPS7-GPS8 derived from GPS measurements and EDM. It is

  7. GPS operations at Olkiluoto in 2011

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koivula, H.; Kallio, U.; Nyberg, S.; Jokela, J.; Poutanen, M. [Finnish Geodetic Institute, Masala (Finland)

    2012-06-15

    The Finnish Geodetic Institute has studied crustal deformations at Olkiluoto, Kivetty and Romuvaara in co-operation with Posiva Oy since 1995. At Olkiluoto a total of 32 GPS campaigns have been carried out at inner network since 1995 and 17 campaigns at outer network since 2003. Kivetty and Romuvaara were not measured in 2011. In the Olkiluoto inner network 80 percent of the estimated change rates are smaller than 0.10 mm/a. One third of the change rates are statistically significant. They are mainly related to the Olkiluoto permanent station (GPS1) and to the pillars GPS6 and GPS13. The change rates related to GPS6 are not realistic due to the site-specific changes affecting the time series. The maximum change rate (-0.20 mm/a {+-} 0.05 mm/a) is related to GPS13. The time series of GPS13 is half the length of other pillars and therefore, the change rates are more uncertain. In the Olkiluoto outer network the maximum and statistically significant change rate is between GPS1-GPS11 (0.39 mm/a {+-} 0.06 mm/a). Pillar GPS12 was not observed this year. The change rates of baselines GPS1-GPS14 and GPS1-GPS15 are first time statistically significant. The change rates indicate a small movement of the GPS1 pillar. The baseline GPS1-GPS11 crosses an old fracture zone locating in the direction of the Eurajoensalmi, which might be a reason for the deformation. On the other hand, the Onkalo excavations in the vicinity of the Olkiluoto permanent station (GPS1) may cause some movement. Electronic distance measurements have been performed at Olkiluoto at the baseline GPS7-GPS8 using the Mekometer since 2002. The measurements have been carried out simultaneously with GPS campaigns. Based on 19 measurements in 10 years, the trends of the two time series seems to be similar. Due to unmodelled or dismodelled geometrical offsets and the scale difference between GPS measurements and EDM there is about 0.3 mm difference between distances GPS7-GPS8 derived from GPS measurements and EDM

  8. GPS radio collar 3D performance as influenced by forest structure and topography

    Science.gov (United States)

    R. Scott Gamo; Mark A. Rumble; Fred Lindzey; Matt Stefanich

    2000-01-01

    Global Positioning System (GPS) telemetry enables biologists to obtain accurate and systematic locations of animals. Vegetation can block signals from satellites to GPS radio collars. Therefore, a vegetation dependent bias to telemetry data may occur which if quantified, could be accounted for. We evaluated the performance of GPS collars in 6 structural stage...

  9. How and Why to Do VLBI on GPS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dickey, J. M.

    2010-01-01

    In order to establish the position of the center of mass of the Earth in the International Celestial Reference Frame, observations of the Global Positioning Satellite (GPS) constellation using the IVS network are important. With a good frame-tie between the coordinates of the IVS telescopes and nearby GPS receivers, plus a common local oscillator reference signal, it should be possible to observe and record simultaneously signals from the astrometric calibration sources and the GPS satellites. The standard IVS solution would give the atmospheric delay and clock offsets to use in analysis of the GPS data. Correlation of the GPS signals would then give accurate orbital parameters of the satellites in the ICRF reference frame, i.e., relative to the positions of the astrometric sources. This is particularly needed to determine motion of the center of mass of the earth along the rotation axis.

  10. An estimation of tropospheric corrections using GPS and synoptic data: Improving Urmia Lake water level time series from Jason-2 and SARAL/AltiKa satellite altimetry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arabsahebi, Reza; Voosoghi, Behzad; Tourian, Mohammad J.

    2018-05-01

    Tropospheric correction is one of the most important corrections in satellite altimetry measurements. Tropospheric wet and dry path delays have strong dependence on temperature, pressure and humidity. Tropospheric layer has particularly high variability over coastal regions due to humidity, wind and temperature gradients. Depending on the extent of water body and wind conditions over an inland water, Wet Tropospheric Correction (WTC) is within the ranges from a few centimeters to tens of centimeters. Therefore, an extra care is needed to estimate tropospheric corrections on the altimetric measurements over inland waters. This study assesses the role of tropospheric correction on the altimetric measurements over the Urmia Lake in Iran. For this purpose, four types of tropospheric corrections have been used: (i) microwave radiometer (MWR) observations, (ii) tropospheric corrections computed from meteorological models, (iii) GPS observations and (iv) synoptic station data. They have been applied to Jason-2 track no. 133 and SARAL/AltiKa track no. 741 and 356 corresponding to 117-153 and the 23-34 cycles, respectively. In addition, the corresponding measurements of PISTACH and PEACHI, include new retracking method and an innovative wet tropospheric correction, have also been used. Our results show that GPS observation leads to the most accurate tropospheric correction. The results obtained from the PISTACH and PEACHI projects confirm those obtained with the standard SGDR, i.e., the role of GPS in improving the tropospheric corrections. It is inferred that the MWR data from Jason-2 mission is appropriate for the tropospheric corrections, however the SARAL/AltiKa one is not proper because Jason-2 possesses an enhanced WTC near the coast. Furthermore, virtual stations are defined for assessment of the results in terms of time series of Water Level Height (WLH). The results show that GPS tropospheric corrections lead to the most accurate WLH estimation for the selected

  11. TLALOCNet continuous GPS-Met Array in Mexico supporting the 2017 NAM GPS Hydrometeorological Network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabral-Cano, E.; Salazar-Tlaczani, L.; Adams, D. K.; Vivoni, E. R.; Grutter, M.; Serra, Y. L.; DeMets, C.; Galetzka, J.; Feaux, K.; Mattioli, G. S.; Miller, M. M.

    2017-12-01

    TLALOCNet is a network of continuous GPS and meteorology stations in Mexico to study atmospheric and solid earth processes. This recently completed network spans most of Mexico with a strong coverage emphasis on southern and western Mexico. This network, funded by NSF, CONACyT and UNAM, recently built 40 cGPS-Met sites to EarthScope Plate Boundary Observatory standards and upgraded 25 additional GPS stations. TLALOCNet provides open and freely available raw GPS data, and high frequency surface meteorology measurements, and time series of daily positions. This is accomplished through the development of the TLALOCNet data center (http://tlalocnet.udg.mx) that serves as a collection and distribution point. This data center is based on UNAVCO's Dataworks-GSAC software and also works as part of UNAVCO's seamless archive for discovery, sharing, and access to GPS data. The TLALOCNet data center also contains contributed data from several regional GPS networks in Mexico for a total of 100+ stations. By using the same protocols and structure as the UNAVCO and other COCONet regional data centers, the scientific community has the capability of accessing data from the largest Mexican GPS network. This archive provides a fully queryable and scriptable GPS and Meteorological data retrieval point. In addition, real-time 1Hz streams from selected TLALOCNet stations are available in BINEX, RTCM 2.3 and RTCM 3.1 formats via the Networked Transport of RTCM via Internet Protocol (NTRIP) for real-time seismic and weather forecasting applications. TLALOCNet served as a GPS-Met backbone for the binational Mexico-US North American Monsoon GPS Hydrometeorological Network 2017 campaign experiment. This innovative experiment attempts to address water vapor source regions and land-surface water vapor flux contributions to precipitation (i.e., moisture recycling) during the 2017 North American Monsoon in Baja California, Sonora, Chihuahua, and Arizona. Models suggest that moisture recycling is

  12. Accurate estimation of indoor travel times

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Prentow, Thor Siiger; Blunck, Henrik; Stisen, Allan

    2014-01-01

    The ability to accurately estimate indoor travel times is crucial for enabling improvements within application areas such as indoor navigation, logistics for mobile workers, and facility management. In this paper, we study the challenges inherent in indoor travel time estimation, and we propose...... the InTraTime method for accurately estimating indoor travel times via mining of historical and real-time indoor position traces. The method learns during operation both travel routes, travel times and their respective likelihood---both for routes traveled as well as for sub-routes thereof. InTraTime...... allows to specify temporal and other query parameters, such as time-of-day, day-of-week or the identity of the traveling individual. As input the method is designed to take generic position traces and is thus interoperable with a variety of indoor positioning systems. The method's advantages include...

  13. GPS or travel diary: Comparing spatial and temporal characteristics of visits to fast food restaurants and supermarkets.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jason Y Scully

    Full Text Available To assess differences between GPS and self-reported measures of location, we examined visits to fast food restaurants and supermarkets using a spatiotemporal framework. Data came from 446 participants who responded to a survey, filled out travel diaries of places visited, and wore a GPS receiver for seven consecutive days. Provided by Public Health Seattle King County, addresses from food permit data were matched to King County tax assessor parcels in a GIS. A three-step process was used to verify travel-diary reported visits using GPS records: (1 GPS records were temporally matched if their timestamps were within the time window created by the arrival and departure times reported in the travel diary; (2 the temporally matched GPS records were then spatially matched if they were located in a food establishment parcel of the same type reported in the diary; (3 the travel diary visit was then GPS-sensed if the name of food establishment in the parcel matched the one reported in the travel diary. To account for errors in reporting arrival and departure times, GPS records were temporally matched to three time windows: the exact time, +/- 10 minutes, and +/- 30 minutes. One third of the participants reported 273 visits to fast food restaurants; 88% reported 1,102 visits to supermarkets. Of these, 77.3 percent of the fast food and 78.6 percent supermarket visits were GPS-sensed using the +/-10-minute time window. At this time window, the mean travel-diary reported fast food visit duration was 14.5 minutes (SD 20.2, 1.7 minutes longer than the GPS-sensed visit. For supermarkets, the reported visit duration was 23.7 minutes (SD 18.9, 3.4 minutes longer than the GPS-sensed visit. Travel diaries provide reasonably accurate information on the locations and brand names of fast food restaurants and supermarkets participants report visiting.

  14. Utilization of GPS Tropospheric Delays for Climate Research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suparta, Wayan

    2017-01-01

    The tropospheric delay is one of the main error sources in Global Positioning Systems (GPS) and its impact plays a crucial role in near real-time weather forecasting. Accessibility and accurate estimation of this parameter are essential for weather and climate research. Advances in GPS application has allowed the measurements of zenith tropospheric delay (ZTD) in all weather conditions and on a global scale with fine temporal and spatial resolution. In addition to the rapid advancement of GPS technology and informatics and the development of research in the field of Earth and Planetary Sciences, the GPS data has been available free of charge. Now only required sophisticated processing techniques but user friendly. On the other hand, the ZTD parameter obtained from the models or measurements needs to be converted into precipitable water vapor (PWV) to make it more useful as a component of weather forecasting and analysis atmospheric hazards such as tropical storms, flash floods, landslide, pollution, and earthquake as well as for climate change studies. This paper addresses the determination of ZTD as a signal error or delay source during the propagation from the satellite to a receiver on the ground and is a key driving force behind the atmospheric events. Some results in terms of ZTD and PWV will be highlighted in this paper. (paper)

  15. Combining Real-Time Seismic and GPS Data for Earthquake Early Warning (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boese, M.; Heaton, T. H.; Hudnut, K. W.

    2013-12-01

    Scientists at Caltech, UC Berkeley, the Univ. of SoCal, the Univ. of Washington, the US Geological Survey, and ETH Zurich have developed an earthquake early warning (EEW) demonstration system for California and the Pacific Northwest. To quickly determine the earthquake magnitude and location, 'ShakeAlert' currently processes and interprets real-time data-streams from ~400 seismic broadband and strong-motion stations within the California Integrated Seismic Network (CISN). Based on these parameters, the 'UserDisplay' software predicts and displays the arrival and intensity of shaking at a given user site. Real-time ShakeAlert feeds are currently shared with around 160 individuals, companies, and emergency response organizations to educate potential users about EEW and to identify needs and applications of EEW in a future operational warning system. Recently, scientists at the contributing institutions have started to develop algorithms for ShakeAlert that make use of high-rate real-time GPS data to improve the magnitude estimates for large earthquakes (M>6.5) and to determine slip distributions. Knowing the fault slip in (near) real-time is crucial for users relying on or operating distributed systems, such as for power, water or transportation, especially if these networks run close to or across large faults. As shown in an earlier study, slip information is also useful to predict (in a probabilistic sense) how far a fault rupture will propagate, thus enabling more robust probabilistic ground-motion predictions at distant locations. Finally, fault slip information is needed for tsunami warning, such as in the Cascadia subduction-zone. To handle extended fault-ruptures of large earthquakes in real-time, Caltech and USGS Pasadena are currently developing and testing a two-step procedure that combines seismic and geodetic data; in the first step, high-frequency strong-motion amplitudes are used to rapidly classify near-and far-source stations. Then, the location and

  16. Adjustment and Assessment of the Measurements of Low and High Sampling Frequencies of GPS Real-Time Monitoring of Structural Movement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mosbeh R. Kaloop

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Global Positioning System (GPS structural health monitoring data collection is one of the important systems in structure movement monitoring. However, GPS measurement error and noise limit the application of such systems. Many attempts have been made to adjust GPS measurements and eliminate their errors. Comparing common nonlinear methods used in the adjustment of GPS positioning for the monitoring of structures is the main objective of this study. Nonlinear Adaptive-Recursive Least Square (RLS, extended Kalman filter (EKF, and wavelet principal component analysis (WPCA are presented and applied to improve the quality of GPS time series observations. Two real monitoring observation systems for the Mansoura railway and long-span Yonghe bridges are utilized to examine suitable methods used to assess bridge behavior under different load conditions. From the analysis of the results, it is concluded that the wavelet principal component is the best method to smooth low and high GPS sampling frequency observations. The evaluation of the bridges reveals the ability of the GPS systems to detect the behavior and damage of structures in both the time and frequency domains.

  17. Motives for early retirement of self-employed GPs in the Netherlands: a comparison of two time periods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Van Greuningen Malou

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The high cost of training and the relatively long period of training for physicians make it beneficial to stimulate physicians to retire later. Therefore, a better understanding of the link between the factors influencing the decision to retire and actual turnover would benefit policies designed to encourage later retirement. This study focuses on actual GP turnover and the determining factors for this in the Netherlands. The period 2003–2007 saw fewer GPs retiring from general practice than the period 1998–2002. In addition, GPs’ retirement age was higher in 2003–2007. For these two periods, we analysed work perception, objective workload and reasons for leaving, and related these with the probability that GPs would leave general practice at an early age. Methods In 2003, a first retrospective survey was sent to 520 self-employed GPs who had retired between 1998 and 2002. In 2008, the same survey was sent to 405 GPs who had retired between 2003 and 2007. The response rates were 60% and 54%, respectively. Analyses were done to compare work perception, objective workload, external factors and personal reasons for retiring. Results For both male and female GPs, work perception was different in the periods under scrutiny: both groups reported greater job satisfaction and a lower degree of emotional exhaustion in the later period, although there was no notable difference in subjective workload. The objective workload was lower in the second period. Moreover, most external factors and personal reasons that may contribute to the decision to retire were reported as less important in the second period. There was a stronger decrease in the probability that female GPs leave general practice within one year than for male GPs. This underscores the gender differences and the need for disaggregated data collection. Conclusions The results of this study suggest that the decrease in the probability of GPs leaving general practice

  18. Frequency-Locked Detector Threshold Setting Criteria Based on Mean-Time-To-Lose-Lock (MTLL) for GPS Receivers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Tian; Yuan, Heliang; Zhao, Na; Qin, Honglei; Sun, Kewen; Ji, Yuanfa

    2017-12-04

    Frequency-locked detector (FLD) has been widely utilized in tracking loops of Global Positioning System (GPS) receivers to indicate their locking status. The relation between FLD and lock status has been seldom discussed. The traditional PLL experience is not suitable for FLL. In this paper, the threshold setting criteria for frequency-locked detector in the GPS receiver has been proposed by analyzing statistical characteristic of FLD output. The approximate probability distribution of frequency-locked detector is theoretically derived by using a statistical approach, which reveals the relationship between probabilities of frequency-locked detector and the carrier-to-noise ratio ( C / N ₀) of the received GPS signal. The relationship among mean-time-to-lose-lock (MTLL), detection threshold and lock probability related to C / N ₀ can be further discovered by utilizing this probability. Therefore, a theoretical basis for threshold setting criteria in frequency locked loops for GPS receivers is provided based on mean-time-to-lose-lock analysis.

  19. A novel fusion methodology to bridge GPS outages for land vehicle positioning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Wei; Li, Xu; Song, Xiang; Xu, Qimin; Li, Bin; Song, Xianghui

    2015-01-01

    Many intelligent transportation system applications require accurate, reliable, and continuous vehicle position information whether in open-sky environments or in Global Positioning System (GPS) denied environments. However, there remains a challenging task for land vehicles to achieve such positioning performance using low-cost sensors, especially microelectromechanical system (MEMS) sensors. In this paper, a novel and cost-effective fusion methodology to bridge GPS outages is proposed and applied in the Inertial Navigation System (INS)/GPS/ compass integrated positioning system. In the implementation of the proposed methodology, a key data preprocessing algorithm is first developed to eliminate the noise in inertial sensors in order to provide more accurate information for subsequent modeling. Then, a novel hybrid strategy incorporating the designed autoregressive model (AR model)-based forward estimator (ARFE) with Kalman filter (KF) is presented to predict the INS position errors during GPS outages. To verify the feasibility and effectiveness of the proposed methodology, real road tests with various scenarios were performed. The proposed methodology illustrates significant improvement in positioning accuracy during GPS outages. (paper)

  20. SMS-based time use research among Dutch GPs: an experiment.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Batenburg, R.; Hassel, D. van; Velden, L. van der

    2013-01-01

    Context: It has become a critical challenge in many countries to ensure sufficient capacity of primary care providers, specifically the capacity of General Practitioners (GPs). In a number of countries, health workforce planning is specifically developed for GPs, increasing the need for reliable and

  1. Reduced variability and execution time to reach a target with a needle GPS system: Comparison between physicians, residents and nurse anaesthetists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fevre, Marie-Cécile; Vincent, Caroline; Picard, Julien; Vighetti, Arnaud; Chapuis, Claire; Detavernier, Maxime; Allenet, Benoît; Payen, Jean-François; Bosson, Jean-Luc; Albaladejo, Pierre

    2018-02-01

    Ultrasound (US) guided needle positioning is safer than anatomical landmark techniques for central venous access. Hand-eye coordination and execution time depend on the professional's ability, previous training and personal skills. Needle guidance positioning systems (GPS) may theoretically reduce execution time and facilitate needle positioning in specific targets, thus improving patient comfort and safety. Three groups of healthcare professionals (41 anaesthesiologists and intensivists, 41 residents in anaesthesiology and intensive care, 39 nurse anaesthetists) were included and required to perform 3 tasks (positioning the tip of a needle in three different targets in a silicon phantom) by using successively a conventional US-guided needle positioning and a needle GPS. We measured execution times to perform the tasks, hand-eye coordination and the number of repositioning occurrences or errors in handling the needle or the probe. Without the GPS system, we observed a significant inter-individual difference for execution time (Pgaming were found to be independent factors associated with a shorter execution time. Use of GPS attenuated the inter-individual and group variability. We observed a reduced execution time and improved hand-eye coordination in all groups as compared to US without GPS. Neither US training, video gaming nor demographic personal or professional factors were found to be significantly associated with reduced execution time when GPS was used. US associated with GPS systems may improve safety and decrease execution time by reducing inter-individual variability between professionals for needle-handling procedures. Copyright © 2016 Société française d'anesthésie et de réanimation (Sfar). Published by Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  2. A Low Cost GPS System for Real-Time Tracking of Sounding Rockets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markgraf, M.; Montenbruck, O.; Hassenpflug, F.; Turner, P.; Bull, B.; Bauer, Frank (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    This paper describes the development as well as the on-ground and the in-flight evaluation of a low cost Global Positioning System (GPS) system for real-time tracking of sounding rockets. The flight unit comprises a modified ORION GPS receiver and a newly designed switchable antenna system composed of a helical antenna in the rocket tip and a dual-blade antenna combination attached to the body of the service module. Aside from the flight hardware a PC based terminal program has been developed to monitor the GPS data and graphically displays the rocket's path during the flight. In addition an Instantaneous Impact Point (IIP) prediction is performed based on the received position and velocity information. In preparation for ESA's Maxus-4 mission, a sounding rocket test flight was carried out at Esrange, Kiruna, on 19 Feb. 2001 to validate existing ground facilities and range safety installations. Due to the absence of a dedicated scientific payload, the flight offered the opportunity to test multiple GPS receivers and assess their performance for the tracking of sounding rockets. In addition to the ORION receiver, an Ashtech G12 HDMA receiver and a BAE (Canadian Marconi) Allstar receiver, both connected to a wrap-around antenna, have been flown on the same rocket as part of an independent experiment provided by the Goddard Space Flight Center. This allows an in-depth verification and trade-off of different receiver and antenna concepts.

  3. Thermal structure of intense convective clouds derived from GPS radio occultations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Biondi, Riccardo; Randel, W. J.; Ho, S. -P.

    2012-01-01

    Thermal structure associated with deep convective clouds is investigated using Global Positioning System (GPS) radio occultation measurements. GPS data are insensitive to the presence of clouds, and provide high vertical resolution and high accuracy measurements to identify associated temperature...... behavior. Deep convective systems are identified using International Satellite Cloud Climatology Project (ISCCP) satellite data, and cloud tops are accurately measured using Cloud-Aerosol Lidar with Orthogonal Polarization (CALIPSO) lidar observations; we focus on 53 cases of near-coincident GPS...

  4. Thermal structure of intense convective clouds derived from GPS radio occultations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Biondi, Riccardo; Randel, W. J.; Ho, S.-P.

    2011-01-01

    Thermal structure associated with deep convective clouds is investigated using Global Positioning System (GPS) radio occultation measurements. GPS data are insensitive to the presence of clouds, and provide high vertical resolution and high accuracy measurements to identify associated temperature...... behavior. Deep convective systems are identified using International Satellite Cloud Climatology Project (ISCCP) satellite data, and cloud tops are accurately measured using Cloud-Aerosol Lidar with Orthogonal Polarization (CALIPSO) lidar observations; we focus on 53 cases of near-coincident GPS...

  5. Real-Time GPS Monitoring for Earthquake Rapid Assessment in the San Francisco Bay Area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guillemot, C.; Langbein, J. O.; Murray, J. R.

    2012-12-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey Earthquake Science Center has deployed a network of eight real-time Global Positioning System (GPS) stations in the San Francisco Bay area and is implementing software applications to continuously evaluate the status of the deformation within the network. Real-time monitoring of the station positions is expected to provide valuable information for rapidly estimating source parameters should a large earthquake occur in the San Francisco Bay area. Because earthquake response applications require robust data access, as a first step we have developed a suite of web-based applications which are now routinely used to monitor the network's operational status and data streaming performance. The web tools provide continuously updated displays of important telemetry parameters such as data latency and receive rates, as well as source voltage and temperature information within each instrument enclosure. Automated software on the backend uses the streaming performance data to mitigate the impact of outages, radio interference and bandwidth congestion on deformation monitoring operations. A separate set of software applications manages the recovery of lost data due to faulty communication links. Displacement estimates are computed in real-time for various combinations of USGS, Plate Boundary Observatory (PBO) and Bay Area Regional Deformation (BARD) network stations. We are currently comparing results from two software packages (one commercial and one open-source) used to process 1-Hz data on the fly and produce estimates of differential positions. The continuous monitoring of telemetry makes it possible to tune the network to minimize the impact of transient interruptions of the data flow, from one or more stations, on the estimated positions. Ongoing work is focused on using data streaming performance history to optimize the quality of the position, reduce drift and outliers by switching to the best set of stations within the network, and

  6. Impacts of Satellite Orbit and Clock on Real-Time GPS Point and Relative Positioning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Junbo; Wang, Gaojing; Han, Xianquan; Guo, Jiming

    2017-06-12

    Satellite orbit and clock corrections are always treated as known quantities in GPS positioning models. Therefore, any error in the satellite orbit and clock products will probably cause significant consequences for GPS positioning, especially for real-time applications. Currently three types of satellite products have been made available for real-time positioning, including the broadcast ephemeris, the International GNSS Service (IGS) predicted ultra-rapid product, and the real-time product. In this study, these three predicted/real-time satellite orbit and clock products are first evaluated with respect to the post-mission IGS final product, which demonstrates cm to m level orbit accuracies and sub-ns to ns level clock accuracies. Impacts of real-time satellite orbit and clock products on GPS point and relative positioning are then investigated using the P3 and GAMIT software packages, respectively. Numerical results show that the real-time satellite clock corrections affect the point positioning more significantly than the orbit corrections. On the contrary, only the real-time orbit corrections impact the relative positioning. Compared with the positioning solution using the IGS final product with the nominal orbit accuracy of ~2.5 cm, the real-time broadcast ephemeris with ~2 m orbit accuracy provided <2 cm relative positioning error for baselines no longer than 216 km. As for the baselines ranging from 574 to 2982 km, the cm-dm level positioning error was identified for the relative positioning solution using the broadcast ephemeris. The real-time product could result in <5 mm relative positioning accuracy for baselines within 2982 km, slightly better than the predicted ultra-rapid product.

  7. Impacts of Satellite Orbit and Clock on Real-Time GPS Point and Relative Positioning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junbo Shi

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Satellite orbit and clock corrections are always treated as known quantities in GPS positioning models. Therefore, any error in the satellite orbit and clock products will probably cause significant consequences for GPS positioning, especially for real-time applications. Currently three types of satellite products have been made available for real-time positioning, including the broadcast ephemeris, the International GNSS Service (IGS predicted ultra-rapid product, and the real-time product. In this study, these three predicted/real-time satellite orbit and clock products are first evaluated with respect to the post-mission IGS final product, which demonstrates cm to m level orbit accuracies and sub-ns to ns level clock accuracies. Impacts of real-time satellite orbit and clock products on GPS point and relative positioning are then investigated using the P3 and GAMIT software packages, respectively. Numerical results show that the real-time satellite clock corrections affect the point positioning more significantly than the orbit corrections. On the contrary, only the real-time orbit corrections impact the relative positioning. Compared with the positioning solution using the IGS final product with the nominal orbit accuracy of ~2.5 cm, the real-time broadcast ephemeris with ~2 m orbit accuracy provided <2 cm relative positioning error for baselines no longer than 216 km. As for the baselines ranging from 574 to 2982 km, the cm–dm level positioning error was identified for the relative positioning solution using the broadcast ephemeris. The real-time product could result in <5 mm relative positioning accuracy for baselines within 2982 km, slightly better than the predicted ultra-rapid product.

  8. GPS in Travel and Activity Surveys

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Thomas Alexander Sick; Hovgesen, Henrik Harder

    2004-01-01

    The use of GPS-positioning as a monitoring tool in travel and activity surveys opens up a range of possibilities. Using a personal GPS device, the locations and movements of respondents can be followed over a longer period of time. It will then be possible to analyse how the use of urban spaces...... are embedded in the wider context of activity patterns (work, school etc.). The general pattern of everyday itineraries, including route choice and time spent at different locations ?on the way? can also be analysed. If the personal GPS device is combined with an electronic questionnaire, for example...... area. The paper presents the possibilities in travel and activity surveys with GPS and electronic questionnaires. Demonstrative mapping of test data from passive GPS registration of Copenhagen respondents is presented. The different survey possibilities given a combination of GPS and PDA based...

  9. GPS Signal Corruption by the Discrete Aurora: Precise Measurements From the Mahali Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Semeter, Joshua; Mrak, Sebastijan; Hirsch, Michael; Swoboda, John; Akbari, Hassan; Starr, Gregory; Hampton, Don; Erickson, Philip; Lind, Frank; Coster, Anthea; Pankratius, Victor

    2017-10-01

    Measurements from a dense network of GPS receivers have been used to clarify the relationship between substorm auroras and GPS signal corruption as manifested by loss of lock on the received signal. A network of nine receivers was deployed along roadways near the Poker Flat Research Range in central Alaska, with receiver spacing between 15 and 30 km. Instances of large-amplitude phase fluctuations and signal loss of lock were registered in space and time with auroral forms associated with a sequence of westward traveling surges associated with a substorm onset over central Canada. The following conclusions were obtained: (1) The signal corruption originated in the ionospheric E region, between 100 and 150 km altitude, and (2) the GPS links suffering loss of lock were confined to a narrow band (<20 km wide) along the trailing edge of the moving auroral forms. The results are discussed in the context of mechanisms typically cited to account for GPS phase scintillation by auroral processes.

  10. Simulation and Analysis of Autonomous Time Synchronization Based on Asynchronism Two-way Inter-satellite Link

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, L.; Yang, X. H.; Sun, B. Q.; Qin, W. J.; Kong, Y.

    2013-09-01

    The measurement of the inter-satellite link is one of the key techniques in the autonomous operation of satellite navigation system. Based on the asynchronism inter-satellite two-way measurement mode in GPS constellation, the reduction formula of the inter-satellite time synchronization is built in this paper. Moreover, the corrective method of main systematic errors is proposed. Inter-satellite two-way time synchronization is simulated on the basis of IGS (International GNSS Service) precise ephemeris. The impacts of the epoch domestication of asynchronism inter-satellite link pseudo-range, the initial orbit, and the main systematic errors on satellite time synchronization are analyzed. Furthermore, the broadcast clock error of each satellite is calculated by the ``centralized'' inter-satellite autonomous time synchronization. Simulation results show that the epoch domestication of asynchronism inter-satellite link pseudo-range and the initial orbit have little impact on the satellite clock errors, and thus they needn't be taken into account. The errors caused by the relativistic effect and the asymmetry of path travel have large impact on the satellite clock errors. These should be corrected with theoretical formula. Compared with the IGS precise clock error, the root mean square of the broadcast clock error of each satellite is about 0.4 ns.

  11. Rail inspection system based on iGPS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Xiaoyan; Wang, Mulan; Wen, Xiuping

    2018-05-01

    Track parameters include gauge, super elevation, cross level and so on, which could be calculated through the three-dimensional coordinates of the track. The rail inspection system based on iGPS (indoor/infrared GPS) was composed of base station, receiver, rail inspection frame, wireless communication unit, display and control unit and data processing unit. With the continuous movement of the inspection frame, the system could accurately inspect the coordinates of rail; realize the intelligent detection and precision measurement. According to principle of angle intersection measurement, the inspection model was structured, and detection process was given.

  12. Episodic inflation of Akutan volcano, Alaska revealed from GPS and InSAR time series

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeGrandpre, K.; Lu, Z.; Wang, T.

    2016-12-01

    Akutan volcano is one of the most active volcanoes located long the Aleutian arc. At least 27 eruptions have been noted since 1790 and an intense swarm of volcano-tectonic earthquakes occurred in 1996. Surface deformation after the 1996 earthquake sequence has been studied using GPS and Interferometric Synthetic Aperture Radar (InSAR) separately, yet models created from these datasets require different mechanisms to produce the observed surface deformation: an inflating Mogi source results in the best approximation of displacement observed from GPS data, whereas an opening dyke is the best fit to deformation measured from InSAR. A recent study using seismic data revealed complex magmatic structures beneath the caldera, suggesting that the surface deformation may reflect more complicated mechanisms that cannot be estimated using one type of data alone. Here we integrate the surface deformation measured from GPS and InSAR to better understand the magma plumbing system beneath Akutan volcano. GPS time-series at 12 stations from 2006 to 2016 were analyzed, and two transient episodes of inflation in 2008 and 2014 were detected. These GPS stations are, however, too sparse to reveal the spatial distribution of the surface deformation. In order to better define the spatial extent of this inflation four tracks of Envisat data acquired during 2003-2010 and one track of TerraSAR-X data acquired from 2010 to 2016 were processed to produce high-resolution maps of surface deformation. These deformation maps show a consistently uplifting area on the northwestern flank of the volcano. We inverted for the source parameters required to produce the inflation using GPS, InSAR, and a dataset of GPS and InSAR measurements combined, to find that a deep Mogi source below a shallow dyke fit these datasets best. From the TerraSAR-X data, we were also able to measure the subsidence inside the summit caldera due to fumarole activity to be as high as 10 mm/yr. The complex spatial and temporal

  13. A Forward GPS Multipath Simulator Based on the Vegetation Radiative Transfer Equation Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Xuerui; Jin, Shuanggen; Xia, Junming

    2017-06-05

    Global Navigation Satellite Systems (GNSS) have been widely used in navigation, positioning and timing. Nowadays, the multipath errors may be re-utilized for the remote sensing of geophysical parameters (soil moisture, vegetation and snow depth), i.e., GPS-Multipath Reflectometry (GPS-MR). However, bistatic scattering properties and the relation between GPS observables and geophysical parameters are not clear, e.g., vegetation. In this paper, a new element on bistatic scattering properties of vegetation is incorporated into the traditional GPS-MR model. This new element is the first-order radiative transfer equation model. The new forward GPS multipath simulator is able to explicitly link the vegetation parameters with GPS multipath observables (signal-to-noise-ratio (SNR), code pseudorange and carrier phase observables). The trunk layer and its corresponding scattering mechanisms are ignored since GPS-MR is not suitable for high forest monitoring due to the coherence of direct and reflected signals. Based on this new model, the developed simulator can present how the GPS signals (L1 and L2 carrier frequencies, C/A, P(Y) and L2C modulations) are transmitted (scattered and absorbed) through vegetation medium and received by GPS receivers. Simulation results show that the wheat will decrease the amplitudes of GPS multipath observables (SNR, phase and code), if we increase the vegetation moisture contents or the scatters sizes (stem or leaf). Although the Specular-Ground component dominates the total specular scattering, vegetation covered ground soil moisture has almost no effects on the final multipath signatures. Our simulated results are consistent with previous results for environmental parameter detections by GPS-MR.

  14. Aerial photography flight quality assessment with GPS/INS and DEM data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Haitao; Zhang, Bing; Shang, Jiali; Liu, Jiangui; Li, Dong; Chen, Yanyan; Zuo, Zhengli; Chen, Zhengchao

    2018-01-01

    The flight altitude, ground coverage, photo overlap, and other acquisition specifications of an aerial photography flight mission directly affect the quality and accuracy of the subsequent mapping tasks. To ensure smooth post-flight data processing and fulfill the pre-defined mapping accuracy, flight quality assessments should be carried out in time. This paper presents a novel and rigorous approach for flight quality evaluation of frame cameras with GPS/INS data and DEM, using geometric calculation rather than image analysis as in the conventional methods. This new approach is based mainly on the collinearity equations, in which the accuracy of a set of flight quality indicators is derived through a rigorous error propagation model and validated with scenario data. Theoretical analysis and practical flight test of an aerial photography mission using an UltraCamXp camera showed that the calculated photo overlap is accurate enough for flight quality assessment of 5 cm ground sample distance image, using the SRTMGL3 DEM and the POSAV510 GPS/INS data. An even better overlap accuracy could be achieved for coarser-resolution aerial photography. With this new approach, the flight quality evaluation can be conducted on site right after landing, providing accurate and timely information for decision making.

  15. A new local GPS water vapor tomography imaging technique using spectral functions w.r.t space and time: initial tests and results for the Tahiti Island case (French Polynesia)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sichoix, L.; Barriot, J.; Fadil, A.; Ortega, P.

    2009-12-01

    In this study, we present the initial tests and validation results performed on a newly-developed GPS water vapor tomography inversion code based on a spectral approach tailored to coarse networks of GPS stations. Our work is mainly motivated by the lack of dense GPS coverage in Tahiti Island. Firstly, we use the GAMIT software to estimate the tropospheric slant wet delays (SWD) from a single GPS ground-based receiver to each visible satellite. SWD values are our model input. Secondly, the refractivity along ray paths is written as 3D Zernike radial and spherical harmonic series as well as sinusoidal time series and then inserted into the Radon transform linking slant delays and refractivity. This approach is in contrast with usual previous approaches where the atmosphere is divided into voxels (3D pixels). These approaches may exhibit instabilities as a voxel is crossed by more than one ray. Thirdly, we overcome the ill-posedness of the Radon transform by adding a priori constraints in the form of a full covariance matrix of the atmospheric refractivity taking into account the transport and mixing processes in the atmosphere.

  16. GPS User Devices Parameter Control Methods

    OpenAIRE

    Klūga, A; Kuļikovs, M; Beļinska, V; Zeļenkovs, A

    2007-01-01

    In our day’s wide assortment of GPS user devices is manufacture. How to verify that parameters of the real device corresponds to parameters that manufacture shows. How to verify that parameters have not been changed during the operation time. The last one is very important for aviation GPS systems, which must be verified before the flight, but the values of parameter in time of repair works. This work analyses GPS user devices parameters control methods.

  17. Laser-based Relative Navigation Using GPS Measurements for Spacecraft Formation Flying

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Kwangwon; Oh, Hyungjik; Park, Han-Earl; Park, Sang-Young; Park, Chandeok

    2015-12-01

    This study presents a precise relative navigation algorithm using both laser and Global Positioning System (GPS) measurements in real time. The measurement model of the navigation algorithm between two spacecraft is comprised of relative distances measured by laser instruments and single differences of GPS pseudo-range measurements in spherical coordinates. Based on the measurement model, the Extended Kalman Filter (EKF) is applied to smooth the pseudo-range measurements and to obtain the relative navigation solution. While the navigation algorithm using only laser measurements might become inaccurate because of the limited accuracy of spacecraft attitude estimation when the distance between spacecraft is rather large, the proposed approach is able to provide an accurate solution even in such cases by employing the smoothed GPS pseudo-range measurements. Numerical simulations demonstrate that the errors of the proposed algorithm are reduced by more than about 12% compared to those of an algorithm using only laser measurements, as the accuracy of angular measurements is greater than 0.001° at relative distances greater than 30 km.

  18. The Mobile Surface Contamination Monitor II environmental radiological characterization utilizing GPS/GIS technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wendling, M.A.

    1993-05-01

    Time, cost, and most importantly quality of data are the three factors to measure the success of field radiological characterizations. The application of coupling radiation detection instrumentation to a GPS receiver has dramatically increased the data quality achievable compared to traditional environmental radiological survey methods. Improvements in verifying adequate spatial coverage of an area while collecting data and at,the same time reducing field time requirements can be realized. Data acquired during the recent implementation of the Mobile Surface Contamination Monitor 11 (MSCM-11) will be presented to demonstrate the advantages of this system over traditional radiological survey methods. The comparison will include time and manpower requirements. Linking the complimentary GPS, GIS and radiation detection technologies on a mobile tractor based platform has provided a tool to provide radiological characterization data faster, cheaper, and better to assist in the Environmental Restoration Mission of the Hanford Site

  19. Comprehensive seismic monitoring of the Cascadia megathrust with real-time GPS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melbourne, T. I.; Szeliga, W. M.; Santillan, V. M.; Scrivner, C. W.; Webb, F.

    2013-12-01

    We have developed a comprehensive real-time GPS-based seismic monitoring system for the Cascadia subduction zone based on 1- and 5-second point position estimates computed within the ITRF08 reference frame. A Kalman filter stream editor that uses a geometry-free combination of phase and range observables to speed convergence while also producing independent estimation of carrier phase biases and ionosphere delay pre-cleans raw satellite measurements. These are then analyzed with GIPSY-OASIS using satellite clock and orbit corrections streamed continuously from the International GNSS Service (IGS) and the German Aerospace Center (DLR). The resulting RMS position scatter is less than 3 cm, and typical latencies are under 2 seconds. Currently 31 coastal Washington, Oregon, and northern California stations from the combined PANGA and PBO networks are analyzed. We are now ramping up to include all of the remaining 400+ stations currently operating throughout the Cascadia subduction zone, all of which are high-rate and telemetered in real-time to CWU. These receivers span the M9 megathrust, M7 crustal faults beneath population centers, several active Cascades volcanoes, and a host of other hazard sources. To use the point position streams for seismic monitoring, we have developed an inter-process client communication package that captures, buffers and re-broadcasts real-time positions and covariances to a variety of seismic estimation routines running on distributed hardware. An aggregator ingests, re-streams and can rebroadcast up to 24 hours of point-positions and resultant seismic estimates derived from the point positions to application clients distributed across web. A suite of seismic monitoring applications has also been written, which includes position time series analysis, instantaneous displacement vectors, and peak ground displacement contouring and mapping. We have also implemented a continuous estimation of finite-fault slip along the Cascadia megathrust

  20. 75 FR 8928 - Announcement of IS-GPS-200, IS-GPS-705, IS-GPS-800 Interface Control Working Group (ICWG...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-26

    ... DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE Department of the Air Force Announcement of IS-GPS-200, IS-GPS-705, IS-GPS... document/s IS-GPS-200E (NAVSTAR GPS Space Segment/Navigation User Interfaces), IS-GPS-705A (NAVSTAR GPS Space Segment/User Segment L5 Interfaces), and IS-GPS-800A (NAVSTAR GPS Space Segment/User Segment L1C...

  1. Investigation of Noises in GPS Time Series: Case Study on Epn Weekly Solutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klos, Anna; Bogusz, Janusz; Figurski, Mariusz; Kosek, Wieslaw; Gruszczynski, Maciej

    2014-05-01

    The noises in GPS time series are stated to be described the best by the combination of white (Gaussian) and power-law processes. They are mainly the effect of mismodelled satellite orbits, Earth orientation parameters, atmospheric effects, antennae phase centre effects, or of monument instability. Due to the fact, that velocities of permanent stations define the kinematic reference frame, they have to fulfil the requirement of being stable at 0.1 mm/yr. The previously performed researches showed, that the wrong assumption of noise model leads to the underestimation of velocities and their uncertainties from 2 up to even 11, especially in the Up direction. This presentation focuses on more than 200 EPN (EUREF Permanent Network) stations from the area of Europe with various monument types (concrete pillars, buildings, metal masts, with or without domes, placed on the ground or on the rock) and coordinates of weekly changes (GPS weeks 0834-1459). The topocentric components (North, East, Up) in ITRF2005 which come from the EPN Re-Processing made by the Military University of Technology Local Analysis Centre (MUT LAC) were processed with Maximum Likelihood Estimation (MLE) using CATS software. We have assumed the existence of few combinations of noise models (these are: white, flicker and random walk noise with integer spectral indices and power-law noise models with fractional spectral indices) and investigated which of them EPN weekly time series are likely to follow. The results show, that noises in GPS time series are described the best by the combination of white and flicker noise model. It is strictly related to the so-called common mode error (CME) that is spatially correlated error being one of the dominant error source in GPS solutions. We have assumed CME as spatially uniform, what was a good approximation for stations located hundreds of kilometres one to another. Its removal with spatial filtering reduces the amplitudes of white and flicker noise by a

  2. Assimilation of COST 716 Near-Real Time GPS data in the nonhydrostatic limited area model used at MeteoSwiss

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guerova, G.; Bettems, J.-M.; Brockmann, E.; Matzler, Ch.

    2006-01-01

    Application of the GPS derived water vapor into Numerical Weather Prediction (NWP) models is one of the focuses of the COST Action 716 “Exploitation of Ground based GPS for climate and numerical weather prediction applications”. For this purpose the GPS data covering Europe have been collected within the Near-Real Time (NRT) demonstration project and provided for Observing System Experiments (OSE). For the experiments presented in this manuscript the operational NWP system of MeteoSwiss is used. The limited area nonhydrostatic aLpine Model (aLMo) of MeteoSwiss covers most of western Europe, has a horizontal resolution of 7 km, 45 layers in the vertical, and uses a data assimilation scheme based on the Newtonian relaxation (nudging) method. In total 17 days analyses and two 30 hours daily forecasts have been computed, with 100 GPS sites assimilated for three selected periods in autumn 2001, winter and summer 2002. It is to be noted that only in the last period data from 10 french sites, i.e. west of Switzerland are assimilated. The GPS NRT data quality has been compared with the Post-Processed data. Agreement within 3 mm level Zenith Total Delay bias and 8 mm standard deviation was found, corresponding to an Integrated Water Vapor (IWV) bias below 0.5 kg/m2. Most of the NRT data over aLMo domain are available within a prescribed time window of 1 h 45 min. In the nudging process the NRT data are successfully used by the model to correct the IWV deficiencies present in the reference analysis; stronger forcing with a shorter time scale could be however recommended. Comparing the GPS derived IWV with radiosonde observations, a dry radiosonde bias has been found over northern Italy. Through GPS data assimilation the aLMo analysis bias and standard deviation in the diurnal cycle has been reduced. The negative bias of 0.64 kg/m2 in the reference analysis has been reduced to 0.34 kg/m2 in GPS analysis. However, the diurnal cycle statistic from the forecast does show the

  3. Association between neighborhood walkability and GPS-measured walking, bicycling and vehicle time in adolescents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carlson, Jordan A.; Saelens, Brian E.; Kerr, Jacqueline

    2015-01-01

    , intersection density, retail density, entertainment density and walkability were derived using GIS. Minutes/day of walking, bicycling and vehicle time were derived from processing algorithms applied to GPS. Accelerometers estimated total daily moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA). Models were adjusted...

  4. Near Real-Time Processing and Archiving of GPS Surveys for Crustal Motion Monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crowell, B. W.; Bock, Y.

    2008-12-01

    We present an inverse instantaneous RTK method for rapidly processing and archiving GPS data for crustal motion surveys that gives positional accuracy similar to traditional post-processing methods. We first stream 1 Hz data from GPS receivers over Bluetooth to Verizon XV6700 smartphones equipped with Geodetics, Inc. RTD Rover software. The smartphone transmits raw receiver data to a real-time server at the Scripps Orbit and Permanent Array Center (SOPAC) running RTD Pro. At the server, instantaneous positions are computed every second relative to the three closest base stations in the California Real Time Network (CRTN), using ultra-rapid orbits produced by SOPAC, the NOAATrop real-time tropospheric delay model, and ITRF2005 coordinates computed by SOPAC for the CRTN stations. The raw data are converted on-the-fly to RINEX format at the server. Data in both formats are stored on the server along with a file of instantaneous positions, computed independently at each observation epoch. The single-epoch instantaneous positions are continuously transmitted back to the field surveyor's smartphone, where RTD Rover computes a median position and interquartile range for each new epoch of observation. The best-fit solution is the last median position and is available as soon as the survey is completed. We describe how we used this method to process 1 Hz data from the February, 2008 Imperial Valley GPS survey of 38 geodetic monuments established by Imperial College, London in the 1970's, and previously measured by SOPAC using rapid-static GPS methods in 1993, 1999 and 2000, as well as 14 National Geodetic Survey (NGS) monuments. For redundancy, each monument was surveyed for about 15 minutes at least twice and at staggered intervals using two survey teams operating autonomously. Archiving of data and the overall project at SOPAC is performed using the PGM software, developed by the California Spatial Reference Center (CSRC) for the National Geodetic Survey (NGS). The

  5. Equipamento microprocessado para geração de sinal de correção diferencial, em tempo real, para GPS Microprocessor-based equipment for real time generation of differential GPS correction signal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thales C. B. Lima

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho apresenta o desenvolvimento de um equipamento microprocessado, de baixo custo, para geração de sinal de correção diferencial para GPS, em tempo real, e configuração e supervisão do receptor GPS base. O equipamento desenvolvido possui um microcontrolador dedicado, display alfanumérico, teclado multifunção para configuração e operação do sistema e interfaces de comunicação. O circuito eletrônico do equipamento tem a função de receber as informações do GPS base e interpretá-las, transformando-as numa sentença no protocolo RTCM SC-104. O software do microcontrolador é responsável pela conversão do sinal recebido pelo GPS base, do formato proprietário para o protocolo RTCM SC-104. A placa processadora principal possui duas interfaces seriais padrão RS-232C. Uma delas tem a função de configuração e leitura das informações geradas pelo receptor GPS base. A outra atua somente como saída, enviando o sinal de correção diferencial. O projeto do equipamento microprocessado mostrou que é possível a construção de uma estação privada para a geração do sinal de correção diferencial, de baixo custo.This work presents the development of low cost microprocessor-based equipment for generation of differential GPS correction signal, in real time, and configuration and supervision of the GPS base. The developed equipment contains a dedicated microcontroller connected to the GPS receiver, alphanumeric display and multifunction keyboard for configuration and operation of the system and communication interfaces. The electronic circuit has the function of receiving the information from GPS base; interpret them, converting the sentence in the RTCM SC-104 protocol. The microcontroller software makes the conversion of the signal received by the GPS base from the specific format to RTCM SC-104 protocol. The processing main board has two serials RS-232C standard interfaces. One of them is used for configuration and

  6. Performance Enhancement of Land Vehicle Positioning Using Multiple GPS Receivers in an Urban Area

    OpenAIRE

    Song, Jong-Hwa; Jee, Gyu-In

    2016-01-01

    The Global Positioning System (GPS) is the most widely used navigation system in land vehicle applications. In urban areas, the GPS suffers from insufficient signal strength, multipath propagation and non-line-of-sight (NLOS) errors, so it thus becomes difficult to obtain accurate and reliable position information. In this paper, an integration algorithm for multiple receivers is proposed to enhance the positioning performance of GPS for land vehicles in urban areas. The pseudoranges of multi...

  7. Episodic inflation and complex surface deformation of Akutan volcano, Alaska revealed from GPS time-series

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeGrandpre, Kimberly; Wang, Teng; Lu, Zhong; Freymueller, Jeffrey T.

    2017-11-01

    Akutan is one of the most active volcanoes in the Aleutian island arc. Studies involving seismic, GPS, and InSAR data have observed activity and deformation on the island since 1996. In this study we inverted measurements of volcanic deformation, observed using three components of motions at 12 continuous GPS sites to define magma source parameters using Mogi point source, Okada dislocation, and Yang spheroid and ellipsoid models. In order to analyze the evolution of this magma source we split the GPS data into five consecutive time periods, and one period that incorporates all available data. These time periods were designed around two inflation events in 2008 and 2014, when a sudden and significant increase in vertical velocity was observed. Inversion of these time periods independently allowed us to create a magma volume time-series that is related to the physical migration of magma defined by the estimated source parameters. The best fit model parameters resulting from these inversions describes magma storage in the form of an oblate spheroid centered on the northeastern rim of the caldera of Akutan volcano, extending from a depth of 7 km to 8 km, with a length of 3.5 km, a strike of N165°E, and a dip of 63° from the horizontal to the southwest. Our model results were compared with seismic studies and found to support previous interpretations of episodic inflation beneath Akutan volcano with complicated magma storage at intermediate depths. The inflation event observed in 2008 was estimated to be the result of an injection of magma of 0.08 km3 that was followed in 2014 by an additional increase in volume of 0.06 km3. No periods of deflation were observed in the GPS data after these events, and we believe the total volume of magma accumulated in this region, 0.2 km3, remains in a shallow storage system beneath Akutan Volcano.

  8. Using GPS, accelerometry and heart rate to predict outdoor graded walking energy expenditure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Müllenheim, P-Y; Chaudru, S; Emily, M; Gernigon, M; Mahé, G; Bickert, S; Prioux, J; Noury-Desvaux, B; Le Faucheur, A

    2018-02-01

    To determine the best method and combination of methods among global positioning system (GPS), accelerometry, and heart rate (HR) for estimating energy expenditure (EE) during level and graded outdoor walking. Thirty adults completed 6-min outdoor walks at speeds of 2.0, 3.5, and 5.0kmh -1 during three randomized outdoor walking sessions: one level walking session and two graded (uphill and downhill) walking sessions on a 3.4% and a 10.4% grade. EE was measured using a portable metabolic system (K4b 2 ). Participants wore a GlobalSat ® DG100 GPS receiver, an ActiGraph™ wGT3X+ accelerometer, and a Polar ® HR monitor. Linear mixed models (LMMs) were tested for EE predictions based on GPS speed and grade, accelerometer counts or HR-related parameters (alone and combined). Root-mean-square error (RMSE) was used to determine the accuracy of the models. Published speed/grade-, count-, and HR-based equations were also cross-validated. According to the LMMs, GPS was as accurate as accelerometry (RMSE=0.89-0.90kcalmin -1 ) and more accurate than HR (RMSE=1.20kcalmin -1 ) for estimating EE during level walking; GPS was the most accurate method for estimating EE during both level and uphill (RMSE=1.34kcalmin -1 )/downhill (RMSE=0.84kcalmin -1 ) walking; combining methods did not increase the accuracy reached using GPS (or accelerometry for level walking). The cross-validation results were in accordance with the LMMs, except for downhill walking. Our study provides useful information regarding the best method(s) for estimating EE with appropriate equations during level and graded outdoor walking. Copyright © 2017 Sports Medicine Australia. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Multiscale GPS tomography during COPS: validation and applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Champollion, Cédric; Flamant, Cyrille; Masson, Frédéric; Gégout, Pascal; Boniface, Karen; Richard, Evelyne

    2010-05-01

    Accurate 3D description of the water vapour field is of interest for process studies such as convection initiation. None of the current techniques (LIDAR, satellite, radio soundings, GPS) can provide an all weather continuous 3D field of moisture. The combination of GPS tomography with radio-soundings (and/or LIDAR) has been used for such process studies using both advantages of vertically resolved soundings and high temporal density of GPS measurements. GPS tomography has been used at short scale (10 km horizontal resolution but in a 50 km² area) for process studies such as the ESCOMPTE experiment (Bastin et al., 2005) and at larger scale (50 km horizontal resolution) during IHOP_2002. But no extensive statistical validation has been done so far. The overarching goal of the COPS field experiment is to advance the quality of forecasts of orographically induced convective precipitation by four-dimensional observations and modeling of its life cycle for identifying the physical and chemical processes responsible for deficiencies in QPF over low-mountain regions. During the COPS field experiment, a GPS network of about 100 GPS stations has been continuously operating during three months in an area of 500 km² in the East of France (Vosges Mountains) and West of Germany (Black Forest). If the mean spacing between the GPS is about 50 km, an East-West GPS profile with a density of about 10 km is dedicated to high resolution tomography. One major goal of the GPS COPS experiment is to validate the GPS tomography with different spatial resolutions. Validation is based on additional radio-soundings and airborne / ground-based LIDAR measurement. The number and the high quality of vertically resolved water vapor observations give an unique data set for GPS tomography validation. Numerous tests have been done on real data to show the type water vapor structures that can be imaging by GPS tomography depending of the assimilation of additional data (radio soundings), the

  10. Seasonal and circadian biases in bird tracking with solar GPS-tags.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafa Silva

    Full Text Available Global Positioning System (GPS tags are nowadays widely used in wildlife tracking. This geolocation technique can suffer from fix loss biases due to poor satellite GPS geometry, that result in tracking data gaps leading to wrong research conclusions. In addition, new solar-powered GPS tags deployed on birds can suffer from a new "battery drain bias" currently ignored in movement ecology analyses. We use a GPS tracking dataset of bearded vultures (Gypaetus barbatus, tracked for several years with solar GPS tags, to evaluate the causes and triggers of fix and data retrieval loss biases. We compare two models of solar GPS tags using different data retrieval systems (Argos vs GSM-GPRS, and programmed with different duty cycles. Neither of the models was able to accomplish the duty cycle programed initially. Fix and data retrieval loss rates were always greater than expected, and showed non-random gaps in GPS locations. Number of fixes per month of tracking was a bad criterion to identify tags with smaller biases. Fix-loss rates were four times higher due to battery drain than due to poor GPS satellite geometry. Both tag models were biased due to the uneven solar energy available for the recharge of the tag throughout the annual cycle, resulting in greater fix-loss rates in winter compared to summer. In addition, we suggest that the bias found along the diurnal cycle is linked to a complex three-factor interaction of bird flight behavior, topography and fix interval. More fixes were lost when vultures were perching compared to flying, in rugged versus flat topography. But long fix-intervals caused greater loss of fixes in dynamic (flying versus static situations (perching. To conclude, we emphasize the importance of evaluating fix-loss bias in current tracking projects, and deploying GPS tags that allow remote duty cycle updates so that the most appropriate fix and data retrieval intervals can be selected.

  11. GPS Estimates of Integrated Precipitable Water Aid Weather Forecasters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Angelyn W.; Gutman, Seth I.; Holub, Kirk; Bock, Yehuda; Danielson, David; Laber, Jayme; Small, Ivory

    2013-01-01

    Global Positioning System (GPS) meteorology provides enhanced density, low-latency (30-min resolution), integrated precipitable water (IPW) estimates to NOAA NWS (National Oceanic and Atmospheric Adminis tration Nat ional Weather Service) Weather Forecast Offices (WFOs) to provide improved model and satellite data verification capability and more accurate forecasts of extreme weather such as flooding. An early activity of this project was to increase the number of stations contributing to the NOAA Earth System Research Laboratory (ESRL) GPS meteorology observing network in Southern California by about 27 stations. Following this, the Los Angeles/Oxnard and San Diego WFOs began using the enhanced GPS-based IPW measurements provided by ESRL in the 2012 and 2013 monsoon seasons. Forecasters found GPS IPW to be an effective tool in evaluating model performance, and in monitoring monsoon development between weather model runs for improved flood forecasting. GPS stations are multi-purpose, and routine processing for position solutions also yields estimates of tropospheric zenith delays, which can be converted into mm-accuracy PWV (precipitable water vapor) using in situ pressure and temperature measurements, the basis for GPS meteorology. NOAA ESRL has implemented this concept with a nationwide distribution of more than 300 "GPSMet" stations providing IPW estimates at sub-hourly resolution currently used in operational weather models in the U.S.

  12. Accelerometer and GPS Analysis of Trail Use and Associations With Physical Activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamura, Kosuke; Wilson, Jeffrey S; Puett, Robin C; Klenosky, David B; Harper, William A; Troped, Philip J

    2018-03-26

    Concurrent use of accelerometers and global positioning system (GPS) data can be used to quantify physical activity (PA) occurring on trails. This study examined associations of trail use with PA and sedentary behavior (SB) and quantified on trail PA using a combination of accelerometer and GPS data. Adults (N = 142) wore accelerometer and GPS units for 1-4 days. Trail use was defined as a minimum of 2 consecutive minutes occurring on a trail, based on GPS data. We examined associations between trail use and PA and SB. On trail minutes of light-intensity, moderate-intensity, and vigorous-intensity PA, and SB were quantified in 2 ways, using accelerometer counts only and with a combination of GPS speed and accelerometer data. Trail use was positively associated with total PA, moderate-intensity PA, and light-intensity PA (P GPS and accelerometer data for quantifying on trail activity may be more accurate than accelerometer data alone and is useful for classifying intensity of activities such as bicycling.

  13. Improving Ambiguity Resolution for Medium Baselines Using Combined GPS and BDS Dual/Triple-Frequency Observations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Wang; Gao, Chengfa; Pan, Shuguo; Wang, Denghui; Deng, Jiadong

    2015-10-30

    The regional constellation of the BeiDou navigation satellite system (BDS) has been providing continuous positioning, navigation and timing services since 27 December 2012, covering China and the surrounding area. Real-time kinematic (RTK) positioning with combined BDS and GPS observations is feasible. Besides, all satellites of BDS can transmit triple-frequency signals. Using the advantages of multi-pseudorange and carrier observations from multi-systems and multi-frequencies is expected to be of much benefit for ambiguity resolution (AR). We propose an integrated AR strategy for medium baselines by using the combined GPS and BDS dual/triple-frequency observations. In the method, firstly the extra-wide-lane (EWL) ambiguities of triple-frequency system, i.e., BDS, are determined first. Then the dual-frequency WL ambiguities of BDS and GPS were resolved with the geometry-based model by using the BDS ambiguity-fixed EWL observations. After that, basic (i.e., L1/L2 or B1/B2) ambiguities of BDS and GPS are estimated together with the so-called ionosphere-constrained model, where the ambiguity-fixed WL observations are added to enhance the model strength. During both of the WL and basic AR, a partial ambiguity fixing (PAF) strategy is adopted to weaken the negative influence of new-rising or low-elevation satellites. Experiments were conducted and presented, in which the GPS/BDS dual/triple-frequency data were collected in Nanjing and Zhengzhou of China, with the baseline distance varying from about 28.6 to 51.9 km. The results indicate that, compared to the single triple-frequency BDS system, the combined system can significantly enhance the AR model strength, and thus improve AR performance for medium baselines with a 75.7% reduction of initialization time on average. Besides, more accurate and stable positioning results can also be derived by using the combined GPS/BDS system.

  14. GPS Modeling and Analysis. Summary of Research: GPS Satellite Axial Ratio Predictions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Axelrad, Penina; Reeh, Lisa

    2002-01-01

    This report outlines the algorithms developed at the Colorado Center for Astrodynamics Research to model yaw and predict the axial ratio as measured from a ground station. The algorithms are implemented in a collection of Matlab functions and scripts that read certain user input, such as ground station coordinates, the UTC time, and the desired GPS (Global Positioning System) satellites, and compute the above-mentioned parameters. The position information for the GPS satellites is obtained from Yuma almanac files corresponding to the prescribed date. The results are displayed graphically through time histories and azimuth-elevation plots.

  15. Development of GPS survey data management protocols/policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-01

    This project developed a statewide policy and criteria for collecting, analyzing, and managing global position system (GPS) survey data. The research project determined the needs of the Department in adopting the GPS real time kinetic (GPS RTK) stake...

  16. A Real Time Differential GPS Tracking System for NASA Sounding Rockets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bull, Barton; Bauer, Frank (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    Sounding rockets are suborbital launch vehicles capable of carrying scientific payloads to several hundred miles in altitude. These missions return a variety of scientific data including: chemical makeup and physical processes taking place in the atmosphere, natural radiation surrounding the Earth, data on the Sun, stars, galaxies and many other phenomena. In addition, sounding rockets provide a reasonably economical means of conducting engineering tests for instruments and devices to be used on satellites and other spacecraft prior to their use in these more expensive missions. Typically around thirty of these rockets are launched each year, from established ranges at Wallops Island, Virginia; Poker Flat Research Range, Alaska; White Sands Missile Range, New Mexico and from a number of ranges outside the United States. Many times launches are conducted from temporary launch ranges in remote parts of the world requiring considerable expense to transport and operate tracking radars. In order to support these missions, an inverse differential GPS system has been developed. The flight system consists of a small, inexpensive receiver, a preamplifier and a wrap-around antenna. A rugged, compact, portable ground station extracts GPS data from the raw payload telemetry stream, performs a real time differential solution and graphically displays the rocket's path relative to a predicted trajectory plot. In addition to generating a real time navigation solution, the system has been used for payload recovery, timing, data timetagging, precise tracking of multiple payloads and slaving of optical tracking systems for over the horizon acquisition. This paper discusses, in detail, the flight and ground hardware, as well as data processing and operational aspects of the system, and provides evidence of the system accuracy.

  17. Methods for Real-Time Prediction of the Mode of Travel Using Smartphone-Based GPS and Accelerometer Data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Bryan D; Addona, Vittorio; Wolfson, Julian; Adomavicius, Gediminas; Fan, Yingling

    2017-09-08

    We propose and compare combinations of several methods for classifying transportation activity data from smartphone GPS and accelerometer sensors. We have two main objectives. First, we aim to classify our data as accurately as possible. Second, we aim to reduce the dimensionality of the data as much as possible in order to reduce the computational burden of the classification. We combine dimension reduction and classification algorithms and compare them with a metric that balances accuracy and dimensionality. In doing so, we develop a classification algorithm that accurately classifies five different modes of transportation (i.e., walking, biking, car, bus and rail) while being computationally simple enough to run on a typical smartphone. Further, we use data that required no behavioral changes from the smartphone users to collect. Our best classification model uses the random forest algorithm to achieve 96.8% accuracy.

  18. GPS satellite surveying

    CERN Document Server

    Leick, Alfred; Tatarnikov, Dmitry

    2015-01-01

    THE MOST COMPREHENSIVE, UP-TO-DATE GUIDE ON GPS TECHNOLOGY FOR SURVEYING Three previous editions have established GPS Satellite Surveying as the definitive industry reference. Now fully updated and expanded to reflect the newest developments in the field, this Fourth Edition features cutting-edge information on GNSS antennas, precise point positioning, real-time relative positioning, lattice reduction, and much more. Expert authors examine additional tools and applications, offering complete coverage of geodetic surveying using satellite technologies. The past decade has seen a major evolut

  19. GPS Time Series Analysis of Southern California Associated with the 2010 M7.2 El Mayor/Cucapah Earthquake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Granat, Robert; Donnellan, Andrea

    2011-01-01

    The Magnitude 7.2 El-Mayor/Cucapah earthquake the occurred in Mexico on April 4, 2012 was well instrumented with continuous GPS stations in California. Large Offsets were observed at the GPS stations as a result of deformation from the earthquake providing information about the co-seismic fault slip as well as fault slip from large aftershocks. Information can also be obtained from the position time series at each station.

  20. Evaluation of a regional real-time precise positioning system based on GPS/BeiDou observations in Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Wenwu; Tan, Bingfeng; Chen, Yongchang; Teferle, Felix Norman; Yuan, Yunbin

    2018-02-01

    The performance of real-time (RT) precise positioning can be improved by utilizing observations from multiple Global Navigation Satellite Systems (GNSS) instead of one particular system. Since the end of 2012, BeiDou, independently established by China, began to provide operational services for users in the Asia-Pacific regions. In this study, a regional RT precise positioning system is developed to evaluate the performance of GPS/BeiDou observations in Australia in providing high precision positioning services for users. Fixing three hourly updated satellite orbits, RT correction messages are generated and broadcasted by processing RT observation/navigation data streams from the national network of GNSS Continuously Operating Reference Stations in Australia (AUSCORS) at the server side. At the user side, RT PPP is realized by processing RT data streams and the RT correction messages received. RT clock offsets, for which the accuracy reached 0.07 and 0.28 ns for GPS and BeiDou, respectively, can be determined. Based on these corrections, an accuracy of 12.2, 30.0 and 45.6 cm in the North, East and Up directions was achieved for the BeiDou-only solution after 30 min while the GPS-only solution reached 5.1, 15.3 and 15.5 cm for the same components at the same time. A further improvement of 43.7, 36.9 and 45.0 percent in the three directions, respectively, was achieved for the combined GPS/BeiDou solution. After the initialization process, the North, East and Up positioning accuracies were 5.2, 8.1 and 17.8 cm, respectively, for the BeiDou-only solution, while 1.5, 3.0, and 4.7 cm for the GPS-only solution. However, we only noticed a 20.9% improvement in the East direction was obtained for the GPS/BeiDou solution, while no improvements in the other directions were detected. It is expected that such improvements may become bigger with the increasing accuracy of the BeiDou-only solution.

  1. Estimating Vehicle Fuel Consumption and Emissions Using GPS Big Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zihan Kan

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The energy consumption and emissions from vehicles adversely affect human health and urban sustainability. Analysis of GPS big data collected from vehicles can provide useful insights about the quantity and distribution of such energy consumption and emissions. Previous studies, which estimated fuel consumption/emissions from traffic based on GPS sampled data, have not sufficiently considered vehicle activities and may have led to erroneous estimations. By adopting the analytical construct of the space-time path in time geography, this study proposes methods that more accurately estimate and visualize vehicle energy consumption/emissions based on analysis of vehicles’ mobile activities (MA and stationary activities (SA. First, we build space-time paths of individual vehicles, extract moving parameters, and identify MA and SA from each space-time path segment (STPS. Then we present an N-Dimensional framework for estimating and visualizing fuel consumption/emissions. For each STPS, fuel consumption, hot emissions, and cold start emissions are estimated based on activity type, i.e., MA, SA with engine-on and SA with engine-off. In the case study, fuel consumption and emissions of a single vehicle and a road network are estimated and visualized with GPS data. The estimation accuracy of the proposed approach is 88.6%. We also analyze the types of activities that produced fuel consumption on each road segment to explore the patterns and mechanisms of fuel consumption in the study area. The results not only show the effectiveness of the proposed approaches in estimating fuel consumption/emissions but also indicate their advantages for uncovering the relationships between fuel consumption and vehicles’ activities in road networks.

  2. Estimating Vehicle Fuel Consumption and Emissions Using GPS Big Data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kan, Zihan; Tang, Luliang; Kwan, Mei-Po; Zhang, Xia

    2018-03-21

    The energy consumption and emissions from vehicles adversely affect human health and urban sustainability. Analysis of GPS big data collected from vehicles can provide useful insights about the quantity and distribution of such energy consumption and emissions. Previous studies, which estimated fuel consumption/emissions from traffic based on GPS sampled data, have not sufficiently considered vehicle activities and may have led to erroneous estimations. By adopting the analytical construct of the space-time path in time geography, this study proposes methods that more accurately estimate and visualize vehicle energy consumption/emissions based on analysis of vehicles' mobile activities ( MA ) and stationary activities ( SA ). First, we build space-time paths of individual vehicles, extract moving parameters, and identify MA and SA from each space-time path segment (STPS). Then we present an N-Dimensional framework for estimating and visualizing fuel consumption/emissions. For each STPS, fuel consumption, hot emissions, and cold start emissions are estimated based on activity type, i.e., MA , SA with engine-on and SA with engine-off. In the case study, fuel consumption and emissions of a single vehicle and a road network are estimated and visualized with GPS data. The estimation accuracy of the proposed approach is 88.6%. We also analyze the types of activities that produced fuel consumption on each road segment to explore the patterns and mechanisms of fuel consumption in the study area. The results not only show the effectiveness of the proposed approaches in estimating fuel consumption/emissions but also indicate their advantages for uncovering the relationships between fuel consumption and vehicles' activities in road networks.

  3. DARPA looks beyond GPS for positioning, navigating, and timing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kramer, David

    2014-10-01

    Cold-atom interferometry, microelectromechanical systems, signals of opportunity, and atomic clocks are some of the technologies the defense agency is pursuing to provide precise navigation when GPS is unavailable.

  4. Design of Mobile Operation and Maintenance System Based on Power GIS and GPS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jing TAO

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to solve the low efficiency of operation and maintenance and the problems of management coordination caused by the coexistence of off-line operation and maintenance and multi system coexistence in current power telecommunication operation and maintenance, this paper proposes a mobile operation and maintenance system based on power GIS and GPS location technology. The system is based on the C/S architecture, and the mobile operation and maintenance terminal is connected with the operation and maintenance management terminal through wireless and wired network. In addition to meeting basic business requirements, the system integrates power GIS functions to visually demonstrate communication resources, personnel, and failures. The staff can use the wireless mobile terminal which integrated GPS module for to operate and maintain, and can locate accurately in real time.

  5. Penerapan Teknologi GPS Tracker Untuk Identifikasi Kondisi Traffik Jalan Raya

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    IM. O. Widyantara

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Real time tracking system technology has been made possible by integrating three technologies, namely global positioning system (GPS, database technologies such as geographic information system (GIS and mobile telecommunications technologies such as general packet radio service (GPRS. This paper has proposed a vehicle tracking mechanism based on GPS tracker to build a real-time traffic information system. A GPS server is built to process data of position and speed of the vehicle for further processed into vehicle traffic information. The Server and GPS tracker is designed to communicate using GPRS services in real time. Furthermore, the server processes the data from the GPS tracker into traffic information such as traffic jam, dense, medium and smoothly. Test results showed that the GPS server is able to visualize the real position of the vehicle and is able to decide the category of traffic information in real time.

  6. Error Analysis System for Spacecraft Navigation Using the Global Positioning System (GPS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Truong, S. H.; Hart, R. C.; Hartman, K. R.; Tomcsik, T. L.; Searl, J. E.; Bernstein, A.

    1997-01-01

    The Flight Dynamics Division (FDD) at the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) is currently developing improved space-navigation filtering algorithms to use the Global Positioning System (GPS) for autonomous real-time onboard orbit determination. In connection with a GPS technology demonstration on the Small Satellite Technology Initiative (SSTI)/Lewis spacecraft, FDD analysts and programmers have teamed with the GSFC Guidance, Navigation, and Control Branch to develop the GPS Enhanced Orbit Determination Experiment (GEODE) system. The GEODE system consists of a Kalman filter operating as a navigation tool for estimating the position, velocity, and additional states required to accurately navigate the orbiting Lewis spacecraft by using astrodynamic modeling and GPS measurements from the receiver. A parallel effort at the FDD is the development of a GPS Error Analysis System (GEAS) that will be used to analyze and improve navigation filtering algorithms during development phases and during in-flight calibration. For GEAS, the Kalman filter theory is extended to estimate the errors in position, velocity, and other error states of interest. The estimation of errors in physical variables at regular intervals will allow the time, cause, and effect of navigation system weaknesses to be identified. In addition, by modeling a sufficient set of navigation system errors, a system failure that causes an observed error anomaly can be traced and accounted for. The GEAS software is formulated using Object Oriented Design (OOD) techniques implemented in the C++ programming language on a Sun SPARC workstation. The Phase 1 of this effort is the development of a basic system to be used to evaluate navigation algorithms implemented in the GEODE system. This paper presents the GEAS mathematical methodology, systems and operations concepts, and software design and implementation. Results from the use of the basic system to evaluate

  7. UFIR Filtering for GPS-Based Tracking over WSNs with Delayed and Missing Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karen Uribe-Murcia

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available In smart cities, vehicles tracking is organized to increase safety by localizing cars using the Global Positioning System (GPS. The GPS-based system provides accurate tracking but is also required to be reliable and robust. As a main estimator, we propose using the unbiased finite impulse response (UFIR filter, which meets these needs as being more robust than the Kalman filter (KF. The UFIR filter is developed for vehicle tracking in discrete-time state-space over wireless sensor networks (WSNs with time-stamped data discretely delayed on k-step-lags and missing data. The state-space model is represented in a way such that the UFIR filter, KF, and H∞ filter can be used universally. Applications are given for measurement data, which are cooperatively transferred from a vehicle to a central station through several nodes with k-step-lags. Better tracking performance of the UFIR filter is shown experimentally.

  8. Performance Enhancement of Land Vehicle Positioning Using Multiple GPS Receivers in an Urban Area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jong-Hwa Song

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The Global Positioning System (GPS is the most widely used navigation system in land vehicle applications. In urban areas, the GPS suffers from insufficient signal strength, multipath propagation and non-line-of-sight (NLOS errors, so it thus becomes difficult to obtain accurate and reliable position information. In this paper, an integration algorithm for multiple receivers is proposed to enhance the positioning performance of GPS for land vehicles in urban areas. The pseudoranges of multiple receivers are integrated based on a tightly coupled approach, and erroneous measurements are detected by testing the closeness of the pseudoranges. In order to fairly compare the pseudoranges, GPS errors and terms arising due to the differences between the positions of the receivers need to be compensated. The double-difference technique is used to eliminate GPS errors in the pseudoranges, and the geometrical distance is corrected by projecting the baseline vector between pairs of receivers. In order to test and analyze the proposed algorithm, an experiment involving live data was performed. The positioning performance of the algorithm was compared with that of the receiver autonomous integrity monitoring (RAIM-based integration algorithm for multiple receivers. The test results showed that the proposed algorithm yields more accurate position information in urban areas.

  9. Saving Space and Time: The Tractor That Einstein Built

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-01-01

    In 1984, NASA initiated the Gravity Probe B (GP-B) program to test two unverified predictions of Albert Einstein s theory of general relativity, hypotheses about the ways space, time, light, and gravity relate to each other. To test these predictions, the Space Agency and researchers at Stanford University developed an experiment that would check, with extreme precision, tiny changes in the spin direction of four gyroscopes contained in an Earth satellite orbiting at a 400-mile altitude directly over the Earth s poles. When the program first began, the researchers assessed using Global Positioning System (GPS) technology to control the attitude of the GP-B spacecraft accurately. At that time, the best GPS receivers could only provide accuracy to nearly 1 meter, but the GP-B spacecraft required a system 100 times more accurate. To address this concern, researchers at Stanford designed high-performance, attitude-determining hardware that used GPS signals, perfecting a high-precision form of GPS called Carrier-Phase Differential GPS that could provide continuous real-time position, velocity, time, and attitude sensor information for all axes of a vehicle. The researchers came to the realization that controlling the GP-B spacecraft with this new system was essentially no different than controlling an airplane. Their thinking took a new direction: If this technology proved successful, the airlines and the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) were ready commercial markets. They set out to test the new technology, the "Integrity Beacon Landing System," using it to automatically land a commercial Boeing 737 over 100 times successfully through Real-Time Kinematic (RTK) GPS technology. The thinking of the researchers shifted again, from automatically landing aircraft, to automating precision farming and construction equipment.

  10. GPS Navigation and Tracking Device

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yahya Salameh Khraisat

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Since the introduction of GPS Navigation systems in the marketplace, consumers and businesses have been coming up with innovative ways to use the technology in their everyday life. GPS Navigation and Tracking systems keep us from getting lost when we are in strange locations, they monitor children when they are away from home, keep track of business vehicles and can even let us know where a philandering partner is at all times. Because of this we attend to build a GPS tracking device to solve the mentioned problems. Our work consists of the GPS module that collects data from satellites and calculates the position information before transmitting them to the user’s PC (of Navigation system or observers (of Tracking System using wireless technology (GSM.

  11. Integrated navigation of aerial robot for GPS and GPS-denied environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suzuki, Satoshi; Min, Hongkyu; Nonami, Kenzo; Wada, Tetsuya

    2016-01-01

    In this study, novel robust navigation system for aerial robot in GPS and GPS- denied environments is proposed. Generally, the aerial robot uses position and velocity information from Global Positioning System (GPS) for guidance and control. However, GPS could not be used in several environments, for example, GPS has huge error near buildings and trees, indoor, and so on. In such GPS-denied environment, Laser Detection and Ranging (LIDER) sensor based navigation system have generally been used. However, LIDER sensor also has an weakness, and it could not be used in the open outdoor environment where GPS could be used. Therefore, it is desired to develop the integrated navigation system which is seamlessly applied to GPS and GPS-denied environments. In this paper, the integrated navigation system for aerial robot using GPS and LIDER is developed. The navigation system is designed based on Extended Kalman Filter, and the effectiveness of the developed system is verified by numerical simulation and experiment. (paper)

  12. Precise Positioning of Uavs - Dealing with Challenging Rtk-Gps Measurement Conditions during Automated Uav Flights

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimmermann, F.; Eling, C.; Klingbeil, L.; Kuhlmann, H.

    2017-08-01

    For some years now, UAVs (unmanned aerial vehicles) are commonly used for different mobile mapping applications, such as in the fields of surveying, mining or archeology. To improve the efficiency of these applications an automation of the flight as well as the processing of the collected data is currently aimed at. One precondition for an automated mapping with UAVs is that the georeferencing is performed directly with cm-accuracies or better. Usually, a cm-accurate direct positioning of UAVs is based on an onboard multi-sensor system, which consists of an RTK-capable (real-time kinematic) GPS (global positioning system) receiver and additional sensors (e.g. inertial sensors). In this case, the absolute positioning accuracy essentially depends on the local GPS measurement conditions. Especially during mobile mapping applications in urban areas, these conditions can be very challenging, due to a satellite shadowing, non-line-of sight receptions, signal diffraction or multipath effects. In this paper, two straightforward and easy to implement strategies will be described and analyzed, which improve the direct positioning accuracies for UAV-based mapping and surveying applications under challenging GPS measurement conditions. Based on a 3D model of the surrounding buildings and vegetation in the area of interest, a GPS geometry map is determined, which can be integrated in the flight planning process, to avoid GPS challenging environments as far as possible. If these challenging environments cannot be avoided, the GPS positioning solution is improved by using obstruction adaptive elevation masks, to mitigate systematic GPS errors in the RTK-GPS positioning. Simulations and results of field tests demonstrate the profit of both strategies.

  13. Optional part-time and longer GP training modules in GP practices associated with more trainees becoming GPs - a cohort study in Switzerland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Studerus, Lara; Ahrens, Regina; Häuptle, Christian; Goeldlin, Adrian; Streit, Sven

    2018-01-05

    Switzerland, like many other countries, has a shortage of General Practitioners (GPs). Optional GP training modules in GP practices were offered during the at least 5-year GP training program to increase student and trainee interest in becoming a GP. The training modules had not yet been evaluated. We determined how many Swiss GP trainees became practicing GPs after they completed optional training modules, and if longer modules were associated with higher rates of GP specialization. In this population-based cohort study, we included GP trainees who chose an optional GP training module in GP practice, provided by the Foundation to Promote Training in General Practice (WHM) between 2006 and 2015. GP trainees were invited to complete an online survey to assess the primary outcome (becoming a practicing GP by 2016). Data on non-responders was collected via an internet search. We calculated univariate time-to-event curves to become a practicing GP, stratified by trainee's gender, length, part-time training, and number of years after graduation until training modules were completed. We used a multivariate model to adjust for characteristics of participants, training, and satisfaction with training modules. We assessed primary outcome for 351 (92.1%) of 381 former GP trainees who participated in a WHM program between 2006 and 2015. Of these 218 (57%) were practicing GPs by 2016. When focusing on the trainees who had completed training between 2006 and 2010, the rate of practicing GPs was even 73%. Longer (p = 0.018) and part-time training modules (p = 0.003) were associated with higher rates of being a practicing GP. Most (81%) practicing GPs thought their optional GP training module was (very) important in their choice of specialty. GP trainees who spent more time training in a GP practice, or who trained part-time were more likely to become practicing GPs. Most (80%) rated their training module as (very) important in their choice of career, highlighting that

  14. Operational aspects of CASA UNO '88-The first large scale international GPS geodetic network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neilan, Ruth E.; Dixon, T. H.; Meehan, Thomas K.; Melbourne, William G.; Scheid, John A.; Kellogg, J. N.; Stowell, J. L.

    1989-01-01

    For three weeks, from January 18 to February 5, 1988, scientists and engineers from 13 countries and 30 international agencies and institutions cooperated in the most extensive GPS (Global Positioning System) field campaign, and the largest geodynamics experiment, in the world to date. This collaborative eperiment concentrated GPS receivers in Central and South America. The predicted rates of motions are on the order of 5-10 cm/yr. Global coverage of GPS observations spanned 220 deg of longitude and 125 deg of latitude using a total of 43 GPS receivers. The experiment was the first civilian effort at implementing an extended international GPS satellite tracking network. Covariance analyses incorporating the extended tracking network predicted significant improvement in precise orbit determination, allowing accurate long-baseline geodesy in the science areas.

  15. Improved vertical displacements induced by a refined thermal expansion model and its quantitative analysis in GPS height time series

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Kaihua; Chen, Hua; Jiang, Weiping; Li, Zhao; Ma, Yifang; Deng, Liansheng

    2018-04-01

    There are apparent seasonal variations in GPS height time series, and thermal expansion is considered to be one of the potential geophysical contributors. The displacements introduced by thermal expansion are usually derived without considering the annex height and underground part of the monument (e.g. located on roof or top of the buildings), which may bias the geophysical explanation of the seasonal oscillation. In this paper, the improved vertical displacements are derived by a refined thermal expansion model where the annex height and underground depth of the monument are taken into account, and then 560 IGS stations are adopted to validate the modeled thermal expansion (MTE) displacements. In order to evaluate the impact of thermal expansion on GPS heights, the MTE displacements of 80 IGS stations with less data discontinuities are selected to compare with their observed GPS vertical (OGV) displacements with the modeled surface loading (MSL) displacements removed in advance. Quantitative analysis results show the maximum annual and semiannual amplitudes of the MTE are 6.65 mm (NOVJ) and 0.51 mm (IISC), respectively, and the maximum peak-to-peak oscillation of the MTE displacements can be 19.4 mm. The average annual amplitude reductions are 0.75 mm and 1.05 mm respectively after removing the MTE and MSL displacements from the OGV, indicating the seasonal oscillation induced by thermal expansion is equivalent to >75% of the impact of surface loadings. However, there are rarely significant reductions for the semiannual amplitude. Given the result in this study that thermal expansion can explain 17.3% of the annual amplitude in GPS heights on average, it must be precisely modeled both in GPS precise data processing and GPS time series analysis, especially for those stations located in the middle and high latitudes with larger annual temperature oscillation, or stations with higher monument.

  16. Constraints on dike propagation from continuous GPS measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Segall, P.; Cervelli, Peter; Owen, S.; Lisowski, M.; Miklius, Asta

    2001-01-01

    The January 1997 East Rift Zone eruption on Kilauea volcano, Hawaii, occurred within a network of continuous Global Positioning System (GPS) receivers. The GPS measurements reveal the temporal history of deformation during dike intrusion, beginning ??? 8 hours prior to the onset of the eruption. The dike volume as a function of time, estimated from the GPS data using elastic Green's functions for a homogeneous half-space, shows that only two thirds of the final dike volume accumulated prior to the eruption and the rate of volume change decreased with time. These observations are inconsistent with simple models of dike propagation, which predict accelerating dike volume up to the time of the eruption and little or no change thereafter. Deflationary tilt changes at Kilauea summit mirror the inferred dike volume history, suggesting that the rate of dike propagation is limited by flow of magma into the dike. A simple, lumped parameter model of a coupled dike magma chamber system shows that the tendency for a dike to end in an eruption (rather than intrusion) is favored by high initial dike pressures, compressional stress states, large, compressible magma reservoirs, and highly conductive conduits linking the dike and source reservoirs. Comparison of model predictions to the observed dike volume history, the ratio of erupted to intruded magma, and the deflationary history of the summit magma chamber suggest that most of the magma supplied to the growing dike came from sources near to the eruption through highly conductive conduits. Interpretation is complicated by the presence of multiple source reservoirs, magma vesiculation and cooling, as well as spatial variations in dike-normal stress. Reinflation of the summit magma chamber following the eruption was measured by GPS and accompanied a rise in the level of the Pu'u O'o lava lake. For a spheroidal chamber these data imply a summit magma chamber volume of ??? 20 km3, consistent with recent estimates from seismic

  17. Physical applications of GPS geodesy: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bock, Yehuda; Melgar, Diego

    2016-10-01

    Geodesy, the oldest science, has become an important discipline in the geosciences, in large part by enhancing Global Positioning System (GPS) capabilities over the last 35 years well beyond the satellite constellation's original design. The ability of GPS geodesy to estimate 3D positions with millimeter-level precision with respect to a global terrestrial reference frame has contributed to significant advances in geophysics, seismology, atmospheric science, hydrology, and natural hazard science. Monitoring the changes in the positions or trajectories of GPS instruments on the Earth's land and water surfaces, in the atmosphere, or in space, is important for both theory and applications, from an improved understanding of tectonic and magmatic processes to developing systems for mitigating the impact of natural hazards on society and the environment. Besides accurate positioning, all disturbances in the propagation of the transmitted GPS radio signals from satellite to receiver are mined for information, from troposphere and ionosphere delays for weather, climate, and natural hazard applications, to disturbances in the signals due to multipath reflections from the solid ground, water, and ice for environmental applications. We review the relevant concepts of geodetic theory, data analysis, and physical modeling for a myriad of processes at multiple spatial and temporal scales, and discuss the extensive global infrastructure that has been built to support GPS geodesy consisting of thousands of continuously operating stations. We also discuss the integration of heterogeneous and complementary data sets from geodesy, seismology, and geology, focusing on crustal deformation applications and early warning systems for natural hazards.

  18. A Data Model for Determining Weather's Impact on Travel Time

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Ove; Torp, Kristian

    2016-01-01

    Accurate estimating travel times in road networks is a complex task because travel times depends on factors such as the weather. In this paper, we present a generic model for integrating weather data with GPS data to improve the accuracy of the estimated travel times. First, we present a data model...... for storing and map-matching GPS data, and integrating this data with detailed weather data. The model is generic in the sense that it can be used anywhere GPS data and weather data is available. Next, we analyze the correlation between travel time and the weather classes dry, fog, rain, and snow along...... with winds impact on travel time. Using a data set of 1.6 billion GPS records collected from 10,560 vehicles, over a 5 year period from all of Denmark, we show that snow can increase the travel time up to 27% and strong headwind can increase the travel time with up to 19% (compared to dry calm weather...

  19. GPS Operations at Olkiluoto, Kivetty and Romuvaara in 2005

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahola, J.; Ollikainen, M.; Koivula, H.; Jokela, J.

    2006-07-01

    The GPS based deformation studies has been made at the investigation areas of Posiva since 1995, when the network of ten GPS pillars was established at Olkiluoto. The network of seven GPS pillars was built at Kivetty and Romuvaara during the year 1996. One pillar in each investigation area belongs to the Finnish permanent GPS network, FinnRef. Twenty GPS measurement campaigns have been carried out at Olkiluoto since 1995, and fourteen campaigns at Kivetty and Romuvaara. According to the time series of the GPS results 1/3 of the baselines at Olkiluoto have statistically significant change rates. However, the observed movements are smaller than ± 0.22 mm/a. There are no statistically signicant movements at Kivetty and Romuvaara expect one pillar at Romuvaara. There are five pillars, which have statistically significant horizontal velocities at Olkiluoto. The local velocity components are small but taking into account the standard deviations the largest velocity components seems to be reliable (maximum velocity is - 0.25 mm/a ± 0.025 mm/a). The uniform scale for the GPS measurements made in different years is the basic condition for reliable results in the deformation analyses. At Olkiluoto a baseline for electronic distance measurements (EDM) was built in 2002. The baseline has been measured using EDM instruments simultaneously with the GPS observations. The comparison between the GPS and EDM results to show a possible scale error of the GPS. The GPS network at Olkiluoto was enlarged in 2003. The new pillars were built close to Kuivalahti village and on a small island of Iso Pyrekari, both north from Olkiluoto. According to the geological evidence it is expected that a fracture zone is located between the new stations, thus enabling the determination of possible deformations along the fracture zone. The new pillars have been observed five times since 2003, but the time series are still too short for reliable deformation studies. Including the new pillars the local

  20. PRECISE POSITIONING OF UAVS – DEALING WITH CHALLENGING RTK-GPS MEASUREMENT CONDITIONS DURING AUTOMATED UAV FLIGHTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Zimmermann

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available For some years now, UAVs (unmanned aerial vehicles are commonly used for different mobile mapping applications, such as in the fields of surveying, mining or archeology. To improve the efficiency of these applications an automation of the flight as well as the processing of the collected data is currently aimed at. One precondition for an automated mapping with UAVs is that the georeferencing is performed directly with cm-accuracies or better. Usually, a cm-accurate direct positioning of UAVs is based on an onboard multi-sensor system, which consists of an RTK-capable (real-time kinematic GPS (global positioning system receiver and additional sensors (e.g. inertial sensors. In this case, the absolute positioning accuracy essentially depends on the local GPS measurement conditions. Especially during mobile mapping applications in urban areas, these conditions can be very challenging, due to a satellite shadowing, non-line-of sight receptions, signal diffraction or multipath effects. In this paper, two straightforward and easy to implement strategies will be described and analyzed, which improve the direct positioning accuracies for UAV-based mapping and surveying applications under challenging GPS measurement conditions. Based on a 3D model of the surrounding buildings and vegetation in the area of interest, a GPS geometry map is determined, which can be integrated in the flight planning process, to avoid GPS challenging environments as far as possible. If these challenging environments cannot be avoided, the GPS positioning solution is improved by using obstruction adaptive elevation masks, to mitigate systematic GPS errors in the RTK-GPS positioning. Simulations and results of field tests demonstrate the profit of both strategies.

  1. Verification of the Time Accuracy of a Magnometer by Using a GPS Pulse Generator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yasuhiro Minamoto

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available The time accuracy of geomagnetic data is an important specification for one-second data distributions. We tested a procedure to verify the time accuracy of a fluxgate magnetometer by using a GPS pulse generator. The magnetometer was equipped with a high time resolution (100 Hz output, so the data delay could be checked directly. The delay detected from one-second data by a statistical method was larger than those from 0.1-s- and 0.01-s-resolution data. The test of the time accuracy revealed the larger delay and was useful for verifying the quality of the data.

  2. GPS: Shaping Student Success One Conversation at a Time

    Science.gov (United States)

    Star, Mikhael; Collette, Lanita

    2010-01-01

    Increasing instructor-student interactions and improving support personnel interventions with students positively affects their academic performance, retention, and graduation rates. This article discusses the Grade Performance Status (GPS) which is Northern Arizona University's new online, academic early alert tool for increasing instructor…

  3. GPS deformation measurements at Olkiluoto in 2013

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nyberg, S.; Kallio, U.; Koivula, H.

    2014-08-01

    The Finnish Geodetic Institute has monitored crustal deformations since mid-1990s at Olkiluoto, Kivetty and Romuvaara. The research was focused on the Olkiluoto area in 2001, when Olkiluoto was chosen to the site for the final disposal facility of the spent nuclear fuel. The work and the results of the GPS deformation monitoring at Olkiluoto in 2013 are presented. The measurement consisted of two GPS measurement campaigns, observations at local permanent stations and control markers measurements at four stations. In spring six new stations were set up for permanent tracking. In total 12 permanent stations were operating continuously from April to the end of the year. The residual time series of the stations showed periodic trends up to 3 mm in height and 1 mm in horizontal component relative to the GPS1 station. A few stations were still measured as campaign-based and analysed baseline by baseline. The data from permanent stations (GPS1-GPS9, and GPS13) were included. The analysis of the inner network based on campaign sessions showed very small motions as in previous years: 75 % of change rates are smaller than 0.10 mm/y. Roughly one third of the change rates could be considered statistically significant at 1 % significance level. Statistically significant change rates were estimated for baselines from GPS1 and GPS5. The trends and strains differed at some baselines clearly from the earlier analysis because of different troposphere modelling. The results of the outer network showed the largest difference on the baseline GPS1-GPS11 where the trend decreased from -0.42 mm/y to -0.28 mm/y. The strain pattern of the outer network shows an eastwards motion of GPS1. The estimated strains for the baselines east of GPS1 were -0.03/-0.04 ppm/y. The control marker measurements were carried at the stations GPS1, GPS2, GPS4 and GPS6. A comparison of the results with the previous measurements showed that the distance between control markers at GPS6 continues to increase. Also

  4. GPS deformation measurements at Olkiluoto in 2013

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nyberg, S.; Kallio, U.; Koivula, H. [Finnish Geodetic Institute, Masala (Finland)

    2014-08-15

    The Finnish Geodetic Institute has monitored crustal deformations since mid-1990s at Olkiluoto, Kivetty and Romuvaara. The research was focused on the Olkiluoto area in 2001, when Olkiluoto was chosen to the site for the final disposal facility of the spent nuclear fuel. The work and the results of the GPS deformation monitoring at Olkiluoto in 2013 are presented. The measurement consisted of two GPS measurement campaigns, observations at local permanent stations and control markers measurements at four stations. In spring six new stations were set up for permanent tracking. In total 12 permanent stations were operating continuously from April to the end of the year. The residual time series of the stations showed periodic trends up to 3 mm in height and 1 mm in horizontal component relative to the GPS1 station. A few stations were still measured as campaign-based and analysed baseline by baseline. The data from permanent stations (GPS1-GPS9, and GPS13) were included. The analysis of the inner network based on campaign sessions showed very small motions as in previous years: 75 % of change rates are smaller than 0.10 mm/y. Roughly one third of the change rates could be considered statistically significant at 1 % significance level. Statistically significant change rates were estimated for baselines from GPS1 and GPS5. The trends and strains differed at some baselines clearly from the earlier analysis because of different troposphere modelling. The results of the outer network showed the largest difference on the baseline GPS1-GPS11 where the trend decreased from -0.42 mm/y to -0.28 mm/y. The strain pattern of the outer network shows an eastwards motion of GPS1. The estimated strains for the baselines east of GPS1 were -0.03/-0.04 ppm/y. The control marker measurements were carried at the stations GPS1, GPS2, GPS4 and GPS6. A comparison of the results with the previous measurements showed that the distance between control markers at GPS6 continues to increase. Also

  5. Using GPS and leveling data in local precise geoid determination and case study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erol, B.; Çelik, R. N.; Erol, S.

    2003-04-01

    As an important result of developments in high technology, satellite based positioning system has become to use in geodesy and surveying professions. These developments made the measurement works more accurate, more practical and more economic. Today, one of the most recent used satellite based positioning system is GPS (Global Positioning System) and it serves to a very wide range of geodetic applications from monitoring earth crustal deformations till building the basis for a GIS (Geographical Information Systems). The most efficient way to utilize GPS measurement system for mentioned aims is having a reliable geodetic infrastructure in working area. Geodetic infrastructure is a extraterrestrial and time system and involved 4D geodetic reference networks. The forth element of mentioned geodetic reference system is time because having an accurate and reliable geodetic infrastructure is needed to up-date according to physical realities of the region. By the help of a well designed geodetic infrastructure accurate and reliable coordinates of a point can be generated economically every time in a global and up-to-date system. Geoid is one of the important parts of a geodetic infrastructure. As it is well known, geoid is the equipotential surface of the Earth's gravity field which best fits, in a least squares sense, global mean sea level and it is reference for physical height systems like orthometric and normal heights. In the most of the applications, vertical position of a point is expressed with orthometric or normal height. Orthometric or normal height is a physical concept and gives vertical position of a point uniquely. On the other hand, vertical position of a point is derived in a geometrical system according to GPS measurements. GPS datum is WGS84 and in this system, an ellipsoidal height of a point is calculated according to WGS84 ellipsoid. So, it is an necessity to transform the ellipsoidal heights to orthometric heights and this procedure is managed with

  6. USGS Menlo Park GPS Data Processing Techniques and Derived North America Velocity Field (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Svarc, J. L.; Murray-Moraleda, J. R.; Langbein, J. O.

    2010-12-01

    processes to 0.85 mm, 1.7 mm/yr1/4, and 0.4 mm/yr1/2 respectively for the north components, 0.84 mm, 1.4 mm/yr1/4, and 0.6 mm/yr1/2 respectively for the east components and 3.2 mm, 6.4 mm/yr1/4, and 0.0 mm/yr1/2 respectively for the vertical. We have also deployed “semi-permanent” stations in selected regions of California. Semi-permanent stations have the advantage of increasing the density of coverage without the high cost of monumentation and telemetry associated with continuous GPS stations. Also, because of the increased temporal coverage of these stations, accurate estimates of station velocities can be achieved in a far shorter time period than from campaign mode surveys.

  7. GeoTravel: Harvesting Ambient Geographic Footprints from GPS Trajectories

    OpenAIRE

    Liew, Li Ching; Goh, Ong Sing

    2014-01-01

    This study is about harvesting point of interest from GPS trajectories. Trajectories are the paths that moving objects move by follow through space in a function of time while GPS trajectories generally are point-sequences with geographic coordinates, time stamp, speed and heading. User can get information from GPS enable device. For example, user can acquire present location, search the information around them and design driving routes to a destination and thus design travel itineraries. By ...

  8. Integration of GPS precise point positioning and MEMS-based INS using unscented particle filter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abd Rabbou, Mahmoud; El-Rabbany, Ahmed

    2015-03-25

    Integration of Global Positioning System (GPS) and Inertial Navigation System (INS) integrated system involves nonlinear motion state and measurement models. However, the extended Kalman filter (EKF) is commonly used as the estimation filter, which might lead to solution divergence. This is usually encountered during GPS outages, when low-cost micro-electro-mechanical sensors (MEMS) inertial sensors are used. To enhance the navigation system performance, alternatives to the standard EKF should be considered. Particle filtering (PF) is commonly considered as a nonlinear estimation technique to accommodate severe MEMS inertial sensor biases and noise behavior. However, the computation burden of PF limits its use. In this study, an improved version of PF, the unscented particle filter (UPF), is utilized, which combines the unscented Kalman filter (UKF) and PF for the integration of GPS precise point positioning and MEMS-based inertial systems. The proposed filter is examined and compared with traditional estimation filters, namely EKF, UKF and PF. Tightly coupled mechanization is adopted, which is developed in the raw GPS and INS measurement domain. Un-differenced ionosphere-free linear combinations of pseudorange and carrier-phase measurements are used for PPP. The performance of the UPF is analyzed using a real test scenario in downtown Kingston, Ontario. It is shown that the use of UPF reduces the number of samples needed to produce an accurate solution, in comparison with the traditional PF, which in turn reduces the processing time. In addition, UPF enhances the positioning accuracy by up to 15% during GPS outages, in comparison with EKF. However, all filters produce comparable results when the GPS measurement updates are available.

  9. GPS operations at Olkiluoto in 2009

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kallio, U.; Nyberg, S.; Koivula, H.; Jokela, J.; Poutanen, M.; Ahola, J. (Finnish Geodetic Institute, Masala (Finland))

    2010-06-15

    The GPS based deformation studies have been made at the investigation areas of Posiva since 1995, when the network of ten GPS pillars was established at Olkiluoto. One pillar in the investigation area belongs to the Finnish permanent GPS network, FinnRef. 28 GPS measurement campaigns have been carried out at Olkiluoto since 1995. According to the time series of the GPS results 1/3 of the baselines at Olkiluoto have statistically significant change rates. However, the observed movements are smaller than +-0.20 mm/a. There are five pillars, which have statistically significant horizontal velocities at Olkiluoto. These local velocity components are small but taking into account the standard deviations the largest velocity components seems to be reliably determined. At Olkiluoto a baseline for electronic distance measurements (EDM) was built in 2002. The baseline has been measured using EDM instruments in connection to the GPS observations. Changes in he difference between the GPS and EDM results indicate the systematic change in GPS results. No corrections based on only one baseline were not applied to GPS vectors. The GPS network at Olkiluoto was extended in 2003. The new pillars were built close to Kuivalahti village and on a small island of Iso Pyrekari. According to the geological evidence it is expected that a fracture zone is located between the new stations, thus enabling the determination of possible deformations along the fracture zone. The new pillars have been observed since 2003 and now we have computed the first deformation analysis from the six years data. Four new permanent stations will be established in summer 2010 at Olkiluoto. We have automated the processing of the campaign data by using the Bernese processing engine (BPE) together with our own Perl scripts. The local crustal deformations have been studied in GeoSatakunta project, too. This GPS network is located in Cities of Pori and Rauma and their neighbouring municipalities. Two new pillars

  10. GPS operations at Olkiluoto in 2009

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kallio, U.; Nyberg, S.; Koivula, H.; Jokela, J.; Poutanen, M.; Ahola, J.

    2010-06-01

    The GPS based deformation studies have been made at the investigation areas of Posiva since 1995, when the network of ten GPS pillars was established at Olkiluoto. One pillar in the investigation area belongs to the Finnish permanent GPS network, FinnRef. 28 GPS measurement campaigns have been carried out at Olkiluoto since 1995. According to the time series of the GPS results 1/3 of the baselines at Olkiluoto have statistically significant change rates. However, the observed movements are smaller than ±0.20 mm/a. There are five pillars, which have statistically significant horizontal velocities at Olkiluoto. These local velocity components are small but taking into account the standard deviations the largest velocity components seems to be reliably determined. At Olkiluoto a baseline for electronic distance measurements (EDM) was built in 2002. The baseline has been measured using EDM instruments in connection to the GPS observations. Changes in he difference between the GPS and EDM results indicate the systematic change in GPS results. No corrections based on only one baseline were not applied to GPS vectors. The GPS network at Olkiluoto was extended in 2003. The new pillars were built close to Kuivalahti village and on a small island of Iso Pyrekari. According to the geological evidence it is expected that a fracture zone is located between the new stations, thus enabling the determination of possible deformations along the fracture zone. The new pillars have been observed since 2003 and now we have computed the first deformation analysis from the six years data. Four new permanent stations will be established in summer 2010 at Olkiluoto. We have automated the processing of the campaign data by using the Bernese processing engine (BPE) together with our own Perl scripts. The local crustal deformations have been studied in GeoSatakunta project, too. This GPS network is located in Cities of Pori and Rauma and their neighbouring municipalities. Two new pillars

  11. Effects on noise properties of GPS time series caused by higher-order ionospheric corrections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Weiping; Deng, Liansheng; Li, Zhao; Zhou, Xiaohui; Liu, Hongfei

    2014-04-01

    Higher-order ionospheric (HOI) effects are one of the principal technique-specific error sources in precise global positioning system (GPS) analysis. These effects also influence the non-linear characteristics of GPS coordinate time series. In this paper, we investigate these effects on coordinate time series in terms of seasonal variations and noise amplitudes. Both power spectral techniques and maximum likelihood estimators (MLE) are used to evaluate these effects quantitatively and qualitatively. Our results show an overall improvement for the analysis of global sites if HOI effects are considered. We note that the noise spectral index that is used for the determination of the optimal noise models in our analysis ranged between -1 and 0 both with and without HOI corrections, implying that the coloured noise cannot be removed by these corrections. However, the corrections were found to have improved noise properties for global sites. After the corrections were applied, the noise amplitudes at most sites decreased, among which the white noise amplitudes decreased remarkably. The white noise amplitudes of up to 81.8% of the selected sites decreased in the up component, and the flicker noise of 67.5% of the sites decreased in the north component. Stacked periodogram results show that, no matter whether the HOI effects are considered or not, a common fundamental period of 1.04 cycles per year (cpy), together with the expected annual and semi-annual signals, can explain all peaks of the north and up components well. For the east component, however, reasonable results can be obtained only based on HOI corrections. HOI corrections are useful for better detecting the periodic signals in GPS coordinate time series. Moreover, the corrections contributed partly to the seasonal variations of the selected sites, especially for the up component. Statistically, HOI corrections reduced more than 50% and more than 65% of the annual and semi-annual amplitudes respectively at the

  12. New method of GPS orbit determination from GCPS network for the purpose of DOP calculations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aly M. El-naggar

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The accuracy of GPS measurement satisfies the requirements of some applications, but many applications require an improvement of GPS measurement accuracy. For precise positioning by GPS, it is necessary to perform GPS mission planning. The GPS mission planning is a pre-survey task in which the values of Dilution Of Precision (DOP should be predicted for the observation points, this task should determine the best observation periods which meet the project requirements. The main purpose of this work is to study a rather simple but still fairly accurate algorithm to determine the artificial satellite orbits for the purpose of DOP calculation. The orbit determination algorithm proposed in this paper is implemented by using several reference stations and calculated the orbits by new algorithm; inverse GPS. Inverse GPS means that reference stations are considered as satellites and satellite as receiver. This new algorithm used to calculate the satellite orbit which is mainly used to calculate the DOP. A comparison is done between the estimated PDOP by using satellite coordinates from new method and from the SP3 (Standard Product # 3 file.

  13. A feasibility test of using smartphones to collect GPS information in face-to-face surveys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristen Olson

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Survey organizations rely on interviewers to make informed and efficient decisions about their efforts in the field, including which housing units they approach to knock on doors, make appointments, and obtain interviews. This paper presents initial findings from a feasibility test on a face to face survey, the US National Survey of Family Growth, in which the interviewers were equipped with GPS-enabled smartphones. This test included an experiment to determine if the use of the GPS-enabled smartphone altered interviewer behavior. We evaluate interviewer compliance with the GPS request, the effects of using the GPS device on interviewer behavior, and the quality of the recorded GPS points as related to interviewer behaviors. This test also included two surveys of interviewers that were completed after using the smartphone. We report results from these surveys and link one set of survey results to interviewer GPS compliance rates. Implications for future use of GPS devices to monitor and understand interviewer travel behavior are discussed.

  14. Multigrid time-accurate integration of Navier-Stokes equations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnone, Andrea; Liou, Meng-Sing; Povinelli, Louis A.

    1993-01-01

    Efficient acceleration techniques typical of explicit steady-state solvers are extended to time-accurate calculations. Stability restrictions are greatly reduced by means of a fully implicit time discretization. A four-stage Runge-Kutta scheme with local time stepping, residual smoothing, and multigridding is used instead of traditional time-expensive factorizations. Some applications to natural and forced unsteady viscous flows show the capability of the procedure.

  15. Performance Analysis of Several GPS/Galileo Precise Point Positioning Models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afifi, Akram; El-Rabbany, Ahmed

    2015-06-19

    This paper examines the performance of several precise point positioning (PPP) models, which combine dual-frequency GPS/Galileo observations in the un-differenced and between-satellite single-difference (BSSD) modes. These include the traditional un-differenced model, the decoupled clock model, the semi-decoupled clock model, and the between-satellite single-difference model. We take advantage of the IGS-MGEX network products to correct for the satellite differential code biases and the orbital and satellite clock errors. Natural Resources Canada's GPSPace PPP software is modified to handle the various GPS/Galileo PPP models. A total of six data sets of GPS and Galileo observations at six IGS stations are processed to examine the performance of the various PPP models. It is shown that the traditional un-differenced GPS/Galileo PPP model, the GPS decoupled clock model, and the semi-decoupled clock GPS/Galileo PPP model improve the convergence time by about 25% in comparison with the un-differenced GPS-only model. In addition, the semi-decoupled GPS/Galileo PPP model improves the solution precision by about 25% compared to the traditional un-differenced GPS/Galileo PPP model. Moreover, the BSSD GPS/Galileo PPP model improves the solution convergence time by about 50%, in comparison with the un-differenced GPS PPP model, regardless of the type of BSSD combination used. As well, the BSSD model improves the precision of the estimated parameters by about 50% and 25% when the loose and the tight combinations are used, respectively, in comparison with the un-differenced GPS-only model. Comparable results are obtained through the tight combination when either a GPS or a Galileo satellite is selected as a reference.

  16. Space-time clusters for early detection of grizzly bear predation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kermish-Wells, Joseph; Massolo, Alessandro; Stenhouse, Gordon B; Larsen, Terrence A; Musiani, Marco

    2018-01-01

    Accurate detection and classification of predation events is important to determine predation and consumption rates by predators. However, obtaining this information for large predators is constrained by the speed at which carcasses disappear and the cost of field data collection. To accurately detect predation events, researchers have used GPS collar technology combined with targeted site visits. However, kill sites are often investigated well after the predation event due to limited data retrieval options on GPS collars (VHF or UHF downloading) and to ensure crew safety when working with large predators. This can lead to missing information from small-prey (including young ungulates) kill sites due to scavenging and general site deterioration (e.g., vegetation growth). We used a space-time permutation scan statistic (STPSS) clustering method (SaTScan) to detect predation events of grizzly bears ( Ursus arctos ) fitted with satellite transmitting GPS collars. We used generalized linear mixed models to verify predation events and the size of carcasses using spatiotemporal characteristics as predictors. STPSS uses a probability model to compare expected cluster size (space and time) with the observed size. We applied this method retrospectively to data from 2006 to 2007 to compare our method to random GPS site selection. In 2013-2014, we applied our detection method to visit sites one week after their occupation. Both datasets were collected in the same study area. Our approach detected 23 of 27 predation sites verified by visiting 464 random grizzly bear locations in 2006-2007, 187 of which were within space-time clusters and 277 outside. Predation site detection increased by 2.75 times (54 predation events of 335 visited clusters) using 2013-2014 data. Our GLMMs showed that cluster size and duration predicted predation events and carcass size with high sensitivity (0.72 and 0.94, respectively). Coupling GPS satellite technology with clusters using a program based

  17. Robust GPS autonomous signal quality monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ndili, Awele Nnaemeka

    The Global Positioning System (GPS), introduced by the U.S. Department of Defense in 1973, provides unprecedented world-wide navigation capabilities through a constellation of 24 satellites in global orbit, each emitting a low-power radio-frequency signal for ranging. GPS receivers track these transmitted signals, computing position to within 30 meters from range measurements made to four satellites. GPS has a wide range of applications, including aircraft, marine and land vehicle navigation. Each application places demands on GPS for various levels of accuracy, integrity, system availability and continuity of service. Radio frequency interference (RFI), which results from natural sources such as TV/FM harmonics, radar or Mobile Satellite Systems (MSS), presents a challenge in the use of GPS, by posing a threat to the accuracy, integrity and availability of the GPS navigation solution. In order to use GPS for integrity-sensitive applications, it is therefore necessary to monitor the quality of the received signal, with the objective of promptly detecting the presence of RFI, and thus provide a timely warning of degradation of system accuracy. This presents a challenge, since the myriad kinds of RFI affect the GPS receiver in different ways. What is required then, is a robust method of detecting GPS accuracy degradation, which is effective regardless of the origin of the threat. This dissertation presents a new method of robust signal quality monitoring for GPS. Algorithms for receiver autonomous interference detection and integrity monitoring are demonstrated. Candidate test statistics are derived from fundamental receiver measurements of in-phase and quadrature correlation outputs, and the gain of the Active Gain Controller (AGC). Performance of selected test statistics are evaluated in the presence of RFI: broadband interference, pulsed and non-pulsed interference, coherent CW at different frequencies; and non-RFI: GPS signal fading due to physical blockage and

  18. Automatic Road Centerline Extraction from Imagery Using Road GPS Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chuqing Cao

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Road centerline extraction from imagery constitutes a key element in numerous geospatial applications, which has been addressed through a variety of approaches. However, most of the existing methods are not capable of dealing with challenges such as different road shapes, complex scenes, and variable resolutions. This paper presents a novel method for road centerline extraction from imagery in a fully automatic approach that addresses the aforementioned challenges by exploiting road GPS data. The proposed method combines road color feature with road GPS data to detect road centerline seed points. After global alignment of road GPS data, a novel road centerline extraction algorithm is developed to extract each individual road centerline in local regions. Through road connection, road centerline network is generated as the final output. Extensive experiments demonstrate that our proposed method can rapidly and accurately extract road centerline from remotely sensed imagery.

  19. The Statistics of GPS

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Matsakis, Demetrios

    2007-01-01

    The Global Positioning System (GPS) is an extremely effective satellite-based system that broadcasts sufficient information for a user to determine time and position from any location on or near the Earth...

  20. Comparison of a novel real-time SonixGPS needle-tracking ultrasound technique with traditional ultrasound for vascular access in a phantom gel model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kopac, Daniel S; Chen, Jerry; Tang, Raymond; Sawka, Andrew; Vaghadia, Himat

    2013-09-01

    Ultrasound-guided percutaneous vascular access for endovascular procedures is well established in surgical practice. Despite this, rates of complications from venous and arterial access procedures remain a significant cause of morbidity. We hypothesized that the use of a new technique of vascular access using an ultrasound with a novel needle-guidance positioning system (GPS) would lead to improved success rates of vascular puncture for both in-plane and out-of-plane techniques compared with traditional ultrasound. A prospective, randomized crossover study of medical students from all years of medical school was conducted using a phantom gel model. Each medical student performed three ultrasound-guided punctures with each of the four modalities (in-plane no GPS, in-plane with GPS, out-of-plane no GPS, out-of-plane with GPS) for a total of 12 attempts. The success or failure was judged by the ability to aspirate a simulated blood solution from the model. The time to successful puncture was also recorded. A poststudy validated NASA Task Load Index workload questionnaire was conducted to assess the student's perceptions of the two different techniques. A total of 30 students completed the study. There was no significant difference seen in the mean times of vascular access for each of the modalities. Higher success rates for vascular access using the GPS for both the in-plane (94% vs 91%) and the out-of-plane (86% vs 70%) views were observed; however, this was not statistically significant. The students perceived the mental demand (median 12.0 vs 14.00; P = .035) and effort to be lower (mean 11.25 vs 14.00; P = .044) as well as the performance to be higher (mean 15.50 vs 14.00; P = .041) for the GPS vs the traditional ultrasound-guided technique. Students also perceived their ability to access vessels increased with the aid of the GPS (7.00 vs 6.50; P = .007). The majority of students expressed a preference for GPS (26/30, 87%) as opposed to the traditional counterpart

  1. Global Application of TaiWan Ionospheric Model to Single-Frequency GPS Positioning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macalalad, E.; Tsai, L. C.; Wu, J.

    2012-04-01

    Ionospheric delay is one the major sources of error in GPS positioning and navigation. This error in both pseudorange and phase ranges vary depending on the location of observation, local time, season, solar cycle and geomagnetic activity. For single-frequency receivers, this delay is usually removed using ionospheric models. Two of them are the Klobuchar, or broadcast, model and the global ionosphere map (GIM) provided by the International GNSS Service (IGS). In this paper, a three dimensional ionospheric electron (ne) density model derived from FormoSat3/COSMIC GPS Radio Occultation measurements, called the TaiWan Ionosphere Model, is used. It was used to calculate the slant total electron content (STEC) between receiver and GPS satellites to correct the pseudorange single-frequency observations. The corrected pseudorange for every epoch was used to determine a more accurate position of the receiver. Observations were made in July 2, 2011(Kp index = 0-2) in five randomly selected sites across the globe, four of which are IGS stations (station ID: cnmr, coso, irkj and morp) while the other is a low-cost single-frequency receiver located in Chungli City, Taiwan (ID: isls). It was illustrated that TEC maps generated using TWIM exhibited a detailed structure of the ionosphere, whereas Klobuchar and GIM only provided the basic diurnal and geographic features of the ionosphere. Also, it was shown that for single-frequency static point positioning TWIM provides more accurate and more precise positioning than the Klobuchar and GIM models for all stations. The average %error of the corrections made by Klobuchar, GIM and TWIM in DRMS are 3.88%, 0.78% and 17.45%, respectively. While the average %error in VRMS for Klobuchar, GIM and TWIM are 53.55%, 62.09%, 66.02%, respectively. This shows the capability of TWIM to provide a good global 3-dimensional ionospheric model.

  2. GPS operations at Olkiluoto, Kivetty and Romuvaara in 2010

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kallio, U.; Nyberg, S.; Koivula, H.; Jokela, J.; Poutanen, M.

    2011-11-01

    larger compared to the inner network (max 0.42 ± 0.07 mm/a for GPS1-GPS11) but more uncertain due to shorter time series. At Kivetty one third of the change rates could be considered as statistically significant, and the maximum change rate was 0.18 ± 0.03 mm/a for GPS3-GPS4. The horizontal velocities were of the same order of magnitude as in the Olkiluoto network. At Romuvaara the change rates were of the same order of magnitude than in Kivetty and Olkiluoto (less than 0.2 mm/a), but none of the change rates were statistically significant. After four control marker measurement campaigns we can estimate the reproducibility of our angle and distance measurements in micro networks. The standard deviations of horizontal angles, height differences and distances in our micro networks were 0.0028 gon, 0.0007 m and 0.0005 m respectively. As a conclusion of the control measurements we cannot say anything about possible deformations of the pillars - the precision of our observations is not sufficient for the purpose, but we can ensure that any bigger damages have not happened at any pillar. According to the nine years long time series of EDM measurements GPS gives us on the average 1.3 mm longer distances between pillars GPS7 and GPS8 than EDM. The reason for the difference is unmodelled or dismodelled offsets in GPS observations and the scale difference between GPS and EDM. The trends of EDM and GPS distance time series are similar. FGI will continue geodetic observations at Olkiluoto, Kivetty and Romuvaara. The Olkiluoto network is under major modernization for permanent tracking during upcoming years. We aim to start the permanent tracking in four new stations and four old stations in autumn 2011. (orig.)

  3. GPS operations at Olkiluoto, Kivetty and Romuvaara in 2010

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kallio, U.; Nyberg, S.; Koivula, H.; Jokela, J.; Poutanen, M. [Finnish Geodetic Institute, Masala (Finland)

    2011-11-15

    are larger compared to the inner network (max 0.42 {+-} 0.07 mm/a for GPS1-GPS11) but more uncertain due to shorter time series. At Kivetty one third of the change rates could be considered as statistically significant, and the maximum change rate was 0.18 {+-} 0.03 mm/a for GPS3-GPS4. The horizontal velocities were of the same order of magnitude as in the Olkiluoto network. At Romuvaara the change rates were of the same order of magnitude than in Kivetty and Olkiluoto (less than 0.2 mm/a), but none of the change rates were statistically significant. After four control marker measurement campaigns we can estimate the reproducibility of our angle and distance measurements in micro networks. The standard deviations of horizontal angles, height differences and distances in our micro networks were 0.0028 gon, 0.0007 m and 0.0005 m respectively. As a conclusion of the control measurements we cannot say anything about possible deformations of the pillars - the precision of our observations is not sufficient for the purpose, but we can ensure that any bigger damages have not happened at any pillar. According to the nine years long time series of EDM measurements GPS gives us on the average 1.3 mm longer distances between pillars GPS7 and GPS8 than EDM. The reason for the difference is unmodelled or dismodelled offsets in GPS observations and the scale difference between GPS and EDM. The trends of EDM and GPS distance time series are similar. FGI will continue geodetic observations at Olkiluoto, Kivetty and Romuvaara. The Olkiluoto network is under major modernization for permanent tracking during upcoming years. We aim to start the permanent tracking in four new stations and four old stations in autumn 2011. (orig.)

  4. Performance evaluation of GPS receiver under equatorial scintillation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alison de Oliveira Moraes

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Equatorial scintillation is a phenomenon that occurs daily in the equatorial region after the sunset and affects radio signals that propagate through the ionosphere. Depending on the temporal and spatial situation, equatorial scintillation can represent a problem in the availability and precision of the Global Positioning System (GPS. This work is concerned with evaluating the impact of equatorial scintillation on the performance of GPS receivers. First, the morphology and statistical model of equatorial scintillation is briefly presented. A numerical model that generates synthetic scintillation data to simulate the effects of equatorial scintillation is presented. An overview of the main theoretical principles on GPS receivers is presented. The analytical models that describe the effects of scintillation at receiver level are presented and compared with numerical simulations using a radio software receiver and synthetic data. The results achieved by simulation agreed quite well with those predicted by the analytical models. The only exception is for links with extreme levels of scintillation and when weak signals are received.

  5. Application of Cyclostationary Signal Selectivity to the Carry-On Multi-Platform GPS Assisted Time Difference of Arrival System

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Streight, David

    1997-01-01

    .... The Applied Research Lab at the University of Texas at Austin (ARL:UT) has developed a prototype TDOA system, the Carry-on Multi-platform GPS Assisted Time Difference of Arrival System for the Naval Information Warfare Activity...

  6. A Self-Tuning Kalman Filter for Autonomous Navigation using the Global Positioning System (GPS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Truong, S. H.

    1999-01-01

    Most navigation systems currently operated by NASA are ground-based, and require extensive support to produce accurate results. Recently developed systems that use Kalman filter and GPS data for orbit determination greatly reduce dependency on ground support, and have potential to provide significant economies for NASA spacecraft navigation. These systems, however, still rely on manual tuning from analysts. A sophisticated neuro-fuzzy component fully integrated with the flight navigation system can perform the self-tuning capability for the Kalman filter and help the navigation system recover from estimation errors in real time.

  7. Evaluating GPS biologging technology for studying spatial ecology of large constricting snakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Brian; Hart, Kristen M.; Mazzotti, Frank J.; Basille, Mathieu; Romagosa, Christina M.

    2018-01-01

    Background: GPS telemetry has revolutionized the study of animal spatial ecology in the last two decades. Until recently, it has mainly been deployed on large mammals and birds, but the technology is rapidly becoming miniaturized, and applications in diverse taxa are becoming possible. Large constricting snakes are top predators in their ecosystems, and accordingly they are often a management priority, whether their populations are threatened or invasive. Fine-scale GPS tracking datasets could greatly improve our ability to understand and manage these snakes, but the ability of this new technology to deliver high-quality data in this system is unproven. In order to evaluate GPS technology in large constrictors, we GPS-tagged 13 Burmese pythons (Python bivittatus) in Everglades National Park and deployed an additional 7 GPS tags on stationary platforms to evaluate habitat-driven biases in GPS locations. Both python and test platform GPS tags were programmed to attempt a GPS fix every 90 min.Results: While overall fix rates for the tagged pythons were low (18.1%), we were still able to obtain an average of 14.5 locations/animal/week, a large improvement over once-weekly VHF tracking. We found overall accuracy and precision to be very good (mean accuracy = 7.3 m, mean precision = 12.9 m), but a very few imprecise locations were still recorded (0.2% of locations with precision > 1.0 km). We found that dense vegetation did decrease fix rate, but we concluded that the low observed fix rate was also due to python microhabitat selection underground or underwater. Half of our recovered pythons were either missing their tag or the tag had malfunctioned, resulting in no data being recovered.Conclusions: GPS biologging technology is a promising tool for obtaining frequent, accurate, and precise locations of large constricting snakes. We recommend future studies couple GPS telemetry with frequent VHF locations in order to reduce bias and limit the impact of catastrophic

  8. Progress of BeiDou time transfer at NTSC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guang, Wei; Dong, Shaowu; Wu, Wenjun; Zhang, Jihai; Yuan, Haibo; Zhang, Shougang

    2018-04-01

    Time transfer using global navigation satellite system (GNSS) is a primary method of remote atomic clock comparisons. As of today, there are four operational GNSS systems, namely GPS, GLONASS, Galileo and BeiDou Navigation Satellite System (BDS or BeiDou). All of them can continuously provide position, navigation and time services. This paper mainly focuses on the progress of BeiDou time transfer at the National Time Service Center, Chinese Academy of Sciences (NTSC). In order to realize the BeiDou common view (CV) time comparison, we developed the Rinex2CGGTTS software according to the guidelines of the Common GNSS Generic Time Transfer Standard, Version 2E (CGGTTS V2E). By comparing the solutions of the Rinex2CGGTTS software to the solutions of the sbf2cggtts software provided by the manufacturer of our multi-GNSS receiver, we found the sbf2cggtts (version 1.0.5) solutions contained biases in measurements to different BeiDou satellites. The biases are most likely caused by sbf2cggtts’ timing group delay corrections in data processing. The noise of the observation data is analyzed by code multipath and common clock difference. Finally, the BeiDou CV results are compared to the GPS/GLONASS/Galileo CV results between NTSC and three European UTC(k) laboratories, including Royal Observatory of Belgium (ORB), Real Institute y Observatory de la Armada (ROA), Research Institutes of Sweden (RISE or SP). For the comparisons of each baseline, we aligned the BeiDou/Galileo/GLONASS links to the calibrated GPS link with the double-difference method. The results show that the performance of BeiDou CV is correlated to the number of BeiDou satellites available in common view. With the current BeiDou constellation, the standard deviation of the differences between all BeiDou CV satellites averaging result and the GPS PPP result is 2.03 ns, 2.90 ns and 4.06 ns for ORB-NTSC, SP-NTSC and ROA-NTSC links respectively.

  9. GPS operations at Olkiluoto, Kivetty and Romuvaara in 2007

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahola, J.; Koivula, H.; Jokela, J.

    2008-05-01

    The GPS based deformation studies have been made at the investigation areas of Posiva since 1995, when the network of ten GPS pillars was established at Olkiluoto. The network of seven GPS pillars was built at Kivetty and Romuvaara during the year 1996. One pillar in each investigation area belongs to the Finnish permanent GPS network, FinnRef. 24 GPS measurement campaigns have been carried out at Olkiluoto since 1995, and 16 campaigns at Kivetty and Romuvaara. According to the time series of the GPS results 1/3 of the baselines at Olkiluoto have statistically significant change rates. However, the observed movements are smaller than ± 0.20 mm/a. The networks of Kivetty and Romuvaara are quite stabile expect one pillar at Romuvaara. There are five pillars, which have statistically significant horizontal velocities at Olkiluoto. These local velocity components are small but taking into account the standard deviations the largest velocity components seems to be reliably determined (maximum velocity is -0.22 mm/a ± 0.02 mm/a). The uniform scale for the GPS measurements made in different years is the basic condition for reliable results in the deformation analyses. At Olkiluoto a baseline for electronic distance measurements (EDM) was built in 2002. The baseline has been measured using EDM instruments simultaneously with the GPS observations. The comparison between the GPS and EDM results can solve a possible scale error of the GPS. The GPS network at Olkiluoto was extended in 2003. The new pillars were built close to Kuivalahti village and on a small island of Iso Pyrekari. According to the geological evidence it is expected that a fracture zone is located between the new stations, thus enabling the determination of possible deformations along the fracture zone. The new pillars have been observed since 2003, but the time series are still too short for reliable deformation studies. The local crustal deformations have been studied in GeoSatakunta project, too. This

  10. Arctic tides from GPS on sea ice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kildegaard Rose, Stine; Skourup, Henriette; Forsberg, René

    The presence of sea-ice in the Arctic Ocean plays a significant role in the Arctic climate. Sea ice dampens the ocean tide amplitude with the result that global tidal models which use only astronomical data perform less accurately in the polar regions. This study presents a kinematic processing o......-gauges and altimetry data. Furthermore, we prove that the geodetic reference ellipsoid WGS84, can be interpolated to the tidal defined zero level by applying geophysical corrections to the GPS data....

  11. RF Trip and Beam Loss Diagnostics in LEP using GPS timing

    CERN Document Server

    Arnaudon, L; Beetham, G; Ciapala, Edmond; Juillard, J C; Olsen, R; CERN. Geneva. SPS and LEP Division

    2000-01-01

    A fast diagnostics system has been installed in LEP to allow precise time-stamping of RF unit trips. The system also monitors the fast decay of current when a beam loss occurs. From the information gathered it is now possible to determine which RF units have provoked a beam loss at high energy and which have tripped as a result. The system uses GPS equipment installed at all of the even points of LEP together with fast local DSP acquisition and event recording units in each RF sector. An overall control application driven by the LEPExec arms the system at the start of each fill, calculates and displays RF and trip beam loss events in sequence, then stores the results in a database. The system installation was completed in time for the LEP 2000 startup and initial problems were quickly resolved. Throughout the year it has proved invaluable for high energy running. The experience gained will also be very useful for similar diagnostics applications in LHC.

  12. GPS-based satellite tracking system for precise positioning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yunck, T. P.; Melbourne, W. G.; Thornton, C. L.

    1985-01-01

    NASA is developing a Global Positioning System (GPS) based measurement system to provide precise determination of earth satellite orbits, geodetic baselines, ionospheric electron content, and clock offsets between worldwide tracking sites. The system will employ variations on the differential GPS observing technique and will use a network of nine fixed ground terminals. Satellite applications will require either a GPS flight receiver or an on-board GPS beacon. Operation of the system for all but satellite tracking will begin by 1988. The first major satellite application will be a demonstration of decimeter accuracy in determining the altitude of TOPEX in the early 1990's. By then the system is expected to yield long-baseline accuracies of a few centimeters and instantaneous time synchronization to 1 ns.

  13. GPS operations at Olkiluoto, Kivetty and Romuvaara in 2006

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahola, J.; Koivula, H.; Poutanen, M.; Jokela, J.

    2007-05-01

    The GPS based deformation studies have been made at the investigation areas of Posiva since 1995, when the network of ten GPS pillars was established at Olkiluoto. The network of seven GPS pillars was built at Kivetty and Romuvaara during the year 1996. One pillar in each investigation area belongs to the Finnish permanent GPS network, FinnRef. 22 GPS measurement campaigns have been carried out at Olkiluoto since 1995, and 15 campaigns at Kivetty and Romuvaara. According to the time series of the GPS results 1/3 of the baselines at Olkiluoto have statistically significant change rates. However, the observed movements are smaller than ± 0.22 mm/a. The networks of Kivetty and Romuvaara are quite stabile expect one pillar at Romuvaara. There are five pillars, which have statistically significant horizontal velocities at Olkiluoto. These local velocity components are small but taking into account the standard deviations the largest velocity components seems to be reliably determined (maximum velocity is -0.23 mm/a ± 0.023 mm/a). The uniform scale for the GPS measurements made in different years is the basic condition for reliable results in the deformation analyses. At Olkiluoto a baseline for electronic distance measurements (EDM) was built in 2002. The baseline has been measured using EDM instruments simultaneously with the GPS observations. The comparison between the GPS and EDM results can solve a possible scale error of the GPS. The GPS network at Olkiluoto was extended in 2003. The new pillars were built close to Kuivalahti village and on a small island of Iso Pyrekari. According to the geological evidence it is expected that a fracture zone is located between the new stations, thus enabling the determination of possible deformations along the fracture zone. The new pillars have been observed since 2003, but the time series are still too short for reliable deformation studies. The local crustal deformations have been studied in GeoSatakunta project, too. This

  14. A Hands-on Physical Analog Demonstration of Real-Time Volcano Deformation Monitoring with GNSS/GPS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, J. R.; Schobelock, J.; Nguyen, T. T.; Rajaonarison, T. A.; Malloy, S.; Njinju, E. A.; Guerra, L.; Stamps, D. S.; Glesener, G. B.

    2017-12-01

    Teaching about volcano deformation and how scientists study these processes using GNSS/GPS may present some challenge since the volcanoes and/or GNSS/GPS equipment are not quite accessible to most teachers. Educators and curriculum materials specialists have developed and shared a number of activities and demonstrations to help students visualize volcanic processes and ways scientist use GNSS/GPS in their research. From resources provided by MEDL (the Modeling and Educational Demonstrations Laboratory) in the Department of Geosciences at Virginia Tech, we combined multiple materials and techniques from these previous works to produce a hands-on physical analog model from which students can learn about GNSS/GPS studies of volcano deformation. The model functions as both a qualitative and quantitative learning tool with good analogical affordances. In our presentation, we will describe multiple ways of teaching with the model, what kinds of materials can be used to build it, and ways we think the model could be enhanced with the addition of Vernier sensors for data collection.

  15. High-precision GPS autonomous platforms for sea ice dynamics and physical oceanography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elosegui, P.; Wilkinson, J.; Olsson, M.; Rodwell, S.; James, A.; Hagan, B.; Hwang, B.; Forsberg, R.; Gerdes, R.; Johannessen, J.; Wadhams, P.; Nettles, M.; Padman, L.

    2012-12-01

    Project "Arctic Ocean sea ice and ocean circulation using satellite methods" (SATICE), is the first high-rate, high-precision, continuous GPS positioning experiment on sea ice in the Arctic Ocean. The SATICE systems collect continuous, dual-frequency carrier-phase GPS data while drifting on sea ice. Additional geophysical measurements also collected include ocean water pressure, ocean surface salinity, atmospheric pressure, snow-depth, air-ice-ocean temperature profiles, photographic imagery, and others, enabling sea ice drift, freeboard, weather, ice mass balance, and sea-level height determination. Relatively large volumes of data from each buoy are streamed over a satellite link to a central computer on the Internet in near real time, where they are processed to estimate the time-varying buoy positions. SATICE system obtains continuous GPS data at sub-minute intervals with a positioning precision of a few centimetres in all three dimensions. Although monitoring of sea ice motions goes back to the early days of satellite observations, these autonomous platforms bring out a level of spatio-temporal detail that has never been seen before, especially in the vertical axis. These high-resolution data allows us to address new polar science questions and challenge our present understanding of both sea ice dynamics and Arctic oceanography. We will describe the technology behind this new autonomous platform, which could also be adapted to other applications that require high resolution positioning information with sustained operations and observations in the polar marine environment, and present results pertaining to sea ice dynamics and physical oceanography.

  16. Precise Orbit Determination of GPS Satellites Using Phase Observables

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Myung-Kook Jee

    1997-12-01

    Full Text Available The accuracy of user position by GPS is heavily dependent upon the accuracy of satellite position which is usually transmitted to GPS users in radio signals. The real-time satellite position information directly obtained from broadcast ephimerides has the accuracy of 3 x 10 meters which is very unsatisfactory to measure 100km baseline to the accuracy of less than a few mili-meters. There are globally at present seven orbit analysis centers capable of generating precise GPS ephimerides and their orbit quality is of the order of about 10cm. Therefore, precise orbit model and phase processing technique were reviewed and consequently precise GPS ephimerides were produced after processing the phase observables of 28 global GPS stations for 1 day. Initial 6 orbit parameters and 2 solar radiation coefficients were estimated using batch least square algorithm and the final results were compared with the orbit of IGS, the International GPS Service for Geodynamics.

  17. Performance Evaluation of Block Acquisition and Tracking Algorithms Using an Open Source GPS Receiver Platform

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramachandran, Ganesh K.; Akopian, David; Heckler, Gregory W.; Winternitz, Luke B.

    2011-01-01

    Location technologies have many applications in wireless communications, military and space missions, etc. US Global Positioning System (GPS) and other existing and emerging Global Navigation Satellite Systems (GNSS) are expected to provide accurate location information to enable such applications. While GNSS systems perform very well in strong signal conditions, their operation in many urban, indoor, and space applications is not robust or even impossible due to weak signals and strong distortions. The search for less costly, faster and more sensitive receivers is still in progress. As the research community addresses more and more complicated phenomena there exists a demand on flexible multimode reference receivers, associated SDKs, and development platforms which may accelerate and facilitate the research. One of such concepts is the software GPS/GNSS receiver (GPS SDR) which permits a facilitated access to algorithmic libraries and a possibility to integrate more advanced algorithms without hardware and essential software updates. The GNU-SDR and GPS-SDR open source receiver platforms are such popular examples. This paper evaluates the performance of recently proposed block-corelator techniques for acquisition and tracking of GPS signals using open source GPS-SDR platform.

  18. An Analysis of Sawtooth Noise in the Timing SynPaQ III GPS Sensor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuriy S. SHMALIY

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper addresses a probabilistic analysis of sawtooth noise in the one pulse per second (1PPS output of the timing SynPaQ III GPS Sensor. We show that sawtooth noise is uniformly distributed within the bounds caused by period of the Local Time Clock of the sensor and that the probability density function (pdf of this noise is formed with 1ns sampling interval used in the sensor to calculate the negative sawtooth. We also show that the pdf has at zero a spike of 1ns width caused by roll-off. It is demonstrated that an unbiased finite impulse response filter is an excellent suppresser of such a noise in the estimates of the time interval errors of local clocks.

  19. Modified Pagerank Algorithm Based Real-Time Metropolitan Vehicular Traffic Routing Using GPS Crowdsourcing Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adithya Guru Vaishnav.S

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims at providing a theoretical framework to find an optimized route from any source to destination considering the real-time traffic congestion issues. The distance of various possible routes from the source and destination are calculated and a PathRank is allocated in the descending order of distance to each possible path. Each intermediate locations are considered as nodes of a graph and the edges are represented by real-time traffic flow monitored using GoogleMaps GPS crowdsourcing data. The Page Rank is calculated for each intermediate node. From the values of PageRank and PathRank the minimum sum term is used to find an optimized route with minimal trade-off between shortest path and real-time traffic.

  20. A Low-Cost GPS GSM/GPRS Telemetry System: Performance in Stationary Field Tests and Preliminary Data on Wild Otters (Lutra lutra)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quaglietta, Lorenzo; Martins, Bruno Herlander; de Jongh, Addy; Mira, António; Boitani, Luigi

    2012-01-01

    Background Despite the increasing worldwide use of global positioning system (GPS) telemetry in wildlife research, it has never been tested on any freshwater diving animal or in the peculiar conditions of the riparian habitat, despite this latter being one of the most important habitat types for many animal taxa. Moreover, in most cases, the GPS devices used have been commercial and expensive, limiting their use in low-budget projects. Methodology/Principal Findings We have developed a low-cost, easily constructed GPS GSM/GPRS (Global System for Mobile Communications/General Packet Radio Service) and examined its performance in stationary tests, by assessing the influence of different habitat types, including the riparian, as well as water submersion and certain climatic and environmental variables on GPS fix-success rate and accuracy. We then tested the GPS on wild diving animals, applying it, for the first time, to an otter species (Lutra lutra). The rate of locations acquired during the stationary tests reached 63.2%, with an average location error of 8.94 m (SD = 8.55). GPS performance in riparian habitats was principally affected by water submersion and secondarily by GPS inclination and position within the riverbed. Temporal and spatial correlations of location estimates accounted for some variation in the data sets. GPS-tagged otters also provided accurate locations and an even higher GPS fix-success rate (68.2%). Conclusions/Significance Our results suggest that GPS telemetry is reliably applicable to riparian and even diving freshwater animals. They also highlight the need, in GPS wildlife studies, for performing site-specific pilot studies on GPS functioning as well as for taking into account eventual spatial and temporal correlation of location estimates. The limited price, small dimensions, and high performance of the device presented here make it a useful and cost-effective tool for studies on otters and other aquatic or terrestrial medium

  1. A low-cost GPS GSM/GPRS telemetry system: performance in stationary field tests and preliminary data on wild otters (Lutra lutra.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lorenzo Quaglietta

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Despite the increasing worldwide use of global positioning system (GPS telemetry in wildlife research, it has never been tested on any freshwater diving animal or in the peculiar conditions of the riparian habitat, despite this latter being one of the most important habitat types for many animal taxa. Moreover, in most cases, the GPS devices used have been commercial and expensive, limiting their use in low-budget projects. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We have developed a low-cost, easily constructed GPS GSM/GPRS (Global System for Mobile Communications/General Packet Radio Service and examined its performance in stationary tests, by assessing the influence of different habitat types, including the riparian, as well as water submersion and certain climatic and environmental variables on GPS fix-success rate and accuracy. We then tested the GPS on wild diving animals, applying it, for the first time, to an otter species (Lutra lutra. The rate of locations acquired during the stationary tests reached 63.2%, with an average location error of 8.94 m (SD = 8.55. GPS performance in riparian habitats was principally affected by water submersion and secondarily by GPS inclination and position within the riverbed. Temporal and spatial correlations of location estimates accounted for some variation in the data sets. GPS-tagged otters also provided accurate locations and an even higher GPS fix-success rate (68.2%. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Our results suggest that GPS telemetry is reliably applicable to riparian and even diving freshwater animals. They also highlight the need, in GPS wildlife studies, for performing site-specific pilot studies on GPS functioning as well as for taking into account eventual spatial and temporal correlation of location estimates. The limited price, small dimensions, and high performance of the device presented here make it a useful and cost-effective tool for studies on otters and other aquatic or

  2. An alternative methodology for the mathematical treatment of GPS positioning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aly M. El-naggar

    2011-12-01

    In this paper a simple alternative method is developed to solve the GPS navigation equations directly without linearization and iteration. A practical study was done to evaluate the new model. Performance analysis was conducted using data collected by Trimble 4000SSE dual frequency receiver. The results indicated that the alternative methodology is simple, fast, and accurate as compared to Taylor method.

  3. Arctic tides from GPS on sea ice

    OpenAIRE

    Kildegaard Rose, Stine; Skourup, Henriette; Forsberg, René

    2012-01-01

    The presence of sea-ice in the Arctic Ocean plays a significant role in the Arctic climate. Sea ice dampens the ocean tide amplitude with the result that global tidal models which use only astronomical data perform less accurately in the polar regions. This study presents a kinematic processing of Global Positioning System (GPS) buoys placed on sea-ice at five different sites north of Greenland for the study of sea level height and tidal analysis to improve tidal models in the Central Arctic....

  4. Time Study of Harvesting Equipment Using GPS-Derived Positional Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tim McDonald

    1999-01-01

    The objectives in this study were to develop and test a data analysis system for calculating machine productivity from GPS-derived positional information alone. A technique was used where positions were `filtered' initially to locate specific events that were independent of what actually traveled the path, then these events were combined using user-specified rules...

  5. A GPS-Based Pitot-Static Calibration Method Using Global Output-Error Optimization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foster, John V.; Cunningham, Kevin

    2010-01-01

    Pressure-based airspeed and altitude measurements for aircraft typically require calibration of the installed system to account for pressure sensing errors such as those due to local flow field effects. In some cases, calibration is used to meet requirements such as those specified in Federal Aviation Regulation Part 25. Several methods are used for in-flight pitot-static calibration including tower fly-by, pacer aircraft, and trailing cone methods. In the 1990 s, the introduction of satellite-based positioning systems to the civilian market enabled new inflight calibration methods based on accurate ground speed measurements provided by Global Positioning Systems (GPS). Use of GPS for airspeed calibration has many advantages such as accuracy, ease of portability (e.g. hand-held) and the flexibility of operating in airspace without the limitations of test range boundaries or ground telemetry support. The current research was motivated by the need for a rapid and statistically accurate method for in-flight calibration of pitot-static systems for remotely piloted, dynamically-scaled research aircraft. Current calibration methods were deemed not practical for this application because of confined test range size and limited flight time available for each sortie. A method was developed that uses high data rate measurements of static and total pressure, and GPSbased ground speed measurements to compute the pressure errors over a range of airspeed. The novel application of this approach is the use of system identification methods that rapidly compute optimal pressure error models with defined confidence intervals in nearreal time. This method has been demonstrated in flight tests and has shown 2- bounds of approximately 0.2 kts with an order of magnitude reduction in test time over other methods. As part of this experiment, a unique database of wind measurements was acquired concurrently with the flight experiments, for the purpose of experimental validation of the

  6. Geomagnetic storm effects on GPS based navigation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. V. S. Rama Rao

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available The energetic events on the sun, solar wind and subsequent effects on the Earth's geomagnetic field and upper atmosphere (ionosphere comprise space weather. Modern navigation systems that use radio-wave signals, reflecting from or propagating through the ionosphere as a means of determining range or distance, are vulnerable to a variety of effects that can degrade the performance of the navigational systems. In particular, the Global Positioning System (GPS that uses a constellation of earth orbiting satellites are affected due to the space weather phenomena.

    Studies made during two successive geomagnetic storms that occurred during the period from 8 to 12 November 2004, have clearly revealed the adverse affects on the GPS range delay as inferred from the Total Electron Content (TEC measurements made from a chain of seven dual frequency GPS receivers installed in the Indian sector. Significant increases in TEC at the Equatorial Ionization anomaly crest region are observed, resulting in increased range delay during the periods of the storm activity. Further, the storm time rapid changes occurring in TEC resulted in a number of phase slips in the GPS signal compared to those on quiet days. These phase slips often result in the loss of lock of the GPS receivers, similar to those that occur during strong(>10 dB L-band scintillation events, adversely affecting the GPS based navigation.

  7. Evolution of offshore wind waves tracked by surface drifters with a point-positioning GPS sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Komatsu, K.

    2009-12-01

    Wind-generated waves have been recognized as one of the most important factors of the sea surface roughness which plays crucial roles in various air-sea interactions such as energy, momentum, heat and gas exchanges. At the same time, wind waves with extreme wave heights representatively called as freak or rogue waves have been a matter of great concern for many people involved in shipping, fishing, constracting, surfing and other marine activities, because such extreme waves frequently affect on the marine activities and sometimes cause serious disasters. Nevertheless, investigations of actual conditions for the evolution of wind waves in the offshore region are less and sparse in contrast to dense monitoring networks in the coastal regions because of difficulty of offshore observation with high accuracy. Recently accurate in situ observation of offshore wind waves is getting possible at low cost owing to a wave height and direction sensor developed by Harigae et al. (2004) by installing a point-positioning GPS receiver on a surface drifting buoy. The point-positioning GPS sensor can extract three dimensional movements of the buoy excited by ocean waves with minimizing effects of GPS point-positioning errors through the use of a high-pass filter. Two drifting buoys equipped with the GPS-based wave sensor charged by solar cells were drifted in the western North Pacific and one of them continued to observe wind waves during 16 months from Sep. 2007. The RMSE of the GPS-based wave sensor was less than 10cm in significant wave height and about 1s in significant wave period in comparison with other sensors, i.e. accelerometers installed on drifting buoys of Japan Meteorological Agency, ultrasonic sensors placed at the Hiratsuka observation station of the University of Tokyo and altimeter of the JASON-1. The GPS-based wave buoys enabled us to detect freak waves defined as waves whose height is more than twice the significant wave height. The observation conducted by the

  8. Factors associated with GPs' knowledge of their patients' socio-economic circumstances: a multilevel analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casanova, Ludovic; Ringa, Virginie; Bloy, Géraldine; Falcoff, Hector; Rigal, Laurent

    2015-12-01

    To determine appropriate management for individual patients, GPs are supposed to use their knowledge of the patient's socio-economic circumstances. To analyse factors associated with GPs' knowledge of these circumstances. Observational survey of GPs who were internship supervisors in the Paris metropolitan area. Each of 52 volunteer GPs completed a self-administered questionnaire about their own characteristics and randomly selected 70 patients from their patient list. Their knowledge was analysed as the agreement between the patients' and GPs' responses to questions about the patients' socio-economic characteristics in questionnaires completed by both groups. The association between agreement and the GPs' characteristics was analysed with a multilevel model adjusted for age, sex and the duration of the GP-patient relationship. Agreement varied according to the socio-economic characteristics considered (from 51% to 90%) and between GPs. Globally, the GPs overestimated their patients' socio-economic level. GP characteristics associated with better agreement were sex (female), long consultations, the use of paper records or an automatic reminder system and participation in continuing medical education and in meetings to discuss difficult cases. Knowledge of some patient characteristics, such as their complementary health insurance coverage or perceived financial situation, should be improved because their overestimation may lead to care that is too expensive and thus result in the patients' abandonment of the treatment. Besides determining ways to help GPs to organize their work more effectively, it is important to study methods to help doctors identify their patients' social-economic circumstances more accurately in daily practice. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  9. Earth tide effects on kinematic/static GPS positioning in Denmark and Greenland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Xu, G.C.; Knudsen, Per

    2000-01-01

    A detailed Study of the Earth tide effects on the GPS kinematic/static positioning is presented in this paper by using theoretical Earth tide computation and practical GPS data processing. Tidal effects could reach up to 30 cm in Denmark and Greenland depending on the measuring time...... and the position of reference station. With a baseline less than 80 km, the difference of the Earth tide effects could reach more than 5 mm. So, in precise applications of GPS positioning, the Earth tide effect has to be taken into account even for a relative small local GPS network. Several examples are given...... for demonstrating that the Earth tide effects can be viewed by GPS surveying. They are given through static GPS data static processing, static GPS data kinematic processing, and airborne kinematic GPS data processing. In these cases, the Earth tide effects can be subtracted from the GPS results. The determination...

  10. Global optimization applied to GPS positioning by ambiguity functions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baselga, Sergio

    2010-01-01

    Differential GPS positioning with carrier-phase observables is commonly done in a process that involves determination of the unknown integer ambiguity values. An alternative approach, named the ambiguity function method, was already proposed in the early days of GPS positioning. By making use of a trigonometric function ambiguity unknowns are eliminated from the functional model before the estimation process. This approach has significant advantages, such as ease of use and insensitivity to cycle slips, but requires such high accuracy in the initial approximate coordinates that its use has been practically dismissed from consideration. In this paper a novel strategy is proposed so that the need for highly accurate initial coordinates disappears: the application of a global optimization method to the ambiguity functions model. The use of this strategy enables the ambiguity function method to compete with the present prevailing approach of ambiguity resolution

  11. Relativistic helicity and link in Minkowski space-time

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoshida, Z.; Kawazura, Y.; Yokoyama, T.

    2014-01-01

    A relativistic helicity has been formulated in the four-dimensional Minkowski space-time. Whereas the relativistic distortion of space-time violates the conservation of the conventional helicity, the newly defined relativistic helicity conserves in a barotropic fluid or plasma, dictating a fundamental topological constraint. The relation between the helicity and the vortex-line topology has been delineated by analyzing the linking number of vortex filaments which are singular differential forms representing the pure states of Banach algebra. While the dimension of space-time is four, vortex filaments link, because vorticities are primarily 2-forms and the corresponding 2-chains link in four dimension; the relativistic helicity measures the linking number of vortex filaments that are proper-time cross-sections of the vorticity 2-chains. A thermodynamic force yields an additional term in the vorticity, by which the vortex filaments on a reference-time plane are no longer pure states. However, the vortex filaments on a proper-time plane remain to be pure states, if the thermodynamic force is exact (barotropic), thus, the linking number of vortex filaments conserves

  12. Managing the GPS/GIS function in an electric utility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Michelsen, M.W. Jr.

    1999-01-01

    A new period of higher significance has arrived for the GPS/GIS function at electric utilities such that to a degree never seen before, utility managers are looking to their GIS programs, filled with increasingly accurate data collected by GPS technology, before making many decisions. With this capability comes an expectation for GPS/GIS professionals to provide higher levels of planning and management of their data collection process. At Duke Power in Charlotte, North Carolina, managers rely on GPS mapping to fill their data collection equipment needs. When the city of Charlotte requested a more detailed billing system, Duke Power co-sponsored the street lighting inventory project, a comprehensive program implemented to fully account for street lighting facilities within the billing area. One of the key projects to be kept in mind was the creation of a common data base viewable by GIS from which a bill could be created and as well reveal data. A billing calculation routine can be run against the data base to generate a bill or use MapInfo to see a graphical picture. Prior to the creation of this data base capability, the difference between the data base as a display tool and billing system was a potential source of discrepancy, which is eliminated now. Creating the data base allows more than just creating a bill for the city, it allows Duke Power to work better with the city by improving its billing accountability and provides better service as well

  13. A Systematic Comparison of Vertical GPS Time Series Calculated by Five Processing Centers for Detecting Climatic-Induced Crustal Movements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Setti Junior, P. D. T.; Wdowinski, S.

    2016-12-01

    Vertical crustal movements, as observed by continuous GPS measurements, are sensitive to load changes induced by atmospheric and hydrological processes, as lake level fluctuations, ice melt, groundwater depletion, or drought. These movements are often dominated by a seasonal signal but also by year-to-year changes, which reflect a long-term climatic signal. Recently, we developed a new technique that extracts the climatic signal by removing the seasonal signal from vertical GPS time series (Wdowinski et al., 2016). However, the method's results, which are the climatic signals, are very sensitive to the quality of the time series and the choice of reference frame (RF). In this study, we conduct a systematic comparison between eight vertical GPS time series calculated by five processing centers and evaluate their suitability to extract the climatic signal. We use the solutions produced by Central Washington University (CWU), New Mexico Institute of Technology (NMT), Nevada Geodetic Laboratory (NGL), Scripps Orbit and Permanent Array Center (SOPAC) and Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL), as well as combined solution calculated by the Plate Boundary Observatory (PBO) and GPS Explorer. We use the solutions constrained in the IGS08 RF and in the case of NGL, we also use the NA12 solutions. Three of the processing centers, CWU, NGL and JPL use the GIPSY software, whereas the other two, NMT and SOPAC, use GAMIT. Both combined solutions integrate between GIPSY and GAMIT solutions. We conducted our comparative analysis in two study areas, one in western US taking advantage of the two decades long time series of the Basin and Range network, and the other in eastern U.S. and Canada (Washington DC area, Newfoundland, and Ottawa area). Preliminary results suggest that the three GIPSY solutions (CWU, NGL and JPL) are more consistent between one another compared with the GAMIT solutions. The GIPSY solutions also yield climatic signal that is more consistent with regional climatic

  14. GPS Tomography: Water Vapour Monitoring for Germany

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bender, Michael; Dick, Galina; Wickert, Jens; Raabe, Armin

    2010-05-01

    Ground based GPS atmosphere sounding provides numerous atmospheric quantities with a high temporal resolution for all weather conditions. The spatial resolution of the GPS observations is mainly given by the number of GNSS satellites and GPS ground stations. The latter could considerably be increased in the last few years leading to more reliable and better resolved GPS products. New techniques such as the GPS water vapour tomography gain increased significance as data from large and dense GPS networks become available. The GPS tomography has the potential to provide spatially resolved fields of different quantities operationally, i. e. the humidity or wet refractivity as required for meteorological applications or the refraction index which is important for several space based observations or for precise positioning. The number of German GPS stations operationally processed by the GFZ in Potsdam was recently enlarged to more than 300. About 28000 IWV observations and more than 1.4 millions of slant total delay data are now available per day with a temporal resolution of 15 min and 2.5 min, respectively. The extended network leads not only to a higher spatial resolution of the tomographically reconstructed 3D fields but also to a much higher stability of the inversion process and with that to an increased quality of the results. Under these improved conditions the GPS tomography can operate continuously over several days or weeks without applying too tight constraints. Time series of tomographically reconstructed humidity fields will be shown and different initialisation strategies will be discussed: Initialisation with a simple exponential profile, with a 3D humidity field extrapolated from synoptic observations and with the result of the preceeding reconstruction. The results are compared to tomographic reconstructions initialised with COSMO-DE analyses and to the corresponding model fields. The inversion can be further stabilised by making use of independent

  15. Relative navigation and attitude determination using a GPS/INS integrated system near the International Space Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Um, Jaeyong

    2001-08-01

    The Space Integrated GPS/INS (SIGI) sensor is the primary navigation and attitude determination source for the International Space Station (ISS). The SIGI was successfully demonstrated on-orbit for the first time in the SIGI Orbital Attitude Readiness (SOAR) demonstration on the Space Shuttle Atlantis in May 2000. Numerous proximity operations near the ISS have been and will be performed over the lifetime of the Station. The development of an autonomous relative navigation system is needed to improve the safety and efficiency of vehicle operations near the ISS. A hardware simulation study was performed for the GPS-based relative navigation using the state vector difference approach and the interferometric approach in the absence of multipath. The interferometric approach, where the relative states are estimated directly, showed comparable results for a 1 km baseline. One of the most pressing current technical issues is the design of an autonomous relative navigation system in the proximity of the ISS, where GPS signals are blocked and maneuvers happen frequently. An integrated GPS/INS system is investigated for the possibility of a fully autonomous relative navigation system. Another application of GPS measurements is determination of the vehicle's orientation in space. This study used the SOAR experiment data to characterize the SICI's on-orbit performance for attitude determination. A cold start initialization algorithm was developed for integer ambiguity resolution in any initial orientation. The original algorithm that was used in the SIGI had an operational limitation in the integer ambiguity resolution, which was developed for terrestrial applications, and limited its effectiveness in space. The new algorithm was tested using the SOAR data and has been incorporated in the current SIGI flight software. The attitude estimation performance was examined using two different GPS/INS integration algorithms. The GPS/INS attitude solution using the SOAR data was as

  16. Accurate Sample Time Reconstruction of Inertial FIFO Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sebastian Stieber

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available In the context of modern cyber-physical systems, the accuracy of underlying sensor data plays an increasingly important role in sensor data fusion and feature extraction. The raw events of multiple sensors have to be aligned in time to enable high quality sensor fusion results. However, the growing number of simultaneously connected sensor devices make the energy saving data acquisition and processing more and more difficult. Hence, most of the modern sensors offer a first-in-first-out (FIFO interface to store multiple data samples and to relax timing constraints, when handling multiple sensor devices. However, using the FIFO interface increases the negative influence of individual clock drifts—introduced by fabrication inaccuracies, temperature changes and wear-out effects—onto the sampling data reconstruction. Furthermore, additional timing offset errors due to communication and software latencies increases with a growing number of sensor devices. In this article, we present an approach for an accurate sample time reconstruction independent of the actual clock drift with the help of an internal sensor timer. Such timers are already available in modern sensors, manufactured in micro-electromechanical systems (MEMS technology. The presented approach focuses on calculating accurate time stamps using the sensor FIFO interface in a forward-only processing manner as a robust and energy saving solution. The proposed algorithm is able to lower the overall standard deviation of reconstructed sampling periods below 40 μ s, while run-time savings of up to 42% are achieved, compared to single sample acquisition.

  17. Geomagnetic storms, super-storms, and their impacts on GPS-based navigation systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Astafyeva, E.; Yasyukevich, Yu.; Maksikov, A.; Zhivetiev, I.

    2014-07-01

    Using data of GPS receivers located worldwide, we analyze the quality of GPS performance during four geomagnetic storms of different intensity: two super-storms and two intense storms. We show that during super-storms the density of GPS Losses-of-Lock (LoL) increases up to 0.25% at L1 frequency and up to 3% at L2 frequency, and up to 0.15% (at L1) and 1% (at L2) during less intense storms. Also, depending on the intensity of the storm time ionospheric disturbances, the total number of total electron content (TEC) slips can exceed from 4 to 40 times the quiet time level. Both GPS LoL and TEC slips occur during abrupt changes of SYM-H index of geomagnetic activity, i.e., during the main phase of geomagnetic storms and during development of ionospheric storms. The main contribution in the total number of GPS LoL was found to be done by GPS sites located at low and high latitudes, whereas the area of numerous TEC slips seemed to mostly correspond to the boundary of the auroral oval, i.e., region with intensive ionospheric irregularities. Our global maps of TEC slips show where the regions with intense irregularities of electron density occur during geomagnetic storms and will let us in future predict appearance of GPS errors for geomagnetically disturbed conditions.

  18. Measurements of ionospheric TEC in the direction of GPS satellites and comparison with three ionospheric models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Zuccheretti

    1997-06-01

    Full Text Available The IEN Galileo Ferraris uses GPS for time and frequency synchronization. To obtain high performance it is important to reduce the error due to the ionospheric time-delay in GPS measurements. Evaluations of TEC in the direction of GPS satellites, obtained from three different ionospheric models, have been compared with corresponding measurements by GPS signal.

  19. A novel time series link prediction method: Learning automata approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moradabadi, Behnaz; Meybodi, Mohammad Reza

    2017-09-01

    Link prediction is a main social network challenge that uses the network structure to predict future links. The common link prediction approaches to predict hidden links use a static graph representation where a snapshot of the network is analyzed to find hidden or future links. For example, similarity metric based link predictions are a common traditional approach that calculates the similarity metric for each non-connected link and sort the links based on their similarity metrics and label the links with higher similarity scores as the future links. Because people activities in social networks are dynamic and uncertainty, and the structure of the networks changes over time, using deterministic graphs for modeling and analysis of the social network may not be appropriate. In the time-series link prediction problem, the time series link occurrences are used to predict the future links In this paper, we propose a new time series link prediction based on learning automata. In the proposed algorithm for each link that must be predicted there is one learning automaton and each learning automaton tries to predict the existence or non-existence of the corresponding link. To predict the link occurrence in time T, there is a chain consists of stages 1 through T - 1 and the learning automaton passes from these stages to learn the existence or non-existence of the corresponding link. Our preliminary link prediction experiments with co-authorship and email networks have provided satisfactory results when time series link occurrences are considered.

  20. Indoor Positioning Using GPS Revisited

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjærgaard, Mikkel Baun; Blunck, Henrik; Godsk, Torben

    2010-01-01

    It has been considered a fact that GPS performs too poorly inside buildings to provide usable indoor positioning. We analyze results of a measurement campaign to improve on the understanding of indoor GPS reception characteristics. The results show that using state-of-the-art receivers GPS...... low signal-to-noise ratios, multipath phenomena or bad satellite constellation geometry. We have also measured the indoor performance of embedded GPS receivers in mobile phones which provided lower availability and accuracy than state-of-the-art ones. Finally, we consider how the GPS performance...

  1. A Demonstration of GPS Landslide Monitoring Using Online Positioning User Service (OPUS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, G.

    2011-12-01

    Global Positioning System (GPS) technologies have been frequently applied to landslide study, both as a complement, and as an alternative to conventional surveying methods. However, most applications of GPS for landslide monitoring have been limited to the academic community for research purposes. High-accuracy GPS has not been widely equipped in geotechnical companies and used by technicians. The main issue that limits the applications of GPS in the practice of high-accuracy landslide monitoring is the complexity of GPS data processing. This study demonstrated an approach using the Online Positioning User Service (OPUS) (http://www.ngs.noaa.gov/OPUS) provided by the National Geodetic Survey (NGS) of National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) to process GPS data and conduct long-term landslide monitoring in the Puerto Rico and Virgin Islands Region. Continuous GPS data collected at a creeping landslide site during two years were used to evaluate different scenarios for landslide surveying: continuous or campaign, long duration or short duration, morning or afternoon (different weather conditions). OPUS uses Continuously Operating Reference Station (CORS) managed by NGS (http://www.ngs.noaa.giv/CORS/) as references and user data as a rover to solve a position. There are 19 CORS permanent GPS stations in the Puerto Rico and Virgin Islands region. The dense GPS network provides a precise and reliable reference frame for subcentimeter-accuracy landslide monitoring in this region. Our criterion for the accuracy was the root-mean-square (RMS) of OPUS solutions over a 2-year period with respect to true landslide displacement time series overt the same period. The true landslide displacements were derived from a single-baseline (130 m) GPS processing by using 24-hour continuous data. If continuous GPS surveying is performed in the field, then OPUS static processing can provide 0.6 cm horizontal and 1.1 cm vertical precision with few outliers. If repeated

  2. Multi-Flight-Phase GPS Navigation Filter Applications to Terrestrial Vehicle Navigation and Positioning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Young W.; Montez, Moises N.

    1994-01-01

    A candidate onboard space navigation filter demonstrated excellent performance (less than 8 meter level RMS semi-major axis accuracy) in performing orbit determination of a low-Earth orbit Explorer satellite using single-frequency real GPS data. This performance is significantly better than predicted by other simulation studies using dual-frequency GPS data. The study results revealed the significance of two new modeling approaches evaluated in the work. One approach introduces a single-frequency ionospheric correction through pseudo-range and phase range averaging implementation. The other approach demonstrates a precise axis-dependent characterization of dynamic sample space uncertainty to compute a more accurate Kalman filter gain. Additionally, this navigation filter demonstrates a flexibility to accommodate both perturbational dynamic and observational biases required for multi-flight phase and inhomogeneous application environments. This paper reviews the potential application of these methods and the filter structure to terrestrial vehicle and positioning applications. Both the single-frequency ionospheric correction method and the axis-dependent state noise modeling approach offer valuable contributions in cost and accuracy improvements for terrestrial GPS receivers. With a modular design approach to either 'plug-in' or 'unplug' various force models, this multi-flight phase navigation filter design structure also provides a versatile GPS navigation software engine for both atmospheric and exo-atmospheric navigation or positioning use, thereby streamlining the flight phase or application-dependent software requirements. Thus, a standardized GPS navigation software engine that can reduce the development and maintenance cost of commercial GPS receivers is now possible.

  3. Assessment of 3D hydrologic deformation using GRACE and GPS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, C. S.; Tregoning, P.; Fleming, K.; Burgette, R. J.; Featherstone, W. E.; Awange, J.; Kuhn, M.; Ramillien, G.

    2009-12-01

    Hydrological processes cause variations in gravitational potential and surface deformations, both of which are detectable with ever increasing precision using space geodetic techniques. By comparing the elastic deformation computed from continental water load estimates derived from the Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE), with three-dimensional surface deformation derived from GPS observations, there is clear potential to better understand global to regional hydrological processes, in addition to acquiring further insight into the systematic error contributions affecting each space geodetic technique. In this study, we compare elastic deformation derived from water load estimates taken from the CNES, CSR, GFZ and JPL time variable GRACE fields. We compare these surface displacements with those derived at a global network of GPS sites that have been homogeneously reprocessed in the GAMIT/GLOBK suite. We extend our comparison to include a series of different GPS solutions, with each solution only subtly different based on the methodology used to down weight the height component in realizing site coordinates on the terrestrial reference frame. Each of the GPS solutions incorporate modeling of atmospheric loading and utilization of the VMF1 and a priori zenith hydrostatic delays derived via ray tracing through ECMWF meteorological fields. The agreement between GRACE and GPS derived deformations is not limited to the vertical component, with excellent agreement in the horizontal component across areas where large hydrologic signals occur over broad spatial scales (with correlation in horizontal components as high as 0.9). Agreement is also observed at smaller scales, including across Europe. These comparisons assist in understanding the magnitude of current error contributions within both space geodetic techniques. With the emergence of homogeneously reprocessed GPS time series spanning the GRACE mission, this technique offers one possible means of

  4. Modular Software for Spacecraft Navigation Using the Global Positioning System (GPS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Truong, S. H.; Hartman, K. R.; Weidow, D. A.; Berry, D. L.; Oza, D. H.; Long, A. C.; Joyce, E.; Steger, W. L.

    1996-01-01

    The Goddard Space Flight Center Flight Dynamics and Mission Operations Divisions have jointly investigated the feasibility of engineering modular Global Positioning SYSTEM (GPS) navigation software to support both real time flight and ground postprocessing configurations. The goals of this effort are to define standard GPS data interfaces and to engineer standard, reusable navigation software components that can be used to build a broad range of GPS navigation support applications. The paper discusses the GPS modular software (GMOD) system and operations concepts, major requirements, candidate software architecture, feasibility assessment and recommended software interface standards. In additon, ongoing efforts to broaden the scope of the initial study and to develop modular software to support autonomous navigation using GPS are addressed,

  5. The Inversion of Ionospheric/plasmaspheric Electron Density From GPS Beacon Observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zou, Y. H.; Xu, J. S.; Ma, S. Y.

    It is a space-time 4-D tomography to reconstruct ionospheric/ plasmaspheric elec- tron density, Ne, from ground-based GPS beacon measurements. The mathematical foundation of such inversion is studied in this paper and some simulation results of reconstruction for GPS network observation are presented. Assuming reasonably a power law dependence of NE on time with an index number of 1-3 during one ob- servational time of GPS (60-90min.), 4-D inversion in consideration is reduced to a 3-D cone-beam tomography with incomplete projections. To see clearly the effects of the incompleteness on the quality of reconstruction for 3-D condition, we deduced theoretically the formulae of 3-D parallel-beam tomography. After establishing the mathematical basis, we adopt linear temporal dependence of NE and voxel elemental functions to perform simulation of NE reconstruction with the help of IRI90 model. Reasonable time-dependent 3-D images of ionosphere/ plasmasphere electron density distributions are obtained when taking proper layout of the GPS network and allowing variable resolutions in vertical.

  6. Comparison of the precision of three commonly used GPS models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E Chavoshi

    2016-04-01

    farming operations as well as the efficiency of the work done in different situations. Materials and Methods: In this study, three commonly used GPS models belong to GARMIN CO. were selected for comparison. This company is the world biggest manufacturer of GPS device. Three models include eTrex VISTA, MAP 60 csx and MAP 78s that in recent years have been the most widely used receivers in precision agriculture (Figure 1, Table 1. To assess the accuracy and precision of the receivers, 9 recording stations were selected in a field (20×20 m2 and detailed mapping by the odolite camera under high precision compass networks and regular conditions (figure 2 was identified. To reduce the error of multi-path, a relatively open and unobstructed place in the Abbas Abad field of Bu-Ali Sina University were considered. This study was conducted in a Completely Randomized Design (CRD with factorial analysis to examine three factors, at three levels, each in three replication including weather conditions (clear, partially cloudy and full cloudy sky, time of day (9 am, 12 am and 4 pm and three different models of receiver (MAP 60 csx, eTrex VISTA and MAP 78s, in 9 local stations. Difference of deviation value at each station with the mean value of latitude and longitude recorded at same station was used to precision calculate on (equation 1 and the difference of deviation value at each station with a deviation of the actual position latitude and longitude of the same station was used to calculate the accuracy (equation 2. The base station position (No.1 was determined with an accurately large-scale map. Then, the positions of other stations were defined with camera and compass in exact rectangular grid by underlying base station. Mean error for each station using equation (3 and the precision and accuracy and the definitions of each receiver was calculated. Results and Discussion: To display the geographical distribution stations and the registered location data for GPS devices Arc

  7. Seasonal Hydrological Loading in Southern Tibet Detected by Joint Analysis of GPS and GRACE.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zou, Rong; Wang, Qi; Freymueller, Jeffrey T; Poutanen, Markku; Cao, Xuelian; Zhang, Caihong; Yang, Shaomin; He, Ping

    2015-12-04

    In southern Tibet, ongoing vertical and horizontal motions due to the collision between India and Eurasia are monitored by large numbers of global positioning system (GPS) continuous and campaign sites installed in the past decade. Displacements measured by GPS usually include tectonic deformation as well as non-tectonic, time-dependent signals. To estimate the regional long-term tectonic deformation using GPS more precisely, seasonal elastic deformation signals associated with surface loading must be removed from the observations. In this study, we focus on seasonal variation in vertical and horizontal motions of southern Tibet by performing a joint analysis of GRACE (Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment) and GPS data, not only using continuous sites but also GPS campaign-mode sites. We found that the GPS-observed and GRACE-modeled seasonal oscillations are in good agreements, and a seasonal displacement model demonstrates that the main reason for seasonal variations in southern Tibet is from the summer monsoon and its precipitation. The biggest loading appears from July to August in the summer season. Vertical deformations observed by GPS and modeled by GRACE are two to three times larger than horizontal oscillations, and the north components demonstrate larger amplitudes than the east components. We corrected the GPS position time series using the GRACE-modeled seasonal variations, which gives significant reductions in the misfit and weighted root-mean-squares (WRMS). Misfit (χ2 divided by degree of freedom) reductions for campaign sites range between 20% and 56% for the vertical component, and are much smaller for the horizontal components. Moreover, time series of continuous GPS (cGPS) sites near the 2015 Nepal earthquakes must be corrected using appropriate models of seasonal loading for analyzing postseismic deformation to avoid biasing estimates of the postseismic relaxation.

  8. Identification of AR(I)MA processes for modelling temporal correlations of GPS observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, X.; Mayer, M.; Heck, B.

    2009-04-01

    In many geodetic applications observations of the Global Positioning System (GPS) are routinely processed by means of the least-squares method. However, this algorithm delivers reliable estimates of unknown parameters und realistic accuracy measures only if both the functional and stochastic models are appropriately defined within GPS data processing. One deficiency of the stochastic model used in many GPS software products consists in neglecting temporal correlations of GPS observations. In practice the knowledge of the temporal stochastic behaviour of GPS observations can be improved by analysing time series of residuals resulting from the least-squares evaluation. This paper presents an approach based on the theory of autoregressive (integrated) moving average (AR(I)MA) processes to model temporal correlations of GPS observations using time series of observation residuals. A practicable integration of AR(I)MA models in GPS data processing requires the determination of the order parameters of AR(I)MA processes at first. In case of GPS, the identification of AR(I)MA processes could be affected by various factors impacting GPS positioning results, e.g. baseline length, multipath effects, observation weighting, or weather variations. The influences of these factors on AR(I)MA identification are empirically analysed based on a large amount of representative residual time series resulting from differential GPS post-processing using 1-Hz observation data collected within the permanent SAPOS® (Satellite Positioning Service of the German State Survey) network. Both short and long time series are modelled by means of AR(I)MA processes. The final order parameters are determined based on the whole residual database; the corresponding empirical distribution functions illustrate that multipath and weather variations seem to affect the identification of AR(I)MA processes much more significantly than baseline length and observation weighting. Additionally, the modelling

  9. GPS: Public Utility or Software Platform

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-09-01

    train for GPS loss, encourage use of GPS signal integrity monitors , develop in- vehicle GPS backups, and evaluate the range of radio...literature prevent the full quantification of exactly how vulnerable GPS is to service interruption. This thesis used constant comparison analysis to...criticality, resilience, and vulnerability. This methodology overcomes research limitations by using GPS system design, operations, and policies as

  10. Analysis of GPS Data Using Near Real-Time Data from the Volcano Exploration Project in the Community College Classroom (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    House, M.; Nagy-Shadman, E.; Wilbur, B.

    2010-12-01

    Using real-time data or near-real-time data in the classroom is an exciting prospect in Introductory Physical Geology courses, especially since it promises to offer students a chance to experience the excitement and uncertainty associated with the study of the natural world that appeals to so many of their instructors. However, there are several obstacles to this approach in the community college. Namely, many introductory level community college earth science courses have no mathematics prerequisites; as such, a typical classroom may include a wide range of mathematical skills and many students may be unable to participate in the analysis of “real” data. Further, reliable computer access to websites offering real-time data can be spotty at some institutions and for some students on home computers. In response to this problem we have created a multipart volcano monitoring activity based on the USGS Volcano Exploration Project: Pu`u `O`o (VEPP) website. This activity is designed for freshman or sophomore level courses in Introductory Geology or Geological Hazards for non-majors. No prior math skills are assumed; the activity can be completed without prior knowledge of GPS data, volcano monitoring or Hawaiian geology. The activity consists of three parts: (1) a background lecture on basic geology of volcanoes like Kilauea and use of GPS in volcano monitoring; (2) a lab activity or a homework assignment based on near real-time data downloaded from the VEPP website; and (3) a group wrap-up that focuses on real-time data by exploring other aspects of the VEPP website. The lab activity requires examination of downloaded GPS time series data for a specified time period (this can be modified as desired by the instructor), computation of displacements, graphing of displacement vectors for identified time intervals and determination of actual motion vectors, followed by a discussion of the displacements observed. These activities are interspersed by guided questions

  11. Single-Receiver GPS Phase Bias Resolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertiger, William I.; Haines, Bruce J.; Weiss, Jan P.; Harvey, Nathaniel E.

    2010-01-01

    Existing software has been modified to yield the benefits of integer fixed double-differenced GPS-phased ambiguities when processing data from a single GPS receiver with no access to any other GPS receiver data. When the double-differenced combination of phase biases can be fixed reliably, a significant improvement in solution accuracy is obtained. This innovation uses a large global set of GPS receivers (40 to 80 receivers) to solve for the GPS satellite orbits and clocks (along with any other parameters). In this process, integer ambiguities are fixed and information on the ambiguity constraints is saved. For each GPS transmitter/receiver pair, the process saves the arc start and stop times, the wide-lane average value for the arc, the standard deviation of the wide lane, and the dual-frequency phase bias after bias fixing for the arc. The second step of the process uses the orbit and clock information, the bias information from the global solution, and only data from the single receiver to resolve double-differenced phase combinations. It is called "resolved" instead of "fixed" because constraints are introduced into the problem with a finite data weight to better account for possible errors. A receiver in orbit has much shorter continuous passes of data than a receiver fixed to the Earth. The method has parameters to account for this. In particular, differences in drifting wide-lane values must be handled differently. The first step of the process is automated, using two JPL software sets, Longarc and Gipsy-Oasis. The resulting orbit/clock and bias information files are posted on anonymous ftp for use by any licensed Gipsy-Oasis user. The second step is implemented in the Gipsy-Oasis executable, gd2p.pl, which automates the entire process, including fetching the information from anonymous ftp

  12. Low-cost monitoring of the wavelength difference of two transmitters for two-way time transfer over optical fibre

    OpenAIRE

    Slavík, Radan; Vojtěch, Josef; Smotlacha, Vladimir

    2015-01-01

    Accurate time transfer is routinely performed using GPS, however an order of magnitude better accuracy can be achieved when signal transfer over optical fibres is used (e.g., in [1], fibre transfer over 73 km with <100 ps precision was achieved as compared to <700 ps for the GPS-based system). Unfortunately, the propagation delay through an optical fibre changes due to temperature variation. This is commonly compensated for by transferring the time information bi-directionally over a si...

  13. GPS/INS Sensor Fusion Using GPS Wind up Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williamson, Walton R. (Inventor)

    2013-01-01

    A method of stabilizing an inertial navigation system (INS), includes the steps of: receiving data from an inertial navigation system; and receiving a finite number of carrier phase observables using at least one GPS receiver from a plurality of GPS satellites; calculating a phase wind up correction; correcting at least one of the finite number of carrier phase observables using the phase wind up correction; and calculating a corrected IMU attitude or velocity or position using the corrected at least one of the finite number of carrier phase observables; and performing a step selected from the steps consisting of recording, reporting, or providing the corrected IMU attitude or velocity or position to another process that uses the corrected IMU attitude or velocity or position. A GPS stabilized inertial navigation system apparatus is also described.

  14. Efficient GPS Position Determination Algorithms

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Nguyen, Thao Q

    2007-01-01

    ... differential GPS algorithm for a network of users. The stand-alone user GPS algorithm is a direct, closed-form, and efficient new position determination algorithm that exploits the closed-form solution of the GPS trilateration equations and works...

  15. GPS-Based Exposure to Greenness and Walkability and Accelerometry-Based Physical Activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    James, Peter; Hart, Jaime E; Hipp, J Aaron; Mitchell, Jonathan A; Kerr, Jacqueline; Hurvitz, Philip M; Glanz, Karen; Laden, Francine

    2017-04-01

    Background: Physical inactivity is a risk factor for cancer that may be influenced by environmental factors. Indeed, dense and well-connected built environments and environments with natural vegetation may create opportunities for higher routine physical activity. However, studies have focused primarily on residential environments to define exposure and self-reported methods to estimate physical activity. This study explores the momentary association between minute-level global positioning systems (GPS)-based greenness exposure and time-matched objectively measured physical activity. Methods: Adult women were recruited from sites across the United States. Participants wore a GPS device and accelerometer on the hip for 7 days to assess location and physical activity at minute-level epochs. GPS records were linked to 250 m resolution satellite-based vegetation data and Census Block Group-level U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Smart Location Database walkability data. Minute-level generalized additive mixed models were conducted to test for associations between GPS measures and accelerometer count data, accounting for repeated measures within participant and allowing for deviations from linearity using splines. Results: Among 360 adult women (mean age of 55.3 ± 10.2 years), we observed positive nonlinear relationships between physical activity and both greenness and walkability. In exploratory analyses, the relationships between environmental factors and physical activity were strongest among those who were white, had higher incomes, and who were middle-aged. Conclusions: Our results indicate that higher levels of physical activity occurred in areas with higher greenness and higher walkability. Impact: Findings suggest that planning and design policies should focus on these environments to optimize opportunities for physical activity. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev; 26(4); 525-32. ©2017 AACR See all the articles in this CEBP Focus section, "Geospatial

  16. Coarse Initial Orbit Determination for a Geostationary Satellite Using Single-Epoch GPS Measurements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ghangho Kim

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available A practical algorithm is proposed for determining the orbit of a geostationary orbit (GEO satellite using single-epoch measurements from a Global Positioning System (GPS receiver under the sparse visibility of the GPS satellites. The algorithm uses three components of a state vector to determine the satellite’s state, even when it is impossible to apply the classical single-point solutions (SPS. Through consideration of the characteristics of the GEO orbital elements and GPS measurements, the components of the state vector are reduced to three. However, the algorithm remains sufficiently accurate for a GEO satellite. The developed algorithm was tested on simulated measurements from two or three GPS satellites, and the calculated maximum position error was found to be less than approximately 40 km or even several kilometers within the geometric range, even when the classical SPS solution was unattainable. In addition, extended Kalman filter (EKF tests of a GEO satellite with the estimated initial state were performed to validate the algorithm. In the EKF, a reliable dynamic model was adapted to reduce the probability of divergence that can be caused by large errors in the initial state.

  17. Coarse Initial Orbit Determination for a Geostationary Satellite Using Single-Epoch GPS Measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Ghangho; Kim, Chongwon; Kee, Changdon

    2015-01-01

    A practical algorithm is proposed for determining the orbit of a geostationary orbit (GEO) satellite using single-epoch measurements from a Global Positioning System (GPS) receiver under the sparse visibility of the GPS satellites. The algorithm uses three components of a state vector to determine the satellite’s state, even when it is impossible to apply the classical single-point solutions (SPS). Through consideration of the characteristics of the GEO orbital elements and GPS measurements, the components of the state vector are reduced to three. However, the algorithm remains sufficiently accurate for a GEO satellite. The developed algorithm was tested on simulated measurements from two or three GPS satellites, and the calculated maximum position error was found to be less than approximately 40 km or even several kilometers within the geometric range, even when the classical SPS solution was unattainable. In addition, extended Kalman filter (EKF) tests of a GEO satellite with the estimated initial state were performed to validate the algorithm. In the EKF, a reliable dynamic model was adapted to reduce the probability of divergence that can be caused by large errors in the initial state. PMID:25835299

  18. Doppler lidar sensor for precision navigation in GPS-deprived environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amzajerdian, F.; Pierrottet, D. F.; Hines, G. D.; Petway, L. B.; Barnes, B. W.

    2013-05-01

    Landing mission concepts that are being developed for exploration of solar system bodies are increasingly ambitious in their implementations and objectives. Most of these missions require accurate position and velocity data during their descent phase in order to ensure safe, soft landing at the pre-designated sites. Data from the vehicle's Inertial Measurement Unit will not be sufficient due to significant drift error after extended travel time in space. Therefore, an onboard sensor is required to provide the necessary data for landing in the GPS-deprived environment of space. For this reason, NASA Langley Research Center has been developing an advanced Doppler lidar sensor capable of providing accurate and reliable data suitable for operation in the highly constrained environment of space. The Doppler lidar transmits three laser beams in different directions toward the ground. The signal from each beam provides the platform velocity and range to the ground along the laser line-of-sight (LOS). The six LOS measurements are then combined in order to determine the three components of the vehicle velocity vector, and to accurately measure altitude and attitude angles relative to the local ground. These measurements are used by an autonomous Guidance, Navigation, and Control system to accurately navigate the vehicle from a few kilometers above the ground to the designated location and to execute a gentle touchdown. A prototype version of our lidar sensor has been completed for a closed-loop demonstration onboard a rocket-powered terrestrial free-flyer vehicle.

  19. Why do GPs hesitate to refer diabetes patients to a self-management education program: a qualitative study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    De Maeseneer Jan

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Self-management support is seen as a cornerstone of good diabetes care and many countries are currently engaged in initiatives to integrate self-management support in primary care. Concerning the organisation of these programs, evidence is growing that engagement of health care professionals, in particular of GPs, is critical for successful application. This paper reports on a study exploring why a substantial number of GPs was (initially reluctant to refer patients to a self-management education program in Belgium. Methods Qualitative analysis of semi-structured face-to-face interviews with a purposive sample of 20 GPs who were not regular users of the service. The Greenhalgh diffusion of innovation framework was used as background and organising framework. Results Several barriers, linked to different components of the Greenhalgh model, emerged from the interview data. One of the most striking ones was the limited readiness for innovation among GPs. Feelings of fear of further fragmentation of diabetes care and frustration and insecurity regarding their own role in diabetes care prevented them from engaging in the innovation process. GPs needed time to be reassured that the program respects their role and has an added value to usual care. Once GPs considered referring patients, it was not clear enough which of their patients would benefit from the program. Some GPs expressed the need for training in motivational skills, so that they could better motivate their patients to participate. A practical but often mentioned barrier was the distance to the centre where the program was delivered. Further, uncertainty about continuity interfered with the uptake of the offer. Conclusions The study results contribute to a better understanding of the reasons why GPs hesitate to refer patients to a self-management education program. First of all, the role of GPs and other health care providers in diabetes care needs to be clarified before

  20. Why do GPs hesitate to refer diabetes patients to a self-management education program: a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sunaert, Patricia; Vandekerckhove, Marie; Bastiaens, Hilde; Feyen, Luc; Bussche, Piet Vanden; De Maeseneer, Jan; De Sutter, An; Willems, Sara

    2011-09-08

    Self-management support is seen as a cornerstone of good diabetes care and many countries are currently engaged in initiatives to integrate self-management support in primary care. Concerning the organisation of these programs, evidence is growing that engagement of health care professionals, in particular of GPs, is critical for successful application. This paper reports on a study exploring why a substantial number of GPs was (initially) reluctant to refer patients to a self-management education program in Belgium. Qualitative analysis of semi-structured face-to-face interviews with a purposive sample of 20 GPs who were not regular users of the service. The Greenhalgh diffusion of innovation framework was used as background and organising framework. Several barriers, linked to different components of the Greenhalgh model, emerged from the interview data. One of the most striking ones was the limited readiness for innovation among GPs. Feelings of fear of further fragmentation of diabetes care and frustration and insecurity regarding their own role in diabetes care prevented them from engaging in the innovation process. GPs needed time to be reassured that the program respects their role and has an added value to usual care. Once GPs considered referring patients, it was not clear enough which of their patients would benefit from the program. Some GPs expressed the need for training in motivational skills, so that they could better motivate their patients to participate. A practical but often mentioned barrier was the distance to the centre where the program was delivered. Further, uncertainty about continuity interfered with the uptake of the offer. The study results contribute to a better understanding of the reasons why GPs hesitate to refer patients to a self-management education program. First of all, the role of GPs and other health care providers in diabetes care needs to be clarified before introducing new functions. Feelings of security and a basic trust

  1. Combining GPS measurements and IRI model predictions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hernandez-Pajares, M.; Juan, J.M.; Sanz, J.; Bilitza, D.

    2002-01-01

    The free electrons distributed in the ionosphere (between one hundred and thousands of km in height) produce a frequency-dependent effect on Global Positioning System (GPS) signals: a delay in the pseudo-orange and an advance in the carrier phase. These effects are proportional to the columnar electron density between the satellite and receiver, i.e. the integrated electron density along the ray path. Global ionospheric TEC (total electron content) maps can be obtained with GPS data from a network of ground IGS (international GPS service) reference stations with an accuracy of few TEC units. The comparison with the TOPEX TEC, mainly measured over the oceans far from the IGS stations, shows a mean bias and standard deviation of about 2 and 5 TECUs respectively. The discrepancies between the STEC predictions and the observed values show an RMS typically below 5 TECUs (which also includes the alignment code noise). he existence of a growing database 2-hourly global TEC maps and with resolution of 5x2.5 degrees in longitude and latitude can be used to improve the IRI prediction capability of the TEC. When the IRI predictions and the GPS estimations are compared for a three month period around the Solar Maximum, they are in good agreement for middle latitudes. An over-determination of IRI TEC has been found at the extreme latitudes, the IRI predictions being, typically two times higher than the GPS estimations. Finally, local fits of the IRI model can be done by tuning the SSN from STEC GPS observations

  2. True Time API Link (real time arrival info)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Allegheny County / City of Pittsburgh / Western PA Regional Data Center — This link will take you to the site where you can create an account to access Port Authority's real time arrival information. To request access to Port Authority's...

  3. Fisheye-Based Method for GPS Localization Improvement in Unknown Semi-Obstructed Areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julien Moreau

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available A precise GNSS (Global Navigation Satellite System localization is vital for autonomous road vehicles, especially in cluttered or urban environments where satellites are occluded, preventing accurate positioning. We propose to fuse GPS (Global Positioning System data with fisheye stereovision to face this problem independently to additional data, possibly outdated, unavailable, and needing correlation with reality. Our stereoscope is sky-facing with 360° × 180° fisheye cameras to observe surrounding obstacles. We propose a 3D modelling and plane extraction through following steps: stereoscope self-calibration for decalibration robustness, stereo matching considering neighbours epipolar curves to compute 3D, and robust plane fitting based on generated cartography and Hough transform. We use these 3D data with GPS raw data to estimate NLOS (Non Line Of Sight reflected signals pseudorange delay. We exploit extracted planes to build a visibility mask for NLOS detection. A simplified 3D canyon model allows to compute reflections pseudorange delays. In the end, GPS positioning is computed considering corrected pseudoranges. With experimentations on real fixed scenes, we show generated 3D models reaching metric accuracy and improvement of horizontal GPS positioning accuracy by more than 50%. The proposed procedure is effective, and the proposed NLOS detection outperforms CN0-based methods (Carrier-to-receiver Noise density.

  4. Practical method for estimating road curvatures using onboard GPS and IMU equipment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zamfir, S.; Drosescu, R.; Gaiginschi, R.

    2016-08-01

    This paper describes an experimental method to determine with high accuracy the curvature of a road segment, the turning radius of a car, and the discomfort level perceived by the passengers in the vehicle cabin when passing through a curve. For these experiments we used professional equipment provided with two GPS active antennas with 13 dB gain featuring non-contact 100 Hz speed and distance measurement, and a ten degree Inertial Measurement Unit (IMU) with dynamic orientation outputs. The same experimental measurements also usedthe low cost GPS equipment available on smartphones, domestic vehicle GPS devices, as well as an Arduino GPS shield in order to compare the results generated by professional equipment. The purpose of these experiments was also to establish if certain road curve sections were correctly executed in order to ensure the safety and comfort of passengers. Another use of the proposed method relates to the road accident reconstruction field, providing experts and forensics with an accurate method of measuring the roadway curvature at accident scenes or traffic events. The research and equipment described in this paper have been acquired and developed under a PhD studyand a European funded project won and elaborated by the authors.

  5. Brief report: Using global positioning system (GPS) enabled cell phones to examine adolescent travel patterns and time in proximity to alcohol outlets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byrnes, Hilary F; Miller, Brenda A; Morrison, Christopher N; Wiebe, Douglas J; Remer, Lillian G; Wiehe, Sarah E

    2016-07-01

    As adolescents gain freedom to explore new environments unsupervised, more time in proximity to alcohol outlets may increase risks for alcohol and marijuana use. This pilot study: 1) Describes variations in adolescents' proximity to outlets by time of day and day of the week, 2) Examines variations in outlet proximity by drinking and marijuana use status, and 3) Tests feasibility of obtaining real-time data to study adolescent proximity to outlets. U.S. adolescents (N = 18) aged 16-17 (50% female) carried GPS-enabled smartphones for one week with their locations tracked. The geographic areas where adolescents spend time, activity spaces, were created by connecting GPS points sequentially and adding spatial buffers around routes. Proximity to outlets was greater during after school and evening hours. Drinkers and marijuana users were in proximity to outlets 1½ to 2 times more than non-users. Findings provide information about where adolescents spend time and times of greatest risk, informing prevention efforts. Copyright © 2016 The Foundation for Professionals in Services for Adolescents. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Are "part-time" general practitioners workforce idlers or committed professionals?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dwan, Kathryn M; Douglas, Kirsty A; Forrest, Laura E

    2014-09-19

    The traditional view of general practice holds that only general practitioners (GPs) in full-time clinical practice can provide quality patient care. Nevertheless, increasing numbers of GPs are choosing to work sessionally, that is, ostensibly "part-time". There are concerns about the health workforce's ability to meet demand and also fears that patient care may be compromised. We sought answers to a) what activities do GPs undertake when not consulting patients, b) why do they choose to work sessionally, and c) does sessional general practice reflect a lack of commitment to patients and the profession? Semi-structured interviews were conducted with GPs who worked sessionally, (i.e. six or fewer sessions a week in clinical general practice, where a session comprises four consecutive hours of patient care). These data were analysed qualitatively and saturation was reached. The majority of participants were in full-time paid employment, while part-time in clinical general practice. They reported that consultations increasingly required the management of patients with complex, chronic conditions who also required psychological management. Coupled with unrealistic patient expectations, these factors led GPs to be concerned about maintaining the quality patient care they considered professionally desirable. Many diversified their work activities to ensure that they retained their professional standards. "Part-time" general practice is a misnomer that masks the contribution these GPs make as part of the health workforce. Sessional practice more accurately describes the nature of our participants' clinical work. Their choice of sessional work is a professional response to the increasing demands within the consultation. It enables GPs to maintain their commitment to quality patient care and their profession, while attenuating the challenges of demanding consultations. Sessional general practitioners demonstrate strong commitment to their patients and the profession.

  7. Standardization of GPS data processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Pil Ho

    2001-06-01

    A nationwide GPS network has been constructed with about 60 permanent GPS stations after late 1990s in Korea. For using the GPS in variety of application area like crustal deformation, positioning, or monitoring upper atmosphere, it is necessary to have ability to process the data precisely. Now Korea Astronomy Observatory has the precise GPS data processing technique in Korea because it is difficult to understand characteristics of the parameters we want to estimate, resolve the integer ambiguity, and analyze many errors. There are three reliable GPS data processing software in the world ; Bernese(University of Berne), GIPSY-OASIS(JPL), GAMIT(MIT). These software allow us to achieve millimeter accuracy in the horizontal position and about 1 cm accuracy vertically even for regional networks with a diameter of several thousand kilometers. But we established the standard of GPS data processing using Bernese as main tool and GIPSY O ASIS as side

  8. GPs' attitudes, beliefs and behaviours regarding exercise for chronic knee pain: a questionnaire survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cottrell, Elizabeth; Foster, Nadine E; Porcheret, Mark; Rathod, Trishna; Roddy, Edward

    2017-06-17

    The aim of this study was to investigate general practitioners' (GPs) attitudes, beliefs and behaviours regarding the use of exercise for patients with chronic knee pain (CKP) attributable to osteoarthritis. Primary care GPs in the UK. 5000 GPs, randomly selected from Binley's database, were mailed a cross-sectional questionnaire survey. GPs' attitudes and beliefs were investigated using attitude statements, and reported behaviours were identified using vignette-based questions. GPs were invited to report barriers experienced when initiating exercise with patients with CKP RESULTS: 835 (17%) GPs responded. Overall, GPs were positive about general exercise for CKP. 729 (87%) reported using exercise, of which, 538 (74%) reported that they would use both general and local (lower limb) exercises. However, only 92 (11% of all responding) GPs reported initiating exercise in ways aligning with best-evidence recommendations. 815 (98%) GPs reported barriers in using exercise for patients with CKP, most commonly, insufficient time in consultations (n=419; 51%) and insufficient expertise (n=337; 41%). While GPs' attitudes and beliefs regarding exercise for CKP were generally positive, initiation of exercise was often poorly aligned with current recommendations, and barriers and uncertainties were reported. GPs' use of exercise may be improved by addressing the key barriers of time and expertise, by developing a pragmatic approach that supports GPs to initiate individualised exercise, and/or by other professionals taking on this role. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  9. Profile of English salaried GPs: labour mobility and practice performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Alexander; Hann, Mark; Sibbald, Bonnie

    2008-01-01

    Recent national policy changes have provided greater flexibility in GPs' contracts. One such policy is salaried employment, which offers reduced hours and freedom from out-of-hours and administrative responsibilities, aimed at improving recruitment and retention in a labour market facing regional shortages. To profile salaried GPs and assess their mobility within the labour market. Serial cross-sectional study. All GPs practising in England during the years 1996/1997, 2000/2001, and 2004/2005. Descriptive analyses, logistic regression. Salaried GPs tended to be either younger ( or =65 years), female, or overseas-qualified; they favoured part-time working and personal medical services contracts. Salaried GPs were more mobile than GP principals, and have become increasingly so, despite a trend towards reduced overall mobility in the GP workforce. Practices with salaried GPs scored more Quality and Outcomes Framework points and were located in slightly more affluent areas. Salaried status appears to have reduced limitations in the labour market, leading to better workforce deployment from a GP's perspective. However, there is no evidence to suggest it has relieved inequalities in GP distribution.

  10. Semantic Enrichment of GPS Trajectories

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Graaff, V.; van Keulen, Maurice; de By, R.A.

    2012-01-01

    Semantic annotation of GPS trajectories helps us to recognize the interests of the creator of the GPS trajectories. Automating this trajectory annotation circumvents the requirement of additional user input. To annotate the GPS traces automatically, two types of automated input are required: 1) a

  11. Development of Soil Compaction Analysis Software (SCAN Integrating a Low Cost GPS Receiver and Compactometer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dongha Lee

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available A software for soil compaction analysis (SCAN has been developed for evaluating the compaction states using the data from the GPS as well as a compactometer attached on the roller. The SCAN is distinguished from other previous software for intelligent compaction (IC in that it can use the results from various types of GPS positioning methods, and it also has an optimal structure for remotely managing the large amounts of data gathered from numerous rollers. For this, several methods were developed: (1 improving the accuracy of low cost GPS receiver’s positioning results; (2 modeling the trajectory of a moving roller using a GPS receiver’s results and linking it with the data from the compactometer; and (3 extracting the information regarding the compaction states of the ground from the modeled trajectory, using spatial analysis methods. The SCAN was verified throughout various field compaction tests, and it has been confirmed that it can be a very effective tool in evaluating field compaction states.

  12. GPS operations at Olkiluoto, Kivetty and Romuvaara in 2008

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kallio, U.; Ahola, J.; Koivula, H.; Jokela, J.; Poutanen, M.

    2009-09-01

    The GPS based deformation studies have been made at the investigation areas of Posiva since 1995, when the network of ten GPS pillars was established at Olkiluoto. The network of seven GPS pillars was built at Kivetty and Romuvaara during the year 1996. One pillar in each investigation area belongs to the Finnish permanent GPS network, FinnRef. A total of 26 GPS measurement campaigns have been carried out at Olkiluoto since 1995, and 17 campaigns at Kivetty and Romuvaara. According to the time series of the GPS results 1/3 of the baselines at Olkiluoto have statistically significant change rates. However, the observed movements are smaller than 0.20 mm/a. The networks of Kivetty and Romuvaara are quite stable expect one pillar at Romuvaara. There are seven pillars, which have statistically significant horizontal velocities at Olkiluoto. These local velocity components are small but taking into account the standard deviations the largest velocity components seems to be reliably determined. The uniform scale for the GPS measurements made in different years is the basic condition for reliable results in the deformation analyses. At Olkiluoto a baseline for electronic distance measurements (EDM) was built in 2002. The baseline has been measured using EDM instruments in connection to the GPS observations. The comparison between the GPS and EDM results can help to fix a possible scale error of the GPS measurements. The GPS network at Olkiluoto was extended in 2003. The new pillars were built close to Kuivalahti village and on a small island of Iso Pyrekari. According to the geological evidence it is expected that a fracture zone is located between the new stations, thus enabling the determination of possible deformations along the fracture zone. The new pillars have been observed since 2003 and now we have computed the first deformation analysis from the six years data. The local crustal deformations have been studied in GeoSatakunta project, too. This GPS network is

  13. Implicit time accurate simulation of unsteady flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Buuren, René; Kuerten, Hans; Geurts, Bernard J.

    2001-03-01

    Implicit time integration was studied in the context of unsteady shock-boundary layer interaction flow. With an explicit second-order Runge-Kutta scheme, a reference solution to compare with the implicit second-order Crank-Nicolson scheme was determined. The time step in the explicit scheme is restricted by both temporal accuracy as well as stability requirements, whereas in the A-stable implicit scheme, the time step has to obey temporal resolution requirements and numerical convergence conditions. The non-linear discrete equations for each time step are solved iteratively by adding a pseudo-time derivative. The quasi-Newton approach is adopted and the linear systems that arise are approximately solved with a symmetric block Gauss-Seidel solver. As a guiding principle for properly setting numerical time integration parameters that yield an efficient time accurate capturing of the solution, the global error caused by the temporal integration is compared with the error resulting from the spatial discretization. Focus is on the sensitivity of properties of the solution in relation to the time step. Numerical simulations show that the time step needed for acceptable accuracy can be considerably larger than the explicit stability time step; typical ratios range from 20 to 80. At large time steps, convergence problems that are closely related to a highly complex structure of the basins of attraction of the iterative method may occur. Copyright

  14. Cryospheric monitoring with new low power RTK dGPS systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez, K.; Hart, J. K.; Bragg, G. M.; Curry, J. S.

    2017-12-01

    Differential GPS is often used to measure the movement of glaciers. It requires data to be recorded at a fixed base station as well as the moving rover unit, followed by post-processing in order to compute the rover's positions. The typical dGPS units used consume considerable power and the recording times are often around one hour per reading. While this provides very precise (typically millimetre) precision it comes at a cost of power used and the data is rather large to send offsite regularly. Real-time kinematic modes of dGPS are typically used for rapid mapping and autonomous vehicles. New devices are lower cost and smaller size. They also provide a fix within a few minutes, which can be transmitted home. We describe the design, deployment and preliminary results of two tracking systems to monitor ice movement. The first used a normal GPS and Iridium satellite messaging to track the movement of a Greenland iceberg which calved from the Nattivit Apusiiat glacier (south west Greenland). This system followed the iceberg as it flowed 660 km south along the coast of Greenland. The second system was installed in Iceland to track the movement of glaciers using 2 different dGPS systems. A low power ARM Cortex M4-based controller ran Python code to schedule dGPS activity periodically and gather fixes. An Iridium short messaging unit (Rockblock) was used to transmit RTK location fixes. The aim was to experiment with the use of RTK dGPS as an alternative to recordings to measure how the glaciers responded to small scale changes in temperature and precipitation throughout the year.

  15. Precise orbit determination and point positioning using GPS, Glonass, Galileo and BeiDou

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tegedor J.

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available State of the art Precise Point Positioning (PPP is currently based on dual-frequency processing of GPS and Glonass navigation systems. The International GNSS Service (IGS is routinely providing the most accurate orbit and clock products for these constellations, allowing point positioning at centimeter-level accuracy. At the same time, the GNSS landscape is evolving rapidly, with the deployment of new constellations, such as Galileo and BeiDou. The BeiDou constellation currently consists of 14 operational satellites, and the 4 Galileo In-Orbit Validation (IOV satellites are transmitting initial Galileo signals. This paper focuses on the integration of Galileo and BeiDou in PPP, together with GPS and Glonass. Satellite orbits and clocks for all constellations are generated using a network adjustment with observation data collected by the IGS Multi-GNSS Experiment (MGEX, as well as from Fugro proprietary reference station network. The orbit processing strategy is described, and orbit accuracy for Galileo and BeiDou is assessed via orbit overlaps, for different arc lengths. Kinematic post-processed multi-GNSS positioning results are presented. The benefits of multiconstellation PPP are discussed in terms of enhanced availability and positioning accuracy.

  16. Sensing Human Activity: GPS Tracking

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Spek, Stefan; van Schaick, Jeroen; de Bois, Peter; de Haan, Remco

    2009-01-01

    The enhancement of GPS technology enables the use of GPS devices not only as navigation and orientation tools, but also as instruments used to capture travelled routes: as sensors that measure activity on a city scale or the regional scale. TU Delft developed a process and database architecture for collecting data on pedestrian movement in three European city centres, Norwich, Rouen and Koblenz, and in another experiment for collecting activity data of 13 families in Almere (The Netherlands) for one week. The question posed in this paper is: what is the value of GPS as ‘sensor technology’ measuring activities of people? The conclusion is that GPS offers a widely useable instrument to collect invaluable spatial-temporal data on different scales and in different settings adding new layers of knowledge to urban studies, but the use of GPS-technology and deployment of GPS-devices still offers significant challenges for future research. PMID:22574061

  17. Sensing Human Activity: GPS Tracking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Remco de Haan

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available The enhancement of GPS technology enables the use of GPS devices not only as navigation and orientation tools, but also as instruments used to capture travelled routes: as sensors that measure activity on a city scale or the regional scale. TU Delft developed a process and database architecture for collecting data on pedestrian movement in three European city centres, Norwich, Rouen and Koblenz, and in another experiment for collecting activity data of 13 families in Almere (The Netherlands for one week. The question posed in this paper is: what is the value of GPS as ‘sensor technology’ measuring activities of people? The conclusion is that GPS offers a widely useable instrument to collect invaluable spatial-temporal data on different scales and in different settings adding new layers of knowledge to urban studies, but the use of GPS-technology and deployment of GPS-devices still offers significant challenges for future research.

  18. GPS water level measurements for Indonesia's Tsunami Early Warning System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Schöne

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available On Boxing Day 2004, a severe tsunami was generated by a strong earthquake in Northern Sumatra causing a large number of casualties. At this time, neither an offshore buoy network was in place to measure tsunami waves, nor a system to disseminate tsunami warnings to local governmental entities. Since then, buoys have been developed by Indonesia and Germany, complemented by NOAA's Deep-ocean Assessment and Reporting of Tsunamis (DART buoys, and have been moored offshore Sumatra and Java. The suite of sensors for offshore tsunami detection in Indonesia has been advanced by adding GPS technology for water level measurements.

    The usage of GPS buoys in tsunami warning systems is a relatively new approach. The concept of the German Indonesian Tsunami Early Warning System (GITEWS (Rudloff et al., 2009 combines GPS technology and ocean bottom pressure (OBP measurements. Especially for near-field installations where the seismic noise may deteriorate the OBP data, GPS-derived sea level heights provide additional information.

    The GPS buoy technology is precise enough to detect medium to large tsunamis of amplitudes larger than 10 cm. The analysis presented here suggests that for about 68% of the time, tsunamis larger than 5 cm may be detectable.

  19. Tropical cyclone cloud‐top height and vertical temperature structure detection using GPS radio occultation measurements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Biondi, Riccardo; Ho, Shu‐Peng; Randel, William

    2013-01-01

    The accurate determination of tropical cyclone (TC) cloud-top height and its vertical thermal structure using the GPS radio occultation (RO) technique is demonstrated in this study. Cloud-top heights are determined by using the bending angle anomaly and the temperature anomaly profiles during...

  20. Real-time reconstruction of topside ionosphere scale height from coordinated GPS-TEC and ionosonde observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gulyaeva, Tamara; Poustovalova, Ljubov

    The International Reference Ionosphere model extended to the plasmasphere, IRI-Plas, has been recently updated for assimilation of total electron content, TEC, derived from observations with Global Navigation Satellite System, GNSS. The ionosonde products of the F2 layer peak density (NmF2) and height (hmF2) ensure true electron density maximum at the F2 peak. The daily solar and magnetic indices used by IRI-Plas code are compiled in data files including the 3-hour ap and kp magnetic index from 1958 onward, 12-monthly smoothed sunspot number R12 and Global Electron Content GEC12, daily solar radio flux F10.7 and daily sunspot number Ri. The 3-h ap-index is available in Real Time, RT, mode from GFZ, Potsdam, Germany, daily update of F10.7 is provided by Space Weather Canada service, and daily estimated international sunspot number Ri is provided by Solar Influences Data Analysis Center, SIDC, Belgium. For IRI-Plas-RT operation in regime of the daily update and prediction of the F2 layer peak parameters, the proxy kp and ap forecast for 3 to 24 hours ahead based on data for preceding 12 hours is applied online at http://www.izmiran.ru/services/iweather/. The topside electron density profile of IRI-Plas code is expressed with complementary half-peak density anchor height above hmF2 which corresponds to transition O+/H+ height. The present investigation is focused on reconstruction of topside ionosphere scale height using vertical total electron content (TEC) data derived from the Global Positioning System GPS observations and the ionosonde derived F2 layer peak parameters from 25 observatories ingested into IRI-Plas model. GPS-TEC and ionosonde measurements at solar maximum (September, 2002, and October, 2003) for quiet, positively disturbed, and negatively disturbed days of the month are used to obtain the topside scale height, Htop, representing the range of altitudes from hmF2 to the height where NmF2 decay by e times occurs. Mapping of the F2 layer peak parameters

  1. Age-related differences in working hours among male and female GPs: an SMS-based time-use study.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hassel, D. van; Velden, L. van der; Bakker, D. de; Batenburg, R.

    2017-01-01

    Background: In several countries, the number of hours worked by general practitioners (GPs) has decreased, raising concern about current and impending workforce shortages. This shorter working week has been ascribed both to the feminisation of the workforce and to a younger generation of GPs who

  2. Age-related differences in working hours among male and female GPs: An SMS-based time use study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hassel, D. van; Velden, L.F.J. van der; Bakker, D.H.; Batenburg, R.S.

    2017-01-01

    Background: In several countries, the number of hours worked by general practitioners (GPs) has decreased, raising concern about current and impending workforce shortages. This shorter working week has been ascribed both to the feminisation of the workforce and to a younger generation of GPs who

  3. GPS Satellite Simulation Facility

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The GPS satellite simulation facility consists of a GPS satellite simulator controlled by either a Silicon Graphics Origin 2000 or PC depending upon unit under test...

  4. Comparison of a GPS needle-tracking system, multiplanar imaging and 2D imaging for real-time ultrasound-guided epidural anaesthesia: A randomized, comparative, observer-blinded study on phantoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menacé, Cécilia; Choquet, Olivier; Abbal, Bertrand; Bringuier, Sophie; Capdevila, Xavier

    2017-04-01

    The real-time ultrasound-guided paramedian sagittal oblique approach for neuraxial blockade is technically demanding. Innovative technologies have been developed to improve nerve identification and the accuracy of needle placement. The aim of this study was to evaluate three types of ultrasound scans during ultrasound-guided epidural lumbar punctures in a spine phantom. Eleven sets of 20 ultrasound-guided epidural punctures were performed with 2D, GPS, and multiplanar ultrasound machines (660 punctures) on a spine phantom using an in-plane approach. For all punctures, execution time, number of attempts, bone contacts, and needle redirections were noted by an independent physician. Operator comfort and visibility of the needle (tip and shaft) were measured using a numerical scale. The use of GPS significantly decreased the number of punctures, needle repositionings, and bone contacts. Comfort of the physician was also significantly improved with the GPS system compared with the 2D and multiplanar systems. With the multiplanar system, the procedure was not facilitated and execution time was longer compared with 2D imaging after Bonferroni correction but interaction between the type of ultrasound system and mean execution time was not significant in a linear mixed model. There were no significant differences regarding needle tip and shaft visibility between the systems. Multiplanar and GPS needle-tracking systems do not reduce execution time compared with 2D imaging using a real-time ultrasound-guided paramedian sagittal oblique approach in spine phantoms. The GPS needle-tracking system can improve performance in terms of operator comfort, the number of attempts, needle redirections and bone contacts. Copyright © 2016 Société française d'anesthésie et de réanimation (Sfar). Published by Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  5. GPS Space Service Volume: Ensuring Consistent Utility Across GPS Design Builds for Space Users

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauer, Frank H.; Parker, Joel Jefferson Konkl; Valdez, Jennifer Ellen

    2015-01-01

    GPS availability and signal strength originally specified for users on or near surface of Earth with transmitted power levels specified at edge-of-Earth, 14.3 degrees. Prior to the SSV specification, on-orbit performance of GPS varied from block build to block build (IIA, IIRM, IIF) due to antenna gain and beam width variances. Unstable on-orbit performance results in significant risk to space users. Side-lobe signals, although not specified, were expected to significantly boost GPS signal availability for users above the constellation. During GPS III Phase A, NASA noted significant discrepancies in power levels specified in GPS III specification documents, and measured on-orbit performance. To stabilize the signal for high altitude space users, NASA DoD team in 2003-2005 led the creation of new Space Service Volume (SSV) definition and specifications.

  6. Accurate Vehicle Location System Using RFID, an Internet of Things Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prinsloo, Jaco; Malekian, Reza

    2016-01-01

    Modern infrastructure, such as dense urban areas and underground tunnels, can effectively block all GPS signals, which implies that effective position triangulation will not be achieved. The main problem that is addressed in this project is the design and implementation of an accurate vehicle location system using radio-frequency identification (RFID) technology in combination with GPS and the Global system for Mobile communication (GSM) technology, in order to provide a solution to the limitation discussed above. In essence, autonomous vehicle tracking will be facilitated with the use of RFID technology where GPS signals are non-existent. The design of the system and the results are reflected in this paper. An extensive literature study was done on the field known as the Internet of Things, as well as various topics that covered the integration of independent technology in order to address a specific challenge. The proposed system is then designed and implemented. An RFID transponder was successfully designed and a read range of approximately 31 cm was obtained in the low frequency communication range (125 kHz to 134 kHz). The proposed system was designed, implemented, and field tested and it was found that a vehicle could be accurately located and tracked. It is also found that the antenna size of both the RFID reader unit and RFID transponder plays a critical role in the maximum communication range that can be achieved. PMID:27271638

  7. Accurate Vehicle Location System Using RFID, an Internet of Things Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prinsloo, Jaco; Malekian, Reza

    2016-06-04

    Modern infrastructure, such as dense urban areas and underground tunnels, can effectively block all GPS signals, which implies that effective position triangulation will not be achieved. The main problem that is addressed in this project is the design and implementation of an accurate vehicle location system using radio-frequency identification (RFID) technology in combination with GPS and the Global system for Mobile communication (GSM) technology, in order to provide a solution to the limitation discussed above. In essence, autonomous vehicle tracking will be facilitated with the use of RFID technology where GPS signals are non-existent. The design of the system and the results are reflected in this paper. An extensive literature study was done on the field known as the Internet of Things, as well as various topics that covered the integration of independent technology in order to address a specific challenge. The proposed system is then designed and implemented. An RFID transponder was successfully designed and a read range of approximately 31 cm was obtained in the low frequency communication range (125 kHz to 134 kHz). The proposed system was designed, implemented, and field tested and it was found that a vehicle could be accurately located and tracked. It is also found that the antenna size of both the RFID reader unit and RFID transponder plays a critical role in the maximum communication range that can be achieved.

  8. Accurate Vehicle Location System Using RFID, an Internet of Things Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaco Prinsloo

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Modern infrastructure, such as dense urban areas and underground tunnels, can effectively block all GPS signals, which implies that effective position triangulation will not be achieved. The main problem that is addressed in this project is the design and implementation of an accurate vehicle location system using radio-frequency identification (RFID technology in combination with GPS and the Global system for Mobile communication (GSM technology, in order to provide a solution to the limitation discussed above. In essence, autonomous vehicle tracking will be facilitated with the use of RFID technology where GPS signals are non-existent. The design of the system and the results are reflected in this paper. An extensive literature study was done on the field known as the Internet of Things, as well as various topics that covered the integration of independent technology in order to address a specific challenge. The proposed system is then designed and implemented. An RFID transponder was successfully designed and a read range of approximately 31 cm was obtained in the low frequency communication range (125 kHz to 134 kHz. The proposed system was designed, implemented, and field tested and it was found that a vehicle could be accurately located and tracked. It is also found that the antenna size of both the RFID reader unit and RFID transponder plays a critical role in the maximum communication range that can be achieved.

  9. Using GPS-surveyed intertidal zones to determine the validity of shorelines automatically mapped by Landsat water indices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Joshua T.; Gontz, Allen M.

    2018-03-01

    Satellite remote sensing has been used extensively in a variety of shoreline studies and validated using aerial photography. This ground truth method only represents an instantaneous depiction of the shoreline at the time of acquisition and does not take into account the spatial and temporal variability of the dynamic shoreline boundary. Landsat 8‧s Operational Land Imager sensor's capability to accurately delineate a shoreline is assessed by comparing all known Landsat water index-derived shorelines with two GPS-surveyed intertidal zones that coincide with the satellite flyover date, one of which had near-neap tide conditions. Seven indices developed for automatically classifying water pixels were evaluated for their ability to delineate shorelines. The shoreline is described here as the area above and below maximum low and high tide, otherwise known as the intertidal zone. The high-water line, or wet/dry sediment line, was chosen as the shoreline indicator to be mapped using a handheld GPS. The proportion of the Landsat-derived shorelines that fell within this zone and their alongshore profile lengths were calculated. The most frequently used water index and the predecessor to Modified Normalized Difference Water Index (MNDWI), Normalized Difference Water Index (NDWI), was found to be the least accurate by a significant margin. Other indices required calibration of their threshold value to achieve accurate results, thus diminishing their replicability success for other regions. MNDWI was determined to be the best index for automated shoreline mapping, based on its superior accuracy and repeatable, stable threshold value.

  10. Development of an accurate transmission line fault locator using the global positioning system satellites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Harry

    1994-01-01

    A highly accurate transmission line fault locator based on the traveling-wave principle was developed and successfully operated within B.C. Hydro. A transmission line fault produces a fast-risetime traveling wave at the fault point which propagates along the transmission line. This fault locator system consists of traveling wave detectors located at key substations which detect and time tag the leading edge of the fault-generated traveling wave as if passes through. A master station gathers the time-tagged information from the remote detectors and determines the location of the fault. Precise time is a key element to the success of this system. This fault locator system derives its timing from the Global Positioning System (GPS) satellites. System tests confirmed the accuracy of locating faults to within the design objective of +/-300 meters.

  11. The SMS-GPS-Trip-Method

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reinau, Kristian Hegner; Harder, Henrik; Weber, Michael

    2015-01-01

    This article presents a new method for collecting travel behavior data, based on a combination of GPS tracking and SMS technology, coined the SMS–GPS-Trip method. The state-of-the-art method for collecting data for activity based traffic models is a combination of travel diaries and GPS tracking...

  12. GPs' perceptions of resilience training: a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheshire, Anna; Hughes, John; Lewith, George; Panagioti, Maria; Peters, David; Simon, Chantal; Ridge, Damien

    2017-10-01

    GPs are reporting increasing levels of burnout, stress, and job dissatisfaction, and there is a looming GP shortage. Promoting resilience is a key strategy for enhancing the sustainability of the healthcare workforce and improving patient care. To explore GPs' perspectives on the content, context, and acceptability of resilience training programmes in general practice, in order to build more effective GP resilience programmes. This was a qualitative study of the perspectives of GPs currently practising in England. GPs were recruited through convenience sampling, and data were collected from two focus groups ( n = 15) and one-to-one telephone interviews ( n = 7). A semi-structured interview approach was used and data were analysed using thematic analysis. Participants perceived resilience training to be potentially of value in ameliorating workplace stresses. Nevertheless, uncertainty was expressed regarding how best to provide training for stressed GPs who have limited time. Participants suspected that GPs most likely to benefit from resilience training were the least likely to engage, as stress and being busy worked against engagement. Conflicting views were expressed about the most suitable training delivery method for promoting better engagement. Participants also emphasised that training should not only place the focus on the individual, but also focus on organisation issues. A multimodal, flexible approach based on individual needs and learning aims, including resilience workshops within undergraduate training and in individual practices, is likely to be the optimal way to promote resilience. © British Journal of General Practice 2017.

  13. Tracking down a solution: exploring the acceptability and value of wearable GPS devices for older persons, individuals with a disability and their support persons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williamson, Brittany; Aplin, Tammy; de Jonge, Desleigh; Goyne, Matthew

    2017-11-01

    To explore the acceptability and value of three wearable GPS devices for older persons and individuals with a disability and safety concerns when accessing the community. This pilot study explored six wearers' and their support persons' experience of using three different wearable GPS devices (a pendant, watch, and mini GPS phone), each for a two-week period. Participants identified safety as the main value of using a wearable GPS device. The acceptability and value of these devices was strongly influenced by device features, ease of use, cost, appearance, the reliability of the GPS coordinates, the wearer's health condition and the users familiarity with technology. Overall, participants indicated that they preferred the pendant. Wearable GPS devices are potentially useful in providing individuals who have safety concerns with reassurance and access to assistance as required. To ensure successful utilization, future device design and device selection should consider the user's familiarity with technology and their health condition. This study also revealed that not all wearable GPS devices provide continuous location tracking. It is therefore critical to ensure that the device's location tracking functions address the wearer's requirements and reason for using the device. Implications for Rehabilitation The acceptability and usability of wearable GPS devices is strongly influenced by the device features, ease of use, cost, appearance, the reliability of the device to provide accurate and timely GPS coordinates, as well as the health condition of the wearer and their familiarity with technology. Wearable GPS devices need to be simple to use and support and training is essential to ensure they are successfully utilized. Not all wearable GPS devices provide continuous location tracking and accuracy of location is impacted by line of sight to satellites. Therefore, care needs to be taken when choosing a suitable device, to ensure that the device's location tracking

  14. Relation of decorrelated transionospheric GPS signal fluctuations from two stations in the northern anomaly crest region with equatorial ionospheric dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul, K. S.; Paul, A.

    2017-05-01

    The ionosphere around the northern crest of the equatorial ionization anomaly (EIA) and beyond exhibits rapid temporal as well as spatial development of ionization density irregularities during postsunset hours. A GPS campaign was conducted during September 2012 and April 2013 from the Institute of Radio Physics and Electronics, Calcutta (22.58°N, 88.38°E geographic; magnetic dip: 32°N), and North Bengal University (NBU), Siliguri (26.72°N, 88.39°E geographic, magnetic dip: 39.49°N) in India in order to assess and quantify differences, if any, in the nature of carrier to noise ratio (C/N0) fluctuations observed on the same satellite link around the same time interval from these stations. Significant decorrelation of the received signals was found when tracking the same satellite vehicle (SV) link from these stations during periods of scintillations. Low values of correlation coefficient of C/N0 at L1 frequency recorded on the same SV link at these two stations were found to correspond with high irregularity characteristic velocities. North-south spatial displacement rates of the impact of ionospheric irregularities were calculated based on coordinated GPS observations which followed an increasing trend with irregularity characteristic velocities measured at VHF. Values of characteristic velocities in excess of 36 m/s were also found to result in large receiver position deviations 3.5-4.0 m during periods of scintillations. Information related to time lag associated with occurrence of scintillations on the same SV link observed from two stations could be useful for improving performance of transionospheric satellite-based position determination techniques.

  15. Communication plan of GPS monitoring system based on the Internet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xing, Xiangpeng; Liu, Zhenan; Bao, Yuanlu

    2005-11-01

    In GPS monitoring system, wireless communications network is necessary to keep base station in contact with mobile stations. Public communications network and personal communications network can't work well all the time. In this article, an economical communications network that can be competent for communication of GPS monitoring system is introduced. Personal communications network is used in this GPS monitoring system. In order to enlarge the coverage area and to expand the capacity of the personal communications network, the concept of cellular radio system is introduced. Because only the non-adjacent cells can use the same frequency channel, handoff of mobile station is extremely important when it goes in another cell. The mobile station of the system will know its own longitude and latitude by receiving data from GPS satellites all the time, so it can change its working frequency channel according to its position. Internet, instead of personal communication cable, is used to connect the base stations. So the communications network has the advantage of public communications network and personal one.

  16. The Permanent GPS Network In The Iberian Peninsula

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandes, R. M. S.; Bastos, L.; Ambrosius, B. A. C.; Noomen, R.

    In recent years, the number of permanent GPS sites in the Iberia Peninsula has in- creased significantly: in the beginning of 1996 there were just 2 sites with publicly available data. This number had risen to 15 by the end of 1999, and recently (end of 2001), it has reached 18. For many sites, the observation time-span is already suffi- ciently long to derive a reliable estimate of the motion of the stations. Combined with the relatively good geographical distribution of the sites, this velocity field contains unique information to study the tectonics of the Iberian Peninsula, both internally and with respect to the rest of Europe. In the framework of a combined DEOS-AOUP research project called GIN (GPS Iberian Network), the data of all available GPS sites in the region (including some in North Africa, the Azores Archipelago and France) are being processed on a daily basis since the middle of 2000 (with backward processing extending to January 1996). Following this project, DEOS became an official LAC (Local Analysis Centre) of EU- REF in the beginning of 2001. The DEOS weekly solutions are included in the official EUREF analysis chain, resulting in weekly coordinate solutions for the entire EU- REF network. The two solutions (GIN &EUREF) are computed by the DEOS-AOUP group using the same software, but applying different strategies. The differences in the solutions are analysed in order to pinpoint data problems and processing errors. Furthermore, the GIN velocity field is compared with the one derived from the offi- cial EUREF solution. Special attention is paid to the different procedures to link the solutions into a unified reference frame. Finally, this paper presents a preliminary interpretation of the contemporary tectonics of the Iberian Peninsula based on the derived velocity fields. There is evidence of significant intra-plate deformation in the Iberia region and there are indications that the Iberian block exhibits a differential motion with respect to

  17. Travel patterns during pregnancy: comparison between Global Positioning System (GPS) tracking and questionnaire data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Jun; Jiang, Chengsheng; Jaimes, Guillermo; Bartell, Scott; Dang, Andy; Baker, Dean; Delfino, Ralph J

    2013-10-09

    Maternal exposures to traffic-related air pollution have been associated with adverse pregnancy outcomes. Exposures to traffic-related air pollutants are strongly influenced by time spent near traffic. However, little is known about women's travel activities during pregnancy and whether questionnaire-based data can provide reliable information on travel patterns during pregnancy. Examine women's in-vehicle travel behavior during pregnancy and examine the difference in travel data collected by questionnaire and global positioning system (GPS) and their potential for exposure error. We measured work-related travel patterns in 56 pregnant women using a questionnaire and one-week GPS tracking three times during pregnancy (30 weeks of gestation). We compared self-reported activities with GPS-derived trip distance and duration, and examined potentially influential factors that may contribute to differences. We also described in-vehicle travel behavior by pregnancy periods and influences of demographic and personal factors on daily travel times. Finally, we estimated personal exposure to particle-bound polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PB-PAH) and examined the magnitude of exposure misclassification using self-reported vs. GPS travel data. Subjects overestimated both trip duration and trip distance compared to the GPS data. We observed moderately high correlations between self-reported and GPS-recorded travel distance (home to work trips: r = 0.88; work to home trips: r = 0.80). Better agreement was observed between the GPS and the self-reported travel time for home to work trips (r = 0.77) than work to home trips (r = 0.64). The subjects on average spent 69 and 93 minutes traveling in vehicles daily based on the GPS and self-reported data, respectively. Longer daily travel time was observed among participants in early pregnancy, and during certain pregnancy periods in women with higher education attainment, higher income, and no children. When comparing

  18. A web-based GPS system for displacement monitoring and failure mechanism analysis of reservoir landslide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yuanyao; Huang, Jinsong; Jiang, Shui-Hua; Huang, Faming; Chang, Zhilu

    2017-12-07

    It is important to monitor the displacement time series and to explore the failure mechanism of reservoir landslide for early warning. Traditionally, it is a challenge to monitor the landslide displacements real-timely and automatically. Globe Position System (GPS) is considered as the best real-time monitoring technology, however, the accuracies of the landslide displacements monitored by GPS are not assessed effectively. A web-based GPS system is developed to monitor the landslide displacements real-timely and automatically in this study. And the discrete wavelet transform (DWT) is proposed to assess the accuracy of the GPS monitoring displacements. Wangmiao landslide in Three Gorges Reservoir area in China is used as case study. The results show that the web-based GPS system has advantages of high precision, real-time, remote control and automation for landslide monitoring; the Root Mean Square Errors of the monitoring landslide displacements are less than 5 mm. Meanwhile, the results also show that a rapidly falling reservoir water level can trigger the reactivation of Wangmiao landslide. Heavy rainfall is also an important factor, but not a crucial component.

  19. Seamless Guidance System Combining GPS, BLE Beacon, and NFC Technologies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rung-Shiang Cheng

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Users rely increasingly on Location-Based Services (LBS and automated navigation/guidance systems nowadays. However, while such services are easily implemented in outdoor environments using Global Positioning System (GPS technology, a requirement still exists for accurate localization and guidance schemes in indoor settings. Accordingly, the present study proposes a system based on GPS, Bluetooth Low Energy (BLE beacons, and Near Field Communication (NFC technology. Through establishing graphic information and the design of algorithm, this study develops a guidance system for indoors and outdoors on smart phones, wishing to give user perfect smart life through this system. The proposed system is implemented on a smart phone and evaluated on a student campus environment. The experimental results confirm the ability of the proposed app to switch automatically from an outdoor mode to an indoor mode and to guide the user to requested target destination via the shortest possible route.

  20. USGS earthquake hazards program (EHP) GPS use case : earthquake early warning (EEW) and shake alert

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-03-30

    GPS Adjacent Band Workshop VI RTCA Inc., Washington D.C., 30 March 2017. USGS GPS receiver use case - Real-Time GPS for EEW -Continued: CRITICAL EFFECT - The GNSS component of the Shake Alert system augments the inertial sensors and is especial...

  1. Lightweight GPS-tags, one giant leap for wildlife tracking? An assessment approach.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariano R Recio

    Full Text Available Recent technological improvements have made possible the development of lightweight GPS-tagging devices suitable to track medium-to-small sized animals. However, current inferences concerning GPS performance are based on heavier designs, suitable only for large mammals. Lightweight GPS-units are deployed close to the ground, on species selecting micro-topographical features and with different behavioural patterns in comparison to larger mammal species. We assessed the effects of vegetation, topography, motion, and behaviour on the fix success rate for lightweight GPS-collar across a range of natural environments, and at the scale of perception of feral cats (Felis catus. Units deployed at 20 cm above the ground in sites of varied vegetation and topography showed that trees (native forest and shrub cover had the largest influence on fix success rate (89% on average; whereas tree cover, sky availability, number of satellites and horizontal dilution of position (HDOP were the main variables affecting location error (±39.5 m and ±27.6 m before and after filtering outlier fixes. Tests on HDOP or number of satellites-based screening methods to remove inaccurate locations achieved only a small reduction of error and discarded many accurate locations. Mobility tests were used to simulate cats' motion, revealing a slightly lower performance as compared to the fixed sites. GPS-collars deployed on 43 cats showed no difference in fix success rate by sex or season. Overall, fix success rate and location error values were within the range of previous tests carried out with collars designed for larger species. Lightweight GPS-tags are a suitable method to track medium to small size species, hence increasing the range of opportunities for spatial ecology research. However, the effects of vegetation, topography and behaviour on location error and fix success rate need to be evaluated prior to deployment, for the particular study species and their habitats.

  2. Overview of GPS Adjacent Band Compatibility Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-09-18

    January 13, 2012 National SpaceBased Positioning, Navigation, and Timing (PNT) Executive Committee (EXCOM) cochair letter to National Telecommunications and Information Administration (NTIA) proposed to draft new Global Positioning System (GPS)...

  3. Geocenter variations derived from a combined processing of LEO- and ground-based GPS observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Männel, Benjamin; Rothacher, Markus

    2017-08-01

    GNSS observations provided by the global tracking network of the International GNSS Service (IGS, Dow et al. in J Geod 83(3):191-198, 2009) play an important role in the realization of a unique terrestrial reference frame that is accurate enough to allow a detailed monitoring of the Earth's system. Combining these ground-based data with GPS observations tracked by high-quality dual-frequency receivers on-board low earth orbiters (LEOs) is a promising way to further improve the realization of the terrestrial reference frame and the estimation of geocenter coordinates, GPS satellite orbits and Earth rotation parameters. To assess the scope of the improvement on the geocenter coordinates, we processed a network of 53 globally distributed and stable IGS stations together with four LEOs (GRACE-A, GRACE-B, OSTM/Jason-2 and GOCE) over a time interval of 3 years (2010-2012). To ensure fully consistent solutions, the zero-difference phase observations of the ground stations and LEOs were processed in a common least-squares adjustment, estimating all the relevant parameters such as GPS and LEO orbits, station coordinates, Earth rotation parameters and geocenter motion. We present the significant impact of the individual LEO and a combination of all four LEOs on the geocenter coordinates. The formal errors are reduced by around 20% due to the inclusion of one LEO into the ground-only solution, while in a solution with four LEOs LEO-specific characteristics are significantly reduced. We compare the derived geocenter coordinates w.r.t. LAGEOS results and external solutions based on GPS and SLR data. We found good agreement in the amplitudes of all components; however, the phases in x- and z-direction do not agree well.

  4. Fast and accurate inductance and coupling calculation for a multi-layer Nb process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fourie, Coenrad J; Takahashi, Akitomo; Yoshikawa, Nobuyuki

    2015-01-01

    Currently, fabrication processes for superconductive integrated circuits are moving to multiple wiring and shielding layers, some of which are placed below the main ground plane (GP) and device layers. The Advanced Industrial Science and Technology advanced process (ADP2) was the first such multi-layer Nb process with planarized passive transmission line and GP layers below the junction layer, and is at the time of writing still the most developed. This process allows complex circuit designs, and accurate inductance extraction helps to push the boundaries of the layouts possible. We show that the position of ground connections between ground layers influences the inductance of structures for which these GPs act as return path, and that this needs to be accounted for in modelling. However, due to the number of wiring layers and GPs, full layout modelling of large cells causes long calculation times. In this paper we discuss methods with which to reduce model size, and calibrate InductEx calculations using these methods against measured results. We show that model reduction followed by calibration results in fast calculation times while good accuracy is maintained. We also show that InductEx correctly handles coupling between conductors in a multi-layer layout, and how to model layouts to gauge unwanted coupling between power lines and single flux quantum electronics. (paper)

  5. Detecting discontinuities in GNSS coordinate time series with STARS: case study, the Bologna and Medicina GPS sites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruni, S.; Zerbini, Susanna; Raicich, F.; Errico, M.; Santi, E.

    2014-12-01

    Global navigation satellite systems (GNSS) data are a fundamental source of information for achieving a better understanding of geophysical and climate-related phenomena. However, discontinuities in the coordinate time series might be a severe limiting factor for the reliable estimate of long-term trends. A methodological approach has been adapted from Rodionov (Geophys Res Lett 31:L09204, 2004; Geophys Res Lett 31:L12707, 2006) and from Rodionov and Overland (J Marine Sci 62:328-332, 2005) to identify both the epoch of occurrence and the magnitude of jumps corrupting GNSS data sets without any a priori information on these quantities. The procedure is based on the Sequential t test Analysis of Regime Shifts (STARS) (Rodionov in Geophys Res Lett 31:L09204, 2004). The method has been tested against a synthetic data set characterized by typical features exhibited by real GNSS time series, such as linear trend, seasonal cycle, jumps, missing epochs and a combination of white and flicker noise. The results show that the offsets identified by the algorithm are split into 48 % of true-positive, 28 % of false-positive and 24 % of false-negative events. The procedure has then been applied to GPS coordinate time series of stations located in the southeastern Po Plain, in Italy. The series span more than 15 years and are affected by offsets of different nature. The methodology proves to be effective, as confirmed by the comparison between the corrected GPS time series and those obtained by other observation techniques.

  6. Využitie GPS na strojoch a strojných linkách v rastlinnej výrobe

    OpenAIRE

    Palágyi, Alexander

    2016-01-01

    Thesis deals with the main applications of GPS systems in the field of agricultural machinery. It describes the history of navigation systems, application of GPS systems in guiding the machinery on the field, CTF systems and their application, monitoring of agricultural machinery, ISO-Bus systems and geographical information systems. The own work part investigates inaccuracies of tramlines on a selected field and their impact on the amount of used seed

  7. RELIABILITY AND ACCURACY OF 10 HZ GPS DEVICES FOR SHORT-DISTANCE EXERCISE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julen Castellano

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The use of GPS technology for training and research purposes requires a study of the reliability, validity and accuracy of the data generated (Petersen et al., 2009. To date, studies have focused on devices with a logging rate of 1 Hz and 5 Hz (Coutts and Duffield, 2010; Duffield et al., 2010; Jennings et al., 2010; MacLeod et al., 2009; Petersen et al., 2009; Portas et al., 2010, although it seems that more frequent sampling can increase the accuracy of the information provided by these devices (Jennings et al., 2010; MacLeod et al., 2009, Portas et al., 2010. However, we are unaware of any study of the reliability and accuracy of GPS devices using a sampling frequency of 10 Hz. Thus, the aim of the present research was to determine the reliability and accuracy of GPS devices operating at a sampling frequency of 10 Hz, in relation here to sprints of 15 m and 30 m and using both video and photoelectric cells.Nine trained male athletes participated in the study. Each participant completed 7 and 6 linear runs of 15 m and 30 m, respectively (n = 117, with only one GPS device being used per participant. Each repetition required them to complete the route as quickly as possible, with 1 min recovery between sets. Distance was monitored through the use of GPS devices (MinimaxX v4.0, Catapult Innovations, Melbourne, Australia operating at the above mentioned sampling frequency of 10 Hz. In addition, all tests were filmed with a video camera operating at a sampling frequency of 25 frames. Data were collected during what were considered to be good GPS conditions in terms of the weather and satellite conditions (number of satellites = 10.0 ± 0.2 and 10.3 ± 0.4 for sprints of 15 m and 30 m, respectively.Distance was measured using a tape measure. Electronic timing gates (TAG- Heuer, CP 520 Training model, Switzerland were used to obtain a criterion sprint time accurate to 0.01 s, with gates being placed at the beginning and end of the route (Petersen et

  8. Effect of an evidence-based answering service on GPs and their patients : a pilot study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verhoeven, A.A.; Schuling, J.

    2004-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: For general practitioners (GPs), an important obstacle to practising evidence-based medicine is lack of time. An evidence-based answering service was developed that took over searching and appraisal of medical evidence from the GPs. GPs sent in questions, and the informationist

  9. Comparative Analysis of Several Real-Time Systems for Tracking People and/or Moving Objects using GPS

    OpenAIRE

    Radinski, Gligorcho; Mileva, Aleksandra

    2015-01-01

    When we talk about real-time systems for tracking people and/or moving objects using a Global Positioning System (GPS), there are several categories of such systems and the ways in which they work. Some uses additional hardware to extend the functionality of the offered opportunities, some are free, some are too complex and cost too much money. This paper aims to provide a clearer picture of several such systems and to show results from a comparative analysis of some popular systems for trac...

  10. Reliability of Bluetooth Technology for Travel Time Estimation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Araghi, Bahar Namaki; Olesen, Jonas Hammershøj; Krishnan, Rajesh

    2015-01-01

    . However, their corresponding impacts on accuracy and reliability of estimated travel time have not been evaluated. In this study, a controlled field experiment is conducted to collect both Bluetooth and GPS data for 1000 trips to be used as the basis for evaluation. Data obtained by GPS logger is used...... to calculate actual travel time, referred to as ground truth, and to geo-code the Bluetooth detection events. In this setting, reliability is defined as the percentage of devices captured per trip during the experiment. It is found that, on average, Bluetooth-enabled devices will be detected 80% of the time......-range antennae detect Bluetooth-enabled devices in a closer location to the sensor, thus providing a more accurate travel time estimate. However, the smaller the size of the detection zone, the lower the penetration rate, which could itself influence the accuracy of estimates. Therefore, there has to be a trade...

  11. GPs' attitudes, beliefs and behaviours regarding exercise for chronic knee pain: a questionnaire survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foster, Nadine E; Porcheret, Mark; Rathod, Trishna; Roddy, Edward

    2017-01-01

    Objectives The aim of this study was to investigate general practitioners’ (GPs) attitudes, beliefs and behaviours regarding the use of exercise for patients with chronic knee pain (CKP) attributable to osteoarthritis. Setting Primary care GPs in the UK. Participants 5000 GPs, randomly selected from Binley’s database, were mailed a cross-sectional questionnaire survey. Outcome measures GPs’ attitudes and beliefs were investigated using attitude statements, and reported behaviours were identified using vignette-based questions. GPs were invited to report barriers experienced when initiating exercise with patients with CKP Results 835 (17%) GPs responded. Overall, GPs were positive about general exercise for CKP. 729 (87%) reported using exercise, of which, 538 (74%) reported that they would use both general and local (lower limb) exercises. However, only 92 (11% of all responding) GPs reported initiating exercise in ways aligning with best-evidence recommendations. 815 (98%) GPs reported barriers in using exercise for patients with CKP, most commonly, insufficient time in consultations (n=419; 51%) and insufficient expertise (n=337; 41%). Conclusions While GPs’ attitudes and beliefs regarding exercise for CKP were generally positive, initiation of exercise was often poorly aligned with current recommendations, and barriers and uncertainties were reported. GPs’ use of exercise may be improved by addressing the key barriers of time and expertise, by developing a pragmatic approach that supports GPs to initiate individualised exercise, and/or by other professionals taking on this role. PMID:28624759

  12. Finding time over time: Longitudinal links between employed mothers' work-family conflict and time profiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Soomi; McHale, Susan M; Crouter, Ann C; Hammer, Leslie B; Almeida, David M

    2017-08-01

    Drawing upon the Work-Home Resources model (ten Brummelhuis & Bakker, 2012), this study examined the links between work-family conflict and employed mothers' profiles of time resources for work and parenting roles. Using a person-centered latent profile approach, we identified 3 profiles of time use and perceived time adequacy in a sample of mothers employed in the extended-care industry (N = 440): a Work-Oriented profile, characterized by spending relatively more time at work, perceiving lower time adequacy for work, spending less time with children, and perceiving lower time adequacy for children; a Parenting-Oriented profile, characterized by the opposite pattern; and a Role-Balanced profile, characterized by average levels across the 4 dimensions. Mothers in the Work-Oriented profile reported greater work-to-family conflict and family to-work conflict than those in the Role-Balanced and Parenting-Oriented profiles. Greater work-to-family conflict was linked to membership in the Work-Oriented profile, net of personal, family, and work characteristics. Longitudinal latent profile transition analysis showed that increases in work-to-family conflict across 12 months were linked to greater odds of moving toward the Work-Oriented profile (relative to staying in the same profile), whereas decreases in work-to-family conflict were linked to greater odds of moving toward the Parenting-Oriented profile. Results illuminate the heterogeneity in how employed mothers perceive and allocate time in work and parenting roles and suggest that decreasing work-to-family conflict may preserve time resources for parenting. Intervention efforts should address ways of increasing employees' family time resources and decreasing work-family conflict. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  13. Association between neighborhood walkability and GPS-measured walking, bicycling and vehicle time in adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlson, Jordan A; Saelens, Brian E; Kerr, Jacqueline; Schipperijn, Jasper; Conway, Terry L; Frank, Lawrence D; Chapman, Jim E; Glanz, Karen; Cain, Kelli L; Sallis, James F

    2015-03-01

    To investigate relations of walking, bicycling and vehicle time to neighborhood walkability and total physical activity in youth. Participants (N=690) were from 380 census block groups of high/low walkability and income in two US regions. Home neighborhood residential density, intersection density, retail density, entertainment density and walkability were derived using GIS. Minutes/day of walking, bicycling and vehicle time were derived from processing algorithms applied to GPS. Accelerometers estimated total daily moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA). Models were adjusted for nesting of days (N=2987) within participants within block groups. Walking occurred on 33%, active travel on 43%, and vehicle time on 91% of the days observed. Intersection density and neighborhood walkability were positively related to walking and bicycling and negatively related to vehicle time. Residential density was positively related to walking. Increasing walking in youth could be effective in increasing total physical activity. Built environment findings suggest potential for increasing walking in youth through improving neighborhood walkability. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Development of automatic techniques for GPS data management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Pil Ho

    2001-06-01

    It is necessary for GPS center to establish automatization as effective management of GPS network including data gathering, data transformation, data backup, data sending to IGS (International GPS Service for geodynamics), and precise ephemerides gathering. The operating program of GPS center has been adopted at KCSC (Korea Cadastral Survey Corporation), NGI (National Geography Institute), MOMAF (Ministry of Maritime Affairs and Fisheries) without self-development of core technique. The automatic management of GPS network is consists of GPS data management and data processing. It is also fundamental technique, which should be accomplished by every GPS centers. Therefore, this study carried out analyzing of Japanese GPS center, which has accomplished automatization by module considering applicability for domestic GPS centers

  15. The profile of general practitioners (GPs who publish in selected family practice journals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Serna C

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Providing support for research is one of the key issues in the ongoing attempts to improve Primary Care. However, when patient care takes up a significant part of a GP's time, conducting research is difficult. In this study we examine the working conditions and profile of GPs who publish in three leading medical journals and propose possible remedial policy actions. Findings The authors of all articles published in 2006 and 2007 in three international Family Medicine journals - Annals of Family Medicine, Family Practice, and Journal of Family Practice - were contacted by E-mail. They were asked to complete a questionnaire investigating the following variables: availability of specific time for research, time devoted to research, number of patients attended, and university affiliation. Only GPs were included in the study. Three hundred and ten relevant articles published between 2006 and 2007 were identified and the authors contacted using a survey tool. 124 researchers responded to our questionnaire; 45% of respondents who were not GPs were excluded. On average GPs spent 2.52 days per week and 6.9 hours per day on patient care, seeing 45 patients per week. Seventy-five per cent of GPs had specific time assigned to research, on average 13 hours per week; 79% were affiliated to a university and 69% held teaching positions. Conclusions Most GPs who publish original articles in leading journals have time specifically assigned to research as part of their normal working schedule. They see a relatively small number of patients. Improving the working conditions of family physicians who intend to investigate is likely to lead to better research results.

  16. Scintillation-Hardened GPS Receiver

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephens, Donald R.

    2015-01-01

    CommLargo, Inc., has developed a scintillation-hardened Global Positioning System (GPS) receiver that improves reliability for low-orbit missions and complies with NASA's Space Telecommunications Radio System (STRS) architecture standards. A software-defined radio (SDR) implementation allows a single hardware element to function as either a conventional radio or as a GPS receiver, providing backup and redundancy for platforms such as the International Space Station (ISS) and high-value remote sensing platforms. The innovation's flexible SDR implementation reduces cost, weight, and power requirements. Scintillation hardening improves mission reliability and variability. In Phase I, CommLargo refactored an open-source GPS software package with Kalman filter-based tracking loops to improve performance during scintillation and also demonstrated improved navigation during a geomagnetic storm. In Phase II, the company generated a new field-programmable gate array (FPGA)-based GPS waveform to demonstrate on NASA's Space Communication and Navigation (SCaN) test bed.

  17. GPS-based microenvironment tracker (MicroTrac) model to estimate time-location of individuals for air pollution exposure assessments: model evaluation in central North Carolina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breen, Michael S; Long, Thomas C; Schultz, Bradley D; Crooks, James; Breen, Miyuki; Langstaff, John E; Isaacs, Kristin K; Tan, Yu-Mei; Williams, Ronald W; Cao, Ye; Geller, Andrew M; Devlin, Robert B; Batterman, Stuart A; Buckley, Timothy J

    2014-07-01

    A critical aspect of air pollution exposure assessment is the estimation of the time spent by individuals in various microenvironments (ME). Accounting for the time spent in different ME with different pollutant concentrations can reduce exposure misclassifications, while failure to do so can add uncertainty and bias to risk estimates. In this study, a classification model, called MicroTrac, was developed to estimate time of day and duration spent in eight ME (indoors and outdoors at home, work, school; inside vehicles; other locations) from global positioning system (GPS) data and geocoded building boundaries. Based on a panel study, MicroTrac estimates were compared with 24-h diary data from nine participants, with corresponding GPS data and building boundaries of home, school, and work. MicroTrac correctly classified the ME for 99.5% of the daily time spent by the participants. The capability of MicroTrac could help to reduce the time-location uncertainty in air pollution exposure models and exposure metrics for individuals in health studies.

  18. Thermal imbalance force modelling for a GPS satellite using the finite element method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vigue, Yvonne; Schutz, Bob E.

    1991-01-01

    Methods of analyzing the perturbation due to thermal radiation and determining its effects on the orbits of GPS satellites are presented, with emphasis on the FEM technique to calculate satellite solar panel temperatures which are used to determine the magnitude and direction of the thermal imbalance force. Although this force may not be responsible for all of the force mismodeling, conditions may work in combination with the thermal imbalance force to produce such accelerations on the order of 1.e-9 m/sq s. If submeter accurate orbits and centimeter-level accuracy for geophysical applications are desired, a time-dependent model of the thermal imbalance force should be used, especially when satellites are eclipsing, where the observed errors are larger than for satellites in noneclipsing orbits.

  19. Performance evaluation of ionospheric time delay forecasting models using GPS observations at a low-latitude station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sivavaraprasad, G.; Venkata Ratnam, D.

    2017-07-01

    Ionospheric delay is one of the major atmospheric effects on the performance of satellite-based radio navigation systems. It limits the accuracy and availability of Global Positioning System (GPS) measurements, related to critical societal and safety applications. The temporal and spatial gradients of ionospheric total electron content (TEC) are driven by several unknown priori geophysical conditions and solar-terrestrial phenomena. Thereby, the prediction of ionospheric delay is challenging especially over Indian sub-continent. Therefore, an appropriate short/long-term ionospheric delay forecasting model is necessary. Hence, the intent of this paper is to forecast ionospheric delays by considering day to day, monthly and seasonal ionospheric TEC variations. GPS-TEC data (January 2013-December 2013) is extracted from a multi frequency GPS receiver established at K L University, Vaddeswaram, Guntur station (geographic: 16.37°N, 80.37°E; geomagnetic: 7.44°N, 153.75°E), India. An evaluation, in terms of forecasting capabilities, of three ionospheric time delay models - an Auto Regressive Moving Average (ARMA) model, Auto Regressive Integrated Moving Average (ARIMA) model, and a Holt-Winter's model is presented. The performances of these models are evaluated through error measurement analysis during both geomagnetic quiet and disturbed days. It is found that, ARMA model is effectively forecasting the ionospheric delay with an accuracy of 82-94%, which is 10% more superior to ARIMA and Holt-Winter's models. Moreover, the modeled VTEC derived from International Reference Ionosphere, IRI (IRI-2012) model and new global TEC model, Neustrelitz TEC Model (NTCM-GL) have compared with forecasted VTEC values of ARMA, ARIMA and Holt-Winter's models during geomagnetic quiet days. The forecast results are indicating that ARMA model would be useful to set up an early warning system for ionospheric disturbances at low latitude regions.

  20. Towards cycle-accurate performance predictions for real-time embedded systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Triantafyllidis, K.; Bondarev, E.; With, de P.H.N.; Arabnia, H.R.; Deligiannidis, L.; Jandieri, G.

    2013-01-01

    In this paper we present a model-based performance analysis method for component-based real-time systems, featuring cycle-accurate predictions of latencies and enhanced system robustness. The method incorporates the following phases: (a) instruction-level profiling of SW components, (b) modeling the

  1. How does the workload and work activities of procedural GPs compare to non-procedural GPs?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russell, Deborah J; McGrail, Matthew R

    2017-08-01

    To investigate patterns of Australian GP procedural activity and associations with: geographical remoteness and population size hours worked in hospitals and in total; and availability for on-call DESIGN AND PARTICIPANTS: National annual panel survey (Medicine in Australia: Balancing Employment and Life) of Australian GPs, 2011-2013. Self-reported geographical work location, hours worked in different settings, and on-call availability per usual week, were analysed against GP procedural activity in anaesthetics, obstetrics, surgery or emergency medicine. Analysis of 9301 survey responses from 4638 individual GPs revealed significantly increased odds of GP procedural activity in anaesthetics, obstetrics or emergency medicine as geographical remoteness increased and community population size decreased, albeit with plateauing of the effect-size from medium-sized (population 5000-15 000) rural communities. After adjusting for confounders, procedural GPs work more hospital and more total hours each week than non-procedural GPs. In 2011 this equated to GPs practising anaesthetics, obstetrics, surgery, and emergency medicine providing 8% (95%CI 0, 16), 13% (95%CI 8, 19), 8% (95%CI 2, 15) and 18% (95%CI 13, 23) more total hours each week, respectively. The extra hours are attributable to longer hours worked in hospital settings, with no reduction in private consultation hours. Procedural GPs also carry a significantly higher burden of on-call. The longer working hours and higher on-call demands experienced by rural and remote procedural GPs demand improved solutions, such as changes to service delivery models, so that long-term procedural GP careers are increasingly attractive to current and aspiring rural GPs. © 2016 National Rural Health Alliance Inc.

  2. A New GPS-based Digital Protection System for Smart Grids in Loop Structure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    X. Liu

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a new digital protection system to solve the protection challenges in future smart grids, i.e., fast protection and fault isolation in a loop-structured system with limited magnitude of fault current. The new system combines two protection algorithms, i.e., a differential protection as the primary algorithm and an overcurrent protection as the backup one. The new system uses real-time Ethernet and digital data acquisition techniques to overcome the restriction on data transmission over large grids. The current measurements at different locations are time-synchronized by GPS clocks, and then transmitted to a central computer via the Ethernet. As opposed to digital relays which often contain PMU functionality nowadays, this approach uses time stamps on the instantaneous current values. We build a prototype of the new system on a test-bed. The results from simulations and experiments have demonstrated that the protection system achieves fast and accurate protection.

  3. Active transportation and public transportation use to achieve physical activity recommendations? A combined GPS, accelerometer, and mobility survey study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaix, Basile; Kestens, Yan; Duncan, Scott; Merrien, Claire; Thierry, Benoît; Pannier, Bruno; Brondeel, Ruben; Lewin, Antoine; Karusisi, Noëlla; Perchoux, Camille; Thomas, Frédérique; Méline, Julie

    2014-09-27

    Accurate information is lacking on the extent of transportation as a source of physical activity, on the physical activity gains from public transportation use, and on the extent to which population shifts in the use of transportation modes could increase the percentage of people reaching official physical activity recommendations. In 2012-2013, 234 participants of the RECORD GPS Study (French Paris region, median age = 58) wore a portable GPS receiver and an accelerometer for 7 consecutive days and completed a 7-day GPS-based mobility survey (participation rate = 57.1%). Information on transportation modes and accelerometry data aggregated at the trip level [number of steps taken, energy expended, moderate to vigorous physical activity (MVPA), and sedentary time] were available for 7,644 trips. Associations between transportation modes and accelerometer-derived physical activity were estimated at the trip level with multilevel linear models. Participants spent a median of 1 h 58 min per day in transportation (8.2% of total time). Thirty-eight per-cent of steps taken, 31% of energy expended, and 33% of MVPA over 7 days were attributable to transportation. Walking and biking trips but also public transportation trips with all four transit modes examined were associated with greater steps, MVPA, and energy expenditure when compared to trips by personal motorized vehicle. Two simulated scenarios, implying a shift of approximately 14% and 33% of all motorized trips to public transportation or walking, were associated with a predicted 6 point and 13 point increase in the percentage of participants achieving the current physical activity recommendation. Collecting data with GPS receivers, accelerometers, and a GPS-based electronic mobility survey of activities and transportation modes allowed us to investigate relationships between transportation modes and physical activity at the trip level. Our findings suggest that an increase in active transportation

  4. Using GPS Imaging to Unravel Vertical Land Motions in the Interior Pacific Northwest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Overacker, J.; Hammond, W. C.; Kraner, M.; Blewitt, G.

    2017-12-01

    GPS Imaging uses robust trends in time series of GPS positions to create a velocity field that can reveal rates and patterns of vertical motions that would be otherwise difficult to detect. We have constructed an image of vertical land velocities within the interior Pacific Northwest region of the United States using GPS Imaging. The image shows a 50-250 km wide swath of approximately 2 mm/yr of subsidence seemingly unrelated to topographic features of the region. The extent of the signal roughly corresponds to the Juan de Fuca plate subduction latitudes and longitude of the Cascade arc. This suggests that the signal could be associated with ongoing crustal deformation possibly related to plate-scale geodynamic forces arising from interseismic coupling, long term plate boundary tractions, volcanic loading, and/or mantle flow. However, hydrological loading from accumulating precipitation in the Cascades and in the region's groundwater basins, and possible effects from Glacial Isostatic Adjustment (GIA) near its hinge line cannot be discounted as potential contributors to the observed subsidence signal. Here we attempt to unravel the contributions of hydrological loading and GIA to the vertical GPS signal observed within the interior Pacific Northwest. In order to determine the non-tectonic contributions to the observed vertical GPS Image, we will examine how the subsidence rate changes over time using early and late period comparisons. GPS, GRACE, and climatic data will be used in conjunction to disentangle the hydrological effect from the GPS Image. GIA models of the Western Cordillera will be compared with the patterns in the GPS Image to assess whether the signal can be explained with current models of GIA. Our presentation will document the signals, uncertainties, and hypotheses for the possible mechanisms behind this subsidence and attempt to quantify their relation and contribution to the observed deformation signal. Figure 1: Pacific Northwest GPS Imaging

  5. Blind source separation problem in GPS time series

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gualandi, A.; Serpelloni, E.; Belardinelli, M. E.

    2016-04-01

    A critical point in the analysis of ground displacement time series, as those recorded by space geodetic techniques, is the development of data-driven methods that allow the different sources of deformation to be discerned and characterized in the space and time domains. Multivariate statistic includes several approaches that can be considered as a part of data-driven methods. A widely used technique is the principal component analysis (PCA), which allows us to reduce the dimensionality of the data space while maintaining most of the variance of the dataset explained. However, PCA does not perform well in finding the solution to the so-called blind source separation (BSS) problem, i.e., in recovering and separating the original sources that generate the observed data. This is mainly due to the fact that PCA minimizes the misfit calculated using an L2 norm (χ 2), looking for a new Euclidean space where the projected data are uncorrelated. The independent component analysis (ICA) is a popular technique adopted to approach the BSS problem. However, the independence condition is not easy to impose, and it is often necessary to introduce some approximations. To work around this problem, we test the use of a modified variational Bayesian ICA (vbICA) method to recover the multiple sources of ground deformation even in the presence of missing data. The vbICA method models the probability density function (pdf) of each source signal using a mix of Gaussian distributions, allowing for more flexibility in the description of the pdf of the sources with respect to standard ICA, and giving a more reliable estimate of them. Here we present its application to synthetic global positioning system (GPS) position time series, generated by simulating deformation near an active fault, including inter-seismic, co-seismic, and post-seismic signals, plus seasonal signals and noise, and an additional time-dependent volcanic source. We evaluate the ability of the PCA and ICA decomposition

  6. Evidential recovery from GPS devices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brian Cusack

    Full Text Available Global Positioning Systems (GPS have become more affordable, are now widely used in motor vehicles and in other frequently used applications. As a consequence GPS are increasingly becoming an important source of evidential data for digital forensic investigations. This paper acknowledges there are only disparate documents for the guidance of an investigator when extracting evidence form such systems. The focus of this paper is to provide the technical details of recovering artifacts from four GPS currently available to the New Zealand market. Navman brand GPS are used, following a forensically robust process. The steps of the process are described, results analysed and the associated risks are discussed. In addition, the paper discusses techniques related to the visual presentation of evidence suitable for Google Maps. Automation attempts to speed up the analysis to visualization steps are also included. The outcome is a road map that may assist digital forensic investigators develop GPS examination strategies for implementation in their own organizations.

  7. High accuracy autonomous navigation using the global positioning system (GPS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Truong, Son H.; Hart, Roger C.; Shoan, Wendy C.; Wood, Terri; Long, Anne C.; Oza, Dipak H.; Lee, Taesul

    1997-01-01

    The application of global positioning system (GPS) technology to the improvement of the accuracy and economy of spacecraft navigation, is reported. High-accuracy autonomous navigation algorithms are currently being qualified in conjunction with the GPS attitude determination flyer (GADFLY) experiment for the small satellite technology initiative Lewis spacecraft. Preflight performance assessments indicated that these algorithms are able to provide a real time total position accuracy of better than 10 m and a velocity accuracy of better than 0.01 m/s, with selective availability at typical levels. It is expected that the position accuracy will be increased to 2 m if corrections are provided by the GPS wide area augmentation system.

  8. Influence of Ephemeris Error on GPS Single Point Positioning Accuracy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lihua, Ma; Wang, Meng

    2013-09-01

    The Global Positioning System (GPS) user makes use of the navigation message transmitted from GPS satellites to achieve its location. Because the receiver uses the satellite's location in position calculations, an ephemeris error, a difference between the expected and actual orbital position of a GPS satellite, reduces user accuracy. The influence extent is decided by the precision of broadcast ephemeris from the control station upload. Simulation analysis with the Yuma almanac show that maximum positioning error exists in the case where the ephemeris error is along the line-of-sight (LOS) direction. Meanwhile, the error is dependent on the relationship between the observer and spatial constellation at some time period.

  9. How GPs implement clinical guidelines in everyday clinical practice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Videbæk Le, Jette; Hansen, Helle P; Riisgaard, Helle

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Clinical guidelines are considered to be essential for improving quality and safety of health care. However, interventions to promote implementation of guidelines have demonstrated only partial effectiveness and the reasons for this apparent failure are not yet fully understood....... OBJECTIVE: To investigate how GPs implement clinical guidelines in everyday clinical practice and how implementation approaches differ between practices. METHODS: Individual semi-structured open-ended interviews with seven GPs who were purposefully sampled with regard to gender, age and practice form....... Interviews were recorded, transcribed verbatim and then analysed using systematic text condensation. RESULTS: Analysis of the interviews revealed three different approaches to the implementation of guidelines in clinical practice. In some practices the GPs prioritized time and resources on collective...

  10. Accuracy, intra- and inter-unit reliability, and comparison between GPS and UWB-based position-tracking systems used for time-motion analyses in soccer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bastida Castillo, Alejandro; Gómez Carmona, Carlos D; De la Cruz Sánchez, Ernesto; Pino Ortega, José

    2018-05-01

    There is interest in the accuracy and inter-unit reliability of position-tracking systems to monitor players. Research into this technology, although relatively recent, has grown exponentially in the last years, and it is difficult to find professional team sport that does not use Global Positioning System (GPS) technology at least. The aim of this study is to know the accuracy of both GPS-based and Ultra Wide Band (UWB)-based systems on a soccer field and their inter- and intra-unit reliability. A secondary aim is to compare them for practical applications in sport science. Following institutional ethical approval and familiarization, 10 healthy and well-trained former soccer players (20 ± 1.6 years, 1.76 ± 0.08 cm, and 69.5 ± 9.8 kg) performed three course tests: (i) linear course, (ii) circular course, and (iii) a zig-zag course, all using UWB and GPS technologies. The average speed and distance covered were compared with timing gates and the real distance as references. The UWB technology showed better accuracy (bias: 0.57-5.85%), test-retest reliability (%TEM: 1.19), and inter-unit reliability (bias: 0.18) in determining distance covered than the GPS technology (bias: 0.69-6.05%; %TEM: 1.47; bias: 0.25) overall. Also, UWB showed better results (bias: 0.09; ICC: 0.979; bias: 0.01) for mean velocity measurement than GPS (bias: 0.18; ICC: 0.951; bias: 0.03).

  11. The views and experiences of female GPs on professional practice and career support.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wedderburn, Clare; Scallan, Samantha; Whittle, Clare; Curtis, Anthony

    2013-09-01

    National GP demographic data demonstrate an increasing 'feminisation' of the workforce. With female GP specialty trainees continuing to outnumber males, this trend is set to continue. The changing composition of the workforce presents challenges in terms of how best to support the long-term career and educational development needs of this sector of the workforce in an evolving healthcare context. The aim of this work was to capture female GPs' experiences of working in general practice and their expectations concerning their career and educational development. Participants were surveyed and completed a semi-structured questionnaire, which generated qualitative and quantitative data. The sample comprised GP registrars, principals and sessionals. This study has generated an important dataset on working patterns, educational experiences and long-term career intentions of female GPs. Despite increased representation in the GP workforce, female GPs (particularly those with young children) appear less likely to be involved in education and training than their male counterparts, and even less likely to be involved in roles linked to primary care trusts, medico-political issues, hospital service delivery, special clinical interests or deanery education management. younger GPs reported significantly more difficulties in managing their childcare needs than older colleagues. Marital status, number of children and employment status did not moderate the effect of these difficulties. Female GPs reported working more hours with increasing age, but were not necessarily represented in a range of educational and/or training posts as a consequence.

  12. The Aalborg Survey / Part 2 - GPS Based Survey

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Harder, Henrik; Reiter, Ida Maria; Christensen, Cecilie Breinholm

    , the GPS based data are supplemented with an attractivity analysis among the 169 respondents. The resulting data are presented in maps in three scales that illustrate the respondents’ use of Aalborg’s urban spaces with regards to the respondent’s movements in time and space. By further coupling the GPS...... data with data on the single respondent’s gender, age, address, activities, mode of transport, use of money etc. it is possible to gain a more detailed knowledge of young people’s use of urban spaces in Aalborg....

  13. Assessments of higher-order ionospheric effects on GPS coordinate time series: A case study of CMONOC with longer time series

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Weiping; Deng, Liansheng; Zhou, Xiaohui; Ma, Yifang

    2014-05-01

    Higher-order ionospheric (HIO) corrections are proposed to become a standard part for precise GPS data analysis. For this study, we deeply investigate the impacts of the HIO corrections on the coordinate time series by implementing re-processing of the GPS data from Crustal Movement Observation Network of China (CMONOC). Nearly 13 year data are used in our three processing runs: (a) run NO, without HOI corrections, (b) run IG, both second- and third-order corrections are modeled using the International Geomagnetic Reference Field 11 (IGRF11) to model the magnetic field, (c) run ID, the same with IG but dipole magnetic model are applied. Both spectral analysis and noise analysis are adopted to investigate these effects. Results show that for CMONOC stations, HIO corrections are found to have brought an overall improvement. After the corrections are applied, the noise amplitudes decrease, with the white noise amplitudes showing a more remarkable variation. Low-latitude sites are more affected. For different coordinate components, the impacts vary. The results of an analysis of stacked periodograms show that there is a good match between the seasonal amplitudes and the HOI corrections, and the observed variations in the coordinate time series are related to HOI effects. HOI delays partially explain the seasonal amplitudes in the coordinate time series, especially for the U component. The annual amplitudes for all components are decreased for over one-half of the selected CMONOC sites. Additionally, the semi-annual amplitudes for the sites are much more strongly affected by the corrections. However, when diplole model is used, the results are not as optimistic as IGRF model. Analysis of dipole model indicate that HIO delay lead to the increase of noise amplitudes, and that HIO delays with dipole model can generate false periodic signals. When dipole model are used in modeling HIO terms, larger residual and noise are brought in rather than the effective improvements.

  14. Applications of GPS technologies to field sports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aughey, Robert J

    2011-09-01

    Global positioning system (GPS) technology was made possible after the invention of the atomic clock. The first suggestion that GPS could be used to assess the physical activity of humans followed some 40 y later. There was a rapid uptake of GPS technology, with the literature concentrating on validation studies and the measurement of steady-state movement. The first attempts were made to validate GPS for field sport applications in 2006. While GPS has been validated for applications for team sports, some doubts continue to exist on the appropriateness of GPS for measuring short high-velocity movements. Thus, GPS has been applied extensively in Australian football, cricket, hockey, rugby union and league, and soccer. There is extensive information on the activity profile of athletes from field sports in the literature stemming from GPS, and this includes total distance covered by players and distance in velocity bands. Global positioning systems have also been applied to detect fatigue in matches, identify periods of most intense play, different activity profiles by position, competition level, and sport. More recent research has integrated GPS data with the physical capacity or fitness test score of athletes, game-specific tasks, or tactical or strategic information. The future of GPS analysis will involve further miniaturization of devices, longer battery life, and integration of other inertial sensor data to more effectively quantify the effort of athletes.

  15. A GPS Phase-Locked Loop Performance Metric Based on the Phase Discriminator Output.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevanovic, Stefan; Pervan, Boris

    2018-01-19

    We propose a novel GPS phase-lock loop (PLL) performance metric based on the standard deviation of tracking error (defined as the discriminator's estimate of the true phase error), and explain its advantages over the popular phase jitter metric using theory, numerical simulation, and experimental results. We derive an augmented GPS phase-lock loop (PLL) linear model, which includes the effect of coherent averaging, to be used in conjunction with this proposed metric. The augmented linear model allows more accurate calculation of tracking error standard deviation in the presence of additive white Gaussian noise (AWGN) as compared to traditional linear models. The standard deviation of tracking error, with a threshold corresponding to half of the arctangent discriminator pull-in region, is shown to be a more reliable/robust measure of PLL performance under interference conditions than the phase jitter metric. In addition, the augmented linear model is shown to be valid up until this threshold, which facilitates efficient performance prediction, so that time-consuming direct simulations and costly experimental testing can be reserved for PLL designs that are much more likely to be successful. The effect of varying receiver reference oscillator quality on the tracking error metric is also considered.

  16. Development of position measuring technology by GPS; GPS ni yoru sokui gijutsu no kaihatsu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ishizaki, T [Ministry of Transportation, Tokyo (Japan)

    1994-07-25

    With regard to the GPS (global positioning system) which uses the satellites launched and administered by the U.S.A. and has been utilized worldwide for ships, automobiles and geodetic surveys in recent years, Ministry of Transport started investigation and research on the application of its position measuring system from FY 1989. In this fiscal year, a study on position measuring methods and selection of the position measuring system to be developed were made, in FY 1991, the real-time functioning and track display were developed, in FY 1992, the initialization aboard the ship, the measure to prevent cycle slip, and the radio data communication technology were developed, and in FY 1993, a long term demonstration experiment presuming its practical use was conducted attaining the expected purpose. In this article, the developed real-time kinematic position measuring system is introduced. Regarding the position measuring methods by the GPS, there are the one point position measuring method and the relative position measuring method. Regarding this newly developed position measuring device, its application to work ships and structures can be considered in various ways. 4 figs.

  17. Analysis of signal acquisition in GPS receiver software

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vlada S. Sokolović

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a critical analysis of the flow signal processing carried out in GPS receiver software, which served as a basis for a critical comparison of different signal processing architectures within the GPS receiver. It is possible to achieve Increased flexibility and reduction of GPS device commercial costs, including those of mobile devices, by using radio technology software (SDR, Software Defined Radio. The SDR application can be realized when certain hardware components in a GPS receiver are replaced. Signal processing in the SDR is implemented using a programmable DSP (Digital Signal Processing or FPGA (Field Programmable Gate Array circuit, which allows a simple change of digital signal processing algorithms and a simple change of the receiver parameters. The starting point of the research is the signal generated on the satellite the structure of which is shown in the paper. Based on the GPS signal structure, a receiver is realized with a task to extract an appropriate signal from the spectrum and detect it. Based on collected navigation data, the receiver calculates the position of the end user. The signal coming from the satellite may be at the carrier frequencies of L1 and L2. Since the SPS is used in the civil service, all the tests shown in the work were performed on the L1 signal. The signal coming to the receiver is generated in the spread spectrum technology and is situated below the level of noise. Such signals often interfere with signals from the environment which presents a difficulty for a receiver to perform proper detection and signal processing. Therefore, signal processing technology is continually being improved, aiming at more accurate and faster signal processing. All tests were carried out on a signal acquired from the satellite using the SE4110 input circuit used for filtering, amplification and signal selection. The samples of the received signal were forwarded to a computer for data post processing, i. e

  18. A New Multiscale Technique for Time-Accurate Geophysics Simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omelchenko, Y. A.; Karimabadi, H.

    2006-12-01

    Large-scale geophysics systems are frequently described by multiscale reactive flow models (e.g., wildfire and climate models, multiphase flows in porous rocks, etc.). Accurate and robust simulations of such systems by traditional time-stepping techniques face a formidable computational challenge. Explicit time integration suffers from global (CFL and accuracy) timestep restrictions due to inhomogeneous convective and diffusion processes, as well as closely coupled physical and chemical reactions. Application of adaptive mesh refinement (AMR) to such systems may not be always sufficient since its success critically depends on a careful choice of domain refinement strategy. On the other hand, implicit and timestep-splitting integrations may result in a considerable loss of accuracy when fast transients in the solution become important. To address this issue, we developed an alternative explicit approach to time-accurate integration of such systems: Discrete-Event Simulation (DES). DES enables asynchronous computation by automatically adjusting the CPU resources in accordance with local timescales. This is done by encapsulating flux- conservative updates of numerical variables in the form of events, whose execution and synchronization is explicitly controlled by imposing accuracy and causality constraints. As a result, at each time step DES self- adaptively updates only a fraction of the global system state, which eliminates unnecessary computation of inactive elements. DES can be naturally combined with various mesh generation techniques. The event-driven paradigm results in robust and fast simulation codes, which can be efficiently parallelized via a new preemptive event processing (PEP) technique. We discuss applications of this novel technology to time-dependent diffusion-advection-reaction and CFD models representative of various geophysics applications.

  19. GPs' perceptions of workload in England: a qualitative interview study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Croxson, Caroline Hd; Ashdown, Helen F; Hobbs, Fd Richard

    2017-02-01

    GPs report the lowest levels of morale among doctors, job satisfaction is low, and the GP workforce is diminishing. Workload is frequently cited as negatively impacting on commitment to a career in general practice, and many GPs report that their workload is unmanageable. To gather an in-depth understanding of GPs' perceptions and attitudes towards workload. All GPs working within NHS England were eligible. Advertisements were circulated via regional GP e-mail lists and national social media networks in June 2015. Of those GPs who responded, a maximum-variation sample was selected until data saturation was reached. Semi-structured, qualitative interviews were conducted. Data were analysed thematically. In total, 171 GPs responded, and 34 were included in this study. GPs described an increase in workload over recent years, with current working days being long and intense, raising concerns over the wellbeing of GPs and patients. Full-time partnership was generally not considered to be possible, and many participants felt workload was unsustainable, particularly given the diminishing workforce. Four major themes emerged to explain increased workload: increased patient needs and expectations; a changing relationship between primary and secondary care; bureaucracy and resources; and the balance of workload within a practice. Continuity of care was perceived as being eroded by changes in contracts and working patterns to deal with workload. This study highlights the urgent need to address perceived lack of investment and clinical capacity in general practice, and suggests that managing patient expectations around what primary care can deliver, and reducing bureaucracy, have become key issues, at least until capacity issues are resolved. © British Journal of General Practice 2017.

  20. Enabling time-dependent uncertain eco-weights for road networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hu, Jilin; Yang, Bin; Jensen, Christian S.

    2017-01-01

    travel costs. Based on the techniques above, different histogram aggregation methods are proposed to accurately estimate time-dependent GHG emissions for routes. Based on a 200-million GPS record data set collected from 150 vehicles in Denmark over two years, a comprehensive empirical study is conducted...... transportation. The foundation of eco-routing is a weighted-graph representation of a road network in which road segments, or edges, are associated with eco-weights that capture the GHG emissions caused by traversing the edges. Due to the dynamics of traffic, the eco-weights are best modeled as being time...... dependent and uncertain. We formalize the problem of assigning a time-dependent, uncertain eco-weight to each edge in a road network based on historical GPS records. In particular, a sequence of histograms is employed to describe the uncertain eco-weight of an edge at different time intervals. Compression...

  1. Using Map Service API for Driving Cycle Detection for Wearable GPS Data: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhu, Lei [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Gonder, Jeffrey D [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2017-12-06

    Following advancements in smartphone and portable global positioning system (GPS) data collection, wearable GPS data have realized extensive use in transportation surveys and studies. The task of detecting driving cycles (driving or car-mode trajectory segments) from wearable GPS data has been the subject of much research. Specifically, distinguishing driving cycles from other motorized trips (such as taking a bus) is the main research problem in this paper. Many mode detection methods only focus on raw GPS speed data while some studies apply additional information, such as geographic information system (GIS) data, to obtain better detection performance. Procuring and maintaining dedicated road GIS data are costly and not trivial, whereas the technical maturity and broad use of map service application program interface (API) queries offers opportunities for mode detection tasks. The proposed driving cycle detection method takes advantage of map service APIs to obtain high-quality car-mode API route information and uses a trajectory segmentation algorithm to find the best-matched API route. The car-mode API route data combined with the actual route information, including the actual mode information, are used to train a logistic regression machine learning model, which estimates car modes and non-car modes with probability rates. The experimental results show promise for the proposed method's ability to detect vehicle mode accurately.

  2. Diagnosing skin disease in primary care: a qualitative study of GPs' approaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rübsam, Marie-Luise; Esch, Maximilian; Baum, Erika; Bösner, Stefan

    2015-10-01

    Skin diseases are a common reason for consulting a GP. This regular occurrence happens despite most GPs' lack of knowledge and training in skin disease. We aimed to explore different diagnostic approaches of GPs in patients presenting with a dermatological problem. In addition, we aimed to identify strategies used by GPs to handle diagnostic uncertainty in these patients. We conducted interviews (20-40 minutes) with 14 GPs using a semi-structured guideline. Recalling encounters with patients with skin disease, GPs described their individual diagnostic strategies. Interviews were taped and transcribed verbatim. Qualitative analysis was conducted by two independent raters using a deductive-inductive approach. We identified several aspects of a complex decision-making process in GPs' diagnostic management of patients with dermatological problems. In the general diagnostic workup, GPs used a broad spectrum of different strategies such as spot diagnosis, stepwise refinement, pattern recognition trigger or test of treatment. GPs reduced diagnostic uncertainty through the identification of red flags, the application of the test of time, therapeutic trials and asking for further advice, including patient referral. GPs encounter a broad range of dermatological problems in their daily work using a variety of strategies in the workup of these patients. However, in a significant number of patients, there remains diagnostic uncertainty that is mainly reduced by specialist referral. Regular training in the diagnosis and treatment of common dermatological diseases should be offered to all GPs. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  3. Can We Accurately Time the Administration of Antenatal Corticosteroids for Preterm Labor?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paola Aghajanian

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Accurate timing of antenatal corticosteroids (ACS has resulted in improved neonatal outcomes. Objectives. Our primary objective was to determine predictors for optimal timing of ACS in women presenting with spontaneous preterm labor. Study Design. A retrospective cohort study of women receiving ACS for spontaneous preterm birth was conducted. Women were included if they presented with preterm labor or preterm premature rupture of membranes. Accurate timing of ACS was defined as administration within 7 days of delivery. Maternal demographic and obstetrics characteristics were compared between the groups receiving ACS ≤7 days and >7 days from delivery. Statistical analyses were performed using parametric and nonparametric tests. P<0.05 was considered significant. Results. The study included 215 subjects. Median latency from ACS administration to delivery was 6 days (IQR 32. Accurate timing of ACS occurred in 113 (53% women and was associated with rupture of membranes (OR 13.8, 95% CI 5.9–32.6, cervical change (OR 7.1, 95% CI 3.0–17.1, and cervical dilation ≥ 2 cm (OR 3.9, 95% CI 1.5–10.3. Conclusions. Rupture of membranes, cervical change, and cervical dilation ≥ 2 cm were strong predictors of optimal timing. 53% of women with preterm labor received ACS optimally.

  4. Tightly-coupled real-time analysis of GPS and accelerometer data for translational and rotational ground motions and application to earthquake and tsunami early warning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geng, J.; Bock, Y.; Melgar, D.; Hasse, J.; Crowell, B. W.

    2013-12-01

    High-rate GPS can play an important role in earthquake early warning (EEW) systems for large (>M6) events by providing permanent displacements immediately as they are achieved, to be used in source inversions that can be repeatedly updated as more information becomes available. This is most valuable to implement at a site very near the potential source rupture, where broadband seismometers are likely to clip, and accelerometer data cannot be objectively integrated to produce reliable displacements in real time. At present, more than 525 real-time GPS stations have been established in western North America, which are being integrated into EEW systems. Our analysis technique relies on a tightly-coupled combination of GPS and accelerometer data, an extension of precise point positioning with ambiguity resolution (PPP-AR). We operate a PPP service based on North American stations available through the IGS and UNAVCO/PBO. The service provides real-time satellite clock and fractional-cycle bias products that allow us to position individual client stations in the zone of deformation. The service reference stations are chosen to be further than 200 km from the primary zones of tectonic deformation in the western U.S. to avoid contamination of the satellite products during a large seismic event. At client stations, accelerometer data are applied as tight constraints on the positions between epochs in PPP-AR, which improves cycle-slip repair and rapid ambiguity resolution after GPS outages. Furthermore, we estimate site displacements, seismic velocities, and coseismic ground tilts to facilitate the analysis of ground motion characteristics and the inversion for source mechanisms. The seismogeodetic displacement and velocity waveforms preserves the detection of P wave arrivals, and provides P-wave arrival displacement that is key new information for EEW. Our innovative solution method for coseismic tilts mitigates an error source that has continually plagued strong motion

  5. Cooperating the BDS, GPS, GLONASS and strong-motion observations for real-time deformation monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tu, Rui; Liu, Jinhai; Lu, Cuixian; Zhang, Rui; Zhang, Pengfei; Lu, Xiaochun

    2017-06-01

    An approach of cooperating the BDS, GPS, GLONASS and strong-motion (SM) records for real-time deformation monitoring was presented, which was validated by the experimental data. In this approach, the Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) data were processed with the real-time kinematic positioning technology to retrieve the GNSS displacement, and the SM data were calibrated to acquire the raw acceleration; a Kalman filter was then applied to combine the GNSS displacement and the SM acceleration to obtain the integrated displacement, velocity and acceleration. The validation results show that the advantages of each sensor are completely complementary. For the SM, the baseline shifts are estimated and corrected, and the high-precision velocity and displacement are recovered. While the noise of GNSS can be reduced by using the SM-derived high-resolution acceleration, thus the high-precision and broad-band deformation information can be obtained in real time. The proposed method indicates a promising potential and capability in deformation monitoring of the high-building, dam, bridge and landslide.

  6. GPS Ephemeris Message Broadcast Simulation

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Browne, Nathan J; Light, James J

    2005-01-01

    The warfighter constantly needs increased accuracy from GPS and a means to increasing this accuracy to the decimeter level is a broadcast ephemeris message containing GPS satellite orbit and clock corrections...

  7. Accurate and efficient calculation of response times for groundwater flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carr, Elliot J.; Simpson, Matthew J.

    2018-03-01

    We study measures of the amount of time required for transient flow in heterogeneous porous media to effectively reach steady state, also known as the response time. Here, we develop a new approach that extends the concept of mean action time. Previous applications of the theory of mean action time to estimate the response time use the first two central moments of the probability density function associated with the transition from the initial condition, at t = 0, to the steady state condition that arises in the long time limit, as t → ∞ . This previous approach leads to a computationally convenient estimation of the response time, but the accuracy can be poor. Here, we outline a powerful extension using the first k raw moments, showing how to produce an extremely accurate estimate by making use of asymptotic properties of the cumulative distribution function. Results are validated using an existing laboratory-scale data set describing flow in a homogeneous porous medium. In addition, we demonstrate how the results also apply to flow in heterogeneous porous media. Overall, the new method is: (i) extremely accurate; and (ii) computationally inexpensive. In fact, the computational cost of the new method is orders of magnitude less than the computational effort required to study the response time by solving the transient flow equation. Furthermore, the approach provides a rigorous mathematical connection with the heuristic argument that the response time for flow in a homogeneous porous medium is proportional to L2 / D , where L is a relevant length scale, and D is the aquifer diffusivity. Here, we extend such heuristic arguments by providing a clear mathematical definition of the proportionality constant.

  8. Contribution of various microenvironments to the daily personal exposure to ultrafine particles: Personal monitoring coupled with GPS tracking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bekö, Gabriel; Kjeldsen, Birthe Uldahl; Olsen, Yulia; Schipperijn, Jasper; Wierzbicka, Aneta; Karottki, Dorina Gabriela; Toftum, Jørn; Loft, Steffen; Clausen, Geo

    2015-06-01

    Exposure to ultrafine particles (UFP) may have adverse health effects. Central monitoring stations do not represent the personal exposure to UFP accurately. Few studies have previously focused on personal exposure to UFP. Sixty non-smoking residents living in Copenhagen, Denmark were asked to carry a backpack equipped with a portable monitor, continuously recording particle number concentrations (PN), in order to measure the real-time individual exposure over a period of ˜48 h. A GPS logger was carried along with the particle monitor and allowed us to estimate the contribution of UFP exposure occurring in various microenvironments (residence, during active and passive transport, other indoor and outdoor environments) to the total daily exposure. On average, the fractional contribution of each microenvironment to the daily integrated personal exposure roughly corresponded to the fractions of the day the subjects spent in each microenvironment. The home environment accounted for 50% of the daily personal exposure. Indoor environments other than home or vehicles contributed with ˜40%. The highest median UFP concentration was obtained during passive transport (vehicles). However, being in transit or outdoors contributed 5% or less to the daily exposure. Additionally, the subjects recorded in a diary the periods when they were at home. With this approach, 66% of the total daily exposure was attributable to the home environment. The subjects spent 28% more time at home according to the diary, compared to the GPS. These results may indicate limitations of using diaries, but also possible inaccuracy and miss-classification in the GPS data.

  9. Determining of the phase centre of the real position of GPS receiver antenna

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eva Pisoňová

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available By continued improvement of measurement methods producers of GPS (Global Positioning System apparatus will be maybe once upon a time effective to minimize a difference of the phase centre from the geometrical one, because it is probably impossible to make the GPS receiver antenna with zero eccentricity of the phase centre. In the last analysis, we do not prevent from a manufacturing error by any way in eliminate of the possible measurement errors.In the paper there is presented the measurement testing practice with aim of the phase centre real position determining of several in a market available GPS receivers in the paper. Investigation up to what standard the GPS receiver antenna phase centre variation achieves to float in an inaccuracy into GPS measurements. Testing was realized on the temporary testing baseline closely village Badín at Banská Bystrica in the Central Slovak Region. GPS receivers Locus Survey System (Ashtech, ProMark2 (Ashtech were tested.

  10. Implementing GPS into Pave-IR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-03-01

    To further enhance the capabilities of the Pave-IR thermal segregation detection system developed at the Texas Transportation Institute, researchers incorporated global positioning system (GPS) data collection into the thermal profiles. This GPS capa...

  11. Analysis of Regional GPS Networks in Eastern Ontario

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samadi Alinia, H.; Tiampo, K. F.

    2014-12-01

    Although stable, intraplate region of eastern Canada is considered low rate deformation area in the North American plate, the retreat of large ice sheets during deglaciation in the last 20 ka has resulted in horizontal and vertical deformation of the Earth's in eastern Ontario. Present-day glacial isostatic adjustment (GIA) uplift rates approach 10 mm/yr or more at Hudson Bay and decrease with distance southeastward. Current GIA models forecast that the hinge line between uplift to the northwest and subsidence to the southeast lies somewhere near the Saint Lawrence valley in eastern Canada [Tushingham and Peltier, 1991; Peltier, 2002]. Employing continuous Global Positioning System (cGPS) observations and high precision tools for processing and then analyzing each component of derived time series are important tools to monitor the associated regional crustal deformation with good accuracies. Here we describe the analysis of coordinate time series of cGPS stations scattered sparsely throughout southeastern Ontario and between Ottawa and the east coast of Hudson Bay. Here, the two most reliable local networks, each including 4 to 6 reference stations, were selected for analysis. Data for period of approximately five years, 2008-2012.9, was processed with Bernese 5.0 over several campaigns. Individual cGPS coordinate time series were generated for each station and basic parameters, such as mean, variance and repeatability, were estimated. The time series are corrected with respect to the rigid plate motion and seasonal variations and advanced time series analysis techniques, including spectral analysis and principal component analysis were implemented. Post-processing of the time series reproduces the general GIA spatial pattern. Results also show that the vertical velocities of all stations in the solution are consistent with the GIA model uplift rate and are consistent with other cGPS sites in eastern Canada and increases from north of lake of Ontario (approximately

  12. Derivation of some geometric parameters from GPS measurements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcel Mojzeš

    2005-11-01

    Full Text Available Combining GPS and terrestrial data requires a common coordinate system. When the original GPS vectors do not form a network, the 3D network adjustment can not be performed. In this case, in order to integrate the GPS measurements with the terrestrial observations and to perform a combined network adjustment, the GPS measurements should be transformed to this common system. The GPS measurements which are the usual output of the GPS post processing softwares are based on the WGS84 ellipsoid and the S-JTSK local datum is based on the Bessel ellipsoid. Thus, the reduction of measurements to the S-JTSK mapping plane can not be started from the measurements resulting from GPS post processing softwares because GPS and S-JTSK don’t have the same ellipsoid. Another view of this reduction will be described in this paper.

  13. Instantaneous emission modeling with GPS-based vehicle activity data: results of diesel trucks for one-day trips

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Feng, T.; Arentze, T.A.; Timmermans, H.J.P.

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents an instantaneous analysis for traffic emissions using GPS-based vehicle activity data. The different driving conditions, including real-time and average speed, short-time stops and long-time stops, acceleration and deceleration, etc., are extracted from GPS data. The hot

  14. Bds/gps Integrated Positioning Method Research Based on Nonlinear Kalman Filtering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Y.; Yuan, W.; Sun, H.

    2017-09-01

    In order to realize fast and accurate BDS/GPS integrated positioning, it is necessary to overcome the adverse effects of signal attenuation, multipath effect and echo interference to ensure the result of continuous and accurate navigation and positioning. In this paper, pseudo-range positioning is used as the mathematical model. In the stage of data preprocessing, using precise and smooth carrier phase measurement value to promote the rough pseudo-range measurement value without ambiguity. At last, the Extended Kalman Filter(EKF), the Unscented Kalman Filter(UKF) and the Particle Filter(PF) algorithm are applied in the integrated positioning method for higher positioning accuracy. The experimental results show that the positioning accuracy of PF is the highest, and UKF is better than EKF.

  15. Deformation analysis of Aceh April 11th 2012 earthquake using GPS observation data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maulida, Putra; Meilano, Irwan; Sarsito, Dina A.; Susilo

    2015-04-01

    This research tries to estimate the co-seismic deformation of intraplate earthquake occurred off northern Sumatra coast which is about 100-200 km southwest of Sumatrasubduction zone. The earthquake mechanism was strike-slip with magnitude 8.6 and triggering aftershock with magnitude 8.2 two hours later. We estimated the co-seismic deformation by using the GPS (Global Positioning System) continuous data along western Sumatra coast. The GPS observation derived from Sumatran GPS Array (SuGAr) and Geospatial Information Agency (BIG). For data processing we used GPS Analyze at Massachusetts Institute of Technology (GAMIT) software and Global Kalman Filter (GLOBK) to estimate the co-seismic deformation. From the GPS daily solution, the result shows that the earthquake caused displacement for the GPS stations in Sumatra. GPS stations in northern Sumatra showed the displacement to the northeast with the average displacement was 15 cm. The biggest displacement was found at station BSIM which is located at Simeuleu Island off north west Sumatra coast. GPS station in middle part of Sumatra, the displacement was northwest. The earthquake also caused subsidence for stations in northern Sumatra, but from the time series there was not sign of subsidence was found at middle part of Sumatra. In addition, the effect of the earthquake was worldwide and affected the other GPS Stations around Hindia oceanic.

  16. The GPS Laser Retroreflector Array Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merkowitz, Stephen M.

    2012-01-01

    Systematic co-location in space through the precision orbit determination of GPS satellites via satellite laser ranging will contribute significantly towards improving the accuracy and stability of the international terrestrial reference frame. NASA recently formed the GPS Laser Retroreflector Array Project to develop and deliver retroreflectors for integration on the next generation of GPS satellites. These retroreflectors will be an important contributor to achieving a global accuracy of 1.0 mm and 0.1 mm/year stability in the international terrestrial reference frame. We report here the current status of the GPS Laser Retroreflector Array Project.

  17. GPS-MBA: computational analysis of MHC class II epitopes in type 1 diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Ruikun; Liu, Zexian; Ren, Jian; Ma, Chuang; Gao, Tianshun; Zhou, Yanhong; Yang, Qing; Xue, Yu

    2012-01-01

    As a severe chronic metabolic disease and autoimmune disorder, type 1 diabetes (T1D) affects millions of people world-wide. Recent advances in antigen-based immunotherapy have provided a great opportunity for further treating T1D with a high degree of selectivity. It is reported that MHC class II I-A(g7) in the non-obese diabetic (NOD) mouse and human HLA-DQ8 are strongly linked to susceptibility to T1D. Thus, the identification of new I-A(g7) and HLA-DQ8 epitopes would be of great help to further experimental and biomedical manipulation efforts. In this study, a novel GPS-MBA (MHC Binding Analyzer) software package was developed for the prediction of I-A(g7) and HLA-DQ8 epitopes. Using experimentally identified epitopes as the training data sets, a previously developed GPS (Group-based Prediction System) algorithm was adopted and improved. By extensive evaluation and comparison, the GPS-MBA performance was found to be much better than other tools of this type. With this powerful tool, we predicted a number of potentially new I-A(g7) and HLA-DQ8 epitopes. Furthermore, we designed a T1D epitope database (TEDB) for all of the experimentally identified and predicted T1D-associated epitopes. Taken together, this computational prediction result and analysis provides a starting point for further experimental considerations, and GPS-MBA is demonstrated to be a useful tool for generating starting information for experimentalists. The GPS-MBA is freely accessible for academic researchers at: http://mba.biocuckoo.org.

  18. Decadal changes of surface elevation over permafrost area estimated using reflected GPS signals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Lin; Larson, Kristine M.

    2018-02-01

    Conventional benchmark-based survey and Global Positioning System (GPS) have been used to measure surface elevation changes over permafrost areas, usually once or a few times a year. Here we use reflected GPS signals to measure temporal changes of ground surface elevation due to dynamics of the active layer and near-surface permafrost. Applying the GPS interferometric reflectometry technique to the multipath signal-to-noise ratio data collected by a continuously operating GPS receiver mounted deep in permafrost in Barrow, Alaska, we can retrieve the vertical distance between the antenna and reflecting surface. Using this unique kind of observables, we obtain daily changes of surface elevation during July and August from 2004 to 2015. Our results show distinct temporal variations at three timescales: regular thaw settlement within each summer, strong interannual variability that is characterized by a sub-decadal subsidence trend followed by a brief uplift trend, and a secular subsidence trend of 0.26 ± 0.02 cm year-1 during 2004 and 2015. This method provides a new way to fully utilize data from continuously operating GPS sites in cold regions for studying dynamics of the frozen ground consistently and sustainably over a long time.

  19. The local ionospheric modeling by integration ground GPS observations and satellite altimetry data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Ali Sharifi

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The free electrons in the ionosphere have a strong impact on the propagation of radio waves. When the signals pass through the ionosphere, both their group and phase velocity are disturbed. Several space geodetic techniques such as satellite altimetry, low Earth orbit (LEO satellite and very long baseline interferometry (VLBI can be used to model the total electron content. At present, the classical input data for development of ionospheric models are based on dual-frequency GPS observations, However, a major problem with this observation type is the nonuniform distribution of the terrestrial GPS reference stations with large gaps notably over the sea surface and ocean where only some single stations are located on islands, leading to lower the precision of the model over these areas. In these regions the dual-frequency satellite altimeters provide precise information about the parameters of the ionosphere. Combination of GPS and satellite altimetry observations allows making best use of the advantages of their different spatial and temporal distributions. In this study, the local ionosphere modeling was done by the combination of space geodetic observations using spherical Slepian function. The combination of the data from ground GPS observations over the western part of the USA and the altimetry mission Jason-2 was performed on the normal equation level in the least-square procedure and a least-square variance component estimation (LS-VCE was applied to take into account the different accuracy levels of the observations. The integrated ionosphere model is more accurate and more reliable than the results derived from the ground GPS observations over the oceans.

  20. Realistic Noise Assessment and Strain Analysis of Iranian Permanent GPS Stations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Razeghi, S. M.; Amiri Simkooei, A. A.; Sharifi, M. A.

    2012-04-01

    To assess noise characteristics of Iranian Permanent GPS Stations (IPGS), northwestern part of this network namely Azerbaijan Continuous GPS Station (ACGS), was selected. For a realistic noise assessment it is required to model all deterministic signals of the GPS time series by means of least squares harmonic estimation (LS-HE) and derive all periodic behavior of the series. After taking all deterministic signals into account, the least squares variance component estimation (LS-VCE) is used to obtain a realistic noise model (white noise plus flicker noise) of the ACGS. For this purpose, one needs simultaneous GPS time series for which a multivariate noise assessment is applied. Having determined realistic noise model, a realistic strain analysis of the network is obtained for which one relies on the finite element methods. Finite element is now considered to be a new functional model and the new stochastic model is given based on the multivariate noise assessment using LS-VCE. The deformation rates of the components along with their full covariance matries are input to the strain analysis. Further, the results are also provided using a pure white noise model. The normalized strains for these two models show that the strain parameters derived from a realistic noise model are less significant than those derived from the white model. This could be either due to the short time span of the time series used or due to the intrinsic behavior of the strain parameters in the ACGS. Longer time series are required to further elaborate this issue.

  1. Forest operations planning by using RTK-GPS based digital elevation model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neşe Gülci

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Having large proportion of forests in mountainous terrain in Turkey, the logging methods that not only minimize operational costs but also minimize environmental damages should be determined in forest operations planning. In a case where necessary logging equipment and machines are available, ground slope is the most important factor in determining the logging method. For this reason, accurate, up to date, and precise ground slope data is very crucial in the success of forest operations planning. In recent years, high-resolution Digital Elevation Models (DEM can be generated for forested areas by using Real Time Kinematic (RTK GPS method and these DEMs can be used to develop precise slope maps. In this study, high-resolution DEM was developed by RTK-GPS method to generate precise slope map in a sample area. Then, the slope map was classified into slope classes specified by IUFRO in order to assist forest operations planning. According to the results, logging methods that are suitable for very steep and steep terrain conditions (i.e. skyline logging, cable pulling, and chute systems should be preferred in 48.1% of the study area. It was also found that logging methods that are suitable for terrain with medium slope (i.e. skidding and cable pulling and gentle slope (i.e. skidding and mobile winch should be preferred in 34.1% and 17.8% of the study area, respectively.

  2. Impaired Representation of Time in Schizophrenia Is Linked to Positive Symptoms and Cognitive Demand.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jutta Peterburs

    Full Text Available Time processing critically relies on the mesencephalic dopamine system and striato-prefrontal projections and has thus been suggested to play a key role in schizophrenia. Previous studies have provided evidence for an acceleration of the internal clock in schizophrenia that may be linked to dopaminergic pathology. The present study aimed to assess the relationship between altered time processing in schizophrenia and symptom manifestation in 22 patients and 22 controls. Subjects were required to estimate the time needed for a visual stimulus to complete a horizontal movement towards a target position on trials of varying cognitive demand. It was hypothesized that patients - compared to controls - would be less accurate at estimating the movement time, and that this effect would be modulated by symptom manifestation and task difficulty. In line with the notion of an accelerated internal clock due to dopaminergic dysregulation, particularly patients with severe positive symptoms were expected to underestimate movement time. However, if altered time perception in schizophrenia was better explained in terms of cognitive deficits, patients with severe negative symptoms should be specifically impaired, while generally, task performance should correlate with measures of processing speed and cognitive flexibility. Patients underestimated movement time on more demanding trials, although there was no link to disease-related cognitive dysfunction. Task performance was modulated by symptom manifestation. Impaired estimation of movement time was significantly correlated with PANSS positive symptom scores, with higher positive symptom scores associated with stronger underestimation of movement time. The present data thus support the notion of a deficit in anticipatory and predictive mechanisms in schizophrenia that is modulated both by symptom manifestation and by cognitive demand.

  3. Absolute GPS Time Event Generation and Capture for Remote Locations

    Science.gov (United States)

    HIRES Collaboration

    The HiRes experiment operates fixed location and portable lasers at remote desert locations to generate calibration events. One physics goal of HiRes is to search for unusual showers. These may appear similar to upward or horizontally pointing laser tracks used for atmospheric calibration. It is therefore necessary to remove all of these calibration events from the HiRes detector data stream in a physics blind manner. A robust and convenient "tagging" method is to generate the calibration events at precisely known times. To facilitate this tagging method we have developed the GPSY (Global Positioning System YAG) module. It uses a GPS receiver, an embedded processor and additional timing logic to generate laser triggers at arbitrary programmed times and frequencies with better than 100nS accuracy. The GPSY module has two trigger outputs (one microsecond resolution) to trigger the laser flash-lamp and Q-switch and one event capture input (25nS resolution). The GPSY module can be programmed either by a front panel menu based interface or by a host computer via an RS232 serial interface. The latter also allows for computer logging of generated and captured event times. Details of the design and the implementation of these devices will be presented. 1 Motivation Air Showers represent a small fraction, much less than a percent, of the total High Resolution Fly's Eye data sample. The bulk of the sample is calibration data. Most of this calibration data is generated by two types of systems that use lasers. One type sends light directly to the detectors via optical fibers to monitor detector gains (Girard 2001). The other sends a beam of light into the sky and the scattered light that reaches the detectors is used to monitor atmospheric effects (Wiencke 1998). It is important that these calibration events be cleanly separated from the rest of the sample both to provide a complete set of monitoring information, and more

  4. On stochastic modeling of the modernized global positioning system (GPS) L2C signal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elsobeiey, Mohamed; El-Rabbany, Ahmed

    2010-01-01

    In order to take full advantage of the modernized GPS L2C signal, it is essential that its stochastic characteristics and code bias be rigorously determined. In this paper, long sessions of GPS measurements are used to study the stochastic characteristics of the modernized GPS L2C signal. As a byproduct, the stochastic characteristics of the legacy GPS signals, namely C/A and P2 codes, are also determined, which are used to verify the developed stochastic model of the modernized signal. The differential code biases between P2 and C2, DCB P2-C2 , are also estimated using the Bernese GPS software. It is shown that the developed models improved the precise point positioning (PPP) solution and convergence time

  5. Characteristics of offshore extreme wind-waves detected by surface drifters with a low-cost GPS wave sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Komatsu, Kosei

    Wind-generated waves have been recognized as one of the most important factors of the sea surface roughness which plays crucial roles in various air-sea interactions such as energy, mo-mentum, heat and gas exchanges. At the same time, wind waves with extreme wave heights representatively called as freak or rogue waves have been a matter of great concern for many people involved in shipping, fishing, constracting, surfing and other marine activities, because such extreme waves frequently affect on the marine activities and sometimes cause serious dis-asters. Nevertheless, investigations of actual conditions for the evolution of wind waves in the offshore region are less and sparse in contrast to dense monitoring networks in the coastal re-gions because of difficulty of offshore observation with high accuracy. Recently accurate in situ observation of offshore wind waves is getting possible at low cost owing to a wave height and di-rection sensor developed by Harigae et al. (2004) by installing a point-positioning GPS receiver on a surface drifting buoy. The point-positioning GPS sensor can extract three dimensional movements of the buoy excited by ocean waves with minimizing effects of GPS point-positioning errors through the use of a high-pass filter. Two drifting buoys equipped with the GPS-based wave sensor charged by solar cells were drifted in the western North Pacific and one of them continued to observe wind waves during 16 months from Sep. 2007. The RMSE of the GPS-based wave sensor was less than 10cm in significant wave height and about 1s in significant wave period in comparison with other sensors, i.e. accelerometers installed on drifting buoys of Japan Meteorological Agency, ultrasonic sensors placed at the Hiratsuka observation station of the University of Tokyo and altimeter of the JASON-1. The GPS-based wave buoys enabled us to detect freak waves defined as waves whose height is more than twice the significant wave height. The observation conducted by

  6. Indoor/Outdoor Seamless Positioning Using Lighting Tags and GPS Cellular Phones for Personal Navigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Namie, Hiromune; Morishita, Hisashi

    The authors focused on the development of an indoor positioning system which is easy to use, portable and available for everyone. This system is capable of providing the correct position anywhere indoors, including onboard ships, and was invented in order to evaluate the availability of GPS indoors. Although the performance of GPS is superior outdoors, there has been considerable research regarding indoor GPS involving sensitive GPS, pseudolites (GPS pseudo satellite), RFID (Radio Frequency IDentification) tags, and wireless LAN .However, the positioning rate and the precision are not high enough for general use, which is the reason why these technologies have not yet spread to personal navigation systems. In this regard, the authors attempted to implement an indoor positioning system using cellular phones with built-in GPS and infrared light data communication functionality, which are widely used in Japan. GPS is becoming increasingly popular, where GPGGS sentences of the NMEA outputted from the GPS receiver provide spatiotemporal information including latitude, longitude, altitude, and time or ECEF xyz coordinates. As GPS applications grow rapidly, spatiotemporal data becomes key to the ubiquitous outdoor and indoor seamless positioning services at least for the entire area of Japan, as well as to becoming familiar with satellite positioning systems (e.g. GPS). Furthermore, the authors are also working on the idea of using PDAs (Personal Digital Assistants), as cellular phones with built-in GPS and PDA functionality are also becoming increasingly popular.

  7. Precise GPS orbits for geodesy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colombo, Oscar L.

    1994-01-01

    The Global Positioning System (GPS) has become, in recent years, the main space-based system for surveying and navigation in many military, commercial, cadastral, mapping, and scientific applications. Better receivers, interferometric techniques (DGPS), and advances in post-processing methods have made possible to position fixed or moving receivers with sub-decimeter accuracies in a global reference frame. Improved methods for obtaining the orbits of the GPS satellites have played a major role in these achievements; this paper gives a personal view of the main developments in GPS orbit determination.

  8. GPS on Every Roof, GPS Sensor Network for Post-Seismic Building-Wise Damage Identification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kenji Oguni

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Development of wireless sensor network equipped with GPS for post-seismic building-wise damage identification is presented in this paper. This system is called GPS on Every Roof. Sensor node equipped with GPS antenna and receiver is installed on the top of the roof of each and every building. The position of this sensor node is measured before and after earthquake. The final goal of this system is to i identify the displacement of the roof of each house and ii collect the information of displacement of the roof of the houses through wireless communication. Superposing this information on GIS, building-wise damage distribution due to earthquake can be obtained. The system overview, hardware and some of the key components of the system such as on-board GPS relative positioning algorithm to achieve the accuracy in the order of several centimeters are described in detail. Also, the results from a field experiment using a wireless sensor network with 39 sensor nodes are presented.

  9. Controlador para un Reloj GPS de Referencia en el Protocolo NTP

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hauscarriaga, F.; Bareilles, F. A.

    The synchronization between computers in a local network plays a very important role on enviroments similar to IAR. Calculations for exact time are needed before, during and after an observation. For this purpose the IAR's GNU/Linux Software Development Team implemented a driver inside NTP protocol (an internet standard for time synchronization of computers) for a GPS receiver acquired a few years ago by IAR, which did not have support in such protocol. Today our Institute has a stable and reliable time base synchronized to atomic clocks on board GPS Satellites according to computers's synchronization standard, offering precise time services to all scientific community and particularly to the University of La Plata. FULL TEXT IN SPANISH

  10. [Quality of life of women GPs in Auvergne].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathonnat, Marie Dolorès; Filloux, Isabelle; Tanguy, Gilles; Eschalier, Bénédicte; Pereira, Bruno; Vorilhon, Philippe

    2013-10-01

    The medical profession is feminising. In parallel, the importance of quality of life (QOL) must be addressed. Family practice needs personal investment and availability. This profession can have repercussions on womens' QOL. The objective of the study was to compare female GPs QOL to other women with the comparable socioprofessional status. The secondary objective was to study the influence of factors, such as workplace and work methods. Comparative cross-sectional study. A self-assessed questionnaire, sent by post to 394 female general practitioners in Auvergne, each was asked to recruit one woman (non-GP), with similar age and socioprofessional status. A total of 148 female GPs (37.6%) and 122 non-GPs responded. The global score of QOL was lower in the GP group, noticeably showing a poorer QOL in the relational and material areas. The professional QOL was similar between the 2 groups. The study did not find a significant difference concerning the QOL in its physical and psychological dimensions. The main negative factors influencing the QOL were: age; isolation of the occupation; living alone; and liberal occupation. Working in a rural area did not influence the QOL. The profession of GPs remains demanding, and the female GP feels a poorer QOL. Nevertheless, they seem to like their job and they feel fulfilled. The uneasiness comes essentially from the lack of free time, and from low financial income. Working in association seems to be a first step to improve the QOL of female GPs. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  11. Directional antenna array (DAA) for communications, control, and data link protection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molchanov, Pavlo A.; Contarino, Vincent M.

    2013-06-01

    A next generation of Smart antennas with point-to-point communication and jam, spoof protection capability by verification of spatial position is offered. A directional antenna array (DAA) with narrow irradiation beam provides counter terrorism protection for communications, data link, control and GPS. Communications are "invisible" to guided missiles because of 20 dB smaller irradiation outside the beam and spatial separation. This solution can be implemented with current technology. Directional antennas have higher gain and can be multi-frequency or have wide frequency band in contrast to phase antenna arrays. This multi-directional antenna array provides a multi-functional communication network and simultaneously can be used for command control, data link and GPS.

  12. Tightly coupled low cost 3D RISS/GPS integration using a mixture particle filter for vehicular navigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Georgy, Jacques; Noureldin, Aboelmagd

    2011-01-01

    Satellite navigation systems such as the global positioning system (GPS) are currently the most common technique used for land vehicle positioning. However, in GPS-denied environments, there is an interruption in the positioning information. Low-cost micro-electro mechanical system (MEMS)-based inertial sensors can be integrated with GPS and enhance the performance in denied GPS environments. The traditional technique for this integration problem is Kalman filtering (KF). Due to the inherent errors of low-cost MEMS inertial sensors and their large stochastic drifts, KF, with its linearized models, has limited capabilities in providing accurate positioning. Particle filtering (PF) was recently suggested as a nonlinear filtering technique to accommodate for arbitrary inertial sensor characteristics, motion dynamics and noise distributions. An enhanced version of PF called the Mixture PF is utilized in this study to perform tightly coupled integration of a three dimensional (3D) reduced inertial sensors system (RISS) with GPS. In this work, the RISS consists of one single-axis gyroscope and a two-axis accelerometer used together with the vehicle's odometer to obtain 3D navigation states. These sensors are then integrated with GPS in a tightly coupled scheme. In loosely-coupled integration, at least four satellites are needed to provide acceptable GPS position and velocity updates for the integration filter. The advantage of the tightly-coupled integration is that it can provide GPS measurement update(s) even when the number of visible satellites is three or lower, thereby improving the operation of the navigation system in environments with partial blockages by providing continuous aiding to the inertial sensors even during limited GPS satellite availability. To effectively exploit the capabilities of PF, advanced modeling for the stochastic drift of the vertically aligned gyroscope is used. In order to benefit from measurement updates for such drift, which are

  13. Tightly Coupled Low Cost 3D RISS/GPS Integration Using a Mixture Particle Filter for Vehicular Navigation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacques Georgy

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Satellite navigation systems such as the global positioning system (GPS are currently the most common technique used for land vehicle positioning. However, in GPS-denied environments, there is an interruption in the positioning information. Low-cost micro-electro mechanical system (MEMS-based inertial sensors can be integrated with GPS and enhance the performance in denied GPS environments. The traditional technique for this integration problem is Kalman filtering (KF. Due to the inherent errors of low-cost MEMS inertial sensors and their large stochastic drifts, KF, with its linearized models, has limited capabilities in providing accurate positioning. Particle filtering (PF was recently suggested as a nonlinear filtering technique to accommodate for arbitrary inertial sensor characteristics, motion dynamics and noise distributions. An enhanced version of PF called the Mixture PF is utilized in this study to perform tightly coupled integration of a three dimensional (3D reduced inertial sensors system (RISS with GPS. In this work, the RISS consists of one single-axis gyroscope and a two-axis accelerometer used together with the vehicle’s odometer to obtain 3D navigation states. These sensors are then integrated with GPS in a tightly coupled scheme. In loosely-coupled integration, at least four satellites are needed to provide acceptable GPS position and velocity updates for the integration filter. The advantage of the tightly-coupled integration is that it can provide GPS measurement update(s even when the number of visible satellites is three or lower, thereby improving the operation of the navigation system in environments with partial blockages by providing continuous aiding to the inertial sensors even during limited GPS satellite availability. To effectively exploit the capabilities of PF, advanced modeling for the stochastic drift of the vertically aligned gyroscope is used. In order to benefit from measurement updates for such drift

  14. The GPS odograph user's guide

    Science.gov (United States)

    The GPS-based Odograph Prototype (GOP or GPS Odograph) was developed in an effort sponsored by The Federal Highway Administration (FHWA). The purpose of this effort was to develop a means of using inexpensive commercial off-the-self laptop (or notebo...

  15. High Gain Advanced GPS Receiver

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Brown, Alison; Zhang, Gengsheng

    2006-01-01

    NAVSYS High Gain Advanced GPS Receiver (HAGR) uses a digital beam-steering antenna array to enable up to eight GPS satellites to be tracked, each with up to 10 dBi of additional antenna gain over a conventional receiver solution...

  16. Autonomous GPS/INS navigation experiment for Space Transfer Vehicle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Upadhyay, Triveni N.; Cotterill, Stephen; Deaton, A. W.

    1993-01-01

    An experiment to validate the concept of developing an autonomous integrated spacecraft navigation system using on board Global Positioning System (GPS) and Inertial Navigation System (INS) measurements is described. The feasibility of integrating GPS measurements with INS measurements to provide a total improvement in spacecraft navigation performance, i.e. improvement in position, velocity and attitude information, was previously demonstrated. An important aspect of this research is the automatic real time reconfiguration capability of the system designed to respond to changes in a spacecraft mission under the control of an expert system.

  17. Loss of the co-repressor GPS2 sensitizes macrophage activation upon metabolic stress induced by obesity and type 2 diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Rongrong; Toubal, Amine; Goñi, Saioa; Drareni, Karima; Huang, Zhiqiang; Alzaid, Fawaz; Ballaire, Raphaelle; Ancel, Patricia; Liang, Ning; Damdimopoulos, Anastasios; Hainault, Isabelle; Soprani, Antoine; Aron-Wisnewsky, Judith; Foufelle, Fabienne; Lawrence, Toby; Gautier, Jean-Francois; Venteclef, Nicolas; Treuter, Eckardt

    2016-07-01

    Humans with obesity differ in their susceptibility to developing insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes (T2D). This variation may relate to the extent of adipose tissue (AT) inflammation that develops as their obesity progresses. The state of macrophage activation has a central role in determining the degree of AT inflammation and thus its dysfunction, and these states are driven by epigenomic alterations linked to gene expression. The underlying mechanisms that regulate these alterations, however, are poorly defined. Here we demonstrate that a co-repressor complex containing G protein pathway suppressor 2 (GPS2) crucially controls the macrophage epigenome during activation by metabolic stress. The study of AT from humans with and without obesity revealed correlations between reduced GPS2 expression in macrophages, elevated systemic and AT inflammation, and diabetic status. The causality of this relationship was confirmed by using macrophage-specific Gps2-knockout (KO) mice, in which inappropriate co-repressor complex function caused enhancer activation, pro-inflammatory gene expression and hypersensitivity toward metabolic-stress signals. By contrast, transplantation of GPS2-overexpressing bone marrow into two mouse models of obesity (ob/ob and diet-induced obesity) reduced inflammation and improved insulin sensitivity. Thus, our data reveal a potentially reversible disease mechanism that links co-repressor-dependent epigenomic alterations in macrophages to AT inflammation and the development of T2D.

  18. Labour intensity of guidelines may have a greater effect on adherence than GPs' workload

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Westert Gert P

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Physicians' heavy workload is often thought to jeopardise the quality of care and to be a barrier to improving quality. The relationship between these has, however, rarely been investigated. In this study quality of care is defined as care 'in accordance with professional guidelines'. In this study we investigated whether GPs with a higher workload adhere less to guidelines than those with a lower workload and whether guideline recommendations that require a greater time investment are less adhered to than those that can save time. Methods Data were used from the Second Dutch National survey of General Practice (DNSGP-2. This nationwide study was carried out between April 2000 and January 2002. A multilevel logistic-regression analysis was conducted of 170,677 decisions made by GPs, referring to 41 Guideline Adherence Indicators (GAIs, which were derived from 32 different guidelines. Data were used from 130 GPs, working in 83 practices with 98,577 patients. GP-characteristics as well as guideline characteristics were used as independent variables. Measures include workload (number of contacts, hours spent on continuing medical education, satisfaction with available time, practice characteristics and patient characteristics. Outcome measure is an indicator score, which is 1 when a decision is in accordance with professional guidelines or 0 when the decision deviates from guidelines. Results On average, 66% of the decisions GPs made were in accordance with guidelines. No relationship was found between the objective workload of GPs and their adherence to guidelines. Subjective workload (measured on a five point scale was negatively related to guideline adherence (OR = 0.95. After controlling for all other variables, the variation between GPs in adherence to guideline recommendations showed a range of less than 10%. 84% of the variation in guideline adherence was located at the GAI-level. Which means that the differences in

  19. Attitude Determination Method by Fusing Single Antenna GPS and Low Cost MEMS Sensors Using Intelligent Kalman Filter Algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lei Wang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available For meeting the demands of cost and size for micronavigation system, a combined attitude determination approach with sensor fusion algorithm and intelligent Kalman filter (IKF on low cost Micro-Electro-Mechanical System (MEMS gyroscope, accelerometer, and magnetometer and single antenna Global Positioning System (GPS is proposed. The effective calibration method is performed to compensate the effect of errors in low cost MEMS Inertial Measurement Unit (IMU. The different control strategies fusing the MEMS multisensors are designed. The yaw angle fusing gyroscope, accelerometer, and magnetometer algorithm is estimated accurately under GPS failure and unavailable sideslip situations. For resolving robust control and characters of the uncertain noise statistics influence, the high gain scale of IKF is adjusted by fuzzy controller in the transition process and steady state to achieve faster convergence and accurate estimation. The experiments comparing different MEMS sensors and fusion algorithms are implemented to verify the validity of the proposed approach.

  20. The International GPS Service (IGS) as a Continuous Reference System for Precise GPS Positioning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neilan, Ruth; Heflin, Michael; Watkins, Michael; Zumberge, James

    1996-01-01

    The International GPS Service for Geodynamics (IGS) is an organization which operates under the auspices of the International Association of Geodesy (IAG) and has been operational since January 1994. The primary objective of the IGS is to provide precise GPS data and data products to support geodetic and geophysical research activities.

  1. Appending High-Resolution Elevation Data to GPS Speed Traces for Vehicle Energy Modeling and Simulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wood, E.; Burton, E.; Duran, A.; Gonder, J.

    2014-06-01

    Accurate and reliable global positioning system (GPS)-based vehicle use data are highly valuable for many transportation, analysis, and automotive considerations. Model-based design, real-world fuel economy analysis, and the growing field of autonomous and connected technologies (including predictive powertrain control and self-driving cars) all have a vested interest in high-fidelity estimation of powertrain loads and vehicle usage profiles. Unfortunately, road grade can be a difficult property to extract from GPS data with consistency. In this report, we present a methodology for appending high-resolution elevation data to GPS speed traces via a static digital elevation model. Anomalous data points in the digital elevation model are addressed during a filtration/smoothing routine, resulting in an elevation profile that can be used to calculate road grade. This process is evaluated against a large, commercially available height/slope dataset from the Navteq/Nokia/HERE Advanced Driver Assistance Systems product. Results will show good agreement with the Advanced Driver Assistance Systems data in the ability to estimate road grade between any two consecutive points in the contiguous United States.

  2. Miniaturized GPS/MEMS IMU integrated board

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Ching-Fang (Inventor)

    2012-01-01

    This invention documents the efforts on the research and development of a miniaturized GPS/MEMS IMU integrated navigation system. A miniaturized GPS/MEMS IMU integrated navigation system is presented; Laser Dynamic Range Imager (LDRI) based alignment algorithm for space applications is discussed. Two navigation cameras are also included to measure the range and range rate which can be integrated into the GPS/MEMS IMU system to enhance the navigation solution.

  3. Ionospheric earthquake effects detection based on Total Electron Content (TEC) GPS Correlation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sunardi, Bambang; Muslim, Buldan; Eka Sakya, Andi; Rohadi, Supriyanto; Sulastri; Murjaya, Jaya

    2018-03-01

    Advances in science and technology showed that ground-based GPS receiver was able to detect ionospheric Total Electron Content (TEC) disturbances caused by various natural phenomena such as earthquakes. One study of Tohoku (Japan) earthquake, March 11, 2011, magnitude M 9.0 showed TEC fluctuations observed from GPS observation network spread around the disaster area. This paper discussed the ionospheric earthquake effects detection using TEC GPS data. The case studies taken were Kebumen earthquake, January 25, 2014, magnitude M 6.2, Sumba earthquake, February 12, 2016, M 6.2 and Halmahera earthquake, February 17, 2016, M 6.1. TEC-GIM (Global Ionosphere Map) correlation methods for 31 days were used to monitor TEC anomaly in ionosphere. To ensure the geomagnetic disturbances due to solar activity, we also compare with Dst index in the same time window. The results showed anomalous ratio of correlation coefficient deviation to its standard deviation upon occurrences of Kebumen and Sumba earthquake, but not detected a similar anomaly for the Halmahera earthquake. It was needed a continous monitoring of TEC GPS data to detect the earthquake effects in ionosphere. This study giving hope in strengthening the earthquake effect early warning system using TEC GPS data. The method development of continuous TEC GPS observation derived from GPS observation network that already exists in Indonesia is needed to support earthquake effects early warning systems.

  4. Hastighedskort for Danmark vha. GPS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Ove; Lahrmann, Harry; Torp, Kristian

    2011-01-01

    Hastighed på vejnettet er en central metrik indenfor trafikplanlægning og trafikoptimering. I denne artikel beskrives, hvorledes et hastighedskort for hele Danmark er skabt udelukkende vha. GPS data. To tilgangsvinkler til at beregne hastigheder vha. GPS data er præsenteret. Dette er hhv. en....... Opsummeret anses den turbaseret for at beregne det mest akkurate estimat, men metoden er meget datakrævende. Det er derfor nødvendigt at have den punktbaserede at falde tilbage på. Generelt mangler metoder til beregning af hastigheder vha. GPS data at blive valideret. Hvordan en sådan validering kan...

  5. Transition of NOAA's GPS-Met Data Acquisition and Processing System to the Commercial Sector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, M. E.; Holub, K.; Callahan, W.; Blatt, S.

    2014-12-01

    In April of 2014, NOAA/OAR/ESRL Global Systems Division (GSD) and Trimble, in collaboration with Earth Networks, Inc. (ENI) signed a Cooperative Research and Development Agreement (CRADA) to transfer the existing NOAA GPS-Met Data Acquisition and Processing System (GPS-Met DAPS) technology to a commercial Trimble/ENI partnership. NOAA's GPS-Met DAPS is currently operated in a pseudo-operational mode but has proven highly reliable and running at over 95% uptime. The DAPS uses the GAMIT software to ingest dual frequency carrier phase GPS/GNSS observations and ancillary information such as real-time satellite orbits to estimate the zenith-scaled tropospheric (ZTD) signal delays and, where surface MET data are available, retrieve integrated precipitable water vapor (PWV). The NOAA data and products are made available to end users in near real-time. The Trimble/ENI partnership will use the Trimble Pivot™ software with the Atmosphere App to calculate zenith tropospheric (ZTD), tropospheric slant delay, and integrated precipitable water vapor (PWV). Evaluation of the Trimble software is underway starting with a comparison of ZTD and PWV values determined from GPS stations located near NOAA Radiosonde Observation (Upper-Air Observation) launch sites. A success metric was established that requires Trimble's PWV estimates to match ESRL/GSD's to within 1.5 mm 95% of the time, which corresponds to a ZTD uncertainty of less than 10 mm 95% of the time. Initial results indicate that Trimble/ENI data meet and exceed the ZTD metric, but for some stations PWV estimates are out of specification. These discrepancies are primarily due to how offsets between MET and GPS stations are handled and are easily resolved. Additional test networks are proposed that include low terrain/high moisture variability stations, high terrain/low moisture variability stations, as well as high terrain/high moisture variability stations. We will present results from further testing along with a timeline

  6. Evaluation of Mobile Phone Interference With Aircraft GPS Navigation Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pace, Scott; Oria, A. J.; Guckian, Paul; Nguyen, Truong X.

    2004-01-01

    This report compiles and analyzes tests that were conducted to measure cell phone spurious emissions in the Global Positioning System (GPS) radio frequency band that could affect the navigation system of an aircraft. The cell phone in question had, as reported to the FAA (Federal Aviation Administration), caused interference to several GPS receivers on-board a small single engine aircraft despite being compliant with data filed at the time with the FCC by the manufacturer. NASA (National Aeronautics and Space Administration) and industry tests show that while there is an emission in the 1575 MHz GPS band due to a specific combination of amplifier output impedance and load impedance that induces instability in the power amplifier, these spurious emissions (i.e., not the intentional transmit signal) are similar to those measured on non-intentionally transmitting devices such as, for example, laptop computers. Additional testing on a wide sample of different commercial cell phones did not result in any emission in the 1575 MHz GPS Band above the noise floor of the measurement receiver.

  7. A GPS measurement system for precise satellite tracking and geodesy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yunck, T. P.; Wu, S.-C.; Lichten, S. M.

    1985-01-01

    NASA is pursuing two key applications of differential positioning with the Global Positioning System (GPS): sub-decimeter tracking of earth satellites and few-centimeter determination of ground-fixed baselines. Key requirements of the two applications include the use of dual-frequency carrier phase data, multiple ground receivers to serve as reference points, simultaneous solution for use position and GPS orbits, and calibration of atmospheric delays using water vapor radiometers. Sub-decimeter tracking will be first demonstrated on the TOPEX oceanographic satellite to be launched in 1991. A GPS flight receiver together with at least six ground receivers will acquire delta range data from the GPS carriers for non-real-time analysis. Altitude accuracies of 5 to 10 cm are expected. For baseline measurements, efforts will be made to obtain precise differential pseudorange by resolving the cycle ambiguity in differential carrier phase. This could lead to accuracies of 2 or 3 cm over a few thousand kilometers. To achieve this, a high-performance receiver is being developed, along with improved calibration and data processing techniques. Demonstrations may begin in 1986.

  8. Kalman filter implementation for small satellites using constraint GPS data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wesam, Elmahy M.; Zhang, Xiang; Lu, Zhengliang; Liao, Wenhe

    2017-06-01

    Due to the increased need for autonomy, an Extended Kalman Filter (EKF) has been designed to autonomously estimate the orbit using GPS data. A propagation step models the satellite dynamics as a two body with J2 (second zonal effect) perturbations being suitable for orbits in altitudes higher than 600 km. An onboard GPS receiver provides continuous measurement inputs. The continuity of measurements decreases the errors of the orbit determination algorithm. Power restrictions are imposed on small satellites in general and nanosatellites in particular. In cubesats, the GPS is forced to be shut down most of the mission’s life time. GPS is turned on when experiments like atmospheric ones are carried out and meter level accuracy for positioning is required. This accuracy can’t be obtained by other autonomous sensors like magnetometer and sun sensor as they provide kilometer level accuracy. Through simulation using Matlab and satellite tool kit (STK) the position accuracy is analyzed after imposing constrained conditions suitable for small satellites and a very tight one suitable for nanosatellite missions.

  9. Deformation analysis of Aceh April 11{sup th} 2012 earthquake using GPS observation data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maulida, Putra, E-mail: putra.maulida@gmail.com [Bandung Institute of Technology (ITB), Jalan Ganesha 10, Bandung 40132 (Indonesia); Meilano, Irwan; Sarsito, Dina A. [Bandung Institute of Technology (ITB), Jalan Ganesha 10, Bandung 40132 (Indonesia); Geodesy Research Group, geodesy and geomatic Engineering, ITB (Indonesia); Susilo [Bandung Institute of Technology (ITB), Jalan Ganesha 10, Bandung 40132 (Indonesia); Geospatial Information Agency (BIG) (Indonesia)

    2015-04-24

    This research tries to estimate the co-seismic deformation of intraplate earthquake occurred off northern Sumatra coast which is about 100-200 km southwest of Sumatrasubduction zone. The earthquake mechanism was strike-slip with magnitude 8.6 and triggering aftershock with magnitude 8.2 two hours later. We estimated the co-seismic deformation by using the GPS (Global Positioning System) continuous data along western Sumatra coast. The GPS observation derived from Sumatran GPS Array (SuGAr) and Geospatial Information Agency (BIG). For data processing we used GPS Analyze at Massachusetts Institute of Technology (GAMIT) software and Global Kalman Filter (GLOBK) to estimate the co-seismic deformation. From the GPS daily solution, the result shows that the earthquake caused displacement for the GPS stations in Sumatra. GPS stations in northern Sumatra showed the displacement to the northeast with the average displacement was 15 cm. The biggest displacement was found at station BSIM which is located at Simeuleu Island off north west Sumatra coast. GPS station in middle part of Sumatra, the displacement was northwest. The earthquake also caused subsidence for stations in northern Sumatra, but from the time series there was not sign of subsidence was found at middle part of Sumatra. In addition, the effect of the earthquake was worldwide and affected the other GPS Stations around Hindia oceanic.

  10. Technical Note: Using experimentally determined proton spot scanning timing parameters to accurately model beam delivery time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Jiajian; Tryggestad, Erik; Younkin, James E; Keole, Sameer R; Furutani, Keith M; Kang, Yixiu; Herman, Michael G; Bues, Martin

    2017-10-01

    To accurately model the beam delivery time (BDT) for a synchrotron-based proton spot scanning system using experimentally determined beam parameters. A model to simulate the proton spot delivery sequences was constructed, and BDT was calculated by summing times for layer switch, spot switch, and spot delivery. Test plans were designed to isolate and quantify the relevant beam parameters in the operation cycle of the proton beam therapy delivery system. These parameters included the layer switch time, magnet preparation and verification time, average beam scanning speeds in x- and y-directions, proton spill rate, and maximum charge and maximum extraction time for each spill. The experimentally determined parameters, as well as the nominal values initially provided by the vendor, served as inputs to the model to predict BDTs for 602 clinical proton beam deliveries. The calculated BDTs (T BDT ) were compared with the BDTs recorded in the treatment delivery log files (T Log ): ∆t = T Log -T BDT . The experimentally determined average layer switch time for all 97 energies was 1.91 s (ranging from 1.9 to 2.0 s for beam energies from 71.3 to 228.8 MeV), average magnet preparation and verification time was 1.93 ms, the average scanning speeds were 5.9 m/s in x-direction and 19.3 m/s in y-direction, the proton spill rate was 8.7 MU/s, and the maximum proton charge available for one acceleration is 2.0 ± 0.4 nC. Some of the measured parameters differed from the nominal values provided by the vendor. The calculated BDTs using experimentally determined parameters matched the recorded BDTs of 602 beam deliveries (∆t = -0.49 ± 1.44 s), which were significantly more accurate than BDTs calculated using nominal timing parameters (∆t = -7.48 ± 6.97 s). An accurate model for BDT prediction was achieved by using the experimentally determined proton beam therapy delivery parameters, which may be useful in modeling the interplay effect and patient throughput. The model may

  11. Source modeling and inversion with near real-time GPS: a GITEWS perspective for Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babeyko, A. Y.; Hoechner, A.; Sobolev, S. V.

    2010-07-01

    We present the GITEWS approach to source modeling for the tsunami early warning in Indonesia. Near-field tsunami implies special requirements to both warning time and details of source characterization. To meet these requirements, we employ geophysical and geological information to predefine a maximum number of rupture parameters. We discretize the tsunamigenic Sunda plate interface into an ordered grid of patches (150×25) and employ the concept of Green's functions for forward and inverse rupture modeling. Rupture Generator, a forward modeling tool, additionally employs different scaling laws and slip shape functions to construct physically reasonable source models using basic seismic information only (magnitude and epicenter location). GITEWS runs a library of semi- and fully-synthetic scenarios to be extensively employed by system testing as well as by warning center personnel teaching and training. Near real-time GPS observations are a very valuable complement to the local tsunami warning system. Their inversion provides quick (within a few minutes on an event) estimation of the earthquake magnitude, rupture position and, in case of sufficient station coverage, details of slip distribution.

  12. Feasibility study and technical proposal for long-term observations of bedrock stability with gps

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruizhi Chen; Kakkuri, J.

    1994-01-01

    In order to study the regional crustal deformation pattern in the territory of Finland, the Finnish Geodetic Institute is establishing the Finnish Permanent GPS Network, which is part of the Fennoscandian Permanent GPS Network. The Finnish GPS Network consists of a 12 stations located in different geological structures. The operation procedure of the network is described in the report. Feasibility study for monitoring the bedrock stability at local scale was performed. The study was carried out on the basis of an experiment on a baseline of 1041 metres. Twelve artificial movements ranging from 1 mm to 22 mm were generated with a precision-manufactured screw drive (with an accuracy of better than +-0.05 mm). The artificial movements were then detected with the GPS measurements. A preliminary analysis of the GPS data shows that the maximum difference between the GPS detected movements and the artificial movements is 0.9 mm with a standard deviation of +-0.46 mm. The observation time for reaching such accuracy is about 55 minutes. Three GPS networks were preliminarily designed for the radioactive waste disposal investigation sites of Olkiluoto, Kivetty and Romuvaara. Detailed research plan for achieving the best possible result from GPS measurements was proposed. (58 refs., 25 figs., 1 tab.)

  13. Space-time reference with an optical link

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berceau, P; Hollberg, L; Taylor, M; Kahn, J

    2016-01-01

    We describe a concept for realizing a high performance space-time reference using a stable atomic clock in a precisely defined orbit and synchronizing the orbiting clock to high-accuracy atomic clocks on the ground. The synchronization would be accomplished using a two-way lasercom link between ground and space. The basic approach is to take advantage of the highest-performance cold-atom atomic clocks at national standards laboratories on the ground and to transfer that performance to an orbiting clock that has good stability and that serves as a ‘frequency-flywheel’ over time-scales of a few hours. The two-way lasercom link would also provide precise range information and thus precise orbit determination. With a well-defined orbit and a synchronized clock, the satellite could serve as a high-accuracy space-time reference, providing precise time worldwide, a valuable reference frame for geodesy, and independent high-accuracy measurements of GNSS clocks. Under reasonable assumptions, a practical system would be able to deliver picosecond timing worldwide and millimeter orbit determination, and could serve as an enabling subsystem for other proposed space-gravity missions, which are briefly reviewed. (paper)

  14. Continental-scale water fluxes from continuous GPS observations of Earth surface loading

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borsa, A. A.; Agnew, D. C.; Cayan, D. R.

    2015-12-01

    After more than a decade of observing annual oscillations of Earth's surface from seasonal snow and water loading, continuous GPS is now being used to model time-varying terrestrial water fluxes on the local and regional scale. Although the largest signal is typically due to the seasonal hydrological cycle, GPS can also measure subtle surface deformation caused by sustained wet and dry periods, and to estimate the spatial distribution of the underlying terrestrial water storage changes. The next frontier is expanding this analysis to the continental scale and paving the way for incorporating GPS models into the National Climate Assessment and into the observational infrastructure for national water resource management. This will require reconciling GPS observations with predictions from hydrological models and with remote sensing observations from a suite of satellite instruments (e.g. GRACE, SMAP, SWOT). The elastic Earth response which transforms surface loads into vertical and horizontal displacements is also responsible for the contamination of loading observations by tectonic and anthropogenic transients, and we discuss these and other challenges to this new application of GPS.

  15. Sensing human activity : GPS tracking

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Spek, Stefan; van Schaick, Jeroen; de Bois, P.G.; de Haan, Remco

    2009-01-01

    The enhancement of GPS technology enables the use of GPS devices not only as navigation and orientation tools, but also as instruments used to capture travelled routes: as sensors that measure activity on a city scale or the regional scale. TU Delft developed a process and database architecture for

  16. Methodology for the combination of sub-daily Earth rotation from GPS and VLBI observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Artz, T.; Bernhard, L.; Nothnagel, A.; Steigenberger, P.; Tesmer, S.

    2012-03-01

    A combination procedure of Earth orientation parameters from Global Positioning System (GPS) and Very Long Baseline Interferometry (VLBI) observations was developed on the basis of homogeneous normal equation systems. The emphasis and purpose of the combination was the determination of sub-daily polar motion (PM) and universal time (UT1) for a long time-span of 13 years. Time series with an hourly resolution and a model for tidal variations of PM and UT1-TAI (dUT1) were estimated. In both cases, 14-day nutation corrections were estimated simultaneously with the ERPs. Due to the combination procedure, it was warranted that the strengths of both techniques were preserved. At the same time, only a minimum of de-correlating or stabilizing constraints were necessary. Hereby, a PM time series was determined, whose precision is mainly dominated by GPS observations. However, this setup benefits from the fact that VLBI delivered nutation and dUT1 estimates at the same time. An even bigger enhancement can be seen for the dUT1 estimation, where the high-frequency variations are provided by GPS, while the long term trend is defined by VLBI. The estimated combined tidal PM and dUT1 model was predominantly determined from the GPS observations. Overall, the combined tidal model for the first time completely comprises the geometrical benefits of VLBI and GPS observations. In terms of root mean squared (RMS) differences, the tidal amplitudes agree with other empirical single-technique tidal models below 4 μ as in PM and 0.25 μ s in dUT1. The noise floor of the tidal ERP model was investigated in three ways resulting in about 1 μ as for diurnal PM and 0.07 μ s for diurnal dUT1 while the semi-diurnal components have a slightly better accuracy.

  17. Can education of GPs be a waste of time

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eliasson, Gösta; Kjær, Niels Kristian

    Background and aim In general practice, care quality and patient security rests to a great extent upon doctor´s knowledge, skills and attitudes. Throughout their career, doctors continuously learn, maintaining and developing their professional ability. Contrary to what many of us believe, the main...... and for professionals to come together in formal small groups. Many countries have elaborated educational programs for GP:s. of which some are optional and some compulsive. In many countries CME credits are used to ascertain relevant competence and hence to allow for further practicing as a specialist. It has been...... argued (Janet Grant and others) that isolated learning activities like sporadic clinical courses are ineffective, unless they are reflected on and coherently managed as a part of a personal learning plan. This workshop will address two questions: 1. What constitutes a national educational policy designed...

  18. Economic influences on GPs' decisions to provide out-of-hours care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geue, Claudia; Skåtun, Diane; Sutton, Matt

    2009-01-01

    Introduction of the new general medical services contract offered UK general practices the option to discontinue providing out-of-hours (OOH) care. This aimed to improve GP recruitment and retention by offering a better work-life balance, but put primary care organisations under pressure to ensure sustainable delivery of these services. Many organisations arranged this by re-purchasing provision from individual GPs. To analyse which factors influence an individual GP's decision to re-provide OOH care when their practice has opted out. Cross-sectional questionnaire survey. Rural and urban general practices in Scotland, UK. A postal survey was sent to all GPs working in Scotland in 2006, with analyses weighted for differential response rates. Analysis included logistic regression of individuals' decisions to re-provide OOH care based on personal characteristics, work and non-work time commitments, income from other sources, and contracting primary care organisation. Of the 1707 GPs in Scotland whose practice had opted out, 40.6% participated in OOH provision. Participation rates of GPs within primary care organisations varied from 16.7% to 74.7%. Males with young children were substantially more likely to participate than males without children (odds ratio [OR] 2.44, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.36 to 4.40). GPs with higher-earning spouses were less likely to participate. This effect was reinforced if GPs had spouses who were also GPs (OR 0.52, 95% CI = 0.37 to 0.74). GPs with training responsibilities (OR 1.36, 95% CI = 1.09 to 1.71) and other medical posts (OR 1.38, 95% CI = 1.09 to 1.75) were more likely to re-provide OOH services. The opportunity to opt out of OOH care has provided flexibility for GPs to raise additional income, although primary care organisations vary in the extent to which they offer these opportunities. Examining intrinsic motivation is an area for future study.

  19. Low-degree gravity change from GPS data of COSMIC and GRACE satellite missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Tingjung; Hwang, Cheinway; Tseng, Tzu-Pang; Chao, B. F.

    2012-01-01

    This paper demonstrates estimation of time-varying gravity harmonic coefficients from GPS data of COSMIC and GRACE satellite missions. The kinematic orbits of COSMIC and GRACE are determined to the cm-level accuracy. The NASA Goddard's GEODYN II software is used to model the orbit dynamics of COSMIC and GRACE, including the effect of a static gravity field. The surface forces are estimated per one orbital period. Residual orbits generated from kinematic and reference orbits serve as observables to determine the harmonic coefficients in the weighted-constraint least-squares. The monthly COSMIC and GRACE GPS data from September 2006 to December 2007 (16 months) are processed to estimate harmonic coefficients to degree 5. The geoid variations from the GPS and CSR RL04 (GRACE) solutions show consistent patterns over space and time, especially in regions of active hydrological changes. The monthly GPS-derived second zonal coefficient closely resembles the SLR-derived and CSR RL04 values, and third and fourth zonal coefficients resemble the CSR RL04 values.

  20. A statistical study of GPS loss of lock caused by ionospheric disturbances

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsugawa, T.; Nishioka, M.; Otsuka, Y.; Saito, A.; Kato, H.; Kubota, M.; Nagatsuma, T.; Murata, K. T.

    2010-12-01

    Two-dimensional total electron content (TEC) maps have been derived from ground-based GPS receiver networks and applied to studies of various ionospheric disturbances since mid-1990s. For the purpose of monitoring and researching ionospheric disturbances which can degrade GNSS navigations and cause loss-of-lock on GNSS signals, National Institute of Information and Communications Technology (NICT), Japan has developed TEC maps over Japan using the dense GPS network, GEONET, which consists of more than 1,200 GPS receivers and is operated by Geophysical Survey Institute, Japan. Currently, we are providing two-dimensional maps of absolute TEC, detrended TEC with 60, 30, 15-minute window, rate of TEC change index (ROTI), and loss-of-lock (LOL) on GPS signal over Japan. These data and quick-look maps since 1997 are archived and available in the website of NICT (http://wdc.nict.go.jp/IONO/). Recently developed GPS receiver networks in North America and Europe make it possible to obtain regional TEC maps with higher spatial and temporal resolution than the global weighted mean TEC maps in the IONEX format provided by several institutes such as International GNSS Service (IGS) and another global TEC map provided by MIT Haystack observatory. Recently, we have also developed the regional TEC maps over North America and Europe. These data and quick-look maps are also available in the NICT website. In this presentation, we will show some severe ionospheric events such as high latitude storm-time plasma bubbles and storm enhanced density events observed over Japan using the GPS-TEC database. These events cause loss-of-lock of GPS signals and large GPS positioning errors. We also discuss about the statistical characteristics of LOL on the GPS signal caused by ionospheric disturbances.

  1. Evaluating the Correctness of Airborne Laser Scanning Data Heights Using Vehicle-Based RTK and VRS GPS Observations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Vermeer

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available In this study, we describe a system in which a GPS receiver mounted on the roof of a car is used to provide reference information to evaluate the elevation accuracy and georeferencing of airborne laser scanning (ALS point clouds. The concept was evaluated in the Klaukkala test area where a number of roads were traversed to collect real-time kinematic data. Two test cases were evaluated, including one case using the real-time kinematic (RTK method with a dedicated GPS base station at a known benchmark in the area and another case using the GNSSnet virtual reference station service (VRS. The utility of both GPS methods was confirmed. When all test data were included, the mean difference between ALS data and GPS-based observations was −2.4 cm for both RTK and VRS GPS cases. The corresponding dispersions were ±4.5 cm and ±5.9 cm, respectively. In addition, our examination did not reveal the presence of any significant rotation between ALS and GPS data.

  2. Absolute GPS Positioning Using Genetic Algorithms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramillien, G.

    A new inverse approach for restoring the absolute coordinates of a ground -based station from three or four observed GPS pseudo-ranges is proposed. This stochastic method is based on simulations of natural evolution named genetic algorithms (GA). These iterative procedures provide fairly good and robust estimates of the absolute positions in the Earth's geocentric reference system. For comparison/validation, GA results are compared to the ones obtained using the classical linearized least-square scheme for the determination of the XYZ location proposed by Bancroft (1985) which is strongly limited by the number of available observations (i.e. here, the number of input pseudo-ranges must be four). The r.m.s. accuracy of the non -linear cost function reached by this latter method is typically ~10-4 m2 corresponding to ~300-500-m accuracies for each geocentric coordinate. However, GA can provide more acceptable solutions (r.m.s. errors < 10-5 m2), even when only three instantaneous pseudo-ranges are used, such as a lost of lock during a GPS survey. Tuned GA parameters used in different simulations are N=1000 starting individuals, as well as Pc=60-70% and Pm=30-40% for the crossover probability and mutation rate, respectively. Statistical tests on the ability of GA to recover acceptable coordinates in presence of important levels of noise are made simulating nearly 3000 random samples of erroneous pseudo-ranges. Here, two main sources of measurement errors are considered in the inversion: (1) typical satellite-clock errors and/or 300-metre variance atmospheric delays, and (2) Geometrical Dilution of Precision (GDOP) due to the particular GPS satellite configuration at the time of acquisition. Extracting valuable information and even from low-quality starting range observations, GA offer an interesting alternative for high -precision GPS positioning.

  3. Methodology for GPS Synchronization Evaluation with High Accuracy

    OpenAIRE

    Li Zan; Braun Torsten; Dimitrova Desislava

    2015-01-01

    Clock synchronization in the order of nanoseconds is one of the critical factors for time based localization. Currently used time synchronization methods are developed for the more relaxed needs of network operation. Their usability for positioning should be carefully evaluated. In this paper we are particularly interested in GPS based time synchronization. To judge its usability for localization we need a method that can evaluate the achieved time synchronization with nanosecond accuracy. Ou...

  4. Methodology for GPS Synchronization Evaluation with High Accuracy

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Zan; Braun, Torsten; Dimitrova, Desislava Cvetanova

    2015-01-01

    Clock synchronization in the order of nanoseconds is one of the critical factors for time-based localization. Currently used time synchronization methods are developed for the more relaxed needs of network operation. Their usability for positioning should be carefully evaluated. In this paper, we are particularly interested in GPS-based time synchronization. To judge its usability for localization we need a method that can evaluate the achieved time synchronization with nanosecond accuracy. O...

  5. Evaluation on the performance of single and dual frequency low cost GPS module observation using geodetic antenna

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dedi Atunggal

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available GPS modules have been used for various applications in recent years. Its early development came in parallel with the advancement of Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV technology. Nowadays, it is also used in in geographic information system (GIS data acquisition/census, mapping surveys, structure stability monitoring systems and many other applications. GPS modules generally have several positioning features, including standard positioning service (SPS, static positioning, precise point positioning (PPP, post processing kinematic (PPK and real time kinematic (RTK GPS. GPS modules in general are only equipped with a microstrip-type antenna or better known as patch antenna. Results from related research show that GPS module with this type of antenna has sub meter accuracy when used for PPK or RTK GPS method. The use of geodetic antennas is very potential to increase GPS position accuracy by up to centimeter level. This paper discusses the evaluation of GPS module measurements with geodetic type antennas for precise positioning using RTK GPS. This paper is focused on the resolution of GPS cycle ambiguity that is often expressed by the term fixing ratio and the accuracy of measurement results obtained. To provide a comprehensive description of the performance of GPS module, in this research two types of GPS module were used; single and dual frequency. Both types of GPS modules were used to conduct simultaneous observation on an open and obstructed observation location.

  6. Maintenance of time and frequency in the Jet Propulsion Laboratory's Deep Space Network using the Global Positioning System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clements, P. A.; Borutzki, S. E.; Kirk, A.

    1984-01-01

    The Deep Space Network (DSN), managed by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory for NASA, must maintain time and frequency within specified limits in order to accurately track the spacecraft engaged in deep space exploration. Various methods are used to coordinate the clocks among the three tracking complexes. These methods include Loran-C, TV Line 10, Very Long Baseline Interferometry (VLBI), and the Global Positioning System (GPS). Calculations are made to obtain frequency offsets and Allan variances. These data are analyzed and used to monitor the performance of the hydrogen masers that provide the reference frequencies for the DSN Frequency and Timing System (DFT). Areas of discussion are: (1) a brief history of the GPS timing receivers in the DSN, (2) a description of the data and information flow, (3) data on the performance of the DSN master clocks and GPS measurement system, and (4) a description of hydrogen maser frequency steering using these data.

  7. Attitudes of GPs towards Older Adults Psychology Services in the Scottish Highlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Todman, Jonathan P F; Law, Jim; MacDougall, Andrew

    2011-01-01

    The mental health of older adults is of increasing concern in an aging population and GPs are frequently the gatekeepers to specialist mental health services. Psychotherapy, social interventions and bibliotherapy all have an evidence-base for treating depression and anxiety in the elderly, as does pharmacological treatment. However, the referral rate from GPs for an Older Adults Clinical Psychology service in the Scottish Highlands in the months prior to the study had been very low and the reasons for this were not clear. General practitioners may have felt that depression and anxiety are 'understandable' in older adults and are therefore unsuitable for treatment, or they may have felt that psycho-pharmacotherapy treatments are more effective than the psychotherapy treatment options. Alternatively, local issues associated with the remote location of many NHS Highland GP practices and patients may have prevented them referring. Therefore, the current study aimed to elicit the therapeutic preferences of Highland GPs, the perceived availability of these options and an estimate of the prevalence of older adults in the area suffering from mild or moderate mental health problems. Questionnaires including brief quantitative and qualitative questions were sent to all 284 GPs in the area with 119 (46%) were completed and returned. Responses from GPs suggested that many patients with depression or anxiety may not be referred. The GPs indicated that social therapeutic options are seen to be as effective as pharmacological options and more effective than other psychological and bibliotherapy options. However, GPs indicated that they were substantially more likely to prescribe pharmacological options than other forms of therapy. The GPs suggested that lower waiting times and a more localised service would increase the likelihood of a referral being made. The current study suggests that low awareness of psychological service provision among GPs may have resulted in fewer

  8. Vibration detection with 100 Hz GPS PVAT during a dynamic flight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bischof, Christian; Schön, Steffen

    2017-06-01

    This investigation gives insights into real 100 Hz GPS velocity and acceleration estimates from a position, velocity, acceleration and time (PVAT) extended Kalman filter (EKF) during a highly dynamic flight trial with a Dornier Do 128-6 aircraft. We investigated the accelerations during take-off, landing and wing shaking manoeuvres in order to compare the vibration behaviour of the given aircraft determined by means of GPS against an onboard IMU. We found that 100 Hz GPS acceleration is useful for characterising vibrations and giving valuable insights during highly dynamic flights. Potential latency of 0.12 s and amplitude misestimation of up to 80% w.r.t. the reference amplitude occur that should be determined beforehand in order to correctly interpret the results.

  9. Impact of habitat-specific GPS positional error on detection of movement scales by first-passage time analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David M Williams

    Full Text Available Advances in animal tracking technologies have reduced but not eliminated positional error. While aware of such inherent error, scientists often proceed with analyses that assume exact locations. The results of such analyses then represent one realization in a distribution of possible outcomes. Evaluating results within the context of that distribution can strengthen or weaken our confidence in conclusions drawn from the analysis in question. We evaluated the habitat-specific positional error of stationary GPS collars placed under a range of vegetation conditions that produced a gradient of canopy cover. We explored how variation of positional error in different vegetation cover types affects a researcher's ability to discern scales of movement in analyses of first-passage time for white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus. We placed 11 GPS collars in 4 different vegetative canopy cover types classified as the proportion of cover above the collar (0-25%, 26-50%, 51-75%, and 76-100%. We simulated the effect of positional error on individual movement paths using cover-specific error distributions at each location. The different cover classes did not introduce any directional bias in positional observations (1 m≤mean≤6.51 m, 0.24≤p≤0.47, but the standard deviation of positional error of fixes increased significantly with increasing canopy cover class for the 0-25%, 26-50%, 51-75% classes (SD = 2.18 m, 3.07 m, and 4.61 m, respectively and then leveled off in the 76-100% cover class (SD = 4.43 m. We then added cover-specific positional errors to individual deer movement paths and conducted first-passage time analyses on the noisy and original paths. First-passage time analyses were robust to habitat-specific error in a forest-agriculture landscape. For deer in a fragmented forest-agriculture environment, and species that move across similar geographic extents, we suggest that first-passage time analysis is robust with regard to

  10. Real-Time Magnitude Characterization of Large Earthquakes Using the Predominant Period Derived From 1 Hz GPS Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Psimoulis, Panos A.; Houlié, Nicolas; Behr, Yannik

    2018-01-01

    Earthquake early warning (EEW) systems' performance is driven by the trade-off between the need for a rapid alert and the accuracy of each solution. A challenge for many EEW systems has been the magnitude saturation for large events (MW > 7) and the resulting underestimation of seismic moment magnitude. In this study, we test the performance of high-rate (1 Hz) GPS, based on seven seismic events, to evaluate whether long-period ground motions can be measured well enough to infer reliably earthquake predominant periods. We show that high-rate GPS data allow the computation of a GPS-based predominant period (τg) to estimate lower bounds for the magnitude of earthquakes and distinguish between large (MW > 7) and great (MW > 8) events and thus extend the capability of EEW systems for larger events. It has also identified the impact of the different values of the smoothing factor α on the τg results and how the sampling rate and the computation process differentiate τg from the commonly used τp.

  11. Briefing highlights space weather risks to GPS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tretkoff, Ernie

    2011-07-01

    Solar storms, which are expected to increase as the Sun nears the most active phase of the solar cycle, can disrupt a variety of technologies on which society relies. Speakers at a 22 June briefing on Capitol Hill in Washington, D. C., focused on how space weather can affect the Global Positioning System (GPS), which is used in a wide range of industries, including commercial air travel, agriculture, national security, and emergency response. Rocky Stone, chief technical pilot for United Airlines, noted that GPS allows more aircraft to be in airspace, saves fuel, and helps aircraft move safely on runways. “Improvements in space weather forecasting need to be pursued,” he said. Precision GPS has also “changed the whole nature of farming,” said Ron Hatch, Director of Navigation Systems, NavCom Technology/John Deere. GPS makes it possible for tractors to be driven in the most efficient paths and for fertilizer and water to be applied precisely to the areas that most need them. Space weather-induced degradation of GPS signals can cause significant loss to farms that rely on GPS. Elizabeth Zimmerman, Deputy Associate Administrator for the Office of Response and Recovery at the Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA), described how FEMA relies on GPS for disaster recovery. The agency is developing an operations plan for dealing with space weather, she said.

  12. Dynamic strain and rotation ground motions of the 2011 Tohoku earthquake from dense high-rate GPS observations in Taiwan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, B. S.; Rau, R. J.; Lin, C. J.; Kuo, L. C.

    2017-12-01

    Seismic waves generated by the 2011 Mw 9.0 Tohoku, Japan earthquake were well recorded by continuous GPS in Taiwan. Those GPS were operated in one hertz sampling rate and densely distributed in Taiwan Island. Those continuous GPS observations and the precise point positioning technique provide an opportunity to estimate spatial derivatives from absolute ground motions of this giant teleseismic event. In this study, we process and investigate more than one and half hundred high-rate GPS displacements and its spatial derivatives, thus strain and rotations, to compare to broadband seismic and rotational sensor observations. It is shown that continuous GPS observations are highly consistent with broadband seismic observations during its surface waves across Taiwan Island. Several standard Geodesy and seismic array analysis techniques for spatial gradients have been applied to those continuous GPS time series to determine its dynamic strain and rotation time histories. Results show that those derivate GPS vertical axis ground rotations are consistent to seismic array determined rotations. However, vertical rotation-rate observations from the R1 rotational sensors have low resolutions and could not compared with GPS observations for this special event. For its dese spatial distribution of GPS stations in Taiwan Island, not only wavefield gradient time histories at individual site was obtained but also 2-D spatial ground motion fields were determined in this study also. In this study, we will report the analyzed results of those spatial gradient wavefields of the 2011 Tohoku earthquake across Taiwan Island and discuss its geological implications.

  13. Fast-Acquisition/Weak-Signal-Tracking GPS Receiver for HEO

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wintemitz, Luke; Boegner, Greg; Sirotzky, Steve

    2004-01-01

    A report discusses the technical background and design of the Navigator Global Positioning System (GPS) receiver -- . a radiation-hardened receiver intended for use aboard spacecraft. Navigator is capable of weak signal acquisition and tracking as well as much faster acquisition of strong or weak signals with no a priori knowledge or external aiding. Weak-signal acquisition and tracking enables GPS use in high Earth orbits (HEO), and fast acquisition allows for the receiver to remain without power until needed in any orbit. Signal acquisition and signal tracking are, respectively, the processes of finding and demodulating a signal. Acquisition is the more computationally difficult process. Previous GPS receivers employ the method of sequentially searching the two-dimensional signal parameter space (code phase and Doppler). Navigator exploits properties of the Fourier transform in a massively parallel search for the GPS signal. This method results in far faster acquisition times [in the lab, 12 GPS satellites have been acquired with no a priori knowledge in a Low-Earth-Orbit (LEO) scenario in less than one second]. Modeling has shown that Navigator will be capable of acquiring signals down to 25 dB-Hz, appropriate for HEO missions. Navigator is built using the radiation-hardened ColdFire microprocessor and housing the most computationally intense functions in dedicated field-programmable gate arrays. The high performance of the algorithm and of the receiver as a whole are made possible by optimizing computational efficiency and carefully weighing tradeoffs among the sampling rate, data format, and data-path bit width.

  14. GPS Usage in a Population of Low-Vision Drivers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cucuras, Maria; Chun, Robert; Lee, Patrick; Jay, Walter M; Pusateri, Gregg

    2017-01-01

    We surveyed bioptic and non-bioptic low-vision drivers in Illinois, USA, to determine their usage of global positioning system (GPS) devices. Low-vision patients completed an IRB-approved phone survey regarding driving demographics and usage of GPS while driving. Participants were required to be active drivers with an Illinois driver's license, and met one of the following criteria: best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA) less than or equal to 20/40, central or significant peripheral visual field defects, or a combination of both. Of 27 low-vision drivers, 10 (37%) used GPS while driving. The average age for GPS users was 54.3 and for non-users was 77.6. All 10 drivers who used GPS while driving reported increased comfort or safety level. Since non-GPS users were significantly older than GPS users, it is likely that older participants would benefit from GPS technology training from their low-vision eye care professionals.

  15. Rip current monitoring using GPS buoy system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, DongSeob; Kim, InHo; Kang, DongSoo

    2014-05-01

    The occurrence of rip current in the Haeundae beach, which is one of the most famous beaches in South Korea, has been threatening beach-goers security in summer season annually. Many coastal scientists have been investigating rip currents by using field observations and measurements, laboratory measurements and wave tank experiments, and computer and numerical modeling. Rip current velocity is intermittent and may rapidly increase within minutes due to larger incoming wave groups or nearshore circulation instabilities. It is important to understand that changes in rip current velocity occur in response to changes in incoming wave height and period as well as changes in water level. GPS buoys have been used to acquire sea level change data, atmospheric parameters and other oceanic variables in sea for the purposes of vertical datum determination, tide correction, radar altimeter calibration, ocean environment and marine pollution monitoring. Therefore, we adopted GPS buoy system for an experiment which is to investigate rip current velocity; it is sporadic and may quickly upsurge within minutes due to larger arriving wave groups or nearshore flow uncertainties. In this study, for high accurate positioning of buy equipment, a Satellite Based Argumentation System DGPS data logger was deployed to investigate within floating object, and it can be acquired three-dimensional coordinate or geodetic position of buoy with continuous NMEA-0183 protocol during 24 hours. The wave height measured by in-situ hydrometer in a cross-shore array clearly increased before and after occurrence of rip current, and wave period also was lengthened around an event. These results show that wave height and period correlate reasonably well with long-shore current interaction in the Haeundae beach. Additionally, current meter data and GPS buoy data showed that rip current velocities, about 0.2 m/s, may become dangerously strong under specific conditions. Acknowledgement This research was

  16. Autonomous GPS/INS navigation experiment for Space Transfer Vehicle (STV)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Upadhyay, Triveni N.; Cotterill, Stephen; Deaton, A. Wayne

    1991-01-01

    An experiment to validate the concept of developing an autonomous integrated spacecraft navigation system using on board Global Positioning System (GPS) and Inertial Navigation System (INS) measurements is described. The feasibility of integrating GPS measurements with INS measurements to provide a total improvement in spacecraft navigation performance, i.e. improvement in position, velocity and attitude information, was previously demonstrated. An important aspect of this research is the automatic real time reconfiguration capability of the system designed to respond to changes in a spacecraft mission under the control of an expert system.

  17. Assimilation of GPS Refractivity from FORMOSAT-3/COSMIC Using a Nonlocal Operator with WRF 3DVAR and Its Impact on the Prediction of a Typhoon Event

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shu-Ya Chen

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available A nonlocal observation operator has been developed to assimilate GPS radio occultation (RO refractivity with WRF 3DVAR. For simplicity, in the past GPS RO refractivity was often assimilated using a local observation operator with the assumption that the GPS RO observation was representative of amodel local point. Such an operator did not take into account the effects of horizontal inhomogeneity on the derived GPS RO refractivity. In order to more accurately model the observables, Sokolovskiy et al. (2005a developed a nonlocal observation operator, which would take into account the effects of horizontal inhomogeneity on GPS RO measurements. This nonlocal observation operator calculates the integrated amount of the model refractivity along the ray paths centered at the perigee points. For comparative purposes, the nonlocal observation operator can be simplified by limiting the length of integration near the RO point. This is called the "local operator variant", which is equivalent to the original local operator except that the original one is performed with fixed tangent points at observation levels. For computational efficiency, assimilation using both the nonlocal operator and local operator variant now is performed with smear tangent points at the mean height of each model vertical level. In this study, the statistics of observation errors using both local and nonlocal operators were estimated based on WRF simulations. The observation errors produced by the nonlocal operator are about two times smaller than those generated by the local operator and in agreement with Sokolovskiy et al. (2005b.

  18. Reducing dose calculation time for accurate iterative IMRT planning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Siebers, Jeffrey V.; Lauterbach, Marc; Tong, Shidong; Wu Qiuwen; Mohan, Radhe

    2002-01-01

    A time-consuming component of IMRT optimization is the dose computation required in each iteration for the evaluation of the objective function. Accurate superposition/convolution (SC) and Monte Carlo (MC) dose calculations are currently considered too time-consuming for iterative IMRT dose calculation. Thus, fast, but less accurate algorithms such as pencil beam (PB) algorithms are typically used in most current IMRT systems. This paper describes two hybrid methods that utilize the speed of fast PB algorithms yet achieve the accuracy of optimizing based upon SC algorithms via the application of dose correction matrices. In one method, the ratio method, an infrequently computed voxel-by-voxel dose ratio matrix (R=D SC /D PB ) is applied for each beam to the dose distributions calculated with the PB method during the optimization. That is, D PB xR is used for the dose calculation during the optimization. The optimization proceeds until both the IMRT beam intensities and the dose correction ratio matrix converge. In the second method, the correction method, a periodically computed voxel-by-voxel correction matrix for each beam, defined to be the difference between the SC and PB dose computations, is used to correct PB dose distributions. To validate the methods, IMRT treatment plans developed with the hybrid methods are compared with those obtained when the SC algorithm is used for all optimization iterations and with those obtained when PB-based optimization is followed by SC-based optimization. In the 12 patient cases studied, no clinically significant differences exist in the final treatment plans developed with each of the dose computation methodologies. However, the number of time-consuming SC iterations is reduced from 6-32 for pure SC optimization to four or less for the ratio matrix method and five or less for the correction method. Because the PB algorithm is faster at computing dose, this reduces the inverse planning optimization time for our implementation

  19. Transportation mode recognition using GPS and accelerometer data

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Feng, T.; Timmermans, H.J.P.

    2013-01-01

    Potential advantages of global positioning systems (GPS) in collecting travel behavior data have been discussed in several publications and evidenced in many recent studies. Most applications depend on GPS information only. However, transportation mode detection that relies only on GPS information

  20. Gestió mapes i GPS

    OpenAIRE

    Díaz Sañudo, Daniel

    2013-01-01

    El projecte denominat "Gestor de mapes i GPS" és una aplicació per a dispositius mòbils Android que utilitza l'API v.1 de Google Maps. El proyecto denominado "Gestor de mapas y GPS" es una aplicación para dispositivos móviles Android que utiliza la API v.1 de Google Maps.

  1. Consistency of GPS and strong-motion records: case study of the Mw9.0 Tohoku-Oki 2011 earthquake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Psimoulis, Panos; Houlié, Nicolas; Michel, Clotaire; Meindl, Michael; Rothacher, Markus

    2014-05-01

    High-rate GPS data are today commonly used to supplement seismic data for the Earth surface motions focusing on earthquake characterisation and rupture modelling. Processing of GPS records using Precise Point Positioning (PPP) can provide real-time information of seismic wave propagation, tsunami early-warning and seismic rupture. Most studies have shown differences between the GPS and seismic systems at very long periods (e.g. >100sec) and static displacements. The aim of this study is the assessment of the consistency of GPS and strong-motion records by comparing their respective displacement waveforms for several frequency bands. For this purpose, the records of the GPS (GEONET) and the strong-motion (KiK-net and K-NET) networks corresponding to the Mw9.0 Tohoku 2011 earthquake were analysed. The comparison of the displacement waveforms of collocated (distance<100m) GPS and strong-motion sites show that the consistency between the two datasets depends on the frequency of the excitation. Differences are mainly due to the GPS noise at relatively short-periods (<3-4 s) and the saturation of the strong-motion sensors for relatively long-periods (40-80 s). Furthermore the agreement between the GPS and strong-motion records also depends on the direction of the excitation signal and the distance from the epicentre. In conclusion, velocities and displacements recovered from GPS and strong-motion records are consistent for long-periods (3-100 s), proving that GPS networks can contribute to the real-time estimation of the long-period ground motion map of an earthquake.

  2. Location - Global Positioning System (GPS) Photos

    Data.gov (United States)

    Army Corps of Engineers, Department of the Army, Department of Defense — Digital photos tagged with GPS location information. The St. Paul District maintains a digital library of over 10,000 GPS photos. Photos are often associated with...

  3. Quantifying movement demands of AFL football using GPS tracking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wisbey, Ben; Montgomery, Paul G; Pyne, David B; Rattray, Ben

    2010-09-01

    Global positioning system (GPS) monitoring of movement patterns is widespread in elite football including the Australian Football League (AFL). However documented analysis of this activity is lacking. We quantified the movement patterns of AFL football and differences between nomadic (midfield), forward and defender playing positions, and determined whether the physical demands have increased over a four season period. Selected premiership games were monitored during the 2005 (n=80 game files), 2006 (n=244), 2007 (n=632) and 2008 (n=793) AFL seasons. Players were fitted with a shoulder harness containing a GPS unit. GPS data were downloaded after games and the following measures extracted: total distance (km), time in various speed zones, maximum speed, number of surges, accelerations, longest continuous efforts and a derived exertion index representing playing intensity. In 2008 nomadic players covered per game 3.4% more total distance (km), had 4.8% less playing time (min), a 17% higher exertion index (per min), and 23% more time running >18kmh(-1) than forwards and defenders (all p<0.05). Physical demands were substantially higher in the 2008 season compared with 2005: an 8.4% increase in mean speed, a 14% increase in intensity (exertion index) and a 9.0% decrease in playing time (all p<0.05). Nomadic players in AFL work substantially harder than forwards and defenders in covering more ground and at higher running intensities. Increases in the physical demands of AFL football were evident between 2005 and 2008. The increasing speed of the game has implications for game authorities, players and coaching staff.

  4. Jason-1 and Jason-2 POD Using GPS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melachroinos, Stavros; Lemoine, Frank G.; Zelensky, Nikita P.; Rowlands, David D.; Luthcke, Scott B.; Beckley, Brian D.

    2012-01-01

    The Jason-2 satellite, launched in June 2008, is the latest follow-on to the successful Jason-1 altimetry satellite mission launched in December 7, 2001. Both, Jason-2 and Jason-1 are equipped with a GPS dual-frequency receiver, a laser retroreflector array, and a DORIS receiver for precise orbit determination (POD). A series of dynamic and reduced-dynamic Jason-2 orbits computed at NASA GSFC, based on GPS-only data and the std0905 standards, have been completed till cy74through cycle 74 using the IGS05 framework. These orbits, now publicly available, have been shown to agree radially at 1 cm RMS with the GSFC std0905 SLR/DORIS orbits and in comparison with orbits produced by JPL, ESA and CNES. In this paper, we describe the implementation of the IGS08 and repro1 framework for the Jason-2 and Jason-1 GPS POD processing with the NASA GSFC GEODYN software. . In our updated GPS POD, ambiguity fixing and updated time variable and static gravity fields. We also evaluate the implementation of non-tidal and degree-1 loading displacement as forward modeling to the tracking stations. Reduced-dynamic versus dynamic orbit differences are used to characterize the remaining force model errors and TRF instability. In particular, we assess their consistency radially and the stability of the altimeter satellite reference frame in the North/South direction as a proxy to assess the consistency of the reference frame.

  5. Precise and accurate train run data: Approximation of actual arrival and departure times

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Richter, Troels; Landex, Alex; Andersen, Jonas Lohmann Elkjær

    with the approximated actual arrival and departure times. As a result, all future statistics can now either be based on track circuit data with high precision or approximated actual arrival times with a high accuracy. Consequently, performance analysis will be more accurate, punctuality statistics more correct, KPI...

  6. Accuracy assessment of the global TanDEM-X Digital Elevation Model with GPS data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wessel, Birgit; Huber, Martin; Wohlfart, Christian; Marschalk, Ursula; Kosmann, Detlev; Roth, Achim

    2018-05-01

    The primary goal of the German TanDEM-X mission is the generation of a highly accurate and global Digital Elevation Model (DEM) with global accuracies of at least 10 m absolute height error (linear 90% error). The global TanDEM-X DEM acquired with single-pass SAR interferometry was finished in September 2016. This paper provides a unique accuracy assessment of the final TanDEM-X global DEM using two different GPS point reference data sets, which are distributed across all continents, to fully characterize the absolute height error. Firstly, the absolute vertical accuracy is examined by about three million globally distributed kinematic GPS (KGPS) points derived from 19 KGPS tracks covering a total length of about 66,000 km. Secondly, a comparison is performed with more than 23,000 "GPS on Bench Marks" (GPS-on-BM) points provided by the US National Geodetic Survey (NGS) scattered across 14 different land cover types of the US National Land Cover Data base (NLCD). Both GPS comparisons prove an absolute vertical mean error of TanDEM-X DEM smaller than ±0.20 m, a Root Means Square Error (RMSE) smaller than 1.4 m and an excellent absolute 90% linear height error below 2 m. The RMSE values are sensitive to land cover types. For low vegetation the RMSE is ±1.1 m, whereas it is slightly higher for developed areas (±1.4 m) and for forests (±1.8 m). This validation confirms an outstanding absolute height error at 90% confidence level of the global TanDEM-X DEM outperforming the requirement by a factor of five. Due to its extensive and globally distributed reference data sets, this study is of considerable interests for scientific and commercial applications.

  7. How can GPS technology help us better understand exposure to the food environment? A systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cetateanu, Andreea; Jones, Andy

    2016-12-01

    Global Positioning Systems (GPS) are increasingly being used to objectively assess movement patterns of people related to health behaviours. However research detailing their application to the food environment is scarce. This systematic review examines the application of GPS in studies of exposure to food environments and their potential influences on health. Based on an initial scoping exercise, published articles to be included in the systematic review were identified from four electronic databases and reference lists and were appraised and analysed, the final cut-off date for inclusion being January 2015. Included studies used GPS to identify location of individuals in relation to food outlets and link that to health or diet outcomes. They were appraised against a set of quality criteria. Six studies met the inclusion criteria, which were appraised to be of moderate quality. Newer studies had a higher quality score. Associations between observed mobility patterns in the food environment and diet related outcomes were equivocal. Findings agreed that traditional food exposure measures overestimate the importance of the home food environment. The use of GPS to measure exposure to the food environment is still in its infancy yet holds much potential. There are considerable variations and challenges in developing and standardising the methods used to assess exposure.

  8. The Effect of high temperature plasma on GPS satellite signals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aghanajafi, C.; Alizadeh, M.M.

    2002-01-01

    Ionospheric disturbances caused by pulses of electromagnetic radiation are observed in the propagation of radio signals. Specific events affecting particular aspects of radio propagation are sudden phase anomaly; sudden frequency deviation, sudden cosmic noise and short wave fade out. Global positioning System (GPS) is a space-based navigation system, developed by the United States, to satisfy the requirements for the military forces and the civilians to determine their position, velocity and time in a common reference system anywhere on or near the earth. The purpose of this paper is to calculate the effect of ionosphere on GPS satellite signals. In order to find this effects, calculation of the total column electron content is needed. The lack of data necessary to generate real Electron Density Profile versus altitude, latitude, time, season and solar activity; causes the introduction of a new method to reproduce the topside and bottom side component of the peak electron density. Electron density profiles computed in this method are compared with GPS derived profiles, which use observations of dual frequency receivers. Ionospheric range corrections, for signal point positioning, using two methods have also been discussed

  9. Accurate Rapid Lifetime Determination on Time-Gated FLIM Microscopy with Optical Sectioning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Susana F; Domingues, José Paulo; Morgado, António Miguel

    2018-01-01

    Time-gated fluorescence lifetime imaging microscopy (FLIM) is a powerful technique to assess the biochemistry of cells and tissues. When applied to living thick samples, it is hampered by the lack of optical sectioning and the need of acquiring many images for an accurate measurement of fluorescence lifetimes. Here, we report on the use of processing techniques to overcome these limitations, minimizing the acquisition time, while providing optical sectioning. We evaluated the application of the HiLo and the rapid lifetime determination (RLD) techniques for accurate measurement of fluorescence lifetimes with optical sectioning. HiLo provides optical sectioning by combining the high-frequency content from a standard image, obtained with uniform illumination, with the low-frequency content of a second image, acquired using structured illumination. Our results show that HiLo produces optical sectioning on thick samples without degrading the accuracy of the measured lifetimes. We also show that instrument response function (IRF) deconvolution can be applied with the RLD technique on HiLo images, improving greatly the accuracy of the measured lifetimes. These results open the possibility of using the RLD technique with pulsed diode laser sources to determine accurately fluorescence lifetimes in the subnanosecond range on thick multilayer samples, providing that offline processing is allowed.

  10. GPS-based system for satellite tracking and geodesy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertiger, Willy I.; Thornton, Catherine L.

    1989-01-01

    High-performance receivers and data processing systems developed for GPS are reviewed. The GPS Inferred Positioning System (GIPSY) and the Orbiter Analysis and Simulation Software (OASIS) are described. The OASIS software is used to assess GPS system performance using GIPSY for data processing. Consideration is given to parameter estimation for multiday arcs, orbit repeatability, orbit prediction, daily baseline repeatability, agreement with VLBI, and ambiguity resolution. Also, the dual-frequency Rogue receiver, which can track up to eight GPS satellites simultaneously, is discussed.

  11. GPS Test Facility

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Global Positioning System (GPS) Test Facility Instrumentation Suite (GPSIS) provides great flexibility in testing receivers by providing operational control of...

  12. Status of Precise Orbit Determination for Jason-2 Using GPS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melachroinos, S.; Lemoine, F. G.; Zelensky, N. P.; Rowlands, D. D.; Pavlis, D. E.

    2011-01-01

    The JASON-2 satellite, launched in June 2008, is the latest follow-on to the successful TOPEX/Poseidon (T/P) and JASON-I altimetry missions. JASON-2 is equipped with a TRSR Blackjack GPS dual-frequency receiver, a laser retroreflector array, and a DORIS receiver for precise orbit determination (POD). The most recent time series of orbits computed at NASA GSFC, based on SLR/DORIS data have been completed using both ITRF2005 and ITRF2008. These orbits have been shown to agree radially at 1 cm RMS for dynamic vs SLRlDORIS reduced-dynamic orbits and in comparison with orbits produced by other analysis centers (Lemoine et al., 2010; Zelensky et al., 2010; Cerri et al., 2010). We have recently upgraded the GEODYN software to implement model improvements for GPS processing. We describe the implementation of IGS standards to the Jason2 GEODYN GPS processing, and other dynamical and measurement model improvements. Our GPS-only JASON-2 orbit accuracy is assessed using a number of tests including analysis of independent SLR and altimeter crossover residuals, orbit overlap differences, and direct comparison to orbits generated at GSFC using SLR and DORIS tracking, and to orbits generated externally at other centers. Tests based on SLR and the altimeter crossover residuals provide the best performance indicator for independent validation of the NASAlGSFC GPS-only reduced dynamic orbits. For the ITRF2005 and ITRF2008 implementation of our GPS-only obits we are using the IGS05 and IGS08 standards. Reduced dynamic versus dynamic orbit differences are used to characterize the remaining force model error and TRF instability. We evaluate the GPS vs SLR & DORIS orbits produced using the GEODYN software and assess in particular their consistency radially and the stability of the altimeter satellite reference frame in the Z direction for both ITRF2005 and ITRF2008 as a proxy to assess the consistency of the reference frame for altimeter satellite POD.

  13. Feasibility of Construction of the Continuously Operating Geodetic GPS Network of Sinaloa, Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vazquez, G. E.; Jacobo, C.

    2011-12-01

    This research is based on the study and analysis of feasibility for the construction of the geodetic network for GPS continuous operation for Sinaloa, hereafter called (RGOCSIN). A GPS network of continuous operation is defined as that materialized structure physically through permanent monuments where measurements to the systems of Global Positioning (GPS) is performed continuously throughout a region. The GPS measurements in this network are measurements of accuracy according to international standards to define its coordinates, thus constituting the basic structure of geodetic referencing for a country. In this context is that in the near future the RGOCSIN constitutes a system state only accurate and reliable georeferencing in real-time (continuous and permanent operation) and will be used for different purposes; i.e., in addition to being fundamental basis for any lifting topographic or geodetic survey, and other areas such as: (1) Different construction processes (control and monitoring of engineering works); (2) Studies of deformation of the Earth's crust (before and after a seismic event); (3) GPS meteorology (weather forecasting); (4) Demarcation projects (natural and political); (5) Establishment of bases to generate mapping (necessary for the economic and social development of the state); (6) Precision agriculture (optimization of economic resources to the various crops); (7) Geographic information systems (Organization and planning activities associated with the design and construction of public services); (8) Urban growth (possible settlements in the appropriate form and taking care of the environmental aspect), among others. However there are criteria and regulations according to the INEGI (Instituto Nacional de Estadística y Geografía, http://www.inegi.org.mx/) that must be met; even for this stage of feasibility of construction that sees this project as a first phase. The fundamental criterion to be taken into account according to INEGI is a

  14. Why GPS makes distances bigger than they are.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ranacher, Peter; Brunauer, Richard; Trutschnig, Wolfgang; Van der Spek, Stefan; Reich, Siegfried

    2016-02-01

    Global navigation satellite systems such as the Global Positioning System (GPS) is one of the most important sensors for movement analysis. GPS is widely used to record the trajectories of vehicles, animals and human beings. However, all GPS movement data are affected by both measurement and interpolation errors. In this article we show that measurement error causes a systematic bias in distances recorded with a GPS; the distance between two points recorded with a GPS is - on average - bigger than the true distance between these points. This systematic 'overestimation of distance' becomes relevant if the influence of interpolation error can be neglected, which in practice is the case for movement sampled at high frequencies. We provide a mathematical explanation of this phenomenon and illustrate that it functionally depends on the autocorrelation of GPS measurement error ( C ). We argue that C can be interpreted as a quality measure for movement data recorded with a GPS. If there is a strong autocorrelation between any two consecutive position estimates, they have very similar error. This error cancels out when average speed, distance or direction is calculated along the trajectory. Based on our theoretical findings we introduce a novel approach to determine C in real-world GPS movement data sampled at high frequencies. We apply our approach to pedestrian trajectories and car trajectories. We found that the measurement error in the data was strongly spatially and temporally autocorrelated and give a quality estimate of the data. Most importantly, our findings are not limited to GPS alone. The systematic bias and its implications are bound to occur in any movement data collected with absolute positioning if interpolation error can be neglected.

  15. Assessing fitness for work: GPs judgment making.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foley, Michelle; Thorley, Kevan; Van Hout, Marie-Claire

    2013-12-01

    The complexity of a fitness for work consultation is well documented. General practitioners (GPs) find that such consultations often create conflict and they feel ill-prepared for the task. We aimed to examine the consultation process in the fitness for work consultation and to report on the response of GPs to two hypothetical consultations of work related sickness absence, one of a psychological and one of a physical nature. Three areas of the consultation were examined; social/family circumstances, workplace history and information required assessing the severity of the condition. We used a randomized design using an online questionnaire completed by 62 GPs located in the Republic of Ireland. Analysis was conducted in NVivo 8 qualitative software using thematic and content analysis techniques. GPs may be expected to collect and consider information relating to social, domestic, financial, lifestyle and workplace factors, including workload, job satisfaction, job strain, work ethic, inter staff relationships and employee support mechanisms. The mode of presentation may trigger specific information seeking in the consultation. GPs may evaluate fitness for work in a variety of ways depending on medical and non-medical factors. Further research should further examine the factors that may influence the GPs decision to prescribe sickness leave.

  16. Short-term variations of Icelandic ice cap mass inferred from cGPS coordinate time series

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Compton, Kathleen; Bennett, Richard A.; Hreinsdóttir, Sigrún

    2017-01-01

    As the global climate changes, understanding short-term variations in water storage is increasingly important. Continuously operating Global Positioning System (cGPS) stations in Iceland record annual periodic motion—the elastic response to winter accumulation and spring melt seasons—with peak-to...

  17. Android App Based Vehicle Tracking Using GPS And GSM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jessica Saini

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Global Positioning System GPS is used in numerous applications in todays world. A real time vehicle tracking system using the GPS technology is proposed in this paper. The project Android App based Vehicle Tracking Using GSM AND GPRS mainly focuses in tracking the location of the vehicle on which the device has been installed. It will then send the data in the form of latitude and longitude coordinates through SMS on the users mobile where the coordinates will be plotted in the Android app automatically. Initially the GPS installed in the device takes input from the satellite and stores it in the microcontrollers buffer. In order to track the vehicle the mobile user has to call on the SIM number that is registered in the GSM module of the device. Once the call is received the device authenticates the calling number. If authenticated the location of the vehicle is sent to the registered mobile number in the form of SMS. After sending the message the GSM is deactivated and the GPS is activated again. The coordinates of the location received in the SMS can be viewed on the android app. The hardware part described in the paper comprises of GPRS GSM module LCD to view the coordinates ATMega Microcontroller MAX 232 Arduino RS232 and relay.

  18. Azimuth selection for sea level measurements using geodetic GPS receivers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiaolei; Zhang, Qin; Zhang, Shuangcheng

    2018-03-01

    Based on analysis of Global Positioning System (GPS) multipath signals recorded by a geodetic GPS receiver, GPS Reflectometry (GPS-R) has demonstrated unique advantages in relation to sea level monitoring. Founded on multipath reflectometry theory, sea level changes can be measured by GPS-R through spectral analysis of recorded signal-to-noise ratio data. However, prior to estimating multipath parameters, it is necessary to define azimuth and elevation angle mask to ensure the reflecting zones are on water. Here, a method is presented to address azimuth selection, a topic currently under active development in the field of GPS-R. Data from three test sites: the Kachemak Bay GPS site PBAY in Alaska (USA), Friday Harbor GPS site SC02 in the San Juan Islands (USA), and Brest Harbor GPS site BRST in Brest (France) are analyzed. These sites are located in different multipath environments, from a rural coastal area to a busy harbor, and they experience different tidal ranges. Estimates by the GPS tide gauges at azimuths selected by the presented method are compared with measurements from physical tide gauges and acceptable correspondence found for all three sites.

  19. Managing barriers to empathy in the clinical encounter: a qualitative interview study with GPs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Derksen, Frans Awm; Olde Hartman, Tim C; Bensing, Jozien M; Lagro-Janssen, Antoine Lm

    2016-12-01

    Current daily general practice has become increasingly technical and somatically oriented (where attention to patients' feelings is decreased) due to an increase in protocol-based guidelines. Priorities in GP-patient communication have shifted from a focus on listening and empathy to task-oriented communication. To explore what barriers GPs experience when applying empathy in daily practice, and how these barriers are managed. Thirty Dutch GPs with sufficient heterogeneity in sex, age, type of practice, and rural or urban setting were interviewed. The consolidated criteria for reporting qualitative research (COREQ) were applied. The verbatim transcripts were then analysed. According to participating GPs, the current emphasis on protocol-driven care can be a significant barrier to genuineness in communication. Other potential barriers mentioned were time pressures and constraints, and dealing with patients displaying 'unruly behaviour' or those with personality disorders. GPs indicated that it can be difficult to balance emotional involvement and professional distance. Longer consulting times, smaller practice populations, and efficient practice organisation were described as practical solutions. In order to focus on a patient-as-person approach, GPs strongly suggested that deviating from guidelines should be possible when necessary as an element of good-quality care. Joining intercollegiate counselling groups was also discussed. In addition to practical solutions for barriers to behaving empathically, GPs indicated that they needed more freedom to balance working with protocols and guidelines, as well as a patient-as-person and patient-as-partner approach. This balance is necessary to remain connected with patients and to deliver care that is truly personal. © British Journal of General Practice 2016.

  20. The Evolution of Global Positioning System (GPS) Technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Sameer; Moore, Kevin B.

    2002-01-01

    Describes technological advances in the Global Positioning System (GPS), which is also known as the NAVSTAR GPS satellite constellation program developed in 1937, and changes in the nature of our world by GPS in the areas of agriculture, health, military, transportation, environment, wildlife biology, surveying and mapping, space applications, and…