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Sample records for accurate absolute measurement

  1. Accurate absolute measurement of trapped Cs atoms in a MOT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Talavera O, M.; Lopez R, M.; Carlos L, E. de [Division de Tiempo y Frecuencia, Centro Nacional de Metrologia, CENAM, km 4.5 Carretera a los Cues, El Marques, 76241 Queretaro (Mexico); Jimenez S, S. [Centro de Investigacion y Estudios Avanzados del lPN, Unidad Queretaro, Libramiento Norponiente No. 2000, Fracc. Real de Juriquilla, 76230 Queretaro (Mexico)

    2007-07-01

    A Cs-133 Magneto-Optical Trap (MOT) has been developed at the Time and Frequency Division of the Centro Nacional de Metrologia, CENAM, in Mexico. This MOT is part of a primary frequency standard based on ultra-cold Cs atoms, called CsF-1 clock, under development at CENAM. In this Cs MOT, we use the standard configuration ({sigma}{sup +} - {sigma}{sup -}) 4-horizontal 2-vertical laser beams 1.9 cm in diameter, with 5 mW each. We use a 852 nm, 5 mW, DBR laser as a master laser which is stabilized by saturation spectroscopy. Emission linewidth of the master laser is l MHz. In order to amplify the light of the master laser, a 50 mW, 852 nm AlGaAs laser is used as slave laser. This slave laser is stabilized by light injection technique. A 12 MHz red shift of the light is performed by two double passes through two Acusto-Optic Modulators (AOMs). The optical part of the CENAMs MOT is very robust against mechanical vibration, acoustic noise and temperature changes in our laboratory, because none of our diode lasers use an extended cavity to reduce the linewidth. In this paper, we report results of our MOT characterization as a function of several operation parameters such as the intensity of laser beams, the laser beam diameter, the red shift of light, and the gradient of the magnetic field. We also report accurate absolute measurement of the number of Cs atoms trapped in our Cs MOT. We found up to 6 x 10{sup 7} Cs atoms trapped in our MOT measured with an uncertainty no greater than 6.4%. (Author)

  2. Technological Basis and Scientific Returns for Absolutely Accurate Measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dykema, J. A.; Anderson, J.

    2011-12-01

    The 2006 NRC Decadal Survey fostered a new appreciation for societal objectives as a driving motivation for Earth science. Many high-priority societal objectives are dependent on predictions of weather and climate. These predictions are based on numerical models, which derive from approximate representations of well-founded physics and chemistry on space and timescales appropriate to global and regional prediction. These laws of chemistry and physics in turn have a well-defined quantitative relationship with physical measurement units, provided these measurement units are linked to international measurement standards that are the foundation of contemporary measurement science and standards for engineering and commerce. Without this linkage, measurements have an ambiguous relationship to scientific principles that introduces avoidable uncertainty in analyses, predictions, and improved understanding of the Earth system. Since the improvement of climate and weather prediction is fundamentally dependent on the improvement of the representation of physical processes, measurement systems that reduce the ambiguity between physical truth and observations represent an essential component of a national strategy for understanding and living with the Earth system. This paper examines the technological basis and potential science returns of sensors that make measurements that are quantitatively tied on-orbit to international measurement standards, and thus testable to systematic errors. This measurement strategy provides several distinct benefits. First, because of the quantitative relationship between these international measurement standards and fundamental physical constants, measurements of this type accurately capture the true physical and chemical behavior of the climate system and are not subject to adjustment due to excluded measurement physics or instrumental artifacts. In addition, such measurements can be reproduced by scientists anywhere in the world, at any time

  3. New experimental methodology, setup and LabView program for accurate absolute thermoelectric power and electrical resistivity measurements between 25 and 1600 K: application to pure copper, platinum, tungsten, and nickel at very high temperatures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abadlia, L; Gasser, F; Khalouk, K; Mayoufi, M; Gasser, J G

    2014-09-01

    In this paper we describe an experimental setup designed to measure simultaneously and very accurately the resistivity and the absolute thermoelectric power, also called absolute thermopower or absolute Seebeck coefficient, of solid and liquid conductors/semiconductors over a wide range of temperatures (room temperature to 1600 K in present work). A careful analysis of the existing experimental data allowed us to extend the absolute thermoelectric power scale of platinum to the range 0-1800 K with two new polynomial expressions. The experimental device is controlled by a LabView program. A detailed description of the accurate dynamic measurement methodology is given in this paper. We measure the absolute thermoelectric power and the electrical resistivity and deduce with a good accuracy the thermal conductivity using the relations between the three electronic transport coefficients, going beyond the classical Wiedemann-Franz law. We use this experimental setup and methodology to give new very accurate results for pure copper, platinum, and nickel especially at very high temperatures. But resistivity and absolute thermopower measurement can be more than an objective in itself. Resistivity characterizes the bulk of a material while absolute thermoelectric power characterizes the material at the point where the electrical contact is established with a couple of metallic elements (forming a thermocouple). In a forthcoming paper we will show that the measurement of resistivity and absolute thermoelectric power characterizes advantageously the (change of) phase, probably as well as DSC (if not better), since the change of phases can be easily followed during several hours/days at constant temperature.

  4. Absolute luminosity measurements at LHCb

    CERN Document Server

    Hopchev, Plamen

    2011-01-01

    Absolute luminosity measurements are of general interest for colliding-beam experiments at storage rings. These measurements are necessary to determine the absolute cross-sections of reaction processes and are valuable to quantify the performance of the accelerator. LHCb has applied two methods to determine the absolute scale of its luminosity measurements for proton-proton collisions at the LHC running at a centre-of-mass energy of 7 TeV. In addition to the classic ``van der Meer'' scan method a novel technique has been developed which makes use of direct imaging of the individual beams using both proton-gas and proton-proton interactions. The beam imaging method is made possible by the high resolution of the LHCb vertex detector and the close proximity of the detector to the beams, and allows beam parameters such as positions, angles and widths to be determined. We describe both methods and compare the two results. In addition, we present the techniques used to transport the absolute luminosity measurement ...

  5. Absolute Standards for Climate Measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leckey, J.

    2016-10-01

    In a world of changing climate, political uncertainty, and ever-changing budgets, the benefit of measurements traceable to SI standards increases by the day. To truly resolve climate change trends on a decadal time scale, on-orbit measurements need to be referenced to something that is both absolute and unchanging. One such mission is the Climate Absolute Radiance and Refractivity Observatory (CLARREO) that will measure a variety of climate variables with an unprecedented accuracy to definitively quantify climate change. In the CLARREO mission, we will utilize phase change cells in which a material is melted to calibrate the temperature of a blackbody that can then be observed by a spectrometer. A material's melting point is an unchanging physical constant that, through a series of transfers, can ultimately calibrate a spectrometer on an absolute scale. CLARREO consists of two primary instruments: an infrared (IR) spectrometer and a reflected solar (RS) spectrometer. The mission will contain orbiting radiometers with sufficient accuracy to calibrate other space-based instrumentation and thus transferring the absolute traceability. The status of various mission options will be presented.

  6. Measurement of absolute gravity acceleration in Firenze

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Angelis, M.; Greco, F.; Pistorio, A.; Poli, N.; Prevedelli, M.; Saccorotti, G.; Sorrentino, F.; Tino, G. M.

    2011-01-01

    This paper reports the results from the accurate measurement of the acceleration of gravity g taken at two separate premises in the Polo Scientifico of the University of Firenze (Italy). In these laboratories, two separate experiments aiming at measuring the Newtonian constant and testing the Newtonian law at short distances are in progress. Both experiments require an independent knowledge on the local value of g. The only available datum, pertaining to the italian zero-order gravity network, was taken more than 20 years ago at a distance of more than 60 km from the study site. Gravity measurements were conducted using an FG5 absolute gravimeter, and accompanied by seismic recordings for evaluating the noise condition at the site. The absolute accelerations of gravity at the two laboratories are (980 492 160.6 ± 4.0) μGal and (980 492 048.3 ± 3.0) μGal for the European Laboratory for Non-Linear Spectroscopy (LENS) and Dipartimento di Fisica e Astronomia, respectively. Other than for the two referenced experiments, the data here presented will serve as a benchmark for any future study requiring an accurate knowledge of the absolute value of the acceleration of gravity in the study region.

  7. Measurement of absolute gravity acceleration in Firenze

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. de Angelis

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper reports the results from the accurate measurement of the acceleration of gravity g taken at two separate premises in the Polo Scientifico of the University of Firenze (Italy. In these laboratories, two separate experiments aiming at measuring the Newtonian constant and testing the Newtonian law at short distances are in progress. Both experiments require an independent knowledge on the local value of g. The only available datum, pertaining to the italian zero-order gravity network, was taken more than 20 years ago at a distance of more than 60 km from the study site. Gravity measurements were conducted using an FG5 absolute gravimeter, and accompanied by seismic recordings for evaluating the noise condition at the site. The absolute accelerations of gravity at the two laboratories are (980 492 160.6 ± 4.0 μGal and (980 492 048.3 ± 3.0 μGal for the European Laboratory for Non-Linear Spectroscopy (LENS and Dipartimento di Fisica e Astronomia, respectively. Other than for the two referenced experiments, the data here presented will serve as a benchmark for any future study requiring an accurate knowledge of the absolute value of the acceleration of gravity in the study region.

  8. Accurate absolute parameters of the binary system V4089 Sgr

    CERN Document Server

    Veramendi, M E

    2014-01-01

    We carried out a spectroscopic-photometric analysis of the binary V4089 Sgr with the aim to obtain absolute masses and radii of the components and to contrast these parameters with stellar evolution theoretical models. We took high-resolution spectra and measured radial velocity using standard cross-correlations and a technique of spectral disentangling. Absolute parameters of the components were determined through the simultaneous fitting of measured radial velocities and Geneva photometric data available in the literature. In this way we obtained Ma=2.584+-0.008 Msun, Mb=1.607+-0.007 Msun, Ra=3.959+-0.013 Rsun, and Rb=1.605+-0.016 Rsun. The comparison of these parameters with two grids of theoretical models led to estimate narrow ranges of possible values for system metallicity and age. According circularization theory it is not expected that the binary had been achieved a circular orbit as a result of tidal friction, so the null eccentricity found is an interesting fact. On the other hand, we measured proj...

  9. Predicting accurate absolute binding energies in aqueous solution

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Jan Halborg

    2015-01-01

    Recent predictions of absolute binding free energies of host-guest complexes in aqueous solution using electronic structure theory have been encouraging for some systems, while other systems remain problematic. In this paper I summarize some of the many factors that could easily contribute 1-3 kcal......-represented by continuum models. While I focus on binding free energies in aqueous solution the approach also applies (with minor adjustments) to any free energy difference such as conformational or reaction free energy differences or activation free energies in any solvent....

  10. Predicting accurate absolute binding energies in aqueous solution

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Jan Halborg

    2015-01-01

    Recent predictions of absolute binding free energies of host-guest complexes in aqueous solution using electronic structure theory have been encouraging for some systems, while other systems remain problematic. In this paper I summarize some of the many factors that could easily contribute 1-3 kcal...... mol(-1) errors at 298 K: three-body dispersion effects, molecular symmetry, anharmonicity, spurious imaginary frequencies, insufficient conformational sampling, wrong or changing ionization states, errors in the solvation free energy of ions, and explicit solvent (and ion) effects that are not well......-represented by continuum models. While I focus on binding free energies in aqueous solution the approach also applies (with minor adjustments) to any free energy difference such as conformational or reaction free energy differences or activation free energies in any solvent....

  11. An absolute measure for a key currency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oya, Shunsuke; Aihara, Kazuyuki; Hirata, Yoshito

    It is generally considered that the US dollar and the euro are the key currencies in the world and in Europe, respectively. However, there is no absolute general measure for a key currency. Here, we investigate the 24-hour periodicity of foreign exchange markets using a recurrence plot, and define an absolute measure for a key currency based on the strength of the periodicity. Moreover, we analyze the time evolution of this measure. The results show that the credibility of the US dollar has not decreased significantly since the Lehman shock, when the Lehman Brothers bankrupted and influenced the economic markets, and has increased even relatively better than that of the euro and that of the Japanese yen.

  12. Accurate thickness measurement of graphene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shearer, Cameron J; Slattery, Ashley D; Stapleton, Andrew J; Shapter, Joseph G; Gibson, Christopher T

    2016-03-29

    Graphene has emerged as a material with a vast variety of applications. The electronic, optical and mechanical properties of graphene are strongly influenced by the number of layers present in a sample. As a result, the dimensional characterization of graphene films is crucial, especially with the continued development of new synthesis methods and applications. A number of techniques exist to determine the thickness of graphene films including optical contrast, Raman scattering and scanning probe microscopy techniques. Atomic force microscopy (AFM), in particular, is used extensively since it provides three-dimensional images that enable the measurement of the lateral dimensions of graphene films as well as the thickness, and by extension the number of layers present. However, in the literature AFM has proven to be inaccurate with a wide range of measured values for single layer graphene thickness reported (between 0.4 and 1.7 nm). This discrepancy has been attributed to tip-surface interactions, image feedback settings and surface chemistry. In this work, we use standard and carbon nanotube modified AFM probes and a relatively new AFM imaging mode known as PeakForce tapping mode to establish a protocol that will allow users to accurately determine the thickness of graphene films. In particular, the error in measuring the first layer is reduced from 0.1-1.3 nm to 0.1-0.3 nm. Furthermore, in the process we establish that the graphene-substrate adsorbate layer and imaging force, in particular the pressure the tip exerts on the surface, are crucial components in the accurate measurement of graphene using AFM. These findings can be applied to other 2D materials.

  13. Accurate thickness measurement of graphene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shearer, Cameron J.; Slattery, Ashley D.; Stapleton, Andrew J.; Shapter, Joseph G.; Gibson, Christopher T.

    2016-03-01

    Graphene has emerged as a material with a vast variety of applications. The electronic, optical and mechanical properties of graphene are strongly influenced by the number of layers present in a sample. As a result, the dimensional characterization of graphene films is crucial, especially with the continued development of new synthesis methods and applications. A number of techniques exist to determine the thickness of graphene films including optical contrast, Raman scattering and scanning probe microscopy techniques. Atomic force microscopy (AFM), in particular, is used extensively since it provides three-dimensional images that enable the measurement of the lateral dimensions of graphene films as well as the thickness, and by extension the number of layers present. However, in the literature AFM has proven to be inaccurate with a wide range of measured values for single layer graphene thickness reported (between 0.4 and 1.7 nm). This discrepancy has been attributed to tip-surface interactions, image feedback settings and surface chemistry. In this work, we use standard and carbon nanotube modified AFM probes and a relatively new AFM imaging mode known as PeakForce tapping mode to establish a protocol that will allow users to accurately determine the thickness of graphene films. In particular, the error in measuring the first layer is reduced from 0.1-1.3 nm to 0.1-0.3 nm. Furthermore, in the process we establish that the graphene-substrate adsorbate layer and imaging force, in particular the pressure the tip exerts on the surface, are crucial components in the accurate measurement of graphene using AFM. These findings can be applied to other 2D materials.

  14. A highly accurate absolute gravimetric network for Albania, Kosovo and Montenegro

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ullrich, Christian; Ruess, Diethard; Butta, Hubert; Qirko, Kristaq; Pavicevic, Bozidar; Murat, Meha

    2016-04-01

    The objective of this project is to establish a basic gravity network in Albania, Kosovo and Montenegro to enable further investigations in geodetic and geophysical issues. Therefore the first time in history absolute gravity measurements were performed in these countries. The Norwegian mapping authority Kartverket is assisting the national mapping authorities in Kosovo (KCA) (Kosovo Cadastral Agency - Agjencia Kadastrale e Kosovës), Albania (ASIG) (Autoriteti Shtetëror i Informacionit Gjeohapësinor) and in Montenegro (REA) (Real Estate Administration of Montenegro - Uprava za nekretnine Crne Gore) in improving the geodetic frameworks. The gravity measurements are funded by Kartverket. The absolute gravimetric measurements were performed from BEV (Federal Office of Metrology and Surveying) with the absolute gravimeter FG5-242. As a national metrology institute (NMI) the Metrology Service of the BEV maintains the national standards for the realisation of the legal units of measurement and ensures their international equivalence and recognition. Laser and clock of the absolute gravimeter were calibrated before and after the measurements. The absolute gravimetric survey was carried out from September to October 2015. Finally all 8 scheduled stations were successfully measured: there are three stations located in Montenegro, two stations in Kosovo and three stations in Albania. The stations are distributed over the countries to establish a gravity network for each country. The vertical gradients were measured at all 8 stations with the relative gravimeter Scintrex CG5. The high class quality of some absolute gravity stations can be used for gravity monitoring activities in future. The measurement uncertainties of the absolute gravity measurements range around 2.5 micro Gal at all stations (1 microgal = 10-8 m/s2). In Montenegro the large gravity difference of 200 MilliGal between station Zabljak and Podgorica can be even used for calibration of relative gravimeters

  15. 38 CFR 4.46 - Accurate measurement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Accurate measurement. 4... RATING DISABILITIES Disability Ratings The Musculoskeletal System § 4.46 Accurate measurement. Accurate measurement of the length of stumps, excursion of joints, dimensions and location of scars with respect...

  16. New Techniques for Absolute Gravity Measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-01-07

    Hammond, J.A. (1978) Bollettino Di Geofisica Teorica ed Applicata Vol. XX. 8. Hammond, J. A., and Iliff, R. L. (1979) The AFGL absolute gravity system...International Gravimetric Bureau, No. L:I-43. 7. Hammond. J.A. (1978) Bollettino Di Geofisica Teorica ed Applicata Vol. XX. 8. Hammond, J.A., and

  17. An All Fiber White Light Interferometric Absolute Temperature Measurement System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeonggon Harrison Kim

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Recently the author of this article proposed a new signal processing algorithm for an all fiber white light interferometer. In this article, an all fiber white light interferometric absolute temperature measurement system is presented using the previously proposed signal processing algorithm. Stability and absolute temperature measurement were demonstrated. These two tests demonstrated the feasibility of absolute temperature measurement with an accuracy of 0.015 fringe and 0.0005 fringe, respectively. A hysteresis test from 373K to 873K was also presented. Finally, robustness of the sensor system towards laser diode temperature drift, AFMZI temperature drift and PZT non-linearity was demonstrated.

  18. The IAG solar flux atlas: Accurate wavelengths and absolute convective blueshift in standard solar spectra

    CERN Document Server

    Reiners, Ansgar; Lemke, Ulrike; Hinrichs, Johannes; Reinsch, Klaus

    2015-01-01

    We present a new solar flux atlas with the aim to understand wavelength precision and accuracy in solar benchmark data. The atlas covers the wavelength range 405--2300 nm and was observed at the Institut f\\"ur Astrophysik, G\\"ottingen (IAG) with a Fourier Transform Spectrograph. In contrast to other FTS atlases, the entire visible wavelength range was observed simultaneously using only one spectrograph setting. We compare the wavelength solution of the new atlas to the Kitt Peak solar flux atlases and to the HARPS frequency-comb calibrated solar atlas. Comparison reveals systematics in the two Kitt Peak FTS atlases resulting from their wavelength scale construction, and shows consistency between the IAG and the HARPS atlas. We conclude that the IAG atlas is precise and accurate on the order of $\\pm 10$ m s$^{-1}$ in the wavelength range 405--1065 nm while the Kitt Peak atlases show deviations as large as several ten to 100 m s$^{-1}$. We determine absolute convective blueshift across the spectrum from the IAG...

  19. Accurate determination of the absolute phase and temporal-pulse phase of few-cycle laser pulses

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xia Ke-Yu; Gong Shang-Qing; Niu Yue-Ping; Li Ru-Xin; Xu Zhi-Zhan

    2007-01-01

    A Fourier analysis method is used to accurately determine not only the absolute phase but also the temporalpulse phase of an isolated few-cycle (chirped) laser pulse. This method is independent of the pulse shape and can fully characterize the light wave even though only a few samples per optical cycle are available. It paves the way for investigating the absolute phase-dependent extreme nonlinear optics, and the evolutions of the absolute phase and the temporal-pulse phase of few-cycle laser pulses.

  20. Absolute measurement of the DT primary neutron yield on the National Ignition Facility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leeper R.J.

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The measurement of the absolute neutron yield produced in inertial confinement fusion target experiments conducted on the National Ignition Facility (NIF is essential in benchmarking progress towards the goal of achieving ignition on this facility. This paper describes three independent diagnostic techniques that have been developed to make accurate and precise DT neutron yield measurements on the NIF.

  1. Absolute density measurements in the middle atmosphere

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Rapp

    Full Text Available In the last ten years a total of 25 sounding rockets employing ionization gauges have been launched at high latitudes ( ~ 70° N to measure total atmospheric density and its small scale fluctuations in an altitude range between 70 and 110 km. While the determination of small scale fluctuations is unambiguous, the total density analysis has been complicated in the past by aerodynamical disturbances leading to densities inside the sensor which are enhanced compared to atmospheric values. Here, we present the results of both Monte Carlo simulations and wind tunnel measurements to quantify this aerodynamical effect. The comparison of the resulting ‘ram-factor’ profiles with empirically determined density ratios of ionization gauge measurements and falling sphere measurements provides excellent agreement. This demonstrates both the need, but also the possibility, to correct aerodynamical influences on measurements from sounding rockets. We have determined a total of 20 density profiles of the mesosphere-lower-thermosphere (MLT region. Grouping these profiles according to season, a listing of mean density profiles is included in the paper. A comparison with density profiles taken from the reference atmospheres CIRA86 and MSIS90 results in differences of up to 40%. This reflects that current reference atmospheres are a significant potential error source for the determination of mixing ratios of, for example, trace gas constituents in the MLT region.

    Key words. Middle atmosphere (composition and chemistry; pressure, density, and temperature; instruments and techniques

  2. Measurements of Absolute Abundances in Solar Flares

    CERN Document Server

    Warren, Harry P

    2013-01-01

    We present measurements of elemental abundances in solar flares with the EUV Variability Experiment (EVE) on the Solar Dynamics Observatory (SDO). EVE observes both high temperature Fe emission lines (Fe XV-Fe XXIV) and continuum emission from thermal bremsstrahlung that is proportional to the abundance of H. By comparing the relative intensities of line and continuum emission it is possible to determine the enrichment of the flare plasma relative to the composition of the photosphere. This is the first ionization potential or FIP bias ($f$). Since thermal bremsstrahlung at EUV wavelengths is relatively insensitive to the electron temperature, it is important to account for the distribution of electron temperatures in the emitting plasma. We accomplish this by using the observed spectra to infer the differential emission measure distribution and FIP bias simultaneously. In each of the 21 flares that we analyze we find that the observed composition is close to photospheric. The mean FIP bias in our sample is $...

  3. Absolute Abundance Measurements in Solar Flares

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warren, Harry

    2014-06-01

    We present measurements of elemental abundances in solar flares with EVE/SDO and EIS/Hinode. EVE observes both high temperature Fe emission lines Fe XV-XXIV and continuum emission from thermal bremsstrahlung that is proportional to the abundance of H. By comparing the relative intensities of line and continuum emission it is possible to determine the enrichment of the flare plasma relative to the composition of the photosphere. This is the first ionization potential or FIP bias (F). Since thermal bremsstrahlung at EUV wavelengths is relatively insensitive to the electron temperature it is important to account for the distribution of electron temperatures in the emitting plasma. We accomplish this by using the observed spectra to infer the differential emission measure distribution and FIP bias simultaneously. In each of the 21 flares that we analyze we find that the observed composition is close to photospheric. The mean FIP bias in our sample is F=1.17+-0.22. Furthermore, we have compared the EVE measurements with corresponding flare observations of intermediate temperature S, Ar, Ca, and Fe emission lines taken with EIS. Our initial calculations also indicate a photospheric composition for these observations. This analysis suggests that the bulk of the plasma evaporated during a flare comes from deep in the chromosphere, below the region where elemental fractionation in the non-flaring corona occurs.

  4. Measurements of Absolute Abundances in Solar Flares

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warren, Harry P.

    2014-05-01

    We present measurements of elemental abundances in solar flares with the EUV Variability Experiment (EVE) on the Solar Dynamics Observatory. EVE observes both high temperature Fe emission lines (Fe XV-Fe XXIV) and continuum emission from thermal bremsstrahlung that is proportional to the abundance of H. By comparing the relative intensities of line and continuum emission it is possible to determine the enrichment of the flare plasma relative to the composition of the photosphere. This is the first ionization potential or FIP bias (f). Since thermal bremsstrahlung at EUV wavelengths is relatively insensitive to the electron temperature, it is important to account for the distribution of electron temperatures in the emitting plasma. We accomplish this by using the observed spectra to infer the differential emission measure distribution and FIP bias simultaneously. In each of the 21 flares that we analyze we find that the observed composition is close to photospheric. The mean FIP bias in our sample is f = 1.17 ± 0.22. This analysis suggests that the bulk of the plasma evaporated during a flare comes from deep in the chromosphere, below the region where elemental fractionation occurs.

  5. Absolute activity measurement of radon gas at IRA-METAS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spring, Philippe; Nedjadi, Youcef; Bailat, Claude; Triscone, Gilles; Bochud, François

    2006-12-01

    This paper describes the system of the Swiss national metrological institute (IRA-METAS) for the absolute standardisation of radon gas. This method relies on condensing radon under vacuum conditions within a specified cold area using a cryogenerator, and detecting its alpha particles with an ion-implanted silicon detector, through a very accurately defined solid angle. The accuracy of this defined solid angle standardisation technique was corroborated by another primary measurement method involving 4 πγ NaI(Tl) integral counting and Monte Carlo efficiency calculations. The 222Rn standard submitted by IRA-METAS to the Système International de Référence (SIR) at the Bureau International des Poids et Mesures (BIPM) has also been found to be consistent with an analogous standard submitted by the German national metrological institute (PTB). IRA-METAS is able to deliver radon standards, with activities ranging from a few kBq to 350 kBq, in NIST-Type ampoules, and glass or steel containers usable for calibrating radon-measuring instruments.

  6. Absolute small-angle measurement based on optical feedback interferometry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jingang Zhong; Xianhua Zhang; Zhixiang Ju

    2008-01-01

    We present a simple but effective method for small-angle measurement based on optical feedback inter-ferometry (or laser self-mixing interferometry). The absolute zero angle can be defined at the biggest fringe amplitude point, so this method can also achieve absolute angle measurement. In order to verify the method, we construct an angle measurement system. The Fourier-transform method is used to analysis the interference signal. Rotation angles are experimentally measured with a resolution of 10-6 rad and a measurement range of approximately from -0.0007 to +0.0007 rad.

  7. Absolute measurements of chlorine Cl+ cation single photoionization cross section

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hernandez, E. M.; Juarez, A. M.; Kilcoyne, A. L. D.; Aguilar, A.; Hernandez, L.; Antillon, A.; Macaluso, D.; Morales-Mori, A.; Gonzalez-Magana, O.; Hanstorp, D.; Covington, A. M.; Davis, V.; Calabrese, D.; Hinojosa, G.

    2015-01-01

    The photoionization of Cl+ leading to Cl2+ was measured in the photon energy range of 19.5-28.0 eV. A spectrum with a photon energy resolution of 15 meV normalized to absolute cross-section measurements is presented. The measurements were carried out by merging a Cl+ ion beam with a photon beam of h

  8. Comparison of available measurements of the absolute fluorescence yield

    CERN Document Server

    Rosado, J; Arqueros, F

    2010-01-01

    The uncertainty in the absolute value of the fluorescence yield is still one of the main contributions to the total error in the reconstruction of the primary energy of ultra-energetic air showers using the fluorescence technique. A significant number of experimental values of the fluorescence yield have been published in the last years, however reported results are given very often in different units (photons/MeV or photons/m) and for different wavelength intervals. In this work we present a comparison of available results normalized to its value in photons/MeV for the 337 nm band at 800 hPa and 293 K. Possible sources of systematic errors on these measurements are discussed. In particular, the conversion of photons/m to photons/MeV requires an accurate determination of the energy deposited by the electrons in the field of view of the experimental setup. We have calculated the energy deposition for each experiment by means of a detailed Monte Carlo simulation including when possible the geometrical details o...

  9. Embedded north-seeker for automatic absolute magnetic DI measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonsette, Alexandre; Rasson, Jean

    2014-05-01

    In magnetic observatory Earth magnetic field is recorded with a resolution of 0.1nT for 1min sampling (new standards impose 1pT for 1s sampling). The method universally adopted for measuring it is a combination of three instruments. Vectorial magnetometer (variometer) records variations of the three components around a reference value or a baseline. A proton or an overhauser magnetometer is an absolute instrument able to measure the modulus of the field and used to determine the F component baseline of the variometer. The declination and inclination baselines require a manual procedure to be computed. An operator manipulates a non-magnetic theodolite (also called a DIFlux) to measure the D and I angles in different configurations with a resolution of a few arcsec. The AutoDIF is a non-magnetic automatic DIFlux using the same protocol as the manual procedure. The declination defined according to the true north is determined by means of a target pointing system. Even if the technique is fast and accurate, it becomes problematic in case of unmanned deployment. In particular the area between the target and the DIFlux is out of control. Snow storm, fog, vegetation or condensation on windows are examples of perturbation preventing for finding the target. It is obvious in case of (future) seafloor observatories. A FOG based north-seeker has been implemented and mounted on the AutoDIF. The first results using a low cost gyro don't meet the Intermagnet specifications yet but are however hopeful. A 0.1° standard deviation has been reached and statistically reduced to 0.01° after less than two days in laboratory. The magnetic disturbance of the sensor is taken into account and compensated by the measurement protocol.

  10. Accurate measurement of unsteady state fluid temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaremkiewicz, Magdalena

    2017-03-01

    In this paper, two accurate methods for determining the transient fluid temperature were presented. Measurements were conducted for boiling water since its temperature is known. At the beginning the thermometers are at the ambient temperature and next they are immediately immersed into saturated water. The measurements were carried out with two thermometers of different construction but with the same housing outer diameter equal to 15 mm. One of them is a K-type industrial thermometer widely available commercially. The temperature indicated by the thermometer was corrected considering the thermometers as the first or second order inertia devices. The new design of a thermometer was proposed and also used to measure the temperature of boiling water. Its characteristic feature is a cylinder-shaped housing with the sheath thermocouple located in its center. The temperature of the fluid was determined based on measurements taken in the axis of the solid cylindrical element (housing) using the inverse space marching method. Measurements of the transient temperature of the air flowing through the wind tunnel using the same thermometers were also carried out. The proposed measurement technique provides more accurate results compared with measurements using industrial thermometers in conjunction with simple temperature correction using the inertial thermometer model of the first or second order. By comparing the results, it was demonstrated that the new thermometer allows obtaining the fluid temperature much faster and with higher accuracy in comparison to the industrial thermometer. Accurate measurements of the fast changing fluid temperature are possible due to the low inertia thermometer and fast space marching method applied for solving the inverse heat conduction problem.

  11. Absolute calibration of a wideband antenna and spectrometer for sky noise spectral index measurements

    CERN Document Server

    Rogers, Alan E E

    2012-01-01

    A new method of absolute calibration of sky noise temperature using a three-position switched spectrometer, measurements of antenna and low noise amplifier impedance with a vector network analyzer, and ancillary measurements of the amplifier noise waves is described. The details of the method and its application to accurate wideband measurements of the spectral index of the sky noise are described and compared with other methods.

  12. Observer variability of absolute and relative thrombus density measurements in patients with acute ischemic stroke

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santos, Emilie M.M. [Erasmus MC - University Medical Center Rotterdam, Department of Radiology, P.O. Box 2040, Rotterdam (Netherlands); Department of Radiology, AMC, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Yoo, Albert J. [Texas Stroke Institute, Plano, TX (United States); Beenen, Ludo F.; Majoie, Charles B. [Department of Radiology, AMC, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Berkhemer, Olvert A. [Department of Radiology, AMC, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Department of Neurology, Erasmus MC, Rotterdam (Netherlands); Blanken, Mark D. den; Wismans, Carrie [AMC, Department of Biomedical Engineering and Physics, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Niessen, Wiro J. [Erasmus MC - University Medical Center Rotterdam, Department of Radiology, P.O. Box 2040, Rotterdam (Netherlands); Delft University of Technology, Faculty of Applied Sciences, Delft (Netherlands); Marquering, Henk A. [Department of Radiology, AMC, Amsterdam (Netherlands); AMC, Department of Biomedical Engineering and Physics, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Collaboration: on behalf of the MR CLEAN investigators

    2016-02-15

    Thrombus density may be a predictor for acute ischemic stroke treatment success. However, only limited data on observer variability for thrombus density measurements exist. This study assesses the variability and bias of four common thrombus density measurement methods by expert and non-expert observers. For 132 consecutive patients with acute ischemic stroke, three experts and two trained observers determined thrombus density by placing three standardized regions of interest (ROIs) in the thrombus and corresponding contralateral arterial segment. Subsequently, absolute and relative thrombus densities were determined using either one or three ROIs. Intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) was determined, and Bland-Altman analysis was performed to evaluate interobserver and intermethod agreement. Accuracy of the trained observer was evaluated with a reference expert observer using the same statistical analysis. The highest interobserver agreement was obtained for absolute thrombus measurements using three ROIs (ICCs ranging from 0.54 to 0.91). In general, interobserver agreement was lower for relative measurements, and for using one instead of three ROIs. Interobserver agreement of trained non-experts and experts was similar. Accuracy of the trained observer measurements was comparable to the expert interobserver agreement and was better for absolute measurements and with three ROIs. The agreement between the one ROI and three ROI methods was good. Absolute thrombus density measurement has superior interobserver agreement compared to relative density measurement. Interobserver variation is smaller when multiple ROIs are used. Trained non-expert observers can accurately and reproducibly assess absolute thrombus densities using three ROIs. (orig.)

  13. AN ACCURATE NEW METHOD OF CALCULATING ABSOLUTE MAGNITUDES AND K-CORRECTIONS APPLIED TO THE SLOAN FILTER SET

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beare, Richard; Brown, Michael J. I.; Pimbblet, Kevin, E-mail: richard@beares.net [Monash Centre for Astrophysics, Monash University, Clayton, Victoria 3800 (Australia)

    2014-12-20

    We describe an accurate new method for determining absolute magnitudes, and hence also K-corrections, that is simpler than most previous methods, being based on a quadratic function of just one suitably chosen observed color. The method relies on the extensive and accurate new set of 129 empirical galaxy template spectral energy distributions from Brown et al. A key advantage of our method is that we can reliably estimate random errors in computed absolute magnitudes due to galaxy diversity, photometric error and redshift error. We derive K-corrections for the five Sloan Digital Sky Survey filters and provide parameter tables for use by the astronomical community. Using the New York Value-Added Galaxy Catalog, we compare our K-corrections with those from kcorrect. Our K-corrections produce absolute magnitudes that are generally in good agreement with kcorrect. Absolute griz magnitudes differ by less than 0.02 mag and those in the u band by ∼0.04 mag. The evolution of rest-frame colors as a function of redshift is better behaved using our method, with relatively few galaxies being assigned anomalously red colors and a tight red sequence being observed across the whole 0.0 < z < 0.5 redshift range.

  14. Absolute cross-sections from X-{gamma} coincidence measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lemasson, A. [GANIL, CEA/DSM - CNRS/IN2P3, Bd Henri Becquerel, BP 55027, F-14076 Caen Cedex 5 (France); Shrivastava, A. [Nuclear Physics Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai 400085 (India); Navin, A. [GANIL, CEA/DSM - CNRS/IN2P3, Bd Henri Becquerel, BP 55027, F-14076 Caen Cedex 5 (France)], E-mail: navin@ganil.fr; Rejmund, M. [GANIL, CEA/DSM - CNRS/IN2P3, Bd Henri Becquerel, BP 55027, F-14076 Caen Cedex 5 (France); Nanal, V. [Department of Nuclear and Atomic Physics, Tata Institute of Fundamental Research, Mumbai 400005 (India); Bhattacharyya, S. [Variable Energy Cyclotron Centre, 1/AF Bidhan Nagar, Kolkata 700064 (India); Chatterjee, A.; Kailas, S.; Mahata, K.; Parkar, V.V. [Nuclear Physics Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai 400085 (India); Pillay, R.G. [Department of Nuclear and Atomic Physics, Tata Institute of Fundamental Research, Mumbai 400005 (India); Ramachandran, K.; Rout, P.C. [Nuclear Physics Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai 400085 (India)

    2009-01-11

    An activation technique using coincidences between characteristic X-rays and {gamma}-rays to obtain absolute cross-sections is described. This method is particularly useful in the case of nuclei that decay by electron capture. In addition to the reduction of possible contamination, an improved detection sensitivity is achieved as compared to inclusive measurements, thereby allowing the extraction of absolute fusion cross-sections in the nano-barn range. Results of this technique for {sup 6}Li+{sup 198}Pt system, at energies around the Coulomb barrier are described. Future applications with low intensity radioactive ion beams are also discussed.

  15. Simple and accurate empirical absolute volume calibration of a multi-sensor fringe projection system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gdeisat, Munther; Qudeisat, Mohammad; AlSa`d, Mohammed; Burton, David; Lilley, Francis; Ammous, Marwan M. M.

    2016-05-01

    This paper suggests a novel absolute empirical calibration method for a multi-sensor fringe projection system. The optical setup of the projector-camera sensor can be arbitrary. The term absolute calibration here means that the centre of the three dimensional coordinates in the resultant calibrated volume coincides with a preset centre to the three-dimensional real-world coordinate system. The use of a zero-phase fringe marking spot is proposed to increase depth calibration accuracy, where the spot centre is determined with sub-pixel accuracy. Also, a new method is proposed for transversal calibration. Depth and transversal calibration methods have been tested using both single sensor and three-sensor fringe projection systems. The standard deviation of the error produced by this system is 0.25 mm. The calibrated volume produced by this method is 400 mm×400 mm×140 mm.

  16. Absolute luminosity measurements with the LHCb detector at the LHC

    CERN Document Server

    Aaij, R; Adinolfi, M; Adrover, C; Affolder, A; Ajaltouni, Z; Albrecht, J; Alessio, F; Alexander, M; Alkhazov, G; Alvarez Cartelle, P; Alves, A A; Amato, S; Amhis, Y; Anderson, J; Appleby, R B; Aquines Gutierrez, O; Archilli, F; Arrabito, L; Artamonov, A; Artuso, M; Aslanides, E; Auriemma, G; Bachmann, S; Back, J J; Bailey, D S; Balagura, V; Baldini, W; Barlow, R J; Barschel, C; Barsuk, S; Barter, W; Bates, A; Bauer, C; Bauer, Th; Bay, A; Bediaga, I; Belous, K; Belyaev, I; Ben-Haim, E; Benayoun, M; Bencivenni, G; Benson, S; Benton, J; Bernet, R; Bettler, M-O; van Beuzekom, M; Bien, A; Bifani, S; Bizzeti, A; Bjørnstad, P M; Blake, T; Blanc, F; Blanks, C; Blouw, J; Blusk, S; Bobrov, A; Bocci, V; Bondar, A; Bondar, N; Bonivento, W; Borghi, S; Borgia, A; Bowcock, T J V; Bozzi, C; Brambach, T; van den Brand, J; Bressieux, J; Brett, D; Brisbane, S; Britsch, M; Britton, T; Brook, N H; Brown, H; Büchler-Germann, A; Burducea, I; Bursche, A; Buytaert, J; Cadeddu, S; Caicedo Carvajal, J M; Callot, O; Calvi, M; Calvo Gomez, M; Camboni, A; Campana, P; Carbone, A; Carboni, G; Cardinale, R; Cardini, A; Carson, L; Carvalho Akiba, K; Casse, G; Cattaneo, M; Charles, M; Charpentier, Ph; Chiapolini, N; Ciba, K; Cid Vidal, X; Ciezarek, G; Clarke, P E L; Clemencic, M; Cliff, H V; Closier, J; Coca, C; Coco, V; Cogan, J; Collins, P; Constantin, F; Conti, G; Contu, A; Cook, A; Coombes, M; Corti, G; Cowan, G A; Currie, R; D'Almagne, B; D'Ambrosio, C; David, P; De Bonis, I; De Capua, S; De Cian, M; De Lorenzi, F; De Miranda, J M; De Paula, L; De Simone, P; Decamp, D; Deckenhoff, M; Degaudenzi, H; Deissenroth, M; Del Buono, L; Deplano, C; Deschamps, O; Dettori, F; Dickens, J; Dijkstra, H; Diniz Batista, P; Donleavy, S; Dordei, F; Dosil Suárez, A; Dossett, D; Dovbnya, A; Dupertuis, F; Dzhelyadin, R; Eames, C; Easo, S; Egede, U; Egorychev, V; Eidelman, S; van Eijk, D; Eisele, F; Eisenhardt, S; Ekelhof, R; Eklund, L; Elsasser, Ch; d'Enterria, D G; Esperante Pereira, D; Estève, L; Falabella, A; Fanchini, E; Färber, C; Fardell, G; Farinelli, C; Farry, S; Fave, V; Fernandez Albor, V; Ferro-Luzzi, M; Filippov, S; Fitzpatrick, C; Fontana, M; Fontanelli, F; Forty, R; Frank, M; Frei, C; Frosini, M; Furcas, S; Gallas Torreira, A; Galli, D; Gandelman, M; Gandini, P; Gao, Y; Garnier, J-C; Garofoli, J; Garra Tico, J; Garrido, L; Gaspar, C; Gauvin, N; Gersabeck, M; Gershon, T; Ghez, Ph; Gibson, V; Gligorov, V V; Göbel, C; Golubkov, D; Golutvin, A; Gomes, A; Gordon, H; Grabalosa Gándara, M; Graciani Diaz, R; Granado Cardoso, L A; Graugés, E; Graziani, G; Grecu, A; Gregson, S; Gui, B; Gushchin, E; Guz, Yu; Gys, T; Haefeli, G; Haen, C; Haines, S C; Hampson, T; Hansmann-Menzemer, S; Harji, R; Harnew, N; Harrison, J; Harrison, P F; He, J; Heijne, V; Hennessy, K; Henrard, P; Hernando Morata, J A; van Herwijnen, E; Hicks, E; Hofmann, W; Holubyev, K; Hopchev, P; Hulsbergen, W; Hunt, P; Huse, T; Huston, R S; Hutchcroft, D; Hynds, D; Iakovenko, V; Ilten, P; Imong, J; Jacobsson, R; Jaeger, A; Jahjah Hussein, M; Jans, E; Jansen, F; Jaton, P; Jean-Marie, B; Jing, F; John, M; Johnson, D; Jones, C R; Jost, B; Kandybei, S; Karacson, M; Karbach, T M; Keaveney, J; Kerzel, U; Ketel, T; Keune, A; Khanji, B; Kim, Y M; Knecht, M; Koblitz, S; Koppenburg, P; Kozlinskiy, A; Kravchuk, L; Kreplin, K; Kreps, M; Krocker, G; Krokovny, P; Kruse, F; Kruzelecki, K; Kucharczyk, M; Kukulak, S; Kumar, R; Kvaratskheliya, T; La Thi, V N; Lacarrere, D; Lafferty, G; Lai, A; Lambert, D; Lambert, R W; Lanciotti, E; Lanfranchi, G; Langenbruch, C; Latham, T; Le Gac, R; van Leerdam, J; Lees, J-P; Lefèvre, R; Leflat, A; Lefrançois, J; Leroy, O; Lesiak, T; Li, L; Li Gioi, L; Lieng, M; Liles, M; Lindner, R; Linn, C; Liu, B; Liu, G; Lopes, J H; Lopez Asamar, E; Lopez-March, N; Luisier, J; Machefert, F; Machikhiliyan, I V; Maciuc, F; Maev, O; Magnin, J; Malde, S; Mamunur, R M D; Manca, G; Mancinelli, G; Mangiafave, N; Marconi, U; Märki, R; Marks, J; Martellotti, G; Martens, A; Martin, L; Martín Sánchez, A; Martinez Santos, D; Massafferri, A; Matev, R; Mathe, Z; Matteuzzi, C; Matveev, M; Maurice, E; Maynard, B; Mazurov, A; McGregor, G; McNulty, R; Mclean, C; Meissner, M; Merk, M; Merkel, J; Messi, R; Miglioranzi, S; Milanes, D A; Minard, M-N; Monteil, S; Moran, D; Morawski, P; Mountain, R; Mous, I; Muheim, F; Müller, K; Muresan, R; Muryn, B; Musy, M; Mylroie-Smith, J; Naik, P; Nakada, T; Nandakumar, R; Nardulli, J; Nasteva, I; Nedos, M; Needham, M; Neufeld, N; Nguyen-Mau, C; Nicol, M; Nies, S; Niess, V; Nikitin, N; Oblakowska-Mucha, A; Obraztsov, V; Oggero, S; Ogilvy, S; Okhrimenko, O; Oldeman, R; Orlandea, M; Otalora Goicochea, J M; Owen, P; Pal, B; Palacios, J; Palutan, M; Panman, J; Papanestis, A; Pappagallo, M; Parkes, C; Parkinson, C J; Passaleva, G; Patel, G D; Patel, M; Paterson, S K; Patrick, G N; Patrignani, C; Pavel-Nicorescu, C; Pazos Alvarez, A; Pellegrino, A; Penso, G; Pepe Altarelli, M; Perazzini, S; Perego, D L; Perez Trigo, E; Pérez-Calero Yzquierdo, A; Perret, P; Perrin-Terrin, M; Pessina, G; Petrella, A; Petrolini, A; Pie Valls, B; Pietrzyk, B; Pilar, T; Pinci, D; Plackett, R; Playfer, S; Plo Casasus, M; Polok, G; Poluektov, A; Polycarpo, E; Popov, D; Popovici, B; Potterat, C; Powell, A; du Pree, T; Prisciandaro, J; Pugatch, V; Puig Navarro, A; Qian, W; Rademacker, J H; Rakotomiaramanana, B; Rangel, M S; Raniuk, I; Raven, G; Redford, S; Reid, M M; dos Reis, A C; Ricciardi, S; Rinnert, K; Roa Romero, D A; Robbe, P; Rodrigues, E; Rodrigues, F; Rodriguez Perez, P; Rogers, G J; Roiser, S; Romanovsky, V; Rouvinet, J; Ruf, T; Ruiz, H; Sabatino, G; Saborido Silva, J J; Sagidova, N; Sail, P; Saitta, B; Salzmann, C; Sannino, M; Santacesaria, R; Santamarina Rios, C; Santinelli, R; Santovetti, E; Sapunov, M; Sarti, A; Satriano, C; Satta, A; Savrie, M; Savrina, D; Schaack, P; Schiller, M; Schleich, S; Schmelling, M; Schmidt, B; Schneider, O; Schopper, A; Schune, M -H; Schwemmer, R; Sciubba, A; Seco, M; Semennikov, A; Senderowska, K; Sepp, I; Serra, N; Serrano, J; Seyfert, P; Shao, B; Shapkin, M; Shapoval, I; Shatalov, P; Shcheglov, Y; Shears, T; Shekhtman, L; Shevchenko, O; Shevchenko, V; Shires, A; Silva Coutinho, R; Skottowe, H P; Skwarnicki, T; Smith, A C; Smith, N A; Sobczak, K; Soler, F J P; Solomin, A; Soomro, F; Souza De Paula, B; Spaan, B; Sparkes, A; Spradlin, P; Stagni, F; Stahl, S; Steinkamp, O; Stoica, S; Stone, S; Storaci, B; Straticiuc, M; Straumann, U; Styles, N; Subbiah, V K; Swientek, S; Szczekowski, M; Szczypka, P; Szumlak, T; T'Jampens, S; Teodorescu, E; Teubert, F; Thomas, C; Thomas, E; van Tilburg, J; Tisserand, V; Tobin, M; Topp-Joergensen, S; Tran, M T; Tsaregorodtsev, A; Tuning, N; Ubeda Garcia, M; Ukleja, A; Urquijo, P; Uwer, U; Vagnoni, V; Valenti, G; Vazquez Gomez, R; Vazquez Regueiro, P; Vecchi, S; Velthuis, J J; Veltri, M; Vervink, K; Viaud, B; Videau, I; Vilasis-Cardona, X; Visniakov, J; Vollhardt, A; Voong, D; Vorobyev, A; Voss, H; Wacker, K; Wandernoth, S; Wang, J; Ward, D R; Webber, A D; Websdale, D; Whitehead, M; Wiedner, D; Wiggers, L; Wilkinson, G; Williams, M P; Williams, M; Wilson, F F; Wishahi, J; Witek, M; Witzeling, W; Wotton, S A; Wyllie, K; Xie, Y; Xing, F; Yang, Z; Young, R; Yushchenko, O; Zavertyaev, M; Zhang, F; Zhang, L; Zhang, W C; Zhang, Y; Zhelezov, A; Zhong, L; Zverev, E; Zvyagin, A

    2012-01-01

    Absolute luminosity measurements are of general interest for colliding-beam experiments at storage rings. These measurements are necessary to determine the absolute cross-sections of reaction processes and are valuable to quantify the performance of the accelerator. LHCb has applied two methods to determine the absolute scale of its luminosity measurements for proton-proton collisions at the LHC with a centre-of-mass energy of 7 TeV. In addition to the classic ``van der Meer scan'' method a novel technique has been developed which makes use of direct imaging of the individual beams using beam-gas and beam-beam interactions. This beam imaging method is made possible by the high resolution of the LHCb vertex detector and the close proximity of the detector to the beams, and allows beam parameters such as positions, angles and widths to be determined. The results of the two methods have comparable precision and are in good agreement. Combining the two methods, an overall precision of 3.5\\% in the absolute lumi...

  17. Apparatus for accurately measuring high temperatures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, D.D.

    The present invention is a thermometer used for measuring furnace temperatures in the range of about 1800/sup 0/ to 2700/sup 0/C. The thermometer comprises a broadband multicolor thermal radiation sensor positioned to be in optical alignment with the end of a blackbody sight tube extending into the furnace. A valve-shutter arrangement is positioned between the radiation sensor and the sight tube and a chamber for containing a charge of high pressure gas is positioned between the valve-shutter arrangement and the radiation sensor. A momentary opening of the valve shutter arrangement allows a pulse of the high gas to purge the sight tube of air-borne thermal radiation contaminants which permits the radiation sensor to accurately measure the thermal radiation emanating from the end of the sight tube.

  18. Demonstrating an absolute quantum advantage in direct absorption measurement

    CERN Document Server

    Moreau, Paul-Antoine; Whittaker, Rebecca; Joshi, Siddarth K; Birchall, Patrick; McMillan, Alex; Rarity, John G; Matthews, Jonathan C F

    2016-01-01

    Engineering apparatus that harness quantum theory offers practical advantages over current technology. A fundamentally more powerful prospect is the long-standing prediction that such quantum technologies could out-perform any future iteration of their classical counterparts, no matter how well the attributes of those classical strategies can be improved. Here, we experimentally demonstrate such an instance of \\textit{absolute} advantage per photon probe in the precision of optical direct absorption measurement. We use correlated intensity measurements of spontaneous parametric downconversion using a commercially available air-cooled CCD, a new estimator for data analysis and a high heralding efficiency photon-pair source. We show this enables improvement in the precision of measurement, per photon probe, beyond what is achievable with an ideal coherent state (a perfect laser) detected with $100\\%$ efficient and noiseless detection. We see this absolute improvement for up to $50\\%$ absorption, with a maximum ...

  19. Fast and accurate exhaled breath ammonia measurement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solga, Steven F; Mudalel, Matthew L; Spacek, Lisa A; Risby, Terence H

    2014-06-11

    This exhaled breath ammonia method uses a fast and highly sensitive spectroscopic method known as quartz enhanced photoacoustic spectroscopy (QEPAS) that uses a quantum cascade based laser. The monitor is coupled to a sampler that measures mouth pressure and carbon dioxide. The system is temperature controlled and specifically designed to address the reactivity of this compound. The sampler provides immediate feedback to the subject and the technician on the quality of the breath effort. Together with the quick response time of the monitor, this system is capable of accurately measuring exhaled breath ammonia representative of deep lung systemic levels. Because the system is easy to use and produces real time results, it has enabled experiments to identify factors that influence measurements. For example, mouth rinse and oral pH reproducibly and significantly affect results and therefore must be controlled. Temperature and mode of breathing are other examples. As our understanding of these factors evolves, error is reduced, and clinical studies become more meaningful. This system is very reliable and individual measurements are inexpensive. The sampler is relatively inexpensive and quite portable, but the monitor is neither. This limits options for some clinical studies and provides rational for future innovations.

  20. The absolute lymphocyte count accurately estimates CD4 counts in HIV-infected adults with virologic suppression and immune reconstitution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barnaby Young

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The clinical value of monitoring CD4 counts in immune reconstituted, virologically suppressed HIV-infected patients is limited. We investigated if absolute lymphocyte counts (ALC from an automated blood counting machine could accurately estimate CD4 counts. Materials and Methods: CD4 counts, ALC and HIV viral load (VL were extracted from an electronic laboratory database for all patients in HIV care at the Communicable Diseases Centre, Tan Tock Seng Hospital, Singapore (2008–13. Virologic suppression was defined as consecutive HIV VLs 300 cells/mm3. CD4 counts were estimated using the CD4% from the first value >300 and an ALC 181–540 days later. Results: A total of 1215 periods of virologic suppression were identified from 1183 patients, with 2227 paired CD4-ALCs available for analysis. 98.3% of CD4 estimates were within 50% of the actual value. 83.3% within 25% and 40.5% within 10%. The error pattern was approximately symmetrically distributed around a mean of −6.5%, but significant peaked and with mild positive skew (kurtosis 4.45, skewness 1.07. Causes for these errors were explored. Variability between lymphocyte counts measured by ALC and flow cytometry did not follow an apparent pattern, and contributed to 32% of the total error (median absolute error 5.5%, IQR 2.6–9.3. The CD4% estimate was significantly lower than the actual value (t-test, p<0.0001. The magnitude of this difference was greater for lower values, and above 25%, there was no significant difference. Precision of the CD4 estimate was similar as baseline CD4% increased, however accuracy improved significantly: from a median 16% underestimation to 0% as baseline CD4% increased from 12 to 30. Above a CD4% baseline of 25, estimates of CD4 were within 25% of the actual value 90.2% of the time with a median 2% underestimation. A robust (bisqaure linear regression model was developed to correct for the rise in CD4% with time, when baseline was 14–24

  1. Measurement of the absolute branching fraction of the Ds+- meson

    CERN Document Server

    Abe, K; Dragic, J; Fujii, H; Gershon, T; Haba, J; Hazumi, M; Higuchi, T; Igarashi, Y; Itoh, R; Iwasaki, Y; Katayama, N; Kichimi, H; Krokovnyi, P P; Limosani, A; Nakamura, I; Nakao, M; Nakazawa, H; Nishida, S; Nozaki, T; Ozaki, H; Ronga, F J; Saitoh, S; Sakai, Y; Stamen, R; Sumisawa, K; Suzuki, S Y; Tajima, O; Takasaki, F; Tamai, K; Tanaka, M; Trabelsi, K; Tsuboyama, T; Tsukamoto, T; Uehara, S; Unno, Y; Uno, S; Ushiroda, Y; Yamauchi, M; Zhang, J; Hoshi, Y; Neichi, K; Aihara, H; Hastings, N C; Ishikawa, A; Itoh, K; Iwasaki, M; Kakuno, H; Kusaka, A; Nakahama, Y; Tanabe, K; Anipko, D; Arinstein, K; Aulchenko, V; Bedny, I; Bondar, A; Eidelman, S; Epifanov, D A; Gabyshev, N; Kuzmin, A; Poluektov, A; Root, N; Shwartz, B; Sidorov, V; Usov, Yu; Zhilich, V; Aoki, K; Enari, Y; Hara, K; Hayasaka, K; Hokuue, T; Iijima, T; Ikado, K; Inami, K; Kishimoto, N; Kozakai, Y; Kubota, T; Miyazaki, Y; Ohshima, T; Okabe, T; Sato, N; Senyo, K; Yoshino, S; Arakawa, T; Kawasaki, T; Miyata, H; Tamura, N; Watanabe, M; Asano, Y; Aso, T; Aushev, T; Bay, A; Hinz, L; Jacoby, C; Schietinger, T; Schneider, O; Villa, S; Wicht, J; Zürcher, D; Aziz, T; Banerjee, S; Gokhroo, G; Majumder, G; Bahinipati, S; Drutskoy, A; Goldenzweig, P; Kinoshita, K; Kulasiri, R; Sayeed, K; Schwartz, A J; Somov, A; Bakich, A M; Cole, S; McOnie, S; Parslow, N; Peak, L S; Stöck, H; Varvell, K E; Yabsley, B D; Balagura, V; Chistov, R; Danilov, M; Liventsev, D; Medvedeva, T; Mizuk, R; Pakhlov, P; Pakhlova, G; Tikhomirov, I; Uglov, T; Tian, Y BanX C; Barberio, E; Dalseno, J; Dowd, R; Moloney, G R; Sevior, M E; Taylor, G N; Tse, Y F; Urquijo, P; Barbero, M; Browder, T E; Guler, H; Jones, M; Li, J; Nishimura, K; Olsen, S L; Peters, M; Rorie, J; Sahoo, H; Uchida, K; Varner, G; Belous, K S; Shapkin, M; Sokolov, A; Bitenc, U; Bizjak, I; Fratina, S; Gorisek, A; Pestotnik, R; Staric, M; Zupanc, A; Blyth, S; Chen, A; Chen, W T; Go, A; Hou, S; Kuo, C C; Bozek, A; Kapusta, P; Lesiak, T; Matyja, A; Natkaniec, Z; Ostrowicz, W; Palka, H; Rózanska, M; Wiechczynski, J; Bracko, M; Korpar S; Brodzicka, J; Chang, M C; Kikuchi, N; Mikami, Y; Nagamine, T; Schonmeier, P; Yamaguchi, A; Yamamoto, H; Chang, P; Chao, Y; Chen, K F; Hou, W S; Hsiung, Y B; Lee, Y J; Lin, C Y; Lin, S W; Shen, Y T; Tsai, Y T; Ueno, K; Wang, C C; Wang, M Z; Wu, C H; Cheon, B G; Choi, J H; Ha, H; Kang, J S; Won, E; Choi, S K; Choi, Y; Choi, Y K; Kim, H O; Kim, J H; Park, C W; Park, K S; Chuvikov, A; Garmash, A; Marlow, D; Ziegler, T; Dash, M; Mohapatra, D; Piilonen, L E; Yusa, Y; Fujikawa, M; Hayashii, H; Imoto, A; Kataoka, S U; Miyabayashi, K; Noguchi, S; Krizan, P; Golob, B; Seidl, R; Grosse-Perdekamp, M; Hara, T; Heffernan, D; Miyake, H; Hasegawa, Y; Satoyama, N; Takada, N; Nitoh, O; Hoshina, K; Ishino, H; Khan, H R; Kibayashi, A; Mori, T; Ono, S; Watanabe, Y; Iwabuchi, M; Kim, Y J; Liu, Y; Sarangi, T R; Uchida, Y; Kang, J H; Kim, T H; Kwon, Y J; Kurihara, E; Kawai, H; Park, H; Kim, H J; Kim, S K; Lee, J; Lee, S E; Yang He Young; Kumar, R; Singh, J B; Soni, N; Lange, J S; Leder, G; MacNaughton, J; Mandl, F; Mitaroff, W A; Pernicka, M; Schwanda, C; Widhalm, L; Matsumoto, T; Nakagawa, T; Seki, T; Sumiyoshi, T; Yamamoto, S; Müller, J; Murakami, A; Sugiyama, A; Suzuki, S; Nagasaka, Y; Nakano, E; Sakaue, H; Teramoto, Y; Ogawa, A; Shibuya, H; Ogawa, S; Okuno, S; Sakamoto, H; Wang, C H; Schümann, J; Stanic, S; Xie, Q L; Yuan, Y; Zang, S L; Zhang, C C; Yamashita, Y; Zhang, L M; Zhang, Z P

    2006-01-01

    The Ds+- -> K+-K-+pi+- absolute branching fraction is measured using e+e- -> Ds*+- Ds1-+(2536) events collected by the Belle detector at the KEKB e+e- asymmetric energy collider. Using the ratio of yields when either the Ds1 or Ds* is fully reconstructed, we find Br(Ds+- -> K+-K-+pi+-)= (4.0+-0.4(stat)+-0.4(sys))%.

  2. Measuring absolute spectral radiance using an Erbium Doped Fibre Amplifier

    CERN Document Server

    Sanguinetti, Bruno; Monteiro, Fernando; Gisin, Nicolas; Zbinden, Hugo

    2012-01-01

    We describe a method to measure the spectral radiance of a source in an absolute way without the need of a reference. Here we give the necessary detail to allow for the device to be reproduced from standard fiber-optic components. The device is suited for fiber-optic applications at telecom wavelengths and calibration of powermeters and spectrometers at light levels from 1nW to 1uW.

  3. Accurate measurement method for tube's endpoints based on machine vision

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Shaoli; Jin, Peng; Liu, Jianhua; Wang, Xiao; Sun, Peng

    2017-01-01

    Tubes are used widely in aerospace vehicles, and their accurate assembly can directly affect the assembling reliability and the quality of products. It is important to measure the processed tube's endpoints and then fix any geometric errors correspondingly. However, the traditional tube inspection method is time-consuming and complex operations. Therefore, a new measurement method for a tube's endpoints based on machine vision is proposed. First, reflected light on tube's surface can be removed by using photometric linearization. Then, based on the optimization model for the tube's endpoint measurements and the principle of stereo matching, the global coordinates and the relative distance of the tube's endpoint are obtained. To confirm the feasibility, 11 tubes are processed to remove the reflected light and then the endpoint's positions of tubes are measured. The experiment results show that the measurement repeatability accuracy is 0.167 mm, and the absolute accuracy is 0.328 mm. The measurement takes less than 1 min. The proposed method based on machine vision can measure the tube's endpoints without any surface treatment or any tools and can realize on line measurement.

  4. Accurate measurement method for tube's endpoints based on machine vision

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Shaoli; Jin, Peng; Liu, Jianhua; Wang, Xiao; Sun, Peng

    2016-08-01

    Tubes are used widely in aerospace vehicles, and their accurate assembly can directly affect the assembling reliability and the quality of products. It is important to measure the processed tube's endpoints and then fix any geometric errors correspondingly. However, the traditional tube inspection method is time-consuming and complex operations. Therefore, a new measurement method for a tube's endpoints based on machine vision is proposed. First, reflected light on tube's surface can be removed by using photometric linearization. Then, based on the optimization model for the tube's endpoint measurements and the principle of stereo matching, the global coordinates and the relative distance of the tube's endpoint are obtained. To confirm the feasibility, 11 tubes are processed to remove the reflected light and then the endpoint's positions of tubes are measured. The experiment results show that the measurement repeatability accuracy is 0.167 mm, and the absolute accuracy is 0.328 mm. The measurement takes less than 1 min. The proposed method based on machine vision can measure the tube's endpoints without any surface treatment or any tools and can realize on line measurement.

  5. DI3 - A New Procedure for Absolute Directional Measurements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Geese

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The standard observatory procedure for determining a geomagnetic field's declination and inclination absolutely is the DI-flux measurement. The instrument consists of a non-magnetic theodolite equipped with a single-axis fluxgate magnetometer. Additionally, a scalar magnetometer is needed to provide all three components of the field. Using only 12 measurement steps, all systematic errors can be accounted for, but if only one of the readings is wrong, the whole measurement has to be rejected. We use a three-component sensor on top of the theodolites telescope. By performing more measurement steps, we gain much better control of the whole procedure: As the magnetometer can be fully calibrated by rotating about two independent directions, every combined reading of magnetometer output and theodolite angles provides the absolute field vector. We predefined a set of angle positions that the observer has to try to achieve. To further simplify the measurement procedure, the observer is guided by a pocket pc, in which he has only to confirm the theodolite position. The magnetic field is then stored automatically, together with the horizontal and vertical angles. The DI3 measurement is periodically performed at the Niemegk Observatory, allowing for a direct comparison with the traditional measurements.

  6. Strategy for the absolute neutron emission measurement on ITER.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sasao, M; Bertalot, L; Ishikawa, M; Popovichev, S

    2010-10-01

    Accuracy of 10% is demanded to the absolute fusion measurement on ITER. To achieve this accuracy, a functional combination of several types of neutron measurement subsystem, cross calibration among them, and in situ calibration are needed. Neutron transport calculation shows the suitable calibration source is a DT/DD neutron generator of source strength higher than 10(10) n/s (neutron/second) for DT and 10(8) n/s for DD. It will take eight weeks at the minimum with this source to calibrate flux monitors, profile monitors, and the activation system.

  7. Absolute Measurement of Quantum-Limited Interferometric Displacements

    CERN Document Server

    Thiel, Valérian; Treps, Nicolas; Roslund, Jonathan

    2016-01-01

    A methodology is introduced that enables an absolute, quantum-limited measurement of sub-wavelength interferometric displacements. The technique utilizes a high-frequency optical path modulation within an interferometer operated in a homodyne configuration. All of the information necessary to fully characterize the resultant path displacement is contained within the relative strengths of the various harmonics of the phase modulation. The method, which is straightforward and readily implementable, allows a direct measurement of the theoretical Cram\\'er-Rao limit of detection without any assumptions on the nature of the light source.

  8. Absolute and specific measures of research group excellence

    CERN Document Server

    Mryglod, O; Holovatch, Yu; Berche, B

    2012-01-01

    A desirable goal of scientific management is to introduce, if it exists, a simple and reliable way to measure the scientific excellence of publicly-funded research institutions and universities to serve as a basis for their ranking and financing. While citation-based indicators and metrics are easily accessible, they are far from being universally accepted as way to automate or inform evaluation processes or to replace evaluations based on peer review. Here we consider absolute measurements of research excellence at an amalgamated, institutional level and specific measures of research excellence as performance per head. Using biology research institutions in the UK as a test case, we examine the correlations between peer-review-based and citation-based measures of research excellence on these two scales. We find that citation-based indicators are very highly correlated with peer-evaluated measures of group strength but are poorly correlated with group quality. Thus, and almost paradoxically, our analysis indi...

  9. DCP-collected absolute target reflectance signatures assist accurate interpretation of ERTS-1 imagery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weber, F. P.

    1973-01-01

    Data collection platforms (DCP's) are being used at a Black Hills, South Dakota, test site (MMC 226A) to record radiometric measurements needed to determine solar and atmospheric parameters that affect ERTS-1 multispectral scanner radiance measurements. A total of 72 channels of analog data transmitted from an unattended ground truth site via three DCP's at least six times a day. The system has operated with only minor problems since September, sending forth daily measurements of biophysical responses and atmospheric conditions. Comparisons of scene radiance data calculated from ERTS images with that measured on the ground show the image-measured values to be 35 percent higher for the green channel and 20 percent higher for the red channel for the same scene targets. Radiance values for channels 6 and 7 are nearly the same from the ground data and from the imagery.

  10. In situ measurement of leaf chlorophyll concentration: analysis of the optical/absolute relationship.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parry, Christopher; Blonquist, J Mark; Bugbee, Bruce

    2014-11-01

    In situ optical meters are widely used to estimate leaf chlorophyll concentration, but non-uniform chlorophyll distribution causes optical measurements to vary widely among species for the same chlorophyll concentration. Over 30 studies have sought to quantify the in situ/in vitro (optical/absolute) relationship, but neither chlorophyll extraction nor measurement techniques for in vitro analysis have been consistent among studies. Here we: (1) review standard procedures for measurement of chlorophyll; (2) estimate the error associated with non-standard procedures; and (3) implement the most accurate methods to provide equations for conversion of optical to absolute chlorophyll for 22 species grown in multiple environments. Tests of five Minolta (model SPAD-502) and 25 Opti-Sciences (model CCM-200) meters, manufactured from 1992 to 2013, indicate that differences among replicate models are less than 5%. We thus developed equations for converting between units from these meter types. There was no significant effect of environment on the optical/absolute chlorophyll relationship. We derive the theoretical relationship between optical transmission ratios and absolute chlorophyll concentration and show how non-uniform distribution among species causes a variable, non-linear response. These results link in situ optical measurements with in vitro chlorophyll concentration and provide insight to strategies for radiation capture among diverse species.

  11. Absolute Measurement Fiber-optic Sensors in Large Structural Monitoring

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    The security of civil engineering is an important task due to the economic, social and environmental significance. Compared with conventional sensors, the optical fiber sensors have their unique characteristics.Being durable, stable and insensitive to external perturbations,they are particular interesting for the long-term monitoring of civil structures.Focus is on absolute measurement optical fiber sensors, which are emerging from the monitoring large structural, including SOFO system, F-P optical fiber sensors, and fiber Bragg grating sensors. The principle, characteristic and application of these three kinds of optical fiber sensors are described together with their future prospects.

  12. Absolute efficiency measurements with the 10B based Jalousie detector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Modzel, G.; Henske, M.; Houben, A.; Klein, M.; Köhli, M.; Lennert, P.; Meven, M.; Schmidt, C. J.; Schmidt, U.; Schweika, W.

    2014-04-01

    The 10B based Jalousie detector is a replacement for 3He counter tubes, which are nowadays less affordable for large area detectors due to the 3He crisis. In this paper we investigate and verify the performance of the new 10B based detector concept and its adoption for the POWTEX diffractometer, which is designed for the detection of thermal neutrons with predicted detection efficiencies of 75-50% for neutron energies of 10-100 meV, respectively. The predicted detection efficiency has been verified by absolute measurements using neutrons with a wavelength of 1.17 Å (59 meV).

  13. Absolute distance measurement based on multiple self-mixing interferometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duan, Zhiwei; Yu, Yangyang; Gao, Bingkun; Jiang, Chunlei

    2017-04-01

    To improve the precision of distance measurement using laser Self-Mixing Interferometry (SMI) and compute short distance, we propose a method of Multiple Self-Mixing Interferometry (MSMI) that is modulated with a triangular wave. The principle of this method has been described in this paper. Experiments at different distances and amplitudes of modulation current are based on the proposed method. Low-priced and easily operated experimental devices are built. Experimental results show that a resolution of 2.7 mm can be achieved for absolute distance ranging from 2.2 to 23 cm.

  14. 3D measurement of absolute radiation dose in grid therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trapp, J V [Joint Department of Physics, Institute of Cancer Research and Royal Marsden Foundation Trust, Downs Road, Sutton, Surrey SM2 5PT (United Kingdom); Department of Applied Physics, RMIT University, GPO Box 2476V, Melbourne 3001 (Australia); Warrington, A P [Joint Department of Physics, Institute of Cancer Research and Royal Marsden Foundation Trust, Downs Road, Sutton, Surrey SM2 5PT (United Kingdom); Partridge, M [Joint Department of Physics, Institute of Cancer Research and Royal Marsden Foundation Trust, Downs Road, Sutton, Surrey SM2 5PT (United Kingdom); Philps, A [Joint Department of Physics, Institute of Cancer Research and Royal Marsden Foundation Trust, Downs Road, Sutton, Surrey SM2 5PT (United Kingdom); Leach, M O [Cancer Research UK Clinical MR Research Group, Institute of Cancer Research and Royal Marsden Foundation Trust, Downs Road, Sutton, Surrey SM2 5PT (United Kingdom); Webb, S [Joint Department of Physics, Institute of Cancer Research and Royal Marsden Foundation Trust, Downs Road, Sutton, Surrey SM2 5PT (United Kingdom)

    2004-01-01

    Spatially fractionated radiotherapy through a grid is a concept which has a long history and was routinely used in orthovoltage radiation therapy in the middle of last century to minimize damage to the skin and subcutaneous tissue. With the advent of megavoltage radiotherapy and its skin sparing effects the use of grids in radiotherapy declined in the 1970s. However there has recently been a revival of the technique for use in palliative treatments with a single fraction of 10 to 20 Gy. In this work the absolute 3D dose distribution in a grid irradiation is measured for photons using a combination of film and gel dosimetry.

  15. Absolute frequency measurements and hyperfine structures of the molecular iodine transitions at 578 nm

    CERN Document Server

    Kobayashi, Takumi; Hosaka, Kazumoto; Inaba, Hajime; Okubo, Sho; Tanabe, Takehiko; Yasuda, Masami; Onae, Atsushi; Hong, Feng-Lei

    2016-01-01

    We report absolute frequency measurements of 81 hyperfine components of the rovibrational transitions of molecular iodine at 578 nm using the second harmonic generation of an 1156-nm external-cavity diode laser and a fiber-based optical frequency comb. The relative uncertainties of the measured absolute frequencies are typically $1.4\\times10^{-11}$. Accurate hyperfine constants of four rovibrational transitions are obtained by fitting the measured hyperfine splittings to a four-term effective Hamiltonian including the electric quadrupole, spin-rotation, tensor spin-spin, and scalar spin-spin interactions. The observed transitions can be good frequency references at 578 nm, and are especially useful for research using atomic ytterbium since the transitions are close to the $^{1}S_{0}-^{3}P_{0}$ clock transition of ytterbium.

  16. Absolute rotation detection by Coriolis force measurement using optomechanics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davuluri, Sankar; Li, Yong

    2016-10-01

    In this article, we present an application of the optomechanical cavities for absolute rotation detection. Two optomechanical cavities, one in each arm, are placed in a Michelson interferometer. The interferometer is placed on a rotating table and is moved with a uniform velocity of \\dot{\\bar{y}} with respect to the rotating table. The Coriolis force acting on the interferometer changes the length of the optomechanical cavity in one arm, while the length of the optomechanical cavity in the other arm is not changed. The phase shift corresponding to the change in the optomechanical cavity length is measured at the interferometer output to estimate the angular velocity of the absolute rotation. An analytic expression for the minimum detectable rotation rate corresponding to the standard quantum limit of measurable Coriolis force in the interferometer is derived. Squeezing technique is discussed to improve the rotation detection sensitivity by a factor of \\sqrt{{γ }m/{ω }m} at 0 K temperature, where {γ }m and {ω }m are the damping rate and angular frequency of the mechanical oscillator. The temperature dependence of the rotation detection sensitivity is studied.

  17. Deconstructing European Poverty Measures: What Relative and Absolute Scales Measure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burkhauser, Richard V.

    2009-01-01

    Forster and d'Ercole (2009) outline the dominant method of conceptualization and operationalization of European poverty measures that informed the EU in its development of the questionnaire for the European Union--Survey of Income and Living Conditions (EU-SILC). They do so in the context of their explanation of how the Organization for Economic…

  18. Introducing an Absolute Cavity Pyrgeometer for Improving the Atmospheric Longwave Irradiance Measurement (Presentation)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reda, I.; Hansen, L.; Zeng, J.

    2012-08-01

    Advancing climate change research requires accurate and traceable measurement of the atmospheric longwave irradiance. Current measurement capabilities are limited to an estimated uncertainty of larger than +/- 4 W/m2 using the interim World Infrared Standard Group (WISG). WISG is traceable to the Systeme international d'unites (SI) through blackbody calibrations. An Absolute Cavity Pyrgeometer (ACP) is being developed to measure absolute outdoor longwave irradiance with traceability to SI using the temperature scale (ITS-90) and the sky as the reference source, instead of a blackbody. The ACP was designed by NREL and optically characterized by the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST). Under clear-sky and stable conditions, the responsivity of the ACP is determined by lowering the temperature of the cavity and calculating the rate of change of the thermopile output voltage versus the changing net irradiance. The absolute atmospheric longwave irradiance is then calculated with an uncertainty of +/- 3.96 W/m2 with traceability to SI. The measured irradiance by the ACP was compared with the irradiance measured by two pyrgeometers calibrated by the World Radiation Center with traceability to the WISG. A total of 408 readings was collected over three different clear nights. The calculated irradiance measured by the ACP was 1.5 W/m2 lower than that measured by the two pyrgeometers that are traceable to WISG. Further development and characterization of the ACP might contribute to the effort of improving the uncertainty and traceability of WISG to SI.

  19. Absolute measurements of the uranium concentration in thick samples using fission-track detectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enkelmann, Eva; Jonckheere, Raymond; Ratschbacher, Lothar

    2005-04-01

    We propose an improved equation for calculating the uranium concentration in thick samples based on induced fission-track counts in an external detector that takes into consideration (1) the fission-fragment ranges in the sample and external detector, (2) the etchable track length and (3) the track counting efficiency in the external detector. The values of these parameters have been determined by calculation and experiment and are shown to have a significant effect on the calculated uranium concentrations. The new equation was tested by calculating the uranium concentrations in standard uranium glasses (CN-5; IRMM-540R) and apatite samples (Durango; horse tooth) in which the uranium content was also determined with independent methods (INAA; ENAA; TIMS). The results show that: (1) accurate measurements with the fission-track method are feasible within a broad range of uranium concentrations and (2) uranium determinations based on standards are only accurate if the standard and sample are made of the same material. Because the absolute fission-tack dating method is also based on accurate thermal neutron fluence measurements and similar correction factors for the track registration and counting efficiencies, this study provides a strong endorsement for the fact that absolute fission-track ages are accurate.

  20. Superfast 3D absolute shape measurement using five binary patterns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyun, Jae-Sang; Zhang, Song

    2017-03-01

    This paper presents a method that recovers high-quality 3D absolute coordinates point by point with only five binary patterns. Specifically, three dense binary dithered patterns are used to compute the wrapped phase; and the average intensity is combined with two additional binary patterns to determine fringe order pixel by pixel in phase domain. The wrapped phase is temporarily unwrapped point by point by referring to the fringe order. We further developed a computational framework to reduce random noise impact due to dithering, defocusing and random noise. Since only five binary fringe patterns are required to recover one 3D frame, extremely high speed 3D shape measurement can be achieved. For example, we developed a system that captures 2D images at 3333 Hz, and thus performs 3D shape measurement at 667 Hz.

  1. Absolute poverty measures for the developing world, 1981-2004.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Shaohua; Ravallion, Martin

    2007-10-23

    We report new estimates of measures of absolute poverty for the developing world for the period 1981-2004. A clear trend decline in the percentage of people who are absolutely poor is evident, although with uneven progress across regions. We find more mixed success in reducing the total number of poor. Indeed, the developing world outside China has seen little or no sustained progress in reducing the number of poor, with rising poverty counts in some regions, notably sub-Saharan Africa. There are encouraging signs of progress in all regions after 2000, although it is too early to say whether this is a new trend. We also summarize results from estimating a new series incorporating an allowance for the higher cost of living facing poor people in urban areas. This reveals a marked urbanization of poverty in the developing world, which is stronger in some regions than others, although it remains that three-quarters of the poor live in rural areas.

  2. Measurement of the Absolute Hohlraum Wall Albedo Under Ignition Foot Drive Condition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jones, O S; Glenzer, S H; Suter, L J; Turner, R E; Campbell, K M; Dewald, E L; Hammel, B A; Kauffman, R L; Landen, O L; Rosen, M D; Wallace, R J; Weber, F A

    2003-08-26

    We present the first measurements of the absolute albedos of hohlraums made from gold or from high-Z mixtures. The measurements are performed over the range of radiation temperatures (70-100 eV) expected during the foot of an indirect-drive temporally-shaped ignition laser pulse, where accurate knowledge of the wall albedo (i.e. soft x-ray wall re-emission) is most critical for determining capsule radiation symmetry. We find that the gold albedo agrees well with calculations using the super transition array opacity model, potentially providing additional margin for ICF ignition.

  3. Measurement of the absolute hohlraum wall albedo under ignition foot drive conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suter, L J; Wallace, R J; Hammel, B A; Weber, F A; Landen, O L; Campbell, K M; DeWald, E L; Glenzer, S H; Rosen, M D; Jones, O S; Turner, R E; Kauffmann, R L; Hammer, J H

    2003-11-25

    We present the first measurements of the absolute albedos of hohlraums made from gold or from high-Z mixtures. The measurements are performed over the range of radiation temperatures (70-100 eV) expected during the foot of an indirect-drive temporally-shaped ignition laser pulse, where accurate knowledge of the wall albedo (i.e. soft x-ray wall re-emission) is most critical for determining capsule radiation symmetry. We find that the gold albedo agrees well with calculations using the super transition array opacity model, potentially providing additional margin for ICF ignition.

  4. Introducing an Absolute Cavity Pyrgeometer (ACP) for Improving the Atmospheric Longwave Irradiance Measurement (Poster)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reda, I.; Stoffel, T.

    2012-03-01

    Advancing climate change research requires accurate and traceable measurement of the atmospheric longwave irradiance. Current measurement capabilities are limited to an estimated uncertainty of larger than +/- 4 W/m2 using the interim World Infrared Standard Group (WISG). WISG is traceable to the Systeme international d'unites (SI) through blackbody calibrations. An Absolute Cavity Pyrgeometer (ACP) is being developed to measure absolute outdoor longwave irradiance with traceability to SI using the temperature scale (ITS-90) and the sky as the reference source, instead of a blackbody. The ACP was designed by NREL and optically characterized by the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST). Under clear-sky and stable conditions, the responsivity of the ACP is determined by lowering the temperature of the cavity and calculating the rate of change of the thermopile output voltage versus the changing net irradiance. The absolute atmospheric longwave irradiance is then calculated with an uncertainty of +/- 3.96 W/m2 with traceability to SI. The measured irradiance by the ACP was compared with the irradiance measured by two pyrgeometers calibrated by the World Radiation Center with traceability to the WISG.

  5. High-precision gravity measurements using absolute and relative gravimeters at Mount Etna (Sicily, Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ciro Del Negro

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Accurate detection of time gravity changes attributable to the dynamics of volcanoes requires high-precision gravity measurements. With the aim of improving the quality of data from the Mount Etna gravity network, we used both absolute and relative gravimeters in a hybrid method. In this report, some of the techniques for gravity surveys are reviewed, and the results related to each method are compared. We show how the total uncertainty estimated for the gravity measurements performed with this combined use of absolute and relative gravimeters is roughly comparable to that calculated when the measurements are acquired using only relative gravimeters (the traditional method. However, the data highlight how the hybrid approach improves the measurement capabilities for surveying the Mount Etna volcanic area. This approach enhances the accuracy of the data, and then of the four-dimensional surveying, which minimizes ambiguities inherent in the gravity measurements. As a case study, we refer to two gravity datasets acquired in 2005 and 2010 from the western part of the Etna volcano, which included five absolute and 13 relative stations of the Etna gravity network.

  6. Lunar eclipse photometry: absolute luminance measurements and modeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernitschek, Nina; Schmidt, Elmar; Vollmer, Michael

    2008-12-01

    The Moon's time-dependent luminance was determined during the 9 February 1990 and 3 March 2007 total lunar eclipses by using calibrated, industry standard photometers. After the results were corrected to unit air mass and to standard distances for both Moon and Sun, an absolute calibration was accomplished by using the Sun's known luminance and a pre-eclipse lunar albedo of approximately 13.5%. The measured minimum level of brightness in the total phase of both eclipses was relatively high, namely -3.32 m(vis) and -1.7 m(vis), which hints at the absence of pronounced stratospheric aerosol. The light curves were modeled in such a way as to let the Moon move through an artificial Earth shadow composed of a multitude of disk and ring zones, containing a relative luminance data set from an atmospheric radiative transfer calculation.

  7. Absolute measures of the completeness of the fossil record.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foote, M; Sepkoski, J J

    1999-04-01

    Measuring the completeness of the fossil record is essential to understanding evolution over long timescales, particularly when comparing evolutionary patterns among biological groups with different preservational properties. Completeness measures have been presented for various groups based on gaps in the stratigraphic ranges of fossil taxa and on hypothetical lineages implied by estimated evolutionary trees. Here we present and compare quantitative, widely applicable absolute measures of completeness at two taxonomic levels for a broader sample of higher taxa of marine animals than has previously been available. We provide an estimate of the probability of genus preservation per stratigraphic interval, and determine the proportion of living families with some fossil record. The two completeness measures use very different data and calculations. The probability of genus preservation depends almost entirely on the Palaeozoic and Mesozoic records, whereas the proportion of living families with a fossil record is influenced largely by Cenozoic data. These measurements are nonetheless highly correlated, with outliers quite explicable, and we find that completeness is rather high for many animal groups.

  8. Demonstrating the error budget for the climate absolute radiance and refractivity observatory through solar irradiance measurements (Conference Presentation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thome, Kurtis J.; McCorkel, Joel; Angal, Amit

    2016-09-01

    The goal of the Climate Absolute Radiance and Refractivity Observatory (CLARREO) mission is to provide high-accuracy data for evaluation of long-term climate change trends. Essential to the CLARREO project is demonstration of SI-traceable, reflected measurements that are a factor of 10 more accurate than current state-of-the-art sensors. The CLARREO approach relies on accurate, monochromatic absolute radiance calibration in the laboratory transferred to orbit via solar irradiance knowledge. The current work describes the results of field measurements with the Solar, Lunar for Absolute Reflectance Imaging Spectroradiometer (SOLARIS) that is the calibration demonstration system (CDS) for the reflected solar portion of CLARREO. Recent measurements of absolute spectral solar irradiance using SOLARIS are presented. The ground-based SOLARIS data are corrected to top-of-atmosphere values using AERONET data collected within 5 km of the SOLARIS operation. The SOLARIS data are converted to absolute irradiance using laboratory calibrations based on the Goddard Laser for Absolute Measurement of Radiance (GLAMR). Results are compared to accepted solar irradiance models to demonstrate accuracy values giving confidence in the error budget for the CLARREO reflectance retrieval.

  9. A spectroscopic transfer standard for accurate atmospheric CO measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nwaboh, Javis A.; Li, Gang; Serdyukov, Anton; Werhahn, Olav; Ebert, Volker

    2016-04-01

    Atmospheric carbon monoxide (CO) is a precursor of essential climate variables and has an indirect effect for enhancing global warming. Accurate and reliable measurements of atmospheric CO concentration are becoming indispensable. WMO-GAW reports states a compatibility goal of ±2 ppb for atmospheric CO concentration measurements. Therefore, the EMRP-HIGHGAS (European metrology research program - high-impact greenhouse gases) project aims at developing spectroscopic transfer standards for CO concentration measurements to meet this goal. A spectroscopic transfer standard would provide results that are directly traceable to the SI, can be very useful for calibration of devices operating in the field, and could complement classical gas standards in the field where calibration gas mixtures in bottles often are not accurate, available or stable enough [1][2]. Here, we present our new direct tunable diode laser absorption spectroscopy (dTDLAS) sensor capable of performing absolute ("calibration free") CO concentration measurements, and being operated as a spectroscopic transfer standard. To achieve the compatibility goal stated by WMO for CO concentration measurements and ensure the traceability of the final concentration results, traceable spectral line data especially line intensities with appropriate uncertainties are needed. Therefore, we utilize our new high-resolution Fourier-transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy CO line data for the 2-0 band, with significantly reduced uncertainties, for the dTDLAS data evaluation. Further, we demonstrate the capability of our sensor for atmospheric CO measurements, discuss uncertainty calculation following the guide to the expression of uncertainty in measurement (GUM) principles and show that CO concentrations derived using the sensor, based on the TILSAM (traceable infrared laser spectroscopic amount fraction measurement) method, are in excellent agreement with gravimetric values. Acknowledgement Parts of this work have been

  10. A measurement of the absolute neutron beam polarization produced by an optically pumped sup 3 He neutron spin filter

    CERN Document Server

    Rich, D R; Crawford, B E; Delheij, P P J; Espy, M A; Haseyama, T; Jones, G; Keith, C D; Knudson, J; Leuschner, M B; Masaike, A; Masuda, Y; Matsuda, Y; Penttilae, S I; Pomeroy, V R; Smith, D A; Snow, W M; Szymanski, J J; Stephenson, S L; Thompson, A K; Yuan, V

    2002-01-01

    The capability of performing accurate absolute measurements of neutron beam polarization opens a number of exciting opportunities in fundamental neutron physics and in neutron scattering. At the LANSCE pulsed neutron source we have measured the neutron beam polarization with an absolute accuracy of 0.3% in the neutron energy range from 40 meV to 10 eV using an optically pumped polarized sup 3 He spin filter and a relative transmission measurement technique. sup 3 He was polarized using the Rb spin-exchange method. We describe the measurement technique, present our results, and discuss some of the systematic effects associated with the method.

  11. Fast and Accurate Exhaled Breath Ammonia Measurement

    OpenAIRE

    Solga, Steven F; Mudalel, Matthew L; Spacek, Lisa A.; Risby, Terence H.

    2014-01-01

    This exhaled breath ammonia method uses a fast and highly sensitive spectroscopic method known as quartz enhanced photoacoustic spectroscopy (QEPAS) that uses a quantum cascade based laser. The monitor is coupled to a sampler that measures mouth pressure and carbon dioxide. The system is temperature controlled and specifically designed to address the reactivity of this compound. The sampler provides immediate feedback to the subject and the technician on the quality of the breath effort. Toge...

  12. Measuring the absolute quantum efficiency of luminescent materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rohwer, Lauren Shea [Sandia National Laboratories, P.O. Box 5800, MS-0892, Albuquerque, NM 87185-0892 (United States)]. E-mail: leshea@sandia.gov; Martin, James E. [Sandia National Laboratories, P.O. Box 5800, MS-0892, Albuquerque, NM 87185-0892 (United States)

    2005-11-15

    A measurement system and mathematical procedure are developed for determining the absolute quantum efficiency (QE), of luminescent materials. This technique, based on absorption of diffuse light within an integrating sphere, is applied to fluorescent laser dyes and conventional phosphor powders. The system described is tested for excitation in the near-UV and blue regions, but can be applied to higher energy excitation (UV), as well as lower energy excitation in the visible to near-IR, with the appropriate photodetectors and optical filters. The system was tested on both liquid and solid samples such as Coumarin 500 (CM500) dye in methanol and ethyl acetate; Rhodamine 6G in ethanol; and a variety of powder phosphors. The QE of quinine sulfate dihydrate solution (5x10{sup -3} M in 0.1 N H{sub 2}SO{sub 4}), a NIST fluorescence standard, was found to be in good agreement with the NIST value under 390 nm excitation. The accuracy of this measurement technique is acceptable for samples with absorption cross sections greater than {approx}6 mm{sup 2}.

  13. Absolute velocity measurements in the solar transition region and corona

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassler, D. M.; Rottman, G. J.; Orrall, F. Q.

    An experimental technique is presented to measure absolute velocities of minor ions formed in the solar transition region and corona. A sounding rocket experiment July 27 1987 obtained high resolution EUV spectra along a solar diameter with spatial resolution of 20 x 20 arcsec. The wavelengths of the 1533 Si II, 1548 C IV, and 770 Ne VIII emission lines were directly compared with wavelengths of known platinum lines generated by an inflight calibration lamp. On the assumption that horisontal motions cancel statistically so that the line-of-sight velocity approaches zero at the limb, a net radial downflow of approximately 7.5 + or - 1.0 km/s was found for C IV and upper limits were found on the radial flow for Si II and Ne VIII. This assumption was tested by direct comparison to the on-board wavelength reference using recently published laboratory rest wavelengths of the solar emission lines. Agreement was found within the published uncertainties of the laboratory wavelengths + or - 2 km/s in the case of C IV. It is suggested that improved laboratory wavelength measurements (+ or - 1 km/s) in conjunction with inflight wavelength calibration would improve constraints on models of transition region and coronal dynamics.

  14. Accurate particle position measurement from images

    CERN Document Server

    Feng, Yan; Liu, Bin; 10.1063/1.2735920

    2011-01-01

    The moment method is an image analysis technique for sub-pixel estimation of particle positions. The total error in the calculated particle position includes effects of pixel locking and random noise in each pixel. Pixel locking, also known as peak locking, is an artifact where calculated particle positions are concentrated at certain locations relative to pixel edges. We report simulations to gain an understanding of the sources of error and their dependence on parameters the experimenter can control. We suggest an algorithm, and we find optimal parameters an experimenter can use to minimize total error and pixel locking. Simulating a dusty plasma experiment, we find that a sub-pixel accuracy of 0.017 pixel or better can be attained. These results are also useful for improving particle position measurement and particle tracking velocimetry (PTV) using video microscopy, in fields including colloids, biology, and fluid mechanics.

  15. The correction of vibration in frequency scanning interferometry based absolute distance measurement system for dynamic measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Cheng; Liu, Guodong; Liu, Bingguo; Chen, Fengdong; Zhuang, Zhitao; Xu, Xinke; Gan, Yu

    2015-10-01

    Absolute distance measurement systems are of significant interest in the field of metrology, which could improve the manufacturing efficiency and accuracy of large assemblies in fields such as aircraft construction, automotive engineering, and the production of modern windmill blades. Frequency scanning interferometry demonstrates noticeable advantages as an absolute distance measurement system which has a high precision and doesn't depend on a cooperative target. In this paper , the influence of inevitable vibration in the frequency scanning interferometry based absolute distance measurement system is analyzed. The distance spectrum is broadened as the existence of Doppler effect caused by vibration, which will bring in a measurement error more than 103 times bigger than the changes of optical path difference. In order to decrease the influence of vibration, the changes of the optical path difference are monitored by a frequency stabilized laser, which runs parallel to the frequency scanning interferometry. The experiment has verified the effectiveness of this method.

  16. Absolute Position of Targets Measured Through a Chamber Window Using Lidar Metrology Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kubalak, David; Hadjimichael, Theodore; Ohl, Raymond; Slotwinski, Anthony; Telfer, Randal; Hayden, Joseph

    2012-01-01

    Lidar is a useful tool for taking metrology measurements without the need for physical contact with the parts under test. Lidar instruments are aimed at a target using azimuth and elevation stages, then focus a beam of coherent, frequency modulated laser energy onto the target, such as the surface of a mechanical structure. Energy from the reflected beam is mixed with an optical reference signal that travels in a fiber path internal to the instrument, and the range to the target is calculated based on the difference in the frequency of the returned and reference signals. In cases when the parts are in extreme environments, additional steps need to be taken to separate the operator and lidar from that environment. A model has been developed that accurately reduces the lidar data to an absolute position and accounts for the three media in the testbed air, fused silica, and vacuum but the approach can be adapted for any environment or material. The accuracy of laser metrology measurements depends upon knowing the parameters of the media through which the measurement beam travels. Under normal conditions, this means knowledge of the temperature, pressure, and humidity of the air in the measurement volume. In the past, chamber windows have been used to separate the measuring device from the extreme environment within the chamber and still permit optical measurement, but, so far, only relative changes have been diagnosed. The ability to make accurate measurements through a window presents a challenge as there are a number of factors to consider. In the case of the lidar, the window will increase the time-of-flight of the laser beam causing a ranging error, and refract the direction of the beam causing angular positioning errors. In addition, differences in pressure, temperature, and humidity on each side of the window will cause slight atmospheric index changes and induce deformation and a refractive index gradient within the window. Also, since the window is a

  17. Radio Astronomers Set New Standard for Accurate Cosmic Distance Measurement

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-06-01

    estimate of the age of the universe. In order to do this, you need an unambiguous, absolute distance to another galaxy. We are pleased that the NSF's VLBA has for the first time determined such a distance, and thus provided the calibration standard astronomers have always sought in their quest for accurate distances beyond the Milky Way," said Morris Aizenman, Executive Officer of the National Science Foundation's (NSF) Division of Astronomical Sciences. "For astronomers, this measurement is the golden meter stick in the glass case," Aizenman added. The international team of astronomers used the VLBA to measure directly the motion of gas orbiting what is generally agreed to be a supermassive black hole at the heart of NGC 4258. The orbiting gas forms a warped disk, nearly two light-years in diameter, surrounding the black hole. The gas in the disk includes water vapor, which, in parts of the disk, acts as a natural amplifier of microwave radio emission. The regions that amplify radio emission are called masers, and work in a manner similar to the way a laser amplifies light emission. Determining the distance to NGC 4258 required measuring motions of extremely small shifts in position of these masers as they rotate around the black hole. This is equivalent to measuring an angle one ten-thousandth the width of a human hair held at arm's length. "The VLBA is the only instrument in the world that could do this," said Moran. "This work is the culmination of a 20-year effort at the Harvard Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics to measure distances to cosmic masers," said Irwin Shapiro, Director of that institution. Collection of the data for the NGC 4258 project was begun in 1994 and was part of Herrnstein's Ph.D dissertation at Harvard University. Previous observations with the VLBA allowed the scientists to measure the speed at which the gas is orbiting the black hole, some 39 million times more massive than the Sun. They did this by observing the amount of change in the

  18. Accurate Fiber Length Measurement Using Time-of-Flight Technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terra, Osama; Hussein, Hatem

    2016-06-01

    Fiber artifacts of very well-measured length are required for the calibration of optical time domain reflectometers (OTDR). In this paper accurate length measurement of different fiber lengths using the time-of-flight technique is performed. A setup is proposed to measure accurately lengths from 1 to 40 km at 1,550 and 1,310 nm using high-speed electro-optic modulator and photodetector. This setup offers traceability to the SI unit of time, the second (and hence to meter by definition), by locking the time interval counter to the Global Positioning System (GPS)-disciplined quartz oscillator. Additionally, the length of a recirculating loop artifact is measured and compared with the measurement made for the same fiber by the National Physical Laboratory of United Kingdom (NPL). Finally, a method is proposed to relatively correct the fiber refractive index to allow accurate fiber length measurement.

  19. Absolute Cavity Pyrgeometer to Measure the Absolute Outdoor Longwave Irradiance with Traceability to International System of Units, SI

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reda, I.; Zeng, J.; Scheuch, J.; Hanssen, L.; Wilthan, B.; Myers, D.; Stoffel, T.

    2012-03-01

    This article describes a method of measuring the absolute outdoor longwave irradiance using an absolute cavity pyrgeometer (ACP), U.S. Patent application no. 13/049, 275. The ACP consists of domeless thermopile pyrgeometer, gold-plated concentrator, temperature controller, and data acquisition. The dome was removed from the pyrgeometer to remove errors associated with dome transmittance and the dome correction factor. To avoid thermal convection and wind effect errors resulting from using a domeless thermopile, the gold-plated concentrator was placed above the thermopile. The concentrator is a dual compound parabolic concentrator (CPC) with 180{sup o} view angle to measure the outdoor incoming longwave irradiance from the atmosphere. The incoming irradiance is reflected from the specular gold surface of the CPC and concentrated on the 11 mm diameter of the pyrgeometer's blackened thermopile. The CPC's interior surface design and the resulting cavitation result in a throughput value that was characterized by the National Institute of Standards and Technology. The ACP was installed horizontally outdoor on an aluminum plate connected to the temperature controller to control the pyrgeometer's case temperature. The responsivity of the pyrgeometer's thermopile detector was determined by lowering the case temperature and calculating the rate of change of the thermopile output voltage versus the changing net irradiance. The responsivity is then used to calculate the absolute atmospheric longwave irradiance with an uncertainty estimate (U{sub 95}) of {+-}3.96 W m{sup 02} with traceability to the International System of Units, SI. The measured irradiance was compared with the irradiance measured by two pyrgeometers calibrated by the World Radiation Center with traceability to the Interim World Infrared Standard Group, WISG. A total of 408 readings were collected over three different nights. The calculated irradiance measured by the ACP was 1.5 W/m{sup 2

  20. Accurate Insertion Loss Measurements of the Juno Patch Array Antennas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chamberlain, Neil; Chen, Jacqueline; Hodges, Richard; Demas, John

    2010-01-01

    This paper describes two independent methods for estimating the insertion loss of patch array antennas that were developed for the Juno Microwave Radiometer instrument. One method is based principally on pattern measurements while the other method is based solely on network analyzer measurements. The methods are accurate to within 0.1 dB for the measured antennas and show good agreement (to within 0.1dB) of separate radiometric measurements.

  1. The absolute gravity measurement by FG5 gravimeter at Great Wall Station, Antarctica

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Gravity measurement is of great importance to the height datum in Antarctica.The absolute gravity measurement was carried out at Great Wall Station, Antarctica, using FG5 absolute gravity instrument.The gravity data was processed with corrections of earth tide, ocean tide, polar motion and the atmospher, and the RMS is within +3 x 10 -s ms-2.The vertical and horizontal gravity gradients were measured using 2 LaCoaste & Romberg (LCR) gravimeters.The absolute gravity measurement provides the fundamental data for the validation and calibration of the satellite gravity projects such as CHAMP, GRACE and GOCE, and for the high accuracy geoid model.

  2. Highly Accurate Measurement of the Electron Orbital Magnetic Moment

    CERN Document Server

    Awobode, A M

    2015-01-01

    We propose to accurately determine the orbital magnetic moment of the electron by measuring, in a Magneto-Optical or Ion trap, the ratio of the Lande g-factors in two atomic states. From the measurement of (gJ1/gJ2), the quantity A, which depends on the corrections to the electron g-factors can be extracted, if the states are LS coupled. Given that highly accurate values of the correction to the spin g-factor are currently available, accurate values of the correction to the orbital g-factor may also be determined. At present, (-1.8 +/- 0.4) x 10-4 has been determined as a correction to the electron orbital g-factor, by using earlier measurements of the ratio gJ1/gJ2, made on the Indium 2P1/2 and 2P3/2 states.

  3. Absolute beam emittance measurements at RHIC using ionization profile monitors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Minty, M. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States). Collider-Accelerator Dept.; Connolly, R [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States). Collider-Accelerator Dept.; Liu, C. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States). Collider-Accelerator Dept.; Summers, T. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States). Collider-Accelerator Dept.; Tepikian, S. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States). Collider-Accelerator Dept.

    2014-08-15

    In the past, comparisons between emittance measurements obtained using ionization profile monitors, Vernier scans (using as input the measured rates from the zero degree counters, or ZDCs), the polarimeters and the Schottky detectors evidenced significant variations of up to 100%. In this report we present studies of the RHIC ionization profile monitors (IPMs). After identifying and correcting for two systematic instrumental errors in the beam size measurements, we present experimental results showing that the remaining dominant error in beam emittance measurements at RHIC using the IPMs was imprecise knowledge of the local beta functions. After removal of the systematic errors and implementation of measured beta functions, precise emittance measurements result. Also, consistency between the emittances measured by the IPMs and those derived from the ZDCs was demonstrated.

  4. A novel simple and accurate flatness measurement method

    CERN Document Server

    Thang, H L

    2011-01-01

    Flatness measurement of a surface plate is an intensive and old research topic. However ISO definition related and other measurement methods seem uneasy in measuring and/ or complicated in data analysis. Especially in reality, the mentioned methods don't take a clear and straightforward care on the inclining angle which is always included in any given flatness measurement. In this report a novel simple and accurate flatness measurement method was introduced to overcome this prevailing feature in the available methods. The mathematical modeling for this method was also presented making the underlying nature of the method transparent. The applying examples show consistent results.

  5. A Simple and Accurate Method for Measuring Enzyme Activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yip, Din-Yan

    1997-01-01

    Presents methods commonly used for investigating enzyme activity using catalase and presents a new method for measuring catalase activity that is more reliable and accurate. Provides results that are readily reproduced and quantified. Can also be used for investigations of enzyme properties such as the effects of temperature, pH, inhibitors,…

  6. Accurate measurement of streamwise vortices using dual-plane PIV

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waldman, Rye M.; Breuer, Kenneth S.

    2012-11-01

    Low Reynolds number aerodynamic experiments with flapping animals (such as bats and small birds) are of particular interest due to their application to micro air vehicles which operate in a similar parameter space. Previous PIV wake measurements described the structures left by bats and birds and provided insight into the time history of their aerodynamic force generation; however, these studies have faced difficulty drawing quantitative conclusions based on said measurements. The highly three-dimensional and unsteady nature of the flows associated with flapping flight are major challenges for accurate measurements. The challenge of animal flight measurements is finding small flow features in a large field of view at high speed with limited laser energy and camera resolution. Cross-stream measurement is further complicated by the predominately out-of-plane flow that requires thick laser sheets and short inter-frame times, which increase noise and measurement uncertainty. Choosing appropriate experimental parameters requires compromise between the spatial and temporal resolution and the dynamic range of the measurement. To explore these challenges, we do a case study on the wake of a fixed wing. The fixed model simplifies the experiment and allows direct measurements of the aerodynamic forces via load cell. We present a detailed analysis of the wake measurements, discuss the criteria for making accurate measurements, and present a solution for making quantitative aerodynamic load measurements behind free-flyers.

  7. Absolute viscosity measured using instrumented parallel plate system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broyles, H. H.

    1967-01-01

    An automatic system measures the true average shear viscosity of liquids and viscoelastic materials, using the parallel plate method and automatically displays the results on a graphic record. This eliminates apparatus setup and extensive calculations.

  8. Accurate speed and slip measurement of induction motors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ho, S.Y.S.; Langman, R. [Tasmania Univ., Hobart, TAS (Australia)

    1996-03-01

    Two alternative hardware circuits, for the accurate measurement of low slip in cage induction motors, are discussed. Both circuits compare the periods of the fundamental of the supply frequency and pulses from a shaft-connected toothed-wheel. The better of the two achieves accuracy to 0.5 percent of slip over the range 0.1 to 0.005, or better than 0.001 percent of speed over the range. This method is considered useful for slip measurement of motors supplied by either constant frequency mains of variable speed controllers with PMW waveforms. It is demonstrated that accurate slip measurement supports the conclusions of work previously done on the detection of broken rotor bars. (author). 1 tab., 6 figs., 13 refs.

  9. A method to estimate the absolute ultrasonic nonlinearity parameter from relative measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jongbeom; Song, Dong-Gi; Jhang, Kyung-Young

    2017-02-17

    The ultrasonic nonlinearity parameter, β, is determined from the displacement amplitude of the second-order harmonic frequency component generated during the propagation of ultrasonic waves through a material. This parameter is generally referred to as the absolute parameter. Meanwhile, it is difficult to measure the small displacement amplitude of the second-order harmonic component; therefore, most studies measure the relative parameter determined from the detected signal amplitude. However, for quantitative assessment of material degradation, the absolute parameter is still required. This study proposes a method to estimate the absolute parameter for damaged material by measuring the relative parameter. This method is based on the fact that the fractional ratio of the relative parameters between different materials is identical to that of the absolute parameters after compensation for material dependent differences such as the wavenumber and detection-sensitivity. In order to experimentally verify the method, the relative parameters of heat-treated Al6061-T6 alloy specimens with different aging times were measured to compare with absolute parameters directly measured by piezo-electric detection. The results show that the fluctuations of both parameters with respect to aging time were very similar to each other, and that the absolute parameters estimated by the proposed method were in good agreement with those measured directly.

  10. Measured and modelled absolute gravity changes in Greenland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Jens Emil; Forsberg, René; Strykowski, Gabriel

    2014-01-01

    station near the Helheim Glacier.The effect of the direct attraction diminishes at sites that are more than one degree from the source.Here, the dominant signal is the effect of the elastic signal from present day ice mass changes. We findagreement between the measured and modelled gravity changes at all...

  11. Accurate measurement of ultrasonic velocity by eliminating the diffraction effect

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WEI Tingcun

    2003-01-01

    The accurate measurement method of ultrasonic velocity by the pulse interferencemethod with eliminating the diffraction effect has been investigated in VHF range experimen-tally. Two silicate glasses were taken as the specimens, their frequency dependences of longitu-dinal velocities were measured in the frequency range 50-350 MHz, and the phase advances ofultrasonic signals caused by diffraction effect were calculated using A. O. Williams' theoreticalexpression. For the frequency dependences of longitudinal velocities, the measurement resultswere in good agreement with the simulation ones in which the phase advances were included.It has been shown that the velocity error due to diffraction effect can be corrected very well bythis method.

  12. Convenient integrating sphere scanner for accurate luminous flux measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winter, S.; Lindemann, M.; Jordan, W.; Binder, U.; Anokhin, M.

    2009-08-01

    Measurement results and applications of a recently developed device for the measurement of the spatial uniformity of integrating spheres are presented. Due to the complexity of their implementation, sphere scanners are mainly used by national metrology institutes to increase the accuracy of relative and absolute luminous flux measurements (Ohno et al 1997 J. IES 26 107-14, Ohno and Daubach 2001 J. IES 30 105-15, Ohno 1998 Metrologia 35 473-8, Hovila et al 2004 Metrologia 41 407-13). The major drawback of traditional scanners for integrating spheres is the necessity of a complex and time-consuming sphere modification, as the lamp holder has to be replaced by a new scanner holder with additional cables for power supply and for communication with the stepping motor control unit (Ohno et al 1997 J. IES 26 107-14). Therefore, with traditional scanners the relative spatial sphere responsivity already changes due to the installation of a special scanner holder. The new scanner simply substitutes the lamp under test: it can be screwed into an E27 lamp socket, as it needs only two electrical contacts. Two wires are simultaneously used for the power supply of the stepping motor control unit, the scanner light source (LED) and for the signal transmission of commands and results. The benefits of scanner-assisted measurements are shown for spotlight lamp calibrations.

  13. Calibration Techniques for Accurate Measurements by Underwater Camera Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark Shortis

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Calibration of a camera system is essential to ensure that image measurements result in accurate estimates of locations and dimensions within the object space. In the underwater environment, the calibration must implicitly or explicitly model and compensate for the refractive effects of waterproof housings and the water medium. This paper reviews the different approaches to the calibration of underwater camera systems in theoretical and practical terms. The accuracy, reliability, validation and stability of underwater camera system calibration are also discussed. Samples of results from published reports are provided to demonstrate the range of possible accuracies for the measurements produced by underwater camera systems.

  14. Calibration Techniques for Accurate Measurements by Underwater Camera Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shortis, Mark

    2015-12-07

    Calibration of a camera system is essential to ensure that image measurements result in accurate estimates of locations and dimensions within the object space. In the underwater environment, the calibration must implicitly or explicitly model and compensate for the refractive effects of waterproof housings and the water medium. This paper reviews the different approaches to the calibration of underwater camera systems in theoretical and practical terms. The accuracy, reliability, validation and stability of underwater camera system calibration are also discussed. Samples of results from published reports are provided to demonstrate the range of possible accuracies for the measurements produced by underwater camera systems.

  15. [Absolute measurement of laminar flow with the aid of an orthogonal excitation technic in NMR tomography].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bielke, G; Meindl, S; von Seelen, W

    1986-11-01

    A method for absolute measurement of flow quantities by excitation of a slice orthogonal to the measuring plane is presented. The developing flow profile can be imaged directly and its dynamic behaviour can be sampled and measured using the multiecho technique. Simple formulas can be derived by means of Hagen-Poiseuille's law for quantification.

  16. Accurate measurement of the helical twisting power of chiral dopants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kosa, Tamas; Bodnar, Volodymyr; Taheri, Bahman; Palffy-Muhoray, Peter

    2002-03-01

    We propose a method for the accurate determination of the helical twisting power (HTP) of chiral dopants. In the usual Cano-wedge method, the wedge angle is determined from the far-field separation of laser beams reflected from the windows of the test cell. Here we propose to use an optical fiber based spectrometer to accurately measure the cell thickness. Knowing the cell thickness at the positions of the disclination lines allows determination of the HTP. We show that this extension of the Cano-wedge method greatly increases the accuracy with which the HTP is determined. We show the usefulness of this method by determining the HTP of ZLI811 in a variety of hosts with negative dielectric anisotropy.

  17. Methods for Accurate Free Flight Measurement of Drag Coefficients

    CERN Document Server

    Courtney, Elya; Courtney, Michael

    2015-01-01

    This paper describes experimental methods for free flight measurement of drag coefficients to an accuracy of approximately 1%. There are two main methods of determining free flight drag coefficients, or equivalent ballistic coefficients: 1) measuring near and far velocities over a known distance and 2) measuring a near velocity and time of flight over a known distance. Atmospheric conditions must also be known and nearly constant over the flight path. A number of tradeoffs are important when designing experiments to accurately determine drag coefficients. The flight distance must be large enough so that the projectile's loss of velocity is significant compared with its initial velocity and much larger than the uncertainty in the near and/or far velocity measurements. On the other hand, since drag coefficients and ballistic coefficients both depend on velocity, the change in velocity over the flight path should be small enough that the average drag coefficient over the path (which is what is really determined)...

  18. Accurate skin dose measurements using radiochromic film in clinical applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devic, S; Seuntjens, J; Abdel-Rahman, W; Evans, M; Olivares, M; Podgorsak, E B; Vuong, Té; Soares, Christopher G

    2006-04-01

    Megavoltage x-ray beams exhibit the well-known phenomena of dose buildup within the first few millimeters of the incident phantom surface, or the skin. Results of the surface dose measurements, however, depend vastly on the measurement technique employed. Our goal in this study was to determine a correction procedure in order to obtain an accurate skin dose estimate at the clinically relevant depth based on radiochromic film measurements. To illustrate this correction, we have used as a reference point a depth of 70 micron. We used the new GAFCHROMIC dosimetry films (HS, XR-T, and EBT) that have effective points of measurement at depths slightly larger than 70 micron. In addition to films, we also used an Attix parallel-plate chamber and a home-built extrapolation chamber to cover tissue-equivalent depths in the range from 4 micron to 1 mm of water-equivalent depth. Our measurements suggest that within the first millimeter of the skin region, the PDD for a 6 MV photon beam and field size of 10 x 10 cm2 increases from 14% to 43%. For the three GAFCHROMIC dosimetry film models, the 6 MV beam entrance skin dose measurement corrections due to their effective point of measurement are as follows: 15% for the EBT, 15% for the HS, and 16% for the XR-T model GAFCHROMIC films. The correction factors for the exit skin dose due to the build-down region are negligible. There is a small field size dependence for the entrance skin dose correction factor when using the EBT GAFCHROMIC film model. Finally, a procedure that uses EBT model GAFCHROMIC film for an accurate measurement of the skin dose in a parallel-opposed pair 6 MV photon beam arrangement is described.

  19. Accurate Runout Measurement for HDD Spinning Motors and Disks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Quan; Bi, Chao; Lin, Song

    As hard disk drive (HDD) areal density increases, its track width becomes smaller and smaller and so is non-repeatable runout. HDD industry needs more accurate and better resolution runout measurements of spinning spindle motors and media platters in both axial and radial directions. This paper introduces a new system how to precisely measure the runout of HDD spinning disks and motors through synchronously acquiring the rotor position signal and the displacements in axial or radial directions. In order to minimize the synchronizing error between the rotor position and the displacement signal, a high resolution counter is adopted instead of the conventional phase-lock loop method. With Laser Doppler Vibrometer and proper signal processing, the proposed runout system can precisely measure the runout of the HDD spinning disks and motors with 1 nm resolution and 0.2% accuracy with a proper sampling rate. It can provide an effective and accurate means to measure the runout of high areal density HDDs, in particular the next generation HDDs, such as, pattern media HDDs and HAMR HDDs.

  20. An Analytic Method for Measuring Accurate Fundamental Frequency Components

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nam, Soon Ryul; Park Jong Keun [Seoul National University, Seoul(Korea); Kang, Sang Hee [Myongji University, Seoul (Korea)

    2002-04-01

    This paper proposes an analytic method for measuring the accurate fundamental frequency component of a fault current signal distorted with a DC-offset, a characteristic frequency component, and harmonics. The proposed algorithm is composed of four stages: sine filer, linear filter, Prony's method, and measurement. The sine filter and the linear filter eliminate harmonics and the fundamental frequency component, respectively. Then Prony's method is used to estimate the parameters of the DC-offset and the characteristic frequency component. Finally, the fundamental frequency component is measured by compensating the sine-filtered signal with the estimated parameters. The performance evaluation of the proposed method is presented for a-phase to ground faults on a 345 kV 200 km overhead transmission line. The EMTP is used to generate fault current signals under different fault locations and fault inception angles. It is shown that the analytic method accurately measures the fundamental frequency component regardless of the characteristic frequency component as well as the DC-offset.(author). 19 refs., 4 figs., 4 tabs.

  1. Absolute spectral measurements of direct solar ultraviolet irradiance with a Brewer spectrophotometer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bais, A F

    1997-07-20

    A methodology for the absolute calibration of spectral measurements of direct solar ultraviolet radiation, performed with a Brewer spectrophotometer is presented. The method uses absolute measurements of global and diffuse solar irradiance obtained practically simultaneously at each wavelength with the direct-Sun component. On the basis of this calibration, direct-Sun spectra, measured over a wide range of solar zenith angles at a high altitude site, were used to determine the extraterrestrial solar spectrum by applying the Langley extrapolation method. Finally this spectrum is compared with a solar spectrum derived from the airborne tunable laser absorption spectrometer 3 Space Shuttle mission, showing an agreement of better than +/-3%.

  2. Accurate mass measurements on neutron-deficient krypton isotopes

    CERN Document Server

    Rodríguez, D; Äystö, J; Beck, D

    2006-01-01

    The masses of $^{72–78,80,82,86}$Kr were measured directly with the ISOLTRAP Penning trap mass spectrometer at ISOLDE/CERN. For all these nuclides, the measurements yielded mass uncertainties below 10 keV. The ISOLTRAP mass values for $^{72–75}$Kr being more precise than the previous results obtained by means of other techniques, and thus completely determine the new values in the Atomic-Mass Evaluation. Besides the interest of these masses for nuclear astrophysics, nuclear structure studies, and Standard Model tests, these results constitute a valuable and accurate input to improve mass models. In this paper, we present the mass measurements and discuss the mass evaluation for these Kr isotopes.

  3. Accurate mass measurements on neutron-deficient krypton isotopes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodriguez, D. [GSI, Planckstrasse 1, 64291 Darmstadt (Germany)]. E-mail: rodriguez@lpccaen.in2p3.fr; Audi, G. [CSNSM-IN2P3-CNRS, 91405 Orsay-Campus(France); Aystoe, J. [University of Jyvaeskylae, Department of Physics, P.O. Box 35, 40351 Jyvaeskylae (Finland); Beck, D. [GSI, Planckstrasse 1, 64291 Darmstadt (Germany); Blaum, K. [GSI, Planckstrasse 1, 64291 Darmstadt (Germany); Institute of Physics, University of Mainz, Staudingerweg 7, 55128 Mainz (Germany); Bollen, G. [NSCL, Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI 48824-1321 (United States); Herfurth, F. [GSI, Planckstrasse 1, 64291 Darmstadt (Germany); Jokinen, A. [University of Jyvaeskylae, Department of Physics, P.O. Box 35, 40351 Jyvaeskylae (Finland); Kellerbauer, A. [CERN, Division EP, 1211 Geneva 23 (Switzerland); Kluge, H.-J. [GSI, Planckstrasse 1, 64291 Darmstadt (Germany); University of Heidelberg, 69120 Heidelberg (Germany); Kolhinen, V.S. [University of Jyvaeskylae, Department of Physics, P.O. Box 35, 40351 Jyvaeskylae (Finland); Oinonen, M. [Helsinki Institute of Physics, P.O. Box 64, 00014 University of Helsinki (Finland); Sauvan, E. [Institute of Physics, University of Mainz, Staudingerweg 7, 55128 Mainz (Germany); Schwarz, S. [NSCL, Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI 48824-1321 (United States)

    2006-04-17

    The masses of {sup 72-78,80,82,86}Kr were measured directly with the ISOLTRAP Penning trap mass spectrometer at ISOLDE/CERN. For all these nuclides, the measurements yielded mass uncertainties below 10 keV. The ISOLTRAP mass values for {sup 72-75}Kr outweighed previous results obtained by means of other techniques, and thus completely determine the new values in the Atomic-Mass Evaluation. Besides the interest of these masses for nuclear astrophysics, nuclear structure studies, and Standard Model tests, these results constitute a valuable and accurate input to improve mass models. In this paper, we present the mass measurements and discuss the mass evaluation for these Kr isotopes.

  4. Calibrating the absolute amplitude scale for air showers measured at LOFAR

    CERN Document Server

    Nelles, A; Karskens, T; Krause, M; Buitink, S; Corstanje, A; Enriquez, J E; Erdmann, M; Falcke, H; Haungs, A; Hiller, R; Huege, T; Krause, R; Link, K; Norden, M J; Rachen, J P; Rossetto, L; Schellart, P; Scholten, O; Schröder, F G; ter Veen, S; Thoudam, S; Trinh, T N G; Weidenhaupt, K; Wijnholds, S J; Anderson, J; Bähren, L; Bell, M E; Bentum, M J; Best, P; Bonafede, A; Bregman, J; Brouw, W N; Bruüggen, M; Butcher, H R; Carbone, D; Ciardi, B; de Gasperin, F; Duscha, S; Eislöffel, J; Fallows, R A; Frieswijk, W; Garrett, M A; van Haarlem, M P; Heald, G; Hoeft, M; Horneffer, A; Iacobelli, M; Juette, E; Karastergiou, A; Kohler, J; Kondratiev, V I; Kuniyoshi, M; Kuper, G; van Leeuwen, J; Maat, P; McFadden, R; McKay-Bukowski, D; Orru, E; Paas, H; Pandey-Pommier, M; Pandey, V N; Pizzo, R; Polatidis, A G; Reich, W; Röttgering, H; Schwarz, D; Serylak, M; Sluman, J; Smirnov, O; Tasse, C; Toribio, M C; Vermeulen, R; van Weeren, R J; Wijers, R A M J; Wucknitz, O; Zarka, P

    2015-01-01

    Air showers induced by cosmic rays create nanosecond pulses detectable at radio frequencies. These pulses have been measured successfully in the past few years at the LOw- Frequency ARray (LOFAR) and are used to study the properties of cosmic rays. For a complete understanding of this phenomenon and the underlying physical processes, an absolute calibration of the detecting antenna system is needed. We present three approaches that were used to check and improve the antenna model of LOFAR and to provide an absolute calibration for air shower measurements. Two methods are based on calibrated reference sources and one on a calibration approach using the diffuse radio emission of the Galaxy, optimized for short data-sets. An accuracy of 35% in amplitude is reached. The absolute calibration is also compared to predictions from air shower simulations. These results are used to set an absolute energy scale for air shower measurements and can be used as a basis for an absolute scale for the measurement of astronomic...

  5. Measurement of absolute optical thickness of mask glass by wavelength-tuning Fourier analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Yangjin; Hbino, Kenichi; Sugita, Naohiko; Mitsuishi, Mamoru

    2015-07-01

    Optical thickness is a fundamental characteristic of an optical component. A measurement method combining discrete Fourier-transform (DFT) analysis and a phase-shifting technique gives an appropriate value for the absolute optical thickness of a transparent plate. However, there is a systematic error caused by the nonlinearity of the phase-shifting technique. In this research the absolute optical-thickness distribution of mask blank glass was measured using DFT and wavelength-tuning Fizeau interferometry without using sensitive phase-shifting techniques. The error occurring during the DFT analysis was compensated for by using the unwrapping correlation. The experimental results indicated that the absolute optical thickness of mask glass was measured with an accuracy of 5 nm.

  6. Accurate Sound Velocity Measurement in Ocean Near-Surface Layer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lizarralde, D.; Xu, B. L.

    2015-12-01

    Accurate sound velocity measurement is essential in oceanography because sound is the only wave that can propagate in sea water. Due to its measuring difficulties, sound velocity is often not measured directly but instead calculated from water temperature, salinity, and depth, which are much easier to obtain. This research develops a new method to directly measure the sound velocity in the ocean's near-surface layer using multi-channel seismic (MCS) hydrophones. This system consists of a device to make a sound pulse and a long cable with hundreds of hydrophones to record the sound. The distance between the source and each receiver is the offset. The time it takes the pulse to arrive to each receiver is the travel time.The errors of measuring offset and travel time will affect the accuracy of sound velocity if we calculated with just one offset and one travel time. However, by analyzing the direct arrival signal from hundreds of receivers, the velocity can be determined as the slope of a straight line in the travel time-offset graph. The errors in distance and time measurement result in only an up or down shift of the line and do not affect the slope. This research uses MCS data of survey MGL1408 obtained from the Marine Geoscience Data System and processed with Seismic Unix. The sound velocity can be directly measured to an accuracy of less than 1m/s. The included graph shows the directly measured velocity verses the calculated velocity along 100km across the Mid-Atlantic continental margin. The directly measured velocity shows a good coherence to the velocity computed from temperature and salinity. In addition, the fine variations in the sound velocity can be observed, which is hardly seen from the calculated velocity. Using this methodology, both large area acquisition and fine resolution can be achieved. This directly measured sound velocity will be a new and powerful tool in oceanography.

  7. Accurate and precise zinc isotope ratio measurements in urban aerosols.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gioia, Simone; Weiss, Dominik; Coles, Barry; Arnold, Tim; Babinski, Marly

    2008-12-15

    We developed an analytical method and constrained procedural boundary conditions that enable accurate and precise Zn isotope ratio measurements in urban aerosols. We also demonstrate the potential of this new isotope system for air pollutant source tracing. The procedural blank is around 5 ng and significantly lower than published methods due to a tailored ion chromatographic separation. Accurate mass bias correction using external correction with Cu is limited to Zn sample content of approximately 50 ng due to the combined effect of blank contribution of Cu and Zn from the ion exchange procedure and the need to maintain a Cu/Zn ratio of approximately 1. Mass bias is corrected for by applying the common analyte internal standardization method approach. Comparison with other mass bias correction methods demonstrates the accuracy of the method. The average precision of delta(66)Zn determinations in aerosols is around 0.05 per thousand per atomic mass unit. The method was tested on aerosols collected in Sao Paulo City, Brazil. The measurements reveal significant variations in delta(66)Zn(Imperial) ranging between -0.96 and -0.37 per thousand in coarse and between -1.04 and 0.02 per thousand in fine particular matter. This variability suggests that Zn isotopic compositions distinguish atmospheric sources. The isotopic light signature suggests traffic as the main source. We present further delta(66)Zn(Imperial) data for the standard reference material NIST SRM 2783 (delta(66)Zn(Imperial) = 0.26 +/- 0.10 per thousand).

  8. Novel dispersion tolerant interferometry method for accurate measurements of displacement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradu, Adrian; Maria, Michael; Leick, Lasse; Podoleanu, Adrian G.

    2015-05-01

    We demonstrate that the recently proposed master-slave interferometry method is able to provide true dispersion free depth profiles in a spectrometer-based set-up that can be used for accurate displacement measurements in sensing and optical coherence tomography. The proposed technique is based on correlating the channelled spectra produced by the linear camera in the spectrometer with previously recorded masks. As such technique is not based on Fourier transformations (FT), it does not require any resampling of data and is immune to any amounts of dispersion left unbalanced in the system. In order to prove the tolerance of technique to dispersion, different lengths of optical fiber are used in the interferometer to introduce dispersion and it is demonstrated that neither the sensitivity profile versus optical path difference (OPD) nor the depth resolution are affected. In opposition, it is shown that the classical FT based methods using calibrated data provide less accurate optical path length measurements and exhibit a quicker decays of sensitivity with OPD.

  9. Absolute frequency measurement of the 1S0 - 3P0 transition of 171Yb

    CERN Document Server

    Pizzocaro, Marco; Rauf, Benjamin; Bregolin, Filippo; Milani, Gianmaria; Clivati, Cecilia; Costanzo, Giovanni A; Levi, Filippo; Calonico, Davide

    2016-01-01

    We report the absolute frequency measurement of the unperturbed transition 1S0 - 3P0 at 578 nm in 171Yb realized in an optical lattice frequency standard. The absolute frequency is measured 518 295 836 590 863.55(28) Hz relative to a cryogenic caesium fountain with a fractional uncertainty of 5.4x10-16 . This value is in agreement with the ytterbium frequency recommended as a secondary representation of the second in the International System of Units.

  10. Accurate measurement of streamwise vortices in low speed aerodynamic flows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waldman, Rye M.; Kudo, Jun; Breuer, Kenneth S.

    2010-11-01

    Low Reynolds number experiments with flapping animals (such as bats and small birds) are of current interest in understanding biological flight mechanics, and due to their application to Micro Air Vehicles (MAVs) which operate in a similar parameter space. Previous PIV wake measurements have described the structures left by bats and birds, and provided insight to the time history of their aerodynamic force generation; however, these studies have faced difficulty drawing quantitative conclusions due to significant experimental challenges associated with the highly three-dimensional and unsteady nature of the flows, and the low wake velocities associated with lifting bodies that only weigh a few grams. This requires the high-speed resolution of small flow features in a large field of view using limited laser energy and finite camera resolution. Cross-stream measurements are further complicated by the high out-of-plane flow which requires thick laser sheets and short interframe times. To quantify and address these challenges we present data from a model study on the wake behind a fixed wing at conditions comparable to those found in biological flight. We present a detailed analysis of the PIV wake measurements, discuss the criteria necessary for accurate measurements, and present a new dual-plane PIV configuration to resolve these issues.

  11. Accurate measurement of RF exposure from emerging wireless communication systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Letertre, Thierry; Monebhurrun, Vikass; Toffano, Zeno

    2013-04-01

    Isotropic broadband probes or spectrum analyzers (SAs) may be used for the measurement of rapidly varying electromagnetic fields generated by emerging wireless communication systems. In this paper this problematic is investigated by comparing the responses measured by two different isotropic broadband probes typically used to perform electric field (E-field) evaluations. The broadband probes are submitted to signals with variable duty cycles (DC) and crest factors (CF) either with or without Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing (OFDM) modulation but with the same root-mean-square (RMS) power. The two probes do not provide accurate enough results for deterministic signals such as Worldwide Interoperability for Microwave Access (WIMAX) or Long Term Evolution (LTE) as well as for non-deterministic signals such as Wireless Fidelity (WiFi). The legacy measurement protocols should be adapted to cope for the emerging wireless communication technologies based on the OFDM modulation scheme. This is not easily achieved except when the statistics of the RF emission are well known. In this case the measurement errors are shown to be systematic and a correction factor or calibration can be applied to obtain a good approximation of the total RMS power.

  12. Study of accurate volume measurement system for plutonium nitrate solution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hosoma, T. [Power Reactor and Nuclear Fuel Development Corp., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Works

    1998-12-01

    It is important for effective safeguarding of nuclear materials to establish a technique for accurate volume measurement of plutonium nitrate solution in accountancy tank. The volume of the solution can be estimated by two differential pressures between three dip-tubes, in which the air is purged by an compressor. One of the differential pressure corresponds to the density of the solution, and another corresponds to the surface level of the solution in the tank. The measurement of the differential pressure contains many uncertain errors, such as precision of pressure transducer, fluctuation of back-pressure, generation of bubbles at the front of the dip-tubes, non-uniformity of temperature and density of the solution, pressure drop in the dip-tube, and so on. The various excess pressures at the volume measurement are discussed and corrected by a reasonable method. High precision-differential pressure measurement system is developed with a quartz oscillation type transducer which converts a differential pressure to a digital signal. The developed system is used for inspection by the government and IAEA. (M. Suetake)

  13. Measurements of the absolute branching fractions for $D_{s}^{+}\\rightarrow\\eta e^{+}\

    CERN Document Server

    Ablikim, M; Ai, X C; Albayrak, O; Albrecht, M; Ambrose, D J; Amoroso, A; An, F F; An, Q; Bai, J Z; Ferroli, R Baldini; Ban, Y; Bennett, D W; Bennett, J V; Bertani, M; Bettoni, D; Bian, J M; Bianchi, F; Boger, E; Boyko, I; Briere, R A; Cai, H; Cai, X; Cakir, O; Calcaterra, A; Cao, G F; Cetin, S A; Chang, J F; Chelkov, G; Chen, G; Chen, H S; Chen, H Y; Chen, J C; Chen, M L; Chen, S; Chen, S J; Chen, X; Chen, X R; Chen, Y B; Cheng, H P; Chu, X K; Cibinetto, G; Dai, H L; Dai, J P; Dbeyssi, A; Dedovich, D; Deng, Z Y; Denig, A; Denysenko, I; Destefanis, M; De Mori, F; Ding, Y; Dong, C; Dong, J; Dong, L Y; Dong, M Y; Dou, Z L; Du, S X; Duan, P F; Fan, J Z; Fang, J; Fang, S S; Fang, X; Fang, Y; Farinelli, R; Fava, L; Fedorov, O; Feldbauer, F; Felici, G; Feng, C Q; Fioravanti, E; Fritsch, M; Fu, C D; Gao, Q; Gao, X L; Gao, X Y; Gao, Y; Gao, Z; Garzia, I; Goetzen, K; Gong, L; Gong, W X; Gradl, W; Greco, M; Gu, M H; Gu, Y T; Guan, Y H; Guo, A Q; Guo, L B; Guo, R P; Guo, Y; Guo, Y P; Haddadi, Z; Hafner, A; Han, S; Hao, X Q; Harris, F A; He, K L; Held, T; Heng, Y K; Hou, Z L; Hu, C; Hu, H M; Hu, J F; Hu, T; Hu, Y; Huang, G S; Huang, J S; Huang, X T; Huang, X Z; Huang, Y; Huang, Z L; Hussain, T; Ji, Q; Ji, Q P; Ji, X B; Ji, X L; Jiang, L W; Jiang, X S; Jiang, X Y; Jiao, J B; Jiao, Z; Jin, D P; Jin, S; Johansson, T; Julin, A; Kalantar-Nayestanaki, N; Kang, X L; Kang, X S; Kavatsyuk, M; Ke, B C; Kiese, P; Kliemt, R; Kloss, B; Kolcu, O B; Kopf, B; Kornicer, M; Kupsc, A; Kühn, W; Lange, J S; Lara, M; Larin, P; Leng, C; Li, C; Li, Cheng; Li, D M; Li, F; Li, F Y; Li, G; Li, H B; Li, H J; Li, J C; Li, Jin; Li, K; Li, K; Li, Lei; Li, P R; Li, Q Y; Li, T; Li, W D; Li, W G; Li, X L; Li, X N; Li, X Q; Li, Y B; Li, Z B; Liang, H; Liang, Y F; Liang, Y T; Liao, G R; Lin, D X; Liu, B; Liu, B J; Liu, C X; Liu, D; Liu, F H; Liu, Fang; Liu, Feng; Liu, H B; Liu, H H; Liu, H H; Liu, H M; Liu, J; Liu, J B; Liu, J P; Liu, J Y; Liu, K; Liu, K Y; Liu, L D; Liu, P L; Liu, Q; Liu, S B; Liu, X; Liu, Y B; Liu, Z A; Liu, Zhiqing; Loehner, H; Lou, X C; Lu, H J; Lu, J G; Lu, Y; Lu, Y P; Luo, C L; Luo, M X; Luo, T; Luo, X L; Lyu, X R; Ma, F C; Ma, H L; Ma, L L; Ma, M M; Ma, Q M; Ma, T; Ma, X N; Ma, X Y; Ma, Y M; Maas, F E; Maggiora, M; Mao, Y J; Mao, Z P; Marcello, S; Messchendorp, J G; Min, J; Min, T J; Mitchell, R E; Mo, X H; Mo, Y J; Morales, C Morales; Muchnoi, N Yu; Muramatsu, H; Nefedov, Y; Nerling, F; Nikolaev, I B; Ning, Z; Nisar, S; Niu, S L; Niu, X Y; Olsen, S L; Ouyang, Q; Pacetti, S; Pan, Y; Patteri, P; Pelizaeus, M; Peng, H P; Peters, K; Pettersson, J; Ping, J L; Ping, R G; Poling, R; Prasad, V; Qi, H R; Qi, M; Qian, S; Qiao, C F; Qin, L Q; Qin, N; Qin, X S; Qin, Z H; Qiu, J F; Rashid, K H; Redmer, C F; Ripka, M; Rong, G; Rosner, Ch; Ruan, X D; Sarantsev, A; Savrié, M; Schoenning, K; Schumann, S; Shan, W; Shao, M; Shen, C P; Shen, P X; Shen, X Y; Sheng, H Y; Shi, M; Song, W M; Song, X Y; Sosio, S; Spataro, S; Sun, G X; Sun, J F; Sun, S S; Sun, X H; Sun, Y J; Sun, Y Z; Sun, Z J; Sun, Z T; Tang, C J; Tang, X; Tapan, I; Thorndike, E H; Tiemens, M; Ullrich, M; Uman, I; Varner, G S; Wang, B; Wang, B L; Wang, D; Wang, D Y; Wang, K; Wang, L L; Wang, L S; Wang, M; Wang, P; Wang, P L; Wang, W; Wang, W P; Wang, X F; Wang, Y; Wang, Y D; Wang, Y F; Wang, Y Q; Wang, Z; Wang, Z G; Wang, Z H; Wang, Z Y; Wang, Z Y; Weber, T; Wei, D H; Weidenkaff, P; Wen, S P; Wiedner, U; Wolke, M; Wu, L H; Wu, L J; Wu, Z; Xia, L; Xia, L G; Xia, Y; Xiao, D; Xiao, H; Xiao, Z J; Xie, Y G; Xiu, Q L; Xu, G F; Xu, J J; Xu, L; Xu, Q J; Xu, Q N; Xu, X P; Yan, L; Yan, W B; Yan, W C; Yan, Y H; Yang, H J; Yang, H X; Yang, L; Yang, Y X; Ye, M; Ye, M H; Yin, J H; Yu, B X; Yu, C X; Yu, J S; Yuan, C Z; Yuan, W L; Yuan, Y; Yuncu, A; Zafar, A A; Zallo, A; Zeng, Y; Zeng, Z; Zhang, B X; Zhang, B Y; Zhang, C; Zhang, C C; Zhang, D H; Zhang, H H; Zhang, H Y; Zhang, J; Zhang, J J; Zhang, J L; Zhang, J Q; Zhang, J W; Zhang, J Y; Zhang, J Z; Zhang, K; Zhang, L; Zhang, S Q; Zhang, X Y; Zhang, Y; Zhang, Y H; Zhang, Y N; Zhang, Y T; Zhang, Yu; Zhang, Z H; Zhan, Z P; Zhang, Z Y; Zhao, G; Zhao, J W; Zhao, J Y; Zhao, J Z; Zhao, Lei; Zhao, Ling; Zhao, M G; Zhao, Q; Zhao, Q W; Zhao, S J; Zhao, T C; Zhao, Y B; Zhao, Z G; Zhemchugov, A; Zheng, B; Zheng, J P; Zheng, W J; Zheng, Y H; Zhong, B; Zhou, L; Zhou, X; Zhou, X K; Zhou, X R; Zhou, X Y; Zhu, K; Zhu, K J; Zhu, S; Zhu, S H; Zhu, X L; Zhu, Y C; Zhu, Y S; Zhu, Z A; Zhuang, J; Zotti, L; Zou, B S; Zou, J H

    2016-01-01

    By analyzing 482 pb$^{-1}$ of $e^+e^-$ collision data collected at $\\sqrt s=4.009$ GeV with the BESIII detector at the BEPCII storage ring, we measure the absolute branching fractions for the semileptonic decays $D_{s}^{+}\\to\\eta e^{+}\

  14. Measurement of the absolute branching fraction of $D^{+}\\rightarrow\\bar K^0 e^{+}\

    CERN Document Server

    Ablikim, M; Ai, X C; Albayrak, O; Albrecht, M; Ambrose, D J; Amoroso, A; An, F F; An, Q; Bai, J Z; Ferroli, R Baldini; Ban, Y; Bennett, D W; Bennett, J V; Bertani, M; Bettoni, D; Bian, J M; Bianchi, F; Boger, E; Boyko, I; Briere, R A; Cai, H; Cai, X; Cakir, O; Calcaterra, A; Cao, G F; Cetin, S A; Chang, J F; Chelkov, G; Chen, G; Chen, H S; Chen, H Y; Chen, J C; Chen, M L; Chen, S; Chen, S J; Chen, X; Chen, X R; Chen, Y B; Cheng, H P; Chu, X K; Cibinetto, G; Dai, H L; Dai, J P; Dbeyssi, A; Dedovich, D; Deng, Z Y; Denig, A; Denysenko, I; Destefanis, M; De Mori, F; Ding, Y; Dong, C; Dong, J; Dong, L Y; Dong, M Y; Dou, Z L; Du, S X; Duan, P F; Fan, J Z; Fang, J; Fang, S S; Fang, X; Fang, Y; Farinelli, R; Fava, L; Fedorov, O; Feldbauer, F; Felici, G; Feng, C Q; Fioravanti, E; Fritsch, M; Fu, C D; Gao, Q; Gao, X L; Gao, X Y; Gao, Y; Gao, Z; Garzia, I; Goetzen, K; Gong, L; Gong, W X; Gradl, W; Greco, M; Gu, M H; Gu, Y T; Guan, Y H; Guo, A Q; Guo, L B; Guo, R P; Guo, Y; Guo, Y P; Haddadi, Z; Hafner, A; Han, S; Hao, X Q; Harris, F A; He, K L; Held, T; Heng, Y K; Hou, Z L; Hu, C; Hu, H M; Hu, J F; Hu, T; Hu, Y; Huang, G S; Huang, J S; Huang, X T; Huang, X Z; Huang, Y; Huang, Z L; Hussain, T; Ji, Q; Ji, Q P; Ji, X B; Ji, X L; Jiang, L W; Jiang, X S; Jiang, X Y; Jiao, J B; Jiao, Z; Jin, D P; Jin, S; Johansson, T; Julin, A; Kalantar-Nayestanaki, N; Kang, X L; Kang, X S; Kavatsyuk, M; Ke, B C; Kiese, P; Kliemt, R; Kloss, B; Kolcu, O B; Kopf, B; Kornicer, M; Kupsc, A; Kühn, W; Lange, J S; Lara, M; Larin, P; Leng, C; Li, C; Li, Cheng; Li, D M; Li, F; Li, F Y; Li, G; Li, H B; Li, H J; Li, J C; Li, Jin; Li, K; Li, K; Li, Lei; Li, P R; Li, Q Y; Li, T; Li, W D; Li, W G; Li, X L; Li, X N; Li, X Q; Li, Y B; Li, Z B; Liang, H; Liang, Y F; Liang, Y T; Liao, G R; Lin, D X; Liu, B; Liu, B J; Liu, C X; Liu, D; Liu, F H; Liu, Fang; Liu, Feng; Liu, H B; Liu, H H; Liu, H H; Liu, H M; Liu, J; Liu, J B; Liu, J P; Liu, J Y; Liu, K; Liu, K Y; Liu, L D; Liu, P L; Liu, Q; Liu, S B; Liu, X; Liu, Y B; Liu, Z A; Liu, Zhiqing; Loehner, H; Lou, X C; Lu, H J; Lu, J G; Lu, Y; Lu, Y P; Luo, C L; Luo, M X; Luo, T; Luo, X L; Lyu, X R; Ma, F C; Ma, H L; Ma, L L; Ma, M M; Ma, Q M; Ma, T; Ma, X N; Ma, X Y; Ma, Y M; Maas, F E; Maggiora, M; Mao, Y J; Mao, Z P; Marcello, S; Messchendorp, J G; Min, J; Min, T J; Mitchell, R E; Mo, X H; Mo, Y J; Morales, C Morales; Muchnoi, N Yu; Muramatsu, H; Nefedov, Y; Nerling, F; Nikolaev, I B; Ning, Z; Nisar, S; Niu, S L; Niu, X Y; Olsen, S L; Ouyang, Q; Pacetti, S; Pan, Y; Patteri, P; Pelizaeus, M; Peng, H P; Peters, K; Pettersson, J; Ping, J L; Ping, R G; Poling, R; Prasad, V; Qi, H R; Qi, M; Qian, S; Qiao, C F; Qin, L Q; Qin, N; Qin, X S; Qin, Z H; Qiu, J F; Rashid, K H; Redmer, C F; Ripka, M; Rong, G; Rosner, Ch; Ruan, X D; Sarantsev, A; Savrié, M; Schoenning, K; Schumann, S; Shan, W; Shao, M; Shen, C P; Shen, P X; Shen, X Y; Sheng, H Y; Shi, M; Song, W M; Song, X Y; Sosio, S; Spataro, S; Sun, G X; Sun, J F; Sun, S S; Sun, X H; Sun, Y J; Sun, Y Z; Sun, Z J; Sun, Z T; Tang, C J; Tang, X; Tapan, I; Thorndike, E H; Tiemens, M; Ullrich, M; Uman, I; Varner, G S; Wang, B; Wang, B L; Wang, D; Wang, D Y; Wang, K; Wang, L L; Wang, L S; Wang, M; Wang, P; Wang, P L; Wang, W; Wang, W P; Wang, X F; Wang, Y; Wang, Y D; Wang, Y F; Wang, Y Q; Wang, Z; Wang, Z G; Wang, Z H; Wang, Z Y; Wang, Z Y; Weber, T; Wei, D H; Weidenkaff, P; Wen, S P; Wiedner, U; Wolke, M; Wu, L H; Wu, L J; Wu, Z; Xia, L; Xia, L G; Xia, Y; Xiao, D; Xiao, H; Xiao, Z J; Xie, Y G; Xiu, Q L; Xu, G F; Xu, J J; Xu, L; Xu, Q J; Xu, Q N; Xu, X P; Yan, L; Yan, W B; Yan, W C; Yan, Y H; Yang, H J; Yang, H X; Yang, L; Yang, Y X; Ye, M; Ye, M H; Yin, J H; Yu, B X; Yu, C X; Yu, J S; Yuan, C Z; Yuan, W L; Yuan, Y; Yuncu, A; Zafar, A A; Zallo, A; Zeng, Y; Zeng, Z; Zhang, B X; Zhang, B Y; Zhang, C; Zhang, C C; Zhang, D H; Zhang, H H; Zhang, H Y; Zhang, J; Zhang, J J; Zhang, J L; Zhang, J Q; Zhang, J W; Zhang, J Y; Zhang, J Z; Zhang, K; Zhang, L; Zhang, S Q; Zhang, X Y; Zhang, Y; Zhang, Y H; Zhang, Y N; Zhang, Y T; Zhang, Yu; Zhang, Z H; Zhan, Z P; Zhang, Z Y; Zhao, G; Zhao, J W; Zhao, J Y; Zhao, J Z; Zhao, Lei; Zhao, Ling; Zhao, M G; Zhao, Q; Zhao, Q W; Zhao, S J; Zhao, T C; Zhao, Y B; Zhao, Z G; Zhemchugov, A; Zheng, B; Zheng, J P; Zheng, W J; Zheng, Y H; Zhong, B; Zhou, L; Zhou, X; Zhou, X K; Zhou, X R; Zhou, X Y; Zhu, K; Zhu, K J; Zhu, S; Zhu, S H; Zhu, X L; Zhu, Y C; Zhu, Y S; Zhu, Z A; Zhuang, J; Zotti, L; Zou, B S; Zou, J H

    2016-01-01

    By analyzing 2.93 fb$^{-1}$ data collected at the center-of-mass energy $\\sqrt s=3.773$ GeV with the BESIII detector, we measure the absolute branching fraction of the semileptonic decay $D^+\\rightarrow\\bar K^0 e^{+}\

  15. Measurement of the absolute power of subcritical reactors by the Feinman-. cap alpha. method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sapozhnikov, V.V.; Tyrkich, E.A.; Lukhanin, A.P.; Okhapkin, V.P.

    1974-01-01

    The effect is examined of delay between time intervals on the value of the power measured, using the Feynman-..cap alpha.. method. The absolute power is shown to be practically independent of the delay value at time intervals less than 10/sup -2/ sec.

  16. Electron cyclotron emission measurements on JET: Michelson interferometer, new absolute calibration, and determination of electron temperature

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schmuck, S.; Fessey, J.; Gerbaud, T.; Alper, B.; Beurskens, M. N. A.; de la Luna, E.; Sirinelli, A.; Zerbini, M.

    2012-01-01

    At the fusion experiment JET, a Michelson interferometer is used to measure the spectrum of the electron cyclotron emission in the spectral range 70-500 GHz. The interferometer is absolutely calibrated using the hot/cold technique and, in consequence, the spatial profile of the plasma electron tempe

  17. Evaluation of absolute phase for 3D profile measurement using fringe projection

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mengtao Huang; Zhuangde Jiang; Bing Li; Suping Fang

    2006-01-01

    A new method of absolute phase evaluation for three-dimensional (3D) profile measurement using fringe projection is presented, which combines the gray code and the phase shift technique. Two kinds of fringe patterns are projected onto the object surface respectively, one is sinusoidal intensity distribution used for phase demodulation and the other is gray code fringe pattern for unwrapping. These images are acquired by camera and stored into computer. The absolute phase is obtained by analyzing these images. The validity of this method is verified experimentally. The method is superior to other phase unwrapping methods.

  18. Re-creating Gauss's method for non-electrical absolute measurements of magnetic fields and moments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Baak, D. A.

    2013-10-01

    In 1832, Gauss made the first absolute measurements of magnetic fields and of magnetic moments in experiments that are straightforward and instructive to replicate. We show, using rare-earth permanent magnets and a variation of Gauss's technique, that the horizontal component of the ambient geomagnetic field, as well as the size of the magnetic moments of such magnets, can be found. The method shows the connection between the SI and cgs emu unit systems for these quantities and permits an absolute realization of the Ampere with considerable precision.

  19. Accurate estimation of third-order moments from turbulence measurements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. J. Podesta

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Politano and Pouquet's law, a generalization of Kolmogorov's four-fifths law to incompressible MHD, makes it possible to measure the energy cascade rate in incompressible MHD turbulence by means of third-order moments. In hydrodynamics, accurate measurement of third-order moments requires large amounts of data because the probability distributions of velocity-differences are nearly symmetric and the third-order moments are relatively small. Measurements of the energy cascade rate in solar wind turbulence have recently been performed for the first time, but without careful consideration of the accuracy or statistical uncertainty of the required third-order moments. This paper investigates the statistical convergence of third-order moments as a function of the sample size N. It is shown that the accuracy of the third-moment <(δ v||3> depends on the number of correlation lengths spanned by the data set and a method of estimating the statistical uncertainty of the third-moment is developed. The technique is illustrated using both wind tunnel data and solar wind data.

  20. Accurate measurement of liquid transport through nanoscale conduits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alibakhshi, Mohammad Amin; Xie, Quan; Li, Yinxiao; Duan, Chuanhua

    2016-01-01

    Nanoscale liquid transport governs the behaviour of a wide range of nanofluidic systems, yet remains poorly characterized and understood due to the enormous hydraulic resistance associated with the nanoconfinement and the resulting minuscule flow rates in such systems. To overcome this problem, here we present a new measurement technique based on capillary flow and a novel hybrid nanochannel design and use it to measure water transport through single 2-D hydrophilic silica nanochannels with heights down to 7 nm. Our results show that silica nanochannels exhibit increased mass flow resistance compared to the classical hydrodynamics prediction. This difference increases with decreasing channel height and reaches 45% in the case of 7 nm nanochannels. This resistance increase is attributed to the formation of a 7-angstrom-thick stagnant hydration layer on the hydrophilic surfaces. By avoiding use of any pressure and flow sensors or any theoretical estimations the hybrid nanochannel scheme enables facile and precise flow measurement through single nanochannels, nanotubes, or nanoporous media and opens the prospect for accurate characterization of both hydrophilic and hydrophobic nanofluidic systems. PMID:27112404

  1. Accurate multipixel phase measurement with classical-light interferometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Mandeep; Khare, Kedar; Jha, Anand Kumar; Prabhakar, Shashi; Singh, R. P.

    2015-02-01

    We demonstrate accurate phase measurement from experimental low photon level interferograms using a constrained optimization method that takes into account the expected redundancy in the unknown phase function. This approach is shown to have significant noise advantage over traditional methods, such as balanced homodyning or phase shifting, that treat individual pixels in the interference data as independent of each other. Our interference experiments comparing the optimization method with the traditional phase-shifting method show that when the same photon resources are used, the optimization method provides phase recoveries with tighter error bars. In particular, rms phase error performance of the optimization method for low photon number data (10 photons per pixel) shows a >5 × noise gain over the phase-shifting method. In our experiments where a laser light source is used for illumination, the results imply phase measurement with an accuracy better than the conventional single-pixel-based shot-noise limit that assumes independent phases at individual pixels. The constrained optimization approach presented here is independent of the nature of the light source and may further enhance the accuracy of phase detection when a nonclassical-light source is used.

  2. Measurement of Fracture Geometry for Accurate Computation of Hydraulic Conductivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chae, B.; Ichikawa, Y.; Kim, Y.

    2003-12-01

    Fluid flow in rock mass is controlled by geometry of fractures which is mainly characterized by roughness, aperture and orientation. Fracture roughness and aperture was observed by a new confocal laser scanning microscope (CLSM; Olympus OLS1100). The wavelength of laser is 488nm, and the laser scanning is managed by a light polarization method using two galvano-meter scanner mirrors. The system improves resolution in the light axis (namely z) direction because of the confocal optics. The sampling is managed in a spacing 2.5 μ m along x and y directions. The highest measurement resolution of z direction is 0.05 μ m, which is the more accurate than other methods. For the roughness measurements, core specimens of coarse and fine grained granites were provided. Measurements were performed along three scan lines on each fracture surface. The measured data were represented as 2-D and 3-D digital images showing detailed features of roughness. Spectral analyses by the fast Fourier transform (FFT) were performed to characterize on the roughness data quantitatively and to identify influential frequency of roughness. The FFT results showed that components of low frequencies were dominant in the fracture roughness. This study also verifies that spectral analysis is a good approach to understand complicate characteristics of fracture roughness. For the aperture measurements, digital images of the aperture were acquired under applying five stages of uniaxial normal stresses. This method can characterize the response of aperture directly using the same specimen. Results of measurements show that reduction values of aperture are different at each part due to rough geometry of fracture walls. Laboratory permeability tests were also conducted to evaluate changes of hydraulic conductivities related to aperture variation due to different stress levels. The results showed non-uniform reduction of hydraulic conductivity under increase of the normal stress and different values of

  3. Frequency-scanning interferometry for dynamic absolute distance measurement using Kalman filter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tao, Long; Liu, Zhigang; Zhang, Weibo; Zhou, Yangli

    2014-12-15

    We propose a frequency-scanning interferometry using the Kalman filtering technique for dynamic absolute distance measurement. Frequency-scanning interferometry only uses a single tunable laser driven by a triangle waveform signal for forward and backward optical frequency scanning. The absolute distance and moving speed of a target can be estimated by the present input measurement of frequency-scanning interferometry and the previously calculated state based on the Kalman filter algorithm. This method not only compensates for movement errors in conventional frequency-scanning interferometry, but also achieves high-precision and low-complexity dynamic measurements. Experimental results of dynamic measurements under static state, vibration and one-dimensional movement are presented.

  4. A novel method for the absolute fluorescence yield measurement by AIRFLY

    CERN Document Server

    Ave, M

    2008-01-01

    One of the goals of the AIRFLY (AIR FLuorescence Yield) experiment is to measure the absolute fluorescence yield induced by electrons in air to better than 10% precision. We introduce a new technique for measurement of the absolute fluorescence yield of the 337 nm line that has the advantage of reducing the systematic uncertainty due to the detector calibration. The principle is to compare the measured fluorescence yield to a well known process - the Cerenkov emission. Preliminary measurements taken in the BFT (Beam Test Facility) in Frascati, Italy with 350 MeV electrons are presented. Beam tests in the Argonne Wakefield Accelerator at the Argonne National Laboratory, USA with 14 MeV electrons have also shown that this technique can be applied at lower energies.

  5. Absolute distance measurement using frequency-sweeping heterodyne interferometer calibrated by an optical frequency comb.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Xuejian; Wei, Haoyun; Zhang, Hongyuan; Ren, Libing; Li, Yan; Zhang, Jitao

    2013-04-01

    We present a frequency-sweeping heterodyne interferometer to measure an absolute distance based on a frequency-tunable diode laser calibrated by an optical frequency comb (OFC) and an interferometric phase measurement system. The laser frequency-sweeping process is calibrated by the OFC within a range of 200 GHz and an accuracy of 1.3 kHz, which brings about a precise temporal synthetic wavelength of 1.499 mm. The interferometric phase measurement system consisting of the analog signal processing circuit and the digital phase meter achieves a phase difference resolution better than 0.1 deg. As the laser frequency is sweeping, the absolute distance can be determined by measuring the phase difference variation of the interference signals. In the laboratory condition, our experimental scheme realizes micrometer accuracy over meter distance.

  6. A Flexible Fringe Projection Vision System with Extended Mathematical Model for Accurate Three-Dimensional Measurement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suzhi Xiao

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available In order to acquire an accurate three-dimensional (3D measurement, the traditional fringe projection technique applies complex and laborious procedures to compensate for the errors that exist in the vision system. However, the error sources in the vision system are very complex, such as lens distortion, lens defocus, and fringe pattern nonsinusoidality. Some errors cannot even be explained or rendered with clear expressions and are difficult to compensate directly as a result. In this paper, an approach is proposed that avoids the complex and laborious compensation procedure for error sources but still promises accurate 3D measurement. It is realized by the mathematical model extension technique. The parameters of the extended mathematical model for the ’phase to 3D coordinates transformation’ are derived using the least-squares parameter estimation algorithm. In addition, a phase-coding method based on a frequency analysis is proposed for the absolute phase map retrieval to spatially isolated objects. The results demonstrate the validity and the accuracy of the proposed flexible fringe projection vision system on spatially continuous and discontinuous objects for 3D measurement.

  7. Hilbertian sine as an absolute measure of Bayesian inference in ISR, homeland security, medicine, and defense

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jannson, Tomasz; Wang, Wenjian; Hodelin, Juan; Forrester, Thomas; Romanov, Volodymyr; Kostrzewski, Andrew

    2016-05-01

    In this paper, Bayesian Binary Sensing (BBS) is discussed as an effective tool for Bayesian Inference (BI) evaluation in interdisciplinary areas such as ISR (and, C3I), Homeland Security, QC, medicine, defense, and many others. In particular, Hilbertian Sine (HS) as an absolute measure of BI, is introduced, while avoiding relativity of decision threshold identification, as in the case of traditional measures of BI, related to false positives and false negatives.

  8. Electron cyclotron emission measurements on JET: Michelson interferometer, new absolute calibration, and determination of electron temperature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmuck, S; Fessey, J; Gerbaud, T; Alper, B; Beurskens, M N A; de la Luna, E; Sirinelli, A; Zerbini, M

    2012-12-01

    At the fusion experiment JET, a Michelson interferometer is used to measure the spectrum of the electron cyclotron emission in the spectral range 70-500 GHz. The interferometer is absolutely calibrated using the hot/cold technique and, in consequence, the spatial profile of the plasma electron temperature is determined from the measurements. The current state of the interferometer hardware, the calibration setup, and the analysis technique for calibration and plasma operation are described. A new, full-system, absolute calibration employing continuous data acquisition has been performed recently and the calibration method and results are presented. The noise level in the measurement is very low and as a result the electron cyclotron emission spectrum and thus the spatial profile of the electron temperature are determined to within ±5% and in the most relevant region to within ±2%. The new calibration shows that the absolute response of the system has decreased by about 15% compared to that measured previously and possible reasons for this change are presented. Temperature profiles measured with the Michelson interferometer are compared with profiles measured independently using Thomson scattering diagnostics, which have also been recently refurbished and recalibrated, and agreement within experimental uncertainties is obtained.

  9. Determination of collagen fibril size via absolute measurements of second-harmonic generation signals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bancelin, Stéphane; Aimé, Carole; Gusachenko, Ivan; Kowalczuk, Laura; Latour, Gaël; Coradin, Thibaud; Schanne-Klein, Marie-Claire

    2014-09-01

    The quantification of collagen fibril size is a major issue for the investigation of pathological disorders associated with structural defects of the extracellular matrix. Second-harmonic generation microscopy is a powerful technique to characterize the macromolecular organization of collagen in unstained biological tissues. Nevertheless, due to the complex coherent building of this nonlinear optical signal, it has never been used to measure fibril diameter so far. Here we report absolute measurements of second-harmonic signals from isolated fibrils down to 30 nm diameter, via implementation of correlative second-harmonic-electron microscopy. Moreover, using analytical and numerical calculations, we demonstrate that the high sensitivity of this technique originates from the parallel alignment of collagen triple helices within fibrils and the subsequent constructive interferences of second-harmonic radiations. Finally, we use these absolute measurements as a calibration for ex vivo quantification of fibril diameter in the Descemet’s membrane of a diabetic rat cornea.

  10. Development of a detector (ALFA) to measure the absolute LHC luminosity at ATLAS

    CERN Document Server

    Mapelli, A; Ask, S; Barrillon, P; Blanchot, G; Blin, S; Braem, André; Cheiklali, C; de La Taille, C; Di Girolamo, B; Efthymiopoulos, I; Faustino, J; Fournier, D; Franz, S; Grafström, P; Gurriana, L; Haguenauer, M; Hedberg, V; Heller, M; Hoffmann, S; Iwanski, W; Joram, C; Kocnar, A; Lavigne, B; Lundberg, B; Maio, A; Maneira, M J P; Marques, C; Mjörnmark, U; Conde-Muíño, P; Puzo, P; Rijssenbeeck, M; Santos, J P; Saraiva, J G; Seguin-Moreau, N; Soares, S; Stenzel, H; Thioye, M; Valladolid-Gallego, E; Vorobel, V; 10th ICATPP Conference on Astroparticle, Particle, Space Physics, Detectors and Medical Physics Applications

    2008-01-01

    The ATLAS collaboration plans to determine the absolute luminosity of the CERN LHC at Interaction Point 1 by measuring the trajectory of protons elastically scattered at very small angles ($\\mu rad$). A scintillating fibre tracker system called ALFA (Absolute Luminosity For ATLAS) is proposed for this measurement. Detector modules will be placed above and below the LHC beam axis in roman pot units at a distance of 240 m on each side of the ATLAS interaction point. They allow the detectors to approach the beam axis to millimeter distance. Overlap detectors also based on the scintillating fibre technology, will measure the precise relative position of the two detector modules. Results obtained during beam tests at DESY and at CERN validate the detectors design and demonstrate the achievable resolution. We also report about radiation hardness studies of the scintillating fibres to estimate the lifetime of the ALFA system at different operating conditions of the LHC.

  11. Measuring the absolute DT neutron yield using the Magnetic Recoil Spectrometer at OMEGA and the NIF

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mackinnon, A; Casey, D; Frenje, J A; Johnson, M G; Seguin, F H; Li, C K; Petrasso, R D; Glebov, V Y; Katz, J; Knauer, J; Meyerhofer, D; Sangster, T; Bionta, R; Bleuel, D; Hachett, S P; Hartouni, E; Lepape, S; Mckernan, M; Moran, M; Yeamans, C

    2012-05-03

    A Magnetic Recoil Spectrometer (MRS) has been installed and extensively used on OMEGA and the National Ignition Facility (NIF) for measurements of the absolute neutron spectrum from inertial confinement fusion (ICF) implosions. From the neutron spectrum measured with the MRS, many critical implosion parameters are determined including the primary DT neutron yield, the ion temperature, and the down-scattered neutron yield. As the MRS detection efficiency is determined from first principles, the absolute DT neutron yield is obtained without cross-calibration to other techniques. The MRS primary DT neutron measurements at OMEGA and the NIF are shown to be in excellent agreement with previously established yield diagnostics on OMEGA, and with the newly commissioned nuclear activation diagnostics on the NIF.

  12. Absolute measurement of the nitrogen fluorescence yield in air between 300 and 430 nm

    CERN Document Server

    Lefeuvre, G; Gorodetzky, P; Patzak, T; Salin, P

    2007-01-01

    The nitrogen fluorescence induced in air is used to detect ultra-high energy cosmic rays and to measure their energy. The precise knowledge of the absolute fluorescence yield is the key quantity to improve the accuracy on the cosmic ray energy. The total yield has been measured in dry air using a 90Sr source and a [300-430 nm] filter. The fluorescence yield in air is 4.23 $\\pm$ 0.20 photons per meter when normalized to 760 mmHg, 15 degrees C and with an electron energy of 0.85 MeV. This result is consistent with previous experiments made at various energies, but with an accuracy improved by a factor of about 3. For the first time, the absolute continuous spectrum of nitrogen excited by 90Sr electrons has also been measured with a spectrometer. Details of this experiment are given in one of the author's PhD thesis [32].

  13. Accurate MTF measurement in digital radiography using noise response

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuhls-Gilcrist, Andrew; Jain, Amit; Bednarek, Daniel R.; Hoffmann, Kenneth R.; Rudin, Stephen [Toshiba Stroke Research Center, University at Buffalo, State University of New York, Biomedical Research Building, Room 445, 3435 Main Street, Buffalo, New York 14214 (United States)

    2010-02-15

    .4%. Above 0.5 f{sub N}, differences increased to an average of 20%. Deviations of the experimental results largely followed the trend seen in the simulation results, suggesting that differences between the two methods could be explained as resulting from the inherent inaccuracies of the edge-response measurement technique used in this study. Aliasing of the correlated noise component was shown to have a minimal effect on the measured MTF for the three detectors studied. Systems with significant aliasing of the correlated noise component (e.g., a-Se based detectors) would likely require a more sophisticated fitting scheme to provide accurate results. Conclusions: Results indicate that the noise-response method, a simple technique, can be used to accurately measure the MTF of digital x-ray detectors, while alleviating the problems and inaccuracies associated with use of precision test objects, such as a slit or an edge.

  14. Automatic classification and accurate size measurement of blank mask defects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhamidipati, Samir; Paninjath, Sankaranarayanan; Pereira, Mark; Buck, Peter

    2015-07-01

    complexity of defects encountered. The variety arises due to factors such as defect nature, size, shape and composition; and the optical phenomena occurring around the defect. This paper focuses on preliminary characterization results, in terms of classification and size estimation, obtained by Calibre MDPAutoClassify tool on a variety of mask blank defects. It primarily highlights the challenges faced in achieving the results with reference to the variety of defects observed on blank mask substrates and the underlying complexities which make accurate defect size measurement an important and challenging task.

  15. Comparison of absolute speed of screen-film systems measured in seven institutions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoshida, Ken-ichi [Yamaguchi Univ., Ube (Japan). Hospital; Murakami, Yasunori; Asahara, Masaki; Nakamura, Satoru; Honda, Mitsugi; Morishita, Junji; Higashida, Yoshiharu; Otsuka, Akiyoshi; Yoshida, Akira

    1998-03-01

    We compared the differences in absolute speed of four screen-film systems in seven institutions. Four different screens (HR-4, Fuji; Lanex Medium, Kodak; Lanex 250, Kodak; and HR-12, Fuji) combined with super HRS-30 (Fuji) film and a beam quality of 80 kV tube voltage with a 20 mm aluminum filter were employed. Absolute speeds of the HR-4, Lanex Medium, Lanex 250, and HR-12 in combination with super HRS-30 were 1.83 mR{sup -1}, 2.72 mR{sup -1}, 2.79 mR{sup -1}, and 5.35 mR{sup -1} (average of seven institutions), respectively. The variation in speed was about {+-}10% for the seven institutions. Two factors (film processor and densitometer) affecting absolute speed were analyzed. The absolute speed measured in seven institutions varied {+-}14% depending on the film processor (development conditions) and {+-}3% depending on the densitometer employed in each institution. (author)

  16. A novel absolute displacement measurement technology based on wavenumber resolved low coherence interferometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Keqiang; Xie, Fang; Ma, Sen; Wang, Yunzhi; Chen, Liang

    2015-12-01

    This paper proposed a novel absolute displacement measurement technology which is based on the wavenumber spectrum of low coherence interferometry. The signal from a Michelson interferometer, which is derived from a broadband light source, is dispersed by a bulk dispersing grating. The interferometric signal of each wavelength is detected by a linear array charge coupled device (CCD). By transforming the wavelength spectrum of the signal into wavenumber spectrum, absolute displacement can be measured precisely by measuring the wavenumber difference between two neighboring peaks of the wavenumber spectrum. Unlike the normal low coherence interferometric measurement systems (LCIMS) which have to scan the optical path difference (OPD) of the interferometer in order to demodulate the measurand, there is no need of scanning action during the measurement procedure, which not only simplifies the measurement system but also improves the measurement speed greatly. A fiber Bragg grating (FBG) is employed to produce a feedback signal which is used to stabilize the Michelson interferometer so as to obtain high measurement precision. A step height with the calibrated value of 50 μm that is configurated with two gauge blocks is measured by the system. The measurement resolution is 6.03 nm and the standard deviation of 10 times measurement results is 6.8 nm.

  17. Hyperspectral interferometry for single-shot absolute measurement of 3-D shape and displacement fields

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruiz P. D.

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available We propose a method that we call Hyperspectral Interferometry (HSI to resolve the 2π phase unwrapping problem in the analysis of interferograms recorded with a narrow-band light source. By using a broad-band light source and hyperspectral imaging system, a set of interferograms at different wavenumbers are recorded simultaneously on a high resolution image sensor. These are then assembled to form a three-dimensional intensity distribution. By Fourier transformation along the wavenumber axis, an absolute optical path difference is obtained for each pixel independently of the other pixels in the field of view. As a result, interferograms with spatially distinct regions are analysed as easily as continuous ones. The approach is illustrated with a HSI system to measure 3-D profiles of optically smooth or rough surfaces. Compared to existing profilometers able to measure absolute path differences, the single shot nature of the approach provides greater immunity from environmental disturbance.

  18. Comment on 'Simultaneous gravity and gradient measurements from a recoil-compensated absolute gravimeter'

    CERN Document Server

    Nagornyi, V D

    2011-01-01

    The article (Niebauer et al. 2011 Metrologia 48 154-163) reports on the important innovations enhancing the ability of absolute gravimeter to measure vertical gravity gradient along with the gravity acceleration. This comment suggests experiments to further assess the improvements and the results obtained with the modified instrument, considers some limitations of non-linear models in metrology and ways to overcome them, and discusses possible applications of the described instrument.

  19. Comment on "Measurement of the speed-of-light perturbation of free-fall absolute gravimeters"

    CERN Document Server

    Nagornyi, V D

    2014-01-01

    The paper (Rothleitner et al. 2014 Metrologia 51, L9) reports on the measurement of the speed-of-light perturbation in absolute gravimeters. The conclusion that the perturbation reaches only 2/3 of the commonly accepted value violates the fundamental limitation on the maximum speed of information transfer. The conclusion was deluded by unaccounted parasitic perturbations, some of which are obvious from the report.

  20. Measurement of absolute displacement by a double-modulation technique based on a Michelson interferometer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, L W; Chien, P Y; Lee, C T

    1999-05-01

    A novel method is presented for of measuring absolute displacement with a synthesized wavelength interferometer. The optical phase of the interferometer is simultaneously modulated with a frequency-modulated laser diode and optical path-length difference. The error signal originating from the intensity modulation of the source is eliminated by a signal processing circuit. In addition, a lock-in technique is used to demodulate the envelope of the interferometric signal. The displacement signal is derived by the self-mixing technique.

  1. Precise Measurement of the Absolute Yield of Fluorescence Photons in Atmospheric Gases

    CERN Document Server

    Ave, M; Daumiller, K; Di Carlo, P; Di Giulio, C; Luis, P Facal San; Gonzales, D; Hojvat, C; Hörandel, J R; Hrabovský, M; Iarlori, M; Keilhauer, B; Klages, H; Kleifges, M; Kuehn, F; Monasor, M; Nožka, L; Palatka, M; Petrera, S; Privitera, P; Ridky, J; Rizi, V; d'Orfeuil, B Rouillé; Salamida, F; Schovánek, P; Šmida, R; Spinka, H; Ulrich, A; Verzi, V; Williams, C

    2011-01-01

    We have performed a measurement of the absolute yield of fluorescence photons at the Fermilab Test Beam. A systematic uncertainty at 5% level was achieved by the use of Cherenkov radiation as a reference calibration light source. A cross-check was performed by an independent calibration using a laser light source. A significant improvement on the energy scale uncertainty of Ultra-High Energy Cosmic Rays is expected.

  2. Absolute Frequency Measurement of Rubidium 5S-7S Two-Photon Transitions

    CERN Document Server

    Morzynski, Piotr; Ablewski, Piotr; Gartman, Rafal; Gawlik, Wojciech; Maslowski, Piotr; Nagorny, Bartlomiej; Ozimek, Filip; Radzewicz, Czeslaw; Witkowski, Marcin; Ciurylo, Roman; Zawada, Michal

    2013-01-01

    We report the absolute frequency measurements of rubidium 5S-7S two-photon transitions with a cw laser digitally locked to an atomic transition and referenced to an optical frequency comb. The narrow, two-photon transition, 5S-7S (760 nm) insensitive to first order in a magnetic field, is a promising candidate for frequency reference. The performed tests yield the transition frequency with accuracy better than reported previously.

  3. Absolute measurement of the $\\beta\\alpha$ decay of $^{16}$N

    CERN Multimedia

    We propose to study the $\\beta$-decay of $^{16}$N at ISOLDE with the aim of determining the branching ratio for $\\beta\\alpha$ decay on an absolute scale. There are indications that the previously measured branching ratio is in error by an amount significantly larger than the quoted uncertainty. This limits the precision with which the S-factor of the astrophysically important $^{12}$C($\\alpha, \\gamma)^{16}$O reaction can be determined.

  4. Precise measurement of the absolute yield of fluorescence photons in atmospheric gases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ave, M. [Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, IK, Postfach 6980, D - 76021 Karlsruhe (Germany); Bohacova, M. [University of Chicago, Enrico Fermi Institute and Kavli Institute for Cosmological Physics, 5640 S. Ellis Ave., Chicago, IL 60637 (United States); Institute of Physics of the Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic, Na Slovance 2, CZ-182 21 Praha 8 (Czech Republic); Daumiller, K. [Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, IK, Postfach 6980, D - 76021 Karlsruhe (Germany); Di Carlo, P. [Dipartimento di Fisica dell' Universita de l' Aquila and INFN, Via Vetoio, I-67010 Coppito, Aquila (Italy); Di Giulio, C. [Dipartimento di Fisica dell' Universita di Roma Tor Vergata and Sezione INFN, Via della Ricerca Scientifica, I-00133 Roma (Italy); Facal San Luis, Pedro, E-mail: facal@kicp.uchicago.edu [University of Chicago, Enrico Fermi Institute and Kavli Institute for Cosmological Physics, 5640 S. Ellis Ave., Chicago, IL 60637 (United States); Gonzales, D. [Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, IEKP, Postfach 3640, D - 76021 Karlsruhe (Germany); Hojvat, C. [Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory, Batavia, IL 60510 (United States); Hoerandel, J.R. [IMAPP, Radboud University Nijmegen, 6500 GL Nijmegen (Netherlands); Hrabovsky, M. [Palacky University, RCATM, Olomuc (Czech Republic); Iarlori, M. [Dipartimento di Fisica dell' Universita de l' Aquila and INFN, Via Vetoio, I-67010 Coppito, Aquila (Italy); Keilhauer, B.; Klages, H. [Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, IK, Postfach 6980, D - 76021 Karlsruhe (Germany); Kleifges, M. [Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, IPE, Postfach 3640, D - 76021 Karlsruhe (Germany); Kuehn, F. [Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory, Batavia, IL 60510 (United States); Monasor, M. [University of Chicago, Enrico Fermi Institute and Kavli Institute for Cosmological Physics, 5640 S. Ellis Ave., Chicago, IL 60637 (United States); Nozka, L.; Palatka, M. [Institute of Physics of the Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic, Na Slovance 2, CZ-182 21 Praha 8 (Czech Republic)

    2011-03-15

    We have performed a measurement of the absolute yield of fluorescence photons at the Fermilab Test Beam. A systematic uncertainty at 5% level was achieved by the use of Cherenkov radiation as a reference calibration light source. A cross-check was performed by an independent calibration using a laser light source. A significant improvement on the energy scale uncertainty of Ultra-High Energy Cosmic Rays is expected.

  5. Digital encoding of cellular mRNAs enabling precise and absolute gene expression measurement by single-molecule counting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Glenn K; Wilhelmy, Julie; Stern, David; Fan, H Christina; Fodor, Stephen P A

    2014-03-18

    We present a new approach for the sensitive detection and accurate quantitation of messenger ribonucleic acid (mRNA) gene transcripts in single cells. First, the entire population of mRNAs is encoded with molecular barcodes during reverse transcription. After amplification of the gene targets of interest, molecular barcodes are counted by sequencing or scored on a simple hybridization detector to reveal the number of molecules in the starting sample. Since absolute quantities are measured, calibration to standards is unnecessary, and many of the relative quantitation challenges such as polymerase chain reaction (PCR) bias are avoided. We apply the method to gene expression analysis of minute sample quantities and demonstrate precise measurements with sensitivity down to sub single-cell levels. The method is an easy, single-tube, end point assay utilizing standard thermal cyclers and PCR reagents. Accurate and precise measurements are obtained without any need for cycle-to-cycle intensity-based real-time monitoring or physical partitioning into multiple reactions (e.g., digital PCR). Further, since all mRNA molecules are encoded with molecular barcodes, amplification can be used to generate more material for multiple measurements and technical replicates can be carried out on limited samples. The method is particularly useful for small sample quantities, such as single-cell experiments. Digital encoding of cellular content preserves true abundance levels and overcomes distortions introduced by amplification.

  6. Measurement of definite integral of sinusoidal signal absolute value third power using digital stochastic method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beljić Željko

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper a special case of digital stochastic measurement of the third power of definite integral of sinusoidal signal’s absolute value, using 2-bit AD converters is presented. This case of digital stochastic method had emerged from the need to measure power and energy of the wind. Power and energy are proportional to the third power of wind speed. Anemometer output signal is sinusoidal. Therefore an integral of the third power of sinusoidal signal is zero. Two approaches are proposed for the third power calculation of the wind speed signal. One approach is to use absolute value of sinusoidal signal (before AD conversion for which there is no need of multiplier hardware change. The second approach requires small multiplier hardware change, but input signal remains unchanged. For the second approach proposed minimal hardware change was made to calculate absolute value of the result after AD conversion. Simulations have confirmed theoretical analysis. Expected precision of wind energy measurement of proposed device is better than 0,00051% of full scale. [Project of the Serbian Ministry of Education, Science and Technological Development, Grant no. TR32019

  7. LHCb: A novel method for an absolute luminosity measurement at LHCb using beam-gas imaging

    CERN Multimedia

    Barschel, C

    2013-01-01

    A novel technique to measure the absolute luminosity at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) using beam-gas interactions has been successfully used in the LHCb experiment. A gas injection device (SMOG) has been installed in the LHCb experiment to increase the pressure around the interaction point during dedicated fills. The Beam Gas Imaging method (BGI) has now the potential to surpass the accuracy of the commonly used van der Meer scan method (VDM). This poster presents the principles of the Beam Gas Imaging method used to measure the beam overlap integral. Furthermore the gas injection increased the accuracy measurement of the so-called ghost charges and also intensities per bunch.

  8. Position error correction in absolute surface measurement based on a multi-angle averaging method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Weibo; Wu, Biwei; Liu, Pengfei; Liu, Jian; Tan, Jiubin

    2017-04-01

    We present a method for position error correction in absolute surface measurement based on a multi-angle averaging method. Differences in shear rotation measurements at overlapping areas can be used to estimate the unknown relative position errors of the measurements. The model and the solving of the estimation algorithm have been discussed in detail. The estimation algorithm adopts a least-squares technique to eliminate azimuthal errors caused by rotation inaccuracy. The cost functions can be minimized to determine the true values of the unknowns of Zernike polynomial coefficients and rotation angle. Experimental results show the validity of the method proposed.

  9. Comparison of available measurements of the absolute air-fluorescence yield and determination of its global average value

    CERN Document Server

    Rosado, J; Arqueros, F

    2011-01-01

    Experimental results of the absolute air-fluorescence yield are given very often in different units (photons/MeV or photons/m) and for different wavelength intervals. In this work we present a comparison of available results normalized to its value in photons/MeV for the 337 nm band at 1013 hPa and 293 K. The conversion of photons/m to photons/MeV requires an accurate determination of the energy deposited by the electrons in the field of view of the experimental set-up. We have calculated the energy deposition for each experiment by means of a detailed Monte Carlo simulation and the results have been compared with those assumed or calculated by the authors. As a result, corrections to the reported fluorescence yields are proposed. These corrections improve the compatibility between measurements in such a way that a reliable average value with uncertainty at the level of 5% is obtained.

  10. Multi-Segment Radius Measurement Using an Absolute Distance Meter Through a Null Assembly

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merle, Cormic; Wick, Eric; Hayden, Joseph

    2011-01-01

    This system was one of the test methods considered for measuring the radius of curvature of one or more of the 18 segmented mirrors that form the 6.5 m diameter primary mirror (PM) of the James Webb Space Telescope (JWST). The assembled telescope will be tested at cryogenic temperatures in a 17-m diameter by 27-m high vacuum chamber at the Johnson Space Center. This system uses a Leica Absolute Distance Meter (ADM), at a wavelength of 780 nm, combined with beam-steering and beam-shaping optics to make a differential distance measurement between a ring mirror on the reflective null assembly and individual PM segments. The ADM is located inside the same Pressure-Tight Enclosure (PTE) that houses the test interferometer. The PTE maintains the ADM and interferometer at ambient temperature and pressure so that they are not directly exposed to the telescope s harsh cryogenic and vacuum environment. This system takes advantage of the existing achromatic objective and reflective null assembly used by the test interferometer to direct four ADM beamlets to four PM segments through an optical path that is coincident with the interferometer beam. A mask, positioned on a linear slide, contains an array of 1.25 mm diameter circular subapertures that map to each of the 18 PM segments as well as six positions around the ring mirror. A down-collimated 4 mm ADM beam simultaneously covers 4 adjacent PM segment beamlets and one ring mirror beamlet. The radius, or spacing, of all 18 segments can be measured with the addition of two orthogonally-oriented scanning pentaprisms used to steer the ADM beam to any one of six different sub-aperture configurations at the plane of the ring mirror. The interferometer beam, at a wavelength of 687 nm, and the ADM beamlets, at a wavelength of 780 nm, pass through the objective and null so that the rays are normally incident on the parabolic PM surface. After reflecting off the PM, both the ADM and interferometer beams return to their respective

  11. Rotational positioning measurement for the absolute angle based on a hetero-core fiber optics sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishiyama, Michiko; Watanabe, Kazuhiro

    2009-10-01

    We proposed a new approach to measure the rotational angle and describe how the rotational positioning sensor could be devised arranging the hetero-core fiber-optic macro-bending sensors in terms of detecting the absolute rotational angle. The hetero-core fiber optic sensor has many advantages such as ability of macro-bend sensing with optical intensity-based measurement, single-mode transmission basis and independence of temperature fluctuation for external environment. Therefore, it is suitable that the rotational positioning sensor is fabricated with the hetero-core fiber-optic technique. We designed two types of the absolute rotational position sensor modules to convert the absolute rotational angle to the displacement. The result showed that the proposed rotational positioning modules were sufficiently sensitive to the given rotational angle with monotonic loss change characteristics. The hetero-core rotational positioning sensors were successfully perceptive with typical sensitivities approximately 0.77 and 0.71 dB in the rotational angle ranges of 60 - 360 and 60 - 180 degrees. The deviation of the module in the range of 60 - 180 degrees induced 1.74 % that corresponded to 2.13 degrees.

  12. Modelling and measurement of the absolute level of power radiated by antenna integrated THz UTC photodiodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Natrella, Michele; Liu, Chin-Pang; Graham, Chris; van Dijk, Frederic; Liu, Huiyun; Renaud, Cyril C; Seeds, Alwyn J

    2016-05-30

    We determine the output impedance of uni-travelling carrier (UTC) photodiodes at frequencies up to 400 GHz by performing, for the first time, 3D full-wave modelling of detailed UTC photodiode structures. In addition, we demonstrate the importance of the UTC impedance evaluation, by using it in the prediction of the absolute power radiated by an antenna integrated UTC, over a broad frequency range and confirming the predictions by experimental measurements up to 185 GHz. This is done by means of 3D full-wave modelling and is only possible since the source (UTC) to antenna impedance match is properly taken into account. We also show that, when the UTC-to-antenna coupling efficiency is modelled using the classical junction-capacitance/series-resistance concept, calculated and measured levels of absolute radiated power are in substantial disagreement, and the maximum radiated power is overestimated by a factor of almost 7 dB. The ability to calculate the absolute emitted power correctly enables the radiated power to be maximised through optimisation of the UTC-to-antenna impedance match.

  13. Silicon microcantilevers with different actuation-readout schemes for absolute pressure measurement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bianco, S; Cocuzza, M; Ferrante, I; Giuri, E; Pirri, C F; Ricci, A; Scaltrito, L [Xlab - Materials and Microsystems Laboratory - Polytechnic of Turin, Latemar Unit Lungo Piazza D' Armi 6, 10034 Chivasso (Turin) (Italy); Bich, D; Merialdo, A; Schina, P [Olivetti I-Jet, Loc. Le Vieux, 11020 Arnad (Aosta) (Italy); Correale, R [Varian S.p.A., Via Fratelli Varian 54, 10040 Leini (Turin) Italy (Italy)], E-mail: matteo.cocuzza@infm.polito.it

    2008-03-01

    Silicon resonant microcantilevers for the measurement of the absolute pressure have been fabricated through micromachining processes. The first release is based on vertical resonant actuation and detection, both externally implemented, respectively through a piezoelectric actuator and an optical lever. The variation in resonance response was investigated as a function of pressure (10{sup -1} to 10{sup 5} Pa), both in terms of resonance frequency and quality factor. We demonstrated the feasibility of a miniaturized absolute pressure sensor working over a six decades range. The second release is based on lateral resonating microcantilevers in which a significative upgrade is represented by the miniaturization and integration of the actuator and the sensing directly on chip providing a more compact and potentially interesting solution for industrial vacuum applications. Actuation is performed with an electrostatic modulated force, while detection relies on a capacitive readout. Preliminary experiments are encouraging for the replication of the results obtained with the first version.

  14. First absolutely calibrated on-axis ion flow measurements in MST

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schott, B.; Baltzer, M.; Craig, D.; den Hartog, D. J.; Nishizawa, T.; Nornberg, M. D.

    2016-10-01

    Improvements in absolute calibration techniques allow for the first direct measurements of the flow profile in the core of MST. We use both active charge exchange recombination spectroscopy and passive emission near 343 nm to measure ion temperature and flow. It is generally assumed that O VI is the brightest passive emission source. However, we show that there are cases, such as high temperature, pulsed poloidal current drive (PPCD) plasmas where the passive emission is dominated by C VI. Differences in the fine structure for O VI and C VI result in a systematic velocity error of about 12 km/s if the wrong model is assumed. Active measurements, however, are relatively insensitive to background model choice. The dominant source of error in active velocity measurements remains the systematic errors in calibration. The first absolutely calibrated, localized toroidal velocity measurements were obtained using an updated calibration technique. During PPCD, the on-axis ion flow is up to 40 km/s larger than both the n = 6 mode velocity and the line-averaged ion velocity. These measurements provide the first direct look at the flow profile in the core of MST. This work has been supported by the US DOE and the Wheaton College summer research program.

  15. Non-piece-wise error compensation for grating displacement measurement system with absolute zero mark

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiaojun Jiang; Huijie Huang; Xiangzhao Wang; Lihua Huang

    2009-01-01

    A method for compensating the measuring error of the grating displacement measurement system with absolute zero mark is presented.It divides the full scale range into piece-wise subsections and compares the maximum variation of the measuring errors of two adjacent subsections with the threshold.Whether the specified subsection is divided into smaller subsections is determined by the comparison result.After different compensation parameters and weighted average values of the random errors are obtained,the error compensation algorithm is implemented in the left and right subsections,and the whole measuring error of the grating displacement measurement system is reduced by about 73%.Experimental results show that the method may not only effectively compensate the spike error but also greatly improve the precision of the measuring system.

  16. Accurate and fast fiber transfer delay measurement based on phase discrimination and frequency measurement

    CERN Document Server

    Dong, J W; Gao, C; Wang, L J

    2016-01-01

    An accurate and fast fiber transfer delay measurement method is demonstrated. As a key technique, a simple ambiguity resolving process based on phase discrimination and frequency measurement is used to overcome the contradiction between measurement accuracy and system complexity. The optimized system achieves a high accuracy of 0.3 ps with a 0.1 ps resolution, and a large dynamic range up to 50 km as well as no dead zone.

  17. Rapid and accurate biofuel moisture content gauging using magnetic resonance measurement technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jaervinen, T.

    2013-04-15

    Biomass is extensively utilised in energy production and as a raw material, such as for the production of liquid biofuels. All those processes will benefit if the moisture content of bio material is known in advance as accurately as possible under transient circumstances. Biofuel trade is increasingly based on the calorific value of fuels. In the first step, this also increases the need for rapid and accurate moisture content determination. During the last few years, large biofuel standardisation has been implemented, emphasising biofuel quality control at all stages of the utilisation chain. In principle, the moisture instrumental measurement can be utilised by many technologies and procedures. Typical techniques are infrared, radiofrequency, microwave, radiometric, electrical conductivity, capacitance, and impedance. Nuclear magnetic resonance (MR) and thermal neutron absorption are also applied. The MR measurement principle has been known and utilised already since the early 1950s. It has become the basic instrumental analysis tool in chemistry. It is also well-known as a very accurate method for analysing most compounds, especially substances containing hydrogen. The utilisation of MR metering is expanded extensively to medical diagnostics as a form of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Because of the precision of the MR principle, there have for a long time been efforts to apply it in new and different areas, and to make more user-friendly, smaller, and even portable devices. Such a device was designed by Vaisala a few years ago. VTT has utilised Vaisala's MR prototype for approximately one year for moisture content measurement of different biofuels. The first step in the use of an MR device for moisture determination was the definition of its measurement accuracy compared to the standard method (EN 14774). Those tests proved that the absolute precision seems to be comparable to the standard moisture content measurement method. It was also found out that

  18. Measurements of absolute hadronic branching fractions of $\\Lambda_{c}^{+}$ baryon

    CERN Document Server

    Ablikim, M; Ai, X C; Albayrak, O; Albrecht, M; Ambrose, D J; Amoroso, A; An, F F; An, Q; Bai, J Z; Ferroli, R Baldini; Ban, Y; Bennett, D W; Bennett, J V; Bertani, M; Bettoni, D; Bian, J M; Bianchi, F; Boger, E; Boyko, I; Briere, R A; Cai, H; Cai, X; Cakir, O; Calcaterra, A; Cao, G F; Cetin, S A; Chang, J F; Chelkov, G; Chen, G; Chen, H S; Chen, H Y; Chen, J C; Chen, M L; Chen, S J; Chen, X; Chen, X R; Chen, Y B; Cheng, H P; Chu, X K; Cibinetto, G; Dai, H L; Dai, J P; Dbeyssi, A; Dedovich, D; Deng, Z Y; Denig, A; Denysenko, I; Destefanis, M; De Mori, F; Ding, Y; Dong, C; Dong, J; Dong, L Y; Dong, M Y; Dou, Z L; Du, S X; Duan, P F; Eren, E E; Fan, J Z; Fang, J; Fang, S S; Fang, X; Fang, Y; Farinelli, R; Fava, L; Fedorov, O; Feldbauer, F; Felici, G; Feng, C Q; Fioravanti, E; Fritsch, M; Fu, C D; Gao, Q; Gao, X L; Gao, X Y; Gao, Y; Gao, Z; Garzia, I; Goetzen, K; Gong, L; Gong, W X; Gradl, W; Greco, M; Gu, M H; Gu, Y T; Guan, Y H; Guo, A Q; Guo, L B; Guo, Y; Guo, Y P; Haddadi, Z; Hafner, A; Han, S; Hao, X Q; Harris, F A; He, K L; Held, T; Heng, Y K; Hou, Z L; Hu, C; Hu, H M; Hu, J F; Hu, T; Hu, Y; Huang, G S; Huang, J S; Huang, X T; Huang, Y; Hussain, T; Ji, Q; Ji, Q P; Ji, X B; Ji, X L; Jiang, L W; Jiang, X S; Jiang, X Y; Jiao, J B; Jiao, Z; Jin, D P; Jin, S; Johansson, T; Julin, A; Kalantar-Nayestanaki, N; Kang, X L; Kang, X S; Kavatsyuk, M; Ke, B C; Kiese, P; Kliemt, R; Kloss, B; Kolcu, O B; Kopf, B; Kornicer, M; Kuehn, W; Kupsc, A; Lange, J S; Lara, M; Larin, P; Leng, C; Li, C; Li, Cheng; Li, D M; Li, F; Li, F Y; Li, G; Li, H B; Li, J C; Li, Jin; Li, K; Li, Lei; Li, P R; Li, Q Y; Li, T; Li, W D; Li, W G; Li, X L; Li, X M; Li, X N; Li, X Q; Li, Z B; Liang, H; Liang, Y F; Liang, Y T; Liao, G R; Lin, D X; Liu, B J; Liu, C X; Liu, D; Liu, F H; Liu, Fang; Liu, Feng; Liu, H B; Liu, H H; Liu, H M; Liu, J; Liu, J B; Liu, J P; Liu, J Y; Liu, K; Liu, K Y; Liu, L D; Liu, P L; Liu, Q; Liu, S B; Liu, X; Liu, Y B; Liu, Z A; Liu, Zhiqing; Loehner, H; Lou, X C; Lu, H J; Lu, J G; Lu, Y; Lu, Y P; Luo, C L; Luo, M X; Luo, T; Luo, X L; Lyu, X R; Ma, F C; Ma, H L; Ma, L L; Ma, Q M; Ma, T; Ma, X N; Ma, X Y; Ma, Y M; Maas, F E; Maggiora, M; Mao, Y J; Mao, Z P; Marcello, S; Messchendorp, J G; Min, J; Mitchell, R E; Mo, X H; Mo, Y J; Morales, C Morales; Muchnoi, N Yu; Muramatsu, H; Nefedov, Y; Nerling, F; Nikolaev, I B; Ning, Z; Nisar, S; Niu, S L; Niu, X Y; Olsen, S L; Ouyang, Q; Pacetti, S; Pan, Y; Patteri, P; Pelizaeus, M; Peng, H P; Peters, K; Pettersson, J; Ping, J L; Ping, R G; Poling, R; Prasad, V; Qi, H R; Qi, M; Qian, S; Qiao, C F; Qin, L Q; Qin, N; Qin, X S; Qin, Z H; Qiu, J F; Rashid, K H; Redmer, C F; Ripka, M; Rong, G; Rosner, Ch; Ruan, X D; Santoro, V; Sarantsev, A; Savrié, M; Schoenning, K; Schumann, S; Shan, W; Shao, M; Shen, C P; Shen, P X; Shen, X Y; Sheng, H Y; Song, W M; Song, X Y; Sosio, S; Spataro, S; Sun, G X; Sun, J F; Sun, S S; Sun, Y J; Sun, Y Z; Sun, Z J; Sun, Z T; Tang, C J; Tang, X; Tapan, I; Thorndike, E H; Tiemens, M; Ullrich, M; Uman, I; Varner, G S; Wang, B; Wang, B L; Wang, D; Wang, D Y; Wang, K; Wang, L L; Wang, L S; Wang, M; Wang, P; Wang, P L; Wang, S G; Wang, W; Wang, W P; Wang, X F; Wang, Y D; Wang, Y F; Wang, Y Q; Wang, Z; Wang, Z G; Wang, Z H; Wang, Z Y; Weber, T; Wei, D H; Wei, J B; Weidenkaff, P; Wen, S P; Wiedner, U; Wolke, M; Wu, L H; Wu, Z; Xia, L; Xia, L G; Xia, Y; Xiao, D; Xiao, H; Xiao, Z J; Xie, Y G; Xiu, Q L; Xu, G F; Xu, L; Xu, Q J; Xu, Q N; Xu, X P; Yan, L; Yan, W B; Yan, W C; Yan, Y H; Yang, H J; Yang, H X; Yang, L; Yang, Y X; Ye, M; Ye, M H; Yin, J H; Yu, B X; Yu, C X; Yu, J S; Yuan, C Z; Yuan, W L; Yuan, Y; Yuncu, A; Zafar, A A; Zallo, A; Zeng, Y; Zeng, Z; Zhang, B X; Zhang, B Y; Zhang, C; Zhang, C C; Zhang, D H; Zhang, H H; Zhang, H Y; Zhang, J J; Zhang, J L; Zhang, J Q; Zhang, J W; Zhang, J Y; Zhang, J Z; Zhang, K; Zhang, L; Zhang, X Y; Zhang, Y; Zhang, Y H; Zhang, Y N; Zhang, Y T; Zhang, Yu; Zhang, Z H; Zhang, Z P; Zhang, Z Y; Zhao, G; Zhao, J W; Zhao, J Y; Zhao, J Z; Zhao, Lei; Zhao, Ling; Zhao, M G; Zhao, Q; Zhao, Q W; Zhao, S J; Zhao, T C; Zhao, Y B; Zhao, Z G; Zhemchugov, A; Zheng, B; Zheng, J P; Zheng, W J; Zheng, Y H; Zhong, B; Zhou, L; Zhou, X; Zhou, X K; Zhou, X R; Zhou, X Y; Zhu, K; Zhu, K J; Zhu, S; Zhu, S H; Zhu, X L; Zhu, Y C; Zhu, Y S; Zhu, Z A; Zhuang, J; Zotti, L; Zou, B S; Zou, J H

    2015-01-01

    Using $567\\rm{pb}^{-1}$ of $e^+e^-$ collisions recorded at $\\sqrt{s}=4.599\\rm{GeV}$ with the BESIII detector, we report first measurements of absolute hadronic branching fractions of Cabibbo-favored decays of the $\\Lambda_{c}^{+}$ baryon with a double-tag technique. A global least-square fitter is utilized to improve the measured precision. Among the measurements for twelve $\\Lambda_{c}^{+}$ decay modes, the branching fraction for $\\Lambda_{c}^{+} \\rightarrow pK^-\\pi^+$ is determined to be $(5.84\\pm0.27\\pm0.23)\\%$, where the first uncertainty is statistical and the second is systematic. In addition, the measurements of the branching fractions of the other eleven Cabbibo-favored hadronic decay modes are significantly improved.

  19. Improved Measurement of Absolute Hadronic Branching Fractions of the Ds+ Meson

    CERN Document Server

    Onyisi, P U E; Cinabro, D; Smith, M J; Zhou, P; Naik, P; Rademacker, J; Edwards, K W; Briere, R A; Vogel, H; Rosner, J L; Alexander, J P; Cassel, D G; Das, S; Ehrlich, R; Gibbons, L; Gray, S W; Hartill, D L; Heltsley, B K; Kreinick, D L; Kuznetsov, V E; Patterson, J R; Peterson, D; Riley, D; Ryd, A; Sadoff, A J; Shi, X; Sun, W M; Yelton, J; Rubin, P; Lowrey, N; Mehrabyan, S; Selen, M; Wiss, J; Libby, J; Kornicer, M; Mitchell, R E; Besson, D; Pedlar, T K; Cronin-Hennessy, D; Hietala, J; Dobbs, S; Metreveli, Z; Seth, K K; Tomaradze, A; Xiao, T; Powell, A; Thomas, C; Wilkinson, G; Asner, D M; Tatishvili, G; Ge, J Y; Miller, D H; Shipsey, I P J; Xin, B; Adams, G S; Napolitano, J; Ecklund, K M; Insler, J; Muramatsu, H; Pearson, L J; Thorndike, E H; Artuso, M; Blusk, S; Mountain, R; Skwarnicki, T; Stone, S; Wang, J C; Zhang, L M

    2013-01-01

    The branching fractions of Ds meson decays serve to normalize many measurements of processes involving charm quarks. Using 586 pb^-1 of e+ e- collisions recorded at a center of mass energy of 4.17 GeV, we determine absolute branching fractions for 13 Ds decays in 16 reconstructed final states with a double tag technique. In particular we make a precise measurement of the branching fraction B(Ds -> K- K+ pi+) = (5.55 +- 0.14 +- 0.13)%, where the uncertainties are statistical and systematic respectively. We find a significantly reduced value of B(Ds -> pi+ pi0 eta') compared to the world average, and our results bring the inclusively and exclusively measured values of B(Ds -> eta' X)$ into agreement. We also search for CP-violating asymmetries in Ds decays and measure the cross-section of e+ e- -> Ds* Ds at Ecm = 4.17 GeV.

  20. Absolute Position Measurement in a Gas Time Projection Chamber via Transverse Diffusion of Drift Charge

    CERN Document Server

    Lewis, P M; Hedges, M T; Jaegle, I; Seong, I S; Thorpe, T N

    2014-01-01

    Time Projection Chambers (TPCs) with charge readout via micro pattern gaseous detectors can provide detailed measurements of charge density distributions. We here report on measurements of alpha particle tracks, using a TPC where the drift charge is amplified with Gas Electron Multipliers and detected with a pixel ASIC. We find that by measuring the 3-D topology of drift charge and fitting for its transverse diffusion, we obtain the absolute position of tracks in the drift direction. For example, we obtain a precision of 1~cm for 1~cm-long alpha track segments. To our knowledge this is the first demonstration of such a measurement in a gas TPC. This technique has several attractive features: it does not require knowledge of the initial specific ionization, is robust against bias from diffuse charge below detection threshold, and is also robust against high charge densities that saturate the detector response.

  1. Absolute efficiency measurements with the {sup 10}B based Jalousie detector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Modzel, G., E-mail: modzel@physi.uni-heidelberg [Physikalisches Institut, Universität Heidelberg, Neuenheimer Feld 226, 69120 Heidelberg (Germany); Henske, M. [CDT CASCADE Detector Technologies GmbH, Hans-Bunte-Str. 8–10, 69123 Heidelberg (Germany); Houben, A. [Institute of Inorganic Chemistry, RWTH Aachen University, Landoltweg 1, 52074 Aachen (Germany); Klein, M. [Physikalisches Institut, Universität Heidelberg, Neuenheimer Feld 226, 69120 Heidelberg (Germany); CDT CASCADE Detector Technologies GmbH, Hans-Bunte-Str. 8–10, 69123 Heidelberg (Germany); Köhli, M.; Lennert, P. [Physikalisches Institut, Universität Heidelberg, Neuenheimer Feld 226, 69120 Heidelberg (Germany); Meven, M. [Heinz Maier-Leibnitz Zentrum (MLZ), 85747 Garching (Germany); Forschungszentrum Jülich GmbH, Jülich Centre for Neutron Science (JCNS), Outstation at MLZ, 85747 Garching (Germany); Schmidt, C.J. [CDT CASCADE Detector Technologies GmbH, Hans-Bunte-Str. 8–10, 69123 Heidelberg (Germany); GSI Detector Laboratory, Planckstr. 1, 64291 Darmstadt (Germany); Schmidt, U. [Physikalisches Institut, Universität Heidelberg, Neuenheimer Feld 226, 69120 Heidelberg (Germany); Schweika, W. [Forschungszentrum Jülich GmbH, Jülich Centre for Neutron Science (JCNS), 52425 Jülich (Germany); European Spallation Source ESS AB, SE-22100 Lund (Sweden)

    2014-04-11

    The {sup 10}B based Jalousie detector is a replacement for {sup 3}He counter tubes, which are nowadays less affordable for large area detectors due to the {sup 3}He crisis. In this paper we investigate and verify the performance of the new {sup 10}B based detector concept and its adoption for the POWTEX diffractometer, which is designed for the detection of thermal neutrons with predicted detection efficiencies of 75–50% for neutron energies of 10–100 meV, respectively. The predicted detection efficiency has been verified by absolute measurements using neutrons with a wavelength of 1.17 Å (59 meV)

  2. Long storage times for hyperpolarized 129Xe and precise measurement of its absolute polarization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Repetto, Maricel; Zimmer, Stefan; Karpuk, Sergei; Bluemler, Peter; Heil, Werner [Johannes Gutenberg Universitaet, Institut fuer Physik. Staudingerweg 7 55099, Mainz (Germany)

    2014-07-01

    Applications of hyperpolarized (HP) 129Xe in medical research and fundamental physics experiments increased significantly in recent years. All uses profit from high degrees of polarization (PXe) which not only needs to be generated but also preserved during transport and storage. PXe is usually determined via comparison of the NMR signals from HP Xe with the NMR signal of thermally polarized H2O or Xe. All these procedures have experimental errors which are hard to eliminate. We present a simple method for the measurement of absolute PXe which best resolution is 0.6 % together with wall storage times > 12 hs using a homebuilt, mobile Xe polarizer.

  3. Absolute Measurement of Hadronic Branching Fractions of the D_s^+ Meson

    CERN Document Server

    Alexander, J; Cassel, D G; Duboscq, J E; Ehrlich, R; Fields, L; Gibbons, L; Gray, R; Gray, S W; Hartill, D L; Heltsley, B K; Hertz, D; Jones, C D; Kandaswamy, J; Kreinick, D L; Kuznetsov, V E; Mahlke-Krüger, H; Mohapatra, D; Onyisi, P U E; Patterson, J R; Peterson, D; Riley, D; Ryd, A; Sadoff, A J; Shi, X; Stroiney, S; Sun, W M; Wilksen, T; Athar, S B; Patel, R; Yelton, J; Rubin, P; Eisenstein, B I; Karliner, I; Mehrabyan, S; Lowrey, N; Selen, M; White, E J; Wiss, J; Mitchell, R E; Shepherd, M R; Besson, D; Pedlar, T K; Cronin-Hennessy, D; Gao, K Y; Hietala, J; Kubota, Y; Klein, T; Lang, B W; Poling, R; Scott, A W; Zweber, P; Dobbs, S; Metreveli, Z; Seth, K K; Tomaradze, A G; Libby, J; Powell, A; Wilkinson, G; Ecklund, K M; Love, W; Savinov, V; López, A; Méndez, H; Ramírez, J; Ge, J Y; Miller, D H; Sanghi, B; Shipsey, I P J; Xin, B; Adams, G S; Anderson, M; Cummings, J P; Danko, I; Hu, D; Moziak, B; Napolitano, J; He, Q; Insler, J; Muramatsu, H; Park, C S; Thorndike, E H; Yang, F; Artuso, M; Blusk, S; Khalil, S; Li, J; Mountain, R; Nisar, S; Randrianarivony, K; Sultana, N; Skwarnicki, T; Stone, S; Wang, J C; Zhang, L M; Bonvicini, G; Cinabro, D; Dubrovin, M; Lincoln, A; Rademacker, J; Asner, D M; Edwards, K W; Naik, P; Briere, R A; Ferguson, T; Tatishvili, G; Vogel, H; Watkins, M E; Rosner, J L

    2008-01-01

    The branching fractions of D_s meson decays serve to normalize many measurements of processes involving charm quarks. Using 298 /pb of e+ e- collisions recorded at a center of mass energy of 4.17 GeV, we determine absolute branching fractions for eight D_s decays with a double tag technique. In particular we determine the branching fraction B(D_s -> K- K+ pi+) = (5.50 +- 0.23 +- 0.16)%, where the uncertainties are statistical and systematic respectively. We also provide partial branching fractions for kinematic subsets of the K- K+ pi+ decay mode.

  4. Measurements of the absolute branching fractions of B+/- --> K+/-X(cc).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aubert, B; Barate, R; Boutigny, D; Couderc, F; Karyotakis, Y; Lees, J P; Poireau, V; Tisserand, V; Zghiche, A; Grauges, E; Palano, A; Pappagallo, M; Pompili, A; Chen, J C; Qi, N D; Rong, G; Wang, P; Zhu, Y S; Eigen, G; Ofte, I; Stugu, B; Abrams, G S; Battaglia, M; Breon, A B; Brown, D N; Button-Shafer, J; Cahn, R N; Charles, E; Day, C T; Gill, M S; Gritsan, A V; Groysman, Y; Jacobsen, R G; Kadel, R W; Kadyk, J; Kerth, L T; Kolomensky, Yu G; Kukartsev, G; Lynch, G; Mir, L M; Oddone, P J; Orimoto, T J; Pripstein, M; Roe, N A; Ronan, M T; Wenzel, W A; Barrett, M; Ford, K E; Harrison, T J; Hart, A J; Hawkes, C M; Morgan, S E; Watson, A T; Fritsch, M; Goetzen, K; Held, T; Koch, H; Lewandowski, B; Pelizaeus, M; Peters, K; Schroeder, T; Steinke, M; Boyd, J T; Burke, J P; Chevalier, N; Cottingham, W N; Cuhadar-Donszelmann, T; Fulsom, B G; Hearty, C; Knecht, N S; Mattison, T S; McKenna, J A; Khan, A; Kyberd, P; Saleem, M; Teodorescu, L; Blinov, A E; Blinov, V E; Bukin, A D; Druzhinin, V P; Golubev, V B; Kravchenko, E A; Onuchin, A P; Serednyakov, S I; Skovpen, Yu I; Solodov, E P; Yushkov, A N; Best, D; Bondioli, M; Bruinsma, M; Chao, M; Curry, S; Eschrich, I; Kirkby, D; Lankford, A J; Lund, P; Mandelkern, M; Mommsen, R K; Roethel, W; Stoker, D P; Buchanan, C; Hartfiel, B L; Weinstein, A J R; Foulkes, S D; Gary, J W; Long, O; Shen, B C; Wang, K; Zhang, L; del Re, D; Hadavand, H K; Hill, E J; MacFarlane, D B; Paar, H P; Rahatlou, S; Sharma, V; Berryhill, J W; Campagnari, C; Cunha, A; Dahmes, B; Hong, T M; Mazur, M A; Richman, J D; Verkerke, W; Beck, T W; Eisner, A M; Flacco, C J; Heusch, C A; Kroseberg, J; Lockman, W S; Nesom, G; Schalk, T; Schumm, B A; Seiden, A; Spradlin, P; Williams, D C; Wilson, M G; Albert, J; Chen, E; Dubois-Felsmann, G P; Dvoretskii, A; Hitlin, D G; Minamora, J S; Narsky, I; Piatenko, T; Porter, F C; Ryd, A; Samuel, A; Andreassen, R; Mancinelli, G; Meadows, B T; Sokoloff, M D; Blanc, F; Bloom, P; Chen, S; Ford, W T; Hirschauer, J F; Kreisel, A; Nauenberg, U; Olivas, A; Ruddick, W O; Smith, J G; Ulmer, K A; Wagner, S R; Zhang, J; Chen, A; Eckhart, E A; Soffer, A; Toki, W H; Wilson, R J; Zeng, Q; Altenburg, D; Feltresi, E; Hauke, A; Spaan, B; Brandt, T; Brose, J; Dickopp, M; Klose, V; Lacker, H M; Nogowski, R; Otto, S; Petzold, A; Schubert, J; Schubert, K R; Schwierz, R; Sundermann, J E; Bernard, D; Bonneaud, G R; Grenier, P; Schrenk, S; Thiebaux, Ch; Vasileiadis, G; Verderi, M; Bard, D J; Clark, P J; Gradl, W; Muheim, F; Playfer, S; Xie, Y; Andreotti, M; Azzolini, V; Bettoni, D; Bozzi, C; Calabrese, R; Cibinetto, G; Luppi, E; Negrini, M; Piemontese, L; Anulli, F; Baldini-Ferroli, R; Calcaterra, A; de Sangro, R; Finocchiaro, G; Patteri, P; Peruzzi, I M; Piccolo, M; Zallo, A; Buzzo, A; Capra, R; Contri, R; Lo Vetere, M; Macri, M; Monge, M R; Passaggio, S; Patrignani, C; Robutti, E; Santroni, A; Tosi, S; Brandenburg, G; Chaisanguanthum, K S; Morii, M; Won, E; Wu, J; Dubitzky, R S; Langenegger, U; Marks, J; Schenk, S; Uwer, U; Schott, G; Bhimji, W; Bowerman, D A; Dauncey, P D; Egede, U; Flack, R L; Gaillard, J R; Nash, J A; Nikolich, M B; Vazquez, W Panduro; Chai, X; Charles, M J; Mader, W F; Mallik, U; Mohapatra, A K; Ziegler, V; Cochran, J; Crawley, H B; Eyges, V; Meyer, W T; Prell, S; Rosenberg, E I; Rubin, A E; Yi, J; Arnaud, N; Davier, M; Giroux, X; Grosdidier, G; Höcker, A; Le Diberder, F; Lepeltier, V; Lutz, A M; Oyanguren, A; Petersen, T C; Plaszczynski, S; Rodier, S; Roudeau, P; Schune, M H; Stocchi, A; Wormser, G; Cheng, C H; Lange, D J; Simani, M C; Wright, D M; Bevan, A J; Chavez, C A; Forster, I J; Fry, J R; Gabathuler, E; Gamet, R; George, K A; Hutchcroft, D E; Parry, R J; Payne, D J; Schofield, K C; Touramanis, C; Cormack, C M; Di Lodovico, F; Menges, W; Sacco, R; Brown, C L; Cowan, G; Flaecher, H U; Green, M G; Hopkins, D A; Jackson, P S; McMahon, T R; Ricciardi, S; Salvatore, F; Brown, D; Davis, C L; Allison, J; Barlow, N R; Barlow, R J; Edgar, C L; Hodgkinson, M C; Kelly, M P; Lafferty, G D; Naisbit, M T; Williams, J C; Chen, C; Hulsbergen, W D; Jawahery, A; Kovalskyi, D; Lae, C K; Roberts, D A; Simi, G; Blaylock, G; Dallapiccola, C; Hertzbach, S S; Kofler, R; Koptchev, V B; Li, X; Moore, T B; Saremi, S; Staengle, H; Willocq, S; Cowan, R; Koeneke, K; Sciolla, G; Sekula, S J; Spitznagel, M; Taylor, F; Yamamoto, R K; Kim, H; Patel, P M; Robertson, S H; Lazzaro, A; Lombardo, V; Palombo, F; Bauer, J M; Cremaldi, L; Eschenburg, V; Godang, R; Kroeger, R; Reidy, J; Sanders, D A; Summers, D J; Zhao, H W; Brunet, S; Côté, D; Taras, P; Viaud, B; Nicholson, H; Cavallo, N; De Nardo, G; Fabozzi, F; Gatto, C; Lista, L; Monorchio, D; Paolucci, P; Piccolo, D; Sciacca, C; Baak, M; Bulten, H; Raven, G; Snoek, H L; Wilden, L; Jessop, C P; Losecco, J M; Allmendinger, T; Benelli, G; Gan, K K; Honscheid, K; Hufnagel, D; Jackson, P D; Kagan, H; Kass, R; Pulliam, T; Rahimi, A M; Ter-Antonyan, R; Wong, Q K; Brau, J; Frey, R; Igonkina, O; Lu, M; Potter, C T; Sinev, N B; Strom, D; Strube, J; Torrence, E; Galeazzi, F; Margoni, M; Morandin, M; Posocco, M; Rotondo, M; Simonetto, F; Stroili, R; Voci, C; Benayoun, M; Briand, H; Chauveau, J; David, P; Del Buono, L; de la Vaissière, Ch; Hamon, O; John, M J J; Leruste, Ph; Malclès, J; Ocariz, J; Roos, L; Therin, G; Behera, P K; Gladney, L; Guo, Q H; Panetta, J; Biasini, M; Covarelli, R; Pacetti, S; Pioppi, M; Angelini, C; Batignani, G; Bettarini, S; Bucci, F; Calderini, G; Carpinelli, M; Cenci, R; Forti, F; Giorgi, M A; Lusiani, A; Marchiori, G; Morganti, M; Neri, N; Paoloni, E; Rama, M; Rizzo, G; Walsh, J; Haire, M; Judd, D; Wagoner, D E; Biesiada, J; Danielson, N; Elmer, P; Lau, Y P; Lu, C; Olsen, J; Smith, A J S; Telnov, A V; Bellini, F; Cavoto, G; D'Orazio, A; Marco, E Di; Faccini, R; Ferrarotto, F; Ferroni, F; Gaspero, M; Gioi, L Li; Mazzoni, M A; Morganti, S; Piredda, G; Polci, F; Tehrani, F Safai; Voena, C; Schröder, H; Wagner, G; Waldi, R; Adye, T; De Groot, N; Franek, B; Gopal, G P; Olaiya, E O; Wilson, F F; Aleksan, R; Emery, S; Gaidot, A; Ganzhur, S F; Graziani, G; de Monchenault, G Hamel; Kozanecki, W; Legendre, M; London, G W; Mayer, B; Vasseur, G; Yèche, Ch; Zito, M; Purohit, M V; Weidemann, A W; Wilson, J R; Yumiceva, F X; Abe, T; Allen, M T; Aston, D; Bartoldus, R; Berger, N; Boyarski, A M; Buchmueller, O L; Claus, R; Coleman, J P; Convery, M R; Cristinziani, M; Dingfelder, J C; Dong, D; Dorfan, J; Dujmic, D; Dunwoodie, W; Fan, S; Field, R C; Glanzman, T; Gowdy, S J; Hadig, T; Halyo, V; Hast, C; Hryn'ova, T; Innes, W R; Kelsey, M H; Kim, P; Kocian, M L; Leith, D W G S; Libby, J; Luitz, S; Luth, V; Lynch, H L; Marsiske, H; Messner, R; Muller, D R; O'Grady, C P; Ozcan, V E; Perazzo, A; Perl, M; Ratcliff, B N; Roodman, A; Salnikov, A A; Schindler, R H; Schwiening, J; Snyder, A; Stelzer, J; Su, D; Sullivan, M K; Suzuki, K; Swain, S K; Thompson, J M; Va'vra, J; van Bakel, N; Weaver, M; Wisniewski, W J; Wittgen, M; Wright, D H; Yarritu, A K; Yi, K; Young, C C; Burchat, P R; Edwards, A J; Majewski, S A; Petersen, B A; Roat, C; Ahmed, M; Ahmed, S; Alam, M S; Bula, R; Ernst, J A; Saeed, M A; Wappler, F R; Zain, S B; Bugg, W; Krishnamurthy, M; Spanier, S M; Eckmann, R; Ritchie, J L; Satpathy, A; Schwitters, R F; Izen, J M; Kitayama, I; Lou, X C; Ye, S; Bianchi, F; Bona, M; Gallo, F; Gamba, D; Bomben, M; Bosisio, L; Cartaro, C; Cossutti, F; Della Ricca, G; Dittongo, S; Grancagnolo, S; Lanceri, L; Vitale, L; Martinez-Vidal, F; Panvini, R S; Banerjee, Sw; Bhuyan, B; Brown, C M; Fortin, D; Hamano, K; Kowalewski, R; Roney, J M; Sobie, R J; Back, J J; Harrison, P F; Latham, T E; Mohanty, G B; Band, H R; Chen, X; Cheng, B; Dasu, S; Datta, M; Eichenbaum, A M; Flood, K T; Graham, M; Hollar, J J; Johnson, J R; Kutter, P E; Li, H; Liu, R; Mellado, B; Mihalyi, A; Pan, Y; Pierini, M; Prepost, R; Tan, P; Wu, S L; Yu, Z; Neal, H

    2006-02-10

    We study the two-body decays of B+/- mesons to K+/- and a charmonium state X(cc) in a sample of 210.5 fb(-1) of data from the BABAR experiment. We perform measurements of absolute branching fractions beta(B+/- --> K+/-X(cc)) using a missing mass technique, and report several new or improved results. In particular, the upper limit beta(B+/- --> K+/- X(3872)) 4.2% will help in understanding the nature of the recently discovered X(3872).

  5. Measurement of the absolute branching fraction of D0-->K-pi+.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aubert, B; Bona, M; Boutigny, D; Karyotakis, Y; Lees, J P; Poireau, V; Prudent, X; Tisserand, V; Zghiche, A; Garra Tico, J; Grauges, E; Lopez, L; Palano, A; Eigen, G; Ofte, I; Stugu, B; Sun, L; Abrams, G S; Battaglia, M; Brown, D N; Button-Shafer, J; Cahn, R N; Groysman, Y; Jacobsen, R G; Kadyk, J A; Kerth, L T; Kolomensky, Yu G; Kukartsev, G; Lopes Pegna, D; Lynch, G; Mir, L M; Orimoto, T J; Pripstein, M; Roe, N A; Ronan, M T; Tackmann, K; Wenzel, W A; Del Amo Sanchez, P; Hawkes, C M; Watson, A T; Held, T; Koch, H; Lewandowski, B; Pelizaeus, M; Schroeder, T; Steinke, M; Cottingham, W N; Walker, D; Asgeirsson, D J; Cuhadar-Donszelmann, T; Fulsom, B G; Hearty, C; Knecht, N S; Mattison, T S; McKenna, J A; Khan, A; Saleem, M; Teodorescu, L; Blinov, V E; Bukin, A D; Druzhinin, V P; Golubev, V B; Onuchin, A P; Serednyakov, S I; Skovpen, Yu I; Solodov, E P; Todyshev, K Yu; Bondioli, M; Curry, S; Eschrich, I; Kirkby, D; Lankford, A J; Lund, P; Mandelkern, M; Martin, E C; Stoker, D P; Abachi, S; Buchanan, C; Foulkes, S D; Gary, J W; Liu, F; Long, O; Shen, B C; Zhang, L; Paar, H P; Rahatlou, S; Sharma, V; Berryhill, J W; Campagnari, C; Cunha, A; Dahmes, B; Hong, T M; Kovalskyi, D; Richman, J D; Beck, T W; Eisner, A M; Flacco, C J; Heusch, C A; Kroseberg, J; Lockman, W S; Schalk, T; Schumm, B A; Seiden, A; Williams, D C; Wilson, M G; Winstrom, L O; Chen, E; Cheng, C H; Dvoretskii, A; Fang, F; Hitlin, D G; Narsky, I; Piatenko, T; Porter, F C; Mancinelli, G; Meadows, B T; Mishra, K; Sokoloff, M D; Blanc, F; Bloom, P C; Chen, S; Ford, W T; Hirschauer, J F; Kreisel, A; Nagel, M; Nauenberg, U; Olivas, A; Smith, J G; Ulmer, K A; Wagner, S R; Zhang, J; Gabareen, A M; Soffer, A; Toki, W H; Wilson, R J; Winklmeier, F; Zeng, Q; Altenburg, D D; Feltresi, E; Hauke, A; Jasper, H; Merkel, J; Petzold, A; Spaan, B; Wacker, K; Brandt, T; Klose, V; Lacker, H M; Mader, W F; Nogowski, R; Schubert, J; Schubert, K R; Schwierz, R; Sundermann, J E; Volk, A; Bernard, D; Bonneaud, G R; Latour, E; Lombardo, V; Thiebaux, Ch; Verderi, M; Clark, P J; Gradl, W; Muheim, F; Playfer, S; Robertson, A I; Xie, Y; Andreotti, M; Bettoni, D; Bozzi, C; Calabrese, R; Cecchi, A; Cibinetto, G; Franchini, P; Luppi, E; Negrini, M; Petrella, A; Piemontese, L; Prencipe, E; Santoro, V; Anulli, F; Baldini-Ferroli, R; Calcaterra, A; de Sangro, R; Finocchiaro, G; Pacetti, S; Patteri, P; Peruzzi, I M; Piccolo, M; Rama, M; Zallo, A; Buzzo, A; Contri, R; Lo Vetere, M; Macri, M M; Monge, M R; Passaggio, S; Patrignani, C; Robutti, E; Santroni, A; Tosi, S; Chaisanguanthum, K S; Morii, M; Wu, J; Dubitzky, R S; Marks, J; Schenk, S; Uwer, U; Bard, D J; Dauncey, P D; Flack, R L; Nash, J A; Nikolich, M B; Panduro Vazquez, W; Behera, P K; Chai, X; Charles, M J; Mallik, U; Meyer, N T; Ziegler, V; Cochran, J; Crawley, H B; Dong, L; Eyges, V; Meyer, W T; Prell, S; Rosenberg, E I; Rubin, A E; Gritsan, A V; Guo, Z J; Lae, C K; Denig, A G; Fritsch, M; Schott, G; Arnaud, N; Béquilleux, J; Davier, M; Grosdidier, G; Höcker, A; Lepeltier, V; Le Diberder, F; Lutz, A M; Pruvot, S; Rodier, S; Roudeau, P; Schune, M H; Serrano, J; Sordini, V; Stocchi, A; Wang, W F; Wormser, G; Lange, D J; Wright, D M; Chavez, C A; Forster, I J; Fry, J R; Gabathuler, E; Gamet, R; Hutchcroft, D E; Payne, D J; Schofield, K C; Touramanis, C; Bevan, A J; George, K A; Di Lodovico, F; Menges, W; Sacco, R; Cowan, G; Flaecher, H U; Hopkins, D A; Jackson, P S; McMahon, T R; Salvatore, F; Wren, A C; Brown, D N; Davis, C L; Allison, J; Barlow, N R; Barlow, R J; Chia, Y M; Edgar, C L; Lafferty, G D; West, T J; Yi, J I; Anderson, J; Chen, C; Jawahery, A; Roberts, D A; Simi, G; Tuggle, J M; Blaylock, G; Dallapiccola, C; Hertzbach, S S; Li, X; Moore, T B; Salvati, E; Saremi, S; Cowan, R; Fisher, P H; Sciolla, G; Sekula, S J; Spitznagel, M; Taylor, F; Yamamoto, R K; McLachlin, S E; Patel, P M; Robertson, S H; Lazzaro, A; Palombo, F; Bauer, J M; Cremaldi, L; Eschenburg, V; Godang, R; Kroeger, R; Sanders, D A; Summers, D J; Zhao, H W; Brunet, S; Côté, D; Simard, M; Taras, P; Viaud, F B; Nicholson, H; De Nardo, G; Fabozzi, F; Lista, L; Monorchio, D; Sciacca, C; Baak, M A; Raven, G; Snoek, H L; Jessop, C P; Losecco, J M; Benelli, G; Corwin, L A; Gan, K K; Honscheid, K; Hufnagel, D; Kagan, H; Kass, R; Morris, J P; Rahimi, A M; Regensburger, J J; Ter-Antonyan, R; Wong, Q K; Blount, N L; Brau, J; Frey, R; Igonkina, O; Kolb, J A; Lu, M; Rahmat, R; Sinev, N B; Strom, D; Strube, J; Torrence, E; Gagliardi, N; Gaz, A; Margoni, M; Morandin, M; Pompili, A; Posocco, M; Rotondo, M; Simonetto, F; Stroili, R; Voci, C; Ben-Haim, E; Briand, H; Chauveau, J; David, P; Del Buono, L; de la Vaissière, Ch; Hamon, O; Hartfiel, B L; Leruste, Ph; Malclès, J; Ocariz, J; Perez, A; Gladney, L; Biasini, M; Covarelli, R; Manoni, E; Angelini, C; Batignani, G; Bettarini, S; Calderini, G; Carpinelli, M; Cenci, R; Cervelli, A; Forti, F; Giorgi, M A; Lusiani, A; Marchiori, G; Mazur, M A; Morganti, M; Neri, N; Paoloni, E; Rizzo, G; Walsh, J J; Haire, M; Biesiada, J; Elmer, P; Lau, Y P; Lu, C; Olsen, J; Smith, A J S; Telnov, A V; Baracchini, E; Bellini, F; Cavoto, G; D'Orazio, A; Del Re, D; Di Marco, E; Faccini, R; Ferrarotto, F; Ferroni, F; Gaspero, M; Jackson, P D; Li Gioi, L; Mazzoni, M A; Morganti, S; Piredda, G; Polci, F; Renga, F; Voena, C; Ebert, M; Schröder, H; Waldi, R; Adye, T; Castelli, G; Franek, B; Olaiya, E O; Ricciardi, S; Roethel, W; Wilson, F F; Aleksan, R; Emery, S; Escalier, M; Gaidot, A; Ganzhur, S F; de Monchenault, G Hamel; Kozanecki, W; Legendre, M; Vasseur, G; Yèche, Ch; Zito, M; Chen, X R; Liu, H; Park, W; Purohit, M V; Wilson, J R; Allen, M T; Aston, D; Bartoldus, R; Bechtle, P; Berger, N; Claus, R; Coleman, J P; Convery, M R; Dingfelder, J C; Dorfan, J; Dubois-Felsmann, G P; Dujmic, D; Dunwoodie, W; Field, R C; Glanzman, T; Gowdy, S J; Graham, M T; Grenier, P; Hast, C; Hryn'ova, T; Innes, W R; Kelsey, M H; Kim, H; Kim, P; Leith, D W G S; Li, S; Luitz, S; Luth, V; Lynch, H L; Macfarlane, D B; Marsiske, H; Messner, R; Muller, D R; O'Grady, C P; Perazzo, A; Perl, M; Pulliam, T; Ratcliff, B N; Roodman, A; Salnikov, A A; Schindler, R H; Schwiening, J; Snyder, A; Stelzer, J; Su, D; Sullivan, M K; Suzuki, K; Swain, S K; Thompson, J M; Va'vra, J; van Bakel, N; Wagner, A P; Weaver, M; Wisniewski, W J; Wittgen, M; Wright, D H; Yarritu, A K; Yi, K; Young, C C; Burchat, P R; Edwards, A J; Majewski, S A; Petersen, B A; Wilden, L; Ahmed, S; Alam, M S; Bula, R; Ernst, J A; Jain, V; Pan, B; Saeed, M A; Wappler, F R; Zain, S B; Bugg, W; Krishnamurthy, M; Spanier, S M; Eckmann, R; Ritchie, J L; Ruland, A M; Schilling, C J; Schwitters, R F; Izen, J M; Lou, X C; Ye, S; Bianchi, F; Gallo, F; Gamba, D; Pelliccioni, M; Bomben, M; Bosisio, L; Cartaro, C; Cossutti, F; Della Ricca, G; Lanceri, L; Vitale, L; Azzolini, V; Lopez-March, N; Martinez-Vidal, F; Milanes, D A; Oyanguren, A; Albert, J; Banerjee, Sw; Bhuyan, B; Hamano, K; Kowalewski, R; Nugent, I M; Roney, J M; Sobie, R J; Back, J J; Harrison, P F; Latham, T E; Mohanty, G B; Pappagallo, M; Band, H R; Chen, X; Dasu, S; Flood, K T; Hollar, J J; Kutter, P E; Pan, Y; Pierini, M; Prepost, R; Wu, S L; Yu, Z; Neal, H

    2008-02-08

    We measure the absolute branching fraction for D(0)-->K(-)pi(+) using partial reconstruction of B(0)-->D(*+)Xl(-)nu(l) decays, in which only the charged lepton and the pion from the decay D(*+)-->D(0)pi(+) are used. Based on a data sample of 230 x 10(6) BB pairs collected at the Upsilon(4S) resonance with the BABAR detector at the PEP-II asymmetric-energy B factory at SLAC, we obtain B(D(0)-->K(-)pi(+)) = (4.007+/-0.037+/-0.072)%, where the first uncertainty is statistical and the second is systematic.

  6. Highly accurate fiber transfer delay measurement with large dynamic range

    CERN Document Server

    Dong, J W; Gao, C; Guo, Y C; Wang, L J

    2015-01-01

    A novel and efficient method for fiber transfer delay measurement is demonstrated. Fiber transfer delay measurement in time domain is converted into the frequency measurement of the modulation signal in frequency domain, accompany with a coarse and easy ambiguity resolving process. This method achieves a sub-picosecond resolution, with an accuracy of 1 picosecond, and a large dynamic range up to 50 km as well as no measurement dead zone.

  7. Length measurement in absolute scale via low-dispersion optical cavity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pravdova, Lenka; Lesundak, Adam; Smid, Radek; Hrabina, Jan; Rerucha, Simon; Cip, Ondrej

    2016-12-01

    We report on the length measuring instrument with the absolute scale that was based on the combination of an optical frequency comb and a passive optical cavity. The time spacing of short femtosecond pulses, generated by the optical frequency comb, is optically phase locked onto the cavity free spectral range with a derivative spectroscopy technique so that the value of the repetition frequency of the femtosecond laser is tied to and determines the measured displacement. The instantaneous value of the femtosecond pulse train frequency is counted by a frequency counter. This counted value corresponds to the length given by the spacing between the two mirrors of the passive cavity. The phase lock between the femtosecond pulsed beam and the passive cavity is possible due to the low-dispersion of the cavity mirrors, where the silver coating on the mirrors was used to provide the low dispersion for the broadband radiation of the comb. Every reflection on the output mirror feeds a portion of the beam back to the cavity so that the output beam is a result of multiple interfering components. The parameters of the output beam are given not only by the parameters of the mirrors but mainly by the absolute distance between the mirror surfaces. Thus, one cavity mirror can be considered as the reference starting point of the distance to be measured and the other mirror is the measuring probe surveying the unknown distance. The measuring mirror of the experimental setup of the low-dispersion cavity is mounted on a piezoelectric actuator which provides small changes in the cavity length we used to test the length measurement method. For the verification of the measurement accuracy a reference incremental interferometer was integrated into our system so that the displacement of the piezoelectric actuator could be obtained with both measuring methods simultaneously.

  8. Utilization of coincidence criteria in absolute length measurements by optical interferometry in vacuum and air

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schödel, R.

    2015-08-01

    Traceability of length measurements to the international system of units (SI) can be realized by using optical interferometry making use of well-known frequencies of monochromatic light sources mentioned in the Mise en Pratique for the realization of the metre. At some national metrology institutes, such as Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt (PTB) in Germany, the absolute length of prismatic bodies (e.g. gauge blocks) is realized by so-called gauge-block interference comparators. At PTB, a number of such imaging phase-stepping interference comparators exist, including specialized vacuum interference comparators, each equipped with three highly stabilized laser light sources. The length of a material measure is expressed as a multiple of each wavelength. The large number of integer interference orders can be extracted by the method of exact fractions in which the coincidence of the lengths resulting from the different wavelengths is utilized as a criterion. The unambiguous extraction of the integer interference orders is an essential prerequisite for correct length measurements. This paper critically discusses coincidence criteria and their validity for three modes of absolute length measurements: 1) measurements under vacuum in which the wavelengths can be identified with the vacuum wavelengths, 2) measurements under air in which the air refractive index is obtained from environmental parameters using an empirical equation, and 3) measurements under air in which the air refractive index is obtained interferometrically by utilizing a vacuum cell placed along the measurement pathway. For case 3), which corresponds to PTB’s Kösters-Comparator for long gauge blocks, the unambiguous determination of integer interference orders related to the air refractive index could be improved by about a factor of ten when an ‘overall dispersion value,’ suggested in this paper, is used as coincidence criterion.

  9. A Model for Converting Solid State Fermentation Growth Profiles Between Absolute and Relative Measurement Bases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Graciele Viccini

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available A mathematical model is developed for converting between the two measurement bases commonly used in the construction of growth profiles in solid-state fermentation, namely absolute mass ratio m(dry biomass/m(initial dry matter and relative mass ratio m(dry biomass/m(dry matter. These are not equivalent, due to the loss of dry matter as CO2 during the fermentation. The model is equally applicable to any biomass component used in indirect measurements of growth, such as protein. Use of the model to convert absolute mass ratio of the biomass profiles for the growth of Rhizopus oligosporus to a relative basis gave profiles that agreed well with the experimentally determined relative biomass profiles. This agreement was obtained for three different fermentations using the same set of parameter values in the model, namely a yield coefficient of m(protein/m(dry substrate = 0.2 g/g and a maintenance coefficient of zero, giving confidence in the reliability of the model. The model was then used to show that the measurement basis used can affect the form of the curve and therefore can also affect the conclusion drawn about the type of kinetics shown by the organism, with the extent of this effect depending on the length of time that growth occurs and the values of the yield and maintenance coefficients. This work shows that great care must be taken in drawing conclusions about growth kinetics in solid-state fermentation.

  10. Absolute Hugoniot measurements for CH foams in the 1.5-8 Mbar range

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aglitskiy, Y.; Velikovich, A. L.; Schmitt, A. J.; Karasik, M.; Serlin, V.; Weaver, J. L.; Oh, J.; Obenschain, S. P.

    2016-10-01

    We report the absolute Hugoniot measurements for dry CH foams at 10% of solid polystyrene density. The 400 μm thick, 500 μm wide planar foam slabs covered with a 10 μm solid plastic ablator were driven with 4 ns long Nike KrF laser pulses whose intensity was varied between 10 and 50 TW/cm2. The trajectories of the shock front and the ablative piston, as well as the rarefaction fan emerging after the shock breakout from the rear surface of the target were clearly observed using the side-on monochromatic x-ray imaging radiography. From these measurements the shock density compression ratio and the shock pressure are evaluated directly. The observed compression ratios varied between 4 and 8, and the corresponding shock pressures - between 1.5 and 8 Mbar. The data was simulated with the FASTRAD3D hydrocode, using standard models of inverse bremsstrahlung absorption, flux-limited thermal conduction, and multi-group radiation diffusion. The demonstrated diagnostics technique applied in a cryo experiment would make it possible to make the first absolute Hugoniot measurements for liquid deuterium or DT-wetted CH foams, which is relevant for designing the wetted-foam indirect-drive ignition targets for NIF. This work was supported by the US DOE/NNSA.

  11. ACCURATE MEASUREMENT OF ROTA-RY MACHINE AXIS CENTER TRACE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    Four methods aiming at measuring rotary machine axis center trace are discussed in detail.The comparative analysis is made on some aspects such as measurement accuracy, on-machine characteristics, feasibility, practical operation convenience and the integrity of measurement information.In order to simplify measurement, the axis profile error is ignored in traditional condition, while the measurement accuracy will be reduced.The 3-point method that the axis profile error is firstly separated has better real time character, at the same time, not only the axis motion error but also the axis profile error can be measured.All of those information can be used to diagnose the fault origin.The analysis result is proved to be correct by the experiment.

  12. TU-A-12A-09: Absolute Blood Flow Measurement in a Cardiac Phantom Using Low Dose CT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ziemer, B; Hubbard, L; Lipinski, J; Molloi, S [University of California, Irvine, CA (United States)

    2014-06-15

    Purpose: To investigate a first pass analysis technique to measure absolute flow from low dose CT images in a cardiac phantom. This technique can be combined with a myocardial mass assignment to yield absolute perfusion using only two volume scans and reduce the radiation dose to the patient. Methods: A four-chamber cardiac phantom and perfusion chamber were constructed from poly-acrylic and connected with tubing to approximate anatomical features. The system was connected to a pulsatile pump, input/output reservoirs and power contrast injector. Flow was varied in the range of 1-2.67 mL/s with the pump operating at 60 beats/min. The system was imaged once a second for 14 seconds with a 320-row scanner (Toshiba Medical Systems) using a contrast-enhanced, prospective-gated cardiac perfusion protocol. Flow was calculated by the following steps: subsequent images of the perfusion volume were subtracted to find the contrast entering the volume; this was normalized by an upstream, known volume region to convert Hounsfield (HU) values to concentration; this was divided by the subtracted images time difference. The technique requires a relatively stable input contrast concentration and no contrast can leave the perfusion volume before the flow measurement is completed. Results: The flow calculated from the images showed an excellent correlation with the known rates. The data was fit to a linear function with slope 1.03, intercept 0.02 and an R{sup 2} value of 0.99. The average root mean square (RMS) error was 0.15 mL/s and the average standard deviation was 0.14 mL/s. The flow rate was stable within 7.7% across the full scan and served to validate model assumptions. Conclusion: Accurate, absolute flow rates were measured from CT images using a conservation of mass model. Measurements can be made using two volume scans which can substantially reduce the radiation dose compared with current dynamic perfusion techniques.

  13. Accurate micro Hall effect measurements on scribe line pads

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Østerberg, Frederik Westergaard; Petersen, Dirch Hjorth; Wang, Fei;

    2009-01-01

    Hall mobility and sheet carrier density are important parameters to monitor in advanced semiconductor production. If micro Hall effect measurements are done on small pads in scribe lines, these parameters may be measured without using valuable test wafers. We report how Hall mobility can...... be extracted from micro four-point measurements performed on a rectangular pad. The dimension of the investigated pad is 400 × 430 ¿m2, and the probe pitches range from 20 ¿m to 50 ¿m. The Monte Carlo method is used to find the optimal way to perform the Hall measurement and extract Hall mobility most...

  14. Spherical near-field antenna measurements — The most accurate antenna measurement technique

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Breinbjerg, Olav

    2016-01-01

    The spherical near-field antenna measurement technique combines several advantages and generally constitutes the most accurate technique for experimental characterization of radiation from antennas. This paper/presentation discusses these advantages, briefly reviews the early history and present...... status, and addresses future challenges for spherical near-field antenna measurements; in particular, from the viewpoint of the DTU-ESA Spherical Near-Field Antenna Test Facility....

  15. Calibration of Fourier domain short coherence interferometer for absolute distance measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montonen, R; Kassamakov, I; Hæggström, E; Österberg, K

    2015-05-20

    We calibrated and determined the measurement uncertainty of a custom-made Fourier domain short coherence interferometer operated in laboratory conditions. We compared the optical thickness of two thickness standards and three coverslips determined with our interferometer to the geometric thickness determined by SEM. Using this calibration data, we derived a calibration function with a 95% confidence level system uncertainty of (5.9×10(-3)r+2.3)  μm, where r is the optical distance in μm, across the 240 μm optical measurement range. The confidence limit includes contributions from uncertainties in the optical thickness, geometric thickness, and refractive index measurements as well as uncertainties arising from cosine errors and thermal expansion. The results show feasibility for noncontacting absolute distance characterization with micrometer-level accuracy. This instrument is intended for verifying the alignment of the discs of an accelerating structure in the possible future compact linear collider.

  16. Problems with Accurate Atomic Lfetime Measurements of Multiply Charged Ions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trabert, E

    2009-02-19

    A number of recent atomic lifetime measurements on multiply charged ions have reported uncertainties lower than 1%. Such a level of accuracy challenges theory, which is a good thing. However, a few lessons learned from earlier precision lifetime measurements on atoms and singly charged ions suggest to remain cautious about the systematic errors of experimental techniques.

  17. A new method and instrument for accurately measuring interval between ultrashort pulses

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhonggang Ji; Yuxin Leng; Yunpei Deng; Bin Tang; Haihe Lu; Ruxin Li; Zhizhan Xu

    2005-01-01

    @@ Using second-order autocorrelation conception, a novel method and instrument for accurately measuring interval between two linearly polarized ultrashort pulses with real time were presented. The experiment demonstrated that the measuring method and instrument were simple and accurate (the measurement error < 5 fs). During measuring, there was no moving element resulting in dynamic measurement error.

  18. An absolute radon 222 activity measurement system at LNE-LNHB.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabot, B; Pierre, S; Cassette, P

    2016-12-01

    A good metrological traceability of radon and progenies is necessary to accurately measure the radon concentration. In 1995, at the LNE-LNHB, J.L. Picolo developed a reference method using a defined-solid-angle (DSA) alpha spectrometer to measure a frozen radon source. With this method it was possible to measure radon standards with a relative standard uncertainty of 0.5%. This paper presents the design and the characterization of a new upgraded measurement system; all parameters and their uncertainties are discussed. This new system allows the measurement of radon sources from 100Bq to 4MBq with a relative standard uncertainty of 0.3%.

  19. Relative and absolute reliability of measures of linoleic acid-derived oxylipins in human plasma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gouveia-Figueira, Sandra; Bosson, Jenny A; Unosson, Jon; Behndig, Annelie F; Nording, Malin L; Fowler, Christopher J

    2015-09-01

    Modern analytical techniques allow for the measurement of oxylipins derived from linoleic acid in biological samples. Most validatory work has concerned extraction techniques, repeated analysis of aliquots from the same biological sample, and the influence of external factors such as diet and heparin treatment upon their levels, whereas less is known about the relative and absolute reliability of measurements undertaken on different days. A cohort of nineteen healthy males were used, where samples were taken at the same time of day on two occasions, at least 7 days apart. Relative reliability was assessed using Lin's concordance correlation coefficients (CCC) and intraclass correlation coefficients (ICC). Absolute reliability was assessed by Bland-Altman analyses. Nine linoleic acid oxylipins were investigated. ICC and CCC values ranged from acceptable (0.56 [13-HODE]) to poor (near zero [9(10)- and 12(13)-EpOME]). Bland-Altman limits of agreement were in general quite wide, ranging from ±0.5 (12,13-DiHOME) to ±2 (9(10)-EpOME; log10 scale). It is concluded that relative reliability of linoleic acid-derived oxylipins varies between lipids with compounds such as the HODEs showing better relative reliability than compounds such as the EpOMEs. These differences should be kept in mind when designing and interpreting experiments correlating plasma levels of these lipids with factors such as age, body mass index, rating scales etc.

  20. The new IMGC-02 transportable absolute gravimeter: measurement apparatus and applications in geophysics and volcanology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. D’errico

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available The research carried out at the Istituto Nazionale di Ricerca Metrologica (formerly Istituto di Metrologia «G. Colonnetti» aiming to develop a transportable ballistic absolute gravimeter ended with a new version of the instrument, called the IMGC-02. It uses laser interferometry to measure the symmetrical free rising and falling motion of a test mass in the gravity field. Providing the same accuracy achieved with previous versions, the instrumental improvements mainly concern size, weight, data processing algorithms and operational simplicity. An uncertainty of 9 ?Gal (1 ?Gal=1×10–8 m·s?2 can be achieved within a single observation session, lasting about 12 h, while the time series of several observation sessions show a reproducibility of 4 ?Gal. At this level, gravity measurements provide useful information in Geophysics and Volcanology. A wide set of dynamic phenomena, i.e. seismicity and volcanic activity, can produce temporal gravity changes, often quite small, with an amplitude ranging from a few to hundreds of microgals. Therefore the IMGC absolute gravimeter has been employed since 1986 in surveying the Italian active volcanoes. A brief history of the gravimeter and the description of the new apparatus, together with the main results of ongoing applications in Geophysics and Volcanology are presented.

  1. Apparatus designed for very accurate measurement of the optical reflection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piombini, Hervé; Voarino, Philippe

    2007-12-20

    The described instrument is a new reflectometer designed to check the normal specular reflectance of 40,000 reflectors necessary for the Laser Megajoule (LMJ). This new reflectometer has a high accuracy over the 400-950 nm wavelength range and allows the delicate measurement of shaped parts. The measurements are relative and several reference mirrors, which are low loss dielectric mirrors [R(lambda)>99.9%], are used for the standardization. The apparatus gives an excellent repeatability (spectrophotometers, our facility and its components are described. The methodology of focusing and calibration are explained. The capabilities of our device are illustrated through some measurements realized on flat or shaped samples.

  2. Accurate measurement of curvilinear shapes by Virtual Image Correlation

    OpenAIRE

    Semin, B; Auradou, H.; François, M.L.M.

    2011-01-01

    Abstract The proposed method allows the detection and the measurement, in the sense of metrology, of smooth elongated curvilinear shapes. Such measurements are required in many fields of physics, for example: mechanical engineering, biology or medicine (deflection of beams, fibers or filaments), fluid mechanics or chemistry (detection of fronts). Contrary to actual methods, the result is given in an analytical form of class C? (and not a finite set of locations or pixels) thus curv...

  3. Accurate antenna reflector loss measurements for radiometer calibration budget

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skou, Niels

    1996-01-01

    Antenna reflector losses may play an important role in the calibration budget for a microwave radiometer. If the losses are small they are difficult to measure by traditional means. However, they can be assessed directly by radiometric means using the sky brightness temperature as incident radiat...... radiation. The paper describes how such measurements are carried out as well as a suitable experimental set-up. The main reflector of the European Space Agency's MIMR system is used to demonstrate the principle...

  4. Visual texture accurate material appearance measurement, representation and modeling

    CERN Document Server

    Haindl, Michal

    2013-01-01

    This book surveys the state of the art in multidimensional, physically-correct visual texture modeling. Features: reviews the entire process of texture synthesis, including material appearance representation, measurement, analysis, compression, modeling, editing, visualization, and perceptual evaluation; explains the derivation of the most common representations of visual texture, discussing their properties, advantages, and limitations; describes a range of techniques for the measurement of visual texture, including BRDF, SVBRDF, BTF and BSSRDF; investigates the visualization of textural info

  5. Absolute choline concentration measured by quantitative proton MR spectroscopy correlates with cell density in meningioma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yue, Qiang [University of Tsukuba, Department of Neurosurgery, Institute of Clinical Medicine, Tsukuba Science City, Ibaraki (Japan)]|[West China Hospital of Sichuan University, Huaxi MR Research Center, Department of Radiology, Chengdu (China); Shibata, Yasushi; Kawamura, Hiraku; Matsumura, Akira [University of Tsukuba, Department of Neurosurgery, Institute of Clinical Medicine, Tsukuba Science City, Ibaraki (Japan); Isobe, Tomonori [Kitasato University, Department of Medical Technology, School of Allied Health Sciences, Minato, Tokyo (Japan); Anno, Izumi [University of Tsukuba, Department of Radiology, Institute of Clinical Medicine, Tsukuba, Ibaraki (Japan); Gong, Qi-Yong [West China Hospital of Sichuan University, Huaxi MR Research Center, Department of Radiology, Chengdu (China)]|[University of Liverpool, Division of Medical Imaging, Faculty of Medicine, Liverpool (United Kingdom)

    2009-01-15

    This study was aimed to investigate the relationship between quantitative proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy (1H-MRS) and pathological changes in meningioma. Twenty-two meningioma cases underwent single voxel 1H-MRS (point-resolved spectroscopy sequence, repetition time/echo time = 2,000 ms/68, 136, 272 ms). Absolute choline (Cho) concentration was calculated using tissue water as the internal reference and corrected according to intra-voxel cystic/necrotic parts. Pathological specimens were stained with MIB-1 antibody to measure cell density and proliferation index. Correlation analysis was performed between absolute Cho concentration and cell density and MIB-1 labeled proliferation index. Average Cho concentration of all meningiomas before correction was 2.95 {+-} 0.86 mmol/kg wet weight. It was increased to 3.23 {+-} 1.15 mmol/kg wet weight after correction. Average cell density of all meningiomas was 333 {+-} 119 cells/HPF, and average proliferation index was 2.93 {+-} 5.72%. A linear, positive correlation between cell density and Cho concentration was observed (r = 0.650, P = 0.001). After correction of Cho concentration, the correlation became more significant (r = 0.737, P < 0.001). However, no significant correlation between Cho concentration and proliferation index was found. There seemed to be a positive correlation trend after correction of Cho concentration but did not reach significant level. Absolute Cho concentration, especially Cho concentration corrected according to intra-voxel cystic/necrotic parts, reflects cell density of meningioma. (orig.)

  6. Accurate laser measurements of ozone absorption cross-sections in the Hartley band

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Viallon

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Ozone plays a crucial role in tropospheric chemistry, is the third largest contributor to greenhouse radiative forcing after carbon dioxide and methane and also a toxic air pollutant affecting human health and agriculture. Long-term measurements of tropospheric ozone have been performed globally for more than 30 years with UV photometers, all relying on the absorption of ozone at the 253.65 nm line of mercury. We have re-determined this cross-section and report a value of 11.27 × 10−18 cm2 molecule−1 with an expanded relative uncertainty of 0.84 %. This is lower than the conventional value currently in use and measured by Hearn in 1961 with a relative difference of 1.8%, with the consequence that historically reported ozone concentrations should be increased by 1.8%. In order to perform the new measurements of cross sections with reduced uncertainties, a system to generate pure ozone in the gas phase together with an optical system based on a UV laser with lines in the Hartley band, including accurate path length measurement of the absorption cell and a careful evaluation of possible impurities in the ozone sample by mass spectrometry and Fourier Transform Infrared spectroscopy was setup. This resulted in new measurements of absolute values of ozone absorption cross sections of 9.48 × 10−18, 10.44 × 10−18, and 11.07 × 10−18 cm2 molecule−1, with relative expanded uncertainties better than 0.6%, for the wavelengths (in vacuum of 244.062, 248.32, and 257.34 nm respectively. The cross-section at the 253.65 nm line of mercury was determined by comparisons using a Standard Reference Photometer equipped with a mercury lamp as the light source. The newly reported value should be used in the future to obtain the most accurate measurements of ozone concentration, which are in closer agreement with non UV photometry based methods such as the gas phase titration of ozone with nitrogen monoxide.

  7. Accurate measurements of ozone absorption cross-sections in the Hartley band

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viallon, J.; Lee, S.; Moussay, P.; Tworek, K.; Petersen, M.; Wielgosz, R. I.

    2015-03-01

    Ozone plays a crucial role in tropospheric chemistry, is the third largest contributor to greenhouse radiative forcing after carbon dioxide and methane and also a toxic air pollutant affecting human health and agriculture. Long-term measurements of tropospheric ozone have been performed globally for more than 30 years with UV photometers, all relying on the absorption of ozone at the 253.65 nm line of mercury. We have re-determined this cross-section and report a value of 11.27 x 10-18 cm2 molecule-1 with an expanded relative uncertainty of 0.86% (coverage factor k= 2). This is lower than the conventional value currently in use and measured by Hearn (1961) with a relative difference of 1.8%, with the consequence that historically reported ozone concentrations should be increased by 1.8%. In order to perform the new measurements of cross-sections with reduced uncertainties, a system was set up to generate pure ozone in the gas phase together with an optical system based on a UV laser with lines in the Hartley band, including accurate path length measurement of the absorption cell and a careful evaluation of possible impurities in the ozone sample by mass spectrometry and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. This resulted in new measurements of absolute values of ozone absorption cross-sections of 9.48 x 10-18, 10.44 x 10-18 and 11.07 x 10-18 cm2 molecule-1, with relative expanded uncertainties better than 0.7%, for the wavelengths (in vacuum) of 244.06, 248.32, and 257.34 nm respectively. The cross-section at the 253.65 nm line of mercury was determined by comparisons using a Standard Reference Photometer equipped with a mercury lamp as the light source. The newly reported value should be used in the future to obtain the most accurate measurements of ozone concentration, which are in closer agreement with non-UV-photometry based methods such as the gas phase titration of ozone with nitrogen monoxide.

  8. Accurate laser measurements of ozone absorption cross-sections in the Hartley band

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viallon, J.; Lee, S.; Moussay, P.; Tworek, K.; Petersen, M.; Wielgosz, R. I.

    2014-08-01

    Ozone plays a crucial role in tropospheric chemistry, is the third largest contributor to greenhouse radiative forcing after carbon dioxide and methane and also a toxic air pollutant affecting human health and agriculture. Long-term measurements of tropospheric ozone have been performed globally for more than 30 years with UV photometers, all relying on the absorption of ozone at the 253.65 nm line of mercury. We have re-determined this cross-section and report a value of 11.27 × 10-18 cm2 molecule-1 with an expanded relative uncertainty of 0.84 %. This is lower than the conventional value currently in use and measured by Hearn in 1961 with a relative difference of 1.8%, with the consequence that historically reported ozone concentrations should be increased by 1.8%. In order to perform the new measurements of cross sections with reduced uncertainties, a system to generate pure ozone in the gas phase together with an optical system based on a UV laser with lines in the Hartley band, including accurate path length measurement of the absorption cell and a careful evaluation of possible impurities in the ozone sample by mass spectrometry and Fourier Transform Infrared spectroscopy was setup. This resulted in new measurements of absolute values of ozone absorption cross sections of 9.48 × 10-18, 10.44 × 10-18, and 11.07 × 10-18 cm2 molecule-1, with relative expanded uncertainties better than 0.6%, for the wavelengths (in vacuum) of 244.062, 248.32, and 257.34 nm respectively. The cross-section at the 253.65 nm line of mercury was determined by comparisons using a Standard Reference Photometer equipped with a mercury lamp as the light source. The newly reported value should be used in the future to obtain the most accurate measurements of ozone concentration, which are in closer agreement with non UV photometry based methods such as the gas phase titration of ozone with nitrogen monoxide.

  9. Measurement of the absolute branching fraction for Λc+→Λμ+νμ

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Ablikim

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available We report the first measurement of the absolute branching fraction for Λc+→Λμ+νμ. This measurement is based on a sample of e+e− annihilation data produced at a center-of-mass energy s=4.6 GeV, collected with the BESIII detector at the BEPCII storage rings. The sample corresponds to an integrated luminosity of 567 pb−1. The branching fraction is determined to be B(Λc+→Λμ+νμ=(3.49±0.46(stat±0.27(syst%. In addition, we calculate the ratio B(Λc+→Λμ+νμ/B(Λc+→Λe+νe to be 0.96±0.16(stat±0.04(syst.

  10. The magnetic recoil spectrometer for measurements of the absolute neutron spectrum at OMEGA and the NIF

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Casey, D. T.; Frenje, J. A.; Gatu Johnson, M.; Seguin, F. H.; Li, C. K.; Petrasso, R. D. [Plasma Science and Fusion Center, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02139 (United States); Glebov, V. Yu.; Katz, J.; Magoon, J.; Meyerhofer, D. D.; Sangster, T. C.; Shoup, M.; Ulreich, J. [Laboratory for Laser Energetics, University of Rochester, Rochester, New York 14623 (United States); Ashabranner, R. C.; Bionta, R. M.; Carpenter, A. C.; Felker, B.; Khater, H. Y.; LePape, S.; MacKinnon, A. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, California 94550 (United States); and others

    2013-04-15

    The neutron spectrum produced by deuterium-tritium (DT) inertial confinement fusion implosions contains a wealth of information about implosion performance including the DT yield, ion-temperature, and areal-density. The Magnetic Recoil Spectrometer (MRS) has been used at both the OMEGA laser facility and the National Ignition Facility (NIF) to measure the absolute neutron spectrum from 3 to 30 MeV at OMEGA and 3 to 36 MeV at the NIF. These measurements have been used to diagnose the performance of cryogenic target implosions to unprecedented accuracy. Interpretation of MRS data requires a detailed understanding of the MRS response and background. This paper describes ab initio characterization of the system involving Monte Carlo simulations of the MRS response in addition to the commission experiments for in situ calibration of the systems on OMEGA and the NIF.

  11. Precise measurement of the absolute fluorescence yield of the 337 nm band in atmospheric gases

    CERN Document Server

    Ave, M; Curry, E; Di Carlo, P; Di Giulio, C; Luis, P Facal San; Gonzales, D; Hojvat, C; Hörandel, J; Hrabovsky, M; Iarlori, M; Keilhauer, B; Klages, H; Kleifges, M; Kuehn, F; Li, S; Monasor, M; Nozka, L; Palatka, M; Petrera, S; Privitera, P; Ridky, J; Rizi, V; D'Orfeuil, B Rouille; Salamida, F; Schovanek, P; Smida, R; Spinka, H; Ulrich, A; Verzi, V; Williams, C

    2012-01-01

    A measurement of the absolute fluorescence yield of the 337 nm nitrogen band, relevant to ultra-high energy cosmic ray (UHECR) detectors, is reported. Two independent calibrations of the fluorescence emission induced by a 120 GeV proton beam were employed: Cherenkov light from the beam particle and calibrated light from a nitrogen laser. The fluorescence yield in air at a pressure of 1013 hPa and temperature of 293 K was found to be $Y_{337} = 5.61\\pm 0.06_{stat} \\pm 0.21_{syst}$ photons/MeV. When compared to the fluorescence yield currently used by UHECR experiments, this measurement improves the uncertainty by a factor of three, and has a significant impact on the determination of the energy scale of the cosmic ray spectrum.

  12. Absolute frequency measurement with uncertainty below $1\\times 10^{-15}$ using International Atomic Time

    CERN Document Server

    Hachisu, Hidekazu; Ido, Tetsuya

    2016-01-01

    The absolute frequency of the $^{87}{\\rm Sr}$ clock transition measured in 2015 was reevaluated using an improved frequency link to the SI second. The scale interval of International Atomic Time (TAI) that we used as the reference was calibrated for an evaluation interval of five days instead of the conventional interval of one month which is regularly employed in Circular T. The calibration on a five-day basis removed the uncertainty in assimilating the TAI scale of the five-day mean to that of the one-month mean. The reevaluation resulted in the total uncertainty of $10^{-16}$ level for the first time without local cesium fountains. Since there are presumably no correlations among systematic shifts of cesium fountains worldwide, the measurement is not limited by the systematic uncertainty of a specific primary frequency standard.

  13. Absolute frequency measurement with uncertainty below 1× 10^{-15} using International Atomic Time

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hachisu, Hidekazu; Petit, Gérard; Ido, Tetsuya

    2017-01-01

    The absolute frequency of the ^{87}Sr clock transition measured in 2015 (Jpn J Appl Phys 54:112401, 2015) was reevaluated using an improved frequency link to the SI second. The scale interval of International Atomic Time (TAI) that we used as the reference was calibrated for an evaluation interval of 5 days instead of the conventional interval of 1 month which is regularly employed in Circular T. The calibration on a 5-day basis removed the uncertainty in assimilating the TAI scale of the 5-day mean to that of the 1-month mean. The reevaluation resulted in the total uncertainty of 10^{-16} level for the first time without local cesium fountains. Since there are presumably no correlations among systematic shifts of cesium fountains worldwide, the measurement is not limited by the systematic uncertainty of a specific primary frequency standard.

  14. Static Absolute Force Measurement for Preloaded Piezoelements Used for Active Lorentz Force Detuning System

    CERN Document Server

    Sekalski, S P; Sekalski, S P

    2004-01-01

    To reach high gradients in pulsed operation of superconducting (SC) cavities an active Lorentz force detuning compensation system is needed. For this system a piezoelement can be used as an actuator (other option is a magnetostrictive device). To guarantee the demanded lifetime of the active element, the proper preload force adjustment is necessary. To determine this parameter an absolute force sensor is needed which will be able to operate at cryogenic temperatures. Currently, there is no calibrated commercial available sensor, which will be able to measure the static force in such an environment. The authors propose to use a discovered phenomenon to estimate the preload force applied to the piezoelement. The principle of the proposed solution based on a shape of impedance curve, which changes with the value of applied force. Especially, the position of resonances are monitored. No need of specialized force sensor and measurement in-situ are additional advantages of proposed method.

  15. Measurement of absolute reaction rates in Be,Pb and Fe spherical systems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LiuRong; ChenYuan; 等

    1998-01-01

    The absolute reaction rates in Be,Pb and Fe have been measured by using the activation foil technique with different reaction energy thresholds.Thicknesses of Be,Pb and Fe spheres were 5.3,19.1 and 31.9cm.respectively,Eight kinds of activation folis were used for Fe,and four kinds each for Be and Pb,The total experimental er5ror was about 5-7%.The measured results were compared to the values calculated with the 1-D ANISN code and the ENDF/B-VI library data.The average ratio of the experimental to the calculational is less than 7% for Be and Pb,about 5-30% for Fe.

  16. The magnetic recoil spectrometer for measurements of the absolute neutron spectrum at OMEGA and the NIF.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casey, D T; Frenje, J A; Johnson, M Gatu; Séguin, F H; Li, C K; Petrasso, R D; Glebov, V Yu; Katz, J; Magoon, J; Meyerhofer, D D; Sangster, T C; Shoup, M; Ulreich, J; Ashabranner, R C; Bionta, R M; Carpenter, A C; Felker, B; Khater, H Y; LePape, S; MacKinnon, A; McKernan, M A; Moran, M; Rygg, J R; Yeoman, M F; Zacharias, R; Leeper, R J; Fletcher, K; Farrell, M; Jasion, D; Kilkenny, J; Paguio, R

    2013-04-01

    The neutron spectrum produced by deuterium-tritium (DT) inertial confinement fusion implosions contains a wealth of information about implosion performance including the DT yield, ion-temperature, and areal-density. The Magnetic Recoil Spectrometer (MRS) has been used at both the OMEGA laser facility and the National Ignition Facility (NIF) to measure the absolute neutron spectrum from 3 to 30 MeV at OMEGA and 3 to 36 MeV at the NIF. These measurements have been used to diagnose the performance of cryogenic target implosions to unprecedented accuracy. Interpretation of MRS data requires a detailed understanding of the MRS response and background. This paper describes ab initio characterization of the system involving Monte Carlo simulations of the MRS response in addition to the commission experiments for in situ calibration of the systems on OMEGA and the NIF.

  17. A diode laser spectrometer at 634 nm and absolute frequency measurements using optical frequency comb

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yi Lin; Yuan Jie; Qi Xiang-Hui; Chen Wen-Lan; Zhou Da-Wei; Zhou Tong; Zhou Xiao-Ji; Chen Xu-Zong

    2009-01-01

    This paper reports that two identical external-cavity-diode-laser(ECDL)based spectrometers are constructed at 634 nm referencing on the hyperfine B-X transition a(80)8-4 of 127I2.The lasers are stabilized on the Doppler-free absorption signals using the third-harmonic detection technique.The instability of the stabilized laser is measured to be 2.8×10-12(after 1000 s)by counting the beat note between the two lasers.The absolute optical frequency of the transition is,for the first time,determined to be 472851936189.5 kHz by using an optical frequency comb referenced on the microwave caesium atomic clock.The uncertainty of the measurement is less than 4.9 kHz.

  18. Measurement of the absolute branching fraction for Λc+ → Λμ+νμ

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ablikim, M.; Achasov, M. N.; Ahmed, S.; Ai, X. C.; Albayrak, O.; Albrecht, M.; Ambrose, D. J.; Amoroso, A.; An, F. F.; An, Q.; Bai, J. Z.; Bakina, O.; Baldini Ferroli, R.; Ban, Y.; Bennett, D. W.; Bennett, J. V.; Berger, N.; Bertani, M.; Bettoni, D.; Bian, J. M.; Bianchi, F.; Boger, E.; Boyko, I.; Briere, R. A.; Cai, H.; Cai, X.; Cakir, O.; Calcaterra, A.; Cao, G. F.; Cetin, S. A.; Chang, J. F.; Chelkov, G.; Chen, G.; Chen, H. S.; Chen, J. C.; Chen, M. L.; Chen, S.; Chen, S. J.; Chen, X.; Chen, X. R.; Chen, Y. B.; Chu, X. K.; Cibinetto, G.; Dai, H. L.; Dai, J. P.; Dbeyssi, A.; Dedovich, D.; Deng, Z. Y.; Denig, A.; Denysenko, I.; Destefanis, M.; De Mori, F.; Ding, Y.; Dong, C.; Dong, J.; Dong, L. Y.; Dong, M. Y.; Dou, Z. L.; Du, S. X.; Duan, P. F.; Fan, J. Z.; Fang, J.; Fang, S. S.; Fang, X.; Fang, Y.; Farinelli, R.; Fava, L.; Feldbauer, F.; Felici, G.; Feng, C. Q.; Fioravanti, E.; Fritsch, M.; Fu, C. D.; Gao, Q.; Gao, X. L.; Gao, Y.; Gao, Z.; Garzia, I.; Goetzen, K.; Gong, L.; Gong, W. X.; Gradl, W.; Greco, M.; Gu, M. H.; Gu, Y. T.; Guan, Y. H.; Guo, A. Q.; Guo, L. B.; Guo, R. P.; Guo, Y.; Guo, Y. P.; Haddadi, Z.; Hafner, A.; Han, S.; Hao, X. Q.; Harris, F. A.; He, K. L.; Heinsius, F. H.; Held, T.; Heng, Y. K.; Holtmann, T.; Hou, Z. L.; Hu, C.; Hu, H. M.; Hu, J. F.; Hu, T.; Hu, Y.; Huang, G. S.; Huang, J. S.; Huang, X. T.; Huang, X. Z.; Huang, Z. L.; Hussain, T.; Ikegami Andersson, W.; Ji, Q.; Ji, Q. P.; Ji, X. B.; Ji, X. L.; Jiang, L. W.; Jiang, X. S.; Jiang, X. Y.; Jiao, J. B.; Jiao, Z.; Jin, D. P.; Jin, S.; Johansson, T.; Julin, A.; Kalantar-Nayestanaki, N.; Kang, X. L.; Kang, X. S.; Kavatsyuk, M.; Ke, B. C.; Kiese, P.; Kliemt, R.; Kloss, B.; Kolcu, O. B.; Kopf, B.; Kornicer, M.; Kupsc, A.; Kühn, W.; Lange, J. S.; Lara, M.; Larin, P.; Lavezzi, L.; Leithoff, H.; Leng, C.; Li, C.; Cheng, Li; Li, D. M.; Li, F.; Li, F. Y.; Li, G.; Li, H. B.; Li, H. J.; Li, J. C.; Li, Jin; Li, K.; Li, K.; Li, Lei.; Li, P. R.; Li, Q. Y.; Li, T.; Li, W. D.; Li, W. G.; Li, X. L.; Li, X. N.; Li, X. Q.; Li, Y. B.; Li, Z. B.; Liang, H.; Liang, Y. F.; Liang, Y. T.; Liao, G. R.; Lin, D. X.; Liu, B.; Liu, B. J.; Liu, C. X.; Liu, D.; Liu, F. H.; Liu, Fang; Liu, Feng; Liu, H. B.; Liu, H. H.; Liu, H. H.; Liu, H. M.; Liu, J.; Liu, J. B.; Liu, J. P.; Liu, J. Y.; Liu, K.; Liu, K. Y.; Liu, L. D.; Liu, P. L.; Liu, Q.; Liu, Q. J.; Liu, S. B.; Liu, X.; Liu, Y. B.; Liu, Y. Y.; Liu, Z. A.; Liu, Z. Q.; Loehner, H.; Lou, X. C.; Lu, H. J.; Lu, J. G.; Lu, Y.; Lu, Y. P.; Luo, C. L.; Luo, M. X.; Luo, T.; Luo, X. L.; Lyu, X. R.; Ma, F. C.; Ma, H. L.; Ma, L. L.; Ma, M. M.; Ma, Q. M.; Ma, T.; Ma, X. N.; Ma, X. Y.; Ma, Y. M.; Maas, F. E.; Maggiora, M.; Malik, Q. A.; Mao, Y. J.; Mao, Z. P.; Marcello, S.; Messchendorp, J. G.; Mezzadri, G.; Min, J.; Min, T. J.; Mitchell, R. E.; Mo, X. H.; Mo, Y. J.; Morales Morales, C.; Muchnoi, N. Yu.; Muramatsu, H.; Musiol, P.; Nefedov, Y.; Nerling, F.; Nikolaev, I. B.; Ning, Z.; Nisar, S.; Niu, S. L.; Niu, X. Y.; Olsen, S. L.; Ouyang, Q.; Pacetti, S.; Pan, Y.; Patteri, P.; Pelizaeus, M.; Peng, H. P.; Peters, K.; Pettersson, J.; Ping, J. L.; Ping, R. G.; Poling, R.; Prasad, V.; Qi, H. R.; Qi, M.; Qian, S.; Qiao, C. F.; Qin, L. Q.; Qin, N.; Qin, X. S.; Qin, Z. H.; Qiu, J. F.; Rashid, K. H.; Redmer, C. F.; Ripka, M.; Rong, G.; Rosner, Ch.; Ruan, X. D.; Sarantsev, A.; Savrié, M.; Schnier, C.; Schoenning, K.; Shan, W.; Shao, M.; Shen, C. P.; Shen, P. X.; Shen, X. Y.; Sheng, H. Y.; Song, W. M.; Song, X. Y.; Sosio, S.; Spataro, S.; Sun, G. X.; Sun, J. F.; Sun, S. S.; Sun, X. H.; Sun, Y. J.; Sun, Y. Z.; Sun, Z. J.; Sun, Z. T.; Tang, C. J.; Tang, X.; Tapan, I.; Thorndike, E. H.; Tiemens, M.; Uman, I.; Varner, G. S.; Wang, B.; Wang, B. L.; Wang, D.; Wang, D. Y.; Wang, K.; Wang, L. L.; Wang, L. S.; Wang, M.; Wang, P.; Wang, P. L.; Wang, W.; Wang, W. P.; Wang, X. F.; Wang, Y.; Wang, Y. D.; Wang, Y. F.; Wang, Y. Q.; Wang, Z.; Wang, Z. G.; Wang, Z. H.; Wang, Z. Y.; Weber, T.; Wei, D. H.; Weidenkaff, P.; Wen, S. P.; Wiedner, U.; Wolke, M.; Wu, L. H.; Wu, L. J.; Wu, Z.; Xia, L.; Xia, L. G.; Xia, Y.; Xiao, D.; Xiao, H.; Xiao, Z. J.; Xie, Y. G.; Yuehong, Xie; Xiu, Q. L.; Xu, G. F.; Xu, J. J.; Xu, L.; Xu, Q. J.; Xu, Q. N.; Xu, X. P.; Yan, L.; Yan, W. B.; Yan, W. C.; Yan, Y. H.; Yang, H. J.; Yang, H. X.; Yang, L.; Yang, Y. X.; Ye, M.; Ye, M. H.; Yin, J. H.; You, Z. Y.; Yu, B. X.; Yu, C. X.; Yu, J. S.; Yuan, C. Z.; Yuan, Y.; Yuncu, A.; Zafar, A. A.; Zeng, Y.; Zeng, Z.; Zhang, B. X.; Zhang, B. Y.; Zhang, C. C.; Zhang, D. H.; Zhang, H. H.; Zhang, H. Y.; Zhang, J.; Zhang, J. J.; Zhang, J. L.; Zhang, J. Q.; Zhang, J. W.; Zhang, J. Y.; Zhang, J. Z.; Zhang, K.; Zhang, L.; Zhang, S. Q.; Zhang, X. Y.; Zhang, Y.; Zhang, Y. H.; Zhang, Y. N.; Zhang, Y. T.; Zhang, Yu; Zhang, Z. H.; Zhang, Z. P.; Zhang, Z. Y.; Zhao, G.; Zhao, J. W.; Zhao, J. Y.; Zhao, J. Z.; Zhao, Lei; Zhao, Ling; Zhao, M. G.; Zhao, Q.; Zhao, Q. W.; Zhao, S. J.; Zhao, T. C.; Zhao, Y. B.; Zhao, Z. G.; Zhemchugov, A.; Zheng, B.; Zheng, J. P.; Zheng, W. J.; Zheng, Y. H.; Zhong, B.; Zhou, L.; Zhou, X.; Zhou, X. K.; Zhou, X. R.; Zhou, X. Y.; Zhu, K.; Zhu, K. J.; Zhu, S.; Zhu, S. H.; Zhu, X. L.; Zhu, Y. C.; Zhu, Y. S.; Zhu, Z. A.; Zhuang, J.; Zotti, L.; Zou, B. S.; Zou, J. H.

    2017-04-01

    We report the first measurement of the absolute branching fraction for Λc+ → Λμ+νμ. This measurement is based on a sample of e+e- annihilation data produced at a center-of-mass energy √{ s} = 4.6 GeV, collected with the BESIII detector at the BEPCII storage rings. The sample corresponds to an integrated luminosity of 567 pb-1. The branching fraction is determined to be B (Λc+ → Λμ+νμ) = (3.49 ± 0.46 (stat) ± 0.27 (syst))%. In addition, we calculate the ratio B (Λc+ → Λμ+νμ) / B (Λc+ → Λe+νe) to be 0.96 ± 0.16 (stat) ± 0.04 (syst).

  19. Highly Accurate Photogrammetric Measurements of the Planck Reflectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amiri Parian, J.; Gruen, Armin; Cozzani, Alessandro

    2006-06-01

    The Planck mission of the European Space Agency (ESA) is designed to image the anisotropies of the Cosmic Background Radiation Field over the whole sky. To achieve this aim, sophisticated reflectors are used as part of the Planck telescope receiving system. The system consists of secondary and primary reflectors which are sections of two different ellipsoids of revolution with mean diameters of 1 and 1.6 meters. Deformations of the reflectors which influence the optical parameters and the gain of receiving signals are investigated in vacuum and at very low temperatures. For this investigation, among the various high accuracy measurement techniques, photogrammetry was selected. With respect to the photogrammetric measurements, special considerations had to be taken into account in design steps, measurement arrangement and data processing to achieve very high accuracies. The determinability of additional parameters of the camera under the given network configuration, datum definition, reliability and precision issues as well as workspace limits and propagating errors from different sources are considered. We have designed an optimal photogrammetric network by heuristic simulation for the flight model of the primary and the secondary reflectors with relative precisions better than 1:1000000 and 1:400000 to achieve the requested accuracies. A least squares best fit ellipsoid method was developed to determine the optical parameters of the reflectors. In this paper we will report about the procedures, the network design and the results of real measurements.

  20. Measuring Fisher information accurately in correlated neural populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanitscheider, Ingmar; Coen-Cagli, Ruben; Kohn, Adam; Pouget, Alexandre

    2015-06-01

    Neural responses are known to be variable. In order to understand how this neural variability constrains behavioral performance, we need to be able to measure the reliability with which a sensory stimulus is encoded in a given population. However, such measures are challenging for two reasons: First, they must take into account noise correlations which can have a large influence on reliability. Second, they need to be as efficient as possible, since the number of trials available in a set of neural recording is usually limited by experimental constraints. Traditionally, cross-validated decoding has been used as a reliability measure, but it only provides a lower bound on reliability and underestimates reliability substantially in small datasets. We show that, if the number of trials per condition is larger than the number of neurons, there is an alternative, direct estimate of reliability which consistently leads to smaller errors and is much faster to compute. The superior performance of the direct estimator is evident both for simulated data and for neuronal population recordings from macaque primary visual cortex. Furthermore we propose generalizations of the direct estimator which measure changes in stimulus encoding across conditions and the impact of correlations on encoding and decoding, typically denoted by Ishuffle and Idiag respectively.

  1. Measurement of absolute phase Shift on reflection of thin films using white-light spectral interferometry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hui Xue; Weidong Shen; Peifu Gu; Zhenyue Luo; Yueguang Zhang; Xu Liu

    2009-01-01

    A novel method to measure the absolute phase shift on reflection of thin film is presented utilizing a white-light interferometer in spectral domain.By applying Fourier transformation to the recorded spectral interference signal,we retrieve the spectral phase function ф,which is induced by three parts:the path length difference in air L,the effective thickness of slightly dispersive cube beam splitter Teff and the nonlinear phase function due to multi-reflection of the thin film structure.We utilize the fact that the overall optical path difference(OPD)is linearly dependent on the refractive index of the beam splitter to determine both L and Teff.The spectral phase shift on reflection of thin film structure can be obtained by subtracting these two parts from ф.We show theoretically and experimentally that our now method can provide a sinlple and fast solution in calculating the absolute spectral phase function of optical thin films,while still maintaining high accuracy.

  2. Optical parameters Determination for absolute luminosity and total cross section measurements in ATLAS

    CERN Document Server

    Cavalier, Sophie

    ALFA (Absolute Luminosity For ATLAS) aims at measuring the absolute luminosity for the ATLAS experiment with an incertitude down to 2-3 \\% and the total elastic cross section. The luminosity is related to the number of events, the highest the luminosity, the highest the number of events. This is, then, an important quantity for colliders like LHC (Large Hadron Collider). LHC is made of two beams circulating in two different beam pipes and colliding at four interaction points where the four physics experiments are located (ATLAS, CMS, ALICE, LHCb). ALFA detectors inserted into Roman Pots (RPs), have been placed around ATLAS at 240 m distance from the collision point (IP1) after six quadrupoles magnets and two dipoles defining the ALFA beam line which is part of the LHC ring.The detectors are made of scintillating optics fibers to catch elastic protons generated at IP1. These protons are tracked through the LHC magnets beam line which needs to be optimized in terms of optics parameters. We call high β optics, ...

  3. ACCUWIND - Accurate wind speed measurements in wind energy - Summary report

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Friis Pedersen, Troels; Dahlberg, J.-Å.; Cuerva, A.;

    2006-01-01

    been used by meteorologists for turbulencemeasurements, but have also found a role on wind turbine nacelles for wind speed and yaw control purposes. The report on cup and sonic anemometry deals with establishment of robustness in assessment and classification by focus on methods and proceduresfor......The cup anemometer is at present the standard instrument used for mean wind speed measurement in wind energy. It is being applied in high numbers around the world for wind energy assessments. It is also applied exclusively for accredited power performancemeasurements for certification...... and CLASSCUP from which the proposed classification method for cup anemometers was developed for the IEC standard. While cup anemometers at present are the standardanemometer being used for average wind speed measurements, sonic anemometers have been developed significantly over the last years, and prices have...

  4. Accurate Measurement of Heat Capacity by Differential Scanning Calorimetry

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-01-01

    Experience with high quality heat capacity measurement by differential scanning calorimetry is summarized and illustrated, pointing out three major causes of error: (1) incompatible thermal histories of the sample, reference and blank runs; (2) unstable initial and final isotherms; (3) incompatible differences between initial and final isotherm amplitudes for sample, reference and blank runs. Considering these problems, it is shown for the case of polyoxymethylene that accuracies in heat capacity of 0.1 percent may be possible.

  5. On uplimit of accurate measurement of tau mass

    CERN Document Server

    Mo, X H

    2016-01-01

    Tau lepton as one of three elementary leptons in nature, the measurement of its mass has ever been performed since its discovery. The present relative accuracy is already at the level of better than 10 to minus 4 and more effects are still made in order to increase the accuracy further. However, the analysis of available techniques for and expectable luminosity from e+e- collider indicates that the precision uplimit of tau mass is almost reached, which means that brand new approaches should be looked for if the great improvement is yearned for.

  6. Accurate blood flow measurements: are artificial tracers necessary?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian Poelma

    Full Text Available Imaging-based blood flow measurement techniques, such as particle image velocimetry, have become an important tool in cardiovascular research. They provide quantitative information about blood flow, which benefits applications ranging from developmental biology to tumor perfusion studies. Studies using these methods can be classified based on whether they use artificial tracers or red blood cells to visualize the fluid motion. We here present the first direct comparison in vivo of both methods. For high magnification cases, the experiments using red blood cells strongly underestimate the flow (up to 50% in the present case, as compared to the tracer results. For medium magnification cases, the results from both methods are indistinguishable as they give the same underestimation of the real velocities (approximately 33%, based on in vitro reference measurements. These results suggest that flow characteristics reported in literature cannot be compared without a careful evaluation of the imaging characteristics. A method to predict the expected flow averaging behavior for a particular facility is presented.

  7. Accurate measurement of curvilinear shapes by Virtual Image Correlation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Semin, B.; Auradou, H.; François, M. L. M.

    2011-10-01

    The proposed method allows the detection and the measurement, in the sense of metrology, of smooth elongated curvilinear shapes. Such measurements are required in many fields of physics, for example: mechanical engineering, biology or medicine (deflection of beams, fibers or filaments), fluid mechanics or chemistry (detection of fronts). Contrary to actual methods, the result is given in an analytical form of class C∞ (and not a finite set of locations or pixels) thus curvatures and slopes, often of great interest in science, are given with good confidence. The proposed Virtual Image Correlation (VIC) method uses a virtual beam, an image which consists in a lateral expansion of the curve with a bell-shaped gray level. This figure is deformed until it fits the best the physical image with a method issued from the Digital Image Correlation method in use in solid mechanics. The precision of the identification is studied in a benchmark and successfully compared to two state-of-the-art methods. Three practical examples are given: a bar bending under its own weight, a thin fiber transported by a flow within a fracture and a thermal front. The first allows a comparison with theoretical solution, the second shows the ability of the method to deal with complex shapes and crossings and the third deals with ill-defined image.

  8. Accurate blood flow measurements: are artificial tracers necessary?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poelma, Christian; Kloosterman, Astrid; Hierck, Beerend P; Westerweel, Jerry

    2012-01-01

    Imaging-based blood flow measurement techniques, such as particle image velocimetry, have become an important tool in cardiovascular research. They provide quantitative information about blood flow, which benefits applications ranging from developmental biology to tumor perfusion studies. Studies using these methods can be classified based on whether they use artificial tracers or red blood cells to visualize the fluid motion. We here present the first direct comparison in vivo of both methods. For high magnification cases, the experiments using red blood cells strongly underestimate the flow (up to 50% in the present case), as compared to the tracer results. For medium magnification cases, the results from both methods are indistinguishable as they give the same underestimation of the real velocities (approximately 33%, based on in vitro reference measurements). These results suggest that flow characteristics reported in literature cannot be compared without a careful evaluation of the imaging characteristics. A method to predict the expected flow averaging behavior for a particular facility is presented.

  9. Accurate measurement of intestinal transit in the rat

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, M.S.; Galligan, J.J.; Burks, T.F.

    1981-11-01

    A new method for quantifying intestinal transit was evaluated by comparison with two other popular techniques. The distribution of radiochromium (51Cr) throughout the small intestine of rats previously treated with saline (1.0 ml/kg s.c.), capsaicin (10 mg/kg s.c.), hexamethonium (20 mg/kg i.p.), D-ala2-met-enkephalinamide (1.0 microgram i.c.v.), or neostigmine (0.1 mg/kg i.p.) was quantified by (1) measuring the most distal intestinal segment reached by chromium, (2) calculating the slope produced by linear regression analysis on cumulative percent chromium that had passed through each segment, and (3) determining the geometric center of the distribution of chromium throughout the small intestine. It was concluded that the geometric center methods for quantifying intestinal transit provides the most sensitive and reliable measure of intestinal transit. Less sensitive techniques often fail to detect important effects of drugs on intestinal transit.

  10. Blood-Pressure Measuring System Gives Accurate Graphic Output

    Science.gov (United States)

    1965-01-01

    The problem: To develop an instrument that will provide an external (indirect) measurement of arterial blood pressure in the form of an easily interpreted graphic trace that can be correlated with standard clinical blood-pressure measurements. From sphygmograms produced by conventional sphygmographs, it is very difficult to differentiate the systolic and diastolic blood-pressure pulses and to correlate these indices with the standard clinical values. It is nearly impossible to determine these indices when the subject is under physical or emotional stress. The solution: An electronic blood-pressure system, basically similar to conventional ausculatory sphygmomanometers, employing a standard occluding cuff, a gas-pressure source, and a gas-pressure regulator and valve. An electrical output transducer senses cuff pressure, and a microphone positioned on the brachial artery under the occluding cuff monitors the Korotkoff sounds from this artery. The output signals present the conventional systolic and diastolic indices in a clear, graphical display. The complete system also includes an electronic timer and cycle-control circuit.

  11. Accurate on line measurements of low fluences of charged particles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palla, L.; Czelusniak, C.; Taccetti, F.; Carraresi, L.; Castelli, L.; Fedi, M. E.; Giuntini, L.; Maurenzig, P. R.; Sottili, L.; Taccetti, N.

    2015-03-01

    Ion beams supplied by the 3MV Tandem accelerator of LABEC laboratory (INFN-Firenze), have been used to study the feasibility of irradiating materials with ion fluences reproducible to about 1%. Test measurements have been made with 7.5 MeV 7Li2+ beams of different intensities. The fluence control is based on counting ions contained in short bursts generated by chopping the continuous beam with an electrostatic deflector followed by a couple of adjustable slits. Ions are counted by means of a micro-channel plate (MCP) detecting the electrons emitted from a thin layer of Al inserted along the beam path in between the pulse defining slits and the target. Calibration of the MCP electron detector is obtained by comparison with the response of a Si detector.

  12. On accurate differential measurements with electrochemical impedance spectroscopy

    CERN Document Server

    Kernbach, S; Kernbach, O

    2016-01-01

    This paper describes the impedance spectroscopy adapted for analysis of small electrochemical changes in fluids. To increase accuracy of measurements the differential approach with temperature stabilization of fluid samples and electronics is used. The impedance analysis is performed by the single point DFT, signal correlation, calculation of RMS amplitudes and interference phase shift. For test purposes the samples of liquids and colloids are treated by fully shielded electromagnetic generators and passive cone-shaped structures. Fluidic samples collected from different geological locations are also analysed. In all tested cases we obtained different results for impacted and non-impacted samples, moreover, a degradation of electrochemical stability after treatment is observed. This method is used in laboratory analysis of weak emissions and ensures a high repeatability of results.

  13. Easy Absolute Values? Absolutely

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Sharon E.; Mittag, Kathleen Cage

    2015-01-01

    The authors teach a problem-solving course for preservice middle-grades education majors that includes concepts dealing with absolute-value computations, equations, and inequalities. Many of these students like mathematics and plan to teach it, so they are adept at symbolic manipulations. Getting them to think differently about a concept that they…

  14. Calibration of absolute radial dimension of measurement for cylindrical coordinate measuring machine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Zexiang; Wang, Guixia; Zhao, Huiying; Li, Bin

    2010-08-01

    According to the definitions of the diameters in the new generation Geometrical Product Specifications(GPS), the evaluation models of least square diameter, minimum circumscribed diameter, maximum inscribed diameter, area diameter, circumference diameter and volume diameter are built on the cylindrical coordinate system for the section measuring path, the element measuring path and the bird-cage measuring path in this paper. A cylindrical coordinate measuring machine for the measurement of the diameters above is introduced. Based on the external standard cylinder with super high precision, a relative calibration method for the measurement of the radial size is promoted. The influence of several special cases of the installation of the cylinder on the calibrating results is analyzed, and the calibrating equation related to the special cases is given.

  15. Absolute Polarization Measurements at RHIC in the Coulomb Nuclear Interference Region

    CERN Document Server

    Eyser, K O; Bravar, A; Bunce, G; Dhawan, S; Gill, R; Haeberli, W; Huang, H; Jinnouchi, O; Makdisi, Y; Nakagawa, I; Nass, A; Okada, H; Stephenson, E; Svirida, D; Wise, T; Wood, J; Zelenski, A

    2007-01-01

    The Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider at Brookhaven National Laboratory provides polarized proton beams for the investigation of the nucleon spin structure. For polarimetry, carbon-proton and proton-proton scattering is used in the Coulomb nuclear interference region at small momentum transfer ($-t$). Fast polarization measurements of each beam are carried out with carbon fiber targets at several times during an accelerator store. A polarized hydrogen gas jet target is needed for absolute normalization over multiple stores, while the target polarization is constantly monitored in a Breit-Rabi polarimeter. In 2005, the jet polarimeter has been used with both RHIC beams. We present results from the jet polarimeter including a detailed analysis of background contributions to asymmetries and to the beam polarization.

  16. Measurement of the Absolute Branching Fraction of D0 to K- pi+

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aubert, B.; Bona, M.; Boutigny, D.; Karyotakis, Y.; Lees, J.P.; Poireau, V.; Prudent, X.; Tisserand, V.; Zghiche, A.; /Annecy, LAPP; Garra Tico, J.; Grauges, E.; /Barcelona U., ECM; Lopez, L.; Palano, A.; /Bari U.; Eigen, G.; Ofte, I.; Stugu, B.; Sun, L.; /Bergen U.; Abrams, G.S.; Battaglia, M.; Brown, D.N.; Button-Shafer, J.; /LBL, Berkeley

    2007-04-25

    The authors measure the absolute branching fraction for D{sup 0} {yields} K{sup -} {pi}{sup +} using partial reconstruction of {bar B}{sup 0} {yields} D*{sup +}X{ell}{sup -}{bar {nu}}{sub {ell}} decays, in which only the charged lepton and the pion from the decay D*{sup +} {yields} D{sup 0}{pi}{sup +} are used. Based on a data sample of 230 million B{bar B} pairs collected at the {Upsilon}(4S) resonance with the BABAR detector at the PEP-II asymmetric-energy B Factory at SLAC, they obtain {Beta}(D{sup 0} {yields} K{sup -}{pi}{sup +}) = (4.007 {+-} 0.037 {+-} 0.070)%, where the first error is statistical and the second error is systematic.

  17. Measurement of the absolute differential cross section of proton-proton elastic scattering at small angles

    CERN Document Server

    Mchedlishvili, D; Dymov, S; Bagdasarian, Z; Barsov, S; Gebel, R; Gou, B; Hartmann, M; Kacharava, A; Keshelashvili, I; Khoukaz, A; Kulessa, P; Kulikov, A; Lehrach, A; Lomidze, N; Lorentz, B; Maier, R; Macharashvili, G; Merzliakov, S; Mikirtychyants, S; Nioradze, M; Ohm, H; Prasuhn, D; Rathmann, F; Serdyuk, V; Schroer, D; Shmakova, V; Stassen, R; Stein, H J; Stockhorst, H; Strakovsky, I I; Ströher, H; Tabidze, M; Täschner, A; Trusov, S; Tsirkov, D; Uzikov, Yu; Valdau, Yu; Wilkin, C; Workman, R L; Wüstner, P

    2015-01-01

    The differential cross section for proton-proton elastic scattering has been measured at a beam energy of 1.0 GeV and in 200 MeV steps from 1.6 to 2.8 GeV for centre-of-mass angles in the range from 12-16 degrees to 25-30 degrees, depending on the energy. Absolute normalisations of typically 3% were achieved by studying the energy losses of the circulating beam of the COSY storage ring as it passed repeatedly through the windowless hydrogen target of the ANKE magnetic spectrometer. It is shown that the data have a significant impact upon a partial wave analysis. After extrapolating the differential cross sections to the forward direction, the results are broadly compatible with the predictions of forward dispersion relations.

  18. Absolute measurements of the cosmic microwave background from Amundsen-Scott South Pole Station

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bersanelli, S.; Bonelli, G.; Sironi, G. (Universita degli Studi, Milan (Italy)); Levin, S. (California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA (United States)); Smoot, G.F.; Bensadoun, M.; De Amici, G.; Limon, M.; Vinje, W. (Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA (United States))

    1993-01-01

    Observations of the cosmic microwave background play a central role in modern cosmology. The existence of the CMB as a remanent of the early Universe has constituted a pillar for the Big Bang scenario. The recent cosmic background explorer differential microwave radiometer results have provided further support to the generally accepted standard model by detecting for the first time primordial fluctuations in the CMB field at the limits expected by structure formation theories. An international program of ground-based absoluted measurements of the CMB at the centimeter and multicentimeter wavelengths was initiated in 1982. This paper reports results at the South Pole, one of a few areas of low-background environments. 12 refs., 2 tabs.

  19. Absolute height measurement of specular surfaces with modified active fringe reflection photogrammetry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Hongyu; Jiang, Xiangqian; Gao, Feng; Zhang, Zonghua

    2014-07-01

    Deflectometric methods have been studied for more than a decade for slope measurement of specular freeform surfaces through utilization of the deformation of a sample pattern after reflection from a tested sample surface. Usually, these approaches require two-directional fringe patterns to be projected on a LCD screen or ground glass and require slope integration, which leads to some complexity for the whole measuring process. This paper proposes a new mathematical measurement model for measuring topography information of freeform specular surfaces, which integrates a virtual reference specular surface into the method of active fringe reflection photogrammetry and presents a straight-forward relation between height of the tested surface and phase signals. This method only requires one direction of horizontal or vertical sinusoidal fringe patterns to be projected from a LCD screen, resulting in a significant reduction in capture time over established methods. Assuming the whole system has been precalibrated during the measurement process, the fringe patterns are captured separately via the virtual reference and detected freeform surfaces by a CCD camera. The reference phase can be solved according to the spatial geometric relation between the LCD screen and the CCD camera. The captured phases can be unwrapped with a heterodyne technique and optimum frequency selection method. Based on this calculated unwrapped-phase and that proposed mathematical model, absolute height of the inspected surface can be computed. Simulated and experimental results show that this methodology can conveniently calculate topography information for freeform and structured specular surfaces without integration and reconstruction processes.

  20. Numerical assessment of accurate measurements of laminar flame speed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goulier, Joules; Bizon, Katarzyna; Chaumeix, Nabiha; Meynet, Nicolas; Continillo, Gaetano

    2016-12-01

    In combustion, the laminar flame speed constitutes an important parameter that reflects the chemistry of oxidation for a given fuel, along with its transport and thermal properties. Laminar flame speeds are used (i) in turbulent models used in CFD codes, and (ii) to validate detailed or reduced mechanisms, often derived from studies using ideal reactors and in diluted conditions as in jet stirred reactors and in shock tubes. End-users of such mechanisms need to have an assessment of their capability to predict the correct heat released by combustion in realistic conditions. In this view, the laminar flame speed constitutes a very convenient parameter, and it is then very important to have a good knowledge of the experimental errors involved with its determination. Stationary configurations (Bunsen burners, counter-flow flames, heat flux burners) or moving flames (tubes, spherical vessel, soap bubble) can be used. The spherical expanding flame configuration has recently become popular, since it can be used at high pressures and temperatures. With this method, the flame speed is not measured directly, but derived through the recording of the flame radius. The method used to process the radius history will have an impact on the estimated flame speed. Aim of this work is to propose a way to derive the laminar flame speed from experimental recording of expanding flames, and to assess the error magnitude.

  1. Is absolute noninvasive temperature measurement by the Pr[MOE-DO3A] complex feasible.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hentschel, M; Findeisen, M; Schmidt, W; Frenzel, T; Wlodarczyk, W; Wust, P; Felix, R

    2000-02-01

    Recently, the feasibility of the praseodymium complex of 10-(2-methoxyethyl)-1,4,7,10-tetraaza-cyclododecane-1,4,7-tr iacetate (Pr[MOE-DO3A]) for non-invasive temperature measurement via 1H spectroscopy has been demonstrated. Particularly the suitability of the complex for non-invasive temperature measurements including in vivo spectroscopy without spatial resolution as well as first spectroscopic imaging measurements at low temporal resolution (> or = 4 min) and high temporal resolution (breath hold, approximately 20 s) has been shown. As of today, calibration curves according to the particular experimental conditions are necessary. This work aims to clarify whether the Pr[MOE-DO3A] probe in conjunction with 1H-NMR spectroscopy allows non-invasive absolute temperature measurements with high accuracy. The measurement results from two different representative media, distilled water and human plasma, show a slight but significant dependence of the calibration curves on the surrounding medium. Calibration curves in water and plasma were derived for the temperature dependence of the chemical shift difference (F) between Pr[MOE-DO3A]'s OCH3 and water with F = -(27.53 +/- 0.04) + (0.125 +/- 0.001) x T and F = -(27.61 +/- 0.02) + (0.129 +/- 0.001) x T, respectively, with F in ppm and T in degrees C. However, the differences are minuscule even for the highest spectral resolution of 0.001 ppm/pt, so that they are indistinguishable under practical conditions. The estimated temperature errors are +/- 0.18 degrees C for water and +/- 0.14 degrees C for plasma and with that only slightly worse than the measurement accuracy of the fiber-optical temperature probe (+/- 0.1 degrees C). It can be concluded that the results obtained indicate the feasibility of the 1H spectroscopy method in conjunction with the Pr[MOE-DO3A] probe for absolute temperature measurements, with a maximum accuracy of +/- 0.2 degrees C.

  2. Absolute measurement of the activity of sup 2 sup 2 sup 2 Rn using a proportional counter

    CERN Document Server

    Busch, I; Keyser, U

    2002-01-01

    A measuring set-up comprising a proportional counter of calculable sup 2 sup 2 sup 2 Rn efficiency and quantifiable active volume (delta sub V <0.1%) is described. On account of the special design of the end caps, the counter is suitable for absolute activity measurements on gaseous radiation sources. The sup 2 sup 2 sup 2 Rn efficiency is determined by computer simulation of the measured alpha-spectra. The procedures necessary for absolute measurements by means of the counter are described, and the suitability of the counter for absolute measurements of the sup 2 sup 2 sup 2 Rn activity is proved by experiments. Thus, a new method for the realization of the unit of activity of sup 2 sup 2 sup 2 Rn is obtained, which is independent of the unit of activity of sup 2 sup 2 sup 6 Ra.

  3. Measurement of zone plate efficiencies in the extreme ultraviolet and applications to radiation monitors for absolute spectral emission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seely, John; Holland, Glenn; Bremer, James C.; Zukowski, Tim; Feser, Michael; Feng, Yan; Kjornrattanawanich, Benjawan; Goray, Leonid

    2006-08-01

    The diffraction efficiencies of a Fresnel zone plate (ZP), fabricated by Xradia Inc. using the electron-beam writing technique, were measured using polarized, monochromatic synchrotron radiation in the extreme ultraviolet wavelength range 3.4-22 nm. The ZP had 2 mm diameter, 3330 zones, 150 nm outer zone width, and a 1 mm central occulter. The ZP was supported by a 100 nm thick Si 3N 4 membrane. The diffraction patterns were recorded by CMOS imagers with phosphor coatings and with 5.2 μm or 48 μm pixels. The focused +n orders (n=1-4), the diverging -1 order, and the undiffracted 0 order were observed as functions of wavelength and off-axis tilt angle. Sub-pixel focusing of the +n orders was achieved. The measured efficiency in the +1 order was in the 5% to 30% range with the phase-shift enhanced efficiency occurring at 8.3 nm where the gold bars are partially transmitting. The +2 and higher order efficiencies were much lower than the +1 order efficiency. The efficiencies were constant when the zone plate was tilted by angles up to +/-1° from the incident radiation beam. This work indicates the feasibility and benefits of using zone plates to measure the absolute EUV spectral emissions from solar and laboratory sources: relatively high EUV efficiency in the focused +1 order, good out-of-band rejection resulting from the low higher-order efficiencies and the ZP focusing properties, insensitivity to (unfocused) visible light scattered by the ZP, flat response with off-axis angle, and insensitivity to the polarization of the radiation based on the ZP circular symmetry. EUV sensors with Fresnel zone plates potentially have many advantages over existing sensors intended to accurately measure absolute EUV emission levels, such as those implemented on the GOES N-P satellites that use transmission gratings which have off-axis sensitivity variations and poor out-of-band EUV and visible light rejection, and other solar and laboratory sensors using reflection gratings which

  4. ^241Am(n,γ) absolute cross sections measured with DANCE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jandel, M.; Bredeweg, T. A.; Fowler, M. M.; Bond, E. M.; Chadwick, M. B.; Clement, R. R.; Couture, A.; O'Donnell, J. M.; Reifarth, R.; Rundberg, R. S.; Ullmann, J. L.; Vieira, D. J.; Wilhelmy, J. B.; Wouters, J. M.; Agvaanluvsan, U.; Macri, R. A.; Sheets, S. A.; Wu, C. Y.; Becker, J. A.

    2007-10-01

    ^241Am is present in plutonium due to the beta decay of ^241Pu (t1/2=14.38 years). As such ^241Am can be used as a detector for nuclear forensics. A precise measurement of ^241Am(n,γ) cross section is thus needed for this application. The measurement is also of interest for advanced reactor design as part of the Global Nuclear Energy Partnership (GNEP). The Detector for Advanced Neutron Capture Experiments (DANCE) at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) was used for neutron capture cross section measurement on ^241Am. The high granularity of DANCE (160 BaF2 detectors in a 4π geometry) enables the efficient detection of prompt gamma-rays following a neutron capture. DANCE is located on the 20.26 m neutron flight path 14(FP14) at the Manuel Lujan Jr. Neutron Scattering Center at the Los Alamos Neutron Science Center (LANSCE). The absolute ^241Am(n,γ) cross sections were obtained in the range of neutron energies from 0.02 eV to 320 keV. The results will be compared to existing evaluations in detail.

  5. Luminosity measurement method for the LHC: Event selection and absolute luminosity determination

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krasny, M.W., E-mail: krasny@lpnhep.in2p3.fr [LPNHE, Pierre and Marie Curie University, CNRS-IN2P3, Tour 33, RdC, 4, pl. Jussieu, 75005 Paris (France); Chwastowski, J. [Institute of Teleinformatics, Faculty of Physics, Mathematics and Computer Science, Cracow University of Technology, ul. Warszawska 24, 31-115 Kraków (Poland); Institute of Nuclear Physics PAN, ul. Radzikowskiego 152, 31-342 Kraków (Poland); Cyz, A.; Słowikowski, K. [Institute of Nuclear Physics PAN, ul. Radzikowskiego 152, 31-342 Kraków (Poland)

    2013-11-21

    In our earlier papers Krasny et al. [1,2] have proposed a new luminosity measurement method which uses lepton pairs produced in peripheral collisions of the LHC beam particles, and identified the requirements for a new, specialized luminosity detector which is indispensable for their efficient on-line selection. In this paper we use the base-line detector model, with no precise timing capabilities, to evaluate the statistical and systematic accuracy of the method. We propose the complete event selection procedure and demonstrate that it allows to collect a sufficiently large sample of e{sup +}e{sup −} pairs to achieve a better than 1% statistical accuracy of the luminosity measurement over less than one-month-long running time intervals. We argue that the absolute luminosity measurement systematic errors can be kept below 1%. The proposed method can be directly applied to the LHC running periods for which the machine instantaneous luminosity does not exceed the L=10{sup 33}s{sup −1}cm{sup −2} value. Two ways extending the method to the large pile-up periods corresponding to higher instantaneous luminosities are proposed.

  6. Absolute measurement of the effective nonlinearities of KTP and BBO crystals by optical parametric amplification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armstrong, D J; Alford, W J; Raymond, T D; Smith, A V

    1996-04-20

    Absolute magnitudes of the effective nonlinearity, deff, were measured for seven KTP and six BBO crystals. The d(eff), were derived from the parametric gain of an 800-nm signal wave in the sample crystals when they were pumped by the frequency-doubled, spatially filtered light from an injectionseeded, Q-switched Nd:YAG laser. The KTP crystals, all type II phase matched with propagation in the X-Z plane, had d(eff) values ranging from 1.97 to 3.50 pm/V. Measurements of gain as a function of phase velocity mismatch indicate that two of the KTP crystals clearly contain multiple ferroelectric domains. For five type I phase-matched BBO crystals, d(eff) ranged from 1.76 to 1.83 pm/V, and a single type II phase-matched BBO crystal had a d(eff) of 1.56 pm/V. The uncertainty in our measurements of d(eff) values is ±5% for KTP and ±10% for BBO.

  7. Study on improving the turbidity measurement of the absolute coagulation rate constant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Zhiwei; Liu, Jie; Xu, Shenghua

    2006-05-23

    The existing theories dealing with the evaluation of the absolute coagulation rate constant by turbidity measurement were experimentally tested for different particle-sized (radius = a) suspensions at incident wavelengths (lambda) ranging from near-infrared to ultraviolet light. When the size parameter alpha = 2pi a/lambda > 3, the rate constant data from previous theories for fixed-sized particles show significant inconsistencies at different light wavelengths. We attribute this problem to the imperfection of these theories in describing the light scattering from doublets through their evaluation of the extinction cross section. The evaluations of the rate constants by all previous theories become untenable as the size parameter increases and therefore hampers the applicable range of the turbidity measurement. By using the T-matrix method, we present a robust solution for evaluating the extinction cross section of doublets formed in the aggregation. Our experiments show that this new approach is effective in extending the applicability range of the turbidity methodology and increasing measurement accuracy.

  8. Investigating 2010 Northern Cascadia ETS Processes With Absolute Gravity & Deformation Measurements Near Port Renfrew, British Columbia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henton, J. A.; Dragert, H.; Wang, K.; Kao, H.; Lambert, A.

    2010-12-01

    The monitoring of subduction zone Episodic Tremor and Slip (ETS) has been carried out primarily using seismic data for tremor and continuous Global Positioning System (GPS) and strain- or tilt-meter observations for transient slip. The regularity of ETS episodes in the forearc of the northern Cascadia Subduction Zone has recently allowed us to schedule a series of absolute gravity (AG) measurements to augment these other data and thereby help in understanding the physical processes involved in the generation of ETS. High-precision AG observations are sensitive to vertical motion of the observation site as well as mass redistribution during transient deformation. For the 2010 ETS event in the northern Cascadia, AG observations were carried out at Port Renfrew, British Columbia. The Port Renfrew region was targeted since it has typically had large (~7mm) vertical displacements measured at a nearby GPS site. Additionally this region has experienced large strains during past ETS episodes. The closest PBO borehole strainmeter to Port Renfrew, B004 (Sekiu, WA), typically experiences ETS shear strain transients exceeding 100 nanostrain. In this contribution, we focus on the analysis of the multiple epoch series of AG observations at Port Renfrew during the 2010 ETS event. The ratio of the change of surface gravity (Δg) to vertical displacement (Δh) during the ETS event will also be examined. This ratio provides unique constraints on processes involved in generating observed gravity signals and will help us explore the mechanism of ETS.

  9. In-Flight Measurement of the Absolute Energy Scale of the Fermi Large Area Telescope

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ackermann, M.; /Stanford U., HEPL /SLAC /KIPAC, Menlo Park; Ajello, M.; /Stanford U., HEPL /SLAC /KIPAC, Menlo Park; Allafort, A.; /Stanford U., HEPL /SLAC /KIPAC, Menlo Park; Atwood, W.B.; /UC, Santa Cruz; Axelsson, M.; /Stockholm U. /Stockholm U., OKC /Royal Inst. Tech., Stockholm; Baldini, L.; /INFN, Pisa; Barbiellini, G.; /INFN, Trieste /Trieste U.; Bastieri, D.; /INFN, Padua /Padua U.; Bechtol, K.; /Stanford U., HEPL /SLAC /KIPAC, Menlo Park; Bellazzini, R.; /INFN, Pisa; Berenji, B.; /Stanford U., HEPL /SLAC /KIPAC, Menlo Park; Bloom, E.D.; /Stanford U., HEPL /SLAC /KIPAC, Menlo Park; Bonamente, E.; /INFN, Perugia /Perugia U.; Borgland, A.W.; /Stanford U., HEPL /SLAC /KIPAC, Menlo Park; Bouvier, A.; /UC, Santa Cruz; Bregeon, J.; /INFN, Pisa; Brez, A.; /INFN, Pisa; Brigida, M.; /Bari Polytechnic /INFN, Bari; Bruel, P.; /Ecole Polytechnique; Buehler, R.; /Stanford U., HEPL /SLAC /KIPAC, Menlo Park; Buson, S.; /INFN, Padua /Padua U. /CSIC, Catalunya /Stanford U., HEPL /SLAC /KIPAC, Menlo Park /IASF, Milan /DAPNIA, Saclay /INFN, Perugia /Perugia U. /Stanford U., HEPL /SLAC /KIPAC, Menlo Park /Unlisted, US /Stanford U., HEPL /SLAC /KIPAC, Menlo Park /ASDC, Frascati /Perugia U. /Stanford U., HEPL /SLAC /KIPAC, Menlo Park /Montpellier U. /ASDC, Frascati /Bari Polytechnic /INFN, Bari /Naval Research Lab, Wash., D.C. /Stanford U., HEPL /SLAC /KIPAC, Menlo Park /Stanford U., HEPL /SLAC /KIPAC, Menlo Park /Stanford U., HEPL /SLAC /KIPAC, Menlo Park /Stanford U., HEPL /SLAC /KIPAC, Menlo Park /Stanford U., HEPL /SLAC /KIPAC, Menlo Park /Stanford U., HEPL /SLAC /KIPAC, Menlo Park /Montpellier U. /Bari Polytechnic /INFN, Bari /Ecole Polytechnique /Stanford U., HEPL /SLAC /KIPAC, Menlo Park /Ecole Polytechnique /Hiroshima U. /Stanford U., HEPL /SLAC /KIPAC, Menlo Park /Bari Polytechnic /INFN, Bari /INFN, Bari /NASA, Goddard /INFN, Perugia /Perugia U.; /more authors..

    2012-09-20

    The Large Area Telescope (LAT) on-board the Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope is a pair-conversion telescope designed to survey the gamma-ray sky from 20 MeV to several hundreds of GeV. In this energy band there are no astronomical sources with sufficiently well known and sharp spectral features to allow an absolute calibration of the LAT energy scale. However, the geomagnetic cutoff in the cosmic ray electron-plus-positron (CRE) spectrum in low Earth orbit does provide such a spectral feature. The energy and spectral shape of this cutoff can be calculated with the aid of a numerical code tracing charged particles in the Earth's magnetic field. By comparing the cutoff value with that measured by the LAT in different geomagnetic positions, we have obtained several calibration points between {approx}6 and {approx}13 GeV with an estimated uncertainty of {approx}2%. An energy calibration with such high accuracy reduces the systematic uncertainty in LAT measurements of, for example, the spectral cutoff in the emission from gamma ray pulsars.

  10. From direct to absolute mass measurements a study of the accuracy of ISOLTRAP

    CERN Document Server

    Kellerbauer, A G; Bollen, G; Herfurth, F; Kluge, H J; Kuckein, M; Sauvan, E; Scheidenberger, C; Schweikhard, L

    2003-01-01

    For a detailed study of the accuracy of the Penning trap mass spectrometer ISOLTRAP all expected sources of uncertainty were investigated with respect to their contributions to the uncertainty of the final result. In the course of these investigations, cross-reference measurements with singly charged carbon clusters $^{12}$C$^{+}_{n}$ were carried out. The carbon cluster ions were produced by use of laser-induced desorption, fragmentation, and ionization of C$_{60}$ fullerenes and injected into and stored in the Penning trap system. The comparison of the cyclotron frequencies of different carbon clusters has provided detailed insight into the residual systematic uncertainty of \\acro{ISOLTRAP} and yielded a value of $8 \\cdot 10^{-9}$. This also represents the current limit of mass accuracy of the apparatus. Since the unified atomic mass unit is defined as 1/12 of the mass of the $^{12}$C atom, it will be possible to carry out absolute mass measurements with \\acro{ISOLTRAP} in the future.\\\\[1\\baselineskip] PACS...

  11. ArtDeco: a beam-deconvolution code for absolute cosmic microwave background measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keihänen, E.; Reinecke, M.

    2012-12-01

    We present a method for beam-deconvolving cosmic microwave background (CMB) anisotropy measurements. The code takes as input the time-ordered data along with the corresponding detector pointings and known beam shapes, and produces as output the harmonic aTlm, aElm, and aBlm coefficients of the observed sky. From these one can derive temperature and Q and U polarisation maps. The method is applicable to absolute CMB measurements with wide sky coverage, and is independent of the scanning strategy. We tested the code with extensive simulations, mimicking the resolution and data volume of Planck 30 GHz and 70 GHz channels, but with exaggerated beam asymmetry. We applied it to multipoles up to l = 1700 and examined the results in both pixel space and harmonic space. We also tested the method in presence of white noise. The code is released under the terms of the GNU General Public License and can be obtained from http://sourceforge.net/projects/art-deco/

  12. Absolute coronary blood flow measurement and microvascular resistance in ST-elevation myocardial infarction in the acute and subacute phase

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wijnbergen, Inge; Veer, Marcel van ' t [Department of Cardiology, Catharina Hospital, Eindhoven (Netherlands); Department of Biomedical Engineering, Eindhoven University of Technology, Eindhoven (Netherlands); Lammers, Jeroen; Ubachs, Joey [Department of Cardiology, Catharina Hospital, Eindhoven (Netherlands); Pijls, Nico H.J., E-mail: nico.pijls@cze.nl [Department of Cardiology, Catharina Hospital, Eindhoven (Netherlands); Department of Biomedical Engineering, Eindhoven University of Technology, Eindhoven (Netherlands)

    2016-03-15

    Background/Purpose: In a number of patients with acute myocardial infarction (AMI), myocardial hypoperfusion, known as the no-reflow phenomenon, persists after primary percutaneous intervention (PPCI). The aim of this study was to evaluate the feasibility and safety of a new quantitative method of measuring absolute blood flow and resistance within the perfusion bed of an infarct-related artery. Furthermore, we sought to study no-reflow by correlating these measurements to the index of microvascular resistance (IMR) and the area at risk (AR) as determined by cardiac magnetic resonance imaging (CMR). Methods: Measurements of absolute flow and myocardial resistance were performed in 20 patients with ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI), first immediately following PPCI and then again after 3–5 days. These measurements used the technique of thermodilution during a continuous infusion of saline. Flow was expressed in ml/min per gram of tissue within the area at risk. Results: The average time needed for measurement of absolute flow, resistance and IMR was 20 min, and all measurements could be performed without complication. A higher flow supplying the AR correlated with a lower IMR in the acute phase. Absolute flow increased from 3.14 to 3.68 ml/min/g (p = 0.25) and absolute resistance decreased from 1317 to 1099 dyne.sec.cm-5/g (p = 0.40) between the first day and fifth day after STEMI. Conclusions: Measurement of absolute flow and microvascular resistance is safe and feasible in STEMI patients and may allow for a better understanding of microvascular (dys)function in the early phase of AMI. - Highlights: • We measured absolute coronary blood flow and microvascular resistance in STEMI patients in the acute phase and in the subacute phase, using the technique of thermodilution with low grade intracoronary continuous infusion of saline. • These measurements are safe and feasible during PPCI in STEMI patients. • In STEMI patients, absolute flow

  13. Average value of available measurements of the absolute air-fluorescence yield

    CERN Document Server

    Rosado, J; Arqueros, F

    2011-01-01

    The air-fluorescence yield is a key parameter for determining the energy scale of ultra-high-energy cosmic rays detected by fluorescence telescopes. A compilation of the available measurements of the absolute air-fluorescence yield normalized to its value in photons per MeV for the 337 nm band at given pressure and temperature has been recently presented in Ref. [1]. Also, in that paper, some corrections in the evaluation of the energy deposited in the corresponding experimental collision chambers have been proposed. In this note this comparison is updated. In addition, a simple statistical analysis is carried out showing that our corrections favor the compatibility among the various experiments. As a result, an average value of 5.45 ph/MeV for the fluorescence yield of the 337 nm band (20.1 ph/MeV for the spectral interval 300-420 nm) at 1013 hPa and 293 K with an uncertainty of 5% is found. This result is fully compatible with that recently presented by the AIRFLY collaboration (still preliminary) in such a...

  14. Absolute distance measurement with micrometer accuracy using a Michelson interferometer and the iterative synthetic wavelength principle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alzahrani, Khaled; Burton, David; Lilley, Francis; Gdeisat, Munther; Bezombes, Frederic; Qudeisat, Mohammad

    2012-02-27

    We present a novel system that can measure absolute distances of up to 300 mm with an uncertainty of the order of one micrometer, within a timeframe of 40 seconds. The proposed system uses a Michelson interferometer, a tunable laser, a wavelength meter and a computer for analysis. The principle of synthetic wave creation is used in a novel way in that the system employs an initial low precision estimate of the distance, obtained using a triangulation, or time-of-flight, laser system, or similar, and then iterates through a sequence of progressively smaller synthetic wavelengths until it reaches micrometer uncertainties in the determination of the distance. A further novel feature of the system is its use of Fourier transform phase analysis techniques to achieve sub-wavelength accuracy. This method has the major advantages of being relatively simple to realize, offering demonstrated high relative precisions better than 5 × 10(-5). Finally, the fact that this device does not require a continuous line-of-sight to the target as is the case with other configurations offers significant advantages.

  15. ELENA MCP detector: absolute efficiency measurement for low energy neutral atoms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rispoli, R.; De Angelis, E.; Colasanti, L.; Vertolli, N.; Orsini, S.; Scheer, J.; Mura, A.; Milillo, A.; Wurz, P.; Selci, S.; Di Lellis, A. M.; Leoni, R.; D'Alessandro, M.; Mattioli, F.; Cibella, S.

    2012-04-01

    MicroChannel plates (MCP) detectors are frequently used in space instrumentation for detecting a wide range of radiation and particles. In particular, the capability to detect non-thermal low energy neutral species is crucial for the sensor ELENA (Emitted Low-Energy Neutral Atoms), part of the package SERENA (Search for Exospheric Refilling and Emitted Natural Abundances) on board the BepiColombo mission to Mercury to be launched in 2014. ELENA is a TOF sensor, based on a novel concept ultra-sonic oscillating shutter (Start section)which is operated at frequencies up to 50 kHz; a MCP detector is used as a Stop section. It is aimed to detect neutral atoms in the range 10 eV - 5 keV, within 70° FOV, perpendicular to the S/C orbital plane. ELENA will monitor the emission of neutral atoms from the whole surface of Mercury thanks to the spacecraft motion. The major scientific objectives are the interaction between the environment and the planet, the global particle loss-rate and the remote sensing of the surface properties. In particular, surface release processes are investigated by identifying particles release from the surface, via solar wind-induced ion sputtering (100 eV) as well as Hydrogen back-scattered at hundreds eV. MCP absolute detection efficiency for very low energy neutral atoms (EMEFISTO facility of the Physical Institute of University of Bern (CH), measurements on three different type of MCPs coating have been performed providing the behaviors of MCP detection efficiency in the range 10eV-1keV. Outcomes from such measurements are here discussed.

  16. Absolute multilateration between spheres

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muelaner, Jody; Wadsworth, William; Azini, Maria; Mullineux, Glen; Hughes, Ben; Reichold, Armin

    2017-04-01

    Environmental effects typically limit the accuracy of large scale coordinate measurements in applications such as aircraft production and particle accelerator alignment. This paper presents an initial design for a novel measurement technique with analysis and simulation showing that that it could overcome the environmental limitations to provide a step change in large scale coordinate measurement accuracy. Referred to as absolute multilateration between spheres (AMS), it involves using absolute distance interferometry to directly measure the distances between pairs of plain steel spheres. A large portion of each sphere remains accessible as a reference datum, while the laser path can be shielded from environmental disturbances. As a single scale bar this can provide accurate scale information to be used for instrument verification or network measurement scaling. Since spheres can be simultaneously measured from multiple directions, it also allows highly accurate multilateration-based coordinate measurements to act as a large scale datum structure for localized measurements, or to be integrated within assembly tooling, coordinate measurement machines or robotic machinery. Analysis and simulation show that AMS can be self-aligned to achieve a theoretical combined standard uncertainty for the independent uncertainties of an individual 1 m scale bar of approximately 0.49 µm. It is also shown that combined with a 1 µm m‑1 standard uncertainty in the central reference system this could result in coordinate standard uncertainty magnitudes of 42 µm over a slender 1 m by 20 m network. This would be a sufficient step change in accuracy to enable next generation aerospace structures with natural laminar flow and part-to-part interchangeability.

  17. The orbit of Phi Cygni measured with long-baseline optical interferometry - Component masses and absolute magnitudes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armstrong, J. T.; Hummel, C. A.; Quirrenbach, A.; Buscher, D. F.; Mozurkewich, D.; Vivekanand, M.; Simon, R. S.; Denison, C. S.; Johnston, K. J.; Pan, X.-P.

    1992-01-01

    The orbit of the double-lined spectroscopic binary Phi Cygni, the distance to the system, and the masses and absolute magnitudes of its components are presented via measurements with the Mar III Optical Interferometer. On the basis of a reexamination of the spectroscopic data of Rach & Herbig (1961), the values and uncertainties are adopted for the period and the projected semimajor axes from the present fit to the spectroscopic data and the values of the remaining elements from the present fit to the Mark III data. The elements of the true orbit are derived, and the masses and absolute magnitudes of the components, and the distance to the system are calculated.

  18. Using relative and absolute measures for monitoring health inequalities: experiences from cross-national analyses on maternal and child health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huisman Martijn

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background As reducing socio-economic inequalities in health is an important public health objective, monitoring of these inequalities is an important public health task. The specific inequality measure used can influence the conclusions drawn, and there is no consensus on which measure is most meaningful. The key issue raising most debate is whether to use relative or absolute inequality measures. Our paper aims to inform this debate and develop recommendations for monitoring health inequalities on the basis of empirical analyses for a broad range of developing countries. Methods Wealth-group specific data on under-5 mortality, immunisation coverage, antenatal and delivery care for 43 countries were obtained from the Demographic and Health Surveys. These data were used to describe the association between the overall level of these outcomes on the one hand, and relative and absolute poor-rich inequalities in these outcomes on the other. Results We demonstrate that the values that the absolute and relative inequality measures can take are bound by mathematical ceilings. Yet, even where these ceilings do not play a role, the magnitude of inequality is correlated with the overall level of the outcome. The observed tendencies are, however, not necessities. There are countries with low mortality levels and low relative inequalities. Also absolute inequalities showed variation at most overall levels. Conclusion Our study shows that both absolute and relative inequality measures can be meaningful for monitoring inequalities, provided that the overall level of the outcome is taken into account. Suggestions are given on how to do this. In addition, our paper presents data that can be used for benchmarking of inequalities in the field of maternal and child health in low and middle-income countries.

  19. Measurement of the Absolute Proton and Helium Flux at the Top of the Atmosphere using IMAX

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Menn, W.; Hof, M.; Reimer, O.;

    1996-01-01

    with ancillary scintillators, time-of-flight, and aerogel cherenkov detectors. High resolution drift chambers and MWPCs were used as the tracking devices. Using redundant detectors, an extensive examination of the instrument efficiency was carried out. We present the absolute spectra of protons and helium...

  20. Analysis, Design and Testing of a Novel Quasi-Zero-Stiffness based Sensor System for Measurement of Absolute Vibration Motion

    CERN Document Server

    Wang, Yu

    2015-01-01

    This study presents the analysis and design of a novel quasi-zero-stiffness (QZS) based vibration sensor system for measuring absolute displacement of vibrating platforms/objects. The sensor system is constructed by using positive and negative-stiffness springs, which makes it possible to achieve an equivalent QZS and consequently to create a broadband vibration-free point for absolute displacement measurement in vibrating platforms. Theoretic analysis is conducted for the analysis and design of the influence of structure parameters on system measurement performance. A prototype is designed which can avoid the drawback of instability in existing QZS systems with negative stiffness, and the corresponding data-processing software is developed to fulfill time domain and frequency domain measurements simultaneously. Both simulation and experiment results verify the effectiveness of this novel sensor system.

  1. Design of a quasi-zero-stiffness based sensor system for the measurement of absolute vibration displacement of moving platforms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jing, Xingjian; Wang, Yu; Li, Quankun; Sun, Xiuting

    2016-09-01

    This study presents the analysis and design of a novel sensor system for measuring the absolute vibration displacement of moving platforms based on the concept of quasi-zero-stiffness (QZS). The sensor system is constructed using positive- and negative-stiffness springs, which make it possible to achieve an equivalent QZS and consequently to create a broadband vibration-free point for absolute vibration displacement measurement in moving platforms. Theoretical analysis is conducted for the analysis and design of the influence of structure parameters on system measurement performance. A prototype is designed which can avoid the drawback of instability in existing QZS systems with negative stiffness, and corresponding data-processing software is developed to fulfill time domain measurements. Both the simulation and experimental results verify the effectiveness of this novel sensor system.

  2. Absolute activity measurement and gamma-ray emission probability for decay of I-126

    CERN Document Server

    Fonseca, K A

    1997-01-01

    The accurate knowledge of the gamma-ray emission probability per decay of radionuclides is important in several applications. In the case of sup 1 sup 2 sup 6 I, its importance lies mainly in fast neutron dosimetry as well as in the production of sup 1 sup 2 sup 5 I where sup 1 sup 2 sup 6 I appears as an impurity. In the present work the gamma-ray emission probabilities per decay for the 388 and 666-KeV transitions of sup 1 sup 2 sup 6 I have been measured. This radionuclide was obtained by means of the sup 1 sup 2 sup 7 I(n, 2n) sup 1 sup 2 sup 6 I reaction in a fast neutron flux at the IPEN 2 MW research reactor. The methodology for the primary standardization of sup 1 sup 2 sup 6 I is described. For this purpose, two different coincidence systems were used due to the complex decay scheme of this radionuclide. The beta branch measurement was carried out in a 4 pi(PC)beta-gamma coincidence system consisting of a proportional counter, coupled to a pair of 3'x3' Na I (Tl) crystal. The electron capture branch ...

  3. Absolute OH Number Density Measurements in Lean Fuel-Air Mixtures Excited by a Repetitively Pulsed Nanosecond Discharge

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    discharge filaments and near the electrode edges [9]. Instead of using absorption measurement, an atmospheric pressure flame generated by a Hencken...DuPont) is placed between each electrode and the channel wall, to reduce air gaps and prevent corona discharge outside the cell. In the present work...1 Absolute OH Number Density Measurements in Lean Fuel-Air Mixtures Excited by a Repetitively Pulsed Nanosecond Discharge Zhiyao Yin, Campbell D

  4. Measuring the absolute deuterium-tritium neutron yield using the magnetic recoil spectrometer at OMEGA and the NIF.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casey, D T; Frenje, J A; Gatu Johnson, M; Séguin, F H; Li, C K; Petrasso, R D; Glebov, V Yu; Katz, J; Knauer, J P; Meyerhofer, D D; Sangster, T C; Bionta, R M; Bleuel, D L; Döppner, T; Glenzer, S; Hartouni, E; Hatchett, S P; Le Pape, S; Ma, T; MacKinnon, A; McKernan, M A; Moran, M; Moses, E; Park, H-S; Ralph, J; Remington, B A; Smalyuk, V; Yeamans, C B; Kline, J; Kyrala, G; Chandler, G A; Leeper, R J; Ruiz, C L; Cooper, G W; Nelson, A J; Fletcher, K; Kilkenny, J; Farrell, M; Jasion, D; Paguio, R

    2012-10-01

    A magnetic recoil spectrometer (MRS) has been installed and extensively used on OMEGA and the National Ignition Facility (NIF) for measurements of the absolute neutron spectrum from inertial confinement fusion implosions. From the neutron spectrum measured with the MRS, many critical implosion parameters are determined including the primary DT neutron yield, the ion temperature, and the down-scattered neutron yield. As the MRS detection efficiency is determined from first principles, the absolute DT neutron yield is obtained without cross-calibration to other techniques. The MRS primary DT neutron measurements at OMEGA and the NIF are shown to be in excellent agreement with previously established yield diagnostics on OMEGA, and with the newly commissioned nuclear activation diagnostics on the NIF.

  5. Absolute nutrient concentration measurements in cell culture media: 1H q-NMR spectra and data to compare the efficiency of pH-controlled protein precipitation versus CPMG or post-processing filtering approaches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luca Goldoni

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The NMR spectra and data reported in this article refer to the research article titled “A simple and accurate protocol for absolute polar metabolite quantification in cell cultures using q-NMR” [1]. We provide the 1H q-NMR spectra of cell culture media (DMEM after removal of serum proteins, which show the different efficiency of various precipitating solvents, the solvent/DMEM ratios, and pH of the solution. We compare the data of the absolute nutrient concentrations, measured by PULCON external standard method, before and after precipitation of serum proteins and those obtained using CPMG (Carr-Purcell-Meiboom-Gill sequence or applying post-processing filtering algorithms to remove, from the 1H q-NMR spectra, the proteins signal contribution. For each of these approaches, the percent error in the absolute value of every measurement for all the nutrients is also plotted as accuracy assessment.

  6. Measuring Absolute RNA Copy Numbers at High Temporal Resolution Reveals Transcriptome Kinetics in Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nick D.L. Owens

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Transcript regulation is essential for cell function, and misregulation can lead to disease. Despite technologies to survey the transcriptome, we lack a comprehensive understanding of transcript kinetics, which limits quantitative biology. This is an acute challenge in embryonic development, where rapid changes in gene expression dictate cell fate decisions. By ultra-high-frequency sampling of Xenopus embryos and absolute normalization of sequence reads, we present smooth gene expression trajectories in absolute transcript numbers. During a developmental period approximating the first 8 weeks of human gestation, transcript kinetics vary by eight orders of magnitude. Ordering genes by expression dynamics, we find that “temporal synexpression” predicts common gene function. Remarkably, a single parameter, the characteristic timescale, can classify transcript kinetics globally and distinguish genes regulating development from those involved in cellular metabolism. Overall, our analysis provides unprecedented insight into the reorganization of maternal and embryonic transcripts and redefines our ability to perform quantitative biology.

  7. Measuring Accurate Body Parameters of Dressed Humans with Large-Scale Motion Using a Kinect Sensor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sidan Du

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Non-contact human body measurement plays an important role in surveillance, physical healthcare, on-line business and virtual fitting. Current methods for measuring the human body without physical contact usually cannot handle humans wearing clothes, which limits their applicability in public environments. In this paper, we propose an effective solution that can measure accurate parameters of the human body with large-scale motion from a Kinect sensor, assuming that the people are wearing clothes. Because motion can drive clothes attached to the human body loosely or tightly, we adopt a space-time analysis to mine the information across the posture variations. Using this information, we recover the human body, regardless of the effect of clothes, and measure the human body parameters accurately. Experimental results show that our system can perform more accurate parameter estimation on the human body than state-of-the-art methods.

  8. New design of a microcalorimeter for measuring absolute heat capacity from 300 to 550 K

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Woong-Jhae; Kim, Hyung Joon; Kim, Jae Wook; Nam, Dong Hak; Choi, Ki-Young [Center for Novel States of Complex Materials Research, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Seoul National University, Seoul 151-747 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Kee Hoon, E-mail: khkim@phya.snu.ac.kr [Center for Novel States of Complex Materials Research, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Seoul National University, Seoul 151-747 (Korea, Republic of); Institute of Applied Physics, Seoul National University, Seoul 151-747 (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-03-10

    Highlights: • A microcalorimeter (C{sub add} ∼ 6 μJ K{sup −1}) having a Si:N/SiO{sub 2} membrane was designed. • Concentric heater and sensor leads are useful for achieving better heat confinement. • Fabrication in one side of the membrane makes the process easy and cost-effective. • The lumped-τ{sub 2} model incorporating radiation effects was used to measure accurate C{sub p}. • Measurement errors were confirmed to be less than 3% from 300 to 550 K. - Abstract: We report development of a new type of a microcalorimeter based on an amorphous membrane composed of Si:N and SiO{sub 2} layers, which holds an isothermal Au film of a disc shape and concentric Pt leads as a heater and a thermal sensor. Two-dimensional thermal simulation was used to confirm that the layout of the isothermal platform and metallic leads result in nearly perfect isothermal conditions at temperatures from 20 to 600 K. Moreover, by placing the insulating SiO{sub 2} layer between the isothermal film and metallic leads, we could locate all electrical and thermal components in the top side of the membrane, allowing the micro-fabrication easy and cost-effective. The micro-fabrication method produces a total of 49 devices in a four inch Si wafer and can be also applied in a larger wafer size. Heat capacity value of the isothermal platform was found to be as small as ∼6 μJ K{sup −1} at room temperature. Upon applying the lumped-τ{sub 2} model in the measurement scheme, we found that specific heat of an Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} single crystal (NIST standard, ∼0.2 mg) was consistent with the literature value within ∼3% at temperatures between 300 and 550 K. Our results show that the circular layout of the isothermal platform with better heat confinement is useful for increasing the accuracy of measured heat capacity if the other parameters such as thickness and thermal conductivity of each layer in the membrane are fixed.

  9. Separating climate-induced mass transfers and instrumental effects from tectonic signal in repeated absolute gravity measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Camp, M.; Viron, O.; Avouac, J. P.

    2016-05-01

    We estimate the signature of the climate-induced mass transfers in repeated absolute gravity measurements based on satellite gravimetric measurements from the Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE) mission. We show results at the globe scale and compare them with repeated absolute gravity (AG) time behavior in three zones where AG surveys have been published: Northwestern Europe, Canada, and Tibet. For 10 yearly campaigns, the uncertainties affecting the determination of a linear gravity rate of change range 3-4 nm/s2/a in most cases, in the absence of instrumental artifacts. The results are consistent with what is observed for long-term repeated campaigns. We also discuss the possible artifact that can result from using short AG survey to determine the tectonic effects in a zone of high hydrological variability. We call into question the tectonic interpretation of several gravity changes reported from stations in Tibet, in particular the variation observed prior to the 2015 Gorkha earthquake.

  10. A Proposed Method for Measurement of Absolute Air Fluorescence Yield based on High Resolution Optical Emission Spectroscopy

    CERN Document Server

    Gika, V; Maltezos, S

    2016-01-01

    In this work, we present a method for absolute measurement of air fluorescence yield based on high resolution optical emission spectroscopy. The absolute measurement of the air fluorescence yield is feasible using the Cherenkov light, emitted by an electron beam simultaneously with the fluorescence light, as a "standard candle". The separation of these two radiations can be accomplished exploiting the "dark" spectral regions of the emission band systems of the molecular spectrum of nitrogen. In these "dark" regions the net Cherenkov light can be recorded experimentally and be compared with the calculated one. The instrumentation for obtaining the nitrogen molecular spectra in high resolution and the noninvasive method for monitoring the rotational temperature of the emission process are also described. For the experimental evaluation of the molecular spectra analysis we used DC normal glow discharges in air performed in an appropriate spectral lamp considered as an air-fluorescence light emulator. The propose...

  11. Defining Allowable Physical Property Variations for High Accurate Measurements on Polymer Parts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mohammadi, Ali; Sonne, Mads Rostgaard; Madruga, Daniel González;

    2015-01-01

    cooling down after injection molding. In order to obtain accurate simulations, accurate inputs to the model are crucial. In reality however, the material and physical properties will have some variations. Although these variations may be small, they can act as a source of uncertainty for the measurement...... high accurate measurements in non-controlled ambient. Most of polymer parts are manufactured by injection moulding and their inspection is carried out after stabilization, around 200 hours. The overall goal of this work is to reach ±5μm in uncertainty measurements a polymer products which...... is a challenge in today‘s production and metrology environments. The residual deformations in polymer products at room temperature after injection molding are important when micrometer accuracy needs to be achieved. Numerical modelling can give a valuable insight to what is happening in the polymer during...

  12. Measurement of the absolute branching ratio of the K+ -> pi+ pi0 (gamma) decay with the KLOE detector

    CERN Document Server

    Ambrosino, F; Antonelli, M; Archilli, F; Bacci, C; Beltrame, P; Bencivenni, G; Bertolucci, S; Bini, C; Bloise, C; Bocchetta, S; Bossi, F; Branchini, P; Campana, P; Capon, G; Capussela, T; Ceradini, F; Cesario, F; Chi, S; Chiefari, G; Ciambrone, P; Crucianelli, F; De Lucia, E; De Santis, A; De Simone, P; De Zorzi, G; Denig, A; Di Domenico, A; Di Donato, C; Di Micco, B; Doria, A; Dreucci, M; Felici, G; Ferrari, A; Ferrer, M L; Fiore, S; Forti, C; Franzini, P; Gatti, C; Gauzzi, P; Giovannella, S; Gorini, E; Graziani, E; Kluge, W; Kulikov, V; Lacava, F; Lanfranchi, G; Lee-Franzini, J; Leone, D; Martemyanov, M; Martini, M; Massarotti, P; Mei, W; Meola, S; Miscetti, S; Moulson, M; Müller, S; Murtas, F; Napolitano, M; Nguyen, F; Palutan, M; Pasqualucci, E; Passeri, A; Patera, V; Perfetto, F; Primavera, M; Santangelo, P; Saracino, G; Sciascia, B; Sciubba, A; Sibidanov, A; Spadaro, T; Testa, M; Tortora, L; Valente, P; Venanzoni, G; Versaci, R; Xu, G

    2008-01-01

    We have measured the absolute branching ratio of the K+ -> pi+ pi0 (gamma) decay, using about 20 million tagged K+ mesons collected with the KLOE detector at DAFNE, the Frascati phi-factory. Signal counts are obtained from the fit of the distribution of the momentum of the charged decay particle in the kaon rest frame. The result, inclusive of final-state radiation, is BR(K+ -> pi+ pi0 (gamma))=0.2065+/-0.0005_{stat}+/- 0.0008_{syst}.

  13. No galaxy left behind: accurate measurements with the faintest objects in the Dark Energy Survey

    CERN Document Server

    Suchyta, E; Aleksić, J; Melchior, P; Jouvel, S; MacCrann, N; Crocce, M; Gaztanaga, E; Honscheid, K; Leistedt, B; Peiris, H V; Ross, A J; Rykoff, E S; Sheldon, E; Abbott, T; Abdalla, F B; Allam, S; Banerji, M; Benoit-Lévy, A; Bertin, E; Brooks, D; Burke, D L; Rosell, A Carnero; Kind, M Carrasco; Carretero, J; Cunha, C E; D'Andrea, C B; da Costa, L N; DePoy, D L; Desai, S; Diehl, H T; Dietrich, J P; Doel, P; Eifler, T F; Estrada, J; Evrard, A E; Flaugher, B; Fosalba, P; Frieman, J; Gerdes, D W; Gruen, D; Gruendl, R A; James, D J; Jarvis, M; Kuehn, K; Kuropatkin, N; Lahav, O; Lima, M; Maia, M A G; March, M; Marshall, J L; Miller, C J; Miquel, R; Neilsen, E; Nichol, R C; Nord, B; Ogando, R; Percival, W J; Reil, K; Roodman, A; Sako, M; Sanchez, E; Scarpine, V; Sevilla-Noarbe, I; Smith, R C; Soares-Santos, M; Sobreira, F; Swanson, M E C; Tarle, G; Thaler, J; Thomas, D; Vikram, V; Walker, A R; Wechsler, R H; Zhang, Y

    2015-01-01

    Accurate statistical measurement with large imaging surveys has traditionally required throwing away a sizable fraction of the data. This is because most measurements have have relied on selecting nearly complete samples, where variations in the composition of the galaxy population with seeing, depth, or other survey characteristics are small. We introduce a new measurement method that aims to minimize this wastage, allowing precision measurement for any class of stars or galaxies detectable in an imaging survey. We have implemented our proposal in Balrog, a software package which embeds fake objects in real imaging in order to accurately characterize measurement biases. We demonstrate this technique with an angular clustering measurement using Dark Energy Survey (DES) data. We first show that recovery of our injected galaxies depends on a wide variety of survey characteristics in the same way as the real data. We then construct a flux-limited sample of the faintest galaxies in DES, chosen specifically for th...

  14. Integration of Quantitative Positron Emission Tomography Absolute Myocardial Blood Flow Measurements in the Clinical Management of Coronary Artery Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gewirtz, Henry; Dilsizian, Vasken

    2016-05-31

    In the >40 years since planar myocardial imaging with(43)K-potassium was introduced into clinical research and management of patients with coronary artery disease (CAD), diagnosis and treatment have undergone profound scientific and technological changes. One such innovation is the current state-of-the-art hardware and software for positron emission tomography myocardial perfusion imaging, which has advanced it from a strictly research-oriented modality to a clinically valuable tool. This review traces the evolving role of quantitative positron emission tomography measurements of myocardial blood flow in the evaluation and management of patients with CAD. It presents methodology, currently or soon to be available, that offers a paradigm shift in CAD management. Heretofore, radionuclide myocardial perfusion imaging has been primarily qualitative or at best semiquantitative in nature, assessing regional perfusion in relative terms. Thus, unlike so many facets of modern cardiovascular practice and CAD management, which depend, for example, on absolute values of key parameters such as arterial and left ventricular pressures, serum lipoprotein, and other biomarker levels, the absolute levels of rest and maximal myocardial blood flow have yet to be incorporated into routine clinical practice even in most positron emission tomography centers where the potential to do so exists. Accordingly, this review focuses on potential value added for improving clinical CAD practice by measuring the absolute level of rest and maximal myocardial blood flow. Physiological principles and imaging fundamentals necessary to understand how positron emission tomography makes robust, quantitative measurements of myocardial blood flow possible are highlighted.

  15. Absolute cerebral blood flow and blood volume measured by magnetic resonance imaging bolus tracking: comparison with positron emission tomography values

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Østergaard, Leif; Smith, D F; Vestergaard-Poulsen, Peter;

    1998-01-01

    The authors determined cerebral blood flow (CBF) with magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of contrast agent bolus passage and compared the results with those obtained by O-15 labeled water (H215O) and positron emission tomography (PET). Six pigs were examined by MRI and PET under normo......- and hypercapnic conditions. After dose normalization and introduction of an empirical constant phi Gd, absolute regional CBF was calculated from MRI. The spatial resolution and the signal-to-noise ratio of CBF measurements by MRI were better than by the H215O-PET protocol. Magnetic resonance imaging cerebral...... blood volume (CBV) estimates obtained using this normalization constant correlated well with values obtained by O-15 labeled carbonmonooxide (C15O) PET. However, PET CBV values were approximately 2.5 times larger than absolute MRI CBV values, supporting the hypothesized sensitivity of MRI to small...

  16. Ocean Lidar Measurements of Beam Attenuation and a Roadmap to Accurate Phytoplankton Biomass Estimates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hu Yongxiang

    2016-01-01

    On July 17, 2014, the CALIPSO satellite was tilted 30° off-nadir for one nighttime orbit in order to minimize ocean surface backscatter and demonstrate the lidar ocean subsurface measurement concept from space. Depolarization ratios of ocean subsurface backscatter are measured accurately. Beam attenuation coefficients computed from the depolarization ratio measurements compare well with empirical estimates from ocean color measurements. We further verify the beam attenuation coefficient retrievals using aircraft-based high spectral resolution lidar (HSRL data that are collocated with in-water optical measurements.

  17. Recent Advances in Highly Accurate Range Measurements with TerraSAR-X

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eineder, Michael; Balss, Ulrich; Gisinger, Christoph; Cong, Xiao Ying; Brcic, Ramon; Steigenberger, Peter

    2013-04-01

    Earth surface displacement measurement from space using Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) imagery is an interesting alternative to SAR interferometry (InSAR). The advantages are that 2D information can be retrieved (InSAR only 1D), absolute displacements can be retrieved (no reference point required) and it is very robust (phase unwrapping not required). On the other hand, the accuracy is limited by the pixel resolution, the object contrast, the orbit accuracy, by wave propagation distortion and by geodetic effects. Therefore the accuracy was more in the meter / decimeter level in the past, compared to millimeter accuracy of InSAR. During the recent years our team established a test and validation site at the geodetic observatory Wettzell, Germany and developed compensation methods to reduce the overall error of absolute range measurements from decimeters to only one centimeter. The methods include correction of dry and wet atmospheric delays, ionospheric corrections, solid earth tides, continental drift, atmospheric pressure loading and ocean tidal loading. For more one year a radar reflector was monitored and each image evaluated. Our presentation gives and overview of methods and achieved results. Futhermore, examples of real world applications and an outlook on more applications is given such as phase unwrapping augmentation.

  18. Measurement of the Absolute Photoionization Cross Section for the 5P3/2 State of 87Rb in a Vapor Cell Magneto-optic Trap

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HUANG Wei; RUAN Ya-Ping; JIA Feng-Dong; ZHONG Yin-Peng; LIU Long-Wei; DAI Xing-Can; XUE Ping; XU Xiang-Yuan; ZHONG Zhi-Ping

    2012-01-01

    We report the measurement of the absolute photoionization cross section for the 5P3/2 state of 87 Rb at wavelength of 473 nm,which results in the photoelectron energies of 33 meV above the ionization threshold,using cold atoms confined in a vapor-loaded magneto-optical trap.The 87Rb 5P3/2 photoionization cross section at 473nm is determined to be σPI =10.5 ± 2.2 Mb.Considering the spatial distribution of the trapped atoms,the average intensity IPI of the ionization laser seen by an atom in the MOT instead of ionizing laser intensity IPI is used in our calculations for the photoionization cross sections.The excited state fraction is also accurately estimated using the latest experimental result.%We report the measurement of the absolute photoionization cross section for the 5P3/2 state of87 Rb at wavelength of 473 nm, which results in the photoelectron energies of 33 meV above the ionization threshold, using cold atoms confined in a vapor-loaded magneto-optical trap. The 87Rb 5P3/2 photoionization cross section at 473 nm is determined to be <σPI = 10.5 ± 2.2 Mb. Considering the spatial distribution of the trapped atoms, the average intensity -IPII of the ionization laser seen by an atom in the MOT instead of ionizing laser intensity IPI is used in our calculations for the photoionization cross sections. The excited state fraction is also accurately estimated using the latest experimental result.

  19. Accurate wavelength prediction of photonic crystal resonant reflection and applications in refractive index measurement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hermannsson, Pétur Gordon; Vannahme, Christoph; Smith, Cameron L. C.

    2014-01-01

    and superstrate materials. The importance of accounting for material dispersion in order to obtain accurate simulation results is highlighted, and a method for doing so using an iterative approach is demonstrated. Furthermore, an application for the model is demonstrated, in which the material dispersion...... of a liquid is extracted from measured resonance wavelengths....

  20. Importance of Accurate Measurements in Nutrition Research: Dietary Flavonoids as a Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Accurate measurements of the secondary metabolites in natural products and plant foods are critical to establishing diet/health relationships. There are as many as 50,000 secondary metabolites which may influence human health. Their structural and chemical diversity present a challenge to analytic...

  1. Accurate measurement of circulating mitochondrial DNA content from human blood samples using real-time quantitative PCR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ajaz, Saima; Czajka, Anna; Malik, Afshan

    2015-01-01

    We describe a protocol to accurately measure the amount of human mitochondrial DNA (MtDNA) in peripheral blood samples which can be modified to quantify MtDNA from other body fluids, human cells, and tissues. This protocol is based on the use of real-time quantitative PCR (qPCR) to quantify the amount of MtDNA relative to nuclear DNA (designated the Mt/N ratio). In the last decade, there have been increasing numbers of studies describing altered MtDNA or Mt/N in circulation in common nongenetic diseases where mitochondrial dysfunction may play a role (for review see Malik and Czajka, Mitochondrion 13:481-492, 2013). These studies are distinct from those looking at genetic mitochondrial disease and are attempting to identify acquired changes in circulating MtDNA content as an indicator of mitochondrial function. However, the methodology being used is not always specific and reproducible. As more than 95 % of the human mitochondrial genome is duplicated in the human nuclear genome, it is important to avoid co-amplification of nuclear pseudogenes. Furthermore, template preparation protocols can also affect the results because of the size and structural differences between the mitochondrial and nuclear genomes. Here we describe how to (1) prepare DNA from blood samples; (2) pretreat the DNA to prevent dilution bias; (3) prepare dilution standards for absolute quantification using the unique primers human mitochondrial genome forward primer (hMitoF3) and human mitochondrial genome reverse primer(hMitoR3) for the mitochondrial genome, and human nuclear genome forward primer (hB2MF1) and human nuclear genome reverse primer (hB2MR1) primers for the human nuclear genome; (4) carry out qPCR for either relative or absolute quantification from test samples; (5) analyze qPCR data; and (6) calculate the sample size to adequately power studies. The protocol presented here is suitable for high-throughput use.

  2. Absolute frequency measurement of the {{}^{1}}{{\\text{S}}_{0}} – {{}^{3}}{{\\text{P}}_{0}} transition of 171Yb

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pizzocaro, Marco; Thoumany, Pierre; Rauf, Benjamin; Bregolin, Filippo; Milani, Gianmaria; Clivati, Cecilia; Costanzo, Giovanni A.; Levi, Filippo; Calonico, Davide

    2017-02-01

    We report the absolute frequency measurement of the unperturbed transition {{}1}{{\\text{S}}0} – {{}3}{{\\text{P}}0} at 578 nm in 171Yb realized in an optical lattice frequency standard relative to a cryogenic caesium fountain. The measurement result is 518 295 836 590 863.59(31) Hz with a relative standard uncertainty of 5.9× {{10}-16} . This value is in agreement with the ytterbium frequency recommended as a secondary representation of the second in the International System of Units.

  3. Absolute advantage

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.G.M. van Marrewijk (Charles)

    2008-01-01

    textabstractA country is said to have an absolute advantage over another country in the production of a good or service if it can produce that good or service using fewer real resources. Equivalently, using the same inputs, the country can produce more output. The concept of absolute advantage can a

  4. Absolute nuclear material assay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prasad, Manoj K [Pleasanton, CA; Snyderman, Neal J [Berkeley, CA; Rowland, Mark S [Alamo, CA

    2012-05-15

    A method of absolute nuclear material assay of an unknown source comprising counting neutrons from the unknown source and providing an absolute nuclear material assay utilizing a model to optimally compare to the measured count distributions. In one embodiment, the step of providing an absolute nuclear material assay comprises utilizing a random sampling of analytically computed fission chain distributions to generate a continuous time-evolving sequence of event-counts by spreading the fission chain distribution in time.

  5. Evaluation of Modified Pycnometric Method for Accurately Measuring the Density of Molten Nickel

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XIAO Feng; FANG Liang; FU Yuechao; YANG Lingchuan

    2004-01-01

    A modified pycnometric method has been developed to obtain accurate densities of molten nickel.The new method allows continuous measurement of density over a wide temperature range from a single experiment.The measurement error of the method was analyzed, and the total uncertainty of the measurement was estimated to be within ±0.34%. The measured density of molten nickel decreases linearly with increasing temperature over a range from the melting point to 1873K. The density at the melting point and the thermal expansion coefficient of molten nickel are 7.90Mg·m-3 and 1.92×10-4 K-1,respectively.

  6. Techniques for determining propulsion system forces for accurate high speed vehicle drag measurements in flight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnaiz, H. H.

    1975-01-01

    As part of a NASA program to evaluate current methods of predicting the performance of large, supersonic airplanes, the drag of the XB-70 airplane was measured accurately in flight at Mach numbers from 0.75 to 2.5. This paper describes the techniques used to determine engine net thrust and the drag forces charged to the propulsion system that were required for the in-flight drag measurements. The accuracy of the measurements and the application of the measurement techniques to aircraft with different propulsion systems are discussed. Examples of results obtained for the XB-70 airplane are presented.

  7. Accurate mass replacement method for the sediment concentration measurement with a constant volume container

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ban, Yunyun; Chen, Tianqin; Yan, Jun; Lei, Tingwu

    2017-04-01

    The measurement of sediment concentration in water is of great importance in soil erosion research and soil and water loss monitoring systems. The traditional weighing method has long been the foundation of all the other measuring methods and instrument calibration. The development of a new method to replace the traditional oven-drying method is of interest in research and practice for the quick and efficient measurement of sediment concentration, especially field measurements. A new method is advanced in this study for accurately measuring the sediment concentration based on the accurate measurement of the mass of the sediment-water mixture in the confined constant volume container (CVC). A sediment-laden water sample is put into the CVC to determine its mass before the CVC is filled with water and weighed again for the total mass of the water and sediments in the container. The known volume of the CVC, the mass of sediment-laden water, and sediment particle density are used to calculate the mass of water, which is replaced by sediments, therefore sediment concentration of the sample is calculated. The influence of water temperature was corrected by measuring water density to determine the temperature of water before measurements were conducted. The CVC was used to eliminate the surface tension effect so as to obtain the accurate volume of water and sediment mixture. Experimental results showed that the method was capable of measuring the sediment concentration from 0.5 up to 1200 kg m‑3. A good liner relationship existed between the designed and measured sediment concentrations with all the coefficients of determination greater than 0.999 and the averaged relative error less than 0.2%. All of these seem to indicate that the new method is capable of measuring a full range of sediment concentration above 0.5 kg m‑3 to replace the traditional oven-drying method as a standard method for evaluating and calibrating other methods.

  8. High-accuracy absolute distance measurement by two-wavelength double heterodyne interferometry with variable synthetic wavelengths

    CERN Document Server

    Kuramoto, Yoshiyuki

    2014-01-01

    We present an absolute distance measurement interferometer based on a two wavelength interferometer and a variable synthetic wavelength technique. The wavelength scanning range was 12 GHz, realized with a phase accuracy of 1.0 m{\\lambda} by heterodyne detection at each measurement wavelength. This small wavelength scanning range enabled the use of distributed feedback laser diodes as an interferometer light source and a fast 20 ms wavelength scanning time by injection current control. We demonstrated a measurement range of up to 1.5 m and an accuracy better than 1.2 nm in comparison with a displacement measurement interferometer, corresponding to a relative accuracy of 10-9. In addition, we also proposed expanding the range of maximum measurement and compensation of refractive index of air for linear colliders.

  9. Defining allowable physical property variations for high accurate measurements on polymer parts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammadi, A.; Sonne, M. R.; Madruga, D. G.; De Chiffre, L.; Hattel, J. H.

    2016-06-01

    Measurement conditions and material properties have a significant impact on the dimensions of a part, especially for polymers parts. Temperature variation causes part deformations that increase the uncertainty of the measurement process. Current industrial tolerances of a few micrometres demand high accurate measurements in non-controlled ambient. Most of polymer parts are manufactured by injection moulding and their inspection is carried out after stabilization, around 200 hours. The overall goal of this work is to reach ±5μm in uncertainty measurements a polymer products which is a challenge in today`s production and metrology environments. The residual deformations in polymer products at room temperature after injection molding are important when micrometer accuracy needs to be achieved. Numerical modelling can give a valuable insight to what is happening in the polymer during cooling down after injection molding. In order to obtain accurate simulations, accurate inputs to the model are crucial. In reality however, the material and physical properties will have some variations. Although these variations may be small, they can act as a source of uncertainty for the measurement. In this paper, we investigated how big the variation in material and physical properties are allowed in order to reach the 5 μm target on the uncertainty.

  10. Gravity Change in Finland 1962-2010 from the Comparison of Legacy Relative Measurements with New Absolute Measurements Using the A10-020 Gravimeter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raja-Halli, A.; Makinen, J.; Sekowski, M.; Krynski, J. S.; Kuokkanen, J.; Naranen, J.; Ruotsalainen, H. E. O.; Virtanen, H.; Bilker-Koivula, M.

    2014-12-01

    The gravity change associated with the Fennoscandian Postglacial Rebound (PGR) has been studied for 50 years now, with both relative and absolute gravity measurements. High-precision relative gravity measurements on the specially designed Fennoscandian Land Uplift Gravity Lines began in 1966. First absolute-gravity measurements with laboratory-type instruments were made in 1976. Here we report on a new regionally dense dataset: the comparison of legacy relative measurements in the Finnish First Order Gravity Net (FOGN) with absolute-gravity measurements with the A10-020 gravimeter. The FOGN was first measured in 1962 using a Worden Master gravimeter, and re-surveyed in 1988 using two LaCoste&Romberg model G gravimeters. It was re-measured in 2009-2010 using the A10-020 free-fall gravimeter of the Institute of Geodesy and Cartography. The FOGN covers the whole country and consists of 50 outdoor stations in public buildings, typically on church steps. About 30 stations from 1962 were still intact in 2009/10, and at some additional stations there is a history of local relative ties to replacement sites now occupied with the A10-020. The vertical PGR rates at the sites are up to 1 cm/yr, and thus the total gravity change in the 47 years can amount to 80 microgals. Since the legacy measurements are relative, only the differences of gravity change are estimable, and consequently the expected maximum signal is less, about 60 microgals. We compare the observed gravity change in the FOGN with estimates of vertical motion from continuous GNSS, from repeated precise leveling and from tide gauges, and with gravity change predicted from PGR models. At seven locations the gravity change estimated from the FOGN can also be compared with time series of absolute-gravity measurements with laboratory-type instruments.

  11. Practical do-it-yourself device for accurate volume measurement of breast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tezel, E; Numanoğlu, A

    2000-03-01

    A simple and accurate method of measuring differences in breast volume based on Archimedes' principle is described. In this method, a plastic container is placed on the breast of the patient who is lying in supine position. While the breast occupies part of the container, the remaining part is filled with water and the volume is measured. This method allows the measurement of the volume differences of asymmetric breasts and also helps the surgeon to estimate the size of the prosthesis to be used in augmentation mammaplasty.

  12. Progress Toward Accurate Measurements of Power Consumptions of DBD Plasma Actuators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashpis, David E.; Laun, Matthew C.; Griebeler, Elmer L.

    2012-01-01

    The accurate measurement of power consumption by Dielectric Barrier Discharge (DBD) plasma actuators is a challenge due to the characteristics of the actuator current signal. Micro-discharges generate high-amplitude, high-frequency current spike transients superimposed on a low-amplitude, low-frequency current. We have used a high-speed digital oscilloscope to measure the actuator power consumption using the Shunt Resistor method and the Monitor Capacitor method. The measurements were performed simultaneously and compared to each other in a time-accurate manner. It was found that low signal-to-noise ratios of the oscilloscopes used, in combination with the high dynamic range of the current spikes, make the Shunt Resistor method inaccurate. An innovative, nonlinear signal compression circuit was applied to the actuator current signal and yielded excellent agreement between the two methods. The paper describes the issues and challenges associated with performing accurate power measurements. It provides insights into the two methods including new insight into the Lissajous curve of the Monitor Capacitor method. Extension to a broad range of parameters and further development of the compression hardware will be performed in future work.

  13. Measurements of the Absolute Branching Fractions of B^\\pm --> K^\\pm X_{c\\bar c}

    CERN Document Server

    Aubert, B; Abrams, G S; Adye, T; Ahmed, M; Ahmed, S; Alam, M S; Albert, J; Aleksan, Roy; Allen, M T; Allison, J; Allmendinger, T; Altenburg, D; Andreassen, R; Andreotti, M; Angelini, C; Anulli, F; Arnaud, N; Aston, D; Azzolini, V; Baak, M; Back, J J; Baldini-Ferroli, R; Band, H R; Banerjee, S; Barate, R; Bard, D J; Barlow, N R; Barlow, R J; Barrett, M; Bartoldus, R; Batignani, G; Battaglia, M; Bauer, J M; Beck, T W; Behera, P K; Bellini, F; Benayoun, M; Benelli, G; Berger, N; Bernard, D; Berryhill, J W; Best, D; Bettarini, S; Bettoni, D; Bevan, A J; Bhimji, W; Bhuyan, B; Bianchi, F; Biasini, M; Biesiada, J; Blanc, F; Blaylock, G; Blinov, A E; Blinov, V E; Bloom, P; Bomben, M; Bondioli, M; Bonneaud, G R; Bosisio, L; Boutigny, D; Bowerman, D A; Boyarski, A M; Boyd, J T; Bozzi, C; Brandenburg, G; Brandt, T; Brau, J E; Breon, A B; Briand, H; Brose, J; Brown, C L; Brown, C M; Brown, D; Brown, D N; Bruinsma, M; Brunet, S; Bucci, F; Buchanan, C; Buchmüller, O L; Bugg, W; Bukin, A D; Bula, R; Bulten, H; Burchat, P R; Burke, J P; Button-Shafer, J; Buzzo, A; Bóna, M; Cahn, R N; Calabrese, R; Calcaterra, A; Calderini, G; Campagnari, C; Capra, R; Carpinelli, M; Cartaro, C; Cavallo, N; Cavoto, G; Cenci, R; Chai, X; Chaisanguanthum, K S; Chao, M; Charles, E; Charles, M J; Chauveau, J; Chavez, C A; Chen, A; Chen, C; Chen, E; Chen, J C; Chen, S; Chen, X; Cheng, B; Cheng, C H; Chevalier, N; Cibinetto, G; Clark, P J; Claus, R; Cochran, J; Coleman, J P; Contri, R; Convery, M R; Cormack, C M; Cossutti, F; Cottingham, W N; Couderc, F; Covarelli, R; Cowan, G; Cowan, R; Crawley, H B; Cremaldi, L; Cristinziani, M; Cunha, A; Curry, S; Côte, D; D'Orazio, A; Dahmes, B; Dallapiccola, C; Danielson, N; Dasu, S; Datta, M; Dauncey, P D; David, P; Davier, M; Davis, C L; Day, C T; De Groot, N; De Nardo, Gallieno; De Sangro, R; Del Buono, L; Del Re, D; Della Ricca, G; Di Lodovico, F; Di Marco, E; Dickopp, M; Dingfelder, J C; Dittongo, S; Dong, D; Dorfan, J; Druzhinin, V P; Dubitzky, R S; Dubois-Felsmann, G P; Dujmic, D; Dunwoodie, W M; Dvoretskii, A; Eckhart, E A; Eckmann, R; Edgar, C L; Edwards, A J; Egede, U; Eichenbaum, A M; Eigen, G; Eisner, A M; Elmer, P; Emery, S; Ernst, J A; Eschenburg, V; Eschrich, I; Eyges, V; Fabozzi, F; Faccini, R; Fan, S; Feltresi, E; Ferrarotto, F; Ferroni, F; Field, R C; Finocchiaro, G; Flacco, C J; Flack, R L; Flächer, H U; Flood, K T; Ford, K E; Ford, W T; Forster, I J; Forti, F; Fortin, D; Foulkes, S D; Franek, B; Frey, R; Fritsch, M; Fry, J R; Fulsom, B G; Gabathuler, E; Gaidot, A; Gaillard, J R; Galeazzi, F; Gallo, F; Gamba, D; Gamet, R; Gan, K K; Ganzhur, S F; Gary, J W; Gaspero, M; Gatto, C; George, K A; Gill, M S; Giorgi, M A; Giroux, X; Gladney, L; Glanzman, T; Godang, R; Goetzen, K; Golubev, V B; Gopal, G P; Gowdy, S J; Gradl, W; Graham, M; Grancagnolo, S; Graugès-Pous, E; Graziani, G; Green, M G; Grenier, P; Gritsan, A V; Grosdidier, G; Groysman, Y; Guo, Q H; Hadavand, H K; Hadig, T; Haire, M; Halyo, V; Hamano, K; Hamel de Monchenault, G; Hamon, O; Harrison, P F; Harrison, T J; Hart, A J; Hartfiel, B L; Hast, C; Hauke, A; Hawkes, C M; Hearty, C; Held, T; Hertzbach, S S; Heusch, C A; Hill, E J; Hirschauer, J F; Hitlin, D G; Hodgkinson, M C; Hollar, J J; Hong, T M; Honscheid, K; Hopkins, D A; Hrynóva, T; Hufnagel, D; Hulsbergen, W D; Hutchcroft, D E; Höcker, A; Igonkina, O; Innes, W R; Izen, J M; Jackson, P D; Jackson, P S; Jacobsen, R G; Jawahery, A; Jessop, C P; John, M J J; Johnson, J R; Judd, D; Kadel, R W; Kadyk, J; Kagan, H; Karyotakis, Yu; Kass, R; Kelly, M P; Kelsey, M H; Kerth, L T; Khan, A; Kim, H; Kim, P; Kirkby, D; Kitayama, I; Klose, V; Knecht, N S; Koch, H; Kocian, M L; Koeneke, K; Kofler, R; Kolomensky, Yu G; Koptchev, V B; Kovalskyi, D; Kowalewski, R V; Kozanecki, Witold; Kravchenko, E A; Kreisel, A; Krishnamurthy, M; Kroeger, R; Kroseberg, J; Kukartsev, G; Kutter, P E; Kyberd, P; La Vaissière, C de; Lacker, H M; Lae, C K; Lafferty, G D; Lanceri, L; Lange, D J; Langenegger, U; Lankford, A J; Latham, T E; Lau, Y P; Lazzaro, A; Le Diberder, F R; Lees, J P; Legendre, M; Leith, D W G S; Lepeltier, V; Leruste, P; Lewandowski, B; Li Gioi, L; Li, H; Li, X; Libby, J; Lista, L; Liu, R; Lo Vetere, M; LoSecco, J M; Lockman, W S; Lombardo, V; London, G W; Long, O; Lou, X C; Lu, M; Luitz, S; Lund, P; Luppi, E; Lusiani, A; Lutz, A M; Lynch, G; Lynch, H L; Lü, C; Lüth, V; MacFarlane, D B; Macri, M; Mader, W F; Majewski, S A; Malcles, J; Mallik, U; Mancinelli, G; Mandelkern, M A; Marchiori, G; Margoni, M; Marks, J; Marsiske, H; Martínez-Vidal, F; Mattison, T S; Mayer, B; Mazur, M A; Mazzoni, M A; McKenna, J A; McMahon, T R; Meadows, B T; Mellado, B; Menges, W; Messner, R; Meyer, W T; Mihályi, A; Minamora, J S; Mir, L M; Mohanty, G B; Mohapatra, A K; Mommsen, R K; Monge, M R; Monorchio, D; Moore, T B; Morandin, M; Morgan, S E; Morganti, M; Morganti, S; Morii, M; Muheim, F; Müller, D R; Naisbit, M T; Narsky, I; Nash, J A; Nauenberg, U; Neal, H; Negrini, M; Neri, N; Nesom, G; Nicholson, H; Nikolich, M B; Nogowski, R; O'Grady, C P; Ocariz, J; Oddone, P J; Ofte, I; Olaiya, E O; Olivas, A; Olsen, J; Onuchin, A P; Orimoto, T J; Otto, S; Oyanguren, A; Ozcan, V E; Paar, H P; Pacetti, S; Palano, A; Palombo, F; Pan, Y; Panduro-Vazquez, W; Panetta, J; Panvini, R S; Paoloni, E; Paolucci, P; Pappagallo, M; Parry, R J; Passaggio, S; Patel, P M; Patrignani, C; Patteri, P; Payne, D J; Pelizaeus, M; Perazzo, A; Perl, M; Peruzzi, I M; Peters, K; Petersen, B A; Petersen, T C; Petzold, A; Piatenko, T; Piccolo, D; Piccolo, M; Piemontese, L; Pierini, M; Pioppi, M; Piredda, G; Plaszczynski, S; Playfer, S; Poireau, V; Polci, F; Pompili, A; Porter, F C; Posocco, M; Potter, C T; Prell, S; Prepost, R; Pripstein, M; Pulliam, T; Purohit, M V; Qi, N D; Rahatlou, S; Rahimi, A M; Rama, M; Ratcliff, B N; Raven, G; Reidy, J; Ricciardi, S; Richman, J D; Ritchie, J L; Rizzo, G; Roat, C; Roberts, D A; Robertson, S H; Robutti, E; Rodier, S; Roe, N A; Ronan, M T; Roney, J M; Rong, G; Roodman, A; Roos, L; Rosenberg, E I; Rotondo, M; Roudeau, P; Rubin, A E; Ruddick, W O; Ryd, A; Röthel, W; Sacco, R; Saeed, M A; Safai-Tehrani, F; Saleem, M; Salnikov, A A; Salvatore, F; Samuel, A; Sanders, D A; Santroni, A; Saremi, S; Satpathy, A; Schalk, T; Schenk, S; Schindler, R H; Schofield, K C; Schott, G; Schrenk, S; Schröder, T; Schröder, H; Schubert, J; Schubert, K R; Schumm, B A; Schune, M H; Schwiening, J; Schwierz, R; Schwitters, R F; Sciacca, C; Sciolla, G; Seiden, A; Sekula, S J; Serednyakov, S I; Sharma, V; Shen, B C; Simani, M C; Simi, G; Simonetto, F; Sinev, N B; Skovpen, Yu I; Smith, A J S; Smith, J G; Snoek, H L; Snyder, A; Sobie, R J; Soffer, A; Sokoloff, M D; Solodov, E P; Spaan, B; Spanier, S M; Spitznagel, M; Spradlin, P; Steinke, M; Stelzer, J; Stocchi, A; Stoker, D P; Stroili, R; Strom, D; Strube, J; Stugu, B; Stängle, H; Su, D; Sullivan, M K; Summers, D J; Sundermann, J E; Suzuki, K; Swain, S K; Tan, P; Taras, P; Taylor, F; Telnov, A V; Teodorescu, L; Ter-Antonian, R; Therin, G; Thiebaux, C; Thompson, J M; Tisserand, V; Toki, W H; Torrence, E; Tosi, S; Touramanis, C; Ulmer, K A; Uwer, U; Van Bakel, N; Vasileiadis, G; Vasseur, G; Vavra, J; Verderi, M; Verkerke, W; Viaud, B; Vitale, L; Voci, C; Voena, C; Wagner, G; Wagner, S R; Wagoner, D E; Waldi, R; Walsh, J; Wang, K; Wang, P; Wappler, F R; Watson, A T; Weaver, M; Weidemann, A W; Weinstein, A J R; Wenzel, W A; Wilden, L; Williams, D C; Williams, J C; Willocq, S; Wilson, F F; Wilson, J R; Wilson, M G; Wilson, R J; Wisniewski, W J; Wittgen, M; Won, E; Wong, Q K; Wormser, G; Wright, D H; Wright, D M; Wu, J; Wu, S L; Xie, Y; Yamamoto, R K; Yarritu, A K; Ye, S; Yi, J; Yi, K; Young, C C; Yu, Z; Yumiceva, F X; Yushkov, A N; Yéche, C; Zain, S B; Zallo, A; Zeng, Q; Zghiche, A; Zhang, J; Zhang, L; Zhao, H W; Zhu, Y S; Ziegler, V; Zito, M; Çuhadar-Dönszelmann, T

    2006-01-01

    We study the two-body decays of B^\\pm mesons to K^\\pm and a charmonium state, X_{c\\bar c}, in a sample of 210.5 fb^{-1} of data from the BaBar experiment. We perform measurements of absolute branching fractions BR(B^\\pm --> K^\\pm X_{c\\bar c}) using a missing mass technique, and report several new or improved results. In particular, the upper limit BR(B^\\pm --> K^\\pm X(3872)) J/\\psi\\pi^+\\pi^-)>4.2% will help in understanding the nature of the recently discovered X(3872).

  14. Standardization of vitrinite reflectance measurements in shale petroleum systems: How accurate are my Ro data?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hackley, Paul C.

    2014-01-01

    Vitrinite reflectance generally is considered the most robust thermal maturity parameter available for application to hydrocarbon exploration and petroleum system evaluation. However, until 2011 there was no standardized methodology available to provide guidelines for vitrinite reflectance measurements in shale. Efforts to correct this deficiency resulted in publication of ASTM D7708-11: Standard test method for microscopical determination of the reflectance of vitrinite dispersed in sedimentary rocks. In 2012-2013, an interlaboratory exercise was conducted to establish precision limits for the measurement technique. Six samples, representing a wide variety of shale, were tested in duplicate by 28 analysts in 22 laboratories from 14 countries. Samples ranged from immature to overmature (Ro 0.31-1.53%), from organic-rich to organic-lean (1-22 wt.% total organic carbon), and contained Type I (lacustrine), Type II (marine), and Type III (terrestrial) kerogens. Repeatability values (difference between repetitive results from same operator, same conditions) ranged from 0.03-0.11% absolute reflectance, whereas reproducibility values (difference between results obtained on same test material by different operators, different laboratories) ranged from 0.12-0.54% absolute reflectance. Repeatability and reproducibility degraded consistently with increasing maturity and decreasing organic content. However, samples with terrestrial kerogens (Type III) fell off this trend, showing improved levels of reproducibility due to higher vitrinite content and improved ease of identification. Operators did not consistently meet the reporting requirements of the test method, indicating that a common reporting template is required to improve data quality. The most difficult problem encountered was the petrographic distinction of solid bitumens and low-reflecting inert macerals from vitrinite when vitrinite occurred with reflectance ranges overlapping the other components. Discussion among

  15. Measurement of the absolute vμ-CCQE cross section at the SciBooNE experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aunion, Jose Luis Alcaraz [Autonomous Univ. of Barcelona (Spain)

    2010-07-01

    This thesis presents the measurement of the charged current quasi-elastic (CCQE) neutrino-nucleon cross section at neutrino energies around 1 GeV. This measurement has two main physical motivations. On one hand, the neutrino-nucleon interactions at few GeV is a region where existing old data are sparse and with low statistics. The current measurement populates low energy regions with higher statistics and precision than previous experiments. On the other hand, the CCQE interaction is the most useful interaction in neutrino oscillation experiments. The CCQE channel is used to measure the initial and final neutrino fluxes in order to determine the neutrino fraction that disappeared. The neutrino oscillation experiments work at low neutrino energies, so precise measurement of CCQE interactions are essential for flux measurements. The main goal of this thesis is to measure the CCQE absolute neutrino cross section from the SciBooNE data. The SciBar Booster Neutrino Experiment (SciBooNE) is a neutrino and anti-neutrino scattering off experiment. The neutrino energy spectrum works at energies around 1 GeV. SciBooNE was running from June 8th 2007 to August 18th 2008. In that period, the experiment collected a total of 2.65 x 1020 protons on target (POT). This thesis has used full data collection in neutrino mode 0.99 x 1020 POT. A CCQE selection cut has been performed, achieving around 70% pure CCQE sample. A fit method has been exclusively developed to determine the absolute CCQE cross section, presenting results in a neutrino energy range from 0.2 to 2 GeV. The results are compatible with the NEUT predictions. The SciBooNE measurement has been compared with both Carbon (MiniBoonE) and deuterium (ANL and BNL) target experiments, showing a good agreement in both cases.

  16. Precise and accurate measurements of strong-field photoionisation and a transferrable laser intensity calibration standard

    CERN Document Server

    Wallace, W C; Khurmi, C; U., Satya Sainadh; Calvert, J E; Laban, D E; Pullen, M G; Bartschat, K; Grum-Grzhimailo, A N; Wells, D; Quiney, H M; Tong, X M; Litvinyuk, I V; Sang, R T; Kielpinski, D

    2016-01-01

    Ionization of atoms and molecules in strong laser fields is a fundamental process in many fields of research, especially in the emerging field of attosecond science. So far, demonstrably accurate data have only been acquired for atomic hydrogen (H), a species that is accessible to few investigators. Here we present measurements of the ionization yield for argon, krypton, and xenon with percentlevel accuracy, calibrated using H, in a laser regime widely used in attosecond science. We derive a transferrable calibration standard for laser peak intensity, accurate to 1.3%, that is based on a simple reference curve. In addition, our measurements provide a much-needed benchmark for testing models of ionisation in noble-gas atoms, such as the widely employed single-active electron approximation.

  17. Accurate Estimation of Low Fundamental Frequencies from Real-Valued Measurements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Mads Græsbøll

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, the difficult problem of estimating low fundamental frequencies from real-valued measurements is addressed. The methods commonly employed do not take the phenomena encountered in this scenario into account and thus fail to deliver accurate estimates. The reason for this is that the......In this paper, the difficult problem of estimating low fundamental frequencies from real-valued measurements is addressed. The methods commonly employed do not take the phenomena encountered in this scenario into account and thus fail to deliver accurate estimates. The reason...... for this is that they employ asymptotic approximations that are violated when the harmonics are not well-separated in frequency, something that happens when the observed signal is real-valued and the fundamental frequency is low. To mitigate this, we analyze the problem and present some exact fundamental frequency estimators...

  18. Accurate microfour-point probe sheet resistance measurements on small samples

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thorsteinsson, Sune; Wang, Fei; Petersen, Dirch Hjorth

    2009-01-01

    We show that accurate sheet resistance measurements on small samples may be performed using microfour-point probes without applying correction factors. Using dual configuration measurements, the sheet resistance may be extracted with high accuracy when the microfour-point probes are in proximity...... with sufficient accuracy. As an example, the sheet resistance of a 40 µm (50 µm) square sample may be characterized with an accuracy of 0.3% (0.1%) using a 10 µm pitch microfour-point probe and assuming a probe alignment accuracy of ±2.5 µm. ©2009 American Institute of Physics...... of a mirror plane on small samples with dimensions of a few times the probe pitch. We calculate theoretically the size of the “sweet spot,” where sufficiently accurate sheet resistances result and show that even for very small samples it is feasible to do correction free extraction of the sheet resistance...

  19. A Novel Portable Absolute Transient Hot-Wire Instrument for the Measurement of the Thermal Conductivity of Solids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Assael, Marc J.; Antoniadis, Konstantinos D.; Metaxa, Ifigeneia N.; Mylona, Sofia K.; Assael, John-Alexander M.; Wu, Jiangtao; Hu, Miaomiao

    2015-11-01

    A new portable absolute Transient Hot-Wire instrument for measuring the thermal conductivity of solids over a range of 0.2 { W}{\\cdot }m^{-1}{\\cdot }{K}^{-1} to 4 { W}{\\cdot }m^{-1}{\\cdot }{K}^{-1} is presented. The new instrument is characterized by three novelties: (a) an innovative two-wires sensor which provides robustness and portability, while at the same time employs a soft silicone layer to eliminate the effect of the contact resistance between the wires and the sample, (b) a newly designed compact portable printed electronic board employing an FPGA architecture CPU to the control output voltage and data processing—the new board replaces the traditional, large in size Wheatstone-type bridge system required to perform the experimental measurements, and (c) a cutting-edge software suite, developed for the mesh describing the structure of the sensor, and utilizing the Finite Elements Method to model the heat flow. The estimation of thermal conductivity is modeled as a minimization problem and is solved using Bayesian Optimization. Our revolutionizing proposed methodology exhibits radical speedups of up to × 120, compared to previous approaches, and considerably reduces the number of simulations performed, achieving convergence only in a few minutes. The new instrument was successfully employed to measure, at room temperature, the thermal conductivity of two thermal conductivity reference materials, Pyroceram 9606 and Pyrex 7740, and two possible candidate glassy solids, PMMA and BK7, with an absolute low uncertainty of 2 %.

  20. A technique for the absolute measurement of the W-value for X-rays in counting gases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vinagre, F.L.R. E-mail: fleonor@saturno.fis.uc.pt; Conde, C.A.N

    2000-08-11

    A technique was developed for the absolute measurement of the W-value (the mean energy for the production of an electron-ion pair) for low-energy X-rays in a wide range of gases at atmospheric pressures, with a standard uncertainty better than 1%. This technique is based on the absolute measurement of the primary ionization charge produced by X-ray photons from a constant intensity monoenergetic X-ray source, e.g. a long lifetime radioactive source. The ionization charge is calibrated by the number of X-ray photons absorbed in the gas, counted with a photon detector. For this purpose, a hybrid detector system was tested and its use in W-value measurements was investigated. The technique was applied to pure xenon at 825 Torr with 5.9 keV X-rays and a W-value of 21.61{sub -0.10}{sup +0.14} eV was obtained for a 68% confidence level. The required corrections and the different factors contributing to the accuracy of the results are discussed. The advantages and limitations of this technique are explored and future developments are discussed.

  1. Absolute prompt-gamma yield measurements for ion beam therapy monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinto, M.; Bajard, M.; Brons, S.; Chevallier, M.; Dauvergne, D.; Dedes, G.; De Rydt, M.; Freud, N.; Krimmer, J.; La Tessa, C.; Létang, J. M.; Parodi, K.; Pleskač, R.; Prieels, D.; Ray, C.; Rinaldi, I.; Roellinghoff, F.; Schardt, D.; Testa, E.; Testa, M.

    2015-01-01

    Prompt-gamma emission detection is a promising technique for hadrontherapy monitoring purposes. In this regard, obtaining prompt-gamma yields that can be used to develop monitoring systems based on this principle is of utmost importance since any camera design must cope with the available signal. Herein, a comprehensive study of the data from ten single-slit experiments is presented, five consisting in the irradiation of either PMMA or water targets with lower and higher energy carbon ions, and another five experiments using PMMA targets and proton beams. Analysis techniques such as background subtraction methods, geometrical normalization, and systematic uncertainty estimation were applied to the data in order to obtain absolute prompt-gamma yields in units of prompt-gamma counts per incident ion, unit of field of view, and unit of solid angle. At the entrance of a PMMA target, where the contribution of secondary nuclear reactions is negligible, prompt-gamma counts per incident ion, per millimetre and per steradian equal to (124 ± 0.7stat ± 30sys) × 10-6 for 95 MeV u-1 carbon ions, (79 ± 2stat ± 23sys) × 10-6 for 310 MeV u-1 carbon ions, and (16 ± 0.07stat ± 1sys) × 10-6 for 160 MeV protons were found for prompt gammas with energies higher than 1 MeV. This shows a factor 5 between the yields of two different ions species with the same range in water (160 MeV protons and 310 MeV u-1 carbon ions). The target composition was also found to influence the prompt-gamma yield since, for 300/310 MeV u-1 carbon ions, a 42% greater yield ((112 ± 1stat ± 22sys) × 10-6 counts ion-1 mm-1 sr-1) was obtained with a water target compared to a PMMA one.

  2. Dilated Chi-Square : a novel interestingness measure to build accurate and compact decion list

    OpenAIRE

    Lan, Yu; Janssens, Davy; Chen, Guoqing; Wets, Geert

    2005-01-01

    Associative classification has aroused significant attention in recent years. This paper proposed a novel interestingness measure, named dilated chi-square, to statistically reveal the interdependence between the antecedents and the consequent of classificaton rules. Using dilated chi-square, instead of confidence, as the primary ranking criterion for rules under the framework of popular CBA algorithm, the adapted algorithm presented in this paper can empirically generate more accurate and mu...

  3. Rapid accurate isotopic measurements on boron in boric acid and boron carbide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duchateau, N L; Verbruggen, A; Hendrickx, F; De Bièvre, P

    1986-04-01

    A procedure is described whereby rapid and accurate isotopic measurements can be performed on boron in boric acid and boron carbide after fusion of these compounds with calcium carbonate. It allows the determination of the isotopic composition of boron in boric acid and boron carbide and the direct assay of boron or the (10)B isotope in boron carbide by isotope-dilution mass spectrometry.

  4. A Novel Multimode Waveguide Coupler for Accurate Power Measurement of Traveling Wave Tube Harmonic Frequencies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wintucky, Edwin G.; Simons, Rainee N.

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents the design, fabrication and test results for a novel waveguide multimode directional coupler (MDC). The coupler fabricated from two dissimilar waveguides is capable of isolating the power at the second harmonic frequency from the fundamental power at the output port of a traveling-wave tube (TWT). In addition to accurate power measurements at harmonic frequencies, a potential application of the MDC is in the design of a beacon source for atmospheric propagation studies at millimeter-wave frequencies.

  5. Absolute Steady-State Thermal Conductivity Measurements by Use of a Transient Hot-Wire System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roder, H M; Perkins, R A; Laesecke, A; Nieto de Castro, C A

    2000-01-01

    A transient hot-wire apparatus was used to measure the thermal conductivity of argon with both steady-state and transient methods. The effects of wire diameter, eccentricity of the wire in the cavity, axial conduction, and natural convection were accounted for in the analysis of the steady-state measurements. Based on measurements on argon, the relative uncertainty at the 95 % level of confidence of the new steady-state measurements is 2 % at low densities. Using the same hot wires, the relative uncertainty of the transient measurements is 1 % at the 95 % level of confidence. This is the first report of thermal conductivity measurements made by two different methods in the same apparatus. The steady-state method is shown to complement normal transient measurements at low densities, particularly for fluids where the thermophysical properties at low densities are not known with high accuracy.

  6. Absolute Steady-State Thermal Conductivity Measurements by Use of a Transient Hot-Wire System

    OpenAIRE

    Roder, Hans M.; Perkins, Richard A.; Laesecke, Arno; Nieto de Castro, Carlos A.

    2000-01-01

    A transient hot-wire apparatus was used to measure the thermal conductivity of argon with both steady-state and transient methods. The effects of wire diameter, eccentricity of the wire in the cavity, axial conduction, and natural convection were accounted for in the analysis of the steady-state measurements. Based on measurements on argon, the relative uncertainty at the 95 % level of confidence of the new steady-state measurements is 2 % at low densities. Using the same hot wires, the relat...

  7. White-light scanning fiber Michelson interferometer for absolute position-distance measurement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, T; Wang, A; Murphy, K; Claus, R

    1995-04-01

    A white-light fiber interferometer working in the spatial domain, using two fiber ends in a hollow tube as the sensing head and an electric magnetic actuator-mirror reflector as the path-compensation-measurement element, is presented. Analysis and preliminary experiments have demonstrated a repeatability of 0.5 microm (2sigma) for position-distance measurement, and the measurement uncertainty was estimated to be 1.5 microm (2sigma) over a distance range of 150 microm. Suggestions for further improving the measurement accuracy and response speed are also given.

  8. White-light scanning fiber Michelson interferometer for absolute position-distance measurement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Tianchu; Wang, Anbo; Murphy, Kent; Claus, Richard

    1995-04-01

    A white-light fiber interferometer working in the spatial domain, using two fiber ends in a hollow tube as the sensing head and an electric magnetic actuator-mirror reflector as the path-compensation-measurement element, is presented. Analysis and preliminary experiments have demonstrated a repeatability of 0.5 mu m (2 sigma ) for position-distance measurement, and the measurement uncertainty was estimated to be 1.5 mu m (2 sigma ) over a distance range of 150 mu m. Suggestions for further improving the measurement accuracy and response speed are also given.

  9. Accurate measurement of spatial noise portraits of photosensors of digital cameras

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheremkhin, P. A.; Evtikhiev, N. N.; Krasnov, V. V.; Kulakov, M. N.; Starikov, R. S.

    2016-08-01

    Method of measurement of accurate portraits of light and dark spatial noise of photosensors is described. The method consists of four steps: creation of spatially homogeneous illumination; shooting light and dark frames; digital processing and filtering. Unlike standard technique, this method uses iterative creation of spatially homogeneous illumination by display, compensation of photosensor dark spatial noise portrait and improved procedure of elimination of dark temporal noise. Portraits of light and dark spatial noise of photosensors of a scientific digital camera were found. Characteristics of the measured portraits were compared with values of photo response and dark signal non-uniformities of camera's photosensor.

  10. Measurement of caudate nucleus area - a more accurate measurement for Huntington's disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wardlaw, J.M.; Abernethy, L.J. (Royal Infirmary, London (United Kingdom). Dept. of Radiology); Sellar, R.J. (Western General Hospital, Edinburgh (United Kingdom). Dept. of Neuroradiology)

    1991-08-01

    Caudate nucleus atrophy occurs in Huntington's disease and methods of measuring this have been described using axial CT, but these are indirect and lack sensitivity. We measured caudate nucleus area (blind to the subjects' clinical state) in 30 subjects with or at risk of Huntington's disease, and in 100 normal age matched controls. Fifteen subjects with established symptomatic Huntington's disease, 3 with early symptoms, and 3 presymptomatic subjects (2 showing a high probability for the Huntington's disease gene on genetic testing, and one who has since developed symptoms) were correctly identified. Three normal (gene negative) family members were also correctly identified. Outcome is awaited in 6. CT caudate area measurement is simple and reproducible and we have found it to be a useful confirmatory test for Huntington's disease. (orig.).

  11. Calibration of the Odyssey Photosynthetic Irradiance Recorder for Absolute Irradiance Measures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Researchers are increasingly interested in measuring hotosynthetically active radiation (PAR) because of its importance in determining the structure and function of lotic ecosystems. The Odyssey Photosynthetic Irradiance Recorder is an affordable PAR meter gaining popularity am...

  12. Using absolute x-ray spectral measurements to infer stagnation conditions in ICF implosions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Pravesh; Benedetti, L. R.; Cerjan, C.; Clark, D. S.; Hurricane, O. A.; Izumi, N.; Jarrott, L. C.; Khan, S.; Kritcher, A. L.; Ma, T.; Macphee, A. G.; Landen, O.; Spears, B. K.; Springer, P. T.

    2016-10-01

    Measurements of the continuum x-ray spectrum emitted from the hot-spot of an ICF implosion can be used to infer a number thermodynamic properties at stagnation including temperature, pressure, and hot-spot mix. In deuterium-tritium (DT) layered implosion experiments on the National Ignition Facility (NIF) we field a number of x-ray diagnostics that provide spatial, temporal, and spectrally-resolved measurements of the radiated x-ray emission. We report on analysis of these measurements using a 1-D hot-spot model to infer thermodynamic properties at stagnation. We compare these to similar properties that can be derived from DT fusion neutron measurements. This work was performed under the auspices of the U.S. Department of Energy by Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory under Contract DE-AC52-07NA27344.

  13. Radio frequency cavity analysis, measurement, and calibration of absolute Dee voltage for K-500 superconducting cyclotron at VECC, Kolkata

    Science.gov (United States)

    Som, Sumit; Seth, Sudeshna; Mandal, Aditya; Paul, Saikat; Duttagupta, Anjan

    2013-02-01

    Variable Energy Cyclotron Centre has commissioned a K-500 superconducting cyclotron for various types of nuclear physics experiments. The 3-phase radio-frequency system of superconducting cyclotron has been developed in the frequency range 9-27 MHz with amplitude and phase stability of 100 ppm and ±0.20, respectively. The analysis of the RF cavity has been carried out using 3D Computer Simulation Technology (CST) Microwave Studio code and various RF parameters and accelerating voltages ("Dee" voltage) are calculated from simulation. During the RF system commissioning, measurement of different RF parameters has been done and absolute Dee voltage has been calibrated using a CdTe X-ray detector along with its accessories and known X-ray source. The present paper discusses about the measured data and the simulation result.

  14. Particle Image Velocimetry Measurements in Anatomically-Accurate Models of the Mammalian Nasal Cavity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rumple, C.; Richter, J.; Craven, B. A.; Krane, M.

    2012-11-01

    A summary of the research being carried out by our multidisciplinary team to better understand the form and function of the nose in different mammalian species that include humans, carnivores, ungulates, rodents, and marine animals will be presented. The mammalian nose houses a convoluted airway labyrinth, where two hallmark features of mammals occur, endothermy and olfaction. Because of the complexity of the nasal cavity, the anatomy and function of these upper airways remain poorly understood in most mammals. However, recent advances in high-resolution medical imaging, computational modeling, and experimental flow measurement techniques are now permitting the study of airflow and respiratory and olfactory transport phenomena in anatomically-accurate reconstructions of the nasal cavity. Here, we focus on efforts to manufacture transparent, anatomically-accurate models for stereo particle image velocimetry (SPIV) measurements of nasal airflow. Challenges in the design and manufacture of index-matched anatomical models are addressed and preliminary SPIV measurements are presented. Such measurements will constitute a validation database for concurrent computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulations of mammalian respiration and olfaction. Supported by the National Science Foundation.

  15. The road towards accurate optical width measurements at the industrial level

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bodermann, Bernd; Köning, Rainer; Bergmann, Detlef; Buhr, Egbert; Hässler-Grohne, Wolfgang; Flügge, Jens; Bosse, Harald

    2013-04-01

    Optical vision systems require both unidirectional and bidirectional measurements for the calibrations and the verification of the tool performance to enable accurate measurements traceable to the SI unit Metre. However, for bidirectional measurements up to now the national metrology institutes are unable to provide internationally recognized calibrations of suitable standards. Furthermore often users are not aware of the specific difficulties of these measurements. In this paper the current status and limitations of bidirectional optical measurements at the industrial level are summarised and compared to state-of-the-art optical linewidth measurements performed at PTB on measurement objects of semiconductor industry. It turns out, that for optical widths measurements at an uncertainty level below 1 μm edge localisation schemes are required, which are based on tool and sample dependent threshold values, which usually need to be determined by a rigorous simulation of the microscopic image. Furthermore the calibration samples and structures must have a sufficient quality, e. g. high edge angle and low edge roughness and the structure materials and their material parameters have to be known. The experience obtained within the accreditation process of industrial labs for width calibrations shows that, in order to be able to achieve a desired measurement uncertainties of about 100 nm, the imaging system needs to have a monochromatic Koehler illumination, numerical aperture larger than 0.5, a magnification greater than 50x and the ability to control the deviation of the focus position to better than 100 nm.

  16. Auto-elimination of fiber optical path-length drift in a frequency scanning interferometer for absolute distance measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tao, Long; Liu, Zhigang; Zhang, Weibo

    2015-09-01

    Because of its compact size and portability, optical fiber has been wildly used as optical paths in frequency-scanning interferometers for high-precision absolute distance measurements. However, since the fiber is sensitive to ambient temperature, its length and refractive index change with temperature, resulting in an optical path length drift that influences the repeatability of measurements. To improve the thermal stability of the measurement system, a novel frequency-scanning interferometer composed of two Michelson-type interferometers sharing a common fiber optical path is proposed. One interferometer defined as origin interferometer is used to monitor the drift of the measurement origin due to the optical path length drift of the optical fiber under on-site environment. The other interferometer defined as measurement interferometer is used to measure the distance to the target. Because the optical path length drift of the fiber appears in both interferometers, its influence can be eliminated by subtracting the optical path difference of the origin interferometer from the optical path difference of the measurement interferometer. A prototype interferometer was developed in our research, and experimental results demonstrate its robustness and stability. Under on-site environment, an accuracy about 4 μm was achieved for a distance of about 1 m.

  17. The Reproducibility and Absolute Values of Echocardiographic Measurements of Left Ventricular Size and Function in Children are Algorithm Dependent

    Science.gov (United States)

    Margossian, Renee; Chen, Shan; Sleeper, Lynn A.; Tani, Lloyd Y.; Shirali, Girish; Golding, Fraser; Tierney, Elif Seda Selamet; Altmann, Karen; Campbell, Michael J.; Szwast, Anita; Sharkey, Angela; Radojewski, Elizabeth; Colan, Steven D.

    2015-01-01

    Background Several quantification algorithms for measuring left ventricular (LV) size and function are used in clinical and research settings. We investigated the effect of the measurement algorithm and beat averaging on the reproducibility of measurements of the LV and assessed the magnitude of agreement among the algorithms in children with dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM). Methods Echocardiograms were obtained on 169 children from 8 clinical centers. Inter- and intra-reader reproducibility were assessed on measurements of LV volumes using biplane Simpson, modified Simpson (MS), and 5/6 x area x length (5/6AL) algorithms. Percent error (%error) was calculated as the inter- or intra-reader difference / mean x 100. Single beat measurements and the 3-beat average (3BA) were compared. Intra-class correlation coefficients (ICC) were calculated to assess agreement. Results Single beat inter-reader reproducibility was lowest (%error was highest) using biplane Simpson; 5/6AL and MS were similar but significantly better than biplane Simpson (p 0.95 across measures, although absolute volume and mass values were systematically lower for biplane Simpson compared to MS and to 5/6AL. Conclusions The reproducibility of LV size and function measurements in children with DCM is highest using the 5/6AL algorithm, and can be further improved by using 3BA. However, values derived from different algorithms are not interchangeable. PMID:25728351

  18. A new method for the absolute radiance calibration for UV/vis measurements of scattered sun light

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Wagner

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Absolute radiometric calibrations are important for measurements of the atmospheric spectral radiance. Such measurements can be used to determine actinic fluxes, the properties of aerosols and clouds and the short wave energy budget. Conventional calibration methods in the laboratory are based on calibrated light sources and reflectors and are expensive, time consuming and subject to relatively large uncertainties. Also, the calibrated instruments might change during transport from the laboratory to the measurement sites. Here we present a new calibration method for UV/vis instruments that measure the spectrally resolved sky radiance, like for example zenith sky Differential Optical Absorption Spectroscopy (DOAS- instruments or Multi-AXis (MAX- DOAS instruments. Our method is based on the comparison of the solar zenith angle dependence of the measured zenith sky radiance with radiative transfer simulations. For the application of our method clear sky measurements during periods with almost constant aerosol optical depth are needed. The radiative transfer simulations have to take polarisation into account. We show that the calibration results are almost independent from the knowledge of the aerosol optical properties and surface albedo, which causes a rather small uncertainty of about <7%. For wavelengths below about 330 nm it is essential that the ozone column density during the measurements is constant and known.

  19. Combining MFD and PIE for accurate single-pair Förster resonance energy transfer measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kudryavtsev, Volodymyr; Sikor, Martin; Kalinin, Stanislav; Mokranjac, Dejana; Seidel, Claus A M; Lamb, Don C

    2012-03-01

    Single-pair Förster resonance energy transfer (spFRET) experiments using single-molecule burst analysis on a confocal microscope are an ideal tool to measure inter- and intramolecular distances and dynamics on the nanoscale. Different techniques have been developed to maximize the amount of information available in spFRET burst analysis experiments. Multiparameter fluorescence detection (MFD) is used to monitor a variety of fluorescence parameters simultaneously and pulsed interleaved excitation (PIE) employs direct excitation of the acceptor to probe its presence and photoactivity. To calculate accurate FRET efficiencies from spFRET experiments with MFD or PIE, several calibration measurements are usually required. Herein, we demonstrate that by combining MFD with PIE information regarding all calibration factors as well as an accurate determination of spFRET histograms can be performed in a single measurement. In addition, the quality of overlap of the different detection volumes as well as the detection of acceptor photophysics can be investigated with MFD-PIE. Bursts containing acceptor photobleaching can be identified and excluded from further investigation while bursts that contain FRET dynamics are unaffected by this analysis. We have employed MFD-PIE to accurately analyze the effects of nucleotides and substrate on the interdomain separation in DnaK, the major bacterial heat shock protein 70 (Hsp70). The interdomain distance increases from 47 Å in the ATP-bound state to 84 Å in the ADP-bound state and slightly contracts to 77 Å when a substrate is bound. This is in contrast to what was observed for the mitochondrial member of the Hsp70s, Ssc1, supporting the notion of evolutionary specialization of Hsp70s for different cellular functions in different organisms and cell organelles.

  20. Measurement of the Absolute Branching Fraction of D_s^+ --> tau^+ nu_tau Decay

    CERN Document Server

    Ecklund, K M; Savinov, V; López, A; Méndez, H; Ramírez, J; Ge, J Y; Miller, D H; Shipsey, I P J; Xin, B; Adams, G S; Anderson, M; Cummings, J P; Danko, I; Hu, D; Moziak, B; Napolitano, J; He, Q; Insler, J; Muramatsu, H; Park, C S; Thorndike, E H; Yang, F; Artuso, M; Blusk, S; Khalil, S; Li, J; Mountain, R; Nisar, S; Randrianarivony, K; Sultana, N; Skwarnicki, T; Stone, S; Wang, J C; Zhang, L M; Bonvicini, G; Cinabro, D; Dubrovin, M; Lincoln, A; Rademacker, J; Asner, D M; Edwards, K W; Naik, P; Reed, J; Briere, R A; Ferguson, T; Tatishvili, G; Vogel, H; Watkins, M E; Rosner, J L; Alexander, J P; Cassel, D G; Duboscq, J E; Ehrlich, R; Fields, L; Gibbons, L; Gray, R; Gray, S W; Hartill, D L; Heltsley, B K; Hertz, D; Jones, C D; Kandaswamy, J; Kreinick, D L; Kuznetsov, V E; Mahlke-Krüger, H; Mohapatra, D; Onyisi, P U E; Patterson, J R; Peterson, D; Riley, D; Ryd, A; Sadoff, A J; Shi, X; Stroiney, S; Sun, W M; Wilksen, T; Athar, S B; Patel, R; Yelton, J; Rubin, P; Eisenstein, B I; Karliner, I; Mehrabyan, S; Lowrey, N; Selen, M; White, E J; Wiss, J; Mitchell, R E; Shepherd, M R; Besson, D; Pedlar, T K; Cronin-Hennessy, D; Gao, K Y; Hietala, J; Kubota, Y; Klein, T; Lang, B W; Poling, R; Scott, A W; Zweber, P; Dobbs, S; Metreveli, Z; Seth, K K; Tomaradze, A G; Libby, J; Powell, A; Wilkinson, G

    2007-01-01

    Using a sample of tagged D_s decays collected near the D^*_s D_s peak production energy with the CLEO-c detector, we study the leptonic decay D^+_s to tau^+ nu_tau via the decay channel tau^+ to e^+ nu_e bar{nu}_tau. We measure B(D^+_s to tau^+ nu_tau) = (6.17 +- 0.71 +- 0.34) %. Combining with our measurements of D^+_s to mu^+ nu_mu and D^+_s to tau^+ nu_tau (via tau^+ to pi^+ bar{nu}_tau), we determine f_{D_s} = 274 +- 10 +- 5 MeV.

  1. Absolute and Relative Motion Measurements on a Model of a High-Speed Containership

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-10-01

    motivated a series of forced oscillation experiments on the SL-7 2 hull, designed to measure the various components of the rigid body equations of motion and...probes were originally designed to measure relative motion over a large range, from bottom emersion to deck immersion. However, their electronic... EXPERIEMTN : Zo/T = 0.037 0S•) 0.0746 0.1• 0.1100- 0.1470 OO 0 o o S I I I I I I I Fn -- 0.21’r- A8 ~ U’•’ 0ý Q.VL l 0 0 0 0 0 0 I I i i I i I Fn= 0.3 0.2 0

  2. Designer cantilevers for even more accurate quantitative measurements of biological systems with multifrequency AFM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Contera, S.

    2016-04-01

    Multifrequency excitation/monitoring of cantilevers has made it possible both to achieve fast, relatively simple, nanometre-resolution quantitative mapping of mechanical of biological systems in solution using atomic force microscopy (AFM), and single molecule resolution detection by nanomechanical biosensors. A recent paper by Penedo et al [2015 Nanotechnology 26 485706] has made a significant contribution by developing simple methods to improve the signal to noise ratio in liquid environments, by selectively enhancing cantilever modes, which will lead to even more accurate quantitative measurements.

  3. Absolute quantitation of protein posttranslational modification isoform.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Zhu; Li, Ning

    2015-01-01

    Mass spectrometry has been widely applied in characterization and quantification of proteins from complex biological samples. Because the numbers of absolute amounts of proteins are needed in construction of mathematical models for molecular systems of various biological phenotypes and phenomena, a number of quantitative proteomic methods have been adopted to measure absolute quantities of proteins using mass spectrometry. The liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) coupled with internal peptide standards, i.e., the stable isotope-coded peptide dilution series, which was originated from the field of analytical chemistry, becomes a widely applied method in absolute quantitative proteomics research. This approach provides more and more absolute protein quantitation results of high confidence. As quantitative study of posttranslational modification (PTM) that modulates the biological activity of proteins is crucial for biological science and each isoform may contribute a unique biological function, degradation, and/or subcellular location, the absolute quantitation of protein PTM isoforms has become more relevant to its biological significance. In order to obtain the absolute cellular amount of a PTM isoform of a protein accurately, impacts of protein fractionation, protein enrichment, and proteolytic digestion yield should be taken into consideration and those effects before differentially stable isotope-coded PTM peptide standards are spiked into sample peptides have to be corrected. Assisted with stable isotope-labeled peptide standards, the absolute quantitation of isoforms of posttranslationally modified protein (AQUIP) method takes all these factors into account and determines the absolute amount of a protein PTM isoform from the absolute amount of the protein of interest and the PTM occupancy at the site of the protein. The absolute amount of the protein of interest is inferred by quantifying both the absolute amounts of a few PTM

  4. Ocean Lidar Measurements of Beam Attenuation and a Roadmap to Accurate Phytoplankton Biomass Estimates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Yongxiang; Behrenfeld, Mike; Hostetler, Chris; Pelon, Jacques; Trepte, Charles; Hair, John; Slade, Wayne; Cetinic, Ivona; Vaughan, Mark; Lu, Xiaomei; Zhai, Pengwang; Weimer, Carl; Winker, David; Verhappen, Carolus C.; Butler, Carolyn; Liu, Zhaoyan; Hunt, Bill; Omar, Ali; Rodier, Sharon; Lifermann, Anne; Josset, Damien; Hou, Weilin; MacDonnell, David; Rhew, Ray

    2016-06-01

    Beam attenuation coefficient, c, provides an important optical index of plankton standing stocks, such as phytoplankton biomass and total particulate carbon concentration. Unfortunately, c has proven difficult to quantify through remote sensing. Here, we introduce an innovative approach for estimating c using lidar depolarization measurements and diffuse attenuation coefficients from ocean color products or lidar measurements of Brillouin scattering. The new approach is based on a theoretical formula established from Monte Carlo simulations that links the depolarization ratio of sea water to the ratio of diffuse attenuation Kd and beam attenuation C (i.e., a multiple scattering factor). On July 17, 2014, the CALIPSO satellite was tilted 30° off-nadir for one nighttime orbit in order to minimize ocean surface backscatter and demonstrate the lidar ocean subsurface measurement concept from space. Depolarization ratios of ocean subsurface backscatter are measured accurately. Beam attenuation coefficients computed from the depolarization ratio measurements compare well with empirical estimates from ocean color measurements. We further verify the beam attenuation coefficient retrievals using aircraft-based high spectral resolution lidar (HSRL) data that are collocated with in-water optical measurements.

  5. Regularity of absolutely continuous invariant measures for piecewise expanding unimodal maps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Contreras, Fabián; Dolgopyat, Dmitry

    2016-09-01

    Let f:[0,1]\\to [0,1] be a piecewise expanding unimodal map of class C  k+1, with k≥slant 1 , and μ =ρ \\text{d}x the (unique) SRB measure associated to it. We study the regularity of ρ. In particular, points N where ρ is not differentiable has zero Hausdorff dimension, but is uncountable if the critical orbit of f is dense. This improves on a work of Szewc (1984). We also obtain results about higher orders of differentiability of ρ in the sense of Whitney.

  6. Measuring the Absolute Height and Profile of the Mesospheric Sodium Layer using a Continuous Wave Laser

    CERN Document Server

    Butler, D J; Redfern, R M; Ageorges, N; Fews, H

    2003-01-01

    We have developed and tested a novel method, based on LIDAR, of measuring the height and profile of the mesospheric sodium layer using a continuous wave laser. It is more efficient than classical LIDAR as the laser is on for 50% of the time, and so can in principle be used during laser guide star adaptive optics observations. It also has significant advantages over direct imaging techniques because it does not require a second telescope, is almost independent of the atmospheric conditions, and avoids triangulation problems in determining the height. In the long term, regular monitoring using this method would allow a valuable database of sodium layer profiles, heights, and return flux measurements to be built up which would enable observatory staff astronomers to schedule observations optimally. In this paper we describe the original experiment carried out using the ALFA laser guide star system at Calar Alto Observatory in Spain. We validate the method by comparing the LIDAR results with those obtained from s...

  7. New class of onboard absolute orientation measurement sensor for robotic mobile platforms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rastegar, Jahangir S.; Ge, Q. Jeffrey; Pereira, Carlos M.

    2003-10-01

    This paper presents new class sensors for onboard direct measurement of the angular orientation of robotic mobile platforms relative to a fixed or moving coordinate system. The currently available sensors are either based on inertia, vision or optical means to measure the angular orientation of an object. The inertial based devices, however, generally suffer from drift and noise. The vision systems and optical sensors generally have relatively short range and require line-of-sight access. The novel class of sensors presented in this paper are wireless, are in the form of waveguides that are illuminated by polarized Radio Frequency sources. A mobile robotic platform equipped with three or more of such waveguide sensors can determine its 3D orientation relative to the ground or other mobile robotic platforms. The 3D orientation sensors require very low power for operation, may be located at relatively far distances from the ground source or the illuminating mobile platform, and can operate while out of line-of-sight of the illuminating source. In this paper, the design, operation, algorithms for calculating 3D angular orientation from the sensor output, and a number of experimental results of sensor performance are presented. In addition, a discussion of the methods to increase the performance of the sensor system and other related issues are provided.

  8. Measurement of the absolute differential cross section of proton–proton elastic scattering at small angles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Mchedlishvili

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The differential cross section for proton–proton elastic scattering has been measured at a beam kinetic energy of 1.0 GeV and in 200 MeV steps from 1.6 to 2.8 GeV for centre-of-mass angles in the range from 12°–16° to 25°–30°, depending on the energy. A precision in the overall normalisation of typically 3% was achieved by studying the energy losses of the circulating beam of the COSY storage ring as it passed repeatedly through the windowless hydrogen target of the ANKE magnetic spectrometer. It is shown that the data have a significant impact upon the results of a partial wave analysis. After extrapolating the differential cross sections to the forward direction, the results are broadly compatible with the predictions of forward dispersion relations.

  9. Accurate Measurement of the in vivo Ammonium Concentration in Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hugo F. Cueto-Rojas

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Ammonium (NH4+ is the most common N-source for yeast fermentations, and N-limitation is frequently applied to reduce growth and increase product yields. While there is significant molecular knowledge on NH4+ transport and assimilation, there have been few attempts to measure the in vivo concentration of this metabolite. In this article, we present a sensitive and accurate analytical method to quantify the in vivo intracellular ammonium concentration in Saccharomyces cerevisiae based on standard rapid sampling and metabolomics techniques. The method validation experiments required the development of a proper sample processing protocol to minimize ammonium production/consumption during biomass extraction by assessing the impact of amino acid degradation—an element that is often overlooked. The resulting cold chloroform metabolite extraction method, together with quantification using ultra high performance liquid chromatography-isotope dilution mass spectrometry (UHPLC-IDMS, was not only more sensitive than most of the existing methods but also more accurate than methods that use electrodes, enzymatic reactions, or boiling water or boiling ethanol biomass extraction because it minimized ammonium consumption/production during sampling processing and interference from other metabolites in the quantification of intracellular ammonium. Finally, our validation experiments showed that other metabolites such as pyruvate or 2-oxoglutarate (αKG need to be extracted with cold chloroform to avoid measurements being biased by the degradation of other metabolites (e.g., amino acids.

  10. Accurate Measurement of the in vivo Ammonium Concentration in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cueto-Rojas, Hugo F; Maleki Seifar, Reza; Ten Pierick, Angela; Heijnen, Sef J; Wahl, Aljoscha

    2016-04-23

    Ammonium (NH₄⁺) is the most common N-source for yeast fermentations, and N-limitation is frequently applied to reduce growth and increase product yields. While there is significant molecular knowledge on NH₄⁺ transport and assimilation, there have been few attempts to measure the in vivo concentration of this metabolite. In this article, we present a sensitive and accurate analytical method to quantify the in vivo intracellular ammonium concentration in Saccharomyces cerevisiae based on standard rapid sampling and metabolomics techniques. The method validation experiments required the development of a proper sample processing protocol to minimize ammonium production/consumption during biomass extraction by assessing the impact of amino acid degradation-an element that is often overlooked. The resulting cold chloroform metabolite extraction method, together with quantification using ultra high performance liquid chromatography-isotope dilution mass spectrometry (UHPLC-IDMS), was not only more sensitive than most of the existing methods but also more accurate than methods that use electrodes, enzymatic reactions, or boiling water or boiling ethanol biomass extraction because it minimized ammonium consumption/production during sampling processing and interference from other metabolites in the quantification of intracellular ammonium. Finally, our validation experiments showed that other metabolites such as pyruvate or 2-oxoglutarate (αKG) need to be extracted with cold chloroform to avoid measurements being biased by the degradation of other metabolites (e.g., amino acids).

  11. Importance of Accurate Measurements in Nutrition Research: Dietary Flavonoids as a Case Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harnly, James

    2016-03-01

    Accurate measurements of the secondary metabolites in natural products and plant foods are critical for establishing relations between diet and health. There are as many as 50,000 secondary metabolites that may influence human health. Their structural and chemical diversity presents a challenge to analytical chemistry. With respect to flavonoids, putative identification is accessible, but positive identification and quantification are limited by the lack of standards. Quantification has been tested with use of both nonspecific and specific methods. Nonspecific methods, which include antioxidant capacity methods, fail to provide information on the measured components, suffer from numerous interferences, are not equatable, and are unsuitable for health research. Specific methods, such as LC with diode array and mass spectrometric detection, require the use of internal standards and relative molar response factors. These methods are relatively expensive and require a high level of expertise and experimental verification; however, they represent the only suitable means of relating health outcomes to specific dietary components.

  12. Apparatus for accurate density measurements of fluids based on a magnetic suspension balance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, Maoqiong; Li, Huiya; Guo, Hao; Dong, Xueqiang; Wu, J. F.

    2012-06-01

    A new apparatus for accurate pressure, density and temperature (p, ρ, T) measurements over wide ranges of (p, ρ, T) (90 K to 290 K; 0 MPa to 3 MPa; 0 kg/m3 to 2000 kg/m3) is described. This apparatus is based on a magnetic suspension balance which applies the Archimedes' buoyancy principle. In order to verify the new apparatus, comprehensive (p, ρ, T) measurements on pure nitrogen were carried out. The maximum relative standard uncertainty is 0.09% in density. The maximum standard uncertainty in temperature is 5 mK, and that in pressure is 250 Pa for 1.5 MPa and 390 Pa for 3MPa full scale range respectively. The experimental data were compared with selected literature data and good agreements were found.

  13. Generalized weighted ratio method for accurate turbidity measurement over a wide range.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Hongbo; Yang, Ping; Song, Hong; Guo, Yilu; Zhan, Shuyue; Huang, Hui; Wang, Hangzhou; Tao, Bangyi; Mu, Quanquan; Xu, Jing; Li, Dejun; Chen, Ying

    2015-12-14

    Turbidity measurement is important for water quality assessment, food safety, medicine, ocean monitoring, etc. In this paper, a method that accurately estimates the turbidity over a wide range is proposed, where the turbidity of the sample is represented as a weighted ratio of the scattered light intensities at a series of angles. An improvement in the accuracy is achieved by expanding the structure of the ratio function, thus adding more flexibility to the turbidity-intensity fitting. Experiments have been carried out with an 850 nm laser and a power meter fixed on a turntable to measure the light intensity at different angles. The results show that the relative estimation error of the proposed method is 0.58% on average for a four-angle intensity combination for all test samples with a turbidity ranging from 160 NTU to 4000 NTU.

  14. Direct measurement of the absolute absorption spectrum of individual semiconducting single-wall carbon nanotubes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blancon, Jean-Christophe; Paillet, Matthieu; Tran, Huy Nam; Than, Xuan Tinh; Guebrou, Samuel Aberra; Ayari, Anthony; Miguel, Alfonso San; Phan, Ngoc-Minh; Zahab, Ahmed-Azmi; Sauvajol, Jean-Louis; Fatti, Natalia Del; Vallée, Fabrice

    2013-09-01

    The optical properties of single-wall carbon nanotubes are very promising for developing novel opto-electronic components and sensors with applications in many fields. Despite numerous studies performed using photoluminescence or Raman and Rayleigh scattering, knowledge of their optical response is still partial. Here we determine using spatial modulation spectroscopy, over a broad optical spectral range, the spectrum and amplitude of the absorption cross-section of individual semiconducting single-wall carbon nanotubes. These quantitative measurements permit determination of the oscillator strength of the different excitonic resonances and their dependencies on the excitonic transition and type of semiconducting nanotube. A non-resonant background is also identified and its cross-section comparable to the ideal graphene optical absorbance. Furthermore, investigation of the same single-wall nanotube either free standing or lying on a substrate shows large broadening of the excitonic resonances with increase of oscillator strength, as well as stark weakening of polarization-dependent antenna effects, due to nanotube-substrate interaction.

  15. Measuring absolute frequencies beyond the GPS limit via long-haul optical frequency dissemination

    CERN Document Server

    Clivati, C; Livi, L; Poggiali, F; de Cumis, M Siciliani; Mancini, M; Pagano, G; Frittelli, M; Mura, A; Costanzo, G A; Levi, F; Calonico, D; Fallani, L; Catani, J; Inguscio, M

    2015-01-01

    Global Positioning System (GPS) dissemination of frequency standards is ubiquitous at present, providing the most widespread time and frequency reference for the majority of industrial and research applications worldwide. On the other hand, the ultimate limits of the GPS presently curb further advances in high-precision, scientific and industrial applications relying on this dissemination scheme. Here, we demonstrate that these limits can be reliably overcome even in laboratories without a local atomic clock by replacing the GPS with a 642-km-long optical fiber link to a remote primary caesium frequency standard. Through this configuration we stably address the $^1$S$_0$---$^3$P$_0$ clock transition in an ultracold gas of $^{173}$Yb, with a precision that exceeds the possibilities of a GPS-based measurement, dismissing the need for a local clock infrastructure to perform high-precision tasks beyond GPS limit. We also report an improvement of two orders of magnitude in the accuracy on the transition frequency ...

  16. Measurement of absolute auditory thresholds in the common marmoset (Callithrix jacchus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osmanski, Michael S; Wang, Xiaoqin

    2011-07-01

    The common marmoset is a small, arboreal, New World primate that has emerged as a promising non-human model system in auditory neuroscience. A complete understanding of the neuroethology of auditory processing in marmosets will include behavioral work examining how sounds are perceived by these animals. However, there have been few studies of the marmoset's hearing and perceptual abilities and the audiogram of this species has not been measured using modern psychophysical methods. The present experiment pairs psychophysics with an operant conditioning technique to examine perception of pure tone stimuli by marmosets using an active behavioral paradigm. Subjects were trained to lick at a feeding tube when they detected a sound. Correct responses provided access to a food reward. Pure tones of varying intensities were presented to subjects using the method of constant stimuli. Behavioral thresholds were calculated for each animal based on hit rate--threshold was defined by the tone intensity that the animal correctly identified 50% of the time. Results show that marmoset hearing is comparable to that of other New World monkeys, with a hearing range extending from about 125 Hz up to 36 kHz and a sensitivity peak around 7 kHz.

  17. Measuring absolute frequencies beyond the GPS limit via long-haul optical frequency dissemination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clivati, Cecilia; Cappellini, Giacomo; Livi, Lorenzo F; Poggiali, Francesco; de Cumis, Mario Siciliani; Mancini, Marco; Pagano, Guido; Frittelli, Matteo; Mura, Alberto; Costanzo, Giovanni A; Levi, Filippo; Calonico, Davide; Fallani, Leonardo; Catani, Jacopo; Inguscio, Massimo

    2016-05-30

    Global Positioning System (GPS) dissemination of frequency standards is ubiquitous at present, providing the most widespread time and frequency reference for the majority of industrial and research applications worldwide. On the other hand, the ultimate limits of the GPS presently curb further advances in high-precision, scientific and industrial applications relying on this dissemination scheme. Here, we demonstrate that these limits can be reliably overcome even in laboratories without a local atomic clock by replacing the GPS with a 642-km-long optical fiber link to a remote primary caesium frequency standard. Through this configuration we stably address the 1S0-3P0 clock transition in an ultracold gas of 173Yb, with a precision that exceeds the possibilities of a GPS-based measurement, dismissing the need for a local clock infrastructure to perform beyond-GPS high-precision tasks. We also report an improvement of two orders of magnitude in the accuracy on the transition frequency reported in literature.

  18. A solution for measuring accurate reaction time to visual stimuli realized with a programmable microcontroller.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohyanagi, Toshio; Sengoku, Yasuhito

    2010-02-01

    This article presents a new solution for measuring accurate reaction time (SMART) to visual stimuli. The SMART is a USB device realized with a Cypress Programmable System-on-Chip (PSoC) mixed-signal array programmable microcontroller. A brief overview of the hardware and firmware of the PSoC is provided, together with the results of three experiments. In Experiment 1, we investigated the timing accuracy of the SMART in measuring reaction time (RT) under different conditions of operating systems (OSs; Windows XP or Vista) and monitor displays (a CRT or an LCD). The results indicated that the timing error in measuring RT by the SMART was less than 2 msec, on average, under all combinations of OS and display and that the SMART was tolerant to jitter and noise. In Experiment 2, we tested the SMART with 8 participants. The results indicated that there was no significant difference among RTs obtained with the SMART under the different conditions of OS and display. In Experiment 3, we used Microsoft (MS) PowerPoint to present visual stimuli on the display. We found no significant difference in RTs obtained using MS DirectX technology versus using the PowerPoint file with the SMART. We are certain that the SMART is a simple and practical solution for measuring RTs accurately. Although there are some restrictions in using the SMART with RT paradigms, the SMART is capable of providing both researchers and health professionals working in clinical settings with new ways of using RT paradigms in their work.

  19. Smart density: a more accurate method of measuring rural residential density for health-related research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gibson Lucinda

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Studies involving the built environment have typically relied on US Census data to measure residential density. However, census geographic units are often unsuited to health-related research, especially in rural areas where development is clustered and discontinuous. Objective We evaluated the accuracy of both standard census methods and alternative GIS-based methods to measure rural density. Methods We compared residential density (units/acre in 335 Vermont school neighborhoods using conventional census geographic units (tract, block group and block with two GIS buffer measures: a 1-kilometer (km circle around the school and a 1-km circle intersected with a 100-meter (m road-network buffer. The accuracy of each method was validated against the actual residential density for each neighborhood based on the Vermont e911 database, which provides an exact geo-location for all residential structures in the state. Results Standard census measures underestimate residential density in rural areas. In addition, the degree of error is inconsistent so even the relative rank of neighborhood densities varies across census measures. Census measures explain only 61% to 66% of the variation in actual residential density. In contrast, GIS buffer measures explain approximately 90% of the variation. Combining a 1-km circle with a road-network buffer provides the closest approximation of actual residential density. Conclusion Residential density based on census units can mask clusters of development in rural areas and distort associations between residential density and health-related behaviors and outcomes. GIS-defined buffers, including a 1-km circle and a road-network buffer, can be used in conjunction with census data to obtain a more accurate measure of residential density.

  20. Measuring nonlinear oscillations using a very accurate and low-cost linear optical position transducer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donoso, Guillermo; Ladera, Celso L.

    2016-09-01

    An accurate linear optical displacement transducer of about 0.2 mm resolution over a range of ∼40 mm is presented. This device consists of a stack of thin cellulose acetate strips, each strip longitudinally slid ∼0.5 mm over the precedent one so that one end of the stack becomes a stepped wedge of constant step. A narrowed light beam from a white LED orthogonally incident crosses the wedge at a known point, the transmitted intensity being detected with a phototransistor whose emitter is connected to a diode. We present the interesting analytical proof that the voltage across the diode is linearly dependent upon the ordinate of the point where the light beam falls on the wedge, as well as the experimental validation of such a theoretical proof. Applications to nonlinear oscillations are then presented—including the interesting case of a body moving under dry friction, and the more advanced case of an oscillator in a quartic energy potential—whose time-varying positions were accurately measured with our transducer. Our sensing device can resolve the dynamics of an object attached to it with great accuracy and precision at a cost considerably less than that of a linear neutral density wedge. The technique used to assemble the wedge of acetate strips is described.

  1. A Technique to Measure Energy Partitioning and Absolute Gas Pressures of Strombolian Explosions Using Doppler Radar at Erebus Volcano

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerst, A.; Hort, M.; Kyle, P. R.; Voege, M.

    2008-12-01

    In 2005/06 we deployed three 24GHz (K-Band) continuous wave Doppler radar instruments at the crater rim of Erebus volcano in Antarctica. At the time there was a ~40 m wide, ~1000°C hot convecting phonolite lava lake, which was the source of ~0-6 Strombolian gas bubble explosions per day. We measured the velocities of ~50 explosions using a sample rate of 1-15 Hz. Data were downloaded in real-time through a wireless network. The measurements provide new insights into the still largely unknown mechanism of Strombolian eruptions, and help improve existing eruption models. We present a technique for a quasi in-situ measurement of the absolute pressure inside an eruption gas bubble. Pressures were derived using a simple eruption model and measured high resolution bubble surface velocities during explosions. Additionally, this technique allows us to present a comprehensive energy budget of a volcanic explosion as a time series of all important energy terms (i.e. potential, kinetic, dissipative, infrasonic, surface, seismic and thermal energy output). The absolute gas pressure inside rising expanding gas bubbles rapidly drops from ~3-10 atm (at the time when the lake starts to bulge) to ~1 atm before the bubble bursts, which usually occurs at radii of ~15-20m. These pressures are significantly lower than previously assumed for such explosions. The according internal energy of the gas agrees well with the observed total energy output. The results show that large explosions released about 109 to 1010 J each (equivalent to about 200-2000 kg of TNT), at a peak discharge rate frequently exceeding 109 W (the power output of a typical nuclear power plant). This dynamic output is mainly controlled by the kinetic and potential energy of the exploding magma shell, while other energy types were found to be much smaller (with the exception of thermal energy). Remarkably, most explosions at Erebus show two distinct surface acceleration peaks separated by ~0.3 seconds. This suggests

  2. Optical factors determined by the T-matrix method in turbidity measurement of absolute coagulation rate constants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Shenghua; Liu, Jie; Sun, Zhiwei

    2006-12-01

    Turbidity measurement for the absolute coagulation rate constants of suspensions has been extensively adopted because of its simplicity and easy implementation. A key factor in deriving the rate constant from experimental data is how to theoretically evaluate the so-called optical factor involved in calculating the extinction cross section of doublets formed during aggregation. In a previous paper, we have shown that compared with other theoretical approaches, the T-matrix method provides a robust solution to this problem and is effective in extending the applicability range of the turbidity methodology, as well as increasing measurement accuracy. This paper will provide a more comprehensive discussion of the physical insight for using the T-matrix method in turbidity measurement and associated technical details. In particular, the importance of ensuring the correct value for the refractive indices for colloidal particles and the surrounding medium used in the calculation is addressed, because the indices generally vary with the wavelength of the incident light. The comparison of calculated results with experiments shows that the T-matrix method can correctly calculate optical factors even for large particles, whereas other existing theories cannot. In addition, the data of the optical factor calculated by the T-matrix method for a range of particle radii and incident light wavelengths are listed.

  3. Accurate Measurement of the Effects of All Amino-Acid Mutations on Influenza Hemagglutinin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael B. Doud

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Influenza genes evolve mostly via point mutations, and so knowing the effect of every amino-acid mutation provides information about evolutionary paths available to the virus. We and others have combined high-throughput mutagenesis with deep sequencing to estimate the effects of large numbers of mutations to influenza genes. However, these measurements have suffered from substantial experimental noise due to a variety of technical problems, the most prominent of which is bottlenecking during the generation of mutant viruses from plasmids. Here we describe advances that ameliorate these problems, enabling us to measure with greatly improved accuracy and reproducibility the effects of all amino-acid mutations to an H1 influenza hemagglutinin on viral replication in cell culture. The largest improvements come from using a helper virus to reduce bottlenecks when generating viruses from plasmids. Our measurements confirm at much higher resolution the results of previous studies suggesting that antigenic sites on the globular head of hemagglutinin are highly tolerant of mutations. We also show that other regions of hemagglutinin—including the stalk epitopes targeted by broadly neutralizing antibodies—have a much lower inherent capacity to tolerate point mutations. The ability to accurately measure the effects of all influenza mutations should enhance efforts to understand and predict viral evolution.

  4. A global algorithm for estimating Absolute Salinity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. J. McDougall

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The International Thermodynamic Equation of Seawater – 2010 has defined the thermodynamic properties of seawater in terms of a new salinity variable, Absolute Salinity, which takes into account the spatial variation of the composition of seawater. Absolute Salinity more accurately reflects the effects of the dissolved material in seawater on the thermodynamic properties (particularly density than does Practical Salinity.

    When a seawater sample has standard composition (i.e. the ratios of the constituents of sea salt are the same as those of surface water of the North Atlantic, Practical Salinity can be used to accurately evaluate the thermodynamic properties of seawater. When seawater is not of standard composition, Practical Salinity alone is not sufficient and the Absolute Salinity Anomaly needs to be estimated; this anomaly is as large as 0.025 g kg−1 in the northernmost North Pacific. Here we provide an algorithm for estimating Absolute Salinity Anomaly for any location (x, y, p in the world ocean.

    To develop this algorithm, we used the Absolute Salinity Anomaly that is found by comparing the density calculated from Practical Salinity to the density measured in the laboratory. These estimates of Absolute Salinity Anomaly however are limited to the number of available observations (namely 811. In order to provide a practical method that can be used at any location in the world ocean, we take advantage of approximate relationships between Absolute Salinity Anomaly and silicate concentrations (which are available globally.

  5. Measuring solar reflectance Part I: Defining a metric that accurately predicts solar heat gain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Levinson, Ronnen; Akbari, Hashem; Berdahl, Paul

    2010-05-14

    Solar reflectance can vary with the spectral and angular distributions of incident sunlight, which in turn depend on surface orientation, solar position and atmospheric conditions. A widely used solar reflectance metric based on the ASTM Standard E891 beam-normal solar spectral irradiance underestimates the solar heat gain of a spectrally selective 'cool colored' surface because this irradiance contains a greater fraction of near-infrared light than typically found in ordinary (unconcentrated) global sunlight. At mainland U.S. latitudes, this metric RE891BN can underestimate the annual peak solar heat gain of a typical roof or pavement (slope {le} 5:12 [23{sup o}]) by as much as 89 W m{sup -2}, and underestimate its peak surface temperature by up to 5 K. Using R{sub E891BN} to characterize roofs in a building energy simulation can exaggerate the economic value N of annual cool-roof net energy savings by as much as 23%. We define clear-sky air mass one global horizontal ('AM1GH') solar reflectance R{sub g,0}, a simple and easily measured property that more accurately predicts solar heat gain. R{sub g,0} predicts the annual peak solar heat gain of a roof or pavement to within 2 W m{sup -2}, and overestimates N by no more than 3%. R{sub g,0} is well suited to rating the solar reflectances of roofs, pavements and walls. We show in Part II that R{sub g,0} can be easily and accurately measured with a pyranometer, a solar spectrophotometer or version 6 of the Solar Spectrum Reflectometer.

  6. An algorithm for selecting the most accurate protocol for contact angle measurement by drop shape analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Z N

    2014-12-01

    In this study, an error analysis is performed to study real water drop images and the corresponding numerically generated water drop profiles for three widely used static contact angle algorithms: the circle- and ellipse-fitting algorithms and the axisymmetric drop shape analysis-profile (ADSA-P) algorithm. The results demonstrate the accuracy of the numerically generated drop profiles based on the Laplace equation. A significant number of water drop profiles with different volumes, contact angles, and noise levels are generated, and the influences of the three factors on the accuracies of the three algorithms are systematically investigated. The results reveal that the above-mentioned three algorithms are complementary. In fact, the circle- and ellipse-fitting algorithms show low errors and are highly resistant to noise for water drops with small/medium volumes and contact angles, while for water drop with large volumes and contact angles just the ADSA-P algorithm can meet accuracy requirement. However, this algorithm introduces significant errors in the case of small volumes and contact angles because of its high sensitivity to noise. The critical water drop volumes of the circle- and ellipse-fitting algorithms corresponding to a certain contact angle error are obtained through a significant amount of computation. To improve the precision of the static contact angle measurement, a more accurate algorithm based on a combination of the three algorithms is proposed. Following a systematic investigation, the algorithm selection rule is described in detail, while maintaining the advantages of the three algorithms and overcoming their deficiencies. In general, static contact angles over the entire hydrophobicity range can be accurately evaluated using the proposed algorithm. The ease of erroneous judgment in static contact angle measurements is avoided. The proposed algorithm is validated by a static contact angle evaluation of real and numerically generated water drop

  7. Atom interferometry experiments with lithium. Accurate measurement of the electric polarizability; Experiences d'interferometrie atomique avec le lithium. Mesure de precision de la polarisabilite electrique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miffre, A

    2005-06-15

    Atom interferometers are very sensitive tools to make precise measurements of physical quantities. This study presents a measurement of the static electric polarizability of lithium by atom interferometry. Our result, {alpha} = (24.33 {+-} 0.16)*10{sup -30} m{sup 3}, improves by a factor 3 the most accurate measurements of this quantity. This work describes the tuning and the operation of a Mach-Zehnder atom interferometer in detail. The two interfering arms are separated by the elastic diffraction of the atomic wave by a laser standing wave, almost resonant with the first resonance transition of lithium atom. A set of experimental techniques, often complicated to implement, is necessary to build the experimental set-up. After a detailed study of the atom source (a supersonic beam of lithium seeded in argon), we present our experimental atom signals which exhibit a very high fringe visibility, up to 84.5 % for first order diffraction. A wide variety of signals has been observed by diffraction of the bosonic isotope at higher diffraction orders and by diffraction of the fermionic less abundant isotope. The quality of these signals is then used to do very accurate phase measurements. A first experiment investigates how the atom interferometer signals are modified by a magnetic field gradient. An absolute measurement of lithium atom electric polarizability is then achieved by applying a static electric field on one of the two interfering arms, separated by only 90 micrometers. The construction of such a capacitor, its alignment in the experimental set-up and its operation are fully detailed.We obtain a very accurate phase measurement of the induced Lo Surdo - Stark phase shift (0.07 % precision). For this first measurement, the final uncertainty on the electric polarizability of lithium is only 0.66 %, and is dominated by the uncertainty on the atom beam mean velocity, so that a further reduction of the uncertainty can be expected. (author)

  8. An Accurate Method for Measuring Airplane-Borne Conformal Antenna's Radar Cross Section

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Shuxia; Zhang, Lei; Wang, Yafeng; Hu, Chufeng

    2016-09-01

    The airplane-borne conformal antenna attaches itself tightly with the airplane skin, so the conventional measurement method cannot determine the contribution of the airplane-borne conformal antenna to its radar cross section (RCS). This paper uses the 2D microwave imaging to isolate and extract the distribution of the reflectivity of the airplane-borne conformal antenna. It obtains the 2D spatial spectra of the conformal antenna through the wave spectral transform between the 2D spatial image and the 2D spatial spectrum. After the interpolation from the rectangular coordinate domain to the polar coordinate domain, the spectral domain data for the variation of the scatter of the conformal antenna with frequency and angle is obtained. The experimental results show that the measurement method proposed in this paper greatly enhances the airplane-borne conformal antenna's RCS measurement accuracy, essentially eliminates the influences caused by the airplane skin and more accurately reveals the airplane-borne conformal antenna's RCS scatter properties.

  9. High-Frequency CTD Measurements for Accurate GPS/acoustic Sea-floor Crustal Deformation Measurement System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tadokoro, K.; Yasuda, K.; Taniguchi, S.; Uemura, Y.; Matsuhiro, K.

    2015-12-01

    The GPS/acoustic sea-floor crustal deformation measurement system has developed as a useful tool to observe tectonic deformation especially at subduction zones. One of the factors preventing accurate GPS/acoustic sea-floor crustal deformation measurement is horizontal heterogeneity of sound speed in the ocean. It is therefore necessary to measure the gradient directly from sound speed structure. We report results of high-frequency CTD measurements using Underway CTD (UCTD) in the Kuroshio region. We perform the UCTD measurements on May 2nd, 2015 at two stations (TCA and TOA) above the sea-floor benchmarks installed across the Nankai Trough, off the south-east of Kii Peninsula, middle Japan. The number of measurement points is six at each station along circles with a diameter of 1.8 nautical miles around the sea-floor benchmark. The stations TCA and TOA are located on the edge and the interior of the Kuroshio current, respectively, judging from difference in sea water density measured at the two stations, as well as a satellite image of sea-surface temperature distribution. We detect a sound speed gradient of high speeds in the southern part and low speeds in the northern part at the two stations. At the TCA station, the gradient is noticeable down to 300 m in depth; the maximum difference in sound speed is +/- 5 m/s. The sound speed difference is as small as +/- 1.3 m/s at depths below 300 m, which causes seafloor benchmark positioning error as large as 1 m. At the TOA station, the gradient is extremely small down to 100 m in depth. The maximum difference in sound speed is less than +/- 0.3 m/s that is negligible small for seafloor benchmark positioning error. Clear gradient of high speed is observed to the depths; the maximum difference in sound speed is +/- 0.8-0.9 m/s, causing seafloor benchmark positioning error of several tens centimeters. The UCTD measurement is effective tool to detect sound speed gradient. We establish a method for accurate sea

  10. Absolute quantitation of endogenous proteins with precision and accuracy using a capillary western system

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, Jin-Qiu; Heldman, Madeleine R.; Herrmann, Michelle A.; Kedei, Noemi; Woo, Wonhee; Blumberg, Peter M.; Goldsmith, Paul K.

    2013-01-01

    Precise and accurate quantification of protein expression levels in a complex biological setting is challenging. Here, we describe a method for absolute quantitation of endogenous proteins in cell lysates using an automated capillary immunoassay system (the size-based Simple Western system, ProteinSimple, CA). The method was able to accurately measure the absolute amounts of target proteins at picogram or sub-picogram levels per nanogram of cell lysates. The measurements were independent of t...

  11. Absolute Summ

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, Alfred, Jr.

    Summ means the entirety of the multiverse. It seems clear, from the inflation theories of A. Guth and others, that the creation of many universes is plausible. We argue that Absolute cosmological ideas, not unlike those of I. Newton, may be consistent with dynamic multiverse creations. As suggested in W. Heisenberg's uncertainty principle, and with the Anthropic Principle defended by S. Hawking, et al., human consciousness, buttressed by findings of neuroscience, may have to be considered in our models. Predictability, as A. Einstein realized with Invariants and General Relativity, may be required for new ideas to be part of physics. We present here a two postulate model geared to an Absolute Summ. The seedbed of this work is part of Akhnaton's philosophy (see S. Freud, Moses and Monotheism). Most important, however, is that the structure of human consciousness, manifest in Kenya's Rift Valley 200,000 years ago as Homo sapiens, who were the culmination of the six million year co-creation process of Hominins and Nature in Africa, allows us to do the physics that we do. .

  12. Absolute measurement of cerebral optical coefficients, hemoglobin concentration and oxygen saturation in old and young adults with near-infrared spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    We present near-infrared spectroscopy measurement of absolute cerebral hemoglobin concentration and saturation in a large sample of 36 healthy elderly (mean age, 85 ± 6 years) and 19 young adults (mean age, 28 ± 4 years). Non-invasive measurements were obtained on the forehead using a commercially a...

  13. Accurate, in vivo NIR measurement of skeletal muscle oxygenation through fat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Chunguang; Zou, Fengmei; Ellerby, Gwenn E. C.; Scott, Peter; Peshlov, Boyan; Soller, Babs R.

    2010-02-01

    Noninvasive near infrared (NIR) spectroscopic measurement of muscle oxygenation requires the penetration of light through overlying skin and fat layers. We have previously demonstrated a dual-light source design and orthogonalization algorithm that corrects for inference from skin absorption and fat scattering. To achieve accurate muscle oxygen saturation (SmO2) measurement, one must select the appropriate source-detector distance (SD) to completely penetrate the fat layer. Methods: Six healthy subjects were supine for 15min to normalize tissue oxygenation across the body. NIR spectra were collected from the calf, shoulder, lower and upper thigh muscles with long SD distances of 30mm, 35mm, 40mm and 45mm. Spectral preprocessing with the short SD (3mm) spectrum preceded SmO2 calculation with a Taylor series expansion method. Three-way ANOVA was used to compare SmO2 values over varying fat thickness, subjects and SD distances. Results: Overlying fat layers varied in thickness from 4.9mm to 19.6mm across all subjects. SmO2 measured at the four locations were comparable for each subject (p=0.133), regardless of fat thickness and SD distance. SmO2 (mean+/-std dev) measured at calf, shoulder, low and high thigh were 62+/-3%, 59+/-8%, 61+/-2%, 61+/-4% respectively for SD distance of 30mm. In these subjects no significant influence of SD was observed (p=0.948). Conclusions: The results indicate that for our sensor design a 30mm SD is sufficient to penetrate through a 19mm fat layer and that orthogonalization with short SD effectively removed spectral interference from fat to result in a reproducible determination of SmO2.

  14. Accurate correction of magnetic field instabilities for high-resolution isochronous mass measurements in storage rings

    CERN Document Server

    Shuai, P; Zhang, Y H; Litvinov, Yu A; Wang, M; Tu, X L; Blaum, K; Zhou, X H; Yuan, Y J; Audi, G; Yan, X L; Chen, X C; Xu, X; Zhang, W; Sun, B H; Yamaguchi, T; Chen, R J; Fu, C Y; Ge, Z; Huang, W J; Liu, D W; Xing, Y M; Zeng, Q

    2014-01-01

    Isochronous mass spectrometry (IMS) in storage rings is a successful technique for accurate mass measurements of short-lived nuclides with relative precision of about $10^{-5}-10^{-7}$. Instabilities of the magnetic fields in storage rings are one of the major contributions limiting the achievable mass resolving power, which is directly related to the precision of the obtained mass values. A new data analysis method is proposed allowing one to minimise the effect of such instabilities. The masses of the previously measured at the CSRe $^{41}$Ti, $^{43}$V, $^{47}$Mn, $^{49}$Fe, $^{53}$Ni and $^{55}$Cu nuclides were re-determined with this method. An improvement of the mass precision by a factor of $\\sim 1.7$ has been achieved for $^{41}$Ti and $^{43}$V. The method can be applied to any isochronous mass experiment irrespective of the accelerator facility. Furthermore, the method can be used as an on-line tool for checking the isochronous conditions of the storage ring.

  15. Accurate measurement of volume and shape of resting and activated blood platelets from light scattering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moskalensky, Alexander E; Yurkin, Maxim A; Konokhova, Anastasiya I; Strokotov, Dmitry I; Nekrasov, Vyacheslav M; Chernyshev, Andrei V; Tsvetovskaya, Galina A; Chikova, Elena D; Maltsev, Valeri P

    2013-01-01

    We introduce a novel approach for determination of volume and shape of individual blood platelets modeled as an oblate spheroid from angle-resolved light scattering with flow-cytometric technique. The light-scattering profiles (LSPs) of individual platelets were measured with the scanning flow cytometer and the platelet characteristics were determined from the solution of the inverse light-scattering problem using the precomputed database of theoretical LSPs. We revealed a phenomenon of parameter compensation, which is partly explained in the framework of anomalous diffraction approximation. To overcome this problem, additional a priori information on the platelet refractive index was used. It allowed us to determine the size of each platelet with subdiffraction precision and independent of the particular value of the platelet aspect ratio. The shape (spheroidal aspect ratio) distributions of platelets showed substantial differences between native and activated by 10 μM adenosine diphosphate samples. We expect that the new approach may find use in hematological analyzers for accurate measurement of platelet volume distribution and for determination of the platelet activation efficiency.

  16. Fast and accurate measurement of diffusion coefficient by Taylor's dispersion analysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    This investigation aimed at improving the performance of Taylor's dispersion analysis for the fast and accurate measurement of diffusion coefficient of a minute solute in various solvents. The investigation was carried out on a capillary electrophoresis instrument by monitoring the UV absorption peak of a solute pulse and calculating the diffusion coefficient by peak efficiency. With L-phenylalanine as a main testing solute, some key factors were afterward disclosed including especially the capillary size, carrier flow velocity, injection volume and capillary conditioning. Peak tailing, large volume of sample injection and slow migration were found to underestimate the diffusion coefficient while very fast migration and high sample concentration caused overestimation. At a moderate flow velocity of 0.1―1 cm/s with a capillary of 72.44 μm I.D.×60 cm (50 cm effective) maintained at 25℃, the diffusion coefficient of aqueous L-phenylalanine was determined, giving a value of 7.02×10-6 cm2/s with error<2% and relative standard deviation<0.2% (n=3). The method was shown to be applicable to the measurement of various samples such as aqueous phenylalanine, acetone, phenol, toluene and benzene, and nonaqueous benzene (in ethanol or 1-butanol).

  17. An accurate mass and radius measurement for an ultracool white dwarf

    CERN Document Server

    Parsons, S G; Marsh, T R; Bergeron, P; Copperwheat, C M; Dhillon, V S; Bento, J; Littlefair, S P; Schreiber, M R

    2012-01-01

    Studies of cool white dwarfs in the solar neighbourhood have placed a limit on the age of the Galactic disk of 8-9 billion years. However, determining their cooling ages requires the knowledge of their effective temperatures, masses, radii, and atmospheric composition. So far, these parameters could only be inferred for a small number of ultracool white dwarfs for which an accurate distance is known, by fitting their spectral energy distributions (SEDs) in conjunction with a theoretical mass-radius relation. However, the mass-radius relation remains largely untested, and the derived cooling ages are hence model-dependent. Here we report direct measurements of the mass and radius of an ultracool white dwarf in the double-lined eclipsing binary SDSS J013851.54-001621.6. We find M(WD)=0.529+/-0.010Msol and R(WD)=0.0131+/-0.0003Rsol. Our measurements are consistent with the mass-radius relation and we determine a robust cooling age of 9.5 billion years for the 3570K white dwarf. We find that the mass and radius o...

  18. Accurate measurement of interferometer group delay using field-compensated scanning white light interferometer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wan, Xiaoke; Wang, Ji; Ge, Jian

    2010-10-10

    Interferometers are key elements in radial velocity (RV) experiments in astronomy observations, and accurate calibration of the group delay of an interferometer is required for high precision measurements. A novel field-compensated white light scanning Michelson interferometer is introduced as an interferometer calibration tool. The optical path difference (OPD) scanning was achieved by translating a compensation prism, such that even if the light source were in low spatial coherence, the interference stays spatially phase coherent over a large interferometer scanning range. In the wavelength region of 500-560 nm, a multimode fiber-coupled LED was used as the light source, and high optical efficiency was essential in elevating the signal-to-noise ratio of the interferogram signal. The achromatic OPD scanning required a one-time calibration, and two methods using dual-laser wavelength references and an iodine absorption spectrum reference were employed and cross-verified. In an experiment measuring the group delay of a fixed Michelson interferometer, Fourier analysis was employed to process the interferogram data. The group delay was determined at an accuracy of 1×10(-5), and the phase angle precision was typically 2.5×10(-6) over the wide wavelength region.

  19. Accurately measuring volume of soil samples using low cost Kinect 3D scanner

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Sterre, Boy-Santhos; Hut, Rolf; van de Giesen, Nick

    2013-04-01

    The 3D scanner of the Kinect game controller can be used to increase the accuracy and efficiency of determining in situ soil moisture content. Soil moisture is one of the principal hydrological variables in both the water and energy interactions between soil and atmosphere. Current in situ measurements of soil moisture either rely on indirect measurements (of electromagnetic constants or heat capacity) or on physically taking a sample and weighing it in a lab. The bottleneck in accurately retrieving soil moisture using samples is the determining of the volume of the sample. Currently this is mostly done by the very time consuming "sand cone method" in which the volume were the sample used to sit is filled with sand. We show that 3D scanner that is part of the 150 game controller extension "Kinect" can be used to make 3D scans before and after taking the sample. The accuracy of this method is tested by scanning forms of known volume. This method is less time consuming and less error-prone than using a sand cone.

  20. Accurate measurement of volume and shape of resting and activated blood platelets from light scattering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moskalensky, Alexander E.; Yurkin, Maxim A.; Konokhova, Anastasiya I.; Strokotov, Dmitry I.; Nekrasov, Vyacheslav M.; Chernyshev, Andrei V.; Tsvetovskaya, Galina A.; Chikova, Elena D.; Maltsev, Valeri P.

    2013-01-01

    We introduce a novel approach for determination of volume and shape of individual blood platelets modeled as an oblate spheroid from angle-resolved light scattering with flow-cytometric technique. The light-scattering profiles (LSPs) of individual platelets were measured with the scanning flow cytometer and the platelet characteristics were determined from the solution of the inverse light-scattering problem using the precomputed database of theoretical LSPs. We revealed a phenomenon of parameter compensation, which is partly explained in the framework of anomalous diffraction approximation. To overcome this problem, additional a priori information on the platelet refractive index was used. It allowed us to determine the size of each platelet with subdiffraction precision and independent of the particular value of the platelet aspect ratio. The shape (spheroidal aspect ratio) distributions of platelets showed substantial differences between native and activated by 10 μM adenosine diphosphate samples. We expect that the new approach may find use in hematological analyzers for accurate measurement of platelet volume distribution and for determination of the platelet activation efficiency.

  1. An Accurate Non-Cooperative Method for Measuring Textureless Spherical Target Based on Calibrated Lasers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fei Wang

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Strong demands for accurate non-cooperative target measurement have been arising recently for the tasks of assembling and capturing. Spherical objects are one of the most common targets in these applications. However, the performance of the traditional vision-based reconstruction method was limited for practical use when handling poorly-textured targets. In this paper, we propose a novel multi-sensor fusion system for measuring and reconstructing textureless non-cooperative spherical targets. Our system consists of four simple lasers and a visual camera. This paper presents a complete framework of estimating the geometric parameters of textureless spherical targets: (1 an approach to calibrate the extrinsic parameters between a camera and simple lasers; and (2 a method to reconstruct the 3D position of the laser spots on the target surface and achieve the refined results via an optimized scheme. The experiment results show that our proposed calibration method can obtain a fine calibration result, which is comparable to the state-of-the-art LRF-based methods, and our calibrated system can estimate the geometric parameters with high accuracy in real time.

  2. Comparison of a citation-based indicator and peer review for absolute and specific measures of research-group excellence

    CERN Document Server

    Mryglod, O; Holovatch, Yu; Berche, B

    2013-01-01

    Many different measures are used to assess academic research excellence and these are subject to ongoing discussion and debate within the scientometric, university-management and policy-making communities internationally. One topic of continued importance is the extent to which citation-based indicators compare with peer-review-based evaluation. Here we analyse the correlations between values of a particular citation-based impact indicator and peer-review scores in several academic disciplines, from natural to social sciences and humanities. We perform the comparison for research groups rather than for individuals. We make comparisons on two levels. At an absolute level, we compare total impact and overall strength of the group as a whole. At a specific level, we compare academic impact and quality, normalised by the size of the group. We find very high correlations at the former level for some disciplines and poor correlations at the latter level for all disciplines. This means that, although the citation-ba...

  3. Measurement of Absolute Excitation Cross Sections in Highly-Charged Ions Using Electron Energy Loss and Merged Beams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chutjian, A.; Smith, Steven J.; Lozano, J.

    2002-01-01

    There is increasing emphasis during this decade on understanding energy balance and phenomena observed in high electron temperature plasmas. The UV spectral return from FUSE, the X-ray spectral return from the HETG on Chandra and the LETGS 011 XMM-Newton are just beginning. Line emissions are almost entirely from highly-charged ions (HCIs) of C, N, 0, Ne, Mg, S, Si, Ca, and Fe. The Constellation-X mission will provide X-ray spectroscopy up to photon energies of 0.12 nm (10 keV) where primary line emitters will be HCIs. A variety of atomic parameters are required to model the stellar and solar plasma. These include cross sections for excitation, ionization, charge-exchange, X-ray emission, direct and indirect recombination, lifetimes and branching ratios, and dependences on l, m mixing by external E and B fields. In almost all cases the atomic quantities are calculated, and few comparisons to experiment have been carried out. Collision strengths and Einstein A-values are required to convert the observed spectral intensities to electron temperatures and densities in the stellar plasma. The JPL electron energy-loss and merged beam approach has been used to measure absolute collision strengths in a number of ions, with critical comparison made to the best available theories.

  4. A particle-tracking approach for accurate material derivative measurements with tomographic PIV

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novara, Matteo; Scarano, Fulvio

    2013-08-01

    The evaluation of the instantaneous 3D pressure field from tomographic PIV data relies on the accurate estimate of the fluid velocity material derivative, i.e., the velocity time rate of change following a given fluid element. To date, techniques that reconstruct the fluid parcel trajectory from a time sequence of 3D velocity fields obtained with Tomo-PIV have already been introduced. However, an accurate evaluation of the fluid element acceleration requires trajectory reconstruction over a relatively long observation time, which reduces random errors. On the other hand, simple integration and finite difference techniques suffer from increasing truncation errors when complex trajectories need to be reconstructed over a long time interval. In principle, particle-tracking velocimetry techniques (3D-PTV) enable the accurate reconstruction of single particle trajectories over a long observation time. Nevertheless, PTV can be reliably performed only at limited particle image number density due to errors caused by overlapping particles. The particle image density can be substantially increased by use of tomographic PIV. In the present study, a technique to combine the higher information density of tomographic PIV and the accurate trajectory reconstruction of PTV is proposed (Tomo-3D-PTV). The particle-tracking algorithm is applied to the tracers detected in the 3D domain obtained by tomographic reconstruction. The 3D particle information is highly sparse and intersection of trajectories is virtually impossible. As a result, ambiguities in the particle path identification over subsequent recordings are easily avoided. Polynomial fitting functions are introduced that describe the particle position in time with sequences based on several recordings, leading to the reduction in truncation errors for complex trajectories. Moreover, the polynomial regression approach provides a reduction in the random errors due to the particle position measurement. Finally, the acceleration

  5. Sitting and standing blood pressure measurements are not accurate for the diagnosis of orthostatic hypotension.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Cooke, J

    2012-01-31

    INTRODUCTION: Orthostatic hypotension (OH) is associated with troublesome symptoms and increased mortality. It is treatable and deserving of accurate diagnosis. This can be time consuming. The current reference standard for its diagnosis is head-up tilt (HUT) testing with continuous beat-to-beat plethysmography. Our objective was to assess the accuracy of sit-stand testing with semi-automatic sphygmomanometry for the diagnosis of OH. DESIGN: Retrospective test of diagnostic accuracy. METHODS: This was a retrospective study performed using a database maintained by a busy syncope unit. HUT testing was performed using an automated tilt table with Finometer monitoring. A 3 min 70 degrees HUT was performed following 5 min supine. Sitting blood pressure (BP) was measured following 3 min rest. Standing BP was measured within 30 s of assuming the upright posture. The results of sit-stand testing were compared with HUT testing as a reference standard. Both tests happened within 5 min of each other and patients underwent no intervention between tests. RESULTS: From a total of 1452 consecutive HUTs, we identified 730 with pre-test measures of sitting and standing BP. The mean age of this group was 70.57 years (SD = 15.1), 62% were female. The sensitivity of sit-stand testing was calculated as 15.5%, specificity as 89.9%, positive predictive value as 61.7%, negative predictive value as 50.2% and the likelihood ratio as 1.6. The area under the Receiver Operator Curve was 0.564. CONCLUSION: We have demonstrated that sit-stand testing for OH has very low diagnostic accuracy. We recommend that the more time-consuming reference standard method of diagnosis be used if the condition is suspected.

  6. Accurate measurement of respiratory airway wall thickness in CT images using a signal restoration technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Sang Joon; Kim, Tae Jung; Kim, Kwang Gi; Lee, Sang Ho; Goo, Jin Mo; Kim, Jong Hyo

    2008-03-01

    Airway wall thickness (AWT) is an important bio-marker for evaluation of pulmonary diseases such as chronic bronchitis, bronchiectasis. While an image-based analysis of the airway tree can provide precise and valuable airway size information, quantitative measurement of AWT in Multidetector-Row Computed Tomography (MDCT) images involves various sources of error and uncertainty. So we have developed an accurate AWT measurement technique for small airways with three-dimensional (3-D) approach. To evaluate performance of these techniques, we used a set of acryl tube phantom was made to mimic small airways to have three different sizes of wall diameter (4.20, 1.79, 1.24 mm) and wall thickness (1.84, 1.22, 0.67 mm). The phantom was imaged with MDCT using standard reconstruction kernel (Sensation 16, Siemens, Erlangen). The pixel size was 0.488 mm × 0.488 mm × 0.75 mm in x, y, and z direction respectively. The images were magnified in 5 times using cubic B-spline interpolation, and line profiles were obtained for each tube. To recover faithful line profile from the blurred images, the line profiles were deconvolved with a point spread kernel of the MDCT which was estimated using the ideal tube profile and image line profile. The inner diameter, outer diameter, and wall thickness of each tube were obtained with full-width-half-maximum (FWHM) method for the line profiles before and after deconvolution processing. Results show that significant improvement was achieved over the conventional FWHM method in the measurement of AWT.

  7. Enabling high grayscale resolution displays and accurate response time measurements on conventional computers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiangrui; Lu, Zhong-Lin

    2012-02-29

    Display systems based on conventional computer graphics cards are capable of generating images with 8-bit gray level resolution. However, most experiments in vision research require displays with more than 12 bits of luminance resolution. Several solutions are available. Bit++ (1) and DataPixx (2) use the Digital Visual Interface (DVI) output from graphics cards and high resolution (14 or 16-bit) digital-to-analog converters to drive analog display devices. The VideoSwitcher (3) described here combines analog video signals from the red and blue channels of graphics cards with different weights using a passive resister network (4) and an active circuit to deliver identical video signals to the three channels of color monitors. The method provides an inexpensive way to enable high-resolution monochromatic displays using conventional graphics cards and analog monitors. It can also provide trigger signals that can be used to mark stimulus onsets, making it easy to synchronize visual displays with physiological recordings or response time measurements. Although computer keyboards and mice are frequently used in measuring response times (RT), the accuracy of these measurements is quite low. The RTbox is a specialized hardware and software solution for accurate RT measurements. Connected to the host computer through a USB connection, the driver of the RTbox is compatible with all conventional operating systems. It uses a microprocessor and high-resolution clock to record the identities and timing of button events, which are buffered until the host computer retrieves them. The recorded button events are not affected by potential timing uncertainties or biases associated with data transmission and processing in the host computer. The asynchronous storage greatly simplifies the design of user programs. Several methods are available to synchronize the clocks of the RTbox and the host computer. The RTbox can also receive external triggers and be used to measure RT with respect

  8. Assessing smoking status in disadvantaged populations: is computer administered self report an accurate and acceptable measure?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bryant Jamie

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Self report of smoking status is potentially unreliable in certain situations and in high-risk populations. This study aimed to determine the accuracy and acceptability of computer administered self-report of smoking status among a low socioeconomic (SES population. Methods Clients attending a community service organisation for welfare support were invited to complete a cross-sectional touch screen computer health survey. Following survey completion, participants were invited to provide a breath sample to measure exposure to tobacco smoke in expired air. Sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value and negative predictive value were calculated. Results Three hundred and eighty three participants completed the health survey, and 330 (86% provided a breath sample. Of participants included in the validation analysis, 59% reported being a daily or occasional smoker. Sensitivity was 94.4% and specificity 92.8%. The positive and negative predictive values were 94.9% and 92.0% respectively. The majority of participants reported that the touch screen survey was both enjoyable (79% and easy (88% to complete. Conclusions Computer administered self report is both acceptable and accurate as a method of assessing smoking status among low SES smokers in a community setting. Routine collection of health information using touch-screen computer has the potential to identify smokers and increase provision of support and referral in the community setting.

  9. An easy way to measure accurately the direct magnetoelectric voltage coefficient of thin film devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poullain, Gilles; More-Chevalier, Joris; Cibert, Christophe; Bouregba, Rachid

    2017-01-01

    TbxDy1-xFe2/Pt/Pb(Zrx, Ti1-x)O3 thin films were grown on Pt/TiO2/SiO2/Si substrate by multi-target sputtering. The magnetoelectric voltage coefficient αΗΜΕ was determined at room temperature using a lock-in amplifier. By adding, in series in the circuit, a capacitor of the same value as that of the device under test, we were able to demonstrate that the magnetoelectric device behaves as a voltage source. Furthermore, a simple way to subtract the stray voltage arising from the flow of eddy currents in the measurement set-up, is proposed. This allows the easy and accurate determination of the true magnetoelectric voltage coefficient. A large αΗΜΕ of 8.3 V/cm. Oe was thus obtained for a Terfenol-D/Pt/PZT thin film device, without DC magnetic field nor mechanical resonance.

  10. MELIFT - A new device for accurate measurements in a snow rich environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dorninger, M.

    2012-04-01

    A deep snow pack, remote locations, no external power supply and very low temperatures are often the main ingredients when it comes to the deployment of meteorological stations in mountainous terrain. The accurate position of the sensor related to the snow surface is normally not known. A new device called METLIFT overcomes the problems. WMO recommends a height between 1.2 m and 2 m above ground level for the measurement of air temperature and humidity. The height above ground level is specified to take care of the possible strong vertical temperature and humidity gradients at the lowest layers in the atmosphere. Especially in snow rich and remote locations it may be hardly possible to follow this advice. Therefore most of the meteorological stations in mountainous terrain are situated at mountain tops where strong winds will blow off the snow or in valleys where a daily inspection of the sensors is possible. In other unpopulated mountainous areas, e.g. basins, plateaus, the distance of the sensor to the snow surface is not known or the sensor will be snow-covered. A new device was developed to guarantee the sensor height above surface within the WMO limits in harsh and remote environments. An ultrasonic snow height sensor measures the distance to the snow surface. If it exceeds certain limits due to snow accumulation or snow melt the lift adapts its height accordingly. The prototype of METLIFT has been installed in Lower Austria at an altitude of 1000m. The lift is 6 m high and can pull out for another 4 m. Sensor arms are mounted every meter to allow the connection of additional sensors or to measure a profile of a certain parameter of the lowest 5 m above surface. Sensors can be added easily since cable wiring is provided to each sensor arm. Horizontal winds are measured at 7 m height above surface. METLIFT is independent of external power supply. Three lead gel accumulators recharged by three solar panels provide the energy necessary for the sensors, the data

  11. Present-day Surface Deformation and Vertical Motion In The Central Alborz (iran) From GPS and Absolute Gravity Measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masson, F.; Sedighi, M.; Hinderer, J.; Bayer, R.; Nilforoushan, F.; Luck, J.-M.; Vernant, P.; Chéry, J.

    The present tectonic of Iran results from the north-south convergence between Eura- sia and Arabia, with a rate of about 3 cm/year. The deformation of Iran is concen- trated in major belts along the south-western border (Zagros), the southern shore of the Caspian Sea (Alborz) and along the north-east border (Kopet-Dag). The Alborz range is an east-west mountain range which accommodates about 1 cm/year of short- ening between the Central Iranian Desert and the south Caspian Sea. The main tec- tonic structures are generally overthrusting range-parallel faults northward dipping in the south (North Tehran fault, Mosha fault) and southward dipping in the north (Amir fault, North Border fault). The compressive tectonic in the Alborz range is certainly accommodated by large vertical motions along the major faults. To study the defor- mation (horizontal and vertical movement) we have installed and measured a GPS network of 14 sites crossing the Alborz range east of Tehran. The GPS network is measured during campaigns performed each year. In order to well constrained the ver- tical deformation of the southern border of the Alborz, we have performed colocated GPS and absolute gravity measurements in 3 sites, one near the Mosha fault (Abali), one in the frontal thrust area of Tehran and one in the stable central Iranian block (Chesmeh-Sour). After two measures (2000 and 2001), some interesting preliminary results will be shown. The observed gravity variation for one year (Sept. 2000 - Sept. 2001) is -3.0 mgal +-2.6 mgal (Abali), -24.2 mgal +-4.8 mgal (Tehran) and +4.7 mgal +-2.3 mgal (Chesmeh-Sour). These results could be explained respectively by a tec- tonic uplift of about 10 mm/year in the Alborz, water pumping in the Tehran area and (unexplained) subsidence at Chesmeh-Sour. These results will be compared to the first estimation of the deformation obtained by GPS (horizontal repeatability < 3 mm and vertical repeatability < 5 mm).

  12. A new direct absorption measurement for high precision and accurate measurement of water vapor in the UT/LS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sargent, M. R.; Sayres, D. S.; Smith, J. B.; Anderson, J.

    2011-12-01

    Highly accurate and precise water vapor measurements in the upper troposphere and lower stratosphere are critical to understanding the climate feedbacks of water vapor and clouds in that region. However, the continued disagreement among water vapor measurements (~1 - 2 ppmv) are too large to constrain the role of different hydration and dehydration mechanisms operating in the UT/LS, with model validation dependent upon which dataset is chosen. In response to these issues, we present a new instrument for measurement of water vapor in the UT/LS that was flown during the April 2011 MACPEX mission out of Houston, TX. The dual axis instrument combines the heritage and validated accuracy of the Harvard Lyman-alpha instrument with a newly designed direct IR absorption instrument, the Harvard Herriott Hygrometer (HHH). The Lyman-alpha detection axis has flown aboard NASA's WB-57 and ER2 aircraft since 1994, and provides a requisite link between the new HHH instrument and the long history of Harvard water vapor measurements. The instrument utilizes the highly sensitive Lyman-alpha photo-fragment fluorescence detection method; its accuracy has been demonstrated though rigorous laboratory calibrations and in situ diagnostic procedures. The Harvard Herriott Hygrometer employs a fiber coupled near-IR laser with state-of-the-art electronics to measure water vapor via direct absorption in a spherical Herriott cell of 10 cm length. The instrument demonstrated in-flight precision of 0.1 ppmv (1-sec, 1-sigma) at mixing ratios as low as 5 ppmv with accuracies of 10% based on careful laboratory calibrations and in-flight performance. We present a description of the measurement technique along with our methodology for calibration and details of the measurement uncertainties. The simultaneous utilization of radically different measurement techniques in a single duct in the new Harvard Water Vapor (HWV) instrument allows for the constraint of systematic errors inherent in each technique

  13. Measurement of the Absolute Magnitude and Time Courses of Mitochondrial Membrane Potential in Primary and Clonal Pancreatic Beta-Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerencser, Akos A; Mookerjee, Shona A; Jastroch, Martin; Brand, Martin D

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to simplify, improve and validate quantitative measurement of the mitochondrial membrane potential (ΔψM) in pancreatic β-cells. This built on our previously introduced calculation of the absolute magnitude of ΔψM in intact cells, using time-lapse imaging of the non-quench mode fluorescence of tetramethylrhodamine methyl ester and a bis-oxonol plasma membrane potential (ΔψP) indicator. ΔψM is a central mediator of glucose-stimulated insulin secretion in pancreatic β-cells. ΔψM is at the crossroads of cellular energy production and demand, therefore precise assay of its magnitude is a valuable tool to study how these processes interplay in insulin secretion. Dispersed islet cell cultures allowed cell type-specific, single-cell observations of cell-to-cell heterogeneity of ΔψM and ΔψP. Glucose addition caused hyperpolarization of ΔψM and depolarization of ΔψP. The hyperpolarization was a monophasic step increase, even in cells where the ΔψP depolarization was biphasic. The biphasic response of ΔψP was associated with a larger hyperpolarization of ΔψM than the monophasic response. Analysis of the relationships between ΔψP and ΔψM revealed that primary dispersed β-cells responded to glucose heterogeneously, driven by variable activation of energy metabolism. Sensitivity analysis of the calibration was consistent with β-cells having substantial cell-to-cell variations in amounts of mitochondria, and this was predicted not to impair the accuracy of determinations of relative changes in ΔψM and ΔψP. Finally, we demonstrate a significant problem with using an alternative ΔψM probe, rhodamine 123. In glucose-stimulated and oligomycin-inhibited β-cells the principles of the rhodamine 123 assay were breached, resulting in misleading conclusions.

  14. An accurate air temperature measurement system based on an envelope pulsed ultrasonic time-of-flight technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Y S; Huang, Y P; Huang, K N; Young, M S

    2007-11-01

    A new microcomputer based air temperature measurement system is presented. An accurate temperature measurement is derived from the measurement of sound velocity by using an ultrasonic time-of-flight (TOF) technique. The study proposes a novel algorithm that combines both amplitude modulation (AM) and phase modulation (PM) to get the TOF measurement. The proposed system uses the AM and PM envelope square waveform (APESW) to reduce the error caused by inertia delay. The APESW ultrasonic driving waveform causes an envelope zero and phase inversion phenomenon in the relative waveform of the receiver. To accurately achieve a TOF measurement, the phase inversion phenomenon was used to sufficiently identify the measurement pulse in the received waveform. Additionally, a counter clock technique was combined to compute the phase shifts of the last incomplete cycle for TOF. The presented system can obtain 0.1% TOF resolution for the period corresponding to the 40 kHz frequency ultrasonic wave. Consequently, with the integration of a humidity compensation algorithm, a highly accurate and high resolution temperature measurement can be achieved using the accurate TOF measurement. Experimental results indicate that the combined standard uncertainty of the temperature measurement is approximately 0.39 degrees C. The main advantages of this system are high resolution measurements, narrow bandwidth requirements, and ease of implementation.

  15. Infrared Thermometer: an accurate tool for temperature measurement during renal surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giovanni Scala Marchini

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Purpose To evaluate infrared thermometer (IRT accuracy compared to standard digital thermometer in measuring kidney temperature during arterial clamping with and without renal cooling. Materials and Methods 20 pigs weighting 20Kg underwent selective right renal arterial clamping, 10 with (Group 1 - Cold Ischemia with ice slush and 10 without renal cooling (Group 2 - Warm Ischemia. Arterial clamping was performed without venous clamping. Renal temperature was serially measured following clamping of the main renal artery with the IRT and a digital contact thermometer (DT: immediate after clamping (T0, after 2 (T2, 5 (T5 and 10 minutes (T10. Temperature values were expressed in mean, standard deviation and range for each thermometer. We used the T student test to compare means and considered p < 0.05 to be statistically significant. Results In Group 1, mean DT surface temperature decrease was 12.6 ± 4.1°C (5-19°C while deep DT temperature decrease was 15.8 ± 1.5°C (15-18°C. For the IRT, mean temperature decrease was 9.1 ± 3.8°C (3-14°C. There was no statistically significant difference between thermometers. In Group 2, surface temperature decrease for DT was 2.7 ± 1.8°C (0-4°C and mean deep temperature decrease was 0.5 ± 1.0°C (0-3°C. For IRT, mean temperature decrease was 3.1 ± 1.9°C (0-6°C. No statistically significant difference between thermometers was found at any time point. conclusions IRT proved to be an accurate non-invasive precise device for renal temperature monitoring during kidney surgery. External ice slush cooling confirmed to be fast and effective at cooling the pig model. IRT = Infrared thermometer DT = Digital contact thermometer D:S = Distance-to-spot ratio

  16. In-situ measurements of material thermal parameters for accurate LED lamp thermal modelling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vellvehi, M.; Perpina, X.; Jorda, X.; Werkhoven, R.J.; Kunen, J.M.G.; Jakovenko, J.; Bancken, P.; Bolt, P.J.

    2013-01-01

    This work deals with the extraction of key thermal parameters for accurate thermal modelling of LED lamps: air exchange coefficient around the lamp, emissivity and thermal conductivity of all lamp parts. As a case study, an 8W retrofit lamp is presented. To assess simulation results, temperature is

  17. The use of geo radar in efficient and accurate snow measurements; Georadar for effektive og noeyaktige snoemaalinger

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sand, Knut [SINTEF, Trondheim (Norway); Faanes, Turid [Trondheim Energiverk, Trondheim (Norway)

    2001-07-01

    In the hydroelectric power industry, good measurements of snow masses at the end of the accumulation period are very important for establishing reliable prognoses for the inflow to the magazines. In a Norwegian pilot project, geo radar was used to measure snow masses and the results are interesting both with respect to accuracy and effectiveness. The water equivalent of the snow magazine is more accurately measured by means of geo radar than by more traditional means.

  18. Non-invasive methods for absolute cerebral blood flow measurement using {sup 99m}Tc-ECD: a study in healthy volunteers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van Laere, K.; Dierckx, R. [Div. of Nuclear Medicine, Ghent University Hospital (Belgium); Dumont, F. [Radiopharmacy Department, Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Ghent University, Ghent (Belgium); Koole, M. [Medical Image and Signal Processing Department (MEDISIP), Faculty of Applied Sciences, Ghent University, Ghent (Belgium)

    2001-07-01

    }, which is a measure of the cerebral extraction fraction for {sup 99m}Tc-ECD, was not dependent on age. Intersubject variability was 15.5% for both radionuclide scanning-based methods and 18.2% for venous sampling, and in all cases was independent of age. A much lower intrasubject variability was observed for BPI{sup S} (7.2%) than for BPI{sup G} (12.6%). This study provides reference values for normal perfusion indices assessed by graphical and spectral analysis. The results also indicate that spectral analysis allows the most reproducible estimate of hemispheric perfusion by means of an operator-independent and objective approach. Whereas accurate calibration of normal BPI{sup S} values to hemispheric CBF with established methods needs to be performed, non-invasive calculation of regional absolute CBF using {sup 99m}Tc-ECD is possible by application of a linearisation algorithm. (orig.)

  19. Absolute measurement of subnanometer scale vibration of cochlear partition of an excised guinea pig cochlea using spectral-domain phase-sensitive optical coherence tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subhash, Hrebesh M.; Choudhury, Niloy; Jacques, Steven L.; Wang, Ruikang K.; Chen, Fangyi; Zha, Dingjun; Nuttall, Alfred L.

    2012-01-01

    Direct measurement of absolute vibration parameters from different locations within the mammalian organ of Corti is crucial for understanding the hearing mechanics such as how sound propagates through the cochlea and how sound stimulates the vibration of various structures of the cochlea, namely, basilar membrane (BM), recticular lamina, outer hair cells and tectorial membrane (TM). In this study we demonstrate the feasibility a modified phase-sensitive spectral domain optical coherence tomography system to provide subnanometer scale vibration information from multiple angles within the imaging beam. The system has the potential to provide depth resolved absolute vibration measurement of tissue microstructures from each of the delay-encoded vibration images with a noise floor of ~0.3nm at 200Hz.

  20. Measurement of the B-->pi l nu branching fraction and determination of absolute value of V(ub) with tagged B mesons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aubert, B; Barate, R; Bona, M; Boutigny, D; Couderc, F; Karyotakis, Y; Lees, J P; Poireau, V; Tisserand, V; Zghiche, A; Grauges, E; Palano, A; Chen, J C; Qi, N D; Rong, G; Wang, P; Zhu, Y S; Eigen, G; Ofte, I; Stugu, B; Abrams, G S; Battaglia, M; Brown, D N; Button-Shafer, J; Cahn, R N; Charles, E; Gill, M S; Groysman, Y; Jacobsen, R G; Kadyk, J A; Kerth, L T; Kolomensky, Yu G; Kukartsev, G; Lynch, G; Mir, L M; Orimoto, T J; Pripstein, M; Roe, N A; Ronan, M T; Wenzel, W A; del Amo Sanchez, P; Barrett, M; Ford, K E; Harrison, T J; Hart, A J; Hawkes, C M; Morgan, S E; Watson, A T; Held, T; Koch, H; Lewandowski, B; Pelizaeus, M; Peters, K; Schroeder, T; Steinke, M; Boyd, J T; Burke, J P; Cottingham, W N; Walker, D; Cuhadar-Donszelmann, T; Fulsom, B G; Hearty, C; Knecht, N S; Mattison, T S; McKenna, J A; Khan, A; Kyberd, P; Saleem, M; Sherwood, D J; Teodorescu, L; Blinov, V E; Bukin, A D; Druzhinin, V P; Golubev, V B; Onuchin, A P; Serednyakov, S I; Skovpen, Yu I; Solodov, E P; Todyshev, K Yu; Best, D S; Bondioli, M; Bruinsma, M; Chao, M; Curry, S; Eschrich, I; Kirkby, D; Lankford, A J; Lund, P; Mandelkern, M; Mommsen, R K; Roethel, W; Stoker, D P; Abachi, S; Buchanan, C; Foulkes, S D; Gary, J W; Long, O; Shen, B C; Wang, K; Zhang, L; Hadavand, H K; Hill, E J; Paar, H P; Rahatlou, S; Sharma, V; Berryhill, J W; Campagnari, C; Cunha, A; Dahmes, B; Hong, T M; Kovalskyi, D; Richman, J D; Beck, T W; Eisner, A M; Flacco, C J; Heusch, C A; Kroseberg, J; Lockman, W S; Nesom, G; Schalk, T; Schumm, B A; Seiden, A; Spradlin, P; Williams, D C; Wilson, M G; Albert, J; Chen, E; Dvoretskii, A; Fang, F; Hitlin, D G; Narsky, I; Piatenko, T; Porter, F C; Ryd, A; Samuel, A; Mancinelli, G; Meadows, B T; Mishra, K; Sokoloff, M D; Blanc, F; Bloom, P C; Chen, S; Ford, W T; Hirschauer, J F; Kreisel, A; Nagel, M; Nauenberg, U; Olivas, A; Ruddick, W O; Smith, J G; Ulmer, K A; Wagner, S R; Zhang, J; Chen, A; Eckhart, E A; Soffer, A; Toki, W H; Wilson, R J; Winklmeier, F; Zeng, Q; Altenburg, D D; Feltresi, E; Hauke, A; Jasper, H; Petzold, A; Spaan, B; Brandt, T; Klose, V; Lacker, H M; Mader, W F; Nogowski, R; Schubert, J; Schubert, K R; Schwierz, R; Sundermann, J E; Volk, A; Bernard, D; Bonneaud, G R; Grenier, P; Latour, E; Thiebaux, Ch; Verderi, M; Clark, P J; Gradl, W; Muheim, F; Playfer, S; Robertson, A I; Xie, Y; Andreotti, M; Bettoni, D; Bozzi, C; Calabrese, R; Cibinetto, G; Luppi, E; Negrini, M; Petrella, A; Piemontese, L; Prencipe, E; Anulli, F; Baldini-Ferroli, R; Calcaterra, A; de Sangro, R; Finocchiaro, G; Pacetti, S; Patteri, P; Peruzzi, I M; Piccolo, M; Rama, M; Zallo, A; Buzzo, A; Capra, R; Contri, R; Lo Vetere, M; Macri, M M; Monge, M R; Passaggio, S; Patrignani, C; Robutti, E; Santroni, A; Tosi, S; Brandenburg, G; Chaisanguanthum, K S; Morii, M; Wu, J; Dubitzky, R S; Marks, J; Schenk, S; Uwer, U; Bard, D J; Bhimji, W; Bowerman, D A; Dauncey, P D; Egede, U; Flack, R L; Nash, J A; Nikolich, M B; Panduro Vazquez, W; Behera, P K; Chai, X; Charles, M J; Mallik, U; Meyer, N T; Ziegler, V; Cochran, J; Crawley, H B; Dong, L; Eyges, V; Meyer, W T; Prell, S; Rosenberg, E I; Rubin, A E; Gritsan, A V; Denig, A G; Fritsch, M; Schott, G; Arnaud, N; Davier, M; Grosdidier, G; Höcker, A; Le Diberder, F; Lepeltier, V; Lutz, A M; Oyanguren, A; Pruvot, S; Rodier, S; Roudeau, P; Schune, M H; Stocchi, A; Wang, W F; Wormser, G; Cheng, C H; Lange, D J; Wright, D M; Chavez, C A; Forster, I J; Fry, J R; Gabathuler, E; Gamet, R; George, K A; Hutchcroft, D E; Payne, D J; Schofield, K C; Touramanis, C; Bevan, A J; Di Lodovico, F; Menges, W; Sacco, R; Cowan, G; Flaecher, H U; Hopkins, D A; Jackson, P S; McMahon, T R; Ricciardi, S; Salvatore, F; Wren, A C; Brown, D N; Davis, C L; Allison, J; Barlow, N R; Barlow, R J; Chia, Y M; Edgar, C L; Lafferty, G D; Naisbit, M T; Williams, J C; Yi, J I; Chen, C; Hulsbergen, W D; Jawahery, A; Lae, C K; Roberts, D A; Simi, G; Blaylock, G; Dallapiccola, C; Hertzbach, S S; Li, X; Moore, T B; Saremi, S; Staengle, H; Cowan, R; Sciolla, G; Sekula, S J; Spitznagel, M; Taylor, F; Yamamoto, R K; Kim, H; McLachlin, S E; Patel, P M; Robertson, S H; Lazzaro, A; Lombardo, V; Palombo, F; Bauer, J M; Cremaldi, L; Eschenburg, V; Godang, R; Kroeger, R; Sanders, D A; Summers, D J; Zhao, H W; Brunet, S; Côté, D; Simard, M; Taras, P; Viaud, F B; Nicholson, H; Cavallo, N; De Nardo, G; Fabozzi, F; Gatto, C; Lista, L; Monorchio, D; Paolucci, P; Piccolo, D; Sciacca, C; Baak, M; Raven, G; Snoek, H L; Jessop, C P; Losecco, J M; Allmendinger, T; Benelli, G; Gan, K K; Honscheid, K; Hufnagel, D; Jackson, P D; Kagan, H; Kass, R; Rahimi, A M; Ter-Antonyan, R; Wong, Q K; Blount, N L; Brau, J; Frey, R; Igonkina, O; Lu, M; Rahmat, R; Sinev, N B; Strom, D; Strube, J; Torrence, E; Gaz, A; Margoni, M; Morandin, M; Pompili, A; Posocco, M; Rotondo, M; Simonetto, F; Stroili, R; Voci, C; Benayoun, M; Chauveau, J; Briand, H; David, P; Del Buono, L; de la Vaissière, Ch; Hamon, O; Hartfiel, B L; John, M J J; Leruste, Ph; Malclès, J; Ocariz, J; Roos, L; Therin, G; Gladney, L; Panetta, J; Biasini, M; Covarelli, R; Angelini, C; Batignani, G; Bettarini, S; Bucci, F; Calderini, G; Carpinelli, M; Cenci, R; Forti, F; Giorgi, M A; Lusiani, A; Marchiori, G; Mazur, M A; Morganti, M; Neri, N; Paoloni, E; Rizzo, G; Walsh, J J; Haire, M; Judd, D; Wagoner, D E; Biesiada, J; Danielson, N; Elmer, P; Lau, Y P; Lu, C; Olsen, J; Smith, A J S; Telnov, A V; Bellini, F; Cavoto, G; D'Orazio, A; del Re, D; Di Marco, E; Faccini, R; Ferrarotto, F; Ferroni, F; Gaspero, M; Li Gioi, L; Mazzoni, M A; Morganti, S; Piredda, G; Polci, F; Safai Tehrani, F; Voena, C; Ebert, M; Schröder, H; Waldi, R; Adye, T; De Groot, N; Franek, B; Olaiya, E O; Wilson, F F; Aleksan, R; Emery, S; Gaidot, A; Ganzhur, S F; Hamel de Monchenault, G; Kozanecki, W; Legendre, M; Vasseur, G; Yèche, Ch; Zito, M; Chen, X R; Liu, H; Park, W; Purohit, M V; Wilson, J R; Allen, M T; Aston, D; Bartoldus, R; Bechtle, P; Berger, N; Claus, R; Coleman, J P; Convery, M R; Cristinziani, M; Dingfelder, J C; Dorfan, J; Dubois-Felsmann, G P; Dujmic, D; Dunwoodie, W; Field, R C; Glanzman, T; Gowdy, S J; Graham, M T; Halyo, V; Hast, C; Hryn'ova, T; Innes, W R; Kelsey, M H; Kim, P; Leith, D W G S; Li, S; Luitz, S; Luth, V; Lynch, H L; MacFarlane, D B; Marsiske, H; Messner, R; Muller, D R; O'Grady, C P; Ozcan, V E; Perazzo, A; Perl, M; Pulliam, T; Ratcliff, B N; Roodman, A; Salnikov, A A; Schindler, R H; Schwiening, J; Snyder, A; Stelzer, J; Su, D; Sullivan, M K; Suzuki, K; Swain, S K; Thompson, J M; Va'vra, J; van Bakel, N; Weaver, M; Weinstein, A J R; Wisniewski, W J; Wittgen, M; Wright, D H; Yarritu, A K; Yi, K; Young, C C; Burchat, P R; Edwards, A J; Majewski, S A; Petersen, B A; Roat, C; Wilden, L; Ahmed, S; Alam, M S; Bula, R; Ernst, J A; Jain, V; Pan, B; Saeed, M A; Wappler, F R; Zain, S B; Bugg, W; Krishnamurthy, M; Spanier, S M; Eckmann, R; Ritchie, J L; Satpathy, A; Schilling, C J; Schwitters, R F; Izen, J M; Lou, X C; Ye, S; Bianchi, F; Gallo, F; Gamba, D; Bomben, M; Bosisio, L; Cartaro, C; Cossutti, F; Della Ricca, G; Dittongo, S; Lanceri, L; Vitale, L; Azzolini, V; Martinez-Vidal, F; Banerjee, Sw; Bhuyan, B; Brown, C M; Fortin, D; Hamano, K; Kowalewski, R; Nugent, I M; Roney, J M; Sobie, R J; Back, J J; Harrison, P F; Latham, T E; Mohanty, G B; Pappagallo, M; Band, H R; Chen, X; Cheng, B; Dasu, S; Datta, M; Flood, K T; Hollar, J J; Kutter, P E; Mellado, B; Mihalyi, A; Pan, Y; Pierini, M; Prepost, R; Wu, S L; Yu, Z; Neal, H

    2006-11-24

    We report a measurement of the B-->pi l nu branching fraction based on 211 fb(-1) of data collected with the BABAR detector. We use samples of B0 and B+ mesons tagged by a second B meson reconstructed in a semileptonic or hadronic decay and combine the results assuming isospin symmetry to obtain B(B(0)-->pi- l+ nu) = (1.33+/-0.17stat+/-0.11syst) x 10(-4). We determine the magnitude of the Cabibbo-Kobayashi-Maskawa matrix element absolute value V(ub) by combining the partial branching fractions measured in ranges of the momentum transfer squared and theoretical calculations of the form factor. Using a recent lattice QCD calculation, we find absolute value V(ub) = (4.5+/-0.5stat+/-0.3syst(+0.7) -0.5FF x 10(-3), where the last error is due to the normalization of the form factor.

  1. Measurements of the absolute branching fractions for D-s(+) -> eta e(+)nu(e) and D-s(+) -> eta ' e(+)nu(e)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ablikim, M.; Achasov, M. N.; Ahmed, S.; Ai, X. C.; Albayrak, O.; Albrecht, M.; Ambrose, D. J.; Amoroso, A.; An, F. F.; An, Q.; Bai, J. Z.; Bakina, O.; Ferroli, R. Baldini; Ban, Y.; Bennett, D. W.; Bennett, J. V.; Berger, N.; Bertani, M.; Bettoni, D.; Bian, J. M.; Bianchi, F.; Boger, E.; Boyko, I.; Briere, R. A.; Cai, H.; Cai, X.; Cakir, O.; Calcaterra, A.; Cao, G. F.; Cetin, S. A.; Chai, J.; Chang, J. F.; Chelkov, G.; Chen, G.; Chen, H. S.; Chen, J. C.; Chen, M. L.; Chen, P. L.; Chen, S. J.; Chen, X.; Chen, X. R.; Chen, Y. B.; Cheng, H. P.; Chu, X. K.; Cibinetto, G.; Dai, H. L.; Dai, J. P.; Dbeyssi, A.; Dedovich, D.; Deng, Z. Y.; Denig, A.; Denysenko, I.; Destefanis, M.; De Mori, F.; Ding, Y.; Dong, C.; Dong, J.; Dong, L. Y.; Dong, M. Y.; Dorjkhaidav, O.; Dou, Z. L.; Du, S. X.; Duan, P. F.; Fang, J.; Fang, S. S.; Fang, X.; Fang, Y.; Farinelli, R.; Fava, L.; Fegan, S.; Feldbauer, F.; Felici, G.; Feng, C. Q.; Fioravanti, E.; Fritsch, M.; Fu, C. D.; Gao, Q.; Gao, X. L.; Gao, Y.; Gao, Z.; Garzia, I.; Goetzen, K.; Gong, L.; Gong, W. X.; Gradl, W.; Greco, M.; Gu, M. H.; Gu, Y. T.; Guan, Y. H.; Guo, A. Q.; Guo, L. B.; Guo, R. P.; Guo, Y.; Guo, Y. P.; Haddadi, Z.; Hafner, A.; Han, S.; Hao, X. Q.; Harris, F. A.; He, K. L.; He, X. Q.; Heinsius, F. H.; Held, T.; Heng, Y. K.; Holtmann, T.; Hou, Z. L.; Hu, C.; Hu, H. M.; Hu, J. F.; Hu, T.; Hu, Y.; Huang, G. S.; Huang, J. S.; Huang, X. T.; Huang, X. Z.; Huang, Y.; Huang, Z. L.; Hussain, T.; Andersson, W. Ikegami; Ji, Q.; Ji, Q. P.; Ji, X. B.; Ji, X. L.; Jiang, L. W.; Jiang, X. S.; Jiang, X. Y.; Jiao, J. B.; Jiao, Z.; Jin, D. P.; Jin, S.; Johansson, T.; Julin, A.; Kalantar-Nayestanaki, N.; Kang, X. L.; Kang, X. S.; Kavatsyuk, M.; Ke, B. C.; Kiese, P.; Kliemt, R.; Kloss, B.; Kolcu, O. B.; Kopf, B.; Kornicer, M.; Kupsc, A.; Kuhn, W.; Lange, J. S.; Lara, M.; Larin, P.; Leithoff, H.; Leng, C.; Li, C.; Li, Cheng; Li, D. M.; Li, F.; Li, F. Y.; Li, G.; Li, H. B.; Li, H. J.; Li, J. C.; Li, Jin; Li, K.; Li, K.; Li, Lei; Li, P. L.; Li, Q. Y.; Li, T.; Li, W. D.; Li, W. G.; Li, X. L.; Li, X. N.; Li, X. Q.; Li, Y. B.; Li, Z. B.; Liang, H.; Liang, Y. F.; Liang, Y. T.; Liao, G. R.; Lin, D. X.; Liu, B.; Liu, B. J.; Liu, C. X.; Liu, D.; Liu, F. H.; Liu, Fang; Liu, Feng; Liu, H. B.; Liu, H. H.; Liu, H. H.; Liu, H. M.; Liu, J.; Liu, J. B.; Liu, J. P.; Liu, J. Y.; Liu, K.; Liu, K. Y.; Liu, L. D.; Liu, P. L.; Liu, Q.; Liu, S. B.; Liu, X.; Liu, Y. B.; Liu, Y. Y.; Liu, Z. A.; Liu, Zhiqing; Loehner, H.; Long, Y. F.; Lou, X. C.; Lu, H. J.; Lu, J. G.; Lu, Y.; Lu, Y. P.; Luo, C. L.; Luo, M. X.; Luo, T.; Luo, X. L.; Lyu, X. R.; Ma, F. C.; Ma, H. L.; Ma, L. L.; Ma, M. M.; Ma, Q. M.; Ma, T.; Ma, X. N.; Ma, X. Y.; Ma, Y. M.; Maas, F. E.; Maggiora, M.; Malik, Q. A.; Mao, Y. J.; Mao, Z. P.; Marcello, S.; Messchendorp, J. G.; Mezzadri, G.; Min, J.; Min, T. J.; Mitchell, R. E.; Mo, X. H.; Mo, Y. J.; Morales, C. Morales; Muchnoi, N. Yu.; Muramatsu, H.; Musiol, P.; Nefedov, Y.; Nerling, F.; Nikolaev, I. B.; Ning, Z.; Nisar, S.; Niu, S. L.; Niu, X. Y.; Olsen, S. L.; Ouyang, Q.; Pacetti, S.; Pan, Y.; Patteri, P.; Pelizaeus, M.; Peng, H. P.; Peters, K.; Pettersson, J.; Ping, J. L.; Ping, R. G.; Poling, R.; Prasad, V.; Qi, H. R.; Qi, M.; Qian, S.; Qiao, C. F.; Qin, J. J.; Qin, N.; Qin, X. S.; Qin, Z. H.; Qiu, J. F.; Rashid, K. H.; Redmer, C. F.; Ripka, M.; Rong, G.; Rosner, Ch.; Ruan, X. D.; Sarantsev, A.; Savrie, M.; Schnier, C.; Schoenning, K.; Schumann, S.; Shan, W.; Shao, M.; Shen, C. P.; Shen, P. X.; Shen, X. Y.; Sheng, H. Y.; Shi, M.; Song, W. M.; Song, X. Y.; Sosio, S.; Spataro, S.; Sun, G. X.; Sun, J. F.; Sun, S. S.; Sun, X. H.; Sun, Y. J.; Sun, Y. Z.; Sun, Z. J.; Sun, Z. T.; Tang, C. J.; Tang, X.; Tapan, I.; Thorndike, E. H.; Tiemens, M.; Uman, I.; Varner, G. S.; Wang, B.; Wang, B. L.; Wang, D.; Wang, D. Y.; Wang, Dan; Wang, K.; Wang, L. L.; Wang, L. S.; Wang, M.; Wang, P.; Wang, P. L.; Wang, W.; Wang, W. P.; Wang, X. F.; Wang, Y. D.; Wang, Y. F.; Wang, Y. Q.; Wang, Z.; Wang, Z. G.; Wang, Z. H.; Wang, Z. Y.; Wang, Z. Y.; Weber, T.; Wei, D. H.; Weidenkaff, P.; Wen, S. P.; Wiedner, U.; Wolke, M.; Wu, L. H.; Wu, L. J.; Wu, Z.; Xia, L.; Xia, Y.; Xiao, D.; Xiao, H.; Xiao, Z. J.; Xie, Y. G.; Xiong, X. A.; Xiu, Q. L.; Xu, G. F.; Xu, J. J.; Xu, L.; Xu, Q. J.; Xu, X. P.; Yan, L.; Yan, W. B.; Yan, W. C.; Yan, Y. H.; Yang, H. J.; Yang, H. X.; Yang, L.; Yang, Y. X.; Ye, M.; Ye, M. H.; Yin, J. H.; You, Z. Y.; Yu, B. X.; Yu, C. X.; Yu, J. S.; Yuan, C. Z.; Yuan, W. L.; Yuan, Y.; Yuncu, A.; Zafar, A. A.; Zallo, A.; Zeng, Y.; Zeng, Z.; Zhang, B. X.; Zhang, B. Y.; Zhang, C.; Zhang, C. C.; Zhang, D. H.; Zhang, H. H.; Zhang, H. Y.; Zhang, J.; Zhang, J. J.; Zhang, J. L.; Zhang, J. Q.; Zhang, J. W.; Zhang, J. Y.; Zhang, J. Z.; Zhang, K.; Zhang, L.; Zhang, S. Q.; Zhang, X. Y.; Zhang, Y.; Zhang, Y.; Zhang, Y. H.; Zhang, Y. T.; Zhang, Yu; Zhang, Z. H.; Zhang, Z. P.; Zhang, Z. Y.; Zhao, G.; Zhao, J. W.; Zhao, J. Y.; Zhao, J. Z.; Zhao, Lei; Zhao, Ling; Zhao, M. G.; Zhao, Q.; Zhao, Q. W.; Zhao, S. J.; Zhao, T. C.; Zhao, Y. B.; Zhao, Z. G.; Zhemchugov, A.; Zheng, B.; Zheng, J. P.; Zheng, W. J.; Zheng, Y. H.; Zhong, B.; Zhou, L.; Zhou, X.; Zhou, X. K.; Zhou, X. R.; Zhou, X. Y.; Zhu, K.; Zhu, K. J.; Zhu, S.; Zhu, S. H.; Zhu, X. L.; Zhu, Y. C.; Zhu, Y. S.; Zhu, Z. A.; Zhuang, J.; Zotti, L.; Zou, B. S.; Zou, J. H.

    2016-01-01

    By analyzing 482 pb(-1) of e(+)e(-) collision data collected at root s = 4.009 GeV with the BESIII detector at the BEPCII collider, we measure the absolute branching fractions for the semileptonic decays D-s(+) -> eta e(+)nu(e) and D-s(+) -> eta ' e(+)nu(e) to be B(D-s(+) -> eta e(+)nu(e)) = (2.30 +

  2. EVALUATION OF OPPORTUNITIES OF SOLAR ENERGETICS ON THE BASIS OF ACCURATE GROUND-BASED MEASUREMENTS OF SOLAR RADIATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aculinin A.

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Expected quantity of a solar energy received by solar panel is estimated on the basis of accurate measurements of solar radiation in Kishinev. Optimal orientation of solar panels and apparent volume of the electric power generated by solar panels are determined.

  3. A system for accurate on-line measurement of total gas consumption or production rates in microbioreactors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leeuwen, van Michiel; Heijnen, Joseph J.; Gardeniers, Han; Oudshoorn, Arthur; Noorman, Henk; Visser, Jan; Wielen, van der Luuk A.M.; Gulik, van Walter M.

    2009-01-01

    A system has been developed, based on pressure controlled gas pumping, for accurate measurement of total gas consumption or production rates in the nmol/min range, applicable for on-line monitoring of bioconversions in microbioreactors. The system was validated by carrying out a bioconversion with k

  4. Optical coherence tomography enables accurate measurement of equine cartilage thickness for determination of speed of sound.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puhakka, Pia H; Te Moller, Nikae C R; Tanska, Petri; Saarakkala, Simo; Tiitu, Virpi; Korhonen, Rami K; Brommer, Harold; Virén, Tuomas; Jurvelin, Jukka S; Töyräs, Juha

    2016-08-01

    Background and purpose - Arthroscopic estimation of articular cartilage thickness is important for scoring of lesion severity, and measurement of cartilage speed of sound (SOS)-a sensitive index of changes in cartilage composition. We investigated the accuracy of optical coherence tomography (OCT) in measurements of cartilage thickness and determined SOS by combining OCT thickness and ultrasound (US) time-of-flight (TOF) measurements. Material and methods - Cartilage thickness measurements from OCT and microscopy images of 94 equine osteochondral samples were compared. Then, SOS in cartilage was determined using simultaneous OCT thickness and US TOF measurements. SOS was then compared with the compositional, structural, and mechanical properties of cartilage. Results - Measurements of non-calcified cartilage thickness using OCT and microscopy were significantly correlated (ρ = 0.92; p measurement of articular cartilage thickness. Although SOS measurements lacked accuracy in thin equine cartilage, the concept of SOS measurement using OCT appears promising.

  5. Stability Transfer between Two Clock Lasers Operating at Different Wavelengths for Absolute Frequency Measurement of Clock Transition in 87Sr

    CERN Document Server

    Yamaguchi, A; Nagano, S; Li, Y; Ishijima, H; Hachisu, H; Kumagai, M; Ido, T; 10.1143/APEX.5.022701

    2012-01-01

    We demonstrated transferring the stability of one highly stable clock laser operating at 729 nm to another less stable laser operating at 698 nm. The two different wavelengths were bridged using an optical frequency comb. The improved stability of the clock laser at 698 nm enabled us to evaluate the systematic frequency shifts of the Sr optical lattice clock with shorter averaging time. We determined the absolute frequency of the clock transition 1S0 - 3P0 in 87Sr to be 429 228 004 229 873.9 (1.4) Hz referenced to the SI second on the geoid via International Atomic Time (TAI).

  6. Absolute Neutrino Mass Determination

    CERN Document Server

    Päs, H

    2001-01-01

    We discuss four approaches to the determination of absolute neutrino mass. These are the measurement of the zero-neutrino double beta decay rate, of the tritium decay end-point spectrum, of the cosmic ray spectrum above the GZK cutoff, and the cosmological measurement of the power spectrum governing the CMB and large scale structure. The first two approaches are sensitive to the mass eigenstates coupling to the electron neutrino, whereas the latter two are sensitive to the heavy component of the cosmic neutrino background. All mass eigenstates are related by the $\\Delta m^2$'s inferred from neutrino oscillation data. Consequently, the potential for absolute mass determination of each of the four approaches is correlated with the other three, in ways that we point out.

  7. Systematic Uncertainties in the Spectroscopic Measurements of Neutron-Star Masses and Radii from Thermonuclear X-ray Bursts. III. Absolute Flux Calibration

    CERN Document Server

    Guver, Tolga; Marshall, Herman; Psaltis, Dimitrios; Guainazzi, Matteo; Diaz-Trigo, Maria

    2015-01-01

    Many techniques for measuring neutron star radii rely on absolute flux measurements in the X-rays. As a result, one of the fundamental uncertainties in these spectroscopic measurements arises from the absolute flux calibrations of the detectors being used. Using the stable X-ray burster, GS 1826-238, and its simultaneous observations by Chandra HETG/ACIS-S and RXTE/PCA as well as by XMM-Newton EPIC-pn and RXTE/PCA, we quantify the degree of uncertainty in the flux calibration by assessing the differences between the measured fluxes during bursts. We find that the RXTE/PCA and the Chandra gratings measurements agree with each other within their formal uncertainties, increasing our confidence in these flux measurements. In contrast, XMM-Newton EPIC-pn measures 14.0$\\pm$0.3% less flux than the RXTE/PCA. This is consistent with the previously reported discrepancy with the flux measurements of EPIC-pn, compared to EPIC-MOS1, MOS2 and ACIS-S detectors. We also address the calibration uncertainty in the RXTE/PCA int...

  8. Can the analyte-triggered asymmetric autocatalytic Soai reaction serve as a universal analytical tool for measuring enantiopurity and assigning absolute configuration?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welch, Christopher J; Zawatzky, Kerstin; Makarov, Alexey A; Fujiwara, Satoshi; Matsumoto, Arimasa; Soai, Kenso

    2016-12-20

    An investigation is reported on the use of the autocatalytic enantioselective Soai reaction, known to be influenced by the presence of a wide variety of chiral materials, as a generic tool for measuring the enantiopurity and absolute configuration of any substance. Good generality for the reaction across a small group of test analytes was observed, consistent with literature reports suggesting a diversity of compound types that can influence the stereochemical outcome of this reaction. Some trends in the absolute sense of stereochemical enrichment were noted, suggesting the possible utility of the approach for assigning absolute configuration to unknown compounds, by analogy to closely related species with known outcomes. Considerable variation was observed in the triggering strength of different enantiopure materials, an undesirable characteristic when dealing with mixtures containing minor impurities with strong triggering strength in the presence of major components with weak triggering strength. A strong tendency of the reaction toward an 'all or none' type of behavior makes the reaction most sensitive for detecting enantioenrichment close to zero. Consequently, the ability to discern modest from excellent enantioselectivity was relatively poor. While these properties limit the ability to obtain precise enantiopurity measurements in a simple single addition experiment, prospects may exist for more complex experimental setups that may potentially offer improved performance.

  9. Determination of the absolute configuration of perylene quinone-derived mycotoxins by measurement and calculation of electronic circular dichroism spectra and specific rotations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Podlech, Joachim; Fleck, Stefanie C; Metzler, Manfred; Bürck, Jochen; Ulrich, Anne S

    2014-09-01

    Altertoxins I-III, alterlosins I and II, alteichin (alterperylenol), stemphyltoxins I-IV, stemphyperylenol, stemphytriol, 7-epi-8-hydroxyaltertoxin I, and 6-epi-stemphytriol are mycotoxins derived from perylene quinone, for which the absolute configuration was not known. Electronic circular dichroism (ECD) spectra were calculated for these compounds and compared with measured spectra of altertoxins I-III, alteichin, and stemphyltoxin III and with reported Cotton effects. Specific rotations were calculated and compared with reported specific rotations. The absolute configuration of all the toxins, except for stemphyltoxin IV, could thus be determined. The validity of the assignment was high whenever reported ECD data were available for comparison, and the validity was lower when the assignment was based only on the comparison of calculated and reported specific rotations. ECD spectra are intrinsically different for toxins with a biphenyl substructure and for toxins derived from dihydroanthracene.

  10. Absolute magnitudes and phase coefficients of trans-Neptunian objects

    CERN Document Server

    Alvarez-Candal, A; Ortiz, J L; Duffard, R; Morales, N; Santos-Sanz, P; Thirouin, A; Silva, J S

    2015-01-01

    Context: Accurate measurements of diameters of trans-Neptunian objects are extremely complicated to obtain. Thermal modeling can provide good results, but accurate absolute magnitudes are needed to constrain the thermal models and derive diameters and geometric albedos. The absolute magnitude, Hv, is defined as the magnitude of the object reduced to unit helio- and geocentric distances and a zero solar phase angle and is determined using phase curves. Phase coefficients can also be obtained from phase curves. These are related to surface properties, yet not many are known. Aims: Our objective is to measure accurate V band absolute magnitudes and phase coefficients for a sample of trans-Neptunian objects, many of which have been observed, and modeled, within the 'TNOs are cool' program, one of Herschel Space Observatory key projects. Methods: We observed 56 objects using the V and R filters. These data, along with those available in the literature, were used to obtain phase curves and measure V band absolute m...

  11. [Limb-length measurements using wooden boards: an accurate and experience-independent method

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pakvis, D.F.M.; Jaarsma, R.L.; Kampen, A. van

    2003-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To determine the precision and reliability of the indirect limb-length measurement, and the inter-observer variance between doctors differing in level of experience. DESIGN: Descriptive. METHOD: Indirect limb-length measurement by placing 0.5 cm-thick wooden boards under the foot of the s

  12. Archimedes Revisited: A Faster, Better, Cheaper Method of Accurately Measuring the Volume of Small Objects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, Stephen W.

    2005-01-01

    A little-known method of measuring the volume of small objects based on Archimedes' principle is described, which involves suspending an object in a water-filled container placed on electronic scales. The suspension technique is a variation on the hydrostatic weighing technique used for measuring volume. The suspension method was compared with two…

  13. Surface EMG measurements during fMRI at 3T : Accurate EMG recordings after artifact correction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Duinen, Hiske; Zijdewind, Inge; Hoogduin, H; Maurits, N

    2005-01-01

    In this experiment, we have measured surface EMG of the first dorsal interosseus during predefined submaximal isometric contractions (5, 15, 30, 50, and 70% of maximal force) of the index finger simultaneously with fMRI measurements. Since we have used sparse sampling fMRI (3-s scanning; 2-s non-sca

  14. C-reactive protein, established risk factors and social inequalities in cardiovascular disease – the significance of absolute versus relative measures of disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hedblad Bo

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The widespread use of relative scales in socioepidemiological studies has recently been criticized. The criticism is based mainly on the fact that the importance of different risk factors in explaining social inequalities in cardiovascular disease (CVD varies, depending on which scale is used to measure social inequalities. The present study examines the importance of established risk factors, as opposed to low-grade inflammation, in explaining socioeconomic differences in the incidence of CVD, using both relative and absolute scales. Methods We obtained information on socioeconomic position (SEP, established risk factors (smoking, hypertension, and hyperlipidemia, and low-grade inflammation as measured by high-sensitive (hs C-reactive protein (CRP levels, in 4,268 Swedish men and women who participated in the Malmö Diet and Cancer Study (MDCS. Data on first cardiovascular events, i.e., stroke or coronary event (CE, was collected from regional and national registers. Social inequalities were measured in relative terms, i.e., as ratios between incidence rates in groups with lower and higher SEP, and also in absolute terms, i.e., as the absolute difference in incidence rates in groups with lower and higher SEP. Results Those with low SEP had a higher risk of future CVD. Adjustment for risk factors resulted in a rather small reduction in the relative socioeconomic gradient, namely 8% for CRP (≥ 3 mg/L and 21% for established risk factors taken together. However, there was a reduction of 18% in the absolute socioeconomic gradient when looking at subjects with CRP-levels Conclusion C-reactive protein and established risk factors all contribute to socioeconomic differences in CVD. However, conclusions on the importance of "modern" risk factors (here, CRP, as opposed to established risk factors, in the association between SEP and CVD depend on the scale on which social inequalities are measured. The one-sided use of the relative

  15. Activity assays and immunoassays for plasma Renin and prorenin: information provided and precautions necessary for accurate measurement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Campbell, Duncan J; Nussberger, Juerg; Stowasser, Michael;

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Measurement of plasma renin is important for the clinical assessment of hypertensive patients. The most common methods for measuring plasma renin are the plasma renin activity (PRA) assay and the renin immunoassay. The clinical application of renin inhibitor therapy has thrown...... into focus the differences in information provided by activity assays and immunoassays for renin and prorenin measurement and has drawn attention to the need for precautions to ensure their accurate measurement. CONTENT: Renin activity assays and immunoassays provide related but different information....... Whereas activity assays measure only active renin, immunoassays measure both active and inhibited renin. Particular care must be taken in the collection and processing of blood samples and in the performance of these assays to avoid errors in renin measurement. Both activity assays and immunoassays...

  16. Measuring laser power as a force: a new paradigm to accurately monitor optical power during laser-based machining operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Paul; Simonds, Brian; Sowards, Jeffrey; Hadler, Joshua

    2016-03-01

    In laser manufacturing operations, accurate measurement of laser power is important for product quality, operational repeatability, and process validation. Accurate real-time measurement of high-power lasers, however, is difficult. Typical thermal power meters must absorb all the laser power in order to measure it. This constrains power meters to be large, slow and exclusive (that is, the laser cannot be used for its intended purpose during the measurement). To address these limitations, we have developed a different paradigm in laser power measurement where the power is not measured according to its thermal equivalent but rather by measuring the laser beam's momentum (radiation pressure). Very simply, light reflecting from a mirror imparts a small force perpendicular to the mirror which is proportional to the optical power. By mounting a high-reflectivity mirror on a high-sensitivity force transducer (scale), we are able to measure laser power in the range of tens of watts up to ~ 100 kW. The critical parameters for such a device are mirror reflectivity, angle of incidence, and scale sensitivity and accuracy. We will describe our experimental characterization of a radiation-pressure-based optical power meter. We have tested it for modulated and CW laser powers up to 92 kW in the laboratory and up to 20 kW in an experimental laser welding booth. We will describe present accuracy, temporal response, sources of measurement uncertainty, and hurdles which must be overcome to have an accurate power meter capable of routine operation as a turning mirror within a laser delivery head.

  17. Measurement of the absolute branching ratio of the K+→π+π−π+(γ decay with the KLOE detector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Babusci

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The absolute branching ratio of the K+→π+π−π+(γ decay, inclusive of final-state radiation, has been measured using ∼17 million tagged K+ mesons collected with the KLOE detector at DAΦNE, the Frascati ϕ-factory. The result is:BR(K+→π+π−π+(γ=0.05565±0.00031stat±0.00025syst a factor ≃ 5 more precise with respect to the previous result. This work completes the program of precision measurements of the dominant kaon branching ratios at KLOE.

  18. Absolute measurement of the ${}^{1}S_{0}$ - ${}^{3}P_{0}$ clock transition in neutral ${}^{88}$Sr over the 330 km-long stabilized fibre optic link

    CERN Document Server

    Morzynski, Piotr; Bartoszek-Bober, Dobroslawa; Nawrocki, Jerzy; Krehlik, Przemyslaw; Sliwczynski, Lukasz; Lipinski, Marcin; Maslowski, Piotr; Cygan, Agata; Dunst, Piotr; Garus, Michal; Lisak, Daniel; Zachorowski, Jerzy; Gawlik, Wojciech; Radzewicz, Czeslaw; Ciurylo, Roman; Zawada, Michal

    2015-01-01

    We report a stability below $7\\times 10{}^{-17}$ of two independent optical lattice clocks operating with bosonic ${}^{88}$Sr isotope. The value (429228066418008.3(1.9)${}_{syst}$(0.9)${}_{stat}$~Hz) of the absolute frequency of the ${}^{1}S_{0}$ - ${}^{3}P_{0}$ transition was measured with an optical frequency comb referenced to the local representation of the UTC by the 330 km-long stabilized fibre optical link. The result was verified by series of measurements on two independent optical lattice clocks and agrees with recommendation of Bureau International des Poids et Mesures.

  19. Fast and accurate measurement of on-axis gain and on-axis polarization at a finite distance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pivnenko, S.; Breinbjerg, O.

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, a technique for fast and accurate measurement of on-axis gain and on-axis polarization characteristics of antennas, such as Standard Gain Horns, compact range feed horns, and near-field probes, is described. The proposed gain determination procedure is a modification of the far-field...... orientations versus a polarization calibrated probe. A complete set of measurements for one AUT takes less than two hours. The measurement uncertainty for the gain is comparable to the one obtained with the near-field substitution technique and typically does not exceed 0.1 dB (1 sigma)....

  20. Delineating the major KREEP-bearing terranes on the moon with global measurements of absolute thorium abundances

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lawrence, D.J.; Feldman, W.C.; Barraclough, B.L.; Elphic, R.C.; Prettyman, T.H. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States); Binder, A.B. [Lunar Research Inst., Gilroy, CA (United States); Maurice, S. [Observatoire Midi-Pyrenees, Toulouse (France); Miller, M.C. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States)

    1999-03-01

    The Lunar Prospector (LP) Gamma-Ray Spectrometer (GRS) has been used to map the global composition of thorium on the lunar surface. Previous LP results of relative thorium abundances demonstrated that thorium is highly concentrated in and around the nearside western maria and less so in the South Pole Aitken (SPA) basin. Using new detector modeling results and a larger data set, the authors present here a global map of absolute thorium abundances on a 2{degree} by 2{degree} equal-area pixel scale. Because thorium is a tracer of KREEP-rich material, these data provide fundamental information regarding the locations and importance of terranes that are rich in KREEP bearing materials.

  1. Novel methodology for accurate resolution of fluid signatures from multi-dimensional NMR well-logging measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anand, Vivek

    2017-03-01

    A novel methodology for accurate fluid characterization from multi-dimensional nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) well-logging measurements is introduced. This methodology overcomes a fundamental challenge of poor resolution of features in multi-dimensional NMR distributions due to low signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) of well-logging measurements. Based on an unsupervised machine-learning concept of blind source separation, the methodology resolves fluid responses from simultaneous analysis of large quantities of well-logging data. The multi-dimensional NMR distributions from a well log are arranged in a database matrix that is expressed as the product of two non-negative matrices. The first matrix contains the unique fluid signatures, and the second matrix contains the relative contributions of the signatures for each measurement sample. No a priori information or subjective assumptions about the underlying features in the data are required. Furthermore, the dimensionality of the data is reduced by several orders of magnitude, which greatly simplifies the visualization and interpretation of the fluid signatures. Compared to traditional methods of NMR fluid characterization which only use the information content of a single measurement, the new methodology uses the orders-of-magnitude higher information content of the entire well log. Simulations show that the methodology can resolve accurate fluid responses in challenging SNR conditions. The application of the methodology to well-logging data from a heavy oil reservoir shows that individual fluid signatures of heavy oil, water associated with clays and water in interstitial pores can be accurately obtained.

  2. Novel methodology for accurate resolution of fluid signatures from multi-dimensional NMR well-logging measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anand, Vivek

    2017-03-01

    A novel methodology for accurate fluid characterization from multi-dimensional nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) well-logging measurements is introduced. This methodology overcomes a fundamental challenge of poor resolution of features in multi-dimensional NMR distributions due to low signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) of well-logging measurements. Based on an unsupervised machine-learning concept of blind source separation, the methodology resolves fluid responses from simultaneous analysis of large quantities of well-logging data. The multi-dimensional NMR distributions from a well log are arranged in a database matrix that is expressed as the product of two non-negative matrices. The first matrix contains the unique fluid signatures, and the second matrix contains the relative contributions of the signatures for each measurement sample. No a priori information or subjective assumptions about the underlying features in the data are required. Furthermore, the dimensionality of the data is reduced by several orders of magnitude, which greatly simplifies the visualization and interpretation of the fluid signatures. Compared to traditional methods of NMR fluid characterization which only use the information content of a single measurement, the new methodology uses the orders-of-magnitude higher information content of the entire well log. Simulations show that the methodology can resolve accurate fluid responses in challenging SNR conditions. The application of the methodology to well-logging data from a heavy oil reservoir shows that individual fluid signatures of heavy oil, water associated with clays and water in interstitial pores can be accurately obtained.

  3. Measurement of absolute concentrations of individual compounds in metabolite mixtures by gradient-selective time-zero 1H-13C HSQC with two concentration references and fast maximum likelihood reconstruction analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Kaifeng; Ellinger, James J; Chylla, Roger A; Markley, John L

    2011-12-15

    Time-zero 2D (13)C HSQC (HSQC(0)) spectroscopy offers advantages over traditional 2D NMR for quantitative analysis of solutions containing a mixture of compounds because the signal intensities are directly proportional to the concentrations of the constituents. The HSQC(0) spectrum is derived from a series of spectra collected with increasing repetition times within the basic HSQC block by extrapolating the repetition time to zero. Here we present an alternative approach to data collection, gradient-selective time-zero (1)H-(13)C HSQC(0) in combination with fast maximum likelihood reconstruction (FMLR) data analysis and the use of two concentration references for absolute concentration determination. Gradient-selective data acquisition results in cleaner spectra, and NMR data can be acquired in both constant-time and non-constant-time mode. Semiautomatic data analysis is supported by the FMLR approach, which is used to deconvolute the spectra and extract peak volumes. The peak volumes obtained from this analysis are converted to absolute concentrations by reference to the peak volumes of two internal reference compounds of known concentration: DSS (4,4-dimethyl-4-silapentane-1-sulfonic acid) at the low concentration limit (which also serves as chemical shift reference) and MES (2-(N-morpholino)ethanesulfonic acid) at the high concentration limit. The linear relationship between peak volumes and concentration is better defined with two references than with one, and the measured absolute concentrations of individual compounds in the mixture are more accurate. We compare results from semiautomated gsHSQC(0) with those obtained by the original manual phase-cycled HSQC(0) approach. The new approach is suitable for automatic metabolite profiling by simultaneous quantification of multiple metabolites in a complex mixture.

  4. Accurate on-chip measurement of the Seebeck coefficient of high mobility small molecule organic semiconductors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. N. Warwick

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available We present measurements of the Seebeck coefficient in two high mobility organic small molecules, 2,7-dioctyl[1]benzothieno[3,2-b][1]benzothiophene (C8-BTBT and 2,9-didecyl-dinaphtho[2,3-b:2′,3′-f]thieno[3,2-b]thiophene (C10-DNTT. The measurements are performed in a field effect transistor structure with high field effect mobilities of approximately 3 cm2/V s. This allows us to observe both the charge concentration and temperature dependence of the Seebeck coefficient. We find a strong logarithmic dependence upon charge concentration and a temperature dependence within the measurement uncertainty. Despite performing the measurements on highly polycrystalline evaporated films, we see an agreement in the Seebeck coefficient with modelled values from Shi et al. [Chem. Mater. 26, 2669 (2014] at high charge concentrations. We attribute deviations from the model at lower charge concentrations to charge trapping.

  5. Accurate measurement of the main refractive indices and thermo-optical coefficients of the calcite crystal

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shuang Zhao; Fuquan Wu; Haifeng Wang; Weigang Zhong; Xiuzhen Li; Hengjing Tang; Meng Shi; Hongyan Deng

    2007-01-01

    The main refractive indices of calcite crystal are measured by the means of auto-collimation, and the thermo-optical coefficients are calculated. The coefficient expression of Sellmeier equation is obtained by solving Sellmeier equation strictly and the refractive indices of different wavelengths are calculated, which accord with experimental esultsery well. The measured main refractive indices of calcite at 488-nm wavelength are identical with the values obtained by Sellmeier equation.

  6. External urethral sphincter pressure measurement: an accurate method for the diagnosis of detrusor external sphincter dyssynergia?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos H Suzuki Bellucci

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Combined pelvic floor electromyography (EMG and videocystourethrography (VCUG during urodynamic investigation are the most acceptable and widely agreed methods for diagnosing detrusor external sphincter dyssynergia (DESD. Theoretically, external urethral sphincter pressure (EUSP measurement would provide enough information for the diagnosis of DESD and could simplify the urodynamic investigation replacing combined pelvic floor EMG and VCUG. Thus, we evaluated the diagnostic accuracy of EUSP measurement for DESD. PATIENTS #ENTITYSTARTX00026; METHODS: A consecutive series of 72 patients (36 women, 36 men with neurogenic lower urinary tract dysfunction able to void spontaneously was prospectively evaluated at a single university spinal cord injury center. Diagnosis of DESD using EUSP measurement (index test versus combined pelvic floor EMG and VCUG (reference standard was assessed according to the recommendations of the Standards for Reporting of Diagnostic Accuracy Initiative. RESULTS: Using EUSP measurement (index test and combined pelvic floor EMG and VCUR (reference standard, DESD was diagnosed in 10 (14% and in 41 (57% patients, respectively. More than half of the patients presented discordant diagnosis between the index test and the reference standard. Among 41 patients with DESD diagnosed by combined pelvic floor EMG and VCUR, EUSP measurement identified only 6 patients. EUSP measurement had a sensitivity of 15% (95% CI 5%-25%, specificity of 87% (95% CI 76%-98%, positive predictive value of 60% (95% CI 30%-90%, and negative predictive value of 56% (95% CI 44%-68% for the diagnosis of DESD. CONCLUSIONS: For diagnosis of DESD, EUSP measurement is inaccurate and cannot replace combined pelvic floor EMG and VCUR.

  7. Measurement of colonic polyps by radiologists and endoscopists: Who is most accurate?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Punwani, S.; Halligan, S.; Greenhalgh, R.; Godbold, J.; Taylor, S.A. [University College Hospital, Department of Specialist Radiology, Podium Level 2, London (United Kingdom); Irving, P.; Bloom, S.; Bungay, A. [University College Hospital, Department of Gastroenterology, London (United Kingdom); Altman, D.G. [Wolfson College Annexe, Centre for Statistics in Medicine, Oxford (United Kingdom)

    2008-05-15

    The purpose was to determine the accuracy of polyp measurement by endoscopy and CT. A colonic phantom was constructed containing 12 simulated polyps of known diameter. Polyp diameter was estimated during endoscopy by two observers independently. The phantom was then scanned using a 64-detector-row machine and diameter estimated by a further two observers independently, using 2D and 3D visualisation methods. All measurements were obtained twice. Bland-Altman statistics were used to assess agreement between observers' estimates and the reference diameter. The mean difference between observers' measurements and the reference diameter was smallest for estimates made using 3D CT (-0.09 mm and -0.03 mm) and greatest for endoscopy (-1.10 mm and -1.19 mm), with 2D CT intermediate. However, 95% limits of agreement were largest for 3D CT estimates (-4.38 mm to 4.20 mm). Estimates by 2D CT consistently overestimated polyp diameter, whereas endoscopy consistently underestimated diameter. In contrast, measurements by 3D CT were a combination of over- and under-estimates, with a tendency for disagreement to increase with the size of the polyp. The effect of observer experience was small and repeatability was best for 2D CT. Measurement error was encountered with all three modalities tested. Estimates made by 2D CT were believed to offer the best compromise overall. (orig.)

  8. CLARREO Cornerstone of the Earth Observing System: Measuring Decadal Change Through Accurate Emitted Infrared and Reflected Solar Spectra and Radio Occultation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandford, Stephen P.

    2010-01-01

    The Climate Absolute Radiance and Refractivity Observatory (CLARREO) is one of four Tier 1 missions recommended by the recent NRC Decadal Survey report on Earth Science and Applications from Space (NRC, 2007). The CLARREO mission addresses the need to provide accurate, broadly acknowledged climate records that are used to enable validated long-term climate projections that become the foundation for informed decisions on mitigation and adaptation policies that address the effects of climate change on society. The CLARREO mission accomplishes this critical objective through rigorous SI traceable decadal change observations that are sensitive to many of the key uncertainties in climate radiative forcings, responses, and feedbacks that in turn drive uncertainty in current climate model projections. These same uncertainties also lead to uncertainty in attribution of climate change to anthropogenic forcing. For the first time CLARREO will make highly accurate, global, SI-traceable decadal change observations sensitive to the most critical, but least understood, climate forcings, responses, and feedbacks. The CLARREO breakthrough is to achieve the required levels of accuracy and traceability to SI standards for a set of observations sensitive to a wide range of key decadal change variables. The required accuracy levels are determined so that climate trend signals can be detected against a background of naturally occurring variability. Climate system natural variability therefore determines what level of accuracy is overkill, and what level is critical to obtain. In this sense, the CLARREO mission requirements are considered optimal from a science value perspective. The accuracy for decadal change traceability to SI standards includes uncertainties associated with instrument calibration, satellite orbit sampling, and analysis methods. Unlike most space missions, the CLARREO requirements are driven not by the instantaneous accuracy of the measurements, but by accuracy in

  9. Accurate measurement of neodymium isotopic composition using Neptune MC-ICP-MS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yueheng YANG; Hongfu ZHANG; Liewen XIE; Fuyuan WU

    2008-01-01

    This paper reports the measurement of the Neodymium isotopic composition by Neptune Multiple Collector Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry (MC-ICP-MS) over the last two years. Although there is concomitant Cerium in the chemical separation process, this has no significant influence on the Neodymium analysis. As for the sample containing small amounts of Samarium (Sm/Nd<0.04), direct calibration for isobaric interference and mass discrimina-tion by the exponential law can be obtained by assuming that Samarium mass discrimination is the same as that of Neodymium. Geological samples after traditional chemi-cal separation were measured by Neptune MC-ICP-MS and Thermal Ionization Mass Spectrometry (TIMS) respectively. The results show that Neptune MC-ICP-MS can measure Neodymium isotopic composition as precisely the TIMS does and is even more effective and less time-consuming than the TIMS Method.

  10. Inflation model building with an accurate measure of e-folding

    CERN Document Server

    Chongchitnan, Sirichai

    2016-01-01

    We revisit the problem of measuring the number of e-folding during inflation. It has become standard practice to take the logarithmic growth of the scale factor as a measure of the amount of inflation. However, this is only an approximation for the true amount of inflation required to solve the horizon and flatness problems. The aim of this work is to quantify the error in this approximation, and show how it can be avoided. We present an alternative framework for inflation model building using the inverse Hubble radius, aH, as the key parameter. We show that in this formalism, the correct number of e-folding arises naturally as a measure of inflation. As an application, we present an interesting model in which the entire inflationary dynamics can be solved analytically and exactly, and, in special cases, reduces to the familiar class of power-law models.

  11. Accurate DOSY measure of out-of-equilibrium systems by permutated DOSY (p-DOSY)

    CERN Document Server

    Oikonomou, Maria; Velders, Aldrik H; Delsuc, Marc-André

    2015-01-01

    NMR spectroscopy is a perfect tool for monitoring in-situ chemical reactions. In particular, DOSY measurement is well suited to characterize transient species by the determination of their sizes. However, here we bring to light a difficulty in the DOSY experiments performed on out-of-equilibrium systems. On such a system, the evolution of the concentration of species interferes with the measurement process, and creates a bias on the diffusion coefficient determination that may lead to erroneous interpretations. We show that a random permutation of the series of gradient strengths used during the DOSY experiment allows to average out this bias. This approach, that we name p-DOSY does not require changes in the the pulse sequences nor in the processing software, and restores completely the full accuracy of the measure. This technique is demonstrated on the monitoring of the anomerization reaction of $\\alpha$ to $\\beta$ glucose.

  12. ACCUWIND - Accurate wind speed measurements in wind energy - Summary report[Cup and sonic anemometers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Friis Pedersen, T.; Dahlberg, J.Aa.; Cuerva, A.; Mouzakis, F.; Busche, P.; Eecen, P.; Sanz-Andres, A.; Franchini, S.; Markkilde Petersen, S.

    2006-07-15

    The cup anemometer is at present the standard instrument used for mean wind speed measurement in wind energy. It is being applied in high numbers around the world for wind energy assessments. It is also applied exclusively for accredited power performance measurements for certification and verification purposes, and for purposes of optimisation in research and development. The revised IEC standard on power performance measurements has now included requirements for classification of cup anemometers. The basis for setting up such requirements of cup anemometers is two EU projects SITEPARIDEN and CLASSCUP from which the proposed classification method for cup anemometers was developed for the IEC standard. While cup anemometers at present are the standard anemometer being used for average wind speed measurements, sonic anemometers have been developed significantly over the last years, and prices have come down. The application of sonic anemometers may increase in wind energy if they prove to have comparable or better operational characteristics compared to cup anemometers, and if similar requirements to sonic anemometers are established as for cup anemometers. Sonic anemometers have historically been used by meteorologists for turbulence measurements, but have also found a role on wind turbine nacelles for wind speed and yaw control purposes. The report on cup and sonic anemometry deals with establishment of robustness in assessment and classification by focus on methods and procedures for analysis of characteristics of cup and sonic anemometers. The methods and procedures provide a platform, hopefully for use in meeting the requirements of the IEC standard on power performance measurements, as well as for development of improved instruments. (au)

  13. Improved absolute calibration of LOPES measurements and its impact on the comparison with REAS 3.11 and CoREAS simulations

    CERN Document Server

    ,

    2016-01-01

    LOPES was a digital antenna array detecting the radio emission of cosmic-ray air showers. The calibration of the absolute amplitude scale of the measurements was done using an external, commercial reference source, which emits a frequency comb with defined amplitudes. Recently, we obtained improved reference values by the manufacturer of the reference source, which significantly changed the absolute calibration of LOPES. We reanalyzed previously published LOPES measurements, studying the impact of the changed calibration. The main effect is an overall decrease of the LOPES amplitude scale by a factor of $2.6 \\pm 0.2$, affecting all previously published values for measurements of the electric-field strength. This results in a major change in the conclusion of the paper 'Comparing LOPES measurements of air-shower radio emission with REAS 3.11 and CoREAS simulations' published in Astroparticle Physics 50-52 (2013) 76-91: With the revised calibration, LOPES measurements now are compatible with CoREAS simulations,...

  14. Accurate measurement of the transition dipole moment of self-assembled quantum dots

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stobbe, Søren; Johansen, Jeppe; Nikolaev, I.S.

    2007-01-01

    Here we present quantitative measurements of the dipole moment of an ensemble of self-assembled quantum dots employing a modified optical local density of states (LDOS). The LDOS is controlled by varying the distance from the QDs to a semiconductor/air interface.......Here we present quantitative measurements of the dipole moment of an ensemble of self-assembled quantum dots employing a modified optical local density of states (LDOS). The LDOS is controlled by varying the distance from the QDs to a semiconductor/air interface....

  15. A flux monitoring method for easy and accurate flow rate measurement in pressure-driven flows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siria, Alessandro; Biance, Anne-Laure; Ybert, Christophe; Bocquet, Lydéric

    2012-03-07

    We propose a low-cost and versatile method to measure flow rate in microfluidic channels under pressure-driven flows, thereby providing a simple characterization of the hydrodynamic permeability of the system. The technique is inspired by the current monitoring method usually employed to characterize electro-osmotic flows, and makes use of the measurement of the time-dependent electric resistance inside the channel associated with a moving salt front. We have successfully tested the method in a micrometer-size channel, as well as in a complex microfluidic channel with a varying cross-section, demonstrating its ability in detecting internal shape variations.

  16. An affordable and accurate conductivity probe for density measurements in stratified flows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carminati, Marco; Luzzatto-Fegiz, Paolo

    2015-11-01

    In stratified flow experiments, conductivity (combined with temperature) is often used to measure density. The probes typically used can provide very fine spatial scales, but can be fragile, expensive to replace, and sensitive to environmental noise. A complementary instrument, comprising a low-cost conductivity probe, would prove valuable in a wide range of applications where resolving extremely small spatial scales is not needed. We propose using micro-USB cables as the actual conductivity sensors. By removing the metallic shield from a micro-B connector, 5 gold-plated microelectrodes are exposed and available for 4-wire measurements. These have a cell constant ~550m-1, an intrinsic thermal noise of at most 30pA/Hz1/2, as well as sub-millisecond time response, making them highly suitable for many stratified flow measurements. In addition, we present the design of a custom electronic board (Arduino-based and Matlab-controlled) for simultaneous acquisition from 4 sensors, with resolution (in conductivity, and resulting density) exceeding the performance of typical existing probes. We illustrate the use of our conductivity-measuring system through stratified flow experiments, and describe plans to release simple instructions to construct our complete system for around 200.

  17. Treatment response classification of liver metastatic disease evaluated on imaging. Are RECIST unidimensional measurements accurate?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mantatzis, Michael; Kakolyris, Stylianos; Amarantidis, Kyriakos; Karayiannakis, Anastasios; Prassopoulos, Panos

    2009-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the accuracy of unidimensional measurements (response evaluation criteria in solid tumors, RECIST) compared with volumetric measurements in patients with liver metastases undergoing chemotherapy. Forty-four patients with newly diagnosed liver lesions underwent three MRI examinations at treatment initiation, during chemotherapy, and immediately post-treatment. Measurements based on RECIST guidelines and volume calculations were performed on the "target" lesions (TLs). The two methods were in agreement in 64/77 of patients and 253/301 of individual lesions classification in response categories ("good" agreement, Cohen kappa = 0.735 and 0.741, respectively). In 16.88% of the comparisons the two methods stratified patients to a different response category; 27.6% of TLs did not follow the response category of the patient in whom lesions were located. The actual volume of TLs differs from the calculated volume of a sphere with the same diameter. Our study supports the use of volumetric techniques that may overcome certain disadvantages of unidimensional measurements.

  18. Implications of progesterone metabolism in MA-10 cells for accurate measurement of the rate of steroidogenesis.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rommerts, F.F.; King, S.R.; Span, P.N.

    2001-01-01

    In virtually all studies with MA-10 cells, progesterone RIAs have been used to measure steroid synthesis. To test whether progesterone is a stable end product, we investigated the metabolism of added tritiated progesterone and pregnenolone in MA-10 cells over a period of 3 h. Steroids were then extr

  19. Real-time and accurate rail wear measurement method and experimental analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zhen; Li, Fengjiao; Huang, Bangkui; Zhang, Guangjun

    2014-08-01

    When a train is running on uneven or curved rails, it generates violent vibrations on the rails. As a result, the light plane of the single-line structured light vision sensor is not vertical, causing errors in rail wear measurements (referred to as vibration errors in this paper). To avoid vibration errors, a novel rail wear measurement method is introduced in this paper, which involves three main steps. First, a multi-line structured light vision sensor (which has at least two linear laser projectors) projects a stripe-shaped light onto the inside of the rail. Second, the central points of the light stripes in the image are extracted quickly, and the three-dimensional profile of the rail is obtained based on the mathematical model of the structured light vision sensor. Then, the obtained rail profile is transformed from the measurement coordinate frame (MCF) to the standard rail coordinate frame (RCF) by taking the three-dimensional profile of the measured rail waist as the datum. Finally, rail wear constraint points are adopted to simplify the location of the rail wear points, and the profile composed of the rail wear points are compared with the standard rail profile in RCF to determine the rail wear. Both real data experiments and simulation experiments show that the vibration errors can be eliminated when the proposed method is used.

  20. Development and calibration of an accurate 6-degree-of-freedom measurement system with total station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Yang; Lin, Jiarui; Yang, Linghui; Zhu, Jigui

    2016-12-01

    To meet the demand of high-accuracy, long-range and portable use in large-scale metrology for pose measurement, this paper develops a 6-degree-of-freedom (6-DOF) measurement system based on total station by utilizing its advantages of long range and relative high accuracy. The cooperative target sensor, which is mainly composed of a pinhole prism, an industrial lens, a camera and a biaxial inclinometer, is designed to be portable in use. Subsequently, a precise mathematical model is proposed from the input variables observed by total station, imaging system and inclinometer to the output six pose variables. The model must be calibrated in two levels: the intrinsic parameters of imaging system, and the rotation matrix between coordinate systems of the camera and the inclinometer. Then corresponding approaches are presented. For the first level, we introduce a precise two-axis rotary table as a calibration reference. And for the second level, we propose a calibration method by varying the pose of a rigid body with the target sensor and a reference prism on it. Finally, through simulations and various experiments, the feasibilities of the measurement model and calibration methods are validated, and the measurement accuracy of the system is evaluated.

  1. New insights for accurate chemically specific measurements of slow diffusing molecules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, Jianbo; Madsen, Louis A.

    2013-02-01

    Investigating the myriad features of molecular transport in materials yields fundamental information for understanding processes such as ion conduction, chemical reactions, and phase transitions. Molecular transport especially impacts the performance of ion-containing liquids and polymeric materials when used as electrolytes and separation media, with applications encompassing battery electrolytes, reverse-osmosis membranes, mechanical transducers, and fuel cells. Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) provides a unique probe of molecular translations by allowing measurement of all mobile species via spectral selectivity, access to a broad range of transport coefficients, probing of any material direction, and investigation of variable lengthscales in a material, thus, tying morphology to transport. Here, we present new concepts to test for and guarantee robust diffusion measurements. We first employ a standard pulsed-field-gradient (PFG) calibration protocol using 2H2O and obtain expected results, but we observe crippling artifacts when measuring 1H-glycerol diffusion with the same experimental parameters. A mathematical analysis of 2H2O and glycerol signals in the presence of PFG transients show tight agreement with experimental observations. These analyses lead to our principal findings that (1) negligible artifacts observed with low gyromagnetic ratio (γ) nuclei may become dominant when observing high γ nuclei, and (2) reducing the sample dimension along the gradient direction predictably reduces non-ideal behaviors of NMR signals. We further provide a useful quantitative strategy for error minimization when measuring diffusing species slower than the one used for gradient calibration.

  2. Accurate measurement of the kinetic coefficient of friction between a surface and a granular mass

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rademacher, F.J.C.

    1978-01-01

    A device has been developed for correct measurement of the kinematic coefficient of friction between a cohesionless granular material and a surface. Particle size may range from 0.5 up to about 9 mm, depending somewhat on the desired accuracy. Sliding velocity of the granules with respect to the sur

  3. Accurate phasor measurement for transmission line protection in the presence of shunt capacitor banks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nam, Soon-Ryul; Kang, Sang-Hee [Department of Electrical Engineering and Next-Generation Power Technology Center, Myongji University (Korea); Park, Jong-Keun [School of Electrical Engineering, Seoul National University (Korea)

    2007-10-15

    This paper proposes a phasor measurement algorithm for transmission systems compensated with shunt capacitor banks. Since the shunt capacitor banks tend to lower the resonant frequencies, the dominant component, which has the lowest resonant frequency, is insufficiently attenuated by a low-pass filter and has an adverse influence on the phasor measurement of the fundamental component in a fault current signal. This paper theoretically investigates the dominant frequency in the presence of shunt capacitor banks and presents a phasor measurement algorithm immune to the dominant component and DC-offset. The performance of the algorithm is evaluated for a-phase to ground (a-g) faults on a 154-kV transmission system compensated with shunt capacitor banks. The evaluation results indicate that the algorithm can measure the phasor reliably and satisfactorily, although the fault current signal is distorted with the dominant component and DC-offset. The paper concludes by describing the hardware implementation of the algorithm on a prototype unit based on a digital signal processor. (author)

  4. An X-band waveguide measurement technique for the accurate characterization of materials with low dielectric loss permittivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Kenneth W.; Scott, Mark M.; Reid, David R.; Bean, Jeffrey A.; Ellis, Jeremy D.; Morris, Andrew P.; Marsh, Jeramy M.

    2016-05-01

    In this work, we present a new X-band waveguide (WR90) measurement method that permits the broadband characterization of the complex permittivity for low dielectric loss tangent material specimens with improved accuracy. An electrically long polypropylene specimen that partially fills the cross-section is inserted into the waveguide and the transmitted scattering parameter (S21) is measured. The extraction method relies on computational electromagnetic simulations, coupled with a genetic algorithm, to match the experimental S21 measurement. The sensitivity of the technique to sample length was explored by simulating specimen lengths from 2.54 to 15.24 cm, in 2.54 cm increments. Analysis of our simulated data predicts the technique will have the sensitivity to measure loss tangent values on the order of 10-3 for materials such as polymers with relatively low real permittivity values. The ability to accurately characterize low-loss dielectric material specimens of polypropylene is demonstrated experimentally. The method was validated by excellent agreement with a free-space focused-beam system measurement of a polypropylene sheet. This technique provides the material measurement community with the ability to accurately extract material properties of low-loss material specimen over the entire X-band range. This technique could easily be extended to other frequency bands.

  5. Teaching Absolute Value Meaningfully

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wade, Angela

    2012-01-01

    What is the meaning of absolute value? And why do teachers teach students how to solve absolute value equations? Absolute value is a concept introduced in first-year algebra and then reinforced in later courses. Various authors have suggested instructional methods for teaching absolute value to high school students (Wei 2005; Stallings-Roberts…

  6. Simultaneous and accurate measurement of the dielectric constant at many frequencies spanning a wide range

    CERN Document Server

    Pérez-Aparicio, Roberto; Cottinet, Denis; Tanase, Marius; Metz, Pascal; Bellon, Ludovic; Naert, Antoine; Ciliberto, Sergio

    2015-01-01

    We present an innovative technique which allows the simultaneous measurement of the dielectric constant of a material at many frequencies, spanning a four orders of magnitude range chosen between 10 --2 Hz and 10 4 Hz. The sensitivity and accuracy are comparable to those obtained using standard single frequency techniques. The technique is based on three new and simple features: a) the precise real time correction of the amplication of a current amplier; b) the specic shape of the excitation signal and its frequency spectrum; and c) the precise synchronization between the generation of the excitation signal and the acquisition of the dielectric response signal. This technique is useful in the case of relatively fast dynamical measurements when the knowledge of the time evolution of the dielectric constant is needed.

  7. Digital Integrator for Fast Accurate Measurement of Magnetic Flux by Rotating Coils

    CERN Document Server

    Arpaia, P; Spiezia, G

    2007-01-01

    A fast digital integrator (FDI) with dynamic accuracy and a trigger frequency higher than those of a portable digital integrator (PDI), which is a state-of-the-art instrument for magnetic measurements based on rotating coils, was developed for analyzing superconducting magnets in particle accelerators. Results of static and dynamic metrological characterization show how the FDI prototype is already capable of overcoming the dynamic performance of PDI as well as covering operating regions that used to be inaccessible

  8. Three-Signal Method for Accurate Measurements of Depolarization Ratio with Lidar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reichardt, Jens; Baumgart, Rudolf; McGee, Thomsa J.

    2003-01-01

    A method is presented that permits the determination of atmospheric depolarization-ratio profiles from three elastic-backscatter lidar signals with different sensitivity to the state of polarization of the backscattered light. The three-signal method is insensitive to experimental errors and does not require calibration of the measurement, which could cause large systematic uncertainties of the results, as is the case in the lidar technique conventionally used for the observation of depolarization ratios.

  9. Accurate measurements of ozone absorption cross-sections in the Hartley band

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    Ozone plays a crucial role in tropospheric chemistry, is the third largest contributor to greenhouse radiative forcing after carbon dioxide and methane and also a toxic air pollutant affecting human health and agriculture. Long-term measurements of tropospheric ozone have been performed globally for more than 30 years with UV photometers, all relying on the absorption of ozone at the 253.65 nm line of mercury. We have re-determined this cross-section and report a value of 11...

  10. Accurate laser measurements of ozone absorption cross-sections in the Hartley band

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    Ozone plays a crucial role in tropospheric chemistry, is the third largest contributor to greenhouse radiative forcing after carbon dioxide and methane and also a toxic air pollutant affecting human health and agriculture. Long-term measurements of tropospheric ozone have been performed globally for more than 30 years with UV photometers, all relying on the absorption of ozone at the 253.65 nm line of mercury. We have re-determined this cross-section and rep...

  11. Measuring Accurately Single-Phase Sinusoidal and Non-Sinusoidal Power.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-01-01

    dc source. - 1 T Figure 2.2 Power Measuring Test Set-up Source: Robert L. Boylestad , Introductory Circuit Analysis (Ohio: Charles E. Merrill, 1977) p...Power Waveforms for the General Case. Source: Robert L. Boylestad , Introductory CircuitAnalysis (Ohio: Charles E. Merrill, 1968) p. 309. Note that the...Inductive Circuit Source: Robert L. Boylestad , Introductory Circuit Analysis (Ohio: Charles E. Merrill, 1968) p. 43-. and c) In a1 purely capacitive

  12. Front-end electronics for accurate energy measurement of double beta decays

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gil, A., E-mail: alejandro.gil@ific.uv.es [Instituto de Fisica Corpuscular (CSIC-UV), 46071 Valencia (Spain); Diaz, J.; Gomez-Cadenas, J.J. [Instituto de Fisica Corpuscular (CSIC-UV), 46071 Valencia (Spain); Herrero, V. [Instituto de Instrumentacion para Imagen Molecular (I3M). Centro mixto CSIC, Universitat Politecnica de Valencia, CIEMAT, Valencia (Spain); Rodriguez, J.; Serra, L. [Instituto de Fisica Corpuscular (CSIC-UV), 46071 Valencia (Spain); Toledo, J.; Esteve, R.; Monzo, J.M. [Instituto de Instrumentacion para Imagen Molecular (I3M). Centro mixto CSIC, Universitat Politecnica de Valencia, CIEMAT, Valencia (Spain); Monrabal, F.; Yahlali, N. [Instituto de Fisica Corpuscular (CSIC-UV), 46071 Valencia (Spain)

    2012-12-11

    NEXT, a double beta decay experiment that will operate in Canfranc Underground Laboratory (Spain), aims at measuring the neutrinoless double-{beta} decay of the 136Xe isotope using a TPC filled with enriched Xenon gas at high pressure operated in electroluminescence mode. One technological challenge of the experiment is to achieve resolution better than 1% in the energy measurement using a plane of UV sensitive photomultipliers readout with appropriate custom-made front-end electronics. The front-end is designed to be sensitive to the single photo-electron to detect the weak primary scintillation light produced in the chamber, and also to be able to cope with the electroluminescence signal (several hundred times higher and with a duration of microseconds). For efficient primary scintillation detection and precise energy measurement of the electroluminescent signals the front-end electronics features low noise and adequate amplification. The signal shaping provided allows the digitization of the signals at a frequency as low as 40 MHz.

  13. Regular, Fast and Accurate Airborne In-Situ Methane Measurements Around the Tropopause

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dyroff, Christoph; Rauthe-Schöch, Armin; Schuck, Tanja J.; Zahn, Andreas

    2013-04-01

    We present a laser spectrometer for automated monthly measurements of methane (CH4) mixing ratios aboard the CARIBIC passenger aircraft. The instrument is based on a commercial fast methane analyzer (FMA, Los Gatos Res.), which was modified for fully unattended employment. A laboratory characterization was performed and the results with emphasis on the precision, cross sensitivity to H2O, and accuracy are presented. An in-flight calibration strategy is described, that utilizes CH4 measurements obtained from flask samples taken during the same flights. By statistical comparison of the in-situ measurements with the flask samples we derive a total uncetrainty estimate of ~ 3.85 ppbv (1?) around the tropopause, and ~ 12.4 ppbv (1?) during aircraft ascent and descent. Data from the first two years of airborne operation are presented that span a large part of the northern hemispheric upper troposphere and lowermost stratosphere, with occasional crossings of the tropics on flights to southern Africa. With its high spatial resolution and high accuracy this data set is unprecedented in the highly important atmospheric layer of the tropopause.

  14. Optimizing steam flood performance utilizing a new and highly accurate two phase steam measurement system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huff, B. D.; Warren, P. B. [CalResources LLC (Canada); Whorff, F. [ITT Barton (Canada)

    1995-11-01

    The development of a two phase steam measurement system was documented. The system consists of a `V` cone differential pressure device and a vortex meter velocity device in series through which the steam flows. Temperature and pressure sensors are electronically interfaced with a data logging system. The design was described as being very simple and rugged, consequently, well suited to monitoring in the field.. Steam quality measurements were made in the Kern River Field and the Coalinga Field thermal projects using a surface steam separator. In steam flood operations, steam cost is very high, hence appropriate distribution of the steam can result in significant cost reduction. This technology allows the measurement of steam flow and quality at any point in the steam distribution system. The metering system`s orifice meter was found to have a total average error of 45%, with 25% of that attributable to `cold leg` problem. Installation of the metering system was expected to result in a steam use reduction of 8%, without any impact on production. Steam re-distribution could result in a potential oil production increase of 10%. 12 refs., 8 tabs., 9 figs.

  15. A technique for fast and accurate measurement of hand volumes using Archimedes' principle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, S; Lau, J

    2008-03-01

    A new technique for measuring hand volumes using Archimedes principle is described. The technique involves the immersion of a hand in a water container placed on an electronic balance. The volume is given by the change in weight divided by the density of water. This technique was compared with the more conventional technique of immersing an object in a container with an overflow spout and collecting and weighing the volume of overflow water. The hand volume of two subjects was measured. Hand volumes were 494 +/- 6 ml and 312 +/- 7 ml for the immersion method and 476 +/- 14 ml and 302 +/- 8 ml for the overflow method for the two subjects respectively. Using plastic test objects, the mean difference between the actual and measured volume was -0.3% and 2.0% for the immersion and overflow techniques respectively. This study shows that hand volumes can be obtained more quickly than the overflow method. The technique could find an application in clinics where frequent hand volumes are required.

  16. Accurate mass measurements of $^{26}$Ne, $^{26-30}$Na, $^{29-33}$Mg performed with the MISTRAL spectrometer

    CERN Document Server

    Gaulard, C; Bachelet, C; De Simon, M S; Lunney, M D; Thibault, C; Vieira, N

    2006-01-01

    The minuteness of the nuclear binding energy requires that mass measurements be highly precise and accurate. Here we report on new measurements $^{29-33}$Mg and $^{26}$Na performed with the Mistral mass spectrometer at CERN's Isolde facility. Since mass measurements are prone to systematic errors, considerable effort has been devoted to their evaluation and elimination in order to achieve accuracy and not only precision. We have therefore conducted a campaign of measurements for calibration and error evaluation. As a result, we now have a satisfactory description of the Mistral calibration laws and error budget. We have applied our new understanding to previous measurements of $^{26}$Ne, $^{26-30}$Na and $^{29,32}$Mg for which re-evaluated values are reported.

  17. Oil and gas potential assessment for coal measure source rocks on absolute concentration of n-alkanes and aromatic hydrocarbons

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    Absolute concentration of normal alkanes(n-alkanes) and aromatic hydrocarbons in bitumen extracted from source rocks in the period of thermodegradation from Turpan-Hami Basin suggests that aromatic hydrocarbons are dominant in coal and carbargilite while n-alkanes are dominant in mudstones. Bulkrock analysis and gas chromatograph/mass spectrum(GC-MS) of source rocks shows aromatic hydrocarbons are dominant in total ion chromatograms(TIC) of samples with poor perhydrous macerals while n-alkanes are dominant in TICs of samples with abundant perhydrous macerals. The identification of oil-prone and gas prone property based on GC-MS of bitumen "A" together with bulkrock analysis indicates that source rocks from Shengbei area are more oil-prone while source rocks from Qiudong and Xiaocaohu areas are more gas-prone,coinciding with the distribution of oil and gas reservoirs in Taibei Sag. Ratios used to identify oil-prone and gas-prone property for source rocks from Turpan Basin are proposed:n-alkanes >110 μg·mg-1,aromatics <15 μg·mg-1,and n-alkanes/aromatics >8 for oil-prone source rock bitumen while n-alkanes<82 μg·mg-1,aromatics >40 μg·mg-1,and n-alkanes/aromatics <1.5 for gas-prone source rock bitumen.

  18. International developments of Absolute gravitation measurement%绝对重力测量国际动态

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘达伦; 吴书清; 徐进义; 郭有光

    2004-01-01

    @@ 国际上对绝对重力测量日益重视,在原先国际大地测量协会(ICAG)下设立绝对重力仪比对工作研究小组(SGCAG:Study Group on Comparisons of Absolute Gravimeters)的基础上,国际计量委员会(CIPM)也于2002年在其质量及其相关量咨询委员会(CCM)下设立了重力测定工作组(WGG:Working Group on Gravimetry).其中SGCAG主要负责组织每四年一次的国际重力仪比对,CCM-WGG主要负责组织区域性国际重力仪比对以及制定重力测定相关技术协议和标准规范.这两个小组的主席均是Dr.Leonid Vitushkin.SGCAG和CCM-WGG这两个工作组于2002年10月28日在卢森堡召开了第一次联席会议这次.会议做出了以下几个决定:

  19. Examining factors that may influence accurate measurement of testosterone in sea turtles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graham, Katherine M; Mylniczenko, Natalie D; Burns, Charlene M; Bettinger, Tammie L; Wheaton, Catharine J

    2016-01-01

    Differences in reported testosterone concentrations in male sea turtle blood samples are common in the veterinary literature, but may be accounted for by differences in sample handling and processing prior to assay. Therefore, our study was performed to determine best practices for testosterone analysis in male sea turtles (Caretta caretta and Chelonia mydas). Blood samples were collected into 5 collection tube types, and assay validation and measured testosterone concentrations were compared across different sample storage (fresh, refrigerated 1 week, or frozen), extraction (unextracted or ether-extracted), and processing treatment (untreated, homogenized, or dissociation reagent) conditions. Ether-extracted and dissociation reagent-treated samples validated in all conditions tested and are recommended for use, as unextracted samples validated only if assayed fresh. Dissociation reagent treatment was simpler to perform than ether extraction and resulted in total testosterone concentrations ~2.7-3.5 times greater than free testosterone measured in ether-extracted samples. Sample homogenization did not affect measured testosterone concentrations, and could be used to increase volume in gelled samples. An annual seasonal testosterone increase was observed in both species when ether extraction or dissociation reagent treatment was used. Annual deslorelin implant treatments in a Chelonia mydas male resulted in suppression of seasonal testosterone following the fourth treatment. Seasonal testosterone patterns resumed following discontinuation of deslorelin. Comparison of in-house and commercially available enzyme immunoassay kits revealed similar patterns of seasonal testosterone increases and deslorelin-induced suppression. Our study highlights the importance of methodological validation and provides laboratorians with best practices for testosterone enzyme immunoassay in sea turtles.

  20. Qualitative analysis of the magnetic data collected by the Embrace MagNet in comparison to absolute measurements made by Intermagnet in Vassouras-RJ

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Sony Su; Moro, Juliano; Araujo Resende, Laysa Cristina; Denardini, Clezio Marcos

    2016-07-01

    The Embrace Magnetometer Network (Embrace MagNet) is a network of three-axis fluxgate magnetometers using single bars with high level of magnetic saturation, covered with two copper coils, one for the excitation and the second for sensing the external field. It is planned to cover most of the Easter Southern American longitudinal sector in order to fulfill the gap for magnetic measurement available on-line. The availability of fast internet, reliable energy supply and easy access were the key point for deciding the location of the magnetometer stations of the network. Up to now, the main characteristic of this network is the severe sensibility matching process among all the magnetometers composing it. Now, in order to validate the magnetic data collected by the elements of the Embrace MagNet in comparison to absolute measurements, we performed a study about the correlation between the data collected by the fluxgate magnetometer provided by Embrace MagNet and an absolute magnetometer installed by Intermagnet in the same observatory. For this study, we have used data collected in Vassouras-RJ, in Brazil, covering the period from June to December 2015. The analysis consist of: (a) selecting the 5 quietest days and the 5 most disturbed days of each month based on the Kp index; (b) deducing the local midnight value from the data collected by both instruments; (c) correlating the data collected by the variometer with the absolute measurement day-by-day; (d) grouping the results as Winter (June, July, and August), Equinox (September and October) and Summer (November and December); (e) obtaining the linear correlations factor for each group. The averaged correlation factors and the daily variations of the magnetic data are presented and discussed in terms of the magnetic activity and the season variation.

  1. Accurate mass measurements of short-lived isotopes with the MISTRAL rf spectrometer

    CERN Document Server

    Toader, C F; Borcea, C; Doubre, H; Duma, M; Jacotin, M; Henry, S; Képinski, J F; Lebée, G; Le Scornet, G; Lunney, M D; Monsanglant, C; De Saint-Simon, M; Thibault, C

    1999-01-01

    The MISTRAL experiment has measured its first masses at ISOLDE. Installed in May 1997, this radiofrequency transmission spectrometer is to concentrate on nuclides with particularly short half-lives. MISTRAL received its first stable beam in October and first radioactive beam in November 1997. These first tests, with a plasma ion source, resulted in excellent isobaric separation and reasonable transmission. Further testing and development enabled first data taking in July 1998 on neutron-rich Na isotopes having half-lives as short as 31 ms.

  2. Rapid and accurate measurement of the frequency-frequency correlation function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osborne, Derek G; Kubarych, Kevin J

    2013-07-25

    Using an implementation of heterodyne-detected vibrational echo spectroscopy, we show that equilibrium spectral diffusion caused by solvation dynamics can be measured in a fraction of the time required using traditional two-dimensional infrared spectroscopy. Spectrally resolved, heterodyne-detected rephasing and nonrephasing signals, recorded at a single delay between the first two pulses in a photon echo sequence, can be used to measure the full waiting time dependent spectral dynamics that are typically extracted from a series of 2D-IR spectra. Hence, data acquisition is accelerated by more than 1 order of magnitude, while permitting extremely fine sampling of the spectral dynamics during the waiting time between the second and third pulses. Using cymantrene (cyclopentadienyl manganese tricarbonyl, CpMn(CO)3) in alcohol solutions, we compare this novel approach--denoted rapidly acquired spectral diffusion (RASD)--with a traditional method using full 2D-IR spectra, finding excellent agreement. Though this approach is largely limited to isolated vibrational bands, we also show how to remove interference from cross-peaks that can produce characteristic modulations of the spectral dynamics through vibrational quantum beats.

  3. Accurate low-rank matrix recovery from a small number of linear measurements

    CERN Document Server

    Candes, Emmanuel J

    2009-01-01

    We consider the problem of recovering a lowrank matrix M from a small number of random linear measurements. A popular and useful example of this problem is matrix completion, in which the measurements reveal the values of a subset of the entries, and we wish to fill in the missing entries (this is the famous Netflix problem). When M is believed to have low rank, one would ideally try to recover M by finding the minimum-rank matrix that is consistent with the data; this is, however, problematic since this is a nonconvex problem that is, generally, intractable. Nuclear-norm minimization has been proposed as a tractable approach, and past papers have delved into the theoretical properties of nuclear-norm minimization algorithms, establishing conditions under which minimizing the nuclear norm yields the minimum rank solution. We review this spring of emerging literature and extend and refine previous theoretical results. Our focus is on providing error bounds when M is well approximated by a low-rank matrix, and ...

  4. Individual-Based Allometric Equations Accurately Measure Carbon Storage and Sequestration in Shrublands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Norman W.H. Mason

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Many studies have quantified uncertainty in forest carbon (C storage estimation, but there is little work examining the degree of uncertainty in shrubland C storage estimates. We used field data to simulate uncertainty in carbon storage estimates from three error sources: (1 allometric biomass equations; (2 measurement errors of shrubs harvested for the allometry; and (3 measurement errors of shrubs in survey plots. We also assessed uncertainty for all possible combinations of these error sources. Allometric uncertainty had the greatest independent effect on C storage estimates for individual plots. The largest error arose when all three error sources were included in simulations (where the 95% confidence interval spanned a range equivalent to 40% of mean C storage. Mean C sequestration (1.73 Mg C ha–1 year–1 exceeded the margin of error produced by the simulated sources of uncertainty. This demonstrates that, even when the major sources of uncertainty were accounted for, we were able to detect relatively modest gains in shrubland C storage.

  5. In-situ absolute calibration of electric-field amplitude measurements with the LPDA radio detector stations of the Pierre Auger Observatory

    CERN Document Server

    Briechle, Florian

    2016-01-01

    With the Auger Engineering Radio Array (AERA) located at the Pierre Auger Observatory, radio emission of extensive air showers is observed. To exploit the physics potential of AERA, electric-field amplitude measurements with the radio detector stations need to be well-calibrated on an absolute level. A convenient tool for far-field calibration campaigns is a flying drone. Here we make use of an octocopter to place a calibrated source at freely chosen positions above the radio detector array. Special emphasis is put on the reconstruction of the octocopter position and its accuracy during the flights. The antenna response pattern of the radio detector stations was measured in a recent calibration campaign. Results of these measurements are presented and compared to simulations. It is found that measurements and simulations are in good agreement.

  6. Absolute absorption and fluorescence measurements over a dynamic range of 10$^6$ with cavity-enhanced laser-induced fluorescence

    CERN Document Server

    Sanders, Scott E; Nahler, N Hendrik; Wrede, Eckart

    2013-01-01

    We describe a novel experimental setup that combines the advantages of both laser-induced fluorescence and cavity ring-down techniques. The simultaneous measurement of the ring-down and fluorescence signals from the same sample in a single laser beam delivers the calibration of the fluorescence measurement to gain absolute quantities: absorption cross section, sample density and fluorescence quantum yield. At the same time, the fluorescence measurement extends the dynamic range of a stand-alone cavity ring-down setup from typically three to at least six orders of magnitude. The methodology of this combined cavity-enhanced laser-induced fluorescence (CELIF) technique is developed and rigorously tested against the spectroscopy of 1,4-bis(phenylethynyl)benzene in a molecular beam and density measurements in a cell.

  7. Structural effects on the beta-scission reaction of alkoxyl radicals. Direct measurement of the absolute rate constants for ring opening of benzocycloalken-1-oxyl radicals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bietti, Massimo; Lanzalunga, Osvaldo; Salamone, Michela

    2005-02-18

    [reaction: see text] The absolute rate constants for beta-scission of a series of benzocycloalken-1-oxyl radicals and of the 2-(4-methylphenyl)-2-butoxyl radical have been measured directly by laser flash photolysis. The benzocycloalken-1-oxyl radicals undergo ring opening with rates which parallel the ring strain of the corresponding cycloalkanes. In the 1-X-indan-1-oxyl radical series, ring opening is observed when X = H, Me, whereas exclusive C-X bond cleavage occurs when X = Et. The factors governing the fragmentation regioselectivity are discussed.

  8. Absolute frequency measurement of the 7s$^2$ $^1$S$_0$ $-$ 7s7p $^{1}$P$_1$ transition in $^{225}$Ra

    CERN Document Server

    Santra, B; Groot, A; Jungmann, K; Willmann, L

    2014-01-01

    Transition frequencies were determined for transitions in Ra in an atomic beam and for reference lines in Te$_2$ molecules in a vapor cell. The absolute frequencies were calibrated against a GPS stabilized Rb-clock by means of an optical frequency comb. The 7s$^2\\,^1$S$_0$(F = 1/2)-7s7p$\\,^1$P$_1$(F = 3/2) transition in $^{225}$Ra was determined to be $621\\,042\\,124(2)\\,$MHz. The measurements provide input for designing efficient and robust laser cooling of Ra atoms in preparation of a search for a permanent electric dipole moment in Ra isotopes.

  9. Radiochromic Plastic Films for Accurate Measurement of Radiation Absorbed Dose and Dose Distributions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    McLaughlin, W. L.; Miller, Arne; Fidan, S.

    1977-01-01

    of many polymeric systems in industrial radiation processing. The result is that errors due to energy dependence of response of the radiation sensor are effectively reduced, since the spectral sensitivity of the dose meter matches that of the polymer of interest, over a wide range of photon and electron...... in polymeric solutions can be cast into flexible free-standing thin films of uniform thickness and reproducible response to ultraviolet and ionizing radiation. The increase in optical density versus energy deposited by radiation is linear over a wide range of doses and is for practical purposes independent......Thin radiochromic dye films are useful for measuring large radiation absorbed doses (105–108 rads) and for high-resolution imaging of dose patterns produced by penetrating radiation beams passing through non-homogeneous media. Certain types of amino-substituted triarylmethane cyanides dissolved...

  10. Analysis of Partial Volume Effects on Accurate Measurement of the Hippocampus Volume

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Maryam Hajiesmaeili; Jamshid Dehmeshki; Tim Ellis

    2014-01-01

    Hippocampal volume loss is an important biomarker in distinguishing subjects with Alzheimer’s disease (AD) and its measurement in magnetic resonance images (MRI) is influenced by partial volume effects (PVE). This paper describes a post-processing approach to quantify PVE for correction of the hippocampal volume by using a spatial fuzzyC-means (SFCM) method. The algorithm is evaluated on a dataset of 20 T1-weighted MRI scans sampled at two different resolutions. The corrected volumes for left and right hippocampus (HC) which are 23% and 18% for the low resolution and 6% and 5% for the high resolution datasets, respectively are lower than hippocampal volume results from manual segmentation. Results show the importance of applying this technique in AD detection with low resolution datasets.

  11. Accurate fault location algorithm on power transmission lines with use of two-end unsynchronized measurements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed Dine

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a new approach to fault location on power transmission lines. This approach uses two-end unsynchronised measurements of the line and benefits from the advantages of digital technology and numerical relaying, which are available today and can easily be applied for off-line analysis. The approach is to modify the apparent impedance method using a very simple first-order formula. The new method is independent of fault resistance, source impedances and pre-fault currents. In addition, the data volume communicated between relays is sufficiently small enough to be transmitted easily using a digital protection channel. The proposed approach is tested via digital simulation using MATLand the applied test results corroborate the superior performance of the proposed approach.

  12. Accurate Simulation of 802.11 Indoor Links: A "Bursty" Channel Model Based on Real Measurements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agüero Ramón

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available We propose a novel channel model to be used for simulating indoor wireless propagation environments. An extensive measurement campaign was carried out to assess the performance of different transport protocols over 802.11 links. This enabled us to better adjust our approach, which is based on an autoregressive filter. One of the main advantages of this proposal lies in its ability to reflect the "bursty" behavior which characterizes indoor wireless scenarios, having a great impact on the behavior of upper layer protocols. We compare this channel model, integrated within the Network Simulator (ns-2 platform, with other traditional approaches, showing that it is able to better reflect the real behavior which was empirically assessed.

  13. Achieving Climate Change Absolute Accuracy in Orbit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wielicki, Bruce A.; Young, D. F.; Mlynczak, M. G.; Thome, K. J; Leroy, S.; Corliss, J.; Anderson, J. G.; Ao, C. O.; Bantges, R.; Best, F.; Bowman, K.; Brindley, H.; Butler, J. J.; Collins, W.; Dykema, J. A.; Doelling, D. R.; Feldman, D. R.; Fox, N.; Huang, X.; Holz, R.; Huang, Y.; Jennings, D.; Jin, Z.; Johnson, D. G.; Jucks, K.; Kato, S.; Kratz, D. P.; Liu, X.; Lukashin, C.; Mannucci, A. J.; Phojanamongkolkij, N.; Roithmayr, C. M.; Sandford, S.; Taylor, P. C.; Xiong, X.

    2013-01-01

    The Climate Absolute Radiance and Refractivity Observatory (CLARREO) mission will provide a calibration laboratory in orbit for the purpose of accurately measuring and attributing climate change. CLARREO measurements establish new climate change benchmarks with high absolute radiometric accuracy and high statistical confidence across a wide range of essential climate variables. CLARREO's inherently high absolute accuracy will be verified and traceable on orbit to Système Internationale (SI) units. The benchmarks established by CLARREO will be critical for assessing changes in the Earth system and climate model predictive capabilities for decades into the future as society works to meet the challenge of optimizing strategies for mitigating and adapting to climate change. The CLARREO benchmarks are derived from measurements of the Earth's thermal infrared spectrum (5-50 micron), the spectrum of solar radiation reflected by the Earth and its atmosphere (320-2300 nm), and radio occultation refractivity from which accurate temperature profiles are derived. The mission has the ability to provide new spectral fingerprints of climate change, as well as to provide the first orbiting radiometer with accuracy sufficient to serve as the reference transfer standard for other space sensors, in essence serving as a "NIST [National Institute of Standards and Technology] in orbit." CLARREO will greatly improve the accuracy and relevance of a wide range of space-borne instruments for decadal climate change. Finally, CLARREO has developed new metrics and methods for determining the accuracy requirements of climate observations for a wide range of climate variables and uncertainty sources. These methods should be useful for improving our understanding of observing requirements for most climate change observations.

  14. An ensemble average method to estimate absolute TEC using radio beacon-based differential phase measurements: Applicability to regions of large latitudinal gradients in plasma density

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thampi, Smitha V.; Bagiya, Mala S.; Chakrabarty, D.; Acharya, Y. B.; Yamamoto, M.

    2014-12-01

    A GNU Radio Beacon Receiver (GRBR) system for total electron content (TEC) measurements using 150 and 400 MHz transmissions from Low-Earth Orbiting Satellites (LEOS) is fabricated in house and made operational at Ahmedabad (23.04°N, 72.54°E geographic, dip latitude 17°N) since May 2013. This system receives the 150 and 400 MHz transmissions from high-inclination LEOS. The first few days of observations are presented in this work to bring out the efficacy of an ensemble average method to convert the relative TECs to absolute TECs. This method is a modified version of the differential Doppler-based method proposed by de Mendonca (1962) and suitable even for ionospheric regions with large spatial gradients. Comparison of TECs derived from a collocated GPS receiver shows that the absolute TECs estimated by this method are reliable estimates over regions with large spatial gradient. This method is useful even when only one receiving station is available. The differences between these observations are discussed to bring out the importance of the spatial differences between the ionospheric pierce points of these satellites. A few examples of the latitudinal variation of TEC during different local times using GRBR measurements are also presented, which demonstrates the potential of radio beacon measurements in capturing the large-scale plasma transport processes in the low-latitude ionosphere.

  15. S3 HMBC hetero: Spin-State-Selective HMBC for accurate measurement of long-range heteronuclear coupling constants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoeck, Casper; Gotfredsen, Charlotte H.; Sørensen, Ole W.

    2017-02-01

    A novel method, Spin-State-Selective (S3) HMBC hetero, for accurate measurement of heteronuclear coupling constants is introduced. The method extends the S3 HMBC technique for measurement of homonuclear coupling constants by appending a pulse sequence element that interchanges the polarization in 13C-1H methine pairs. This amounts to converting the spin-state selectivity from 1H spin states to 13C spin states in the spectra of long-range coupled 1H spins, allowing convenient measurement of heteronuclear coupling constants similar to other S3 or E.COSY-type methods. As usual in this type of techniques, the accuracy of coupling constant measurement is independent of the size of the coupling constant of interest. The merits of the new method are demonstrated by application to vinyl acetate, the alkaloid strychnine, and the carbohydrate methyl β-maltoside.

  16. An X-Band Waveguide Measurement Technique for the Accurate Characterization of Materials with Low Dielectric Loss Permittivity

    CERN Document Server

    Allen, Kenneth W; Reid, David R; Bean, Jeffrey A; Ellis, Jeremy D; Morris, Andrew P; Marsh, Jeramy M

    2016-01-01

    In this work, we present a new X-band waveguide (WR90) measurement method that permits the broadband characterization of the complex permittivity for low dielectric loss tangent material specimens with improved accuracy. An electrically-long polypropylene specimen that partially fills the cross-section is inserted into the waveguide and the transmitted scattering parameter (S21) is measured. The extraction method relies on computational electromagnetic simulations, coupled with a genetic algorithm, to match the experimental S21 measurement. The sensitivity of the technique to sample length was explored by simulating specimen lengths from 2.54 to 15.24 cm, in 2.54 cm increments. Analysis of our simulated data predicts the technique will have the sensitivity to measure loss tangent values on the order of 10e-3 for materials such as polymers with relatively low real permittivity values. The ability to accurately characterize low-loss dielectric material specimens of polypropylene is demonstrated experimentally. ...

  17. Absolute and relative surrogate measurements of the uranium-236(n,f) cross section as a probe of angular momentum effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyles, Bethany Faye

    The absolute surrogate technique and the Surrogate Ratio Method (SRM) were used to deduce the 236U(n,f) cross section over an equivalent neutron energy range of 0.1 to 20 MeV for the absolute measurement and 0.8 to 20 MeV for the relative measurement. A 42 MeV 3He2+ beam from the 88--Inch Cyclotron at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory was used to perform a (3He,alpha) pickup reaction on targets of 235U (Jpi=7/2 --) and 238U (Jpi=0+) and the fission decay probabilities were determined. The 235U( 3He,alphaf) and 238U(3He,alphaf) reactions were surrogates for 233U(n,f) and 236U(n,f), respectively. Using the absolute surrogate technique, the experimentally determined 238U(3He,alpha) fission probability was multiplied by a calculated neutron absorption cross section to obtain the 236 U(n,f) cross section. Using the SRM, a ratio of the experimentally determined fission probabilities, 238U(3He,alphaf) to 235U(3He,alphaf), was extracted and multiplied by the evaluated 233U(n,f) cross section to obtain the 236U(n,f) cross section. Neither the absolute surrogate nor the SRM used in this case explicitly accounted for Jpi-dependence of the fission probabilities. The cross sections extracted using the Surrogate Method were compared to directly measured cross sections and theoretical predictions. The absolute surrogate 236U(n,f) cross section trended well with the evaluated nuclear data below 3.3 MeV, but was beset with target contamination above this energy, whereas the SRM result agreed with the evaluated nuclear data to within 10% at neutron energies from 3.5 to 20 MeV and exhibited significant deviations in the low energy regime. The deduced surrogate 236U(n,f) cross section was determined as a function of the angle of the alpha particle ejectile in the direct reaction to explore different angular momentum population distributions in the compound nucleus and their effects on the extracted fission probabilities. The 236U(n,f) cross sections extracted using both the

  18. Accurate measurement of the sticking time and sticking probability of Rb atoms on a polydimethylsiloxane coating

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Atutov, S. N., E-mail: atutovsn@mail.ru; Plekhanov, A. I. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Institute of Automation and Electrometry, Siberian Branch (Russian Federation)

    2015-01-15

    We present the results of a systematic study of Knudsen’s flow of Rb atoms in cylindrical capillary cells coated with a polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) compound. The purpose of the investigation is to determine the characterization of the coating in terms of the sticking probability and sticking time of Rb on the two types of coating of high and medium viscosities. We report the measurement of the sticking probability of a Rb atom to the coating equal to 4.3 × 10{sup −5}, which corresponds to the number of bounces 2.3 × 10{sup 4} at room temperature. These parameters are the same for the two kinds of PDMS used. We find that at room temperature, the respective sticking times for high-viscosity and medium-viscosity PDMS are 22 ± 3 μs and 49 ± 6 μs. These sticking times are about million times larger than the sticking time derived from the surface Rb atom adsorption energy and temperature of the coating. A tentative explanation of this surprising result is proposed based on the bulk diffusion of the atoms that collide with the surface and penetrate inside the coating. The results can be important in many resonance cell experiments, such as the efficient magnetooptical trapping of rare elements or radioactive isotopes and in experiments on the light-induced drift effect.

  19. Accurate electrical resistance measurement of the crystallization kinetics of amorphous alloys

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG; Yaping

    2001-01-01

    [1]Kobayashi, H.?Yasukochi, K., Maximum and minimum heat flux and temperature fluctuation in film-boiling states in superfluid helium, Adv. Cryog. Eng., 1980, 25: 372.[2]Kobayashi, H.?Yasukochi, K., A sample configuration effect on the heat transfer from metal surfaces to pressurized He II, Proc. ICEC, 1980, 8: 217.[3]Schwerdtner, M. V., Stamm, G., Tosi, A. N. et al. The boiling-up process in He II. Optical measurements and visualization, Cryogenics, 1992, 32: 775.[4]Schwerdtner, M. V., Poppes, W., Schmidt, D. W., Distortion of temperature signals in He II due to probe geometry, and a new improved probe, Cryogenics, 1989, 29: 132.[5]Shimazaki, T., Murakami, M.?Iida, T., Second sound wave heat transfer, thermal boundary layer formation and boiling: highly transient heat transport phenomena in He II, Cryogenics, 1995, 35: 645.[6]Zhang, P., Study of physical mechanism of film boiling in He II, Doctoral dissertation, Shanghai Jiaotong University, China, 1998.[7]Arp, V., State equation of liquid helium-4 from 0.8 to 2.5K, J. Low Temp. Phys., 1990, 79: 93.[8]Zhang, P., Kimura, S., Murakami, M. et al., Non-planar and non-linear second sound wave in He II, Chinese Physics Letters, 2000, 17: 43.

  20. Accurate Measurements of Free Flight Drag Coefficients with Amateur Doppler Radar

    CERN Document Server

    Courtney, Elya; Courtney, Michael

    2016-01-01

    In earlier papers, techniques have been described using optical chronographs to determine free flight drag coefficients with an accuracy of 1-2%, accomplished by measuring near and far velocities of projectiles in flight over a known distance. Until recently, Doppler radar has been prohibitively expensive for many users. This paper reports results of exploring potential applications and accuracy using a recently available, inexpensive (< $600 US) amateur Doppler radar system to determine drag coefficients for projectiles of various sizes (4.4 mm to 9 mm diameter) and speeds (M0.3 to M3.0). In many cases, drag coefficients can be determined with an accuracy of 1% or better if signal-to-noise ratio is sufficient and projectiles vary little between trials. It is also straightforward to design experiments for determining drag over a wide range of velocities. Experimental approaches and limitations are described. Overall, the amateur radar system shows greater accuracy, ease of use, and simplicity compared with...

  1. Patient safety measures in burn care: do National reporting systems accurately reflect quality of burn care?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandell, Samuel P; Robinson, Ellen F; Cooper, Claudette L; Klein, Matthew B; Gibran, Nicole S

    2010-01-01

    UHC CDB provide a potential to benchmark quality of care. However, reporting quality data for trauma and burns requires stringent understanding of injury data collection. Although quality measures are important for improving patient safety and establishing benchmarks for complication and mortality rates, caution must be taken when applying them to specific product lines.

  2. Measurement of Absolute Atomic Collision Cross Section with Helium Using 87Rb Atoms Confined in Magneto-Optic and Magnetic Traps

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Ji-Cheng; ZHOU Ke-Ya; WANG Yue-Yuan; LIAO Qing-Hong; LIU Shu-Tian

    2011-01-01

    We present the measurements and calculations of the absolute total collision cross sections for a room-temperature gas of helium using 87 Rb atoms confined in either a magneto-optic or a magnetic quadrupole trap. The loss rates from the magneto-optic trap and the pure magnetic trap are compared and show significant differences. The collision cross sections as a function of trap depth for helium gas are obtained. These findings are significant for extracting the information about the different cross sections when the trap depth is changed.%@@ We present the measurements and calculations of the absolute total collision cross sections for a room-temperature gas of helium using 87Rb atoms confined in either a magneto-optic or a magnetic quadrupole trap.The loss rates from the magneto-optic trap and the pure magnetic trap are compared and show significant differences.The collision cross sections as a function of trap depth for helium gas are obtained.These findings are significant for extracting the information about the different cross sections when the trap depth is changed.

  3. A Two-Sinker Densimeter for Accurate Measurements of the Density of Natural Gases at Standard Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richter, Markus; Kleinrahm, Reiner; Glos, Stefan; Wagner, Wolfgang; Span, Roland; Schley, Peter; Uhrig, Martin

    2010-05-01

    A special reference densimeter has been developed for accurate measurements of densities of natural gases and multicomponent gas mixtures at standard conditions of temperature and pressure ( T s = 273.15 K and p s = 0.101325 MPa). The densimeter covers the range from 0.7 kg · m-3 to 1.3 kg · m-3; the total measurement uncertainty in density is 0.020 % (95 % level of confidence). The measurement principle used is the two-sinker method, which is based on the Archimedes buoyancy principle. The certified calibration laboratory of E.ON Ruhrgas AG, Germany, uses this densimeter to verify the standard densities of certified calibration gases (binary and multicomponent gas mixtures). Moreover, the densimeter is used to determine the compositions of commercially available binary gas mixtures with a small uncertainty of (0.01-0.03) mol%.

  4. Absolute airborne gravimetry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baumann, Henri

    This work consists of a feasibility study of a first stage prototype airborne absolute gravimeter system. In contrast to relative systems, which are using spring gravimeters, the measurements acquired by absolute systems are uncorrelated and the instrument is not suffering from problems like instrumental drift, frequency response of the spring and possible variation of the calibration factor. The major problem we had to resolve were to reduce the influence of the non-gravitational accelerations included in the measurements. We studied two different approaches to resolve it: direct mechanical filtering, and post-processing digital compensation. The first part of the work describes in detail the different mechanical passive filters of vibrations, which were studied and tested in the laboratory and later in a small truck in movement. For these tests as well as for the airborne measurements an absolute gravimeter FG5-L from Micro-G Ltd was used together with an Inertial navigation system Litton-200, a vertical accelerometer EpiSensor, and GPS receivers for positioning. These tests showed that only the use of an optical table gives acceptable results. However, it is unable to compensate for the effects of the accelerations of the drag free chamber. The second part describes the strategy of the data processing. It is based on modeling the perturbing accelerations by means of GPS, EpiSensor and INS data. In the third part the airborne experiment is described in detail, from the mounting in the aircraft and data processing to the different problems encountered during the evaluation of the quality and accuracy of the results. In the part of data processing the different steps conducted from the raw apparent gravity data and the trajectories to the estimation of the true gravity are explained. A comparison between the estimated airborne data and those obtained by ground upward continuation at flight altitude allows to state that airborne absolute gravimetry is feasible and

  5. An accurate measurement of the anisotropies and mean level of the Cosmic Infrared Background at 100 and 160 um

    CERN Document Server

    Pénin, Aurélie; Noriega-Crepo, Alberto; Grain, Julien; Miville-Deschênes, Marc-Antoine; Ponthieu, Nicolas; Martin, Peter; Blagrave, Kevin; Lockman, Felix J

    2011-01-01

    The anisotropies of the cosmic infrared background (CIB) are a powerful tool to study the evolution of galaxies and large-scale structures. However one of the main limitations to an accurate measurement is the contamination by Galactic dust emission. Our goal is to show that we can remove the Galactic cirrus contamination using HI data, and thus measure accurately the clustering of starburst galaxies in the CIB. We use observations of the extragalactic N1 field at far-infrared (100 and 160 um) and radio (21 cm) wavelengths. We compute the correlation between dust emission, as traced by far-infrared observations, and HI gas, and derive dust emissivities which enable us to subtract the cirrus emission from the far-infrared maps. We then derive the power spectrum of the CIB anisotropies and its mean level. We compute dust emissivities for each of the HI-velocity components. Using IRIS/IRAS data at 100 um, we demonstrate that we can use the measured emissivities to determine and remove the cirrus contribution to ...

  6. Absolute measurements of the /sup 233/U (n,f) cross section between 0. 13 and 8. 0 MeV. [Cross sections, 0. 13 to 8. 0 MeV

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Poenitz, W.P.

    1978-04-01

    The fast neutron fission cross section of /sup 233/U was measured absolutely between 0.13 and 8.0 MeV. The absolute cross section values were obtained by low geometry alpha counting and isotopic dilution analysis of various /sup 233/U samples, 2..pi..-detection of the fission fragments with an ionization chamber, and the measurement of the neutron flux with several black neutron detectors. Absolute cross sections were obtained with a 2 to 3% uncertainty over the most important energy range.

  7. Measurements of periods, relative abundances and absolute yields of delayed neutrons from fast neutron induced fission of {sup 237}Np

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Piksaikine, V. [Institute of Physics and Power Engineering, Obninsk (Russian Federation)

    1997-03-01

    The experimental method for measurements of the delayed neutron yields and period is presented. The preliminary results of the total yield, relative abundances and periods are shown comparing with the previously reported values. (J.P.N.)

  8. Accurate measurements of carbon monoxide in humid air using the cavity ring-down spectroscopy (CRDS technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Chen

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Accurate measurements of carbon monoxide (CO in humid air have been made using the cavity ring-down spectroscopy (CRDS technique. The measurements of CO mole fractions are determined from the strength of its spectral absorption in the near infrared region (∼1.57 μm after removing interferences from adjacent carbon dioxide (CO2 and water vapor (H2O absorption lines. Water correction functions that account for the dilution and pressure-broadening effects as well as absorption line interferences from adjacent CO2 and H2O lines have been derived for CO2 mole fractions between 360–390 ppm. The line interference corrections are independent of CO mole fractions. The dependence of the line interference correction on CO2 abundance is estimated to be approximately −0.3 ppb/100 ppm CO2 for dry mole fractions of CO. Comparisons of water correction functions from different analyzers of the same type show significant differences, making it necessary to perform instrument-specific water tests for each individual analyzer. The CRDS analyzer was flown on an aircraft in Alaska from April to November in 2011, and the accuracy of the CO measurements by the CRDS analyzer has been validated against discrete NOAA/ESRL flask sample measurements made on board the same aircraft, with a mean difference between integrated in situ and flask measurements of −0.6 ppb and a standard deviation of 2.8 ppb. Preliminary testing of CRDS instrumentation that employs new spectroscopic analysis (available since the beginning of 2012 indicates a smaller water vapor dependence than the models discussed here, but more work is necessary to fully validate the performance. The CRDS technique provides an accurate and low-maintenance method of monitoring the atmospheric dry mole fractions of CO in humid air streams.

  9. The Cambridge Face Tracker: Accurate, Low Cost Measurement of Head Posture Using Computer Vision and Face Recognition Software

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Peter B. M.; Baltrušaitis, Tadas; Robinson, Peter; Vivian, Anthony J.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose We validate a video-based method of head posture measurement. Methods The Cambridge Face Tracker uses neural networks (constrained local neural fields) to recognize facial features in video. The relative position of these facial features is used to calculate head posture. First, we assess the accuracy of this approach against videos in three research databases where each frame is tagged with a precisely measured head posture. Second, we compare our method to a commercially available mechanical device, the Cervical Range of Motion device: four subjects each adopted 43 distinct head postures that were measured using both methods. Results The Cambridge Face Tracker achieved confident facial recognition in 92% of the approximately 38,000 frames of video from the three databases. The respective mean error in absolute head posture was 3.34°, 3.86°, and 2.81°, with a median error of 1.97°, 2.16°, and 1.96°. The accuracy decreased with more extreme head posture. Comparing The Cambridge Face Tracker to the Cervical Range of Motion Device gave correlation coefficients of 0.99 (P < 0.0001), 0.96 (P < 0.0001), and 0.99 (P < 0.0001) for yaw, pitch, and roll, respectively. Conclusions The Cambridge Face Tracker performs well under real-world conditions and within the range of normally-encountered head posture. It allows useful quantification of head posture in real time or from precaptured video. Its performance is similar to that of a clinically validated mechanical device. It has significant advantages over other approaches in that subjects do not need to wear any apparatus, and it requires only low cost, easy-to-setup consumer electronics. Translational Relevance Noncontact assessment of head posture allows more complete clinical assessment of patients, and could benefit surgical planning in future. PMID:27730008

  10. Absolute dose measurement Gafchromic R EBT2 movies. Case Study of Kaposis sarcoma; Medida de dosis absoluta con peliculas Gafchromic EBT2. Caso practico de un sarcoma de Kaposi

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pereira, L.; Moral, F. del; Meilan, E.; Azevedo Gomes, J. C. de; Tejeiro Garcia, A. G.; Andrade Alvarez, B.; Vazquez, J.; Nieto, I.; Medal, D.; Lopez Medina, A.; Francisco, S.; Salgado, M.; Munoz, V.

    2011-07-01

    Because of its high spatial resolution, low energy dependence and good response over a wide energy range, EBT2 Gafchromic films are widely used in many applications in radiotherapy for measuring relative dose. Despite being the most common use can be used to measure absolute dose. This text is an example of using films as EBT2 for in vivo absolute dose in a Kaposis sarcoma.

  11. On the opportunity of spectroscopic determination of absolute atomic densities in non-equilibrium plasmas from measured relative intensities within resonance multiplets distorted by self-absorption

    CERN Document Server

    Lavrov, B P

    2007-01-01

    The opportunities of the application of the recently proposed approach in optical emission spectroscopy of non-equilibrium plasmas have been studied. The approach consists of several methods of the determination of {\\em absolute} particle densities of atoms from measured {\\em relative} intensities within resonance multiplets distorted by self-absorption. All available spectroscopic data concerning resonance spectral lines of atoms having multiplet ground states from boron up to gallium were analyzed. It is found that in the case of C, O, F, S and Cl atoms an application of the methods needs VUV technique, while densities of B, Al, Si, Sc, Ti, V, Co, Ni, Ga atoms may be obtained by means of the intensity measurements in UV and visible parts of emission spectra suitable for ordinary spectrometers used for optical diagnostics and monitoring of non-equilibrium plasmas including industrial plasma technologies.

  12. Absolute frequency measurement of an SF6 two-photon line using a femtosecond optical comb and sum-frequency generation

    CERN Document Server

    Amy-Klein, A; Guinet, M; Daussy, C; López, O; Shelkovnikov, A; Chardonnet, C; Amy-Klein, Anne; Goncharov, Andrei; Guinet, Mickael; Daussy, Christophe; Lopez, Olivier; Shelkovnikov, Alexander; Chardonnet, Christian

    2005-01-01

    We demonstrate a new simple technique to measure IR frequencies near 30 THz using a femtosecond (fs) laser optical comb and sum-frequency generation. The optical frequency is directly compared to the distance between two modes of the fs laser, and the resulting beat note is used to control this distance which depends only on the repetition rate fr of the fs laser. The absolute frequency of a CO2 laser stabilized onto an SF6 two-photon line has been measured for the first time. This line is an attractive alternative to the usual saturated absorption OsO4 resonances used for the stabilization of CO2 lasers. First results demonstrate a fractional Allan deviation of 3.10-14 at 1 s.

  13. Absolute distance measurement method without a non-measurable range and directional ambiguity based on the spectral-domain interferometer using the optical comb of the femtosecond pulse laser

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, J.; Jin, J.; Kim, J.-A.; Kim, J. W.

    2016-12-01

    With the help of the optical comb of a femtosecond pulse laser, a spectral-domain interferometer has been utilized for measuring absolute distances. Even if the technique can measure distances at a high speed and with good precision, it has two fundamental problems: non-measurable range and directional ambiguity. First, the non-measurable range arises due to the sampling limit of the interference spectra at very short distances or the integer multiple of a double non-ambiguity range. Second, the peak corresponding to the desired distance in the Fourier domain has a directional ambiguity owing to the repeated property of the optical comb. Therefore, due to these two fundamental problems, most previous works never measure the absolute distances by itself in a single operation. In this letter, an interferometric method for measuring arbitrary absolute distances based on a spectral-domain interferometer operating with two reference mirrors is proposed and demonstrated. The two reference mirrors generate two distinguishable signals, primary and secondary, with a predetermined offset, thus solving these fundamental problems clearly. More importantly, as a practical advantage, the simple layout of the proposed method makes it readily applicable to most previous studies.

  14. An accurate Rb density measurement method for a plasma wakefield accelerator experiment using a novel Rb reservoir

    CERN Document Server

    Öz, E; Muggli, P

    2016-01-01

    A method to accurately measure the density of Rb vapor is described. We plan on using this method for the Advanced Wakefield (AWAKE)~\\cite{bib:awake} project at CERN , which will be the world's first proton driven plasma wakefield experiment. The method is similar to the hook~\\cite{bib:Hook} method and has been described in great detail in the work by W. Tendell Hill et. al.~\\cite{bib:densitymeter}. In this method a cosine fit is applied to the interferogram to obtain a relative accuracy on the order of $1\\%$ for the vapor density-length product. A single-mode, fiber-based, Mach-Zenhder interferometer will be built and used near the ends of the 10 meter-long AWAKE plasma source to be able to make accurate relative density measurement between these two locations. This can then be used to infer the vapor density gradient along the AWAKE plasma source and also change it to the value desired for the plasma wakefield experiment. Here we describe the plan in detail and show preliminary results obtained using a prot...

  15. An accurate Rb density measurement method for a plasma wakefield accelerator experiment using a novel Rb reservoir

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Öz, E.; Batsch, F.; Muggli, P.

    2016-09-01

    A method to accurately measure the density of Rb vapor is described. We plan on using this method for the Advanced Wakefield (AWAKE) (Assmann et al., 2014 [1]) project at CERN , which will be the world's first proton driven plasma wakefield experiment. The method is similar to the hook (Marlow, 1967 [2]) method and has been described in great detail in the work by Hill et al. (1986) [3]. In this method a cosine fit is applied to the interferogram to obtain a relative accuracy on the order of 1% for the vapor density–length product. A single-mode, fiber-based, Mach–Zenhder interferometer will be built and used near the ends of the 10 meter-long AWAKE plasma source to be able to make accurate relative density measurement between these two locations. This can then be used to infer the vapor density gradient along the AWAKE plasma source and also change it to the value desired for the plasma wakefield experiment. Here we describe the plan in detail and show preliminary results obtained using a prototype 8 cm long novel Rb vapor cell.

  16. An accurate Rb density measurement method for a plasma wakefield accelerator experiment using a novel Rb reservoir

    Science.gov (United States)

    Öz, E.; Batsch, F.; Muggli, P.

    2016-09-01

    A method to accurately measure the density of Rb vapor is described. We plan on using this method for the Advanced Wakefield (AWAKE) (Assmann et al., 2014 [1]) project at CERN , which will be the world's first proton driven plasma wakefield experiment. The method is similar to the hook (Marlow, 1967 [2]) method and has been described in great detail in the work by Hill et al. (1986) [3]. In this method a cosine fit is applied to the interferogram to obtain a relative accuracy on the order of 1% for the vapor density-length product. A single-mode, fiber-based, Mach-Zenhder interferometer will be built and used near the ends of the 10 meter-long AWAKE plasma source to be able to make accurate relative density measurement between these two locations. This can then be used to infer the vapor density gradient along the AWAKE plasma source and also change it to the value desired for the plasma wakefield experiment. Here we describe the plan in detail and show preliminary results obtained using a prototype 8 cm long novel Rb vapor cell.

  17. Using Mean Absolute Relative Phase, Deviation Phase and Point-Estimation Relative Phase to Measure Postural Coordination in a Serial Reaching Task

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne K. Galgon, Patricia A. Shewokis

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The objectives of this communication are to present the methods used to calculate mean absolute relative phase (MARP, deviation phase (DP and point estimate relative phase (PRP and compare their utility in measuring postural coordination during the performance of a serial reaching task. MARP and DP are derived from continuous relative phase time series representing the relationship between two body segments or joints during movements. MARP is a single measure used to quantify the coordination pattern and DP measures the stability of the coordination pattern. PRP also quantifies coordination patterns by measuring the relationship between the timing of maximal or minimal angular displacements of two segments within cycles of movement. Seven young adults practiced a bilateral serial reaching task 300 times over 3 days. Relative phase measures were used to evaluate inter-joint relationships for shoulder-hip (proximal and hip-ankle (distal postural coordination at early and late learning. MARP, PRP and DP distinguished between proximal and distal postural coordination. There was no effect of practice on any of the relative phase measures for the group, but individual differences were seen over practice. Combined, MARP and DP estimated stability of in-phase and anti-phase postural coordination patterns, however additional qualitative movement analyses may be needed to interpret findings in a serial task. We discuss the strengths and limitations of using MARP and DP and compare MARP and DP to PRP measures in assessing coordination patterns in the context of various types of skillful tasks.

  18. Measuring Physical Inactivity: Do Current Measures Provide an Accurate View of “Sedentary” Video Game Time?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simon Fullerton

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Measures of screen time are often used to assess sedentary behaviour. Participation in activity-based video games (exergames can contribute to estimates of screen time, as current practices of measuring it do not consider the growing evidence that playing exergames can provide light to moderate levels of physical activity. This study aimed to determine what proportion of time spent playing video games was actually spent playing exergames. Methods. Data were collected via a cross-sectional telephone survey in South Australia. Participants aged 18 years and above (n=2026 were asked about their video game habits, as well as demographic and socioeconomic factors. In cases where children were in the household, the video game habits of a randomly selected child were also questioned. Results. Overall, 31.3% of adults and 79.9% of children spend at least some time playing video games. Of these, 24.1% of adults and 42.1% of children play exergames, with these types of games accounting for a third of all time that adults spend playing video games and nearly 20% of children’s video game time. Conclusions. A substantial proportion of time that would usually be classified as “sedentary” may actually be spent participating in light to moderate physical activity.

  19. Accurate measurements of cross-plane thermal conductivity of thin films by dual-frequency time-domain thermoreflectance (TDTR).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Puqing; Huang, Bin; Koh, Yee Kan

    2016-07-01

    Accurate measurements of the cross-plane thermal conductivity Λcross of a high-thermal-conductivity thin film on a low-thermal-conductivity (Λs) substrate (e.g., Λcross/Λs > 20) are challenging, due to the low thermal resistance of the thin film compared with that of the substrate. In principle, Λcross could be measured by time-domain thermoreflectance (TDTR), using a high modulation frequency fh and a large laser spot size. However, with one TDTR measurement at fh, the uncertainty of the TDTR measurement is usually high due to low sensitivity of TDTR signals to Λcross and high sensitivity to the thickness hAl of Al transducer deposited on the sample for TDTR measurements. We observe that in most TDTR measurements, the sensitivity to hAl only depends weakly on the modulation frequency f. Thus, we performed an additional TDTR measurement at a low modulation frequency f0, such that the sensitivity to hAl is comparable but the sensitivity to Λcross is near zero. We then analyze the ratio of the TDTR signals at fh to that at f0, and thus significantly improve the accuracy of our Λcross measurements. As a demonstration of the dual-frequency approach, we measured the cross-plane thermal conductivity of a 400-nm-thick nickel-iron alloy film and a 3-μm-thick Cu film, both with an accuracy of ∼10%. The dual-frequency TDTR approach is useful for future studies of thin films.

  20. Can endocranial volume be estimated accurately from external skull measurements in great-tailed grackles (Quiscalus mexicanus?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Corina J. Logan

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available There is an increasing need to validate and collect data approximating brain size on individuals in the field to understand what evolutionary factors drive brain size variation within and across species. We investigated whether we could accurately estimate endocranial volume (a proxy for brain size, as measured by computerized tomography (CT scans, using external skull measurements and/or by filling skulls with beads and pouring them out into a graduated cylinder for male and female great-tailed grackles. We found that while females had higher correlations than males, estimations of endocranial volume from external skull measurements or beads did not tightly correlate with CT volumes. We found no accuracy in the ability of external skull measures to predict CT volumes because the prediction intervals for most data points overlapped extensively. We conclude that we are unable to detect individual differences in endocranial volume using external skull measurements. These results emphasize the importance of validating and explicitly quantifying the predictive accuracy of brain size proxies for each species and each sex.

  1. Optical tweezers absolute calibration

    CERN Document Server

    Dutra, R S; Neto, P A Maia; Nussenzveig, H M

    2014-01-01

    Optical tweezers are highly versatile laser traps for neutral microparticles, with fundamental applications in physics and in single molecule cell biology. Force measurements are performed by converting the stiffness response to displacement of trapped transparent microspheres, employed as force transducers. Usually, calibration is indirect, by comparison with fluid drag forces. This can lead to discrepancies by sizable factors. Progress achieved in a program aiming at absolute calibration, conducted over the past fifteen years, is briefly reviewed. Here we overcome its last major obstacle, a theoretical overestimation of the peak stiffness, within the most employed range for applications, and we perform experimental validation. The discrepancy is traced to the effect of primary aberrations of the optical system, which are now included in the theory. All required experimental parameters are readily accessible. Astigmatism, the dominant effect, is measured by analyzing reflected images of the focused laser spo...

  2. Measuring absolute spin polarization in dissolution-DNP by Spin PolarimetrY Magnetic Resonance (SPY-MR)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vuichoud, Basile; Milani, Jonas; Chappuis, Quentin; Bornet, Aurélien; Bodenhausen, Geoffrey; Jannin, Sami

    2015-11-01

    Dynamic nuclear polarization at 1.2 K and 6.7 T allows one to achieve spin temperatures on the order of a few millikelvin, so that the high-temperature approximation (Δ E spy'), provided perturbations due to second-order (strong coupling) effects are properly taken into account. If spin S is suitably discreet and does not affect the relaxation of spin I, this provides an elegant way of measuring spin polarizations 'on the fly' in a broad range of molecules, thus obviating the need for laborious measurements of signal intensities at thermal equilibrium. The method, dubbed Spin PolarimetrY Magnetic Resonance (SPY-MR), is illustrated for various pairs of 13 C spins (I, S) in acetate and pyruvate.

  3. Absolute measurement of {beta} emitters with a 4 {pi} counter; Mesure absolue des emetteurs {beta} au compteur 4 {pi}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Le Gallic, Y. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1959-06-15

    The object of this work is to investigate the conditions under which the activity of {beta}-emitting radionuclides may be measured with a maximum of precision, and as a result to study the relevant corrections. The various problems relating to activity measurements with a 4 {pi} counter have been examined successively: - comparison of 4 {pi}, GM and proportional counters; - study of the preparation of sources; - corrections on the counting of sources; - self-absorption; - correction for absorption. The precision obtained on these measurements varies from 1.2 to 3 per cent, with the result that the 4 {pi} counter can be considered a very satisfactory calibration instrument. (author) [French] Le but de ce travail est de rechercher les conditions permettant d'obtenir avec le maximum de precision, la mesure de l'activite des radionuclides se desintegrant par emission et par consequent d'etudier les corrections qui s'y rapportent. Nous avons examine successivement les differents problemes se rapportant aux mesures d'activite au compteur 4 {pi}: - Comparaison des compteurs 4 {pi}, GM et proportionnel; - etude de la preparation des sources; - corrections sur la numeration des sources; - auto-absorption; - correction d'absorption. La precision obtenue dans ces mesures, variant de 1,2 a 3 pour cent, on peut donc considerer le compteur 4 {pi} comme un instrument d'etalonnage tres satisfaisant. (auteur)

  4. Development of a Time Domain Radio Frequency Plasma Impedance Probe For Measurement of Absolute Electron Density and Electron Neutral Collision Frequency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spencer, E. A.

    2014-12-01

    We describe the development of a Time Domain Plasma Impedance Probe for the measurement of plasma properties in the ionosphere. It is being designed and developed to fly on cubesat platforms. The new instrument will be capable of making measurements of absolute electron density and electron neutral collision frequency at temporal and spatial resolutions not previously attained. A single measurement can be made in a time as short as 50 microseconds, which yields a spatial resolution of 0.35 meters for a satellite orbital velocity of 7 km/s. By averaging over 100 samples we expect an average spatial resolution of 35 meters. The method essentially consists of applying a small amplitude time limited voltage signal into a probe and measuring the resulting current response. The electron resonant frequencies of interest in the ionosphere are between are typically between 100 kHz and 20 MHz, which sets the required bandwidth. The new time domain method will present a significant improvement over the frequency domain method currently in use. The RF impedance probe has a distinct advantage over other methods used to measure plasma properties, in that it's measurements are not strongly affected by spacecraft charging effects that contaminate measurements made in the plasma environment. We will demonstrate the effectiveness of the instrument using data from sounding rocket missions, give details of the new instrument methodology, and suggest some possible areas of application of the method to measuring space plasmas. The difficulties associated with performing the measurements in a cubesat platform, and subsequently interpreting the measurements, will also be presented.

  5. Accurate mass measurements of very short-lived nuclei. Prerequisites for high-accuracy investigations of superallowed {beta}-decays

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Herfurth, F.; Kellerbauer, A.; Sauvan, E. [CERN, 1211 Geneva 23 (Switzerland); Ames, F.; Engels, O. [Sektion Physik, Ludwig-Maximilians-Universitaet Muenchen, 85748 Garching (Germany); Audi, G.; Lunney, D. [CSNSM-IN2P3-CNRS, 91405 Orsay Campus (France); Beck, D.; Blaum, K.; Kluge, H.J.; Scheidenberger, C.; Sikler, G.; Weber, C. [GSI, Planckstrasse 1, 64291 Darmstadt (Germany); Bollen, G.; Schwarz, S. [NSCL, Michigan State University, East Lansing MI 48824-1321 (United States); Moore, R.B. [Department of Physics, McGill University, Montreal (Quebec) H3A 2T8 (Canada); Oinonen, M. [Helsinki Institute of Physics, University of Helsinki, P.O. Box 9, 00014 Helsinki (Finland)

    2002-10-01

    Mass measurements of {sup 34}Ar, {sup 73-78}Kr, and {sup 74,76}Rb were performed with the Penning-trap mass spectrometer ISOLTRAP. Very accurate Q{sub EC}-values are needed for the investigations of the Ft-value of 0{sup +} {yields} 0{sup +} nuclear {beta}-decays used to test the standard model predictions for weak interactions. The necessary accuracy on the Q{sub EC}-value requires the mass of mother and daughter nuclei to be measured with {delta}m/m {<=} 3{sup .}10 {sup -8}. For most of the measured nuclides presented here this has been reached. The {sup 34}Ar mass has been measured with a relative accuracy of 1.1 .10{sup -8}. The Q {sub EC}-value of the {sup 34}Ar 0 {sup +} {yields} 0 {sup +} decay can now be determined with an uncertainty of about 0.01%. Furthermore, {sup 74}Rb is the shortest-lived nuclide ever investigated in a Penning trap. (orig.)

  6. Retraction notice to "Measurements of total absolute collision cross section of ultracold Rb atom using magneto-optic and pure magnetic traps" [Chinese Optics Letters 9, 060201 (2011)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jicheng Wang; Yueyuan Wang; Yueke Wang; Guangyu Fang; Shutian Liu

    2011-01-01

    This article "Measurements of total absolute collision cross section of ultracold Rb atom using magneto-optic and pure magnetic traps",which was published on Chinese Optics Letters (9,060201 (2011)) has been retracted at the request of the authors.Reason:The first author,Jicheng Wang,participated in a related research in Professor Kirk Madison's group in the Department of Physics & Astronomy at the University of British Columbia,Canada from September 2008 to February 2010.Some of the experimental data have not been authorized for publication,even though they have been consented to be used by Jicheng Wang in his own research.The authors apologize to Professor K.Madison for misunderstanding,and to Chinese Optics Letters and the readers of Chinese Optics Letters for any inconvenience this mistake may have caused.

  7. Development of a vector-tensor system to measure the absolute magnetic flux density and its gradient in magnetically shielded rooms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voigt, J; Knappe-Grüneberg, S; Gutkelch, D; Haueisen, J; Neuber, S; Schnabel, A; Burghoff, M

    2015-05-01

    Several experiments in fundamental physics demand an environment of very low, homogeneous, and stable magnetic fields. For the magnetic characterization of such environments, we present a portable SQUID system that measures the absolute magnetic flux density vector and the gradient tensor. This vector-tensor system contains 13 integrated low-critical temperature (LTc) superconducting quantum interference devices (SQUIDs) inside a small cylindrical liquid helium Dewar with a height of 31 cm and 37 cm in diameter. The achievable resolution depends on the flux density of the field under investigation and its temporal drift. Inside a seven-layer mu-metal shield, an accuracy better than ±23 pT for the components of the static magnetic field vector and ±2 pT/cm for each of the nine components of the gradient tensor is reached by using the shifting method.

  8. Time-resolved absolute measurements by electro-optic effect of giant electromagnetic pulses due to laser-plasma interaction in nanosecond regime

    Science.gov (United States)

    Consoli, F.; de Angelis, R.; Duvillaret, L.; Andreoli, P. L.; Cipriani, M.; Cristofari, G.; di Giorgio, G.; Ingenito, F.; Verona, C.

    2016-06-01

    We describe the first electro-optical absolute measurements of electromagnetic pulses (EMPs) generated by laser-plasma interaction in nanosecond regime. Laser intensities are inertial-confinement-fusion (ICF) relevant and wavelength is 1054 nm. These are the first direct EMP amplitude measurements with the detector rather close and in direct view of the plasma. A maximum field of 261 kV/m was measured, two orders of magnitude higher than previous measurements by conductive probes on nanosecond regime lasers with much higher energy. The analysis of measurements and of particle-in-cell simulations indicates that signals match the emission of charged particles detected in the same experiment, and suggests that anisotropic particle emission from target, X-ray photoionization and charge implantation on surfaces directly exposed to plasma, could be important EMP contributions. Significant information achieved on EMP features and sources is crucial for future plants of laser-plasma acceleration and inertial-confinement-fusion and for the use as effective plasma diagnostics. It also opens to remarkable applications of laser-plasma interaction as intense source of RF-microwaves for studies on materials and devices, EMP-radiation-hardening and electromagnetic compatibility. The demonstrated extreme effectivity of electric-fields detection in laser-plasma context by electro-optic effect, leads to great potential for characterization of laser-plasma interaction and generated Terahertz radiation.

  9. Measurement of the Absolute Branching Fractions B to Dpi, D*pi, D**pi with a Missing Mass Method

    CERN Document Server

    Aubert, B; Boutigny, D; Couderc, F; Karyotakis, Yu; Lees, J P; Poireau, V; Tisserand, V; Zghiche, A; Graugès-Pous, E; Palano, A; Chen, J C; Qi, N D; Rong, G; Wang, P; Zhu, Y S; Eigen, G; Ofte, I; Stugu, B; Abrams, G S; Battaglia, M; Brown, D N; Button-Shafer, J; Cahn, R N; Charles, E; Gill, M S; Groysman, Y; Jacobsen, R G; Kadyk, J A; Kerth, L T; Kolomensky, Yu G; Kukartsev, G; Lynch, G; Mir, L M; Orimoto, T J; Pripstein, M; Roe, N A; Ronan, M T; Wenzel, W A; Del, P; Amo Sanchez; Barrett, M; Ford, K E; Harrison, T J; Hart, A J; Hawkes, C M; Watson, A T; Held, T; Koch, H; Lewandowski, B; Pelizaeus, M; Peters, K; Schröder, T; Steinke, M; Boyd, J T; Burke, J P; Cottingham, W N; Walker, D; Asgeirsson, D J; Çuhadar-Dönszelmann, T; Fulsom, B G; Hearty, C; Knecht, N S; Mattison, T S; McKenna, J A; Khan, A; Kyberd, P; Saleem, M; Sherwood, D J; Teodorescu, L; Blinov, V E; Bukin, A D; Druzhinin, V P; Golubev, V B; Onuchin, A P; Serednyakov, S I; Skovpen, Yu I; Solodov, E P; Todyshev, K Yu; Bondioli, M; Bruinsma, M; Chao, M; Curry, S; Eschrich, I; Kirkby, D; Lankford, A J; Lund, P; Mandelkern, M A; Mommsen, R K; Röthel, W; Stoker, D P; Abachi, S; Buchanan, C; Foulkes, S D; Gary, J W; Long, O; Shen, B C; Wang, K; Zhang, L; Hadavand, H K; Hill, E J; Paar, H P; Rahatlou, S; Sharma, V; Berryhill, J W; Campagnari, C; Cunha, A; Dahmes, B; Hong, T M; Kovalskyi, D; Richman, J D; Beck, T W; Eisner, A M; Flacco, C J; Heusch, C A; Kroseberg, J; Lockman, W S; Nesom, G; Schalk, T; Schumm, B A; Seiden, A; Spradlin, P; Williams, D C; Wilson, M G; Albert, J; Chen, E; Dvoretskii, A; Fang, F; Hitlin, D G; Narsky, I; Piatenko, T; Porter, F C; Ryd, A; Mancinelli, G; Meadows, B T; Mishra, K; Sokoloff, M D; Blanc, F; Bloom, P C; Chen, S; Ford, W T; Hirschauer, J F; Kreisel, A; Nagel, M; Nauenberg, U; Olivas, A; Ruddick, W O; Smith, J G; Ulmer, K A; Wagner, S R; Zhang, J; Chen, A; Eckhart, E A; Soffer, A; Toki, W H; Wilson, R J; Winklmeier, F; Zeng, Q; Altenburg, D D; Feltresi, E; Hauke, A; Jasper, H; Merkel, J; Petzold, A; Spaan, B; Brandt, T; Klose, V; Lacker, H M; Mader, W F; Nogowski, R; Schubert, J; Schubert, K R; Schwierz, R; Sundermann, J E; Volk, A; Bernard, D; Bonneaud, G R; Latour, E; Thiebaux, C; Verderi, M; Clark, P J; Gradl, W; Muheim, F; Playfer, S; Robertson, A I; Xie, Y; Andreotti, M; Bettoni, D; Bozzi, C; Calabrese, R; Cibinetto, G; Luppi, E; Negrini, M; Petrella, A; Piemontese, L; Prencipe, E; Anulli, F; Baldini-Ferroli, R; Calcaterra, A; De Sangro, R; Finocchiaro, G; Pacetti, S; Patteri, P; Peruzzi, I M; Piccolo, M; Rama, M; Zallo, A; Buzzo, A; Contri, R; Lo, M; Lo Vetere, M; Macri, M M; Monge, M R; Passaggio, S; Patrignani, C; Robutti, E; Santroni, A; Tosi, S; Brandenburg, G; Chaisanguanthum, K S; Morii, M; Wu, J; Dubitzky, R S; Marks, J; Schenk, S; Uwer, U; Bard, D J; Bhimji, W; Bowerman, D A; Dauncey, P D; Egede, U; Flack, R L; Nash, J A; Nikolich, M B; Panduro-Vazquez, W; Behera, P K; Chai, X; Charles, M J; Mallik, U; Meyer, N T; Ziegler, V; Cochran, J; Crawley, H B; Dong, L; Eyges, V; Meyer, W T; Prell, S; Rosenberg, E I; Rubin, A E; Gritsan, A V; Denig, A G; Fritsch, M; Schott, G; Arnaud, N; Davier, M; Grosdidier, G; Höcker, A; Le Diberder, F R; Lepeltier, V; Lutz, A M; Oyanguren, A; Pruvot, S; Rodier, S; Roudeau, P; Schune, M H; Stocchi, A; Wang, W F; Wormser, G; Cheng, C H; Lange, D J; Wright, D M; Chavez, C A; Forster, I J; Fry, J R; Gabathuler, E; Gamet, R; George, K A; Hutchcroft, D E; Payne, D J; Schofield, K C; Touramanis, C; Bevan, A J; Di Lodovico, F; Menges, W; Sacco, R; Cowan, G; Flächer, H U; Hopkins, D A; Jackson, P S; McMahon, T R; Ricciardi, S; Salvatore, F; Wren, A C; Davis, C L; Allison, J; Barlow, N R; Barlow, R J; Chia, Y M; Edgar, C L; Lafferty, G D; Naisbit, M T; Williams, J C; Yi, J I; Chen, C; Hulsbergen, W D; Jawahery, A; Lae, C K; Roberts, D A; Simi, G; Blaylock, G; Dallapiccola, C; Hertzbach, S S; Li, X; Moore, T B; Saremi, S; Stängle, H; Cowan, R; Sciolla, G; Sekula, S J; Spitznagel, M; Taylor, F; Yamamoto, R K; Kim, H; Mclachlin, S E; Patel, P M; Robertson, S H; Lazzaro, A; Lombardo, V; Palombo, F; Bauer, J M; Cremaldi, L; Eschenburg, V; al, et

    2006-01-01

    We present branching fraction measurements of charged and neutral B decays to Dpi-, D*pi- and D**pi- with a missing mass method, based on a sample of 231 million Y(4S)-->BBar pairs collected by the BaBar detector at the PEP-II e+e- collider. One of the B mesons is fully reconstructed and the other one decays to a reconstructed charged pion and a companion charmed meson identified by its recoil mass, inferred by kinematics. Here D** refers to the sum of all the non-strange charm meson states with masses in the range 2.2-2.8 Gev/c2.

  10. Determination of critical assembly absolute power using post-irradiation activation measurement of week-lived fission products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Košťál, Michal; Švadlenková, Marie; Milčák, Ján; Rypar, Vojtěch; Koleška, Michal

    2014-07-01

    The work presents a detailed comparison of calculated and experimentally determined net peak areas of longer-living fission products after 100 h irradiation on a reactor with power of ~630 W and several days cooling. Specifically the nuclides studied are (140)Ba, (103)Ru, (131)I, (141)Ce, (95)Zr. The good agreement between the calculated and measured net peak areas, which is better than in determination using short lived (92)Sr, is reported. The experiment was conducted on the VVER-1000 mock-up installed on the LR-0 reactor. The Monte Carlo approach has been used for calculations. The influence of different data libraries on results of calculation is discussed as well.

  11. Accurate Measurement of Pasting Temperature by the Rapid Visco-Analyser:a Case Study Using Rice Flour

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    BAO Jin-song

    2008-01-01

    Pasting properties are among the most important characteristics of starch,determining its applications in food processing and other industries.Pasting temperature derived from the Rapid Visco-analyser(RVA)(Newport Scientific),in most cases,is overestimated by the Thermocline for Windows software program.Here,two methods facilitating accurate where the pasting viscosity begins to increase,the other is to manually record the time(T1)when the pasting viscosity begins to increase and calculate the pasting temperature with the formula of(45/3.8)×(T1-1)+50 for rice flour.The latter method gave a manually determined pasting temperature which was significantly correlated with the gelatinization temperature measured by differential scanning calorimetry.

  12. Using Mean Absolute Relative Phase, Deviation Phase and Point-Estimation Relative Phase to Measure Postural Coordination in a Serial Reaching Task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galgon, Anne K; Shewokis, Patricia A

    2016-03-01

    The objectives of this communication are to present the methods used to calculate mean absolute relative phase (MARP), deviation phase (DP) and point estimate relative phase (PRP) and compare their utility in measuring postural coordination during the performance of a serial reaching task. MARP and DP are derived from continuous relative phase time series representing the relationship between two body segments or joints during movements. MARP is a single measure used to quantify the coordination pattern and DP measures the stability of the coordination pattern. PRP also quantifies coordination patterns by measuring the relationship between the timing of maximal or minimal angular displacements of two segments within cycles of movement. Seven young adults practiced a bilateral serial reaching task 300 times over 3 days. Relative phase measures were used to evaluate inter-joint relationships for shoulder-hip (proximal) and hip-ankle (distal) postural coordination at early and late learning. MARP, PRP and DP distinguished between proximal and distal postural coordination. There was no effect of practice on any of the relative phase measures for the group, but individual differences were seen over practice. Combined, MARP and DP estimated stability of in-phase and anti-phase postural coordination patterns, however additional qualitative movement analyses may be needed to interpret findings in a serial task. We discuss the strengths and limitations of using MARP and DP and compare MARP and DP to PRP measures in assessing coordination patterns in the context of various types of skillful tasks. Key pointsMARP, DP and PRP measures coordination between segments or joint anglesAdvantages and disadvantages of each measure should be considered in relationship to the performance taskMARP and DP may capture coordination patterns and stability of the patterns during discrete tasks or phases of movements within a taskPRP and SD or PRP may capture coordination patterns and

  13. Hyperspectral imaging-based spatially-resolved technique for accurate measurement of the optical properties of horticultural products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cen, Haiyan

    Hyperspectral imaging-based spatially-resolved technique is promising for determining the optical properties and quality attributes of horticultural and food products. However, considerable challenges still exist for accurate determination of spectral absorption and scattering properties from intact horticultural products. The objective of this research was, therefore, to develop and optimize hyperspectral imaging-based spatially-resolved technique for accurate measurement of the optical properties of horticultural products. Monte Carlo simulations and experiments for model samples of known optical properties were performed to optimize the inverse algorithm of a single-layer diffusion model and the optical designs, for extracting the absorption (micro a) and reduced scattering (micros') coefficients from spatially-resolved reflectance profiles. The logarithm and integral data transformation and the relative weighting methods were found to greatly improve the parameter estimation accuracy with the relative errors of 10.4%, 10.7%, and 11.4% for micro a, and 6.6%, 7.0%, and 7.1% for micros', respectively. More accurate measurements of optical properties were obtained when the light beam was of Gaussian type with the diameter of less than 1 mm, and the minimum and maximum source-detector distances were 1.5 mm and 10--20 transport mean free paths, respectively. An optical property measuring prototype was built, based on the optimization results, and evaluated for automatic measurement of absorption and reduced scattering coefficients for the wavelengths of 500--1,000 nm. The instrument was used to measure the optical properties, and assess quality/maturity, of 500 'Redstar' peaches and 1039 'Golden Delicious' (GD) and 1040 'Delicious' (RD) apples. A separate study was also conducted on confocal laser scanning and scanning electron microscopic image analysis and compression test of fruit tissue specimens to measure the structural and mechanical properties of 'Golden

  14. Necessary Conditions for Accurate, Transient Hot-Wire Measurements of the Apparent Thermal Conductivity of Nanofluids are Seldom Satisfied

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antoniadis, Konstantinos D.; Tertsinidou, Georgia J.; Assael, Marc J.; Wakeham, William A.

    2016-08-01

    The paper considers the conditions that are necessary to secure accurate measurement of the apparent thermal conductivity of two-phase systems comprising nanoscale particles of one material suspended in a fluid phase of a different material. It is shown that instruments operating according to the transient hot-wire technique can, indeed, produce excellent measurements when a finite element method (FEM) is employed to describe the instrument for the exact geometry of the hot wire. Furthermore, it is shown that an approximate analytic solution can be employed with equal success, over the time range of 0.1 s to 1 s, provided that (a) two wires are employed, so that end effects are canceled, (b) each wire is very thin, less than 30 \\upmu m diameter, so that the line source model and the corresponding corrections are valid, (c) low values of the temperature rise, less than 4 K, are employed in order to minimize the effect of convection on the heat transfer in the time of measurement of 1 s, and (d) insulated wires are employed for measurements in electrically conducting or polar liquids to avoid current leakage or other electrical distortions. According to these criteria, a transient hot-wire instrument has been designed, constructed, and employed for the measurement of the enhancement of the thermal conductivity of water when TiO2 or multi-wall carbon nanotubes (MWCNT) are added. These new results, together with a critical evaluation of other measurements, demonstrate the importance of proper implementation of the technique.

  15. Accurate measurements of carbon monoxide in humid air using the cavity ring-down spectroscopy (CRDS technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Chen

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Accurate measurements of carbon monoxide (CO in humid air have been made using the cavity ring-down spectroscopy (CRDS technique. The measurements of CO mole fractions are determined from the strength of its spectral absorption in the near-infrared region (~1.57 μm after removing interferences from adjacent carbon dioxide (CO2 and water vapor (H2O absorption lines. Water correction functions that account for the dilution and pressure-broadening effects as well as absorption line interferences from adjacent CO2 and H2O lines have been derived for CO2 mole fractions between 360–390 ppm and for reported H2O mole fractions between 0–4%. The line interference corrections are independent of CO mole fractions. The dependence of the line interference correction on CO2 abundance is estimated to be approximately −0.3 ppb/100 ppm CO2 for dry mole fractions of CO. Comparisons of water correction functions from different analyzers of the same type show significant differences, making it necessary to perform instrument-specific water tests for each individual analyzer. The CRDS analyzer was flown on an aircraft in Alaska from April to November in 2011, and the accuracy of the CO measurements by the CRDS analyzer has been validated against discrete NOAA/ESRL flask sample measurements made on board the same aircraft, with a mean difference between integrated in situ and flask measurements of −0.6 ppb and a standard deviation of 2.8 ppb. Preliminary testing of CRDS instrumentation that employs improved spectroscopic model functions for CO2, H2O, and CO to fit the raw spectral data (available since the beginning of 2012 indicates a smaller water vapor dependence than the models discussed here, but more work is necessary to fully validate the performance. The CRDS technique provides an accurate and low-maintenance method of monitoring the atmospheric dry mole fractions of CO in humid air streams.

  16. Hydroxyl-radical-induced degradative oxidation of beta-lactam antibiotics in water: absolute rate constant measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dail, Michelle K; Mezyk, Stephen P

    2010-08-19

    The beta-lactam antibiotics are some of the most prevalent pharmaceutical contaminants currently being detected in aquatic environments. Because the presence of any trace level of antibiotic in water may adversely affect aquatic ecosystems and contribute to the production of antibiotic-resistant bacteria, active removal by additional water treatments, such as using advanced oxidation and reduction processes (AO/RPs), may be required. However, to ensure that any AOP treatment process occurs efficiently and quantitatively, a full understanding of the kinetics and mechanisms of all of the chemical reactions involved under the conditions of use is necessary. In this study, we report on our kinetic measurements for the hydroxyl-radical-induced oxidation of 11 beta-lactam antibiotics obtained using electron pulse radiolysis techniques. For the 5-member ring species, an average reaction rate constant of (7.9 +/- 0.8) x 10(9) M(-1) s(-1) was obtained, slightly faster than for the analogous 6-member ring containing antibiotics, (6.6 +/- 1.2) x 10(9) M(-1) s(-1). The consistency of these rate constants for each group infers a common reaction mechanism, consisting of the partitioning of the hydroxyl radical between addition to peripheral aromatic rings and reaction with the central double-ring core of these antibiotics.

  17. Absolute quantum yield measurements for the formation of oxygen atoms after UV laser excitation of SO2 at 222.4 nm

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Mohammed Abu-Bajeh; Melanie Cameron; Kyung-Hoon Jung; Christoph Kappel; Almuth Läuter; Kyoung-Seok Lee; Hari P Upadhyaya; Rajesh K Vatsa; Hans-Robert Volpp

    2002-12-01

    The dynamics of formation of oxygen atoms after UV photoexcitation of SO2 in the gas-phase was studied by pulsed laser photolysis-laser-induced fluorescence `pump-and-probe' technique in a flow reactor. SO2 at room-temperature was excited at the KrCl excimer laser wavelength (222.4 nm) and O(3P) photofragments were detected under collision-free conditions by vacuum ultraviolet laser-induced fluorescence. The use of narrow-band probe laser radiation, generated via resonant third-order sum-difference frequency conversion of dye laser radiation in Krypton, allowed the measurement of the nascent O(3P=2,1,0) fine-structure state distribution: =2/=1/=0 = (0.88 ± 0.02)/(0.10 ± 0.01)/(0.02 ± 0.01). Employing NO2 photolysis as a reference, a value of O(3P) = 0.13 ± 0.05 for the absolute O(3P) atom quantum yield was determined. The measured O(3P) quantum yield is compared with the results of earlier fluorescence quantum yield measurements. A suitable mechanism is suggested in which the dissociation proceeds via internal conversion from high rotational states of the initially excited SO2(∼ 1 B2) (1, 2, 2) vibronic level to nearby continuum states of the electronic ground state.

  18. Absolute vibration measurement method using magnetic levitation ball as oscillator%磁悬浮振子绝对式振动测量方法

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    江东

    2013-01-01

    Abstract:The non-contact type absolute vibration measurement method using magnetic levitation ball as oscillator is proposed.The dynamic equation of magnetic levitation ball is deduced.The equation shows that the magnetic levitation ball dynamic equation is the same as that of a mass-spring system,they are both constant coefficient second order differential equation.The feasibility of using magnetic levitation ball as oscillator is proved theoretically.The sensitivity and maximum acceleration technical specifications are given.The frequency characteristics and error analysis of the magnetic levitation oscillator vibration sensor are studied.Experiment results indicate that the displacement waveforms of the magnetic levitation oscillator vibration sensor are the same as the vibration waveforms of the external exciter.Using magnetic levitation oscillator vibration sensor to test vibration belongs to non-contact absolute vibration measurement method.This method overcomes the mechanical friction and mechanical gap errors,and the displacement signal can be outputted directly.The damping is achieved with an electronic circuit,and the damping parameters can be adjusted easily.The method features high sensitivity,wide frequency response range;and multi-dimensional vibration measurement can be implemented easily.The proposed method provides a new measurement method for absolute vibration measurement.%提出了用磁悬浮球作为振子实现非接触绝对式振动测量方法,推导了磁悬浮球的动力学方程,方程表明磁悬浮球的运动方程与质量-弹簧系统一致,均为常系数二阶微分方程,从理论上证实将磁悬浮球作为振子是可行的.给出了灵敏度和最大加速度指标,研究了磁悬浮振子振动传感器的频率特性并进行了误差分析.实验结果表明,磁悬浮振子振动传感器的输出波形与外加激振器的波形一致.磁悬浮振子振动传感器属于非接触绝对式振动测量方法,克服了

  19. Accurate measurements of {sup 129}I concentration by isotope dilution using MC-ICPMS for half-life determination

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Isnard, Helene; Nonell, Anthony; Marie, Mylene [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique et aux Energies alternatives (CEA), Gif Sur Yvette (France). DEN, DPC, SEARS, LANIE; Chartier, Frederic [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique et aux Energies alternatives (CEA), Gif Sur Yvette (France). DEN, DPC

    2016-05-01

    Determining the {sup 129}I concentration, a long-lived radionuclide present in spent nuclear fuel, is a major issue for nuclear waste disposal purpose. {sup 129}I also has to be measured in numerous environmental, nuclear and biological samples. To be able to accurately determine the {sup 129}I concentration, an analytical method based on the use of a multicollector-inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometer (MC-ICPMS) combined with an isotope dilution technique using an {sup 127}I spike, was developed. First, the influence of different media (HNO{sub 3}, NaOH and TMAH) on natural {sup 127}I signal intensity and stability and on memory effects was studied. Then an analytical procedure was developed by taking into account the correction of blanks and interferences. Tellurium was chosen for instrumental mass bias correction, as no certified standards with suitable {sup 127}I/{sup 129}I ratio are available. Finally, the results, reproducibility and uncertainties obtained for the {sup 129}I concentration determined by isotope dilution with a {sup 127}I spike are presented and discussed. The final expanded relative uncertainty obtained for the iodine-129 concentration was lower than 0.7% (k = 1). This precise {sup 129}I determination in association with further activity measurements of this nuclide on the same sample will render it possible to determine a new value of the {sup 129}I half-life with a reduced uncertainty (0.76%, k = 1).

  20. An accurate measurement of the baryonic Tully-Fisher relation with heavily gas-dominated ALFALFA galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Papastergis, E; van der Hulst, J M

    2016-01-01

    We use a sample of 97 galaxies selected from the ALFALFA 21cm survey to make an accurate measurement of the baryonic Tully-Fisher relation (BTFR). These galaxies are specifically selected to be heavily gas-dominated (Mgas/M* >~ 2.7) and to be oriented edge-on. The former property ensures that the error on the galactic baryonic mass is small, despite the large systematic uncertainty involved in galactic stellar mass estimates. The latter property means that rotational velocities can be derived directly from the width of the 21cm emission line, without any need for inclination corrections. The resulting linewidth-based BTFR has a slope of alpha = 3.58 +- 0.11, a value that is in agreement with previous literature results. The relation is remarkably tight, with almost all galaxies being located within a perpendicular distance of +- 0.1 dex from the best fit line. The low observational error budget for our sample allows us to establish that, despite its tightness, the measured linewidth-based BTFR has some small ...

  1. Optimally accurate thermal-wave cavity photopyroelectric measurements of pressure-dependent thermophysical properties of air: theory and experiments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwan, Chi-Hang; Matvienko, Anna; Mandelis, Andreas

    2007-10-01

    An experimental technique for the measurement of thermal properties of air at low pressures using a photopyroelectric (PPE) thermal-wave cavity (TWC) was developed. In addition, two theoretical approaches, a conventional one-dimensional thermal-wave model and a three-dimensional theory based on the Hankel integral, were applied to interpret the thermal-wave field in the thermal-wave cavity. The importance of radiation heat transfer mechanisms in a TWC was also investigated. Radiation components were added to the purely conductive model by linearizing the radiation heat transfer component at the cavity boundary. The experimental results indicate that the three-dimensional model is necessary to describe the PPE signal, especially at low frequencies where thermal diffusion length is large and sideways propagation of the thermal-wave field becomes significant. Radiation is found to be the dominant contributor of the PPE signal at high frequencies and large cavity lengths, where heat conduction across the TWC length is relatively weak. The three-dimensional theory and the Downhill Simplex algorithm were used to fit the experimental data and extract the thermal diffusivity of air and the heat transfer coefficient in a wide range of pressures from 760 to 2.6 Torr. It was shown that judicious adjustments of cavity length and computational best fits to frequency-scanned data using three-dimensional photopyroelectric theory lead to optimally accurate value measurements of thermal diffusivity and heat transfer coefficient at various pressures.

  2. On-Line Self-Calibrating Single Crystal Sapphire Optical Sensor Instrumentation for Accurate and Reliable Coal Gasifier Temperature Measurement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kristie Cooper; Anbo Wang

    2007-03-31

    This report summarizes technical progress October 2006 - March 2007 on the Phase II program ''On-Line Self-Calibrating Single Crystal Sapphire Optical Sensor Instrumentation for Accurate and Reliable Coal Gasifier Temperature Measurement'', funded by the Federal Energy Technology Center of the U.S. Department of Energy, and performed by the Center for Photonics Technology of the Bradley Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering at Virginia Tech. The outcome of the first phase of this program was the selection of broadband polarimetric differential interferometry (BPDI) for further prototype instrumentation development. This approach is based on the measurement of the optical path difference (OPD) between two orthogonally polarized light beams in a single-crystal sapphire disk. During the second phase, an alternative high temperature sensing system based on Fabry-Perot interferometry was developed that offers a number of advantages over the BPDI solution. The objective of this program is to bring the sensor technology, which has already been demonstrated in the laboratory, to a level where the sensor can be deployed in the harsh industrial environments and will become commercially viable. The sapphire wafer-based interferometric sensing system that was installed at TECO's Polk Power Station remained in operation for seven months. Our efforts have been focused on monitoring and analyzing the real-time data collected, and preparing for a second field test.

  3. ON-LINE SELF-CALIBRATING SINGLE CRYSTAL SAPPHIRE OPTICAL SENSOR INSTRUMENTATION FOR ACCURATE AND RELIABLE COAL GASIFIER TEMPERATURE MEASUREMENT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kristie Cooper; Gary Pickrell; Anbo Wang; Zhengyu Huang; Yizheng Zhu

    2005-04-01

    This report summarizes technical progress October 2004-March 2005 on the Phase II program ''On-Line Self-Calibrating Single Crystal Sapphire Optical Sensor Instrumentation for Accurate and Reliable Coal Gasifier Temperature Measurement'', funded by the Federal Energy Technology Center of the U.S. Department of Energy, and performed by the Center for Photonics Technology of the Bradley Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering at Virginia Tech. The outcome of the first phase of this program was the selection of broadband polarimetric differential interferometry (BPDI) for further prototype instrumentation development. This approach is based on the measurement of the optical path difference (OPD) between two orthogonally polarized light beams in a single-crystal sapphire disk. The objective of this program is to bring the BPDI sensor technology, which has already been demonstrated in the laboratory, to a level where the sensor can be deployed in the harsh industrial environments and will become commercially viable. Due to the difficulties described on the last report, field testing of the BPDI system has not continued to date. However, we have developed an alternative high temperature sensing solution, which is described in this report.

  4. Error Compensation Method for Mirror Symmetry Absolute Measurement%镜面对称法绝对测量中的误差补偿方法

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何宇航; 柴立群; 陈波; 李强; 魏小红; 高波

    2013-01-01

    提出了一种对镜面对称法绝对测量中的原理性误差进行补偿的方法.镜面对称法绝对测量中,需要旋转其中一块平板,由于旋转次数的有限性,重构的三板波前均存在缺失cNθ项的原理性误差.通过增加一次不同角度的旋转,根据Zernike多项式在极坐标系中形式的旋转不变性,对旋转前后的波前差值求解多项式系数方程,获得了cNθ项的多项式系数,进而对原理性误差进行了补偿.由于cNθ项包含无穷多项,根据精度的需要和计算开销决定补偿的项数.模拟实验证明了该补偿方法的有效性.%A method is proposed to compensate intrinsic error in mirror symmetry absolute measurement. Because of the limitation of rotation times in mirror symmetry absolute measurement, intrinsic error of cNd terms occurs in reconstructed wavefronts of three flats. By adding a rotation with a different angle, the wavefront difference between two measurements before and after rotation is calculated, and the Zernike coefficients of cNd terms can be obtained by coefficient equations due to rotation invariability of the form of Zernike polynomials in polar coordinates. Therefore the intrinsic error of cNd terms may be compensated. Because the amount of cNθ terms is infinite, the compensated terms are decided in terms of the balance between accuracy and computing capacity. Computer simulation proves the validity of the proposed method.

  5. An accurate measurement of the baryonic Tully-Fisher relation with heavily gas-dominated ALFALFA galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papastergis, E.; Adams, E. A. K.; van der Hulst, J. M.

    2016-09-01

    We use a sample of 97 galaxies selected from the Arecibo legacy fast ALFA (ALFALFA) 21 cm survey to make an accurate measurement of the baryonic Tully-Fisher relation (BTFR). These galaxies are specifically selected to be heavily gas-dominated (Mgas/M∗ ≳ 2.7) and to be oriented edge-on. The former property ensures that the error on the galactic baryonic mass is small, despite the large systematic uncertainty involved in galactic stellar mass estimates. The latter property means that rotational velocities can be derived directly from the width of the 21 cm emission line, without any need for inclination corrections. We measure a slope for the linewidth-based BTFR of α = 3.75 ± 0.11, a value that is somewhat steeper than (but in broad agreement with) previous literature results. The relation is remarkably tight, with almost all galaxies being located within a perpendicular distance of ± 0.1 dex from the best fit line. The low observational error budget for our sample enables us to establish that, despite its tightness, the measured linewidth-based BTFR has some small (i.e., non-zero) intrinsic scatter. We furthermore find a systematic difference in the BTFR of galaxies with "double-horned" 21 cm line profiles - suggestive of flat outer galactic rotation curves - and those with "peaked" profiles - suggestive of rising rotation curves. When we restrict our sample of galaxies to objects in the former category, we measure a slightly steeper slope of α = 4.13 ± 0.15. Overall, the high-accuracy measurement of the BTFR presented in this article is intended as a reliable observational benchmark against which to test theoretical expectations. Here we consider a representative set of semi-analytic models and hydrodynamic simulations in the lambda cold dark matter (ΛCDM) context, as well as modified Newtonian dynamics (MOND). In the near future, interferometric follow-up observations of several sample members will enable us to further refine the BTFR measurement, and

  6. High-precision topography measurement through accurate in-focus plane detection with hybrid digital holographic microscope and white light interferometer module.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liżewski, Kamil; Tomczewski, Sławomir; Kozacki, Tomasz; Kostencka, Julianna

    2014-04-10

    High-precision topography measurement of micro-objects using interferometric and holographic techniques can be realized provided that the in-focus plane of an imaging system is very accurately determined. Therefore, in this paper we propose an accurate technique for in-focus plane determination, which is based on coherent and incoherent light. The proposed method consists of two major steps. First, a calibration of the imaging system with an amplitude object is performed with a common autofocusing method using coherent illumination, which allows for accurate localization of the in-focus plane position. In the second step, the position of the detected in-focus plane with respect to the imaging system is measured with white light interferometry. The obtained distance is used to accurately adjust a sample with the precision required for the measurement. The experimental validation of the proposed method is given for measurement of high-numerical-aperture microlenses with subwavelength accuracy.

  7. Absolute atomic oxygen density measurements for nanosecond-pulsed atmospheric-pressure plasma jets using two-photon absorption laser-induced fluorescence spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, C.; Carter, C.

    2014-12-01

    Nanosecond-pulsed plasma jets that are generated under ambient air conditions and free from confinement of electrodes have become of great interest in recent years due to their promising applications in medicine and dentistry. Reactive oxygen species that are generated by nanosecond-pulsed, room-temperature non-equilibrium He-O2 plasma jets among others are believed to play an important role during the bactericidal or sterilization processes. We report here absolute measurements of atomic oxygen density in a 1 mm-diameter He/(1%)O2 plasma jet at atmospheric pressure using two-photon absorption laser-induced fluorescence spectroscopy. Oxygen number density on the order of 1013 cm-3 was obtained in a 150 ns, 6 kV single-pulsed plasma jet for an axial distance up to 5 mm above the device nozzle. Temporally resolved O density measurements showed that there are two maxima, separated in time by 60-70 µs, and a total pulse duration of 260-300 µs. Electrostatic modeling indicated that there are high-electric-field regions near the nozzle exit that may be responsible for the observed temporal behavior of the O production. Both the field-distribution-based estimation of the time interval for the O number density profile and a pulse-energy-dependence study confirmed that electric-field-dependent, direct and indirect electron-induced processes play important roles for O production.

  8. Absolute neutrino mass update

    CERN Document Server

    Päs, H; P\\"as, Heinrich; Weiler, Thomas J.

    2002-01-01

    The determination of absolute neutrino masses is crucial for the understanding of theories underlying the standard model, such as SUSY. We review the experimental prospects to determine absolute neutrino masses and the correlations among approaches, using the Delta m^2's inferred from neutrino oscillation experiments and assuming a three neutrino Universe.

  9. ABSOLUTE NEUTRINO MASSES

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schechter, J.; Shahid, M. N.

    2012-01-01

    We discuss the possibility of using experiments timing the propagation of neutrino beams over large distances to help determine the absolute masses of the three neutrinos.......We discuss the possibility of using experiments timing the propagation of neutrino beams over large distances to help determine the absolute masses of the three neutrinos....

  10. SU-F-BRF-13: Investigating the Feasibility of Accurate Dose Measurement in a Deforming Radiochromic Dosimeter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Juang, T [Medical Physics Graduate Program, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC (United States); Adamovics, J [Rider University, Skillman, NJ (United States); Oldham, M [Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC (United States)

    2014-06-15

    Purpose: Presage-Def, a deformable radiochromic 3D dosimeter, has been previously shown to have potential for validating deformable image registration algorithms. This work extends this effort to investigate the feasibility of using Presage-Def to validate dose-accumulation algorithms in deforming structures. Methods: Two cylindrical Presage-Def dosimeters (8cm diameter, 4.5cm length) were irradiated in a water-bath with a simple 4-field box treatment. Isocentric dose was 20Gy. One dosimeter served as control (no deformation) while the other was laterally compressed during irradiation by 21%. Both dosimeters were imaged before and after irradiation with a fast (∼10 minutes for 1mm isotropic resolution), broad beam, high resolution optical-CT scanner. Measured dose distributions were compared to corresponding distributions calculated by a commissioned Eclipse planning system. Accuracy in the control was evaluated with 3D gamma (3%/3mm). The dose distribution calculated for the compressed dosimeter in the irradiation geometry cannot be directly compared via profiles or 3D gamma to the measured distribution, which deforms with release from compression. Thus, accuracy under deformation was determined by comparing integral dose within the high dose region of the deformed dosimeter distribution versus calculated dose. Dose profiles were used to study temporal stability of measured dose distributions. Results: Good dose agreement was demonstrated in the control with a 3D gamma passing rate of 96.6%. For the dosimeter irradiated under compression, the measured integral dose in the high dose region (518.0Gy*cm3) was within 6% of the Eclipse-calculated integral dose (549.4Gy*cm3). Elevated signal was noted on the dosimeter edge in the direction of compression. Change in dosimeter signal over 1.5 hours was ≤2.7%, and the relative dose distribution remained stable over this period of time. Conclusion: Presage-Def is promising as a 3D dosimeter capable of accurately

  11. On-Line Self-Calibrating Single Crystal Sapphire Optical Sensor Instrumentation for Accurate and Reliable Coal Gasifier Temperature Measurement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kristie Cooper; Gary Pickrell; Anbo Wang

    2005-11-01

    This report summarizes technical progress April-September 2005 on the Phase II program ''On-Line Self-Calibrating Single Crystal Sapphire Optical Sensor Instrumentation for Accurate and Reliable Coal Gasifier Temperature Measurement'', funded by the Federal Energy Technology Center of the U.S. Department of Energy, and performed by the Center for Photonics Technology of the Bradley Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering at Virginia Tech. The outcome of the first phase of this program was the selection of broadband polarimetric differential interferometry (BPDI) for further prototype instrumentation development. This approach is based on the measurement of the optical path difference (OPD) between two orthogonally polarized light beams in a single-crystal sapphire disk. The objective of this program is to bring the sensor technology, which has already been demonstrated in the laboratory, to a level where the sensor can be deployed in the harsh industrial environments and will become commercially viable. Due to the difficulties described on the last report, field testing of the BPDI system has not continued to date. However, we have developed an alternative high temperature sensing solution, which is described in this report. The sensing system will be installed and tested at TECO's Polk Power Station. Following a site visit in June 2005, our efforts have been focused on preparing for that field test, including he design of the sensor mechanical packaging, sensor electronics, the data transfer module, and the necessary software codes to accommodate this application.. We are currently ready to start sensor fabrication.

  12. Automated absolute phase retrieval in across-track interferometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madsen, Soren N.; Zebker, Howard A.

    1992-01-01

    Discussed is a key element in the processing of topographic radar maps acquired by the NASA/JPL airborne synthetic aperture radar configured as an across-track interferometer (TOPSAR). TOPSAR utilizes a single transmit and two receive antennas; the three-dimensional target location is determined by triangulation based on a known baseline and two measured slant ranges. The slant range difference is determined very accurately from the phase difference between the signals received by the two antennas. This phase is measured modulo 2pi, whereas it is the absolute phase which relates directly to the difference in slant range. It is shown that splitting the range bandwidth into two subbands in the processor and processing each individually allows for the absolute phase. The underlying principles and system errors which must be considered are discussed, together with the implementation and results from processing data acquired during the summer of 1991.

  13. Determination of the Absolute Luminosity at the LHC

    CERN Document Server

    White, Simon Mathieu; Puzo, P

    2010-01-01

    For particle colliders, the most important performance parameters are the beam energy and the luminosity. High energies allow the particle physics experiments to study and observe new effects. The luminosity describes the ability of the collider to produce the required number of useful interactions or events. It is defined as the proportionality factor between the event rate, measured by the experiments, and the cross section of the observed event which describes its probability to occur. The absolute knowledge of the luminosity therefore allows for the experiments to measure the absolute cross sections. The Large Hadron Collider (LHC) was designed to produce proton proton collisions at a center of mass energy of 14 TeV. This energy would be the highest ever reached in a particle accelerator. The knowledge and understanding of particle physics at such high energy is based on simulations and theoretical predictions. As opposed to e+ e- colliders, for which the Bhabba scattering cross section can be accurately ...

  14. Toward The Absolute Age of M92 With MIST

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Jieun; Conroy, Charlie; Dotter, Aaron; Weisz, Daniel; Rosenfield, Philip; Dolphin, Andrew

    2016-08-01

    Globular clusters provide a fundamental link between stars and galaxies. For example, it has been suggested that ultra faint dwarf galaxies formed all of their stars prior to the epoch of reionization, but this conclusion hinges entirely on the striking similarity of their stellar populations to the ancient, metal-poor globular cluster M92. The accurate measurement of absolute ages of ancient globular clusters therefore has direct implications for the formation histories of the smallest galaxies in the Universe. However, a reliable determination of the absolute ages of globular clusters has proven to be a challenge due to uncertainties in stellar physics and complications in how the models are compared to observations. I will present preliminary results from a comprehensive study to measure the absolute age of M92 using high-quality HST archival imaging data. We pair our new MESA Isochrones and Stellar Tracks (MIST) models with a full CMD fitting framework to jointly fit multi-color CMDs, taking into account the uncertainties in abundances, distance, and stellar physics. The goal of this project is two-fold. First, we aim to provide the most secure absolute age of M92 to date with robustly estimated uncertainties. Second, we explore and quantify the degeneracies between uncertain physical quantities and model variables, such as the distance, mixing-length-alpha parameter, and helium abundance, with the ultimate goal of better constraining these unknowns with data from ongoing and future surveys such as K2, Gaia, TESS, JWST, and WFIRST.

  15. The absolute frequency of the 87Sr optical clock transition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Campbell, Gretchen K.; Ludlow, Andrew D.; Blatt, Sebastian;

    2008-01-01

    The absolute frequency of the 1S0–3P0 clock transition of 87Sr has been measured to be 429 228 004 229 873.65 (37) Hz using lattice-confined atoms, where the fractional uncertainty of 8.6 × 10-16 represents one of the most accurate measurements of an atomic transition frequency to date. After a d...... is made possible using a femtosecond laser based optical frequency comb to phase coherently connect the optical and microwave spectral regions and by a 3.5 km fibre transfer scheme to compare the remotely located clock signals....

  16. Absolute Intensities Measurements in the nu(4) + nu(5) Band of (12)C(2)H(2): Analysis of Herman-Wallis Effects and Forbidden Transitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vander Auwera J

    2000-05-01

    We measured absolute line intensities in two bands of (12)C(2)H(2) near 7.5 µm, namely the nu(4) + nu(5)(Sigma(+)(u))-0(Sigma(+)(g)) and nu(4) + nu(5)(Delta(u))-0(Sigma(+)(g)) bands, using Fourier transform spectroscopy with an accuracy estimated to be better than 2%. Using theoretical predictions from Watson [J. K. G. Watson, J. Mol. Spectrosc. 188, 78 (1998)], the observation of the forbidden nu(4) + nu(5)(Delta(u))-0(Sigma(+)(g)) band and the Herman-Wallis behavior exhibited by its rotational lines were studied quantitatively in terms of two types of interactions affecting the levels involved by the band: l-type resonance and Coriolis interaction. In the case of the nu(4) + nu(5)(Sigma(+)(u))-0(Sigma(+)(g)) band, the influence of l-type resonance is also confirmed. We also attributed the intensity asymmetry observed between the R and P branches of that latter band to a Coriolis interaction with l = 1 levels. We did not observe the nu(4) + nu(5)(Sigma(-)(u))-0(Sigma(+)(g)) band, consisting only of a Q branch, in agreement with Watson's prediction. Copyright 2000 Academic Press.

  17. Measurement of Absolute Hadronic Branching Fractions of D Mesons and e^+e^- --> D barD Cross Sections at E_cm = 3773 MeV

    CERN Document Server

    Huang, G S; Miller, D H; Pavlunin, V; Rangarajan, R; Sanghi, B; Shibata, E I; Shipsey, I P J; Cronin-Hennessy, D; Park, C S; Park, W; Thayer, J B; Thorndike, E H; Coan, T E; Gao, Y S; Liu, F; Stroynowski, R; Artuso, M; Boulahouache, C; Blusk, S; Dambasuren, E; Dorjkhaidav, O; Mountain, R; Muramatsu, H; Nandakumar, R; Skwarnicki, T; Stone, S; Wang, J C; Csorna, S E; Danko, I; Bonvicini, G; Cinabro, D; Dubrovin, M; McGee, S; Bornheim, A; Lipeles, E; Pappas, S P; Shapiro, A; Sun, W M; Weinstein, A J; Briere, R A; Chen, G P; Ferguson, T; Tatishvili, G T; Vogel, H; Watkins, M E; Adam, N E; Alexander, J P; Berkelman, K; Boisvert, V; Cassel, D G; Duboscq, J E; Ecklund, K M; Ehrlich, R; Galik, R S; Gibbons, L; Gittelman, B; Gray, S W; Hartill, D L; Heltsley, B K; Hsu, L; Jones, C D; Kandaswamy, J; Kreinick, D L; Magerkurth, A; Mahlke-Krüger, H; Meyer, T O; Mistry, N B; Patterson, J R; Peterson, D; Pivarski, J; Richichi, S J; Riley, D; Sadoff, A J; Schwarthoff, H; Shepherd, M R; Thayer, J G; Urner, D; Wilksen, T; Warburton, A; Weinberger, M; Athar, S B; Avery, P; Breva-Newell, L; Potlia, V; Stöck, H; Yelton, J; Benslama, K; Cawlfield, C; Eisenstein, B I; Gollin, G D; Karliner, I; Lowrey, N; Plager, C; Sedlack, C; Selen, M; Thaler, J J; Williams, J; Edwards, K W; Besson, D; Anderson, S; Frolov, V V; Gong, D T; Kubota, Y; Li, S Z; Poling, R A; Smith, A; Stepaniak, C J; Urheim, J; Metreveli, Z V; Seth, K K; Tomaradze, A G; Zweber, P; Ahmed, S; Alam, M S; Ernst, J; Jian, L; Saleem, M; Wappler, F; Arms, K; Eckhart, E; Gan, K K; Gwon, C; Honscheid, K; Kagan, H; Kass, R; Pedlar, T K; Von Törne, E; Severini, H; Skubic, P L; Dytman, S A; Müller, J A; Nam, S; Savinov, V

    2005-01-01

    Using 55.8 pb^-1 of e^+e^- collisions recorded at the psi(3770) resonance with the CLEO-c detector at CESR, we determine absolute hadronic branching fractions of charged and neutral D mesons using a double tag technique. Among measurements for three D^0 and six D^+ modes, we obtain reference branching fractions B(D^0 -> K^- pi^+)=(3.91 +- 0.08 +- 0.09)% and B(D^+ -> K^- pi^+ pi^+)=(9.5 +- 0.2 +- 0.3)%, where the uncertainties are statistical and systematic, respectively. Final state radiation is included in these branching fractions by allowing for additional, unobserved, photons in the final state. Using a determination of the integrated luminosity, we also extract the cross sections sigma(e^+e^- -> D^0 \\bar D^0)=(3.60 +- 0.07 +0.07-0.05) nb and sigma(e^+e^- -> D^+D^-)=(2.79 +- 0.07 +0.10-0.04) nb.

  18. Measurement of Absolute Hadronic Branching Fractions of D Mesons and e^+ e^- --> D D-bar Cross Sections at the psi(3770)

    CERN Document Server

    Dobbs, S; Seth, K K; Tomaradze, A G; Ecklund, K M; Love, W; Savinov, V; López, A; Mehrabyan, S; Méndez, H; Ramírez, J; Huang, G S; Miller, D H; Pavlunin, V; Sanghi, B; Shipsey, I P J; Xin, B; Adams, G S; Anderson, M; Cummings, J P; Danko, I; Hu, D; Moziak, B; Napolitano, J; He, Q; Insler, J; Muramatsu, H; Park, C S; Thorndike, E H; Yang, F; Artuso, M; Blusk, S; Khalil, S; Li, J; Menaa, N; Mountain, R; Nisar, S; Randrianarivony, K; Sia, R; Skwarnicki, T; Stone, S; Wang, J C; Bonvicini, G; Cinabro, D; Dubrovin, M; Lincoln, A; Asner, D M; Edwards, K W; Naik, P; Briere, R A; Ferguson, T; Tatishvili, G; Vogel, H; Watkins, M E; Rosner, J L; Adam, N E; Alexander, J P; Berkelman, K; Cassel, D G; Duboscq, J E; Ehrlich, R; Fields, L; Gibbons, L; Gray, R; Gray, S W; Hartill, D L; Heltsley, B K; Hertz, D; Jones, C D; Kandaswamy, J; Kreinick, D L; Kuznetsov, V E; Mahlke-Krüger, H; Mohapatra, D; Onyisi, P U E; Patterson, J R; Peterson, D; Pivarski, J; Riley, D; Ryd, A; Sadoff, A J; Schwarthoff, H; Shi, X; Stroiney, S; Sun, W M; Wilksen, T; Athar, S B; Patel, R; Yelton, J; Rubin, P; Cawlfield, C; Eisenstein, B I; Karliner, I; Kim, D; Lowrey, N; Selen, M; White, E J; Wiss, J; Mitchell, R E; Shepherd, M R; Besson, D; Pedlar, T K; Cronin-Hennessy, D; Gao, K Y; Hietala, J; Kubota, Y; Klein, T; Lang, B W; Poling, R; Scott, A W; Smith, A; Zweber, P

    2007-01-01

    Using 281 /pb of e^+ e^- collisions recorded at the psi(3770)resonance with the CLEO-c detector at CESR, we determine absolute hadronic branching fractions of charged and neutral D mesons using a double tag technique. Among measurements for three D0 and six D^+ modes, we obtain reference branching fractions B(D0 --> K^-pi^+) = (3.891 +- 0.035 +- 0.059 +- 0.035)% and B(D^+ --> K^-pi^+pi^+) = (9.15 +- 0.10 +- 0.16 +- 0.07)%, where the first uncertainty is statistical, the second is all systematic errors other than final state radiation (FSR), and the third is the systematic uncertainty due to FSR. We include FSR in these branching fractions by allowing for additional unobserved photons in the final state. Using an independent determination of the integrated luminosity, we also extract the cross sections sigma(e+e- --> D0 D0-bar) = (3.66+- 0.03 +- 0.06) nb and sigma(e+e- --> D^+ D^-) = (2.91+- 0.03 +- 0.05) nb at a center of mass energy, E_cm = 3774 +- 1 MeV.

  19. Absolute and Relative Surrogate Measurements of the 236U(n,f) Cross Section as a Probe for Angular Momentum Effects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lyles, B; Bernstein, L; Burke, J; Escher, J; Thompson, I; Dietrich, F; Phair, L; Bleuel, D; Gibelin, J; Wiedeking, M; McMahan, M; Rodroguez-Vieitez, E; Clark, R; Macchiavelli, A; Lesher, S; Darakchieva, B; Evtimova, M; Beausang, C; Fallon, P

    2007-04-03

    Using both the absolute and relative surrogate techniques, the {sup 236}U(n,f) cross section was deduced over an equivalent neutron energy range of 0 to 20 MeV. A 42 MeV {sup 3}He beam from the 88-Inch Cyclotron at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory was used to perform a ({sup 3}He,{alpha}) pickup reaction on targets of {sup 235}U (J{sup {pi}}=7/2{sup -}) and {sup 238}U (J{sup {pi}}=0{sup +}) and the fission decay probabilities were determined. The {sup 235}U({sup 3}He,{alpha}f) and {sup 238}U({sup 3}He,{alpha}f) were surrogates for {sup 233}U(n,f) and {sup 236}U(n,f), respectively. The cross sections extracted using the Surrogate Method were compared to directly measured cross sections. The sensitivity of these cross sections to the J{sup {pi}}-population distributions was explored.

  20. Ambient air quality measurements from a continuously moving mobile platform: Estimation of area-wide, fuel-based, mobile source emission factors using absolute principal component scores

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larson, Timothy; Gould, Timothy; Riley, Erin A.; Austin, Elena; Fintzi, Jonathan; Sheppard, Lianne; Yost, Michael; Simpson, Christopher

    2017-03-01

    We have applied the absolute principal component scores (APCS) receptor model to on-road, background-adjusted measurements of NOx, CO, CO2, black carbon (BC), and particle number (PN) obtained from a continuously moving platform deployed over nine afternoon sampling periods in Seattle, WA. Two Varimax-rotated principal component features described 75% of the overall variance of the observations. A heavy-duty vehicle feature was correlated with black carbon and particle number, whereas a light-duty feature was correlated with CO and CO2. NOx had moderate correlation with both features. The bootstrapped APCS model predictions were used to estimate area-wide, average fuel-based emission factors and their respective 95% confidence limits. The average emission factors for NOx, CO, BC and PN (14.8, 18.9, 0.40 g/kg, and 4.3 × 1015 particles/kg for heavy duty vehicles, and 3.2, 22.4, 0.016 g/kg, and 0.19 × 1015 particles/kg for light-duty vehicles, respectively) are consistent with previous estimates based on remote sensing, vehicle chase studies, and recent dynamometer tests. Information on the spatial distribution of the concentrations contributed by these two vehicle categories relative to background during the sampling period was also obtained.