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Sample records for accuracy integrated global

  1. Spatial Accuracy Assessment and Integration of Global Land Cover Datasets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nandin-Erdene Tsendbazar

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Along with the creation of new maps, current efforts for improving global land cover (GLC maps focus on integrating maps by accounting for their relative merits, e.g., agreement amongst maps or map accuracy. Such integration efforts may benefit from the use of multiple GLC reference datasets. Using available reference datasets, this study assesses spatial accuracy of recent GLC maps and compares methods for creating an improved land cover (LC map. Spatial correspondence with reference dataset was modeled for Globcover-2009, Land Cover-CCI-2010, MODIS-2010 and Globeland30 maps for Africa. Using different scenarios concerning the used input data, five integration methods for an improved LC map were tested and cross-validated. Comparison of the spatial correspondences showed that the preferences for GLC maps varied spatially. Integration methods using both the GLC maps and reference data at their locations resulted in 4.5%–13% higher correspondence with the reference LC than any of the input GLC maps. An integrated LC map and LC class probability maps were computed using regression kriging, which produced the highest correspondence (76%. Our results demonstrate the added value of using reference datasets and geostatistics for improving GLC maps. This approach is useful as more GLC reference datasets are becoming publicly available and their reuse is being encouraged.

  2. European Integration and Globalization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana Bobica

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available According to many, the term globalization is able to explain any phenomenon whatsoever, be it positive or negative, that takes place within the global social system. It seems like a sort of magical formula, which is to be found in the speeches of all sorts of people, be they economists, politicians, businessmen or sociologists. However this magical formula of globalization has its limitations, since it encompasses a certain amount of quibbling, beyond which not many can pass. In the context of globalization there appears the question on its role in the process of European integration. Is European integration a part of this global process or, quite on the contrary, does it present certain distinctive features, as it moulds itself differently from the globalization phenomenon? A clear-cut answer seems difficult because of the various aspects involved. Not only the general phenomenon of globalization, but also the economic integration on European level is based on the liberalization of markets and on the opening of national economies towards the exterior,having as direct consequence the intensification of trade exchanges. If from a global point of view one may talk of a market fundamentalism in that the market principles know no boundary, European integration on the other hand implies not only market economy, but also a guided and monitored action of Member Statesaccording to the needs of the whole entity, also taking into consideration - as far as possible – all aspects and consequences on social level.

  3. Accuracy of Stokes integration for geoid computation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ismail, Zahra; Jamet, Olivier; Altamimi, Zuheir

    2014-05-01

    Geoid determination by remove-compute-restore (RCR) technique involves the application of Stokes's integral on reduced gravity anomalies. Reduced gravity anomalies are obtained through interpolation after removing low degree gravity signal from space spherical harmonic model and high frequency from topographical effects and cover a spectre ranging from degree 150-200. Stokes's integral is truncated to a limited region around the computation point producing an error that will be reducing by a modification of Stokes's kernel. We study Stokes integral accuracy on synthetic signal of various frequency ranges, produced with EGM2008 spherical harmonic coefficients up to degree 2000. We analyse the integration error according to the frequency range of signal, the resolution of gravity anomaly grid and the radius of Stokes integration. The study shows that the behaviour of the relative errors is frequency independent. The standard Stokes kernel is though insufficient to produce 1cm geoid accuracy without a removal of the major part of the gravity signal up to degree 600. The Integration over an area of radius greater than 3 degree does not improve accuracy improvement. The results are compared to a similar experiment using the modified Stokes kernel formula (Ellmann2004, Sjöberg2003). References: Ellmann, A. (2004) The geoid for the Baltic countries determined by least-squares modification of Stokes formula. Sjöberg, LE (2003). A general model of modifying Stokes formula and its least-squares solution Journal of Geodesy, 77. 459-464.

  4. GLobal Integrated Design Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kunkel, Matthew; McGuire, Melissa; Smith, David A.; Gefert, Leon P.

    2011-01-01

    The GLobal Integrated Design Environment (GLIDE) is a collaborative engineering application built to resolve the design session issues of real-time passing of data between multiple discipline experts in a collaborative environment. Utilizing Web protocols and multiple programming languages, GLIDE allows engineers to use the applications to which they are accustomed in this case, Excel to send and receive datasets via the Internet to a database-driven Web server. Traditionally, a collaborative design session consists of one or more engineers representing each discipline meeting together in a single location. The discipline leads exchange parameters and iterate through their respective processes to converge on an acceptable dataset. In cases in which the engineers are unable to meet, their parameters are passed via e-mail, telephone, facsimile, or even postal mail. The result of this slow process of data exchange would elongate a design session to weeks or even months. While the iterative process remains in place, software can now exchange parameters securely and efficiently, while at the same time allowing for much more information about a design session to be made available. GLIDE is written in a compilation of several programming languages, including REALbasic, PHP, and Microsoft Visual Basic. GLIDE client installers are available to download for both Microsoft Windows and Macintosh systems. The GLIDE client software is compatible with Microsoft Excel 2000 or later on Windows systems, and with Microsoft Excel X or later on Macintosh systems. GLIDE follows the Client-Server paradigm, transferring encrypted and compressed data via standard Web protocols. Currently, the engineers use Excel as a front end to the GLIDE Client, as many of their custom tools run in Excel.

  5. High accuracy autonomous navigation using the global positioning system (GPS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Truong, Son H.; Hart, Roger C.; Shoan, Wendy C.; Wood, Terri; Long, Anne C.; Oza, Dipak H.; Lee, Taesul

    1997-01-01

    The application of global positioning system (GPS) technology to the improvement of the accuracy and economy of spacecraft navigation, is reported. High-accuracy autonomous navigation algorithms are currently being qualified in conjunction with the GPS attitude determination flyer (GADFLY) experiment for the small satellite technology initiative Lewis spacecraft. Preflight performance assessments indicated that these algorithms are able to provide a real time total position accuracy of better than 10 m and a velocity accuracy of better than 0.01 m/s, with selective availability at typical levels. It is expected that the position accuracy will be increased to 2 m if corrections are provided by the GPS wide area augmentation system.

  6. Accuracy assessment of global barotropic ocean tide models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stammer, D.; Ray, R. D.; Andersen, Ole Baltazar

    2014-01-01

    The accuracy of state-of-the-art global barotropic tide models is assessed using bottom pressure data, coastal tide gauges, satellite altimetry, various geodetic data on Antarctic ice shelves, and independent tracked satellite orbit perturbations. Tide models under review include empirical, purel...

  7. Accuracy assessment of seven global land cover datasets over China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yongke; Xiao, Pengfeng; Feng, Xuezhi; Li, Haixing

    2017-03-01

    Land cover (LC) is the vital foundation to Earth science. Up to now, several global LC datasets have arisen with efforts of many scientific communities. To provide guidelines for data usage over China, nine LC maps from seven global LC datasets (IGBP DISCover, UMD, GLC, MCD12Q1, GLCNMO, CCI-LC, and GlobeLand30) were evaluated in this study. First, we compared their similarities and discrepancies in both area and spatial patterns, and analysed their inherent relations to data sources and classification schemes and methods. Next, five sets of validation sample units (VSUs) were collected to calculate their accuracy quantitatively. Further, we built a spatial analysis model and depicted their spatial variation in accuracy based on the five sets of VSUs. The results show that, there are evident discrepancies among these LC maps in both area and spatial patterns. For LC maps produced by different institutes, GLC 2000 and CCI-LC 2000 have the highest overall spatial agreement (53.8%). For LC maps produced by same institutes, overall spatial agreement of CCI-LC 2000 and 2010, and MCD12Q1 2001 and 2010 reach up to 99.8% and 73.2%, respectively; while more efforts are still needed if we hope to use these LC maps as time series data for model inputting, since both CCI-LC and MCD12Q1 fail to represent the rapid changing trend of several key LC classes in the early 21st century, in particular urban and built-up, snow and ice, water bodies, and permanent wetlands. With the highest spatial resolution, the overall accuracy of GlobeLand30 2010 is 82.39%. For the other six LC datasets with coarse resolution, CCI-LC 2010/2000 has the highest overall accuracy, and following are MCD12Q1 2010/2001, GLC 2000, GLCNMO 2008, IGBP DISCover, and UMD in turn. Beside that all maps exhibit high accuracy in homogeneous regions; local accuracies in other regions are quite different, particularly in Farming-Pastoral Zone of North China, mountains in Northeast China, and Southeast Hills. Special

  8. Global discriminative learning for higher-accuracy computational gene prediction.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Axel Bernal

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Most ab initio gene predictors use a probabilistic sequence model, typically a hidden Markov model, to combine separately trained models of genomic signals and content. By combining separate models of relevant genomic features, such gene predictors can exploit small training sets and incomplete annotations, and can be trained fairly efficiently. However, that type of piecewise training does not optimize prediction accuracy and has difficulty in accounting for statistical dependencies among different parts of the gene model. With genomic information being created at an ever-increasing rate, it is worth investigating alternative approaches in which many different types of genomic evidence, with complex statistical dependencies, can be integrated by discriminative learning to maximize annotation accuracy. Among discriminative learning methods, large-margin classifiers have become prominent because of the success of support vector machines (SVM in many classification tasks. We describe CRAIG, a new program for ab initio gene prediction based on a conditional random field model with semi-Markov structure that is trained with an online large-margin algorithm related to multiclass SVMs. Our experiments on benchmark vertebrate datasets and on regions from the ENCODE project show significant improvements in prediction accuracy over published gene predictors that use intrinsic features only, particularly at the gene level and on genes with long introns.

  9. Accuracy of Star Cluster Parameters from Integrated UBVRI Photometry

    CERN Document Server

    Narbutis, D; Stonkute, R; Vansevicius, V

    2007-01-01

    We study the capability of the UBVRI photometric system to quantify star clusters in terms of age, metallicity, and color excess by their integrated photometry. The well known age-metallicity-extinction degeneracy was analyzed for various parameter combinations, assuming different levels of photometric accuracy. We conclude that the UBVRI photometric system enables us to estimate star cluster parameters over a wide range, if the overall photometric accuracy is better than ~0.03 mag.

  10. An Integrated MEMS Gyroscope Array with Higher Accuracy Output.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Honglong; Xue, Liang; Qin, Wei; Yuan, Guangmin; Yuan, Weizheng

    2008-04-28

    In this paper, an integrated MEMS gyroscope array method composed of two levels of optimal filtering was designed to improve the accuracy of gyroscopes. In the firstlevel filtering, several identical gyroscopes were combined through Kalman filtering into a single effective device, whose performance could surpass that of any individual sensor. The key of the performance improving lies in the optimal estimation of the random noise sources such as rate random walk and angular random walk for compensating the measurement values. Especially, the cross correlation between the noises from different gyroscopes of the same type was used to establish the system noise covariance matrix and the measurement noise covariance matrix for Kalman filtering to improve the performance further. Secondly, an integrated Kalman filter with six states was designed to further improve the accuracy with the aid of external sensors such as magnetometers and accelerometers in attitude determination. Experiments showed that three gyroscopes with a bias drift of 35 degree per hour could be combined into a virtual gyroscope with a drift of 1.07 degree per hour through the first-level filter, and the bias drift was reduced to 0.53 degree per hour after the second-level filtering. It proved that the proposed integrated MEMS gyroscope array is capable of improving the accuracy of the MEMS gyroscopes, which provides the possibility of using these low cost MEMS sensors in high-accuracy application areas.

  11. An Integrated MEMS Gyroscope Array with Higher Accuracy Output

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    Weizheng Yuan

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, an integrated MEMS gyroscope array method composed of two levels of optimal filtering was designed to improve the accuracy of gyroscopes. In the firstlevel filtering, several identical gyroscopes were combined through Kalman filtering into a single effective device, whose performance could surpass that of any individual sensor. The key of the performance improving lies in the optimal estimation of the random noise sources such as rate random walk and angular random walk for compensating the measurement values. Especially, the cross correlation between the noises from different gyroscopes of the same type was used to establish the system noise covariance matrix and the measurement noise covariance matrix for Kalman filtering to improve the performance further. Secondly, an integrated Kalman filter with six states was designed to further improve the accuracy with the aid of external sensors such as magnetometers and accelerometers in attitude determination. Experiments showed that three gyroscopes with a bias drift of 35 degree per hour could be combined into a virtual gyroscope with a drift of 1.07 degree per hour through the first-level filter, and the bias drift was reduced to 0.53 degree per hour after the second-level filtering. It proved that the proposed integrated MEMS gyroscope array is capable of improving the accuracy of the MEMS gyroscopes, which provides the possibility of using these low cost MEMS sensors in high-accuracy application areas.

  12. Accuracy of Star Cluster Parameters from Integrated UBVRIJHK Photometry

    CERN Document Server

    Bridzius, A; Stonkute, R; Deveikis, V; Vansevicius, V

    2009-01-01

    We investigate the capability of the UBVRIJHK photometric system to quantify star clusters in terms of age, metallicity and color excess by their integrated photometry in the framework of PEGASE single stellar population (SSP) models. The age-metallicity-extinction degeneracy was analyzed for various parameter combinations, assuming different levels of photometric accuracy. We conclude, that most of the parameter degeneracies, typical to the UBVRI photometric system, are broken in the case when the photometry data are supplemented with at least one infrared magnitude of the JHK passbands, with an accuracy better than ~0.05 mag. The presented analysis with no preassumptions on the distribution of photometric errors of star cluster models, provides estimate of the intrinsic capability of any photometric system to determine star cluster parameters from integrated photometry.

  13. Accuracy of Kinematic Positioning Using Global Satellite Navigation Systems under Forest Canopies

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    Harri Kaartinen

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available A harvester enables detailed roundwood data to be collected during harvesting operations by means of the measurement apparatus integrated into its felling head. These data can be used to improve the efficiency of wood procurement and also replace some of the field measurements, and thus provide both less costly and more detailed ground truth for remote sensing based forest inventories. However, the positional accuracy of harvester-collected tree data is not sufficient currently to match the accuracy per individual trees achieved with remote sensing data. The aim in the present study was to test the accuracy of various instruments utilizing global satellite navigation systems (GNSS in motion under forest canopies of varying densities to enable us to get an understanding of the current state-of-the-art in GNSS-based positioning under forest canopies. Tests were conducted using several different combinations of GNSS and inertial measurement unit (IMU mounted on an all-terrain vehicle (ATV “simulating” a moving harvester. The positions of 224 trees along the driving route were measured using a total-station and real-time kinematic GPS. These trees were used as reference items. The position of the ATV was obtained using GNSS and IMU with an accuracy of 0.7 m (root mean squared error (RMSE for 2D positions. For the single-frequency GNSS receivers, the RMSE of real-time 2D GNSS positions was 4.2–9.3 m. Based on these results, it seems that the accuracy of novel single-frequency GNSS devices is not so dependent on forest conditions, whereas the performance of the tested geodetic dual-frequency receiver is very sensitive to the visibility of the satellites. When post-processing can be applied, especially when combined with IMU data, the improvement in the accuracy of the dual-frequency receiver was significant.

  14. LVIS Integration onto Global Hawk Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Integrate LVIS lidar capability onto the Global Hawk (GH) to enable high altitude mapping of land, vegetation, and ice Provide operational capability and data...

  15. Integrated Surface Global Hourly Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Integrated Surface Data (ISD) is digital data set DSI-3505, archived at the National Climatic Data Center (NCDC). The ISD database is composed of worldwide surface...

  16. Integration of INS, GPS, Magnetometer and Barometer for Improving Accuracy Navigation of the Vehicle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vlada Sokol Sokolovic

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes integrated navigation system that is based on a low cost inertial sensor, global positioning system (GPS receiver, magnetometer and a barometer, in order to improve accuracy of complete attitude and navigation solution. The main advantage of integration consists in availability of reliable navigation parameters during the intervals of absence of GPS data. The magnetometer and the barometer are applied for the attitude calibration and vertical channel stabilization, respectively. The acceptable accuracy of inertial navigation system (INS is achieved by the proper damping of INS errors. The integration is made by the implementation of an extended Kalman filter (EKF with control signal that is designed appropriate for low accuracy sensors noise characteristics. The analysis of integrated navigation system performances is made experimentally and the results show that integrated navigation system provides continuous and reliable navigation solutions.Defence Science Journal, 2013, 63(5, pp.451-455, DOI:http://dx.doi.org/10.14429/dsj.63.4534

  17. Global integration in times of crisis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Camilla

    to reconcile these findings by testing a number of hypothesis about global integration strategies in the context of the global financial crisis and how it affected exporting among multinational subsidiaries operating out of Turkey. Controlling for the impact that depreciations and exchange rate volatility has...... integration strategies throughout the course of the global financial crisis.......Past research suggests that a financial crisis event has a dual and ambiguous effect on the exporting strategy of subsidiaries of multinational firms in a value chain and offshoring perspective. From a total volume perspective exports are expected to contract due to a decline in demand (demand...

  18. Accuracy Assessment of Global Barotropic Ocean Tide Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-08-07

    ERS-2, and Envisat data have been used in the Arctic . GLORYS2-V1 (Global Ocean Reanalysis 2 Version 1) reanalysis [Ferry et al., 2012] was used to...forcing, which includes changes on a daily basis with a 365 day cycle. Sea surface temperature and salinity values are restored to monthly...and Antarctic regions and briefly describe future prospects for improvement. 5.1. Arctic Ocean Tide models were tested in the Arctic Ocean (latitudes

  19. Eurasia: The Rivalry of Global Integration Projects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olesia Kobenko

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The article reveals the Eurasian integration projects as major drivers of world globalization. Eurasian regionalism seems to be gaining attention in the scientific literature. Under the current political circumstance many regions are accelerating integration and many countries are opting for regional associations as a mechanism to help them overcome the global recession. Moreover, the global political leaders , some developed countries - the U.S., China, and the European Union (EU are interested to set up regional economic blocs such as Eurasian Economic Union (The EEU, the China's project 'One Belt One Road', the U.S's projects - The Trans-Pacific Partnership (TPP and The Transatlantic Trade and Investment Partnership (TTIP. The goal of this paper is to introduce a number of integration initiatives and to analyze the current strategies of Eurasian regionalism.

  20. Accuracy assessment of the global ionospheric model over the Southern Ocean based on dynamic observation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Xiaowen; Xu, Huajun; Li, Zishen; Zhang, Tao; Gao, Jinyao; Shen, Zhongyan; Yang, Chunguo; Wu, Ziyin

    2017-02-01

    The global ionospheric model based on the reference stations of the Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) of the International GNSS Services is presently the most commonly used products of the global ionosphere. It is very important to comprehensively analyze and evaluate the accuracy and reliability of the model for the reasonable use of this kind of ionospheric product. In terms of receiver station deployment, this work is different from the traditional performance evaluation of the global ionosphere model based on observation data of ground-based static reference stations. The preliminary evaluation and analysis of the the global ionospheric model was conducted with the dynamic observation data across different latitudes over the southern oceans. The validation results showed that the accuracy of the global ionospheric model over the southern oceans is about 5 TECu, which deviates from the measured ionospheric TEC by about -0.6 TECu.

  1. Accuracy assessment of topographic mapping using UAV image integrated with satellite images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azmi, S. M.; Ahmad, Baharin; Ahmad, Anuar

    2014-02-01

    Unmanned Aerial Vehicle or UAV is extensively applied in various fields such as military applications, archaeology, agriculture and scientific research. This study focuses on topographic mapping and map updating. UAV is one of the alternative ways to ease the process of acquiring data with lower operating costs, low manufacturing and operational costs, plus it is easy to operate. Furthermore, UAV images will be integrated with QuickBird images that are used as base maps. The objective of this study is to make accuracy assessment and comparison between topographic mapping using UAV images integrated with aerial photograph and satellite image. The main purpose of using UAV image is as a replacement for cloud covered area which normally exists in aerial photograph and satellite image, and for updating topographic map. Meanwhile, spatial resolution, pixel size, scale, geometric accuracy and correction, image quality and information contents are important requirements needed for the generation of topographic map using these kinds of data. In this study, ground control points (GCPs) and check points (CPs) were established using real time kinematic Global Positioning System (RTK-GPS) technique. There are two types of analysis that are carried out in this study which are quantitative and qualitative assessments. Quantitative assessment is carried out by calculating root mean square error (RMSE). The outputs of this study include topographic map and orthophoto. From this study, the accuracy of UAV image is ± 0.460 m. As conclusion, UAV image has the potential to be used for updating of topographic maps.

  2. Economic Globalization - a Phenomenon of Global Business Integration

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    Radu-Marcel Joia

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Tumultuous economic life led scientists to seek explanations to the negative economic events,events that take many forms, and to whom it is a must to find a solution or even a mitigating factor. Thefoundation of the economy has undergone many changes. The recent events manifested in the world economyshow that the underlying fundamentals of this science must be revised because they proved to be wrong. Itnotes several times, mainly due to present economic crisis, that currently the economics have no theoreticaland practical means and no tools of analysis and intervention in the economy, proving that the existing onesare exceeded and insufficient, so that the creation of an unifying principle and of some generalizing conceptsthat could systematize and forecast the current economic phenomena in the microeconomics andmacroeconomics, especially in the transnational companies field, those which are the base of the foreigndirect investment flows, should become the main objective of the new economic science. Through this paper,we tried to illustrate the important aspects of economic globalization, the challenges that this phenomenonposes to economies and the way in which an economy can become globally competitive, under massiveconstraints of the global competition, how a national company can become globally integrated, study basedon representative references.

  3. Uruguay and the First Globalization. On the accuracy of export performance, 1870-1913

    OpenAIRE

    Willebald, Henry; Tena Junguito, Antonio; Bonino-Gayoso, Nicolás

    2015-01-01

    In order to understand Uruguayan long-run economic evolution it becomes crucial to interpret its export performance during the First Globalization. The lack of accuracy of official figures, especially official prices used, calls for an adjustment of Uruguayan exports series. We have used empirical evidence to test the accuracy of quantities and values of exports' records, first, according to import partners' records and, second, according to international market prices. Results show a general...

  4. Improving IMES Localization Accuracy by Integrating Dead Reckoning Information

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    Kenjiro Fujii

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Indoor positioning remains an open problem, because it is difficult to achieve satisfactory accuracy within an indoor environment using current radio-based localization technology. In this study, we investigate the use of Indoor Messaging System (IMES radio for high-accuracy indoor positioning. A hybrid positioning method combining IMES radio strength information and pedestrian dead reckoning information is proposed in order to improve IMES localization accuracy. For understanding the carrier noise ratio versus distance relation for IMES radio, the signal propagation of IMES radio is modeled and identified. Then, trilateration and extended Kalman filtering methods using the radio propagation model are developed for position estimation. These methods are evaluated through robot localization and pedestrian localization experiments. The experimental results show that the proposed hybrid positioning method achieved average estimation errors of 217 and 1846 mm in robot localization and pedestrian localization, respectively. In addition, in order to examine the reason for the positioning accuracy of pedestrian localization being much lower than that of robot localization, the influence of the human body on the radio propagation is experimentally evaluated. The result suggests that the influence of the human body can be modeled.

  5. Global aspects of classical integrable systems

    CERN Document Server

    Cushman, Richard H

    2015-01-01

    This book gives a uniquely complete description of the geometry of the energy momentum mapping of five classical integrable systems: the 2-dimensional harmonic oscillator, the geodesic flow on the 3-sphere, the Euler top, the spherical pendulum and the Lagrange top. It presents for the first time in book form a general theory of symmetry reduction which allows one to reduce the symmetries in the spherical pendulum and the Lagrange top. Also the monodromy obstruction to the existence of global action angle coordinates is calculated for the spherical pendulum and the Lagrange top. The book addresses professional mathematicians and graduate students and can be used as a textbook on advanced classical mechanics or global analysis.

  6. Globalization and Integration Processes in Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beti Godnič

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Research Question (RQ: In the article we highlight the issue of whether Integration processes in the European Union are only a manifestation of these Globalization processes and if there are differences in the the old member States EU (15 and the new EU member states in changed micro and macro environment? Purpose: We wanted to determine how the old member States EU (15 and the new EU member states adapt to the new circumstances and other changes in the micro and macro environment. Method: Analysing complexity of the changes of the state of economic system, and complex fundamental global processes, which have been occurred in long period of time, need to supplement the pure scientific approach with other types of research work, more holistic approach, which is commonly used in Comparative economics. We have taken such an approach in this article. Results: In the article we studied the geopolitical changes in the micro and macro environment. We found that the development in the old EU member states EU-15 and in the new EU member states is different. EU havent addopted the harmonised economic policy which will solve the »North-South« problem and cross-state cultural consensus and find a way to operate systemically in global environment. Organization: The findings can be used to support undestanding of micro and macro envirnment of the companys and contribute for better strategic planning and design of the entire supply chain. Society: The findings can contribute to better understanding of integrative processes in the EU. Limitations/Future Research: The complexity of the problem and the dynamic changes in the functioning of the global market requires in-depth studiying of changes in the micro and macro environment of logistics companie

  7. Global human capital: integrating education and population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lutz, Wolfgang; KC, Samir

    2011-07-29

    Almost universally, women with higher levels of education have fewer children. Better education is associated with lower mortality, better health, and different migration patterns. Hence, the global population outlook depends greatly on further progress in education, particularly of young women. By 2050, the highest and lowest education scenarios--assuming identical education-specific fertility rates--result in world population sizes of 8.9 and 10.0 billion, respectively. Better education also matters for human development, including health, economic growth, and democracy. Existing methods of multi-state demography can quantitatively integrate education into standard demographic analysis, thus adding the "quality" dimension.

  8. Global integrated drought monitoring and prediction system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hao, Zengchao; AghaKouchak, Amir; Nakhjiri, Navid; Farahmand, Alireza

    2014-01-01

    Drought is by far the most costly natural disaster that can lead to widespread impacts, including water and food crises. Here we present data sets available from the Global Integrated Drought Monitoring and Prediction System (GIDMaPS), which provides drought information based on multiple drought indicators. The system provides meteorological and agricultural drought information based on multiple satellite-, and model-based precipitation and soil moisture data sets. GIDMaPS includes a near real-time monitoring component and a seasonal probabilistic prediction module. The data sets include historical drought severity data from the monitoring component, and probabilistic seasonal forecasts from the prediction module. The probabilistic forecasts provide essential information for early warning, taking preventive measures, and planning mitigation strategies. GIDMaPS data sets are a significant extension to current capabilities and data sets for global drought assessment and early warning. The presented data sets would be instrumental in reducing drought impacts especially in developing countries. Our results indicate that GIDMaPS data sets reliably captured several major droughts from across the globe.

  9. Integrating Globality and Locality for Robust Representation Based Classification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zheng Zhang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The representation based classification method (RBCM has shown huge potential for face recognition since it first emerged. Linear regression classification (LRC method and collaborative representation classification (CRC method are two well-known RBCMs. LRC and CRC exploit training samples of each class and all the training samples to represent the testing sample, respectively, and subsequently conduct classification on the basis of the representation residual. LRC method can be viewed as a “locality representation” method because it just uses the training samples of each class to represent the testing sample and it cannot embody the effectiveness of the “globality representation.” On the contrary, it seems that CRC method cannot own the benefit of locality of the general RBCM. Thus we propose to integrate CRC and LRC to perform more robust representation based classification. The experimental results on benchmark face databases substantially demonstrate that the proposed method achieves high classification accuracy.

  10. Integrated global digital image correlation for interface delamination characterization

    KAUST Repository

    Hoefnagels, Johan P.M.

    2013-07-23

    Interfacial delamination is a key reliability challenge in composites and micro-electronic systems due to (high-density) integration of dissimilar materials. Predictive finite element models are used to minimize delamination failures during design, but require accurate interface models to capture (irreversible) crack initiation and propagation behavior observed in experiments. Therefore, an Integrated Global Digital Image Correlation (I-GDIC) strategy is developed for accurate determination of mechanical interface behavior from in-situ delamination experiments. Recently, a novel miniature delamination setup was presented that enables in-situ microscopic characterization of interface delamination while sensitively measuring global load-displacement curves for all mode mixities. Nevertheless, extraction of detailed mechanical interface behavior from measured images is challenging, because deformations are tiny and measurement noise large. Therefore, an advanced I-GDIC methodology is developed which correlates the image patterns by only deforming the images using kinematically-admissible \\'eigenmodes\\' that correspond to the few parameters controlling the interface tractions in an analytic description of the crack tip deformation field, thereby greatly enhancing accuracy and robustness. This method is validated on virtual delamination experiments, simulated using a recently developed self-adaptive cohesive zone (CZ) finite element framework. © The Society for Experimental Mechanics, Inc. 2014.

  11. Accuracy assessment of the integration of GNSS and a MEMS IMU in a terrestrial platform.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madeira, Sergio; Yan, Wenlin; Bastos, Luísa; Gonçalves, José A

    2014-11-04

    MEMS Inertial Measurement Units are available at low cost and can replace expensive units in mobile mapping platforms which need direct georeferencing. This is done through the integration with GNSS measurements in order to achieve a continuous positioning solution and to obtain orientation angles. This paper presents the results of the assessment of the accuracy of a system that integrates GNSS and a MEMS IMU in a terrestrial platform. We describe the methodology used and the tests realized where the accuracy of the positions and orientation parameters were assessed using an independent photogrammetric technique employing cameras that integrate the mobile mapping system developed by the authors. Results for the accuracy of attitude angles and coordinates show that accuracies better than a decimeter in positions, and under a degree in angles, can be achieved even considering that the terrestrial platform is operating in less than favorable environments.

  12. Developing a Global Mindset: Integrating Demographics, Sustainability, Technology, and Globalization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aggarwal, Raj

    2011-01-01

    Business schools face a number of challenges in responding to the business influences of demographics, sustainability, and technology--all three of which are also the fundamental driving forces for globalization. Demographic forces are creating global imbalances in worker populations and in government finances; the world economy faces…

  13. Spectroscopy of H3+ based on a new high-accuracy global potential energy surface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polyansky, Oleg L; Alijah, Alexander; Zobov, Nikolai F; Mizus, Irina I; Ovsyannikov, Roman I; Tennyson, Jonathan; Lodi, Lorenzo; Szidarovszky, Tamás; Császár, Attila G

    2012-11-13

    The molecular ion H(3)(+) is the simplest polyatomic and poly-electronic molecular system, and its spectrum constitutes an important benchmark for which precise answers can be obtained ab initio from the equations of quantum mechanics. Significant progress in the computation of the ro-vibrational spectrum of H(3)(+) is discussed. A new, global potential energy surface (PES) based on ab initio points computed with an average accuracy of 0.01 cm(-1) relative to the non-relativistic limit has recently been constructed. An analytical representation of these points is provided, exhibiting a standard deviation of 0.097 cm(-1). Problems with earlier fits are discussed. The new PES is used for the computation of transition frequencies. Recently measured lines at visible wavelengths combined with previously determined infrared ro-vibrational data show that an accuracy of the order of 0.1 cm(-1) is achieved by these computations. In order to achieve this degree of accuracy, relativistic, adiabatic and non-adiabatic effects must be properly accounted for. The accuracy of these calculations facilitates the reassignment of some measured lines, further reducing the standard deviation between experiment and theory.

  14. Integrated export development under conditions of globalization

    OpenAIRE

    Jatuliavičienė, Gražina

    2010-01-01

    In the dissertation from the holistic point of view are discussed export development peculiarities in the global area. The main aim of the dissertation is the expansion of the export development concept in consideration to the challenges of globalization. Therefore, peculiarities of internationalization and globalization processes and their connections in the context of export development are discussed; alternation of internationalization models under conditions of globalization is evaluated,...

  15. Violence Against Women: Globalizing the Integrated Ecological Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fulu, Emma; Miedema, Stephanie

    2015-12-01

    Globalization theories have proliferated over the past two decades. However, global developments have yet to be systematically incorporated into theories around violence against women. This article proposes to add a global level to the existing ecological model framework, popularized by Lori Heise in 1998, to explore the relationships between global processes and experiences of violence against women. Data from the Maldives and Cambodia are used to assess how globalized ideologies, economic development and integration, religious fundamentalisms, and global cultural exchange, as components of a larger globalization process, have affected men and women's experiences and perceptions of violence against women.

  16. Stability and accuracy of free surface time integration in viscous flows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rose, Ian; Buffett, Bruce; Heister, Timo

    2017-01-01

    Geodynamic simulations increasingly rely on models with a true free surface to investigate questions of dynamic topography, tectonic deformation, gravity perturbations, and global mantle convection. However, implementations of free surface boundary conditions have proven challenging from a standpoint of accuracy, robustness, and stability. In particular, time integration of a free surface tends to suffer from a numerical instability that manifests as sloshing surface motions, also known as the "drunken sailor" instability. This instability severely limits stable timestep sizes to those much smaller than can be used in geodynamic simulations without a free surface. Several schemes have been proposed in the literature to deal with these instabilities. Here we analyze the problem of creeping viscous flow with a free surface and discuss the origin of these instabilities. We demonstrate their cause and how existing stabilization schemes work to damp them out. We also propose a new scheme for removing instabilities from free surface calculations. It does not require modifications to the system matrix, nor additional variables, but is instead an explicit scheme based on nonstandard finite differences. It relies on a single stabilization parameter which may be identified with the smallest relaxation timescale of the free surface. Finally, we present numerical results to show the effectiveness of the new approach and discuss the free surface implementation in the open source, community based mantle convection software ASPECT.

  17. Improving the accuracy of multiple integral evaluation by applying Romberg's method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhidkov, E. P.; Lobanov, Yu. Yu.; Rushai, V. D.

    2009-02-01

    Romberg’s method, which is used to improve the accuracy of one-dimensional integral evaluation, is extended to multiple integrals if they are evaluated using the product of composite quadrature formulas. Under certain conditions, the coefficients of the Romberg formula are independent of the integral’s multiplicity, which makes it possible to use a simple evaluation algorithm developed for one-dimensional integrals. As examples, integrals of multiplicity two to six are evaluated by Romberg’s method and the results are compared with other methods.

  18. Global integrability of cosmological scalar fields

    CERN Document Server

    Maciejewski, Andrzej J; Stachowiak, Tomasz; Szydlowski, Marek

    2008-01-01

    We investigate the Liouvillian integrability of Hamiltonian systems describing a universe filled with a scalar field (possibly complex). The tool used is the differential Galois group approach, as introduced by Morales-Ruiz and Ramis. The main result is that the generic systems with minimal coupling are non-integrable, although there still exist some values of parameters for which integrability remains undecided; the conformally coupled systems are only integrable in four known cases. We also draw a connection with chaos present in such cosmological models, and the issues of integrability restricted to the real domain.

  19. Thermal effects on human performance in office environment measured by integrating task speed and accuracy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lan, Li; Wargocki, Pawel; Lian, Zhiwei

    2014-01-01

    We have proposed a method in which the speed and accuracy can be integrated into one metric of human performance. This was achieved by designing a performance task in which the subjects receive feedback on their performance by informing them whether they have committed errors, and if did, they ca...

  20. High accuracy measurements of magnetic field integrals for the european XFEL undulator systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolff-Fabris, Frederik; Viehweger, Marc; Li, Yuhui; Pflüger, Joachim

    2016-10-01

    Two high accuracy moving wire (MW) measurement systems based on stretched wire technique were built for the European XFEL (XFEL.EU). They were dedicated to monitor, tune and improve the magnetic field integrals properties during the serial production of the undulator segments, phase shifters and air coil correctors for XFEL.EU. For the magnetic tuning of phase shifters and the calibration of the air coils correctors a short portable MW measurement bench was built to measure first field integrals in short devices with magnetic length of less than about 300 mm and with an ultimate accuracy much better than 1 G cm (0.001 T mm). A long MW measurement setup was dedicated to obtain the total first and second field integrals on the 5-meters long undulator segments with accuracy of about 4 G cm (0.004 T mm) and 2000 G cm2 (20 T mm2) for the 1st and 2nd field integrals, respectively. Using these data a method was developed to compute the proper corrections for the air coils correctors used at both extremities so that zero first and second field integrals for an undulator segment are obtained. It is demonstrated that charging air coils correctors with these corrections results in near zero effect to the electron trajectory in the undulator systems and consequently no negative impact on the self-amplified spontaneous emission (SASE) process should occur.

  1. A structured interview guide for global impressions: increasing reliability and scoring accuracy for CNS trials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Targum Steven D

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The clinical global impression of severity (CGI-S scale is a frequently used rating instrument for the assessment of global severity of illness in Central Nervous System (CNS trials. Although scoring guidelines have been proposed to anchor these scores, the collection of sufficient documentation to support the derived score is not part of any standardized interview procedure. It is self evident that the absence of a standardized, documentary format can affect inter-rater reliability and may adversely affect the accuracy of the resulting data. Method We developed a structured interview guide for global impressions (SIGGI and evaluated the instrument in a 2-visit study of ambulatory patients with Major Depressive Disorder (MDD or schizophrenia. Blinded, site-independent raters listened to audio recorded SIGGI interviews administered by site-based CGI raters. We compared SIGGI-derived CGI-S scores between the two separate site-based raters and the site-independent raters. Results We found significant intraclass correlations (p = 0.001 on all SIGGI-derived CGI-S scores between two separate site-based CGI raters with each other (r = 0.768 and with a blinded, site-independent rater (r = 0.748 and r = 0.706 respectively and significant Pearson’s correlations between CGI-S scores with all MADRS validity comparisons for MDD and PANSS comparisons for schizophrenia (p- 0.001 in all cases. Compared to site-based raters, the site-independent raters gave identical “dual” CGI-S scores to 67.6% and 68.2% of subjects at visit 1 and 77.1% at visit 2. Conclusion We suggest that the SIGGI may improve the inter-rater reliability and scoring precision of the CGI-S and have broad applicability in CNS clinical trials.

  2. Integrating Global Poverty into Mainstream Business Classrooms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paton, Bruce; Harris-Boundy, Jason; Melhus, Peter

    2012-01-01

    Most of the products and services discussed in business curricula serve a small portion of humanity. But the great majority of economic growth over the next few decades is expected to occur in emerging and frontier markets. This emerging reality increases the urgency for including topics related to global poverty, unmet human needs, and emergence…

  3. Low Frequency Variability In Globally Integrated Tropical Cyclone Power Dissipation

    OpenAIRE

    Sriver, Ryan; Huber, Matthew

    2006-01-01

    Surface wind and temperature records from the European Centre for Medium- Range Weather Forecasts 40 Year Reanalysis (ERA-40) Project are used to estimate low-frequency variations in globally integrated tropical cyclone (TC) intensity from 1958 to 2001. For the first time, the annually integrated power dissipation (PD) is explicitly calculated on a global scale, and results show an upward trend in PD during much of the ERA-40 project period, although we argue this is at least partially due to...

  4. China, Japan and South Korea: Trade Integration under Economic Globalization

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhu Zeng

    2008-01-01

    @@ Economic globalization and regional economic integration are the two major trends of world economic development. In the practice of regional economic integration, the EU and NAFTA as two successful models, has had a significant impact on world economic pattern. Until July 2007, the global effective free trade agreernent (FTA) reached 143. In recent years, FTA among developed and developing countries and regions are on the rise.

  5. Global challenges in integrated coastal zone management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    integration of data and information in policy and management, combining expertise from nature and social science, to reach a balanced and sustainable development of the coastal zone. This important book comprises the proceedings of The International Symposium on Integrated Coastal Zone Management, which took......Growing pressure from increasingly diverse human activities coupled with climate change impacts threaten the functional integrity of coastal ecosystems around the globe. A multi-disciplinary approach towards understanding drivers, pressures and impacts in the coastal zone requires effective....../mitigation to change in coastal systems Coastal governance Linking science and management Comprising a huge wealth of information, this timely and well-edited volume is essential reading for all those involved in coastal zone management around the globe. All libraries in research establishments and universities where...

  6. Global Properties of Integrable Hamiltonian Systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lukina, O.V.; Takens, F.; Broer, H.W.

    2008-01-01

    This paper deals with Lagrangian bundles which are symplectic torus bundles that occur in integrable Hamiltonian systems. We review the theory of obstructions to triviality, in particular monodromy, as well as the ensuing classification problems which involve the Chern and Lagrange class. Our approa

  7. The Integrative Dimension of the Economic Globalization in European Space

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela Mariana Alexandrache

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available We believe that globalization and its socio-economic implications of the world and world economic crisis is one of the most debated issues from several years. The publication "The Economist’’ named globalization as the most used word of the century. The most relevant dimension of globalization is the economy with the more dynamic factors: technological development, the hegemony of liberal conceptions (closely linked to the triumph of the ideology of market economy and explosive development of countries or regions. Economic globalization has manifested a series of visible effects such as: the emergence of new markets and foreign trade (interconnected at global level, the appearance of: transnational companies, multilateral agreements on trade, broadening the scope of WTO, transformation of multinational companies in transnational companies and the emergence of global economic markets. Regionally, we noticed that the trendof concentration of economic activity is more pronounced and advanced in the European continent. Expanding globalization in Europe was achieved because of the fall of communism, and the neoliberal reformation which took place in Western European countries. Events like the fall of the Berlin Wall, followed by the fall of communism eradicated many political, economic, religious or cultural barriers. There were born new relations between state and market, public and private. European Union is, in our view, a regional office ofglobalization, representing the best performing integrative system in the world (by creating free trade area, customs union, common market, the Economic and Monetary Union. In terms of the European Commission,European model is a third way towards globalization, a middle path between protectionism and uncontrolled economy. To understand why the EU is an advanced approximation of globalization, perhaps a regional model of globalization, we must first understand the link between globalization and regional

  8. Toward an Integrative Model of Global Business Strategy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Xin

    fragmentation-integration-fragmentation-integration upward spiral. In response to the call for integrative approach to strategic management research, we propose an integrative model of global business strategy that aims at integrating not only strategy and IB but also the different paradigms within the strategy......In this paper, we first review the development of the strategy field by introducing Hoskisson et al.’s (1999) notion of ‘swings of a pendulum’. With problematization of this notion, we then offer an alternative interpretation of the advancement of strategy knowledge, namely, a recursive...

  9. Development of an Integrated Global Energy Model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krakowski, R.A.

    1999-07-08

    The primary objective of this research was to develop a forefront analysis tool for application to enhance understanding of long-term, global, nuclear-energy and nuclear-material futures. To this end, an existing economics-energy-environmental (E{sup 3}) model was adopted, modified, and elaborated to examine this problem in a multi-regional (13), long-term ({approximately}2,100) context. The E{sup 3} model so developed was applied to create a Los Alamos presence in this E{sup 3} area through ''niche analyses'' that provide input to the formulation of policies dealing with and shaping of nuclear-energy and nuclear-materials futures. Results from analyses using the E{sup 3} model have been presented at a variety of national and international conferences and workshops. Through use of the E{sup 3} model Los Alamos was afforded the opportunity to participate in a multi-national E{sup 3} study team that is examining a range of global, long-term nuclear issues under the auspices of the IAEA during the 1998-99 period . Finally, the E{sup 3} model developed under this LDRD project is being used as an important component in more recent Nuclear Material Management Systems (NMMS) project.

  10. Off-road mobile robot control: An adaptive approach for accuracy and integrity

    OpenAIRE

    Lenain, R.; Thuilot, B.; Bouton, N.; P. Martinet

    2012-01-01

    International audience; This paper proposes an algorithm dedicated to the control of off-road mobile robots at high speed. Based on adaptive and predictive principles, it first proposes a control law to preserve a high level of accuracy in the path tracking problem. Next, the dynamic model used for grip condition estimation is considered to address also robot integrity preservation thanks to the velocity limitation.

  11. A high-accuracy surgical augmented reality system using enhanced integral videography image overlay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xinran; Chen, Guowen; Liao, Hongen

    2015-01-01

    Image guided surgery has been used in clinic to improve the surgery safety and accuracy. Augmented reality (AR) technique, which can provide intuitive image guidance, has been greatly evolved these years. As one promising approach of surgical AR systems, integral videography (IV) autostereoscopic image overlay has achieved accurate fusion of full parallax guidance into surgical scene. This paper describes an image enhanced high-accuracy IV overlay system. A flexible optical image enhancement system (IES) is designed to increase the resolution and quality of IV image. Furthermore, we introduce a novel IV rendering algorithm to promote the spatial accuracy with the consideration of distortion introduced by micro lens array. Preliminary experiments validated that the image accuracy and resolution are improved with the proposed methods. The resolution of the IV image could be promoted to 1 mm for a micro lens array with pitch of 2.32 mm and IES magnification value of 0.5. The relative deviation of accuracy in depth and lateral directions are -4.68 ± 0.83% and -9.01 ± 0.42%.

  12. GRACE Data-based High Accuracy Global Static Earth's Gravity Field Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CHEN Qiujie

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available To recover the highly accurate static earth's gravity field by using GRACE satellite data is one of the hot topics in geodesy. Since linearization errors of dynamic approach quickly increase when extending satellite arc length, we established a modified dynamic approach for processing GRACE orbit and range-rate measurements in this paper, which treated orbit observations of the twin GRACE satellites as approximate values for linearization. Using the GRACE data spanning the period Jan. 2003 to Dec. 2010, containing satellite attitudes, orbits, range-rate, and non-conservative forces, we developed two global static gravity field models. One is the unconstrained solution called Tongji-Dyn01s complete to degree and order 180; the other one is the Tongji-Dyn01k model computed by using Kaula constraint. The comparisons between our models and those latest GRACE-only models (including the AIUB-GRACE03, the GGM05S, the ITSG-Grace2014k and the Tongji-GRACE01 published by different international groups, and the external validations with marine gravity anomalies from DTU13 product and height anomalies from GPS/levelling data, were performed in this study. The results demonstrate that the Tongji-Dyn01s has the same accuracy level with those of the latest GRACE-only models, while the Tongji-Dyn01k model is closer to the EIGEN6C2 than the other GRACE-only models as a whole.

  13. Accuracy tests of radiation schemes used in hot Jupiter Global Circulation Models

    CERN Document Server

    Amundsen, David Skålid; Tremblin, Pascal; Manners, James; Hayek, Wolfgang; Mayne, N J; Acreman, David M

    2014-01-01

    The treatment of radiation transport in global circulation models (GCMs) is crucial to correctly describe Earth and exoplanet atmospheric dynamics processes. The two-stream approximation and correlated-$k$ method are currently state-of-the-art approximations applied in both Earth and hot Jupiter GCM radiation schemes to facilitate rapid calculation of fluxes and heating rates. Their accuracy have been tested extensively for Earth-like conditions, but verification of the methods' applicability to hot Jupiter-like conditions is lacking in the literature. We are adapting the UK Met Office GCM, the Unified Model (UM), for the study of hot Jupiters, and present in this work the adaptation of the Edwards-Slingo radiation scheme based on the two-stream approximation and the correlated-$k$ method. We discuss the calculation of absorption coefficients from high temperature line lists and highlight the large uncertainty in the pressure-broadened line widths. We compare fluxes and heating rates obtained with our adapted...

  14. Comparisons of discrete and integrative sampling accuracy in estimating pulsed aquatic exposures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrison, Shane A; Luttbeg, Barney; Belden, Jason B

    2016-11-01

    Most current-use pesticides have short half-lives in the water column and thus the most relevant exposure scenarios for many aquatic organisms are pulsed exposures. Quantifying exposure using discrete water samples may not be accurate as few studies are able to sample frequently enough to accurately determine time-weighted average (TWA) concentrations of short aquatic exposures. Integrative sampling methods that continuously sample freely dissolved contaminants over time intervals (such as integrative passive samplers) have been demonstrated to be a promising measurement technique. We conducted several modeling scenarios to test the assumption that integrative methods may require many less samples for accurate estimation of peak 96-h TWA concentrations. We compared the accuracies of discrete point samples and integrative samples while varying sampling frequencies and a range of contaminant water half-lives (t50 = 0.5, 2, and 8 d). Differences the predictive accuracy of discrete point samples and integrative samples were greatest at low sampling frequencies. For example, when the half-life was 0.5 d, discrete point samples required 7 sampling events to ensure median values > 50% and no sampling events reporting highly inaccurate results (defined as sampling only required two samples to prevent highly inaccurate results and measurements resulting in median values > 50% of the true concentration. Regardless, the need for integrative sampling diminished as water half-life increased. For an 8-d water half-life, two discrete samples produced accurate estimates and median values greater than those obtained for two integrative samples. Overall, integrative methods are the more accurate method for monitoring contaminants with short water half-lives due to reduced frequency of extreme values, especially with uncertainties around the timing of pulsed events. However, the acceptability of discrete sampling methods for providing accurate concentration measurements

  15. Global integration of European tuna markets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiménez-Toribio, Ramòn; Guillotreau, Patrice; Mongruel, Rémi

    2010-07-01

    This paper evaluates the degree of integration between the world market and the major European marketplaces of frozen and canned tuna through both vertical and horizontal price relationships. Spatial linkages are investigated horizontally in order to estimate the connection between the European market and the world-wide market on the primary stage of the value chain. One of the key results is the high level of market integration at the ex-vessel stage, and the price leadership of yellowfin tuna over skipjack tuna. The same approach is applied at the ex-factory level. Basically, the European market for final goods appears to be segmented between the Northern countries consuming low-priced canned skipjack tuna imported from Asia (mainly Thailand) and the Southern countries (Italy, Spain) processing and importing yellowfin-based products sold at higher prices. France appears to be an intermediate market where both products are consumed. The former market is found to be well integrated to the world market and can be considered to be competitive, but there is a suspicion of market power being exercised on the latter. Price relationships are therefore tested vertically between the price of frozen tuna paid by the canneries and the price of canned fish in both Italy and France. The two species show an opposite pattern in prices transmission along the value chain: price changes along the chain are far better transmitted for the “global” skipjack tuna than for the more “European” yellowfin tuna. The results are discussed, along with their implications for the fishing industry.

  16. Rethinking global health research: towards integrative expertise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MacLachlan Malcolm

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The Bamako Call for Action on Research for Health stresses the importance of inter-disciplinary, inter-ministerial and inter-sectoral working. This challenges much of our current research and postgraduate research training in health, which mostly seeks to produce narrowly focused content specialists. We now need to compliment this type of research and research training, by offering alternative pathways that seek to create expertise, not only in specific narrow content areas, but also in the process and context of research, as well as in the interaction of these different facets of knowledge. Such an approach, developing 'integrative expertise', could greatly facilitate better research utilisation, helping policy makers and practitioners work through more evidence-based practice and across traditional research boundaries.

  17. A global land-cover validation data set, II: augmenting a stratified sampling design to estimate accuracy by region and land-cover class

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stehman, S.; Olofsson, P.; Woodcock, C.; Herold, M.; Friedl, M.A.

    2012-01-01

    A global validation database that can be used to assess the accuracy of multiple global and regional land-cover maps would yield significant cost savings and enhance comparisons of accuracy of different maps. Because the global validation database should expand over time as new validation data are c

  18. STATISTICAL EVALUATION OF FITTING ACCURACY OF GLOBAL AND LOCAL DIGITAL ELEVATION MODELS IN IRAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Alidoost

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Digital Elevation Models (DEMs are one of the most important data for various applications such as hydrological studies, topography mapping and ortho image generation. There are well-known DEMs of the whole world that represent the terrain's surface at variable resolution and they are also freely available for 99% of the globe. However, it is necessary to assess the quality of the global DEMs for the regional scale applications.These models are evaluated by differencing with other reference DEMs or ground control points (GCPs in order to estimate the quality and accuracy parameters over different land cover types. In this paper, a comparison of ASTER GDEM ver2, SRTM DEM with more than 800 reference GCPs and also with a local elevation model over the area of Iran is presented. This study investigates DEM’s characteristics such as systematic error (bias, vertical accuracy and outliers for DEMs using both the usual (Mean error, Root Mean Square Error, Standard Deviation and the robust (Median, Normalized Median Absolute Deviation, Sample Quantiles descriptors. Also, the visual assessment tools are used to illustrate the quality of DEMs, such as normalized histograms and Q-Q plots. The results of the study confirmed that there is a negative elevation bias of approximately 5 meters of GDEM ver2. The measured RMSE and NMAD for elevation differences of GDEM-GCPs are 7.1 m and 3.2 m, respectively, while these values for SRTM and GCPs are 9.0 m and 4.4 m. On the other hand, in comparison with the local DEM, GDEM ver2 exhibits the RMSE of about 6.7 m, a little higher than the RMSE of SRTM (5.1 m.The results of height difference classification and other statistical analysis of GDEM ver2-local DEM and SRTM-local DEM reveal that SRTM is slightly more accurate than GDEM ver2. Accordingly, SRTM has no noticeable bias and shift from Local DEM and they have more consistency to each other, while GDEM ver2 has always a negative bias.

  19. Domestic change in the face of European Integration and Globalization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lynggaard, Kennet

    2011-01-01

    Before the early 2000s, research on Europeanization and globalization developed largely independently of each other. Since then a limited, yet increasing, number of studies have shown an interest in investigating and differentiating between the domestic implications of European integration - known...... as Europeanization - and trends which are usually seen as having a broader global application including market liberalization, the construction of global institutions and policies. While research concerned with domestic change in the face of European integration and globalization in itself is a reaction to pressing...... epistemological concerns within the Europeanization literature, this in-the-making research agenda is also faced with a number of methodological challenges. This article deals with some of the most pressing methodological challenges we face when conducting empirical research and moving towards more comprehensive...

  20. Accuracy tests of radiation schemes used in hot Jupiter global circulation models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amundsen, David S.; Baraffe, Isabelle; Tremblin, Pascal; Manners, James; Hayek, Wolfgang; Mayne, Nathan J.; Acreman, David M.

    2014-04-01

    The treatment of radiation transport in global circulation models (GCMs) is crucial for correctly describing Earth and exoplanet atmospheric dynamics processes. The two-stream approximation and correlated-k method are currently state-of-the-art approximations applied in both Earth and hot Jupiter GCM radiation schemes to facilitate the rapid calculation of fluxes and heating rates. Their accuracy have been tested extensively for Earth-like conditions, but verification of the methods' applicability to hot Jupiter-like conditions is lacking in the literature. We are adapting the UK Met Office GCM, the Unified Model (UM), for the study of hot Jupiters, and present in this work the adaptation of the Edwards-Slingo radiation scheme based on the two-stream approximation and the correlated-k method. We discuss the calculation of absorption coefficients from high-temperature line lists and highlight the large uncertainty in the pressure-broadened line widths. We compare fluxes and heating rates obtained with our adapted scheme to more accurate discrete ordinate (DO) line-by-line (LbL) calculations ignoring scattering effects. We find that, in most cases, errors stay below 10% for both heating rates and fluxes using ~10 k-coefficients in each band and a diffusivity factor D = 1.66. The two-stream approximation and the correlated-k method both contribute non-negligibly to the total error. We also find that using band-averaged absorption coefficients, which have previously been used in radiative-hydrodynamical simulations of a hot Jupiter, may yield errors of ~100%, and should thus be used with caution.

  1. Studies of the accuracy of time integration methods for reaction-diffusion equations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ropp, David L.; Shadid, John N.; Ober, Curtis C.

    2004-03-01

    In this study we present numerical experiments of time integration methods applied to systems of reaction-diffusion equations. Our main interest is in evaluating the relative accuracy and asymptotic order of accuracy of the methods on problems which exhibit an approximate balance between the competing component time scales. Nearly balanced systems can produce a significant coupling of the physical mechanisms and introduce a slow dynamical time scale of interest. These problems provide a challenging test for this evaluation and tend to reveal subtle differences between the various methods. The methods we consider include first- and second-order semi-implicit, fully implicit, and operator-splitting techniques. The test problems include a prototype propagating nonlinear reaction-diffusion wave, a non-equilibrium radiation-diffusion system, a Brusselator chemical dynamics system and a blow-up example. In this evaluation we demonstrate a "split personality" for the operator-splitting methods that we consider. While operator-splitting methods often obtain very good accuracy, they can also manifest a serious degradation in accuracy due to stability problems.

  2. Effects of Dissolving Solutions on the Accuracy of an Electronic Apex Locator-Integrated Endodontic Handpiece

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ustun, Yakup; Uzun, Ozgur; Er, Ozgur; Maden, Murat; Yalpı, Fatma; Canakci, Burhan Can

    2013-01-01

    The effects of three dissolving agents on the accuracy of an electronic apex locator- (EAL-) integrated endodontic handpiece during retreatment procedures were evaluated. The true lengths (TLs) of 56 extracted incisor teeth were determined visually. Twenty teeth were filled with gutta-percha and a resin-based sealer (group A), 20 with gutta-percha and a zinc oxide/eugenol-based sealer (group B), and 16 roots were used as the control group (group C). All roots were prepared to TL. Guttasolv, Resosolv, and Endosolv E were used as the dissolving solutions. Two evaluations of the handpiece were performed: the apical accuracy during the auto reverse function (ARL) and the apex locator function (EL) alone. The ARL function of the handpiece gave acceptable results. There were significant differences between the EL mode measurements and the TL (P < 0.05). In these comparisons, Tri Auto ZX EL mode measurements were significantly shorter than those of the TL. PMID:24379743

  3. The INTEGRAL IBIS/ISGRI System Point Spread Function and Source Location Accuracy

    CERN Document Server

    Gros, A; Cadolle-Bel, M; Goldoni, P; Rodríguez, J; Foschini, L; Santo, M D; Blay, P

    2003-01-01

    The imager on board INTEGRAL (IBIS) presently provides the most detailed sky images ever obtained at energies above 30 keV. The telescope is based on a coded aperture imaging system which allows to obtain sky images in a large field of view 29deg x 29deg with an angular resolution of 12'. The System Point Spread Function of the telescope and its detailed characteristics are here described along with the specific analysis algorithms used to derive the accurate point-like source locations. The derived location accuracy is studied using the first in-flight calibration data on strong sources for the IBIS/ISGRI system. The dependence of the calibrated location accuracy with the signal to noise ratio of the sources is presented. These preliminary studies demonstrate that the IBIS/ISGRI telescope and the standard scientific analysis software allow source localizations with accuracy at 90% confidence level better than 1' for sources with signal to noise ratios > 30 over the whole field of view, in agreement with the ...

  4. Integrated multi-ISE arrays with improved sensitivity, accuracy and precision

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chunling; Yuan, Hongyan; Duan, Zhijuan; Xiao, Dan

    2017-03-01

    Increasing use of ion-selective electrodes (ISEs) in the biological and environmental fields has generated demand for high-sensitivity ISEs. However, improving the sensitivities of ISEs remains a challenge because of the limit of the Nernstian slope (59.2/n mV). Here, we present a universal ion detection method using an electronic integrated multi-electrode system (EIMES) that bypasses the Nernstian slope limit of 59.2/n mV, thereby enabling substantial enhancement of the sensitivity of ISEs. The results reveal that the response slope is greatly increased from 57.2 to 1711.3 mV, 57.3 to 564.7 mV and 57.7 to 576.2 mV by electronic integrated 30 Cl‑ electrodes, 10 F‑ electrodes and 10 glass pH electrodes, respectively. Thus, a tiny change in the ion concentration can be monitored, and correspondingly, the accuracy and precision are substantially improved. The EIMES is suited for all types of potentiometric sensors and may pave the way for monitoring of various ions with high accuracy and precision because of its high sensitivity.

  5. Large format focal plane array integration with precision alignment, metrology and accuracy capabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neumann, Jay; Parlato, Russell; Tracy, Gregory; Randolph, Max

    2015-09-01

    Focal plane alignment for large format arrays and faster optical systems require enhanced precision methodology and stability over temperature. The increase in focal plane array size continues to drive the alignment capability. Depending on the optical system, the focal plane flatness of less than 25μm (.001") is required over transition temperatures from ambient to cooled operating temperatures. The focal plane flatness requirement must also be maintained in airborne or launch vibration environments. This paper addresses the challenge of the detector integration into the focal plane module and housing assemblies, the methodology to reduce error terms during integration and the evaluation of thermal effects. The driving factors influencing the alignment accuracy include: datum transfers, material effects over temperature, alignment stability over test, adjustment precision and traceability to NIST standard. The FPA module design and alignment methodology reduces the error terms by minimizing the measurement transfers to the housing. In the design, the proper material selection requires matched coefficient of expansion materials minimizes both the physical shift over temperature as well as lowering the stress induced into the detector. When required, the co-registration of focal planes and filters can achieve submicron relative positioning by applying precision equipment, interferometry and piezoelectric positioning stages. All measurements and characterizations maintain traceability to NIST standards. The metrology characterizes the equipment's accuracy, repeatability and precision of the measurements.

  6. Globally Stable Adaptive Backstepping Neural Network Control for Uncertain Strict-Feedback Systems With Tracking Accuracy Known a Priori.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Weisheng; Ge, Shuzhi Sam; Wu, Jian; Gong, Maoguo

    2015-09-01

    This paper addresses the problem of globally stable direct adaptive backstepping neural network (NN) tracking control design for a class of uncertain strict-feedback systems under the assumption that the accuracy of the ultimate tracking error is given a priori. In contrast to the classical adaptive backstepping NN control schemes, this paper analyzes the convergence of the tracking error using Barbalat's Lemma via some nonnegative functions rather than the positive-definite Lyapunov functions. Thus, the accuracy of the ultimate tracking error can be determined and adjusted accurately a priori, and the closed-loop system is guaranteed to be globally uniformly ultimately bounded. The main technical novelty is to construct three new n th-order continuously differentiable functions, which are used to design the control law, the virtual control variables, and the adaptive laws. Finally, two simulation examples are given to illustrate the effectiveness and advantages of the proposed control method.

  7. Intermediary Cities in the territorial integration of Global South

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Borja M. Iglesias

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available “Economies of agglomeration” have acted as catalysts of the progress and modernisation of many nations in the Global South but have also contributed to unbalancing the territory, widening the gap between urban and rural populations and the accumulation of high environmental and social deficits. In contrast to the BRICS (Brazil, Russia, India, China and South Africa, the economies that make up the MINTs (Mexico, Indonesia, Nigeria and Turkey have better territorial integration of their urban systems, with intermediate cities that act as “economies of intermediation” with the rural hinterlands, and which could contribute to achieving the United Nations’ 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development Goals. The United Nations Habitat iii of October 2016 placed intermediary cities at the heart of the New Urban Agenda. The aim is to promote national urban policies in many of the economies of the Global South, allowing them to strengthen their role as the main instrument of economic integration and regional cohesion.

  8. Implementation of U.S. Global Goals: Continental Integration Context

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yaroslava Stolyarchuk

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The article provides efficiency assessment regarding existing mechanisms of the U.S. national interests’ implementation at the global level in terms of international competition aggravation and formation of the new global economic competition centers. Based on comparative analysis of the leverage for U.S. leadership in global competition it has been proven that currently the highest efficiency is demonstrated by the integration strategies of the USA in Latin America focused on maximizing implementation of the economic interests of U.S. transnational corporations in the region. It has been proven that the observed profound asymmetries regarding socio-economic development of the North and Latin America countries objectively requires implementation of the effective institutional mechanisms for leveling the negative effects generated by the trade and investment liberalization processes.

  9. An Integrated Assessment of Investments towards Global Water Sustainability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea M. Bassi

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available To date there has been limited research on integrated water resource management, specifically regarding investments, from a global perspective, largely due to the complexity of the problem and to generally local water management practices. Water demand and supply are very often affected by international factors and with global climate change, population growth and increasing consumption, water management is now more than ever a global issue. This paper gives an overview of current and impending water problems while assessing investment needs for integrated water management as a possible solution to projected water challenges. The analysis compares a business as usual case (BAU to a scenario in which investments improve water efficiency use across sectors to curb demand, increase innovative supply from desalination and enhance conventional water resources management measures. System dynamics modeling is employed to represent the structural factors influencing water demand and supply in the context of an integrated framework including cross-sectoral linkages. The analysis confirms that sustainable water management is feasible, but it requires investments in the range of $145 billion per year between 2011 and 2050 (0.16% of GDP or $17/person/year and timely, effective action.

  10. Perception of global gestalt by temporal integration in simultanagnosia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huberle, Elisabeth; Rupek, Paul; Lappe, Markus; Karnath, Hans-Otto

    2009-01-01

    Patients with bilateral parieto-occipital brain damage may show intact processing of individual objects, while their perception of multiple objects is disturbed at the same time. The deficit is termed 'simultanagnosia' and has been discussed in the context of restricted visual working memory and impaired visuo-spatial attention. Recent observations indicated that the recognition of global shapes can be modulated by the spatial distance between individual objects in patients with simultanagnosia and thus is not an all-or-nothing phenomenon depending on spatial continuity. However, grouping mechanisms not only require the spatial integration of visual information, but also involve integration processes over time. The present study investigated motion-defined integration mechanisms in two patients with simultanagnosia. We applied hierarchical organized stimuli of global objects that consisted of coherently moving dots ('shape-from-motion'). In addition, we tested the patients' ability to recognize biological motion by presenting characteristic human movements ('point-light-walker'). The data revealed largely preserved perception of biological motion, while the perception of motion-defined shapes was impaired. Our findings suggest separate mechanisms underlying the recognition of biological motion and shapes defined by coherently moving dots. They thus argue against a restriction in the overall capacity of visual working memory over time as a general explanation for the impaired global shape recognition in patients with simultanagnosia.

  11. Integrating developing country manufacturing industries into global supply chain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fasika Bete Georgise

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Due to globalization of manufacturing activities, the arena of competition and competitiveness advantage is moving from firms towards supply chains and networks. With the recent advancement of information and communication technologies this participation are becoming as common business practice in developed countries firms. Companies were more integrated into the world market for the global nature of the sourcing, manufacturing and distribution. These changes create both challenges and opportunities for the manufacturing industries in developing countries. The objective of this paper is to examine the level of inter-organizational and intra-organizational supply chain integration practices in developing country, Ethiopia.Design/methodology/approach: An industrial questionnaires survey was used to collect the current practices of the manufacturing industries in Ethiopia as an example of the developing countries. Descriptive statistics is primarily used for the analysis.Findings: Results show a low level of supply chain relationship both in intra and inter organizational supply chain integration level among members. Accordingly, such issues require much attention to facilitate a greater integration within the supply chains in the Ethiopian manufacturing industries.Research limitations/implications: The paper focuses on examining the practices of Ethiopian manufacturing industries empirical data. The interpretation of results should be taken with prudence.Originality/Value: The manufacturing industry in developing countries (MIDC has been a part of the global supply chains for long time as a supplier of raw material and manufacturer of primary products. Currently, the MIDC is trying to access the different markets segment of the world even with new products starting from their local market to the complex and dynamic international market. Nevertheless, their supply chains are inefficient and hence, their competitiveness level far from the

  12. Surface integrity and part accuracy in reaming and tapping stainless steel with new vegetable based cutting oils

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Belluco, Walter; De Chiffre, Leonardo

    2002-01-01

    This paper presents an investigation on the effect of new formulations of vegetable oils on surface integrity and part accuracy in reaming and tapping operations with AISI 316L stainless steel. Surface integrity was assessed with measurements of roughness, microhardness, and using metallographic ...

  13. Semantic Data Integration and Ontology Use within the Global Earth Observation System of Systems (GEOSS) Global Water Cycle Data Integration System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pozzi, W.; Fekete, B.; Piasecki, M.; McGuinness, D.; Fox, P.; Lawford, R.; Vorosmarty, C.; Houser, P.; Imam, B.

    2008-12-01

    The inadequacies of water cycle observations for monitoring long-term changes in the global water system, as well as their feedback into the climate system, poses a major constraint on sustainable development of water resources and improvement of water management practices. Hence, The Group on Earth Observations (GEO) has established Task WA-08-01, "Integration of in situ and satellite data for water cycle monitoring," an integrative initiative combining different types of satellite and in situ observations related to key variables of the water cycle with model outputs for improved accuracy and global coverage. This presentation proposes development of the Rapid, Integrated Monitoring System for the Water Cycle (Global-RIMS)--already employed by the GEO Global Terrestrial Network for Hydrology (GTN-H)--as either one of the main components or linked with the Asian system to constitute the modeling system of GEOSS for water cycle monitoring. We further propose expanded, augmented capability to run multiple grids to embrace some of the heterogeneous methods and formats of the Earth Science, Hydrology, and Hydraulic Engineering communities. Different methodologies are employed by the Earth Science (land surface modeling), the Hydrological (GIS), and the Hydraulic Engineering Communities; with each community employing models that require different input data. Data will be routed as input variables to the models through web services, allowing satellite and in situ data to be integrated together within the modeling framework. Semantic data integration will provide the automation to enable this system to operate in near-real-time. Multiple data collections for ground water, precipitation, soil moisture satellite data, such as SMAP, and lake data will require multiple low level ontologies, and an upper level ontology will permit user-friendly water management knowledge to be synthesized. These ontologies will have to have overlapping terms mapped and linked together. so

  14. Integrative motivation and global language (English acquisition in Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert C. Gardner

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated the consistency of a measure of integrative motivation in the prediction of achievement in English as a foreign language in 18 samples of Polish school students. The results are shown to have implications for concerns expressed that integrative motivation might not be appropriate to the acquisition of English because it is a global language and moreover that other factors such as the gender of the student or the environment of the class might also influence its predictability. Results of a hierarchical linear modeling analysis indicated that for the older samples, integrative motivation was a consistent predictor of grades in English, unaffected by either the gender of the student or class environment acting as covariates. Comparable results were obtained for the younger samples except that student gender also contributed to the prediction of grades in English. Examination of the correlations of the elements of the integrative motivation score with English grades demonstrated that the aggregate score is the more consistent correlate from sample to sample than the elements themselves. Such results lead to the hypothesis that integrative motivation is a multi-dimensional construct and different aspects of the motivational complex come into play for each individual. That is, two individuals can hold the same level of integrative motivation and thus attain the same level of achievement but one might be higher in some elements and lower in others than another individual, resulting in consistent correlations of the aggregate but less so for the elements.

  15. An integrated system for the online monitoring of particle therapy treatment accuracy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fiorina, E., E-mail: fiorina@to.infn.it [Università degli Studi di Torino, Torino (Italy); Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare (INFN) (Italy)

    2016-07-11

    Quality assurance in hadrontherapy remains an open issue that can be addressed with reliable monitoring of treatment accuracy. The INSIDE (INnovative SolutIons for DosimEtry in hadrontherapy) project aims to develop an integrated online monitoring system based on two dedicated PET panels and a tracking system, called Dose Profiler. The proposed solution is designed to operate in-beam and provide an immediate feedback on the particle range acquiring both photons produced by β{sup +} decays and prompt secondary particle signals. Monte Carlo simulations cover an important role both in the system development, by confirming the design feasibility, and in the system operation, by understanding data. A FLUKA-based integrated simulation was developed taking into account the hadron beam structure, the phantom/patient features and the PET detector and Dose Profiler specifications. In addition, to reduce simulation time in signal generation on PET detectors, a two-step technique has been implemented and validated. The first PET modules were tested in May 2015 at the Centro Nazionale Adroterapia Oncologica (CNAO) in Pavia (Italy) with very satisfactory results: in-spill, inter-spill and post-treatment PET images were reconstructed and a quantitative agreement between data and simulation was found.

  16. An integrated system for the online monitoring of particle therapy treatment accuracy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiorina, E.

    2016-07-01

    Quality assurance in hadrontherapy remains an open issue that can be addressed with reliable monitoring of treatment accuracy. The INSIDE (INnovative SolutIons for DosimEtry in hadrontherapy) project aims to develop an integrated online monitoring system based on two dedicated PET panels and a tracking system, called Dose Profiler. The proposed solution is designed to operate in-beam and provide an immediate feedback on the particle range acquiring both photons produced by β+ decays and prompt secondary particle signals. Monte Carlo simulations cover an important role both in the system development, by confirming the design feasibility, and in the system operation, by understanding data. A FLUKA-based integrated simulation was developed taking into account the hadron beam structure, the phantom/patient features and the PET detector and Dose Profiler specifications. In addition, to reduce simulation time in signal generation on PET detectors, a two-step technique has been implemented and validated. The first PET modules were tested in May 2015 at the Centro Nazionale Adroterapia Oncologica (CNAO) in Pavia (Italy) with very satisfactory results: in-spill, inter-spill and post-treatment PET images were reconstructed and a quantitative agreement between data and simulation was found.

  17. 76 FR 5834 - International Business Machines Corporation, Global Technology Services Business Unit, Integrated...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-02

    ... Employment and Training Administration International Business Machines Corporation, Global Technology Services Business Unit, Integrated Technology Services, Cost and Expense Team, Payroll, Travel and Mobility... Business Machines Corporation, Global Technology Services Business Unit, Integrated Technology...

  18. Toward the Development of an Integrated Global Observing Strategy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charles, Leslie Bermann

    1998-01-01

    In the current environment of stagnant or shrinking budgets for space research and exploration, nations can no longer afford to develop costly systems in a vacuum. Greater coordination of existing and planned systems, both among space agencies and between the space agencies and user communities, will enable the maximization of global investments in all areas of space-related research. In this manner, a group of space agencies has embarked on an initiative to link their activities in Earth observation with complementary observation programs. The goal of this initiative is to develop a comprehensive strategy for enhanced levels of support to scientific, operational and research communities. The space agencies, through the Committee on Earth Observation Satellites (CEOS), have embraced the concept of an Integrated Global Observing Strategy (IGOS), primarily in fulfillment of their own set of objectives and to derive greater benefit from both operating and planned Earth observing systems. Through working together, CEOS agencies are in a position to plan their Earth observation projects with the minimum of unnecessary overlap and to devise joint strategies for addressing serious gaps in their observation capabilities. Ultimately, an IGOS should be the joint product of all groups involved in the collection and analysis of both space-based and in-situ data. CEOS is actively seeking IGOS -related partnerships with the Global Climate, Global Ocean and Global Terrestrial Observing Systems, their intergovernmental Sponsors, the International Group of Funding Agencies for Global Change Research, and other scientific and user organizations including the International Geosphere-Biosphere Programme and the World Climate Research Programme.

  19. Integrated Global Observation Strategy - Ozone and Atmospheric Chemistry Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hilsenrath, Ernest; Readings, C. J.; Kaye, J.; Mohnen, V.; Einaudi, Franco (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    The "Long Term Continuity of Stratospheric Ozone Measurements and Atmospheric Chemistry" project was one of six established by the Committee on Earth Observing Satellites (CEOS) in response to the Integrated Global Observing Strategy (IGOS) initiative. IGOS links satellite and ground based systems for global environmental observations. The strategy of this project is to develop a consensus of user requirements including the scientific (SPARC, IGAC, WCRP) and the applications community (WMO, UNEP) and to develop a long-term international plan for ozone and atmospheric chemistry measurements. The major components of the observing system include operational and research (meeting certain criteria) satellite platforms planned by the space faring nations which are integrated with a well supported and sustained ground, aircraft, and balloon measurements program for directed observations as well satellite validation. Highly integrated and continuous measurements of ozone, validation, and reanalysis efforts are essential to meet the international scientific and applications goals. In order to understand ozone trends, climate change, and air quality, it is essential to conduct long term measurements of certain other atmospheric species. These species include key source, radical, and reservoir constituents.

  20. Cyclic voltammetric current functions determined with a prescribed accuracy by the adaptive Huber method for Abel integral equations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bieniasz, Lesław K

    2008-12-15

    Modern electroanalytical applications of cyclic voltammetry require that theoretical current functions be obtainable automatically, efficiently, and with a prescribed accuracy, by computer simulation algorithms. One of the classical simulation approaches relies on formulating and solving relevant integral equations. Numerical solution methods, used for this purpose so far, are nonautomatic and do not provide information about accuracy of the results. The adaptive variant of the Huber method, developed by the present author, can generate theoretical cyclic voltammograms automatically, with a given target accuracy, and more efficiently than the formerly studied patch-adaptive direct simulation method. This is demonstrated using examples of cyclic voltammograms described by the first-kind Abel integral equations. The method is therefore a candidate for automatic integral equation solvers, needed for building a new generation of problem solving environments for electroanalytical chemistry and for widely understood automation of electroanalytical investigations.

  1. Global navigation satellite systems, inertial navigation, and integration

    CERN Document Server

    Grewal, Mohinder S; Bartone, Chris G

    2013-01-01

    An updated guide to GNSS, and INS, and solutions to real-world GNSS/INS problems with Kalman filtering Written by recognized authorities in the field, this third edition of a landmark work provides engineers, computer scientists, and others with a working familiarity of the theory and contemporary applications of Global Navigation Satellite Systems (GNSS), Inertial Navigational Systems, and Kalman filters. Throughout, the focus is on solving real-world problems, with an emphasis on the effective use of state-of-the-art integration techniques for those systems, especially the application of Kal

  2. Global satisfactory control for nonlinear integrator processes with long delay

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yiqun YANG; Guobo XIANG

    2007-01-01

    Integrator processes with long delay are difficult to control. Nonlinear characteristics of actuators make the control problem more challenging. A technique is proposed in this paper for global satisfactory control (GSC) of such processes with relay-type nonlinearity. An oscillatory control signal is injected into the nonlinear process; the amplitude and frequency of the oscillatory signal are designed to linearise the nonlinear process in the sense of harmonic analysis; and a state feedback controller is configured to implement GSC over the linearised process. An illustrative example is given to demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed method.

  3. Improving accuracy for identifying related PubMed queries by an integrated approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Zhiyong; Wilbur, W John

    2009-10-01

    PubMed is the most widely used tool for searching biomedical literature online. As with many other online search tools, a user often types a series of multiple related queries before retrieving satisfactory results to fulfill a single information need. Meanwhile, it is also a common phenomenon to see a user type queries on unrelated topics in a single session. In order to study PubMed users' search strategies, it is necessary to be able to automatically separate unrelated queries and group together related queries. Here, we report a novel approach combining both lexical and contextual analyses for segmenting PubMed query sessions and identifying related queries and compare its performance with the previous approach based solely on concept mapping. We experimented with our integrated approach on sample data consisting of 1539 pairs of consecutive user queries in 351 user sessions. The prediction results of 1396 pairs agreed with the gold-standard annotations, achieving an overall accuracy of 90.7%. This demonstrates that our approach is significantly better than the previously published method. By applying this approach to a one day query log of PubMed, we found that a significant proportion of information needs involved more than one PubMed query, and that most of the consecutive queries for the same information need are lexically related. Finally, the proposed PubMed distance is shown to be an accurate and meaningful measure for determining the contextual similarity between biological terms. The integrated approach can play a critical role in handling real-world PubMed query log data as is demonstrated in our experiments.

  4. Improving Estimation Accuracy of Quasars’ Photometric Redshifts by Integration of KNN and SVM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Bo; Ding, Hongpeng; Zhang, Yanxia; Zhao, Yongheng

    2015-08-01

    The massive photometric data collected from multiple large-scale sky surveys offers significant opportunities for measuring distances of many celestial objects by photometric redshifts zphot in a wide coverage of the sky. However, catastrophic failure, an unsolved problem for a long time, exists in the current photometric redshift estimation approaches (such as k-nearest-neighbor). In this paper, we propose a novel two-stage approach by integration of k-nearest-neighbor (KNN) and support vector machine (SVM) methods together. In the first stage, we apply KNN algorithm on photometric data and estimate their corresponding zphot. By analysis, we observe two dense regions with catastrophic failure, one in the range of zphot [0.1,1.1], the other in the range of zphot [1.5,2.5]. In the second stage, we map the photometric multiband input pattern of points falling into the two ranges from original attribute space into high dimensional feature space by Gaussian kernel function in SVM. In the high dimensional feature space, many bad estimation points resulted from catastrophic failure by using simple Euclidean distance computation in KNN can be identified by classification hyperplane SVM and further be applied correction. Experimental results based on SDSS data for quasars showed that the two-stage fusion approach can significantly mitigate catastrophic failure and improve the estimation accuracy of photometric redshift.

  5. The accuracy of MRI in assessing graft integrity after anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakayama, Yoshihito; Shirai, Yasumasa; Narita, Tetsuya; Mori, Atsushi; Kobayashi, Kaoru [Nippon Medical School, Tokyo (Japan)

    2001-02-01

    To evaluate the efficacy of MRI in assessing anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction graft integrity, we compared MRI findings with arthroscopic findings in 52 patients who had undergone arthroscopically assisted ACL reconstruction using semitendinosus and gracilis tendons augmented by woven polyester. MRI and arthroscopy were carried out 12 months after the operation. The MR appearance of ACL grafts was categorized into 3 types by signal intensity and continuity of the ligament according to Rak's method: well-defined type: the graft was visualized as a smoothly continuous band with low signal over the entire course; intermediate type: signal intensity increased and a low-signal band was visualized only in part of the graft; indiscernible type: the graft was not identified through the joint cavity due to markedly increased signal intensity. When the MR appearance of intermediate or indiscernible types was defined as torn, the grafts were presumed to be torn in 9 patients whose arthroscopic findings were 7 intact and 2 torn grafts. All cases with intact MRI findings were intact on arthroscopic examination. Thus, the sensitivity, specificity and accuracy of MRI as an evaluative tool for ACL graft tears were 100%, 86% and 86.5%, respectively. (author)

  6. IMPROVING GLOBALlAND30 ARTIFICIAL TYPE EXTRACTION ACCURACY IN LOW-DENSITY RESIDENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Hou

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available GlobalLand 30 is the first 30m resolution land cover product in the world. It covers the area within 80°N and 80°S. There are ten classes including artificial cover, water bodies, woodland, lawn, bare land, cultivated land, wetland, sea area, shrub and snow,. The TM imagery from Landsat is the main data source of GlobalLand 30. In the artificial surface type, one of the omission error happened on low-density residents’ part. In TM images, hash distribution is one of the typical characteristics of the low-density residents, and another one is there are a lot of cultivated lands surrounded the low-density residents. Thus made the low-density residents part being blurred with cultivated land. In order to solve this problem, nighttime light remote sensing image is used as a referenced data, and on the basis of NDBI, we add TM6 to calculate the amount of surface thermal radiation index TR-NDBI (Thermal Radiation Normalized Difference Building Index to achieve the purpose of extracting low-density residents. The result shows that using TR-NDBI and the nighttime light remote sensing image are a feasible and effective method for extracting low-density residents’ areas.

  7. Tačnost i modernizacija globalnog pozicionog sistema / Accuracy and modernization of the global positioning system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Slobodan M. Radojević

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available U radu su pregledno prikazani sadašnja koncepcija i razvoj globalnog sistema pozicioniranja (GPS. Ukratko je opisan osnovni princip rada, glavne karakteristike i njegova tačnost. Sadašnja tačnost sistema je, uglavnom, dovoljna za orijentaciju, navigaciju na vodi, u vazdušnom prostoru i na kopnu, ali ne i za brojne druge delatnosti. U radu se analiziraju načini poboljšanja karakteristika sistema satelitskog pozicioniranja, koji bi trebalo da zadovolje strože sigurnosne zahteve. Na kraju je predstavljen razvoj programa modernizacije GPS do 2030. godine. / The development and the present concept of the Global Positioning System (GPS are presented clearly. There is also a short description of the basic operation principle and of the main GPS characteristics given, as well as its accuracy. The present accuracy of the system is mostly appropriate for orientation, nautical navigation, land navigation and aero navigation; however, for many other activities better accuracy is required. The article analyses methods to improve the characteristics of the satellite positioning system so as to comply with more stringent safety demands. The paper gives a clear overview of the development of a GPS modernization program up to the year 2030.

  8. Improved data for integrated modeling of global environmental change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lotze-Campen, Hermann

    2011-12-01

    The assessment of global environmental changes, their impact on human societies, and possible management options requires large-scale, integrated modeling efforts. These models have to link biophysical with socio-economic processes, and they have to take spatial heterogeneity of environmental conditions into account. Land use change and freshwater use are two key research areas where spatial aggregation and the use of regional average numbers may lead to biased results. Useful insights can only be obtained if processes like economic globalization can be consistently linked to local environmental conditions and resource constraints (Lambin and Meyfroidt 2011). Spatially explicit modeling of environmental changes at the global scale has a long tradition in the natural sciences (Woodward et al 1995, Alcamo et al 1996, Leemans et al 1996). Socio-economic models with comparable spatial detail, e.g. on grid-based land use change, are much less common (Heistermann et al 2006), but are increasingly being developed (Popp et al 2011, Schneider et al 2011). Spatially explicit models require spatially explicit input data, which often constrains their development and application at the global scale. The amount and quality of available data on environmental conditions is growing fast—primarily due to improved earth observation methods. Moreover, systematic efforts for collecting and linking these data across sectors are on the way (www.earthobservations.org). This has, among others, also helped to provide consistent databases on different land cover and land use types (Erb et al 2007). However, spatially explicit data on specific anthropogenic driving forces of global environmental change are still scarce—also because these cannot be collected with satellites or other devices. The basic data on socio-economic driving forces, i.e. population density and wealth (measured as gross domestic product per capita), have been prepared for spatially explicit analyses (CIESIN, IFPRI

  9. Effects of experimental protocol on global vegetation model accuracy: a comparison of simulated and observed vegetation patterns for Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Guoping; Shafer, Sarah L.; Barlein, Patrick J.; Holman, Justin O.

    2009-01-01

    Prognostic vegetation models have been widely used to study the interactions between environmental change and biological systems. This study examines the sensitivity of vegetation model simulations to: (i) the selection of input climatologies representing different time periods and their associated atmospheric CO2 concentrations, (ii) the choice of observed vegetation data for evaluating the model results, and (iii) the methods used to compare simulated and observed vegetation. We use vegetation simulated for Asia by the equilibrium vegetation model BIOME4 as a typical example of vegetation model output. BIOME4 was run using 19 different climatologies and their associated atmospheric CO2 concentrations. The Kappa statistic, Fuzzy Kappa statistic and a newly developed map-comparison method, the Nomad index, were used to quantify the agreement between the biomes simulated under each scenario and the observed vegetation from three different global land- and tree-cover data sets: the global Potential Natural Vegetation data set (PNV), the Global Land Cover Characteristics data set (GLCC), and the Global Land Cover Facility data set (GLCF). The results indicate that the 30-year mean climatology (and its associated atmospheric CO2 concentration) for the time period immediately preceding the collection date of the observed vegetation data produce the most accurate vegetation simulations when compared with all three observed vegetation data sets. The study also indicates that the BIOME4-simulated vegetation for Asia more closely matches the PNV data than the other two observed vegetation data sets. Given the same observed data, the accuracy assessments of the BIOME4 simulations made using the Kappa, Fuzzy Kappa and Nomad index map-comparison methods agree well when the compared vegetation types consist of a large number of spatially continuous grid cells. The results of this analysis can assist model users in designing experimental protocols for simulating vegetation.

  10. Performance and accuracy investigations of two Doppler global velocimetry systems applied in parallel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willert, Christian; Stockhausen, Guido; Klinner, Joachim; Lempereur, Christine; Barricau, Philippe; Loiret, Philippe; Raynal, Jean Claude

    2007-08-01

    Two Doppler global velocimetry systems were applied in parallel to assess their performance in wind tunnel environments. Both DGV systems were mounted on a common traverse surrounding the glass-walled 1.4 × 1.8 m2 test section of the wind tunnel. The traverse normally supports a three-component forward-scatter laser Doppler velocimetry system. The reproducible tip-vortex flow field generated by the blunt tip of an airfoil was chosen for this investigation and was precisely surveyed by LDA just prior to the DGV measurements. Both DGV systems shared the same continuous wave laser light source, laser frequency monitoring and fibre optic light sheet delivery system. The principal differences between the DGV implementations are with regard to the imaging configuration. One configuration relied on a single camera view that observed three successively operated light sheets. In the second configuration, three camera views simultaneously observed a single light sheet using a four-branch fibre imaging bundle. The imaging bundle system had all three viewpoints in a forward scattering arrangement which increased the scattering efficiency but reduced the frequency shift sensitivity. Since all three light sheet observation components were acquired onto the same image frame, acquisition times could be reduced to a minimum. On the other hand, the triple light sheet-single camera system observed two light sheets in forward scatter and one light sheet in backscatter. Although three separate images had to be recorded in succession, the image quality, spatial resolution and signal-to-noise ratio were superior to the imaging bundle system. Comparison of the DGV data with LDV measurements shows very good agreement to within 1-2 m s-1. The remaining discrepancy has a variety of causes, some are related to the reduced resolving power of the fibre imaging bundle system (graininess, smoothing), exact localization of the receiver head with respect to the scene, laser frequency drift or

  11. Local and Global Illumination in the Volume Rendering Integral

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Max, N; Chen, M

    2005-10-21

    This article is intended as an update of the major survey by Max [1] on optical models for direct volume rendering. It provides a brief overview of the subject scope covered by [1], and brings recent developments, such as new shadow algorithms and refraction rendering, into the perspective. In particular, we examine three fundamentals aspects of direct volume rendering, namely the volume rendering integral, local illumination models and global illumination models, in a wavelength-independent manner. We review the developments on spectral volume rendering, in which visible light are considered as a form of electromagnetic radiation, optical models are implemented in conjunction with representations of spectral power distribution. This survey can provide a basis for, and encourage, new efforts for developing and using complex illumination models to achieve better realism and perception through optical correctness.

  12. INTEGRATED PRODUCT AND ENTERPRISE DESIGN FOR GLOBAL COMPETITIVENESS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N.D. Du Preez

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presentsan overview of the challenge to integrate product and process life cycles in maintaining global competitiveness of an enterprise and proposes IEKOS as a possible solution . It provides the reader with a framework of two virtual life cycles which create a problem solving matrix for the industrial engineer. In this matrix, bordered by the virtual enterprise life cycle and the virtual product life cycles, the business functions of analyze, design deploy and operate are predominantly functions executed by the, industrial engineer. The different phases of each life cycle serves as a framework to a virtual industrial engineering toolkit providing access to detailed functions, formats, examples and a series of software and other "tools" available to the industrial engineer.
    In conclusion a brief overview is provided of the progress of the IEKOS toolkit which is under development at the department of Industrial Engineering at Stellenbosch University.

  13. Professionalism in global, personalized cancer care: restoring authenticity and integrity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Surbone, Antonella

    2013-01-01

    Personalized medicine is revolutionizing cancer care and creating new expectations among oncologists and patients. At present the benefit is still marginal, however, and must be understood as incremental. In addition, cultural and resource disparities limit the sustainability of new cancer therapies on a global scale. Adequate instruments are needed to enable our exercise of sound and honest judgment in distinguishing breakthrough treatments from those that yield only marginal or doubtful improvements, and to develop strategies for formulation and correct application of balanced guidelines for sustainable cancer care. Professionalism requires that the acquisition of knowledge and skills go hand in hand with moral education in the intellectual virtues of humility, perseverance, adaptability, communicativeness, and commitment to resist self-deception or conflicts of interest. Hidden curricula undermine the moral values of medicine: these must be understood and uncovered. We should possess a special body of knowledge, skills, and values that allow us to change our practices when appropriate and to be stewards of society's limited resources through proper communication with our patients and families. In the era of personalized oncology and global issues of sustainability, professional authenticity and integrity in cancer clinical practice are key to bridging the gaps between true and false expectations of patients and the public.

  14. Evaluation of the Effect of Radio Frequency Interference on Global Positioning System (GPS Accuracy via GPS Simulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dinesh Sathyamoorthy

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available In this study, Global positioning system (GPS simulation is employed to study the effect of radio frequency interference (RFI on the accuracy of two handheld GPS receivers; Garmin GPSmap 60CSx (evaluated GPS receiver and Garmin GPSmap 60CS (reference GPS receiver. Both GPS receivers employ the GPS L1 coarse acquisition (C/A signal. It was found that with increasing interference signal power level, probable error values of the GPS receivers increase due to decreasing carrier-to-noise density (C/N0 levels for GPS satellites tracked by the receivers. Varying probable error patterns are observed for readings taken at different locations and times. This was due to the GPS satellite constellation being dynamic, causing varying GPS satellite geometry over location and time, resulting in GPS accuracy being location/time dependent. In general, the highest probable error values were observed for readings with the highest position dilution of precision (PDOP values, and vice versa.Defence Science Journal, 2012, 62(5, pp.338-347, DOI:http://dx.doi.org/10.14429/dsj.62.1606

  15. An integrative literature review on accuracy in anesthesia information management systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilbanks, Bryan A

    2014-02-01

    An anesthesia information management system is a dynamic electronic documentation system that generates the legal records of patient care while the patient is receiving anesthesia. The generated documentation can be used to guide patient care, facilitate billing for services, and be used for clinical research. The purpose of this article was to synthesize the previous empirical and theoretical literature pertaining to the concept of accuracy in documentation in a wide range of disciplines in order to refine the concept and more effectively guide future research, clinical practice, and policy development in anesthesia informatics. The basic definition of accuracy is generally agreed upon, but the exact method of measuring accuracy is very different across disciplines. The concept of accuracy is defined in the published literature using the terms completeness, comprehensiveness, correctness, precision, legibility, readability, quantity of data, redundancy of data, clearness of data, concordance of data, and legitimacy. In nursing, accuracy can be defined as the presence of correct data that provide a complete, comprehensive, and precise representation of patient care. In anesthesia, accuracy is often defined in terms of correctness and completeness of data. Correctness, completeness, comprehensiveness, and precision are the primary constituents of accuracy with each discipline emphasizing different aspects.

  16. The Glory Program: Global Science from a Unique Spacecraft Integration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bajpayee Jaya; Durham, Darcie; Ichkawich, Thomas

    2006-01-01

    The Glory program is an Earth and Solar science mission designed to broaden science community knowledge of the environment. The causes and effects of global warming have become a concern in recent years and Glory aims to contribute to the knowledge base of the science community. Glory is designed for two functions: one is solar viewing to monitor the total solar irradiance and the other is observing the Earth s atmosphere for aerosol composition. The former is done with an active cavity radiometer, while the latter is accomplished with an aerosol polarimeter sensor to discern atmospheric particles. The Glory program is managed by NASA Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) with Orbital Sciences in Dulles, VA as the prime contractor for the spacecraft bus, mission operations, and ground system. This paper will describe some of the more unique features of the Glory program including the integration and testing of the satellite and instruments as well as the science data processing. The spacecraft integration and test approach requires extensive analysis and additional planning to ensure existing components are successfully functioning with the new Glory components. The science mission data analysis requires development of mission unique processing systems and algorithms. Science data analysis and distribution will utilize our national assets at the Goddard Institute for Space Studies (GISS) and the University of Colorado's Laboratory for Atmospheric and Space Physics (LASP). The Satellite was originally designed and built for the Vegetation Canopy Lidar (VCL) mission, which was terminated in the middle of integration and testing due to payload development issues. The bus was then placed in secure storage in 2001 and removed from an environmentally controlled container in late 2003 to be refurbished to meet the Glory program requirements. Functional testing of all the components was done as a system at the start of the program, very different from a traditional program

  17. THE INTEGRATION OF EDUCATION AND SCIENCE AS A GLOBAL PROBLEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anatoliy I. Rakitov

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: mankind is on the edge of a new techno-technological and socio-economical revolution generated by robotization and automation in all spheres of individual and socio-economical activity. Among numerous conceptions of global development only the conception of the knowledge-based society is the most adequate to contemporary terms. As the higher education and science are the main source of knowledge adequate to contemporary terms then their integration should be investigated. Materials and Methods: the material for this investigation was gathered as from individual experience in science and pedagogical activity of the author which were earlier published in hundreds of articles and fifteen monograph translated in eleven languages, as the materials of Moscow city seminar, the results of which were published in annual “Science of science investigations”. This annual has been editing since 2004 and the author is the editor-in-chief of this edition. Also has been used other sources from different editions. The method of comparative analysis was used. Results: the author put forward the conception of inevitable integration of higher school and research institutions and forming a new structure – science-education consortium. Only such united structure can significantly rise both scientific researchers and higher education. And as a result, it will rise publishing activity and application of scientific researchers in real econ omy, social sphere, technological leadership. Discussion and Conclusions: conception put forward in this article fragmentary has been published by author earlier and initiated discussion in scientific press, which was reflected in home RISC and abroad citation indexes. The author proclaims the inevitability of realization of the suggested by him conception of the utmost integration of science and higher education.

  18. Integrated Decision Support for Global Environmental Change Adaptation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, S.; Cantrell, S.; Higgins, G. J.; Marshall, J.; VanWijngaarden, F.

    2011-12-01

    Environmental changes are happening now that has caused concern in many parts of the world; particularly vulnerable are the countries and communities with limited resources and with natural environments that are more susceptible to climate change impacts. Global leaders are concerned about the observed phenomena and events such as Amazon deforestation, shifting monsoon patterns affecting agriculture in the mountain slopes of Peru, floods in Pakistan, water shortages in Middle East, droughts impacting water supplies and wildlife migration in Africa, and sea level rise impacts on low lying coastal communities in Bangladesh. These environmental changes are likely to get exacerbated as the temperatures rise, the weather and climate patterns change, and sea level rise continues. Large populations and billions of dollars of infrastructure could be affected. At Northrop Grumman, we have developed an integrated decision support framework for providing necessary information to stakeholders and planners to adapt to the impacts of climate variability and change at the regional and local levels. This integrated approach takes into account assimilation and exploitation of large and disparate weather and climate data sets, regional downscaling (dynamic and statistical), uncertainty quantification and reduction, and a synthesis of scientific data with demographic and economic data to generate actionable information for the stakeholders and decision makers. Utilizing a flexible service oriented architecture and state-of-the-art visualization techniques, this information can be delivered via tailored GIS portals to meet diverse set of user needs and expectations. This integrated approach can be applied to regional and local risk assessments, predictions and decadal projections, and proactive adaptation planning for vulnerable communities. In this paper we will describe this comprehensive decision support approach with selected applications and case studies to illustrate how this

  19. A new 100-m Digital Elevation Model of the Antarctic Peninsula derived from ASTER Global DEM: methods and accuracy assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. J. Cook

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available A high resolution surface topography Digital Elevation Model (DEM is required to underpin studies of the complex glacier system on the Antarctic Peninsula. A complete DEM with better than 200 m pixel size and high positional and vertical accuracy would enable mapping of all significant glacial basins and provide a dataset for glacier morphology analyses. No currently available DEM meets these specifications. We present a new 100-m DEM of the Antarctic Peninsula (63–70° S, based on ASTER Global Digital Elevation Model (GDEM data. The raw GDEM products are of high-quality on the rugged terrain and coastal-regions of the Antarctic Peninsula and have good geospatial accuracy, but they also contain large errors on ice-covered terrain and we seek to minimise these artefacts. Conventional data correction techniques do not work so we have developed a method that significantly improves the dataset, smoothing the erroneous regions and hence creating a DEM with a pixel size of 100 m that will be suitable for many glaciological applications. We evaluate the new DEM using ICESat-derived elevations, and perform horizontal and vertical accuracy assessments based on GPS positions, SPOT-5 DEMs and the Landsat Image Mosaic of Antarctica (LIMA imagery. The new DEM has a mean elevation difference of −4 m (± 25 m RMSE from ICESat (compared to −13 m mean and ±97 m RMSE for the original ASTER GDEM, and a horizontal error of less than 2 pixels, although elevation accuracies are lower on mountain peaks and steep-sided slopes. The correction method significantly reduces errors on low relief slopes and therefore the DEM can be regarded as suitable for topographical studies such as measuring the geometry and ice flow properties of glaciers on the Antarctic Peninsula. The DEM is available for download from the NSIDC website: http://nsidc.org/data/nsidc-0516.html (75 FR 20388 - International Business Machines Corporation, Global Technology Services Business Unit, Integrated...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-19

    ... Employment and Training Administration International Business Machines Corporation, Global Technology Services Business Unit, Integrated Technology Services, Cost and Expense Team, Working From Various States..., applicable to workers of International Business Machines Corporation, Global Technology Services...

  1. Estimation Model and Accuracy Analysis of BeiDou/GPS Real-time Precise Satellite Clock Error Integrated Resolving

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CHEN Liang

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Real-time high-precise satellite orbit and clock products are needed in real-time GNSS precise point positioning (PPP. In this paper, Estimation model and strategy of multi-GNSS precise satellite clock integrated resolving are researched and BeiDou/GPS real-time precise clock integrated estimation algorithm is realized by filter. Real-time simulation test results show: the STD accuracy of BeiDou/GPS real-time clock estimated in this paper compared to GFZ multi-GNSS precise clock(GBM is about 0.15ns; horizontal accuracy after convergence of GPS kinematic PPP using simulation real-time clock products estimated in this paper is better than 5cm and vertical accuracy is better than 10cm, respectively; in BeiDou kinematic PPP test, horizontal and vertical accuracy results are same as the results using GFZ multi-GNSS precise clock(GBM products, and the decimeter positioning can be realized.

  2. Vertical Accuracy Assessment of 30-M Resolution Alos, Aster, and Srtm Global Dems Over Northeastern Mindanao, Philippines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santillan, J. R.; Makinano-Santillan, M.

    2016-06-01

    The ALOS World 3D - 30 m (AW3D30), ASTER Global DEM Version 2 (GDEM2), and SRTM-30 m are Digital Elevation Models (DEMs) that have been made available to the general public free of charge. An important feature of these DEMs is their unprecedented horizontal resolution of 30-m and almost global coverage. The very recent release of these DEMs, particularly AW3D30 and SRTM- 30 m, calls for opportunities for the conduct of localized assessment of the DEM's quality and accuracy to verify their suitability for a wide range of applications in hydrology, geomorphology, archaelogy, and many others. In this study, we conducted a vertical accuracy assessment of these DEMs by comparing the elevation of 274 control points scattered over various sites in northeastern Mindanao, Philippines. The elevations of these control points (referred to the Mean Sea Level, MSL) were obtained through 3rd order differential levelling using a high precision digital level, and their horizontal positions measured using a global positioning system (GPS) receiver. These control points are representative of five (5) land-cover classes namely brushland (45 points), built-up (32), cultivated areas (97), dense vegetation (74), and grassland (26). Results showed that AW3D30 has the lowest Root Mean Square Error (RMSE) of 5.68 m, followed by SRTM-30 m (RMSE = 8.28 m), and ASTER GDEM2 (RMSE = 11.98 m). While all the three DEMs overestimated the true ground elevations, the mean and standard deviations of the differences in elevations were found to be lower in AW3D30 compared to SRTM-30 m and ASTER GDEM2. The superiority of AW3D30 over the other two DEMS was also found to be consistent even under different landcover types, with AW3D30's RMSEs ranging from 4.29 m (built-up) to 6.75 m (dense vegetation). For SRTM-30 m, the RMSE ranges from 5.91 m (built-up) to 10.42 m (brushland); for ASTER GDEM2, the RMSE ranges from 9.27 m (brushland) to 14.88 m (dense vegetation). The

  3. Circadian Rhythms: The Effects of Global Market Integration in the Currency Trading Industry

    OpenAIRE

    Srilata Zaheer

    1995-01-01

    This essay assesses the impact of global market integration in the currency trading industry as the market interfaces with states, with firms and with individuals, and raises questions for research from a variety of disciplines. Issues discussed include the question of state control in global markets, the impact of globalization on firm structures and processes, how firms can derive competitive advantage from global circadian rhythms, and the influences of the circadian rhythms of the global ...

  4. GLobal Integrated Design Environment (GLIDE): A Concurrent Engineering Application

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGuire, Melissa L.; Kunkel, Matthew R.; Smith, David A.

    2010-01-01

    The GLobal Integrated Design Environment (GLIDE) is a client-server software application purpose-built to mitigate issues associated with real time data sharing in concurrent engineering environments and to facilitate discipline-to-discipline interaction between multiple engineers and researchers. GLIDE is implemented in multiple programming languages utilizing standardized web protocols to enable secure parameter data sharing between engineers and researchers across the Internet in closed and/or widely distributed working environments. A well defined, HyperText Transfer Protocol (HTTP) based Application Programming Interface (API) to the GLIDE client/server environment enables users to interact with GLIDE, and each other, within common and familiar tools. One such common tool, Microsoft Excel (Microsoft Corporation), paired with its add-in API for GLIDE, is discussed in this paper. The top-level examples given demonstrate how this interface improves the efficiency of the design process of a concurrent engineering study while reducing potential errors associated with manually sharing information between study participants.

  5. An Improved Global Wind Resource Estimate for Integrated Assessment Models: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eurek, Kelly [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Sullivan, Patrick [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Gleason, Michael [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Hettinger, Dylan [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Heimiller, Donna [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Lopez, Anthony [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2017-02-01

    This paper summarizes initial steps to improving the robustness and accuracy of global renewable resource and techno-economic assessments for use in integrated assessment models. We outline a method to construct country-level wind resource supply curves, delineated by resource quality and other parameters. Using mesoscale reanalysis data, we generate estimates for wind quality, both terrestrial and offshore, across the globe. Because not all land or water area is suitable for development, appropriate database layers provide exclusions to reduce the total resource to its technical potential. We expand upon estimates from related studies by: using a globally consistent data source of uniquely detailed wind speed characterizations; assuming a non-constant coefficient of performance for adjusting power curves for altitude; categorizing the distance from resource sites to the electric power grid; and characterizing offshore exclusions on the basis of sea ice concentrations. The product, then, is technical potential by country, classified by resource quality as determined by net capacity factor. Additional classifications dimensions are available, including distance to transmission networks for terrestrial wind and distance to shore and water depth for offshore. We estimate the total global wind generation potential of 560 PWh for terrestrial wind with 90% of resource classified as low-to-mid quality, and 315 PWh for offshore wind with 67% classified as mid-to-high quality. These estimates are based on 3.5 MW composite wind turbines with 90 m hub heights, 0.95 availability, 90% array efficiency, and 5 MW/km2 deployment density in non-excluded areas. We compare the underlying technical assumption and results with other global assessments.

  6. Integrating global land cover datasets for deriving user-specific maps

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tsendbazar, Nandika; Bruin, de Sytze; Herold, Martin

    2016-01-01

    Global scale land cover (LC) mapping has interested many researchers over the last two decades as it is an input data source for various applications. Current global land cover (GLC) maps often do not meet the accuracy and thematic requirements of specific users. This study aimed to create an improv

  7. Integration of nitrogen dynamics into a global terrestrial ecosystem model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Xiaojuan [University of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign; Wittig, Victoria [University of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign; Jain, Atul [University of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign; Post, Wilfred M [ORNL

    2009-01-01

    A comprehensive model of terrestrial N dynamics has been developed and coupled with the geographically explicit terrestrial C cycle component of the Integrated Science Assessment Model (ISAM). The coupled C-N cycle model represents all the major processes in the N cycle and all major interactions between C and N that affect plant productivity and soil and litter decomposition. Observations from the LIDET data set were compiled for calibration and evaluation of the decomposition submodel within ISAM. For aboveground decomposition, the calibration is accomplished by optimizing parameters related to four processes: the partitioning of leaf litter between metabolic and structural material, the effect of lignin on decomposition, the climate control on decomposition and N mineralization and immobilization. For belowground decomposition, the calibrated processes include the partitioning of root litter between decomposable and resistant material as a function of litter quality, N mineralization and immobilization. The calibrated model successfully captured both the C and N dynamics during decomposition for all major biomes and a wide range of climate conditions. Model results show that net N immobilization and mineralization during litter decomposition are dominantly controlled by initial N concentration of litter and the mass remaining during decomposition. The highest and lowest soil organicNstorage are in tundra (1.24 KgNm2) and desert soil (0.06 Kg N m2). The vegetation N storage is highest in tropical forests (0.5 Kg N m2), and lowest in tundra and desert (<0.03 Kg N m2). N uptake by vegetation is highest in warm and moist regions, and lowest in cold and dry regions. Higher rates of N leaching are found in tropical regions and subtropical regions where soil moisture is higher. The global patterns of vegetation and soil N, N uptake and N leaching estimated with ISAM are consistent with measurements and previous modeling studies. This gives us confidence that ISAM

  8. Managing the tensions in integrating global organisations : The role of performance management systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Busco, Cristiano; Giovannoni, Elena; Scapens, Robert W.

    2008-01-01

    The paper explores the role of performance management systems (PMSs) in integrating global organisations (GOs). It investigates the ways in which the diverse entities that comprise a GO can be co-ordinated and integrated to achieve a global unity of effort, while leaving space for local adaptation,

  9. Integration of differential global positioning system with ultrawideband synthetic aperture radar for forward imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, David C.; Bui, Khang; Nguyen, Lam H.; Smith, Gregory; Ton, Tuan T.

    2003-09-01

    The U.S. Army Research Laboratory (ARL), as part of a customer and mission-funded exploratory development program, has been evaluating low-frequency, ultra-wideband (UWB) imaging radar for forward imaging to support the Army's vision for increased mobility and survivability of unmanned ground vehicle missions. As part of the program to improve the radar system and imaging capability, ARL has incorporated a differential global positioning system (DGPS) for motion compensation into the radar system. The use of DGPS can greatly increase positional accuracy, thereby allowing us to improve our ability to focus better images for the detection of small targets such as plastic mines and other concealed objects buried underground. The ability of UWB radar technology to detect concealed objects could provide an important obstacle avoidance capability for robotic vehicles, which would improve the speed and maneuverability of these vehicles and consequently increase the survivability of the U.S. forces. This paper details the integration and discusses the significance of integrating a DGPS into the radar system for forward imaging. It also compares the difference between DGPS and the motion compensation data collected by the use of the original theodolite-based system.

  10. Integrating global energy and climate governance: The changing role of the International Energy Agency

    OpenAIRE

    Heubaum, Harald; Biermann, Frank

    2015-01-01

    Despite the long-recognized interlinkages between global energy consumption and climate change, there has historically been only limited policy interaction, let alone integration, between the two fields. This compartmentalization is mirrored in scholarship, where much research has focused on the fragmentation of, respectively, global energy and global climate governance, but only little has been said about how these fields might be integrated. Our analysis of the International Energy Agency’s...

  11. Towards an Integrated Global Land Cover Monitoring and Mapping System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Herold

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Global land cover mapping has evolved in a number of ways over the past two decades including increased activity in the areas of map validation and inter-comparison, which is the main focus of this Special Issue in Remote Sensing. Here we describe the major trends in global land cover mapping that have occurred, followed by recent advances as exemplified by the papers in the Special Issue. Finally, we consider what the future holds for global land cover mapping.

  12. Positioning accuracy and reliability of GALILEO,integrated GPS-GALILEO system based on single positioning model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHAO Chunmei; OU Jikun; YUAN Yunbin

    2005-01-01

    A kind of uniform reliability index suitable for the code and phase observations is presented and used in reliability evaluation of satellite systems. Then, based on 25 stations of Crustal Movement Observation Network of China, satellite visibility, positioning availability and observation reliability of GPS, GALILEO and integrated GPS- GALILEO are calculated and analyzed in detail. Simulation results reveal that the satellite visibility of GALILEO is superior to that of GPS. Given positioning accuracy, horizontal positioning availability of GALILEO is consistent with that of GPS, but its vertical positioning availability is superior to that of GPS. However, the integrated GPS-GALILEO is shown to be superior to each of the single systems in the aspects of positioning accuracy and availability. The reliability of code and phase observations based on GALILEO and integrated GPS-GALILEO system is superior to that of GPS both in spatial and temporal domains on the whole. The new reliability index presented is simple to calculate and reflects reliability differences of different satellite systems.

  13. Integrative-index method of assessment of the countries’ financial globalization level

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oleh Mozhovyi

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available The article considers the relevant problems of the complex evaluation of the countries’ financial globalization level. There were investigated methodological principles and assessment tools of both the economic globalization in general and its financial component. It offers an integrative index of the countries’ financial globalization based on which calculations we analyzed characteristic features and dynamism of the globalization processes development in the sphere of finance of some countries.

  14. High Accuracy Liquid Propellant Slosh Predictions Using an Integrated CFD and Controls Analysis Interface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marsell, Brandon; Griffin, David; Schallhorn, Dr. Paul; Roth, Jacob

    2012-01-01

    Coupling computational fluid dynamics (CFD) with a controls analysis tool elegantly allows for high accuracy predictions of the interaction between sloshing liquid propellants and th e control system of a launch vehicle. Instead of relying on mechanical analogs which are not valid during aU stages of flight, this method allows for a direct link between the vehicle dynamic environments calculated by the solver in the controls analysis tool to the fluid flow equations solved by the CFD code. This paper describes such a coupling methodology, presents the results of a series of test cases, and compares said results against equivalent results from extensively validated tools. The coupling methodology, described herein, has proven to be highly accurate in a variety of different cases.

  15. Integrated CFD and Controls Analysis Interface for High Accuracy Liquid Propellant Slosh Predictions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marsell, Brandon; Griffin, David; Schallhorn, Paul; Roth, Jacob

    2012-01-01

    Coupling computational fluid dynamics (CFD) with a controls analysis tool elegantly allows for high accuracy predictions of the interaction between sloshing liquid propellants and the control system of a launch vehicle. Instead of relying on mechanical analogs which are n0t va lid during all stages of flight, this method allows for a direct link between the vehicle dynamic environments calculated by the solver in the controls analysis tool to the fluid now equations solved by the CFD code. This paper describes such a coupling methodology, presents the results of a series of test cases, and compares said results against equivalent results from extensively validated tools. The coupling methodology, described herein, has proven to be highly accurate in a variety of different cases.

  16. Integral quantification accuracy estimation for reporter ion-based quantitative proteomics (iQuARI).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaudel, Marc; Burkhart, Julia M; Radau, Sonja; Zahedi, René P; Martens, Lennart; Sickmann, Albert

    2012-10-05

    With the increasing popularity of comparative studies of complex proteomes, reporter ion-based quantification methods such as iTRAQ and TMT have become commonplace in biological studies. Their appeal derives from simple multiplexing and quantification of several samples at reasonable cost. This advantage yet comes with a known shortcoming: precursors of different species can interfere, thus reducing the quantification accuracy. Recently, two methods were brought to the community alleviating the amount of interference via novel experimental design. Before considering setting up a new workflow, tuning the system, optimizing identification and quantification rates, etc. one legitimately asks: is it really worth the effort, time and money? The question is actually not easy to answer since the interference is heavily sample and system dependent. Moreover, there was to date no method allowing the inline estimation of error rates for reporter quantification. We therefore introduce a method called iQuARI to compute false discovery rates for reporter ion based quantification experiments as easily as Target/Decoy FDR for identification. With it, the scientist can accurately estimate the amount of interference in his sample on his system and eventually consider removing shadows subsequently, a task for which reporter ion quantification might not be the solution of choice.

  17. Architectural constraints are a major factor reducing path integration accuracy in the rat head direction cell system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hector James Ingram Page

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Head direction cells fire to signal the direction in which an animal's head is pointing. They are able to track head direction using only internally-derived information (path integration. In this simulation study we investigate the factors that affect path integration accuracy. Specifically, two major limiting factors are identified: rise time, the time after stimulation it takes for a neuron to start firing, and the presence of symmetric non-offset within-layer recurrent collateral connectivity. On the basis of the latter, the important prediction is made that head direction cell regions directly involved in path integration will not contain this type of connectivity; giving a theoretical explanation for architectural observations. Increased neuronal rise time is found to slow path integration, and the slowing effect for a given rise time is found to be more severe in the context of short conduction delays. Further work is suggested on the basis of our findings, which represent a valuable contribution to understanding of the head direction cell system.

  18. ANALYSIS OF GLOBAL INTEGRATION PROCESSES: SOUTH AFRICA, ASIA-PACIFIC REGION AND RUSSIA

    OpenAIRE

    Natalia Victorovna Kuznetsova, Natalia Alexandrovna Vorobeva

    2015-01-01

    The paper examines the problem of global integration processes in regions of Africa, Asia and Russia. Based on migration flows, estimation of integration indexes, we investigate the historical integration development of these regions and identify the important features for future international cooperation and integration. This article presents the preliminary results of the gravity model that we constructed using the features of Asia-Pacific region. We concluded that differences and similarit...

  19. Integrated studies of uncultured microbes in the global ocean (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dupont, C.; Rusch, D.; Martiny, A.; Lasken, R.

    2010-12-01

    The Global Ocean Sampling (GOS) initiative at the J. Craig Venter Institute represents the most extensive metagenomic study of a single environment. Early findings highlighted the potential of shotgun metagenomics to expand our knowledge of marine microbial biodiversity and physiology. However, it also became clear that many of the abundant marine microbes remain uncultured, hindering a direct connection between phylogeny and ecophysiology. In two recent studies, a combination of single cell genomics and aggressive assembly of binned metagenomic data have resulted in the acquisition of multiple genomes for two uncultured but globally relevant organisms. Metabolic reconstructions of the whole genomes revealed unique physiological adaptations in marine Prochlorococcus to high nutrient, low Fe regions of the global ocean and illuminated the potential ecological role of the gamma-proteobacterial 16S clade SAR86. The internal reference genomes also facilitate fragment recruitment based biogeographical studies, both at the whole genome level and the protein level.

  20. Accuracy of Coverage Survey Recall following an Integrated Mass Drug Administration for Lymphatic Filariasis, Schistosomiasis, and Soil-Transmitted Helminthiasis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philip J Budge

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Achieving target coverage levels for mass drug administration (MDA is essential to elimination and control efforts for several neglected tropical diseases (NTD. To ensure program goals are met, coverage reported by drug distributors may be validated through household coverage surveys that rely on respondent recall. This is the first study to assess accuracy in such surveys.Recall accuracy was tested in a series of coverage surveys conducted at 1, 6, and 12 months after an integrated MDA in Togo during which three drugs (albendazole, ivermectin, and praziquantel were distributed. Drug distribution was observed during the MDA to ensure accurate recording of persons treated during the MDA. Information was obtained for 506, 1131, and 947 persons surveyed at 1, 6, and 12 months, respectively. Coverage (defined as the percentage of persons taking at least one of the MDA medications within these groups was respectively 88.3%, 87.4%, and 80.0%, according to the treatment registers; it was 87.9%, 91.4% and 89.4%, according to survey responses. Concordance between respondents and registers on swallowing at least one pill was >95% at 1 month and >86% at 12 months; the lower concordance at 12 months was more likely due to difficulty matching survey respondents with the year-old treatment register rather than inaccurate responses. Respondents generally distinguished between pills similar in appearance; concordance for recall of which pills were taken was over 80% in each survey.In this population, coverage surveys provided remarkably consistent coverage estimates for up to one year following an integrated MDA. It is not clear if similar consistency will be seen in other settings, however, these data suggest that in some settings coverage surveys might be conducted as much as one year following an MDA without compromising results. This might enable integration of post-MDA coverage measurement into large, multipurpose, periodic surveys, thereby conserving

  1. Contemporary Globalization, the Transition from Border to Integration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florin Iftode

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available In a new global economy, which is in a constant growth, more companies or nations are in a position to export their own business model, searching for new markets, more favorable production costs, or diffent strategies leading to performance. This paper does not clame an exhaustive analysis, the aim is to capture some aspects of the comtemporany realities, because most of the aspects of the globalization can be passed throgh a cultural register. As a reference model, we used Locke‟s consensual inductive system, which involves the collections of opinions of specialist in the field with objective positions.

  2. Enhanced global integration of closed contours in individuals with high levels of autistic-like traits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almeida, Renita A; Dickinson, J Edwin; Maybery, Murray T; Badcock, Johanna C; Badcock, David R

    2014-10-01

    Individuals with autistic traits (measured with Autism-spectrum Quotient, AQ) often excel in detecting shapes hidden within complex structures (e.g. on the Embedded Figures Test, EFT). This facility has been attributed to either weaker global integration of scene elements or enhanced local processing, but 'local' and 'global' have various meanings in the literature. The function of specific global visual mechanisms involved in integrating contours, similar to EFT targets was examined. High AQ scorers produced enhanced performance on the EFT and an alternative Radial Frequency Search Task. Contrary to 'generic' interpretations of weaker global pooling, this group displayed stronger pooling of contour components that was correlated with search ability. This study therefore shows a global contour integration advantage in high AQ observers.

  3. Progress toward an Integrated Global GHG Information System (IG3IS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeCola, Philip

    2016-04-01

    Accurate and precise atmospheric measurements of greenhouse gas (GHG) concentrations have shown the inexorable rise of global GHG concentrations due to human socioeconomic activity. Scientific observations also show a resulting rise in global temperatures and evidence of negative impacts on society. In response to this amassing evidence, nations, states, cities and private enterprises are accelerating efforts to reduce emissions of GHGs, and the UNFCCC process recently forged the Paris Agreement. Emission reduction strategies will vary by nation, region, and economic sector (e.g., INDCs), but regardless of the strategies and mechanisms applied, the ability to implement policies and manage them effectively over time will require consistent, reliable and timely information. A number of studies [e.g., Verifying Greenhouse Gas Emissions: Methods to Support International Climate Agreements (2010); GEO Carbon Strategy (2010); IPCC Task Force on National GHG Inventories: Expert Meeting Report on Uncertainty and Validation of Emission Inventories (2010)] have reported on the state of carbon cycle research, observations and models and the ability of these atmospheric observations and models to independently validate and improve the accuracy of self-reported emission inventories based on fossil fuel usage and land use activities. These studies concluded that by enhancing our in situ and remote-sensing observations and atmospheric data assimilation modeling capabilities, a GHG information system could be achieved in the coming decade to serve the needs of policies and actions to reduce GHG emissions. Atmospheric measurements and models are already being used to provide emissions information on a global and continental scale through existing networks, but these efforts currently provide insufficient information at the human-dimensions where nations, states, cities, and private enterprises can take valuable, and additional action that can reduce emissions for a specific GHG

  4. Ground-Based Global Positioning System (GPS) Meteorology Integrated Precipitable Water Vapor (IPW)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Ground-Based Global Positioning System (GPS) Meteorology Integrated Precipitable Water Vapor (IPW) data set measures atmospheric water vapor using ground-based...

  5. An integrative review of global nursing workforce issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nichols, Barbara L; Davis, Catherine R; Richardson, Donna R

    2010-01-01

    Migration has been a way of life since the beginning of time, with migrants seeking other lands for personal and professional betterment. Today, in an era of globalization, trade agreements and technological advances, an increase in migration is inevitable. All professions have been affected, but the migration of health professionals, particularly nurses, has been the most dramatic. However, the migration of nurses across national and international borders comes with many challenges: systematic tracking of migration flows, harmonization of standards, recognition of professional credentials, fair and equitable distribution of the global health care workforce, and the effect of migration on the health care infrastructure of both source and destination countries. The international migration of nurses to address shortages in developed countries has, in some instances, left source countries with insufficient resources to address their own health care needs. The increasing complexity of health care delivery, aging of the population and the nursing workforce, and the escalating global demand for nurses create on-going challenges for policy makers. Strategically addressing global nursing workforce issues is paramount to sustaining the health of nations.

  6. Integrating Biology, Chemistry, and Mathematics to Evaluate Global Water Problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kosal, Erica; Lawrence, Carol; Austin, Rodney

    2010-01-01

    An interdisciplinary and context-driven course focused on global water issues was developed and taught at the college level. Students designed a semester-long research project, collected and analyzed data, and ultimately presented their results and conclusions to the larger community. As a result of the course, students' science literacy improved…

  7. Freight integration in liner shipping: a strategy serving global production networks

    OpenAIRE

    Notteboom, T.; Merckx, F.

    2006-01-01

    Container shipping lines are well aware of the growing importance of global production networks. While continuing to focus on improving the fundamentals, many shipping lines have developed a keen interest in other segments of the logistics and transportation market to offer integrated and worldwide services to global production networks. This paper aims to assess the overall level of freight integration in thirty-four shipping lines, and provides an insight into the extent to which freight in...

  8. Anthropogenic climate change in an integrated energy balance model of global and urban warming

    OpenAIRE

    Sato, Kimitoshi

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents an integrated energy balance model of global and urban warming in the attributes/functionings framework à la Gorman-Lancaster-Sen and proposes a Global Warming Function and an Urban Warming Function. Also presented is a concept of Heat Island Integral, which measures the difference of anthropogenic heat stocks between two regions. The model involves residents, producers such as offices and manufacturers, and landscape gardeners who play a very important role in cooling dow...

  9. Smartphone Application Enabling Global Graph Exploitation and Proactive Dissemination Service (DSPro) Integration (Revised Fiscal Year 2015)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-09-01

    ARL-TN-0696 ● SEP 2015 US Army Research Laboratory Smartphone Application Enabling Global Graph Exploitation and Proactive ...US Army Research Laboratory Smartphone Application Enabling Global Graph Exploitation and Proactive Dissemination Service (DSPro) Integration...Revised Fiscal Year 2015) by Mark R Mittrick Computational and Information Sciences Directorate, ARL Approved for public

  10. An Empirical Analysis of the Integration-Responsiveness Framework in Global Industries

    OpenAIRE

    Kendall Roth; Allen J Morrison

    1990-01-01

    In this study, business competing in global industries were categorized into three groups according to the integration responsiveness framework for conceptualizing industry pressures confronting business competing internationally. Using this framework, contextual conditions associated with each group were examined. Competitive attributes distinguishing each group were then identified to clarify alternate business-level strategies for competing within a global industry context. Beyond providin...

  11. Global land cover map validation, comparison and integration for different user communities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tsendbazar, N.E.

    2016-01-01

    Global land cover map validation, comparison and integration for different user communities Abstract Observation of global-scale land cover is of importance to international initiatives, governments, and scientific communities that endeavour to understand and monito

  12. China-East Asia Cooperation——In the Context of Economic Globalization and Regional Integration

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    Ⅰ.Economic globalization and regional integration Economic globalization, a general trend in the world’s development today, is interdependence for various countries in its real sense. Economic globalization, which began in the initial stage of development of capitalism, has a history of over a hundred years, and has undergone several stages from raw material procurement to trade in commodities and then to technology transfer and capital export, making economic links

  13. B2B Integration in Global Supply Chains

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schubert, Petra; Legner, Christine

    2011-01-01

    The competitiveness of businesses is increasingly dependent on their electronic networks with customers, suppliers, and partners. While the strategic and operational impact of external integration and IOS adoption has been extensively studied, much less attention has been paid to the organizational...... and technical design of electronic relationships. The objective of our longitudinal research project is the development of a framework for understanding and explaining B2B integration. Drawing on existing literature and empirical cases we present a reference model (a classification scheme for B2B Integration...... and is independent of specific implementation technologies. In the next stage of the research the emerging reference model will be extended to create an assessment model for analysing the maturity level of a given company in a specific supply chain....

  14. Comparative Accuracy Evaluation of Fine-Scale Global and Local Digital Surface Models: The Tshwane Case Study I

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breytenbach, A.

    2016-10-01

    Conducted in the City of Tshwane, South Africa, this study set about to test the accuracy of DSMs derived from different remotely sensed data locally. VHR digital mapping camera stereo-pairs, tri-stereo imagery collected by a Pléiades satellite and data detected from the Tandem-X InSAR satellite configuration were fundamental in the construction of seamless DSM products at different postings, namely 2 m, 4 m and 12 m. The three DSMs were sampled against independent control points originating from validated airborne LiDAR data. The reference surfaces were derived from the same dense point cloud at grid resolutions corresponding to those of the samples. The absolute and relative positional accuracies were computed using well-known DEM error metrics and accuracy statistics. Overall vertical accuracies were also assessed and compared across seven slope classes and nine primary land cover classes. Although all three DSMs displayed significantly more vertical errors where solid waterbodies, dense natural and/or alien woody vegetation and, in a lesser degree, urban residential areas with significant canopy cover were encountered, all three surpassed their expected positional accuracies overall.

  15. COMPARATIVE ACCURACY EVALUATION OF FINE-SCALE GLOBAL AND LOCAL DIGITAL SURFACE MODELS: THE TSHWANE CASE STUDY I

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Breytenbach

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Conducted in the City of Tshwane, South Africa, this study set about to test the accuracy of DSMs derived from different remotely sensed data locally. VHR digital mapping camera stereo-pairs, tri-stereo imagery collected by a Pléiades satellite and data detected from the Tandem-X InSAR satellite configuration were fundamental in the construction of seamless DSM products at different postings, namely 2 m, 4 m and 12 m. The three DSMs were sampled against independent control points originating from validated airborne LiDAR data. The reference surfaces were derived from the same dense point cloud at grid resolutions corresponding to those of the samples. The absolute and relative positional accuracies were computed using well-known DEM error metrics and accuracy statistics. Overall vertical accuracies were also assessed and compared across seven slope classes and nine primary land cover classes. Although all three DSMs displayed significantly more vertical errors where solid waterbodies, dense natural and/or alien woody vegetation and, in a lesser degree, urban residential areas with significant canopy cover were encountered, all three surpassed their expected positional accuracies overall.

  16. Global Format for Conservative Time Integration in Nonlinear Dynamics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krenk, Steen

    2014-01-01

    -frequency parts of the response. The energy conservation property is developed in two steps. First a fourth-order representation of the internal energy increment is obtained in terms of the mean value of the associated internal forces and an additional term containing the increment of the tangent stiffness matrix....... In the present paper a conservative time integration algorithm is developed in a format using only the internal forces and the associated tangent stiffness at the specific time integration points. Thus, the procedure is computationally very similar to a collocation method, consisting of a series of nonlinear...

  17. Global sourcing - performance and integration : reflections on performance, implications from cross-functional and external integration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Horn, Philipp

    2013-01-01

    Despite the fact that firms and individuals have been sourcing on a global basis since ancient times, global sourcing as a topic has received considerable attention from managers and scholars in recent years. Global business has been reported to be growing considerably during the last decades and th

  18. Global Format for Conservative Time Integration in Nonlinear Dynamics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krenk, Steen

    2014-01-01

    The widely used classic collocation-based time integration procedures like Newmark, Generalized-alpha etc. generally work well within a framework of linear problems, but typically may encounter problems, when used in connection with essentially nonlinear structures. These problems are overcome in...

  19. THE DEGREE OF STATE'S GLOBALIZATION ASSESSMENT IN ASPECTS OF CONVERGENCE AND INTEGRATION IN THE WORLD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Kharlamova

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Analyses of approaches and methods to assess processes of integration and convergence adjusted the direction of the goal of the study – to assess the degree of globalization for a state by means of alternative (authors’ approach, taking into account current characteristics and trends of this process. Based on the known techniques to assess the degree of globalization as “European Integration Index for Eastern Partnership Coun-tries” and “KOF Index of Globalization”, we have expanded the existing methodology and developed an alternative index of the degree of globaliza-tion of the country, based on the model of perfect globalized and fully not globalized countries. Alternative globalization index and KOF Index of Globalization were compared to analyze the practical efficiency of each. Comparative characteristics of the alternative globalization index of the country and KOF Index of Globalization confirmed the practical efficiency and simplicity in estimation for authors’ index that is based on evidence and giving adequate evaluation. The development of new methods in this area is in demand as never before. We have taken the first steps toward an alternative approach analysis of the phenomenon of globalization.

  20. Global health diplomacy: an integrative review of the literature and implications for nursing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunter, Anita; Wilson, Lynda; Stanhope, Marcia; Hatcher, Barbara; Hattar, Marianne; Hilfinger Messias, Deanne K; Powell, Dorothy

    2013-01-01

    The increasing interconnectedness of the world and the factors that affect health lay the foundation for the evolving practice of global health diplomacy. There has been limited discussion in the nursing literature about the concept of global health diplomacy or the role of nurses in such initiatives. A discussion of this concept is presented here by the members of a Task Force on Global Health Diplomacy of the American Academy of Nursing Expert Panel on Global Nursing and Health (AAN EPGNH). The purpose of this article is to present an integrative review of literature on the concept of global health diplomacy and to identify implications of this emerging field for nursing education, practice, and research. The steps proposed by Whittemore and Knafl (2005) were adapted and applied to the integrative review of theoretical and descriptive articles about the concept of global health diplomacy. This review included an analysis of the historical background, definition, and challenges of global health diplomacy and suggestions about the preparation of global health diplomats. The article concludes with a discussion of implications for nursing practice, education, and research. The Task Force endorses the definition of global health diplomacy proposed by Adams, Novotny, and Leslie (2008) but recommends that further dialogue and research is necessary to identify opportunities and educational requirements for nurses to contribute to the emerging field of global health diplomacy.

  1. Improvements in dose accuracy delivered with static-MLC IMRT on an integrated linear accelerator control system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li Ji; Wiersma, Rodney D.; Stepaniak, Christopher J.; Farrey, Karl J.; Al-Hallaq, Hania A. [Department of Radiation and Cellular Oncology, University of Chicago, 5758 South Maryland Avenue, MC9006, Chicago, Illinois 60637 (United States)

    2012-05-15

    Purpose: Dose accuracy has been shown to vary with dose per segment and dose rate when delivered with static multileaf collimator (SMLC) intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) by Varian C-series MLC controllers. The authors investigated the impact of monitor units (MUs) per segment and dose rate on the dose delivery accuracy of SMLC-IMRT fields on a Varian TrueBeam linear accelerator (LINAC), which delivers dose and manages motion of all components using a single integrated controller. Methods: An SMLC sequence was created consisting of ten identical 10 x 10 cm{sup 2} segments with identical MUs. Beam holding between segments was achieved by moving one out-of-field MLC leaf pair. Measurements were repeated for various combinations of MU/segment ranging from 1 to 40 and dose rates of 100-600 MU/min for a 6 MV photon beam (6X) and dose rates of 800-2400 MU/min for a 10 MV flattening-filter free photon (10XFFF) beam. All measurements were made with a Farmer (0.6 cm{sup 3}) ionization chamber placed at the isocenter in a solid-water phantom at 10 cm depth. The measurements were performed on two Varian LINACs: C-series Trilogy and TrueBeam. Each sequence was delivered three times and the dose readings for the corresponding segments were averaged. The effects of MU/segment, dose rate, and LINAC type on the relative dose variation ({Delta}{sub i}) were compared using F-tests ({alpha} = 0.05). Results: On the Trilogy, large {Delta}{sub i} was observed in small MU segments: at 1 MU/segment, the maximum {Delta}{sub i} was 10.1% and 57.9% at 100 MU/min and 600 MU/min, respectively. Also, the first segment of each sequence consistently overshot ({Delta}{sub i} > 0), while the last segment consistently undershot ({Delta}{sub i} < 0). On the TrueBeam, at 1 MU/segment, {Delta}{sub i} ranged from 3.0% to 4.5% at 100 and 600 MU/min; no obvious overshoot/undershoot trend was observed. F-tests showed statistically significant difference [(1 - {beta}) =1.0000] between the

  2. Integrating comparative functional response experiments into global change research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Gorman, Eoin J

    2014-05-01

    There is a growing appreciation for the importance of non-consumptive effects in predator-prey interaction research, which can often outweigh the importance of direct feeding. Barrios-O'Neill et al. (2014) report a novel method to characterize such effects by comparing the functional response of native and introduced intermediate consumers in the presence and absence of a higher predator. The invader exhibited stronger direct feeding and was also more resistant to intimidation by the higher predator. This experimental framework may be incorporated into mainstream global change research, for example, to quantify the importance of non-consumptive effects for the success or failure of biological invasions.

  3. Analysis of the accuracy of Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) height models using International Global Navigation Satellite System Service (IGS) Network

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Manas Mukul; Vinee Srivastava; Malay Mukul

    2015-08-01

    The Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) carried out in February 2000 has provided near global topographic data that has been widely used in many fields of earth sciences. The mission goal of an absolute vertical accuracy within 16 m (with 90% confidence)/RMSE ∼10 m was achieved based on ground validation of SRTM data through various studies using global positioning system (GPS). We present a new and independent assessment of the vertical accuracy of both the X- and C-band SRTM datasets using data from the International GNSS Service (IGS) network of high-precision static GPS stations. These stations exist worldwide, have better spatial distribution than previous studies, have a vertical accuracy of 6 mm and constitute the most accurate ground control points (GCPs) possible on earth; these stations are used as fiducial stations to define the International Terrestrial Reference Frame (ITRF). Globally, for outlier-filtered data (135 X-band stations and 290 C-band stations), the error or difference between IGS and SRTM heights exhibits a non-normal distribution with a mean and standard error of 8.2 ± 0.7 and 6.9 ± 0.5 m for X- and C-band data, respectively. Continent-wise, Africa, Australia and North America comply with the SRTM mission absolute vertical accuracy of 16 m (with 90% confidence)/RMSE ∼10 m. However, Asia, Europe and South America have vertical errors higher than the SRTM mission goal. At stations where both the X- and C-band SRTM data were present, the root mean square error (RMSE) of both the X- and C-bands was identical at 11.5 m, indicating similar quality of both the X- and C-band SRTM data.

  4. An integrative lens model approach to bias and accuracy in human inferences: hindsight effects and knowledge updating in personality judgments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nestler, Steffen; Egloff, Boris; Küfner, Albrecht C P; Back, Mitja D

    2012-10-01

    The present article integrates research on the accurate inference of personality traits with process models of hindsight bias (the tendency to exaggerate in hindsight what one had said in foresight). Specifically, the article suggests a new model that integrates assumptions of the lens model on accurate personality judgments and accounts that view hindsight effects as a by-product of knowledge updating. We suggest 3 processes that have the potential to explain the occurrence of hindsight effects in personality judgments: (a) changes in an individual's cue perceptions, (b) changes in the utilization of more valid cues, and (c) changes in the consistency with which cue knowledge is applied. In 2 studies (N1 = 91, N2 = 93), participants were presented with target pictures and were asked to judge each target's levels of the Big Five. Thereafter, they received feedback and had to recall their original judgments. Results show that there were clear hindsight effects for all 5 personality dimensions. Importantly, we found evidence that both the utilization of more valid cues and changes in cue perceptions--but not changes in the consistency with which cue knowledge is applied--account for the hindsight effects. Implications of these results for models explaining hindsight effects, the inference of personality judgments, and the accuracy of these inferences are discussed.

  5. Exploring Connections Between Global Integration and Political Mobilization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jackie Smith

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available With the end of the Cold War, military security issues declined on the international agenda as environmental, economic, and social issues rose. As superpower con?ict faded from the international agenda, space was created for new attempts at multilateral problem-solving. How have these changes a?ected the prospects for transnational organizing? Using data from the Yearbook of International Associations this paper explores changes in the size, issue focus, geographic makeup, and organizational structure of the population of transnational social movement organizations (TSMOs in recent decades. While not the only form of transna-tional cooperation, these formal organizations provide important infrastructures for sustained transnational political work. Key ?ndings are that while the transnational social movement sector has continued to grow since the mid-20th century, its rate of growth has slowed in the 1990s. Also, human rights and environment predominate on TSMO issue-agendas, but during the 1990s more groups emphasized economic issues and adopted multi-issue organizing frames over single-issue focuses. Newer groups were more likely to be organized regionally, that is within the global North or South, which may re?ect e?orts to develop structures to better connect local settings with global networks.

  6. A Global MBA for Tomorrow's Global Business Leaders: Integrating Best Practice with Boston's Locational Advantage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delaunay, Christian J.; Blodgett, Mark S.

    2005-01-01

    Traditional IB programs have received mixed reviews from the corporate world. With this in mind, the Suffolk GMBA was benchmarked against the leading international business programs. The Suffolk GMBA was designed to be different and to ascertain the global environment in which business operates. A unique feature of the GMBA curriculum detailed in…

  7. Internal integration as a pre-condition for external integration in global sourcing: A social capital perspective

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Horn, Philipp; Scheffler, Paul; Schiele, Holger

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to explore the link between integration and global sourcing success in international operations and by doing so, to clarify the ambiguous picture that prevails in the existing literature. Specifically, this quantitative study aims at identifying the role of the buying co

  8. Accuracy analysis of the 2014–2015 Global Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) 1 arc-sec C-Band height model using International Global Navigation Satellite System Service (IGS) Network

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Manas Mukul; Vinee Srivastava; Malay Mukul

    2016-07-01

    Global Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) data products have been widely used in EarthSciences without an estimation of their accuracy and reliability even though large outliers exist in them.The global 1 arc-sec, 30 m resolution, SRTM C-Band (C-30) data collected in February 2000 has beenrecently released (2014–2015) outside North America. We present the first global assessment of thevertical accuracy of C-30 data using Ground Control Points (GCPs) from the International GNSS Service(IGS) Network of high-precision static fiducial stations that define the International Terrestrial ReferenceFrame (ITRF). Large outliers (height error ranging from –1285 to 2306 m) were present in the C-30dataset and 14% of the data were removed to reduce the root mean square error (RMSE) of the datasetfrom ∼187 to 10.3 m which is close to the SRTM goal of an absolute vertical accuracy of RMSE ∼10 m.Globally, for outlier-filtered data from 287 GCPs, the error or difference between IGS and SRTM heightsexhibited a non-normal distribution with a mean and standard error of 6.5 ± 0.5 m. Continent-wise,only Australia, North and South America complied with the SRTM goal. At stations where all the XandC-Band SRTM data were present, the RMSE of the outlier-filtered C-30 data was 11.7 m. However,the RMSE of outlier-included dataset where C- and X-Band data were present was ∼233 m. The resultssuggest that the SRTM data must only be used after regional accuracy analysis and removal of outliers.If used raw, they may produce results that are statistically insignificant with RMSE in 100s of meters.

  9. Accuracy analysis of the 2014-2015 Global Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) 1 arc-sec C-Band height model using International Global Navigation Satellite System Service (IGS) Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukul, Manas; Srivastava, Vinee; Mukul, Malay

    2016-07-01

    Global Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) data products have been widely used in Earth Sciences without an estimation of their accuracy and reliability even though large outliers exist in them. The global 1 arc-sec, 30 m resolution, SRTM C-Band (C-30) data collected in February 2000 has been recently released (2014-2015) outside North America. We present the first global assessment of the vertical accuracy of C-30 data using Ground Control Points (GCPs) from the International GNSS Service (IGS) Network of high-precision static fiducial stations that define the International Terrestrial Reference Frame (ITRF). Large outliers (height error ranging from -1285 to 2306 m) were present in the C-30 dataset and 14% of the data were removed to reduce the root mean square error (RMSE) of the dataset from ˜187 to 10.3 m which is close to the SRTM goal of an absolute vertical accuracy of RMSE ˜10 m. Globally, for outlier-filtered data from 287 GCPs, the error or difference between IGS and SRTM heights exhibited a non-normal distribution with a mean and standard error of 6.5 ± 0.5 m. Continent-wise, only Australia, North and South America complied with the SRTM goal. At stations where all the X- and C-Band SRTM data were present, the RMSE of the outlier-filtered C-30 data was 11.7 m. However, the RMSE of outlier-included dataset where C- and X-Band data were present was ˜233 m. The results suggest that the SRTM data must only be used after regional accuracy analysis and removal of outliers. If used raw, they may produce results that are statistically insignificant with RMSE in 100s of meters.

  10. Alzheimer's Disease Can Spare Local Metacognition Despite Global Anosognosia: Revisiting the Confidence-Accuracy Relationship in Episodic Memory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallo, David A.; Cramer, Stefanie J.; Wong, Jessica T.; Bennett, David A.

    2012-01-01

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) can impair metacognition in addition to more basic cognitive functions like memory. However, while global metacognitive inaccuracies are well documented (i.e., low deficit awareness, or anosognosia), the evidence is mixed regarding the effects of AD on local or task-based metacognitive judgments. Here we investigated local…

  11. Integration and global analysis of isothermal titration calorimetry data for studying macromolecular interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brautigam, Chad A; Zhao, Huaying; Vargas, Carolyn; Keller, Sandro; Schuck, Peter

    2016-05-01

    Isothermal titration calorimetry (ITC) is a powerful and widely used method to measure the energetics of macromolecular interactions by recording a thermogram of differential heating power during a titration. However, traditional ITC analysis is limited by stochastic thermogram noise and by the limited information content of a single titration experiment. Here we present a protocol for bias-free thermogram integration based on automated shape analysis of the injection peaks, followed by combination of isotherms from different calorimetric titration experiments into a global analysis, statistical analysis of binding parameters and graphical presentation of the results. This is performed using the integrated public-domain software packages NITPIC, SEDPHAT and GUSSI. The recently developed low-noise thermogram integration approach and global analysis allow for more precise parameter estimates and more reliable quantification of multisite and multicomponent cooperative and competitive interactions. Titration experiments typically take 1-2.5 h each, and global analysis usually takes 10-20 min.

  12. Integrated ground-based and remotely sensed data to support global studies of environmental change

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Olson, R.J.; Turner, R.S.; Garten, C.T.

    1994-09-15

    Data centers routinely archive and distribute large databases of high quality and with rigorous documentation but, to meet the needs of global studies effectively and efficiently, data centers must go beyond these traditional roles. Global studies of environmental change require integrated databases of multiple data types that are accurately coordinated in terms of spatial, temporal and thematic properties. Such datasets must be designed and developed jointly by scientific researchers, computer specialists, and policy analysts. The presentation focuses on our approach for organizing data from ground-based research programs so that the data can be linked with remotely sensed data and other map data into integrated databases with spatial, temporal, and thematic characteristics relevant to global studies. The development of an integrated database for Net Primary Productivity is described to illustrate the process.

  13. Assuring Mechanical Integrity of Refinery Equipment Through Global ON-Stream Inspection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    John W. Berthold

    2006-02-22

    The development of global on-stream inspection technology will have a dramatic effect on how refinery operations are managed in the U.S. in the future. Global on-stream inspection will provide assurance of the mechanical integrity of critical plant equipment and will allow refineries to operate more efficiently with less impact on our environment and with an increased margin of safety.

  14. Are South East Europe stock markets integrated with regional and global stock markets?

    OpenAIRE

    Guidi, Francesco; Ugur, Mehmet

    2012-01-01

    This paper analyses whether stock markets of South East Europe (SEE) have become more integrated with regional and global stock markets during 2000s. Using a variety of co integration methodologies we show that SEE stock markets have no long-run relationship with their mature counterparts. This means that SEE markets might be immunized to external shocks. We also model time varying correlations among these markets by using Multivariate Generalised Autoregressive Conditional Heteroschedastic (...

  15. The accuracy of the Gaussian-and-finite-element-Coulomb (GFC) method for the calculation of Coulomb integrals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Przybytek, Michal; Helgaker, Trygve

    2013-08-07

    We analyze the accuracy of the Coulomb energy calculated using the Gaussian-and-finite-element-Coulomb (GFC) method. In this approach, the electrostatic potential associated with the molecular electronic density is obtained by solving the Poisson equation and then used to calculate matrix elements of the Coulomb operator. The molecular electrostatic potential is expanded in a mixed Gaussian-finite-element (GF) basis set consisting of Gaussian functions of s symmetry centered on the nuclei (with exponents obtained from a full optimization of the atomic potentials generated by the atomic densities from symmetry-averaged restricted open-shell Hartree-Fock theory) and shape functions defined on uniform finite elements. The quality of the GF basis is controlled by means of a small set of parameters; for a given width of the finite elements d, the highest accuracy is achieved at smallest computational cost when tricubic (n = 3) elements are used in combination with two (γ(H) = 2) and eight (γ(1st) = 8) Gaussians on hydrogen and first-row atoms, respectively, with exponents greater than a given threshold (αmin (G)=0.5). The error in the calculated Coulomb energy divided by the number of atoms in the system depends on the system type but is independent of the system size or the orbital basis set, vanishing approximately like d(4) with decreasing d. If the boundary conditions for the Poisson equation are calculated in an approximate way, the GFC method may lose its variational character when the finite elements are too small; with larger elements, it is less sensitive to inaccuracies in the boundary values. As it is possible to obtain accurate boundary conditions in linear time, the overall scaling of the GFC method for large systems is governed by another computational step-namely, the generation of the three-center overlap integrals with three Gaussian orbitals. The most unfavorable (nearly quadratic) scaling is observed for compact, truly three-dimensional systems

  16. Macroeconomic effects of international regional economic integration: global practice and challenges for Ukraine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nataliia Fedirko

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available In the article the causes and macroeconomic peculiarities of the formation and operation of international regional economic associations of various forms have been studied. A hierarchical classification of modern international regional economic integration groups is presented. The contribution of the world’s largest integration groups to the global GDP has been analyzed. The main macroeconomic results of countries’ participation in integration associations of different forms on the pre-establishment and post-establishment stages have been described, the positive effects obtained by countries in the result of introduction of certain common economic activity conditions have been determined. Potential risks for Ukraine related to European Integration and prospective positive effects of integration into the world economy have been determined. Conceptual principles of state policy of blocking of the potential risks of international regional economic integration for Ukraine have been substantiated.

  17. Characterization, global analysis and integrability of a family of Poisson structures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hernandez-Bermejo, Benito [Departamento de Matematica Aplicada, Universidad Rey Juan Carlos, Calle Tulipan S/N, 28933-Mostoles, Madrid (Spain)], E-mail: benito.hernandez@urjc.es

    2008-02-11

    An n-dimensional solution family of the Jacobi equations is characterized and investigated, including the global determination of its main features: the Casimir invariants, the construction of the Darboux canonical form and the proof of integrability for the related Poisson systems. Examples are given and include novel Poisson formulations.

  18. NEW CONCEPTS IN GLOBAL TECTONICS--A Brief Introduction of the Theory of Integrated Polygenetic Geotectonics

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XIANG Ji-xi; WANG Dao-jin; XIANG Fan

    2002-01-01

    @@ Since 1993, the first author has expanded his research on geotectonics from China to the globle, and has put forward his own new concepts in global tectonics: Theory of Integrated Polygenetic Geotectonics. In 2001, he and his coworkers published their works: two maps and a detailed explanatory note by Geological Publishing House of China.

  19. NEW CONCEPTS IN GLOBAL TECTONICS--A Brief Introduction of the Theory of Integrated Polygenetic Geotectonics

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XIANG; Ji-xi; WANG; Dao-jin; XIANG; Fan

    2002-01-01

    Since 1993, the first author has expanded his research on geotectonics from China to the globle, and has put forward his own new concepts in global tectonics: Theory of Integrated Polygenetic Geotectonics. In 2001, he and his coworkers published their works: two maps and a detailed explanatory note by Geological Publishing House of China.……

  20. Accuracy assessment of global historical cropland datasets based on regional reconstructed historical data——A case study in Northeast China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    Historical cropland datasets are fundamental for quantifying the effects of human land use activities on climatic change and the carbon cycle. Two representative global land-use datasets, the Global Land Use Database (termed SAGE dataset) and the Historical Database of the Global Environment (termed HYDE dataset) have been established and used widely. Despite improvement of data quality and methodologies for extracting historical land use information, certain dataset limitations exist that need to be quantified and communicated to users so that they can make informed decisions on whether and how these land-use products should be used. The Cropland data of Northeast China (CNEC) is based on calibrated historical data and a multi-sourced data conversion model, and reconstructs cropland cover change in Northeast China over the last 300 years. Us- ing the CNEC as a reference, we evaluated the accuracy of cropland cover for SAGE and HYDE in Northeast China at spatial scales ranging from the entire Northeast China to provinces and even individual raster grid cells. Neither SAGE nor HYDE reflects real historical land reclamation. Cropland areas in SAGE are overestimated by 20.98 times in 1700 to 1.6 times in 1990. Although HYDE is better, there are significant disagreements in cropland area and distribution between HYDE and CNEC, especially in the 18th and 19th centuries. The proportion of total grid cells whose relative error was greater than 100% was 63.55% in 1700 and 53.27% in 1780. Global cropland dataset errors over Northeast China originate mainly from both the reverse calculation method for historical cropland data based on modern spatial patterns, and modern land-use outputs from satellite data.

  1. Connecting the dots: how local structure affects global integration in infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palomares, Melanie; Pettet, Mark; Vildavski, Vladimir; Hou, Chuan; Norcia, Anthony

    2010-07-01

    Glass patterns are moirés created from a sparse random-dot field paired with its spatially shifted copy. Because discrimination of these patterns is not based on local features, they have been used extensively to study global integration processes. Here, we investigated whether 4- to 5.5-month-old infants are sensitive to the global structure of Glass patterns by measuring visual-evoked potentials. Although we found strong responses to the appearance of the constituent dots, we found sensitivity to the global structure of the Glass patterns in the infants only over a very limited range of spatial separation. In contrast, we observed robust responses in the infants when we connected the dot pairs of the Glass pattern with lines. Moreover, both infants and adults showed differential responses to exchanges between line patterns portraying different global structures. A control study varying luminance contrast in adults suggests that infant sensitivity to global structure is not primarily limited by reduced element visibility. Together our results suggest that the insensitivity to structure in conventional Glass patterns is due to inefficiencies in extracting the local orientation cues generated by the dot pairs. Once the local orientations are made unambiguous or when the interpolation span is small, infants can integrate these signals over the image.

  2. The role of size constancy for the integration of local elements into a global shape

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johannes eRennig

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Visual perception depends on the visual context and is likely to be influenced by size constancy, which predicts a size and distance invariant perception of objects. However, size constancy can also result in optical illusions that allow the manipulation of the perceived size. We thus asked whether the integration of local elements into a global object can be influenced by manipulations of the visual context and size constancy? A set of stimuli was applied in healthy individuals that took advantage of the ‘Kanizsa’ illusion, in which three circles with open wedges oriented towards a center point are placed to form an illusionary perception of a triangle. In addition, a 3D-perspective view was implemented in which the global target (‘Kanizsa’ triangle was placed in combination with several distractor circles either in a close or a distant position. Subjects were engaged in a global recognition task on the location of the ‘Kanizsa’ triangle. Global recognition of ‘Kanizsa’ triangles improved with a decreasing length of the illusory contour. Interestingly, recognition of ‘Kanizsa’ triangles decreased when they were perceived as if they were located further away. We conclude that the integration of local elements into a global object is dependent on the visual context and dominated by size constancy.

  3. Application of a derivative-free global optimization algorithm to the derivation of a new time integration scheme for the simulation of incompressible turbulence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alimohammadi, Shahrouz; Cavaglieri, Daniele; Beyhaghi, Pooriya; Bewley, Thomas R.

    2016-11-01

    This work applies a recently developed Derivative-free optimization algorithm to derive a new mixed implicit-explicit (IMEX) time integration scheme for Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) simulations. This algorithm allows imposing a specified order of accuracy for the time integration and other important stability properties in the form of nonlinear constraints within the optimization problem. In this procedure, the coefficients of the IMEX scheme should satisfy a set of constraints simultaneously. Therefore, the optimization process, at each iteration, estimates the location of the optimal coefficients using a set of global surrogates, for both the objective and constraint functions, as well as a model of the uncertainty function of these surrogates based on the concept of Delaunay triangulation. This procedure has been proven to converge to the global minimum of the constrained optimization problem provided the constraints and objective functions are twice differentiable. As a result, a new third-order, low-storage IMEX Runge-Kutta time integration scheme is obtained with remarkably fast convergence. Numerical tests are then performed leveraging the turbulent channel flow simulations to validate the theoretical order of accuracy and stability properties of the new scheme.

  4. Using Global Analysis to Extend the Accuracy and Precision of Binding Measurements with T cell Receptors and Their Peptide/MHC Ligands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blevins, Sydney J.; Baker, Brian M.

    2017-01-01

    In cellular immunity, clonally distributed T cell receptors (TCRs) engage complexes of peptides bound to major histocompatibility complex proteins (pMHCs). In the interactions of TCRs with pMHCs, regions of restricted and variable diversity align in a structurally complex fashion. Many studies have used mutagenesis to attempt to understand the “roles” played by various interface components in determining TCR recognition properties such as specificity and cross-reactivity. However, these measurements are often complicated or even compromised by the weak affinities TCRs maintain toward pMHC. Here, we demonstrate how global analysis of multiple datasets can be used to significantly extend the accuracy and precision of such TCR binding experiments. Application of this approach should positively impact efforts to understand TCR recognition and facilitate the creation of mutational databases to help engineer TCRs with tuned molecular recognition properties. We also show how global analysis can be used to analyze double mutant cycles in TCR-pMHC interfaces, which can lead to new insights into immune recognition. PMID:28197404

  5. Corruption, public integrity, and globalization in South-Eastern European states. A comparative analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew I.E. EWOH

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The last three decades have witnessed a proliferation of studies on the globalization of corruption or convergence of anticorruption strategies. These studies have been motivated by scholarly concerns from various administrative, economic, and political fields. In view of these interdisciplinary concerns, the purpose of this article is to provide a comparative analysis of corruption phenomena and the demand for public integrity because these developments pertain to the discourse on globalization issues in some South-Eastern European nations within the last decade. The article concludes that the differences observed in these countries are due to their level of maturation in the democratic processes, their stages in the European Union integration process, and the geopolitical condition of each nation, and offers a palatable public policy prescription for achieving a lasting impact in the region.

  6. Water governance, resilience and global environmental change - a reassessment of integrated water resources management (IWRM).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galaz, V

    2007-01-01

    Integrated Water Resource Management (IWRM) is gaining increased acceptance among water policy makers and researchers as a way to create more effective governance institutions, leading towards integrated water development solutions for poverty alleviation, while addressing social, economic and environmental aspects of water challenges. However, global environmental change poses fundamental challenges to water policy makers as it implies vast scientific, and hence, policy uncertainty; its implications for international water governance initiatives remain unspecified, effectively hindering dialogue on how current IWRM initiatives should be modified. This paper addresses the lag between our growing understanding of resilient interconnected freshwater resources (and their governance) and the reforms being promoted by policy makers. In particular, there is a need to rethink some of IWRM's key components to better tackle the challenges posed by the complex behaviour of interconnected social-ecological systems and global environmental change.

  7. An Image Matching Algorithm Integrating Global SRTM and Image Segmentation for Multi-Source Satellite Imagery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao Ling

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a novel image matching method for multi-source satellite images, which integrates global Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM data and image segmentation to achieve robust and numerous correspondences. This method first generates the epipolar lines as a geometric constraint assisted by global SRTM data, after which the seed points are selected and matched. To produce more reliable matching results, a region segmentation-based matching propagation is proposed in this paper, whereby the region segmentations are extracted by image segmentation and are considered to be a spatial constraint. Moreover, a similarity measure integrating Distance, Angle and Normalized Cross-Correlation (DANCC, which considers geometric similarity and radiometric similarity, is introduced to find the optimal correspondences. Experiments using typical satellite images acquired from Resources Satellite-3 (ZY-3, Mapping Satellite-1, SPOT-5 and Google Earth demonstrated that the proposed method is able to produce reliable and accurate matching results.

  8. Accuracy and calibration of integrated radiation output indicators in diagnostic radiology: A report of the AAPM Imaging Physics Committee Task Group 190.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Pei-Jan P; Schueler, Beth A; Balter, Stephen; Strauss, Keith J; Wunderle, Kevin A; LaFrance, M Terry; Kim, Don-Soo; Behrman, Richard H; Shepard, S Jeff; Bercha, Ishtiaq H

    2015-12-01

    Due to the proliferation of disciplines employing fluoroscopy as their primary imaging tool and the prolonged extensive use of fluoroscopy in interventional and cardiovascular angiography procedures, "dose-area-product" (DAP) meters were installed to monitor and record the radiation dose delivered to patients. In some cases, the radiation dose or the output value is calculated, rather than measured, using the pertinent radiological parameters and geometrical information. The AAPM Task Group 190 (TG-190) was established to evaluate the accuracy of the DAP meter in 2008. Since then, the term "DAP-meter" has been revised to air kerma-area product (KAP) meter. The charge of TG 190 (Accuracy and Calibration of Integrated Radiation Output Indicators in Diagnostic Radiology) has also been realigned to investigate the "Accuracy and Calibration of Integrated Radiation Output Indicators" which is reflected in the title of the task group, to include situations where the KAP may be acquired with or without the presence of a physical "meter." To accomplish this goal, validation test protocols were developed to compare the displayed radiation output value to an external measurement. These test protocols were applied to a number of clinical systems to collect information on the accuracy of dose display values in the field.

  9. Accuracy and calibration of integrated radiation output indicators in diagnostic radiology: A report of the AAPM Imaging Physics Committee Task Group 190

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lin, Pei-Jan P., E-mail: Pei-Jan.Lin@vcuhealth.org [Virginia Commonwealth University Medical Center, Richmond, Virginia 23298 (United States); Schueler, Beth A. [Mayo Clinic, Rochester, Minnesota 55905 (United States); Balter, Stephen [Columbia University Medical Center, New York, New York 10032 (United States); Strauss, Keith J. [Children’s Hospital Medical Center, Cincinnati, Ohio 45229 (United States); Wunderle, Kevin A. [Cleveland Clinic Foundation, Cleveland, Ohio 44195 (United States); LaFrance, M. Terry [Baystate Health Systems, Inc., Springfield, Massachusetts 01199 (United States); Kim, Don-Soo [Children’s Hospital Boston, Boston, Massachusetts 02115 (United States); Behrman, Richard H. [Boston University Medical Center, Boston, Massachusetts 02118 (United States); Shepard, S. Jeff [University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas 77096 (United States); Bercha, Ishtiaq H. [Children’s Hospital Colorado, Aurora, Colorado 80045 (United States)

    2015-12-15

    Due to the proliferation of disciplines employing fluoroscopy as their primary imaging tool and the prolonged extensive use of fluoroscopy in interventional and cardiovascular angiography procedures, “dose-area-product” (DAP) meters were installed to monitor and record the radiation dose delivered to patients. In some cases, the radiation dose or the output value is calculated, rather than measured, using the pertinent radiological parameters and geometrical information. The AAPM Task Group 190 (TG-190) was established to evaluate the accuracy of the DAP meter in 2008. Since then, the term “DAP-meter” has been revised to air kerma-area product (KAP) meter. The charge of TG 190 (Accuracy and Calibration of Integrated Radiation Output Indicators in Diagnostic Radiology) has also been realigned to investigate the “Accuracy and Calibration of Integrated Radiation Output Indicators” which is reflected in the title of the task group, to include situations where the KAP may be acquired with or without the presence of a physical “meter.” To accomplish this goal, validation test protocols were developed to compare the displayed radiation output value to an external measurement. These test protocols were applied to a number of clinical systems to collect information on the accuracy of dose display values in the field.

  10. Cost-effective improvements of a rotating platform by integration of a high-accuracy inclinometer and encoders for attitude evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen, Chenyang; He, Shengyang; Bu, Changgen; Hu, Peida

    2017-01-01

    Attitude heading reference systems (AHRSs) based on micro-electromechanical system (MEMS) inertial sensors are widely used because of their low cost, light weight, and low power. However, low-cost AHRSs suffer from large inertial sensor errors. Therefore, experimental performance evaluation of MEMS-based AHRSs after system implementation is necessary. High-accuracy turntables can be used to verify the performance of MEMS-based AHRSs indoors, but they are expensive and unsuitable for outdoor tests. This study developed a low-cost two-axis rotating platform for indoor and outdoor attitude determination. A high-accuracy inclinometer and encoders were integrated into the platform to improve the achievable attitude test accuracy. An attitude error compensation method was proposed to calibrate the initial attitude errors caused by the movements and misalignment angles of the platform. The proposed attitude error determination method was examined through rotating experiments, which showed that the standard deviations of the pitch and roll errors were 0.050° and 0.090°, respectively. The pitch and roll errors both decreased to 0.024° when the proposed attitude error determination method was used. This decrease validates the effectiveness of the compensation method. Experimental results demonstrated that the integration of the inclinometer and encoders improved the performance of the low-cost, two-axis, rotating platform in terms of attitude accuracy.

  11. INTEGRATING COUNTRY-SPECIFIC CULTURE IN THE BRANDING STRATEGY FOR BUILDING GLOBAL SUCCESS

    OpenAIRE

    Alexandra IOANID; Petruta MIHAI; Gheorghe MILITARU

    2014-01-01

    A strong brand is the one that integrates its cultural origins and values with the cultural values of the countries where it operates, building relationships based on trust with the local consumers. The chances for a company to gain share market when starting operations in a new country grows a lot if the management allows enough regional flexibility on how the brands are marketed, according to the cultural characteristics of the potential local customers. In the actual globalized business e...

  12. Integrating into the Global Economy through Services. The Case of Romania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    AGNES GHIBUŢIU

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Services represent a most important and dynamic frontier of international trade and investment. The steady expansion of trade in services and its relative resilience in the recent crisis, coupled with its key role in global production networks and its increasing potential in attracting investment provides new opportunities for countries to grow their economies and integrate into the global economy. Drawing on insights from current literature and relying on balance of payments and trade in value-added statistics, this paper examines the main developments shaping Romania’s services trade over the post-crisis years. Its aim is to assess whether the country is seizing the new opportunities arising from services globalization. It finds that following the dramatic crisis-induced decline in the value and performance of Romania’s services trade, the outlook is now radically improving as evidenced by strongly rebounding services flows and net exports. Nonetheless, the country’s integration into the global economy through services flows continues to remain below its potential.

  13. An integrated model for the assessment of global water resources – Part 2: Applications and assessments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Hanasaki

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available To assess global water resources from the perspective of subannual variation in water availability and water use, an integrated water resources model was developed. In a companion report, we presented the global meteorological forcing input used to drive the model and six modules, namely, the land surface hydrology module, the river routing module, the crop growth module, the reservoir operation module, the environmental flow requirement module, and the anthropogenic withdrawal module. Here, we present the results of the model application and global water resources assessments. First, the timing and volume of simulated agriculture water use were examined because agricultural use composes approximately 85% of total consumptive water withdrawal in the world. The estimated crop calendar showed good agreement with earlier reports for wheat, maize, and rice in major countries of production. In major countries, the error in the planting date was ±1 mo, but there were some exceptional cases. The estimated irrigation water withdrawal also showed fair agreement with country statistics, but tended to be underestimated in countries in the Asian monsoon region. The results indicate the validity of the model and the input meteorological forcing because site-specific parameter tuning was not used in the series of simulations. Finally, global water resources were assessed on a subannual basis using a newly devised index. This index located water-stressed regions that were undetected in earlier studies. These regions, which are indicated by a gap in the subannual distribution of water availability and water use, include the Sahel, the Asian monsoon region, and southern Africa. The simulation results show that the reservoir operations of major reservoirs (>1 km3 and the allocation of environmental flow requirements can alter the population under high water stress by approximately −11% to +5% globally. The integrated model is applicable to

  14. Entropy-based analysis and bioinformatics-inspired integration of global economic information transfer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jinkyu; Kim, Gunn; An, Sungbae; Kwon, Young-Kyun; Yoon, Sungroh

    2013-01-01

    The assessment of information transfer in the global economic network helps to understand the current environment and the outlook of an economy. Most approaches on global networks extract information transfer based mainly on a single variable. This paper establishes an entirely new bioinformatics-inspired approach to integrating information transfer derived from multiple variables and develops an international economic network accordingly. In the proposed methodology, we first construct the transfer entropies (TEs) between various intra- and inter-country pairs of economic time series variables, test their significances, and then use a weighted sum approach to aggregate information captured in each TE. Through a simulation study, the new method is shown to deliver better information integration compared to existing integration methods in that it can be applied even when intra-country variables are correlated. Empirical investigation with the real world data reveals that Western countries are more influential in the global economic network and that Japan has become less influential following the Asian currency crisis.

  15. Entropy-based analysis and bioinformatics-inspired integration of global economic information transfer.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jinkyu Kim

    Full Text Available The assessment of information transfer in the global economic network helps to understand the current environment and the outlook of an economy. Most approaches on global networks extract information transfer based mainly on a single variable. This paper establishes an entirely new bioinformatics-inspired approach to integrating information transfer derived from multiple variables and develops an international economic network accordingly. In the proposed methodology, we first construct the transfer entropies (TEs between various intra- and inter-country pairs of economic time series variables, test their significances, and then use a weighted sum approach to aggregate information captured in each TE. Through a simulation study, the new method is shown to deliver better information integration compared to existing integration methods in that it can be applied even when intra-country variables are correlated. Empirical investigation with the real world data reveals that Western countries are more influential in the global economic network and that Japan has become less influential following the Asian currency crisis.

  16. Innovation in Hungary - The Impact of EU Accession and Integration into Global Value Chains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Szalavetz Andrea

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper argues that EU accession has brought about minimal changes in the patterns of innovation in Hungary. The reason why is not that the ‘EU factor’ is of minor importance; rather, it is Hungary's inability to use EU resources effectively, so as to fully benefit from EU membership. The Hungarian story also demonstrates that the EU cannot block member states from reversing reform or abusing the opportunities EU membership offers to them. We contend that globalization (global value chain integration has more effectively contributed to Hungary's knowledge-based upgrading than Europeanization (in the sense of policy transfer; access to EU Structural & Cohesion Funds, and integration in the European Research Area. This argument is substantiated with a case study on innovation strategy design and implementation, which illustrates the ambiguous impact of Europeanization, which is contrasted with our investigation of integration in global value chains, conducted through interviews of foreign-owned manufacturing companies about their R&D-based upgrading experience.

  17. Globalization

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    范玮丽

    2008-01-01

    This paper mainly talks about the currently hot topic-globalization. Firstly, it brings out the general trend about globalization and how to better understand its implication. Secondly, it largely focuses on how to deal with it properly, especially for international marketers. Then, facing with the overwhelming trend, it is time for us to think about seriously what has globalization brought to us. Last but not least, it summarized the author's personal view about the future of globalization and how should we go.

  18. 12 CFR Appendix E to Part 41 - Interagency Guidelines Concerning the Accuracy and Integrity of Information Furnished to Consumer...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... to a direct dispute. (d) Establishing and implementing appropriate internal controls regarding the... 12 Banks and Banking 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Interagency Guidelines Concerning the Accuracy... and Banking COMPTROLLER OF THE CURRENCY, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY FAIR CREDIT REPORTING Pt. 41,...

  19. 12 CFR Appendix E to Part 334 - Interagency Guidelines Concerning the Accuracy and Integrity of Information Furnished to Consumer...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... that is subject to a direct dispute. (d) Establishing and implementing appropriate internal controls... 12 Banks and Banking 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Interagency Guidelines Concerning the Accuracy... and Banking FEDERAL DEPOSIT INSURANCE CORPORATION REGULATIONS AND STATEMENTS OF GENERAL POLICY...

  20. Globalization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tulio Rosembuj

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available There is no singular globalization, nor is the result of an individual agent. We could start by saying that global action has different angles and subjects who perform it are different, as well as its objectives. The global is an invisible invasion of materials and immediate effects.

  1. Integration of molecular pathology, epidemiology and social science for global precision medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishi, Akihiro; Milner, Danny A; Giovannucci, Edward L; Nishihara, Reiko; Tan, Andy S; Kawachi, Ichiro; Ogino, Shuji

    2016-01-01

    The precision medicine concept and the unique disease principle imply that each patient has unique pathogenic processes resulting from heterogeneous cellular genetic and epigenetic alterations and interactions between cells (including immune cells) and exposures, including dietary, environmental, microbial and lifestyle factors. As a core method field in population health science and medicine, epidemiology is a growing scientific discipline that can analyze disease risk factors and develop statistical methodologies to maximize utilization of big data on populations and disease pathology. The evolving transdisciplinary field of molecular pathological epidemiology (MPE) can advance biomedical and health research by linking exposures to molecular pathologic signatures, enhancing causal inference and identifying potential biomarkers for clinical impact. The MPE approach can be applied to any diseases, although it has been most commonly used in neoplastic diseases (including breast, lung and colorectal cancers) because of availability of various molecular diagnostic tests. However, use of state-of-the-art genomic, epigenomic and other omic technologies and expensive drugs in modern healthcare systems increases racial, ethnic and socioeconomic disparities. To address this, we propose to integrate molecular pathology, epidemiology and social science. Social epidemiology integrates the latter two fields. The integrative social MPE model can embrace sociology, economics and precision medicine, address global health disparities and inequalities, and elucidate biological effects of social environments, behaviors and networks. We foresee advancements of molecular medicine, including molecular diagnostics, biomedical imaging and targeted therapeutics, which should benefit individuals in a global population, by means of an interdisciplinary approach of integrative MPE and social health science.

  2. Integrated crop water management might sustainably halve the global food gap

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jägermeyr, J.; Gerten, D.; Schaphoff, S.; Heinke, J.; Lucht, W.; Rockström, J.

    2016-02-01

    As planetary boundaries are rapidly being approached, humanity has little room for additional expansion and conventional intensification of agriculture, while a growing world population further spreads the food gap. Ample evidence exists that improved on-farm water management can close water-related yield gaps to a considerable degree, but its global significance remains unclear. In this modeling study we investigate systematically to what extent integrated crop water management might contribute to closing the global food gap, constrained by the assumption that pressure on water resources and land does not increase. Using a process-based bio-/agrosphere model, we simulate the yield-increasing potential of elevated irrigation water productivity (including irrigation expansion with thus saved water) and optimized use of in situ precipitation water (alleviated soil evaporation, enhanced infiltration, water harvesting for supplemental irrigation) under current and projected future climate (from 20 climate models, with and without beneficial CO2 effects). Results show that irrigation efficiency improvements can save substantial amounts of water in many river basins (globally 48% of non-productive water consumption in an ‘ambitious’ scenario), and if rerouted to irrigate neighboring rainfed systems, can boost kcal production significantly (26% global increase). Low-tech solutions for small-scale farmers on water-limited croplands show the potential to increase rainfed yields to a similar extent. In combination, the ambitious yet achievable integrated water management strategies explored in this study could increase global production by 41% and close the water-related yield gap by 62%. Unabated climate change will have adverse effects on crop yields in many regions, but improvements in water management as analyzed here can buffer such effects to a significant degree.

  3. THE INTEGRATIVE TENDENCIES OF THE CIVIC CULTURE IN THE AGE OF GLOBALIZATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena NEDELCU

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to explore the role of the civic culture and education in the globalization era. Recent sociological studies (G. Devin and others infirm Norbert Elias’ hypothesis according to which the multiplication and the complicate “interdependent connexions” established generate a mechanical tendency towards the integration and even unification of the international communities. One has noticed that the mentioned interdependent relations lead to stable integration forms only if they are supported by an appropriate axiological-normative system: values, beliefs, democratic procedures. In other words, European integration must be supported by a political culture founded on knowledge, communication, civic involvement and tolerance. The major role attributed to civic culture in accomplishing social inclusion and in creating a “common identity” in the globalization era encourages and justifies the deep and multidimensional analysis that it is subject to, as well as it reveals the importance of performing research work in this field, thus bringing solid arguments for my option. The process of revealing its specific characteristics in a society that has experienced a tough transition process marked by an accentuated anomical state – as the Romanian society has – is not only epistemically but also socially and pragmatically useful. The results of the political culture pattern can direct the evolution and the intensity of the civical socialization process. In the first part of the paper I will analyse the “aggregate sovereignty” concept in the age of mondialization and in the second part integrating tendencies of civic culture in the globalization era.

  4. Evaluating the Contribution of Soil Carbon to Global Climate Change Mitigation in an Integrated Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomson, A. M.; Izaurralde, R. C.; Clarke, L. E.

    2006-12-01

    Assessing the contribution of terrestrial carbon sequestration to national and international climate change mitigation requires integration across scientific and disciplinary boundaries. In a study for the US Climate Change Technology Program, site based measurements and geographic data were used to develop a three- pool, first-order kinetic model of global agricultural soil carbon (C) stock changes over 14 continental scale regions. This model was then used together with land use scenarios from the MiniCAM integrated assessment model in a global analysis of climate change mitigation options. MiniCAM evaluated mitigation strategies within a set of policy environments aimed at achieving atmospheric CO2 stabilization by 2100 under a suite of technology and development scenarios. Adoption of terrestrial sequestration practices is based on competition for land and economic markets for carbon. In the reference case with no climate policy, conversion of agricultural land from conventional cultivation to no tillage over the next century in the United States results in C sequestration of 7.6 to 59.8 Tg C yr-1, which doubles to 19.0 to 143.4 Tg C yr-1 under the most aggressive climate policy. Globally, with no carbon policy, agricultural C sequestration rates range from 75.2 to 18.2 Tg C yr-1 over the century, with the highest rates occurring in the first fifty years. Under the most aggressive global climate change policy, sequestration in agricultural soils reaches up to 190 Tg C yr-1 in the first 15 years. The contribution of agricultural soil C sequestration is a small fraction of the total global carbon offsets necessary to reach the stabilization targets (9 to 20 Gt C yr-1) by the end of the century. This integrated assessment provides decision makers with science-based estimates of the potential magnitude of terrestrial C sequestration relative to other greenhouse gas mitigation strategies in all sectors of the global economy. It also provides insight into the

  5. Stock return predictability and market integration: The role of global and local information

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David G. McMillan

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines the predictability of a range of international stock markets where we allow the presence of both local and global predictive factors. Recent research has argued that US returns have predictive power for international stock returns. We expand this line of research, following work on market integration, to include a more general definition of the global factor, based on principal components analysis. Results identify three global expected returns factors, one related to the major stock markets of the US, UK and Asia and one related to the other markets analysed. The third component is related to dividend growth. A single dominant realised returns factor is also noted. A forecasting exercise comparing the principal components based factors to a US return factor and local market only factors, as well as the historical mean benchmark finds supportive evidence for the former approach. It is hoped that the results from this paper will be informative on three counts. First, to academics interested in understanding the dynamics asset price movement. Second, to market participants who aim to time the market and engage in portfolio and risk management. Third, to those (policy makers and others who are interested in linkages across international markets and the nature and degree of integration.

  6. An integrated model to simulate sown area changes for major crops at a global scale

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SHIBASAKI; Ryosuke

    2008-01-01

    Dynamics of land use systems have attracted much attention from scientists around the world due to their ecological and socio-economic implications. An integrated model to dynamically simulate future changes in sown areas of four major crops (rice, maize, wheat and soybean) on a global scale is pre- sented. To do so, a crop choice model was developed on the basis of Multinomial Logit (Logit) model to model land users’ decisions on crop choices among a set of available alternatives with using a crop utility function. A GIS-based Environmental Policy Integrated Climate (EPIC) model was adopted to simulate the crop yields under a given geophysical environment and farming management conditions, while the International Food Policy and Agricultural Simulation (IFPSIM) model was utilized to estimate crop price in the international market. The crop choice model was linked with the GIS-based EPIC model and the IFPSIM model through data exchange. This integrated model was then validated against the FAO statistical data in 2001-2003 and the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) global land cover product in 2001. Both validation approaches indicated reliability of the model for ad- dressing the dynamics in agricultural land use and its capability for long-term scenario analysis. Finally, the model application was designed to run over a time period of 30 a, taking the year 2000 as baseline. The model outcomes can help understand and explain the causes, locations and consequences of land use changes, and provide support for land use planning and policy making.

  7. INTEGRATING COUNTRY-SPECIFIC CULTURE IN THE BRANDING STRATEGY FOR BUILDING GLOBAL SUCCESS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandra IOANID

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available A strong brand is the one that integrates its cultural origins and values with the cultural values of the countries where it operates, building relationships based on trust with the local consumers. The chances for a company to gain share market when starting operations in a new country grows a lot if the management allows enough regional flexibility on how the brands are marketed, according to the cultural characteristics of the potential local customers. In the actual globalized business environment, the brand marketer has the choice to adopt a global or a local approach in the marketing strategy, that most of the times determines the success or the failure of the business in a specific country. An important challenge for any marketer is the integration of the brand-culture with the country-culture and in this context, the paper analyses different cultures and offers some branding strategies valid for both products and services. This paper aims to demonstrate the importance of the country-specific culture integration in the marketing strategy of a company for growing the effectiveness of all its operations. The ideas mentioned in this paper are based on literature research and also on authors’ experience with multicultural environments.

  8. Global integration of local color differences in transparency perception: An fMRI study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dojat, Michel; Piettre, Loÿs; Delon-Martin, Chantal; Pachot-Clouard, Mathilde; Segebarth, Christoph; Knoblauch, Kenneth

    2006-01-01

    In normal viewing, the visual system effortlessly assigns approximately constant attributes of color and shape to perceived objects. A fundamental component of this process is the compensation for illuminant variations and intervening media to recover reflectance properties of natural surfaces. We exploited the phenomenon of transparency perception to explore the cortical regions implicated in such processes, using fMRI. By manipulating the coherence of local color differences around a region in an image, we interfered with their global perceptual integration and thereby modified whether the region appeared transparent or not. We found the major cortical activation due to global integration of local color differences to be in the anterior part of the parahippocampal gyrus. Regions differentially activated by chromatic versus achromatic geometric patterns showed no significant differential response related to the coherence/incoherence of local color differences. The results link the integration of local color differences in the extraction of a transparent layer with sites activated by object-related properties of an image.

  9. Earth science information: Planning for the integration and use of global change information

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lousma, Jack R.

    1992-01-01

    The Consortium for International Earth Science Information Network (CIESIN) was founded in 1989 as a non-profit corporation dedicated to facilitating access to, use and understanding of global change information worldwide. The Consortium was created to cooperate and coordinate with organizations and researchers throughout the global change community to further access the most advanced technology, the latest scientific research, and the best information available for critical environmental decision making. CIESIN study efforts are guided by Congressional mandates to 'convene key present and potential users to assess the need for investment in integration of earth science information,' to 'outline the desirable pattern of interaction with the scientific and policy community,' and to 'develop recommendations and draft plans to achieve the appropriate level of effort in the use of earth science data for research and public policy purposes.' In addition, CIESIN is tasked by NASA to develop a data center that would extend the benefits of Earth Observing System (EOS) to the users of global change information related to human dimensions issues. For FY 1991, CIESIN focused on two main objectives. The first addressed the identification of information needs of global change research and non-research user groups worldwide. The second focused on an evaluation of the most efficient mechanisms for making this information available in usable forms.

  10. Seamless Integration of Global Dirichlet-to-Neumann Boundary Condition and Spectral Elements for Transformation Electromagnetics

    CERN Document Server

    Yang, Zhiguo; Rong, Zhijian; Wang, Bo; Zhang, Baile

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, we present an efficient spectral-element method (SEM) for solving general two-dimensional Helmholtz equations in anisotropic media, with particular applications in accurate simulation of polygonal invisibility cloaks, concentrators and circular rotators arisen from the field of transformation electromagnetics (TE). In practice, we adopt a transparent boundary condition (TBC) characterized by the Dirichlet-to-Neumann (DtN) map to reduce wave propagation in an unbounded domain to a bounded domain. We then introduce a semi-analytic technique to integrate the global TBC with local curvilinear elements seamlessly, which is accomplished by using a novel elemental mapping and analytic formulas for evaluating global Fourier coefficients on spectral-element grids exactly. From the perspective of TE, an invisibility cloak is devised by a singular coordinate transformation of Maxwell's equations that leads to anisotropic materials coating the cloaked region to render any object inside invisible to observe...

  11. Business integration unit (BIU adapter for industrial global value chain on the web

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adel Ghannam

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Today's manufacturing enterprises rarely live in isolation. They need to be connected in order to create products from which a group of enterprises, called global-value-chain (GVC, can derive value. Service-oriented architecture (SOA and event-driven architecture (EDA are two different paradigms that address complex integration challenges. Enterprise service bus (ESB allows for the implementation of both the SOA and the EDA concepts. This paper addresses the development of an enterprise service bus (ESB to grant the operation of GVC. A proposed business-integrator-unit (BIU is designed to be plugged in each enterprise system. The BIU contains a “business collaboration map configurator” that allows real time allocation of roles to members’ enterprises.

  12. Global format for energy-momentum based time integration in nonlinear dynamics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krenk, Steen

    2014-01-01

    A global format is developed for momentum and energy consistent time integration of second‐order dynamic systems with general nonlinear stiffness. The algorithm is formulated by integrating the state‐space equations of motion over the time increment. The internal force is first represented...... in fourth‐order form consisting of the end‐point mean value plus a term containing the stiffness matrix increment. This form gives energy conservation for systems with internal energy as a quartic function of the displacement components. This representation is then extended to general energy conservation...... of mean value products at the element level or explicit use of a geometric stiffness matrix. An optional monotonic algorithmic damping, increasing with response frequency, is developed in terms of a single damping parameter. In the solution procedure, the velocity is eliminated and the nonlinear...

  13. Provision of Controlled Motion Accuracy of Industrial Robots and Multiaxis Machines by the Method of Integrated Deviations Correction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krakhmalev, O. N.; Petreshin, D. I.; Fedonin, O. N.

    2016-04-01

    There is a developed method of correction of the integrated motion deviations of industrial robots and multiaxis machines, which are caused by the primary geometrical deviations of their segments. This method can be used to develop a control system providing the motion correction for industrial robots and multiaxis machines.

  14. Estimating European soil organic carbon mitigation potential in a global integrated land use model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frank, Stefan; Böttcher, Hannes; Schneider, Uwe; Schmid, Erwin; Havlík, Petr

    2013-04-01

    Several studies have shown the dynamic interaction between soil organic carbon (SOC) sequestration rates, soil management decisions and SOC levels. Management practices such as reduced and no-tillage, improved residue management and crop rotations as well as the conversion of marginal cropland to native vegetation or conversion of cultivated land to permanent grassland offer the potential to increase SOC content. Even though dynamic interactions are widely acknowledged in literature, they have not been implemented in most existing land use decision models. A major obstacle is the high data and computing requirements for an explicit representation of alternative land use sequences since a model has to be able to track all different management decision paths. To our knowledge no study accounted so far for SOC dynamics explicitly in a global integrated land use model. To overcome these conceptual difficulties described above we apply an approach capable of accounting for SOC dynamics in GLOBIOM (Global Biosphere Management Model), a global recursive dynamic partial equilibrium bottom-up model integrating the agricultural, bioenergy and forestry sectors. GLOBIOM represents all major land based sectors and therefore is able to account for direct and indirect effects of land use change as well as leakage effects (e.g. through trade) implicitly. Together with the detailed representation of technologies (e.g. tillage and fertilizer management systems), these characteristics make the model a highly valuable tool for assessing European SOC emissions and mitigation potential. Demand and international trade are represented in this version of the model at the level of 27 EU member states and 23 aggregated world regions outside Europe. Changes in the demand on the one side, and profitability of the different land based activities on the other side, are the major determinants of land use change in GLOBIOM. In this paper we estimate SOC emissions from cropland for the EU until

  15. Nuclear data uncertainty quantification and data assimilation for a lead-cooled fast reactor : Using integral experiments for improved accuracy

    OpenAIRE

    Alhassan, Erwin

    2015-01-01

    For the successful deployment of advanced nuclear systems and optimization of current reactor designs, high quality nuclear data are required. Before nuclear data can be used in applications they must first be evaluated, tested and validated against a set of integral experiments, and then converted into formats usable for applications. The evaluation process in the past was usually done by using differential experimental data which was then complemented with nuclear model calculations. This t...

  16. Global water resources modeling with an integrated model of the social-economic-environmental system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davies, Evan G. R.; Simonovic, Slobodan P.

    2011-06-01

    Awareness of increasing water scarcity has driven efforts to model global water resources for improved insight into water resources infrastructure and management strategies. Most water resources models focus explicitly on water systems and represent socio-economic and environmental change as external drivers. In contrast, the system dynamics-based integrated assessment model employed here, ANEMI, incorporates dynamic representations of these systems, so that their broader changes affect and are affected by water resources systems through feedbacks. Sectors in ANEMI therefore include the global climate system, carbon cycle, economy, population, land use and agriculture, and novel versions of the hydrological cycle, global water use and water quality. Since the model focus is on their interconnections through explicit nonlinear feedbacks, simulations with ANEMI provide insight into the nature and structure of connections between water resources and socio-economic and environmental change. Of particular interest to water resources researchers and modelers will be the simulated effects of a new water stress definition that incorporates both water quality and water quantity effects into the measurement of water scarcity. Five simulation runs demonstrate the value of wastewater treatment and reuse programs and the feedback-effects of irrigated agriculture and greater consumption of animal products.

  17. Integrating NASA Earth Science Enterprise (ESE) Data Into Global Agricultural Decision Support Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teng, W.; Kempler, S.; Chiu, L.; Doraiswamy, P.; Liu, Z.; Milich, L.; Tetrault, R.

    2003-12-01

    Monitoring global agricultural crop conditions during the growing season and estimating potential seasonal production are critically important for market development of U.S. agricultural products and for global food security. Two major operational users of satellite remote sensing for global crop monitoring are the USDA Foreign Agricultural Service (FAS) and the U.N. World Food Programme (WFP). The primary goal of FAS is to improve foreign market access for U.S. agricultural products. The WFP uses food to meet emergency needs and to support economic and social development. Both use global agricultural decision support systems that can integrate and synthesize a variety of data sources to provide accurate and timely information on global crop conditions. The Goddard Space Flight Center Earth Sciences Distributed Active Archive Center (GES DAAC) has begun a project to provide operational solutions to FAS and WFP, by fully leveraging results from previous work, as well as from existing capabilities of the users. The GES DAAC has effectively used its recently developed prototype TRMM Online Visualization and Analysis System (TOVAS) to provide ESE data and information to the WFP for its agricultural drought monitoring efforts. This prototype system will be evolved into an Agricultural Information System (AIS), which will operationally provide ESE and other data products (e.g., rainfall, land productivity) and services, to be integrated into and thus enhance the existing GIS-based, decision support systems of FAS and WFP. Agriculture-oriented, ESE data products (e.g., MODIS-based, crop condition assessment product; TRMM derived, drought index product) will be input to a crop growth model in collaboration with the USDA Agricultural Research Service, to generate crop condition and yield prediction maps. The AIS will have the capability for remotely accessing distributed data, by being compliant with community-based interoperability standards, enabling easy access to

  18. Progress in Developing an Integrated Global Greenhouse Gas Information System (IG3IS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Decola, P.; Butler, J. H.

    2015-12-01

    Recent studies suggest that, if society can do no better than the commitments it's already made to reducing greenhouse gases, we will achieve a 2C threshold by 2030 and a 3C threshold by 2050 [e.g., Jackson et al., 2015]. Given that a global average of 2C or 3C translates to about three times that (6C, 9C) over continents, this portends a future of on-going climate change for generations to come, with all of its concomitant struggles in adapting. It also portends a global society looking increasingly at ways to mitigate the cause(s) of climate change. Recent events have propelled that to some extent already, but it is likely we will see more as time goes on. Nevertheless, there is a huge difference between making commitments and achieving them. Nations, states, cities, resource managers, energy interests, and other invested parties will be looking at ways to reduce emissions, driven either by markets, taxes, or other relevant policies. Anticipating this need, WMO has begun developing an implementation plan for an Integrated Global Greenhouse Gas Information System (IG3IS). To work effectively, an IG3IS must integrate high quality observations from multiple and varied platforms, incorporate observation-based information from transport models, and deliver useful information at sub-continental, policy-relevant scales. Existing surface-based networks, emerging networks in developing countries, and new aircraft-based measurements and satellite observations make a difference, but additional observations and improved transport modeling are critical. This presentation will look at what is available, what the gaps are, and how IG3IS intends to address them.

  19. First detection of global dawn-dusk ionospheric current intensities using Ampere's integral law on Orsted orbits

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stauning, P.; Primdahl, Fritz

    2000-01-01

    The magnetic measurements by the Orsted satellite in noon-midnight orbits have enabled the derivation of the global dawn-dusk oriented ionospheric currents from an Ampere's law closed loop line integral of the geomagnetic vector field along the satellite track. The globally integrated dawn......-to-dusk ionospheric current is found to be proportional to the gee-effective solar wind electric field and is around 1 million ampere for a typical solar wind electric field of 2 mV/m. Dividing the Ampere integral into semi-orbit parts has enabled us to show that the hemispherical total current intensities depend...

  20. An integrated model to simulate sown area changes for major crops at a global scale

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WU WenBin; YANG Peng; MENG ChaoYing; SHIBASAKI Ryosuke; ZHOU QingBo; TANG HuaJun; SHI Yun

    2008-01-01

    Dynamics of land use systems have attracted much attention from scientists around the world due to their ecological and socio-economic implications. An integrated model to dynamically simulate future changes in sown areas of four major crops (rice, maize, wheat and soybean) on a global scale is presented. To do so, a crop choice model was developed on the basis of Multinomial Logit (Logit) model to model land users' decisions on crop choices among a set of available alternatives with using a crop utility function. A GIS-based Environmental Policy Integrated Climate (EPIC) model was adopted to simulate the crop yields under a given geophysical environment and farming management conditions,while the International Food Policy and Agricultural Simulation (IFPSIM) model was utilized to estimate crop price in the international market. The crop choice model was linked with the GIS-based EPIC model and the IFPSIM model through data exchange. This integrated model was then validated against the FAO statistical data in 2001-2003 and the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS)global land cover product in 2001. Both validation approaches indicated reliability of the model for addressing the dynamics in agricultural land use and its capability for long-term scenario analysis. Finally,the model application was designed to run over a time period of 30 a, taking the year 2000 as baseline.The model outcomes can help understand and explain the causes, locations and consequences of land use changes, and provide support for land use planning and policy making.

  1. Reconciling uncertainties in integrated science and policy models: Applications to global climate change

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kandlikar, M.

    1994-12-01

    In this thesis tools of data reconciliation are used to integrate available information into scientific and policy models of greenhouse gases. The role of uncertainties in scientific and policy models of global climate change is examined, and implications for global change policy are drawn. Methane is the second most important greenhouse gas. Global sources and sinks of methane have significant uncertainties. A chance constrained methodology was developed and used to perform inversions on the global methane cycle. Budgets of methane that are consistent with source fluxes, isotopic and ice core measurements were determined. While it is not possible to come up with a single budget for CH{sub 4}, performing the calculation with a number of sets of assumed priors suggests a convergence in the allowed range for sources. In some cases -- wetlands (70-130 Tg/yr), rice paddies (60-125 Tg/yr) a significant reduction in the uncertainty of the source estimate is achieved. Our results compare favorably with the most recent measurements of flux estimates. For comparison, a similar analysis using bayes monte carlo simulation was performed. The question of the missing sink for carbon remains unresolved. Two analyses that attempt to quantify the missing sink were performed. First, a steady state analysis of the carbon cycle was used to determine the pre-industrial inter-hemispheric carbon concentration gradient. Second, a full blown dynamic inversion of the carbon cycle was performed. An advection diffusion ocean model with surface chemistry, coupled to box models of the atmosphere and the biosphere was inverted to fit available measurements of {sup 12}C and {sup 14}C carbon isotopes using Differential-Algebraic Optimization. The model effectively suggests that the {open_quotes}missing{close_quotes} sink for carbon is hiding in the biosphere. Scenario dependent trace gas indices were calculated for CH{sub 4}, N{sub 2}O, HCFC-22.

  2. Globalization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Plum, Maja

    Globalization is often referred to as external to education - a state of affair facing the modern curriculum with numerous challenges. In this paper it is examined as internal to curriculum; analysed as a problematization in a Foucaultian sense. That is, as a complex of attentions, worries, ways...... of reasoning, producing curricular variables. The analysis is made through an example of early childhood curriculum in Danish Pre-school, and the way the curricular variable of the pre-school child comes into being through globalization as a problematization, carried forth by the comparative practices of PISA...

  3. Selective impairment of global motion integration, but not global form detection, in schizophrenia and bipolar affective disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Bennett

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Recent evidence suggests that schizophrenia is associated with impaired processing of global visual motion, but intact processing of global visual form. This project assessed whether preserved visual form detection in schizophrenia extended beyond low-level pattern discrimination to a naturalistic form-detection task. We assessed both naturalistic form detection and global motion detection in individuals with schizophrenia spectrum disorder, bipolar affective disorder, and healthy controls. Individuals with schizophrenia spectrum disorder and bipolar affective disorder were impaired relative to healthy controls on the global motion task, but not the naturalistic form-detection task. Results indicate that preservation of visual form detection in these disorders extends beyond configural forms to naturalistic object processing.

  4. The educated citizen and global public health issues: One model for integration into the undergraduate curriculum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosemary M. Caron

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The Educated Citizen Initiative proposes that an understanding of public health issues is a core component of an educated citizenry and is essential to developing one’s societal responsibility. This initiative supports the Institute of Medicine’s recommendation that all undergraduates should have access to education in public health. Furthermore, the Liberal Education and America’s Promise (LEAP framework developed by the Association of American Colleges and Universities supports the integration of public health education into general and liberal education with an aim to produce an educated citizenry. The LEAP framework is implemented by teaching about the role of social determinants in a population’s health status; the significance of personal and social responsibility; and providing skills for inquiry, critical thinking, problem solving, and evaluation. This article describes one university’s experience in generating an educated citizenry cognizant of comprehensive public health conflicts, thus contributing to both a local and global perspective on learning.

  5. Nonlinear control for global stabilization of multiple-integrator system by bounded controls

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Bin ZHOU; Guangren DUAN; Liu ZHANG

    2008-01-01

    The global stabilization problem of the multiple-integrator system by bounded controls is considered.A nonlinear feedback law consisting of nested saturation functions is proposed.This type of nonlinear feedback law that is a modification and generalization of the result given in[1] needs only[(n+1)/2](n is the dimensions of the system)saturation elements,which is fewer than that which the other nonlinear laws need.Funhermore.the poles of the closedloop system Can be placed on any location on the left real axis when none of the saturafion elements in the control laws is saturated.This type of nonlinear control law exhibits a simpler structure and call significantly improve the transient performances of the closed-loop system,and is very superior to the other existing methods.Simulation on a fourth-order system is used to validate the proposed method.

  6. The integrated global temperature change potential (iGTP) and relationships between emission metrics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peters, Glen P.; Aamaas, Borgar; Berntsen, Terje; Fuglestvedt, Jan S.

    2011-12-01

    The Kyoto Protocol compares greenhouse gas emissions (GHGs) using the global warming potential (GWP) with a 100 yr time-horizon. The GWP was developed, however, to illustrate the difficulties in comparing GHGs. In response, there have been many critiques of the GWP and several alternative emission metrics have been proposed. To date, there has been little focus on understanding the linkages between, and interpretations of, different emission metrics. We use an energy balance model to mathematically link the absolute GWP, absolute global temperature change potential (AGTP), absolute ocean heat perturbation (AOHP), and integrated AGTP. For pulse emissions, energy conservation requires that AOHP = AGWP - iAGTP/λ and hence AGWP and iAGTP are closely linked and converge as AOHP decays to zero. When normalizing the metrics with CO2 (GWP, GTP, and iGTP), we find that the iGTP and GWP are similar numerically for a wide range of GHGs and time-horizons, except for very short-lived species. The similarity between the iGTPX and GWPX depends on how well a pulse emission of CO2 can substitute for a pulse emission of X across a range of time-horizons. The ultimate choice of emission metric(s) and time-horizon(s) depends on policy objectives. To the extent that limiting integrated temperature change over a specific time-horizon is consistent with the broader objectives of climate policy, our analysis suggests that the GWP represents a relatively robust, transparent and policy-relevant emission metric.

  7. Beyond Scientism and Skepticism: An Integrative Approach to Global Mental Health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dan J Stein

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The global burden of disorders has shifted from infectious disease to non-communicable diseases, including neuropsychiatric disorders. Whereas infectious disease can sometimes be combated by targeting single causal mechanisms, such as prevention of contact-spread illness by hand-washing, in the case of mental disorders multiple causal mechanisms are relevant. The emergent field of global mental health has emphasized the magnitude of the treatment gap, particularly in the low and middle income world, and has paid particular attention to upstream causal factors, for example, poverty, inequality, and gender discrimination in the pathogenesis of mental disorders. However, this field has also been criticised for relying on erroneous Western paradigms of mental illness, which may not be relevant or appropriate to the low- and middle-income context. Here, it is important to steer a path between scienticism and skepticism. Scientism regards mental disorders as essential categories, and takes a covering law approach to causality; skepticism regards mental disorders as merely social constructions, and emphasizes the role of political power in causal relations. We propose an integrative model that emphasizes the contribution of a broad range of causal mechanisms operating at biological and societal levels to mental disorders, and the consequent importance of broad-spectrum and multi-pronged approaches to intervention.

  8. Beyond Scientism and Skepticism: An Integrative Approach to Global Mental Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stein, Dan J.; Illes, Judy

    2015-01-01

    The global burden of disorders has shifted from infectious disease to non-communicable diseases, including neuropsychiatric disorders. Whereas infectious disease can sometimes be combated by targeting single causal mechanisms, such as prevention of contact-spread illness by handwashing, in the case of mental disorders multiple causal mechanisms are typically relevant. The emergent field of global mental health has emphasized the magnitude of the treatment gap, particularly in the low- and middle-income world and has paid particular attention to upstream causal factors, for example, poverty, inequality, and gender discrimination in the pathogenesis of mental disorders. However, this field has also been criticized for relying erroneously on Western paradigms of mental illness, which may not be relevant or appropriate to the low- and middle-income context. Here, it is important to steer a path between scientism and skepticism. Scientism regards mental disorders as essential categories, and takes a covering law approach to causality; skepticism regards mental disorders as merely social constructions and emphasizes the role of political power in causal relations. We propose an integrative model that emphasizes the contribution of a broad range of causal mechanisms operating at biological and societal levels to mental disorders and the consequent importance of broad spectrum and multipronged approaches to intervention. PMID:26635641

  9. Early assessment of Integrated Multi-satellite Retrievals for Global Precipitation Measurement over China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Hao; Chen, Sheng; Bao, Anming; Behrangi, Ali; Hong, Yang; Ndayisaba, Felix; Hu, Junjun; Stepanian, Phillip M.

    2016-07-01

    Two post-real time precipitation products from the Integrated Multi-satellite Retrievals for Global Precipitation Measurement Mission (IMERG) are systematically evaluated over China with China daily Precipitation Analysis Product (CPAP) as reference. The IMERG products include the gauge-corrected IMERG product (IMERG_Cal) and the version of IMERG without direct gauge correction (IMERG_Uncal). The post-research TRMM Multisatellite Precipitation Analysis version 7 (TMPA-3B42V7) is also evaluated concurrently with IMERG for better perspective. In order to be consistent with CPAP, the evaluation and comparison of selected products are performed at 0.25° and daily resolutions from 12 March 2014 through 28 February 2015. The results show that: Both IMERG and 3B42V7 show similar performances. Compared to IMERG_Uncal, IMERG_Cal shows significant improvement in overall and conditional bias and in the correlation coefficient. Both IMERG_Cal and IMERG_Uncal perform relatively poor in winter and over-detect slight precipitation events in northwestern China. As an early validation of the GPM-era IMERG products that inherit the TRMM-era global satellite precipitation products, these findings will provide useful feedbacks and insights for algorithm developers and data users over China and beyond.

  10. The Global Modeling Initiative Assessment Model: Model Description, Integration and Testing of the Transport Shell

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rotman, D.A.; Tannahill, J.R.; Kinnison, D.E.; Connell, P.S.; Bergmann, D.; Proctor, D.; Rodriquez, J.M.; Lin, S.J.; Rood, R.B.; Prather, M.J.; Rasch, P.J.; Considine, D.B.; Ramaroson, R.; Kawa, S.R.

    2000-04-25

    We describe the three dimensional global stratospheric chemistry model developed under the NASA Global Modeling Initiative (GMI) to assess the possible environmental consequences from the emissions of a fleet of proposed high speed civil transport aircraft. This model was developed through a unique collaboration of the members of the GMI team. Team members provided computational modules representing various physical and chemical processes, and analysis of simulation results through extensive comparison to observation. The team members' modules were integrated within a computational framework that allowed transportability and simulations on massively parallel computers. A unique aspect of this model framework is the ability to interchange and intercompare different submodules to assess the sensitivity of numerical algorithms and model assumptions to simulation results. In this paper, we discuss the important attributes of the GMI effort, describe the GMI model computational framework and the numerical modules representing physical and chemical processes. As an application of the concept, we illustrate an analysis of the impact of advection algorithms on the dispersion of a NO{sub y}-like source in the stratosphere which mimics that of a fleet of commercial supersonic transports (High-Speed Civil Transport (HSCT)) flying between 17 and 20 kilometers.

  11. An Integrated Testing Facility for the Global Trigger of the CMS Experiment at CERN

    CERN Document Server

    Themel, Thomas; Wulz, Claudia-Elisabeth

    2010-01-01

    The Global Trigger is part of the Level-1 Trigger of the CMS experiment at CERN, with the task to find the most interesting events corresponding to a rate of 100 kHz from the basic Large Hadron Collider interaction rate of 40 MHz. It is expected to render a decision within 3:2 $\\mu$s, which necessitates an implementation using custom hardware. The implementation makes heavy use of Field Programmable Gate Array (FPGA) technology to reconcile the performance requirements with the need for exibility. The complexity of the Global Trigger system (13 boards with 51 FPGA chips) makes it vulnerable to a multitude of errors, from electrical errors such as bad solder joints or plug contacts up to logical errors in the implementation of the firmrmware and the configuration software. The goal of the work described in this thesis was to provide an integrated system that allows users to easily determine whether the system is working correctly and assists experts in tracking down the internal causes of such errors within th...

  12. Integration of glacier databases within the Global Terrestrial Network for Glaciers (GTN-G)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zemp, M.; Raup, B. H.; Armstrong, R.; Ballagh, L.; Gärtner-Roer, I.; Haeberli, W.; Hoelzle, M.; Kääb, A.; Kargel, J.; Paul, F.

    2009-04-01

    Changes in glaciers and ice caps provide some of the clearest evidence of climate change and have impacts on global sea level fluctuations, regional hydrological cycles and local natural hazard situations. Internationally coordinated collection and distribution of standardized information about glaciers and ice caps was initiated in 1894 and is today coordinated within the Global Terrestrial Network for Glaciers (GTN-G). A recently established GTN-G Steering Committee coordinates, supports and advices the operational bodies responsible for the international glacier monitoring, which are the World Glacier Monitoring Service (WGMS), the US National Snow and Ice Data Center (NSIDC) and the Global Land Ice Measurements from Space (GLIMS) initiative. In this presentation, we provide an overview of (i) the integration of the various operational databases, (ii) the development of a one-stop web-interface to these databases, and (iii) the available datasets. By joint efforts consistency and interoperability of the different glacier databases is elaborated. Thereby, the lack of a complete worldwide, detailed glacier inventory as well as different historical developments and methodological contexts of the datasets are major challenges for linking individual glaciers throughout the databases. A map-based web-interface, implemented based on OpenLayer 2.0 and Web Map/Feature Services, is elaborated to spatially link the available data and to provide data users a fast overview of all available data. With this new online service, GTN-G provides fast access to information on glacier inventory data from 100,000 glaciers mainly based on aerial photographs and from 80,000 glaciers mainly based on satellite images, length change series from 1,800 glaciers, mass balance series from 230 glaciers, special events (e.g., hazards, surges, calving instabilities) from 130 glaciers, as well as 10,000 photographs from some 470 glaciers.

  13. The global burden of periodontal disease: towards integration with chronic disease prevention and control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petersen, Poul E; Ogawa, Hiroshi

    2012-10-01

    Chronic diseases are accelerating globally, advancing across all regions and pervading all socioeconomic classes. Unhealthy diet and poor nutrition, physical inactivity, tobacco use, excessive use of alcohol and psychosocial stress are the most important risk factors. Periodontal disease is a component of the global burden of chronic disease, and chronic disease and periodontal disease have the same essential risk factors. In addition, severe periodontal disease is related to poor oral hygiene and to poor general health (e.g. the presence of diabetes mellitus and other systemic diseases). The present report highlights the global burden of periodontal disease: the ultimate burden of periodontal disease (tooth loss), as well as signs of periodontal disease, are described from World Health Organization (WHO) epidemiological data. High prevalence rates of complete tooth loss are found in upper middle-income countries, whereas the tooth-loss rates, at the time of writing, are modest for low-income countries. In high-income countries somewhat lower rates for edentulism are found when compared with upper middle-income countries. Around the world, social inequality in tooth loss is profound within countries. The Community Periodontal Index was introduced by the WHO in 1987 for countries to produce periodontal health profiles and to assist countries in the planning and evaluation of intervention programs. Globally, gingival bleeding is the most prevalent sign of disease, whereas the presence of deep periodontal pockets (≥6 mm) varies from 10% to 15% in adult populations. Intercountry and intracountry variations are found in the prevalence of periodontal disease, and these variations relate to socio-environmental conditions, behavioral risk factors, general health status of people (e.g. diabetes and HIV status) and oral health systems. National public health initiatives for the control and prevention of periodontal disease should include oral health promotion and

  14. The Effects of Various Regional and Global Integration Indices on Foreign Direct Investment (Case Study: OPEC Countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shekoofe Nagheli

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Economic integration at global and regional level is one of the most important consequences of mutual relationships of countries. Given that capital is the stimulant of economic growth and development and developing countries are often faced with lack of capital, they are trying to compensate this with foreign borrowing but regarding crises resulted from it foreign direct investment is being used as its substitute. The main objective of this paper is to study the effect of economic integration and globalization on FDI attraction. In order to achieve the above goal foreign direct investment equation for Asian countries is estimated by Stata software using panel data during 2001-2011 based on theoretical literature of gravity model and using of econometric methods. Our results, as we expected reveal that there is a positive relation between economic integration and foreign investment. Comparison of results in different cases shows that co-integration has more impacts on FDI for OPEC Countries under globalization conditions. In globalization cases, integration is the best choice for attracting of FDI in OPEC.

  15. Integration of PET-CT and cone-beam CT for image-guided radiotherapy with high image quality and registration accuracy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, T.-H.; Liang, C.-H.; Wu, J.-K.; Lien, C.-Y.; Yang, B.-H.; Huang, Y.-H.; Lee, J. J. S.

    2009-07-01

    Hybrid positron emission tomography-computed tomography (PET-CT) system enhances better differentiation of tissue uptake of 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose (18F-FDG) and provides much more diagnostic value in the non-small-cell lung cancer and nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC). In PET-CT, high quality CT images not only offer diagnostic value on anatomic delineation of the tissues but also shorten the acquisition time for attenuation correction (AC) compared with PET-alone imaging. The linear accelerators equipped with the X-ray cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) imaging system for image-guided radiotherapy (IGRT) provides excellent verification on position setup error. The purposes of our study were to optimize the CT acquisition protocols of PET-CT and to integrate the PET-CT and CBCT for IGRT. The CT imaging parameters were modified in PET-CT for increasing the image quality in order to enhance the diagnostic value on tumour delineation. Reproducibility and registration accuracy via bone co-registration algorithm between the PET-CT and CBCT were evaluated by using a head phantom to simulate a head and neck treatment condition. Dose measurement in computed tomography dose index (CTDI) was also estimated. Optimization of the CT acquisition protocols of PET-CT was feasible in this study. Co-registration accuracy between CBCT and PET-CT on axial and helical modes was in the range of 1.06 to 2.08 and 0.99 to 2.05 mm, respectively. In our result, it revealed that the accuracy of the co-registration with CBCT on helical mode was more accurate than that on axial mode. Radiation doses in CTDI were 4.76 to 18.5 mGy and 4.83 to 18.79 mGy on axial and helical modes, respectively. Registration between PET-CT and CBCT is a state-of-the-art registration technology which could provide much information on diagnosis and accurate tumour contouring on radiotherapy while implementing radiotherapy procedures. This novelty technology of PET-CT and cone-beam CT integration for IGRT may have a

  16. Integration of PET-CT and cone-beam CT for image-guided radiotherapy with high image quality and registration accuracy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, T-H [Department of Medical Imaging and Radiological Sciences, Chung Shan Medical University, No. 110, Sec.1, Jianguo N.Rd, Taichung City 40201, Taiwan (China); Liang, C-H [Agfa Healthcare Systems Taiwan Co., Ltd., 6F, 237 Sung Chiang Road, Taipei, 104 Taiwan (China); Wu, J-K [Division of Radiation Oncology, Department of Oncology, and Cancer Research Center, National Taiwan University Hospital, No.7 Chung San South Road, Taipei, 104 Taiwan (China); Lien, C-Y [Institute of Biomedical Engineering, National Yang Ming University, No. 155, Sec.2, Linong Street, Taipei, 112 Taiwan (China); Yang, B-H; Lee, J J S [Department of Biomedical Imaging and Radiological Sciences, National Yang Ming University, No. 155, Sec.2, Linong Street, Taipei, 112 Taiwan (China); Huang, Y-H [Department of Medical Imaing and Radiological Sciences, I-Shou University, No. 8, Yida Rd., Yanchao Township, Kaohsiung County 82445, Taiwan (China)], E-mail: jslee@ym.edu.tw

    2009-07-15

    Hybrid positron emission tomography-computed tomography (PET-CT) system enhances better differentiation of tissue uptake of {sup 18}F-fluorodeoxyglucose ({sup 18}F-FDG) and provides much more diagnostic value in the non-small-cell lung cancer and nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC). In PET-CT, high quality CT images not only offer diagnostic value on anatomic delineation of the tissues but also shorten the acquisition time for attenuation correction (AC) compared with PET-alone imaging. The linear accelerators equipped with the X-ray cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) imaging system for image-guided radiotherapy (IGRT) provides excellent verification on position setup error. The purposes of our study were to optimize the CT acquisition protocols of PET-CT and to integrate the PET-CT and CBCT for IGRT. The CT imaging parameters were modified in PET-CT for increasing the image quality in order to enhance the diagnostic value on tumour delineation. Reproducibility and registration accuracy via bone co-registration algorithm between the PET-CT and CBCT were evaluated by using a head phantom to simulate a head and neck treatment condition. Dose measurement in computed tomography dose index (CTDI) was also estimated. Optimization of the CT acquisition protocols of PET-CT was feasible in this study. Co-registration accuracy between CBCT and PET-CT on axial and helical modes was in the range of 1.06 to 2.08 and 0.99 to 2.05 mm, respectively. In our result, it revealed that the accuracy of the co-registration with CBCT on helical mode was more accurate than that on axial mode. Radiation doses in CTDI were 4.76 to 18.5 mGy and 4.83 to 18.79 mGy on axial and helical modes, respectively. Registration between PET-CT and CBCT is a state-of-the-art registration technology which could provide much information on diagnosis and accurate tumour contouring on radiotherapy while implementing radiotherapy procedures. This novelty technology of PET-CT and cone-beam CT integration for IGRT

  17. "Integrated knowledge translation" for globally oriented public health practitioners and scientists: Framing together a sustainable transfrontier knowledge translation vision.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lapaige, Véronique

    2010-06-01

    The development of a dynamic leadership coalition between practitioners and researchers/scientists - which is known in Canada as integrated knowledge translation (KT) - can play a major role in bridging the know-do gap in the health care and public health sectors. In public health, and especially in globally oriented public health, integrated KT is a dynamic, interactive (collaborative), and nonlinear phenomenon that goes beyond a reductionist vision of knowledge translation, to attain inter-, multi-, and even transdisciplinary status. Intimately embedded in its socioenvironmental context and closely connected with the complex interventions of multiple actors, the nonlinear process of integrated KT is based on a double principle: (1) the principle of transcendence of frontiers (sectorial, disciplinary, geographic, cultural, and cognitive), and (2) the principle of integration of knowledge beyond these frontiers. However, even though many authors agree on the overriding importance of integrated KT, there is as yet little understanding of the causal framework of integrated KT. Here, one can ask two general questions. Firstly, what "determines" integrated KT? Secondly, even if one wanted to apply a "transfrontier knowledge translation" vision, how should one go about doing so? For example, what would be the nature and qualities of a representative research program that applied a "transfrontier collaboration" approach? This paper focuses on the determinants of integrated KT within the burgeoning field of knowledge translation research (KT research). The paper is based on the results of a concurrent mixed method design which dealt with the complexity of building and sustaining effective coalitions and partnerships in the health care and public health sectors. The aims of this paper are: (1) to present an "integrated KT" conceptual framework which is global-context-sensitive, and (2) to promote the incorporation of a new "transfrontier knowledge translation" approach

  18. Integrated Assessment of Global Water Scarcity over the 21st Century under Multiple Climate Change Mitigation Policies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hejazi, Mohamad I.; Edmonds, James A.; Clarke, Leon E.; Kyle, G. Page; Davies, Evan; Chaturvedi, Vaibhav; Wise, Marshall A.; Patel, Pralit L.; Eom, Jiyong; Calvin, Katherine V.

    2014-01-01

    Water scarcity conditions over the 21st century both globally and regionally are assessed in the context of climate change, by estimating both water availability and water demand within the Global Change Assessment Model (GCAM), a leading community integrated assessment model of energy, agriculture, climate, and water. To quantify changes in future water availability, a new gridded water-balance global hydrologic model – namely, the Global Water Availability Model (GWAM) – is developed and evaluated. Global water demands for six major demand sectors (irrigation, livestock, domestic, electricity generation, primary energy production, and manufacturing) are modeled in GCAM at the regional scale (14 geopolitical regions, 151 sub-regions) and then spatially downscaled to 0.5 o x 0.5o resolution to match the scale of GWAM. Using a baseline scenario (i.e., no climate change mitigation policy) with radiative forcing reaching 8.8 W/m2 (equivalent to the SRES A1Fi emission scenario) and a global population of 14 billion by 2095, global annual water demand grows from about 9% of total annual renewable freshwater in 2005 to about 32% by 2095. This results in almost half of the world population living under extreme water scarcity by the end of the 21st century. Regionally, the demand for water exceeds the amount of water availability in two GCAM regions, the Middle East and India. Additionally, in years 2050 and 2095, 20% and 27% of the global population, respectively, is projected to live in areas (grid cells) that will experience greater water demands than the amount of available water in a year (i.e., the water scarcity index (WSI) > 1.0). This study implies an increasingly prominent role for water in future human decisions, and highlights the importance of including water in integrated assessment of global change.

  19. Developing a common strategy for integrative global change research and outreach: the Earth System Science Partnership (ESSP)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leemans, R.; Asrar, G.; Canadell, J.G.; Ingram, J.; Larigauderie, A.; Mooney, H.; Nobre, C.; Patwardhan, A.; Rice, M.; Schmidt, F.; Seitzinger, S.; Virji, H.; Vörösmarthy, C.; Yuoung, O.

    2009-01-01

    The Earth System Science Partnership (ESSP) was established in 2001 by four global environmental change (GEC) research programmes: DIVERSITAS, IGBP, IHDP and WCRP. ESSP facilitates the study of the Earth's environment as an integrated system in order to understand how and why it is changing, and to

  20. Global Economic Integration and Local Community Resilience: Road Paving and Rural Demographic Change in the Southwestern Amazon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perz, Stephen G.; Cabrera, Liliana; Carvalho, Lucas Araujo; Castillo, Jorge; Barnes, Grenville

    2010-01-01

    Recent years have witnessed an expansion in international investment in large-scale infrastructure projects with the goal of achieving global economic integration. We focus on one such project, the Inter-Oceanic Highway in the "MAP" region, a trinational frontier where Bolivia, Brazil, and Peru meet in the southwestern Amazon. We adopt a…

  1. The strategic decisions and success factors of the global integration-local responsiveness of Japanese MNCs in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MAO Yunshi; WANG Jiancheng

    2007-01-01

    This article applies Foreign Direct Investment (FDI) theories to the strategic management analysis of the global integration-local responsiveness of multinational corporations (MNCs) in China, from the perspective of company characteristics (ownership advantages and internalization advantages) and environmental dynamics (locational factors) in order to analyze the success factors influencing the sales activities of Japanese MNCs in China. Based on the analysis of a survey conducted on 230 Japanese parent companies with investments in China, the empirical research findings include: Japanese MNCs in China favor global integration strategies; the more significant the ownership advantages and internalization advantages are, the greater the global integration is; the success factors of their operations in China due to global integration are present in manufacturing know-how, procurement of parts and supplies, financial power, previous investment experience in China as well as sales networks and technologies; locational advantages mainly lie in labor cost among other things; internalization factors do not have any significant correlation with the success and performance of the subsidiary company.

  2. 76 FR 19174 - In the Matter of Circuit Systems, Inc., Global Energy Group, Inc., Integrated Medical Resources...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-06

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION File No. 500-1 In the Matter of Circuit Systems, Inc., Global Energy Group, Inc., Integrated... information concerning the securities of Circuit Systems, Inc. because it has not filed any periodic...

  3. Towards an integrative post-2015 sustainable development goal framework: Focusing on global justice – peace, security and basic human rights

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    George R. Lueddeke

    2015-12-01

    To strengthen the likelihood of realizing the post-2015 Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs, particularly with regard to “planet and population” health and well-being , UN and other decision-makers are urged to consider the adoption of an integrated SDG framework that is based on (i a vision of global justice - underpinned by peace, security and basic human rights; (ii the development of interdependent and interconnected strategies for each of the eleven thematic indicators identified in the UN document The World We Want; and (iii the application of guiding principles to measure the impact of SDG strategies in terms of holism, equity, sustainability, ownership, and global obligation. While current discussions on the SDGs are making progress in a number of areas, the need for integration of these around a common global vision and purpose seems especially crucial to avoid MDG shortcomings.

  4. Medical image integrity control and forensics based on watermarking--approximating local modifications and identifying global image alterations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, H; Coatrieux, G; Shu, H Z; Luo, L M; Roux, Ch

    2011-01-01

    In this paper we present a medical image integrity verification system that not only allows detecting and approximating malevolent local image alterations (e.g. removal or addition of findings) but is also capable to identify the nature of global image processing applied to the image (e.g. lossy compression, filtering …). For that purpose, we propose an image signature derived from the geometric moments of pixel blocks. Such a signature is computed over regions of interest of the image and then watermarked in regions of non interest. Image integrity analysis is conducted by comparing embedded and recomputed signatures. If any, local modifications are approximated through the determination of the parameters of the nearest generalized 2D Gaussian. Image moments are taken as image features and serve as inputs to one classifier we learned to discriminate the type of global image processing. Experimental results with both local and global modifications illustrate the overall performances of our approach.

  5. Integrative medical therapy: examination of meditation's therapeutic and global medicinal outcomes via nitric oxide (review).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stefano, George B; Esch, Tobias

    2005-10-01

    Relaxation techniques are part of the integrative medicine movement that is of growing importance for mainstream medicine. Complementary medical therapies have the potential to affect many physiological systems. Repeatedly studies show the benefits of the placebo response and relaxation techniques in the treatment of hypertension, cardiac arrhythmias, chronic pain, insomnia, anxiety and mild and moderate depression, premenstrual syndrome, and infertility. In itself, relaxation is characterized by a decreased metabolism, heart rate, blood pressure, and rate of breathing as well as an increase in skin temperature. Relaxation approaches, such as progressive muscle relaxation, autogenic training, meditation and biofeedback, are effective in lowering systolic and diastolic blood pressure in hypertensive patients by a significant margin. Given this association with changes in vascular tone, we have hypothesized that nitric oxide, a demonstrated vasodilator substance, contribute to physiological activity of relaxation approaches. We examined the scientific literature concerning the disorders noted earlier for their nitric oxide involvement in an attempt to provide a molecular rationale for the positive effects of relaxation approaches, which are physiological and cognitive process. We conclude that constitutive nitric oxide may crucially contribute to potentially beneficial outcomes and effects in diverse pathologies, exerting a global healing effect.

  6. Global transcript structure resolution of high gene density genomes through multi-platform data integration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Grady, Tina; Wang, Xia; Höner Zu Bentrup, Kerstin; Baddoo, Melody; Concha, Monica; Flemington, Erik K

    2016-10-14

    Annotation of herpesvirus genomes has traditionally been undertaken through the detection of open reading frames and other genomic motifs, supplemented with sequencing of individual cDNAs. Second generation sequencing and high-density microarray studies have revealed vastly greater herpesvirus transcriptome complexity than is captured by existing annotation. The pervasive nature of overlapping transcription throughout herpesvirus genomes, however, poses substantial problems in resolving transcript structures using these methods alone. We present an approach that combines the unique attributes of Pacific Biosciences Iso-Seq long-read, Illumina short-read and deepCAGE (Cap Analysis of Gene Expression) sequencing to globally resolve polyadenylated isoform structures in replicating Epstein-Barr virus (EBV). Our method, Transcriptome Resolution through Integration of Multi-platform Data (TRIMD), identifies nearly 300 novel EBV transcripts, quadrupling the size of the annotated viral transcriptome. These findings illustrate an array of mechanisms through which EBV achieves functional diversity in its relatively small, compact genome including programmed alternative splicing (e.g. across the IR1 repeats), alternative promoter usage by LMP2 and other latency-associated transcripts, intergenic splicing at the BZLF2 locus, and antisense transcription and pervasive readthrough transcription throughout the genome.

  7. Reducing maternal, newborn, and infant mortality globally: an integrated action agenda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhutta, Zulfiqar A; Cabral, Sergio; Chan, Chok-Wan; Keenan, William J

    2012-10-01

    There has been increasing awareness over recent years of the persisting burden of worldwide maternal, newborn, and child mortality. The majority of maternal deaths occur during labor, delivery, and the immediate postpartum period, with obstetric hemorrhage as the primary medical cause of death. Other causes of maternal mortality include hypertensive diseases, sepsis/infections, obstructed labor, and abortion-related complications. Recent estimates indicate that in 2009 an estimated 3.3 million babies died in the first month of life and that overall, 7.3 million children under 5 die each year. Recent data also suggest that sufficient evidence- and consensus-based interventions exist to address reproductive, maternal, newborn, and child health globally, and if implemented at scale, these have the potential to reduce morbidity and mortality. There is an urgent need to put elements in place to promote integrated interventions among healthcare professionals and their associations. What is needed is the political will and partnerships to implement evidence-based interventions at scale.

  8. SoilTrEC: a global initiative on critical zone research and integration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menon, Manoj; Rousseva, Svetla; Nikolaidis, Nikolaos P; van Gaans, Pauline; Panagos, Panos; de Souza, Danielle Maia; Ragnarsdottir, Kristin Vala; Lair, Georg J; Weng, Liping; Bloem, Jaap; Kram, Pavel; Novak, Martin; Davidsdottir, Brynhildur; Gisladottir, Gudrun; Robinson, David A; Reynolds, Brian; White, Tim; Lundin, Lars; Zhang, Bin; Duffy, Christopher; Bernasconi, Stefano M; de Ruiter, Peter; Blum, Winfried E H; Banwart, Steven A

    2014-02-01

    Soil is a complex natural resource that is considered non-renewable in policy frameworks, and it plays a key role in maintaining a variety of ecosystem services (ES) and life-sustaining material cycles within the Earth's Critical Zone (CZ). However, currently, the ability of soil to deliver these services is being drastically reduced in many locations, and global loss of soil ecosystem services is estimated to increase each year as a result of many different threats, such as erosion and soil carbon loss. The European Union Thematic Strategy for Soil Protection alerts policy makers of the need to protect soil and proposes measures to mitigate soil degradation. In this context, the European Commission-funded research project on Soil Transformations in European Catchments (SoilTrEC) aims to quantify the processes that deliver soil ecosystem services in the Earth's Critical Zone and to quantify the impacts of environmental change on key soil functions. This is achieved by integrating the research results into decision-support tools and applying methods of economic valuation to soil ecosystem services. In this paper, we provide an overview of the SoilTrEC project, its organization, partnerships and implementation.

  9. Architectural Benevolent Builders (ABB): A Global System Automating Integration of structured and Semistructured Sources

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    We investigate highly sophisticated mechanisms that merge and automate interoperability of heterogeneous traditional information systems together with the World Wide Web as one world. In particular, we introduce the ABB system that employs most of the Benevolent Builders (BB) which are assertions, integration rules, ABB-network graph and agents to activate the components' versatility to reconcile the semantics involved in data sharing in order to withstand the terrific dynamic computer technology in the present and future information age. The ABB is a global application system with its operation covering local databases to the Internet. The first three BB are passive objects, whereas, the agent has a strong versatility to perceive events, perform actions, communicate, make commitments, and satisfy claims. Due to the BB's power of intelligence, ABB also has the capability to filter out and process only the relevant operational sources like preferences (i.e. customer's interest) from the sites. The ABB's richness in knowledge and flexibility to accommodate various data models, manages to link: system-to-system or firm-to-firm regardless of the field such as: engineering, insurance, medical, space science, and education, to mention a few.

  10. Management model of productive capacity: integrating theory of constraints and the global operational efficiency index (IROG

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diego Augusto Pacheco

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a model of management capacity in productive systems integrating the concepts of the Theory of Constraints and Total Productive Maintenance (TPM. The main objective of this study is to discuss and propose a model of management capacity, able to answer the following key questions: i capacity indicators which should be considered and how to measure them to measure the productive capacity of manufacturing systems? ii what is the real productive capacity of the system analyzed under a determined relationship between capacity and demand? The discussion of the proposed model is relevant because the definition of productive capacity system enables better management of resources and capabilities, improve production scheduling on the factory floor and meeting the demands imposed by the market. This paper presents the proposition of using the Operating Income Index Global (IROG with a different approach from traditional literature dealing with the theme, presented by Nakajima (1988. The results of this paper enable to develop a model to determine the capacity of the production system and the impact on the productive capacity of the entire system, not to consider the quality conformances that occur after the bottleneck resource of the production flow.

  11. Integrating psychology within the globalizing world: a requiem to the post-modernist experiment with Wissenschaft.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valsiner, Jaan

    2009-03-01

    Since the new beginning in 2007 of Integrative Psychological & Behavioral Science we have brought out to the open both the reasons why the ever-widening research enterprise in psychology has largely failed to produce general knowledge, and to point to promising new directions in the field. The post-modernist turn in psychology is now over, and it is an interesting task to return to creating a universal science of psychology that is context-sensitive, and culture-inclusive. The latter goal entails a renewed focus upon qualitative analyses of time-based processes, close attention to the phenomena under study, and systematic (single-system-based-usually labeled idiographic) focus in empirical investigations. Through these three pathways centrality of human experiencing of culturally constructed worlds is restored as the core of psychological science. Universal principles are evident in each and every single case. Transcending post-modernist deconstruction of science happens through active international participation and a renewed focus on creating general theories. Contemporary psychology is global in ways that no longer can any country's socio-political world view dominate the field. Such international equality of contributions grants innovation of the core of the discipline, and safeguards it against assuming any single cultural myth-story as the axiomatic basis for the discipline.

  12. Integrated Multispectral and Geophysical Datasets: A Global View of Lunar Pyroclastic Deposits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaddis, Lisa R.; Rosanova, C.; Hawke, B. R.; Coombs, Cassandra; Robinson, M.; Sable, J.

    1998-01-01

    We are integrating multispectral Clementine UVVIS data with crustal thickness data to examine the composition and distribution of lunar pyroclastic deposits. Examples are the large deposits of Apollo 17/Taurus Littrow and Aristarchus and the small deposits (or endogenic "dark-halo" craters) located along fractures in the floors of Alphonsus , Atlas, and Schrodinger craters. Our early efforts focus on the small pyroclastic deposits because of their relative youth (about 1 Ga in some cases), their broad global distribution, and the fact that their small sizes may have inhibited early Earth-based (about 500 m spectral spot size at best) spectral analyses. We are now studying a variety of small deposits, including those of the Atlas Crater, Franklin Crater, Eastern Frigoris highlands, Oppenheimer Crater, Lavoisier Crater. and Orientale Crater regions. Our goals are to: (1) understand the full extent of interdeposit compositional variations among small lunar pyroclastic deposits; (2) evaluate the possible effects of soil maturation and lateral mixing on the "true" compositions of these deposits; (3) determine the prevalence and nature of intradeposit compositional variations; (4) identify and characterize the juvenile components of these deposits; and (5) understand the implications of these results for studying lunar eruption mechanisms.

  13. Integrating women's human rights into global health research: an action framework.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baptiste, Donna; Kapungu, Chisina; Khare, Manorama H; Lewis, Yvonne; Barlow-Mosha, Linda

    2010-11-01

    This article uses Scale of Change theory as a framework to guide global health researchers to synergistically target women's health outcomes in the context of improving their right to freedom, equity, and equality of opportunities. We hypothesize that health researchers can do so through six action strategies. These strategies include (1) becoming fully informed of women's human rights directives to integrate them into research, (2) mainstreaming gender in the research, (3) using the expertise of grass roots women's organizations in the setting, (4) showcasing women's equity and equality in the organizational infrastructure, (5) disseminating research findings to policymakers in the study locale to influence health priorities, and (6) publicizing the social conditions that are linked to women's diseases. We explore conceptual and logistical dilemmas in transforming a study using these principles and also provide a case study of obstetric fistula reduction in Nigeria to illustrate how these strategies can be operationalized. Our intent is to offer a feasible approach to health researchers who, conceptually, may link women's health to social and cultural conditions but are looking for practical implementation strategies to examine a women's health issue through the lens of their human rights.

  14. From terrestrial to aquatic fluxes: Integrating stream dynamics within a dynamic global vegetation modeling framework

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoy, Jerad; Poulter, Benjamin; Emmett, Kristen; Cross, Molly; Al-Chokhachy, Robert; Maneta, Marco

    2016-04-01

    Integrated terrestrial ecosystem models simulate the dynamics and feedbacks between climate, vegetation, disturbance, and hydrology and are used to better understand biogeography and biogeochemical cycles. Extending dynamic vegetation models to the aquatic interface requires coupling surface and sub-surface runoff to catchment routing schemes and has the potential to enhance how researchers and managers investigate how changes in the environment might impact the availability of water resources for human and natural systems. In an effort towards creating such a coupled model, we developed catchment-based hydrologic routing and stream temperature model to pair with LPJ-GUESS, a dynamic global vegetation model. LPJ-GUESS simulates detailed stand-level vegetation dynamics such as growth, carbon allocation, and mortality, as well as various physical and hydrologic processes such as canopy interception and through-fall, and can be applied at small spatial scales, i.e., 1 km. We demonstrate how the coupled model can be used to investigate the effects of transient vegetation dynamics and CO2 on seasonal and annual stream discharge and temperature regimes. As a direct management application, we extend the modeling framework to predict habitat suitability for fish habitat within the Greater Yellowstone Ecosystem, a 200,000 km2 region that provides critical habitat for a range of aquatic species. The model is used to evaluate, quantitatively, the effects of management practices aimed to enhance hydrologic resilience to climate change, and benefits for water storage and fish habitat in the coming century.

  15. A simple integrated assessment approach to global change simulation and evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogutu, Keroboto; D'Andrea, Fabio; Ghil, Michael

    2016-04-01

    We formulate and study the Coupled Climate-Economy-Biosphere (CoCEB) model, which constitutes the basis of our idealized integrated assessment approach to simulating and evaluating global change. CoCEB is composed of a physical climate module, based on Earth's energy balance, and an economy module that uses endogenous economic growth with physical and human capital accumulation. A biosphere model is likewise under study and will be coupled to the existing two modules. We concentrate on the interactions between the two subsystems: the effect of climate on the economy, via damage functions, and the effect of the economy on climate, via a control of the greenhouse gas emissions. Simple functional forms of the relation between the two subsystems permit simple interpretations of the coupled effects. The CoCEB model is used to make hypotheses on the long-term effect of investment in emission abatement, and on the comparative efficacy of different approaches to abatement, in particular by investing in low carbon technology, in deforestation reduction or in carbon capture and storage (CCS). The CoCEB model is very flexible and transparent, and it allows one to easily formulate and compare different functional representations of climate change mitigation policies. Using different mitigation measures and their cost estimates, as found in the literature, one is able to compare these measures in a coherent way.

  16. Technologies for water resources management: an integrated approach to manage global and regional water resources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tao, W. C., LLNL

    1998-03-23

    regional water resources; As an evaluation tool for selecting appropriate remediation technologies for reclaiming water; and As an assessment tool for determining the effectiveness of implementing the remediation technologies. We have included a discussion on the appropriate strategy for LLNL to integrate its technical tools into the global business, geopolitical, and academic communities, whereby LLNL can form partnerships with technology proponents in the commercial, industrial, and public sectors.

  17. Relative Accuracy of 1-Minute and Daily Total Solar Radiation Data for 12 Global and 4 Direct Beam Solar Radiometers: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Myers, D. R.; Wilcox, S. M.

    2009-03-01

    This report evaluates the relative performance of 12 global and four direct beam solar radiometers deployed at a single site over a 12-month period. Test radiometer irradiances were compared with a reference irradiance consisting of either an absolute cavity radiometer (during calibrations) or a low uncertainty thermopile pyrheliometer (during the evaluation period) for pyrheliometers; and for pyranometers a reference global irradiance computed from the reference pyrheliometer and diffuse irradiance from a shaded pyranometer.

  18. Prediction and compensation of magnetic beam deflection in MR-integrated proton therapy: a method optimized regarding accuracy, versatility and speed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schellhammer, Sonja M.; Hoffmann, Aswin L.

    2017-02-01

    The integration of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and proton therapy for on-line image-guidance is expected to reduce dose delivery uncertainties during treatment. Yet, the proton beam experiences a Lorentz force induced deflection inside the magnetic field of the MRI scanner, and several methods have been proposed to quantify this effect. We analyze their structural differences and compare results of both analytical and Monte Carlo models. We find that existing analytical models are limited in accuracy and applicability due to critical approximations, especially including the assumption of a uniform magnetic field. As Monte Carlo simulations are too time-consuming for routine treatment planning and on-line plan adaption, we introduce a new method to quantify and correct for the beam deflection, which is optimized regarding accuracy, versatility and speed. We use it to predict the trajectory of a mono-energetic proton beam of energy E 0 traversing a water phantom behind an air gap within an omnipresent uniform transverse magnetic flux density B 0. The magnetic field induced dislocation of the Bragg peak is calculated as function of E 0 and B 0 and compared to results obtained with existing analytical and Monte Carlo methods. The deviation from the Bragg peak position predicted by Monte Carlo simulations is smaller for the new model than for the analytical models by up to 2 cm. The model is faster than Monte Carlo methods, less assumptive than the analytical models and applicable to realistic magnetic fields. To compensate for the predicted Bragg peak dislocation, a numerical optimization strategy is introduced and evaluated. It includes an adjustment of both the proton beam entrance angle and energy of up to 25° and 5 MeV, depending on E 0 and B 0. This strategy is shown to effectively reposition the Bragg peak to its intended location in the presence of a magnetic field.

  19. Prediction and compensation of magnetic beam deflection in MR-integrated proton therapy: a method optimized regarding accuracy, versatility and speed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schellhammer, Sonja M; Hoffmann, Aswin L

    2017-02-21

    The integration of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and proton therapy for on-line image-guidance is expected to reduce dose delivery uncertainties during treatment. Yet, the proton beam experiences a Lorentz force induced deflection inside the magnetic field of the MRI scanner, and several methods have been proposed to quantify this effect. We analyze their structural differences and compare results of both analytical and Monte Carlo models. We find that existing analytical models are limited in accuracy and applicability due to critical approximations, especially including the assumption of a uniform magnetic field. As Monte Carlo simulations are too time-consuming for routine treatment planning and on-line plan adaption, we introduce a new method to quantify and correct for the beam deflection, which is optimized regarding accuracy, versatility and speed. We use it to predict the trajectory of a mono-energetic proton beam of energy E 0 traversing a water phantom behind an air gap within an omnipresent uniform transverse magnetic flux density B 0. The magnetic field induced dislocation of the Bragg peak is calculated as function of E 0 and B 0 and compared to results obtained with existing analytical and Monte Carlo methods. The deviation from the Bragg peak position predicted by Monte Carlo simulations is smaller for the new model than for the analytical models by up to 2 cm. The model is faster than Monte Carlo methods, less assumptive than the analytical models and applicable to realistic magnetic fields. To compensate for the predicted Bragg peak dislocation, a numerical optimization strategy is introduced and evaluated. It includes an adjustment of both the proton beam entrance angle and energy of up to 25° and 5 MeV, depending on E 0 and B 0. This strategy is shown to effectively reposition the Bragg peak to its intended location in the presence of a magnetic field.

  20. James Webb Space Telescope Integrated Science Instrument Module Calibration and Verification of High-Accuracy Instrumentation to Measure Heat Flow in Cryogenic Testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Comber, Brian; Glazer, Stuart

    2012-01-01

    The James Webb Space Telescope (JWST) is an upcoming flagship observatory mission scheduled to be launched in 2018. Three of the four science instruments are passively cooled to their operational temperature range of 36K to 40K, and the fourth instrument is actively cooled to its operational temperature of approximately 6K. The requirement for multiple thermal zoned results in the instruments being thermally connected to five external radiators via individual high purity aluminum heat straps. Thermal-vacuum and thermal balance testing of the flight instruments at the Integrated Science Instrument Module (ISIM) element level will take place within a newly constructed shroud cooled by gaseous helium inside Goddard Space Flight Center's (GSFC) Space environment Simulator (SES). The flight external radiators are not available during ISIM-level thermal vacuum/thermal testing, so they will be replaced in test with stable and adjustable thermal boundaries with identical physical interfaces to the flight radiators. Those boundaries are provided by specially designed test hardware which also measures the heat flow within each of the five heat straps to an accuracy of less than 2 mW, which is less than 5% of the minimum predicted heat flow values. Measurement of the heat loads to this accuracy is essential to ISIM thermal model correlation, since thermal models are more accurately correlated when temperature data is supplemented by accurate knowledge of heat flows. It also provides direct verification by test of several high-level thermal requirements. Devices that measure heat flow in this manner have historically been referred to a "Q-meters". Perhaps the most important feature of the design of the JWST Q-meters is that it does not depend on the absolute accuracy of its temperature sensors, but rather on knowledge of precise heater power required to maintain a constant temperature difference between sensors on two stages, for which a table is empirically developed during a

  1. Diagnostic accuracy of an integrated respiratory guideline in identifying patients with respiratory symptoms requiring screening for pulmonary tuberculosis: a cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Majara Bosielo P

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background To evaluate the diagnostic accuracy of the integrated Practical Approach to Lung Health in South Africa (PALSA guideline in identifying patients requiring bacteriological screening for tuberculosis (TB, and to determine which clinical features best predict suspected and bacteriologically-confirmed tuberculosis among patients with respiratory symptoms. Methods A prospective, cross-sectional study in which 1392 adult patients with cough and/or difficult breathing, attending a primary care facility in Cape Town, South Africa, were evaluated by a nurse using the guideline. The accuracy of a nurse using the guideline to identify TB suspects was compared to that of primary care physicians' diagnoses of (1 suspected TB, and (2 proven TB supported by clinical information and chest radiographs. Results The nurse using the guideline identified 516 patients as TB suspects compared with 365 by the primary care physicians, representing a sensitivity of 76% (95% confidence interval (CI 71%–79%, specificity of 77% (95% CI 74%–79%, positive predictive value of 53% (95% CI 49%–58%, negative predictive value of 90% (95% CI 88%–92%, and area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (ARUC of 0.76 (95% CI 0.74–0.79. Sputum results were obtained in 320 of the 365 primary care physicians TB suspects (88%; 40 (13% of these were positive for TB. Only 4 cases were not identified by the nurse using the guideline. The primary care physicians diagnostic accuracy in diagnosing bacteriologically-confirmed TB (n = 320 was as follows: sensitivity 90% (95% CI 76%–97%, specificity 65% (95% CI 63%–68%, negative predictive value 7% (95% CI 5%–10%, positive predictive value 99.5% (95% CI 98.8%–99.8%, and ARUC 0.78 (95% CI 0.73–0.82. Weight loss, pleuritic pain, and night sweats were independently associated with the diagnosis of bacteriologically-confirmed tuberculosis (positive likelihood ratio if all three present = 16.7, 95% CI 5

  2. A System of Systems Approach to Integrating Global Sea Level Change Application Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bambachus, M. J.; Foster, R. S.; Powell, C.; Cole, M.

    2005-12-01

    The global sea level change application community has numerous disparate models used to make predications over various regional and temporal scales. These models have typically been focused on limited sets of data and optimized for specific areas or questions of interest. Increasingly, decision makers at the national, international, and local/regional levels require access to these application data models and want to be able to integrate large disparate data sets, with new ubiquitous sensor data, and use these data across models from multiple sources. These requirements will force the Global Sea Level Change application community to take a new system-of-systems approach to their programs. We present a new technical architecture approach to the global sea level change program that provides external access to the vast stores of global sea level change data, provides a collaboration forum for the discussion and visualization of data, and provides a simulation environment to evaluate decisions. This architectural approach will provide the tools to support multi-disciplinary decision making. A conceptual system of systems approach is needed to address questions around the multiple approaches to tracking and predicting Sea Level Change. A systems of systems approach would include (1) a forum of data providers, modelers, and users, (2) a service oriented architecture including interoperable web services with a backbone of Grid computing capability, and (3) discovery and access functionality to the information developed through this structure. Each of these three areas would be clearly designed to maximize communication, data use for decision making and flexibility and extensibility for evolution of technology and requirements. In contemplating a system-of-systems approach, it is important to highlight common understanding and coordination as foundational to success across the multiple systems. The workflow of science in different applications is often conceptually similar

  3. Constraint-based query distribution framework for an integrated global schema

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Malik, Ahmad Kamran; Qadir, Muhammad Abdul; Iftikhar, Nadeem

    2009-01-01

    Distributed heterogeneous data sources need to be queried uniformly using global schema. Query on global schema is reformulated so that it can be executed on local data sources. Constraints in global schema and mappings are used for source selection, query optimization, and querying partitioned...

  4. On Application of the Model of the Global Dimension of Regional Integration for Evaluating the Development of Eurasian Economic Union

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ishkhanov Aleksandr Vladimirovich

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The article addresses the need to study the integration processes of the Eurasian region in order to identify promising directions of its development. It is noted that most studies of this issue are dedicated to the economic aspect, but the analysis of the integration processes requires a comprehensive approach. The authors propose to use The Model of Global Dimension of Regional Integration (GDRI-Model – the methodology which takes into account the most important aspects of integration. This model was developed by Malaysian Professor M. Estrada. The general objective of the GDRI-Model is to offer policy-makers and researchers a new analytical tool for studying the evolution and the stages of any regional integration process in a global perspective. The presented model is not a forecasting one, but its use is not limited to a certain group of countries and regions. The authors note that some model criteria are not acceptable for the evaluation of Eurasian integration because of the specific features of the region. The adaptation of the model is based on theoretical analysis allowing to reveal separate directions of integration and its factors. At the same time, the flexibility of the proposed model makes it possible to adapt it to the conditions of the Eurasian Economic Union with the aim of its further application for the evaluation of integration development. It is concluded that the GDRI-Model is simple and universal, so it can act as a tool of Eurasian integration research to determine the stages of its development. After adaptation the presented model will also determine the feasibility of further convergence of national systems of economic union and the possibility of transition to monetary integration.

  5. The MIT Integrated Global System Model: A facility for Assessing and Communicating Climate Change Uncertainty (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prinn, R. G.

    2013-12-01

    The world is facing major challenges that create tensions between human development and environmental sustenance. In facing these challenges, computer models are invaluable tools for addressing the need for probabilistic approaches to forecasting. To illustrate this, I use the MIT Integrated Global System Model framework (IGSM; http://globalchange.mit.edu ). The IGSM consists of a set of coupled sub-models of global economic and technological development and resultant emissions, and physical, dynamical and chemical processes in the atmosphere, land, ocean and ecosystems (natural and managed). Some of the sub-models have both complex and simplified versions available, with the choice of which version to use being guided by the questions being addressed. Some sub-models (e.g.urban air pollution) are reduced forms of complex ones created by probabilistic collocation with polynomial chaos bases. Given the significant uncertainties in the model components, it is highly desirable that forecasts be probabilistic. We achieve this by running 400-member ensembles (Latin hypercube sampling) with different choices for key uncertain variables and processes within the human and natural system model components (pdfs of inputs estimated by model-observation comparisons, literature surveys, or expert elicitation). The IGSM has recently been used for probabilistic forecasts of climate, each using 400-member ensembles: one ensemble assumes no explicit climate mitigation policy and others assume increasingly stringent policies involving stabilization of greenhouse gases at various levels. These forecasts indicate clearly that the greatest effect of these policies is to lower the probability of extreme changes. The value of such probability analyses for policy decision-making lies in their ability to compare relative (not just absolute) risks of various policies, which are less affected by the earth system model uncertainties. Given the uncertainties in forecasts, it is also clear that

  6. All Health Is Global Health, All Medicine Is Social Medicine: Integrating the Social Sciences Into the Preclinical Curriculum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasper, Jennifer; Greene, Jeremy A; Farmer, Paul E; Jones, David S

    2016-05-01

    As physicians work to achieve optimal health outcomes for their patients, they often struggle to address the issues that arise outside the clinic. Social, economic, and political factors influence patients' burden of disease, access to treatment, and health outcomes. This challenge has motivated recent calls for increased attention to the social determinants of health. At the same time, advocates have called for increased attention to global health. Each year, more U.S. medical students participate in global health experiences. Yet, the global health training that is available varies widely. The discipline of social medicine, which attends to the social determinants of disease, social meanings of disease, and social responses to disease, offers a solution to both challenges. The analyses and techniques of social medicine provide an invaluable toolkit for providing health care in the United States and abroad.In 2007, Harvard Medical School implemented a new course, required for all first-year students, that teaches social medicine in a way that integrates global health. In this article, the authors argue for the importance of including social medicine and global health in the preclinical curriculum; describe Harvard Medical School's innovative, integrated approach to teaching these disciplines, which can be used at other medical schools; and explore the barriers that educators may face in implementing such a curriculum, including resistance from students. Such a course can equip medical students with the knowledge and tools that they will need to address complex health problems in the United States and abroad.

  7. Modeling for planetary boundaries: a network analysis of representations of complex human-environmental interactions in integrated global models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedrich, Johannes; Fetzer, Ingo; Cornell, Sarah

    2016-04-01

    The planetary boundaries framework is an approach to global sustainability that emphasises non-linear threshold behavior in anthropogenically perturbed Earth system processes. However, knowledge about the characteristics and positions of thresholds, and the scope for management of the boundaries is not well established. Global integrated models can help to improve this understanding, by reflecting the complex feedbacks between human and environmental systems. This study analyses the current state of integrated models with regard to the main processes identified as 'critical Earth system processes' in the planetary boundaries framework, and identifies gaps and suggests priorities for future improvements. Our approach involves creating a common ontology of model descriptions, and performing a network analysis on the state of system integration in models. The distinct clusters of specific biophysical and social-economic systems obviously has enabled progress in those specific areas of global change, but it now constrains analysis of important human-driven Earth system dynamics. The modeling process therefore has to be improved through technical integration, scientific gap-filling, and also changes in scientific institutional dynamics. Combined, this can advance model potentials that may help us to find sustainable pathways within planetary boundaries.

  8. Integrating scientific argumentation to improve undergraduate writing and learning in a global environmental change course

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kreutz, K. J.; Koffman, B. G.; Trenbath, K. L.

    2013-12-01

    What makes a good scientific argument? We began ERS201: Global Environmental Change by asking students to reflect on the mechanics of a strong scientific argument. At the same time, we asked them to evaluate global CO2 and sea level data from different time periods in Earth's history to answer the question, 'Is there a relationship between atmospheric CO2 and sea level, and if so, why?' This question formed the theme for the course, a mid-level, inquiry-based class of about 20 students. Each week, students target specific aspects of the climate system through problem sets, which include experimental and laboratory work, basic statistical analyses of paleoclimate datasets, and the development of simple systems models using STELLA software. Every 2-4 weeks, we challenge students to write short (1500 word) data-driven scientific arguments, which require a synthesis of information from their problem sets and from the scientific literature. Students have to develop a clear, testable hypothesis related to each writing prompt, and then make their case using figures they have generated during the weekly problem sets. We evaluate student writing using a rubric that focuses on the structure and clarity of the argument, relevance of the data included, and integration and quality of the graphics, with a lesser emphasis placed on voice and style. In 2013, student scores improved from a median value of 86 × 9% to 94 × 8% over the course of the semester. More importantly, we found that incorporation of scientific argumentation served to increase student understanding of important and sometimes abstract scientific concepts. For example, on pre- and post-course assessments we asked the question, 'What would happen if a significant portion of the sea ice floating in the Arctic Ocean were to melt?' On the pre-assessment, 80% of students said that it would lead to more coastal flooding, while only 20% correctly stated that a decrease in the reflection of solar energy would lead to

  9. Issues Related to University Education in Ukraine in the Context of Globalization, European Integration and Bologna Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maryna V. Bosenko

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with the analysis of issued linked to the development of Ukrainian education in the contexts of globalization, European integration and Bologna Process. The needs for reforms related to the university education in Ukraine is linked with job market and social services, including educational services, globalization of economics and IT technologies: enhancing of socio-economical and pedagogical processes, informatization in society, transition to ‘knowledge societies’, changing the system f values, expanding the core of university education, emergence and distribution of innovative technologies, freedom of choice in electing the university curriculum, fundamentalization and humanization of education etc.

  10. Integrated rice-duck farming mitigates the global warming potential in rice season.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Guochun; Liu, Xin; Wang, Qiangsheng; Yu, Xichen; Hang, Yuhao

    2017-01-01

    Integrated rice-duck farming (IRDF), as a mode of ecological agriculture, is an important way to realize sustainable development of agriculture. A 2-year split-plot field experiment was performed to evaluate the effects of IRDF on methane (CH4) and nitrous oxide (N2O) emissions and its ecological mechanism in rice season. This experiment was conducted with two rice farming systems (FS) of IRDF and conventional farming (CF) under four paddy-upland rotation systems (PUR): rice-fallow (RF), annual straw incorporating in rice-wheat rotation system (RWS), annual straw-based biogas residues incorporating in rice-wheat rotation system (RWB), and rice-green manure (RGM). During the rice growing seasons, IRDF decreased the CH4 emission by 8.80-16.68%, while increased the N2O emission by 4.23-15.20%, when compared to CF. Given that CH4 emission contributed to 85.83-96.22% of global warming potential (GWP), the strong reduction in CH4 emission led to a significantly lower GWP of IRDF as compared to CF. The reason for this trend was because IRDF has significant effect on dissolved oxygen (DO) and soil redox potential (Eh), which were two pivotal factors for CH4 and N2O emissions in this study. The IRDF not only mitigates the GWP, but also increases the rice yield by 0.76-2.43% compared to CF. Moreover, compared to RWS system, RF, RWB and RGM systems significantly reduced CH4 emission by 50.17%, 44.89% and 39.51%, respectively, while increased N2O emission by 10.58%, 14.60% and 23.90%, respectively. And RWS system had the highest GWP. These findings suggest that mitigating GWP and improving rice yield could be simultaneously achieved by the IRDF, and employing suitable PUR would benefit for relieving greenhouse effect.

  11. Canada and the North American Free Trade Agreement: Between globalization and regional integration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caterina García Segura

    1995-07-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present article is to analize, from Canada’s perspective, the choice regarding the model of state as well as of economic and commercial policy which the decision to participate in the North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA implies. The debatewhich NAFTA provoked in Canada expresses in concrete terms that debate which, in much larger terms, takes place at the international level regarding the multilateralization and/or the regionalization of commercial exchanges. It is a reflection of the tension between theintegrating forces (process of globalization and the fragmenting ones (processes of regionalization which characterize the dynamics of the contemporary international system. The hypothesis of this work is that in spite of being a commercial agreement, the Canadian government’s decision to participate in NAFTA was a decision of a political nature which was not determined exclusively by the reality of the existing commercial exchanges between Canada and Mexico or by the perspectives of improving them inthe short term. The immediate objective of Canada was to avoid that a possible bilateral agreement between its prinicipal economic member, the United States, and Mexico would empty out the contents of the existing Free Trade Agreement (FTA between Canada and the United States. In this sense, NAFTA was the possible remedy to an unwanted situation (the negotiation of a US-Mexico bilateral agreement. The objective in the medium and long term is use the platform of regional integration as a trampoline from where the Canadian economy can be reorientated and driven in order to attain international competitiveness. In this sense, Canada’s true option had already beenrealised with the FTA.

  12. Improving the Projections of Vegetation Biogeography by Integrating Climate Envelope Models and Dynamic Global Vegetation Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Case, M. J.; Kim, J. B.

    2015-12-01

    Assessing changes in vegetation is increasingly important for conservation planning in the face of climate change. Dynamic global vegetation models (DGVMs) are important tools for assessing such changes. DGVMs have been applied at regional scales to create projections of range expansions and contractions of plant functional types. Many DGVMs use a number of algorithms to determine the biogeography of plant functional types. One such DGVM, MC2, uses a series of decision trees based on bioclimatic thresholds while others, such as LPJ, use constraining emergent properties with a limited set of bioclimatic threshold-based rules. Although both approaches have been used widely, we demonstrate that these biogeography outputs perform poorly at continental scales when compared to existing potential vegetation maps. Specifically, we found that with MC2, the algorithm for determining leaf physiognomy is too simplistic to capture arid and semi-arid vegetation in much of the western U.S., as well as is the algorithm for determining the broadleaf and needleleaf mix in the Southeast. With LPJ, we found that the bioclimatic thresholds used to allow seedling establishment are too broad and fail to capture regional-scale biogeography of the plant functional types. In response, we demonstrate a new approach to determining the biogeography of plant functional types by integrating the climatic thresholds produced for individual tree species by a series of climate envelope models with the biogeography algorithms of MC2 and LPJ. Using this approach, we find that MC2 and LPJ perform considerably better when compared to potential vegetation maps.

  13. Assessment of the accuracy of global geodetic satellite laser ranging observations and estimated impact on ITRF scale: estimation of systematic errors in LAGEOS observations 1993-2014

    Science.gov (United States)

    Appleby, Graham; Rodríguez, José; Altamimi, Zuheir

    2016-12-01

    Satellite laser ranging (SLR) to the geodetic satellites LAGEOS and LAGEOS-2 uniquely determines the origin of the terrestrial reference frame and, jointly with very long baseline interferometry, its scale. Given such a fundamental role in satellite geodesy, it is crucial that any systematic errors in either technique are at an absolute minimum as efforts continue to realise the reference frame at millimetre levels of accuracy to meet the present and future science requirements. Here, we examine the intrinsic accuracy of SLR measurements made by tracking stations of the International Laser Ranging Service using normal point observations of the two LAGEOS satellites in the period 1993 to 2014. The approach we investigate in this paper is to compute weekly reference frame solutions solving for satellite initial state vectors, station coordinates and daily Earth orientation parameters, estimating along with these weekly average range errors for each and every one of the observing stations. Potential issues in any of the large number of SLR stations assumed to have been free of error in previous realisations of the ITRF may have been absorbed in the reference frame, primarily in station height. Likewise, systematic range errors estimated against a fixed frame that may itself suffer from accuracy issues will absorb network-wide problems into station-specific results. Our results suggest that in the past two decades, the scale of the ITRF derived from the SLR technique has been close to 0.7 ppb too small, due to systematic errors either or both in the range measurements and their treatment. We discuss these results in the context of preparations for ITRF2014 and additionally consider the impact of this work on the currently adopted value of the geocentric gravitational constant, GM.

  14. Annual cycle of global distributions of aerosol optical depth from integration of MODIS retrievals and GOCART model simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Hongbin; Dickinson, R. E.; Chin, M.; Kaufman, Y. J.; Holben, B. N.; Geogdzhayev, I. V.; Mishchenko, M. I.

    2003-02-01

    The Moderate-Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) instrument onboard the Earth Observing System (EOS) satellites provides an unprecedented opportunity to study aerosols from space with high accuracy and on a nearly global scale. However, difficulty with highly reflective arid and snow-covered lands introduces significant gaps in global or regional coverage that must be filled by some other means. This study provides a complete global coverage of an annual cycle of aerosol optical depth by combining the MODIS retrievals and Georgia Tech/Goddard Global Ozone Chemistry Aerosol Radiation and Transport (GOCART) simulations weighted with the uncertainties in each product. The assimilated aerosol optical depths over land are better correlated with the ground-based Aerosol Robotic Network (AERONET) measurements than are either the MODIS retrievals or the GOCART simulations alone. The gaps in the MODIS retrievals are filled with values that are generally consistent with the AERONET aerosol climatology. The assimilated aerosol optical depths are in good agreement with the Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR) aerosol climatology over the Atlantic and North Indian Oceans. In spring, large discrepancies between the MODIS retrievals in 2001 and the AVHRR climatology over the North Pacific are likely a result of extremely active transcontinental transport of Asian dust/pollutants to North America in the year 2001. Large model-satellite differences in the South Pacific and South Indian Oceans may be attributable to missing or underestimated sources in the model and/or cloud, whitecap, and glint contamination in satellite retrievals.

  15. Albanian migration during the post communist transition and the European integration in global era - An intercultural reflection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agim Leka

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Migration is a human experience, which has arisen and developed in relation to the human society itself. In our era, immigration is associated with the integration and the globalization. Immigration is a modern intercommunications between cultures in a world increasingly with more multicultural, or in a world with a hybrid culture. Western multiculturalism as a space wherein the Albanian cultural integration moves. After the collapse of the communist system and coincidental that occurred the great things happening in the xxi century, the immigration can be a field study by the Transitology At the time when the crisis of philosophical thought is present, this phenomenon can be studied by a reflective philosophical thought (philosophy reflective In this paper I am focused on Albanian emigration. Even and in the case of Albanians immigration is a similarity to the historical processes of Jewish people. Albanians have realized two tragic exodus mythical proportions: on xvi century to the Italy and on 90th years of xx century to the Greece The causes of this exodus were political reasons: In the first case (xvi cent., was the Ottoman occupation of Albania. In the case of the 90th years of xx century, was the Albanian idolatry, atheist, and socialist totalitarian regime. Nowadays Albanian emigration continues, and the main cause is the economic and social. Integration as a cultural movement of the identity: Albanian integrating movement. Identity is a process, a movement where function three vectors: identity, being time and space. Integration is analyzed as a category which functions in relationship with identity Europe was more than an old house for Albanian emigrants. It was a new relationship. It was the new unknown culture. This road passes between assimilation and isolation. The most useful and the most effective vehicle of integration is the adaptation of immigrants. The integration and returning in home in time of globalization are not divided

  16. The formation of the integration priorities of the Middle East Arab countries in the conditions of the global world order transformation

    OpenAIRE

    Tetyana Oriekhova; Al Makarikh Farid

    2010-01-01

    The article is devoted to the research of activation process of the international integration cooperation of the Middle East Arab countries in the conditions of ongoing transformations, which are obviously taking place in the global world order. The article gives the author’s definition of “integration maturity”, its characteristic features; concluded the integration maturity level of the Middle East Arab countries; identified the place of the Arab countries as players of the global economic ...

  17. Feasibility of integrating other federal information systems into the Global Network of Environment and Technology, GNET{reg_sign}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-05-01

    The Global Environment and Technology Enterprise (GETE) of the Global Environment and Technology Foundation (GETF) has been tasked by the US Department of Energy`s (DOE), Federal Energy Technology Center (FETC) to assist in reducing DOE`s cost for the Global Network of Environment and Technology (GNET{reg_sign}). As part of this task, GETE is seeking federal partners to invest in GNET{reg_sign}. The authors are also seeking FETC`s commitment to serve as GNET`s federal agency champion promoting the system to potential agency partners. This report assesses the benefits of partnering with GNET{reg_sign} and provides recommendations for identifying and integrating other federally funded (non-DOE) environmental information management systems into GNET{reg_sign}.

  18. The Global Food Price Crisis and China-World Rice Market Integration: A Spatial-Temporal Rational Expectations Equilibrium Model

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, Xianglin; Romero-Aguilar, Randall S.; Chen, Shu-Ling; Miranda, Mario J.

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, we examine how China, the world’s largest rice producer and consumer, would affect the international rice market if it liberalized its trade in rice and became more fully integrated into the global rice market. The impacts of trade liberalization are estimated using a spatial-temporal rational expectations model of the world rice market characterized by four interdependent markets with stochastic production patterns, constant-elasticity demands, expected-profit maximizing priva...

  19. Reshaping Economic Geography of East Africa : From Regional to Global Integration, Volume 2. Technical Annexes

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank

    2012-01-01

    Five East African countries Burundi, Kenya, Rwanda, Tanzania, and Uganda have made solid progress on integrating regionally in the East African Community (EAC) since 1999. Such advances are crucial, as integration in East Africa has the potential for higher than usual benefits: Burundi, Rwanda, and Uganda are landlocked, with very high costs to their economies. Successful integration will ...

  20. Reshaping Economic Geography of East Africa : From Regional to Global Integration (Vol. 1 of 2)

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank

    2012-01-01

    Five East African countries Burundi, Kenya, Rwanda, Tanzania, and Uganda have made solid progress on integrating regionally in the East African Community (EAC) since 1999. Such advances are crucial, as integration in East Africa has the potential for higher than usual benefits: Burundi, Rwanda, and Uganda are landlocked, with very high costs to their economies. Successful integration will ...

  1. GLOBALIZATION AND INTEGRATION INTO THE ECONOMIC AND MONETARY UNION-CHALLENGES FOR BANKS OPERATING IN ROMANIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CORALIA EMILIA POPA

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to present recent evolution, but also the consequences of globalization of the banking sector, considering different approaches of this phenomenon. Over time, the banking field has undergone important changes in both the applicable law of this area, and through the technologies used in satisfying the customers’ needs. The development of international markets has led to new opportunities and challenges for banks that transformed the domestic financial market into an arena where only the best survive and grow. On these grounds and in strict relation to positive and negative effects of globalization, we can speak of a constant evolution of its most important subsystems - the financial subsystems of the global economy. In this paper special importance is given to the banking field, the article presenting arguments through which this complex phenomenon called globalization may have important consequences on financial supervision and regulation.

  2. Accuracy estimates for some global analytical models of the Earth's main magnetic field on the basis of data on gradient magnetic surveys at stratospheric balloons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsvetkov, Yu. P.; Brekhov, O. M.; Bondar, T. N.; Filippov, S. V.; Petrov, V. G.; Tsvetkova, N. M.; Frunze, A. Kh.

    2014-03-01

    Two global analytical models of the main magnetic field of the Earth (MFE) have been used to determine their potential in deriving an anomalous MFE from balloon magnetic surveys conducted at altitudes of ˜30 km. The daily mean spherical harmonic model (DMSHM) constructed from satellite data on the day of balloon magnetic surveys was analyzed. This model for the day of magnetic surveys was shown to be almost free of errors associated with secular variations and can be recommended for deriving an anomalous MFE. The error of the enhanced magnetic model (EMM) was estimated depending on the number of harmonics used in the model. The model limited by the first 13 harmonics was shown to be able to lead to errors in the main MFE of around 15 nT. The EMM developed to n = m = 720 and constructed on the basis of satellite and ground-based magnetic data fails to adequately simulate the anomalous MFE at altitudes of 30 km. To construct a representative model developed to m = n = 720, ground-based magnetic data should be replaced by data of balloon magnetic surveys for altitudes of ˜30 km. The results of investigations were confirmed by a balloon experiment conducted by Pushkov Institute of Terrestrial Magnetism, Ionosphere, and Radio Wave Propagation of the Russian Academy of Sciences and the Moscow Aviation Institute.

  3. The Integration Aspects of Activities of the Companies in the Oil and Gas Industry Sector in the Context of Globalization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Panevnyk Tetiana M.

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The article considers both the dynamics and the structure of oil and gas production in Ukraine, situation of the oil and gas companies at the current stage of globalization of the world economy have been covered. The main problems impacting the functioning of the domestic industry sector have been identified, including the lack of effectiveness of the existing integration processes. The world trends and patterns of integration processes have been considered. It has been determined that the oil and gas industry sector leaders are the multinational companies that actively use integration in their practices. The current trends in creating integration linkages in different parts of the process chain in the oil and gas industry have been identified. Influence by large corporations of the innovative type on the creation of a favorable investment climate has been confirmed, as well as conducting their own policies of expansion in the overseas markets. On the basis of studying the foreign experience, expediency of development of the oil and gas sector enterprises by activating integration processes has been substantiated. Priorities and possibilities for further functioning of enterprises in the the oil and gas industry sector have been identified

  4. THE GLOBAL FINANCIAL CRISIS AND ECONOMIC INTEGRATION: EVIDENCE ON ASEAN-5 COUNTRIES

    OpenAIRE

    Hakim, Lukman; Dahalan, Jauhari

    2015-01-01

    The ASEAN Charter has been ratified by the ten member countries of ASEAN in 2008. This is to reaffirm the commitment of the member countries to the establishment of the ASEAN free trade area by 2015. The ASEAN members must prepare themselves with the economic and non economics aspects to be ready facing this era. Nevertheless, the global financial crisis could be a major hindrance to the implementation of the ASEAN free tradearea. In this study, we attempt to determine how the global financia...

  5. Book Review: Jandl, Thomas, Vietnam in the Global Economy – The Dy-namics of Integration, Decentralization and Contested Politics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adam Fforde

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Book Review of the Monograph: Thomas Jandl (2013, Vietnam in the Global Economy – The Dynamics of Integration, Decentralization and Contested Politics. Plymouth: Lexington Books, ISBN 978-0-7391-7786-0, 312 pages

  6. GLOBAL SOLUTIONS OF SYSTEMS OF NONLINEAR IMPULSIVE VOLTERRA INTEGRAL EQUATIONS IN BANACH SPACES

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈芳启; 陈予恕

    2001-01-01

    The existence of solutions for systems of nonlinear impulsive Volterra integral equations on the infinite interval R+ with an infinite number of moments of impulse effect in Banach spaces is studied. Some existence theorems of extremal solutions are obtained,which extend the related results for this class of equations on a finite interval with a finite number of moments of impulse effect. The results are demonstrated by means of an example of an infinite systems for impulsive integral equations.

  7. Impacts Of Global/Regional Climate Changes On Environment And Health: Need For Integrated Research And Education Collaboration (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuluri, F.

    2013-12-01

    The realization of long term changes in climate in research community has to go beyond the comfort zone through climate literacy in academics. Higher education on climate change is the platform to bring together the otherwise disconnected factors such as effective discovery, decision making, innovation, interdisciplinary collaboration, Climate change is a complex process that may be due to natural internal processes within the climate system, or to variations in natural or anthropogenic (human-driven) external forcing. Global climate change indicates a change in either the mean state of the climate or in its variability, persisting for several decades or longer. This includes changes in average weather conditions on Earth, such as a change in average global temperature, as well as changes in how frequently regions experience heat waves, droughts, floods, storms, and other extreme weather. It is important to examine the effects of climate variations on human health and disorders in order to take preventive measures. Similarly, the influence of climate changes on animal management practices, pests and pest management systems, and high value crops such as citrus and vegetables is also equally important for investigation. New genetic agricultural varieties must be explored, and pilot studies should examine biotechnology transfer. Recent climate model improvements have resulted in an enhanced ability to simulate many aspects of climate variability and extremes. However, they are still characterized by systematic errors and limitations in accurately simulating more precisely regional climate conditions. The present situations warrant developing climate literacy on the synergistic impacts of environmental change, and improve development, testing and validation of integrated stress impacts through computer modeling. In the present study we present a detailed study of the current status on the impacts of global/regional climate changes on environment and health with a view

  8. Integrated Curriculum Planning for International Business Education: Analysis of Global Business Trends.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dlabay, Les

    1998-01-01

    Developers of multidisciplinary international-business curricula should consider the following trends: (1) geographic, historic, economic, cultural, and political influences on business; (2) influence of cultural factors on organizational behavior and management style; (3) technology for international business transactions; (4) the global monetary…

  9. Academic Integrity, Remix Culture, Globalization: A Canadian Case Study of Student and Faculty Perceptions of Plagiarism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans-Tokaryk, Tyler

    2014-01-01

    This article presents the results of a case study at a Canadian university that used a combination of surveys and focus groups to explore faculty members' and students' perceptions of plagiarism. The research suggests that the globalization of education and remix culture have contributed to competing and contradictory understandings of plagiarism…

  10. Integrating place-specific livelihood and equity outcomes into global assessments of bioenergy deployment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Creutzig, Felix; Corbera, Esteve; Bolwig, Simon

    2013-01-01

    -study research focused on first-generation biofuel crops to demonstrate that food, income, land and other assets such as health are key livelihood dimensions that can be impacted by such crops and we highlight how place-specific and global dynamics influence both aggregate and distributional outcomes across...

  11. Quantifying biodiversity impacts of climate change and bioenergy: the role of integrated global scenarios

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meller, L.; van Vuuren, D.P.; Cabeza, M.

    2015-01-01

    The role of bioenergy in climate change mitigation is a topic of heated debate, as the demand for land may result in social and ecological conflicts. Biodiversity impacts are a key controversy, given that biodiversity conservation is a globally agreed goal under pressure due to both climate change a

  12. Integration in the Global South: What Role for IBSA Dialogue Forum?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehmet ÖZKAN

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Recently we have seen that the middle-sized states are coming together inseveral forums. The WTO meetings and India-Brazil-South Africa (IBSA dialogueforum are among those to be cited. Such groupings are mainly economyorientedand whether they will have political output needs to be seen, however,in the future if globalization goes in a similar way as today, we might see moregroupings. Those groupings should be seen as reactions to unjust and exclusiveglobalization. The IBSA Dialogue Forum members have enhanced their relationseconomically by signing bilateral trade agreements and acting together oneconomic issues in global forums. If they can hold together, they are creating amarket more than ¼ of global population and, if successful, it has a chance tobe the engine of growth in the South. Moreover if they can create the biggestmarket in the South, they would also be influential in the being of the voiceof the South. In that sense, this paper addresses the possible ways to developrelations between the IBSA members and economic development in the South,furthermore, implication of the IBSA on global governance and developmentcan be as critical as its contribution to economic development, since the globalgoverning bodies have legitimacy crisis.

  13. Toward the Integrated Framework Analysis of Linkages among Agrobiodiversity, Livelihood Diversification, Ecological Systems, and Sustainability amid Global Change

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karl S. Zimmerer

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Scientific and policy interest in the biological diversity of agriculture (agrobiodiversity is expanding amid global socioeconomic and environmental changes and sustainability interests. The majority of global agrobiodiversity is produced in smallholder food-growing. We use meta-analyses in an integrated framework to examine the interactions of smallholder agrobiodiversity with: (1 livelihood processes, especially migration, including impacts on agrobiodiversity as well as the interconnected resource systems of soil, water, and uncultivated habitats; and (2 plant-soil ecological systems. We hypothesize these interactions depend on: (1 scope of livelihood diversification and type resource system; and (2 plant residues and above-/belowground component ecological specificity. Findings show: (1 livelihood diversification is linked to varied environmental factors that range from rampant degradation to enhancing sustainability; and (2 significant ecological coupling of aboveground and soil agrobiodiversity (AGSOBIO assemblages. The environmental impacts of livelihood interactions correspond to variation of diversification (migration, on-farm diversification and resource system (i.e., agrobiodiversity per se, soil, water. Our findings also reveal mutually dependent interactions of aboveground and soil agrobiodiversity. Results identify livelihood diversification-induced reduction of environmental resource quality with lagged agrobiodiversity declines as a potentially major avenue of global change. Our contribution re-frames livelihood interactions to include both agrobiodiversity and ecological systems. We discuss this integrated social-environmental re-framing through the proposed spatial geographic schema of regional agri-food spaces with distinctive matrices of livelihood strategies and relations to biodiversity and resources. This re-framing can be used to integrate livelihood, agrobiodiversity, and ecological analysis and to guide policy and

  14. High-accuracy identification and bioinformatic analysis of in vivo protein phosphorylation sites in yeast

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gnad, Florian; de Godoy, Lyris M F; Cox, Jürgen;

    2009-01-01

    Protein phosphorylation is a fundamental regulatory mechanism that affects many cell signaling processes. Using high-accuracy MS and stable isotope labeling in cell culture-labeling, we provide a global view of the Saccharomyces cerevisiae phosphoproteome, containing 3620 phosphorylation sites...... - is integrated into the PHOSIDA database (www.phosida.com)....

  15. An integrated assessment modeling framework for uncertainty studies in global and regional climate change: the MIT IGSM-CAM (version 1.0)

    OpenAIRE

    Monier, E.; Scott, J R; A. P. Sokolov; C. E. Forest; C. A. Schlosser

    2013-01-01

    This paper describes a computationally efficient framework for uncertainty studies in global and regional climate change. In this framework, the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) Integrated Global System Model (IGSM), an integrated assessment model that couples an Earth system model of intermediate complexity to a human activity model, is linked to the National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCAR) Community Atmosphere Model (CAM). Since the MIT IGSM-CAM framework (version 1.0) inc...

  16. Integrating a Detailed Agricultural Model in a Global Economic Framework: New methods for assessment of climate mitigation and adaptation opportunities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomson, A. M.; Izaurralde, R. C.; Calvin, K.; Zhang, X.; Wise, M.; West, T. O.

    2010-12-01

    Climate change and food security are global issues increasingly linked through human decision making that takes place across all scales from on-farm management actions to international climate negotiations. Understanding how agricultural systems can respond to climate change, through mitigation or adaptation, while still supplying sufficient food to feed a growing global population, thus requires a multi-sector tool in a global economic framework. Integrated assessment models are one such tool, however they are typically driven by historical aggregate statistics of production in combination with exogenous assumptions of future trends in agricultural productivity; they are not yet capable of exploring agricultural management practices as climate adaptation or mitigation strategies. Yet there are agricultural models capable of detailed biophysical modeling of farm management and climate impacts on crop yield, soil erosion and C and greenhouse gas emissions, although these are typically applied at point scales that are incompatible with coarse resolution integrated assessment modeling. To combine the relative strengths of these modeling systems, we are using the agricultural model EPIC (Environmental Policy Integrated Climate), applied in a geographic data framework for regional analyses, to provide input to the global economic model GCAM (Global Change Assessment Model). The initial phase of our approach focuses on a pilot region of the Midwest United States, a highly productive agricultural area. We apply EPIC, a point based biophysical process model, at 60 m spatial resolution within this domain and aggregate the results to GCAM agriculture and land use subregions for the United States. GCAM is then initialized with multiple management options for key food and bioenergy crops. Using EPIC to distinguish these management options based on grain yield, residue yield, soil C change and cost differences, GCAM then simulates the optimum distribution of the available

  17. Global climate change impacts on coastal ecosystems in the Gulf of Mexico: considerations for integrated coastal management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Day, John W.; Yáñez-Arancibia, Alejandro; Cowan, James H.; Day, Richard H.; Twilley, Robert R.; Rybczyk, John R.

    2013-01-01

    Global climate change is important in considerations of integrated coastal management in the Gulf of Mexico. This is true for a number of reasons. Climate in the Gulf spans the range from tropical to the lower part of the temperate zone. Thus, as climate warms, the tropical temperate interface, which is currently mostly offshore in the Gulf of Mexico, will increasingly move over the coastal zone of the northern and eastern parts of the Gulf. Currently, this interface is located in South Florida and around the US-Mexico border in the Texas-Tamaulipas region. Maintaining healthy coastal ecosystems is important because they will be more resistant to climate change.

  18. Integrated analysis of the global transcriptional response to α-amylase over-production by Aspergillus oryzae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vongsangnak, Wanwipa; Hansen, Kim; Nielsen, Jens

    2011-05-01

    The filamentous fungus Aspergillus oryzae is an important microbial cell factory for industrial production of many enzymes, such as α-amylase. In order to optimize the industrial enzyme production process, there is a need to understand fundamental processes underlying enzyme production, here under how enzyme production links to metabolism through global regulation. Through a genome-scale metabolic network for integrated analysis of transcriptome data and flux calculation, we identified key players (genes, enzymes, proteins, and metabolites) involved in the processes of enzyme synthesis and secretion, nucleotide metabolism, and amino acid metabolism that can be the potential targets for improving industrial enzyme production.

  19. Integrating genome-based informatics to modernize global disease monitoring, information sharing, and response

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aarestrup, Frank Møller; Brown, Eric W; Detter, Chris

    2012-01-01

    The rapid advancement of genome technologies holds great promise for improving the quality and speed of clinical and public health laboratory investigations and for decreasing their cost. The latest generation of genome DNA sequencers can provide highly detailed and robust information on disease......-causing microbes, and in the near future these technologies will be suitable for routine use in national, regional, and global public health laboratories. With additional improvements in instrumentation, these next- or third-generation sequencers are likely to replace conventional culture-based and molecular...... typing methods to provide point-of-care clinical diagnosis and other essential information for quicker and better treatment of patients. Provided there is free-sharing of information by all clinical and public health laboratories, these genomic tools could spawn a global system of linked databases...

  20. Promoting global health: utilizing WHO to integrate public health, innovation and intellectual property.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mackey, Tim K; Liang, Bryan A

    2012-12-01

    The appropriate role of innovation and intellectual property (IP) in global public health is a controversial issue. Discussion is one-sided, with potential benefits advocated by industry in stark contrast to condemnation by certain civil society players. WHO's Public Health, Innovation and Intellectual Property Department (PHI) was established to address healthcare resource need for developing countries, assess impact of innovation and IP on access to medicines, explore innovative funding mechanisms for R&D and provide evidence-based policy-making recommendations in response to the changing global health landscape. Importantly, PHI could represent a potential forum to bridge shared, yet often diverse, interests and opportunities between various public and private stakeholders, a crucial issue for ensuring the future viability of WHO.

  1. Agriculture, nutrition, and health in global development: typology and metrics for integrated interventions and research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masters, William A; Webb, Patrick; Griffiths, Jeffrey K; Deckelbaum, Richard J

    2014-12-01

    Despite rhetoric arguing that enhanced agriculture leads to improved nutrition and health, there is scant empirical evidence about potential synergies across sectors or about the mix of actions that best supports all three sectors. The geographic scale and socioeconomic nature of these interventions require integration of previously separate research methods. This paper proposes a typology of interventions and a metric of integration among them to help researchers build on each other's results, facilitating integration in methods to inform the design of multisector interventions. The typology recognizes the importance of regional effect modifiers that are not themselves subject to randomized assignment, and trade-offs in how policies and programs are implemented, evaluated, and scaled. Using this typology could facilitate methodological pluralism, helping researchers in one field use knowledge generated elsewhere, each using the most appropriate method for their situation.

  2. New 3D parallel GILD electromagnetic modeling and nonlinear inversion using global magnetic integral and local differential equation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xie, G.; Li, J.; Majer, E.; Zuo, D.

    1998-07-01

    This paper describes a new 3D parallel GILD electromagnetic (EM) modeling and nonlinear inversion algorithm. The algorithm consists of: (a) a new magnetic integral equation instead of the electric integral equation to solve the electromagnetic forward modeling and inverse problem; (b) a collocation finite element method for solving the magnetic integral and a Galerkin finite element method for the magnetic differential equations; (c) a nonlinear regularizing optimization method to make the inversion stable and of high resolution; and (d) a new parallel 3D modeling and inversion using a global integral and local differential domain decomposition technique (GILD). The new 3D nonlinear electromagnetic inversion has been tested with synthetic data and field data. The authors obtained very good imaging for the synthetic data and reasonable subsurface EM imaging for the field data. The parallel algorithm has high parallel efficiency over 90% and can be a parallel solver for elliptic, parabolic, and hyperbolic modeling and inversion. The parallel GILD algorithm can be extended to develop a high resolution and large scale seismic and hydrology modeling and inversion in the massively parallel computer.

  3. Local and global semantic integration in an argument structure: ERP evidence from Korean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nam, Yunju; Hong, Upyong

    2016-07-01

    The neural responses of Korean speakers were recorded while they read sentences that included local semantic mismatch between adjectives (A) and nouns (N) or/and global semantic mismatch between object nouns (N) and verbs (V), as well as the corresponding control sentences without any semantic anomalies. In Experiment 1 using verb-final declarative sentences (Nsubject [A-N]object V), the local A-N incongruence yielded an N400 effect at the object noun and a combination of N400 and a late negativity effect at the sentence final verb, whereas the global N-V incongruence yielded a biphasic N400 and P600 ERP pattern at the verb compared with the ERPs of same words in the control sentences respectively; in Experiment 2 using verb-initial object relative clause constructions ([Nsubject _V]rel [A-N]object …..) derived from the materials of Experiment 1, the effect of local incongruence changed notably such that not only an N400 but also an additional P600 effect was observed at the object noun, whereas the effect of the global incongruence remained largely the same (N400 and P600). Our theoretical interpretation of these results specifically focused on the reason for the P600 effects observed across different experiment conditions, which turned out to be attributable to (i) coordination of a semantic conflict, (ii) prediction disconfirmation, or (iii) argument structure processing breakdown.

  4. Balancing global water availability and use at basin scale in an integrated assessment model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Son H.; Hejazi, Mohamad; Liu, Lu; Calvin, Katherine; Clarke, Leon; Edmonds, Jae; Kyle, Page; Patel, Pralit; Wise, Marshall; Davies, Evan

    2016-01-22

    Water is essential for the world’s food supply, for energy production, including bioenergy and hydroelectric power, and for power system cooling. Water is already scarce in many regions of the world and could present a critical constraint as society attempts simultaneously to mitigate climate forcing and adapt to climate change, and to provide for a larger and more prosperous human population. Numerous studies have pointed to growing pressures on the world’s scarce fresh water resources from population and economic growth, and climate change. This study goes further. We use the Global Change Assessment Model to analyze interactions between population, economic growth, energy, land and water resources simultaneously in a dynamically evolving system where competing claims on water resources from all claimants—energy, land, and economy—are reconciled with water resource availability—from renewable water, non-renewable groundwater sources and desalinated water—across 14 geopolitical regions, 151 agriculture-ecological zones, and 235 major river basins. We find that previous estimates of global water withdrawal projections are overestimated. Model simulations show that it is more economical in some basins to alter agricultural and energy activities rather than utilize non-renewable groundwater or desalinated water. This study highlights the importance of accounting for water as a binding factor in agriculture, energy and land use decisions in IAMs and implications for global responses to water scarcity, particularly in the trade of agricultural commodities and land-use decisions.

  5. Coralline algae (Rhodophyta) in a changing world: integrating ecological, physiological, and geochemical responses to global change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCoy, Sophie J; Kamenos, Nicholas A

    2015-02-01

    Coralline algae are globally distributed benthic primary producers that secrete calcium carbonate skeletons. In the context of ocean acidification, they have received much recent attention due to the potential vulnerability of their high-Mg calcite skeletons and their many important ecological roles. Herein, we summarize what is known about coralline algal ecology and physiology, providing context to understand their responses to global climate change. We review the impacts of these changes, including ocean acidification, rising temperatures, and pollution, on coralline algal growth and calcification. We also assess the ongoing use of coralline algae as marine climate proxies via calibration of skeletal morphology and geochemistry to environmental conditions. Finally, we indicate critical gaps in our understanding of coralline algal calcification and physiology and highlight key areas for future research. These include analytical areas that recently have become more accessible, such as resolving phylogenetic relationships at all taxonomic ranks, elucidating the genes regulating algal photosynthesis and calcification, and calibrating skeletal geochemical metrics, as well as research directions that are broadly applicable to global change ecology, such as the importance of community-scale and long-term experiments in stress response.

  6. [Integrated Management Area of Vascular Risk: A new organisational model for global control of risk factors].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armario, P; Jericó, C; Vila, L; Freixa, R; Martin-Castillejos, C; Rotllan, M

    2016-11-17

    Cardiovascular disease (CVD), is a major cause of morbidity and mortality that increases the cost of care. Currently there is a low degree of control of the main cardiovascular risk factors, although we have a good therapeutic arsenal. To achieve the improvement of this reality, a good coordination and multidisciplinary participation are essential. The development of new organizational models such as the Integrated Management Area of Vascular Risk can facilitate the therapeutic harmonization and unification of the health messages offered by different levels of care, based on clinical practice guidelines, in order to provide patient-centred integrated care.

  7. Global optimization for integrated design and control of computationally expensive process models

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Egea, J.A.; Vries, D.; Alonso, A.A.; Banga, J.R.

    2007-01-01

    The problem of integrated design and control optimization of process plants is discussed in this paper. We consider it as a nonlinear programming problem subject to differential-algebraic constraints. This class of problems is frequently multimodal and "costly" (i.e., computationally expensive to ev

  8. Direct experimental visualization of the global Hamiltonian progression of two-dimensional Lagrangian flow topologies from integrable to chaotic state

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baskan, O.; Clercx, H. J. H [Fluid Dynamics Laboratory, Department of Applied Physics, Eindhoven University of Technology, P.O. Box 513, 5600 MB Eindhoven (Netherlands); Speetjens, M. F. M. [Energy Technology Laboratory, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Eindhoven University of Technology, P.O. Box 513, 5600 MB Eindhoven (Netherlands); Metcalfe, G. [Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organisation, Melbourne, Victoria 3190 (Australia); Swinburne University of Technology, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Hawthorn VIC 3122 (Australia)

    2015-10-15

    Countless theoretical/numerical studies on transport and mixing in two-dimensional (2D) unsteady flows lean on the assumption that Hamiltonian mechanisms govern the Lagrangian dynamics of passive tracers. However, experimental studies specifically investigating said mechanisms are rare. Moreover, they typically concern local behavior in specific states (usually far away from the integrable state) and generally expose this indirectly by dye visualization. Laboratory experiments explicitly addressing the global Hamiltonian progression of the Lagrangian flow topology entirely from integrable to chaotic state, i.e., the fundamental route to efficient transport by chaotic advection, appear non-existent. This motivates our study on experimental visualization of this progression by direct measurement of Poincaré sections of passive tracer particles in a representative 2D time-periodic flow. This admits (i) accurate replication of the experimental initial conditions, facilitating true one-to-one comparison of simulated and measured behavior, and (ii) direct experimental investigation of the ensuing Lagrangian dynamics. The analysis reveals a close agreement between computations and observations and thus experimentally validates the full global Hamiltonian progression at a great level of detail.

  9. Direct experimental visualization of the global Hamiltonian progression of two-dimensional Lagrangian flow topologies from integrable to chaotic state.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baskan, O; Speetjens, M F M; Metcalfe, G; Clercx, H J H

    2015-10-01

    Countless theoretical/numerical studies on transport and mixing in two-dimensional (2D) unsteady flows lean on the assumption that Hamiltonian mechanisms govern the Lagrangian dynamics of passive tracers. However, experimental studies specifically investigating said mechanisms are rare. Moreover, they typically concern local behavior in specific states (usually far away from the integrable state) and generally expose this indirectly by dye visualization. Laboratory experiments explicitly addressing the global Hamiltonian progression of the Lagrangian flow topology entirely from integrable to chaotic state, i.e., the fundamental route to efficient transport by chaotic advection, appear non-existent. This motivates our study on experimental visualization of this progression by direct measurement of Poincaré sections of passive tracer particles in a representative 2D time-periodic flow. This admits (i) accurate replication of the experimental initial conditions, facilitating true one-to-one comparison of simulated and measured behavior, and (ii) direct experimental investigation of the ensuing Lagrangian dynamics. The analysis reveals a close agreement between computations and observations and thus experimentally validates the full global Hamiltonian progression at a great level of detail.

  10. Science Education and the Challenges Facing Its Integration into the 21st Century School System in a Globalized World: A Case of Igbo Nation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ezeudu, F. O.; Nkokelonye, C. U.; Ezeudu, S. A.

    2013-01-01

    This paper is a study of historical foundations of science education in Igboland, its nature and scope as well as the challenges facing its integration into the 21st century school system in a globalized world. The authors found that there were many scientific activities in Igbo culture, but many problems hinder their integration into the basic…

  11. Integrating the issues of global and veterinary public health into the veterinary education curriculum: an Australian perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fenwick, S G; Robertson, L; Wilks, C R

    2009-08-01

    This article discusses the integration of global and veterinary public health issues into the Australian veterinary curriculum. Formal veterinary education in Australia has a history of over 100 years and veterinarians have played a major role in the control of zoonotic and transboundary diseases for an even longer period. Australia is the largest exporter of red meat and live animals in the world. Therefore, educating veterinarians to promote and ensure food safety and animal welfare is prominent in Australian veterinary curricula. Veterinary degrees are accredited to allow Australian graduates to work professionally overseas, including in the United Kingdom and United States of America, and, in recent years, globalisation of the student body at Australian veterinary schools has occurred. For this reason, an appropriately broad curriculum is required to produce graduates who are able to address challenges in veterinary public health throughout the world. A Public Health University Network has been established to harmonise the veterinary public health curricula at the various veterinary schools and to develop the 'Australian veterinary public health philosophy', with its links to global issues and the 'One World, One Health' concept. Finally, conclusions are drawn on the implications of veterinary public health teaching in Australia and the preparation of Australian graduates for the global profession.

  12. Integrated assessment of global water scarcity over the 21st century – Part 2: Climate change mitigation policies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. I. Hejazi

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available We investigate the effects of emission mitigation policies on water scarcity both globally and regionally using the Global Change Assessment Model (GCAM, a leading community integrated assessment model of energy, agriculture, climate, and water. Three climate policy scenarios with increasing mitigation stringency of 7.7, 5.5, and 4.2 W m−2 in year 2095 (equivalent to the SRES A2, B2, and B1 emission scenarios, respectively, under two carbon tax regimes (a universal carbon tax (UCT which includes land use change emissions, and a fossil fuel and industrial emissions carbon tax (FFICT which excludes land use change emissions are analyzed. The results are compared to a baseline scenario (i.e. no climate change mitigation policy with radiative forcing reaching 8.8 W m−2 (equivalent to the SRES A1Fi emission scenario by 2095. When compared to the baseline scenario and maintaining the same baseline socioeconomic assumptions, water scarcity declines under a UCT mitigation policy but increases with a FFICT mitigation scenario by the year 2095 particularly with more stringent climate mitigation targets. The decreasing trend with UCT policy stringency is due to substitution from more water-intensive to less water-intensive choices in food and energy production, and in land use. Under the FFICT scenario, water scarcity is projected to increase driven by higher water demands for bio-energy crops. This study implies an increasingly prominent role for water availability in future human decisions, and highlights the importance of including water in integrated assessment of global change. Future research will be directed at incorporating water shortage feedbacks in GCAM to better understand how such stresses will propagate across the various human and natural systems in GCAM.

  13. Korea’s Trade Strategies for Mega Free Trade Agreements in Regional and Global Economic Integration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sang-Chul Park

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Korea has developed rapidly since the 1960s. It is one of the four Asian tiger economies and a good model for developing countries. Korea shows the world how a developing country can develop its economy rapidly and become industrialized. Its development strategy has mainly been an export-oriented trade policy. As a result, its trade volume grew from $1 billion in 1966 to $1 trillion in 2011, which is a 1,000-fold increase within five decades. Since 2011, Korea has become one of seven countries with a trade volume over $1 trillion. However, the Korean economy has experienced turbulence as well as positive growth. It underwent severe economic crises such as the Asian financial crisis in 1997 and the global financial crisis in 2008. Its economy has been extremely vulnerable to the external economic environment, although it has improved and strengthened, particularly since the global financial crisis. During those two crises, the government carried out an appropriate trade policy with a strategic approach to upgrade its industrial structure and competitiveness in global markets. This article comprehensively discusses Korean trade policy and strategy over the last five decades, and how its national economy has developed rapidly. It also explores how the government sets its strategic targets in Asia and the Asia Pacific region. It considers two mega free trade agreements (FTAs — the Regional Comprehensive Economic Partnership and the Trans-Pacific Partnership — as new opportunities for further development. Therefore, it is wise to analyze these regional mega FTAs in order to maximize the national interest.

  14. Marginalization: A Revisitation With Integration of Scholarship on Globalization, Intersectionality, Privilege, Microaggressions, and Implicit Biases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Joanne M; Carlson, Kelly

    2016-01-01

    In 1994, the concept of marginalization was explored in an article in Advances in Nursing Science. This is a revisitation of the concept incorporating new scholarship. This update is founded on feminism, postcolonialism, critical race theory, and discourse deconstruction, all viewpoints that have been explicated in nursing. The purpose of this analysis is to look at new scholarship and concepts useful to applying marginalization in nursing knowledge development from the standpoint of Bourdieu's macro, meso, and micro levels. New scholarship includes globalization, intersectionality, privilege, microaggressions, and implicit bias. Implications for decreasing health disparities through this new scholarship are discussed.

  15. Integrated Strategic Planning of Global Production Networks and Financial Hedging under Uncertain Demands and Exchange Rates

    OpenAIRE

    Achim Koberstein; Elmar Lukas; Marc Naumann

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, we present a multi-stage stochastic programming model that integrates financial hedging decisions into the planning of strategic production networks under uncertain exchange rates and product demands. This model considers the expenses of production plants and the revenues of markets in different currency areas. Financial portfolio planning decisions for two types of financial instruments, forward contracts and options, are represented explicitly by multi-period decision variabl...

  16. Plumbing the global carbon cycle: Integrating inland waters into the terrestrial carbon budget

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cole, J.J.; Prairie, Y.T.; Caraco, N.F.; McDowell, W.H.; Tranvik, L.J.; Striegl, R.G.; Duarte, C.M.; Kortelainen, Pirkko; Downing, J.A.; Middelburg, J.J.; Melack, J.

    2007-01-01

    Because freshwater covers such a small fraction of the Earth's surface area, inland freshwater ecosystems (particularly lakes, rivers, and reservoirs) have rarely been considered as potentially important quantitative components of the carbon cycle at either global or regional scales. By taking published estimates of gas exchange, sediment accumulation, and carbon transport for a variety of aquatic systems, we have constructed a budget for the role of inland water ecosystems in the global carbon cycle. Our analysis conservatively estimates that inland waters annually receive, from a combination of background and anthropogenically altered sources, on the order of 1.9 Pg C y-1 from the terrestrial landscape, of which about 0.2 is buried in aquatic sediments, at least 0.8 (possibly much more) is returned to the atmosphere as gas exchange while the remaining 0.9 Pg y-1 is delivered to the oceans, roughly equally as inorganic and organic carbon. Thus, roughly twice as much C enters inland aquatic systems from land as is exported from land to the sea. Over prolonged time net carbon fluxes in aquatic systems tend to be greater per unit area than in much of the surrounding land. Although their area is small, these freshwater aquatic systems can affect regional C balances. Further, the inclusion of inland, freshwater ecosystems provides useful insight about the storage, oxidation and transport of terrestrial C, and may warrant a revision of how the modern net C sink on land is described. ?? 2007 Springer Science+Business Media, LLC.

  17. Constrained adiabatic trajectory method: A global integrator for explicitly time-dependent Hamiltonians

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leclerc, A.; Jolicard, G.; Viennot, D.; Killingbeck, J. P.

    2012-01-01

    The constrained adiabatic trajectory method (CATM) is reexamined as an integrator for the Schrödinger equation. An initial discussion places the CATM in the context of the different integrators used in the literature for time-independent or explicitly time-dependent Hamiltonians. The emphasis is put on adiabatic processes and within this adiabatic framework the interdependence between the CATM, the wave operator, the Floquet, and the (t, t') theories is presented in detail. Two points are then more particularly analyzed and illustrated by a numerical calculation describing the H_2^+ ion submitted to a laser pulse. The first point is the ability of the CATM to dilate the Hamiltonian spectrum and thus to make the perturbative treatment of the equations defining the wave function possible, possibly by using a Krylov subspace approach as a complement. The second point is the ability of the CATM to handle extremely complex time-dependencies, such as those which appear when interaction representations are used to integrate the system.

  18. A comparison of integrated river basin management strategies: A global perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Chunhong; Wang, Pei; Zhang, Guanghong

    In order to achieve the integrated river basin management in the arid and rapid developing region, the Heihe River Basin (HRB) in Northwestern China, one of critical river basins were selected as a representative example, while the Murray-Darling Basin (MDB) in Australia and the Colorado River Basin (CRB) in the USA were selected for comparative analysis in this paper. Firstly, the comparable characters and hydrological contexts of these three watersheds were introduced in this paper. Then, based on comparative studies on the river basin challenges in terms of the drought, intensive irrigation, and rapid industrialization, the hydrological background of the MDB, the CRB and the HRB was presented. Subsequently, the river management strategies were compared in three aspects: water allocation, water organizations, and water act and scientific projects. Finally, we proposed recommendations for integrated river basin management for the HRB: (1) Water allocation strategies should be based on laws and markets on the whole basin; (2) Public participation should be stressed by the channels between governance organizations and local communities; (3) Scientific research should be integrated into river management to understand the interactions between the human and nature.

  19. Integration Processes in the Global Economy: Current State and Prospects. The Cases of the European Union, ASEAN Economic Community, and NAFTA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Witkowska Janina

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the paper is to determine the current state of the integration processes in the global economy and prognosticate on the foreseeable changes in this phenomenon in the upcoming. Will they be divergence from or continuity with the past trends in the global economy in this field? The article examines three regional integration groupings, i.e. the European Union, ASEAN Economic Community, and NAFTA. The analysis makes it possible to conclude that all of these groupings/organizations are encountering some problems. In the case of the EU, these are mainly: the two – speed integration process as far as a monetary union is concerned; serious negative consequences of the global financial crisis for the socio-economic cohesion of the EU-28; as well as a worsening position in the world trade in goods and services and in the total global gross capital inflows. The problems of the ASEAN Economic Community seem to be connected with some discrepancies between the political will in favour of deepening integration among member states and the real economic difficulties involved in attaining higher stages of integration among a group of countries extremely differentiated in their economic development. NAFTA’s problems also lie in the asymmetrical development between member states, as well as in the lessening importance of the integration within the organization for the member states, which results from the putting into effect numerous other FTAs. The growing openness of all the analyzed integration groupings, being in line with the globalization process, seems to be a future characteristic of integration processes in the global economy.

  20. Accuracy Enhancement of Inertial Sensors Utilizing High Resolution Spectral Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Korenberg

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available In both military and civilian applications, the inertial navigation system (INS and the global positioning system (GPS are two complementary technologies that can be integrated to provide reliable positioning and navigation information for land vehicles. The accuracy enhancement of INS sensors and the integration of INS with GPS are the subjects of widespread research. Wavelet de-noising of INS sensors has had limited success in removing the long-term (low-frequency inertial sensor errors. The primary objective of this research is to develop a novel inertial sensor accuracy enhancement technique that can remove both short-term and long-term error components from inertial sensor measurements prior to INS mechanization and INS/GPS integration. A high resolution spectral analysis technique called the fast orthogonal search (FOS algorithm is used to accurately model the low frequency range of the spectrum, which includes the vehicle motion dynamics and inertial sensor errors. FOS models the spectral components with the most energy first and uses an adaptive threshold to stop adding frequency terms when fitting a term does not reduce the mean squared error more than fitting white noise. The proposed method was developed, tested and validated through road test experiments involving both low-end tactical grade and low cost MEMS-based inertial systems. The results demonstrate that in most cases the position accuracy during GPS outages using FOS de-noised data is superior to the position accuracy using wavelet de-noising.

  1. Integrated in the global value chains – trade developments between Hungary and Asia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea ÉLTETŐ

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The international crisis which has been ongoing since 2008 caused severe recession and decrease of internal demand in the EU area. Therefore, European companies began to look for new markets outside the EU. In spite of the large distance, Asia can be one of the regions aimed by exporters. In the case of Hungary, this is even supported by the Hungarian government. The role of Asia has increased between 2000-2012 in Hungarian foreign trade. The article describes the developments and trends of Hungarian exports and imports concerning the Asian countries. The product structure of trade is analysed in detail, geographic and product concentration of trade is shown. We also examine the share of high-tech products in trade with the main important partners of each Asian region. The article concludes that the Hungarian trade with Asia is largely influenced by the global production system of multinational companies.

  2. Global Sustainable Development Through the Integrated Lean Management (Green 5-S Model for TQM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ho Samuel K. M.

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Based on the 'Best Paper-2010' by the TQM Journal, the author has a chance to test out the model in a number of firms in Malaysia through SIRIM. Furthermore, riding on the success, SIRIM has named it as the SIRIM Green 5-S Model. As a result, the aim of this paper is to share the experience of the “SIRIM Green 5-S Model for Sustainable Development”. Since 1993, the author used the proprietary 5-S Checklist for training and consultancy in no less than 10 countries with over 50,000 persons from around 2,000 organisatioins world-wide. On the other hand, HKSAR takes the lead in the global oil energy consumption/GPD. The experience will be shared in this article.

  3. An Integrated Strategy for Global Qualitative and Quantitative Profiling of Traditional Chinese Medicine Formulas: Baoyuan Decoction as a Case.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Xiaoli; Guo, Xiaoyu; Song, Yuelin; Qiao, Lirui; Wang, Wenguang; Zhao, Mingbo; Tu, Pengfei; Jiang, Yong

    2016-12-07

    Clarification of the chemical composition of traditional Chinese medicine formulas (TCMFs) is a challenge due to the variety of structures and the complexity of plant matrices. Herein, an integrated strategy was developed by hyphenating ultra-performance liquid chromatography (UPLC), quadrupole time-of-flight (Q-TOF), hybrid triple quadrupole-linear ion trap mass spectrometry (Qtrap-MS), and the novel post-acquisition data processing software UNIFI to achieve automatic, rapid, accurate, and comprehensive qualitative and quantitative analysis of the chemical components in TCMFs. As a proof-of-concept, the chemical profiling of Baoyuan decoction (BYD), which is an ancient TCMF that is clinically used for the treatment of coronary heart disease that consists of Ginseng Radix et Rhizoma, Astragali Radix, Glycyrrhizae Radix et Rhizoma Praeparata Cum Melle, and Cinnamomi Cortex, was performed. As many as 236 compounds were plausibly or unambiguously identified, and 175 compounds were quantified or relatively quantified by the scheduled multiple reaction monitoring (sMRM) method. The findings demonstrate that the strategy integrating the rapidity of UNIFI software, the efficiency of UPLC, the accuracy of Q-TOF-MS, and the sensitivity and quantitation ability of Qtrap-MS provides a method for the efficient and comprehensive chemome characterization and quality control of complex TCMFs.

  4. An Integrated Strategy for Global Qualitative and Quantitative Profiling of Traditional Chinese Medicine Formulas: Baoyuan Decoction as a Case

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Xiaoli; Guo, Xiaoyu; Song, Yuelin; Qiao, Lirui; Wang, Wenguang; Zhao, Mingbo; Tu, Pengfei; Jiang, Yong

    2016-12-01

    Clarification of the chemical composition of traditional Chinese medicine formulas (TCMFs) is a challenge due to the variety of structures and the complexity of plant matrices. Herein, an integrated strategy was developed by hyphenating ultra-performance liquid chromatography (UPLC), quadrupole time-of-flight (Q-TOF), hybrid triple quadrupole-linear ion trap mass spectrometry (Qtrap-MS), and the novel post-acquisition data processing software UNIFI to achieve automatic, rapid, accurate, and comprehensive qualitative and quantitative analysis of the chemical components in TCMFs. As a proof-of-concept, the chemical profiling of Baoyuan decoction (BYD), which is an ancient TCMF that is clinically used for the treatment of coronary heart disease that consists of Ginseng Radix et Rhizoma, Astragali Radix, Glycyrrhizae Radix et Rhizoma Praeparata Cum Melle, and Cinnamomi Cortex, was performed. As many as 236 compounds were plausibly or unambiguously identified, and 175 compounds were quantified or relatively quantified by the scheduled multiple reaction monitoring (sMRM) method. The findings demonstrate that the strategy integrating the rapidity of UNIFI software, the efficiency of UPLC, the accuracy of Q-TOF-MS, and the sensitivity and quantitation ability of Qtrap-MS provides a method for the efficient and comprehensive chemome characterization and quality control of complex TCMFs.

  5. Emergence of long distance bird migrations: a new model integrating global climate changes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Louchart, Antoine

    2008-12-01

    During modern birds history, climatic and environmental conditions have evolved on wide scales. In a continuously changing world, landbirds annual migrations emerged and developed. However, models accounting for the origins of these avian migrations were formulated with static ecogeographic perspectives. Here I reviewed Cenozoic paleoclimatic and paleontological data relative to the palearctic paleotropical long distance (LD) migration system. This led to propose a new model for the origin of LD migrations, the ‘shifting home’ model (SHM). It is based on a dynamic perspective of climate evolution and may apply to the origins of most modern migrations. Non-migrant tropical African bird taxa were present at European latitudes during most of the Cenozoic. Their distribution limits shifted progressively toward modern tropical latitudes during periods of global cooling and increasing seasonality. In parallel, decreasing winter temperatures in the western Palearctic drove shifts of population winter ranges toward the equator. I propose that this induced the emergence of most short distance migrations, and in turn LD migrations. This model reconciliates ecologically tropical ancestry of most LD migrants with predominant winter range shifts, in accordance with requirements for heritable homing. In addition, it is more parsimonious than other non-exclusive models. Greater intrinsic plasticity of winter ranges implied by the SHM is supported by recently observed impacts of the present global warming on migrating birds. This may induce particular threats to some LD migrants. The ancestral, breeding homes of LD migrants were not ‘northern’ or ‘southern’ but shifted across high and middle latitudes while migrations emerged through winter range shifts themselves.

  6. Overview of past, ongoing and future efforts of the integrated modeling of global change for Northern Eurasia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monier, Erwan; Kicklighter, David; Sokolov, Andrei; Zhuang, Qianlai; Melillo, Jerry; Reilly, John

    2016-04-01

    Northern Eurasia is both a major player in the global carbon budget (it includes roughly 70% of the Earth's boreal forest and more than two-thirds of the Earth's permafrost) and a region that has experienced dramatic climate change (increase in temperature, growing season length, floods and droughts) over the past century. Northern Eurasia has also undergone significant land-use change, both driven by human activity (including deforestation, expansion of agricultural lands and urbanization) and natural disturbances (such as wildfires and insect outbreaks). These large environmental and socioeconomic impacts have major implications for the carbon cycle in the region. Northern Eurasia is made up of a diverse set of ecosystems that range from tundra to forests, with significant areas of croplands and pastures as well as deserts, with major urban areas. As such, it represents a complex system with substantial challenges for the modeling community. In this presentation, we provide an overview of past, ongoing and possible future efforts of the integrated modeling of global change for Northern Eurasia. We review the variety of existing modeling approaches to investigate specific components of Earth system dynamics in the region. While there are a limited number of studies that try to integrate various aspects of the Earth system (through scale, teleconnections or processes), we point out that there are few systematic analyses of the various feedbacks within the Earth system (between components, regions or scale). As a result, there is a lack of knowledge of the relative importance of such feedbacks, and it is unclear how policy relevant current studies are that fail to account for these feedbacks. We review the role of Earth system models, and their advantages/limitations compared to detailed single component models. We further introduce the human activity system (global trade, economic models, demographic model and so on), the need for coupled human/earth system models

  7. Integrated Strategic Planning of Global Production Networks and Financial Hedging under Uncertain Demands and Exchange Rates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Achim Koberstein

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we present a multi-stage stochastic programming model that integrates financial hedging decisions into the planning of strategic production networks under uncertain exchange rates and product demands. This model considers the expenses of production plants and the revenues of markets in different currency areas. Financial portfolio planning decisions for two types of financial instruments, forward contracts and options, are represented explicitly by multi-period decision variables and a multi-stage scenario tree. Using an illustrative example, we analyze the impact of exchange-rate and demand volatility, the level of investment expenses and interest rate spreads on capacity location and dimensioning decisions. In particular, we show that, in the illustrative example, the exchange-rate uncertainty cannot be completely eliminated by financial hedging in the presence of demand uncertainty. In this situation, we find that the integrated model can result in better strategic planning decisions for a risk-averse decision maker compared to traditional modeling approaches.

  8. Constrained Adiabatic Trajectory Method (CATM): a global integrator for explicitly time-dependent Hamiltonians

    CERN Document Server

    Leclerc, Arnaud; Viennot, David; Killingbeck, John P; 10.1063/1.3673320

    2012-01-01

    The Constrained Adiabatic Trajectory Method (CATM) is reexamined as an integrator for the Schr\\"odinger equation. An initial discussion places the CATM in the context of the different integrators used in the literature for time-independent or explicitly time-dependent Hamiltonians. The emphasis is put on adiabatic processes and within this adiabatic framework the interdependence between the CATM, the wave operator, the Floquet and the (t,t') theories is presented in detail. Two points are then more particularly analysed and illustrated by a numerical calculation describing the $H_2^+$ ion submitted to a laser pulse. The first point is the ability of the CATM to dilate the Hamiltonian spectrum and thus to make the perturbative treatment of the equations defining the wave function possible, possibly by using a Krylov subspace approach as a complement. The second point is the ability of the CATM to handle extremely complex time-dependencies, such as those which appear when interaction representations are used to...

  9. Conditional Epistatic Interaction Maps Reveal Global Functional Rewiring of Genome Integrity Pathways in Escherichia coli

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashwani Kumar

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available As antibiotic resistance is increasingly becoming a public health concern, an improved understanding of the bacterial DNA damage response (DDR, which is commonly targeted by antibiotics, could be of tremendous therapeutic value. Although the genetic components of the bacterial DDR have been studied extensively in isolation, how the underlying biological pathways interact functionally remains unclear. Here, we address this by performing systematic, unbiased, quantitative synthetic genetic interaction (GI screens and uncover widespread changes in the GI network of the entire genomic integrity apparatus of Escherichia coli under standard and DNA-damaging growth conditions. The GI patterns of untreated cultures implicated two previously uncharacterized proteins (YhbQ and YqgF as nucleases, whereas reorganization of the GI network after DNA damage revealed DDR roles for both annotated and uncharacterized genes. Analyses of pan-bacterial conservation patterns suggest that DDR mechanisms and functional relationships are near universal, highlighting a modular and highly adaptive genomic stress response.

  10. ECCO version 4: an integrated framework for non-linear inverse modeling and global ocean state estimation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Forget

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the ECCO v4 non-linear inverse modeling framework and its baseline solution for the evolving ocean state over the period 1992–2011. Both components are publicly available and highly integrated with the MITgcm. They are both subjected to regular, automated regression tests. The modeling framework includes sets of global conformal grids, a global model setup, implementations of model-data constraints and adjustable control parameters, an interface to algorithmic differentiation, as well as a grid-independent, fully capable Matlab toolbox. The reference ECCO v4 solution is a dynamically consistent ocean state estimate (ECCO-Production, release 1 without un-identified sources of heat and buoyancy, which any interested user will be able to reproduce accurately. The solution is an acceptable fit to most data and has been found physically plausible in many respects, as documented here and in related publications. Users are being provided with capabilities to assess model-data misfits for themselves. The synergy between modeling and data synthesis is asserted through the joint presentation of the modeling framework and the state estimate. In particular, the inverse estimate of parameterized physics was instrumental in improving the fit to the observed hydrography, and becomes an integral part of the ocean model setup available for general use. More generally, a first assessment of the relative importance of external, parametric and structural model errors is presented. Parametric and external model uncertainties appear to be of comparable importance and dominate over structural model uncertainty. The results generally underline the importance of including turbulent transport parameters in the inverse problem.

  11. ECCO version 4: an integrated framework for non-linear inverse modeling and global ocean state estimation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Forget

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the ECCO v4 non-linear inverse modeling framework and its baseline solution for the evolving ocean state over the period 1992–2011. Both components are publicly available and subjected to regular, automated regression tests. The modeling framework includes sets of global conformal grids, a global model setup, implementations of data constraints and control parameters, an interface to algorithmic differentiation, as well as a grid-independent, fully capable Matlab toolbox. The baseline ECCO v4 solution is a dynamically consistent ocean state estimate without unidentified sources of heat and buoyancy, which any interested user will be able to reproduce accurately. The solution is an acceptable fit to most data and has been found to be physically plausible in many respects, as documented here and in related publications. Users are being provided with capabilities to assess model–data misfits for themselves. The synergy between modeling and data synthesis is asserted through the joint presentation of the modeling framework and the state estimate. In particular, the inverse estimate of parameterized physics was instrumental in improving the fit to the observed hydrography, and becomes an integral part of the ocean model setup available for general use. More generally, a first assessment of the relative importance of external, parametric and structural model errors is presented. Parametric and external model uncertainties appear to be of comparable importance and dominate over structural model uncertainty. The results generally underline the importance of including turbulent transport parameters in the inverse problem.

  12. LONG-TERM GLOBAL WATER USE PROJECTIONS USING SIX SOCIOECONOMIC SCENARIOS IN AN INTEGRATED ASSESSMENT MODELING FRAMEWORK

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hejazi, Mohamad I.; Edmonds, James A.; Clarke, Leon E.; Kyle, G. Page; Davies, Evan; Chaturvedi, Vaibhav; Wise, Marshall A.; Patel, Pralit L.; Eom, Jiyong; Calvin, Katherine V.; Moss, Richard H.; Kim, Son H.

    2014-01-19

    In this paper, we assess future water demands for the agricultural (irrigation and livestock), energy (electricity generation, primary energy production and processing), industrial (manufacturing and mining), and municipal sectors, by incorporating water demands into a technologically-detailed global integrated assessment model of energy, agriculture, and climate change – the Global Change Assessment Model (GCAM). Base-year water demands—both gross withdrawals and net consumptive use—are assigned to specific modeled activities in a way that maximizes consistency between bottom-up estimates of water demand intensities of specific technologies and practices, and top-down regional and sectoral estimates of water use. The energy, industrial, and municipal sectors are represented in fourteen geopolitical regions, with the agricultural sector further disaggregated into as many as eighteen agro-ecological zones (AEZs) within each region. We assess future water demands representing six socioeconomic scenarios, with no constraints imposed by future water supplies. The scenarios observe increases in global water withdrawals from 3,578 km3 year-1 in 2005 to 5,987 – 8,374 km3 year-1 in 2050, and to 4,719 – 12,290 km3 year-1 in 2095. Comparing the projected total regional water withdrawals to the historical supply of renewable freshwater, the Middle East exhibits the highest levels of water scarcity throughout the century, followed by India; water scarcity increases over time in both of these regions. In contrast, water scarcity improves in some regions with large base-year electric sector withdrawals, such as the USA and Canada, due to capital stock turnover and the almost complete phase-out of once-through flow cooling systems. The scenarios indicate that: 1) water is likely a limiting factor in climate change mitigation policies, 2) many regions can be expected to increase reliance on non-renewable groundwater, water reuse, and desalinated water, but they also

  13. New opportunities for integrating mechanisms into soil carbon models for global simulations (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torn, M. S.; Riley, W. J.; Contributions From: The Lake Constance Think Tank On Global Change; Feedback From Organic Carbon Dynamics-An Esf Workshop

    2010-12-01

    Numerical models of soil carbon cycling are being used to attribute carbon sinks, predict climate-ecosystem feedbacks, and evaluate climate mitigation strategies such as biofuels and sequestration. Current conceptions of SOC cycling and its expression in mathematical models rest heavily on the concept of recalcitrance - that some organic structures are intrinsically inert. However, recent research enabled by isotopic, spectroscopic, and molecular marker tools finds little evidence that recalcitrance, for example through selective preservation of plant derived material or resynthesis products, determines the long residence time of some OC in soils in a generalizable way. More likely, rates of carbon cycling are determined by the interaction of the organic matter and the soil environment including microorganisms, mineralogy, and climate. This does not mean compound chemistry is not important, rather that it does not act in isolation of other factors. Without the foundational principle that chemical composition defines the rate of decomposition, many tenets of old models are not supported, for example regarding decomposition response to change in temperature or plant species composition. Much progress could be made in the near term to improve soil carbon models by, for example, improving representations of oxygen diffusion and limitation, root carbon inputs, isotopic tracers, and making depth- or transport-related processes explicit. In other areas, new research is needed to translate recent findings into new parameters, for example, to replace texture with parameters for reactive mineral surface area to represent organo-mineral interaction. For the next generation of land model in the Community Earth System Model (was Community Climate System Model), we are developing new representations of many of these processes based on new data and understandings, to enable more accurate assessment of the vulnerability of soil organic carbon to predicted global climate change.

  14. Droplet number prediction uncertainties from CCN: an integrated assessment using observations and a global adjoint model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. H. Moore

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available We use the Global Modeling Initiative (GMI chemical transport model with a cloud droplet parameterization adjoint to quantify the sensitivity of cloud droplet number concentration to uncertainties in predicting CCN concentrations. Published CCN closure prediction uncertainties for six different sets of simplifying compositional and mixing state assumptions are used as proxies for modeled CCN uncertainty arising from application of those scenarios. It is found that cloud droplet number concentrations are fairly insensitive to CCN-active aerosol number concentrations over the continents (∂Nd/∂Na ~ 10–30%, but the sensitivities exceed 70% in pristine regions such as the Alaskan Arctic and remote oceans. Since most of the anthropogenic indirect forcing is concentrated over the continents, this work shows that the application of Köhler theory and attendant simplifying assumptions in models is not a major source of uncertainty in predicting cloud droplet number or anthropogenic aerosol indirect forcing for the liquid, stratiform clouds simulated in these models. However, it does highlight the sensitivity of some remote areas to pollution brought into the region via long-range transport (e.g. biomass burning or from seasonal biogenic sources (e.g. phytoplankton as a source of dimethylsulfide in the southern oceans. Since these transient processes are not captured well by the climatological emissions inventories employed by current large-scale models, the uncertainties in aerosol-cloud interactions during these events could be much larger than those uncovered here. This finding motivates additional measurements in these pristine regions, which have recieved little attention to date, in order to quantify the impact of, and uncertainty associated with, transient processes in effecting changes in cloud properties.

  15. Assessing the Benefits of Global Climate Stabilization Within an Integrated Modeling Framework

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beach, R. H.

    2015-12-01

    Increasing atmospheric carbon dioxide levels, higher temperatures, altered precipitation patterns, and other climate change impacts have already begun to affect US agriculture and forestry, with impacts expected to become more substantial in the future. There have been a number of studies of climate change impacts on agriculture or forestry. However, relatively few studies explore climate change impacts on both agriculture and forests simultaneously, including the interactions between alternative land uses and implications for market outcomes. Additionally, there is a lack of detailed analyses of the effects of stabilization scenarios relative to unabated emissions scenarios. Such analyses are important for developing estimates of the benefits of those stabilization scenarios, which can play a vital role in assessing tradeoffs associated with allocating resources across alternative mitigation and adaptation activities. We provide an analysis of the potential benefits of global climate change mitigation for US agriculture and forestry through 2100, accounting for landowner decisions regarding land use, crop mix, and management practices. The analytic approach involves a combination of climate models, a crop process model (EPIC), a dynamic vegetation model used for forests (MC1), and an economic model of the US forestry and agricultural sector (FASOM-GHG). We find substantial impacts on productivity, commodity markets, and consumer and producer welfare for the stabilization scenario relative to unabated climate change, though the magnitude and direction of impacts vary across regions and commodities. Although there is variability in welfare impacts across climate simulations, we find positive net benefits from stabilization in all cases, with cumulative impacts ranging from 32.7 billion to 54.5 billion over the period 2015-2100. Our estimates contribute to the literature on potential benefits of GHG mitigation and can help inform policy decisions weighing alternative

  16. Characterizing $W^{2,p}$~submanifolds by $p$-integrability of global curvatures

    CERN Document Server

    Kolasiński, Sławomir; von der Mosel, Heiko

    2012-01-01

    We give sufficient and necessary geometric conditions, guaranteeing that an immersed compact closed manifold $\\Sigma^m\\subset \\R^n$ of class $C^1$ and of arbitrary dimension and codimension (or, more generally, an Ahlfors-regular compact set $\\Sigma$ satisfying a mild general condition relating the size of holes in $\\Sigma$ to the flatness of $\\Sigma$ measured in terms of beta numbers) is in fact an embedded manifold of class $C^{1,\\tau}\\cap W^{2,p}$, where $p>m$ and $\\tau=1-m/p$. The results are based on a careful analysis of Morrey estimates for integral curvature--like energies, with integrands expressed geometrically, in terms of functions that are designed to measure either (a) the shape of simplices with vertices on $\\Sigma$ or (b) the size of spheres tangent to $\\Sigma$ at one point and passing through another point of $\\Sigma$. Appropriately defined \\emph{maximal functions} of such integrands turn out to be of class $L^p(\\Sigma)$ for $p>m$ if and only if the local graph representations of $\\Sigma$ hav...

  17. Quality of Life Theory I. The IQOL Theory: An Integrative Theory of the Global Quality of Life Concept

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soren Ventegodt

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Quality of life (QOL means a good life and we believe that a good life is the same as living a life with a high quality. This paper presents the theoretical and philosophical framework of the Danish Quality of Life Survey, and of the SEQOL, QOL5, and QOL1 questionnaires.The notion of a good life can be observed from subjective to the objective, where this spectrum incorporates a number of existing quality of life theories. We call this spectrum the integrative quality-of-life (IQOL theory and discuss the following aspects in this paper: well being, satisfaction with life, happiness, meaning in life, the biological information system (�balance�, realizing life potential, fulfillment of needs, and objective factors.The philosophy of life outlined in this paper tries to measure the global quality of life with questions derived from the integrative theory of the quality of life. The IQOL theory is an overall theory or meta-theory encompassing eight more factual theories in a subjective-existential-objective spectrum. Other philosophies of life can stress other aspects of life, but by this notion of introducing such an existential depth into the health and social sciences, we believe to have taken a necessary step towards a new humility and respect for the richness and complexity of life.

  18. Framing the Human Dimensions of Mountain Systems: Integrating Social Science Paradigms for a Global Network of Mountain Observatories

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Courtney G. Flint

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The Global Network of Mountain Observatories (GNOMO is an international initiative seeking to increase communication and collaboration and align methodologies to assess commonalities and differences across the world's mountain landscapes. Oriented toward sustainable mountain development, GNOMO requires the integration of social and natural sciences, as well as a diverse array of stakeholder perspectives. This paper highlights challenges associated with integrating social sciences because of the inherent paradigmatic differences within the social sciences. The value orientations of mountain researchers, as well as the divergent societal and institutional values regarding mountains, create a need for new approaches to observing mountain landscapes. A framework is presented to organize complex information about mountain social–ecological systems based on human conditions (from vulnerability to wellbeing, environmental actions (from degradation to stewardship, and environmental conditions that vary across time, space, and scales. A multiparadigmatic, multimethod approach is proposed to combine theory-driven quantitative indicators, qualitative perspectives from diverse knowledge standpoints, and critical inquiries into power relationships to fully represent dynamic mountain systems.

  19. INSTITUTIONAL GLOBALIZATION AS A SYSTEM OF INTEGRATION THE PHENOMENON OF THE POSTMODERN DEVELOPMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. V. Zinchenko

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. Institutionalism is gaining strength as a dominant point of view on the world. Its philosophical basis is the postulate of the uncertainty of the development, which comes to replace the neoclassical certainty characteristic of industrial society. The postulate of uncertainty is closely connected with the idea of subjectivization and individualization of post-industrial society. All these were very important components of the new paradigm, although they do not exhaust the problem. In the heart of postmodernism is a mass identity as a spiritual substance, while the more recently mass of people to realize themselves as natural and social beings. Person has absolute freedom in the acceptance and rejection of culture and civilization; it is pluralistic in their actions and in their consciousness. It is the subject of history and it should be creative, fluent mastering all the achievements of culture. Methodology. The dialogue system of the Postmodern, which is the basis of human communication with another person, human with society is a model of convergent formation of the world community and world economy. The same model of rationalism and adequate industrial society is a monologue, which is easily builds a bridge to violence, even if it is carried out in the name of the man behind him and the pathos of the exaltation of man as the bearer of unlimited creation possibilities. However, it is very important not just to modify rationalism, and to understand the origins of civilization. Scientific novelty. The postmodern era begins is not easy. Modern defending, using all their reserves: public thirst for justice, the priority of rationality (at least in the economy, monologist public agencies and politicians in contrast to the dialogic postmodern imperative modality in the spiritual existence of man instead the freedom. Finally, the world of the story is set a trap – the anthropological paradigm of the globalization ideology formation. In

  20. Integrated knowledge translation” for globally oriented public health practitioners and scientists: Framing together a sustainable transfrontier knowledge translation vision

    OpenAIRE

    Lapaige, Véronique

    2010-01-01

    The development of a dynamic leadership coalition between practitioners and researchers/scientists – which is known in Canada as integrated knowledge translation (KT) – can play a major role in bridging the know-do gap in the health care and public health sectors. In public health, and especially in globally oriented public health, integrated KT is a dynamic, interactive (collaborative), and nonlinear phenomenon that goes beyond a reductionist vision of knowledge translation, to attain inter-...

  1. Tool Wear, Surface Integrity and Dimensional Accuracy in Turning Al2124SiCp (45%wt Metal Matrix Composite using CBN and PCD Tools

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muguthu Joseph Njuguna

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The focus of this study is the turning of Al2124SiCp (45% wt Metal Matrix Composite using PCD, CBN-coated and CBN-uncoated tools. The machinability of Al2124SiCp (45% wt Metal Matrix Composite is evaluated by measurement of tool wear, surface finish and dimensional accuracy of the work-piece. Wear mechanisms and patterns of tools in turning of Al2124SiCp (45% wt Metal Matrix Composite are discussed. The experimental setup involved turning Al2124SiCp (45% wt 78.0 mm long and 31.8 mm diameter on a precision lathe at fixed feed rate, different depth of cut and cutting speed using PCD, CBN-coated and CBN-uncoated tools. The reinforcement of the matrix consists of SiC 5-8 µm in diameter. Experimental results reveal that abrasion and adhesion presented the most prevalent mode of wear among all the tools. Fracture was observed among CBN tools while chipping on PCD tools. Flank and crater wear were observed in all tools with flank wear more prevalent in both CBN-coated and CBN-uncoated. Wear among PCD tools was low as compared to CBN tools. Further analysis reveal that the outer layer of the CBN-coated tools wear off fast creating a good platform for adhesion of matrix material on to the tool. This further increases wear of the tool due to adhesive wear as the built-up edge breaks off from the tool. PCD tool presented better surface finish than CBN tools with CBN-coated performing better than CBN-uncoated. Due to high SiC content, discontinuous chips are formed which are also curled due to increase in temperature at cutting zone causing bimetallic effect on the chip. On dimensional accuracy it was observed that PCD tool produced lowest diameter error followed by CBN-uncoated and finally CBN-Coated. It is concluded that in machining Al2124SiCp (45% wt Metal Matrix Composite PCD tools are the best followed by CBN-coated and lastly CBN-uncoated.

  2. Global Integration of the Hot-State Brain Network of Appetite Predicts Short Term Weight Loss in Older Adult

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brielle M Paolini

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Obesity is a public health crisis in North America. While lifestyle interventions for weight loss (WL remain popular, the rate of success is highly variable. Clearly, self-regulation of eating behavior is a challenge and patterns of activity across the brain may be an important determinant of success. The current study prospectively examined whether integration across the Hot-State Brain Network of Appetite (HBN-A predicts WL after 6-months of treatment in older adults. Our metric for network integration was global efficiency (GE. The present work is a sub-study (n = 56 of an ongoing randomized clinical trial involving WL. Imaging involved a baseline food-cue visualization functional MRI (fMRI scan following an overnight fast. Using graph theory to build functional brain networks, we demonstrated that regions of the HBN-A (insula, anterior cingulate cortex (ACC, superior temporal pole, amygdala and the parahippocampal gyrus were highly integrated as evidenced by the results of a principal component analysis. After accounting for known correlates of WL (baseline weight, age, sex, and self-regulatory efficacy and treatment condition, which together contributed 36.9% of the variance in WL, greater GE in the HBN-A was associated with an additional 19% of the variance. The ACC of the HBN-A was the primary driver of this effect, accounting for 14.5% of the variance in WL when entered in a stepwise regression following the covariates, p = 0.0001. The HBN-A is comprised of limbic regions important in the processing of emotions and visceral sensations and the ACC is key for translating such processing into behavioral consequences. The improved integration of these regions may enhance awareness of body and emotional states leading to more successful self-regulation and to greater WL. This is the first study among older adults to prospectively demonstrate that, following an overnight fast, GE of the HBN-A during a food visualization task is predictive of

  3. Maize dependence or market integration? Caries prevalence among indigenous Maya communities with maize-based versus globalized economies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vega Lizama, Elma Maria; Cucina, Andrea

    2014-02-01

    The relationship between diet and oral health is widely known, yet data on dental caries prevalence is lacking for many indigenous groups with traditional or rapidly modernizing diets. This research documents caries prevalence in two Maya communities from northern Yucatán (Mexico) with significantly different levels of market integration, subsistence, and diet: Yalsihón, with a traditional, maize-based subsistence economy, and Dzilam, with access to globalized food markets. Each sample was subdivided by sex into 15-19, 20-24, and 25-30 years-of-age classes. Caries prevalence was considered separately both when the lesion affected the enamel superficially (grade 1+) and when it reached the dentin (grade 2+). In both villages, females of all age classes manifest more caries than males. Results show higher prevalence of caries at Dzilam than at Yalsihón, except for grade 1+ caries among 15-19-year-old males and grade 2+ caries among 15-19-year-old females. Though differences are not significant, earlier pregnancies among 15-19-year-old females at Yalsihón could be a causative factor. A survey indicated a more balanced diet at Yalsihón despite a heavier intake of maize than at Dzilam. Striking differences were documented in the ingestion of soda and globalized foods; sodas were virtually absent at Yalsihón, while at Dzilam they were ingested daily in great quantities. The decline in oral health at Dzilam is inferred to result from consumption of industrially processed foods and drinks, while a traditional diet leads to less caries despite daily heavy consumption of maize, which must be considered when interpreting caries rates in archaeological samples.

  4. Integrated life-cycle assessment of electricity-supply scenarios confirms global environmental benefit of low-carbon technologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hertwich, Edgar G; Gibon, Thomas; Bouman, Evert A; Arvesen, Anders; Suh, Sangwon; Heath, Garvin A; Bergesen, Joseph D; Ramirez, Andrea; Vega, Mabel I; Shi, Lei

    2015-05-19

    Decarbonization of electricity generation can support climate-change mitigation and presents an opportunity to address pollution resulting from fossil-fuel combustion. Generally, renewable technologies require higher initial investments in infrastructure than fossil-based power systems. To assess the tradeoffs of increased up-front emissions and reduced operational emissions, we present, to our knowledge, the first global, integrated life-cycle assessment (LCA) of long-term, wide-scale implementation of electricity generation from renewable sources (i.e., photovoltaic and solar thermal, wind, and hydropower) and of carbon dioxide capture and storage for fossil power generation. We compare emissions causing particulate matter exposure, freshwater ecotoxicity, freshwater eutrophication, and climate change for the climate-change-mitigation (BLUE Map) and business-as-usual (Baseline) scenarios of the International Energy Agency up to 2050. We use a vintage stock model to conduct an LCA of newly installed capacity year-by-year for each region, thus accounting for changes in the energy mix used to manufacture future power plants. Under the Baseline scenario, emissions of air and water pollutants more than double whereas the low-carbon technologies introduced in the BLUE Map scenario allow a doubling of electricity supply while stabilizing or even reducing pollution. Material requirements per unit generation for low-carbon technologies can be higher than for conventional fossil generation: 11-40 times more copper for photovoltaic systems and 6-14 times more iron for wind power plants. However, only two years of current global copper and one year of iron production will suffice to build a low-carbon energy system capable of supplying the world's electricity needs in 2050.

  5. Integrated Strategy for Sustainable Cattle Fever Tick Eradication in USA is Required to Mitigate the Impact of Global Change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez de León, Adalberto A; Teel, Pete D; Auclair, Allan N; Messenger, Matthew T; Guerrero, Felix D; Schuster, Greta; Miller, Robert J

    2012-01-01

    The ticks Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) annulatus and R. (B.) microplus, commonly known as cattle and southern cattle tick, respectively, impede the development and sustainability of livestock industries throughout tropical and other world regions. They affect animal productivity and wellbeing directly through their obligate blood-feeding habit and indirectly by serving as vectors of the infectious agents causing bovine babesiosis and anaplasmosis. The monumental scientific discovery of certain arthropod species as vectors of infectious agents is associated with the history of research on bovine babesiosis and R. annulatus. Together, R. microplus and R. annulatus are referred to as cattle fever ticks (CFT). Bovine babesiosis became a regulated foreign animal disease in the United States of America (U.S.) through efforts of the Cattle Fever Tick Eradication Program (CFTEP) established in 1906. The U.S. was declared free of CFT in 1943, with the exception of a permanent quarantine zone in south Texas along the border with Mexico. This achievement contributed greatly to the development and productivity of animal agriculture in the U.S. The permanent quarantine zone buffers CFT incursions from Mexico where both ticks and babesiosis are endemic. Until recently, the elimination of CFT outbreaks relied solely on the use of coumaphos, an organophosphate acaricide, in dipping vats or as a spray to treat livestock, or the vacation of pastures. However, ecological, societal, and economical changes are shifting the paradigm of systematically treating livestock to eradicate CFT. Keeping the U.S. CFT-free is a critical animal health issue affecting the economic stability of livestock and wildlife enterprises. Here, we describe vulnerabilities associated with global change forces challenging the CFTEP. The concept of integrated CFT eradication is discussed in reference to global change.

  6. Flash flooding: Toward an Interdisciplinary and Integrated Strategy for Disaster Reduction in a Global Environmental Change Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruin, Isabelle

    2014-05-01

    How do people answer to heavy precipitation and flood warnings? How do they adapt their daily schedule and activity to the fast evolution of the environmental circumstances? More generally, how do social processes interact with physical ones? Such questions address the dynamical interactions between hydro-meteorological variables, human perception and representation of the environment, and actual individual and social behavioral responses. It also poses the question of scales and hierarchy issues through seamless interactions between smaller and larger scales. These questions are relevant for both social and physical scientists. They are more and more pertinently addressed in the Global Environmental Change perspective through the concepts of Coupled Human And Natural Systems (CHANS), resilience or panarchy developped in the context of interdisciplinary collaborations. Nevertheless those concepts are complex and not easy to handle, specially when facing with operational goals. One of the main difficulty to advance these integrated approaches is the access to empirical data informing the processes at various scales. In fact, if physical and social processes are well studied by distinct disciplines, they are rarely jointly explored within similar spatial and temporal resolutions. Such coupled observation and analysis poses methodological challenges, specially when dealing with responses to short-fuse and extreme weather events. In fact, if such coupled approach is quite common to study large scale phenomenon like global change (for instance using historical data on green house gaz emissions and the evolution of temperatures worldwide), it is rarer for studing smaller nested sets of scales of human-nature systems where finer resolution data are sparse. Another problem arise from the need to produce comparable analysis on different case studies where social, physical and even cultural contexts may be diverse. Generic and robust framework for data collection, modeling

  7. Integrated strategy for sustainable cattle fever tick eradication in USA is required to mitigate the impact of global change

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adalberto A. Pérez de León

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The ticks Rhipicephalus (Boophilus annulatus and R. (B. microplus, commonly known as cattle and southern cattle tick, respectively, impede the development and sustainability of livestock industries throughout tropical and other world regions. They affect animal productivity and wellbeing directly through their obligate blood feeding habit and indirectly by serving as vectors of the infectious agents causing bovine babesiosis and anaplasmosis. The monumental scientific discovery of certain arthropod species as vectors of infectious agents is associated with the history of research on bovine babesiosis and R. annulatus. Together, R. microplus and R. annulatus are referred to as cattle fever ticks (CFT. Bovine babesiosis became a regulated foreign animal disease in the United States of America (U.S. through efforts of the Cattle Fever Tick Eradication Program (CFTEP established in 1906. The U.S. was declared free of CFT in 1943, with the exception of a permanent quarantine zone in south Texas along the border with Mexico. This achievement contributed greatly to the development and productivity of animal agriculture in the U.S. The permanent quarantine zone buffers CFT incursions from Mexico where both ticks and babesiosis are endemic. Until recently, the elimination of CFT outbreaks relied solely on the use of coumaphos, an organophosphate acaricide, in dipping vats or as a spray to treat livestock, or the vacation of pastures. However, ecological, societal, and economical changes are shifting the paradigm of systematically treating livestock to eradicate CFT. Keeping the U.S. CFT-free is a critical animal health issue affecting the economic stability of livestock and wildlife enterprises. Here, we describe vulnerabilities associated with global change forces challenging the CFTEP. The concept of integrated CFT eradication is discussed in reference to global change.

  8. 一种高炮武器系统射击准备精度综合检测方法%An Integrated Test Method Based on Accuracy of Fire Preparation for Antiaircraft Artillery Weapon System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘永鸿; 张文红

    2011-01-01

    In order to improve the fire preparation accuracy of antiaircraft artillery weapon system, put forward an integrated test method for accuracy of fire preparation based on CCD camera. The checkout equipment includes cold gun correction sighting telescope, the single chip application system, display equipment and storage battery and so on. Through the calculation of ballistic correction and the picture deviating techniques of interpretation based on muzzle aiming direction in linkage, realize the integrated test for error of fire preparation based on antiaircraft artillery weapon system.The application results show that the executed device has these characteristics of simple structure and high check precision etc.%为提高高炮武器系统射击准备精度,提出一种基于CCD摄像的射击准备精度综合检测方法.检测装置由冷炮校正器、单片机应用系统、显示器和蓄电池等构成,通过弹道修正量计算和联动状态下炮口指向的图像偏差判别方法,实现高炮武器系统射击准备误差的综合检测.应用结果表明,该实施装置具有结构简单、检测精度高等特点.

  9. Design and integration of a high accuracy multichannel analog CMOS peak detect and hold circuit for APD-based PET imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Xiaochao; Brasse, David; Hu-Guo, Christine; Hu, Yann

    2012-04-01

    This paper presents the design of a high accuracy multichannel peak detect and hold (PDH) circuit. This PDH measures the energy of an event and is one part of a readout chain for avalanche photo diodes (APD)-based positron emission tomography (PET) imaging. The circuit is designed in a 0.35μm CMOS process. The proposed PDH is dedicated to ultra low amplitude, large amplitude range from several tens millivolts to 1.1 V, and fast peaking time (190 ns) semi-Gaussian pulses. The two-phase technique has been used to cancel the major error source of the classical CMOS PDH: offset. A two-gain OTA is applied to minimize the DC error. A peak error less 1% for a small input signal (amplitude is between 40 mV and 300 mV) and a peak error less than 0.2% for a large input signal (amplitude is between 300 mV and 1.1 V) have been obtained from test. The area of a PDH is equal to about 200 μm × 40 μm. In our PDH system, the drop rate is negligible.

  10. Effects of accuracy motivation and anchoring on metacomprehension judgment and accuracy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Qin

    2012-01-01

    The current research investigates how accuracy motivation impacts anchoring and adjustment in metacomprehension judgment and how accuracy motivation and anchoring affect metacomprehension accuracy. Participants were randomly assigned to one of six conditions produced by the between-subjects factorial design involving accuracy motivation (incentive or no) and peer performance anchor (95%, 55%, or no). Two studies showed that accuracy motivation did not impact anchoring bias, but the adjustment-from-anchor process occurred. Accuracy incentive increased anchor-judgment gap for the 95% anchor but not for the 55% anchor, which induced less certainty about the direction of adjustment. The findings offer support to the integrative theory of anchoring. Additionally, the two studies revealed a "power struggle" between accuracy motivation and anchoring in influencing metacomprehension accuracy. Accuracy motivation could improve metacomprehension accuracy in spite of anchoring effect, but if anchoring effect is too strong, it could overpower the motivation effect. The implications of the findings were discussed.

  11. Rolling Deck to Repository (R2R): Transforming the Academic Fleet Into an Integrated Global Observing System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carbotte, S. M.; Ferrini, V.; Arko, R. A.; Chandler, C. L.; Maffei, A. R.; Miller, S. P.; Stocks, K.; Smith, S. R.; Bourassa, M. A.

    2009-12-01

    NSF-supported oceanographic research expeditions support diverse scientific investigations across all disciplines of ocean sciences, targeting important questions ranging from the impacts of global change on ocean chemistry and ecosystems, to the structure and dynamics of ocean circulation and the nature of volcanic and earthquake processes at the global plate boundaries. Research vessels coordinated by the University-National Oceanographic Laboratory System (UNOLS) are the primary oceanographic research platforms, and operate as essential mobile observing platforms for ocean science. Ships ranging from “global” to “local” class are capable of operating throughout the deep oceans and within coastal and inland waterways. Each vessel is equipped with a suite of sensors, including geophysical, water column, and meteorological sensors, that are available for continuous operation during each expedition. The “underway” datasets obtained from these sensors provide characterization of basic environmental conditions for the oceans and are of high value for later reuse for building global syntheses, climatologies, and historical time series of ocean properties. The recently funded Rolling Deck to Repository (R2R) Project aims to develop a comprehensive plan for fleet-wide data management to ensure preservation and accessibility of our national oceanographic research data resources. The R2R Portal (www.rvdata.us) is being developed as a central shore-side data gateway through which underway data from oceanographic expeditions can be routinely cataloged and securely transmitted to the national long-term digital data archives including the National Geophysical Data Center (NGDC) and the National Oceanographic Data Center (NODC). R2R will provide essential data documentation services for every expedition along with new tools to improve documentation of the wide array of shipboard data collection activities typical of modern expeditions. Protocols will be developed

  12. The OpenMI - its Transformation From a Research Output to a Global Standard for the Integrated Modelling Community

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, R.

    2008-12-01

    The pressure to take a more integrated approach both to science and to management increases by the day. At almost any scale from local to global, it is no longer possible to consider issues in isolation; to do so runs a high risk of creating more problems than are solved. The consequence of this situation is that there is strong encouragement in the scientific world not just to understand and to be able to predict the response of individual processes but also to predict how those processes will interact. The manager is similarly encouraged to think in the widest terms about the likely impact of any policy before it is implemented. A new reservoir may solve a water supply problem but will it adversely affect the fishing and hence the tourist trade? How will climate change impact biodiversity? Will the drugs for treating a flu pandemic adversely affect river water quality? One approach to predicting such impacts would be to create new models simulating more and more processes. This, however, is neither feasible nor useful and makes poor use of the huge investment in existing models. A better approach, with many additional benefits, would be to find a way of linking existing models and modelling components such as databases or visualisation systems. Against this background, the European Commission, as part of its research programme to facilitate the introduction of integrated water management, commissioned a community project to find a generic solution to the linking of simulation models at run time. The outcome of this work was the Open Modelling Interface (OpenMI) standard and the creation of the OpenMI Association, an open, non-proprietary, not-for-profit, international organisation for its support. The work has received widespread recognition and encouragement from across the world, especially in the USA. A second phase is now building a community to continue the OpenMI's development and promote its use. The community's vision, mission and implementation strategy

  13. Integration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Emerek, Ruth

    2004-01-01

    Bidraget diskuterer de forskellige intergrationsopfattelse i Danmark - og hvad der kan forstås ved vellykket integration......Bidraget diskuterer de forskellige intergrationsopfattelse i Danmark - og hvad der kan forstås ved vellykket integration...

  14. CO2, CO, and CH4 measurements from tall towers in the NOAA Earth System Research Laboratory's Global Greenhouse Gas Reference Network: instrumentation, uncertainty analysis, and recommendations for future high-accuracy greenhouse gas monitoring efforts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrews, A. E.; Kofler, J. D.; Trudeau, M. E.; Williams, J. C.; Neff, D. H.; Masarie, K. A.; Chao, D. Y.; Kitzis, D. R.; Novelli, P. C.; Zhao, C. L.; Dlugokencky, E. J.; Lang, P. M.; Crotwell, M. J.; Fischer, M. L.; Parker, M. J.; Lee, J. T.; Baumann, D. D.; Desai, A. R.; Stanier, C. O.; De Wekker, S. F. J.; Wolfe, D. E.; Munger, J. W.; Tans, P. P.

    2014-02-01

    A reliable and precise in situ CO2 and CO analysis system has been developed and deployed at eight sites in the NOAA Earth System Research Laboratory's (ESRL) Global Greenhouse Gas Reference Network. The network uses very tall (> 300 m) television and radio transmitter towers that provide a convenient platform for mid-boundary-layer trace-gas sampling. Each analyzer has three sample inlets for profile sampling, and a complete vertical profile is obtained every 15 min. The instrument suite at one site has been augmented with a cavity ring-down spectrometer for measuring CO2 and CH4. The long-term stability of the systems in the field is typically better than 0.1 ppm for CO2, 6 ppb for CO, and 0.5 ppb for CH4, as determined from repeated standard gas measurements. The instrumentation is fully automated and includes sensors for measuring a variety of status parameters, such as temperatures, pressures, and flow rates, that are inputs for automated alerts and quality control algorithms. Detailed and time-dependent uncertainty estimates have been constructed for all of the gases, and the uncertainty framework could be readily adapted to other species or analysis systems. The design emphasizes use of off-the-shelf parts and modularity to facilitate network operations and ease of maintenance. The systems report high-quality data with > 93% uptime. Recurrent problems and limitations of the current system are discussed along with general recommendations for high-accuracy trace-gas monitoring. The network is a key component of the North American Carbon Program and a useful model for future research-grade operational greenhouse gas monitoring efforts.

  15. Sub-Saharan Africa and Global Trade: What Sub-Saharan Africa needs to do to maximize the Benefits from Global Trade Integration, Increase Economic Growth and Reduce Poverty?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashford C. Chea

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The paper begins with the brief analysis of the role of trade liberalization and its impact on economic growth. It then discusses issues of SSA participation in the global trading system and the impact of intra-regional trade in SSA. Also analyzed are challenges to SSA trade facilitations and role of the international community in building SSA capacity to integrate into the global economy. This is followed by discussion of the dynamism of trade between SSA-South. The paper ends with a set of policy implications and recommendations for SSA.

  16. Toward Global Biobank Integration by Implementation of the Minimum Information About BIobank Data Sharing (MIABIS 2.0 Core).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merino-Martinez, Roxana; Norlin, Loreana; van Enckevort, David; Anton, Gabriele; Schuffenhauer, Simone; Silander, Kaisa; Mook, Linda; Holub, Petr; Bild, Raffael; Swertz, Morris; Litton, Jan-Eric

    2016-08-01

    Biobanks are the biological back end of data-driven medicine, but lack standards and generic solutions for interoperability and information harmonization. The move toward a global information infrastructure for biobanking demands semantic interoperability through harmonized services and common ontologies. To tackle this issue, the Minimum Information About BIobank data Sharing (MIABIS) was developed in 2012 by the Biobanking and BioMolecular Resources Research Infrastructure of Sweden (BBMRI.se). The wide acceptance of the first version of MIABIS encouraged evolving it to a more structured and descriptive standard. In 2013 a working group was formed under the largest infrastructure for health in Europe, Biobanking and BioMolecular Resources Research Infrastructure (BBMRI-ERIC), with the remit to continue the development of MIABIS (version 2.0) through a multicountry governance process. MIABIS 2.0 Core has been developed with 22 attributes describing Biobanks, Sample Collections, and Studies according to a modular structure that makes it easier to adhere to and to extend the standard. This integration standard will make a great contribution to the discovery and exploitation of biobank resources and lead to a wider and more efficient use of valuable bioresources, thereby speeding up the research on human diseases. Many within the European Union have accepted MIABIS 2.0 Core as the "de facto" biobank information standard.

  17. Integrated water vapor from IGS ground-based GPS observations. Initial results from a global 5-min data set

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heise, S.; Dick, G.; Gendt, G.; Schmidt, T.; Wickert, J. [GFZ German Research Centre for Geosciences, Potsdam (Germany). Dept. 1 Geodesy and Remote Sensing

    2009-07-01

    Ground based GPS zenith path delay (ZPD) measurements are well established as a powerful tool for integrated water vapor (IWV) observation. The International GNSS Service (IGS) provides ZPD data of currently more than 300 globally distributed GPS stations. To derive IWV from these data, meteorological information (ground pressure and mean temperature above the station) are needed. Only a limited number of IGS stations is equipped with meteorological ground sensors up to now. Thus, meteorological data for IWV conversion are usually derived from nearby ground meteorological observations (ground pressure) and meteorological analyses (mean temperature). In this paper we demonstrate for the first time the applicability of ground pressure data from ECMWF meteorological analysis fields in this context. Beside simplified data handling (no single station data and quality control) this approach allows for IWV derivation if nearby meteorological stations are not available. Using ECMWF ground pressure and mean temperature data the new IGS 5-min ZPD data set has been converted to IWV for the first time. We present initial results from selected stations with ground meteorological sensors including pressure and temperature comparisons between ECMWF and local measurements. The GPS IWV is generally validated by comparison with ECMWF IWV. The ECMWF derived station meteorological data are compared with local measurements at all accordingly equipped stations. Based on this comparison, the mean error (in terms of standard deviation) introduced by time interpolation of the 6-hourly ECMWF data is estimated below 0.2 mm IWV. (orig.)

  18. EDITORIAL: Siberia Integrated Regional Study: multidisciplinary investigations of the dynamic relationship between the Siberian environment and global climate change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordov, E. P.; Vaganov, E. A.

    2010-03-01

    This is an editorial overview of the Siberia Integrated Regional Study (SIRS), which is a large-scale investigation of ongoing and future environmental change in Siberia and its relationship to global processes, approaches, existing challenges and future direction. Introduction The SIRS is a mega-project within the Northern Eurasia Earth Science Partnership Initiative (NEESPI), which coordinates interdisciplinary, national and international activities in Northern Eurasia that follow the Earth System Science Program (ESSP) approach. Under the direction of the International Geosphere-Biosphere Program (IGBP), SIRS is one of the Integrated Regional Studies (IRS) that aims to investigate environmental change in Siberia under the current environment of global change, and the potential impact on Earth system dynamics [1]. The regions of interest are those that may function as 'choke or switch points' for the global Earth system, where changes in regional biophysical, biogeochemical and anthropogenic components may have significant consequences for the Earth system at the global scale. Siberia is a large and significant region that may compel change [2]. Regional consequences of global warming (e.g. anomalous increases in cold season temperatures) have already been documented for Siberia [3]. This result is also supported by climate modeling results for the 20th-22nd centuries [4]. Future climatic change threatens Siberia with the shift of permafrost boundaries northward, dramatic changes in land cover (redistribution among boreal forest, wetlands, tundra, and steppe zones often precipitated by fire regime change) and the entire hydrological regime of the territory [5-8]. These processes feed back to and influence climate dynamics through the exchange of energy, water, greenhouse gases and aerosols [9]. Even though there have been a handful of national and international projects focused on the Siberian environment, scientists have minimal knowledge about the processes

  19. Global analysis of ion dependence unveils hidden steps in DNA binding and bending by integration host factor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vivas, Paula; Velmurugu, Yogambigai; Kuznetsov, Serguei V.; Rice, Phoebe A.; Ansari, Anjum

    2013-09-01

    Proteins that recognize and bind to specific sites on DNA often distort the DNA at these sites. The rates at which these DNA distortions occur are considered to be important in the ability of these proteins to discriminate between specific and nonspecific sites. These rates have proven difficult to measure for most protein-DNA complexes in part because of the difficulty in separating the kinetics of unimolecular conformational rearrangements (DNA bending and kinking) from the kinetics of bimolecular complex association and dissociation. A notable exception is the Integration Host Factor (IHF), a eubacterial architectural protein involved in chromosomal compaction and DNA recombination, which binds with subnanomolar affinity to specific DNA sites and bends them into sharp U-turns. The unimolecular DNA bending kinetics has been resolved using both stopped-flow and laser temperature-jump perturbation. Here we expand our investigation by presenting a global analysis of the ionic strength dependence of specific binding affinity and relaxation kinetics of an IHF-DNA complex. This analysis enables us to obtain each of the underlying elementary rates (DNA bending/unbending and protein-DNA association/dissociation), and their ionic strength dependence, even under conditions where the two processes are coupled. Our analysis indicates interesting differences in the ionic strength dependence of the bi- versus unimolecular steps. At moderate [KCl] (100-500 mM), nearly all the ionic strength dependence to the overall equilibrium binding affinity appears in the bimolecular association/dissociation of an initial, presumably weakly bent, encounter complex, with a slope SKbi ≈ 8 describing the loglog-dependence of the equilibrium constant to form this complex on [KCl]. In contrast, the unimolecular equilibrium constant to form the fully wrapped specific complex from the initial complex is nearly independent of [KCl], with SKuni water molecules, which is osmotically favored by

  20. Integrated knowledge translation” for globally oriented public health practitioners and scientists: Framing together a sustainable transfrontier knowledge translation vision

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Véronique Lapaige

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Véronique LapaigeFaculty of Nursing, CIFSS, Laval University, Quebec City, QC, CanadaAbstract: The development of a dynamic leadership coalition between practitioners and researchers/scientists – which is known in Canada as integrated knowledge translation (KT – can play a major role in bridging the know-do gap in the health care and public health sectors. In public health, and especially in globally oriented public health, integrated KT is a dynamic, interactive (collaborative, and nonlinear phenomenon that goes beyond a reductionist vision of knowledge translation, to attain inter-, multi-, and even transdisciplinary status. Intimately embedded in its socioenvironmental context and closely connected with the complex interventions of multiple actors, the nonlinear process of integrated KT is based on a double principle: (1 the principle of transcendence of frontiers (sectorial, disciplinary, geographic, cultural, and cognitive, and (2 the principle of integration of knowledge beyond these frontiers. However, even though many authors agree on the overriding importance of integrated KT, there is as yet little understanding of the causal framework of integrated KT. Here, one can ask two general questions. Firstly, what “determines” integrated KT? Secondly, even if one wanted to apply a “transfrontier knowledge translation” vision, how should one go about doing so? For example, what would be the nature and qualities of a representative research program that applied a “transfrontier collaboration” approach? This paper focuses on the determinants of integrated KT within the burgeoning field of knowledge translation research (KT research. The paper is based on the results of a concurrent mixed method design which dealt with the complexity of building and sustaining effective coalitions and partnerships in the health care and public health sectors. The aims of this paper are: (1 to present an “integrated KT” conceptual framework

  1. Acetylation of cell wall is required for structural integrity of the leaf surface and exerts a global impact on plant stress responses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nafisi, Majse; Stranne, Maria; Fimognari, Lorenzo;

    2015-01-01

    -dense deposits. A large number of trichomes were collapsed and surface permeability of the leaves was enhanced in rwa2 as compared to the wild type. A massive reprogramming of the transcriptome was observed in rwa2 as compared to the wild type, including a coordinated up-regulation of genes involved in responses...... acetylation is essential for maintaining the structural integrity of leaf epidermis, and that reduction of cell wall acetylation leads to global stress responses in Arabidopsis....

  2. Target Price Accuracy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander G. Kerl

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available This study analyzes the accuracy of forecasted target prices within analysts’ reports. We compute a measure for target price forecast accuracy that evaluates the ability of analysts to exactly forecast the ex-ante (unknown 12-month stock price. Furthermore, we determine factors that explain this accuracy. Target price accuracy is negatively related to analyst-specific optimism and stock-specific risk (measured by volatility and price-to-book ratio. However, target price accuracy is positively related to the level of detail of each report, company size and the reputation of the investment bank. The potential conflicts of interests between an analyst and a covered company do not bias forecast accuracy.

  3. Global processing deficit in Alzheimer’s disease (Déficit del procesamiento global en la enfermedad de Alzheimer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María J. Blanca

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Several studies of Alzheimer’s disease (AD reveal an impaired capacity to integrate visual elements into global pictures, leading to a deficit in global processing of visual information. The aim of this paper was to explore global and local processing in people with AD at non-advanced stage. The Global and Local Attention Test (AGL; from the original Spanish: AGL-Atención global y local was administered to a group of 100 participants with a mean age of 75.36 years. Fifty of them were AD patients at a mild or moderate stage, while the remainder comprised healthy elders. The AGL provides two scores that indicate speed and accuracy in analyzing global and local figures. Participants had to indicate the figures where the target appeared at either global or local levels in a divided attention task. The results showed lower accuracy in the AD group compared with controls. Also in the AD group, and in line with previous findings, accuracy in detecting the target was much lower at the global level than at the local level, thereby confirming the expected deficit in global processing associated with AD. This deficit did not vary according to sex or age.

  4. Rethinking Empathic Accuracy

    OpenAIRE

    Meadors, Joshua

    2014-01-01

    The present study is a methodological examination of the implicit empathic accuracy measure introduced by Zaki, Ochsner, and Bolger (2008). Empathic accuracy (EA) is defined as the ability to understand another person's thoughts and feelings (Ickes, 1993). Because this definition is similar to definitions of cognitive empathy (e.g., Shamay-Tsoory, 2011) and because affective empathy does not appear to be related to empathic accuracy (Zaki et al., 2008), the Basic Empathy Scale--which measures...

  5. Global health diplomacy, national integration, and regional development through the monitoring and evaluation of HIV/AIDS programs in Papua New Guinea, Vanuatu, and Samoa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kevany, Sebastian; Gildea, Amy; Garae, Caleb; Moa, Serafi; Lautusi, Avaia

    2015-04-27

    The South Pacific countries of Vanuatu, Samoa, and Papua New Guinea have ascended rapidly up the development spectrum in recent years, refining an independent and post-colonial economic and political identity that enhances their recognition on the world stage. All three countries have overcome economic, political and public health challenges in order to stake their claim to sovereignty. In this regard, the contributions of national and international programs for the diagnosis, treatment and prevention of HIV/AIDS, with specific reference to their monitoring and evaluation (M&E) aspects, have contributed not just to public health, but also to broader political and diplomatic goals such as 'nation-building'. This perspective describes the specific contributions of global health programs to the pursuit of national integration, development, and regional international relations, in Vanuatu, Samoa and Papua New Guinea, respectively, based on in-country M&E activities on behalf of the Global Fund to Fight AIDS, Tuberculosis (TB) and Malaria and the Australian Department of Foreign Affairs and Trade (DFAT) during 2014 and 2015. Key findings include: (1) that global health programs contribute to non-health goals; (2) that HIV/AIDS programs promote international relations, decentralized development, and internal unity; (3) that arguments in favour of the maintenance and augmentation of global health funding may be enhanced on this basis; and (4) that "smart" global health approaches have been successful in South Pacific countries.

  6. Global Health Diplomacy, National Integration, and Regional Development through the Monitoring and Evaluation of HIV/AIDS Programs in Papua New Guinea, Vanuatu, and Samoa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sebastian Kevany

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The South Pacific countries of Vanuatu, Samoa, and Papua New Guinea have ascended rapidly up the development spectrum in recent years, refining an independent and post-colonial economic and political identity that enhances their recognition on the world stage. All three countries have overcome economic, political and public health challenges in order to stake their claim to sovereignty. In this regard, the contributions of national and international programs for the diagnosis, treatment and prevention of HIV/AIDS, with specific reference to their monitoring and evaluation (M&E aspects, have contributed not just to public health, but also to broader political and diplomatic goals such as ‘nation-building’. This perspective describes the specific contributions of global health programs to the pursuit of national integration, development, and regional international relations, in Vanuatu, Samoa and Papua New Guinea, respectively, based on in-country M&E activities on behalf of the Global Fund to Fight AIDS, Tuberculosis (TB and Malaria and the Australian Department of Foreign Affairs and Trade (DFAT during 2014 and 2015. Key findings include: (1 that global health programs contribute to non-health goals; (2 that HIV/AIDS programs promote international relations, decentralized development, and internal unity; (3 that arguments in favour of the maintenance and augmentation of global health funding may be enhanced on this basis; and (4 that “smart” global health approaches have been successful in South Pacific countries.

  7. Re-thinking global health sector efforts for HIV and tuberculosis epidemic control: promoting integration of programme activities within a strengthened health system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maher Dermot

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The global financial crisis threatens global health, particularly exacerbating diseases of inequality, e.g. HIV/AIDS, and diseases of poverty, e.g. tuberculosis. The aim of this paper is to reconsider established practices and policies for HIV and tuberculosis epidemic control, aiming at delivering better results and value for money. This may be achieved by promoting greater integration of HIV and tuberculosis control programme activities within a strengthened health system. Discussion HIV and tuberculosis share many similarities in terms of their disease burden and the recommended stratagems for their control. HIV and tuberculosis programmes implement similar sorts of control activities, e.g. case finding and treatment, which depend for success on generic health system issues, including vital registration, drug procurement and supply, laboratory network, human resources, and financing. However, the current health system approach to HIV and tuberculosis control often involves separate specialised services. Despite some recent progress, collaboration between the programmes remains inadequate, progress in obtaining synergies has been slow, and results remain far below those needed to achieve universal access to key interventions. A fundamental re-think of the current strategic approach involves promoting integrated delivery of HIV and tuberculosis programme activities as part of strengthened general health services: epidemiological surveillance, programme monitoring and evaluation, community awareness of health-seeking behavior, risk behaviour modification, infection control, treatment scale-up (first-line treatment regimens, drug-resistance surveillance, containing and countering drug-resistance (second-line treatment regimens, research and development, global advocacy and global partnership. Health agencies should review policies and progress in HIV and tuberculosis epidemic control, learn mutual lessons for policy

  8. D/A conversion accuracy in integration of electrochemical test system%电化学测试系统集成化中的D/A转换精度

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘泽东; 孟丽娅; Qureshi W A

    2011-01-01

    In order to provide a reference for the selection of D/A conversion accuracy in the design of a monolithic electrochemical test system, a cyclic voltammetry experiment test system was developed based on Lab VIEW software platform and DAQ (NI Company). The system can control the scan rate, starting point, scan frequency and other parameters of the triangular voltage, and can display and store the polarization current and voltage in real time. The triangular voltage with different conversion accuracy was simulated. After passing through low-pass filter with adjustable cut-off frequency, the triangular voltage is used to drive the potentiostat. The RMS value of polarization current and the characteristics of I-V curve are analyzed. The acceptable accuracy of D/A conversion and the cut-off frequency of the low-pass filter for the integrated design of electrochemical test system are discussed.%为了给电化学测试系统的单片集成设计提供D/A转换精度选择的参考依据,本文基于LabVIEW软件平台和NI公司的数据采集卡,开发了一套循环伏安法实验测试系统.该系统可以实现扫描电压的速率、起始点、扫描次数等参数的控制及极化电流和电压的实时显示和存储.程序中模拟了不同D/A转换精度的三角波电压,并配合截止频率可调的低通滤波器滤波之后输出驱动恒电位仪.对不同D/A转换精度和滤波器截止频率的组合分别进行了实验,测得了极化电流和电压.分析了不同D/A转换精度下的极化电流的RMS值和I-V曲线特性;讨论了一个可供电化学测试系统集成设计选择的D/A转换精度和低通滤波器的截止频率范围.

  9. Recent Progresses in Incorporating Human Land-Water Management into Global Land Surface Models Toward Their Integration into Earth System Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pokhrel, Yadu N.; Hanasaki, Naota; Wada, Yoshihide; Kim, Hyungjun

    2016-01-01

    The global water cycle has been profoundly affected by human land-water management. As the changes in the water cycle on land can affect the functioning of a wide range of biophysical and biogeochemical processes of the Earth system, it is essential to represent human land-water management in Earth system models (ESMs). During the recent past, noteworthy progress has been made in large-scale modeling of human impacts on the water cycle but sufficient advancements have not yet been made in integrating the newly developed schemes into ESMs. This study reviews the progresses made in incorporating human factors in large-scale hydrological models and their integration into ESMs. The study focuses primarily on the recent advancements and existing challenges in incorporating human impacts in global land surface models (LSMs) as a way forward to the development of ESMs with humans as integral components, but a brief review of global hydrological models (GHMs) is also provided. The study begins with the general overview of human impacts on the water cycle. Then, the algorithms currently employed to represent irrigation, reservoir operation, and groundwater pumping are discussed. Next, methodological deficiencies in current modeling approaches and existing challenges are identified. Furthermore, light is shed on the sources of uncertainties associated with model parameterizations, grid resolution, and datasets used for forcing and validation. Finally, representing human land-water management in LSMs is highlighted as an important research direction toward developing integrated models using ESM frameworks for the holistic study of human-water interactions within the Earths system.

  10. The accuracy of integrate digital dental models established with 3-dimensional cone-beam computed tomography images%三维整合牙颌模型的精度研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    唐敏; 郭宏铭

    2011-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the accuracy of the integrate dental models based on cone beam computerized tomography (CBCT) and laser-scanned dental models. Methods Ten patients with malocclusion were scanned by CBCT,and the silicon models scanned by laser, which then created the 3-dimensional dental and maxillary models. The digital dental models were established by integration of these models. The integration accuracy was evaluated by both manual register and auto register methods. The statistical difference between the two register methods was assessed. Results The mean distance of the maxilla and mandible was 0. 159 ±0. 0265mm and 0. t51 ±0. 0337 mm in manual register method,and 0. 145 ±0. 0294 mm and 0. 134 ±0. 0309 mm in auto register method. There were significant difference between the two methods ( P < 0. 05 ). Conclusion Both manual register and auto register could establish accurate integrated 3-dimensional dental and maxillary models, with the former being better than the latter.%目的:将基于锥形束计算机断层扫描(CBCT)的牙颌模型和激光扫描的牙冠模型整合建立三维整合牙颌模型,研究三维整合牙颌模型的整合精度.方法:选择10例需要接受CBCT检查的错(牙合)患者,对每例患者头颅进行CBCT扫描,采取牙列硅橡胶印模进行激光扫描,分别重建获得三维CBCT图像和激光扫描三维图像,将三维CBCT图像和激光扫描图像进行手动配准和自动配准,对两种配准方法所得整合模型用Rapid form 2006软件进行全局偏差检测.采用配对t检验评价手动配准方法和自动配准方法的差异.结果:手动配准上下颌平均距离分别是0.159±0.0265mm,0.151±0.0337mm,自动配准上下颌平均距离分别是0.145±0.0294mm,0.134±0.0309mm,两者间差异具有统计学意义(P<0.05).结论:自动配准方法优于手动配准方法,两种配准方法均能建立精确的三维整合模型,这为今后三维整合牙颌模型的应用提供了依据.

  11. CONSIDERATIONS ON THE PROSPECTS OF THE INTEGRATION OF THE EUROPEAN FINANCIAL MARKETS IN THE CONTEXT OF THE GLOBAL CRISIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morosan Danila Lucia

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, as the efforts linked to the elimination of the capital movements control between countries have intensified, the preoccupations concerning the explanation of the financial integration concept have multiplied, in their turn. An integrated financial market is necessary particularly to the distribution of liquidity between the institutions in the euro zone, and, implicitly, for the enforcement of a common monetary policy. Thus, the problem of the integration of the financial market, respectively of the monetary one, appears as a premise for a homogenous transmission of the financial policy impulses all throughout the euro zone. The financial integration is defined in conformity with the law of a single price. According to this definition, in case the markets are integrated, the financial assets bearing identical characteristics should have the same price, regardless of their geographic origin.

  12. Global market integration increases likelihood that a future African Green Revolution could increase crop land use and CO2 emissions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hertel, Thomas W; Ramankutty, Navin; Baldos, Uris Lantz C

    2014-09-23

    There has been a resurgence of interest in the impacts of agricultural productivity on land use and the environment. At the center of this debate is the assertion that agricultural innovation is land sparing. However, numerous case studies and global empirical studies have found little evidence of higher yields being accompanied by reduced area. We find that these studies overlook two crucial factors: estimation of a true counterfactual scenario and a tendency to adopt a regional, rather than a global, perspective. This paper introduces a general framework for analyzing the impacts of regional and global innovation on long run crop output, prices, land rents, land use, and associated CO2 emissions. In so doing, it facilitates a reconciliation of the apparently conflicting views of the impacts of agricultural productivity growth on global land use and environmental quality. Our historical analysis demonstrates that the Green Revolution in Asia, Latin America, and the Middle East was unambiguously land and emissions sparing, compared with a counterfactual world without these innovations. In contrast, we find that the environmental impacts of a prospective African Green Revolution are potentially ambiguous. We trace these divergent outcomes to relative differences between the innovating region and the rest of the world in yields, emissions efficiencies, cropland supply response, and intensification potential. Globalization of agriculture raises the potential for adverse environmental consequences. However, if sustained for several decades, an African Green Revolution will eventually become land sparing.

  13. MRI of the knee: how do field strength and radiologist's experience influence diagnostic accuracy and interobserver correlation in assessing chondral and meniscal lesions and the integrity of the anterior cruciate ligament?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krampla, W.; Roesel, M.; Svoboda, K.; Nachbagauer, A.; Gschwantler, M.; Hruby, W. [Donauspital, Radiology Department, Vienna (Austria)

    2009-06-15

    Accuracy of MRI reports is taken for granted. In this paper the inter-observer reliability in the interpretation of meniscal lesions, degree of chondropathy, and integrity of the ACL was analyzed while taking the radiologist's experience and field strength into account. Fifty-two MRI studies of knees were interpreted by 11 radiologists independently. Twenty-two were acquired on 1.0-T, 20 on 1.5-T, and 10 on 3.0-T systems. Four of the radiologists had more than 5 years and seven had 3 to 5 years of experience in interpreting MRI studies. The findings were compared with the intra-operative findings. Inter-observer variance, specificity, and sensitivity were evaluated for each field strength. Inter-observer correlation ranged between 0.370 for cartilage lesions and 0.597 for meniscal tears. Correlation values did not increase with experience or field strength. The number of false reports was dependent on the observer, but not on field strength. The rate of false interpretations was significantly higher for most criteria in the less experienced group. In conclusion, inter-observer correlation was low, although the diagnostic criteria were defined. The use of the classification scheme should be standardized by uniform training. Radiologist experience seems to be more important than field strength. (orig.)

  14. General overview: European Integrated project on Aerosol Cloud Climate and Air Quality interactions (EUCAARI – integrating aerosol research from nano to global scales

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Simpson

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we describe and summarize the main achievements of the European Aerosol Cloud Climate and Air Quality Interactions project (EUCAARI. EUCAARI started on 1 January 2007 and ended on 31 December 2010 leaving a rich legacy including: (a a comprehensive database with a year of observations of the physical, chemical and optical properties of aerosol particles over Europe, (b comprehensive aerosol measurements in four developing countries, (c a database of airborne measurements of aerosols and clouds over Europe during May 2008, (d comprehensive modeling tools to study aerosol processes fron nano to global scale and their effects on climate and air quality. In addition a new Pan-European aerosol emissions inventory was developed and evaluated, a new cluster spectrometer was built and tested in the field and several new aerosol parameterizations and computations modules for chemical transport and global climate models were developed and evaluated. These achievements and related studies have substantially improved our understanding and reduced the uncertainties of aerosol radiative forcing and air quality-climate interactions. The EUCAARI results can be utilized in European and global environmental policy to assess the aerosol impacts and the corresponding abatement strategies.

  15. Predicting global landslide spatiotemporal distribution: Integrating landslide susceptibility zoning techniques and real-time satellite rainfall estimates

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    Landslides triggered by rainfall can possibly be foreseen in real time by jointly using rainfall intensity-duration thresholds and information related to land surface susceptibility. However, no system exists at either a national or a global scale to monitor or detect rainfall conditions that may trigger landslides due to the lack of sufficient ground-based observing network in many parts of the world. Recent advances in satellite remote sensing technology and increasing availability of high-resolution geospatial products around the globe have provided an unprecedented opportunity for such a study. In this paper, a framework for developing a preliminary real-time prediction system to identify where rainfall-triggered landslides will occur is proposed by combining two necessary components: surface landslide susceptibility and a real-time space-based rainfall analysis system (http://trmm.gsfc.nasa.govV First, a global landslide susceptibility map is derived from a combination of semi-static global surface characteristics (digital elevation topography, slope, soil types, soil texture, land cover classification, etc.) using a GIS weighted linear combination approach. Second, an adjusted empirical relationship between rainfall intensity-duration and landslide occurrence is used to assess landslide hazards at areas with high susceptibility. A major outcome of this work is the availability for the first time of a global assessment of landslide hazards, which is only possible because of the utilization of global satellite remote sensing products. This preliminary system can be updated continuously using the new satellite remote sensing products. This proposed system, if pursued through wide interdisciplinary efforts as recommended herein, bears the promise to grow many local landslide hazard analyses into a global decision-making support system for landslide disaster preparedness and mitigation activities across the world.

  16. Temperature and salinity profiles from CTD casts from the VALKIRIYA and other PLATFORMS from a World-Wide Distribution in support of the Integrated Global Ocean Services System (IGOSS) from 01 January 1991 to 31 January 1991 (NODC Accession 9100035)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — CTD and other data were collected from the VALKIRIYA and other PLATFORMS in support of the Integrated Global Ocean Services System (IGOSS). Data were collected by US...

  17. Temperature and salinity profiles from CTD casts from the PARIZEAU and other PLATFORMS from a World-Wide distribution in support of the Integrated Global Ocean Services System (IGOSS) from 01 October 1988 to 31 October 1988 (NODC Accession 8800296)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — CTD and other data were collected from the PARIZEAU and other PLATFORMS in support of the Integrated Global Ocean Services System (IGOSS). Data were collected by US...

  18. Temperature profiles from expendable bathythermograph (XBT) casts from the USCGC MIDGETT in the North Pacific Ocean in support of the Integrated Global Ocean Services System (IGOSS) project from 20 May 1973 to 20 July 1973 (NODC Accession 7301050)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — XBT data were collected from the USCGC MIDGETT in support of the Integrated Global Ocean Services System (IGOSS) project. Data were collected by the US Coast Guard...

  19. Temperature profiles from expendable bathythermograph (MBT) casts from the USCGC BURTON ISLAND in the North Pacific Ocean in support of the Integrated Global Ocean Services System (IGOSS) project from 02 June 1974 to 08 September 1974 (NODC Accession 7400636)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — XBT data were collected from the USCGC BURTON ISLAND in support of the Integrated Global Ocean Services System (IGOSS) project. Data were collected by the US Coast...

  20. Temperature profiles from expendable bathythermograph (XBT) casts from NOAA Ship FAIRWEATHER in the Gulf of Alaska in support of the Integrated Global Ocean Services System (IGOSS) from 1981-06-03 to 1981-06-04 (NCEI Accession 8100559)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — XBT data were collected from NOAA Ship FAIRWEATHER in support of the Integrated Global Ocean Services System (IGOSS). Data were collected by the US DOC; NOAA;...

  1. Temperature profiles from expendable bathythermograph (XBT) casts from the BARTLETT in the North Atlantic Ocean in support of the Integrated Global Ocean Services System (IGOSS) from 09 October 1977 to 25 October 1977 (NODC Accession 7800226)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — XBT data were collected from the BARTLETT in support of the Integrated Global Ocean Services System (IGOSS). Data were collected by the US Navy; Naval Oceanographic...

  2. Temperature profiles from expendable bathythermograph (XBT) casts from the USCGC SHERMAN in the North Atlantic Ocean in support of the Integrated Global Ocean Services System (IGOSS) project for 1973-11-27 (NODC Accession 7400023)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — XBT data were collected from the USCGC SHERMAN in support of the Integrated Global Ocean Services System (IGOSS) project. Data were collected by the US Coast Guard...

  3. Temperature profiles from expendable bathythermograph (XBT) casts from the USCGC RUSH in the Coastal Waters of California in support of the Integrated Global Ocean Services System (IGOSS) project from 21 July 1973 to 29 July 1973 (NODC Accession 7300957)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — XBT data were collected from the USCGC RUSH in support of the Integrated Global Ocean Services System (IGOSS) project. Data were collected by the US Coast Guard...

  4. Temperature profiles from expendable bathythermograph (XBT) casts from the USCGC HAMILTON in the North Atlantic Ocean in support of the Integrated Global Ocean Services System (IGOSS) from 30 May 1978 to 25 July 1978 (NODC Accession 7800678)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — XBT data were collected from the USCGC HAMILTON in support of the Integrated Global Ocean Services System (IGOSS). Data were collected by the US Coast Guard from 30...

  5. Temperature profiles from expendable bathythermograph (XBT) casts from NOAA Ship FAIRWEATHER in the Gulf of Alaska in support of the Integrated Global Ocean Services System (IGOSS) from 1983-08-26 to 1983-08-28 (NCEI Accession 8300143)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — XBT data were collected from NOAA Ship FAIRWEATHER in support of the Integrated Global Ocean Services System (IGOSS). Data were collected by the US DOC; NOAA;...

  6. Temperature profiles from expendable bathythermograph (XBT) casts from the USCGC BOUTWELL in the North Pacific Ocean in support of the Integrated Global Ocean Services System (IGOSS) from 07 November 1979 to 17 December 1979 (NODC Accession 8000166)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — XBT data were collected from the USCGC BOUTWELL in support of the Integrated Global Ocean Services System (IGOSS). Data were collected by the US Coast Guard from 07...

  7. Temperature profiles from expendable bathythermograph (XBT) casts from NOAA Ship FAIRWEATHER in the Gulf of Alaska in support of the Integrated Global Ocean Services System (IGOSS) from 1977-05-18 to 1977-05-20 (NCEI Accession 7700441)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — XBT data were collected from NOAA Ship FAIRWEATHER in support of the Integrated Global Ocean Services System (IGOSS). Data were collected by the US DOC; NOAA;...

  8. Temperature profiles from expendable bathythermograph (XBT) casts from the USCGC ACUSHNET in the Gulf of Mexico in support of the Integrated Global Ocean Services System (IGOSS) from 07 January 1975 to 09 January 1975 (NODC Accession 7500058)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — XBT data were collected from the USCGC ACUSHNET in support of the Integrated Global Ocean Services System (IGOSS). Data were collected by the US Coast Guard from 07...

  9. Temperature profiles from expendable bathythermograph (XBT) casts from the USCGC UNIMAK in the East Coast - US/Canada in support of the Integrated Global Ocean Services System (IGOSS) project from 28 November 1973 to 30 November 1973 (NODC Accession 7400016)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — XBT data were collected from the USCGC UNIMAK in support of the Integrated Global Ocean Services System (IGOSS) project. Data were collected by the US Coast Guard...

  10. Temperature profiles from expendable bathythermograph (XBT) casts from the USCGC HAMILTON in the North Atlantic Ocean in support of the Integrated Global Ocean Services System (IGOSS) from 15 January 1978 to 29 January 1978 (NODC Accession 7800081)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — XBT data were collected from the USCGC HAMILTON in support of the Integrated Global Ocean Services System (IGOSS). Data were collected by the US Coast Guard from 15...

  11. Temperature profiles from expendable bathythermograph (XBT) casts from the USCGC CHASE in the North Atlantic Ocean in support of the Integrated Global Ocean Services System (IGOSS) from 28 May 1978 to 25 July 1978 (NODC Accession 7800639)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — XBT data were collected from the USCGC CHASE in support of the Integrated Global Ocean Services System (IGOSS). Data were collected by the US Coast Guard from 28 May...

  12. Temperature profiles from expendable bathythermograph (XBT) casts from the USCGC BIBB in the North Atlantic Ocean in support of the Integrated Global Ocean Services System (IGOSS) from 24 September 1975 to 03 October 1975 (NODC Accession 7500959)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — XBT data were collected from the USCGC BIBB in support of the Integrated Global Ocean Services System (IGOSS). Data were collected by the US Coast Guard from 24...

  13. Temperature profiles from expendable bathythermograph (XBT) casts from the USNS SILAS BENT in the North Pacific Ocean in support of the Integrated Global Ocean Services System (IGOSS) project from 04 March 1977 to 27 March 1977 (NODC Accession 7700351)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — XBT data were collected from the USNS SILAS BENT in support of the Integrated Global Ocean Services System (IGOSS) project. Data were collected by the US Navy; Naval...

  14. Temperature and salinity profiles from CTD casts from the ARGOS and other PLATFORMS from a World-Wide Distribution in support of the Integrated Global Ocean Services System (IGOSS) from 01 November 1989 to 30 November 1989 (NODC Accession 8900297)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — CTD and other data were collected from the ARGOS and other PLATFORMS in support of the Integrated Global Ocean Services System (IGOSS). Data were collected by US...

  15. Temperature and salinity profiles from CTD casts from the VALDIVIA and other PLATFORMS from a World-Wide Distribution in support of the Integrated Global Ocean Services System (IGOSS) from 01 April 1991 to 30 April 1991 (NODC Accession 9100087)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — CTD and other data were collected from the VALDIVIA and other PLATFORMS in support of the Integrated Global Ocean Services System (IGOSS). Data were collected by US...

  16. Temperature profiles from expendable bathythermograph (XBT) casts from the CHAIN in the North Atlantic Ocean in support of the Integrated Global Ocean Services System (IGOSS) from 22 July 1974 to 09 August 1974 (NODC Accession 7500155)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — XBT data were collected from the CHAIN in support of the Integrated Global Ocean Services System (IGOSS). Data were collected by Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution...

  17. Temperature profiles from expendable bathythermograph (XBT) casts from the CHAIN in the North Atlantic Ocean in support of the Integrated Global Ocean Services System (IGOSS) from 24 September 1973 to 16 October 1973 (NODC Accession 7301213)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — XBT data were collected from the CHAIN in support of the Integrated Global Ocean Services System (IGOSS). Data were collected by Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution...

  18. Temperature profiles from expendable bathythermograph (XBT) casts from the USCGC DUANE in the North Atlantic Ocean in support of the Integrated Global Ocean Services System (IGOSS) project from 15 May 1976 to 27 July 1976 (NODC Accession 7601565)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — XBT data were collected from the USCGC DUANE in support of the Integrated Global Ocean Services System (IGOSS) project. Data were collected by the US Coast Guard...

  19. Temperature profiles from expendable bathythermograph (XBT) casts from the USCGC EVERGREEN in the North Atlantic Ocean in support of the Integrated Global Ocean Services System (IGOSS) from 23 January 1979 to 10 February 1979 (NODC Accession 7900115)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — XBT data were collected from the USCGC EVERGREEN in support of the Integrated Global Ocean Services System (IGOSS). Data were collected by the US Coast Guard from...

  20. Temperature profiles from expendable bathythermograph (XBT) casts from the USCGC SHERMAN in the North Atlantic Ocean in support of the Integrated Global Ocean Services System (IGOSS) project from 15 September 1977 to 18 September 1977 (NODC Accession 7700763)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — XBT data were collected from the USCGC SHERMAN in support of the Integrated Global Ocean Services System (IGOSS) project. Data were collected by the US Coast Guard...

  1. Temperature profiles from expendable bathythermograph (XBT) casts from the USS KANE in the Norwegian Sea in support of the Integrated Global Ocean Services System (IGOSS) project from 22 May 1975 to 17 June 1975 (NODC Accession 7500790)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — XBT data were collected from the USS KANE in support of the Integrated Global Ocean Services System (IGOSS) project. Data were collected by the US Navy; Naval...

  2. Temperature profiles from expendable bathythermograph (XBT) casts from the USCGC BOUTWELL in the North Pacific Ocean in support of the Integrated Global Ocean Services System (IGOSS) from 10 April 1976 to 23 May 1976 (NODC Accession 7601359)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — XBT data were collected from the USCGC BOUTWELL in support of the Integrated Global Ocean Services System (IGOSS). Data were collected by the US Coast Guard from 10...

  3. Temperature profiles from expendable bathythermograph (XBT) casts from the USCGC MIDGETT in the North Pacific Ocean in support of the Integrated Global Ocean Services System (IGOSS) project from 15 July 1977 to 11 August 1977 (NODC Accession 7700647)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — XBT data were collected from the USCGC MIDGETT in support of the Integrated Global Ocean Services System (IGOSS) project. Data were collected by the US Coast Guard...

  4. Temperature profiles from mechanical bathythermograph (MBT) casts from the USCGC VIGILANT in the North Atlantic Ocean in support of the Integrated Global Ocean Services System (IGOSS) project from 02 July 1972 to 17 July 1972 (NODC Accession 7200951)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — MBT data were collected from the USCGC VIGILANT in support of the Integrated Global Ocean Services System (IGOSS) project. Data were collected by the US Coast Guard...

  5. Temperature profiles from expendable bathythermograph (XBT) casts from the USCGC HAMILTON in the North Atlantic Ocean in support of the Integrated Global Ocean Services System (IGOSS) from 10 March 1973 to 19 March 1973 (NODC Accession 7300420)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — XBT data were collected from the USCGC HAMILTON in support of the Integrated Global Ocean Services System (IGOSS). Data were collected by the US Coast Guard from 10...

  6. Temperature profiles from expendable bathythermograph (XBT) casts from the USCGC BOUTWELL in the North Pacific Ocean in support of the Integrated Global Ocean Services System (IGOSS) from 02 August 1978 to 18 August 1978 (NODC Accession 7800671)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — XBT data were collected from the USCGC BOUTWELL in support of the Integrated Global Ocean Services System (IGOSS). Data were collected by the US Coast Guard from 02...

  7. Temperature profiles from expendable bathythermograph (XBT) casts from the R. CONRAD in the Indian Ocean in support of the Integrated Global Ocean Services System (IGOSS) project from 19 May 1974 to 13 June 1974 (NODC Accession 7400688)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — XBT data were collected from the R. CONRAD in support of the Integrated Global Ocean Services System (IGOSS) project. Data were collected by the Lamont-Doherty...

  8. Temperature profiles from expendable bathythermograph (XBT) casts from NOAA Ship SURVEYOR in the North Pacific Ocean in support of the Integrated Global Ocean Services System (IGOSS) project from 1976-09-27 to 1976-10-22 (NCEI Accession 7601473)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — XBT data were collected from NOAA Ship SURVEYOR in support of the Integrated Global Ocean Services System (IGOSS) project. Data were collected by the National Ocean...

  9. Temperature profiles from expendable bathythermograph (XBT) casts from NOAA Ship RAINIER in the North Pacific Ocean in support of the Integrated Global Ocean Services System (IGOSS) project from 1984-02-15 to 1984-02-23 (NCEI Accession 8400058)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — XBT data were collected from NOAA Ship RAINIER in support of the Integrated Global Ocean Services System (IGOSS) project. Data were collected by the National Ocean...

  10. Temperature profiles from expendable bathythermograph (XBT) casts from the USCGC CAMPBELL in the North Atlantic Ocean in support of the Integrated Global Ocean Services System (IGOSS) from 13 August 1973 to 10 September 1973 (NODC Accession 7301072)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — XBT data were collected from the USCGC CAMPBELL in support of the Integrated Global Ocean Services System (IGOSS). Data were collected by the US Coast Guard from 13...

  11. Temperature profiles from expendable bathythermograph (XBT) casts from the USCGC CAMPBELL in the North Pacific Ocean in support of the Integrated Global Ocean Services System (IGOSS) from 25 May 1978 to 13 June 1978 (NODC Accession 7800498)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — XBT data were collected from the USCGC CAMPBELL in support of the Integrated Global Ocean Services System (IGOSS). Data were collected by the US Coast Guard from 25...

  12. Temperature profiles from expendable bathythermograph (XBT) casts from the ARNI FRIDRIKSSON in the North Atlantic Ocean in support of the Integrated Global Ocean Services System (IGOSS) from 19 April 1975 to 22 April 1975 (NODC Accession 7500703)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — XBT data were collected from the ARNI FRIDRIKSSON in support of the Integrated Global Ocean Services System (IGOSS). Data were collected by the Icelandic Marine...

  13. Temperature profiles from expendable bathythermograph (XBT) casts from the ARNI FRIDRIKSSON in the North Atlantic Ocean in support of the Integrated Global Ocean Services System (IGOSS) from 10 November 1975 to 17 November 1975 (NODC Accession 7600222)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — XBT data were collected from the ARNI FRIDRIKSSON in support of the Integrated Global Ocean Services System (IGOSS). Data were collected by the Icelandic Marine...

  14. Temperature profiles from expendable bathythermograph (XBT) casts from the ARNI FRIDRIKSSON in the North Atlantic Ocean in support of the Integrated Global Ocean Services System (IGOSS) from 11 July 1975 to 16 September 1975 (NODC Accession 7501015)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — XBT data were collected from the ARNI FRIDRIKSSON in support of the Integrated Global Ocean Services System (IGOSS) project. Data were collected by the Icelandic...

  15. Temperature profiles from expendable bathythermograph (XBT) casts from NOAA Ship MILLER FREEMAN in the Bering Sea in support of the Integrated Global Ocean Services System (IGOSS) project from 1977-03-21 to 1977-03-23 (NCEI Accession 7700266)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — XBT data were collected from NOAA Ship MILLER FREEMAN in support of the Integrated Global Ocean Services System (IGOSS) project. Data were collected by the National...

  16. Temperature profiles from expendable bathythermograph (XBT) casts from the USCGC CAMPBELL in the North Pacific Ocean in support of the Integrated Global Ocean Services System (IGOSS) from 19 October 1977 to 20 October 1977 (NODC Accession 7800084)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — XBT data were collected from the USCGC CAMPBELL in support of the Integrated Global Ocean Services System (IGOSS). Data were collected by the US Coast Guard from 19...

  17. Temperature profiles from expendable bathythermograph (XBT) casts from the USCGC MORGENTHAU in the North Atlantic Ocean in support of the Integrated Global Ocean Services System (IGOSS) project from 21 May 1975 to 22 July 1975 (NODC Accession 7500741)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — XBT data were collected from the USCGC MORGENTHAU in support of the Integrated Global Ocean Services System (IGOSS) project. Data were collected by the US Coast...

  18. Temperature profiles from expendable bathythermograph (XBT) casts from the USCGC MORGENTHAU in the East Coast - US/Canada in support of the Integrated Global Ocean Services System (IGOSS) project from 03 February 1974 to 15 March 1974 (NODC Accession 7400248)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — XBT data were collected from the USCGC MORGENTHAU in support of the Integrated Global Ocean Services System (IGOSS) project. Data were collected by the US Coast...

  19. Temperature profiles from expendable bathythermograph (XBT) casts from the USCGC MORGENTHAU in the North Pacific Ocean in support of the Integrated Global Ocean Services System (IGOSS) project from 11 August 1978 to 15 October 1978 (NODC Accession 7900030)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — XBT data were collected from the USCGC MORGENTHAU in support of the Integrated Global Ocean Services System (IGOSS) project. Data were collected by the US Coast...

  20. Temperature profiles from expendable bathythermograph (XBT) casts from the USCGC MORGENTHAU in the East Coast - US/Canada in support of the Integrated Global Ocean Services System (IGOSS) project from 31 December 1976 to 13 January 1977 (NODC Accession 7700101)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — XBT data were collected from the USCGC MORGENTHAU in support of the Integrated Global Ocean Services System (IGOSS) project. Data were collected by the US Coast...

  1. Temperature profiles from expendable bathythermograph (XBT) casts from the USCGC MORGENTHAU in the North Pacific Ocean in support of the Integrated Global Ocean Services System (IGOSS) project from 22 October 1977 to 22 April 1978 (NODC Accession 7800529)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — XBT data were collected from the USCGC MORGENTHAU in support of the Integrated Global Ocean Services System (IGOSS) project. Data were collected by the US Coast...

  2. Temperature profiles from expendable bathythermograph (XBT) casts from the USCGC MORGENTHAU in the North Atlantic Ocean in support of the Integrated Global Ocean Services System (IGOSS) project from 30 October 1974 to 27 November 1974 (NODC Accession 7400828)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — XBT data were collected from the USCGC MORGENTHAU in support of the Integrated Global Ocean Services System (IGOSS) project. Data were collected by the US Coast...

  3. Temperature profiles from expendable bathythermograph (XBT) casts from the USCGC MORGENTHAU in the North Atlantic Ocean in support of the Integrated Global Ocean Services System (IGOSS) project from 01 February 1976 to 14 February 1976 (NODC Accession 7600672)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — XBT data were collected from the USCGC MORGENTHAU in support of the Integrated Global Ocean Services System (IGOSS) project. Data were collected by the US Coast...

  4. Temperature profiles from expendable bathythermograph (XBT) casts from the BARTLETT and Other Platforms in the North Pacific Ocean in support of the Integrated Global Ocean Services System (IGOSS) project from 14 March 1974 to 04 May 1974 (NODC Accession 7400432)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — XBT data were collected from the BARTLETT and Other Platforms in support of the Integrated Global Ocean Services System (IGOSS) project. Data were collected by the...

  5. Temperature profiles from expendable bathythermograph (XBT) casts from the USCGC MUNRO in the Coastal Waters of California in support of the Integrated Global Ocean Services System (IGOSS) project from 13 April 1974 to 27 May 1974 (NODC Accession 7400529)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — XBT data were collected from the USCGC MUNRO in support of the Integrated Global Ocean Services System (IGOSS) project. Data were collected by the US Coast Guard...

  6. Temperature profiles from expendable bathythermograph (XBT) casts from the USCGC DALLAS in the North Atlantic Ocean in support of the Integrated Global Ocean Services System (IGOSS) from 27 January 1976 to 01 February 1976 (NODC Accession 7600667)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — XBT data were collected from the USCGC DALLAS in support of the Integrated Global Ocean Services System (IGOSS). Data were collected by the US Coast Guard from 27...

  7. Temperature profiles from expendable bathythermograph (XBT) casts from the USNS SILAS BENT in the North Pacific Ocean in support of the Integrated Global Ocean Services System (IGOSS) project from 24 April 1977 to 27 April 1977 (NODC Accession 7700487)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — XBT data were collected from the USNS SILAS BENT in support of the Integrated Global Ocean Services System (IGOSS) project. Data were collected by the US Navy;...

  8. Temperature profiles from expendable bathythermograph (XBT) casts from the USCGC POLAR STAR in the North Pacific Ocean in support of the Integrated Global Ocean Services System (IGOSS) project from 03 May 1976 to 30 May 1976 (NODC Accession 7601464)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — XBT data were collected from the USCGC POLAR STAR in support of the Integrated Global Ocean Services System (IGOSS) project. Data were collected by the US Coast...

  9. Temperature profiles from expendable bathythermograph (XBT) casts from the USCGC MIDGETT in the North Pacific Ocean in support of the Integrated Global Ocean Services System (IGOSS) project from 03 July 1974 to 03 November 1974 (NODC Accession 7400795)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — XBT data were collected from the USCGC MIDGETT in support of the Integrated Global Ocean Services System (IGOSS) project. Data were collected by the US Coast Guard...

  10. Temperature profiles from expendable bathythermograph (XBT) casts from NOAA Ship OREGON in the Gulf of Alaska in support of the Integrated Global Ocean Services System (IGOSS) project from 1975-05-12 to 1975-05-21 (NCEI Accession 7500683)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — XBT data were collected from NOAA Ship OREGON in support of the Integrated Global Ocean Services System (IGOSS) project. Data were collected by the National Marine...

  11. Temperature profiles from expendable bathythermograph (XBT) casts from the USCGC MELLON in the North Pacific Ocean in support of the Integrated Global Ocean Services System (IGOSS) project from 21 September 1976 to 27 September 1976 (NODC Accession 7601816)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — XBT data were collected from the USCGC MELLON in support of the Integrated Global Ocean Services System (IGOSS) project. Data were collected by the US Coast Guard...

  12. Temperature profiles from expendable bathythermograph (XBT) casts from the USCGC ACUSHNET in the Gulf of Mexico in support of the Integrated Global Ocean Services System (IGOSS) on 07 June 1977 (NODC Accession 7700565)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — XBT data were collected from the USCGC ACUSHNET in support of the Integrated Global Ocean Services System (IGOSS). Data were collected by the US Coast Guard on 07...

  13. Temperature profiles from expendable bathythermograph (XBT) casts from the USCGC DALLAS in the North Atlantic Ocean in support of the Integrated Global Ocean Services System (IGOSS) from 26 July 1975 to 29 July 1975 (NODC Accession 7500763)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — XBT data were collected from the USCGC DALLAS in support of the Integrated Global Ocean Services System (IGOSS). Data were collected by the US Coast Guard from 26...

  14. Temperature profiles from expendable bathythermograph (XBT) casts from NOAA Ship FAIRWEATHER in the North Pacific Ocean in support of the Integrated Global Ocean Services System (IGOSS) from 1978-04-28 to 1978-05-26 (NCEI Accession 7800437)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — XBT data were collected from NOAA Ship FAIRWEATHER in support of the Integrated Global Ocean Services System (IGOSS). Data were collected by the US DOC; NOAA;...

  15. Temperature profiles from expendable bathythermograph (XBT) casts from the USCGC HAMILTON in the North Atlantic Ocean in support of the Integrated Global Ocean Services System (IGOSS) project from from 06 September 1973 to 20 September 1973 (NODC Accession 7400197)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — XBT data were collected from the USCGC HAMILTON in support of the Integrated Global Ocean Services System (IGOSS) project. Data were collected by the US Coast Guard...

  16. Temperature profiles from expendable bathythermograph (XBT) casts from the USCGC INGHAM in the North Atlantic Ocean in support of the Integrated Global Ocean Services System (IGOSS) from 28 November 1977 to 03 December 1977 (NODC Accession 7800089)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — XBT data were collected from the USCGC INGHAM in support of the Integrated Global Ocean Services System (IGOSS). Data were collected by the US Coast Guard from 28...

  17. Temperature profiles from mechanical bathythermograph (MBT) casts from the USCGC VALIANT in the Gulf of Mexico in support of the Integrated Global Ocean Services System (IGOSS) project from 18 July 1972 to 26 July 1972 (NODC Accession 7201016)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — MBT data were collected from the USCGC VALIANT in support of the Integrated Global Ocean Services System (IGOSS) project. Data were collected by the US Coast Guard...

  18. Temperature profiles from expendable bathythermograph (XBT) casts from the USCGC BIBB in the North Atlantic Ocean in support of the Integrated Global Ocean Services System (IGOSS) from 14 April 1976 to 04 June 1976 (NODC Accession 7601271)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — XBT data were collected from the USCGC BIBB in support of the Integrated Global Ocean Services System (IGOSS). Data were collected by the US Coast Guard from 14...

  19. Temperature profiles from expendable bathythermograph (XBT) casts from the USCGC ACUSHNET in the North Atlantic Ocean in support of the Integrated Global Ocean Services System (IGOSS) project from 10 August 1974 to 17 September 1974 (NODC Accession 7400679)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — XBT data were collected from the USCGC ACUSHNET in support of the Integrated Global Ocean Services System (IGOSS) project. Data were collected by the US Coast Guard...

  20. Temperature profiles from mechanical bathythermograph (MBT) casts from the USCGC CHAUTAUQUA in the North Atlantic Ocean in support of the Integrated Global Ocean Services System (IGOSS) project from 29 April 1972 to 30 April 1972 (NODC Accession 7200760)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — MBT data were collected from the USCGC CHAUTAUQUA in support of the Integrated Global Ocean Services System (IGOSS) project. Data were collected by the US Coast...

  1. Temperature profiles from expendable bathythermograph (XBT) casts from the USCGC ACUSHNET in the Gulf of Mexico in support of the Integrated Global Ocean Services System (IGOSS) from 27 January 1978 to 04 February 1978 (NODC Accession 7800083)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — XBT data were collected from the USCGC ACUSHNET in support of the Integrated Global Ocean Services System (IGOSS). Data were collected by the US Coast Guard from 27...

  2. Temperature profiles from expendable bathythermograph (XBT) casts from the USCGC JARVIS in the Bering Sea in support of the Integrated Global Ocean Services System (IGOSS) from 14 March 1976 to 24 April 1976 (NODC Accession 7601206)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — XBT data were collected from the USCGC JARVIS in support of the Integrated Global Ocean Services System (IGOSS). Data were collected by the US Coast Guard from 14...

  3. Temperature profiles from expendable bathythermograph (XBT) casts from the USCGC GLACIER in the North Pacific Ocean in support of the Integrated Global Ocean Services System (IGOSS) from 14 July 1973 to 22 August 1973 (NODC Accession 7301077)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — XBT data were collected from the USCGC GLACIER in support of the Integrated Global Ocean Services System (IGOSS). Data were collected by the US Coast Guard from 14...

  4. Temperature profiles from expendable bathythermograph (XBT) casts from the USCGC ACUSHNET in the North Atlantic Ocean in support of the Integrated Global Ocean Services System (IGOSS) on 21 November 1975 (NODC Accession 7501199)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — XBT data were collected from the USCGC ACUSHNET in support of the Integrated Global Ocean Services System (IGOSS). Data were collected by the US Coast Guard on 21...

  5. Temperature profiles from expendable bathythermograph (XBT) casts from NOAA Ship RESEARCHER in the North Atlantic Ocean in support of the Integrated Global Ocean Services System (IGOSS) from 1971-03-04 to 1971-05-18 (NCEI Accession 7900281)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — XBT data were collected from NOAA Ship RESEARCHER in support of the Integrated Global Ocean Services System (IGOSS). Data were collected by the US DOC; NOAA;...

  6. Temperature profiles from expendable bathythermograph (XBT) casts from NOAA Ship ALBATROSS IV in the North Atlantic Ocean in support of the Integrated Global Ocean Services System (IGOSS) from 1976-03-26 to 1976-05-08 (NCEI Accession 7700224)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — XBT data were collected from NOAA Ship ALBATROSS IV in support of the Integrated Global Ocean Services System (IGOSS). Data were collected by the National Marine...

  7. Temperature profiles from expendable bathythermograph (XBT) casts from the USS KANE in the Mediterranean Sea in support of the Integrated Global Ocean Services System (IGOSS) from 02 August 1975 to 05 September 1975 (NODC Accession 7500936)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — XBT data were collected from the USS KANE in support of the Integrated Global Ocean Services System (IGOSS). Data were collected by the US Navy; Naval Oceanographic...

  8. Temperature profiles from expendable bathythermograph (XBT) casts from the R/V TRIDENT in the North Atlantic Ocean in support of the Integrated Global Ocean Services System (IGOSS) project from 20 November 1975 to 09 December 1975 (NODC Accession 7600702)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — XBT data were collected from the R/V TRIDENT in support of the Integrated Global Ocean Services System (IGOSS) project. Data were collected by the University of...

  9. Temperature profiles from expendable bathythermograph (XBT) casts from the GILLISS in the North Atlantic Ocean in support of the Integrated Global Ocean Services System (IGOSS) from 28 February 1976 to 10 March 1976 (NODC Accession 7601169)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — XBT data were collected from the GILLISS in support of the Integrated Global Ocean Services System (IGOSS). Data were collected by the University of Rhode Island;...

  10. Temperature profiles from expendable bathythermograph (XBT) casts from the R/V TRIDENT in the Caribbean Sea in support of the Integrated Global Ocean Services System (IGOSS) project from 28 April 1975 to 08 May 1975 (NODC Accession 7600704)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — XBT data were collected from the R/V TRIDENT in support of the Integrated Global Ocean Services System (IGOSS) project. Data were collected by the University of...

  11. Temperature profiles from expendable bathythermograph (XBT) casts from the R/V TRIDENT in the North Atlantic Ocean in support of the Integrated Global Ocean Services System (IGOSS) project from 27 July 1975 to 05 September 1975 (NODC Accession 7501077)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — XBT data were collected from the R/V TRIDENT in support of the Integrated Global Ocean Services System (IGOSS) project. Data were collected by the University of...

  12. Temperature profiles from expendable bathythermograph (XBT) casts from the R/V TRIDENT in the South Pacific Ocean in support of the Integrated Global Ocean Services System (IGOSS) project from 07 April 1975 to 19 April 1975 (NODC Accession 7600703)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — XBT data were collected from the R/V TRIDENT in support of the Integrated Global Ocean Services System (IGOSS) project. Data were collected by the University of...

  13. Temperature profiles from expendable bathythermograph (XBT) casts from the TRIDENT in the North Atlantic Ocean in support of the Integrated Global Ocean Services System (IGOSS) from 15 December 1972 to 20 December 1972 (NODC Accession 7600705)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — XBT data were collected from the TRIDENT in support of the Integrated Global Ocean Services System (IGOSS). Data were collected by the the University of Rhode...

  14. Temperature profiles from expendable bathythermograph (XBT) casts from the R/V TRIDENT in the North Atlantic Ocean in support of the Integrated Global Ocean Services System (IGOSS) project from 12 July 1970 to 04 November 1972 (NODC Accession 7500783)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — XBT data were collected from the R/V TRIDENT in support of the Integrated Global Ocean Services System (IGOSS) project. Data were collected by the University of...

  15. Temperature profiles from expendable bathythermograph (XBT) casts from the R/V TRIDENT in the Caribbean Ocean in support of the Integrated Global Ocean Services System (IGOSS) project for 1971-01-28 (NODC Accession 7600706)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — XBT data were collected from the R/V TRIDENT in support of the Integrated Global Ocean Services System (IGOSS) project. Data were collected by the University of...

  16. Temperature profiles from expendable bathythermograph (XBT) casts from the R/V TRIDENT in the East Coast - US/Canada in support of the Integrated Global Ocean Services System (IGOSS) project for 1969-07-10 (NODC Accession 7600701)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — XBT data were collected from the R/V TRIDENT in support of the Integrated Global Ocean Services System (IGOSS) project. Data were collected by the University of...

  17. Temperature profiles from expendable bathythermograph (XBT) casts from NOAA Ship DISCOVERER in the North Pacific Ocean in support of the Integrated Global Ocean Services System (IGOSS) from 1977-02-18 to 1977-06-13 (NCEI Accession 7700485)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — XBT data were collected from NOAA Ship DISCOVERER in support of the Integrated Global Ocean Services System (IGOSS). Data were collected by the US DOC; NOAA;...

  18. Temperature profiles from expendable bathythermograph (XBT) casts from the USCGC CAMPBELL in the North Pacific Ocean in support of the Integrated Global Ocean Services System (IGOSS) from 09 September 1975 to 01 October 1975 (NODC Accession 7500994)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — XBT data were collected from the USCGC CAMPBELL in support of the Integrated Global Ocean Services System (IGOSS). Data were collected by the US Coast Guard from 09...

  19. Accuracy of Sphygmomanometers

    OpenAIRE

    Basak, Okay

    2014-01-01

    One of the factors affecting the accuracy of readings of blood pressure is the equipment used. Defects or inaccuracy of aneroid sphygmomanometers may be source of error in blood pressure measurement. We inspected 100 sphygmomanometers for physical defects and assessed their accuracy against a standard mercury manometer at four different pressure points. 46 of the 100 sphygmomanometers were determined to be intolerant (deviation from the mercury manometer by greater than±3 mm Hg at two or more...

  20. Towards a better integration of global health and biodiversity in the new sustainable development goals beyond Rio+20.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langlois, Etienne V; Campbell, Kathryn; Prieur-Richard, Anne-Hélène; Karesh, William B; Daszak, Peter

    2012-12-01

    In June 2012, Brazil hosted Rio+20, the United Nations Conference on Sustainable Development (UNCSD) marking the 20th anniversary of the 1992 Earth Summit. The Rio+20 outcome document entitled The future we want provides general guidance to shape sustainable development policies, but fell short of providing legally binding agreements or pragmatic goals. Negotiators agreed to develop a process for the establishment of new Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs), building upon the Millennium Development Goals, and setting the foundation for the post-2015 UN development agenda. Our objective is to argue that discussions beyond Rio+20 and toward the adoption of SDGs offer a critical opportunity to re-assess the major challenges for global health and sustainable development. There is an urgent need to translate the general aspirations put forth by Rio+20 into concrete health outcomes and greater health equity. The way toward the post-2015 SDGs will likely be more effective if it highlights the full gamut of linkages between ecosystem processes, anthropogenic environmental changes (climate change, biodiversity loss, and land use), socio-economic changes, and global health. Negotiations beyond Rio+20 should strongly acknowledge the global health benefits of biodiversity protection and climate change mitigation and adaptation strategies, which reduce diseases of poverty and protect the health of the most vulnerable. We argue that health and ecosystems are inextricably linked to all development sectors and that health should remain a critical priority for the upcoming SDGs in the context of global environmental change.

  1. Fostering Culturally Relevant/Responsive Pedagogy and Global Awareness through the Integration of International Service-Learning in Courses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mbugua, Tata

    2010-01-01

    Educators are being asked to respond to the forces of globalization and human interconnectedness that characterize the 21st century. These forces are resulting in changing population demographics and increased migration which is bringing a new complexity to cultural and ethnic diversity within regions, local communities and ultimately in…

  2. Internationalising Work-Integrated Learning: Creating Global Citizens to Meet the Economic Crisis and the Skills Shortage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gamble, Natalie; Patrick, Carol-joy; Peach, Deborah

    2010-01-01

    Research indicates that for many multinational companies, the global skills shortage has made it difficult to attract competent workers to some international locations. In developing economies, business leaders often cite poor business acumen and little real-world experience as serious shortcomings in the domestic pool of applicants. In addition…

  3. Achieving Engineering Competencies in the Global Information Society through the Integration of On-Campus and Workplace Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allan, Malcolm; Chisholm, Colin U.

    2008-01-01

    Engineering organizations are increasingly under pressure to perform more efficiently with fewer people. To manage this, organizations need to understand what skills, knowledge and behaviours they need from engineers who have to practise in a global information society. Engineering educators, in collaboration with employers, therefore now need to…

  4. Evaluation of registration accuracy between Sentinel-2 and Landsat 8

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barazzetti, Luigi; Cuca, Branka; Previtali, Mattia

    2016-08-01

    Starting from June 2015, Sentinel-2A is delivering high resolution optical images (ground resolution up to 10 meters) to provide a global coverage of the Earth's land surface every 10 days. The planned launch of Sentinel-2B along with the integration of Landsat images will provide time series with an unprecedented revisit time indispensable for numerous monitoring applications, in which high resolution multi-temporal information is required. They include agriculture, water bodies, natural hazards to name a few. However, the combined use of multi-temporal images requires an accurate geometric registration, i.e. pixel-to-pixel correspondence for terrain-corrected products. This paper presents an analysis of spatial co-registration accuracy for several datasets of Sentinel-2 and Landsat 8 images distributed all around the world. Images were compared with digital correlation techniques for image matching, obtaining an evaluation of registration accuracy with an affine transformation as geometrical model. Results demonstrate that sub-pixel accuracy was achieved between 10 m resolution Sentinel-2 bands (band 3) and 15 m resolution panchromatic Landsat images (band 8).

  5. "The gate-keepers in a changing world: integrating microbial diversity and dynamics with global change biology."

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jessica L.M. Gutknecht and Kathryn M. Docherty

    2011-11-01

    Microorganisms (Bacteria, Archaea and Fungi) are the gate-keepers of many ecosystem-scale biogeochemical cycles. Although there have been measurable changes in ecosystem function due to human activities such as greenhouse gas production, nutrient loading, land-use change, and water consumption, few studies have connected microbial community dynamics with these changes in ecosystem function. Specifically, very little is known about how global changes will induce important functional changes in microbial biodiversity. Even less is known about how microbial functional changes could alter rates of nutrient cycling or whether microbial communities have enough functional redundancy that changes will have little impact on overall process rates. The proposed symposium will provide an overview of this emerging research area, with emphasis on linking the microorganisms directly to important ecological functions under the influence of global change dynamics. The session will include both broad overviews as well as specific case-studies by researchers who examine microbial communities from a variety of taxonomic levels and from various environments. The session will begin broadly, with speakers discussing how microbial communities may inform ecosystem-scale global change studies, and help to make microbial ecological knowledge more tangible for a broad range of ecologists. The session will continue with case studies of microbial community information informing process in global change experiments. Finally, the session will close with speakers discussing how microbial community information might fit into global change models, and what types of information are useful for future studies. We have requested that speakers particularly incorporate their views on what types of microbial data is useful and informative in the context of larger ecosystem processes. We foresee that this session could serve as a focal point for global change microbial ecologists to meet and discuss their

  6. A direct comparison of local-global integration in autism and other developmental disorders: implications for the central coherence hypothesis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Inês Bernardino

    Full Text Available The weak central coherence hypothesis represents one of the current explanatory models in Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD. Several experimental paradigms based on hierarchical figures have been used to test this controversial account. We addressed this hypothesis by testing central coherence in ASD (n = 19 with intellectual disability and n = 20 without intellectual disability, Williams syndrome (WS, n = 18, matched controls with intellectual disability (n = 20 and chronological age-matched controls (n = 20. We predicted that central coherence should be most impaired in ASD for the weak central coherence account to hold true. An alternative account includes dorsal stream dysfunction which dominates in WS. Central coherence was first measured by requiring subjects to perform local/global preference judgments using hierarchical figures under 6 different experimental settings (memory and perception tasks with 3 distinct geometries with and without local/global manipulations. We replicated these experiments under 4 additional conditions (memory/perception*local/global in which subjects reported the correct local or global configurations. Finally, we used a visuoconstructive task to measure local/global perceptual interference. WS participants were the most impaired in central coherence whereas ASD participants showed a pattern of coherence loss found in other studies only in four task conditions favoring local analysis but it tended to disappear when matching for intellectual disability. We conclude that abnormal central coherence does not provide a comprehensive explanation of ASD deficits and is more prominent in populations, namely WS, characterized by strongly impaired dorsal stream functioning and other phenotypic traits that contrast with the autistic phenotype. Taken together these findings suggest that other mechanisms such as dorsal stream deficits (largest in WS may underlie impaired central coherence.

  7. Accuracy of two root canal length measurement devices integrated into rotary endodontic motors in retreatment teeth%两种根管长度电测仪在根管再治疗中的测量精确性

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈礼森; 陈俐利; 孙勇; 范捷; 齐春子

    2012-01-01

    目的:通过对体外牙根管的测量,比较TCM Endo V和Tri Auto ZX两种根管测量仪在根管再治疗病例中的测量精度.方法:选择人新鲜拔除根尖发育完备具有较直单根管的上下颌切牙46个,使用不锈钢锉测量实际工作长度后进行根管预备充填,采用两种根管测量仪对充填后根管使用自动回旋模式和非回旋电测量模式进行测量,对比两种测长仪的精确性.结果:两种设备均可获得精确的根尖长度.两种系统在回旋模式测得的值(ARL)均超出了真实工作长度(TL)和非同旋模式测得的值(EL).结论:自动回旋模式和非回旋模式相比有明显差异(P<0.05),ARL较TL和EL偏大.非回旋模式下测量更精确,Tri AutoZX系统精确性更高.%AIM: To evaluate ex vivo the accuracy of the integrated electronic root canal length measure- ment devices within TCM Endo V and Tri Auto ZX motors in the retreatment of filled root canals. METHODS: Forty six freshly extracted maxillary and mandibular incisor teeth with mature apices were selected. Following cavity preparation , we compared the true root canal length and those indicated by the two devices when used in automatic apical reverse function length (ARL) and when inserted passively (electronic measurement of canal length, EL). RESULTS: ARL values measured by the two devices were both significantly greater than EL and the true length (P < 0. 05). CONCLUSION: There were significant differences between the accuracy of measurements in active (rotating) and passive (not -rotating) modes; both devices were more accurate when used in passive mode. However, the Tri Au-toZX was significantly more accurate in a greater proportion of cases.

  8. Global glance

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    Molycorp Announces Successful Close of Neo Materials Acquisition Molycorp, Inc. announced on 11 June 2012 that its acquisition of Canadian-based Neo Material Technologies Inc. has officially closed, creating a global rare earth leader with a combination of a world-class rare earth resource, ultra-high-purity rare earth processing capabilities, and full 'mine-to-magnetics' vertical integration.

  9. 'Integration'

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olwig, Karen Fog

    2011-01-01

    After a long history dominated by out-migration, Denmark, Norway and Sweden have, in the past 50 years, become immigration societies. This article compares how these Scandinavian welfare societies have sought to incorporate immigrants and refugees into their national communities. It suggests that......, while the countries have adopted disparate policies and ideologies, differences in the actual treatment and attitudes towards immigrants and refugees in everyday life are less clear, due to parallel integration programmes based on strong similarities in the welfare systems and in cultural notions...... of equality in the three societies. Finally, it shows that family relations play a central role in immigrants’ and refugees’ establishment of a new life in the receiving societies, even though the welfare society takes on many of the social and economic functions of the family....

  10. Knowledge discovery by accuracy maximization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cacciatore, Stefano; Luchinat, Claudio; Tenori, Leonardo

    2014-04-01

    Here we describe KODAMA (knowledge discovery by accuracy maximization), an unsupervised and semisupervised learning algorithm that performs feature extraction from noisy and high-dimensional data. Unlike other data mining methods, the peculiarity of KODAMA is that it is driven by an integrated procedure of cross-validation of the results. The discovery of a local manifold's topology is led by a classifier through a Monte Carlo procedure of maximization of cross-validated predictive accuracy. Briefly, our approach differs from previous methods in that it has an integrated procedure of validation of the results. In this way, the method ensures the highest robustness of the obtained solution. This robustness is demonstrated on experimental datasets of gene expression and metabolomics, where KODAMA compares favorably with other existing feature extraction methods. KODAMA is then applied to an astronomical dataset, revealing unexpected features. Interesting and not easily predictable features are also found in the analysis of the State of the Union speeches by American presidents: KODAMA reveals an abrupt linguistic transition sharply separating all post-Reagan from all pre-Reagan speeches. The transition occurs during Reagan's presidency and not from its beginning.

  11. Sex-specific strategy use and global-local processing: a perspective toward integrating sex differences in cognition

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    This article reviews the literature on sex-specific strategy use in cognitive tasks with the aim to carve out a link between sex differences in different cognitive tasks. I conclude that male strategies are commonly holistic and oriented toward global stimulus aspects, while female strategies are commonly decomposed and oriented toward local stimulus aspects. Thus, the strategies observed in different tasks, may depend on sex differences in attentional focus and hence sex differences in globa...

  12. Sex-specific strategy use and global-local processing: A perspective towards integrating sex differences in cognition

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    This article reviews the literature on sex-specific strategy use in cognitive tasks with the aim to carve out a link between sex differences in different cognitive tasks. I conclude that male strategies are commonly holistic and oriented towards global stimulus aspects, while female strategies are commonly decomposed and oriented towards local stimulus aspects. Thus, the strategies observed in different tasks, may depend on sex differences in attentional focus and hence sex differences in glo...

  13. Sex-specific strategy use and global-local processing: A perspective towards integrating sex differences in cognition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Belinda ePletzer

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This article reviews the literature on sex-specific strategy use in cognitive tasks with the aim to carve out a link between sex differences in different cognitive tasks. I conclude that male strategies are commonly holistic and oriented towards global stimulus aspects, while female strategies are commonly decomposed and oriented towards local stimulus aspects. Thus, the strategies observed in different tasks, may depend on sex differences in attentional focus and hence sex differences in global-local processing. I hypothesize that strategy use may be sex hormone dependent and hence subject to change over the menstrual cycle as evidenced by findings in global-local processing and emotional memory. Furthermore, I propose sex hormonal modulation of hemispheric asymmetries as one possible neural substrate for this theory, thereby building on older theories, emphasizing the importance of sex differences in brain lateralization. The ideas described in the current article represent a perspective towards a unifying approach to the study of sex differences in cognition and their neural correlates.

  14. Sex-specific strategy use and global-local processing: a perspective toward integrating sex differences in cognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pletzer, Belinda

    2014-01-01

    This article reviews the literature on sex-specific strategy use in cognitive tasks with the aim to carve out a link between sex differences in different cognitive tasks. I conclude that male strategies are commonly holistic and oriented toward global stimulus aspects, while female strategies are commonly decomposed and oriented toward local stimulus aspects. Thus, the strategies observed in different tasks, may depend on sex differences in attentional focus and hence sex differences in global-local processing. I hypothesize that strategy use may be sex hormone dependent and hence subject to change over the menstrual cycle as evidenced by findings in global-local processing and emotional memory. Furthermore, I propose sex hormonal modulation of hemispheric asymmetries as one possible neural substrate for this theory, thereby building on older theories, emphasizing the importance of sex differences in brain lateralization. The ideas described in the current article represent a perspective toward a unifying approach to the study of sex differences in cognition and their neural correlates.

  15. Towards realistic Holocene land cover scenarios: integration of archaeological, palynological and geomorphological records and comparison to global land cover scenarios.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Brue, Hanne; Verstraeten, Gert; Broothaerts, Nils; Notebaert, Bastiaan

    2016-04-01

    Accurate and spatially explicit landscape reconstructions for distinct time periods in human history are essential for the quantification of the effect of anthropogenic land cover changes on, e.g., global biogeochemical cycles, ecology, and geomorphic processes, and to improve our understanding of interaction between humans and the environment in general. A long-term perspective covering Mid and Late Holocene land use changes is recommended in this context, as it provides a baseline to evaluate human impact in more recent periods. Previous efforts to assess the evolution and intensity of agricultural land cover in past centuries or millennia have predominantly focused on palynological records. An increasing number of quantitative techniques has been developed during the last two decades to transfer palynological data to land cover estimates. However, these techniques have to deal with equifinality issues and, furthermore, do not sufficiently allow to reconstruct spatial patterns of past land cover. On the other hand, several continental and global databases of historical anthropogenic land cover changes based on estimates of global population and the required agricultural land per capita have been developed in the past decennium. However, at such long temporal and spatial scales, reconstruction of past anthropogenic land cover intensities and spatial patterns necessarily involves many uncertainties and assumptions as well. Here, we present a novel approach that combines archaeological, palynological and geomorphological data for the Dijle catchment in the central Belgium Loess Belt in order to arrive at more realistic Holocene land cover histories. Multiple land cover scenarios (> 60.000) are constructed using probabilistic rules and used as input into a sediment delivery model (WaTEM/SEDEM). Model outcomes are confronted with a detailed geomorphic dataset on Holocene sediment fluxes and with REVEALS based estimates of vegetation cover using palynological data from

  16. Global Derivatives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Torben Juul

    ." - Steen Parsholt, Chairman and CEO, Aon Nordic Region. "Andersen has done a wonderful job of developing a comprehensive text that deals with risk management in global markets. I would recommend this book to any student or businessman who has a need to better understand the risks and risk management...... management practice. Of particular note is the global and integrated approach chosen in this book which should be of special interest to aspiring managers active in global and international markets." - Dr Jean-Pierre Zigrand, Lecturer in Finance, London School of Economics, UK. More than 90 per cent...... management situations. Its key features include: derivatives are introduced in a global market perspective; describes major derivative pricing models for practical use, extending these principles to valuation of real options; practical applications of derivative instruments are richly illustrated...

  17. Evaluating Measurement Accuracy

    CERN Document Server

    Rabinovich, Semyon G

    2010-01-01

    The goal of Evaluating Measurement Accuracy: A Practical Approach is to present methods for estimating the accuracy of measurements performed in industry, trade, and scientific research. Although multiple measurements are the focus of current theory, single measurements are the ones most commonly used. This book answers fundamental questions not addressed by present theory, such as how to discover the complete uncertainty of a measurement result. In developing a general theory of processing experimental data, this book, for the first time, presents the postulates of the theory of measurements. It introduces several new terms and definitions about the relationship between the accuracy of measuring instruments and measurements utilizing these instruments. It also offers well-grounded and practical methods for combining the components of measurement inaccuracy. From developing the theory of indirect measurements to proposing new methods of reduction in place of the traditional ones, this work encompasses the ful...

  18. Increasing Accuracy in Environmental Measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacksier, Tracey; Fernandes, Adelino; Matthew, Matt; Lehmann, Horst

    2016-04-01

    Human activity is increasing the concentrations of green house gases (GHG) in the atmosphere which results in temperature increases. High precision is a key requirement of atmospheric measurements to study the global carbon cycle and its effect on climate change. Natural air containing stable isotopes are used in GHG monitoring to calibrate analytical equipment. This presentation will examine the natural air and isotopic mixture preparation process, for both molecular and isotopic concentrations, for a range of components and delta values. The role of precisely characterized source material will be presented. Analysis of individual cylinders within multiple batches will be presented to demonstrate the ability to dynamically fill multiple cylinders containing identical compositions without isotopic fractionation. Additional emphasis will focus on the ability to adjust isotope ratios to more closely bracket sample types without the reliance on combusting naturally occurring materials, thereby improving analytical accuracy.

  19. The International Center for Integrated Water Resources Management (ICIWaRM): The United States' Contribution to UNESCO IHP's Global Network of Water Centers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Logan, W. S.

    2015-12-01

    The concept of a "category 2 center"—i.e., one that is closely affiliated with UNESCO, but not legally part of UNESCO—dates back many decades. However, only in the last decade has the concept been fully developed. Within UNESCO, the International Hydrological Programme (IHP) has led the way in creating a network of regional and global water-related centers.ICIWaRM—the International Center for Integrated Water Resources Management—is one member of this network. Approved by UNESCO's General Conference, the center has been operating since 2009. It was designed to fill a niche in the system for a center that was backed by an institution with on-the-ground water management experience, but that also had strong connections to academia, NGOs and other governmental agencies. Thus, ICIWaRM is hosted by the US Army Corps of Engineers' Institute for Water Resources (IWR), but established with an internal network of partner institutions. Three main factors have contributed to any success that ICIWaRM has achieved in its global work: A focus on practical science and technology which can be readily transferred. This includes the Corps' own methodologies and models for planning and water management, and those of our university and government partners. Collaboration with other UNESCO Centers on joint applied research, capacity-building and training. A network of centers needs to function as a network, and ICIWaRM has worked together with UNESCO-affiliated centers in Chile, Brazil, Paraguay, the Dominican Republic, Japan, China, and elsewhere. Partnering with and supporting existing UNESCO-IHP programs. ICIWaRM serves as the Global Technical Secretariat for IHP's Global Network on Water and Development Information in Arid Lands (G-WADI). In addition to directly supporting IHP, work through G-WADI helps the center to frame, prioritize and integrate its activities. With the recent release of the United Nation's 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development, it is clear that

  20. Carbon stock and carbon turnover in boreal and temperate forests - Integration of remote sensing data and global vegetation models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thurner, Martin; Beer, Christian; Carvalhais, Nuno; Forkel, Matthias; Tito Rademacher, Tim; Santoro, Maurizio; Tum, Markus; Schmullius, Christiane

    2016-04-01

    Long-term vegetation dynamics are one of the key uncertainties of the carbon cycle. There are large differences in simulated vegetation carbon stocks and fluxes including productivity, respiration and carbon turnover between global vegetation models. Especially the implementation of climate-related mortality processes, for instance drought, fire, frost or insect effects, is often lacking or insufficient in current models and their importance at global scale is highly uncertain. These shortcomings have been due to the lack of spatially extensive information on vegetation carbon stocks, which cannot be provided by inventory data alone. Instead, we recently have been able to estimate northern boreal and temperate forest carbon stocks based on radar remote sensing data. Our spatially explicit product (0.01° resolution) shows strong agreement to inventory-based estimates at a regional scale and allows for a spatial evaluation of carbon stocks and dynamics simulated by global vegetation models. By combining this state-of-the-art biomass product and NPP datasets originating from remote sensing, we are able to study the relation between carbon turnover rate and a set of climate indices in northern boreal and temperate forests along spatial gradients. We observe an increasing turnover rate with colder winter temperatures and longer winters in boreal forests, suggesting frost damage and the trade-off between frost adaptation and growth being important mortality processes in this ecosystem. In contrast, turnover rate increases with climatic conditions favouring drought and insect outbreaks in temperate forests. Investigated global vegetation models from the Inter-Sectoral Impact Model Intercomparison Project (ISI-MIP), including HYBRID4, JeDi, JULES, LPJml, ORCHIDEE, SDGVM, and VISIT, are able to reproduce observation-based spatial climate - turnover rate relationships only to a limited extent. While most of the models compare relatively well in terms of NPP, simulated

  1. The Truth about Accuracy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Buekens, F.A.I.; Truyen, Frederick; Martini, Carlo; Boumans, Marcel

    2014-01-01

    When we evaluate the outcomes of investigative actions as justified or unjustified, good or bad, rational or irrational, we make, in a broad sense of the term, evaluative judgements about them. We look at operational accuracy as a desirable and evaluable quality of the outcomes and explore how the c

  2. Adaptive integrated global and local discriminant analysis%自适应全局-局部集成判别分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    魏莱

    2014-01-01

    将数据集进行合理的维数约简,对于提高一些机器学习算法的效率起着至关重要的影响.本文提出了一种自适应全局-局部集成判别分析算法(Adaptive integrated global and local discriminant analysis,AIGLD).AILGD利用数据集的全局判别结构和局部判别结构,将线性判别算法(Linear Discriminant Analysis,LDA)与提出的局部判别算法自适应的相结合.在 UCI数据库及标准人脸数据库上的识别实验证明,相比于现有算法,AIGLD具有更高的识别准确率及更强的鲁棒性.%In computer vision and information retrieval fields,many applications,such as appearance-based image recognition, often confront high-dimensional data samples.The curse of high dimensionality is usually a maj or cause of limitations of many machine learning algorithms.Hence,it is desired to consider methods of feature extraction (or dimensionality reduction)which are able to find the low-dimensional and compact representations for the high-dimensional data points.The subspace learning algorithm is one of the most popular feature extraction methods.Supervised subspace learning algorithms usually achieve better performances than unsupervised ones.And supervised subspace learning algorithms can be divided into two categories,the global structures based discriminator,such as linear discriminative analysis (LDA),and the local structures based methods,such as marginal Fisher analysis(MFA).From the experiments on image recognition,we can find that the global structures based discriminator and the local structures based discriminator are suitable for different feature extraction tasks.Hence,we hope to seek a discriminative analysis method which can combine the global structures and local-structures of data sets together.In this paper,a new supervised extraction method,called adaptive integrated global and local discriminant analysis (AIGLD),is proposed.The AIGLD algorithm combines the global structure based discriminator

  3. Integration of Pre-college Chemistry Education and the GLOBE (Global Learning and Observations to Benefit the Environment) Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camacho-Zapata, R.; López-Garriga, J.

    2000-12-01

    Pre-college chemistry objectives can be strengthened through incorporation of the chemistry activities of the GLOBE program. In this initiative, pre-college teachers and students perform scientific protocols and measurements related to the atmosphere, hydrology, land cover/biology, and soil. These cooperative-learning activities develop skills in chemistry, earth science, mathematics, data analysis, computer communications, and use of the global positioning system and global information system. Chemistry activities involve measuring pH, temperature, dissolved oxygen, nitrates, alkalinity, potassium, nitrogen, and phosphorus in water, air, and soil environments. These exercises develop knowledge and skills in qualitative and quantitative chemical analysis. Our program combines a week-long workshop, follow-up Saturday academies, and visits to the K through 12 schools to ensure that teachers are well prepared to establish and continue the program at their schools. These activities, with the teacher's GLOBE manual, the basic equipment provided to perform measurements in the field, and continuous interaction between teachers and GLOBE training team, resulted in 91 percent of teachers feeling that their preparation to establish the program at their schools was excellent or very good. We conclude that the GLOBE protocols are an effective way to promote environmental chemistry education at the pre-college level.

  4. Isolating the roles of different forcing agents in global stratospheric temperature changes using model integrations with incrementally added single forcings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aquila, V.; Swartz, W. H.; Waugh, D. W.; Colarco, P. R.; Pawson, S.; Polvani, L. M.; Stolarski, R. S.

    2016-07-01

    Satellite instruments show a cooling of global stratospheric temperatures over the whole data record (1979-2014). This cooling is not linear and includes two descending steps in the early 1980s and mid-1990s. The 1979-1995 period is characterized by increasing concentrations of ozone-depleting substances (ODSs) and by the two major volcanic eruptions of El Chichón (1982) and Mount Pinatubo (1991). The 1995-present period is characterized by decreasing ODS concentrations and by the absence of major volcanic eruptions. Greenhouse gas (GHG) concentrations increase over the whole time period. In order to isolate the roles of different forcing agents in the global stratospheric temperature changes, we performed a set of simulations using the NASA Goddard Earth Observing System Chemistry-Climate Model with prescribed sea surface temperatures. We find that in our model simulations the cooling of the stratosphere from 1979 to present is mostly driven by changes in GHG concentrations in the middle and upper stratosphere and by GHG and ODS changes in the lower stratosphere. While the cooling trend caused by increasing GHGs is roughly constant over the satellite era, changing ODS concentrations cause a significant stratospheric cooling only up to the mid-1990s, when they start to decrease because of the implementation of the Montreal Protocol. Sporadic volcanic events and the solar cycle have a distinct signature in the time series of stratospheric temperature anomalies but do not play a statistically significant role in the long-term trends from 1979 to 2014. Several factors combine to produce the step-like behavior in the stratospheric temperatures: in the lower stratosphere, the flattening starting in the mid-1990s is due to the decrease in ozone-depleting substances; Mount Pinatubo and the solar cycle cause the abrupt steps through the aerosol-associated warming and the volcanically induced ozone depletion. In the middle and upper stratosphere, changes in solar

  5. The need for an integrated biodiversity policy support process – Building the European contribution to a global Biodiversity Observation Network (EU BON

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anke Hoffmann

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Biodiversity is threatened on a global scale and the losses are ongoing. In order to stop further losses and maintain important ecosystem services, programmes have been put into place to reduce and ideally halt these processes. A whole suite of different approaches is needed to meet these goals. One major scientific contribution is to collate, integrate and analyse the large amounts of fragmented and diverse biodiversity data to determine the current status and trends of biodiversity in order to inform the relevant decision makers. To contribute towards the achievement of these challenging tasks, the project EU BON was developed. The project is focusing mainly on the European continent but contributes at the same time to a much wider global initiative the Group on Earth Observations Biodiversity Observation Network (GEO BON, which itself is a part of the Group of Earth Observation System of Systems (GEOSS. EU BON will build on existing infrastructures such as GBIF, LifeWatch and national biodiversity data centres in Europe and will integrate relevant biodiversity data from on-ground observations to remote sensing information, covering terrestrial, freshwater and marine habitats.A key feature of EU BON will be the delivery of relevant, fully integrated data to multiple and different stakeholders and end users ranging from local to global levels. Through development and application of new standards and protocols, EU BON will enable greater interoperability of different data layers and systems, provide access to improved analytical tools and services, and will provide better harmonized biodiversity recording and monitoring schemes from citizen science efforts to long-term research programs to mainstream future data collecting. Furthermore EU BON will support biodiversity science-policy interfaces, and facilitate political decisions for sound environmental management, also to help conserve biodiversity for human well-being at different levels

  6. Reconceptualizing metacomprehension calibration accuracy

    OpenAIRE

    Egan, Rylan Graham

    2012-01-01

    Accurate judgment of text comprehension is compulsory for learners to effectively self-regulate learning from text. Unfortunately, until relatively recently the literature on text comprehension judgment, termed metacomprehension, has shown learners to be inaccurate in their judgments. Over the last decade researchers have discovered that when learners use delayed summaries of text to make judgments metacomprehension accuracy increases. In contrast, when learners use individual differences (e....

  7. Potential and limitations of finite element modelling in assessing structural integrity of coralline algae under future global change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melbourne, L. A.; Griffin, J.; Schmidt, D. N.; Rayfield, E. J.

    2015-10-01

    Coralline algae are important habitat formers found on all rocky shores. While the impact of future ocean acidification on the physiological performance of the species has been well studied, little research has focused on potential changes in structural integrity in response to climate change. A previous study using 2-D Finite Element Analysis (FEA) suggested increased vulnerability to fracture (by wave action or boring) in algae grown under high CO2 conditions. To assess how realistically 2-D simplified models represent structural performance, a series of increasingly biologically accurate 3-D FE models that represent different aspects of coralline algal growth were developed. Simplified geometric 3-D models of the genus Lithothamnion were compared to models created from computed tomography (CT) scan data of the same genus. The biologically accurate model and the simplified geometric model representing individual cells had similar average stresses and stress distributions, emphasising the importance of the cell walls in dissipating the stress throughout the structure. In contrast models without the accurate representation of the cell geometry resulted in larger stress and strain results. Our more complex 3-D model reiterated the potential of climate change to diminish the structural integrity of the organism. This suggests that under future environmental conditions the weakening of the coralline algal skeleton along with increased external pressures (wave and bioerosion) may negatively influence the ability for coralline algae to maintain a habitat able to sustain high levels of biodiversity.

  8. A new approach for electrical properties estimation using a global integral equation and improvements using high permittivity materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Rita; Webb, Andrew

    2016-01-01

    Electrical Properties Tomography (EPT) using MRI is a technique that has been developed to provide a new contrast mechanism for in vivo imaging. Currently the most common method relies on the solution of the homogeneous Helmholtz equation, which has limitations in accurate estimation at tissue interfaces. A new method proposed in this work combines a Maxwell's integral equation representation of the problem, and the use of high permittivity materials (HPM) to control the RF field, in order to reconstruct the electrical properties image. The magnetic field is represented by an integral equation considering each point as a contrast source. This equation can be solved in an inverse method. In this study we use a reference simulation or scout scan of a uniform phantom to provide an initial estimate for the inverse solution, which allows the estimation of the complex permittivity within a single iteration. Incorporating two setups with and without the HPM improves the reconstructed result, especially with respect to the very low electric field in the center of the sample. Electromagnetic simulations of the brain were performed at 3T to generate the B1(+) field maps and reconstruct the electric properties images. The standard deviations of the relative permittivity and conductivity were within 14% and 18%, respectively for a volume consisting of white matter, gray matter and cerebellum.

  9. A new approach for electrical properties estimation using a global integral equation and improvements using high permittivity materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Rita; Webb, Andrew

    2016-01-01

    Electrical Properties Tomography (EPT) using MRI is a technique that has been developed to provide a new contrast mechanism for in vivo imaging. Currently the most common method relies on the solution of the homogeneous Helmholtz equation, which has limitations in accurate estimation at tissue interfaces. A new method proposed in this work combines a Maxwell's integral equation representation of the problem, and the use of high permittivity materials (HPM) to control the RF field, in order to reconstruct the electrical properties image. The magnetic field is represented by an integral equation considering each point as a contrast source. This equation can be solved in an inverse method. In this study we use a reference simulation or scout scan of a uniform phantom to provide an initial estimate for the inverse solution, which allows the estimation of the complex permittivity within a single iteration. Incorporating two setups with and without the HPM improves the reconstructed result, especially with respect to the very low electric field in the center of the sample. Electromagnetic simulations of the brain were performed at 3 T to generate the B1+ field maps and reconstruct the electric properties images. The standard deviations of the relative permittivity and conductivity were within 14% and 18%, respectively for a volume consisting of white matter, gray matter and cerebellum.

  10. Simplification of integrity constraints for data integration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Henning; Martinenghi, Davide

    2004-01-01

    When two or more databases are combined into a global one, integrity may be violated even when each database is consistent with its own local integrity constraints. Efficient methods for checking global integrity in data integration systems are called for: answers to queries can then be trusted...

  11. Using the Global Environment Facility for developing Integrated Conservation and Development (ICAD) models -- Papua New Guinea`s Biodiversity Conservation Management Programme

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kula, G.; Jefferies, B. [Dept. of Environment and Conservation, Boroko (Papua New Guinea)

    1995-03-01

    The unprecedented level of support that has been pledged to strengthen Government of Papua New Guinea (GoPNG) biodiversity conservation initiatives has re-identified an important fact that technical and infrastructure support must be complemented by programs that provide realistic opportunities for developing national capacity. Indications are that the next five years will present a range of challenging opportunities for the department to move from the intensive period of planning, which has been the focus of attention during the first phase of the National Forestry and Conservation Action Programme (NFCAP), into a sustained period of policy and project application. This paper examines processes under which strengthening programs contribute to national development objectives and complement accomplishment of the Department of Environment and Conservation Strategic Plan. An overview of the Global Environment Facility-Integrated Conservation and Development (ICAD) Project and coordination effort that are being made for biodiversity conservation projects in Papua New Guinea, are addressed.

  12. Acetylation of cell wall is required for structural integrity of the leaf surface and exerts a global impact on plant stress responses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nafisi, Majse; Stranne, Maria; Fimognari, Lorenzo;

    2015-01-01

    The epidermis on leaves protects plants from pathogen invasion and provides a waterproof barrier. It consists of a layer of cells that is surrounded by thick cell walls, which are partially impregnated by highly hydrophobic cuticular components. We show that the Arabidopsis T-DNA insertion mutants...... to abiotic stress, particularly detoxification of reactive oxygen species and defense against microbial pathogens (e.g., lipid transfer proteins, peroxidases). In accordance, peroxidase activities were found to be elevated in rwa2 as compared to the wild type. These results indicate that cell wall...... acetylation is essential for maintaining the structural integrity of leaf epidermis, and that reduction of cell wall acetylation leads to global stress responses in Arabidopsis....

  13. Integrated management of pearl culture in French Polynesia in the context of global change: Synopsis of existing results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gueguen, Yannick; Gaertner-Mazouni, Nabila; Lo, Cedrik; Le Moullac, Gilles

    2016-12-01

    The paper presents a state of the art on knowledge of the black pearl oyster aquaculture at the scale of French Polynesia. It also introduces the main results obtained throughout the multi-partners POLYPERL project. The goal of this project was to develop an integrated and participative action-research of the pearl oyster culture system, focusing on the environmental, technological, economical and societal dimensions impacting the industry. The research proposed ranges from the understanding of biological phenomena of the production system to socio-economic aspects and governance of the industry, taking into account the management of anthropogenic, climate and health risks. We introduce here the different papers from the POLYPERL project that are compiled in this volume of ECSS dealing with recent scientific work that can contribute to sustainability of the pearl industry in French Polynesia.

  14. Integrated analysis of global mRNA and protein expression data in HEK293 cells overexpressing PRL-1.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmen M Dumaual

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The protein tyrosine phosphatase PRL-1 represents a putative oncogene with wide-ranging cellular effects. Overexpression of PRL-1 can promote cell proliferation, survival, migration, invasion, and metastasis, but the underlying mechanisms by which it influences these processes remain poorly understood. METHODOLOGY: To increase our comprehension of PRL-1 mediated signaling events, we employed transcriptional profiling (DNA microarray and proteomics (mass spectrometry to perform a thorough characterization of the global molecular changes in gene expression that occur in response to stable PRL-1 overexpression in a relevant model system (HEK293. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Overexpression of PRL-1 led to several significant changes in the mRNA and protein expression profiles of HEK293 cells. The differentially expressed gene set was highly enriched in genes involved in cytoskeletal remodeling, integrin-mediated cell-matrix adhesion, and RNA recognition and splicing. In particular, members of the Rho signaling pathway and molecules that converge on this pathway were heavily influenced by PRL-1 overexpression, supporting observations from previous studies that link PRL-1 to the Rho GTPase signaling network. In addition, several genes not previously associated with PRL-1 were found to be significantly altered by its expression. Most notable among these were Filamin A, RhoGDIα, SPARC, hnRNPH2, and PRDX2. CONCLUSIONS AND SIGNIFICANCE: This systems-level approach sheds new light on the molecular networks underlying PRL-1 action and presents several novel directions for future, hypothesis-based studies.

  15. Integrated evaluation of energy use, greenhouse gas emissions and global warming potential for sugar beet (Beta vulgaris) agroecosystems in Iran

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yousefi, Mohammad; Khoramivafa, Mahmud; Mondani, Farzad

    2014-08-01

    The main aim of this study was to determine and discuss the aggregate of energy use and greenhouse gas emission (CO2, N2O, and CH4) for sugar beet agroecosystems in western of Iran. For this propose data was collected by using questionnaires and face to face interview with 50 farmers. Results showed that total inputs and output energy were 49517.2 and 1095360.0 MJ ha-1, respectively. Energy use efficiency was 22.12. Total CO2, N2O and CH4 emissions due to chemical inputs were 2668.35, 22.92 and 3.49 kg, respectively. In sugar beet farms total global warming potential (GWPs) was 9847.77 kg CO2eq ha-1. In terms of CO2 equivalents, 27% of the GWPs come from CO2, 72% from N2O, and 1% from CH4. In this research input and output carbon were 29340.0 and 2678.6 kg C ha-1, respectively. Hence, carbon efficiency ratio was 10.95.

  16. Integrating metabolic performance, thermal tolerance, and plasticity enables for more accurate predictions on species vulnerability to acute and chronic effects of global warming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magozzi, Sarah; Calosi, Piero

    2015-01-01

    Predicting species vulnerability to global warming requires a comprehensive, mechanistic understanding of sublethal and lethal thermal tolerances. To date, however, most studies investigating species physiological responses to increasing temperature have focused on the underlying physiological traits of either acute or chronic tolerance in isolation. Here we propose an integrative, synthetic approach including the investigation of multiple physiological traits (metabolic performance and thermal tolerance), and their plasticity, to provide more accurate and balanced predictions on species and assemblage vulnerability to both acute and chronic effects of global warming. We applied this approach to more accurately elucidate relative species vulnerability to warming within an assemblage of six caridean prawns occurring in the same geographic, hence macroclimatic, region, but living in different thermal habitats. Prawns were exposed to four incubation temperatures (10, 15, 20 and 25 °C) for 7 days, their metabolic rates and upper thermal limits were measured, and plasticity was calculated according to the concept of Reaction Norms, as well as Q10 for metabolism. Compared to species occupying narrower/more stable thermal niches, species inhabiting broader/more variable thermal environments (including the invasive Palaemon macrodactylus) are likely to be less vulnerable to extreme acute thermal events as a result of their higher upper thermal limits. Nevertheless, they may be at greater risk from chronic exposure to warming due to the greater metabolic costs they incur. Indeed, a trade-off between acute and chronic tolerance was apparent in the assemblage investigated. However, the invasive species P. macrodactylus represents an exception to this pattern, showing elevated thermal limits and plasticity of these limits, as well as a high metabolic control. In general, integrating multiple proxies for species physiological acute and chronic responses to increasing

  17. Study on High Accuracy Topographic Mapping via UAV-based Images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chi, Yun-Yao; Lee, Ya-Fen; Tsai, Shang-En

    2016-10-01

    Unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) provides a promising tool for the acquisition of such multi-temporal aerial stereo photos and high-resolution digital surface models. Recently, the flight of UAVs operates with high degrees of autonomy by the global position system and onboard digit camera and computer. The UAV-based mapping can be obtained faster and cheaper, but its accuracy is anxious. This paper aims to identify the integration ability of high accuracy topographic map via the image of quad-rotors UAV and ground control points (GCPs). The living survey data is collected in the Errn river basins area in Tainan, Taiwan. The high accuracy UAV-based topographic in the study area is calibrated by the local coordinate of GCPs using the total station with the accuracy less than 1/2000. The comparison results show the accuracy of UAV-based topographic is accepted by overlapping. The results can be a reference for the practice works of mapping survey in earth.

  18. Integration Processes of Delay Differential Equation Based on Modified Laguerre Functions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yeguo Sun

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available We propose long-time convergent numerical integration processes for delay differential equations. We first construct an integration process based on modified Laguerre functions. Then we establish its global convergence in certain weighted Sobolev space. The proposed numerical integration processes can also be used for systems of delay differential equations. We also developed a technique for refinement of modified Laguerre-Radau interpolations. Lastly, numerical results demonstrate the spectral accuracy of the proposed method and coincide well with analysis.

  19. A global view of the oncogenic landscape in nasopharyngeal carcinoma: an integrated analysis at the genetic and expression levels.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chunfang Hu

    Full Text Available Previous studies have reported that the tumour cells of nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC exhibit recurrent chromosome abnormalities. These genetic changes are broadly assumed to lead to changes in gene expression which are important for the pathogenesis of this tumour. However, this assumption has yet to be formally tested at a global level. Therefore a genome wide analysis of chromosome copy number and gene expression was performed in tumour cells micro-dissected from the same NPC biopsies. Cellular tumour suppressor and tumour-promoting genes (TSG, TPG and Epstein-Barr Virus (EBV-encoded oncogenes were examined. The EBV-encoded genome maintenance protein EBNA1, along with the putative oncogenes LMP1, LMP2 and BARF1 were expressed in the majority of NPCs that were analysed. Significant downregulation of expression in an average of 76 cellular TSGs per tumour was found, whilst a per-tumour average of 88 significantly upregulated, TPGs occurred. The expression of around 60% of putative TPGs and TSGs was both up-and down-regulated in different types of cancer, suggesting that the simplistic classification of genes as TSGs or TPGs may not be entirely appropriate and that the concept of context-dependent onco-suppressors may be more extensive than previously recognised. No significant enrichment of TPGs within regions of frequent genomic gain was seen but TSGs were significantly enriched within regions of frequent genomic loss. It is suggested that loss of the FHIT gene may be a driver of NPC tumourigenesis. Notwithstanding the association of TSGs with regions of genomic loss, on a gene by gene basis and excepting homozygous deletions and high-level amplification, there is very little correlation between chromosomal copy number aberrations and expression levels of TSGs and TPGs in NPC.

  20. A stand-alone tree demography and landscape structure module for Earth system models: integration with global forest data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Haverd

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Poorly constrained rates of biomass turnover are a key limitation of Earth system models (ESM. In light of this, we recently proposed a new approach encoded in a model called Populations-Order-Physiology (POP, for the simulation of woody ecosystem stand dynamics, demography and disturbance-mediated heterogeneity. POP is suitable for continental to global applications and designed for coupling to the terrestrial ecosystem component of any ESM. POP bridges the gap between first generation Dynamic Vegetation Models (DVMs with simple large-area parameterisations of woody biomass (typically used in current ESMs and complex second generation DVMs, that explicitly simulate demographic processes and landscape heterogeneity of forests. The key simplification in the POP approach, compared with second-generation DVMs, is to compute physiological processes such as assimilation at grid-scale (with CABLE or a similar land surface model, but to partition the grid-scale biomass increment among age classes defined at sub grid-scale, each subject to its own dynamics. POP was successfully demonstrated along a savanna transect in northern Australia, replicating the effects of strong rainfall and fire disturbance gradients on observed stand productivity and structure. Here, we extend the application of POP to a range of forest types around the globe, employing paired observations of stem biomass and density from forest inventory data to calibrate model parameters governing stand demography and biomass evolution. The calibrated POP model is then coupled to the CABLE land surface model and the combined model (CABLE-POP is evaluated against leaf-stem allometry observations from forest stands ranging in age from 3 to 200 yr. Results indicate that simulated biomass pools conform well with observed allometry. We conclude that POP represents a preferable alternative to large-area parameterisations of woody biomass turnover, typically used in current ESMs.

  1. Spatially-global integration of closed, fragmented contours by finding the shortest-path in a log-polar representation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwon, TaeKyu; Agrawal, Kunal; Li, Yunfeng; Pizlo, Zygmunt

    2016-09-01

    Finding the occluding contours of objects in real 2D retinal images of natural 3D scenes is done by determining, which contour fragments are relevant, and the order in which they should be connected. We developed a model that finds the closed contour represented in the image by solving a shortest path problem that uses a log-polar representation of the image; the kind of representation known to exist in area V1 of the primate cortex. The shortest path in a log-polar representation favors the smooth, convex and closed contours in the retinal image that have the smallest number of gaps. This approach is practical because finding a globally-optimal solution to a shortest path problem is computationally easy. Our model was tested in four psychophysical experiments. In the first two experiments, the subject was presented with a fragmented convex or concave polygon target among a large number of unrelated pieces of contour (distracters). The density of these pieces of contour was uniform all over the screen to minimize spatially-local cues. The orientation of each target contour fragment was randomly perturbed by varying the levels of jitter. Subjects drew a closed contour that represented the target's contour on a screen. The subjects' performance was nearly perfect when the jitter-level was low. Their performance deteriorated as jitter-levels were increased. The performance of our model was very similar to our subjects'. In two subsequent experiments, the subject was asked to discriminate a briefly-presented egg-shaped object while maintaining fixation at several different positions relative to the closed contour of the shape. The subject's discrimination performance was affected by the fixation position in much the same way as the model's.

  2. Seasonal Effects on GPS PPP Accuracy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saracoglu, Aziz; Ugur Sanli, D.

    2016-04-01

    GPS Precise Point Positioning (PPP) is now routinely used in many geophysical applications. Static positioning and 24 h data are requested for high precision results however real life situations do not always let us collect 24 h data. Thus repeated GPS surveys of 8-10 h observation sessions are still used by some research groups. Positioning solutions from shorter data spans are subject to various systematic influences, and the positioning quality as well as the estimated velocity is degraded. Researchers pay attention to the accuracy of GPS positions and of the estimated velocities derived from short observation sessions. Recently some research groups turned their attention to the study of seasonal effects (i.e. meteorological seasons) on GPS solutions. Up to now usually regional studies have been reported. In this study, we adopt a global approach and study the various seasonal effects (including the effect of the annual signal) on GPS solutions produced from short observation sessions. We use the PPP module of the NASA/JPL's GIPSY/OASIS II software and globally distributed GPS stations' data of the International GNSS Service. Accuracy studies previously performed with 10-30 consecutive days of continuous data. Here, data from each month of a year, incorporating two years in succession, is used in the analysis. Our major conclusion is that a reformulation for the GPS positioning accuracy is necessary when taking into account the seasonal effects, and typical one term accuracy formulation is expanded to a two-term one.

  3. Stream ecosystem integrity is impaired by logging and shifting agriculture in a global megadiversity center (Sarawak, Borneo).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jinggut, Tajang; Yule, Catherine M; Boyero, Luz

    2012-10-15

    In common with most of Borneo, the Bakun region of Sarawak is currently subject to heavy deforestation mainly due to logging and, to a lesser extent, traditional slash-and-burn farming practices. This has the potential to affect stream ecosystems, which are integrators of environmental change in the surrounding terrestrial landscape. This study evaluated the effects of both types of deforestation by using functional and structural indicators (leaf litter decomposition rates and associated detritivores or 'shredders', respectively) to compare a fundamental ecosystem process, leaf litter decomposition, within logged, farmed and pristine streams. Slash-and-burn agricultural practices increased the overall rate of decomposition despite a decrease in shredder species richness (but not shredder abundance) due to increased microbial decomposition. In contrast, decomposition by microbes and invertebrates was slowed down in the logged streams, where shredders were less abundant and less species rich. This study suggests that shredder communities are less affected by traditional agricultural farming practices, while modern mechanized deforestation has an adverse effect on both shredder communities and leaf breakdown.

  4. Porous biodegradable lumbar interbody fusion cage design and fabrication using integrated global-local topology optimization with laser sintering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Heesuk; Hollister, Scott J; La Marca, Frank; Park, Paul; Lin, Chia-Ying

    2013-10-01

    Biodegradable cages have received increasing attention for their use in spinal procedures involving interbody fusion to resolve complications associated with the use of nondegradable cages, such as stress shielding and long-term foreign body reaction. However, the relatively weak initial material strength compared to permanent materials and subsequent reduction due to degradation may be problematic. To design a porous biodegradable interbody fusion cage for a preclinical large animal study that can withstand physiological loads while possessing sufficient interconnected porosity for bony bridging and fusion, we developed a multiscale topology optimization technique. Topology optimization at the macroscopic scale provides optimal structural layout that ensures mechanical strength, while optimally designed microstructures, which replace the macroscopic material layout, ensure maximum permeability. Optimally designed cages were fabricated using solid, freeform fabrication of poly(ε-caprolactone) mixed with hydroxyapatite. Compression tests revealed that the yield strength of optimized fusion cages was two times that of typical human lumbar spine loads. Computational analysis further confirmed the mechanical integrity within the human lumbar spine, although the pore structure locally underwent higher stress than yield stress. This optimization technique may be utilized to balance the complex requirements of load-bearing, stress shielding, and interconnected porosity when using biodegradable materials for fusion cages.

  5. Ending preventable child deaths from pneumonia and diarrhoea by 2025. Development of the integrated Global Action Plan for the Prevention and Control of Pneumonia and Diarrhoea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qazi, Shamim; Aboubaker, Samira; MacLean, Rachel; Fontaine, Olivier; Mantel, Carsten; Goodman, Tracey; Young, Mark; Henderson, Peggy; Cherian, Thomas

    2015-02-01

    Despite the existence of low-cost and effective interventions for childhood pneumonia and diarrhoea, these conditions remain two of the leading killers of young children. Based on feedback from health professionals in countries with high child mortality, in 2009, WHO and Unicef began conceptualising an integrated approach for pneumonia and diarrhoea control. As part of this initiative, WHO and Unicef, with support from other partners, conducted a series of five workshops to facilitate the inclusion of coordinated actions for pneumonia and diarrhoea into the national health plans of 36 countries with high child mortality. This paper presents the findings from workshop and post-workshop follow-up activities and discusses the contribution of these findings to the development of the integrated Global Action Plan for the Prevention and Control of Pneumonia and Diarrhoea, which outlines the necessary actions for elimination of preventable child deaths from pneumonia and diarrhoea by 2025. Though this goal is ambitious, it is attainable through concerted efforts. By applying the lessons learned thus far and continuing to build upon them, and by leveraging existing political will and momentum for child survival, national governments and their supporting partners can ensure that preventable child deaths from pneumonia and diarrhoea are eventually eliminated.

  6. Integrating habitat restoration and fisheries management : A small-scale case-study to support EEL conservation at the global scale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ciccotti E.

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was to develop a methodological framework for the management of local eel stocks that integrates habitat restoration with optimal fishery management. The Bolsena lake (Viterbo, Italy and its emissary, the river Marta, were taken as a reference system. The river flows in the Mediterranean sea but its course is fragmented by a number of dams built in the past century preventing eel migration from and to the sea. Eel fishery in the Bolsena lake is thus sustained by periodic stocking of glass eels caught at the Marta river estuary. A detailed demographic model was applied to simulate fishery yields and potential spawner escapement under different recruitment and management scenarios. It was estimated that the high exploitation rates occurring in the nineties reduced the potential spawner escapement from the Bolsena lake to less than 1 t; under current harvesting rates, the potential spawner escapement is estimated in about 12 t while in pristine conditions (i.e. high recruitment and no fishing estimated spawner escapement is about 21 t. This analysis thus showed that current fishery management would comply with the 40% spawner escapement requirement of the EU regulation 1100/2007 if the connections between the Bolsena lake emissary and the sea were fully re-established. This confirms the opportunity of an integrated approach to management at the catchment area level scale for eel populations, that shall hopefully contribute to the conservation of the global stock.

  7. Integrated Navigation System and Experiment of a Low-Cost and Low-Accuracy SINS/GPS%一种低成本低精度SINS/GPS组合导航系统及试验

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    林雪原; 徐进; 周旻

    2007-01-01

    When SINS (strap-down inertial navigation system) is combined with GPS, the observability of the course angle is weak. Although the course angle error is improved to some extent through Kalman filtering, the course angle still assumes a divergent trend. This trend is aggravated further when using low-cost and low-accuracy SINS. In order to restrain this trend, a method that uses AHRS to substitute for SINS course angle information is put forward aimed at the hardware component characteristic of the low-cost and low-accuracy SINS including AHRS (attitude and heading reference system) and IMU (inertial measurement unit). Real static and dynamic experiments show that the method can restrain the divergent trend of the navigation system angle effectively, and the positioning accuracy is high.

  8. ESD practice through global approach -7-year practices of developing science lessen modules and fostering integrated decision making ability-

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kajiyama, Kosei

    2016-04-01

    Hiroshima University High School (HUHS) has devised and carried out overseas exchange programs on ESD issues for 7 years. These programs have been carried out as a part of a government-aided project called SSH (Super Science High School) *1. To start with, we had cooperative study program with a school in Germany in 2009, and next year with a school in Korea, and then gradually have expanded the cooperative schools. Since 2013, we have worked with schools in four countries; Korea, Thailand, Czech and Germany. Science lesson modules here refers to an assembly of a set of lessons, newly developed and improved for the project. These modules characteristically require the students to make decisions by themselves on given problems. In the course of the decision making, students learn what kind of data or facts should be presented as evidence and how they can make their decisions known to others. Among several modules we have designed, the one introduced here deals with the use of solar energy, which we carried out with a school in Korea in 2014-2015. It also includes lessons of the fuel cells using energy from hydrogen gas generated by solar cells. It aims to develop global human resources through carefully planned activities. First, the students of both schools make mixed groups and conduct experiments in physics, chemistry or biology on a given problem related to solar energy. Then they discuss in groups using data obtained from the experiments and through the Internet as evidence. After the thorough discussion, each group gives a presentation on their decision. The analysis of the presentations and the questionnaire to the students revealed the following points: 1) Students have come to have multidimensional perspectives on the utilization of solar energy. 2) Students have come to combine the results of different experiments when making decisions. 3) Students have developed flexible attitudes toward other cultures. 4) Students have developed communication skills in

  9. Filling Knowledge Gaps in Biological Networks: integrating global approaches to understand H2 metabolism in Chlamydomonas reinhardtii - Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Posewitz, Matthew C

    2011-06-30

    The green alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii (Chlamydomonas) has numerous genes encoding enzymes that function in fermentative pathways. Among these genes, are the [FeFe]-hydrogenases, pyruvate formate lyase, pyruvate ferredoxin oxidoreductase, acetate kinase, and phosphotransacetylase. We have systematically undertaken a series of targeted mutagenesis approaches to disrupt each of these key genes and omics techniques to characterize alterations in metabolic flux. Funds from DE-FG02-07ER64423 were specifically leveraged to generate mutants with disruptions in the genes encoding the [FeFe]-hydrogenases HYDA1 and HYDA2, pyruvate formate lyase (PFL1), and in bifunctional alcohol/aldehyde alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH1). Additionally funds were used to conduct global transcript profiling experiments of wildtype Chlamydomonas cells, as well as of the hydEF-1 mutant, which is unable to make H2 due to a lesion in the [FeFe]-hydrogenase biosynthetic pathway. In the wildtype cells, formate, acetate and ethanol are the dominant fermentation products with traces of CO2 and H2 also being produced. In the hydEF-1 mutant, succinate production is increased to offset the loss of protons as a terminal electron acceptor. In the pfl-1 mutant, lactate offsets the loss of formate production, and in the adh1-1 mutant glycerol is made instead of ethanol. To further probe the system, we generated a double mutant (pfl1-1 adh1) that is unable to synthesize both formate and ethanol. This strain, like the pfl1 mutants, secreted lactate, but also exhibited a significant increase in the levels of extracellular glycerol, acetate, and intracellular reduced sugars, and a decline in dark, fermentative H2 production. Whereas wild-type Chlamydomonas fermentation primarily produces formate and ethanol, the double mutant performs a complete rerouting of the glycolytic carbon to lactate and glycerol. Lastly, transcriptome data have been analysed for both the wildtype and hydEF-1, that correlate with our

  10. From national to regional plans – the Integrated Drought Management Programme of the Global Water Partnership for Central and Eastern Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabina Bokal

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available In the past few decades it has become evident that the countries of Central and Eastern Europe (CEE are affected by droughts which are becoming more and more lasting and severe. The region׳s vulnerability to this natural hazard alerted the public, governments, and operational agencies to the many socio-economic problems accompanying water shortage and to the need for drought mitigation measures. In addition, climate change amplifies the frequency and severity of droughts in the region. In this context, the CEE region of the Global Water Partnership (GWP recently launched the regional Integrated Drought Management Programme (IDMP as part of the global joint World Meteorological Organization (WMO/GWP IDMP. The purpose of this paper is to present the work plan of the GWP CEE IDM Programme which is being implemented in the years 2013–2015. The planning process for this Programme carried out in 2012 included national and regional reviews of existing drought risks, policies and strategies. The programme inception phase was summarized in October 2012 by a regional workshop organized jointly by GWP and WMO, with the participation of representatives of the United Nations Convention to Combat Desertification (UNCCD Secretariat, the Drought Management Centre for Southeastern Europe (DMCSEE, the EU Joint Research Centre, the United Nations Economic Commission for Europe (UNECE and the European Drought Centre. The Programme was launched in February 2013 and involves more than 40 organizations from 9 CEE countries. The basic four elements of the Programme include policy advice, demonstration projects, capacity building knowledge management and regional cooperation (from national to regional plans. The major output, building upon national initiatives, shall be a coordinated regional framework for drought monitoring, early warning, prediction and management, accompanied by a set of guidelines and tools for the development of regional, national and local

  11. An integrated assessment modeling framework for uncertainty studies in global and regional climate change: the MIT IGSM-CAM (version 1.0)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monier, E.; Scott, J. R.; Sokolov, A. P.; Forest, C. E.; Schlosser, C. A.

    2013-12-01

    This paper describes a computationally efficient framework for uncertainty studies in global and regional climate change. In this framework, the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) Integrated Global System Model (IGSM), an integrated assessment model that couples an Earth system model of intermediate complexity to a human activity model, is linked to the National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCAR) Community Atmosphere Model (CAM). Since the MIT IGSM-CAM framework (version 1.0) incorporates a human activity model, it is possible to analyze uncertainties in emissions resulting from both uncertainties in the underlying socio-economic characteristics of the economic model and in the choice of climate-related policies. Another major feature is the flexibility to vary key climate parameters controlling the climate system response to changes in greenhouse gases and aerosols concentrations, e.g., climate sensitivity, ocean heat uptake rate, and strength of the aerosol forcing. The IGSM-CAM is not only able to realistically simulate the present-day mean climate and the observed trends at the global and continental scale, but it also simulates ENSO variability with realistic time scales, seasonality and patterns of SST anomalies, albeit with stronger magnitudes than observed. The IGSM-CAM shares the same general strengths and limitations as the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project Phase 3 (CMIP3) models in simulating present-day annual mean surface temperature and precipitation. Over land, the IGSM-CAM shows similar biases to the NCAR Community Climate System Model (CCSM) version 3, which shares the same atmospheric model. This study also presents 21st century simulations based on two emissions scenarios (unconstrained scenario and stabilization scenario at 660 ppm CO2-equivalent) similar to, respectively, the Representative Concentration Pathways RCP8.5 and RCP4.5 scenarios, and three sets of climate parameters. Results of the simulations with the chosen

  12. Integration of regulatory signals through involvement of multiple global regulators: control of the Escherichia coli gltBDF operon by Lrp, IHF, Crp, and ArgR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mishra Pankaj K

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The glutamate synthase operon (gltBDF contributes to one of the two main pathways of ammonia assimilation in Escherichia coli. Of the seven most-global regulators, together affecting expression of about half of all E. coli genes, two were previously shown to exert direct, positive control on gltBDF transcription: Lrp and IHF. The involvement of Lrp is unusual in two respects: first, it is insensitive to the usual coregulator leucine, and second, Lrp binds more than 150 bp upstream of the transcription starting point. There was indirect evidence for involvement of a third global regulator, Crp. Given the physiological importance of gltBDF, and the potential opportunity to learn about integration of global regulatory signals, a combination of in vivo and in vitro approaches was used to investigate the involvement of additional regulatory proteins, and to determine their relative binding positions and potential interactions with one another and with RNA polymerase (RNAP. Results Crp and a more local regulator, ArgR, directly control gltBDF transcription, both acting negatively. Crp-cAMP binds a sequence centered at -65.5 relative to the transcript start. Mutation of conserved nucleotides in the Crp binding site abolishes the Crp-dependent repression. ArgR also binds to the gltBDF promoter region, upstream of the Lrp binding sites, and decreases transcription. RNAP only yields a defined DNAse I footprint under two tested conditions: in the presence of both Lrp and IHF, or in the presence of Crp-cAMP. The DNAse I footprint of RNAP in the presence of Lrp and IHF is altered by ArgR. Conclusion The involvement of nearly half of E. coli's most-global regulatory proteins in the control of gltBDF transcription is striking, but seems consistent with the central metabolic role of this operon. Determining the mechanisms of activation and repression for gltBDF was beyond the scope of this study. However the results are consistent with a

  13. Arabidopsis plastid AMOS1/EGY1 integrates abscisic acid signaling to regulate global gene expression response to ammonium stress

    KAUST Repository

    Li, Baohai

    2012-10-12

    Ammonium (NH4 +) is a ubiquitous intermediate of nitrogen metabolism but is notorious for its toxic effects on most organisms. Extensive studies of the underlying mechanisms of NH4 + toxicity have been reported in plants, but it is poorly understood how plants acclimate to high levels of NH4 +. Here, we identified an Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) mutant, ammonium overly sensitive1 (amos1), that displays severe chlorosis under NH4 + stress. Map-based cloning shows amos1 to carry a mutation in EGY1 (for ethylene-dependent, gravitropism-deficient, and yellow-green-like protein1), which encodes a plastid metalloprotease. Transcriptomic analysis reveals that among the genes activated in response to NH4 +, 90% are regulated dependent on AMOS1/ EGY1. Furthermore, 63% of AMOS1/EGY1-dependent NH4 +-activated genes contain an ACGTG motif in their promoter region, a core motif of abscisic acid (ABA)-responsive elements. Consistent with this, our physiological, pharmacological, transcriptomic, and genetic data show that ABA signaling is a critical, but not the sole, downstream component of the AMOS1/EGY1-dependent pathway that regulates the expression of NH4 +-responsive genes and maintains chloroplast functionality under NH4 + stress. Importantly, abi4 mutants defective in ABA-dependent and retrograde signaling, but not ABA-deficient mutants, mimic leaf NH4 + hypersensitivity of amos1. In summary, our findings suggest that an NH4 +-responsive plastid retrograde pathway, which depends on AMOS1/EGY1 function and integrates with ABA signaling, is required for the regulation of expression of the presence of high NH4 + levels. © 2012 American Society of Plant Biologists. All Rights Reserved.

  14. 基于粒子群优化算法的水分配网络系统综合的最优化研究%Global Optimization for the Synthesis of Integrated Water Systems with Particle Swarm Optimization Algorithm

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    罗袆青; 袁希钢

    2008-01-01

    The problem of optimal synthesis of an integrated water system is addressed in this study, where water using processes and water treatment operations are combined into a single network such that the total cost of fresh water and wastewater treatment is globally minimized. A superstructure that incorporates all feasible design alterna-fives for wastewater treatment, reuse and recycle, is synthesized with a non-linear programming model. An evolu-tionary approach--an improved particle swarm optimization is proposed for optimizing such systems. Two simple examples are presented to illustrate the global optimization of integrated water networks using the proposed algorithm.

  15. Approach to Integrate Global-Sun Models of Magnetic Flux Emergence and Transport for Space Weather Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mansour, Nagi N.; Wray, Alan A.; Mehrotra, Piyush; Henney, Carl; Arge, Nick; Godinez, H.; Manchester, Ward; Koller, J.; Kosovichev, A.; Scherrer, P.; Zhao, J.; Stein, R.; Duvall, T.; Fan, Y.

    2013-01-01

    The Sun lies at the center of space weather and is the source of its variability. The primary input to coronal and solar wind models is the activity of the magnetic field in the solar photosphere. Recent advancements in solar observations and numerical simulations provide a basis for developing physics-based models for the dynamics of the magnetic field from the deep convection zone of the Sun to the corona with the goal of providing robust near real-time boundary conditions at the base of space weather forecast models. The goal is to develop new strategic capabilities that enable characterization and prediction of the magnetic field structure and flow dynamics of the Sun by assimilating data from helioseismology and magnetic field observations into physics-based realistic magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) simulations. The integration of first-principle modeling of solar magnetism and flow dynamics with real-time observational data via advanced data assimilation methods is a new, transformative step in space weather research and prediction. This approach will substantially enhance an existing model of magnetic flux distribution and transport developed by the Air Force Research Lab. The development plan is to use the Space Weather Modeling Framework (SWMF) to develop Coupled Models for Emerging flux Simulations (CMES) that couples three existing models: (1) an MHD formulation with the anelastic approximation to simulate the deep convection zone (FSAM code), (2) an MHD formulation with full compressible Navier-Stokes equations and a detailed description of radiative transfer and thermodynamics to simulate near-surface convection and the photosphere (Stagger code), and (3) an MHD formulation with full, compressible Navier-Stokes equations and an approximate description of radiative transfer and heating to simulate the corona (Module in BATS-R-US). CMES will enable simulations of the emergence of magnetic structures from the deep convection zone to the corona. Finally, a plan

  16. Accuracy assessment of gridded precipitation datasets in the Himalayas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, A.

    2015-12-01

    Accurate precipitation data are vital for hydro-climatic modelling and water resources assessments. Based on mass balance calculations and Turc-Budyko analysis, this study investigates the accuracy of twelve widely used precipitation gridded datasets for sub-basins in the Upper Indus Basin (UIB) in the Himalayas-Karakoram-Hindukush (HKH) region. These datasets are: 1) Global Precipitation Climatology Project (GPCP), 2) Climate Prediction Centre (CPC) Merged Analysis of Precipitation (CMAP), 3) NCEP / NCAR, 4) Global Precipitation Climatology Centre (GPCC), 5) Climatic Research Unit (CRU), 6) Asian Precipitation Highly Resolved Observational Data Integration Towards Evaluation of Water Resources (APHRODITE), 7) Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM), 8) European Reanalysis (ERA) interim data, 9) PRINCETON, 10) European Reanalysis-40 (ERA-40), 11) Willmott and Matsuura, and 12) WATCH Forcing Data based on ERA interim (WFDEI). Precipitation accuracy and consistency was assessed by physical mass balance involving sum of annual measured flow, estimated actual evapotranspiration (average of 4 datasets), estimated glacier mass balance melt contribution (average of 4 datasets), and ground water recharge (average of 3 datasets), during 1999-2010. Mass balance assessment was complemented by Turc-Budyko non-dimensional analysis, where annual precipitation, measured flow and potential evapotranspiration (average of 5 datasets) data were used for the same period. Both analyses suggest that all tested precipitation datasets significantly underestimate precipitation in the Karakoram sub-basins. For the Hindukush and Himalayan sub-basins most datasets underestimate precipitation, except ERA-interim and ERA-40. The analysis indicates that for this large region with complicated terrain features and stark spatial precipitation gradients the reanalysis datasets have better consistency with flow measurements than datasets derived from records of only sparsely distributed climatic

  17. Accuracy of tablet splitting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDevitt, J T; Gurst, A H; Chen, Y

    1998-01-01

    We attempted to determine the accuracy of manually splitting hydrochlorothiazide tablets. Ninety-four healthy volunteers each split ten 25-mg hydrochlorothiazide tablets, which were then weighed using an analytical balance. Demographics, grip and pinch strength, digit circumference, and tablet-splitting experience were documented. Subjects were also surveyed regarding their willingness to pay a premium for commercially available, lower-dose tablets. Of 1752 manually split tablet portions, 41.3% deviated from ideal weight by more than 10% and 12.4% deviated by more than 20%. Gender, age, education, and tablet-splitting experience were not predictive of variability. Most subjects (96.8%) stated a preference for commercially produced, lower-dose tablets, and 77.2% were willing to pay more for them. For drugs with steep dose-response curves or narrow therapeutic windows, the differences we recorded could be clinically relevant.

  18. Globally Happy: Individual Globalization, Expanded Capacities, and Subjective Wellbeing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Ming-Chang; Chang, Heng-Hao; Chen, Wan-chi

    2012-01-01

    Deep integration of Asia into the global society necessarily affects wellbeing of local populations. This study proposes a notion of "extend capacities" to explain the relationships between individual globalization and subjective wellbeing among Asian populations in a context of increasing global integration. Using Amartya Sen's theory…

  19. Empirical support for global integrated assessment modeling: Productivity trends and technological change in developing countries' agriculture and electric power sectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sathaye, Jayant A.

    2000-04-01

    Integrated assessment (IA) modeling of climate policy is increasingly global in nature, with models incorporating regional disaggregation. The existing empirical basis for IA modeling, however, largely arises from research on industrialized economies. Given the growing importance of developing countries in determining long-term global energy and carbon emissions trends, filling this gap with improved statistical information on developing countries' energy and carbon-emissions characteristics is an important priority for enhancing IA modeling. Earlier research at LBNL on this topic has focused on assembling and analyzing statistical data on productivity trends and technological change in the energy-intensive manufacturing sectors of five developing countries, India, Brazil, Mexico, Indonesia, and South Korea. The proposed work will extend this analysis to the agriculture and electric power sectors in India, South Korea, and two other developing countries. They will also examine the impact of alternative model specifications on estimates of productivity growth and technological change for each of the three sectors, and estimate the contribution of various capital inputs--imported vs. indigenous, rigid vs. malleable-- in contributing to productivity growth and technological change. The project has already produced a data resource on the manufacturing sector which is being shared with IA modelers. This will be extended to the agriculture and electric power sectors, which would also be made accessible to IA modeling groups seeking to enhance the empirical descriptions of developing country characteristics. The project will entail basic statistical and econometric analysis of productivity and energy trends in these developing country sectors, with parameter estimates also made available to modeling groups. The parameter estimates will be developed using alternative model specifications that could be directly utilized by the existing IAMs for the manufacturing

  20. Selection of a Representative Subset of Global Climate Models that Captures the Profile of Regional Changes for Integrated Climate Impacts Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruane, Alex C.; Mcdermid, Sonali P.

    2017-01-01

    We present the Representative Temperature and Precipitation (T&P) GCM Subsetting Approach developed within the Agricultural Model Intercomparison and Improvement Project (AgMIP) to select a practical subset of global climate models (GCMs) for regional integrated assessment of climate impacts when resource limitations do not permit the full ensemble of GCMs to be evaluated given the need to also focus on impacts sector and economics models. Subsetting inherently leads to a loss of information but can free up resources to explore important uncertainties in the integrated assessment that would otherwise be prohibitive. The Representative T&P GCM Subsetting Approach identifies five individual GCMs that capture a profile of the full ensemble of temperature and precipitation change within the growing season while maintaining information about the probability that basic classes of climate changes (relatively cool/wet, cool/dry, middle, hot/wet, and hot/dry) are projected in the full GCM ensemble. We demonstrate the selection methodology for maize impacts in Ames, Iowa, and discuss limitations and situations when additional information may be required to select representative GCMs. We then classify 29 GCMs over all land areas to identify regions and seasons with characteristic diagonal skewness related to surface moisture as well as extreme skewness connected to snow-albedo feedbacks and GCM uncertainty. Finally, we employ this basic approach to recognize that GCM projections demonstrate coherence across space, time, and greenhouse gas concentration pathway. The Representative T&P GCM Subsetting Approach provides a quantitative basis for the determination of useful GCM subsets, provides a practical and coherent approach where previous assessments selected solely on availability of scenarios, and may be extended for application to a range of scales and sectoral impacts.