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Sample records for accumulation mark embryogenic

  1. Identification of differentially accumulated proteins associated with embryogenic and non-embryogenic calli in saffron (Crocus sativus L.

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    Sharifi Golandam

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Somatic embryogenesis (SE is a complex biological process that occurs under inductive conditions and causes fully differentiated cells to be reprogrammed to an embryo like state. In order to get a better insight about molecular basis of the SE in Crocus sativus L. and to characterize differentially accumulated proteins during the process, a proteomic study based on two-dimensional gel electrophoresis and matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time of flight mass spectrometry has been carried out. Results We have compared proteome profiles of non-embryogenic and embryogenic calli with native corm explants. Total soluble proteins were phenol-extracted and loaded on 18 cm IPG strips for the first dimension and 11.5% sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gels for the second dimension. Fifty spots with more than 1.5-fold change in abundance were subjected to mass spectrometry analysis for further characterization. Among them 36 proteins could be identified, which are classified into defense and stress response, protein synthesis and processing, carbohydrate and energy metabolism, secondary metabolism, and nitrogen metabolism. Conclusion Our results showed that diverse cellular and molecular processes were affected during somatic to embryogenic transition. Differential proteomic analysis suggests a key role for ascorbate metabolism during early stage of SE, and points to the possible role of ascorbate-glutathione cycle in establishing somatic embryos.

  2. Water Relation Parameters of Embryogenic Cultures and Seedlings of Larch

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    Livingston, Nigel J.; von Aderkas, Patrick; Fuchs, Edgar E.; Reaney, Martin J. T.

    1992-01-01

    Changes in the water relations parameters of developing somatic embryogenic and xygotic European larch (Larix decidua) were studied. Water release curves were generated by suspending tissue samples over unsaturated NaCl solutions until they reached vapor equilibration with the surrounding air. Twenty solutions were used whose water potentials ranged from −0.05 to −10 MPa. Water release curves were obtained by plotting paired values of tissue relative water content (RWC) and solution potential. Curves were derived for embryonic larch at various stages of development and for hypocotyls and roots from germinated zygotic and somatic embryos. The ability to resist dehydration increased markedly with development. Stage 1 tissue, which consisted of clusters of loosely associated nonchlorophyllous cells, had extremely low bulk elastic modulus (ε) (1.91 MPa) and apoplastic water content (A) (0.023), relatively high osmotic potential (Ψπ) (−0.53 MPa), and lost turgor at 0.56 RWC. In contrast, mature embryoids with primary roots, hypocotyl, and cotyledons (stage 3) had an almost 4-fold increase in A (0.089), significantly higher ε (3.49 MPa), and lower Ψπ (−0.88 MPa) and lost turgor at 0.66 RWC. Hypocotyl tissue from germinated somatic embryos lost turgor at 0.74 RWC and had higher ε, A, and solute accumulation than pregerminated tissue. Hypocotyl tissue resisted dehydration more strongly than root tissue, and differences between root and hypocotyl water relation parameters were more pronounced in xygotic than in somatic seedlings. Highest dehydration resistance was in zygotic hypocotyls. The characterization of the water relations of tissue cultures should allow the development of more consistent and reliable desiccation protocols to induce maturation of embryos and produce synchronously germinating seed. PMID:16653121

  3. Cryopreservation of olive embryogenic cultures.

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    Sánchez-Romero, C; Swennen, R; Panis, B

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this work was to optimize a protocol for the cryopreservation of embryogenic cultures of olive (Olea europaea L.). Exposure time to loading solution and PVS2 significantly influenced the regrowth rate of both organized and non-organized tissues. Organized tissues were more sensitive to prolonged treatments with vitrification solutions compared to non-organized tissues. Three cryopreservation protocols were compared using non-organized tissues: the "classical" vitrification protocol, an ultra-fast freezing method using droplet vitrification on aluminium foil strips and a "classical" slow freezing method (1 degree C per min). The best results were obtained using the droplet vitrification method after a 60 min dehydration period with PVS2. Under these conditions, all cryopreserved cultures showed renewed embryogenesis six weeks after thawing. A long-term (7-8 weeks) sucrose preculture had a significant effect on the initial response of the cultures, allowing particularly to protect cells against the toxic effects of the vitrification solution.

  4. Identification of a potential structural marker for embryogenic competency in the Brassica napus spp. oleifera embryogenic tissue.

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    Namasivayam, Parameswari; Skepper, Jeremy; Hanke, David

    2006-09-01

    The Brassica napus secondary embryogenesis system requires no exogenous growth regulator to stimulate embryo development. It is stable embryogenically over a long period of culture and has a distinct pre-embryogenic stage. This system was used to investigate the morphological and cellular changes occurring in the embryogenic tissue compared to non-embryogenic tissue using various microscopy techniques. A unique ultrastructural feature designated the extracellular matrix (ECM) was observed on the surface of pre-embryogenic embryoids but not on the non-embryogenic individuals. The ECM layer was found to be dominant in the pre-embryogenic stage and reduced to fragments during embryo growth and development in mature embryogenic tissue. This is a novel aspect of the phenotype previously unreported in the Brassica system. This structure might be linked to acquisition of embryogenic competence.

  5. Amino Acid and Secondary Metabolite Production in Embryogenic and Non-Embryogenic Callus of Fingerroot Ginger (Boesenbergia rotunda.

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    Theresa Lee Mei Ng

    Full Text Available Interest in the medicinal properties of secondary metabolites of Boesenbergia rotunda (fingerroot ginger has led to investigations into tissue culture of this plant. In this study, we profiled its primary and secondary metabolites, as well as hormones of embryogenic and non-embryogenic (dry and watery callus and shoot base, Ultra Performance Liquid Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry together with histological characterization. Metabolite profiling showed relatively higher levels of glutamine, arginine and lysine in embryogenic callus than in dry and watery calli, while shoot base tissue showed an intermediate level of primary metabolites. For the five secondary metabolites analyzed (ie. panduratin, pinocembrin, pinostrobin, cardamonin and alpinetin, shoot base had the highest concentrations, followed by watery, dry and embryogenic calli. Furthermore, intracellular auxin levels were found to decrease from dry to watery calli, followed by shoot base and finally embryogenic calli. Our morphological observations showed the presence of fibrils on the cell surface of embryogenic callus while diphenylboric acid 2-aminoethylester staining indicated the presence of flavonoids in both dry and embryogenic calli. Periodic acid-Schiff staining showed that shoot base and dry and embryogenic calli contained starch reserves while none were found in watery callus. This study identified several primary metabolites that could be used as markers of embryogenic cells in B. rotunda, while secondary metabolite analysis indicated that biosynthesis pathways of these important metabolites may not be active in callus and embryogenic tissue.

  6. Cryopreservation of Prunus avium L. embryogenic tissues.

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    Grenier-de March, Ghislaine; de Boucaud, Marie-Therese; Chmielarz, Pawel

    2005-01-01

    Embryogenic tissues from wild cherry (Prunus avium L.) were successfully cryopreserved by using a one-step freezing procedure. Cryoprotection consisted of a pretreatment on solid medium with increasing sucrose concentrations (0.25 M for 1 day, 0.5 M for 1 day, 0.75 M for 2 days, and 1.0 M for 3 days), followed by air desiccation to about 20 percent moisture content (fresh weight basis). This method was compared with a pretreatment on solid medium containing 5 percent DMSO and 2 percent proline, followed by immersion in a modified PVS2 cryoprotective solution. Pretreatment on solid medium with increasing concentrations of sucrose led to regrowth of frozen embryogenic tissues, and after 6 weeks of culture, growth was comparable to that of non-dehydrated and non-frozen tissues. By contrast, no regrowth was observed when embryogenic tissues were submitted to the solid/liquid pretreatment with DMSO/proline and a modified PVS2 solution.

  7. Characterization of polysaccharides with marked inhibitory effect on lipid accumulation in Pleurotus eryngii.

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    Chen, Jingjing; Yong, Yangyang; Xing, Meichun; Gu, Yifan; Zhang, Zhao; Zhang, Shizhu; Lu, Ling

    2013-09-12

    Mushrooms have a great potential for the production of useful bioactive metabolites. To explore the bioactive compounds from edible mushrooms for interfering with the development of macrophage-derived foam cells, which is recognized as the hallmark of early atherosclerosis, eight types of mushrooms polysaccharides had been selected to be tested. Consequently, different mushrooms polysaccharides displayed diverse component profiles. Of polysaccharides that we tested, the Pleurotus eryngii polysaccharide had the strongest inhibitory effect on lipid accumulation. Furthermore, through fractionation of DEAE-52 and Sephadex G-100, the polysaccharide from P. eryngii had been successfully purified and identified. By the analysis of IR, GC, and HPLC, the purified polysaccharide was estimated to be 30-38 kDa for the average molecular weight with the monosaccharide composition mainly composed of D-types of mannose, glucose and galactose. Findings presented in this report firstly provide direct evidence, which links the purified polysaccharide moiety with the biological function in foam-cell model.

  8. Histological and Ultrastructural Observation Reveals Significant Cellular Differences between Agrobacterium Transformed Embryogenic and Non-embryogenic Calli of Cotton

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hai-Hong Shang; Chuan-Liang Liu; Chao-Jun Zhang; Feng-Lian Li; Wei-Dong Hong; Fu-Guang Li

    2009-01-01

    Over the past few decades genetic engineering has been applied to improve cotton breeding. Agrobacterium medicated transformation is nowadays widely used as an efficient approach to introduce exogenous genes into cotton for genetically modified organisms. However, it still needs to be improved for better transformation efficiency and higher embryogenic callus induction ratios. To research further the difference of mechanisms for morphogenesis between embryogenic callus and non-embryogenic callus, we carried out a systematical study on the histological and cellular ultrastructure of Agrobacterium transformed calli. Results showed that the embryogenic callus developed nodule-like structures, which were formed by small, tightly packed, hemispherical cells. The surface of some embryogenic callus was covered with a flbrilar-like structure named extracellular matrix. The cells of embryogenic calli had similar morphological characteristics. Organelles of embryogenic callus cells were located near the nucleus, and chloroplasts degraded to proplastid-like structures with some starch grains, in contrast, the non-embryogenic calli were covered by oval or sphere cells or small clusters of cells. It was observed that cells had vacuolation of cytoplasm and plastids with a well organized endomembrane system. This study aims to understand the mechanisms of embryogenic callus morphogenesis and to improve the efficiency of cotton transformation in future.

  9. Histological and ultrastructural observation reveals significant cellular differences between Agrobacterium transformed embryogenic and non-embryogenic calli of cotton.

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    Shang, Hai-Hong; Liu, Chuan-Liang; Zhang, Chao-Jun; Li, Feng-Lian; Hong, Wei-Dong; Li, Fu-Guang

    2009-05-01

    Over the past few decades genetic engineering has been applied to improve cotton breeding. Agrobacterium medicated transformation is nowadays widely used as an efficient approach to introduce exogenous genes into cotton for genetically modified organisms. However, it still needs to be improved for better transformation efficiency and higher embryogenic callus induction ratios. To research further the difference of mechanisms for morphogenesis between embryogenic callus and non-embryogenic callus, we carried out a systematical study on the histological and cellular ultrastructure of Agrobacterium transformed calli. Results showed that the embryogenic callus developed nodule-like structures, which were formed by small, tightly packed, hemispherical cells. The surface of some embryogenic callus was covered with a fibrilar-like structure named extracellular matrix. The cells of embryogenic calli had similar morphological characteristics. Organelles of embryogenic callus cells were located near the nucleus, and chloroplasts degraded to proplastid-like structures with some starch grains. In contrast, the non-embryogenic calli were covered by oval or sphere cells or small clusters of cells. It was observed that cells had vacuolation of cytoplasm and plastids with a well organized endomembrane system. This study aims to understand the mechanisms of embryogenic callus morphogenesis and to improve the efficiency of cotton transformation in future.

  10. Marked accumulation of valproic acid in embryonic neuroepithelium of the mouse during early organogenesis

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    Dencker, L.; Nau, H.; D' Argy, R. (Univ. of Uppsala (Sweden))

    1990-06-01

    Valproic acid, an antiepileptic drug, causes neural tube defects in mice and man. 14C-labeled valproic acid (sodium-salt) was administered to pregnant mice on days 8 and 9 of gestation (period of high sensitivity in regard to formation of neural tube defects in this species). Two dose levels of valproic acid (1 and 400 mg/kg) were used; in each case the total radioactivity administered was the same: 400 microCi/kg or 14.7 MBq/kg. Autoradiography combined with computerized densitometry revealed that in low-dose animals most of the radioactivity was confined to maternal liver and kidney, while at high doses more activity was observed in soft tissues and fluids, including amniotic fluid. In the embryo, the neuroepithelium showed the highest concentration, irrespective of dose and survival interval (30 min, 3 h, and 6 h). Upon administration of the high dose, up to five times more radioactivity (approximately 2,000 times more valproic acid) was recovered in embryonic tissues than after the low dose. It is concluded that high doses of VPA saturate the capacities of metabolism, excretion, and protein binding in the maternal organism, resulting in a higher proportion of the dose reaching the embryo, allowing more of the drug to be accumulated by the target organ, the neuroepithelium.

  11. Polyamine metabolism during exponential growth transition in Scots pine embryogenic cell culture.

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    Vuosku, Jaana; Suorsa, Marja; Ruottinen, Maria; Sutela, Suvi; Muilu-Mäkelä, Riina; Julkunen-Tiitto, Riitta; Sarjala, Tytti; Neubauer, Peter; Häggman, Hely

    2012-10-01

    Polyamine (PA) metabolism was studied in liquid cultures of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) embryogenic cells. The focus of the study was on the metabolic changes at the interphase between the initial lag phase and the exponential growth phase. PA concentrations fluctuated in the liquid cultures as follows. Putrescine (Put) concentrations increased, whereas spermidine (Spd) concentrations decreased in both free and soluble conjugated PA fractions. The concentrations of free and soluble conjugated spermine (Spm) remained low, and small amounts of excreted PAs were also found in the culture medium. The minor production of secondary metabolites reflected the undifferentiated stage of the embryogenic cell culture. Put was produced via the arginine decarboxylase (ADC) pathway. Futhermore, the gene expression data suggested that the accumulation of Put was caused neither by an increase in Put biosynthesis nor by a decrease in Put catabolism, but resulted mainly from the decrease in the biosynthesis of Spd and Spm. Put seemed to play an important role in cell proliferation in Scots pine embryogenic cells, but the low pH of the culture medium could also, at least partially, be the reason for the accumulation of endogenous Put. High Spd concentrations at the initiation of the culture, when cells were exposed to stress and cell death, suggested that Spd may act not only as a protector against stress but also as a growth suppressor, when proliferative growth is not promoted. All in all, Scots pine embryogenic cell culture was proved to be a favourable experimental platform to study PA metabolism and, furthermore, the developed system may also be beneficial in experiments where, e.g., the effect of specific stressors on PA metabolism is addressed.

  12. Label-Free Quantitative Proteomics of Embryogenic and Non-Embryogenic Callus during Sugarcane Somatic Embryogenesis.

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    Angelo Schuabb Heringer

    Full Text Available The development of somatic cells in to embryogenic cells occurs in several stages and ends in somatic embryo formation, though most of these biochemical and molecular changes have yet to be elucidated. Somatic embryogenesis coupled with genetic transformation could be a biotechnological tool to improve potential crop yields potential in sugarcane cultivars. The objective of this study was to observe somatic embryo development and to identify differentially expressed proteins in embryogenic (E and non-embryogenic (NE callus during maturation treatment. E and NE callus were cultured on maturation culture medium supplemented with different concentrations (0.0, 0.75, 1.5 and 2.0 g L(-1 of activated charcoal (AC. Somatic embryo formation and differential protein expression were evaluated at days 0 and 21 using shotgun proteomic analyses. Treatment with 1.5 g L(-1 AC resulted in higher somatic embryo maturation rates (158 somatic embryos in 14 days in E callus but has no effect in NE callus. A total of 752 co-expressed proteins were identified through the SUCEST (The Sugarcane EST Project, including many housekeeping proteins. E callus showed 65 exclusive proteins on day 0, including dehydrogenase, desiccation-related protein, callose synthase 1 and nitric oxide synthase. After 21 days on maturation treatment, 14 exclusive proteins were identified in E callus, including catalase and secreted protein. NE callus showed 23 exclusive proteins on day 0 and 10 exclusive proteins after 21 days on maturation treatment, including many proteins related to protein degradation. The induction of maturation leads to somatic embryo development, which likely depends on the expression of specific proteins throughout the process, as seen in E callus under maturation treatment. On the other hand, some exclusive proteins can also specifically prevent of somatic embryos development, as seen in the NE callus.

  13. Regeneration of soybean via embryogenic suspension culture

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    Droste Annette

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available In an attempt to establish an alternative plant regeneration system for soybean [Glycine max (L. Merrill] cultivars used in Brazilian breeding programs, ten genotypes were tested for their embryogenic potential. Cotyledons were removed as explants from immature seeds harvested from field-grown plants. After 45 days on induction medium, the number of responding cotyledons and the number of somatic embryos per immature cotyledon were evaluated. The percentage of explants that produced somatic embryos varied from 1 to 70% among cultivars. The average number of somatic embryos produced per cotyledon pair ranged from 0.01 to 10.3 with a mean of 3.4. Suspension cultures were initiated with three Agrobacterium tumefaciens susceptible cultivars. Suspensions were successfully developed from Bragg and IAS5 cultivars. The packed cell volume, in one-month growth, increased 8.1 fold for Bragg and 3.5 fold for IAS5 and the fresh weight increased 6.6 and 2.8 fold, respectively. The cultivars differed for the analysed parameters. All tissue from each cultivar was transferred to the maturation medium and subsequently to the germination medium. The germination frequency was 45.7 and 54.9% for Bragg and IAS5, respectively. Plants were gradually exposed to ambient humidity over one week and then planted in soil. All plants yielded seeds in the greenhouse.

  14. Studies on Genetic Transformatiom of Embryogenic Suspension Cultures of Sweetpotato

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    ZHAI Hong; LIU Qing-chang

    2003-01-01

    Genetic transformation of embryogenic suspension cultures of sweetpotato cv. Lizixiang wasconducted by using Agrobacterium tumefaciens strain A208SE harboring the binary vectors pROA93 with β-glucronidase (GUS) and neomycin phosphotransferase (NPT Ⅱ ) genes. The results indicated that embryogenicsuspension cultures precultured for 1 -3 d were suitable for the transformation. The optimal cocultivation timewas 4 - 5 d. The optimal concentration of kanamycin was 50-75 mg L-1 for suspension culture and 100 mg L-1for embryogenic callus proliferation and plant regeneration. The optimal concentration of carbencillin was 100mg L-1. Transgenic plants identified with GUS assays and PCR analyses were obtained.

  15. Accumulating mutations in series of haplotypes at the KIT and MITF loci are major determinants of white markings in Franches-Montagnes horses.

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    Haase, Bianca; Signer-Hasler, Heidi; Binns, Matthew M; Obexer-Ruff, Gabriela; Hauswirth, Regula; Bellone, Rebecca R; Burger, Dominik; Rieder, Stefan; Wade, Claire M; Leeb, Tosso

    2013-01-01

    Coat color and pattern variations in domestic animals are frequently inherited as simple monogenic traits, but a number are known to have a complex genetic basis. While the analysis of complex trait data remains a challenge in all species, we can use the reduced haplotypic diversity in domestic animal populations to gain insight into the genomic interactions underlying complex phenotypes. White face and leg markings are examples of complex traits in horses where little is known of the underlying genetics. In this study, Franches-Montagnes (FM) horses were scored for the occurrence of white facial and leg markings using a standardized scoring system. A genome-wide association study (GWAS) was performed for several white patterning traits in 1,077 FM horses. Seven quantitative trait loci (QTL) affecting the white marking score with p-values p≤10(-4) were identified. Three loci, MC1R and the known white spotting genes, KIT and MITF, were identified as the major loci underlying the extent of white patterning in this breed. Together, the seven loci explain 54% of the genetic variance in total white marking score, while MITF and KIT alone account for 26%. Although MITF and KIT are the major loci controlling white patterning, their influence varies according to the basic coat color of the horse and the specific body location of the white patterning. Fine mapping across the MITF and KIT loci was used to characterize haplotypes present. Phylogenetic relationships among haplotypes were calculated to assess their selective and evolutionary influences on the extent of white patterning. This novel approach shows that KIT and MITF act in an additive manner and that accumulating mutations at these loci progressively increase the extent of white markings.

  16. Growing rice aerobically markedly decreases mercury accumulation by reducing both Hg bioavailability and the production of MeHg.

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    Wang, Xun; Ye, Zhihong; Li, Bing; Huang, Linan; Meng, Mei; Shi, Jianbo; Jiang, Guibin

    2014-01-01

    Rice consumption represents a major route of mercury (Hg) and methylmercury (MeHg) exposure for those living in certain areas of inland China. In this study we investigated the effects of water management on bioavailable Hg, MeHg, and sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB, abundance and community composition) in rhizosphere soil, and total Hg (THg) and MeHg in rice plants grown under glasshouse and paddy field conditions. Aerobic conditions greatly decreased the amount of THg and MeHg taken up by rice plants and affected their distribution in different plant tissues. There were positive correlations between bioavailable Hg and THg in brown rice and roots and between numbers of SRB and MeHg in brown rice, roots, and rhizosphere soil. Furthermore, the community composition of SRB was dramatically influenced by the water management regimes. Our results demonstrate that the greatly reduced bioavailability of Hg and production of MeHg are due to decreased SRB numbers and proportion of Hg methylators in the rhizosphere under aerobic conditions. These are the main reasons for the reduced Hg and MeHg accumulation in aerobically grown rice. Water management is indicated as an effective measure that can be used to reduce Hg and MeHg uptake by rice plants from Hg-contaminated paddy fields.

  17. Induction of Embryogenic Callus and Plant Regeneration in Carnation (Dianthus caryophyllus L.

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    Omid Karami

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, efficient plant regeneration through somatic embryogenesis is achieved in four cultivars of carnation (Nelson, Sagres, Spirit and Impulse. Embryogenic calli were induced on petal explants only, all the calli established on leaf, sepal, receptacle and style explants were not embryogenic. Embryogenic calli were obtained on Morashige and Skoog basal medium (1962 containing sucrose 9%, 2.0 mg L-1 2,4-dichlorophenoxy acetic acid (2,4-D, 0.2 mg L-1 6-benzyladenine (BA. After transfer of embryogenic calli to growth regulator free MS medium or medium containing low amount of 2, 4-D (0.2-0.4 mm L-1 resulted in successful somatic embryogenesis. A high frequency (80-85% of Somatic embryo germination and development into normal plantlets was observed on half-strength MS medium supplement with 3% sucrose without growth regulator. About 95% of somatic embryo-derived plantlets were acclimatized in the greenhouse conditions.

  18. Analyse du transcriptome lors de l'embryogenèse précoce chez le Tournesol

    OpenAIRE

    2005-01-01

    Chez les végétaux supérieurs, l’embryogenèse est une phase clé du développement au cours de laquelle l’embryon établit les principales structures qui formeront la future plante et synthétise et accumule des réserves définissant le rendement et la qualité nutritionnelle des graines. La compréhension des évènements moléculaires et physiologiques menant à la formation de la graine est donc d’un intérêt agronomique majeur. Le tournesol (Helianthus annuus L.), qui présente une inflorescence portan...

  19. Mps1 (Monopolar Spindle 1 Protein Inhibition Affects Cellular Growth and Pro-Embryogenic Masses Morphology in Embryogenic Cultures of Araucaria angustifolia (Araucariaceae.

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    Jackellinne C Douétts-Peres

    Full Text Available Somatic embryogenesis has been shown to be an efficient tool for studying processes based on cell growth and development. The fine regulation of the cell cycle is essential for proper embryo formation during the process of somatic embryogenesis. The aims of the present work were to identify and perform a structural and functional characterization of Mps1 and to analyze the effects of the inhibition of this protein on cellular growth and pro-embryogenic mass (PEM morphology in embryogenic cultures of A. angustifolia. A single-copy Mps1 gene named AaMps1 was retrieved from the A. angustifolia transcriptome database, and through a mass spectrometry approach, AaMps1 was identified and quantified in embryogenic cultures. The Mps1 inhibitor SP600125 (10 μM inhibited cellular growth and changed PEMs, and these effects were accompanied by a reduction in AaMps1 protein levels in embryogenic cultures. Our work has identified the Mps1 protein in a gymnosperm species for the first time, and we have shown that inhibiting Mps1 affects cellular growth and PEM differentiation during A. angustifolia somatic embryogenesis. These data will be useful for better understanding cell cycle control during somatic embryogenesis in plants.

  20. The role of 2,4-D and auxin-binding proteins during the induction of embryogenic and non-embryogenic callus in Zea mays (L.).

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bronsema, F.

    1998-01-01

    This thesis deals with the influence of the growth regulator 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D) on the induction of callus in cultured immature embryos of Zea mays (L). In maize, two types of embryogenic callus can be induced in immature zygotic embryos.Type I callus, which is compact in appeara

  1. Factors Affecting Embryogenic Callus Production and Plant Regeneration in Anther Culture of Bupleurum chinense

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    YANG Cheng-min; ZHAO Yu-kai; WEI Jian-he; ZHAO Li-zi; SUI Chun; ZHANG Zheng; CUI Lu-ying

    2011-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the influences of the genotypes,anther developmental stages,and cultural conditions on the efficiency of embryogenic callus induction and plant regeneration in the anthers culture of Bupleurum chinense.Methods The different effects such as four genotypes,plant growth regulators,and temperature condition were compared in the experiments.The histological study was performed with the process of the anther culture.Results The highest inducing rate of embryogenic calli were achieved for the genotypes Zhongcaiyihao(ZCYH),Z4,and Z5 at the early-to middle-uninucleate stages,except for genotype ZPM1 at the tetrad stage.Cold pretreatment increased the production of the embryogenic callus,in which 4-day cold pretreatment improved the production of embryogenic callus from 0% to 2.2% and 5.0% for genotypes ZPM1 and ZCYH,respectively.No embryogenic callus was induced in the medium containing less than 0.75 mg/L 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid(2,4-D).The highest regeneration rate (34.6%)was obtained in 1/2 MS salts regeneration medium supplemented with 0.1 mg/L 6-benzylmaminopurine (BA).The low concentration of BA was able to promote the embryogenic callus formation and subsequent plantlet regeneration via somatic embryogenesis.Chromosome counting of regenerated plantlets showed mostly diploid plant (2n = 12)with only one haploid plant(n = 6).Because of the low rate of microspore embryo formation,we only tracked the process of embryogenesis from the connective tissue,instead of microspore by histological observations.Conclusion This study establishes an efficient system for embryogenic callus induction and plant regeneration system.This is the first report on the haploid plantlet through the anther culture orB.chinense.

  2. Ferula gummosa Boiss. Embryogenic culture and karyological changes.

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    Bernard, Françoise; Bazarnov, Hossein Shaker; Khatab, Leila Javadi; Darabi, Ahmad Shafiei; Sheidai, Massoud

    2007-06-15

    Ferula gummosa Boiss. a highly valuable medicinal plant which naturally propagates in very limited areas of the Middle East with specific environmental conditions. The production of Ferula gummosa somatic embryos and the karyological analysis of somatic seedlings were the purpose of this study. High frequency indirect embryogenesis was induced in callus derived from zygotic embryonic axes. Embryogenesis was obtained when callus tissues were placed onto an agar induction Murashige and Skoog medium with 1-naphthalene acetic acid and after the transfer of the cultures in a thermoperiod regime of 16 h, 19 degrees C/8 h, 7 degrees C under photoperiod of 16 h light/8h dark. Embryogenic callus tissues were maintained by subculture on induction medium. Globular proliferation was achieved with suspension culture in the Murashige and Skoog medium added with 1-naphthalene acetic acid or 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid for two weeks. Maturation of embryos and development of plantlets arose on the induction agar medium, but was better after transfer into the hormone free Murashige and Skoog medium. However, the level of abnormal embryos was high. Direct embryogenesis was obtained from somatic seedlings. The best results were obtained from hypocotyl explants. Embryo induction was achieved by two week culture of the explants in 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid liquid medium; somatic embryo growth and maturation was recovered on the hormone free medium. High level of abnormalities was recorded in the culture. Karyological analysis showed a high incidence level of cytochimerism in somatic seedlings with chromosome stickiness, polypoidy and aneuploidy in metaphase cells of the same root tip. The frequency of these karyological changes varied with the type of somatic embryos with regard to morphological abnormalities. Normal and abnormal rooted somatic seedlings were able to grow until production of the first leaf and then entered dormancy in the same manner as zygotic plantlets.

  3. Extremely rapid increase in fatty acid transport and intramyocellular lipid accumulation but markedly delayed insulin resistance after high fat feeding in rats.

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    Bonen, Arend; Jain, Swati S; Snook, Laelie A; Han, Xiao-Xia; Yoshida, Yuko; Buddo, Kathryn H; Lally, James S; Pask, Elizabeth D; Paglialunga, Sabina; Beaudoin, Marie-Soleil; Glatz, Jan F C; Luiken, Joost J F P; Harasim, Ewa; Wright, David C; Chabowski, Adrian; Holloway, Graham P

    2015-10-01

    The mechanisms for diet-induced intramyocellular lipid accumulation and its association with insulin resistance remain contentious. In a detailed time-course study in rats, we examined whether a high-fat diet increased intramyocellular lipid accumulation via alterations in fatty acid translocase (FAT/CD36)-mediated fatty acid transport, selected enzymes and/or fatty acid oxidation, and whether intramyocellular lipid accretion coincided with the onset of insulin resistance. We measured, daily (on days 1-7) and/or weekly (for 6 weeks), the diet-induced changes in circulating substrates, insulin, sarcolemmal substrate transporters and transport, selected enzymes, intramyocellular lipids, mitochondrial fatty acid oxidation and basal and insulin-stimulated sarcolemmal GLUT4 and glucose transport. We also examined whether upregulating fatty acid oxidation improved glucose transport in insulin-resistant muscles. Finally, in Cd36-knockout mice, we examined the role of FAT/CD36 in intramyocellular lipid accumulation, insulin sensitivity and diet-induced glucose intolerance. Within 2-3 days, diet-induced increases occurred in insulin, sarcolemmal FAT/CD36 (but not fatty acid binding protein [FABPpm] or fatty acid transporter [FATP]1 or 4), fatty acid transport and intramyocellular triacylglycerol, diacylglycerol and ceramide, independent of enzymatic changes or muscle fatty acid oxidation. Diet-induced increases in mitochondria and mitochondrial fatty acid oxidation and impairments in insulin-stimulated glucose transport and GLUT4 translocation occurred much later (≥21 days). FAT/CD36 ablation impaired insulin-stimulated fatty acid transport and lipid accumulation, improved insulin sensitivity and prevented diet-induced glucose intolerance. Increasing fatty acid oxidation in insulin-resistant muscles improved glucose transport. High-fat feeding rapidly increases intramyocellular lipids (in 2-3 days) via insulin-mediated upregulation of sarcolemmal FAT/CD36 and fatty acid

  4. Induction of peroxidases and superoxide dismutases in transformed embryogenic calli of alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Activities of peroxidase (POD) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) enzymes were analyzed in non-regenerative transformed embryogenic lines of alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) carrying wound-inducible oryzacystatin I (OC-I), wound-inducible oryzacystatin I antisense (OC-Ias) or hygromycin phosphotransferase (...

  5. Histology of Organogenic and Embryogenic Responses in Cotyledons of Somatic Embryos of Quercus Suber L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puigderrajols; Celestino; Suils; Toribio; Molinas

    2000-05-01

    In cork oak (Quercus suber L.), recurrent embryogenesis is produced in vitro through autoembryony without exogenous plant growth regulators (PGRs); secondary embryos appear on the embryo axis but seldom on cotyledons. Focusing mainly on the histological origin of neoformations, we investigated the influence of the embryo axis and exogenous PGRs on the embryogenic potential of somatic embryo cotyledons. Isolated cotyledons of somatic embryos became necrotic when cultured on PGR-free medium but gave secondary embryos when cultured on media containing benzyladenine and naphthaleneacetic acid. Cotyledons of cork oak somatic embryos are competent to give embryogenic responses. Isolated cotyledons without a petiole showed a lower percentage of embryogenic response than did those with a petiole. In petioles, somatic embryos arose from inner parenchyma tissues following a multicellular budding pattern. Joined to the embryo axis, cotyledons did not show morphogenic responses when cultured on PGR-free medium but revealed budlike and phylloid formations when cultured on medium with PGRs. The different morphogenic behavior displayed by somatic cotyledons indicates an influence of the embryo axis and indicates a relationship between organogenic and embryogenic regeneration pathways.

  6. The Partition Intervalometer: A Programmable Underwater Timer for Marking Accumulated Sediment Profiles Collected in Anderson Sediment Traps: Development, Operation, Testing Procedures, and Field Results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rendigs, Richard R.; Anderson, Roger Y.; Xu, Jingping; Davis, Raymond E.; Bergeron, Emile M.

    2009-01-01

    This manual illustrates the development of a programmable instrument designed to deploy a series of wafer-shaped discs (partitions) into the collection tube of a sediment trap in various aquatic environments. These hydrodynamically shaped discs are deployed at discrete time intervals from the Intervalometer and provide markers that delineate time intervals within the sediments that accumulate in the collection tube. The timer and mechanical system are lodged in an air-filled, water-tight pressure housing that is vertically hung within the confines of a cone-shaped sediment trap. The instrumentation has been operationally pressure tested to an equivalent water depth of approximately 1 km. Flaws discovered during extensive laboratory and pressure testing resulted in the implementation of several mechanical modifications (such as a redesign of the rotor and the discs) that improved the operation of the rotor assembly as well as the release of discs through the end cap. These results also identified a preferred azimuth placement of the rotor disc relative to the drop hole of the end cap. In the initial field trial, five sediment traps and coupled Intervalometers were attached to moored arrays and deployed at two sites off the coast of Southern California for approximately 8 months. Each of the instruments released 18 discs at the programmed 10 day intervals, except one unit, which experienced a malfunction after approximately 4 months. Most of the discs oriented in a near-horizontal position upon the surface of the sediment in the collection tubes. Sampling of the sediments for geochemical analyses was improved by these clearly defined markers, which indicated the changes in the flux and nature of sediments accumulated during the deployment period of each sediment trap.

  7. Stretch Marks

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... to get rid of stretch marks, but the truth is that most don't work and are ... The Nemours Foundation, iStock, Getty Images, Corbis, Veer, Science Photo Library, Science Source Images, Shutterstock, and Clipart. ...

  8. Stretch marks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stretch marks can appear when there is rapid stretching of the skin. They are often seen when ... often disappear after the cause of the skin stretching is gone. Avoiding rapid weight gain helps reduce ...

  9. Multivesicular Assemblies as Real-World Testbeds for Embryogenic Evolutionary Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hadorn, Maik; Eggenberger Hotz, Peter

    Embryogenic evolution emulates in silico cell-like entities to get more powerful methods for complex evolutionary tasks. As simulations have to abstract from the biological model, implicit information hidden in its physics is lost. Here, we propose to use cell-like entities as a real-world in vitro testbed. In analogy to evolutionary robotics, where solutions evolved in simulations may be tested in real-world on macroscale, the proposed vesicular testbed would do the same for the embryogenic evolutionary tasks on mesoscale. As a first step towards a vesicular testbed emulating growth, cell division, and cell differentiation, we present a modified vesicle production method, providing custom-tailored chemical cargo, and present a novel self-assembly procedure to provide vesicle aggregates of programmable composition.

  10. Plant regeneration from encapsulated embryoids and an embryogenic mass of pistachio, Pistacia vera L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onay, A; Jeffree, C E; Yeoman, M M

    1996-05-01

    Pieces of an embryogenic mass (EMS) induced in culture from immature fruits of pistachio, Pistacia vera L., were encapsulated into calcium alginate beads. Somatic embryos were also encapsulated individually into calcium alginate beads to produce synthetic seeds. The viability of the encapsulated EMS and somatic embryos was investigated immediately following encapsulation, and after storage for 60 days at 4°C. The encapsulated-stored EMS fragments recovered their original proliferative capacity after two months storage following two sub-cultures, but non-encapsulated-stored EMS failed to recover. The conversion frequency of synthetic seeds to seedling plants was 14% after storage for 60 days at 4°C, from which it may be concluded that encapsulation is a practical procedure for short-term storage of embryogenic pistachio tissue, and may be applicable to the preservation of desirable elite genotypes.

  11. High embryogenic ability and regeneration from floral axis of Amorphophallus konjac (Araceae)

    OpenAIRE

    Zhong Lin; Liu Erxi; Yang Chaozhu; Jin Surong; Diao Ying; Hu Zhongli

    2017-01-01

    Amorphophallus konjac (Araceae) a perennial herb, it has high medicinal and industrial value. In this study, a simple and efficient system for direct somatic embryogenesis and plantlet regeneration of Amorphophallus konjac was developed. The floral axis was used as the experimental material. The primary callus, developed from the floral axis grown on Murashige and Skoog (MS) medium supplemented with different hormone combination at different concentrations. The highest rate of embryogenic cal...

  12. Aescin Content in Embryogenic Callus and in Embryoids from Leaf Explants of Aesculus hippocastanum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Profumo, P; Caviglia, A M; Gastaldo, P; Dameri, R M

    1991-02-01

    HPLC determinations of the aescin contents in calli and embryoids from leaf explants of AESCULUS HIPPOCASTANUM L. were carried out in order to determine whether it was possible to obtain aescin-forming proliferations IN VITRO. The results indicate that embryogenic calli and embryoids derived from them produce an amount of active principle higher than that of horse-chestnut seeds. The data are discussed in terms of the relation between tissue differentiation and secondary metabolites biosynthesis.

  13. High embryogenic ability and regeneration from floral axis of Amorphophallus konjac (Araceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhong Lin

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Amorphophallus konjac (Araceae a perennial herb, it has high medicinal and industrial value. In this study, a simple and efficient system for direct somatic embryogenesis and plantlet regeneration of Amorphophallus konjac was developed. The floral axis was used as the experimental material. The primary callus, developed from the floral axis grown on Murashige and Skoog (MS medium supplemented with different hormone combination at different concentrations. The highest rate of embryogenic callus formation was observed on the MS medium containing 9.04 µM 2, 4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2, 4-D and 5.37 µM naphthalene acetic acid (NAA. The maximum induction rate was 79.8%, and the embryogenic calli were able to subculture on a medium containing similar hormone combination for over 1 year. The calli were also placed on different media for regeneration and it produced complete plants with shoots and root systems simultaneously. The highest differentiation rate of the embryogenic calli grown on differentiation medium supplemented with 8.88 µM 6-benzylaminopurine (6-BA and 5.37 µM NAA was 95.6%. Flow cytometry analysis showed no ploidy variation in all the regenerate plantlets.

  14. Induction and characterization of oil palm (Elaeis guineensis Jacq. pro-embryogenic masses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MARLUCIA S. PADUA

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Oil palm is one of the most economically valuable oil seed plants, but the expansion of plantations has been limited by availability of seedlings, as the conventional propagation is through seeds, which have low germination rates. One possible solution for the large-scale production is the use of somatic embryogenesis. The aim of this study was evaluate the effects auxins 2,4-D and picloram on the induction of pro-embryogenic masses in E.guineenesis hybrid leaf explants and characterize, regarding embryogenic characteristics, with cytochemical and ultrastructural analisys. Specifically, in vitro plantlets leaves fragments were inoculated in Y3 culture medium supplemented by 2.4-D or picloram at different concentrations (0.0, 1.0, 3.0, 6.0 and 9.0 mg l–1. After 90 days the presence/ absence of cell masses were evaluated. Both growth regulators efficiently induced cellular masses regardless of the concentrations applied. As the cell masses were not homogeneously formed, they were classified according to color and shape into four types: TYPE 1 - elongated and translucent, TYPE 2 – uneven and translucent, TYPE 3 - globular and beige TYPE 4 – globular and white. Based on the anatomical and ultrastructural features, TYPE 2, 3 and 4 cell masses were considered to have the highest embryogenic potential and therefore may be most suited to large-scale vegetative propagation of oil palm.

  15. Induction and characterization of oil palm (Elaeis guineensis Jacq.) pro-embryogenic masses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pádua, Marlúcia S; Paiva, Luciano V; Labory, Claúdia R G; Alves, Eduardo; Stein, Vanessa C

    2013-01-01

    Oil palm is one of the most economically valuable oil seed plants, but the expansion of plantations has been limited by availability of seedlings, as the conventional propagation is through seeds, which have low germination rates. One possible solution for the large-scale production is the use of somatic embryogenesis. The aim of this study was evaluate the effects auxins 2,4-D and picloram on the induction of pro-embryogenic masses in E.guineenesis hybrid leaf explants and characterize, regarding embryogenic characteristics, with cytochemical and ultrastructural analysis. Specifically, in vitro plantlets leaves fragments were inoculated in Y3 culture medium supplemented by 2.4-D or picloram at different concentrations (0.0, 1.0, 3.0, 6.0 and 9.0 mg l⁻¹). After 90 days the presence/ absence of cell masses were evaluated. Both growth regulators efficiently induced cellular masses regardless of the concentrations applied. As the cell masses were not homogeneously formed, they were classified according to color and shape into four types: TYPE 1--elongated and translucent, TYPE 2--uneven and translucent, TYPE 3--globular and beige, TYPE 4--globular and white. Based on the anatomical and ultrastructural features, TYPE 2, 3 and 4 cell masses were considered to have the highest embryogenic potential and therefore may be most suited to large-scale vegetative propagation of oil palm.

  16. Agrobacterium-mediated genetic transformation of Coffea arabica (L. is greatly enhanced by using established embryogenic callus cultures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lashermes Philippe

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Following genome sequencing of crop plants, one of the main challenges today is determining the function of all the predicted genes. When gene validation approaches are used for woody species, the main obstacle is the low recovery rate of transgenic plants from elite or commercial cultivars. Embryogenic calli have frequently been the target tissue for transformation, but the difficulty in producing or maintaining embryogenic tissues is one of the main problems encountered in genetic transformation of many woody plants, including Coffea arabica. Results We identified the conditions required for successful long-term proliferation of embryogenic cultures in C. arabica and designed a highly efficient and reliable Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated transformation method based on these conditions. The transformation protocol with LBA1119 harboring pBin 35S GFP was established by evaluating the effect of different parameters on transformation efficiency by GFP detection. Using embryogenic callus cultures, co-cultivation with LBA1119 OD600 = 0.6 for five days at 20 °C enabled reproducible transformation. The maintenance conditions for the embryogenic callus cultures, particularly a high auxin to cytokinin ratio, the age of the culture (optimum for 7-10 months of proliferation and the use of a yellow callus phenotype, were the most important factors for achieving highly efficient transformation (> 90%. At the histological level, successful transformation was related to the number of proembryogenic masses present. All the selected plants were proved to be transformed by PCR and Southern blot hybridization. Conclusion Most progress in increasing transformation efficiency in coffee has been achieved by optimizing the production conditions of embryogenic cultures used as target tissues for transformation. This is the first time that a strong positive effect of the age of the culture on transformation efficiency was demonstrated. Our

  17. Efficient procedure for grapevine embryogenic suspension establishment and plant regeneration: role of conditioned medium for cell proliferation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben Amar, A; Cobanov, P; Boonrod, K; Krczal, G; Bouzid, S; Ghorbel, A; Reustle, G M

    2007-09-01

    An efficient system for the establishment and multiplication of highly prolific embryogenic cell cultures of grapevine (Vitis sp.) was developed. Using anther-derived pro-embryogenic masses as starting material, cell suspensions of different grapevine cultivars (Tempranillo, Cabernet-Sauvignon) and rootstocks (Kober 125 AA, Kober 5 BB, 110 Richter) were initiated in liquid medium containing NOA (1.0 mg l(-1)) and BAP (0.25 mg l(-1)) as growth regulators. Conditioned medium was recovered and utilised for establishing new, highly totipotent cell cultures. The suspensions obtained, showed embryogenic competence resulting in somatic embryo induction and subsequent plant regeneration. In this study, a simplified establishment procedure for grapevine embryogenic cell suspension allowing the fast multiplication of embryogenic material is described. Evidence for the promoting effect of the protein fraction derived from conditioned medium, on cell proliferation was found. In bioassays, addition of ss-D: -GlcY affect cell proliferation suggesting that arabinogalactan proteins are required for growth processes in grapevine cell cultures.

  18. Trueness-to-type and agronomic characteristics of Coffea arabica trees micropropagated by the embryogenic cell suspension technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Etienne, H; Bertrand, B

    2001-09-01

    Trueness-to-type and agronomic characteristics of trees of four coffee (Coffea arabica L.) F(1) hybrid clones derived from embryogenic cell suspensions were compared with those of trees produced from in vitro microcuttings. Three types of variants were observed among the 644 trees derived from embryogenic suspensions. Total frequency of the variants was 2.1% for trees originating from embryogenic cell suspensions, whereas no variant was found among the trees produced from microcuttings. The variant known as "thick leaf" had thick leaves, many abnormally starry flowers and low yields of large fruit. The "dwarf" variant was characterized by slow growth and small fruit. The "dwarf peaberry" variant had abnormal seeds in a single cavity, in addition to the "thick leaf" and "dwarf" characteristics. Compared with normal trees, the variants differed in leaf density and number of chloroplasts per guard cell. The variants aside, there were no differences in the main agronomic characteristics between trees produced from embryogenic suspensions and those produced from microcuttings. For all four clones, the trees had vegetative characteristics, productivity, fertility, and bean biochemical, mineral and organoleptic characteristics that were identical to those of the controls. We conclude that it is possible to generate coffee trees commercially with normal agronomic performance from embryogenic suspensions, because the frequency with which somaclonal variants occur is limited.

  19. Determination of abscisic acid and its glucosyl ester in embryogenic callus cultures of Vitis vinifera in relation to the maturation of somatic embryos using a new liquid chromatography-ELISA analysis method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prado, María Jesús; Largo, Asier; Domínguez, Cristina; González, María Victoria; Rey, Manuel; Centeno, María Luz

    2014-06-15

    The levels of abscisic acid (ABA), its conjugate ABA-GE, and IAA were determined in embryogenic calli of Vitis vinifera L. (cv. Mencía) cultured in DM1 differentiation medium, to relate them to the maturation process of somatic embryos. To achieve this goal, we developed an analytical method that included two steps of solid-phase extraction, chromatographic separation by HPLC, ABA-GE hydrolysis, and sensitive ELISA quantification. Because the ABA immunoassay was based on new polyclonal antibodies raised against a C4'-ABA conjugate, the assay was characterized (detection limit, midrange, measure range, and cross-reaction) and validated by a comparison of the ABA data obtained with this ELISA procedure and with a physicochemical method (LC-ESI-MS/MS). Radioactive-labeled internal standards were initially added to callus extracts to correct the losses of plant hormones, and thus assure the accuracy of the measurements. The endogenous concentration of ABA in the embryogenic callus cultured in DM1 medium was doubled at the fifth week of culture, concurring with the maturation process of somatic embryos, as indicated by the accumulation of carbohydrates observed through histological analysis. The ABA-GE content was higher than ABA, decreasing at 21 days of culture in DM1 medium but increasing thereafter. The data suggest the involvement of the synthesis and conjugation of ABA in the final stages of development in grapevine somatic embryos from embryogenic callus. IAA levels were low, suggesting that auxin plays no significant role during the maturation of somatic embryos. In addition, the lower ABA levels in calli cultured in DM differentiation medium with PGRs, a medium presenting high precocious germination and deficiencies in somatic embryo development indicate that an increase in ABA content during the development of somatic embryos in grapevine is necessary for their correct maturation. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  20. [Massive multiplication of coffee (Coffee arabica L. cv. Catimor) through embryogenic cell suspension culture].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flermoso-Gallardo, L; Menóndez-Yuffá, A

    2000-01-01

    Cell suspensions offer several advantages as a system for massive propagation because of the high rates of multiplication, the higher homogeneity in the culture conditions and the possibility of automatization. In this study, different experimental conditions were analyzed to establish embryogenic cell suspension cultures of coffee. The best conditions to establish the embryogenic cell suspension cultures of coffee were as follows: coffee leaf sections were cultivated during 12 weeks (Stage I) in a solid medium with the Murashige and Skoog salts, 2 mg/l kinetin and 0.5 mg/l 2,4-dichlorophenoxiacetic acid (medium 1). Under these conditions the explants formed a callus tissue that was transferred to a liquid medium containing 5 mg/l of 6-benzylamlno-purine (medium 2). After 12 days in a shaking liquid medium (Stage II), the cultures were sieved and were maintained In the same media, which was renewed every eight days (Stage III). This method yielded 1884 embryos in 50 ml; placing the embryos under conditions for germination yielded plantlets of normal appearance.

  1. Digitonin-aided loading of Fluo-3 into embryogenic plant cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timmers, A C; Reiss, H D; Schel, J H

    1991-07-01

    This paper describes a method to load embryogenic plant cells with Fluo-3 in its cell impermeant form with the aid of digitonin. Attempts to load cells with Fluo-3/AM were all unsuccessful. Presumably the indicator is cleaved outside the cells and cannot penetrate in its acidic form. At a low pH, Fluo-3 enters the plant cells but normal Ca2+ homeostasis seems to be disturbed. Successful loading of Fluo-3 was achieved by adding 0.1% digitonin during incubation with the Ca(2+)-indicator. A bright fluorescence was observed in the epidermal layer of heart and torpedo shaped somatic embryos of carrot with confocal scanning laser microscopy. Vacuoles were always without fluorescence which indicates that the dye, after loading, remains in the cytosol and does not leak out. The fluorescence intensity was sensitive to treatments with A23187 and EGTA. We conclude that Fluo-3 can be effectively loaded, with the aid of digitonin, into plant embryogenic cells in liquid culture. Therefore, we expect this technique to be very useful for the study of changes in cytosolic free Ca2+ levels during plant growth and development.

  2. Embryogenic callus formation in Dioscorea rotundata Poir cv. `Blanco de Guinea'

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dayana Rodríguez González

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Yam contributes to energy and nutritional requirements of most of the population of developing countries. However, their extensive culture is constrained by the limited availability of planting material with physiological and sanitary quality, and also part of the harvesting is used as seed in the next planting. For this reason, it is necessary to establish a methodology for plant regeneration and somatic embryogenesis could facilitate their micropropagation and genetic improvement. This study aimed to form embryogenic callus in Dioscorea rotundata Poir cv. `White Guinea'. The effect of the addition of 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D (0, 1.0, 2.0 and 4.0 mg l-1 was determined, in combination with three types of explants from in vitro plants (leaves petiole, petiole segments and root sections. The highest percentage of embryogenic callus was obtained with 1.0 mg l-1 2,4-D and leaves with petiole as explants. These were characterized by the presence of compact whitish nodules. Key words: 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid, somatic embryogenesis, micropropagation, yam

  3. Cryopreservation of embryogenic cultures from mature Quercus suber trees using vitrification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valladares, Silvia; Toribio, Mariano; Celestino, Cristina; Vieitez, Ana M

    2004-01-01

    Recent progress in somatic embryogenesis from selected mature trees of Quercus suber, has led to a demand for maintenance of a large number of selected embryogenic lines. To facilitate the management of this material a protocol for the long-term storage of this germplasm should be defined. This study reports on the use of a simple vitrification procedure for the successful cryopreservation of three cork oak embryogenic lines. High embryo recovery levels (88-93 percent) were obtained by first preculturing 2-4 mg clumps of two or three globular embryos on semisolid medium containing 0.3 M sucrose for three days, followed by incubation in PVS2 vitrification solution at 0 degree C for 60 min before direct immersion in liquid nitrogen. The mean number of embryos produced per explant was significantly greater for cryostored embryos than for untreated stock cultures, but the productivity of the latter was recovered in subsequent subcultures of the material produced by cryostored embryos. The germination and plant regeneration rates achieved by cultures derived from cryostored embryos, around 60 percent, were similar to those of non-cryopreserved stock cultures.

  4. Induction and Genetic Identification of Embryogenic Calli from Hybrids of Shatian Pummelo

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SONG Jian-kun; DENG Xiu-xin

    2006-01-01

    Shatian pummelo (Citrus grandis L. Osbeck cv. Shatian) is an elite variety in China, and the regeneration of the embryogenic callus is difficult. Diploid Shatian pummelo was used as the female and crossed with the al lotetraploid somatic hybrid NS (Nova Tangelo + Succari Sweet orange), [ ( C reticulata Blanco × C. paradisi Macf.) cv. Nova + C sinensis L. Osbeck cv.Succari]. About 90 days after pollination, the embryos obtained from crosses were cultured on the solid media of MT + ME (malt extraction, 500 mg L-1) and MT + GA3 (1 mg L-1). The embryogenic callus was initiated from the embryoids and plantlets' hypocotyls and could be subcultured. Flow cytometry and SSR analysis verified that the callus was from the triploid hybrids. The callus had embryogenesis capacity and produced a large number of embryoids on MT + Lactose (50 g L-1) medium after being subcultured for two years. It is comparatively easier to obtain the callus from the hybrid embryo than from Shatian pummelo itself. The callus is valuable for the conservation and utilization of Shatian pummelo.

  5. Changes in the Metabolome of Picea balfouriana Embryogenic Tissues That Were Linked to Different Levels of 6-BAP by Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Q F; Wang, J H; Pulkkinen, P; Kong, L S

    2015-01-01

    Embryogenic cultures of Picea balfouriana, which is an important commercial species for reforestation in Southern China, easily lose their embryogenic ability during long-term culture. Embryogenic tissue that proliferated at lower concentrations (3.6 μM and 2.5 μM) of 6-benzylaminopurine (6-BAP) were more productive, and generated 113 ± 6 and 89 ± 3 mature embryos per 100 mg embryogenic tissue, respectively. A metabolomic approach was used to study the changes in metabolites linked to embryogenic competence related to three different 6-BAP concentrations (2.5 μM, 3.6 μM, and 5 μM). A total of 309 compounds were obtained, among which 123 metabolites mapped to Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and genomes (KEGG) pathways. The levels of 35 metabolites were significantly differentially regulated among the three 6-BAP treatments, and 32 metabolites differed between the 2.5 μM and 5 μM treatments. A total of 17 metabolites appeared only once among the three comparisons. The combination of a score plot and a loading plot showed that in the samples with higher embryogenic ability (3.6 μM and 2.5 μM), up-regulated metabolites were mostly amino acids and down-regulated metabolites were mostly primary carbohydrates (especially sugars). These results suggested that 6-BAP may influence embryogenic competence by nitrogen metabolism, which could cause an increase in amino acid levels and higher amounts of aspartate, isoleucine, and leucine in tissues with higher embryogenic ability. Furthermore, we speculated that 6-BAP may affect the amount of tryptophan in tissues, which would change the indole-3-acetic acid levels and influence the embryogenic ability.

  6. Changes in the Metabolome of Picea balfouriana Embryogenic Tissues That Were Linked to Different Levels of 6-BAP by Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry Approach.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Q F Li

    Full Text Available Embryogenic cultures of Picea balfouriana, which is an important commercial species for reforestation in Southern China, easily lose their embryogenic ability during long-term culture. Embryogenic tissue that proliferated at lower concentrations (3.6 μM and 2.5 μM of 6-benzylaminopurine (6-BAP were more productive, and generated 113 ± 6 and 89 ± 3 mature embryos per 100 mg embryogenic tissue, respectively. A metabolomic approach was used to study the changes in metabolites linked to embryogenic competence related to three different 6-BAP concentrations (2.5 μM, 3.6 μM, and 5 μM. A total of 309 compounds were obtained, among which 123 metabolites mapped to Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and genomes (KEGG pathways. The levels of 35 metabolites were significantly differentially regulated among the three 6-BAP treatments, and 32 metabolites differed between the 2.5 μM and 5 μM treatments. A total of 17 metabolites appeared only once among the three comparisons. The combination of a score plot and a loading plot showed that in the samples with higher embryogenic ability (3.6 μM and 2.5 μM, up-regulated metabolites were mostly amino acids and down-regulated metabolites were mostly primary carbohydrates (especially sugars. These results suggested that 6-BAP may influence embryogenic competence by nitrogen metabolism, which could cause an increase in amino acid levels and higher amounts of aspartate, isoleucine, and leucine in tissues with higher embryogenic ability. Furthermore, we speculated that 6-BAP may affect the amount of tryptophan in tissues, which would change the indole-3-acetic acid levels and influence the embryogenic ability.

  7. Crescimento de calos embriogênicos de milho submetidos ao estresse salino Embryogenic callus growth of maize submitted to salt stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Josabete Salgueiro Bezerra

    2001-06-01

    Full Text Available A salinidade do solo é um problema muito importante em áreas irrigadas do semi-árido brasileiro, onde o milho é uma cultura de subsistência. Este trabalho teve como objetivo estudar o efeito de concentrações de NaCl sobre calos embriogênicos, da cultivar Jatinã C3 Anão, uma importante cultivar de milho no Nordeste do Brasil. A indução dos calos foi feita a partir de embriões imaturos assepticamente retirados das sementes e inoculados em meio de cultura N6 suplementado com 2 mg L-1 de 2,4-D. Os calos embriogênicos foram submetidos a diferentes concentrações de cloreto de sódio (0; 50; 100; 150 e 200 mmol L-1 de NaCl, com três repetições durante 60 dias. Os calos submetidos a 100 mmol L-1 de NaCl apresentaram aumento no conteúdo de prolina na ordem de 37% quando comparado com o nível de 50 mmol L-1 de NaCl, sugerindo um efeito positivo da acumulação deste aminoácido em resposta ao estresse salino. Por outro lado, em elevadas concentrações salinas (150 e 200 mmol L-1 observou-se decréscimo no crescimento dos calos, bem como redução nos teores de prolina, provavelmente em função de um aumento da fração não embriogênica dos calos.Soil salinity is a very important problem in irrigated areas of the brazilian semi-arid area, where maize is a subsistence crop. To study the effect of NaCl concentrations in embryogenic calli of Jatinã C3 Anão, an important maize cultivar of the Northest of Brazil, calli were induced using immature embryos aseptically removed from the seeds and grown on N6 medium supplemented with 2 mg L-1 of 2,4-D. To study the effect of salinity in vitro, embryogenic calli were subjected to different concentrations of sodium chloride (0; 50; 100; 150 and 200 mmol L-1 of NaCl, in three replicates, during 60 days. Calli subjected up to100 mmol L-1 NaCl showed proline concentration 37% higher than callus treated with 50 mmol L-1 NaCl. This result suggests a positive effect of proline accumulation at salt

  8. Plant regeneration of grapevine (Vitis sp.) protoplasts isolated from embryogenic tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reustle, G; Harst, M; Alleweldt, G

    1995-12-01

    Protoplasts with high embryogenic competence could be isolated from leaf-disk-derived embryos and embryoids of Vitis sp. cv. Seyval blanc. After a 4-week induction treatment in NN-69 medium supplemented with 4.0mg/l naphthoxyacetic acid (NOA) and 0.9mg/l thidiazuron (TDZ) and subsequent subcultivation in hormone-free medium, 38.5% of the developed microcalluses showed somatic embryogenesis. In contrast, only few formed somatic embryos after induction in CPW-13 medium with either 1.0mg/l 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid and 0.5mg/l benzylaminopurine treatment (13.8%) or NOA/TDZ treatment (1.4%). Up to 30% of these embryos germinated and about half of them regenerated into typical in vitro grapevines when transferred onto LS-medium in culture tubes.

  9. Formation and excretion of autophagic plastids (plastolysomes in Brassica napus embryogenic microspores

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    Veronica eParra-Vega

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The change in developmental fate of microspores reprogrammed towards embryogenesis is a complex but fascinating experimental system where microspores undergo dramatic changes derived from the developmental switch. After 40 years of study of the ultrastructural changes undergone by the induced microspores, many questions are still open. In this work, we analyzed the architecture of DNA-containing organelles such as plastids and mitochondria in samples of B. napus isolated microspore cultures covering the different stages before, during and after the developmental switch. Mitochondria presented a conventional oval or sausage-like morphology for all cell types studied, similar to that found in vivo in other cell types from vegetative parts. Similarly, plastids of microspores before induction and of non-induced cells showed conventional architectures. However, approximately 40% of the plastids of embryogenic microspores presented atypical features such as curved profiles, protrusions, and internal compartments filled with cytoplasm. Three-dimensional reconstructions confirmed that these plastids actually engulf cytoplasm regions, isolating them from the rest of the cell. Acid phosphatase activity was found in them, confirming the lytic activity of these organelles. In addition, digested plastid-like structures were found excreted to the apoplast. All these phenomena seemed transient, since microspore-derived embryos showed conventional plastids. Together, these results strongly suggested that under special circumstances, such as those of the androgenic switch, plastids of embryogenic microspores behave as autophagic plastids (plastolysomes, engulfing cytoplasm for digestion, and then are excreted out of the cytoplasm as part of a cleaning program necessary for microspores to become embryos.

  10. An embryogenic suspension cell culture system for Agrobacterium-mediated transformation of citrus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dutt, M; Grosser, J W

    2010-11-01

    A method for the genetic transformation of several citrus cultivars is described, including cultivars observed to be recalcitrant to conventional epicotyl-mediated transformation. Embryogenic cell suspension cultures, established from unfertilized ovules were used as target tissues for Agrobacterium-mediated transformation. Several modifications were made to the culture environment to investigate factors required for efficient transfer of the T-DNA and the subsequent regeneration of transgenic citrus plants. It was determined that co-cultivation of citrus cells and Agrobacterium in EME medium supplemented with maltose (EME-M) and 100 μM acetosyringone for 5 days at 25°C was optimum for transformation of each of the citrus cultivars. Efficient selection was obtained and escapes were prevented when the antibiotic hygromycin B was used as a selection antibiotic following transformation with an Agrobacterium strain containing hptII in the T-DNA region. Transgenic embryo regeneration and development was enhanced in medium that contained a liquid overlay consisting of a 1:2 mixture of 0.6 M BH3 and 0.15 M EME-M media. PCR and Southern blot analyses confirmed the presence of the T-DNA and the stable integration into the genome of regenerated plants, while RT-PCR demonstrated variable amounts of RNA being transcribed in different transgenic lines. This protocol can create an avenue for insertion of useful traits into any polyembryonic citrus cultivar that can be established as embryogenic cell suspension cultures, including popular specialty mandarins and seedless cultivars.

  11. Transcriptional profiling of genes involved in embryogenic, non-embryogenic calluses and somatic embryogenesis of Valencia sweet orange by SSH-based microarray.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ge, Xiao-Xia; Chai, Li-Jun; Liu, Zheng; Wu, Xiao-Meng; Deng, Xiu-Xin; Guo, Wen-Wu

    2012-10-01

    Somatic embryogenesis (SE) is a most promising technology that is used for in vitro germplasm conservation and genetic improvement via biotechnological approaches in citrus. Herein, three suppression subtractive hybridization (SSH) libraries were constructed using calluses of Citrus sinensis cv. 'Valencia' to explore the molecular mechanisms that underlie the SE in citrus. A total of 880 unisequences were identified by microarray screening based on these three SSH libraries. Gene ontology analysis of the differentially expressed genes indicated that nucleolus associated regulation and biogenesis processes, hormone signal transduction, and stress factors might be involved in SE. Transcription factors might also play an important role. LEC1/B3 domain regulatory network genes (LEC1, L1L, FUS3, ABI3, and ABI5) were isolated in citrus SE. Some new transcription factors associated with citrus SE, like a B3 domain containing gene and HB4, were identified. To understand the influence of these isolated genes on SE competence, their expression profiles were compared among callus lines of seven citrus cultivars with different SE competence. The expression dynamics suggested that these genes could be necessary for the SE initiation and might play a role in embryogenic competence maintenance in different cultivars. On the basis of gene expression profiles, an overview of major physiological and biosynthesis processes at different developmental stages during citrus SE is presented. For the first time, these data provide a global resource for transcriptional events important for SE in citrus, and the specific genes offer new information for further investigation on citrus SE maintenance and development.

  12. The effects of nitrogen and potassium nutrition on the growth of nonembryogenic and embryogenic tissue of sweet orange (Citrus sinensis (L. Osbeck

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    Evens Terence J

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Mineral nutrients are one of the most basic components of plant tissue culture media. Nitrogen in the form of NH4+ and NO3- is the dominant mineral nutrient in most plant tissue culture formulations, with effects dependent on both the proportion and the amount of NH4+ and NO3-. The effects of nitrogen nutrition on the growth of nonembryogenic and embryogenic cell lines of sweet orange (C. sinensis (L. Osbeck cv. 'Valencia', tissues routinely used in citrus horticultural and plant improvement research, was explored using an experimental approach free of ion confounding that included a 2-component mixture (NH4+:K+ and a quantitative factor [NO3-] crossed by the mixture, thereby providing ion-specific estimates of proportional and amount effects. Results First, the linear mixture component, though only a comparison of the design space vertices, was highly significant for both tissue types and showed that NH4+ was required by both tissues. Second, the NH4+ * K+ mixture term was highly significant for both tissue types, revealing that NH4+ and K+ exhibit strong synergistic blending and showed that growth was substantially greater at certain blends of these two ions. Third, though the interaction between the NH4+:K+ mixture and NO3- amount on fresh weight accumulation for both tissue types was significant, it was substantially less than the main effect of the NH4+:K+ mixture. Fourth, a region of the design space was identified where fresh weight growth was increased 198% and 67% over the MS medium controls for nonembryogenic and embryogenic tissues. Conclusion By designing a mineral nutrient experiment free of ion confounding, a direct estimation of ion-specific proportional and amount effects on plant tissue growth is possible. When the ions themselves are the independent factors and/or mixture components, the resulting design space can be systematically explored to identify regions where the response(s is substantially improved

  13. Decreased GmAGL15 expression and reduced ethylene synthesis may contribute to reduced somatic embryogenesis in a poorly embryogenic cultivar of Glycine max.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Qiaolin; Zheng, Yumei; Perry, Sharyn E

    2013-09-01

    Somatic embryogenesis (SE) is the process by which cells become dedifferentiated and reprogram to follow an embryogenic pathway. It is important for regeneration of transgenic plants as well as for propagation of certain genotypes. However, competence for SE varies, even among genotypes of a species, and the basis for this variation is not understood. We have found that the MADS-box transcription factor (Glycine max) AGAMOUS-Like 15 [(Gm)AGL15] promotes SE in Arabidopsis and in soybean when overexpressed. In soybean, part of the promotion of SE is via GmAGL15-mediated control of ethylene biosynthesis and response. Addition of ACC, the precursor to ethylene, to culture media enhanced SE in Arabidopsis and soybean. Transcription factors important for embryogenesis responded directly to GmAGL15 and to ethylene accumulation. Here we correlate ethylene production and patterns of gene expression with SE potential of soybean genotypes. However, other results indicate that there is not a complete positive correlation between ethylene production and SE, indicating that the interactions between hormones, gene expression and developmental outcomes are complex.

  14. A reliable protocol for the stable transformation of non-embryogenic cells cultures of grapevine (Vitis vinifera L. and Taxus x media

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    Ascensión Martínez-Márquez

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available One of the major intent of metabolic engineering in cell culture systems is to increase yields of secondary metabolites. Efficient transformation methods are a priority to successfully apply metabolic engineering to cell cultures of plants that produce bioactive or therapeutic compounds, such as Vitis vinifera and Taxus x media. The aim of this study was to establish a reliable method to transform non-embryogenic cell cultures of these species. The V. vinifera cv. Gamay/cv. Monastrell cell lines and Taxus x media were used for Agrobacterium-mediated transformation using the Gateway-compatible Agrobacterium sp. binary vector system for fast reliable DNA cloning. The Taxus x media and Vitis cell lines were maintained in culture for more than 4 and 15 months, respectively, with no loss of reporter gene expression or antibiotic resistance. The introduced genes had no discernible effect on cell growth, or led to extracellular accumulation of phytoalexin trans-Resveratrol (t-R in response to elicitation with methylated cyclodextrins (MBCD and methyl jasmonate (MeJA in the grapevine transgenic cell lines compared to the parental control. The method described herein provides an excellent tool to exploit exponentially growing genomic resources to enhance, optimize or diversify the production of bioactive compounds generated by grapevine and yew cell cultures, and offers a better understanding of many grapevine and yew biology areas.

  15. Characterization of the Embryogenic Tissue of the Norway Spruce Including a Transition Layer between the Tissue and the Culture Medium by Magnetic Resonance Imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kořínek, R.; Mikulka, J.; Hřib, J.; Hudec, J.; Havel, L.; Bartušek, K.

    2017-02-01

    The paper describes the visualization of the cells (ESEs) and mucilage (ECMSN) in an embryogenic tissue via magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) relaxometry measurement combined with the subsequent multi-parametric segmentation. The computed relaxometry maps T1 and T2 show a thin layer (transition layer) between the culture medium and the embryogenic tissue. The ESEs, mucilage, and transition layer differ in their relaxation times T1 and T2; thus, these times can be used to characterize the individual parts within the embryogenic tissue. The observed mean values of the relaxation times T1 and T2 of the ESEs, mucilage, and transition layer are as follows: 1469 ± 324 and 53 ± 10 ms, 1784 ± 124 and 74 ± 8 ms, 929 ± 164 and 32 ± 4.7 ms, respectively. The multi-parametric segmentation exploiting the T1 and T2 relaxation times as a classifier shows the distribution of the ESEs and mucilage within the embryogenic tissue. The discussed T1 and T2 indicators can be utilized to characterize both the growth-related changes in an embryogenic tissue and the effect of biotic/abiotic stresses, thus potentially becoming a distinctive indicator of the state of any examined embryogenic tissue.

  16. Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated transformation of embryogenic tissue and transgenic plant regeneration in Chamaecyparis obtusa Sieb. et Zucc.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taniguchi, T; Kurita, M; Ohmiya, Y; Kondo, T

    2005-03-01

    A genetic transformation procedure for Chamaecyparis obtusa was developed after co-cultivation of embryogenic tissues with disarmed Agrobacterium tumefaciens strain C58/pMP90, which harbours the sgfp (synthetic green fluorescent protein) visual reporter and nptII (neomycin phoshotransferase II) selectable marker genes. The highest transformation frequency was 22.5 independent transformed lines per dish (250 mg embryogenic tissue) following selection on kanamycin medium. Transgenic plantlets were regenerated through the maturation and germination of somatic embryos. The intensity of GFP fluorescence, observed under a fluorescence microscope, varied from very faint to relatively strong, depending on the transgenic line or part of the transgenic plant. The integration of the genes into the genome of regenerated plantlets was confirmed by Southern blot analysis.

  17. [Establishment of embryogenic cell suspension culture and plant regeneration of edible banana Musa acuminata cv. Mas (AA)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Yue-Rong; Huang, Xue-Lin; Li, Jia; Huang, Xia; Li, Zhe; Li, Xiao-Ju

    2005-01-01

    Conventional breeding for dual resistance of disease and pest of Musa cultivars remains a difficult endeavor, as the plant is polyploidic and high in sterility. Biotechnological techniques, eg., genetic engineering, in vitro mutation breeding, or protoplast fusion, may overcome the difficulties and improve the germplasm. Establishment of a stable embryogenic cell suspension (ECS) is a prerequisite for any of the biotechnological breeding methods. In this study an embryogenic cell suspension was established from immature male flower of Musa acuminata cv. Mas (AA), a popular commercial variety of banana in the South-East Asian region. After culture for 5-6 months on callus induction media, which consisted of MS salts, different concentrations of 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D), 4.1 micromol/L biotin, 5.7 micromol/L indoleacetic acid (IAA), 5.4 micromol/L naphthaleneacetic acid (NAA), other vitamins, 87 mmol/L sucrose, and solidified with 7 g/L agarose, meristematic globules and yellow, friable embryogenic cultures were induced from the explants of 1-15th row young floral hands of immature male flowers. Of the four treatments of 2,4-D, 9 micromol/L was the most effective on the callus induction, it transformed 40.96% and 7.45% of the cultivated male floral hands into callus and embryogenic callus respectively. The explants to produce highest frequency of the embryogenic calli were floral hands of 6 to 12th rows, which generated 5.79% of the embryogenic calli. Suspension cultures were initiated from these embryogenic calli in liquid medium supplemented with 4.5 micromol/L 2, 4-D. After sieving selection of the cultures using a stainless steel metallic strainer with pore sizes of 154 microm at 15 day intervals for 3 months, homogeneous and yellow embryogenic cell suspensions, composed of single cells and small cell aggregates, were established. Based upon the growth quantity and growth rate of ECS, it was determined that the appropriate inoculum was 2.0 mL PCV

  18. Microarray analysis of siberian ginseng cyclic somatic embryogenesis culture systems provides insight into molecular mechanisms of embryogenic cell cluster generation.

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    Chenguang Zhou

    Full Text Available Four systems of cyclic somatic embryogenesis of Siberian ginseng (Eleutherococcus senticosus Maxim were used to study the mechanism of embryonic cell cluster generation. The first, direct somatic embryo induction (DSEI, generates secondary embryos directly from the primary somatic embryos; the second, direct embryogenic cell cluster induction (DEC, induces embryogenic cell clusters directly from somatic embryos in agar medium. Subsequently, we found that when DEC-derived somatic embryos are transferred to suspension culture or a bioreactor culture, only somatic embryos are induced, and embryogenic cell clusters cannot form. Therefore, these new lines were named DEC cultured by liquid medium (ECS and DEC cultured by bioreactor (ECB, respectively. Transmission electron microscopy showed that DEC epidermal cells contained a variety of inclusions, distinct from other lines. A cDNA library of DEC was constructed, and 1,948 gene clusters were obtained and used as probes. RNA was prepared from somatic embryos from each of the four lines and hybridized to a microarray. In DEC, 7 genes were specifically upregulated compared with the other three lines, and 4 genes were downregulated. EsXTH1 and EsPLT1, which were among the genes upregulated in DEC, were cloned using the rapid amplification of cDNA ends (RACE. Real-time quantitative PCR showed EsXTH1 was more highly expressed in DEC than in other lines throughout the culture cycle, and EsPLT1 expression in DEC increased as culture duration increased, but remained at a low expression level in other lines. These results suggest that EsXTH1 and EsPLT1 may be the essential genes that play important roles during the induction of embryogenic cell clusters.

  19. Embryogenic Callus Induction of Pencil Orchid (Papilionanthe hookeriana Rchb.f. Through in Vitro Culture

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    Atra Romeida

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Papilionthe hookeriana  Rchb.f.  (Orchidaceae,  popularly known as ‘Anggrek Pinsil’  in Indonesia, is a perennial ephiphyte orchid, found only at Dendam Tak Sudah Lake in Bengkulu. The aims of this research were to find the best sterilization technique of P.  hookeriana explant and to induce maximum formation of embryogenic calli. Rapid multiplication of this orchid was achieved through culture of shoot tips and young leaf segments of mature plants by in vitro cultured on Murashige and Skoog (MS basal medium  enriched with 50 g L-1 banana pulp.    The experiment used Completely Randomized Design (CRD with three replications. In the first stage, the explants were sterilized using three compositions of sterilant. In the second stage, the explants were planted on the MS basal medium with addition of five levels of 2,4-Diclhorophenoxy Acetis Acid concentrations, namely 0, 0.25,  0.50, 0.75, and 1.00 mg L-1.  The result showed that the best sterilization method to reduce explant contaminant  was method 3, in which the explant  was washed with detergent, rinsed with flowing water, soaked in 0.1%  (v/v HgCl2 solution for 30 minutes, soaked again in the 10% (v/v Natrium hypocloride solution for 20 minutes,  rinsed three times with sterile water before planted and then soaked in  sterile  water + 10% (v/v  betadhine before planted on treated medium. This method was able to reduce contamination levels up to 70% from explants cultured for 5 months on MS medium.  MS medium added with 1.00 mg L-1 2,4-D produced the highest number of embryogenic calli, and the biggest callus diameter ( 3.5 cm , characterized by  transparent green color and  friable callus structure

  20. Differential proteomic analysis of embryogenic lines in oil palm (Elaeis guineensis Jacq).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Hooi Sin; Liddell, Susan; Ong Abdullah, Meilina; Wong, Wei Chee; Chin, Chiew Foan

    2016-06-30

    Oil palm tissue culture is one way to produce superior oil palm planting materials. However, the low rate of embryogenesis is a major hindrance for the adoption of this technology in oil palm tissue culture laboratories. In this study, we use proteomic technologies to compare differential protein profiles in leaves from palms of high and low proliferation rates in tissue culture in order to understand the underlying biological mechanism for the low level of embryogenesis. Two protein extraction methods, namely trichloroacetic acid/acetone precipitation and polyethylene glycol fractionation were used to produce total proteins and fractionated protein extracts respectively, with the aim of improving the resolution of protein species using two-dimensional gel electrophoresis. A total of 40 distinct differential abundant protein spots were selected from leaf samples collected from palms with proven high and low proliferation rates. The variant proteins were subsequently identified using mass spectrometric analysis. Twelve prominent protein spots were then characterised using real-time polymerase chain reaction to compare the mRNA expression and protein abundant profiles. Three proteins, namely triosephosphate isomerase, l-ascorbate peroxidase, and superoxide dismutase were identified to be potential biomarker candidates at both the protein abundant and mRNA expression levels. In this study, proteomic analysis was used to identify abundant proteins from total protein extracts. PEG fractionation was used to reveal lower abundant proteins from both high and low proliferation embryogenic lines of oil palm samples in tissue culture. A total of 40 protein spots were found to be significant in abundance and the mRNA levels of 12 of these were assessed using real time PCR. Three proteins namely, triosephosphate isomerase, l-ascorbate peroxidase and superoxide dismutase were found to be concordant in their mRNA expression and protein abundance. Triosephosphate isomerase is a

  1. The involvement of PUMP from mitochondria of Araucaria angustifolia embryogenic cells in response to cold stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valente, Caroline; Pasqualim, Patrícia; Jacomasso, Thiago; Maurer, Juliana Bello Baron; Souza, Emanuel Maltempi de; Martinez, Glaucia Regina; Rocha, Maria Eliane Merlin; Carnieri, Eva Gunilla Skare; Cadena, Sílvia Maria Suter Correia

    2012-12-01

    In this study, the responses of plant uncoupling mitochondrial protein (PUMP) and alternative oxidase (AOX) in mitochondria from embryogenic cells of A. angustifolia subjected to cold stress (4°C for 24 h or 48 h) is reported. In the mitochondria of stressed cells, PUMP activity increased by approximately 45% (at 24h and 48 h), which was determined by measuring the oxygen consumption after the addition of linoleic acid and the inhibition by BSA and ATP. PUMP activation was confirmed using transmembrane electrical potential (Δψ) assays. Immunoblot assays showed an increase of PUMP expression by 40% and 150% after 24h and 48 h of cold stress, respectively. AOX activity, measured under conditions similar to those of the PUMP assays, was only slightly increased in the mitochondria from stressed cells (at 24h and 48 h), as demonstrated by oxygen consumption experiments. Cell viability was unaffected by cold stress, indicating that the effects on PUMP and AOX were not caused by cell death. These results show that the main response of this gymnosperm to cold stress is the activation of PUMP, which suggests that this protein may be involved in the control of reactive oxygen species generation, which has been previously associated with this condition.

  2. Sexually mature transgenic American chestnut trees via embryogenic suspension-based transformation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrade, Gisele M; Nairn, Campbell J; Le, Huong T; Merkle, Scott A

    2009-09-01

    The availability of a system for direct transfer of anti-fungal candidate genes into American chestnut (Castanea dentata), devastated by a fungal blight in the last century, would offer an alternative or supplemental approach to conventional breeding for production of chestnut trees resistant to the blight fungus and other pathogens. By taking advantage of the strong ability of embryogenic American chestnut cultures to proliferate in suspension, a high-throughput Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated transformation protocol for stable integration of foreign genes into the tree was established. Proembryogenic masses (PEMs) were co-cultivated with A. tumefaciens strain AGL1 harboring the plasmid pCAMBIA 2301, followed by stringent selection with 50 or 100 mg/l Geneticin. A protocol employing size-fractionation to enrich for small PEMs to use as target material and selection in suspension culture was applied to rapidly produce transgenic events with an average efficiency of four independent transformation events per 50 mg of target tissue and minimal escapes. Mature somatic embryos, representing 18 transgenic events and derived from multiple American chestnut target genotypes, were germinated and over 100 transgenic somatic seedlings were produced and acclimatized to greenhouse conditions. Multiple vigorous transgenic somatic seedlings produced functional staminate flowers within 3 years following regeneration.

  3. Agrobacterium-mediated transformation of friable embryogenic calli and regeneration of transgenic cassava.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bull, S E; Owiti, J A; Niklaus, M; Beeching, J R; Gruissem, W; Vanderschuren, H

    2009-01-01

    Agrobacterium-mediated transformation of friable embryogenic calli (FEC) is the most widely used method to generate transgenic cassava plants. However, this approach has proven to be time-consuming and can lead to changes in the morphology and quality of FEC, influencing regeneration capacity and plant health. Here we present a comprehensive, reliable and improved protocol, taking approximately 6 months, that optimizes Agrobacterium-mediated transformation of FEC from cassava model cultivar TMS60444. We cocultivate the FEC with Agrobacterium directly on the propagation medium and adopt the extensive use of plastic mesh for easy and frequent transfer of material to new media. This minimizes stress to the FEC cultures and permits a finely balanced control of nutrients, hormones and antibiotics. A stepwise increase in antibiotic concentration for selection is also used after cocultivation with Agrobacterium to mature the transformed FEC before regeneration. The detailed information given here for each step should enable successful implementation of this technology in other laboratories, including those being established in developing countries where cassava is a staple crop.

  4. PHYSIOLOGICAL AND BIOCHEMICAL CHANGES IN DIFFERENT KINDS OF  EMBRYOGENIC CALLUS AND NON\\|EMBRYOGENIC CALLUS OF LARIX PRINCIPIS\\|RUPPRECHTII%落叶松不同类型胚性和非胚性愈伤落叶松不同类型胚性和非胚性愈伤

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    以华北落叶松继代、增殖培养的不同类型的胚性及非胚性愈伤组织为材料,测定其氨基酸、糖类、酚酸、激素以及离子的含量,结果表明:氨基酸含量的差异十分明显,质地硬的非胚性愈伤组织中18种游离氨基酸含量为胚性愈伤组织的2倍以上,经ABA处理后,胚性愈伤组织中多糖及邻苯二酚含量急剧升高;三糖含量与不同基因型密切相关;乙烯释放量在非胚性愈伤组织中高于胚性愈伤组织;金属离子CO++的含量,胚性愈伤组织是非胚性愈伤组织的12倍,胚性愈伤组织中铵态氮(NH+4)与硝态氮(NO-3)的比值是非胚性愈伤组织中的10倍以上;实验结果为进一步探讨针叶树体细胞胚胎发生的生理生化机理提供依据。%Based on the appearance of callus growth and behaviour (structure,color etc.)of Larix principis\\|Rupprechtii embryogenic callus,the physiological and biochemical background in these different kinds of embryogenic and non\\|embryogenic calli were analyzed.This included as well callus treated by abscisic acid (ABA).The contents of amino acids,saccharides,hydroxybenzene acid,phytohormones as well as different ions were tested.It was indicated that the average content of 18 amino acids of non\\|embryogenic calli were higher than embryogenic calli.Especially the contents of Arginine,Lysine and Valine in the non\\|embryogenic calli were 3~4 times higher as in embryogenic callus.The contents of amylose and trisaccharide have shown no different changes between embryogenic and non\\|embryogenic calli.The contents of amylos and O\\|phenylenediphthol in embryogenic calli treated by ABA was rising rapidly,18 times as the un\\|treated control.The correlation between trisaccharide content and different genotypes was very high.The ethylene content observed in the embryogenic callus was lower compared with the non\\|embryogenic callus.The Co++ content of embryogenic callus was higher than

  5. Manifestation of embryogenic potential in culture of zygotic embryos of Quercus robur L.

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    Maria G. Ostrolucká

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available For the initiation of somatic embryogenesis early cotyledonary stage of zygotic embryo explants (from 15th July until late August was suitable. The highest frequency of differentiation of somatic embryos was obtained on cotyledons of zygotic embryos cultured on basal modified medium MS (with 1/2 concentration macronutrients or WPM medium containing 500 mg•l-1 glutamine, proline and casein hydrolysate and supplemented with 2,4-D (1,0-2,0 mg•l-1 and BAP (0,5-1,0 mg•l-1. The development of somatic embryos was direct and indirect and the process was continuous over a long period. Primary somatic embryos were able to produce secondary embryos. Repetitive somatic embryogenesis led to the proliferation of a large number of new somatic embryos on their cotyledons, hypocotyl or radicula. The process of embryo differentation is asynchronous - various stages of somatic embryos could be observed in embryogenic culture. A somatic embryo conversion was rare on tested media. Embryo germination occured on medium containing BAP (0,1 mg•l-1 or on medium with ABA and GA3 (each 0,2 mg•l-1 after a previous culture on WPM medium without plant growth regulators supplemented with sorbitol (6%. The embryo germination occurred also on WPM medium with 0.2 mg•l-1 BAP when cultures were mantained at 2oC for 4 weeks. Only 8 somatic embryos developed into plantlets. Their transplantation to in vivo conditions was unsuccessful.

  6. Morpho-anatomical characterization of embryogenic calluses from immature zygotic embryo of peach palm during somatic embryogenesis =

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    Simone de Alencar Maciel

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to morpho-anatomically characterizenodular embryogenic calluses from zygotic embryos of peach palm during the induction of somatic embryogenesis. Immature zygotic embryos were pre-treated in MS medium added to Picloram and 2,4-D (25 μM and BAP (0, 5, 10 μM. After three months, primary calluses were transferred to MS induction medium added to Picloram and 2,4-D (450 μM. After six months, the embryogenic calluses were then histologically analyzed and cultivated in the maturation medium. The competent tissues of the zygotic embryos differentiated embryogenic calluses under action of both Picloram and 2,4-D auxins (450 μM, where the presence of multi-granular structures were observed. Histological observations showed that in the nodular embryogenic calluses, the outlying parenchymal cells exhibit cellular characteristics of high mitotic activity. Differentiation of tracheal elements exists in embryogenic calluses connecting the callus to the explant. The evaluated cytokinin/auxin interaction influences the development of embryogenic calluses and globular structures.O objetivo deste trabalho foi caracterizar morfoanatomicamente calos nodulares embriogênicos originados de embriões zigóticos de pupunheira durante a indução da embriogênese somática. Embriões zigóticos imaturos de pupunha foram inicialmente pré-tratados em meio de cultura MS, solidificado com 2,5 g L-1 de phytagel® e suplementado com Picloram e 2,4-D na concentração de 25 μM e BAP (0, 5, 10 μM. Após três meses, os calos primários foram transferidos para meio de indução, com Picloram e 2,4-D (450 μM. Após seis meses, os calosnodulares embriogênicos formados foram então analisados histologicamente e repicados para o meio de maturação para a progressão das estruturas multigranulares embriogênicas. Verificou-seque os tecidos competentes dos embriões zigóticos imaturos diferenciaram nódulos embriogênicos pela ação de ambas

  7. THE BIOTECHNOLOGY OF EMBRYOGENIC CELL LINES OBTAINING AND PLANTLETS OF CONIFEROUS SPECIES IN SIBERIA IN CULTURE IN VITRO

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    Tretiakova I.

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Experiments of culturing the immature isolated embryos and megagamethophytes of Siberian coniferous species were carried out on different modified media: ½ LV medium for Pinus sibirica and Pinus pumila, MSG and AI media (patent № 2431651 for Larix sibirica and Larix gmelinii, DCR medium for Picea ajanensis. For induction of embryogenic callus every species needs the optimized medium supplemented with L-glutamine, casein hydrolysate, ascorbic acid and hormones with different concentrations and their different proportions. The active proliferation of embryonal masses is observed on the same medium with reduced concentration of cytokinins. The proliferation of embryonal masses was significantly improved when they were subcultured after dispersing in liquid medium. The somatic embryos from embryonal masses are matured on basal medium with ABA (60-120 mM and PEG. In spite of species specificity the embryogenesis of morphogenic structures had the same scheme: elongation and asymmetric division of somatic cells, formation of initial cells and embryonal tubes, development of globular, torpedo and bipolar somatic embryos, embryos maturation and germination. However, not all donor-plants of coniferous species can form the embryogenic cell lines and somatic embryos. The active development of embryonal masses and formation of somatic embryos are observed from zygotic embryo of hybrid seeds of P. sibirica and L. sibirica. The obtained embryogenic lines were characterized by different proliferative activity. During 10 months cultivation the value of embryonal masses in different lines was 140-570 g. The number of somatic embryos varies from 210 to 410 per 100 mg of callus fresh weight. Decreasing proliferation activity did not observed during 24-45 months cultivation. However, development of somatic embryos in long cultivated lines decreased. Maturation of somatic embryos and development of plantlets were established in L. sibirica and P. pumila 50

  8. Mastering Marking Madness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Brooke

    2009-01-01

    Teachers are smart people, so why does marking reduce them to stressed and soulless messes? Because in their hearts they know that students do not learn from it, and that drives them nuts. Researchers like Lorna Earl and Dylan Wiliam have looked closely at marking systems and have proven what teachers already know deep down: marking student work…

  9. Production of polyhydroxybutyrate in oil palm (Elaeis guineensis Jacq. mediated by microprojectile bombardment of PHB biosynthesis genes into embryogenic calli

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad Parveez eGhulam Kadir

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Biodegradable plastics, mainly polyhydroxybutyrate (PHB, which are traditionally produced by bacterial cells, have been produced in the cells of more than 15 plant species. Since the production of biodegradable plastics and the synthesis of oil in plants share the same substrate, acetyl-coenzyme A (acetyl-CoA, producing PHB in oil bearing crops, such as oil palm, will be advantageous. In this study, three bacterial genes, bktB, phaB and phaC, which are required for the synthesis of PHB and selectable marker gene, bar, for herbicide Basta resistant, were transformed into embryogenic calli. A number of transformed embryogenic lines resistant to herbicide Basta were obtained and were later regenerated to produce few hundred plantlets. Molecular analyses, including PCR, Southern blot and real-time PCR have demonstrated stable integration and expression of the transgenes in the oil palm genome. HPLC and Nile Blue A staining analyses confirmed the synthesis of PHB in some of the plantlets.

  10. Production of polyhydroxybutyrate in oil palm (Elaeis guineensis Jacq.) mediated by microprojectile bombardment of PHB biosynthesis genes into embryogenic calli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parveez, Ghulam Kadir Ahmad; Bahariah, Bohari; Ayub, Nor Hanin; Masani, Mat Yunus Abdul; Rasid, Omar Abdul; Tarmizi, Ahmad Hashim; Ishak, Zamzuri

    2015-01-01

    Biodegradable plastics, mainly polyhydroxybutyrate (PHB), which are traditionally produced by bacterial cells, have been produced in the cells of more than 15 plant species. Since the production of biodegradable plastics and the synthesis of oil in plants share the same substrate, acetyl-coenzyme A (acetyl-CoA), producing PHB in oil bearing crops, such as oil palm, will be advantageous. In this study, three bacterial genes, bktB, phaB, and phaC, which are required for the synthesis of PHB and selectable marker gene, bar, for herbicide Basta resistant, were transformed into embryogenic calli. A number of transformed embryogenic lines resistant to herbicide Basta were obtained and were later regenerated to produce few hundred plantlets. Molecular analyses, including polymerase chain reaction (PCR), Southern blot, and real-time PCR have demonstrated stable integration and expression of the transgenes in the oil palm genome. HPLC and Nile blue A staining analyses confirmed the synthesis of PHB in some of the plantlets.

  11. Induction of embryogenic callus and plantlet regeneration from young leaves of high yielding mature oil palm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yeedum, I.

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available Callus induction and plantlet regeneration from young leaves of high-yielding mature oil palm were carried out using 10-year and 20-year-old trees from Thepa Research Station, Faculty of Natural Resources,Prince of Songkla University, Hat Yai, and Trang Agricultural College, respectively. Culture media used in this experiment were Murashige and Skoog (1962 and Oil Palm supplemented with various concentrations of α-naphthaleneacetic acid (NAA or 2,4- dichlorophenoxy acetic acid (2,4-D or dicamba (Di and antioxidants.Young leaves from 6th to 11st frond were excised, sterilized, cut into 5x5 mm pieces and cultured in the dark at 26±4ºC or 28±0.5ºC for 3 months. The results revealed that MS medium with 200 mg/l ascorbic acid (As and 1 mg/l Di (MS-AsDi gave the highest callus induction percentage (7.93 after culture for 3 months at 28±0.5ºC. Leaf segments from 6th - 8th frond yielded callus forming percentage at 10% (averaged from 1, 2.5 and 5 mg/l Di containing MS medium. Ascorbic acid as an antioxidant at concentration of 200 mg/l supplemented in MS medium in the presence of 2.5 mg/l Di produced the highest callus induction percentage (11.2 and number of nodules (7.06. A high percentage of embryogenic callus formation (66.67 was obtained when the calli were transferred to the same medium component supplemented with 0.5 mg/l Di and 1,000 mg/l casein hydrolysate (CH (MS-AsDiCH. Haustorial-staged embryos were observed to be isolated as an individual embryo and germinated on MS medium without plant growth regulator (MS-free. Development of root could be classified into two distinct types, fibrous and tap root.

  12. Reconfiguring trade mark law

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elsmore, Matthew James

    2013-01-01

    -border setting, with a particular focus on small business and consumers. The article's overall message is to call for a rethink of received wisdom suggesting that trade marks are effective trade-enabling devices. The case is made for reassessing how we think about European trade mark law.......First, this article argues that trade mark law should be approached in a supplementary way, called reconfiguration. Second, the article investigates such a reconfiguration of trade mark law by exploring the interplay of trade marks and service transactions in the Single Market, in the cross...

  13. On denture marking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borrman, H I; DiZinno, J A; Wasén, J; René, N

    1999-06-01

    During the last decades in Sweden dentures have been permanently marked with a stainless steel metal band incorporated into the acrylic and containing the patient's birth date, a special number, and "S" for Sweden. The last recommendation issued by the National Board of Health and Welfare states that "the patients shall always be offered denture marking and be informed about the benefit thereof. Denture marking is not permitted if the patient refuses it". Requirements for denture markers have been that they should be biologically inert (when incorporated into the denture), not be expensive, be easy to inscribe, be possible to retrieve after an accident, and survive elevated temperatures for a reasonable time under normal circumstances. Although the frequency of edentulousness has decreased in recent years due to the improvement in oral health there remains a need to address the issue of marking of complete dentures, because there is a large variation in the oral status of populations in different countries. Given that only one marked denture can reveal the identity of a deceased person when all other methods fail to do so, makes it worthwhile. Furthermore, denture marking is important in long-term care facilities. We have investigated the issue of denture marking in Europe and in the United States. The results from the European survey show that denture marking is, to our knowledge regulated by law only in Sweden and Iceland. In the US denture marking is so far mandatory in 21 states while New York State requires dentures to be marked if the patient requests it and several other states impose the obligation to mark dentures on long-term care facilities. Since there is no international consensus regarding the issue of denture marking it is important to address it. A survey from the Nordic countries has shown that if denture marking was in general use, the contribution to the establishment of identity by forensic odontology in cases of fire would increase by about 10

  14. Marking as Judgment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brooks, Val

    2012-01-01

    An aspect of assessment which has received little attention compared with perennial concerns, such as standards or reliability, is the role of judgment in marking. This paper explores marking as an act of judgment, paying particular attention to the nature of judgment and the processes involved. It brings together studies which have explored…

  15. Marking as Judgment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brooks, Val

    2012-01-01

    An aspect of assessment which has received little attention compared with perennial concerns, such as standards or reliability, is the role of judgment in marking. This paper explores marking as an act of judgment, paying particular attention to the nature of judgment and the processes involved. It brings together studies which have explored…

  16. The isolation and culture of protoplasts from an embryogenic cell suspension culture of Picea glauca (moench) voss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bekkaoui, F; Saxena, P K; Attree, S M; Fowke, L C; Dunstan, D I

    1987-12-01

    Conditions were standardized for the isolation and culture of protoplasts from an embryogenic cell suspension culture of Picea glauca. A combination of 0.5% Cellulase R-10, 0.25% Macerozyme, 0.25% Driselase, 0.25% Rhozyme HP-150 with 0.5M mannitol and 5 mM CaCl2.2H2O produced an average of 4.5 × 10(6) protoplasts per gram fresh weight of cells. Of the several protoplast culture media tested, von Arnold and Eriksson and Kao and Michayluk (KM8P) media best supported mitotic divisions of protoplasts. A density of 10(5) protoplasts per ml and the addition of 5 mM glutamine to the culture medium was necessary to induce sustained divisions and microcallus formation. Microcalli grew into subculturable callus using a nurse culture technique.

  17. Agrobacterium-Mediated Transformation of Embryogenic Calli of Anliucheng and Regeneration of Plants Containing the Chimaeric Ribonuclease Gene

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Dong-dong; SHI Wei; DENG Xiu-xin

    2003-01-01

    Anliucheng (Citrus sinensis Osbeck), a very seedy and widely spread acidless sweet orange cultivar in south of China, was transformed by the strain of Agrobacterium Tumefaciens EHA105 carrying pTA29-barnase gene, which will induce pollen sterility in transgenic plants. The embryogenic calli of Anliucheng were co-cultivated with Agrobacterium tumefaciens for 3 days, and then transferred to selective medium containing 50 mg L-1 basta (a kind of herbicide) for 5 weeks. The resistant calli were recovered and regenerated 118 embryoids. A total of 13 entire plants were obtained after micro-grafted on trifoliate orange. These regenerated plants were verified by PCR amplification and confirmed by PCR-Southern blotting analysis.

  18. Bite Mark Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SK Padmakumar

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Bite mark analysis plays an important role in personal identi- fi cation in forensic odontology. They are commonly seen in violent crimes such as sexual assaults, homicides, child abuse, etc. Human bites are common on the face and are usually seen on prominent locations of the face such as the ears, nose and lips. Individual characteristics recorded in the bite marks such as fractures, rotations, attrition, and congenital malformations are helpful in identifying the individual who caused it. We are reporting the case of a 55-year-old lady with bite marks on her left ear, who was allegedly assaulted by the suspect. On the basis of characteristic features of the suspect’s dentition, it was concluded that the bite marks seen on the victim was most probably caused by the suspect.

  19. Mark Raidpere portreefotod Kielis

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    1999-01-01

    Kieli Linnagaleriis avatud 2. Ars Baltica fototriennaalil 'Can You Hear Me?' esindab Eestit Mark Raidpere seeriaga 'Portreed 1998'. Näituse Eesti-poolne kuraator Anu Liivak, kataloogiteksti kirjutas Anders Härm. Tuntumaid osalejaid triennaalil Wolfgang Tillmans

  20. Mark 1 Test Facility

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Mark I Test Facility is a state-of-the-art space environment simulation test chamber for full-scale space systems testing. A $1.5M dollar upgrade in fiscal year...

  1. Mark IVA microprocessor support

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burford, A. L.

    1982-01-01

    The requirements and plans for the maintenance support of microprocessor-based controllers in the Deep Space Network Mark IVA System are discussed. Additional new interfaces and 16-bit processors have introduced problems not present in the Mark III System. The need for continuous training of maintenance personnel to maintain a level of expertise consistent with the sophistication of the required tools is also emphasized.

  2. Marks of Metal Copenhell

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2015-01-01

    Planchebaseret udendørs udstilling på musikfestivalen Copenhell 18-20/6 2015. En mindre udgave af udstillingen Marks of Metal - Logodesign og visualitet i heavy metal. Udarbejdet i samarbejde med Mediemuseet.......Planchebaseret udendørs udstilling på musikfestivalen Copenhell 18-20/6 2015. En mindre udgave af udstillingen Marks of Metal - Logodesign og visualitet i heavy metal. Udarbejdet i samarbejde med Mediemuseet....

  3. COMPUTER HARDWARE MARKING

    CERN Multimedia

    Groupe de protection des biens

    2000-01-01

    As part of the campaign to protect CERN property and for insurance reasons, all computer hardware belonging to the Organization must be marked with the words 'PROPRIETE CERN'.IT Division has recently introduced a new marking system that is both economical and easy to use. From now on all desktop hardware (PCs, Macintoshes, printers) issued by IT Division with a value equal to or exceeding 500 CHF will be marked using this new system.For equipment that is already installed but not yet marked, including UNIX workstations and X terminals, IT Division's Desktop Support Service offers the following services free of charge:Equipment-marking wherever the Service is called out to perform other work (please submit all work requests to the IT Helpdesk on 78888 or helpdesk@cern.ch; for unavoidable operational reasons, the Desktop Support Service will only respond to marking requests when these coincide with requests for other work such as repairs, system upgrades, etc.);Training of personnel designated by Division Leade...

  4. Embryogenic callus formation, growth and regeneration in callus and suspension cultures of Miscanthus x ogiformis Honda 'Giganteus' as affected by proline

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holme, Inger Bæksted; Krogstrup, Peter; Hansen, Jürgen

    1997-01-01

    The effects of proline additions to culture systems of Miscanthus x ogiformis Honda Giganteus' were investigated. Proline was added in concentrations of 0, 12.5, 25, 50, 100 or 300 mM to the callus induction and suspension culture media containing either Murashige and Skoog or N6 basal salts and 22...... with Murashige and Skoog salts increased embryogenic callus formation on shoot apices and leaf explants while proline had no effect on embryogenic callus formation in medium with N6 salts. Increased growth with increasing proline concentration was obtained in suspension aggregates grown in medium with N6 salts......, whereas proline only increased growth of suspension aggregates grown in medium with Murashige and Skoog salts at concentrations of 12.5 or 25 mM. A stimulating effect of proline on plant regeneration was observed in short-term cultures of callus as well as in long-term cultures of suspension aggregates...

  5. Sirenomelia: a review on embryogenic enviromental theories, novel three-dimensional ultrasound imaging and first trimester diagnosis in a case of mosaic 69,XXX/46,XX fetus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tonni, Gabriele; Gabriele, Tonni; Grisolia, Gianpaolo; Gianpaolo, Grisolia

    2013-07-01

    Sirenomelia is caused by atrophy of the lower extremities that is commonly associated with gastrointestinal and urogenital malformations. Embryogenic environmental theories and systematic review of the literature are reported. Genetic basis of the condition has been demonstrated in the animal model. In humans, association with de novo balanced translocation has only recently been documented. A case of triploidy mosaic fetus with sirenomelia and posterior fossa anomaly diagnosed at first trimester using novel three-dimensional ultrasound imaging techniques is presented.

  6. A reliable protocol for the stable transformation of non-embryogenic cells cultures of grapevine (Vitis vinifera L.) and Taxus x media

    OpenAIRE

    Ascensión Martínez-Márquez; Jaime Morante-Carriel; Karla Ramírez-Estrada; Rosa Cusido; Susana Sellés-Marchart; Javier Palazon; Maria Angeles Pedreño; Roque Bru-Martínez

    2015-01-01

    One of the major intent of metabolic engineering in cell culture systems is to increase yields of secondary metabolites. Efficient transformation methods are a priority to successfully apply metabolic engineering to cell cultures of plants that produce bioactive or therapeutic compounds, such as Vitis vinifera and Taxus x media. The aim of this study was to establish a reliable method to transform non-embryogenic cell cultures of these species. The V. vinifera cv. Gamay/cv. Monastrell cell li...

  7. Augmented marked graphs

    CERN Document Server

    Cheung, King Sing

    2014-01-01

    Petri nets are a formal and theoretically rich model for the modelling and analysis of systems. A subclass of Petri nets, augmented marked graphs possess a structure that is especially desirable for the modelling and analysis of systems with concurrent processes and shared resources.This monograph consists of three parts: Part I provides the conceptual background for readers who have no prior knowledge on Petri nets; Part II elaborates the theory of augmented marked graphs; finally, Part III discusses the application to system integration. The book is suitable as a first self-contained volume

  8. Regeneration of Centella asiatica plants from non-embryogenic cell lines and evaluation of antibacterial and antifungal properties of regenerated calli and plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Habib Darima

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The threatened plant Centella asiatica L. is traditionallyused for a number of remedies. In vitro plant propagation and enhanced metabolite production of active metabolites through biotechnological approaches has gained attention in recent years. Results Present study reveals that 6-benzyladenine (BA either alone or in combination with 1-naphthalene acetic acid (NAA supplemented in Murashige and Skoog (MS medium at different concentrations produced good quality callus from leaf explants of C. asiatica. The calli produced on different plant growth regulators at different concentrations were mostly embryogenic and green. Highest shoot regeneration efficiency; 10 shoots per callus explant, from non-embryogenic callus was observed on 4.42 μM BA with 5.37 μM NAA. Best rooting response was observed at 5.37 and 10.74 μM NAA with 20 average number of roots per explant. Calli and regenerated plants extracts inhibited bacterial growth with mean zone of inhibition 9-13 mm diameter when tested against six bacterial strains using agar well diffusion method. Agar tube dilution method for antifungal assay showed 3.2-76% growth inhibition of Mucor species, Aspergillus fumigatus and Fusarium moliniformes. Conclusions The present investigation reveals that non-embryogenic callus can be turned into embryos and plantlets if cultured on appropriate medium. Furthermore, callus from leaf explant of C. asiatica can be a good source for production of antimicrobial compounds through bioreactor.

  9. Polyamine and its metabolite H2O2 play a key role in the conversion of embryogenic callus into somatic embryos in upland cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wen-Han eCheng

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to increase understanding about the mechanism by which polyamines (PAs promote the conversion of embryogenic calli (EC into somatic embryos in cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.. We measured the levels of endogenous PAs and H2O2, quantified the expression levels of genes involved in the PAs pathway at various stages of cotton somatic embryogenesis (SE, and investigated the effects of exogenous PAs and H2O2 on differentiation and development of embryogenic calli. Putrescine (Put, spermidine (Spd and spermine (Spm significantly increased from the EC stage to the early phase of embryo differentiation. The levels of Put then decreased until the somatic embryo stage whereas Spd and Spm remained nearly the same. The expression profiles of GhADC genes were consistent with changes in Put during cotton SE. The H2O2 concentrations began to increase significantly at the EC stage, during which time both GhPAO1 and GhPAO4 expressions were highest and PAO activity was significantly increased. Exogenous Put, Spd, Spm and H2O2 not only enhanced embryogenic callus growth and embryo formation, but also alleviated the effects of D-arginine and 1, 8-diamino-octane, which are inhibitors of polyamine synthesis and PAO activity. Overall, the results suggest that both PAs and their metabolic product H2O2 are essential for the conversion of EC into somatic embryos in cotton.

  10. Fathoming Mark Twain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biggar, Joanna

    1988-01-01

    Relates the efforts of completing two collections of the works and papers of Mark Twain. Describes the combined efforts of the University of Iowa and the University of California to publish both a scholarly edition and a reader's edition devoted to Twain. (KO)

  11. Teaching with Mark Dion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fusaro, Joe

    2011-01-01

    Mark Dion creates sculptures, installations, and interactive environments that sometimes seem contrary to what one expects from visual artists. Remarkable curiosity cabinets and carefully arranged artifacts from specific places and time periods make up a large part of his work. His work does not neatly fit into traditional lessons about elements…

  12. Marked metric measure spaces

    CERN Document Server

    Depperschmidt, Andrej; Pfaffelhuber, Peter

    2011-01-01

    A marked metric measure space (mmm-space) is a triple (X,r,mu), where (X,r) is a complete and separable metric space and mu is a probability measure on XxI for some Polish space I of possible marks. We study the space of all (equivalence classes of) marked metric measure spaces for some fixed I. It arises as state space in the construction of Markov processes which take values in random graphs, e.g. tree-valued dynamics describing randomly evolving genealogical structures in population models. We derive here the topological properties of the space of mmm-spaces needed to study convergence in distribution of random mmm-spaces. Extending the notion of the Gromov-weak topology introduced in (Greven, Pfaffelhuber and Winter, 2009), we define the marked Gromov-weak topology, which turns the set of mmm-spaces into a Polish space. We give a characterization of tightness for families of distributions of random mmm- spaces and identify a convergence determining algebra of functions, called polynomials.

  13. Marked PCP is decidable

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Halava, V.; Hirvensalo, M.; de Wolf, R.

    2001-01-01

    We show that the marked version of the Post Correspondence Problem, where the words on a list are required to differ in the first letter, is decidable. On the other hand, we prove that the PCP remains undecidable if we only require the words to differ in the first two letters. Thus we locate the

  14. Growth regulator requirement for in vitro embryogenic cultures of snowdrop (Galanthus nivalis L.) suitable for germplasm preservation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Resetár, Anna; Demeter, Zita; Ficsor, Emese; Balázs, Andrea; Mosolygó, Agnes; Szőke, Eva; Gonda, S; Papp, L; Surányi, G; Máthé, C

    2014-06-01

    In this study, we report on the production of bulb scale-derived tissue cultures capable of efficient shoot and plant regeneration in three genotypes of snowdrop (Galanthus nivalis L., Amaryllidaceae), a protected ornamental plant. For culture line A, high auxin and low cytokinin concentration is required for callus production and plant regeneration. The type of auxin is of key importance: α-naphthaleneacetic acid (NAA) in combination with indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) at concentrations of 2 mg L-1 or 2-10 mg L-1 NAA with 1 mg L-1 N6-benzyladenine (BA), a cytokinin on full-strength media are required for regeneration. Cultures showing regeneration were embryogenic. When lines B and C were induced and maintained with 2 mg L-1 NAA and 1 mg L-1 BA, they produced mature bulblets with shoots, without roots. Line A produced immature bulblets with shoots under the above culture condition. Amplified Fragment Length Polymorphism (AFLP) analysis showed that (i) genetic differences between line A and its bulb explants were not significant, therefore these tissue cultures are suitable for germplasm preservation, and (ii) different morphogenetic responses of lines A, B and C originated from genetic differences. Culture line A is suitable for field-growing, cultivation and germplasm preservation of G. nivalis and for the production of Amaryllidaceae alkaloids.

  15. Interview with Mark Watson

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katy Shaw

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Mark Watson is a British comedian and novelist. His five novels to date – 'Bullet Points' (2004, 'A Light-Hearted Look At Murder' (2007, 'Eleven' (2010, 'The Knot' (2012 and 'Hotel Alpha' (2014 – explore human relationships and communities in contemporary society. His latest novel Hotel Alpha tells the story of an extraordinary hotel in London and two mysterious disappearances that raise questions no one seems willing to answer. External to the novel, readers can also discover more about the hotel and its inhabitants in one hundred extra stories that expand the world of the novel and can be found at http://www.hotelalphastories.com. In conversation here with Dr Katy Shaw, Mark offers some reflections on his writing process, the field of contemporary literature, and the vitality of the novel form in the twenty-first century.

  16. Mark Twain on phrenology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stone, James L

    2003-12-01

    Mark Twain was a noted 19th century American writer and humorist. He often elaborated upon the personalities of his characters, and his observational skills reflected a strong interest in psychology. Similarly, he found an interest in phrenology, a pseudoscience that purported to characterize personality traits according to elevations or depressions on the head. Twain's style is clearly reflected in the interesting essay he wrote regarding his personal experience with phrenology.

  17. Telicity marking in Hungarian

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Éva Kardos

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper explores the encoding of telicity in Hungarian. While proposing a mereological, scalar semantic analysis, it shows that Hungarian uses a telicity-marking strategy in which it contrasts with English, where telicity is not the direct consequence of an overt marker but arises as a cumulative effect of specific, well-definable properties of various components of verbal predicates including the head verb and its argument(s. A major contribution of the analysis, which mainly addresses telicity marking in the class of non-creation/non-consumption predicates in neutral sentences, lies in the fact that it reveals important cross-linguistic differences with respect to the aspectual role of verbal particles and resultative/locative expressions and the referential properties of telic verbal predicates. As for the former, it is demonstrated that Hungarian verbal particles and resultative/locative expressions mark telicity by directly placing bounds on events by virtue of serving an event maximalizing function, whereas the English counterparts of these elements do not have such direct event-bounding effects. As for the latter, it emerges that in Hungarian quantized reference is a necessary and sufficient condition for telicity in cases where in English it is only sufficient.

  18. Ceremony marking Einstein Year

    CERN Multimedia

    2005-01-01

    Sunday 13th November at 10:00amat Geneva's St. Peter's Cathedral To mark Einstein Year and the importance of the intercultural dialogue of which it forms a part, a religious service will take place on Sunday 13 November at 10 a.m. in St. Peter's Cathedral, to which CERN members and colleagues are warmly welcomed. Pastor Henry Babel, senior minister at the Cathedral, will speak on the theme: 'God in Einstein's Universe'. Diether Blechschmidt will convey a message on behalf of the scientific community.

  19. Ceremony marking Einstein Year

    CERN Multimedia

    2005-01-01

    Sunday 13th November at 10:00amat Geneva's St. Peter's Cathedral To mark Einstein Year and the importance of the intercultural dialogue of which it forms a part, a religious service will take place on Sunday 13 November at 10 a.m. in St. Peter's Cathedral, to which CERN members and colleagues are warmly welcomed. Pastor Henry Babel, senior minister at the Cathedral, will speak on the theme: 'God in Einstein's Universe'. Diether Blechschmidt will convey a message on behalf of the scientific community.

  20. Biolistic-mediated transformation protocols for maize and pearl millet using pre-cultured immature zygotic embryos and embryogenic tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Kennedy, Martha M; Stark, Hester C; Dube, Nosisa

    2011-01-01

    Maize (Zea mays L.) is the most important cereal food crop in sub-Saharan Africa and Latin America, and a key feed crop in Asia, whereas pearl millet (Pennisetum glaucum (L.) R. Br.) is a staple food that supplies a major proportion of calories and protein to large segments of the populations living in the semi-arid tropical regions of Africa and Asia. The limitations of biological gene transfer with Agrobacterium tumefaciens specifically related to recalcitrant cereal crops, led to the development of alternative methods of which high-velocity microprojectiles, biolistic genetic transfer is the most successful and also the most widely employed. Agrobacterium facilitated transformation is the method of choice especially for deregulation of commercial transgenic food crop products, but biolistic-mediated transformation is still valid for proof of concept and functional genomics applications. Biolistic-mediated transformation and the production of transgenic plantlets via somatic embryogenesis of two maize strains viz. Hi-II (a laboratory strain) and M37W (a South African elite white maize genotype) as well as a pearl millet strain (842B) are described in this chapter. The stages described include: (1) proliferation of immature zygotic embryos for biolistic-mediated transformation, (2) induction and maintenance of transgenic embryogenic tissue on selection medium; (3) maturation (both morphological and physiological) of transgenic somatic embryos; and (4) germination of the somatic embryos to putative transgenic primary events. Maize and pearl millet cultures were regenerated via somatic embryogenesis as they are bipolar structures that shoot and root simultaneously. The culture media described in this chapter rarely induced or regenerated plantlets via organogenesis.

  1. Gamma Irradiation of Embryogenic Callus Cultures and In Vitro Selection for Salt Tolerance in Sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum L.)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Vikas Y Patade; P Suprasanna; V A Bapat

    2008-01-01

    Radiation induced mutagenesis followed by in vitro selection was employed for salt tolerance in popular Indian sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum L.) cv.CoC-671.Embryogenic calli were gamma irradiated and exposed to different levels of NaCl (42.8,85.6,128.3,171.1,213.9,256.7,299.5,or 342.2 mM).The relative growth rate (RGR) decreased progressively with increasing salt stress and was the least with a salt stress of 256.7 mM (0.25±0.009),almost 10 fold lesser than the control.The RGR was significantly lower in 85.6 mM and higher salt stressed calli than the control.The survival percent also decreased,with an increase in NaC1 concentration.In case of 10 and 20 Gy irradiated calli,regeneration was observed up to 85.6 mM NaCl selection,medium,whereas,higher treatments (128.3 mM and beyond) exhibited browning initially.However,in the subsequent subcultures,regeneration was obtained in the case of 10 and 20 Gy irradiated calli on 128.3 and 171.1 mM NaCI selections.Higher dose of gamma irradiation (40 Gy) also showed regeneration,but only with 85.6 mM NaCI selection.The unirradiated calli regenerated the highest number of plantlets followed by 10 and 20 Gy irradiated calli on salt selection.A total of 147 plantlets were selected from different salt levels.The salt selected plants are being tested for their field performance.

  2. Determination of genetic stability in long-term somatic embryogenic cultures and derived plantlets of cork oak using microsatellite markers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopes, Tina; Pinto, Glória; Loureiro, João; Costa, Armando; Santos, Conceição

    2006-09-01

    Microsatellites were used to test genetic stability in somatic embryos (SE) of Quercus suber L. The SE were obtained by a simple somatic embryogenesis protocol: leaf explants from two adult plants (QsG0, QsG5) and from two juvenile plants (QsGM1, QsGM2) were inoculated on Murashige and Skoog (MS) medium with 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid and zeatin. Calluses with primary embryogenic structures were transferred to MSWH (MS medium without growth regulators) and SE proliferated by secondary somatic embryogenesis. High morphological heterogeneity was found among cotyledonary SE. However, converted plants looked morphologically normal with well-developed rooting systems and shoots. The genetic stability of the plant material during the somatic embryogenesis process was evaluated by using six to eight nuclear microsatellites transferred from Q. myrsinifolia Blume, Q. petraea (Matts.) Liebl. and Q. robur L. Five of eight microsatellites distinguished among the genotypes analyzed, and for QsG0, QsGM1 and QsGM2, uniform microsatellite patterns were generally observed within and between SE and the respective donor genotypes. For genotype QsG5, the same pattern was observed in all samples analyzed except one, where the mutation percentage was 2.5%. We conclude that microsatellite markers can be used to assess genetic stability of clonal materials and to determine genetic stability throughout the process of somatic embryogenesis. The simple somatic embryogenesis protocol described has potential for the commercial propagation of Q. suber because it results in a low percentage of mutations.

  3. Shark Mark Recapture Database (MRDBS)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Shark Mark Recapture Database is a Cooperative Research Program database system used to keep multispecies mark-recapture information in a common format for...

  4. Characterization of biomass production, cytology and phenotypes of plants regenerated from embryogenic callus cultures of Pennisetum americanum x P. purpureum (hybrid triploid napiergrass).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajasekaran, K; Schank, S C; Vasil, I K

    1986-11-01

    Five hundred and twenty-four plants of a triploid, sexually sterile hybrid napiergrass (Pennisetum americanum x P. purpureum; 3x=21) were regenerated from embryogenic callus cultures obtained from segments of young inflorescences. Replicated field trials were conducted for two consecutive years to compare the biomass yield, phenotype and cytology of tissue culture regenerants (TC) and vegetatively propagated (V) plants. In the first year total biomass yield of TC plants was significantly greater than V plants but there was no significant difference in the second year. TC plants had more tillers compared to V plants. V plants did not show any morphological variability. The TC population also exhibited a high degree of phenotypic stability (96%). There were 23 phenotypic variants in the TC population of 524, most of them being more dwarf and late-flowering. Detailed morphological analysis of the TC-variant plants suggests that they very likely arose from only a few variant cell lines. Cytological analysis indicated stability of the triploid status in randomly selected regenerants. Two of the morphological variants were hexaploids (6x=42). It is concluded that embryogenic callus cultures can provide useful alternative for the rapid propagation of hybrid napier-grass which is commonly propagated by cuttings.

  5. Mark Kostabi soovib muuta inimesi õnnelikumaks / Kalev Mark Kostabi

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kostabi, Kalev Mark, 1960-

    2008-01-01

    Kalev Mark Kostabi oma sisekujunduslikest eelistustest, ameeriklaste ja itaallaste kodude sisekujunduse erinevustest, kunstist kui ruumikujunduse ühest osast, oma New Yorgi ja Rooma korterite kujundusest

  6. Mark Kostabi soovib muuta inimesi õnnelikumaks / Kalev Mark Kostabi

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kostabi, Kalev Mark, 1960-

    2008-01-01

    Kalev Mark Kostabi oma sisekujunduslikest eelistustest, ameeriklaste ja itaallaste kodude sisekujunduse erinevustest, kunstist kui ruumikujunduse ühest osast, oma New Yorgi ja Rooma korterite kujundusest

  7. Improving Marking Quality through a Taxonomy of Mark Schemes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Ayesha; Pollitt, Alastair

    2011-01-01

    At the heart of most assessments lies a set of questions, and those who write them must achieve "two" things. Not only must they ensure that each question elicits the kind of performance that shows how "good" pupils are at the subject, but they must also ensure that each mark scheme gives more marks to those who are…

  8. Effect of plant growth regulators on direct somatic embryogenesis in camphor tree (Cinnamomum camphora L. ) from immature zygotic embryos and embryogenic calli induction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DuLi; Zhou Suo; Bao Man-zhu

    2007-01-01

    A description of a successful direct somatic embryogenesis induction from immature zygotic embryos of a camphor tree (Cinnamomum camphora L. ) is presented. After a subculture of 2-3 years,embryogenic calli could be derived from primary somaticembryos. Immature zygotic embryos were cultured on a Murashige and Skoog (MS)basal medium supplemented with a range of combinations of cytokinins (BA) and auxins(2,4-D or NAA) for somatic embryo induction. Primary somatic embryos could be induced direly in almost all PGR combinations. A positive effect of 2,4-D On somatic embryo genesis from immature zygotic embryos of camphor tree was obtained. BA at appropriate concentrations (5mg·L-1) of BA had the effect of restraining somatic embryo induction. NAA had a less positive effect on somatic embryogenesis than 2,4-D.

  9. Establishing Embryogenic Callus Suspension Culture System in Black Locust%刺槐胚性细胞悬浮体系的建立1)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    冯玥; 习洋; 陈串; 喻娃亚雄; 王少明; 徐惠敏; 孙宇涵; 李云

    2014-01-01

    以刺槐( Robinia pseudoacacia L.)未成熟合子胚为外植体材料,通过对外植体取材时期、基本培养基营养物质质量浓度、细胞起始密度、2,4-二氯苯氧乙酸(2,4-D)质量浓度等影响悬浮培养的因素的研究,建立了良好的刺槐胚性细胞悬浮系。研究结果表明:授粉后55 d的未成熟合子胚是为刺槐细胞悬浮培养提供胚性愈伤组织的最佳起始材料;添加有2.5 mg· L-1 NAA和0.5 mg· L-16-BA的1/2MS培养基为刺槐细胞悬浮培养的最适培养基;建立悬浮系的最适pH值范围在5.0~5.7;起始质量为2.0 g的悬浮系统其生长量增速较快,且细胞保持持续增长;当起始质量为3.0 g时,培养16 d后细胞进入缓慢增长期,且生长量有回落的趋势,起始质量为1.0 g时,细胞增殖速度非常缓慢,且容易出现褐化死亡的现象。%We employed embryogenic cell suspension ( ECS) induced from immature seeds of black locust ( Robinia pseudoaca-cia L.) as materials to study the effecting factors as explants period , nutrient concentration of basic medium , initial cell density and 2,4-D concentration of suspension culture medium to establish a successful embryogenic callus suspension cul -ture system for black locust.The seeds collected at eight weeks (about 55 days) post-anthesis obtained the highest ability to initiate embryogenic culture for embryogenic callus cell suspension establishment .The best callus initiation medium was 1/2MS+2.5 mg· L-1 NAA+0.5 mg· L-1 6-BA and the suitable pH ranged in 5.0-5.7.The cells maintained a sustained growth as initial density of suspension system was 2.0 g, the cells proliferation was slowed down after 16 days when the ini-tial density was 3.0 g, and the growth rate was with down trend .The cells were brown and died in slow proliferation rate with the initial density of 1.0 g.

  10. De novo assembly and characterization of global transcriptome of coconut palm (Cocos nucifera L.) embryogenic calli using Illumina paired-end sequencing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajesh, M K; Fayas, T P; Naganeeswaran, S; Rachana, K E; Bhavyashree, U; Sajini, K K; Karun, Anitha

    2016-05-01

    Production and supply of quality planting material is significant to coconut cultivation but is one of the major constraints in coconut productivity. Rapid multiplication of coconut through in vitro techniques, therefore, is of paramount importance. Although somatic embryogenesis in coconut is a promising technique that will allow for the mass production of high quality palms, coconut is highly recalcitrant to in vitro culture. In order to overcome the bottlenecks in coconut somatic embryogenesis and to develop a repeatable protocol, it is imperative to understand, identify, and characterize molecular events involved in coconut somatic embryogenesis pathway. Transcriptome analysis (RNA-Seq) of coconut embryogenic calli, derived from plumular explants of West Coast Tall cultivar, was undertaken on an Illumina HiSeq 2000 platform. After de novo transcriptome assembly and functional annotation, we have obtained 40,367 transcripts which showed significant BLASTx matches with similarity greater than 40 % and E value of ≤10(-5). Fourteen genes known to be involved in somatic embryogenesis were identified. Quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR) analyses of these 14 genes were carried in six developmental stages. The result showed that CLV was upregulated in the initial stage of callogenesis. Transcripts GLP, GST, PKL, WUS, and WRKY were expressed more in somatic embryo stage. The expression of SERK, MAPK, AP2, SAUR, ECP, AGP, LEA, and ANT were higher in the embryogenic callus stage compared to initial culture and somatic embryo stages. This study provides the first insights into the gene expression patterns during somatic embryogenesis in coconut.

  11. Effect Of Explant Source And Different Medium Culture On Friable Embryogenic Callus Induction Of Four Cultivars Of Cassava Manihot Esculenta Crantz

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simplice Prosper Yandia

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available In order to obtain Friable Embryogenic Callus FEC for protoplast isolation we have evaluated in this research the competance for Friable Embryogenic Callus FEC of four cassava cultivars M61033 Rendre Yalipe and Six-mois in media containing MS supplemented with 8mgl 24-D MS supplemented with 10 mgl BAP and GD supplemented with 12mgl picloram using apical bud AB and immature leaves lobes ILL as explants. In general in the medium GD12mgl picloram the highest efficiencies of FEC ranged from 58 to 87 and the highest score of FEC ranged from 4.2 to 5.4 with explants AB however we have observed with explants ILL the efficiencies of somatic embryos ranged form 41 to 75 and the score ranged from 4.1 to 4.4. The mediums MS28 mgl 24-D have induced with explants AB the efficiencies of FEC ranged from 43 to 57 and the score ranged from 3.1 to 3.8 however with ILL explants the efficiencies of FEC ranged from 39 to 49 and the score ranged from 2.9 to 3.7. The least FEC were observed in the medium MS210 mgl BAP with BA explants however the efficiencies ranged from 6 to 11 and the score ranged from 1.1 to 1.8. Whereas the efficiencies of FEC with ILL explants ranged from 4 to 7 and the score ranged from 0.5 to 0.8. All of four cultivars showed capability of producing FEC although their efficiency varied according to gonotype donors explants and medium taking into acount. Abbreviations GD Gressoff and Doy MS Murashige and Skoog 24-dichloro phenoxyacetic acid BAP Benzylamino-purin-Acid AB Apical Bud ILL Immature Leaves lobes

  12. Mark-specific hazard ratio model with missing multivariate marks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juraska, Michal; Gilbert, Peter B

    2016-10-01

    An objective of randomized placebo-controlled preventive HIV vaccine efficacy (VE) trials is to assess the relationship between vaccine effects to prevent HIV acquisition and continuous genetic distances of the exposing HIVs to multiple HIV strains represented in the vaccine. The set of genetic distances, only observed in failures, is collectively termed the 'mark.' The objective has motivated a recent study of a multivariate mark-specific hazard ratio model in the competing risks failure time analysis framework. Marks of interest, however, are commonly subject to substantial missingness, largely due to rapid post-acquisition viral evolution. In this article, we investigate the mark-specific hazard ratio model with missing multivariate marks and develop two inferential procedures based on (i) inverse probability weighting (IPW) of the complete cases, and (ii) augmentation of the IPW estimating functions by leveraging auxiliary data predictive of the mark. Asymptotic properties and finite-sample performance of the inferential procedures are presented. This research also provides general inferential methods for semiparametric density ratio/biased sampling models with missing data. We apply the developed procedures to data from the HVTN 502 'Step' HIV VE trial.

  13. Surgical skin-marking techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Granick, M S; Heckler, F R; Jones, E W

    1987-04-01

    Surgical skin-marking inks and dyes are in everyday use for designing and planning incisions in plastic and reconstructive surgery. We have traced the historical development of surgical skin-marking techniques from ancient times to the present. The biochemical characteristics of the commonly used marking agents are discussed. A three-part experiment utilizing a pig model was carried out to test the tissue inflammatory response to the various dyes and inks when used intradermally as tattoos, the persistence of such tattoos, and the ease of skin erasure for each of eight stains. Methylene blue and gentian violet are recommended as the best all-purpose marking agents. The use of proprietary inks is discouraged.

  14. Eesti vajab riigiarhitekti / Mark Soosaar

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Soosaar, Mark, 1946-

    2006-01-01

    Linnade tekkimisest Eestis, linnaehitusest ja linnaplaneerimisest. Pärnu muinsuskaitsealast ja uute korruselamute ehitamisest. Arhitektuuriameti loomise ja riigiarhitekti ametikoha vajalikkusest. Kommenteerivad Ülar Mark, Triin Ojari, Harry Liivrand, Karin Paulus

  15. Lane marking aided vehicle localization

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    International audience; A localization system that exploits L1-GPS estimates, vehicle data, and features from a video camera as well as lane markings embedded in digital navigation maps is presented. A sensitivity analysis of the detected lane markings is proposed in order to quantify both the lateral and longitudinal errors caused by 2D-world hypothesis violation. From this, a camera observation model for vehicle localization is proposed. The paper presents also a method to build a map of th...

  16. Civilsamfundets ABC: M for Marked

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, Anker Brink; Meyer, Gitte

    2016-01-01

    Bogstaveligt talt: Hvad er civilsamfundet? Anker Brink Lund og Gitte Meyer fra CBS Center for Civil Society Studies gennemgår civilsamfundet bogstav for bogstav. Vi er nået til M for Marked.......Bogstaveligt talt: Hvad er civilsamfundet? Anker Brink Lund og Gitte Meyer fra CBS Center for Civil Society Studies gennemgår civilsamfundet bogstav for bogstav. Vi er nået til M for Marked....

  17. Inflectional marking in Hungarian aphasics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacWhinney, B; Osmán-Sági, J

    1991-08-01

    How do aphasics deal with the rich inflectional marking available in agglutinative languages like Hungarian? For the Hungarian noun alone, aphasics have to deal with over 15 basic case markings and dozens of possible combinations of these basic markings. Using the picture description task of MacWhinney and Bates (1978), this study examined the use of inflectional markings in nine Broca's and five Wernicke's aphasic speakers of Hungarian. The analysis focused on subject, direct object, indirect object, and locative nominal arguments. Compared to normals, both groups had a much higher rate of omission of all argument types. Subject ellipsis was particularly strong, as it is in normal Hungarian. There was a tendency for Broca's to omit the indirect object and for Wernicke's to omit the direct object. Across argument types, Wernicke's had a much higher level of pronoun usage than did Broca's. Broca's also showed a very high level of article omission. Compared to similar data reported by Slobin (this issue) for Turkish, the Hungarian aphasics showed an elevated level of omission of case markings. Addition errors were quite rare, but there were 14 substitutions of one case marking for another. These errors all involved the substitution of some close semantic competitor. There were no errors in the basic rules for vowel harmony or morpheme order. Overall the results paint a picture of a group of individuals whose grammatical abilities are damaged and noisy, but still largely functional. Neither the view of Broca's as agrammatic nor the view of Wernicke's as paragrammatic was strongly supported.

  18. Mark Napier / Mark Napier ; interv. Tilman Baumgärtel

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Napier, Mark

    2006-01-01

    Ameerika kunstnikust Mark Napierist (sünd. 1961) ja tema loomingust, 2001. a. tehtud meiliintervjuu kunstnikuga. Võrguteosest "The Digital Landfill" (1998), koos Andy Deckiga loodud tööst "GrafficJam" (1999), töödest "Shredder" (1998), "Feed", "Riot", "P-Soup" (2000), võrgukunstist ja muust

  19. Vastab Mark Lubotski / Mark Lubotski ; interv. Toomas Velmet

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Lubotski, Mark

    2008-01-01

    Hamburgi Muusikakõrgkooli viiuliprofessor Mark Lubotskist, kes viibis Tallinnas oktoobris 2008 ja oli IV rahvusvahelise Heino Elleri nimelise viiuldajate konkursi žürii esimeheks. Tema sidemetest Eesti muusikutega, pagemisest Läände, Heino Elleri nimelisest konkursist ja tööst žüriis

  20. Mark Napier / Mark Napier ; interv. Tilman Baumgärtel

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Napier, Mark

    2006-01-01

    Ameerika kunstnikust Mark Napierist (sünd. 1961) ja tema loomingust, 2001. a. tehtud meiliintervjuu kunstnikuga. Võrguteosest "The Digital Landfill" (1998), koos Andy Deckiga loodud tööst "GrafficJam" (1999), töödest "Shredder" (1998), "Feed", "Riot", "P-Soup" (2000), võrgukunstist ja muust

  1. Minimal Marking: A Success Story

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne McNeilly

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The minimal-marking project conducted in Ryerson’s School of Journalism throughout 2012 and early 2013 resulted in significantly higher grammar scores in two first-year classes of minimally marked university students when compared to two traditionally marked classes. The “minimal-marking” concept (Haswell, 1983, which requires dramatically more student engagement, resulted in more successful learning outcomes for surface-level knowledge acquisition than the more traditional approach of “teacher-corrects-all.” Results suggest it would be effective, not just for grammar, punctuation, and word usage, the objective here, but for any material that requires rote-memory learning, such as the Associated Press or Canadian Press style rules used by news publications across North America.

  2. Two Stories about Mark Twain

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张策; 李秀云

    2004-01-01

    ⅠAsyouknow,MarkTwainwasafamousAmericanwriterandJamesWhistlerwasafa-mouspainter.TwainlikedWhistler’sworkverymuch,andthere’sastoryaboutthedayhevisitedWhistlerinhisstudio.Whistlerwasaratherseriousperson,butTwainen-joyedjokes.TwainwalkedroundthestudiolookingatWhistler’swonderfulpaintings.“Ilikethispictureofthesea,”Twainsaid.“Yes,Ipainteditsometimeago.It’scalled‘AngrySea’.”“Thecolorsarebeautiful,”Twainsaid.Thenhepointedatanotherpicture.“Ilikethewaythewomanisstandinginthepicture.Ilikethewayshe’slookingoutofthewin...

  3. Business Education Receives High Marks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yopp, Martha C.; Brumley, Debbie

    1996-01-01

    A national survey of state superintendents of public instruction (n=35) and state directors of employment and training (n=28) gives business education programs, courses, and competencies high marks. Suggests that business educators should take advantage of this support by becoming more active in professional organizations. (JOW)

  4. Visual marking of old objects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Theeuwes, J.; Kramer, A.F.; Atchley, P.

    1998-01-01

    Watson and Humphreys (1997) presented evidence that selection of new elements can be prioritized by on-line top-down attentional inhibition of old stimuli already in the visual field (visual marking). The experiments on which this evidence was based always presented old elements in green and new ele

  5. 49 CFR 1520.13 - Marking SSI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 9 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Marking SSI. 1520.13 Section 1520.13... SECURITY INFORMATION § 1520.13 Marking SSI. (a) Marking of paper records. In the case of paper records containing SSI, a covered person must mark the record by placing the protective marking conspicuously on the...

  6. Mark Twain: inocente ou pecador? = Mark Twain: innocent or sinner?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heloisa Helou Doca

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available A leitura cuidadosa do texto do “Tratado de Paris”, em 1900, leva Mark Twain a concluir que a intenção política norte-americana era, claramente, a de subjugação. Declara-se, abertamente, antiimperialista, nesse momento, apesar das inúmeras críticasrecebidas por antagonistas políticos que defendiam o establishment dos Estados Unidos. Após viajar para a Europa e Oriente, em 1867, como correspondente do jornal Daily Alta Califórnia, Mark Twain publica, em 1869, seu relato de viagem, The Innocents Abroad or TheNew Pilgrim’s Progress. Nosso estudo demonstra que o autor, apesar das diversas máscaras usadas em seus relatos, narra histórias, culturas e tradições, tanto da Europa quanto do Oriente, já com os olhos bem abertos pelo viés antiimperialista. Faz uso da paródia, sátira, ironia e humor para dessacralizar impérios, monarcas e a Igreja que subjugavam os mais fracos, iluminando, desde então, os estudos sobre culturas. Nosso estudo, outrossim, faz uma reflexão sobre cultura, tradição e o olhar do viajante, justificando o “olhar inocente” do narrador em seu relato.After carefully reading the Treaty of Paris in 1900, Mark Twain concluded that the goal of U.S. policy was clearly one ofsubjugation. He openly declared himself an anti-imperialist at that time, in spite of the numerous criticisms he received from political opponents who supported the United States status quo. After traveling to Europe and the East in 1867 as a correspondent for The DailyAlta California newspaper, Mark Twain published his travel report, The Innocents Abroad or The New Pilgrim’s Progress in 1869. Our study demonstrates that the author, in spite of using different guises in his reports, narrated histories, cultures and traditions – from both Europe and the East – with a viewpoint already imbued by his anti-imperialistic ideals. Twain made use of parody, satire, irony and humor within his texts in order to desecrate empires,monarchs and

  7. Gender-marked age stereotypes in english proverbs and sayings

    OpenAIRE

    Галапчук-Тарнавська, Олена Михайлівна; Halapchuk-Tarnavska, Olena M.

    2014-01-01

    Gender stereotypes are characteristic features of male/female gender group behavior that are expected by a society.Gender stereotypes in the Ukrainian language are viewed as ethnic stereotypes and perform the function of accumulating and systemizing the social, cultural and historical experiences of the Ukrainian people.Gender-marked age stereotypes are widely accepted believes held about certain age that are perceived as being appropriate for women and men.Family roles are also subject to ch...

  8. Laser therapy of stretch marks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDaniel, David H

    2002-01-01

    Striae distensae, better known as stretch marks, are a common disfiguring skin disorder of significant cosmetic concern. Many sources have reported the use of lasers to diminish the appearance of striae. Controlled clinical studies of the various treatment modalities available for striae are relatively uncommon, and much of the clinical data are anecdotal. The use of lasers alone or in combination with other therapeutic modalities can provide a safe and effective reduction in the appearance of both red and white striae distensae. Many of these therapies require special measures for darker skin phototypes. This article reviews the historical use of laser therapy for this disorder and discusses current therapeutic options.

  9. 49 CFR 221.14 - Marking devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Marking devices. 221.14 Section 221.14..., DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION REAR END MARKING DEVICE-PASSENGER, COMMUTER AND FREIGHT TRAINS Marking Devices § 221.14 Marking devices. (a) As prescribed in § 221.13, passenger, commuter and freight trains shall...

  10. 27 CFR 28.154 - Export marks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Export marks. 28.154..., for Exportation or Transfer to a Foreign-Trade Zone § 28.154 Export marks. In addition to the marks... provisions of part 19 of this chapter, the proprietor shall mark the word “Export” on the Government side of...

  11. 27 CFR 28.193 - Export marks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Export marks. 28.193... Drawback Filing of Notice and Removal § 28.193 Export marks. In addition to the marks and brands required... chapter, the exporter shall mark the word “Export” on the Government side of each case or Government head...

  12. 27 CFR 28.103 - Export marks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Export marks. 28.103... Manufacturing Bonded Warehouse § 28.103 Export marks. (a) General. In addition to the marks and brands required... provisions of part 19 of this chapter, the proprietor shall mark the word “Export” on the Government side of...

  13. 27 CFR 28.144 - Export marks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Export marks. 28.144... § 28.144 Export marks. (a) General Requirement. In addition to the marks and brands required to be... brewer shall mark the word “Export” on each container or case of beer, or the words “Beer concentrate for...

  14. Interview with Professor Mark Wilcox.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilcox, Mark

    2016-08-01

    Mark Wilcox speaks to Georgia Patey, Commissioning Editor: Professor Mark Wilcox is a Consultant Microbiologist and Head of Microbiology at the Leeds Teaching Hospitals (Leeds, UK), the Professor of Medical Microbiology at the University of Leeds (Leeds, UK), and is the Lead on Clostridium difficile and the Head of the UK C. difficile Reference Laboratory for Public Health England (PHE). He was the Director of Infection Prevention (4 years), Infection Control Doctor (8 years) and Clinical Director of Pathology (6 years) at the Leeds Teaching Hospitals. He is Chair of PHE's Rapid Review Panel (reviews utility of infection prevention and control products for National Health Service), Deputy Chair of the UK Department of Health's Antimicrobial Resistance and Healthcare Associated Infection Committee and a member of PHE's HCAI/AR Programme Board. He is a member of UK/European/US working groups on C. difficile infection. He has provided clinical advice as part of the FDA/EMA submissions for the approval of multiple novel antimicrobial agents. He heads a healthcare-associated infection research team at University of Leeds, comprising approximately 30 doctors, scientists and nurses; projects include multiple aspects of C. difficile infection, diagnostics, antimicrobial resistance and the clinical development of new antimicrobial agents. He has authored more than 400 publications, and is the coeditor of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy (5th/6th/7th Editions, 15 December 2007).

  15. Design of Arabic Diacritical Marks

    CERN Document Server

    Hssini, Mohamed

    2011-01-01

    Diacritical marks play a crucial role in meeting the criteria of usability of typographic text, such as: homogeneity, clarity and legibility. To change the diacritic of a letter in a word could completely change its semantic. The situation is very complicated with multilingual text. Indeed, the problem of design becomes more difficult by the presence of diacritics that come from various scripts; they are used for different purposes, and are controlled by various typographic rules. It is quite challenging to adapt rules from one script to another. This paper aims to study the placement and sizing of diacritical marks in Arabic script, with a comparison with the Latin's case. The Arabic script is cursive and runs from right-to-left; its criteria and rules are quite distinct from those of the Latin script. In the beginning, we compare the difficulty of processing diacritics in both scripts. After, we will study the limits of Latin resolution strategies when applied to Arabic. At the end, we propose an approach t...

  16. Dialectica Interpretation with Marked Counterexamples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Trifon Trifonov

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Goedel's functional "Dialectica" interpretation can be used to extract functional programs from non-constructive proofs in arithmetic by employing two sorts of higher-order witnessing terms: positive realisers and negative counterexamples. In the original interpretation decidability of atoms is required to compute the correct counterexample from a set of candidates. When combined with recursion, this choice needs to be made for every step in the extracted program, however, in some special cases the decision on negative witnesses can be calculated only once. We present a variant of the interpretation in which the time complexity of extracted programs can be improved by marking the chosen witness and thus avoiding recomputation. The achieved effect is similar to using an abortive control operator to interpret computational content of non-constructive principles.

  17. Dialectica Interpretation with Marked Counterexamples

    CERN Document Server

    Trifonov, Trifon

    2011-01-01

    Goedel's functional "Dialectica" interpretation can be used to extract functional programs from non-constructive proofs in arithmetic by employing two sorts of higher-order witnessing terms: positive realisers and negative counterexamples. In the original interpretation decidability of atoms is required to compute the correct counterexample from a set of candidates. When combined with recursion, this choice needs to be made for every step in the extracted program, however, in some special cases the decision on negative witnesses can be calculated only once. We present a variant of the interpretation in which the time complexity of extracted programs can be improved by marking the chosen witness and thus avoiding recomputation. The achieved effect is similar to using an abortive control operator to interpret computational content of non-constructive principles.

  18. Indução de calos embriogênicos em explantes de cupuaçuzeiro Induction of embryogenics calli in cupuassu explants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria das Graças Rodrigues Ferreira

    2004-08-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se a indução de calos embriogênicos em cupuaçuzeiro, em função do tipo de explante e meio de cultura. Foram testados como explantes, segmentos cotiledonares e eixos embrionários divididos em três partes: região da plúmula, radícula e hipocótilo. Os explantes foram cultivados em 2 diferentes meios de cultura: 1 MS suplementado com 2,4-D (1 mg L-1 e Cinetina (0,25 mg L-1; 2 MS acrescido de ANA (5 mg L-1 e Cinetina (0,25 mg L-1. Constatou-se que a região do hipocótilo foi a parte mais responsiva do eixo embrionário, formando calos com aspecto branco e friável. As auxinas testadas nos meios não estimularam o processo embriogênico em calos de cupuaçuzeiro.It was studied the induction of embryogenics calli in cupuassu, in function of kind of explant and culture medium. Cotyledons segments and embryonic axes were tested and divided in three parts: region of plumule, radicule and hypocotile. The explants were cultivated in two different culture medium: 1 MS supplemented with 2,4-D (1 mg L-1 and Kinetin (0,25 mg L-1; 2 MS supplemented with NAA (5 mg L-1 and Kinetin (0,25 mg L-1. The hypocotile region demonstrated to be more responsive segment of the embryonic axe, forming callus with white and friable aspect. No somatic embryogenesis was evidenced in callus of cupuassu with auxines testeds in the medium.

  19. Highly efficient Agrobacterium-mediated transformation of embryogenic cell suspensions of Musa acuminata cv. Mas (AA) via a liquid co-cultivation system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Xia; Huang, Xue-Lin; Xiao, Wang; Zhao, Jie-Tang; Dai, Xue-Mei; Chen, Yun-Feng; Li, Xiao-Ju

    2007-10-01

    A high efficient protocol of Agrobacterium-mediated transformation of Musa acuminata cv. Mas (AA), a major banana variety of the South East Asia region, was developed in this study. Male-flower-derived embryogenic cell suspensions (ECS) were co-cultivated in liquid medium with Agrobacterium strain EHA105 harboring a binary vector pCAMBIA2301 carrying nptII and gusA gene in the T-DNA. Depending upon conditions and duration of co-cultivation in liquid medium, 0-490 transgenic plants per 0.5 ml packed cell volume (PCV) of ECS were obtained. The optimum duration of inoculation was 2 h, and the highest transformation frequency was achieved when infected ECS were co-cultivated in liquid medium first for 12 h at 40 rpm and then for 156 h at 100 rpm on a rotary shaker. Co-cultivation for a shorter duration (72 h) or shaking constantly at 100 rpm at the same duration gave 1.6 and 1.8 folds lower transformation efficiency, respectively. No transgenic plants were obtained in parallel experiments carried on semi-solid media. Histochemical GUS assay and molecular analysis in several tissues of the transgenic plants demonstrated that foreign genes were stably integrated into the banana genome. Compared to semi-solid co-cultivation transformation in other banana species, it is remarkable that liquid co-cultivation was much more efficient for transformation of the Mas cultivar, and was at least 1 month faster for regenerating transgenic plants.

  20. Comparative study of total RNA extraction methods from the grape callus and a preliminary analysis of the genes' differential expression between the embryogenic callus and non- embryogenic callus%葡萄愈伤组织RNA提取方法比较及部分基因的表达差异初步分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    代茹; 冀敏; 舒小梅; 陈尚武; 张文; 马会勤

    2009-01-01

    The quality of total RNA extracted by different methods from embryogenic callus ( EC ) and non -embryogenic callus ( NEC ) of Vitis vinifera L.cv.Cabernet Sauvignon was compared.The result demonstrated that " RNAplant" was a suitable reagent for high quality total RNA extraction from grape EC and NEC.The OD260/280 nm of total RNA was between 1.8 and 2.0, and the 28S and 18S bands were clear on the agarose gel after electro-phoresis.The expression of a set of genes including actin, tubulin, CLA and other three genes in EC and NEC were successfully compared by semi - quantitative RT - PCR with the total RNA as templates.The results showed that the total RNA extracted with this protocol was qualified for cDNA and qRT -PCR use, and could be further applied in gene expression and regulation research of grapevine somatic embryogenesis.%以欧亚种酿酒葡萄品种赤霞珠(Vitis vinifera L.cv.Cabernet Sauvignon)的胚性愈伤组织(EC)和非胚性愈伤组织(NEC)为材料,进行了总RNA不同提取方法的比较.结果表明葡萄EC和NEc的总RNA的最佳提取方法是RNAplant试剂法.通过此方法提取的总RNA完整性好,28s和18s条带清晰,且OD260/280nm值都在1.8~2.0之间.以此RNA为模板,对actin,tubilin,CLV等基因进行了半定量RT-PCR对比,发现EC与NEC在不同基因表达上存在差异.以上结果说明,以RNAplant试剂提取的RNA质量,可以满足cDNA合成和qRT-PCR等研究用途.这为深入研究葡萄花药愈伤组织胚性与非胚性细胞系的基因表达特点,以及葡萄体细胞胚发育过程中的基因时序表达奠定了基础.

  1. The research of laser marking control technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Qiue; Zhang, Rong

    2009-08-01

    In the area of Laser marking, the general control method is insert control card to computer's mother board, it can not support hot swap, it is difficult to assemble or it. Moreover, the one marking system must to equip one computer. In the system marking, the computer can not to do the other things except to transmit marking digital information. Otherwise it can affect marking precision. Based on traditional control methods existed some problems, introduced marking graphic editing and digital processing by the computer finish, high-speed digital signal processor (DSP) control marking the whole process. The laser marking controller is mainly contain DSP2812, digital memorizer, DAC (digital analog converting) transform unit circuit, USB interface control circuit, man-machine interface circuit, and other logic control circuit. Download the marking information which is processed by computer to U disk, DSP read the information by USB interface on time, then processing it, adopt the DSP inter timer control the marking time sequence, output the scanner control signal by D/A parts. Apply the technology can realize marking offline, thereby reduce the product cost, increase the product efficiency. The system have good effect in actual unit markings, the marking speed is more quickly than PCI control card to 20 percent. It has application value in practicality.

  2. Readers of histone methylarginine marks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gayatri, Sitaram; Bedford, Mark T

    2014-08-01

    Arginine methylation is a common posttranslational modification (PTM) that alters roughly 0.5% of all arginine residues in the cells. There are three types of arginine methylation: monomethylarginine (MMA), asymmetric dimethylarginine (ADMA), and symmetric dimethylarginine (SDMA). These three PTMs are enriched on RNA-binding proteins and on histones, and also impact signal transduction cascades. To date, over thirty arginine methylation sites have been cataloged on the different core histones. These modifications alter protein structure, impact interactions with DNA, and also generate docking sites for effector molecules. The primary "readers" of methylarginine marks are Tudor domain-containing proteins. The complete family of thirty-six Tudor domain-containing proteins has yet to be fully characterized, but at least ten bind methyllysine motifs and eight bind methylarginine motifs. In this review, we will highlight the biological roles of the Tudor domains that interact with arginine methylated motifs, and also address other types of interactions that are regulated by these particular PTMs. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Molecular mechanisms of histone modification function. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. EDMS - Reaching the Million Mark

    CERN Document Server

    2009-01-01

    When Christophe Seith from the company Cegelec sat down to work on 14 May 2009 at 10:09 a.m. to create the EDMS document entitled "Rapport tournée PH semaine 20", little did he know that he would be the proud creator of the millionth EDMS document and the happy prize winner of a celebratory bottle of champagne to mark the occasion. In the run up to the creation of the millionth EDMS document the EDMS team had been closely monitoring the steady rise in the EDMS number generator, so as to ensure the switch from the six figured i.d. to seven figures would run smoothly and of course, to be able to congratulate the creator of the millionth EDMS document. From left to right: Stephan Petit (GS-ASE- EDS Section Leader), Christophe Delamare (GS- ASE Group Leader), Christophe Seith, creator of the millionth EDMS document, David Widegren, (GS-ASE- EPS Section Leader). The millionth EDMS document. For t...

  4. 46 CFR 160.005-6 - Marking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ...: SPECIFICATIONS AND APPROVAL LIFESAVING EQUIPMENT Life Preservers, Fibrous Glass, Adult and Child (Jacket Type), Models 52 and 56 § 160.005-6 Marking. Each life preserver must have the following clearly marked in...

  5. 46 CFR 160.002-6 - Marking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ...: SPECIFICATIONS AND APPROVAL LIFESAVING EQUIPMENT Life Preservers, Kapok, Adult and Child (Jacket Type), Models 3 and 5 § 160.002-6 Marking. Each life preserver must have the following clearly marked in waterproof...

  6. On-road Bicycle Pavement Markings

    Data.gov (United States)

    Allegheny County / City of Pittsburgh / Western PA Regional Data Center — A mile by mile breakdown of the on-street bicycle pavement markings installed within the City of Pittsburgh. These include bike lanes, shared lane markings...

  7. 19 CFR 18.27 - Port marks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Port marks. 18.27 Section 18.27 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY TRANSPORTATION... Port marks. Port marks may be added by authority of the port director and under the supervision of...

  8. 27 CFR 28.123 - Export marks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Export marks. 28.123..., or Transportation to a Manufacturing Bonded Warehouse § 28.123 Export marks. (a) General. In addition... filled under the provisions of part 24 of this chapter, the proprietor shall mark the word “Export” on...

  9. 27 CFR 28.216 - Export marks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Export marks. 28.216... Export marks. In addition to the marks and brands required to be placed on packages or other bulk... “Export” on the Government side of each case or Government head of each container before removal for...

  10. 27 CFR 28.223 - Export marks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Export marks. 28.223... Export marks. In addition to the marks and brands required to be placed on kegs, barrels, cases, crates... “Export” on each container or case before removal for export, for use on vessels or aircraft, or for...

  11. Evaluation on the Effectiveness of 2-Deoxyglucose-6-phosphate phosphatase (DOGR1 Gene as a Selectable Marker for Oil Palm (Elaeis guineensis Jacq. Embryogenic Calli Transformation Mediated by Agrobacterium tumefaciens.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abang Masli eDayang Izawati

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available DOGR1, which encodes for 2-deoxyglucose-6-phosphate phosphatase, has been used as a selectable marker gene to produce transgenic plants. In this study, a transformation vector, pBIDOG, which contains the DOGR1 gene, was transformed into oil palm embryogenic calli mediated by Agrobacterium tumefaciens strain LBA4404. Transformed embryogenic calli were exposed to 400 mg l–1 2-deoxyglucose (2-DOG as the selection agent. 2-DOG resistant tissues were regenerated into whole plantlets on various regeneration media containing the same concentration of 2-DOG. The plantlets were later transferred into soil and grown in a biosafety screenhouse. PCR and subsequently Southern blot analyses were carried out to confirm the integration of the transgene in the plantlets. A transformation efficiency of about 1.0% was obtained using DOGR1 gene into the genome of oil palm. This result demonstrates the potential of using combination of DOGR1 gene and 2-DOG for regenerating transgenic oil palm.

  12. Molecular Transducers from Roots Are Triggered in Arabidopsis Leaves by Root-Knot Nematodes for Successful Feeding Site Formation: A Conserved Post-Embryogenic De novo Organogenesis Program?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rocío Olmo

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Root-knot nematodes (RKNs; Meloidogyne spp. induce feeding cells (giant cells; GCs inside a pseudo-organ (gall from still unknown root cells. Understanding GCs ontogeny is essential to the basic knowledge of RKN–plant interaction and to discover novel and effective control strategies. Hence, we report for the first time in a model plant, Arabidopsis, molecular, and cellular features concerning ectopic de novo organogenesis of RKNs GCs in leaves. RKNs induce GCs in leaves with irregular shape, a reticulated cytosol, and fragmented vacuoles as GCs from roots. Leaf cells around the nematode enter G2-M shown by ProCycB1;1:CycB1;1(NT-GUS expression, consistent to multinucleated GCs. In addition, GCs nuclei present irregular and varied sizes. All these characteristics mentioned, being equivalent to GCs in root-galls. RKNs complete their life cycle forming a gall/callus-like structure in the leaf vascular tissues resembling auxin-induced callus with an auxin-response maxima, indicated by high expression of DR5::GUS that is dependent on leaf auxin-transport. Notably, induction of leaves calli/GCs requires molecular components from roots crucial for lateral roots (LRs, auxin-induced callus and root-gall formation, i.e., LBD16. Hence, LBD16 is a xylem pole pericycle specific and local marker in LR primordia unexpectedly induced locally in the vascular tissue of leaves after RKN infection. LBD16 is also fundamental for feeding site formation as RKNs could not stablish in 35S::LBD16-SRDX leaves, and likely it is also a conserved molecular hub between biotic and developmental signals in Arabidopsis either in roots or leaves. Moreover, RKNs induce the ectopic development of roots from leaf and root-galls, also formed in mutants compromised in LR formation, arf7/arf19, slr, and alf4. Therefore, nematodes must target molecular signatures to induce post-embryogenic de novo organogenesis through the LBD16 callus formation pathway partially different from those

  13. High contrast laser marking of alumina

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Penide, J. [Applied Physics Department, University of Vigo, EEI, Lagoas-Marcosende, 9, Vigo 36310 (Spain); Quintero, F., E-mail: fquintero@uvigo.es [Applied Physics Department, University of Vigo, EEI, Lagoas-Marcosende, 9, Vigo 36310 (Spain); Riveiro, A. [Applied Physics Department, University of Vigo, EEI, Lagoas-Marcosende, 9, Vigo 36310 (Spain); Fernández, A. [Department of Engineering Design, University of Vigo, Escuela de Ingeniería Industrial, Campus Universitario, Vigo E-36310 (Spain); Val, J. del [Applied Physics Department, University of Vigo, EEI, Lagoas-Marcosende, 9, Vigo 36310 (Spain); Comesaña, R. [Materials Engineering, Applied Mechanics and Construction Department, University of Vigo, EEI, Lagoas-Marcosende, Vigo E-36310 (Spain); Lusquiños, F.; Pou, J. [Applied Physics Department, University of Vigo, EEI, Lagoas-Marcosende, 9, Vigo 36310 (Spain)

    2015-05-01

    Highlights: • Laser marking of alumina using near infrared (NIR) lasers was experimentally analyzed. • Color change produced by NIR lasers is due to thermally induced oxygen vacancies. • Laser marking results obtained using NIR lasers and green laser are compared. • High contrast marks on alumina were achieved. - Abstract: Alumina serves as raw material for a broad range of advanced ceramic products. These elements should usually be identified by some characters or symbols printed directly on them. In this sense, laser marking is an efficient, reliable and widely implemented process in industry. However, laser marking of alumina still leads to poor results since the process is not able to produce a dark mark, yielding bad contrast. In this paper, we present an experimental study on the process of marking alumina by three different lasers working in two wavelengths: 1064 nm (Near-infrared) and 532 nm (visible, green radiation). A colorimetric analysis has been carried out in order to compare the resulting marks and its contrast. The most suitable laser operating conditions were also defined and are reported here. Moreover, the physical process of marking by NIR lasers is discussed in detail. Field Emission Scanning Electron Microscopy, High Resolution Transmission Electron Microscopy and X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy were also employed to analyze the results. Finally, we propose an explanation for the differences of the coloration induced under different atmospheres and laser parameters. We concluded that the atmosphere is the key parameter, being the inert one the best choice to produce the darkest marks.

  14. Aluminum alloy nanosecond vs femtosecond laser marking

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    S Rusu; A Buzaianu; D G Galusca; L Ionel; D Ursescu

    2013-11-01

    Based on the lack of consistent literature publications that analyse the effects of laser marking for traceability on various materials, the present paper proposes a study of the influence of such radiation processing on an aluminum alloy, a vastly used material base within several industry fields. For the novelty impact, femtolaser marking has been carried out, besides the standard commercial nanosecond engraving. All the marks have been analysed using profilometry, overhead and cross-section SEM microscopy, respectively and EDAX measurements.

  15. Accumulation by Conservation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Büscher, Bram; Fletcher, Robert

    2014-01-01

    Following the financial crisis and its aftermath, it is clear that the inherent contradictions of capitalist accumulation have become even more intense and plunged the global economy into unprecedented turmoil and urgency. Governments, business leaders and other elite agents are frantically searchin

  16. Bite marks in mink—Induced experimentally and as reflection of aggressive encounters between mink

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Steffen W; Møller, Steen Henrik; Damgaard, Birthe Marie

    2014-01-01

    by an artificial tooth. Before pressure wasapplied, each mink was anaesthetized and pain treated.In order to investigate when bite marks from cage mates are inflicted and to what extendthey accumulate over time, 120 brown and 40 white juvenile mink were placed in groupsof four in climbing cages after weaning......, the pelt during the growth phase of the winter coat will producemarks that can be recognized as bite marks at pelting, (2) bite marks applied experimentally by use of an artificial tooth or occurring due to social/aggressive interactions (bites)between mink are only visible if pressure/bite on the mink......: (1) experimentally applied pressure on the skin can be recog-nized as bite marks in brown mink at pelting, (2) bite marks are easier to detect on brownmink than on white coloured mink (P tooth or occurring due to social...

  17. Fantasy and Reality in Mark Twain's Aggression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sears, Robert R.

    Psychoanalysis, a favorite method for studying personality and motivation, cannot be used on the dead. Instead, biographical analysis must be employed. This study examines Mark Twain's aggression by analyzing his writings, social behavior, and environmental aspects of his life. In viewing Mark Twain's novels as representing fantasy, 17 categories…

  18. Effects of heat on cut mark characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waltenberger, Lukas; Schutkowski, Holger

    2017-02-01

    Cut marks on bones provide crucial information about tools used and their mode of application, both in archaeological and forensic contexts. Despite a substantial amount of research on cut mark analysis and the influence of fire on bones (shrinkage, fracture pattern, recrystallisation), there is still a lack of knowledge in cut mark analysis on burnt remains. This study provides information about heat alteration of cut marks and whether consistent features can be observed that allow direct interpretation of the implemented tools used. In a controlled experiment, cut marks (n=25) were inflicted on pig ribs (n=7) with a kitchen knife and examined using micro-CT and digital microscopy. The methods were compared in terms of their efficacy in recording cut marks on native and heat-treated bones. Statistical analysis demonstrates that floor angles and the maximum slope height of cuts undergo significant alteration, whereas width, depth, floor radius, slope, and opening angle remain stable. Micro-CT and digital microscopy are both suitable methods for cut mark analysis. However, significant differences in measurements were detected between both methods, as micro-CT is less accurate due to the lower resolution. Moreover, stabbing led to micro-fissures surrounding the cuts, which might also influence the alteration of cut marks.

  19. Mark formation modeling in optical rewritable recording

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brusche, J.H.; Segal, A.; Vuik, C.; Urbach, H.P.

    2006-01-01

    In optical rewritable recording media, such as the Blu-ray Disc, amorphous marks are formed on a crystalline background of a phase-change layer, by means of short, high power laser pulses. In order to improve this data storage concept, it is of great importance to understand the mark formation

  20. Mark Blaug: rebel with many causes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M. Boumans; M. Klaes

    2013-01-01

    This book celebrates the immense contributions of Mark Blaug to every aspect of economics, a discipline in which his influence and relevance still resonate today, particularly in the field of the economics of education. This collection of eminent contributions discusses the ideas and works of Mark B

  1. Recent Discoveries on Antwerp Panel Makers' Marks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wadum, Jørgen

    1993-01-01

    There still exist today uncertainties and misunderstandings in our interpretation of panel makers' marks from early 17th century Antwerp. In the future, panel marks and the panels on which they can be found will certainly render much more information concerning the technology of that time. Still...

  2. 76 FR 490 - Marking Meteorological Evaluation Towers

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-05

    ... Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 77 Marking Meteorological Evaluation Towers AGENCY: Federal.... SUMMARY: The FAA is considering revising its current Advisory Circular on Obstruction Marking and Lighting to include guidance for Meteorological Evaluation Towers (METs). These towers are erected in...

  3. 76 FR 36983 - Marking Meteorological Evaluation Towers

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-24

    ... terrain. Without a similar evaluation process, the FAA cannot recommend lighting for METs. It is important... Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 77 Marking Meteorological Evaluation Towers AGENCY: Federal... recommended guidance for the voluntary marking of Meteorological Evaluation Towers (METs) erected in...

  4. 40 CFR 761.40 - Marking requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... time of removal from use if not already marked. ; (3) PCB Large High Voltage Capacitors at the time of... Capacitor at the time of manufacture, at the time of distribution in commerce if not already marked, and at... Capacitors at the time of removal from use (see also paragraph (k) of this section). (6) Electric...

  5. 49 CFR 15.13 - Marking SSI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Marking SSI. 15.13 Section 15.13 Transportation... SSI. (a) Marking of paper records. In the case of paper records containing SSI, a covered person must... types of records. In the case of non-paper records that contain SSI, including motion picture films...

  6. Mark formation modeling in optical rewritable recording

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brusche, J.H.; Segal, A.; Vuik, C.; Urbach, H.P.

    2006-01-01

    In optical rewritable recording media, such as the Blu-ray Disc, amorphous marks are formed on a crystalline background of a phase-change layer, by means of short, high power laser pulses. In order to improve this data storage concept, it is of great importance to understand the mark formation proce

  7. Credit Documentation and the Mark 15 Subroutine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McAllister, J.E.

    2001-08-16

    This report documents the rewrite of the heat transfer subroutine. Part of the process of preparing the Mark 15 assembly for production operation is the development of thermal-hydraulic limits for the assembly. These limits require, among other items, the development of a Mark 15 assembly subroutine for the CREDIT code.

  8. Teaching Mark through a postcolonial optic

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2015-07-16

    Jul 16, 2015 ... But empire (or anti-empire) studies and postcolonial studies are not one and the same. .... presence in Mark 1:1.8 As one scholar put it, 'Mark appears ... back to villages of Galilee (presumably to continue the project inaugurated in Jesus' ... A few chapters later, it is possible to let students see through.

  9. 7 CFR 956.162 - Container markings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Container markings. 956.162 Section 956.162... WALLA VALLEY OF SOUTHEAST WASHINGTON AND NORTHEAST OREGON Rules and Regulations § 956.162 Container markings. Effective April 15, 1997, no handler shall ship any container of Walla Walla Sweet Onions...

  10. Embryogenic calli induction from nucellar tissue of Citrus cultivars Indução de calos embriogênicos a partir de nucelos de variedades de Citrus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernanda Januzzi Mendes-da-Glória

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available Nucellar tissues of seven Citrus varieties were introduced onto three growth media to produce embryogenic callus. The media tested were: EME [MT, modified, with the addition of malt extract (500 mg.L-1]; 1/2-EME [half concentration of MT macronutrients + half concentration of BH3 macronutrients + 500 mg.L-1 malt extract + 1.55 g.L-1 of glutamine]; and EBA [EME + 0.44 muM 6-benzyladenine + 0.04 muM 2,4 D]. Soft friable calli were obtained from 'Cravo' and 'Ponkan' mandarins (Citrus reticulata, Blanco, 'Murcott' tangor (Citrus reticulata Blanco x Citrus sinensis L. Osbeck, 'Serra d'água' and 'Valencia' sweet oranges (Citrus sinensis, L. Osbeck 120 days after callus induction. 'Natal' and 'Pera' sweet oranges (Citrus sinensis, L. Osbeck produced hard non-friable calli in this period. EME and 1/2-EME media had the best results for 'Cravo' mandarin, 'Ponkan' mandarin and 'Serra d'água' sweet orange, whereas EBA was the best media composition to induce soft friable calli on 'Murcott' tangor and 'Valencia' sweet orange. Friable callus cultures of 'Cravo' and 'Ponkan' mandarins, and 'Murcott' tangor yielded high quality protoplasts after isolation. Abbreviations: a.c. - activated charcoal; BA - 6-benzyladenine; IAA - indole-acetic acid; 2,4-D - 2,4-diclorophenoxyacetic acid; MT - Murashige & Tucker basal medium.Nucelos de sete variedades de Citrus foram introduzidos em três meios de cultura para produção de calos embriogênicos. Os meios de cultura testados foram: EME [MT, modificado pela adição de extrato de malte (500 mg.L-1]; 1/2-EME [1/2 concentração de macronutrientes no meio MT + 1/2 concentração de macronutrientes no meio BH3 + 500 mg.L-1 extrato de malte + 1,55 g.L-1 de glutamina]; e EBA [EME + 0,44 miM 6-benziladenina + 0,04 miM 2,4 D]. Calos friáveis foram obtidos nas variedades tangerinas 'Cravo' e 'Ponkan' (Citrus reticulata, Blanco, tangor 'Murcote' (Citrus reticulata Blanco x Citrus sinensis L. Osbeck, laranja 'Valencia

  11. Effet du 2,4-D sur l’induction de l’embryogenèse somatique à partir de cotylédons matures de caroubier (Ceratonia siliqua L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Assia LOZZI

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The present study is the first report of the production of embryogenic callus and structures cultures from mature cotyledons of Ceratonia siliqua. Regeneration depends on the plant material type and concentration of the auxin. In the case of mature cotyledons, the presence of 2,4 - dichlorophenoxyacetic acid was necessary for callus induction. This auxin promoted a rapid proliferated callus initiation with nodular structure in all explants and concentrations tested. Upon transfer to auxin free medium, the callus formed a large number of globular embryonic structures (SEG. The highest number of SEG (126/g of callus was produced with 10 µM of 2,4-D. Higher concentrations were accompanied by hyperhydricity of SEG. No embryonic structures occurred from the others types of explants (immature seeds, leaves and portions of epicotyls, hypocotyls and roots.

  12. 蔗糖与肌醇对马尾松胚性细胞系增殖的影响%Effects of Sucrose and Myo-Inositol on Proliferation of Embryogenic Cell Lines in Pinus massoniana

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    史昆; 杨模华; 李志辉; 张冬林; 丁贵杰

    2014-01-01

    To address the reduction of embryogenic cultures activity in masson pine (Pinus massoniana), three concentrations of sucrose and myo-inositol were applied in proliferation media with complete random design. The results indicated that proliferation rate had signiifcantly difference among nine treatments (P<0.01). Prolif-eration rates of three combinations of sucrose and myo-inositol were signiifcantly higher than those of other combinations. Within the three media, the iffth (sucrose 20 g·L-1+myo-inositol 1.0 g·L-1), the seventh (sucrose 30 g·L-1+myo-inositol 0.1 g·L-1), and the eighth (sucrose 30 g·L-1+myo-inositol 1.0 g·L-1), embryogenic cells development was the slowest in the iffth media. Well developed embryogenic cells and the normal somatic em-bryos were found in the seventh media. In the eighth media, the structure and morphology of early somatic em-bryos were abnormal and uncompleted. The media of sucrose 30 g·L-1+myo-inositol 0.1 g·L-1 should be the most suitable for proliferation of embryogenic cell lines in masson pine somatic embryogenesis.%针对马尾松胚性细胞系增殖困难的问题,本研究设定了2因素3水平的处理,分析了增殖培养基中蔗糖与肌醇对马尾松胚性细胞系增殖的影响。研究结果表明,胚性培养物的增殖倍数在9个处理间存在极显著性差异(P<0.01),并初步选出马尾松胚性细胞系增殖倍数较高的3个培养基:5号(蔗糖20 g·L-1+肌醇1.0 g·L-1)、7号(蔗糖30 g·L-1+肌醇0.1 g·L-1)和8号(蔗糖30 g·L-1+肌醇1.0 g·L-1)。胚性细胞在以上3个培养基具有不同分化发育反应,其中培养基5号中,培养基胚性细胞发育较慢;培养基7号中,胚性细胞发育较快且能形成具有完整结构的正常早期体细胞胚;在培养基8号中,胚性细胞易分化形成结构不完整、形态不正常的早期体细胞胚。综合考虑胚性细胞系增殖倍数与胚性细胞分化发育两方面的因素,在

  13. Evaluation on the effectiveness of 2-deoxyglucose-6-phosphate phosphatase (DOGR1) gene as a selectable marker for oil palm (Elaeis guineensis Jacq.) embryogenic calli transformation mediated by Agrobacterium tumefaciens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Izawati, Abang Masli Dayang; Masani, Mat Yunus Abdul; Ismanizan, Ismail; Parveez, Ghulam Kadir Ahmad

    2015-01-01

    DOGR1, which encodes 2-deoxyglucose-6-phosphate phosphatase, has been used as a selectable marker gene to produce transgenic plants. In this study, a transformation vector, pBIDOG, which contains the DOGR1 gene, was transformed into oil palm embryogenic calli (EC) mediated by Agrobacterium tumefaciens strain LBA4404. Transformed EC were exposed to 400 mg l-1 2-deoxyglucose (2-DOG) as the selection agent. 2-DOG resistant tissues were regenerated into whole plantlets on various regeneration media containing the same concentration of 2-DOG. The plantlets were later transferred into soil and grown in a biosafety screenhouse. PCR and subsequently Southern blot analyses were carried out to confirm the integration of the transgene in the plantlets. A transformation efficiency of about 1.0% was obtained using DOGR1 gene into the genome of oil palm. This result demonstrates the potential of using combination of DOGR1 gene and 2-DOG for regenerating transgenic oil palm. PMID:26442041

  14. Antiproton Accumulator (AA)

    CERN Multimedia

    Photographic Service

    1980-01-01

    The AA in its final stage of construction, before it disappeared from view under concrete shielding. Antiprotons were first injected, stochastically cooled and accumulated in July 1980. From 1981 on, the AA provided antiprotons for collisions with protons, first in the ISR, then in the SPS Collider. From 1983 on, it also sent antiprotons, via the PS, to the Low-Energy Antiproton Ring (LEAR). The AA was dismantled in 1997 and shipped to Japan.

  15. 30 CFR 7.409 - Approval marking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... approval number in addition to the number and size (gauge) of conductors and cable type. For cables containing electric conductors, the marking shall also include the voltage rating. For splices, the...

  16. Mark Twain, Fenimore Cooper, and Batman.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crick, Robert Alan

    1992-01-01

    Describes how Mark Twain's essay "Fenimore Cooper's Literary Offenses" helped students to get interested in writing and inspired them to write a similar essay critiquing the movie "Batman." Provides excerpts from students' essays. (PRA)

  17. Mark Making: Methodologies and methods (innovative practice).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeilig, Hannah

    2016-09-01

    Mark Making is a recently completed AHRC-funded review exploring the role of the participative arts for people with dementia in the UK. Key concerns underlying Mark Making were both how to privilege the views and feelings of people with a dementia and also how best to understand the value of the arts for people with a dementia. These issues were tackled using a variety of qualitative methods. Methods included a rigorous literature review, the development of a unique web-based map locating many participative arts projects and above all working with people with a dementia to ascertain their views. This brief article will concentrate on some of the innovative methods that the Mark Making team used, with particular reference to comics as a mode of engagement as used in the Descartes project. The article will provide an insight into some of the methodological challenges confronted by Mark Making as well as the inspirations and successes that were enjoyed.

  18. Mark Twain National Wildlife Refuge: Sign Plan

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The Mark Twain NWR (including the Louisa District, the Annada District, and the Brussels District) Sign Plan explains how signs are used on the Refuge to help guide...

  19. Mark Twain National Wildlife Refuge Complex : 1980

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This annual narrative report for Mark Twain National Wildlife Refuge summarizes Refuge activities during the 1980 calendar year. The report begins with a summary of...

  20. 77 FR 4271 - Special Permit Marking Removal

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-27

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION... Administration (FRA), Department of Transportation (DOT). ACTION: Removal of obsolete Special Permit markings... first shopping event, whichever occurred first. This document relieves tank car owners from that...

  1. 46 CFR 122.602 - Hull markings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... height, with its upper edge passing through the point of maximum draft. The loading mark must be painted in a contrasting color to the sideshell paint. (e) On a vessel that has a load line, the...

  2. Smoking Leaves Lasting Marks on DNA: Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... fullstory_161060.html Smoking Leaves Lasting Marks on DNA: Study Changes related to disease found in more ... cigarettes can leave a lasting imprint on human DNA, altering more than 7,000 genes in ways ...

  3. PREOPERATIVE ENDOSCOPIC MARKING OF UNPALPABLE COLONIC TUMORS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. L. Goncharov

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The identification of small colon lesions is one of the major problems in laparoscopic colonic resection.Research objective: to develop a technique of visualization of small tumors of a colon by preoperative endoscopic marking of a tumor.Materials and methods. In one day prior to operation to the patient after bowel preparation the colonoscopy is carried out. In the planned point near tumor on antimesentery edge the submucous infiltration of marking solution (Micky Sharpz blue tattoo pigment, UK is made. The volume of entered solution of 1–3 ml. In only 5 months of use of a technique preoperative marking to 14 patients with small (the size of 1–3 cm malignant tumors of the left colon is performed.Results. The tattoo mark was well visualized by during operation at 13 of 14 patients. In all cases we recorded no complications. Time of operation with preoperative marking averaged 108 min, that is significantly less in comparison with average time of operation with an intra-operative colonoscopy – 155 min (р < 0.001.Conclusions. The first experience of preoperative endoscopic marking of non palpable small tumors of a colon is encouraging. Performance of a technique wasn't accompanied by complications and allowed to reduce significantly time of operation and to simplify conditions of performance of operation.

  4. Strain measurement based on laser mark automatic tracking line mark on specimen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Qiuhong; Sun, Zhengrong; Le, Zhongping; Liu, Yanna; Zhang, Lijian; Xie, Sendong

    2014-12-01

    Conventional video extensometers, using a measurement mark on specimen to obtain material strain, have a problem with deformation of the measurement mark. Therefore, the accurate position of the measurement mark is difficult to evaluate, and measurement accuracy is limited. To solve this problem, a strain measurement method based on a laser mark automatically tracking a line mark on the specimen is proposed. This method is using an undeformed laser mark to replace the line mark to calculate the specimen strain and eliminates the measurement error induced by the deformation of specimen marks. The positions of the laser mark and the line mark are achieved by using digital image processing. Automatic tracking is realized by means of an intelligent motor control. Also, the strain of the specimen is obtained by analyzing the movement trace of the laser mark. A video extensometer experimental setup based on the proposed method is constructed. Two experiments were carried out. The first experiment verified the validity and the repeatability of the method via tensile testing of the specimens of low-carbon steel and cast iron. The second one demonstrated the high measurement accuracy of the method by comparing with a clip-on extensometer.

  5. Enamel-based mark performance for marking Chinese mystery snail Bellamya chinensis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Alec; Allen, Craig R.; Hart, Noelle M.; Haak, Danielle M.; Pope, Kevin L.; Smeenk, Nicholas A.; Stephen, Bruce J.; Uden, Daniel R.

    2013-01-01

    The exoskeleton of gastropods provides a convenient surface for carrying marks, and i the interest of improving future marking methods our laboratory assessed the performance of an enamel paint. The endurance of the paint was also compared to other marking methods assessed in the past. We marked the shells of 30 adult Chinese mystery snails Bellamya chinensis and held them in an aquarium for 181 days. We observed no complete degradation of any enamel-paint mark during the 181 days. The enamel-paint mark was superior to a nai;-polish mark, which lasted a median of 100 days. Enamel-paint marks also have a lower rate of loss (0.00 month-1 181 days) than plastic bee tags (0.01 month-1, 57 days), gouache paint (0.07 month-1, 18.5 days), or car body paint from studies found in scientific literature. Legibility of enamel-paint marks had a median lifetime of 102 days. The use of enamel paint on the shells of gastropods is a viable option for studies lasting up to 6 months. Furthermore, visits to capture-mark-recapture site 1 year after application of enamel-paint marks on B. chinesnis shells produced several individuals on which the enamel paint was still visible, although further testing is required to clarify durability over longer periods.

  6. Ice slurry accumulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Christensen, K.G.; Kauffeld, M.

    1998-06-01

    More and more refrigeration systems are designed with secondary loops, thus reducing the refrigerant charge of the primary refrigeration plant. In order not to increase energy consumption by introducing a secondary refrigerant, alternatives to the well established single phase coolants (brines) and different concepts of the cooling plant have to be evaluated. Combining the use of ice-slurry - mixture of water, a freezing point depressing agent (antifreeze) and ice particles - as melting secondary refrigerant and the use of a cool storage makes it possible to build plants with secondary loops without increasing the energy consumption and investment. At the same time the operating costs can be kept at a lower level. The accumulation of ice-slurry is compared with other and more traditional storage systems. The method is evaluated and the potential in different applications is estimated. Aspects of practically use of ice-slurry has been examined in the laboratory at the Danish Technological Institute (DTI). This paper will include the final conclusions from this work concerning tank construction, agitator system, inlet, outlet and control. The work at DTI indicates that in some applications systems with ice-slurry and accumulation tanks have a great future. These applications are described by a varying load profile and a process temperature suiting the temperature of ice-slurry (-3 - -8/deg. C). (au)

  7. Road Nail: Experimental Solar Powered Intelligent Road Marking System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samardžija, Dragan; Teslić, Nikola; Todorović, Branislav M.; Kovač, Erne; Isailović, Đorđe; Miladinović, Bojan

    2012-03-01

    Driving in low visibility conditions (night time, fog or heavy precipitation) is particularly challenging task with an increased probability of traffic accidents and possible injuries. Road Nail is a solar powered intelligent road marking system of wirelessly networked signaling devices that improve driver safety in low visibility conditions along hazardous roadways. Nails or signaling devices are autonomous nodes with capability to accumulate energy, exchange wireless messages, detect approaching vehicles and emit signalization light. We have built an experimental test-bed that consists of 20 nodes and a cellular gateway. Implementation details of the above system, including extensive measurements and performance evaluations in realistic field deployments are presented. A novel distributed network topology discovery scheme is proposed which integrates both sensor and wireless communication aspects, where nodes act autonomously. Finally, integration of the Road Nail system with the cellular network and the Internet is described.

  8. Forensic surface metrology: tool mark evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gambino, Carol; McLaughlin, Patrick; Kuo, Loretta; Kammerman, Frani; Shenkin, Peter; Diaczuk, Peter; Petraco, Nicholas; Hamby, James; Petraco, Nicholas D K

    2011-01-01

    Over the last several decades, forensic examiners of impression evidence have come under scrutiny in the courtroom due to analysis methods that rely heavily on subjective morphological comparisons. Currently, there is no universally accepted system that generates numerical data to independently corroborate visual comparisons. Our research attempts to develop such a system for tool mark evidence, proposing a methodology that objectively evaluates the association of striated tool marks with the tools that generated them. In our study, 58 primer shear marks on 9 mm cartridge cases, fired from four Glock model 19 pistols, were collected using high-resolution white light confocal microscopy. The resulting three-dimensional surface topographies were filtered to extract all "waviness surfaces"-the essential "line" information that firearm and tool mark examiners view under a microscope. Extracted waviness profiles were processed with principal component analysis (PCA) for dimension reduction. Support vector machines (SVM) were used to make the profile-gun associations, and conformal prediction theory (CPT) for establishing confidence levels. At the 95% confidence level, CPT coupled with PCA-SVM yielded an empirical error rate of 3.5%. Complementary, bootstrap-based computations for estimated error rates were 0%, indicating that the error rate for the algorithmic procedure is likely to remain low on larger data sets. Finally, suggestions are made for practical courtroom application of CPT for assigning levels of confidence to SVM identifications of tool marks recorded with confocal microscopy.

  9. LANE MARKING DETECTION IN CLUTTERED ENVIRONMENT

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李青; 郑南宁; 程洪

    2003-01-01

    Objective To determine the positions of marking in the presence of distracting shadows, highlight, pavement cracks, etc. Methods RGB color space is transformed into I1I2I3 color space and I2 component was used to form a new image with less effect of the clutter. Using an improved edge detection operator, an edge strength map was produced, and binarilized by adaptive thresholds. The binary image was labeled and circularity of all connected components is calculated. The Self-Organizing Mapping is adopted to extract regions which imply potential marking. Finally the position of marking was obtained by curve fitting. Results Color information was utilized fully, all thresholds were set adaptively and lane marking could be detected in challenging images with shadows, highlight or other cars. Conclusion The method based on circularity of connected components shows its outstanding robustness to lane marking detection and has a wide variety of applications in the areas of vehicle autonomous navigation and driver assistance system.

  10. 77 FR 16098 - In the Matter of All Operating Boiling Water Reactor Licensees With Mark I and Mark II...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-19

    ... the Matter of All Operating Boiling Water Reactor Licensees With Mark I and Mark II Containments... operate boiling-water reactors (BWRs) with Mark I and Mark II containment designs. II On March 11, 2011, a... Nuclear Reactor Regulation. Operating Boiling Water Reactor Licenses With Mark I and Mark II Containments...

  11. The national hydrologic bench-mark network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cobb, Ernest D.; Biesecker, J.E.

    1971-01-01

    The United States is undergoing a dramatic growth of population and demands on its natural resources. The effects are widespread and often produce significant alterations of the environment. The hydrologic bench-mark network was established to provide data on stream basins which are little affected by these changes. The network is made up of selected stream basins which are not expected to be significantly altered by man. Data obtained from these basins can be used to document natural changes in hydrologic characteristics with time, to provide a better understanding of the hydrologic structure of natural basins, and to provide a comparative base for studying the effects of man on the hydrologic environment. There are 57 bench-mark basins in 37 States. These basins are in areas having a wide variety of climate and topography. The bench-mark basins and the types of data collected in the basins are described.

  12. The Antiproton Accumulator (AA)

    CERN Multimedia

    1980-01-01

    Section 06 - 08*) of the AA where the dispersion (and hence the horizontal beam size) is large. One can distinguish (left to right): A vacuum-tank, two bending magnets (BST06 and BST07 in blue) with a quadrupole (QDN07, in red) in between, another vacuum-tank, a wide quadrupole (QFW08) and a further tank . The tanks are covered with heating tape for bake-out. The tank left of BST06 contained the stack core pickup for stochastic cooling (see 7906193, 7906190, 8005051), the two other tanks served mainly as vacuum chambers in the region where the beam was large. Peter Zettwoch works on BST06. *) see: H. Koziol, Antiproton Accumulator Parameter List, PS/AA/Note 84-2 (1984)

  13. Solids Accumulation Scouting Studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duignan, M. R.; Steeper, T. J.; Steimke, J. L.

    2012-09-26

    The objective of Solids Accumulation activities was to perform scaled testing to understand the behavior of remaining solids in a Double Shell Tank (DST), specifically AW-105, at Hanford during multiple fill, mix, and transfer operations. It is important to know if fissionable materials can concentrate when waste is transferred from staging tanks prior to feeding waste treatment plants. Specifically, there is a concern that large, dense particles containing plutonium could accumulate in poorly mixed regions of a blend tank heel for tanks that employ mixing jet pumps. At the request of the DOE Hanford Tank Operations Contractor, Washington River Protection Solutions, the Engineering Development Laboratory of the Savannah River National Laboratory performed a scouting study in a 1/22-scale model of a waste staging tank to investigate this concern and to develop measurement techniques that could be applied in a more extensive study at a larger scale. Simulated waste tank solids: Gibbsite, Zirconia, Sand, and Stainless Steel, with stainless steel particles representing the heavier particles, e.g., plutonium, and supernatant were charged to the test tank and rotating liquid jets were used to mix most of the solids while the simulant was pumped out. Subsequently, the volume and shape of the mounds of residual solids and the spatial concentration profiles for the surrogate for heavier particles were measured. Several techniques were developed and equipment designed to accomplish the measurements needed and they included: 1. Magnetic particle separator to remove simulant stainless steel solids. A device was designed and built to capture these solids, which represent the heavier solids during a waste transfer from a staging tank. 2. Photographic equipment to determine the volume of the solids mounds. The mounds were photographed as they were exposed at different tank waste levels to develop a composite of topographical areas. 3. Laser rangefinders to determine the volume of

  14. Vitrovariation et régénération par embryogenèse somatique à partir d'embryons mûrs de blé tendre (Triticum aestivum L. var. 'Nesma' 149 : effet du borate de sodium, de la fragmentation et du scutellum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karim, R.

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Vitrovariation and regeneration by somatic embryogenesis from mature embryos of common wheat (Triticum aestivum L. Var. 'Nesma' 149: effect of the borate of sodium, the fragmentation and the scutellum. The combined effects of the scutellum, the fragmentation and sodium borate, on the embryogenic capacity of ripe zygotic embryos of common wheat (Triticum aestivum L. var. 'Nesma' 149 were studied. The morphological characters and yield of the regenerated plants differ from control plants and indicate somaclonales variations. The mediums containing borax (0.75 g.l-1 and comprising explants resulting from the longitudinal fragmentation of the zygotic embryos with scutellum, initiated high percentages of embryogenic callus and of regeneration over one long period of culture, with large size somatic embryos as well as a weak somaclonale variation and one very low necrosis of callus. Whereas the mediums containing less or no borax and explants resulting from transversely cut zygotic embryos and without scutellum show opposite results.

  15. The Mark II Vertex Drift Chamber

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alexander, J.P.; Baggs, R.; Fujino, D.; Hayes, K.; Hoard, C.; Hower, N.; Hutchinson, D.; Jaros, J.A.; Koetke, D.; Kowalski, L.A.

    1989-03-01

    We have completed constructing and begun operating the Mark II Drift Chamber Vertex Detector. The chamber, based on a modified jet cell design, achieves 30 {mu}m spatial resolution and <1000 {mu}m track-pair resolution in pressurized CO{sub 2} gas mixtures. Special emphasis has been placed on controlling systematic errors including the use of novel construction techniques which permit accurate wire placement. Chamber performance has been studied with cosmic ray tracks collected with the chamber located both inside and outside the Mark II. Results on spatial resolution, average pulse shape, and some properties of CO{sub 2} mixtures are presented. 10 refs., 12 figs., 1 tab.

  16. MARK5:n asiakaslupaus ja myynnin argumentaatio

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    Opinnäytetyön tarkoituksena on rakentaa kohdeyritykselle MARK5:n asiakaslupaus ja myynnin argumentaatio sekä esittää ehdotus asiakaslupauksen ja myynnin argumentaation tuottotavasta, jota kohdeyritys voisi hyödyntää muiden tuotteidensa tai palveluidensa asiakaslupausten ja myynnin argumentaatioiden rakentamisessa. Opinnäytetyö aloitetaan esittelemällä kohdeyritys ja MARK5 sekä määrittelemällä liiketoimintaongelma ja työn tavoitteet. Opinnäytetyön ongelmana on, että kohdeyrityksellä ei ole...

  17. Cellulite: from standing fat herniation to hypodermal stretch marks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piérard, G E; Nizet, J L; Piérard-Franchimont, C

    2000-02-01

    There are glaring discrepancies in the microanatomical descriptions of cellulite in the literature. We revisited this common skin condition in women with a microscopic examination of 39 autopsy specimens. A control group consisted of 4 women and 11 men showing no evidence of cellulite. The lumpy aspect of the dermohypodermal interface appeared to represent a gender-linked characteristic of the thighs and buttocks without being a specific sign of cellulite. Incipient cellulite identified by the mattress phenomenon was related to the presence of focally enlarged fibrosclerotic strands partitioning the subcutis. Such strands possibly serve as a physiologic buttress against fat herniation limiting the outpouching of fat lobules on pinching the skin. These structures might represent a reactive process to sustained hypodermal pressure caused by fat accumulation. Full-blown cellulite likely represents subjugation of the hypertrophic response when connective tissue is overcome by progressive fat accumulation. Histologic aspects reminiscent of stretch marks are identified within the hypodermal strands, resulting in clinical skin dimpling.

  18. Mark Twain's Nemesis: The Paige Compositor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goble, Corban

    Samuel Clemens (Mark Twain), who had set type by hand in his youth, had believed that a mechanical composer was beyond the realm of possibility. In 1880, however, he invested $2,000 in an early typesetter invented by James W. Paige. Both Clemens and Paige dreamed of immense wealth that would be generated by selling thousands of Paige Compositors.…

  19. Mark Twain and "The Awful German Language."

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hedderich, Norbert

    2003-01-01

    Analyzes Mark Twain's 1869 essay "The Awful German Language" in terms of Twain's comments on morphological, syntactical, lexical, and phonological features of German. The topic is presented in the context of Twain's German language learning experience. Relevance of the article for German language instruction today is also described. (Author/VWL)

  20. Mark Twain National Wildlife Refuge : Sign Plan

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The Mark Twain NWR Sign Plan explains how signs are used on the Refuge to help guide and educate visitors. An inventory of current signs is given as well as a list...

  1. Mark Twain: An Introduction and Interpretation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baldanza, Frank

    One of a series of works aimed at presenting contemporary critical opinion on major American authors, this volume contains critical studies of Mark Twain. Designed for use by both literary critics and secondary and college teachers of English, this work would also be of value to undergraduate and graduate students of literature. Topics covered…

  2. Mark Twain and American Humor [Lesson Plan].

    Science.gov (United States)

    2000

    In this three-part lesson, students examine structure and characterization in the short story and consider the significance of humor through a study of Mark Twain's "The Celebrated Jumping Frog of Calaveras County." In Part I, through skits and storytelling, students first examine the structure of Twain's story and the role he creates for his…

  3. A Collar for Marking Big Game Animals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robert L. Phillips

    1970-01-01

    A Simple, inexpensive collar made of Armor-tite (a vinyl-coated nylon fabric) was designed for marking white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) and moose (Alces alces). Field tests showed that the material is easily seen and extrememly durable. It may be suitable for use on other large mammals. The collar can be quickly fitted to individual animals under field...

  4. Globaalne palavik ja Nord Stream / Mark Soosaar

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Soosaar, Mark, 1946-

    2009-01-01

    Riigikogu keskkonnakomisjoni liikme Mark Soosaare sõnul peaks Eesti Taani eeskujul jõudma parlamentaarse otsuseni loobuda tuumajaamaehitusest, vähendada tuleks märgatavalt Eesti metsade raiumist. Vene-Saksa gaasitarneleppe vastu töötamise asemel tuleks otsida ühisosa nii Venemaa kui teiste Läänemeremaadega

  5. Eesti oma idamaa kunstnik / Mark Soosaar

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Soosaar, Mark, 1946-

    1999-01-01

    8. apr.-st Pärnu Uue Kunsti Muuseumis veebruaris Soulis idamaise maalikunsti alal magistrikraadi kaitsnud Kati Kalda (sünd. 1971) maalinäitus "Elu korea moodi", Kalev Mark Kostabi maalide väljapanek ning loodusfoto konkursi parimate tööde näitus.

  6. Globaalne palavik ja Nord Stream / Mark Soosaar

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Soosaar, Mark, 1946-

    2009-01-01

    Riigikogu keskkonnakomisjoni liikme Mark Soosaare sõnul peaks Eesti Taani eeskujul jõudma parlamentaarse otsuseni loobuda tuumajaamaehitusest, vähendada tuleks märgatavalt Eesti metsade raiumist. Vene-Saksa gaasitarneleppe vastu töötamise asemel tuleks otsida ühisosa nii Venemaa kui teiste Läänemeremaadega

  7. The Four Marks of Holistic Kinesiology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Twietmeyer, Gregg

    2012-01-01

    What, to borrow a theological phrase, are the marks of a truly holistic kinesiology department? "In Kinesis and the Nature of the Human Person" (2010), I examined the theoretical impact of Aristotle's definition of "kinesis" and Polanyi's theory of "tacit knowledge" on kinesiology. The intention here, however, is practical rather than theoretical.…

  8. Marks & Spencer loob ELis maksupretsedenti / Sirje Rank

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Rank, Sirje, 1966-

    2005-01-01

    Ilmunud ka: Delovõje Vedomosti 13. apr. lk. 6. Briti rõivakett Marks & Spencer kaebas, et Briti maksuseadused, mis ei lubanud emafirma Suurbritannias maksustavast tulust maha kanda Saksamaal, Prantsusmaal ja Belgias asunud tütarfirmade suuri kahjumeid üheksakümnendate aastate lõpus, on vastuolus EL-i ühisturu seadustega

  9. Marks, forfeiture and a constitutional conundrum

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ramalho, A.

    2009-01-01

    In Autumn 2008 a US district court ordered the forfeiture of marks owned by a gang known as the Mongols on the grounds that the gang engaged in illegal activities. While the forfeiture of property is provided for under various US statutes, this case raises more than its fair share of legal and const

  10. Action Research at St Mark's Academy 2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elwick, Alex, Ed.; Riggall, Anna, Ed.

    2013-01-01

    St Mark's Church of England Academy is an 11-18 academy situated in Mitcham, South London. It offers a commitment to high achievement within a community of care, underpinned by the Christian values of hope, love and trust. The academy encourages the development of the moral and spiritual well-being of students, alongside their academic success.…

  11. Mark the Evangelist: His African memory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Willem Oliver

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Mark is the author of the oldest gospel in the Christian Bible. Not much is known about him or his family except for a few references in the Bible. The general assumption, originating in the West, is that Mark was born and bred in Palestine. One of the main proponents of the Western view is Walter Bauer, a German theologian of the first half of the 20th century. His views rely heavily on the argument from silence, as Africa had – and to a great extent still has – an oral culture. Contrary to the Western view, Thomas Oden, an American theologian, did research on the oral culture and investigated the African memory of Mark. This article presents a critical discussion and a review of the book written by Oden in 2011 titled The African memory of Mark. Oden seems to be very subjective in his remarks in favour of Africa, as is also clear from his book titled How Africa shaped the Christian mind, written in 2007, and the question is if he really has enough grounds for his postulations.

  12. Laser Marked Codes For Paperless Tracking Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crater, David

    1987-01-01

    The application of laser markers for marking machine readable codes is described. Use of such codes for automatic tracking and considerations for marker performance and features are discussed. Available laser marker types are reviewed. Compatibility of laser/material combinations and material/code/reader systems are reviewed.

  13. E. Mark Stern (1929-2014).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vande Kemp, Hendrika

    2014-12-01

    This article memorializes E. Mark Stern (1929 -2014), a clinical psychologist who found his ideological home in humanistic and existential psychology. Highlights of Stern's career and professional contributions are noted. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved).

  14. Prosodic focus marking in Dali Mandarin

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Liu, L.Z.H.; van de Velde, H.; Chen, A.

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated prosodic marking of focus in Dali Mandarin, a variety of Xinan Guanhua (Southwestern Mandarin) spoken in Dali city, the capital of Dali Bai Autonomous Prefecture, China. Dali Mandarin as a variety of Mandarin has had heavy contact with Bai, a Tibeto-Burman language, for a lon

  15. Fingerprint Analysis with Marked Point Processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Forbes, Peter G. M.; Lauritzen, Steffen; Møller, Jesper

    We present a framework for fingerprint matching based on marked point process models. An efficient Monte Carlo algorithm is developed to calculate the marginal likelihood ratio for the hypothesis that two observed prints originate from the same finger against the hypothesis that they originate from...... different fingers. Our model achieves good performance on an NIST-FBI fingerprint database of 258 matched fingerprint pairs....

  16. 49 CFR 172.304 - Marking requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... could substantially reduce its effectiveness. (b) [Reserved] [Amdt. 172-29, 41 FR 15996, Apr. 15, 1976... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Marking requirements. 172.304 Section 172.304... PROVISIONS, HAZARDOUS MATERIALS COMMUNICATIONS, EMERGENCY RESPONSE INFORMATION, TRAINING REQUIREMENTS, AND...

  17. Recent Discoveries on Antwerp Panel Makers' Marks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wadum, Jørgen

    1993-01-01

    more can be added to our comprehension of the way the panel makers worked in Antwerp. In the following paper I shall give a brief summary of the present state of research, as well as outline the complicated task of interpreting these marks and their use as a dating tool. The ready-made supports...

  18. 22 CFR 226.91 - Marking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... funding, USAID Agreement Officers will request Apparent Successful Applicants to submit a Branding Strategy, defined in § 226.2. The proposed Branding Strategy will not be evaluated competitively. The... marked with the USAID Identity. (1) Any “public communications” as defined in § 226.2, funded by USAID...

  19. Marks & Spencer loob ELis maksupretsedenti / Sirje Rank

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Rank, Sirje, 1966-

    2005-01-01

    Ilmunud ka: Delovõje Vedomosti 13. apr. lk. 6. Briti rõivakett Marks & Spencer kaebas, et Briti maksuseadused, mis ei lubanud emafirma Suurbritannias maksustavast tulust maha kanda Saksamaal, Prantsusmaal ja Belgias asunud tütarfirmade suuri kahjumeid üheksakümnendate aastate lõpus, on vastuolus EL-i ühisturu seadustega

  20. The Four Marks of Holistic Kinesiology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Twietmeyer, Gregg

    2012-01-01

    What, to borrow a theological phrase, are the marks of a truly holistic kinesiology department? "In Kinesis and the Nature of the Human Person" (2010), I examined the theoretical impact of Aristotle's definition of "kinesis" and Polanyi's theory of "tacit knowledge" on kinesiology. The intention here, however, is practical rather than theoretical.…

  1. Do clinicians use more question marks?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otte, Willem M; van’t Klooster, Maryse A; van Diessen, Eric; Leijten, Frans SS; Sander, Josemir W

    2015-01-01

    Objective To quantify the use of question marks in titles of published studies. Design and setting Literature review. Participants All Pubmed publications between 1 January 2013 and 31 December 2013 with an available abstract. Papers were classified as being clinical when the search terms clin*, med* or patient* were found anywhere in the paper’s title, abstract or the journal’s name. Other papers were considered controls. As a verification, clinical journals were compared to non-clinical journals in two different approaches. Also, 50 highest impact journals were explored for publisher group dependent differences. Main outcome measure Total number of question marks in titles. Results A total of 368,362 papers were classified as clinical and 596,889 as controls. Clinical papers had question marks in 3.9% (95% confidence interval 3.8–4.0%) of titles and other papers in 2.3% (confidence interval 2.3–2.3%; p < 0.001). These findings could be verified for clinical journals compared to non-clinical journals. Different percentages between four publisher groups were found (p < 0.01). Conclusion We found more question marks in titles of clinical papers than in other papers. This could suggest that clinicians often have a question-driven approach to research and scientists in more fundamental research a hypothesis-driven approach. An alternative explanation is that clinicians like catchy titles. Publishing groups might have pro- and anti-question mark policies. PMID:26085937

  2. The Antiproton Accumulator (AA)

    CERN Multimedia

    1980-01-01

    A section of the AA where the dispersion (and hence the horizontal beam size) is large. One can distinguish (left to right): A large vacuum-tank, a quadrupole (QDN09*), a bending magnet (BST08), another vacuum-tank, a wide quadrupole (QFW08) and (in the background) a further bending magnet (BST08). The tanks are covered with heating tape for bake-out. The tank left of QDN09 contained the kickers for stochastic pre-cooling (see 790621, 8002234, 8002637X), the other one served mainly as vacuum chamber in the region where the beam was large. Peter Zettwoch works on QFW08. * see: H. Koziol, Antiproton Accumulator Parameter List, PS/AA/Note 84-2 (1984) See under 7911303, 7911597X, 8004261 and 8202324. For photos of the AA in different phases of completion (between 1979 and 1982) see: 7911303, 7911597X, 8004261, 8004608X, 8005563X, 8005565X, 8006716X, 8006722X, 8010939X, 8010941X, 8202324, 8202658X, 8203628X .

  3. ITER helium ash accumulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hogan, J.T.; Hillis, D.L.; Galambos, J.; Uckan, N.A. (Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (USA)); Dippel, K.H.; Finken, K.H. (Forschungszentrum Juelich GmbH (Germany, F.R.). Inst. fuer Plasmaphysik); Hulse, R.A.; Budny, R.V. (Princeton Univ., NJ (USA). Plasma Physics Lab.)

    1990-01-01

    Many studies have shown the importance of the ratio {upsilon}{sub He}/{upsilon}{sub E} in determining the level of He ash accumulation in future reactor systems. Results of the first tokamak He removal experiments have been analysed, and a first estimate of the ratio {upsilon}{sub He}/{upsilon}{sub E} to be expected for future reactor systems has been made. The experiments were carried out for neutral beam heated plasmas in the TEXTOR tokamak, at KFA/Julich. Helium was injected both as a short puff and continuously, and subsequently extracted with the Advanced Limiter Test-II pump limiter. The rate at which the He density decays has been determined with absolutely calibrated charge exchange spectroscopy, and compared with theoretical models, using the Multiple Impurity Species Transport (MIST) code. An analysis of energy confinement has been made with PPPL TRANSP code, to distinguish beam from thermal confinement, especially for low density cases. The ALT-II pump limiter system is found to exhaust the He with maximum exhaust efficiency (8 pumps) of {approximately}8%. We find 1<{upsilon}{sub He}/{upsilon}{sub E}<3.3 for the database of cases analysed to date. Analysis with the ITER TETRA systems code shows that these values would be adequate to achieve the required He concentration with the present ITER divertor He extraction system.

  4. 19 CFR 11.9 - Special marking on certain articles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Special marking on certain articles. 11.9 Section... OF THE TREASURY PACKING AND STAMPING; MARKING Marking § 11.9 Special marking on certain articles. (a... of additional U.S. Note 4, Chapter 91. If any article so required to be marked is found not to...

  5. Induction and Proliferation Conditions of Onion(Allium cepa L.) Embryogenic Callus%洋葱胚性愈伤组织的诱导及增殖条件的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    代月; 吴雄; 朴炫春; 霍雨猛; 缪军; 廉美兰

    2012-01-01

    [目的]探讨洋葱离体培养的最佳条件,为建立其高频再生体系及转基因研究奠定技术基础.[方法]以洋葱(Allium cepa L.)种子为外植体,对洋葱愈伤组织的诱导、胚性愈伤组织获得及增殖的培养条件进行了初步研究.[结果]不同培养基种类对愈伤组织的诱导有影响,BDS优于MS和B5培养基;当培养基中2,4-D浓度为0.5 mg,/L时种子出愈率最高;适当降低生长素浓度,添加分裂素BA能够促进胚性愈伤组织的发生,且无分化现象产生,胚性愈伤组织诱导最佳培养基为BDS+2,4-D 0.25 mg/L+BA 2.0 mg/L,增殖最佳培养基为BDS+2,4-D O.25 mg/L+BA 1.0 mg/L.[结论]该试验建立的基因转化受体系统为洋葱基因转化奠定了良好基础.%[Objective] To explore the best conditions for the in vitro culture of onion, so as to lay technical foundation for its trangenic research and the establishment of high frequency regeneration system. [ Method] With the onion seeds as explants, the induction and proliferation conditions of onion (Alliiim r.epa L. ) callus and embryogenic callus were preliminarily studied. [ Result] The types of callus produced certain impact on the induction of callus, BDS was better than MS and B5; the callus rate was the highest at the concentrations of 0. 5 mg/L 2,4-D; the appropriate reduction of auxin concentration and addition of cytokinin BA could promote the induction of enbryogenic callus without differentiation, the best embryogenic callus induction medium was BDS +2,4-D 0. 25 mg/L + BA 2.0 mg/L and the best proliferation medium was BDS + 2,4-D 0.25 mg/L + BA 1.0 mg/L. [Conclusion] Hie transgenic receptor system established in this experiment lays good foundation for the genetic transformation of onion.

  6. Differentiation Potential and Chromosome Number of Embryogenic Suspension Cells of Musa spp. in Subculture%香蕉胚性悬浮细胞分化能力及染色体数目变异研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    洪林; 劳世辉; 梁国鲁; 魏岳荣; 刘正富

    2012-01-01

    以野生阿宽蕉(Musa itinerans Cheesman,AA)、抗枯1号(Kangku 1,AAA)、大蕉(Musa Paradidiaca L.,ABB)3个香蕉品种为试材,研究其胚性悬浮细胞在长期继代培养后的分化能力和染色体数目的变异.结果表明,3个香蕉品种ECS在继代培养过程中,胚性悬浮细胞染色体数目均不稳定,染色体数目从6个到116个不等,各ECS均为整倍体和非整倍体组成的混倍体,随继代次数的增加,染色体数目变异的细胞比例随之增多,体细胞胚胎分化能力逐渐下降.野生阿宽蕉、抗枯1号和大蕉的ECS继代培养1.5 a后,细胞变异率分别为96.3%、93.0%和94.0%,而体胚分化能力分别为0.96×103、0.55×103、0.65×103个/mL PCV.试验为进一步研究香蕉ECS染色体变异机理提供新的线索.%A study on the changes of somatic embryogenesis potential and chromosome number of embryogenic suspension cells of Musa itinerans Cheesman, Kangku 1, Musa Paradidiaca L. in subculture was undertaken. The results showed that the chromosome number of the embryogenic suspension cells of three banana varieties ranged from 6 to 116 during subculture. After subculturing, ECS were mixoploidy which contained euploid and aneuploid. The percentage of cells with chromosome number changed in ECS was increased, however the overall differentiation of somatic embryos gradually fell down accompanyied by increased number of subculture. After subcultured 1.5 a later, the ECS mutation rates of Musa itinerans Cheesman, Kangku 1, Musa Paradidiaca L. was 96.3%, 93.0% and 94.0%, and somatic embryogenesis frequency of ECS was 0.96xl03, 0.55×103, 0.65x103 per mL packed cell volume respectively. The experimental results also provided new clue for further working on the mechanism of ECS variation.

  7. Indução de estruturas embriogênicas em tecidos de rizoma e pseudocaule de bananeira Induction of embryogenic structures on rhizome and pseudostem tissues of banana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edson Tobias Domingues

    1996-01-01

    Full Text Available Tecidos de rizoma e pseudocaule de bananeira (Musa spp., de plântulas micropropagadas, dos cultivares Maçã, Nanicão e GN-60 foram utilizados para indução de estruturas embriogênicas. Explantes obtidos desses tecidos foram cultivados em meio de cultura, segundo Schenk & Hildebrandt, com vitaminas de Staba em concentrações modificadas por Novak et al., acrescido do regulador de crescimento Dicamba, nas concentrações de 0; 2,0; 3,5 e 6,63 mg/L. A formação de tecidos com capacidade embriogênica (calos e estruturas globulares foi observada em tecidos localizados próximo ao ápice meristemático, para os três cultivares testados. A partir dessas estruturas, foram obtidas suspensões celulares que deram origem a estruturas semelhantes a embriões somáticos, que, após germinação, emitiram raiz ou parte aérea, não apresentando, no entanto, germinação satisfatória.Structure formations with embryogenic capacity were induced on rhizome and pseudostem tissues of micropropagated plants of the banana (Musa spp. cultivars Maçã, Nanicão e GN-60. Explants obtained from these tissues were cultivated in a media as cited by Schenk & Hildebrandt, with Staba vitamines in modified concentration by Novak et al., supplemented with Dicamba, a growth regulator, used at concentrations of 0, 2.0, 3.5, 6.63 mg/L. The treatments induced the formation of structures with embryogenic capacity in tissues (callus and globular structures originated fromregions immediately above and below the meristematic apex, on the three tested cultivars. Starting from these structures, cellular suspensions were obtained. These structures were cultivated and gave origin to structures similar to somatic embryos which after germination produced roots or aerial paris. Germination, however, was not satisfactorily present.

  8. Integrated optical fiber lattice accumulators

    OpenAIRE

    Atherton, Adam F

    1997-01-01

    Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited. Sigma-delta modulators track a signal by accumulating the error between an input signal and a feedback signal. The accumulated energy is amplitude analyzed by a comparator. The comparator output signal is fed back and subtracted from the input signal. This thesis is primarily concerned with designing accumulators for inclusion in an optical sigma-delta modulator. Fiber lattice structures with optical amplifiers are used to perform the...

  9. Identification marking by means of laser peening

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hackel, Lloyd A.; Dane, C. Brent; Harris, Fritz

    2002-01-01

    The invention is a method and apparatus for marking components by inducing a shock wave on the surface that results in an indented (strained) layer and a residual compressive stress in the surface layer. One embodiment of the laser peenmarking system rapidly imprints, with single laser pulses, a complete identification code or three-dimensional pattern and leaves the surface in a state of deep residual compressive stress. A state of compressive stress in parts made of metal or other materials is highly desirable to make them resistant to fatigue failure and stress corrosion cracking. This process employs a laser peening system and beam spatial modulation hardware or imaging technology that can be setup to impress full three dimensional patterns into metal surfaces at the pulse rate of the laser, a rate that is at least an order of magnitude faster than competing marking technologies.

  10. Forensic odontology, part 4. Human bite marks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinchliffe, J

    2011-04-23

    The aim of this paper is to give a brief overview of bite mark analysis: its usefulness and limitations. The study and analysis of such injuries is challenging and complex. The correct protocols for collection, management, preservation, analysis and interpretation of this evidence should be employed if useful information is to be obtained for the courts. It is now possible, with advances in digital technology, to produce more accurate and reproducible comparison techniques which go some way to preventing and reducing problems such as photographic distortions. Research needs to be continued to increase our knowledge of the behaviour of skin when bitten. However, when presented with a high quality bite mark showing good dental detail, and a limited, accessible number of potential biters, it can be extremely useful in establishing a link between the bitten person and the biter or excluding the innocent.

  11. EcoMark 2.0

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Guo, Chenjuan; Yang, Bin; Andersen, Ove;

    2015-01-01

    Eco-routing is a simple yet effective approach to substantially reducing the environmental impact, e.g., fuel consumption and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, of vehicular transportation. Eco-routing relies on the ability to reliably quantify the environmental impact of vehicles as they travel...... in a spatial network. The procedure of quantifying such vehicular impact for road segments of a spatial network is called eco-weight assignment. EcoMark 2.0 proposes a general framework for eco-weight assignment to enable eco-routing. It studies the abilities of six instantaneous and five aggregated models......, and experiments for assessing the utility of the impact models in assigning eco-weights. The application of EcoMark 2.0 indicates that the instantaneous model EMIT and the aggregated model SIDRA-Running are suitable for assigning eco-weights under varying circumstances. In contrast, other instantaneous models...

  12. The Bionic Clicker Mark I & II.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magee, Elliott G; Ourselin, S; Nikitichev, Daniil; Vercauteren, T; Vanhoestenberghe, Anne

    2017-08-14

    In this manuscript, we present two 'Bionic Clicker' systems, the first designed to demonstrate electromyography (EMG) based control systems for educational purposes and the second for research purposes. EMG based control systems pick up electrical signals generated by muscle activation and use these as inputs for controllers. EMG controllers are widely used in prosthetics to control limbs. The Mark I (MK I) clicker allows the wearer to change the slide of a presentation by raising their index finger. It is built around a microcontroller and a bio-signals shield. It generated a lot of interest from both the public and research community. The Mark II (MK II) device presented here was designed to be a cheaper, sleeker, and more customizable system that can be easily modified and directly transmit EMG data. It is built using a wireless capable microcontroller and a muscle sensor.

  13. Ispra Mark-10 water splitting process

    Science.gov (United States)

    1975-01-01

    A thermochemical water splitting process, the Ispra Mark-10 chemical reaction cycle, was chosen for examining the possibility of using water to produce hydrogen on a large scale for fuel and major industrial chemical uses. The assumed energy source for the process is an HTGR (helium cooled). A process flow diagram, a material balance, and an energy balance were developed for the thermochemical reaction cycle. Principal reactions which constitute the cycle are included.

  14. Mucocele and pyocele with marked intracranial extension

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tsuchiya, Kazuhiro; Machida, Tohru; Iio, Masahiro

    1984-08-01

    Two cases are presented with frontal sinus pyocele and fronto-ethmoid sinus mucocele in which marked intracranial extension is shown. Their intracranial part appeared as a large biconvex mass, which showed iso or slightly low density homogeneously and had gross calcification in the posterior rim. The findings of the paranasal sinuses and the orbit in tomograms and CT scans are thought to be useful in the differential diagnosis of chronic subdural hematoma.

  15. Chorionic Villus Sampling and Marked Membrane Separation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sh. Akhlaghpoor

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Background/Objective: The major concern about the invasive prenatal diagnostic tests is the"nfrequency of procedure induced pregnancy loss. Chorionic Villus Sampling (CVS is the invasive"ntest of choice in the first trimester after the 10th gestational week. Our experience suggests"nmarked chorioamniotic separation is an uncommon finding after the 10th gestational week. This"nstudy assesses the rate of marked membrane separation in a 10 to 14-week gestational period"nand its effect on post CVS fetal loss."nPatients and Methods: Forty-one patients (5.2% were selected among 782 patients as cases"nwith marked membrane separation (mean maternal age, 26.9 years. CVS procedures were"nperformed with a 20-gauge Chiba needle attached to a 20-ml syringe under ultrasound guidance."nFollow-up was performed by phone call and clinical visits until 24 weeks of gestation. For the"ncontrol group, the follow-up was performed for only 2 weeks. Early fetal loss in the first two"nweeks of post procedural period, and late fetal loss from 2 weeks after procedure till the 24th"ngestational week were considered as CVS complications."nResults: We detected 2.4% early fetal losses after the procedure. Fourteen cases voluntarily"nunderwent therapeutic abortion due to beta-thalassemia or hemophilia. One fetus with"nmicrocephaly was spontaneously aborted in the 21st gestational week. Twenty-five neonates"nwere delivered alive at term and one prematurely at the 32nd week. Marked membrane separation"nhad no significant effect on early post CVS fetal loss rate."nConclusion: The procedure does not have a major impact on the early post CVS fetal loss in"npatients with marked membrane separation.

  16. Exhibition by Gozitan artist Mark Sagona

    OpenAIRE

    Calleja, Joseph

    2004-01-01

    Mark Sagona's exhibition, entitled "Recent Insights" was held at the Banca Giuratale in Victoria, Gozo between the 24th January and the 8th February 2004. It brought together twenty-four paintings, all produced in 2003 and the majority of which were realised in oil on canvas. The exhibition was curated by Dr Joseph Paul Cassar, and inaugurated by the Minister for Gozo, the Hon. Giovanna Debono.

  17. Laser treatment of stretch marks: preliminary results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Longo, Leonardo; Piccinetti, A. L.; Monache, G. D.; Botta, G.; Mancini, S.

    2000-06-01

    The best treatment of these stretch mark is still unknown. Some authors proposed the treatment with flash-lamp-pumped dye laser 585 nm, with fluence over 8 J/cm2. Reviewing our experiences on no-surgical effects of lasers in the various phases of the wound healing, including the re- epithelization, we would like to apply the no-surgical laser therapy treating the stretch marks of breast, abdomen and lumbo-sacral region. The goal is to inhibit the fibrous tissue metabolism, encouraging the destruction of the collagen fibers with inflammatory mechanism, and increasing the reconstitution of the superficial dermis layers. We treated five cases of stretch marks in women 22-35 years old, since May 1999, with a cycle of applications of double lasers, 511 and 577 nm, with energy of 20 Joule for spot, respecting the maximum thermal relaxation times of the skin. We waited two weeks interval between the applications. Results obtained after five applications are very positive, and we are encouraged to continue this experimentation.

  18. High efficiency metal marking with CO2 laser and glass marking with excimer laser

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bastue, Jens; Olsen, Flemmming Ove

    1997-01-01

    with a thoroughly tested ray-tracing model is presented and compared with experimental results. Special emphasis is put on two different applications namely marking in metal with TEA-CO2 laser and marking in glass with excimer laser. The results are evaluated on the basis of the achievable energy enhancement......Today, mask based laser materials processing and especially marking is widely used. However, the energy efficiency in such processes is very low [1].This paper gives a review of the results, that may be obtained using the energy enhancing technique [1]. Results of simulations performed...

  19. Evaluation on the effectiveness of 2-deoxyglucose-6-phosphate phosphatase (DOG(R)1) gene as a selectable marker for oil palm (Elaeis guineensis Jacq.) embryogenic calli transformation mediated by Agrobacterium tumefaciens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Izawati, Abang Masli Dayang; Masani, Mat Yunus Abdul; Ismanizan, Ismail; Parveez, Ghulam Kadir Ahmad

    2015-01-01

    DOG(R)1, which encodes 2-deoxyglucose-6-phosphate phosphatase, has been used as a selectable marker gene to produce transgenic plants. In this study, a transformation vector, pBIDOG, which contains the DOG(R)1 gene, was transformed into oil palm embryogenic calli (EC) mediated by Agrobacterium tumefaciens strain LBA4404. Transformed EC were exposed to 400 mg l(-1) 2-deoxyglucose (2-DOG) as the selection agent. 2-DOG resistant tissues were regenerated into whole plantlets on various regeneration media containing the same concentration of 2-DOG. The plantlets were later transferred into soil and grown in a biosafety screenhouse. PCR and subsequently Southern blot analyses were carried out to confirm the integration of the transgene in the plantlets. A transformation efficiency of about 1.0% was obtained using DOG(R)1 gene into the genome of oil palm. This result demonstrates the potential of using combination of DOG(R)1 gene and 2-DOG for regenerating transgenic oil palm.

  20. Mark Raidpere näitused Pariisis ja Napolis / Mark Raidpere ; interv. Harry Liivrand

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Raidpere, Mark

    2008-01-01

    Mark Raidpere videod "Vekovka", "Dedication / Pühendus", "Majestoso Mystico" näitusel Pariisis Michel Reini galeriis. Osaleb koos saksa fotograafi Sven Johnega näitusel Napolis. Kreekas Thessalonikis valminud filmist "1:1:1"

  1. Mark Raidpere näitused Pariisis ja Napolis / Mark Raidpere ; interv. Harry Liivrand

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Raidpere, Mark

    2008-01-01

    Mark Raidpere videod "Vekovka", "Dedication / Pühendus", "Majestoso Mystico" näitusel Pariisis Michel Reini galeriis. Osaleb koos saksa fotograafi Sven Johnega näitusel Napolis. Kreekas Thessalonikis valminud filmist "1:1:1"

  2. The Mark II detector for the SLC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abrams, G.; Baden, A.R.; Boyer, J.; Butler, F.; Drell, P.S.; Fay, J.; Gidal, G.; Goldhaber, G.; Haggerty, J.; Harr, R.; Hearty, C.; Herrup, D.; Holmgren, S.O.; Jaffre, M.; Juricic, I.; Kadyk, J.A.; Kral, J.F.; Levi, M.E.; Lynch, G.R.; Richman, J.D.; Rouse, F.R.; Schaad, M.W.; Schmidke, W.B.; Schumm, B.A.; Trilling, G.H.; Wood, D.R. (Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA (USA); California Univ., Berkeley (USA). Dept. of Physics); Adolphsen, C.E.; Burchat, P.R.; Dorfan, D.E.; Gatto, C.; Gomez Cadenas, J.J.; Gratta, G.; Heusch, C.A.; Kent, J.; King, M.; Koepke, L.; Labarga, L.; Litke, A.M.; Sadrozinski, H.F.W.; Schwarz, A.S.; Seiden, A.; Turala, M.; Watson, S.; Weisz, S.; Zaccardelli, C.; Von Zanthier, C. (California Univ., Santa Cruz (USA)); Akerlof, C.; Bonvicini, G.; Chapman, J.; Chmeissani, M.; Frey, R.; Gero, E.; Hong, S.J.; Koska, W.; Nitz, D.; Petradza, M.; Thun, R.; Tschirhart, R.; Veltman, H. (Michigan Univ., Ann Arbor (USA)); Alexander, J.P.; Ballam, J.; Barklow, T.; Bartelt, J.; De Boe

    1989-08-20

    The Mark II detector has been upgraded in preparation for its role as the first detector to take data at the Stanford Linear Collider. The new detector components include the central drift chamber, the time-of-flight system, the coil, the endcap electromagnetic calorimeters and the beam energy and luminosity measuring devices. There have also been improvements in detector hermeticity. All of the major components were installed for a test run at the PEP storage ring ({radical}s=29 GeV) in 1985. This paper describes the upgraded detector, including its trigger and data acquisition systems, and gives performance figures for its components. Future improvements are also discussed. (orig.).

  3. Kuosheng Mark III containment analyses using GOTHIC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lin, Ansheng, E-mail: samuellin1999@iner.gov.tw; Chen, Yen-Shu; Yuann, Yng-Ruey

    2013-10-15

    Highlights: • The Kuosheng Mark III containment model is established using GOTHIC. • Containment pressure and temperature responses due to LOCA are presented. • The calculated results are all below the design values and compared with the FSAR results. • The calculated results can be served as an analysis reference for an SPU project in the future. -- Abstract: Kuosheng nuclear power plant in Taiwan is a twin-unit BWR/6 plant, and both units utilize the Mark III containment. Currently, the plant is performing a stretch power uprate (SPU) project to increase the core thermal power to 103.7% OLTP (original licensed thermal power). However, the containment response in the Kuosheng Final Safety Analysis Report (FSAR) was completed more than twenty-five years ago. The purpose of this study is to establish a Kuosheng Mark III containment model using the containment program GOTHIC. The containment pressure and temperature responses under the design-basis accidents, which are the main steam line break (MSLB) and the recirculation line break (RCLB) accidents, are investigated. Short-term and long-term analyses are presented in this study. The short-term analysis is to calculate the drywell peak pressure and temperature which happen in the early stage of the LOCAs. The long-term analysis is to calculate the peak pressure and temperature of the reactor building space. In the short-term analysis, the calculated peak drywell to wetwell differential pressure is 140.6 kPa for the MSLB, which is below than the design value of 189.6 kPa. The calculated peak drywell temperature is 158 °C, which is still below the design value of 165.6 °C. In addition, in the long-term analysis, the calculated peak containment pressure is 47 kPa G, which is below the design value of 103.4 kPa G. The calculated peak values of containment temperatures are 74.7 °C, which is lower than the design value of 93.3 °C. Therefore, the Kuosheng Mark III containment can maintain the integrity after

  4. Method of marking an animal or plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guy, R.J.

    1994-04-27

    This patent describes a method of marking (non-human) animals and plants, involving the use of isotopes, in order to verify the authenticity of animal or plant products in subsequent use, for example free range meat, eggs or other foods. Most elements exist in more than one atomic form in nature. By altering the ratios of the stable isotopes of one or more elements naturally present in the plant or animal, it is possible to differentiate between true and counterfeit products. Altering the isotopic balance leaves the products suitability for human consumption unchanged. (UK).

  5. Mark Zuckerberg biography of an accidental billionaire

    CERN Document Server

    Melendez, Macie

    2012-01-01

    ABOUT THE BOOK Mark Zuckerberg is one of the world's youngest billionaires, thanks to his role in co-founding social networking site, Facebook. As Facebook has grown exponentially since its founding in 2004 (with 845 million monthly active users as of the end of December 2011 according to Facebook), Zuckerberg's popularity has also flown through the roof. Interesting on so many levels, Zuckerberg's quick rise to fame is one that the mass media and general public just can't get enough of. There's his Harvard education, his invention of one of the most popular Internet sites this world has ev

  6. MARK II end cap calorimeter electronics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jared, R.C.; Haggerty, J.S.; Herrup, D.A.; Kirsten, F.A.; Lee, K.L.; Olson, S.R.; Wood, D.R.

    1985-10-01

    An end cap calorimeter system has been added to the MARK II detector in preparation for its use at the SLAC Linear Collider. The calorimeter uses 8744 rectangular proportional counter tubes. This paper describes the design features of the data acquisition electronics that has been installed on the calorimeter. The design and use of computer-based test stands for the amplification and signal-shaping components is also covered. A portion of the complete system has been tested in a beam at SLAC. In these initial tests, using only the calibration provided by the test stands, a resolution of 18%/..sqrt..E was achieved.

  7. Citation Analysis with Mark-and-Recapture

    CERN Document Server

    Loe, Chuan Wen

    2015-01-01

    Mark-and-Recapture is a methodology from Population Biology to estimate the number of a species without counting every individual. This is done by multiple samplings of the species using traps and discounting the instances that were caught repeated. In this paper we show that this methodology is applicable for citation analysis as it is also not feasible to count all the relevant publications of a research topic. In addition this estimation also allows us to propose a stopping rule for researchers to decide how far one should extend their search for relevant literature.

  8. Marking Space and Making Place in Barcelona

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hau, Mark Friis

    2016-01-01

    of Catalonia problematizes the role of ‘the city’ in the Catalan independence movement. Through the actors’ narrative inscriptions of certain spaces as Catalan and active markings of the cityscape, the city itself helps to orient understandings of national identity. Visual cues, both in architecture...... ideas of nation and state are encountered and contested in Barcelona through activists’ spatial engagements, exploring how the city, the nation, and the political are connected in Catalonia. The position of Barcelona in activists’ narratives as both ‘less Catalan’ and as the undeniable capital...

  9. The positive behavioral momentum of Mark Ylvisaker.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turkstra, Lyn S

    2010-08-01

    Mark Ylvisaker inspired many people to believe they had the skills to help children and adults with brain injury live a meaningful life. He was thoroughly multidisciplinary in his approach, but also felt strongly that communication was the cornerstone of effective behavior management and that speech-language pathologists could make a unique contribution in the everyday lives of individuals with cognitive-communication disorders. This article recognizes his profound influence on the author's research, teaching, and clinical practice and was written in the spirit of paying forward the knowledge he shared.

  10. PROGRESS IN STUDIES ON ICE ACCUMULATION IN RIVER BENDS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Jun; CHEN Pang-pang; SUI Jue-yi

    2011-01-01

    River ice is an important hydraulic element in temperate and polar environments and would affect hydrodynamic conditions of rivers through changes both in the boundary conditions and the thermal regime.The river bend has been reported as the common location for the initiation of ice jams because the water flow along a river bend is markedly affected by the channel curvature.In this article,the experimental studies about the ice accumulation in a river bend are reviewed.Based on experiments conducted so far,the criteria for the formation of ice jams in the river bend,the mechanisms of the ice accumulation in the river bend and the thickness profile of the ice accumulation in the river bend are discussed.The k- ε two-equation turbulence model is used to simulate the ice accumulation under an ice cover along a river bend.A formula is proposed for describing the deformation of the ice jam bottom.Our results indicate that all simulated thickness of the ice accumulation agrees reasonably well with the measured thickness of the ice accumulation in the laboratory.

  11. 33 CFR 62.27 - Safe water marks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Safe water marks. 62.27 Section... UNITED STATES AIDS TO NAVIGATION SYSTEM The U.S. Aids to Navigation System § 62.27 Safe water marks. Safe water marks indicate that there is navigable water all around the mark. They are often used to...

  12. 14 CFR 45.31 - Marking of export aircraft.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Marking of export aircraft. 45.31 Section 45.31 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT IDENTIFICATION AND REGISTRATION MARKING Nationality and Registration Marks § 45.31 Marking of export aircraft. A...

  13. 19 CFR 134.45 - Approved markings of country name.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... OF THE TREASURY COUNTRY OF ORIGIN MARKING Method and Location of Marking Imported Articles § 134.45 Approved markings of country name. (a) Language. (1) Except as otherwise provided in paragraph (a)(2) of this section, the markings required by this part shall include the full English name of the country...

  14. 46 CFR 108.646 - Marking of stowage locations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... AND EQUIPMENT Equipment Markings and Instructions § 108.646 Marking of stowage locations. (a) Containers, brackets, racks, and other similar stowage locations for lifesaving equipment, must be marked... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Marking of stowage locations. 108.646 Section...

  15. The Five Marks of the Mental

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pernu, Tuomas K.

    2017-01-01

    The mental realm seems different to the physical realm; the mental is thought to be dependent on, yet distinct from the physical. But how, exactly, are the two realms supposed to be different, and what, exactly, creates the seemingly insurmountable juxtaposition between the mental and the physical? This review identifies and discusses five marks of the mental, features that set characteristically mental phenomena apart from the characteristically physical phenomena. These five marks (intentionality, consciousness, free will, teleology, and normativity) are not presented as a set of features that define mentality. Rather, each of them is something we seem to associate with phenomena we consider mental, and each of them seems to be in tension with the physical view of reality in its own particular way. It is thus suggested how there is no single mind-body problem, but a set of distinct but interconnected problems. Each of these separate problems is analyzed, and their differences, similarities and connections are identified. This provides a useful basis for future theoretical work on psychology and philosophy of mind, that until now has too often suffered from unclarities, inadequacies, and conflations. PMID:28736537

  16. MARKS OF ETHNICITY IN PURPLE HIBISCUS TRANSLATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernanda de Oliveira Müller

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available This study gives an analysis of the English – Brazilian Portuguese translation of Chimamanda Ngozi Adichie’s novel, Purple Hibiscus, made by Julia Romeu. It is an attempt to analyze how traces of ethnic identities marked in the source text are reproduced in the Brazilian version Hibisco Roxo, published in 2011. Initially, is a brief biography of the writer is presented together with her history towards the construction of a new paradigm for the literature about Africa and Nigeria. Adichie challenges Western stereotypes about that continent, which tend to report poverty, war and disease scenarios. Secondly, a summary of the story was made and the main characters were described. Thirdly, a collection of recorded words and phrases in the Igbo language was compiled from the original text and an analysis of the translation of those terms into Brazilian Portuguese was performed. Afterwards, the concept of ethnicity described by the sociologist Anthony Giddens was presented. Based on that concept, it was concluded that the terms previously selected could be considered as marks of ethnicity, reflecting the presence of the Igbo ethnic group in the British colonial culture. Finally, taking Antoine Berman’s proposition for an ethical translation, which embraces the foreign and rejects ethnocentrism, the conclusion to be drawn is that the translator’s option to keep Igbo terms in her work respected the author’s manifest intention of, through her work, showing the readers from other countries a bit of Nigeria’s culture and history.

  17. The Five Marks of the Mental

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tuomas K. Pernu

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The mental realm seems different to the physical realm; the mental is thought to be dependent on, yet distinct from the physical. But how, exactly, are the two realms supposed to be different, and what, exactly, creates the seemingly insurmountable juxtaposition between the mental and the physical? This review identifies and discusses five marks of the mental, features that set characteristically mental phenomena apart from the characteristically physical phenomena. These five marks (intentionality, consciousness, free will, teleology, and normativity are not presented as a set of features that define mentality. Rather, each of them is something we seem to associate with phenomena we consider mental, and each of them seems to be in tension with the physical view of reality in its own particular way. It is thus suggested how there is no single mind-body problem, but a set of distinct but interconnected problems. Each of these separate problems is analyzed, and their differences, similarities and connections are identified. This provides a useful basis for future theoretical work on psychology and philosophy of mind, that until now has too often suffered from unclarities, inadequacies, and conflations.

  18. Evaluation of copper for divider subassembly in MCO Mark IA and Mark IV scrap fuel baskets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Graves, C.E.

    1997-09-29

    The K Basin Spent Nuclear Fuel (SNF) Project Multi-Canister Overpack (MCO) subprojection eludes the design and fabrication of a canister that will be used to confine, contain, and maintain fuel in a critically safe array to enable its removal from the K Basins, vacuum drying, transport, staging, hot conditioning, and interim storage (Goldinann 1997). Each MCO consists of a shell, shield plug, fuel baskets (Mark IA or Mark IV), and other incidental equipment. The Mark IA intact and scrap fuel baskets are a safety class item for criticality control and components necessary for criticality control will be constructed from 304L stainless steel. It is proposed that a copper divider subassembly be used in both Mark IA and Mark IV scrap baskets to increase the safety basis margin during cold vacuum drying. The use of copper would increase the heat conducted away from hot areas in the baskets out to the wall of the MCO by both radiative and conductive heat transfer means. Thus copper subassembly will likely be a safety significant component of the scrap fuel baskets. This report examines the structural, cost and corrosion consequences associated with using a copper subassembly in the stainless steel MCO scrap fuel baskets.

  19. The dipoles reach the half-way mark

    CERN Multimedia

    2006-01-01

    With the positioning of the 616th magnet, installation of the LHC dipoles has reached the half-way mark. Only half the dipoles remain to be installed! The 616th dipole out of a total of 1232 was installed at 3 a.m on Wednesday 12 July. Night and day, the tunnel is the setting for a never-ending series of carefully choreographed installation operations. At a rate of around twenty per week, there has been a steady underground flow of dipole magnets, each measuring 15 metres in length and weighing 34 tonnes. 'In order to recover the accumulated delays, installation is proceeding three times faster than planned', confides Claude Hauviller, who is supervising LHC installation. Four dipoles can be transported underground at the same time. It is a real challenge, which the 65-man team responsible for this difficult task faces on a daily basis. This is because there is very little space in the tunnel and there are no passing places for the magnet transport vehicles. The room for manoeuvre can sometimes be measured ...

  20. Manganese As a Metal Accumulator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manganese deposits in water distribution systems accumulate metals, radionuclides and oxyanions by a combination of surface complexation, adsorption and solid substitution, as well as a combination of oxidation followed by manganese reduction and sorption of the oxidized constitu...

  1. Manganese As a Metal Accumulator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manganese deposits in water distribution systems accumulate metals, radionuclides and oxyanions by a combination of surface complexation, adsorption and solid substitution, as well as a combination of oxidation followed by manganese reduction and sorption of the oxidized constitu...

  2. Modeling IRA Accumulation and Withdrawals

    OpenAIRE

    Sabelhaus, John

    2000-01-01

    Empirical analysis of IRA accumulation and withdrawal patterns is limited because information about IRA balances and flows is not available for a sample of taxpayers. This paper combines survey data on IRA balances with individual tax return data on IRA flows to study IRA accumulation and withdrawal patterns across cohorts. The analysis shows that IRA rules such as penalties for early withdrawals and minimum distribution requirements have predictable effects on IRA flows. The estimated propen...

  3. An interview with Mark G. Hans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hans, Mark G; Nojima, Matilde da Cunha Gonçalves

    2014-01-01

    It is a great honor to conduct an interview with Professor Mark G. Hans, after following his outstanding work ahead of the Bolton-Brush Growth Study Center and the Department of Orthodontics at the prestigious Case Western Reserve School of Dental Medicine (CWRU) in Cleveland, Ohio. Born in Berea, Ohio, Professor Mark Hans attended Yale University in New Haven, CT, and earned his Bachelor of Science Degree in Chemistry. Upon graduation, Dr. Hans received his DDS and Masters Degree of Science in Dentistry with specialty certification in Orthodontics at Case Western Reserve University. During his education, Dr. Hans’ Master’s Thesis won the Harry Sicher Award for Best Research by an Orthodontic Student and being granted a Presidential Teaching Fellowship. As one of the youngest doctors ever certified by the American Board of Orthodontics, Dr. Hans continues to maintain his board certification. He has worked through academics on a variety of research interests, that includes the demographics of orthodontic practice, digital radiographic data, dental and craniofacial genetics, as obstructive sleep apnea syndrome, with selected publications in these fields. One of his noteworthy contributions to the orthodontic literature came along with Dr. Donald Enlow on the pages of “Essentials of Facial Growth”, being reference on the study of craniofacial growth and development. Dr. Mark Hans’s academic career is linked to CWRU, recognized as the renowned birthplace of research on craniofacial growth and development, where the classic Bolton-Brush Growth Study was historically set. Today, Dr. Hans is the Director of The Bolton-Brush Growth Study Center, performing, with great skill and dedication, the handling of the larger longitudinal sample of bone growth study. He is Associate Dean for Graduate Studies, Professor and Chairman of the Department of Orthodontics, working in clinical and theoretical activities with students of the Undergraduate Course from the School of

  4. Marking Streets to Improve Parking Density

    CERN Document Server

    Xu, Chao

    2015-01-01

    Street parking spots for automobiles are a scarce commodity in most urban environments. The heterogeneity of car sizes makes it inefficient to rigidly define fixed-sized spots. Instead, unmarked streets in cities like New York leave placement decisions to individual drivers, who have no direct incentive to maximize street utilization. In this paper, we explore the effectiveness of two different behavioral interventions designed to encourage better parking, namely (1) educational campaigns to encourage parkers to "kiss the bumper" and reduce the distance between themselves and their neighbors, or (2) painting appropriately-spaced markings on the street and urging drivers to "hit the line". Through analysis and simulation, we establish that the greatest densities are achieved when lines are painted to create spots roughly twice the length of average-sized cars. Kiss-the-bumper campaigns are in principle more effective than hit-the-line for equal degrees of compliance, although we believe that the visual cues of...

  5. Marked Seizure Reduction after MCT Supplementation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raed Azzam

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available We report the case of a 43-year-old man with history of nonsurgical partial epilepsy who previously failed multiple trials of antiepileptic drugs. Medium-chain triglycerides (MCT were added to his regular diet in the form of pure oil. Subsequently, his seizure frequency was markedly reduced from multiple daily seizures to one seizure every four days. His seizures recurred after transient discontinuation of MCT over a period of ten days. His seizure improvement was achieved at a dose of four tablespoons of MCT twice daily with no reported side effects. He developed significant diarrhea and flatulence at higher doses. We conclude that MCT oil supplementation to regular diet may provide better seizure control in some patients. MCT oil supplementation may be a more tolerable alternative to the standard ketogenic diet.

  6. TRIGA Mark-III reactor dismantling program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chung, U. S.; Lee, B. J.; Paik, S. T.; Jung, K. J. [TRIGA Research Reactor D and D Project Team, Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    1999-07-01

    The activation assessment of the main parts of the TRIGA Mark-III (KRR-2) was estimated to effectively dismantle the activated and contaminated areas. All of the method and the order for decommissioning the KRR-2 have been chosen as a result of the examination of the physical structure and radiological conditions of the reactor component. These decommissioning methods and orders were reviewed as part of the Hazard and Operability (HAZOP) studies for the project. Radiological assessment is also done to protect the workers and the environment from the dismantling work. License documents were submitted to the Ministry of Science and Technology (MOST) at the end of 1998. Practical work of the D and D will start at the end of 1999 once the government issues the license. Radiation protection plan was also set up to control the workers and environment. This paper summarized the main lines of those studies. (author)

  7. Mark IVA DSN 26-meter Subnet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon, D. D.

    1984-01-01

    The Office of Space Tracking and Data Systems' Networks Consolidation Program (NCP), managed by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL), includes the implementation of a 26-meter Tracking and Communications Subnet as a part of the Mark IV A Deep Space Network (DSN). The incorporatin of this subnet into the DSN will contribute to the NCP goal of consolidating the two NASA ground tracking networks into one tracking network. The 26-meter Tracking and Communication Subnet was designed to provide the capability to support, at each Deep Space Communication Complex, the tracking and data communication requirements of the earth-orbital missions that cannot be supported by the Tracking and Data Relay Satellite System when it becomes operational. Implementation activities and planned capabilities of the subnet are discussed.

  8. An interview with Mark G. Hans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolognese, Ana Maria; Palomo, Juan Martin; Miyashita, Kunihiko; Nojima, Lincoln Issamu; Nojima, Matilde da Cunha Gonçalves

    2014-01-01

    It is a great honor to conduct an interview with Professor Mark G. Hans, after following his outstanding work ahead of the Bolton-Brush Growth Study Center and the Department of Orthodontics at the prestigious Case Western Reserve School of Dental Medicine (CWRU) in Cleveland, Ohio. Born in Berea, Ohio, Professor Mark Hans attended Yale University in New Haven, CT, and earned his Bachelor of Science Degree in Chemistry. Upon graduation, Dr. Hans received his DDS and Masters Degree of Science in Dentistry with specialty certification in Orthodontics at Case Western Reserve University. During his education, Dr. Hans' Master's Thesis won the Harry Sicher Award for Best Research by an Orthodontic Student and being granted a Presidential Teaching Fellowship. As one of the youngest doctors ever certified by the American Board of Orthodontics, Dr. Hans continues to maintain his board certification. He has worked through academics on a variety of research interests, that includes the demographics of orthodontic practice, digital radiographic data, dental and craniofacial genetics, as obstructive sleep apnea syndrome, with selected publications in these fields. One of his noteworthy contributions to the orthodontic literature came along with Dr. Donald Enlow on the pages of "Essentials of Facial Growth", being reference on the study of craniofacial growth and development. Dr. Mark Hans's academic career is linked to CWRU, recognized as the renowned birthplace of research on craniofacial growth and development, where the classic Bolton-Brush Growth Study was historically set. Today, Dr. Hans is the Director of The Bolton-Brush Growth Study Center, performing, with great skill and dedication, the handling of the larger longitudinal sample of bone growth study. He is Associate Dean for Graduate Studies, Professor and Chairman of the Department of Orthodontics, working in clinical and theoretical activities with students of the Undergraduate Course from the School of Dental

  9. Mark-recapture and mark-resight methods for estimating abundance with remote cameras: a carnivore case study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alanso, Robert S.; McClintock, Brett T.; Lyren, Lisa M.; Boydston, Erin E.; Crooks, Kevin R.

    2015-01-01

    Abundance estimation of carnivore populations is difficult and has prompted the use of non-invasive detection methods, such as remotely-triggered cameras, to collect data. To analyze photo data, studies focusing on carnivores with unique pelage patterns have utilized a mark-recapture framework and studies of carnivores without unique pelage patterns have used a mark-resight framework. We compared mark-resight and mark-recapture estimation methods to estimate bobcat (Lynx rufus) population sizes, which motivated the development of a new "hybrid" mark-resight model as an alternative to traditional methods. We deployed a sampling grid of 30 cameras throughout the urban southern California study area. Additionally, we physically captured and marked a subset of the bobcat population with GPS telemetry collars. Since we could identify individual bobcats with photos of unique pelage patterns and a subset of the population was physically marked, we were able to use traditional mark-recapture and mark-resight methods, as well as the new “hybrid” mark-resight model we developed to estimate bobcat abundance. We recorded 109 bobcat photos during 4,669 camera nights and physically marked 27 bobcats with GPS telemetry collars. Abundance estimates produced by the traditional mark-recapture, traditional mark-resight, and “hybrid” mark-resight methods were similar, however precision differed depending on the models used. Traditional mark-recapture and mark-resight estimates were relatively imprecise with percent confidence interval lengths exceeding 100% of point estimates. Hybrid mark-resight models produced better precision with percent confidence intervals not exceeding 57%. The increased precision of the hybrid mark-resight method stems from utilizing the complete encounter histories of physically marked individuals (including those never detected by a camera trap) and the encounter histories of naturally marked individuals detected at camera traps. This new estimator

  10. Mark-recapture and mark-resight methods for estimating abundance with remote cameras: a carnivore case study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert S Alonso

    Full Text Available Abundance estimation of carnivore populations is difficult and has prompted the use of non-invasive detection methods, such as remotely-triggered cameras, to collect data. To analyze photo data, studies focusing on carnivores with unique pelage patterns have utilized a mark-recapture framework and studies of carnivores without unique pelage patterns have used a mark-resight framework. We compared mark-resight and mark-recapture estimation methods to estimate bobcat (Lynx rufus population sizes, which motivated the development of a new "hybrid" mark-resight model as an alternative to traditional methods. We deployed a sampling grid of 30 cameras throughout the urban southern California study area. Additionally, we physically captured and marked a subset of the bobcat population with GPS telemetry collars. Since we could identify individual bobcats with photos of unique pelage patterns and a subset of the population was physically marked, we were able to use traditional mark-recapture and mark-resight methods, as well as the new "hybrid" mark-resight model we developed to estimate bobcat abundance. We recorded 109 bobcat photos during 4,669 camera nights and physically marked 27 bobcats with GPS telemetry collars. Abundance estimates produced by the traditional mark-recapture, traditional mark-resight, and "hybrid" mark-resight methods were similar, however precision differed depending on the models used. Traditional mark-recapture and mark-resight estimates were relatively imprecise with percent confidence interval lengths exceeding 100% of point estimates. Hybrid mark-resight models produced better precision with percent confidence intervals not exceeding 57%. The increased precision of the hybrid mark-resight method stems from utilizing the complete encounter histories of physically marked individuals (including those never detected by a camera trap and the encounter histories of naturally marked individuals detected at camera traps. This new

  11. MarkIT büroo = Offices of MarkIT

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2010-01-01

    Tallinnas Pärnu mnt. 102C asuvas büroohoones paikneva MarkIT büroo sisekujundusest. Sisearhitektid Kard Männil (SAB Miu Miu Miu) ja Loreida Hein (Studio La), nende tähtsamate tööde loetelu. Valge büroomööbel on sisearhitektide projekteeritud. Graafika on sisearhitektid ise joonistanud

  12. Pinnuks silmas - Mark Soosaar 60 / Mark Soosaar ; interv. Jüri Aarma

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Soosaar, Mark, 1946-

    2006-01-01

    Mark Soosaare vastused olematutele küsimustele (J. Aarma küsimused vahelt ära võetud). Endast, oma uuest filmist "Vabatahtlikud" ja muust. Lisatud Sirje Niitra artikkel "Valutab südant" Soosaare muredest ja võitlustest seoses Pärnu linnaga

  13. Pinnuks silmas - Mark Soosaar 60 / Mark Soosaar ; interv. Jüri Aarma

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Soosaar, Mark, 1946-

    2006-01-01

    Mark Soosaare vastused olematutele küsimustele (J. Aarma küsimused vahelt ära võetud). Endast, oma uuest filmist "Vabatahtlikud" ja muust. Lisatud Sirje Niitra artikkel "Valutab südant" Soosaare muredest ja võitlustest seoses Pärnu linnaga

  14. 江西铅山红芽芋胚性愈伤组织的玻璃化法超低温保存及植株再生%Cryopreservation of Jiangxi Yanshan red bud taro (Colocasia esculenta var.cormosus cv.Hongyayu) embryogenic callus by vitrification and its plantlet regeneration

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    洪森荣; 尹明华; 王艾平

    2014-01-01

    以江西铅山红芽芋胚性愈伤组织为材料,研究各种因素对其玻璃化法超低温保存的影响.结果表明:江西铅山红芽芋胚性愈伤组织玻璃化法超低温保存较佳的预培养条件为0.3 molL-1蔗糖预培养3 d,较佳的60% PVS2装载时间为20 min,较佳的100% PVS2脱水条件为25℃脱水30 min,较佳的化冻温度为40℃,较佳的洗涤液蔗糖浓度为1.2 molL-1,较佳的冻后培养条件为暗培养7 d 再转到光周期中培养.红芽芋胚性愈伤组织包埋玻璃化超低温保存后的平均成活率约为70%.红芽芋胚性愈伤组织冻后再生苗没有发生形态学、生理学和细胞学的变异.%Using Jiangxi Yanshan red bud taro (Colocasia esculenta var.cormosus cv.Hongyayu)embryogenic calli as materials,the effects of various factors on its cryopreservation by vitrification were studied.The results showed that better preculture condition of Jiangxi Yanshan red bud taro embryogenic calli vitrification cryopreservation was 0.3 molL-1 sucrose for 3 days.Better loading time was 60% PVS2 for 20 min.Better dehydration time of 100%PVS2 was 30 min at 25 ℃.Better thaw temperature was 40 ℃.Better sucrose concentration in washing media was 1.2 molL-1 .Better culture condition after cryopreservation was dark culture for 7 d and then transferred to the photoperiod.The average survival rate of embryogenic calli after cryopreservation by vitrification amounted to about 70%.No significant difference was observed in the morphological,physiological and cytological indexes of plantlets coming from control and cryopreserved embryogenic calli.

  15. POTENT Reconstruction from Mark III Velocities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dekel, A.; Eldar, A.; Kolatt, T.; Yahil, A.; Willick, J. A.; Faber, S. M.; Courteau, S.; Burstein, D.

    1999-09-01

    We present an improved version of the POTENT method for reconstructing the cosmological velocity and mass density fields from radial peculiar velocities, test it with mock catalogs, and apply it to the Mark III Catalog of Galaxy Peculiar Velocities. The method is improved in several ways: (1) the inhomogeneous Malmquist bias is reduced by grouping and corrected statistically in either forward or inverse analyses of inferred distances, (2) the smoothing into a radial velocity field is optimized such that window and sampling biases are reduced, (3) the density field is derived from the velocity field using an improved weakly nonlinear approximation in Eulerian space, and (4) the computational errors are made negligible compared to the other errors. The method is carefully tested and optimized using realistic mock catalogs based on an N-body simulation that mimics our cosmological neighborhood, and the remaining systematic and random errors are evaluated quantitatively. The Mark III catalog, with ~3300 grouped galaxies, allows a reliable reconstruction with fixed Gaussian smoothing of 10-12 h-1 Mpc out to ~60 h-1 Mpc and beyond in some directions. We present maps of the three-dimensional velocity and mass-density fields and the corresponding errors. The typical systematic and random errors in the density fluctuations inside 40 h-1 Mpc are +/-0.13 and +/-0.18 (for Ω=1). In its gross features, the recovered mass distribution resembles the galaxy distribution in redshift surveys and the mass distribution in a similar POTENT analysis of a complementary velocity catalog (SFI), including such features as the Great Attractor, Perseus-Pisces, and the large void in between. The reconstruction inside ~40 h-1 Mpc is not affected much by a revised calibration of the distance indicators (VM2, tailored to match the velocities from the IRAS 1.2 Jy redshift survey). The volume-weighted bulk velocity within the sphere of radius 50 h-1 Mpc about the Local Group is V50=370+/-110 km s-1

  16. The Mark 3 data base handler

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryan, J. W.; Ma, C.; Schupler, B. R.

    1980-01-01

    A data base handler which would act to tie Mark 3 system programs together is discussed. The data base handler is written in FORTRAN and is implemented on the Hewlett-Packard 21MX and the IBM 360/91. The system design objectives were to (1) provide for an easily specified method of data interchange among programs, (2) provide for a high level of data integrity, (3) accommodate changing requirments, (4) promote program accountability, (5) provide a single source of program constants, and (6) provide a central point for data archiving. The system consists of two distinct parts: a set of files existing on disk packs and tapes; and a set of utility subroutines which allow users to access the information in these files. Users never directly read or write the files and need not know the details of how the data are formatted in the files. To the users, the storage medium is format free. A user does need to know something about the sequencing of his data in the files but nothing about data in which he has no interest.

  17. Mark 3 interactive data analysis system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryan, J. W.; Ma, C.; Schupler, B. P.

    1980-01-01

    The interactive data analysis system, a major subset of the total Mark 3 very long baseline interferometry (VLBI) software system is described. The system consists of two major and a number of small programs. These programs provide for the scientific analysis of the observed values of delay and delay rate generated by the VLBI data reduction programs and product the geophysical and astrometric parameters which are among the ultimate products of VLBI. The two major programs are CALC and SOLVE. CALC generates the theoretical values of VLBI delay rate as well as partial derivatives based on apriori values of the geophysical and astronometric parameters. SOLVE is a least squares parameters estimation program which yields the geophysical and astrometric parameters using the observed values by the data processing system and theoretical values and partial derivatives provided by CALC. SOLVE is a highly interactive program in which the user selects the exact form of the recovered parameters and the data to be accepted into the solution.

  18. Precision markedly attenuates repetitive lift capacity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collier, Brooke R; Holland, Laura; McGhee, Deirdre; Sampson, John A; Bell, Alison; Stapley, Paul J; Groeller, Herbert

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated the effect of precision on time to task failure in a repetitive whole-body manual handling task. Twelve participants were required to repetitively lift a box weighing 65% of their single repetition maximum to shoulder height using either precise or unconstrained box placement. Muscle activity, forces exerted at the ground, 2D body kinematics, box acceleration and psychophysical measures of performance were recorded until task failure was reached. With precision, time to task failure for repetitive lifting was reduced by 72%, whereas the duration taken to complete a single lift and anterior deltoid muscle activation increased by 39% and 25%, respectively. Yet, no significant difference was observed in ratings of perceived exertion or heart rate at task failure. In conclusion, our results suggest that when accuracy is a characteristic of a repetitive manual handling task, physical work capacity will decline markedly. The capacity to lift repetitively to shoulder height was reduced by 72% when increased accuracy was required to place a box upon a shelf. Lifting strategy and muscle activity were also modified, confirming practitioners should take into consideration movement precision when evaluating the demands of repetitive manual handling tasks.

  19. Typehusbranchens organisation, produktion og marked og innovation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haugbølle, Kim; Forman, Marianne

    Denne dokumentationsrapport beskriver resultaterne af et survey af typehusbranchens organisering, produktion, marked og innovation. På trods af eller måske netop på grund af den aktuelle finanskrise vil en fortsat udvikling af typehusbyggeriet og det industrialiserede byggeri generelt kræve en øget...... forståelse af, hvordan bygherrens og brugernes ønsker, krav og forventninger er med til at forme producenternes produkter og udviklingsstrategier og vice versa. Baseret på et omfattende webbaseret survey via SurveyXact besvarer rapporten fire spørgsmål vedrørende typehusindustrien: - Hvilke karakteristika...... har producenterne? - Hvem er bygherrerne? - Hvilke typer af innovation finder sted? - Hvordan forløber innovationsprocessen? Undersøgelsen yder således et bidrag til en forståelse af byggeriets processer og innovation indenfor et område, som er relativt upåagtet i både dansk og international...

  20. Infrared and visible combat identification marking materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Keefe, Eoin; Shohet, Adam; Swan, Martin

    2007-04-01

    Historically, it is believed that fratricide accounts for up to 15% of friendly casualties during operations and a UK MoD report identifies that almost half of all such casualties occur in situations involving ground units only. Such risks can be mitigated, to an extent, via operational awareness and effective communications. However, recent conflicts have involved a much more dynamic, complex and technically sophisticated battlefield than previously experienced. For example, Operation Telic (Desert Storm) involved almost one million combatants and ten thousand armoured vehicles in the coalition force, advancing across an extensive battlefront at high speed during daylight and at night, making effective use of a range of electro-optic sensors. The accelerated tempo of battle means that front lines can undergo rapid, punctuated advances that can leave individual combat units with a much degraded situational awareness, particularly of where they are in relation to other 'friendly' combatants. Consequently, there is a need for a robust, low cost, low weight, compact, unpowered, interoperable, Combat Identification technique for use with popular electro-optic sensors which can be deployed, and is effective, at the individual combat unit level. In this paper we discuss ground-to-ground combat identification materials that meet these requirements, all of which are based on the air-to-ground Mirage TM vehicle marking material. We show some preliminary ground-to-ground data collected from the new variant Mirage TM material in recent experimental trials conducted during the day, evening and at night.

  1. Habitat Management Plan for St. Marks National Wildlife Refuge

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The St. Marks NWR Habitat Management Plan provides a long-term vision and specific guidance on managing habitats for the resources of concern at St. Marks NWR, to...

  2. Mark 6 16-Gbps Next-Generation VLBI Data System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitney, Alan R.; Cappallo, Roger J.; Ruszczyk, Chester A.; SooHoo, Jason; Crew, Geoffrey B.

    2014-12-01

    The Mark 6 VLBI data system has been developed as a next-generation disk-based VLBI data system capable of supporting the goals of VLBI2010 and other very-high-data-rate VLBI applications, with a maximum sustained recording rate of 16 Gbps. Based on COTS data hardware and open-source software, the Mark 6 is designed to transition easily from the widely used Mark 5 system. Its features include a `scatter/gather' gather algorithm to ensure that data recording is not slowed by one or more slow or bad disks. The first field demonstration of a 16 Gbps/station VLBI experiment using Mark 6 in 2012 is reported. Existing Mark 5 systems are upgradeable to Mark 6, and existing Mark 5 SATA modules are upgradeable for compatibility with Mark 6.

  3. 14 CFR 45.29 - Size of marks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... weight-shift-control aircraft must be at least 3 inches high; and (3) Rotorcraft, must be at least 12...-control aircraft must display marks at least 3 inches high. (g) Uniformity. The marks required by...

  4. Minimization of sink mark defects in injection molding process ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Minimization of sink mark defects in injection molding process – Taguchi approach. ... plays a very important role in controlling the quality of the injection molded products. ... of injection molding variables on sink marks using Taguchi approach.

  5. 46 CFR 199.176 - Markings on lifesaving appliances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... the boat belongs, such as the vessel's name, must be plainly marked or painted so that the markings... and numbers at least 100 millimeters (4 inches) high and in a color contrasting to that of...

  6. Apolipoprotein E promotes lipid accumulation and differentiation in human adipocytes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lasrich, Dorothee; Bartelt, Alexander [Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Cell Biology, University Medical Center Hamburg-Eppendorf, Martinistr. 52, 20246 Hamburg (Germany); Grewal, Thomas, E-mail: thomas.grewal@sydney.edu.au [Faculty of Pharmacy A15, The University of Sydney, Sydney, NSW 2006 (Australia); Heeren, Joerg, E-mail: heeren@uke.de [Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Cell Biology, University Medical Center Hamburg-Eppendorf, Martinistr. 52, 20246 Hamburg (Germany)

    2015-09-10

    Several studies in mice indicate a role for apolipoprotein E (APOE) in lipid accumulation and adipogenic differentiation in adipose tissue. However, little is yet known if APOE functions in a similar manner in human adipocytes. This prompted us to compare lipid loading and expression of adipocyte differentiation markers in APOE-deficient and control adipocytes using the differentiated human mesenchymal stem cell line hMSC-Tert as well as primary human and mouse adipocytes as model systems. Differentiated hMSC-Tert were stably transduced with or without siRNA targeting APOE while murine adipocytes were isolated from wild type and Apoe knockout mice. Human APOE knockdown hMSC-Tert adipocytes accumulated markedly less triglycerides compared to control cells. This correlated with strongly decreased gene expression levels of adipocyte markers such as adiponectin (ADIPOQ) and fatty acid binding protein 4 (FABP4) as well as the key transcription factor driving adipocyte differentiation, peroxisome proliferator activator receptor gamma (PPARG), in particular the PPARG2 isoform. Similarly, differentiation of murine Apoe-deficient adipocytes was characterized by reduced gene expression of Adipoq, Fabp4 and Pparg. Interestingly, incubation of APOE-deficient hMSC-Tert adipocytes with conditioned media from APOE3-overexpressing adipocytes or APOE-containing Very Low Density Lipoprotein (VLDL) partially restored triglyceride accumulation, but were unable to induce adipocyte differentiation, as judged by expression of adipocyte markers. Taken together, depletion of endogenous APOE in human adipocytes severely impairs lipid accumulation, which is associated with an inability to initiate differentiation. - Highlights: • Immortalized human mesenchymal stem cells were used to study adipocyte development. • Knockdown of endogenous APOE lead to impaired lipid accumulation and adipogenesis. • APOE supplementation partially restored lipid accumulation but not differentiation.

  7. 33 CFR 62.29 - Isolated danger marks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Isolated danger marks. 62.29... NAVIGATION UNITED STATES AIDS TO NAVIGATION SYSTEM The U.S. Aids to Navigation System § 62.29 Isolated danger marks. Isolated danger marks indicate an isolated danger which may be passed on all sides. As...

  8. A J-function for marked point patterns

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lieshout, M.N.M. van

    2004-01-01

    We propose a new summary statistic for marked point patterns. The underlying principle is to compare the distance from a marked point to the nearest other marked point in the pattern to the same distance seen from an arbitrary point in space. Information about the range of interaction can be inferre

  9. 25 CFR 304.3 - Classifying and marking of silver.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Classifying and marking of silver. 304.3 Section 304.3 Indians INDIAN ARTS AND CRAFTS BOARD, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR NAVAJO, PUEBLO, AND HOPI SILVER, USE OF GOVERNMENT MARK § 304.3 Classifying and marking of silver. For the present the Indian Arts and Crafts...

  10. 7 CFR 51.2927 - Marking and packing requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Marking and packing requirements. 51.2927 Section 51... STANDARDS) United States Standards for Grades of Apricots Marking and Packing Requirements § 51.2927 Marking and packing requirements. The minimum size or numerical count of the apricots in any package shall...

  11. The Nature of Object Marking in American Sign Language

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gokgoz, Kadir

    2013-01-01

    In this dissertation, I examine the nature of object marking in American Sign Language (ASL). I investigate object marking by means of directionality (the movement of the verb towards a certain location in signing space) and by means of handling classifiers (certain handshapes accompanying the verb). I propose that object marking in ASL is…

  12. 33 CFR 64.33 - Marking by the Coast Guard.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Marking by the Coast Guard. 64.33 Section 64.33 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY AIDS TO... Marking by the Coast Guard. (a) The District Commander may mark for the protection of maritime...

  13. 9 CFR 590.418 - Supervision of marking and packaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Supervision of marking and packaging...) Identifying and Marking Product § 590.418 Supervision of marking and packaging. (a) Evidence of label approval... container except by an inspector or under the supervision of an inspector or other person authorized by...

  14. Marking Strategies in Metacognition-Evaluated Computer-Based Testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Li-Ju; Ho, Rong-Guey; Yen, Yung-Chin

    2010-01-01

    This study aimed to explore the effects of marking and metacognition-evaluated feedback (MEF) in computer-based testing (CBT) on student performance and review behavior. Marking is a strategy, in which students place a question mark next to a test item to indicate an uncertain answer. The MEF provided students with feedback on test results…

  15. 19 CFR 134.11 - Country of origin marking required.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Country of origin marking required. 134.11 Section... OF THE TREASURY COUNTRY OF ORIGIN MARKING Articles Subject to Marking § 134.11 Country of origin... English name of the country of origin of the article, at the time of importation into the...

  16. 16 CFR 300.9 - Abbreviations, ditto marks, and asterisks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Abbreviations, ditto marks, and asterisks..., ditto marks, and asterisks. (a) In disclosing required information, words or terms shall not be designated by ditto marks or appear in footnotes referred to by asterisks or other symbols in...

  17. Tooth-marked small theropod bone: an extremely rare trace

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Aase Roland

    2001-01-01

    Tooth-marked dinosaur bones provide insight into feeding behaviours and biting strategies of theropod dinosaurs. The majority of theropod tooth marks reported to date have been found on herbivorous dinosaur bones, although some tyrannosaurid bones with tooth marks have also been reported. In 1988...

  18. 47 CFR 74.30 - Antenna structure, marking and lighting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Antenna structure, marking and lighting. 74.30... Applicable to All Services in Part 74 § 74.30 Antenna structure, marking and lighting. The provisions of part 17 of the FCC rules (Construction, Marking, and Lighting of Antenna Structures) require...

  19. A Review on Denture Marking Systems: A Mark in Forensic Dentistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kareker, Nikita; Aras, Meena; Chitre, Vidya

    2014-12-01

    "Identification through forensic science is an art of giving the corpse a name A real life detective work that would put even Sherlock Homes to shame." Forensic dentistry deals with proper handling and examination of dental evidence and proper evaluation and presentation of dental findings in interest of justice. The Prosthodontists are playing a very important role in forensic dentistry as they are concerned with fabrication of various prosthesis which can serve as an important tool for identification. Identification is essential requirement of any medico-legal investigation because a wrong identity may pose a problem in delivering justice. This article describes the different methods for identification/marking of the complete dentures, removable partial dentures and fixed partial dentures and the importance of denture marking in forensic investigatory purposes. The PubMed, Ebsco and Google search engines were used to gather the articles.

  20. Mark Leonard : EL ei peakski olema suurvõim / Mark Leonard ; interv. Erkki Bahovski

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Leonard, Mark

    2008-01-01

    Intervjuu Euroopa Välissuhete Nõukogu tegevdirektoriga, kes vastab küsimustele, mis puudutavad USA ja Euroopa suhteid, Euroopa Liidu välispoliitikat, Venemaa ja Euroopa Liidu suhteid pärast Gruusia konflikti. Ta peab murettekitavaks, et Venemaa üritab takistada euroopalike väärtuste levitamist oma naaberriikides. Vt. samas: Mark Leonard. Ilmunud ka Sirp : Diplomaatia 14. nov. nr. 11 lk. 13-14

  1. Mark Leonard : EL ei peakski olema suurvõim / Mark Leonard ; interv. Erkki Bahovski

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Leonard, Mark

    2008-01-01

    Intervjuu Euroopa Välissuhete Nõukogu tegevdirektoriga, kes vastab küsimustele, mis puudutavad USA ja Euroopa suhteid, Euroopa Liidu välispoliitikat, Venemaa ja Euroopa Liidu suhteid pärast Gruusia konflikti. Ta peab murettekitavaks, et Venemaa üritab takistada euroopalike väärtuste levitamist oma naaberriikides. Vt. samas: Mark Leonard. Ilmunud ka Sirp : Diplomaatia 14. nov. nr. 11 lk. 13-14

  2. Completeness of the Accumulation Calculus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    虞慧群; 孙永强; 等

    1998-01-01

    The accumulation calculs(AC for short)is an interval based temporal logic to specify and reason about hybrid real-time systems.This paper presents a formal proof system for AC,and proves that the system is complete relative to that of Interval Temporal Logic(ITL for short)on real domain.

  3. Cultural Differences in the Translation of Trade Marks

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何懿文

    2008-01-01

    As more and more Chinese products are getting into foreign markets, it is important to translate a Chinese trade mark into English properly. This paper points out what is a trade mark and its importance in the modern world. It then gives reason why it is necessary to translate the Chinese trade marks properly into English. It also gives the standard of a good trade mark. Furthermore it analyses several kinds of improper translation and the cause of these mistakes, last it introduces the main rules and three main skills of translation of trade marks.

  4. Vinpocetine attenuates lipid accumulation and atherosclerosis formation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cai, Yujun [Aab Cardiovascular Research Institute, Department of Medicine, University of Rochester, 601 Elmwood Ave, Rochester, NY 14642 (United States); Li, Jian-Dong [Center for Inflammation, Immunity and Infection, and Department of Biology, Georgia State University, Atlanta, GA 30303 (United States); Yan, Chen, E-mail: Chen_Yan@urmc.rochester.edu [Aab Cardiovascular Research Institute, Department of Medicine, University of Rochester, 601 Elmwood Ave, Rochester, NY 14642 (United States)

    2013-05-10

    Highlights: •Vinpocetine attenuates hyperlipidemia-induced atherosclerosis in a mouse model. •Vinpocetine antagonizes ox-LDL uptake and accumulation in macrophages. •Vinpocetine blocks the induction of ox-LDL receptor LOX-1 in vitro and in vivo. -- Abstract: Atherosclerosis, the major cause of myocardial infarction and stroke, is a chronic arterial disease characterized by lipid deposition and inflammation in the vessel wall. Cholesterol, in low-density lipoprotein (LDL), plays a critical role in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis. Vinpocetine, a derivative of the alkaloid vincamine, has long been used as a cerebral blood flow enhancer for treating cognitive impairment. Recent study indicated that vinpocetine is a potent anti-inflammatory agent. However, its role in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis remains unexplored. In the present study, we show that vinpocetine significantly reduced atherosclerotic lesion formation in ApoE knockout mice fed with a high-fat diet. In cultured murine macrophage RAW264.7 cells, vinpocetine markedly attenuated oxidized LDL (ox-LDL) uptake and foam cell formation. Moreover, vinpocetine greatly blocked the induction of ox-LDL receptor 1 (LOX-1) in cultured macrophages as well as in the LOX-1 level in atherosclerotic lesions. Taken together, our data reveal a novel role of vinpocetine in reduction of pathogenesis of atherosclerosis, at least partially through suppressing LOX-1 signaling pathway. Given the excellent safety profile of vinpocetine, this study suggests vinpocetine may be a therapeutic candidate for treating atherosclerosis.

  5. 9 CFR 317.10 - Reuse of official inspection marks; reuse of containers bearing official marks, labels, etc.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Reuse of official inspection marks; reuse of containers bearing official marks, labels, etc. 317.10 Section 317.10 Animals and Animal... DEVICES, AND CONTAINERS General § 317.10 Reuse of official inspection marks; reuse of containers...

  6. Replication stress interferes with histone recycling and predeposition marking of new histones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jasencakova, Zuzana; Scharf, Annette N D; Ask, Katrine; Corpet, Armelle; Imhof, Axel; Almouzni, Geneviève; Groth, Anja

    2010-03-12

    To restore chromatin on new DNA during replication, recycling of histones evicted ahead of the fork is combined with new histone deposition. The Asf1 histone chaperone, which buffers excess histones under stress, is a key player in this process. Yet how histones handled by human Asf1 are modified remains unclear. Here we identify marks on histones H3-H4 bound to Asf1 and changes induced upon replication stress. In S phase, distinct cytosolic and nuclear Asf1b complexes show ubiquitous H4K5K12diAc and heterogeneous H3 marks, including K9me1, K14ac, K18ac, and K56ac. Upon acute replication arrest, the predeposition mark H3K9me1 and modifications typical of chromatin accumulate in Asf1 complexes. In parallel, ssDNA is generated at replication sites, consistent with evicted histones being trapped with Asf1. During recovery, histones stored with Asf1 are rapidly used as replication resumes. This shows that replication stress interferes with predeposition marking and histone recycling with potential impact on epigenetic stability.

  7. Statistical methods for the forensic analysis of striated tool marks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoeksema, Amy Beth [Iowa State Univ., Ames, IA (United States)

    2013-01-01

    In forensics, fingerprints can be used to uniquely identify suspects in a crime. Similarly, a tool mark left at a crime scene can be used to identify the tool that was used. However, the current practice of identifying matching tool marks involves visual inspection of marks by forensic experts which can be a very subjective process. As a result, declared matches are often successfully challenged in court, so law enforcement agencies are particularly interested in encouraging research in more objective approaches. Our analysis is based on comparisons of profilometry data, essentially depth contours of a tool mark surface taken along a linear path. In current practice, for stronger support of a match or non-match, multiple marks are made in the lab under the same conditions by the suspect tool. We propose the use of a likelihood ratio test to analyze the difference between a sample of comparisons of lab tool marks to a field tool mark, against a sample of comparisons of two lab tool marks. Chumbley et al. (2010) point out that the angle of incidence between the tool and the marked surface can have a substantial impact on the tool mark and on the effectiveness of both manual and algorithmic matching procedures. To better address this problem, we describe how the analysis can be enhanced to model the effect of tool angle and allow for angle estimation for a tool mark left at a crime scene. With sufficient development, such methods may lead to more defensible forensic analyses.

  8. Bite marks on skin and clay: A comparative analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R.K. Gorea

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Bite marks are always unique because teeth are distinctive. Bite marks are often observed at the crime scene in sexual and in physical assault cases on the skin of the victims and sometimes on edible leftovers in burglary cases. This piece of evidence is often ignored, but if properly harvested and investigated, bite marks may prove useful in apprehending and successfully prosecuting the criminals. Due to the importance of bite marks, we conducted a progressive randomised experimental study conducted on volunteers. A total of 188 bite marks on clay were studied. Based on these findings, 93.34% of the volunteers could be identified from the bite marks on the clay. In addition, 201 impressions on skin were studied, and out of these cases, 41.01% of the same volunteers could be identified based on the bite mark impressions on the skin.

  9. Teacher Correction versus Peer-Marking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mourente Miguel Mariana Correia

    2004-08-01

    Full Text Available Written language is undoubtedly more often used than oral language in a variety of contexts, including both the professional and academic life. Consequently, developing strategies for correcting compositions and improving students’ written production is of vital importance. This article describes an experiment aimed at assessing the two most widely used methods of correction for compositions –traditional teacher correction and peer marking and their effect on the frequency of errors. Data was collected by asking students to write and revise a text. Statistical tests were performed to analyse it. At the end of the experiment, it was found that no significant difference in efficiency existed between the two methods, contradicting expectations (cf. Davies, 2002; Levine et al., 2002 and Ward, 2001. Key words: English-Teaching, Foreign Language-Teaching Writing, Evaluation, Assessment El lenguaje escrito es sin duda usado con más frecuencia que el lenguaje oral en una variedad de situaciones o contextos, incluyendo tanto la vida profesional como la académica. En consecuencia, el desarrollo de estrategias para corregir composiciones y mejorar la producción escrita de los estudiantes es de suma importancia. Este artículo describe un experimento cuyo objetivo es evaluar los dos métodos más usados para la corrección de composiciones, la corrección tradicional por el maestro y la corrección por revisión de pares, con respecto a su efecto en la frecuencia de errores. Se recogió información haciendo que estudiantes escribieran y revisaran un texto y sobre esos textos se aplicaron pruebas estadísticas para analizar los errores. Contrario a lo esperado, al final del experimento, no se encontró ninguna diferencia significativa entre los resultados encontrados por los dos métodos, (cfr. Davies, 2002; Levine et al., 2002 y Ward, 2001. Palabras claves: Inglés-Enseñanza, Idioma Extranjero-Enseñanza, Composición, Evaluación

  10. Effect of NaCl on the accumulation of glycerol by three Aspergillus species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zidan, M A; Abdel-Mallek, A Y

    1987-01-01

    The accumulation of glycerol was investigated in three Aspergillus species, A. niger, A. ochraceus and A. tamarii after being grown in media containing different NaCl concentrations. Intra-extracellular as well as total glycerol were markedly accumulated by the three organisms in response to increased salinity. However, at salinity levels of 10-14% NaCl, extracellular glycerol was somewhat lowered. In addition, it was found that the maximum accumulation of glycerol in A. niger and A. tamarii was reached within the first 10 hours after salinization. However, after desalinization, the extracellular glycerol was continuously increased within the first 6 hours at the expense of intracellular glycerol.

  11. Mark 6 Next-Generation VLBI Data System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitney, A.; Lapsley, D.

    2012-12-01

    The Mark 6 VLBI data system is being developed by MIT Haystack Observatory as a next-generation disk-based VLBI data system capable of supporting the goals of VLBI2010, with a maximum sustained recording rate of 16 Gbps writing to an array of 32 magnetic disks. The Mark 6 is based on COTS hardware and open-source code and is being designed to transition easily from the widely used Mark 5 system. A successful 16 Gbps per station VLBI demonstration experiment was conducted with Mark 6 in late 2011 as a proof-of-concept. Haystack Observatory is collaborating with the NASA/GSFC High-End Network Computing Group in the selection of high-performance COTS hardware platforms and with Conduant Corporation in the development of a high-performance disk module for Mark 6. Existing Mark 5 systems will be upgradable to Mark 6, and existing Mark 5 SATA modules will be upgradeable for compatibility with Mark 6. The Mark 6 system is projected to be available to the VLBI community in late 2012.

  12. Leniency and halo effects in marking undergraduate short research projects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elton Robert A

    2004-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Supervisors are often involved in the assessment of projects they have supervised themselves. Previous research suggests that detailed marking sheets may alleviate leniency and halo effects. We set out to determine if, despite using such a marking schedule, leniency and halo effects were evident in the supervisors' marking of undergraduate short research projects (special study modules (SSM. Methods Review of grades awarded by supervisors, second markers and control markers to the written reports of 4th year medical students who had participated in an SSM during two full academic years (n = 399. Paired t-tests were used to compare mean marks, Pearson correlation to look at agreement between marks and multiple linear regression to test the prediction of one mark from several others adjusted for one another. Results There was a highly significant difference of approximately half a grade between supervisors and second markers with supervisors marking higher. (t = 3.12, p Conclusions This study shows that with the use of structured marking sheet for assessment of undergraduate medical students, supervisors marks are not associated with a halo effect, but leniency does occur. As supervisor assessment is becoming more common in both under graduate and postgraduate teaching new ways to improve objectivity in marking and to address the leniency of supervisors should be sought.

  13. The response of rodents to scent marks: four broad hypotheses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferkin, Michael H

    2015-02-01

    This article is part of a Special Issue "Chemosignals and Reproduction". Many terrestrial mammals must be able to distinguish between the myriad of scent marks they encounter in order for them to facilitate or deter direct interactions with their scent donors. I review studies that examine how rodents, mainly meadow voles (Microtus pennsylvanicus), respond when they encounter the scent marks of conspecifics and heterospecifics, and how context, as well as the age and condition of senders and receivers, affect their responses. The review uses four broad hypotheses to discuss the response of rodents to scent marks. The four hypotheses are as follows: 1) Scent marks convey accurate information to the receiver about the sender's state and phenotype and genotype. 2) Scent marks are individually distinct. 3) The response of receivers to scent marks is flexible and would be modulated by the cognitive abilities of receivers. 4) Receivers respond to the information contained or conveyed by the scent mark in a manner that will increase their survival and fitness. The studies cited in this review show that scent marks signal accurate information about the sender's phenotype, genotype, and condition, which receivers use to distinguish among the scent marks of different conspecifics and heterospecifics, and by doing so, receivers tailor their response accordingly to increase their survival and fitness. Thus, the four broad hypotheses may serve as guide to increase our understanding of the response of receivers to scent marks and provide a conceptual framework for future research and the development of additional hypotheses.

  14. A Systematic Analysis of Coal Accumulation Process

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHENG Aiguo

    2008-01-01

    Formation of coal seam and coal-rich zone is an integrated result of a series of factors in coal accumulation process. The coal accumulation system is an architectural aggregation of coal accumulation factors. It can be classified into 4 levels: the global coal accumulation super-system, the coal accumulation domain mega.system, the coal accumulation basin system, and the coal seam or coal seam set sub-system. The coal accumulation process is an open, dynamic, and grey system, and is meanwhile a system with such natures as aggregation, relevance, entirety, purpose-orientated, hierarchy, and environment adaptability. In this paper, we take coal accumulation process as a system to study origin of coal seam and coal-rich zone; and we will discuss a methodology of the systematic analysis of coal accumulation process. As an example, the Ordos coal basin was investigated to elucidate the application of the method of the coal accumulation system analysis.

  15. Metal accumulating plants: Medium's role

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rabier, J.; Prudent, P.; Szymanska, B.; Mevy, J.-P.

    2003-05-01

    To evaluate phytoremediation potentialities by metal accumulation in tolerant plants, trials are carried out using in vitro cultures. Organie compounds influence on metal accumulation is studied with metals supplemented media. The tested compounds on zinc and lead absorption by Brassica juncea, are chelating agents (EDTA, citric acid) and soluble organic fractions of compost. EDTA seems to enhance the transfer of lead in plant but it is the opposite in the case of zinc. Citric acid stimulates root absorption for both zinc and lead. For the aqueous extracts of compost, variable effects are obtained according to the origin of compost (green wastes and food wastes). In'all tested conditions of cultures, zinc is mainly exported towards shoot while lead is stored in root.

  16. Bacterial accumulation in viscosity gradients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waisbord, Nicolas; Guasto, Jeffrey

    2016-11-01

    Cell motility is greatly modified by fluid rheology. In particular, the physical environments in which cells function, are often characterized by gradients of viscous biopolymers, such as mucus and extracellular matrix, which impact processes ranging from reproduction to digestion to biofilm formation. To understand how spatial heterogeneity of fluid rheology affects the motility and transport of swimming cells, we use hydrogel microfluidic devices to generate viscosity gradients in a simple, polymeric, Newtonian fluid. Using video microscopy, we characterize the random walk motility patterns of model bacteria (Bacillus subtilis), showing that both wild-type ('run-and-tumble') cells and smooth-swimming mutants accumulate in the viscous region of the fluid. Through statistical analysis of individual cell trajectories and body kinematics in both homogeneous and heterogeneous viscous environments, we discriminate passive, physical effects from active sensing processes to explain the observed cell accumulation at the ensemble level.

  17. Scent marking as resource defense by female Lemur catta.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mertl-Millhollen, Anne S

    2006-06-01

    Because ring-tailed lemurs (Lemur catta) are a female-dominant, female-philopatric species in which the females provide the majority of parental care and troop defense, resource defense is a possible function of female lemur scent marking. To test this hypothesis, I conducted three studies. First, I presented captive, individually housed females with a series of samples of female scent, each from a different female, to determine whether they would respond to those samples and discriminate between them. Second, I reanalyzed data from a focal animal study of four females in two adjacent troops in Berenty Reserve, Madagascar, to determine female marking rates before, during, and after the mating season, and to clarify the relationship among positions of feeding, intertroop defense, and scent marking. The third study was based on ad libitum observations of the sniffing and marking behavior of a troop in Berenty Reserve during a year when they traveled far out of their home range. The females in study 1 investigated female scent samples but provided no evidence that they discriminated between them. In study 2 the wild females marked throughout the study and did not limit their marking to the mating season. They deposited significantly more of their marks in a zone of confrontation with adjacent troops, where they also did the majority of their feeding, and they increased their rate of marking during agonistic intertroop confrontations. The females determined the positions of their scent marks and deposited the first mark in the majority of countermarking sequences. When the females traveled out of their defended range in study 3, they significantly decreased their rate of marking and increased their rate of sniffing spots but not marking them. All evidence gathered so far supports the hypothesis that one function of female ring-tailed lemur scent marking is to provide intergroup information that is then used to reinforce the border of the defended resource. Copyright

  18. Mechanisms of intrahepatic triglyceride accumulation

    OpenAIRE

    Ress, Claudia; Kaser, Susanne

    2016-01-01

    Hepatic steatosis defined as lipid accumulation in hepatocytes is very frequently found in adults and obese adolescents in the Western World. Etiologically, obesity and associated insulin resistance or excess alcohol intake are the most frequent causes of hepatic steatosis. However, steatosis also often occurs with chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection and is also found in rare but potentially life-threatening liver diseases of pregnancy. Clinical significance and outcome of hepatic trigl...

  19. Mechanisms of intrahepatic triglyceride accumulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ress, Claudia; Kaser, Susanne

    2016-01-28

    Hepatic steatosis defined as lipid accumulation in hepatocytes is very frequently found in adults and obese adolescents in the Western World. Etiologically, obesity and associated insulin resistance or excess alcohol intake are the most frequent causes of hepatic steatosis. However, steatosis also often occurs with chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection and is also found in rare but potentially life-threatening liver diseases of pregnancy. Clinical significance and outcome of hepatic triglyceride accumulation are highly dependent on etiology and histological pattern of steatosis. This review summarizes current concepts of pathophysiology of common causes of hepatic steatosis, including non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), alcoholic fatty liver disease, chronic HCV infections, drug-induced forms of hepatic steatosis, and acute fatty liver of pregnancy. Regarding the pathophysiology of NAFLD, this work focuses on the close correlation between insulin resistance and hepatic triglyceride accumulation, highlighting the potential harmful effects of systemic insulin resistance on hepatic metabolism of fatty acids on the one side and the role of lipid intermediates on insulin signalling on the other side. Current studies on lipid droplet morphogenesis have identified novel candidate proteins and enzymes in NAFLD.

  20. A mark that is no mark? Queer women and violence in HIV discourse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Logie, Carmen H; Gibson, Margaret F

    2013-01-01

    Lesbian, bisexual and queer women are invisible and ignored in HIV discourse, as epidemiological classifications result in their institutionalised exclusion from risk categories. Simultaneously, these women live with HIV, often in situations of societal exclusion and under threat of violence. In this paper, we consider the connections between discourse and violence to examine how both are reproduced through, applied to and dependent upon people. The ways lesbian, bisexual and queer women do (or do not) appear in HIV discourse tells us much about how people and categories operate in the global pandemic. The fault-lines of lesbian, bisexual and queer women's constrained visibility in HIV discourse can be seen in situations where they are exposed to HIV transmission through homophobic sexual assault. In dominant HIV discursive practices, such homophobic assault leaves Judith Butler's 'mark that is no mark', recording neither its violence nor its 'non-heterosexuality'. Structural violence theory offers a means to understand direct and indirect violence as it pertains to HIV and lesbian, bisexual and queer women. We call for forms of modified structural violence theory that better attend to the ways in which discourse connects with material realities. Our theoretical and epidemiological lens must be broadened to examine how anti-lesbian, bisexual and queer-women bias affects transnational understandings of human worth.

  1. The Things of Caesar: Mark-ing the Plural (Mk 12:13–17

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Warren Carter

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available This article observes the rarely-discussed phenomenon that the Marcan paying-the-tax scene refers to tax in the singular, whilst the concluding saying uses the plural ‘the things of Caesar and of God’. The article accounts for this phenomenon by means of developing traditions. The section under the heading ‘Mark’s scene and saying about taxes (12:13–17’ counters the common claim that scene and saying originated as a unit from the historical Jesus. It proposes that whilst the saying may have originated with Jesus, the scene as we have it did not. The section under the heading ‘Social memory, orality, and a multi-referential saying?’ suggests some contexts that the saying about the things of Caesar addressed pre-Mark. And under the section ‘Trauma and Mark’s scene’ it is argued that Mark created a unit comprising scene and saying to negotiate the ‘ trauma’ of the 66–70 war. The unit evaluates freshly-asserted Roman power as idolatrous and blasphemous whilst simultaneously authorising the continued involvement of Jesus-believers in imperial society.

  2. Indução de calo a partir de eixo embrionário de coqueiro (Cocos nucifera L. Callus induction from coconut embryogenic axis (Cocos nucifera L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kicia Karinne Pereira Gomes

    2004-04-01

    factorial scheme (4 concentrations of 2,4-D x 5 segments of the embryogenic axis. The axes were excised longitudinally out of zigotic embryos and were then disinfected with sodium hipocloride (0.2% for two minutes, washed with sterile distilled water, and soaked for two minutes in a solution of sterile citric acid (100 mg.L-1. The embryogenic axes were split in five segments corresponding to positions A, B, C, D and E, and transferred to Petri dishes containing the culture media Y3, suplemented with four concentrations of 2,4-D (10-4; 1.36x10-4; 3.62x10-4; 4.52x10-4 M, sucrose (50 g.L-1, activated charcoal (2.5 g.L-1 and vitamins of Morel and Wetmore. The Petri dishes were incubated in a dark atmosphere under the temperature of 25 ± 2ºC. After 15 days of inoculation, the segments A and B in the concentration of 10-4 M of 2,4-D presented 97.5% of explants with friable callus, and 92,5% and 80%, respectively, in the concentrations of 1.36x10-4 M of 2,4-D. The E segment, in both concentrations, presented 60% of callus formation. After 30 days of inoculation, the segments A and B promoted 100% and 97.5% in the concentration of 10-4 M, and 90% and 80%, respectively, in the concentrations of 1.36x10-4 M. The E segment promoted 55% to 57.5% of callus induction in both concentrations.

  3. Radular marks produced by grazing gastropods of the rocky intertidal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yván Reyes

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available We had used artificial surfaces to examine the radular marks of four common grazing gastropods from Ancon Bay. In this work we show radular marks on dental wax surface of the trochid Tegula atra (Lesson, 1830, the fissurellid Fissurella peruviana Lamarck, 1822, the lottid Lottia ceciliana (Orbigny, 1841 and the littorinid Nodilittorina peruviana (Lamarck, 1822. In addition, the radular type is described to each species to relate it to the produced mark.

  4. Using descriptive mark-up to formalize translation quality assessment

    CERN Document Server

    Kutuzov, Andrey

    2008-01-01

    The paper deals with using descriptive mark-up to emphasize translation mistakes. The author postulates the necessity to develop a standard and formal XML-based way of describing translation mistakes. It is considered to be important for achieving impersonal translation quality assessment. Marked-up translations can be used in corpus translation studies; moreover, automatic translation assessment based on marked-up mistakes is possible. The paper concludes with setting up guidelines for further activity within the described field.

  5. An Analysis and Prevention of Stop Marks in Weaving

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Ge; LIN Shen; CHEN Ming

    2002-01-01

    The cause of stop marks of fabrics in weaving is introduced, and the floating displacement of the cloth fell during loom stoppage is a primary cause of stop marks. The stop marks caused by fabric system are analyzed. A new method to eliminate stop marks by using the electronic let-off system is presented. This new method needn't any special detecting equipment, it can control the fell position by the powerful control program,so the cost is decreased greatly. The method is so flexible that can be applied to weaving all kinds of fabrics.

  6. Ülar Mark: loome uut ja iga loomisega lammutame midagi / Ülar Mark ; intervjueerinud Mikk Salu

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Mark, Ülar, 1968-

    2010-01-01

    Eesti Arhitektuurikeskuse juhatuse esimees, arhitekt Ülar Mark Tallinna arhitektuurist ja linna arengust, demokraatlikust linnaruumist. Pikemalt Solarise keskusest, vabadussambast, väikepoodide asemele suurte kaubanduskeskuste tulekust

  7. Ülar Mark: loome uut ja iga loomisega lammutame midagi / Ülar Mark ; intervjueerinud Mikk Salu

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Mark, Ülar, 1968-

    2010-01-01

    Eesti Arhitektuurikeskuse juhatuse esimees, arhitekt Ülar Mark Tallinna arhitektuurist ja linna arengust, demokraatlikust linnaruumist. Pikemalt Solarise keskusest, vabadussambast, väikepoodide asemele suurte kaubanduskeskuste tulekust

  8. Embryogenic cervico-thyro-piriform tract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madana, J; Yolmo, Deeke; Saxena, Sunil Kumar; Gopalakrishnan, S

    2012-10-01

    Branchial cleft fistulae are rare congenital anomalies that arise from the abnormal persistence of branchial remnants. Branchial arch anomalies are rare. They usually present as a lateral neck mass or abscess in the form of acute suppurative thyroiditis. A complete fistula of the third arch is extremely rare. We describe such a case in a 13-year-old girl who presented with a small opening in the left lower neck, from which a mucoid discharge had been present since birth. The fistula was accompanied by recurrent neck swelling. Computed tomography with contrast injection into the external skin opening revealed a continuous tract that extended to the base of the piriform sinus. Total excision of the tract up to the piriform sinus with a left hemithyroidectomy was performed. At follow-up 28 months postoperatively, the patient exhibited no evidence of recurrence.

  9. Induction of embryogenics calli in cupuassu explants

    OpenAIRE

    Maria das Graças Rodrigues Ferreira; Fernando Enrique Ninamango Cárdenas; Carlos Henrique Siqueira de Carvalho; Andréa Almeida Carneiro; Carlos Ferreira Damião Filho

    2004-01-01

    Objetivou-se a indução de calos embriogênicos em cupuaçuzeiro, em função do tipo de explante e meio de cultura. Foram testados como explantes, segmentos cotiledonares e eixos embrionários divididos em três partes: região da plúmula, radícula e hipocótilo. Os explantes foram cultivados em 2 diferentes meios de cultura: 1) MS suplementado com 2,4-D (1 mg L-1) e Cinetina (0,25 mg L-1); 2) MS acrescido de ANA (5 mg L-1) e Cinetina (0,25 mg L-1). Constatou-se que a região do hipocótilo foi a parte...

  10. 77 FR 10533 - Stephen L. Marks: Debarment Order

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-22

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Stephen L. Marks: Debarment Order AGENCY: Food and Drug... pharmacist in Pennsylvania. Mr. Marks managed and operated Pharmacy Services, Inc. (PSI, Inc.), a pharmacy...

  11. 46 CFR 122.604 - Lifesaving equipment markings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... float and buoyant apparatus. (b) Each life jacket, immersion suit, and ring life buoy must be marked in clearly legible block capital letters with the vessel's name. The marking is not required on a life jacket carried to meet a temporary need for additional life jackets, if the life jacket has the name of another...

  12. 46 CFR 185.604 - Lifesaving equipment markings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... rescue boat; and (2) On each life float and buoyant apparatus. (b) Each life jacket, immersion suit, and... marking is not required on a life jacket carried to meet a temporary need for additional life jackets, if the life jacket has the name of another vessel or company marked on it. For an immersion suit, the...

  13. 46 CFR 153.294 - Marking of piping systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Marking of piping systems. 153.294 Section 153.294... CARRYING BULK LIQUID, LIQUEFIED GAS, OR COMPRESSED GAS HAZARDOUS MATERIALS Design and Equipment Piping Systems and Cargo Handling Equipment § 153.294 Marking of piping systems. (a) Each cargo piping...

  14. 27 CFR 26.97 - Marking containers of wine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Marking containers of wine... Liquors and Articles in Puerto Rico Wine § 26.97 Marking containers of wine. Containers of wine of Puerto... winemaker, the serial number of the container, the kind and taxable grade of the wine, the gallon content...

  15. Follow-up Evaluation of Mark Twain Students: Phase II.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gross, Susan

    The Mark Twain School in Rockville, Maryland serves emotionally disturbed students in Grades 5 through 12 whose severity of emotional problems seriously impairs their successful functioning in regular classes. The Department of Educational Accountability has conducted a study of characteristics of students served in the Mark Twain School and the…

  16. Mark twain's joke on a friend

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    仲俊

    2002-01-01

    Mark Twain was a famous American writer of novels and short stories.He liked to tell funny_______and he also liked to play jokes on (开玩笑)his friends.One day a friend of his lost his______and asked Mark Twain to buy the train ticket for him.

  17. Factors Affecting the Humorous Language Style of Mark Twin

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙秀丽

    2014-01-01

    As we all know, Mark Twain is an expert in handling humor.The formation of his language style has close connection with three aspects. Local literature influences Mark Twain very much. Western humor is another influential element. And his per-sonal experience is also contributed to his humorous language style.

  18. 14 CFR 36.1581 - Manuals, markings, and placards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Manuals, markings, and placards. 36.1581... Limitations and Information § 36.1581 Manuals, markings, and placards. (a) If an Airplane Flight Manual or Rotorcraft Flight Manual is approved, the approved portion of the Airplane Flight Manual or Rotorcraft...

  19. 19 CFR 134.43 - Methods of marking specific articles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ...; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY COUNTRY OF ORIGIN MARKING Method and Location of Marking Imported Articles § 134... Tariff Act of 1930. Except for goods of a NAFTA country, articles of a class or kind listed below shall..., cleavers, clippers, shears, scissors, safety razors, blades for safety razors, surgical instruments,...

  20. Maaväline lind Mark Raidpere / Fagira D. Morti

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Fagira D. Morti, pseud., 1974-

    2009-01-01

    Soome Vabariigi president Tarja Halonen andis 28. veebruaril 2009. aastal Kumu Kunstimuuseumis videokunstnik Mark Raidperele üle Ars Fennica kunstipreemia. Meenutusi kunstniku EHI-s õppimise ajast, esimese näituse "Ilo" avamisest Vaal galeriis. Mark Raidpere loomingu mõistmisest

  1. Maaväline lind Mark Raidpere / Fagira D. Morti

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Fagira D. Morti, pseud., 1974-

    2009-01-01

    Soome Vabariigi president Tarja Halonen andis 28. veebruaril 2009. aastal Kumu Kunstimuuseumis videokunstnik Mark Raidperele üle Ars Fennica kunstipreemia. Meenutusi kunstniku EHI-s õppimise ajast, esimese näituse "Ilo" avamisest Vaal galeriis. Mark Raidpere loomingu mõistmisest

  2. 46 CFR 160.043-6 - Marking and packing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Marking and packing. 160.043-6 Section 160.043-6... Marking and packing. (a) General. Jackknives specified by this subpart shall be stamped or otherwise... opener. (c) Packing. Each jackknife, complete with lanyard attached, shall be packed in a heat-sealed...

  3. 9 CFR 592.340 - Supervision of marking and packaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Supervision of marking and packaging... § 592.340 Supervision of marking and packaging. (a) Evidence of label approval. Inspection program... product or container thereof except by an inspection program employee or under the supervision of...

  4. Research on Eliminating Set-marks by Image Processing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SUN Zhi-hong; ZENG Yong-qi; LI Wei; CHEN Ming

    2005-01-01

    The causes of set-marks on woven fabrics were analyzed and the commonly used methods to eliminate this kind of defect were introduced. A non-contact method based on image processing technique to detect the cloth-fell displacement and eliminate set-marks was described in detail in this paper.

  5. 15 CFR 16.10 - The Department of Commerce Mark.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false The Department of Commerce Mark. 16.10 Section 16.10 Commerce and Foreign Trade Office of the Secretary of Commerce PROCEDURES FOR A VOLUNTARY CONSUMER PRODUCT INFORMATION LABELING PROGRAM § 16.10 The Department of Commerce Mark. The Department...

  6. Infrared technique for decoding of invisible laser markings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haferkamp, Heinz; Jaeschke, Peter; Stein, Johannes; Goede, Martin

    2002-03-01

    Counterfeiting and product piracy continues to be an important issue not only for the Western industry, but also for the society in general. Due to the drastic increase in product imitation and the request for plagiarism protection as well as for reducing thefts there is a high interest in new protection methods providing new security features. The method presented here consists of security markings which are included below paint layers. These markings are invisible for the human eye due to the non-transparency of the upper layers in the visible spectral range. However, the markings can be detected by an infrared technique taking advantage on the partial transparency of the upper paint layers in the IR-region. Metal sheets are marked using laser radiation. The beam of a Nd:YAG-laser provides a modification of the surface structure, resulting in dark markings due to the annealing effect. After coating of the laser-marked material, the markings are invisible for the bare eye. In order to read out the invisible information below the coating, an infrared reflection technique is used. The samples are illuminated with halogen lamps or infrared radiators. Many coating materials (i. e. paints) show a certain transparency in the mid-infrared region, especially between 3 - 5 micrometers . The reflected radiation is detected using an IR-camera with a sensitivity range from 3.4 - 5 micrometers . Due to the different reflection properties between the markings and their surrounding, the information can be detected.

  7. Advances in methods for colour marking of mosquitoes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verhulst, N.O.; Loonen, J.A.C.M.; Takken, W.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Different techniques are available for colour marking insects and each technique may be suitable for different insect species. Mosquitoes can be marked to determine population size, distribution and flight distance or distinguish closely related species. In this study, two methods of col

  8. Marking behavior of Andean bears in an Ecuadorian cloud forest

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Filipczyková, Eva; Heitkonig, Ignas; Castellanos, Armando; Hantson, Wouter; Steyaert, Sam M.J.G.

    2017-01-01

    Very little is known about marking behavior of the endangered Andean bear (Tremarctos ornatus). Here, we present a first detailed description of Andean bear marking behavior obtained using camera traps. From November 2012 to April 2013, we inspected 16 bear trails in the Napo province of eastern

  9. 16 CFR 1203.11 - Marking the impact test line.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Marking the impact test line. 1203.11... REGULATIONS SAFETY STANDARD FOR BICYCLE HELMETS The Standard § 1203.11 Marking the impact test line. Prior to testing, the impact test line shall be determined for each helmet in the following manner. (a)...

  10. EcoMark: Evaluating Models of Vehicular Environmental Impact

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Guo, Chenjuan; Ma, Mike; Yang, Bin

    2012-01-01

    the vehicle travels in. We develop an evaluation framework, called EcoMark, for such environmental impact models. In addition, we survey all eleven state-of-the-art impact models known to us. To gain insight into the capabilities of the models and to understand the effectiveness of the EcoMark, we apply...

  11. Tone sandhi, prosodic phrasing, and focus marking in Wenzhou Chinese

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Scholz, Franziska

    2012-01-01

    In most languages, focus (i.e. highlighting information) is marked by modifying the melody of the sentence. But how is focus marked in a Chinese dialect with eight different citation tones and a complex tonal phonology? This thesis investigates the connection between tonal realization and tone chang

  12. Ergodicity Conditions and Cesaro Limit Results for Marked Point Processes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nieuwenhuis, G.

    1996-01-01

    In Palm theory it is very common to consider several distributions to describe the characteristics of the system.To study a stationary marked point process, the time-stationary distribution P and its event-stationary Palm distributions P 0 L with respect to sets L of marks can all be used as startin

  13. 7 CFR 319.37-10 - Marking and identity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Marking and identity. 319.37-10 Section 319.37-10 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION..., and Other Plant Products 1,2 § 319.37-10 Marking and identity. (a) Any restricted article...

  14. 27 CFR 26.106 - Marking containers of beer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Marking containers of beer... Liquors and Articles in Puerto Rico Beer § 26.106 Marking containers of beer. Containers of beer of Puerto... brewer; the serial number, capacity, and size of the container; the kind of beer; and the serial...

  15. 46 CFR 199.178 - Marking of stowage locations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... LIFESAVING SYSTEMS FOR CERTAIN INSPECTED VESSELS Requirements for All Vessels § 199.178 Marking of stowage locations. (a) Containers, brackets, racks, and other similar stowage locations for lifesaving equipment... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Marking of stowage locations. 199.178 Section...

  16. 47 CFR 78.63 - Antenna structure marking and lighting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Antenna structure marking and lighting. 78.63... CABLE TELEVISION RELAY SERVICE General Operating Requirements § 78.63 Antenna structure marking and lighting. The owner of each antenna structure is responsible for ensuring that the structure, if...

  17. 7 CFR 920.303 - Container marking regulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Container marking regulations. 920.303 Section 920.303... Miscellaneous Provisions § 920.303 Container marking regulations. No handler shall ship any kiwifruit except in accordance with the following terms and conditions: (a) Each package or container of kiwifruit shall bear...

  18. Overlay mark optimization for thick-film resist overlay metrology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhu Liang; Li Jie; Zhou Congshu; Gu Yili; Yang Huayue

    2009-01-01

    For thick resist implant layers, such as a high voltage P well and a deep N well, systematic and uncorrectable overlay residues brought about by the tapered resist profiles were found. It was found that the tapered profile is closely related to the pattern density. Potential solutions of the manufacturing problem include hardening the film solidness or balancing the exposure density. In this paper, instead of focusing on the process change methodology,we intend to solve the issue of the overlay metrology error from the perspective of the overlay mark design. Based on the comparison of the overlay performances between the proposed overlay mark and the original design, it is shown that the optimized overlay mark target achieves better performance in terms of profiles, dynamic precision,tool induced shift (TIS), and residues. Furthermore, five types of overlay marks with dummy bars are studied, and a recommendation for the overlay marks is given.

  19. An innovative road marking quality assessment mechanism using computer vision

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kuo-Liang Lin

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Aesthetic quality acceptance for road marking works has been relied on subjective visual examination. Due to a lack of quantitative operation procedures, acceptance outcome can be biased and results in great quality variation. To improve aesthetic quality acceptance procedure of road marking, we develop an innovative road marking quality assessment mechanism, utilizing machine vision technologies. Using edge smoothness as a quantitative aesthetic indicator, the proposed prototype system first receives digital images of finished road marking surface and has the images processed and analyzed to capture the geometric characteristics of the marking. The geometric characteristics are then evaluated to determine the quality level of the finished work. System is demonstrated through two real cases to show how it works. In the end, a test comparing the assessment results between the proposed system and expert inspection is conducted to enhance the accountability of the proposed mechanism.

  20. A useful marking method for free living mammals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Young

    1971-05-01

    Full Text Available A paint-spraying device was employed for marking wild African mammals without capture. This relatively inexpensive marking technique, which had originally been used for the marking of American desert bighorn sheep at drinking places, was also successfully applied in the marking of impala, Aepyceros melampus, blue wildebeest, Connochaetes taurinus, Burchell's zebra, Equus burchellii antiquorum aud the African elephant, Loxodonta africana. The apparatus used differs in some respects from that originally described by Hanson (1964. It was also used for the marking of animals from a mobile unit and away from fixed drinking places. This paper is based on a part of a thesis, submitted to the University of Pretoria in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of D.Sc. (Wildlife Management.

  1. [Werkgartner's muzzle imprint mark--a literature study].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geserick, Gunther; Vendura, Klaus; Wirth, Ingo

    2009-01-01

    Since Werkgartner described and correctly interpreted the muzzle imprint mark around the gunshot entrance wound in 1922, this finding has been generally accepted as a sign of a contact shot. In further studies, it could finally be clarified that the muzzle imprint mark is caused by the expansive power of the powder gases with pressure on and abrasion of the skin at the muzzle (weapon imprint). Its shape depends on the firearm, the ammunition and the anatomical conditions, but does not require a bullet. Examinations under a magnifying glass microscope and histological investigations can complete the macroscopic findings. Occasionally, the muzzle imprint mark requires a certain "drying period" in order to become clearly visible. In rare cases, muzzle imprint marks also form on textiles perforated by the projectile. Characteristically shaped muzzled imprint marks can provide clues to the type of the firearm and its position at the time of discharge.

  2. Road marking features extraction using the VIAPIX® system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaddah, W.; Ouerhani, Y.; Alfalou, A.; Desthieux, M.; Brosseau, C.; Gutierrez, C.

    2016-07-01

    Precise extraction of road marking features is a critical task for autonomous urban driving, augmented driver assistance, and robotics technologies. In this study, we consider an autonomous system allowing us lane detection for marked urban roads and analysis of their features. The task is to relate the georeferencing of road markings from images obtained using the VIAPIX® system. Based on inverse perspective mapping and color segmentation to detect all white objects existing on this road, the present algorithm enables us to examine these images automatically and rapidly and also to get information on road marks, their surface conditions, and their georeferencing. This algorithm allows detecting all road markings and identifying some of them by making use of a phase-only correlation filter (POF). We illustrate this algorithm and its robustness by applying it to a variety of relevant scenarios.

  3. Biota-Sediment Accumulation Factor Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The Biota-Sediment Accumulation Factor contains approximately 20,000 biota-sediment accumulation factors (BSAFs) from 20 locations (mostly Superfund sites) for...

  4. 龙眼胚性愈伤组织中TFL1基因克隆及其表达分析%Cloning and Characterization of TFL1 Family Genes from Embryogenic Callus in Dimocarpus longan Lour.

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2015-01-01

    TFL1 is belonging to the FT/TFL1 family, and it is involved in delaying the plant flowering time through maintaining the apical meristem. The RT-PCR combined with RACE method was used to obtain the complete cDNA and gDNA sequences of DlTFL1 from embryogenic callus in Dimocarpus longan. The complete cDNA sequence of DlTFL1 was 866 bp, encoding 175 amino acids. The gDNA sequence of DlTFL1 was 1 492 bp, contains three introns and for exons. DlTFL1 was stable and hydrophilic proteins, without signal peptides and Tran membrane structures, had the PEBP protein function domain. Phylogenetic tree analyses indicated that DlTFL1 has a close genetic relationship with Jatropha curca、Vitis vinifera、Populus trichocarpa. qPCR result indicated that the expressing of DlTFL1 was very differential in“Sijimi” different tissues, it expressed at the highest level in the flower bud, lower in root, leaf and flower, but not expressing in other tissues. DlTFL1 is a plant TFL1 homologous gene, may have inhibitory effect on flowering, it may promote the development of early flowers of“Sijimi”longan.%TFL1是FT/TFL1家族的一个成员,TFL1通过对顶端分生组织的维持从而延迟了植物开花时间。以龙眼松散型胚性愈伤组织为材料,采用RT-PCR结合RACE法克隆了TFL1的cDNA全长和gDNA序列,命名为DlTFL1。 DlTFL1全长866 bp,编码175个氨基酸。 DlTFL1的gDNA序列长为1492 bp,由3个内含子和4个外显子组成。 DlTFL1为稳定的亲水蛋白,没有信号肽与跨膜结构,含有PEBP功能保守结构域。进化树分析表明, DlTFL1与小油桐、葡萄、毛果杨等植物TFL1的亲缘关系较近。 q-PCR表明,DlTFL1在“四季蜜”龙眼不同组织部位中的表达差异明显,在花蕾中的表达量最高,在根、叶和花中表达量较低,在其他部位甚至不表达。说明DlTFL1是植物TFL1同源基因,可能具有抑制开花作用,对“四季蜜”龙眼花早期的器官发育可能有促进作用。

  5. Technical Benefits of Tram Vehicle Energy Accumulator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zbigniew Drazek

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Energy saving effects connected with use of energy accumulator on board of tram vehicle instead of substation are presented. Differences in results regarding weak and strong power supply system when taking into account energy losses and energy recuperation are pointed out. Running mode and energy changed from substation by a tram vehicle with accumulator is compared to a tram vehicle without on-board accumulator but supplied from substation equipped with energy accumulator.

  6. 47 CFR 32.3100 - Accumulated depreciation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Accumulated depreciation. 32.3100 Section 32... Accumulated depreciation. (a) This account shall include the accumulated depreciation associated with the... with depreciation amounts concurrently charged to Account 6561, Depreciation...

  7. 9 CFR 381.204 - Marking of poultry products offered for entry; official import inspection marks and devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Marking of poultry products offered...; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION REGULATIONS Imported Poultry Products § 381.204 Marking of poultry products offered for...

  8. 31 CFR 100.18 - Counterfeit notes to be marked; “redemption” of notes wrongfully so marked.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Counterfeit notes to be marked; âredemptionâ of notes wrongfully so marked. 100.18 Section 100.18 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance EXCHANGE OF PAPER CURRENCY AND COIN Other Information § 100.18...

  9. Markov models for accumulating mutations

    CERN Document Server

    Beerenwinkel, Niko

    2007-01-01

    We introduce and analyze a waiting time model for the accumulation of genetic changes. The continuous time conjunctive Bayesian network is defined by a partially ordered set of mutations and by the rate of fixation of each mutation. The partial order encodes constraints on the order in which mutations can fixate in the population, shedding light on the mutational pathways underlying the evolutionary process. We study a censored version of the model and derive equations for an EM algorithm to perform maximum likelihood estimation of the model parameters. We also show how to select the maximum likelihood poset. The model is applied to genetic data from different cancers and from drug resistant HIV samples, indicating implications for diagnosis and treatment.

  10. Ectoine accumulation in Brevibacterium epidermis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onraedt, Annelies; De Muynck, Cassandra; Walcarius, Bart; Soetaert, Wim; Vandamme, Erick

    2004-10-01

    As a halotolerant bacterial species, Brevibacterium epidermis DSM 20659 can grow at relatively high salinity, tolerating up to 2 M NaCl. It synthesizes ectoine and the intracellular content increases with the medium salinity, with a maximum of 0.14 g ectoine/g CDW at 1 M NaCl. Sugar-stressed cells do not synthesize ectoine. Ectoine synthesis is also affected by the presence of external osmolytes. Added betaine is taken up and completely replaced ectoine, while L-proline is only temporarily accumulated after which ectoine is synthesized. The strain can metabolize ectoine; L-glutamate is a better carbon source for ectoine synthesis than L-aspartate.

  11. Electron-Positron Accumulator (EPA)

    CERN Document Server

    Photographic Service

    1986-01-01

    After acceleration in the low-current linac LIL-W, the electrons and positrons are accumulated in EPA to obtain a sufficient intensity and a suitable time-structure, before being passed on to the PS for further acceleration to 3.5 GeV. Electrons circulate from right to left, positrons in the other direction. Dipole bending magnets are red, focusing quadrupoles blue, sextupoles for chromaticity-control orange. The vertical tube at the left of the picture belongs to an optical transport system carrying the synchrotron radiation to detectors for beam size measurement. Construction of EPA was completed in spring 1986. LIL-W and EPA were conceived for an energy of 600 MeV, but operation was limited to 500 MeV.

  12. Energy Accumulation by Hydrogen Technologies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiřina Čermáková

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Photovoltaic power plants as a renewable energy source have been receiving rapidly growing attention in the Czech Republic and in the other EU countries. This rapid development of photovoltaic sources is having a negative effect on the electricity power system control, because they depend on the weather conditions and provide a variable and unreliable supply of electric power. One way to reduce this effect is by accumulating electricity in hydrogen. The aim of this paper is to introduce hydrogen as a tool for regulating photovoltaic energy in island mode. A configuration has been designed for connecting households with the photovoltaic hybrid system, and a simulation model has been made in order to check the validity of this system. The simulation results provide energy flows and have been used for optimal sizing of real devices. An appropriate system can deliver energy in a stand-alone installation.

  13. Thermal spectra of the TRIGA Mark III reactor; El espectro termico del reactor TRIGA Mark III

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Macias B, L.R.; Palacios G, J. [Instituto Nacional de Investigaciones Nucleares, A.P. 18-1027, 11801 Mexico D.F. (Mexico)

    1998-07-01

    The diffraction phenomenon is gave in observance of the well known Bragg law in crystalline materials and this can be performance by mean of X-rays, electrons and neutrons among others, which allows to do inside the field of each one of these techniques the obtaining of measurements focussed at each one of them. For the present work, it will be mentioned only the referring to X-ray and neutron techniques. The X-ray diffraction due to its properties just it does measurements which are known in general as superficial measurements of the sample material but for the properties of the neutrons, this diffraction it explores in volumetric form the sample material. Since the neutron diffraction process depends lots of its intensity, then it is important to know the neutron source spectra that in this case is supplied by the TRIGA Mark III reactor. Within of diffraction techniques a great number of them can be found, however some of the traditional will be mentioned such as the identification of crystalline samples, phases identification and the textures measurement. At present this last technique is founded on the dot of a minimum error and the technique of phases identification performs but not compete with that which is obtained by mean of X-rays due to this last one has a major resolution. (Author)

  14. Identifying and preserving high-water mark data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koenig, Todd A.; Bruce, Jennifer L.; O'Connor, Jim; McGee, Benton D.; Holmes, Jr., Robert R.; Hollins, Ryan; Forbes, Brandon T.; Kohn, Michael S.; Schellekens, Mathew; Martin, Zachary W.; Peppler, Marie C.

    2016-03-08

    High-water marks provide valuable data for understanding recent and historical flood events. The proper collection and recording of high-water mark data from perishable and preserved evidence informs flood assessments, research, and water resource management. Given the high cost of flooding in developed areas, experienced hydrographers, using the best available techniques, can contribute high-quality data toward efforts such as public education of flood risk, flood inundation mapping, flood frequency computations, indirect streamflow measurement, and hazard assessments.This manual presents guidance for skilled high-water mark identification, including marks left behind in natural and man-made environments by tranquil and rapid flowing water. This manual also presents pitfalls and challenges associated with various types of flood evidence that help hydrographers identify the best high-water marks and assess the uncertainty associated with a given mark. Proficient high-water mark data collection contributes to better understanding of the flooding process and reduces risk through greater ability to estimate flood probability.The U.S. Geological Survey, operating the Nation’s premier water data collection network, encourages readers of this manual to familiarize themselves with the art and science of high-water mark collection. The U.S. Geological survey maintains a national database at http://water.usgs.gov/floods/FEV/ that includes high-water mark information for many flood events, and local U.S. Geological Survey Water Science Centers can provide information to interested readers about participation in data collection and flood documentation efforts as volunteers or observers.

  15. Thermal stability of marks gold nanoparticles: A molecular dynamics simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Yanlin; Li, Siqi; Qi, Weihong; Wang, Mingpu; Li, Zhou; Wang, Zhixing

    2017-03-01

    Molecular dynamics (MDs) simulations were used to explore the thermal stability of Au nanoparticles (NPs) with decahedral, cuboctahedral, icosahedral and Marks NPs. According to the calculated cohesive energy and melting temperature, the Marks NPs have a higher cohesive energy and melting temperature compared to these other shapes. The Lindemann index, radial distribution function, deformation parameters, mean square displacement and self-diffusivity have been used to characterize the structure variation during heating. This work may inspire researchers to prepare Marks NPs and apply them in different fields.

  16. Higher English language for CFE answers and marking schemes

    CERN Document Server

    Firth, Mary M; Mitchell, John

    2015-01-01

    A book of extremely detailed suggested marking instructions to use alongside the student book. This book of suggested answers offers extremely detailed marking instructions to use alongside the student book, that highlight where students can gain - or lose - the extra marks that influence grade awards. This book is photocopiable within the institution of purchase. The student book book provides you with the support and advice you will need to succeed in Higher English. By studying literary techniques and with top experts guiding you through and explaining how to use these skills, you wi

  17. Femtosecond laser color marking of metal and semiconductor surfaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ionin, Andrey A.; Kudryashov, Sergey I.; Makarov, Sergey V.; Seleznev, Leonid V.; Sinitsyn, Dmitry V. [Russian Academy of Sciences, P.N. Lebedev Physical Institute, Moscow (Russian Federation); Golosov, Evgeniy V.; Golosova, Ol' ga A.; Kolobov, Yuriy R. [Belgorod State University, Belgorod (Russian Federation); Ligachev, Alexander E. [Russian Academy of Sciences, A.M. Prokhorov General Physics Institute, Moscow (Russian Federation)

    2012-05-15

    Color marking of rough or smooth metal (Al, Cu, Ti) and semiconductor (Si) surfaces was realized via femtosecond laser fabrication of periodic surface nanorelief, representing one-dimensional diffraction gratings. Bright colors of the surface nanorelief, especially for longer electromagnetic wavelengths, were provided during marking through pre-determined variation of the laser incidence angle and the resulting change of the diffraction grating period. This coloration technique was demonstrated for the case of silicon and various metals to mark surfaces in any individual color with a controllable brightness level and almost without their accompanying chemical surface modification. (orig.)

  18. Correlating simulated surface marks with near-surface tornado structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimmerman, Michael I.

    Tornadoes often leave behind patterns of debris deposition, or "surface marks", which provide a direct signature of their near surface winds. The intent of this thesis is to investigate what can be learned about near-surface tornado structure and intensity through the properties of surface marks generated by simulated, debris-laden tornadoes. Earlier work showed through numerical simulations that the tornado's structure and intensity is highly sensitive to properties of the near-surface flow and can change rapidly in time for some conditions. The strongest winds often occur within tens of meters of the surface where the threat to human life and property is highest, and factors such as massive debris loadings and asymmetry of the main vortex have proven to be critical complications in some regimes. However, studying this portion of the flow in the field is problematic; while Doppler radar provides the best tornado wind field measurements, it cannot probe below about 20 m, and interpretation of Doppler data requires assumptions about tornado symmetry, steadiness in time, and correlation between scatterer and air velocities that are more uncertain near the surface. As early as 1967, Fujita proposed estimating tornado wind speeds from analysis of aerial photography and ground documentation of surface marks. A handful of studies followed but were limited by difficulties in interpreting physical origins of the marks, and little scientific attention has been paid to them since. Here, Fujita's original idea is revisited in the context of three-dimensional, large-eddy simulations of tornadoes with fully-coupled debris. In this thesis, the origins of the most prominent simulated marks are determined and compared with historical interpretations of real marks. The earlier hypothesis that cycloidal surface marks were directly correlated with the paths of individual vortices (either the main vortex or its secondary vortices, when present) is unsupported by the simulation results

  19. A new serial number marking system applicable to firearms identification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polk, D E; Giessen, B C

    1975-07-01

    A new system for physically recording serial numbers on individual items is proposed. Each serial number is converted to a unique array of points, and this array is recorded on the item by drilling a set of holes having the arrangement of the array into the item. Laser drilling can be used to produce holes of small diameter for the array. The identifying marks extend into the item and cannot be readily removed as surface stampings. In some cases the serial number can be marked in a critical area, so that its removal would destroy the usefulness of the item. This system is particularly suitable for the marking of firearms.

  20. Foraging scent marks of bumblebees: footprint cues rather than pheromone signals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilms, Jessica; Eltz, Thomas

    2008-02-01

    In their natural habitat foraging bumblebees refuse to land on and probe flowers that have been recently visited (and depleted) by themselves, conspecifics or other bees, which increases their overall rate of nectar intake. This avoidance is often based on recognition of scent marks deposited by previous visitors. While the term 'scent mark' implies active labelling, it is an open question whether the repellent chemicals are pheromones actively and specifically released during flower visits, or mere footprints deposited unspecifically wherever bees walk. To distinguish between the two possibilities, we presented worker bumblebees (Bombus terrestris) with three types of feeders in a laboratory experiment: unvisited control feeders, passive feeders with a corolla that the bee had walked over on its way from the nest (with unspecific footprints), and active feeders, which the bee had just visited and depleted, but which were immediately refilled with sugar-water (potentially with specific scent marks). Bumblebees rejected both active and passive feeders more frequently than unvisited controls. The rate of rejection of passive feeders was only slightly lower than that of active feeders, and this difference vanished completely when passive corollas were walked over repeatedly on the way from the nest. Thus, mere footprints were sufficient to emulate the repellent effect of an actual feeder visit. In confirmation, glass slides on which bumblebees had walked on near the nest entrance accumulated hydrocarbons (alkanes and alkenes, C23 to C31), which had previously been shown to elicit repellency in flower choice experiments. We conclude that repellent scent marks are mere footprints, which foraging bees avoid when they encounter them in a foraging context.

  1. Non-parametric asymptotic statistics for the Palm mark distribution of \\beta-mixing marked point processes

    CERN Document Server

    Heinrich, Lothar; Schmidt, Volker

    2012-01-01

    We consider spatially homogeneous marked point patterns in an unboundedly expanding convex sampling window. Our main objective is to identify the distribution of the typical mark by constructing an asymptotic \\chi^2-goodness-of-fit test. The corresponding test statistic is based on a natural empirical version of the Palm mark distribution and a smoothed covariance estimator which turns out to be mean-square consistent. Our approach does not require independent marks and allows dependences between the mark field and the point pattern. Instead we impose a suitable \\beta-mixing condition on the underlying stationary marked point process which can be checked for a number of Poisson-based models and, in particular, in the case of geostatistical marking. Our method needs a central limit theorem for \\beta-mixing random fields which is proved by extending Bernstein's blocking technique to non-cubic index sets and seems to be of interest in its own right. By large-scale model-based simulations the performance of our t...

  2. Inland Waters - Navigation Distance Mark - Minnesota River (Non-Navigable)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Army Corps of Engineers, Department of the Army, Department of Defense — A distance mark indicates the distance measured from an origin and consists of a distinct location without special installation, used to serve as a reference along...

  3. Narrative report Mark Twain National Wildlife Refuge: Fiscal year 1975

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This annual narrative report for Mark Twain National Wildlife Refuge outlines Refuge accomplishments during the 1975 fiscal year. The report begins by summarizing...

  4. Skype'i kaasasutajad investeerivad MarkIT-isse

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2007-01-01

    Nelja eestlasest Skype'i kaasasutaja loodud Ambient Sound Investments (ASI) investeerib 2 miljonit eurot, et aidata kaasa MarkIT e-hankekeskkonna arendamisele ning ettevõtte laienemisele viide Kesk- ja Ida-Euroopa riiki

  5. Animal Control Plan for St. Marks National Wildlife Refuge

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This plan is developed as the general policy to govern future control efforts of feral hog, beaver, and raccoon populations on the St. Marks National Wildlife...

  6. Annual Fur Removal Program: [Mark Twain National Wildlife Refuge: 1966

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This memo summarizes the number of raccoons, beavers, and muskrats on Mark Twain NWR and outlines trapping restrictions for the 1966-67 trapping season.

  7. Annual Fur Removal Program: [Mark Twain National Wildlife Refuge: 1963

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This memo summarizes the 1963 trapping program at Mark Twain Refuge. The number of various furbearers present on the Refuge is given, and the number to be removed...

  8. Annual Fur Removal Program: [Mark Twain National Wildlife Refuge: 1965

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This memo summarizes the number of raccoons, beavers, and muskrats on Mark Twain NWR and outlines trapping restrictions for the 1965-66 trapping season.

  9. Louisa District Mark Twain NWR : Grassland Management Plan

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The Mark Twain National Wildlife Refuge- Louisa District Grassland Management Plan addresses management strategies to provide habitat and food for waterfowl and...

  10. Mark Twain National Wildlife Refuge: Law Enforcement Plan

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The Mark Twain NWR (including Clarence Cannon, Louisa, and Calhoun NWRs) Law Enforcement Plan clarifies U.S. Fish and Wildlife enforcement policies as they apply to...

  11. Fur Management Plan: Mark Twain National Wildlife Refuge

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The Mark Twain NWR Furbearer Management Plan directs the management and regulation of trapping. The furbearer management program directly supports the environmental...

  12. Narrative report : Mark Twain National Wildlife Refuge : Annada District : 1972

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This annual narrative report for Mark Twain NWR (Clarence Cannon and Delair Units) outlines Refuge accomplishments during the 1972 calendar year. The report begins...

  13. [Wildlife Inventory Plan : Mark Twain National Wildlife Refuge- Brussels District

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This plan summarizes wildlife inventory procedures on the Brussels District of Mark Twain NWR. Objectives are: 1) to provide guidelines for conducting inventories...

  14. Trapping Plan : Mark Twain National Wildlife Refuge : Brussels District

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The Mark Twain NWR- Brussels District trapping plan outlines trapping areas, species, regulations, equipment, and seasons. This plan will allow harvest of a...

  15. St. Marks National Wildlife Refuge: Comprehensive Conservation Plan

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This Comprehensive Conservation Plan (CCP) was written to guide management on St. Marks NWR for the next 15 years. This plan outlines the Refuge vision and purpose...

  16. Mark Twain National Wildlife Refuge : Brussels District : Fiscal Year 2000

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This annual narrative report for the Brussels District of Mark Twain National Wildlife Refuge summarizes Refuge activities during the 2000 fiscal year. Apple Creek...

  17. Sediment contamination survey on St. Marks National Wildlife Refuge

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — A survey was conducted by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service to assess habitat quality on the St. Marks National Wildlife Refuge (NWR). Sediment samples were...

  18. Practical Time Mark Estimators for Multichannel Digital Silicon Photomultipliers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Venialgo, E.; Mandai, S.; Gong, T.; Schaart, D.R.; Charbon, E.

    2015-01-01

    Multiple time-to-digital converters coupled with silicon photomultipliers allow to timestamp several light photons generated by a scintillation event. Multichannel digital silicon photomultipliers opened the possibility to estimate a gammaphoton time mark by using several photoelectrons timestamps.

  19. Gilbert Lake: Mark Twain National Wildlife Refuge Complex : 1982

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This annual narrative report for Mark Twain National Wildlife Refuge summarizes Refuge activities during the 1982 calendar year. The report begins with a summary of...

  20. Narrative report Mark Twain National Wildlife Refuge 1971

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This annual narrative report for Mark Twain National Wildlife Refuge outlines Refuge accomplishments during the 1971 calendar year. The report begins by summarizing...

  1. Mark Twain National Wildlife Refuge (Calhoun Division) [Land Status Map

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This map depicts lands owned and/or administered by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service at the Calhoun Division of Mark Twain National Wildlife Refuge.

  2. Meeting Marks Publication of Memoirs on Ping-Pong Diplomacy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    <正>The year 2011 marked the 40th anniversary of the "Ping-Pong Diplomacy" that was a symbolicturning point in Sino-American relations. The late Chairman Mao Ze-dong, Premier Zhou Enlai and other Chinese

  3. Viktor Misiano kureerib Mark Raidperet ning Jaan Toomikut

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2007-01-01

    27.05-26.08.2007 esitatakse Itaalia kunstikeskuses Pratos näitusel "Progressive Nostalgia" Jaan Toomiku videot "Merikajakas" (2004) ja Mark Raidpere videot "Andrei/Andris" (2006). Loetletud osalejad teistest maadest

  4. Cropland Management Plan : Mark Twain National Wildlife Refuge : Brussels District

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The Mark Twain National Wildlife Refuge (Brussels District) Cropland Management Plan focuses to the production of supplemental grain and browse foods to maintain...

  5. Gilbert Lake: Mark Twain National Wildlife Refuge Complex : 1981

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This annual narrative report for Mark Twain National Wildlife Refuge summarizes Refuge activities during the 1981 calendar year. The report begins with a summary of...

  6. Annual Burn Plan FY 94 : Brussels District Mark Twain NWR

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This annual burn plan for the Brussels District of Mark Twain NWR provides proposals for the Calhoun Division and the Gilbert Lake Division. Each proposal includes a...

  7. Documenting North Netherlandish 17th Century Panel Makers’ House Marks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wadum, Jørgen

    2014-01-01

    accepted panel with the Coat of Arms of Antwerp. This poster shall for the first time present arguments and documentation of a comparable practice of issuing panels with a personal house mark on panels produced in the Northern Netherlands. Especially one panel maker’s mark has been traced a sufficient...... number of times to propose that this practice was established in Dordrecht. It shall further be argued that this may suggest that these incidents would reflect the practice of a few Flemish immigrants who took their native Antwerp tradition with them to the North. This poster is a first attempt...... to present the different North Netherlandish house marks/brands, their design, size, and other characteristics, in chronological order as found on 17th century Netherlandish panels. This information will be presented in conjunction with frequently recorded saw-marks on the back of the panels in conjunction...

  8. Cropland Management Program Review Mark Twain National Wildlife Refuge

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The Mark Twain National Wildlife Refuge Cropland Management Plan focuses on the production of supplemental grain and browse foods to maintain wildlife populations at...

  9. Narrative report Mark Twain National Wildlife Refuge 1970

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This annual narrative report for Mark Twain National Wildlife Refuge outlines Refuge accomplishments during the 1970 calendar year. The report begins by summarizing...

  10. The cognitive benefits of movement reduction: evidence from dance marking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warburton, Edward C; Wilson, Margaret; Lynch, Molly; Cuykendall, Shannon

    2013-09-01

    In a number of domains, humans adopt a strategy of systematically reducing and minimizing a codified system of movement. One particularly interesting case is "marking" in dance, wherein the dancer performs an attenuated version of the choreography during rehearsal. This is ostensibly to save the dancer's physical energy, but a number of considerations suggest that it may serve a cognitive function as well. In this study, we tested this embodied-cognitive-load hypothesis by manipulating whether dancers rehearsed by marking or by dancing "full out" and found that performance was superior in the dancers who had marked. This finding indicates that marking confers cognitive benefits during the rehearsal process, and it raises questions regarding the cognitive functions of other movement-reduction systems, such as whispering, gesturing, and subvocalizing. In addition, it has implications for a variety of topics in cognitive science, including embodied cognition and the nascent fields of dance and music cognition.

  11. Modelling of DMNB Content for Marked Plastic Explosives

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    R.K. Sinha; Himanshu Shekhar; A. Subhananda Rao; Haridwar Singh

    2007-01-01

    .... It is reportedto be compatible with known explosive formulations and has a good shelf life. Explosivecompositions with DMNB as marking agent can be detected in the temperature range –20 ºC to+ 50 ºC...

  12. MedlinePlus Marks its 15th Anniversary

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: https://medlineplus.gov/anniversary.html MedlinePlus Marks its 15 th Anniversary To use the sharing features ... people across the country and around the world. It now includes: Over 950 pages providing links to ...

  13. 19 CFR 134.52 - Certificate of marking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... any matter within the jurisdiction of an agency of the United States. (e) Authority to require physical supervision when deemed necessary. The port director may require physical supervision of marking...

  14. Viktor Misiano kureerib Mark Raidperet ning Jaan Toomikut

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2007-01-01

    27.05-26.08.2007 esitatakse Itaalia kunstikeskuses Pratos näitusel "Progressive Nostalgia" Jaan Toomiku videot "Merikajakas" (2004) ja Mark Raidpere videot "Andrei/Andris" (2006). Loetletud osalejad teistest maadest

  15. 51. Veneetsia kunstibiennaalil esindab Eestit kunstnik Mark Raidpere...

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2005-01-01

    Mark Raidpere ekspositsiooni "Varjupaik" on koostanud Hanno Soans. 12. VI-6. XI avatud biennaalil on kaks peakuraatorit ja kaks teemanäitust: Maria de Corrali kureeritud "Kunsti kogemus" ja Rosa Martinezi kureeritud "Alati pisut eespool"

  16. 51. Veneetsia kunstibiennaalil esindab Eestit kunstnik Mark Raidpere...

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2005-01-01

    Mark Raidpere ekspositsiooni "Varjupaik" on koostanud Hanno Soans. 12. VI-6. XI avatud biennaalil on kaks peakuraatorit ja kaks teemanäitust: Maria de Corrali kureeritud "Kunsti kogemus" ja Rosa Martinezi kureeritud "Alati pisut eespool"

  17. Measures of galaxy environment -- II. Rank-ordered mark correlations

    CERN Document Server

    Skibba, Ramin A; Croton, Darren J; Muldrew, Stuart I; Abbas, Ummi; Pearce, Frazer R; Shattow, Genevieve M

    2012-01-01

    We analyze environmental correlations using mark clustering statistics with the mock galaxy catalogue constructed by Muldrew et al. (Paper I). We find that mark correlation functions are able to detect even a small dependence of galaxy properties on the environment, quantified by the overdensity $1+\\delta$, while such a small dependence would be difficult to detect by traditional methods. We then show that rank ordering the marks and using the rank as a weight is a simple way of comparing the correlation signals for different marks. With this we quantify to what extent fixed-aperture overdensities are sensitive to large-scale halo environments, nearest-neighbor overdensities are sensitive to small-scale environments within haloes, and colour is a better tracer of overdensity than is luminosity.

  18. 46 CFR 160.037-5 - Labeling and marking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ...: (Company brand or style designation) Hand Orange Smoke Distress Signal For daytime use—50 seconds burning... marking. (1) There shall be die-stamped, in the side of the wooden handle in figures not less than 3 mm...

  19. 46 CFR 160.021-5 - Labeling and marking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ...: (Company brand or style designation) Hand Red Flare Distress Signal 500 Candela—2 Minutes Burning Time Use... marking. (1) There shall be die-stamped, in the side of the wooden handle in figures not less than 3...

  20. 49 CFR 178.3 - Marking of packagings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Nations symbol and other specification markings for that standard as provided in the ICAO Technical... that the packaging conforms to the applicable provisions of the ICAO Technical Instructions (IBR,...

  1. Narrative Report : Mark Twain National Wildlife Refuge Complex : 1995

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This annual narrative report for Mark Twain National Wildlife Refuge summarizes Refuge activities during the 1995 calendar year for the Complex Headquarters, the...

  2. Gilbert Lake: Mark Twain National Wildlife Refuge Complex : 1983

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This annual narrative report for the Gilbert Lake District of Mark Twain National Wildlife Refuge summarizes Refuge activities during the 1983 calendar year. The...

  3. Narrative report Mark Twain National Wildlife Refuge 1968

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This annual narrative report for Mark Twain National Wildlife Refuge outlines Refuge accomplishments during the 1968 calendar year. Wildlife- including migratory...

  4. Narrative report Mark Twain National Wildlife Refuge 1969

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This annual narrative report for Mark Twain National Wildlife Refuge outlines Refuge accomplishments during the 1969 calendar year. The report begins by summarizing...

  5. Narrative report Mark Twain National Wildlife Refuge 1966

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This annual narrative report for Mark Twain National Wildlife Refuge outlines Refuge accomplishments during the 1966 calendar year. Wildlife- including migratory...

  6. Narrative report Mark Twain National Wildlife Refuge 1967

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This annual narrative report for Mark Twain National Wildlife Refuge outlines Refuge accomplishments during the 1967 calendar year. Wildlife- including migratory...

  7. The Trail Inventory of St. Marks NWR [Cycle 2

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The purpose of this report is to create a baseline inventory of all non-motorized trails on St. Marks National Wildlife Refuge. Trails in this inventory are eligible...

  8. Narrative report: Mark Twain National Wildlife Refuge: 1972

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This annual narrative report for Mark Twain National Wildlife Refuge outlines Refuge accomplishments during the 1972 calendar year. The report begins by summarizing...

  9. Comparative tag retention, clip quality, and injuries of juvenile spring Chinook salmon marked by an automated marking trailer and manual marking trailer at Warm Springs NFH

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — In an attempt to address the concerns raised as a result of the marking of the 2004 brood at Warm Springs NFH, a study plan was developed to evaluate the use of an...

  10. Aksel Mark: kõik algaski Otsal / Enn Nõu

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Nõu, Enn, 1933-

    2012-01-01

    Arvustus: Mark Beijer, Mai. Landkänning : Brevväxling mellan Anu och Aksel Mark under deras första år som flyktingar från Estland 1944-45. Stockholm : Bokverksta´n Förlag, 2008; Allt började på Otsa : minnen från min barndom och skoláren. Stockholm : Beijer Bok & Skog, 2011

  11. 46 CFR 64.71 - Marking of pressure relief devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... AND CARGO HANDLING SYSTEMS Pressure Relief Devices and Vacuum Relief Devices for MPTs § 64.71 Marking...— (a) Set pressure rating; (b) Rated flow capacity expressed as cubic feet of standard air (60 °F 14.7... 46 Shipping 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Marking of pressure relief devices. 64.71 Section 64.71...

  12. Aksel Mark: kõik algaski Otsal / Enn Nõu

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Nõu, Enn, 1933-

    2012-01-01

    Arvustus: Mark Beijer, Mai. Landkänning : Brevväxling mellan Anu och Aksel Mark under deras första år som flyktingar från Estland 1944-45. Stockholm : Bokverksta´n Förlag, 2008; Allt började på Otsa : minnen från min barndom och skoláren. Stockholm : Beijer Bok & Skog, 2011

  13. : The case of object marking constructions in Sinitic languages

    OpenAIRE

    Chappell, Hilary

    2006-01-01

    This article treats the diversity of object marking or ‘disposal' constructions in Sinitic languages. These constructions are used to highlight an affected referential object, typically corresponding to accusatively case-marked nouns in inflectional languages. The discussion begins with a brief description of early Spanish grammars of Chinese languages, based on a Greco-Latin model and progresses from the problems of Eurocentrism to those of Sinocentrism, based on the new model of the prestig...

  14. Regulation of glucose homeostasis by KSR1 and MARK2.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paula J Klutho

    Full Text Available Protein scaffolds control the intensity and duration of signaling and dictate the specificity of signaling through MAP kinase pathways. KSR1 is a molecular scaffold of the Raf/MEK/ERK MAP kinase cascade that regulates the intensity and duration of ERK activation. Relative to wild-type mice, ksr1⁻/⁻ mice are modestly glucose intolerant, but show a normal response to exogenous insulin. However, ksr1⁻/⁻ mice also demonstrate a three-fold increase in serum insulin levels in response to a glucose challenge, suggesting a role for KSR1 in insulin secretion. The kinase MARK2 is closely related to C-TAK1, a known regulator of KSR1. Mice lacking MARK2 have an increased rate of glucose disposal in response to exogenous insulin, increased glucose tolerance, and are resistant to diet-induced obesity. mark2⁻/⁻ksr1⁻/⁻ (DKO mice were compared to wild type, mark2⁻/⁻, and ksr1⁻/⁻ mice for their ability to regulate glucose homeostasis. Here we show that disruption of KSR1 in mark2⁻/⁻ mice reverses the increased sensitivity to exogenous insulin resulting from MARK2 deletion. DKO mice respond to exogenous insulin similarly to wild type and ksr1⁻/⁻ mice. These data suggest a model whereby MARK2 negatively regulates insulin sensitivity in peripheral tissue through inhibition of KSR1. Consistent with this model, we found that MARK2 binds and phosphorylates KSR1 on Ser392. Phosphorylation of Ser392 is a critical regulator of KSR1 stability, subcellular location, and ERK activation. These data reveal an unexpected role for the molecular scaffold KSR1 in insulin-regulated glucose metabolism.

  15. Soil aluminium uptake and accumulation by Paspalum notatum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Juan; Xia, Hanping; Li, Zhi'an; Xiong, Yanmei; Kong, Guohui; Huang, Juan

    2009-10-01

    Paspalum notatum Flugge has been widely utilized for the purpose of ecological restoration of degraded land in the tropics and subtropics, where soil active aluminium (Al) is usually high as a result of acidification. Pot experiments were conducted to determine Al toxicity on P. notatum and to compare its potential to remove Al with another three plant species, Vetiveria zizanioides, Tristania conferta and Schima wallichii. In the Al addition experiment, the biomass of P. notatum and Al accumulation significantly decreased as the added Al concentration increased, but Al concentration in the plant markedly increased. A parallel experiment was conducted with the above four species, grown in lateritic soil and in oil shale waste containing high concentration of active Al. The biomasses of all four species were reduced obviously in the waste compared to in the soil. The effects of substrate on Al concentration, accumulation and translocation efficiency differed among species, and plants had significantly higher Al accumulation factors when grown in the soil than in the waste. Most of the Al taken up by P. notatum was transferred to above-ground parts; as a result, Al concentration in stems and leaves became quite high, over 1000 or even 3000 mg kg(-1); whereas for the other three species, Al concentration in shoots was much lower than in roots. Paspalum notatum was therefore much higher than the other three species with regard to Al translocation efficiency and therefore P. notatum may be regarded as both an effective Al hyper-accumulator and a potential Al hyper-remover.

  16. Automatic Extraction of Road Markings from Mobile Laser Scanning Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, H.; Pei, Z.; Wei, Z.; Zhong, R.

    2017-09-01

    Road markings as critical feature in high-defination maps, which are Advanced Driver Assistance System (ADAS) and self-driving technology required, have important functions in providing guidance and information to moving cars. Mobile laser scanning (MLS) system is an effective way to obtain the 3D information of the road surface, including road markings, at highway speeds and at less than traditional survey costs. This paper presents a novel method to automatically extract road markings from MLS point clouds. Ground points are first filtered from raw input point clouds using neighborhood elevation consistency method. The basic assumption of the method is that the road surface is smooth. Points with small elevation-difference between neighborhood are considered to be ground points. Then ground points are partitioned into a set of profiles according to trajectory data. The intensity histogram of points in each profile is generated to find intensity jumps in certain threshold which inversely to laser distance. The separated points are used as seed points to region grow based on intensity so as to obtain road mark of integrity. We use the point cloud template-matching method to refine the road marking candidates via removing the noise clusters with low correlation coefficient. During experiment with a MLS point set of about 2 kilometres in a city center, our method provides a promising solution to the road markings extraction from MLS data.

  17. Predicting contrast in sentences with and without focus marking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlson, Katy

    2014-01-01

    How do we know when a contrast is coming? This study explores the prediction of parallel contrastive phrases, especially NPs, in sentences with and without overt focus marking. A written sentence-completion questionnaire with clauses followed by the conjunction “but” compared unmarked initial clauses to ones with the focus marker “only” on the subject or object. Both conditions with “only” elicited more contrasts overall than the condition without focus marking, and many of the contrasts were with the focus-marked NP. While the baseline (no-only) condition had full clauses for half of the completions, subject focus increased clausal completions and object focus increased negative ellipsis completions (“not”+NP structures), both changes in syntax which make a contrast with the marked NP easy. The production of negative ellipsis sentences primarily in the object-focus condition suggests that the object bias of these sentences in comprehension could relate to their being used more frequently with this meaning. Finally, the overall pattern of results shows that overt marking of contrastive focus increases continuations with contrasts, and the conjunction “but” does not reliably predict explicitly-stated contrasts within a sentence without overt focus marking. PMID:25177047

  18. Mark retention of calcein in Cisco and Bloater

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chalupnicki, Marc A.; Mackey, Gregg; Nash, Kendra; Chiavelli, Richard; Johnson, James H.; Kehler, Thomas; Ringler, Neil H.

    2016-01-01

    Since 2012, a multi-agency initiative to restore these native forage species has been under way. Evaluating the restoration success of Cisco Coregonus artedi and Bloater C. hoyi in Lake Ontario waters requires methods to identify stocked fish. However, juvenile Cisco and Bloater are fragile; thus, mass marking techniques that reduce the handling of individual fish are required and have not previously been evaluated. In 2014–2015 we evaluated the usefulness of calcein (SE-MARK) as a marker on bony structures, including the otolith. Juvenile Bloater and Cisco (14, 100, 128 d old) were immersed in a calcein bath at 5,000 mg/L of water for 4 min to apply the chemical marker. Observations of the marking retention were evaluated 8 d following the treatment. All fish immersed in calcein had strong brilliant marks (rating scale 3) on all bony structures including scales, fin rays, jaw bones, and vertebrate. The otolith was the only hard structure that did not show a brilliant marking due to the opaque nature of the structure. Our results suggest that calcein produces a strong discernable mark on hard bony structures of Cisco and Bloater; however, long-term retention needs further study.

  19. PABLM. Accumulated Environment Radiation Dose

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Napier, B.A.; Kennedy, W.E.Jr.; Soldat, J.K. [Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (United States)

    1981-04-01

    PABLM calculates internal radiation doses to man from radionuclides in food products and external radiation doses from radionuclides in the environment. Radiation doses from radionuclides in the environment may be calculated from deposition on the soil or plants during an atmospheric or liquid release, or from exposure to residual radionuclides after the releases have ended. Radioactive decay is considered during the release, after deposition, and during holdup of food after harvest. The radiation dose models consider exposure to radionuclides deposited on the ground or crops from contaminated air or irrigation water, radionuclides in contaminated drinking water, aquatic foods raised in contaminated water, and radionuclides in bodies of water and sediments where people might fish, boat, or swim. For vegetation, the radiation dose model considers both direct deposition and uptake through roots. Doses may be calculated for either a maximum-exposed individual or for a population group. The program is designed to calculate accumulated radiation doses from the chronic ingestion of food products that contain radionuclides and doses from the external exposure to radionuclides in the environment. A first-year committed dose is calculated as well as an integrated dose for a selected number of years.

  20. Sequential biases in accumulating evidence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huggins, Richard; Dogo, Samson Henry

    2015-01-01

    Whilst it is common in clinical trials to use the results of tests at one phase to decide whether to continue to the next phase and to subsequently design the next phase, we show that this can lead to biased results in evidence synthesis. Two new kinds of bias associated with accumulating evidence, termed ‘sequential decision bias’ and ‘sequential design bias’, are identified. Both kinds of bias are the result of making decisions on the usefulness of a new study, or its design, based on the previous studies. Sequential decision bias is determined by the correlation between the value of the current estimated effect and the probability of conducting an additional study. Sequential design bias arises from using the estimated value instead of the clinically relevant value of an effect in sample size calculations. We considered both the fixed‐effect and the random‐effects models of meta‐analysis and demonstrated analytically and by simulations that in both settings the problems due to sequential biases are apparent. According to our simulations, the sequential biases increase with increased heterogeneity. Minimisation of sequential biases arises as a new and important research area necessary for successful evidence‐based approaches to the development of science. © 2015 The Authors. Research Synthesis Methods Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd. PMID:26626562

  1. Quantum gravity and inventory accumulation

    CERN Document Server

    Sheffield, Scott

    2011-01-01

    We begin by studying inventory accumulation at a LIFO (last-in-first-out) retailer with two products. In the simplest version, the following occur with equal probability at each time step: first product ordered, first product produced, second product ordered, second product produced. The inventory thus evolves as a simple random walk on Z^2. In more interesting versions, a p fraction of customers orders the "freshest available" product regardless of type. We show that the corresponding random walks scale to Brownian motions with diffusion matrices depending on p. We then turn our attention to the critical Fortuin-Kastelyn random planar map model, which gives, for each q>0, a probability measure on random (discretized) two-dimensional surfaces decorated by loops, related to the q-state Potts model. A longstanding open problem is to show that as the discretization gets finer, the surfaces converge in law to a limiting (loop-decorated) random surface. The limit is expected to be a Liouville quantum gravity surfa...

  2. Accumulation of hydroxyproline-rich glycoprotein mRNAs in response to fungal elicitor and infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Showalter, A M; Bell, J N; Cramer, C L; Bailey, J A; Varner, J E; Lamb, C J

    1985-10-01

    Hydroxyproline-rich glycoproteins (HRGPs) are important structural components of plant cell walls and also accumulate in response to infection as an apparent defense mechanism. Accumulation of HRGP mRNA in biologically stressed bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) cells was monitored by blot hybridization with (32)P-labeled tomato genomic HRGP sequences. Elicitor treatment of suspension-cultured cells caused a marked increase in hybridizable HRGP mRNA. The response was less rapid but more prolonged than that observed for mRNAs encoding enzymes of phytoalexin biosynthesis. HRGP mRNA also accumulated during race:cultivar-specific interactions between bean hypocotyls and the partially biotrophic fungus Colletotrichum lindemuthianum, the causal agent of anthracnose. In an incompatible interaction (host resistant) there was an early increase in HRGP mRNA correlated with expression of hypersensitive resistance; whereas, in a compatible interaction (host susceptible), marked accumulation of HRGP mRNA occurred as a delayed response at the onset of lesion formation. In both interactions, mRNA accumulation was observed in uninfected cells distant from the site of fungal inoculation, indicating intercellular transmission of an elicitation signal.

  3. Accumulation boundaries: codimension-two accumulation of accumulations in phase diagrams of semiconductor lasers, electric circuits, atmospheric and chemical oscillators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonatto, Cristian; Gallas, Jason Alfredo Carlson

    2008-02-28

    We report high-resolution phase diagrams for several familiar dynamical systems described by sets of ordinary differential equations: semiconductor lasers; electric circuits; Lorenz-84 low-order atmospheric circulation model; and Rössler and chemical oscillators. All these systems contain chaotic phases with highly complicated and interesting accumulation boundaries, curves where networks of stable islands of regular oscillations with ever-increasing periodicities accumulate systematically. The experimental exploration of such codimension-two boundaries characterized by the presence of infinite accumulation of accumulations is feasible with existing technology for some of these systems.

  4. Accumulation of phosphorus compounds in tissues and cultured skin fibroblasts in patients with hypophosphatasia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eto, Y.; Tada, Y.

    1988-08-15

    Patients with hypophosphatasia caused by a deficiency of alkaline phosphatase first showed marked accumulation of phosphoethanolamine and other phosphorus compounds in kidney and liver, while in placenta and intestine contents of these compounds were within a normal range. Furthermore, /sup 32/P-incorporation in cultured skin fibroblasts of patients with hypophosphatasia was increased about two to three times of control. FPLC chromatographic analysis also indicates that the accumulated phosphorus compounds in hypophosphatasia was smaller molecular phosphorus containing compounds. These data provide new pathophysiological aspect of hypophosphatasia.

  5. Identitet marke proizvoda – čimbenik uspješnog tržišnog položaja marke proizvoda

    OpenAIRE

    Lijović, Branislav

    2012-01-01

    U ovom se radu polazi od pojma identita marke proizvoda kao nove paradigme marketinga. Cilj ovoga rada je definiranje pojma identiteta marke proizvoda i negovoga značenja za ostvarenje tržišne vrijednosti marke proizvoda i ukupnih marketing ciljeva gospodarskog subjekta. Identitetom marke proizvoda i kombinacijom njegovih elemenata implementira se strategija gospodarskog subjekta i željeno tržišno pozicioniranje marke proizvoda. Sustavnim kreiranjem i upravljanjem identitetom mark...

  6. Variance and covariance of accumulated displacement estimates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bayer, Matthew; Hall, Timothy J

    2013-04-01

    Tracking large deformations in tissue using ultrasound can enable the reconstruction of nonlinear elastic parameters, but poses a challenge to displacement estimation algorithms. Such large deformations have to be broken up into steps, each of which contributes an estimation error to the final accumulated displacement map. The work reported here measured the error variance for single-step and accumulated displacement estimates using one-dimensional numerical simulations of ultrasound echo signals, subjected to tissue strain and electronic noise. The covariance between accumulation steps was also computed. These simulations show that errors due to electronic noise are negatively correlated between steps, and therefore accumulate slowly, whereas errors due to tissue deformation are positively correlated and accumulate quickly. For reasonably low electronic noise levels, the error variance in the accumulated displacement estimates is remarkably constant as a function of step size, but increases with the length of the tracking kernel.

  7. ACCUMULATION AND CONSUMPTION IN MICROECONOMIC SYSTEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Serghey A. Amelkin

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Two main processes are common for an economic system. They are consumption and accumulation. The first one is described by utility function, either cardinal or ordinal one. The mathematical model for accumulation process can be constructed using wealth function introduced within the frame of irreversible microeconomics. Characteristics of utility and wealth functions are compared and a problem of extreme performance of resources exchange process is solved for a case when both the consumption and accumulation exist.

  8. Protoplasts Culture Isolated from Friable Embryogenic Callus of Cassava and Plant Regeneration%木薯脆性胚性愈伤组织原生质体培养与植株再生

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    文峰; 肖诗鑫; 聂扬眉; 马秋香; 张鹏; 郭文武

    2012-01-01

    [Objective] The objective of this study is to establish an efficient system of protoplast regeneration for further developing protoplast fusion and transformation in cassava. [ Method ] Protoplasts were isolated from suspension cultures derived from friable embryogenic callus (FEC) of cassava genotype TMS60444. The highest protoplast yield obtained was 3.5x 106 protoplasts/g fresh weight. Viabilities of the protoplasts assessed by the fluorescein diacetate (FDA) were approximately 90%. Protoplasts were cultured in TM2G medium with liquid thin layer culture at densities of 5x105p/mL or 2x105p/mL. During the first 30 d, the medium was refreshed by 0.3 mol-L"1 TM2G fresh medium every 10 d. After that, the medium was refreshed by 0.25 mol-L-1 TM2G fresh medium every 10 d. After cultured for 45 d, calli of 1-2 mm were picked out and separately developed into embryos on MSN medium, into mature embryos on CMM medium, into shoots on CEM medium and into roots on MS medium. [Result] K was showed that all protoplasts cultured at density of 5x105p/mL developed into compact calli (could develop into embryos), protoplasts cultured at density of 2xl05 p/mL developed into compact calli and vacuolar calli (could not develop into embryos). A total of 1 479 compact calli were picked out and developed into 757 cotyledon embryos and regenerated 186 plants in the experiment. [Conclusion] The yield and viability of isolated protoplasts had been greatly increased, the bottleneck of predecessors mentioned was improved, and the efficiency of plant regeneration from protoplasts was promoted.%[目的]建立有效的木薯原生质体再生体系,为原生质体融合以及原生质体转化等研究奠定技术基础.[方法]酶解木薯品种TMS60444的脆性胚性愈伤组织(FEC)的悬浮系,分离原生质体的产量最高达3.5×106个/g,FDA检测其活性约90%.用TM2C培养基以液体浅层法分别在5 ×105个/mL和2× 105个/mL密度下培养,培养过程中前30 d用0.3 mol.L-1

  9. The effect of in vitro procedures on cyclic AMP accumulation in human leucocytes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansen, Torben; Friis, U G; Rasmussen, A K;

    1994-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of various methodological procedures or protocols on cyclic AMP formation in human leucocytes. The data showed that: (1) ATP content and lactate production was unaffected by hypotonic lysis during leucocyte isolation; (2) there was a linear...... relation between cell number/sample and the production of cyclic adenosine 3':5'-monophosphate (cAMP); (3) the interindividual variation markedly affected cAMP production during long observation periods (years), whereas day-to-day variation within a week was less important; (4) whole blood could be stored...... for up to 4 h (at 4 degrees C or 23 degrees C) without affecting cAMP accumulation; (5) isolated MNL could be stored for up to 2 h (at 4 degrees C) without affecting cAMP accumulation; and finally that (6) choice and concentration of phosphodiesterase inhibitors markedly influenced the basal...

  10. Roosting ecology and the evolution of pelage markings in bats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santana, Sharlene E; Dial, Thomas O; Eiting, Thomas P; Alfaro, Michael E

    2011-01-01

    Multiple lineages of bats have evolved striking facial and body pelage makings, including spots, stripes and countershading. Although researchers have hypothesized that these markings mainly evolved for crypsis, this idea has never been tested in a quantitative and comparative context. We present the first comparative study integrating data on roosting ecology (roost type and colony size) and pelage coloration patterns across bats, and explore the hypothesis that the evolution of bat pelage markings is associated with roosting ecologies that benefit from crypsis. We find that lineages that roost in the vegetation have evolved pelage markings, especially stripes and neck collars, which may function in crypsis through disruptive coloration and a type of countershading that might be unique to bats. We also demonstrate that lineages that live in larger colonies and are larger in size tend not to have pelage markings, possibly because of reduced predation pressures due to the predator dilution effect and a lower number of potential predators. Although social functions for pelage color patterns are also possible, our work provides strong support for the idea that roosting ecology has driven the evolution of pelage markings in bats.

  11. Roosting ecology and the evolution of pelage markings in bats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharlene E Santana

    Full Text Available Multiple lineages of bats have evolved striking facial and body pelage makings, including spots, stripes and countershading. Although researchers have hypothesized that these markings mainly evolved for crypsis, this idea has never been tested in a quantitative and comparative context. We present the first comparative study integrating data on roosting ecology (roost type and colony size and pelage coloration patterns across bats, and explore the hypothesis that the evolution of bat pelage markings is associated with roosting ecologies that benefit from crypsis. We find that lineages that roost in the vegetation have evolved pelage markings, especially stripes and neck collars, which may function in crypsis through disruptive coloration and a type of countershading that might be unique to bats. We also demonstrate that lineages that live in larger colonies and are larger in size tend not to have pelage markings, possibly because of reduced predation pressures due to the predator dilution effect and a lower number of potential predators. Although social functions for pelage color patterns are also possible, our work provides strong support for the idea that roosting ecology has driven the evolution of pelage markings in bats.

  12. Segmentation and classification of road markings using MLS data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soilán, Mario; Riveiro, Belén; Martínez-Sánchez, Joaquín; Arias, Pedro

    2017-01-01

    Traffic signs are one of the most important safety elements in a road network. Particularly, road markings provide information about the limits and direction of each road lane, or warn the drivers about potential danger. The optimal condition of road markings contributes to a better road safety. Mobile Laser Scanning technology can be used for infrastructure inspection and specifically for traffic sign detection and inventory. This paper presents a methodology for the detection and semantic characterization of the most common road markings, namely pedestrian crossings and arrows. The 3D point cloud data acquired by a LYNX Mobile Mapper system is filtered in order to isolate reflective points in the road, and each single element is hierarchically classified using Neural Networks. State of the art results are obtained for the extraction and classification of the markings, with F-scores of 94% and 96% respectively. Finally, data from classified markings are exported to a GIS layer and maintenance criteria based on the aforementioned data are proposed.

  13. Recognition in context: Implications for trade mark law.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Humphreys, Michael S; McFarlane, Kimberley A; Burt, Jennifer S; Kelly, Sarah J; Weatherall, Kimberlee G; Burrell, Robert G

    2017-01-21

    Context effects in recognition have played a major role in evaluating theories of recognition. Understanding how context impacts recognition is also important for making sound trade mark law. Consumers attempting to discriminate between the brand they are looking for and a look-alike product often have to differentiate products which share a great deal of common context: positioning on the supermarket shelf, the type of store, aspects of the packaging, or brand claims. Trade mark and related laws aim to protect brands and reduce consumer confusion, but courts assessing allegations of trade mark infringement often lack careful empirical evidence concerning the impact of brand and context similarity, and, in the absence of such evidence, make assumptions about how consumers respond to brands that downplay the importance of context and focus on the similarity of registered marks. The experiments reported in this paper aimed to test certain common assumptions in trade mark law, providing evidence that shared context can cause mistakes even where brand similarity is low.

  14. A Clinical Study on Syndrome Differentiation of Male with Teeth-Mark Tongue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soo-Jung Lee

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Objectives : The purpose of this study was to analyze the propensity and find out the Syndrome Differentiation of teeth-mark tongue by taking survey and body examinations with 178 male patients. 164 patients out of 178 were checked up on Heart Rate Variability (HRV, Accelerated Photoplethysmograpy (APG, Body Composition. This study was also planned to find out the distinctive characteristics of teeth-mark tongue diagnosis and compare differences between Qi-Deficiency and Accumulation of Dampness and Phlegm patients group. Methods : The questionnaire was carried out targeting 178 male with teeth-mark tongue respondents among who had Oriental Health Examination and patients from the 3rd oriental-internal medicine department in Dongeui Hospital from 1st , March 2005 to 30th, April 2010. Only 164 patients were checked on HRV, APG and Body composition examinations. Results : It showed that 86 patients had Qi-Deficiency and 78 had Dampness and Phlegm but 14 couldn’t be categorized. The major symptoms of Qi-Deficiency compared to Dampness and Phlegm were ‘Frequent running nose’, ‘Soft stool’, ‘Chronic fatigue’, and ‘Eyestrain’. On the contrary, Dampness and Phlegm’s dominant symptoms were ‘Chest discomfort’, ‘Feeling bloated’, ‘Back pain’, ‘Feeling sluggish’, and ‘Itchy skin’. However, all symptoms were not matched with the Syndrome Differentiation of Qi-Deficiency or Dampness and Phlegm. It also showed that teeth-mark tongue patients’ frequent symptoms were ‘Stuffy nose’, ‘Feeling bloated’, ‘Oliguria’, ‘Shoulder pain’, ‘Chronic fatigue’, ‘Eyestrain’ and these symptoms were matched with the Syndrome Differentiation of Qi-Deficiency and Dampness and Phlegm. In the results from this study, there were no significant differences between Qi-Deficiency and Dampness and Phlegm. Conclusions : It is hard to conclude that teeth-mark tongue could be only one to diagnose Qi-Deficiency or Dampness

  15. Male and female meadow voles Microtus pennsylvanicus respond differently to scent marks from the top- middle-, and bottom-scent donors of an over-mark

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael H. FERKIN, Nicholas J. HOBBS, Benjamin D. FERKIN, Adam C.FERKIN, Daniel A. FERKIN

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Previous studies have shown that individuals responded preferentially to the mark of the top-scent donor relative to that of the bottom-scent donor of an over-mark. However, terrestrial mammals are likely to encounter over-marks consisting of the scent marks of more than two same-sex conspecifics in the intersections of runways, near the nests of sexually receptive female conspecifics, and inside and along the borders of the territories of conspecifics. We determined how meadow voles, Microtus pennsylvanicus, respond to the marks of the top-, middle-, and bottom-scent donors of an over-mark. We tested the hypothesis that voles exposed to an over-mark will respond preferentially to the scent marks that were deposited more recently, the scent marks that were on top or near the top of the over-mark, compared to the scent marks that were deposited earlier or near the bottom of the over-mark. Voles spent more time investigating the mark of the top-scent donor than that of the either the middle- or bottom-scent donor. However, males but not female voles spent more time investigating the middle-scent mark than the bottom-scent mark. We also tested the hypothesis that voles evaluate and respond to over-marks differently from single scent marks. Voles spent more time investigating the marks of the top-, middle-, and bottom-scent donors compared to scent marks that were not part of the over-mark. Voles can distinguish among the overlapping scent marks of three scent donors and sex differences exist in the values they appear to attach to each of these scent marks [Current Zoology 57 (4: 441–448, 2011].

  16. Quercetin improves insulin resistance and hepatic lipid accumulation in vitro in a NAFLD cell model

    OpenAIRE

    LI, XIULI; Wang, Rong; Zhou, Na; Wang, XiaoHui; Liu, Qingyan; Bai, Yuqin; BAI, YIN; Liu, Zhijie; YANG, HUIMING; ZOU, JIHONG; Wang, Hongxia; SHI, TIEWEI

    2012-01-01

    Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) encompasses a spectrum of liver diseases in the absence of significant alcohol consumption. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of quercetin on insulin resistance and lipid metabolic abnormalities in free fatty acid (FFA)- and insulin-induced HepG2 cell model of NAFLD, and to determine the possible underlying mechanism. Quercetin markedly improves hepatic lipid accumulation and decreases the levels of triglyceride (TG). The lipid-lower...

  17. Rapid Inspection of Pavement Markings Using Mobile LIDAR Point Clouds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Haocheng; Li, Jonathan; Cheng, Ming; Wang, Cheng

    2016-06-01

    This study aims at building a robust semi-automated pavement marking extraction workflow based on the use of mobile LiDAR point clouds. The proposed workflow consists of three components: preprocessing, extraction, and classification. In preprocessing, the mobile LiDAR point clouds are converted into the radiometrically corrected intensity imagery of the road surface. Then the pavement markings are automatically extracted with the intensity using a set of algorithms, including Otsu's thresholding, neighbor-counting filtering, and region growing. Finally, the extracted pavement markings are classified with the geometric parameters using a manually defined decision tree. Case studies are conducted using the mobile LiDAR dataset acquired in Xiamen (Fujian, China) with different road environments by the RIEGL VMX-450 system. The results demonstrated that the proposed workflow and our software tool can achieve 93% in completeness, 95% in correctness, and 94% in F-score when using Xiamen dataset.

  18. RAPID INSPECTION OF PAVEMENT MARKINGS USING MOBILE LIDAR POINT CLOUDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Zhang

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This study aims at building a robust semi-automated pavement marking extraction workflow based on the use of mobile LiDAR point clouds. The proposed workflow consists of three components: preprocessing, extraction, and classification. In preprocessing, the mobile LiDAR point clouds are converted into the radiometrically corrected intensity imagery of the road surface. Then the pavement markings are automatically extracted with the intensity using a set of algorithms, including Otsu’s thresholding, neighbor-counting filtering, and region growing. Finally, the extracted pavement markings are classified with the geometric parameters using a manually defined decision tree. Case studies are conducted using the mobile LiDAR dataset acquired in Xiamen (Fujian, China with different road environments by the RIEGL VMX-450 system. The results demonstrated that the proposed workflow and our software tool can achieve 93% in completeness, 95% in correctness, and 94% in F-score when using Xiamen dataset.

  19. Use of gene marking in bone marrow transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heslop, H E; Rooney, C M; Rill, D R; Krance, R A; Brenner, M K

    1996-01-01

    We have used gene marking to investigate the mechanism of relapse and biology of reconstitution following bone marrow transplantation (BMT). The rationale for our initial protocols was to learn if residual malignant cells in autologous marrow contribute to subsequent relapse. Marked malignant cells were found at the time of relapse in 6/8 patients relapsing after autologous BMT for AML or neuroblastoma showing the infused marrow contributed to disease recurrence. Modifications of this marker approach with two distinguishable vectors are now being used to compare the efficacy of purging techniques. We were also able to evaluate gene transfer to normal progenitors and demonstrated that the marker gene was expressed for up to 36 months. Gene marking is also being used to trace the fate of EBV-specific CTLs that we are administering to recipients of allogeneic BMT and has provided evidence of persistence of adoptively transferred CTL for up to 10 months.

  20. The importance of crossroads in faecal marking behaviour of the wolves (Canis lupus)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barja, Isabel; Miguel, Francisco Javier; Bárcena, Felipe

    2004-10-01

    For wolves (Canis lupus) scats play an important function in territorial marking behaviour. Depositing scats at strategic sites such as crossroads and on conspicuous substrates probably increases their effectiveness as visual and olfactory marks. It is therefore likely that scats will be deposited, and will accumulate, at particular crossroads where the probability of being detected by other wolves is greatest. To check this hypothesis, a wolf population in NW Spain was studied for two consecutive years, from May 1998 to March 2000, and the spatial distribution of 311 scats detected along roads (both at and away from crossroads) was analysed. This study was conducted over an area of 12,000 ha in Montes do Invernadeiro Natural Park. The results confirm that wolves preferably deposit their scats at crossroads (60.1%) and on conspicuous substrates (72.1%). Significantly more scats were found at intersections with numerous, easily passable roads connecting distant territories. Thus, wolves preferably deposit their faeces at crossroads with high accessibility and driveability. The larger the surface area of the crossroads, the more scats were found. Crossroads are therefore highly strategic points that facilitate the detection of scats.

  1. Thickness and marking quality of different occlusal contact registration strips

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Fernanda de Souza Mauá Serapião TOLEDO

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Objectives Evaluate the thickness and the marking quality of different occlusal contact registration strips (OCRS and a possible correlation between them. Material and Methods The following OCRS were selected: Accufilm II, BK20, BK21, BK22, BK23, BK28, and BK31. The thickness was measured in three points of the OCRS with an electronic measuring device (TESA, and the mean was calculated. To produce the marks on the strips, composite resin specimens were adapted to a universal testing machine (Versat 2000 with 40 kgf load cell at a speed of 1.0 mm/min. The mark images were photographed with a stereoscopic microscope (Stemi SV11 and processed and analyzed by the 550-Leica Qwin® analyzer. Results Values (μm found in the 1st and 2nd thickness measurements were: Accufilm II - 16.4 and 14.2; BK20 - 10.0 and 8.1; BK21 - 9.5 and 8.0; BK22 - 9.7 and 8.7; BK23 - 9.8 and 7.9; BK28 - 12.8 and 10.0; and BK31 - 8.4 and 8.0, respectively. The mean (mm2 values found in the mark areas were: Accufilm II - 0.078; BK20 - 0.035; BK21 - 0.045; BK22 - 0.012; BK23 - 0.022; BK28 - 0.024; and BK31 - 0.024. The results were submitted to the Kruskal-Wallis (p<0.05 and Pearson’s correlation tests. Conclusions Only in the 2nd measurement, the OCRS thickness observed was similar to the value indicated by the manufacturers; the Accufilm II and the BK28 strips showed the better marks; and no correlation was found between the thickness and the marking area.

  2. APPLICATION AND CHARACTERISTICS OF WATERBORNE ROAD MARKING PAINT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Darko Babić

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Horizontal road markings are one of the essential safety features of modern roadways. All of the utilised systems consist of a pigmented coating containing partially embedded retroreflective elements such as glass beads. In addition to durability and functionality of the road marking, ease of application and effect on human health and environment are primary considerations for their selection. Road marking systems can be divided into plural component materials that cure due to chemical reaction occurring at the site of application, thermoplastics that require heat for application, and paints, drying upon evaporation of the dissolving medium. The focus of this paper is on road marking paints with a special emphasis on contemporary waterborne materials. Over 100 years old solventborne technology furnishes paints that afford consistent application properties under a variety of conditions such as lower temperatures and high humidity. Their environmental and human health impact is significant and durability quite poor. Modern waterborne paints are based on acrylic resins and incorporate developed in the 1990s quick-set chemical mechanism for drying. Under favourable weather conditions, they dry faster as compared to solventborne. However, their known weakness is risk of washout in case of rain and sluggish development of washout resistance at marginal application conditions like high humidity and low temperature. Impact of waterborne paints on human health and environment is very significantly minimised as compared to other materials. Their durability is significantly higher as compared to solvent-based paints. Analysis of characteristics of waterborne road marking paints and preliminary results from their trial application in Croatia are presented herein. Based on the presented comparison with solventborne materials, after results from test application become available, intelligent decisions regarding future use of waterborne road marking paints in

  3. Solving liveness problem for marked nets by exhaustive coverability trees

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    It is well known that a coverability tree of a Petri net cannot solve reaehability and liveness problems of the net because using symbol ω (infinity.) may lose some information. A solution to this problem is presented for a special kind of Petri net, marked net. With the combination of o and the increasing/decreasing information of token number, a new kind of coverability tree of marked nets, called exhaustive coverability tree (ECT), is proposed. It is shown with an example that an ECT can be used to detect deadlock.

  4. Marks on the petroleum fiscality; Reperes sur la fiscalite petroliere

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2007-02-15

    This document offers some marks on the petroleum fiscality in France: the taxes as the 'accises' and the 'TVA', the part of the taxes in the sale price at the service station, the comparison with other countries of Europe, the tax revenues and the Government budget. It provides also marks on the fuels prices formation (margins), the world petroleum markets (supply and demand) and the part of the petroleum companies on the petroleum market. (A.L.B.)

  5. An Improved Dynamic Probabilistic Packet Marking for IP Traceback

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qiao Yan

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available An improved dynamic probabilistic packet marking algorithm named IDPPM is presented, which not only can locate and attack a source rapidly and accurately, but also can reduce the marking overhead of routers near the attackers, which is its greatest contribution given by our technique. In contrast to previous work, the challenge of weakest node and weakest link is solved with the price of a little more numbers of packets to reconstruct the attack path. Theoretical analysis and NS2 simulation results in IPv4 and IPv6 testify that the approach is feasible and efficient respectively.

  6. Interventions for the treatment of stretch marks: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Liping; Ma, Hong; Li, Yumei

    2014-08-01

    Stretch marks are a common disfiguring skin condition that can have a deep psychological impact on affected patients. Although there are a variety of treatments available, no consistently effective therapies have been established. In this systematic review, we evaluate 8 randomized controlled trials (RCTs) to assess the efficacy and safety of currently available therapies for the treatment of stretch marks. Due to the limited number of patients and high or unclear risk of bias in the studies included in this assessment, the evidence from this review is insufficient to provide clear guidelines for practice. Therefore, more high-quality RCTs are needed.

  7. Foraging scent marks of bumblebees: footprint cues rather than pheromone signals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilms, Jessica; Eltz, Thomas

    2008-02-01

    In their natural habitat foraging bumblebees refuse to land on and probe flowers that have been recently visited (and depleted) by themselves, conspecifics or other bees, which increases their overall rate of nectar intake. This avoidance is often based on recognition of scent marks deposited by previous visitors. While the term ‘scent mark’ implies active labelling, it is an open question whether the repellent chemicals are pheromones actively and specifically released during flower visits, or mere footprints deposited unspecifically wherever bees walk. To distinguish between the two possibilities, we presented worker bumblebees ( Bombus terrestris) with three types of feeders in a laboratory experiment: unvisited control feeders, passive feeders with a corolla that the bee had walked over on its way from the nest (with unspecific footprints), and active feeders, which the bee had just visited and depleted, but which were immediately refilled with sugar water (potentially with specific scent marks). Bumblebees rejected both active and passive feeders more frequently than unvisited controls. The rate of rejection of passive feeders was only slightly lower than that of active feeders, and this difference vanished completely when passive corollas were walked over repeatedly on the way from the nest. Thus, mere footprints were sufficient to emulate the repellent effect of an actual feeder visit. In confirmation, glass slides on which bumblebees had walked on near the nest entrance accumulated hydrocarbons (alkanes and alkenes, C23 to C31), which had previously been shown to elicit repellency in flower choice experiments. We conclude that repellent scent marks are mere footprints, which foraging bees avoid when they encounter them in a foraging context.

  8. 40 CFR 262.34 - Accumulation time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Accumulation time. 262.34 Section 262...) STANDARDS APPLICABLE TO GENERATORS OF HAZARDOUS WASTE Pre-Transport Requirements § 262.34 Accumulation time... removed from the drip pad and the sump or collection system and the date and time of removal; and/or...

  9. Charge accumulation in lossy dielectrics: a review

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Jørgen Knøster; McAllister, Iain Wilson; Crichton, George C

    1999-01-01

    such that the material parameters which influence charge accumulation are clearly identified; viz. the conductivity, permittivity and dimensions of the insulating media. The two former parameters, together with the applied voltage, govern both the magnitude and polarity of the accumulated charge....

  10. Glass marking with diode-pumped Nd:YLF laser; Handotai reiki Nd:YLF laser ni yoru glass marking

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sakai, F.; Hayashi, K. [Sumitomo Heavy Industries, Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)

    1996-08-20

    The compact marking system based on a beam scanning system in which the fourth harmonic (FHG: 262 nm in wavelength) of a diode-pumped Nd:YLF (Nd:LiYf4) laser is used for the source of ultraviolet light is described. The result of application to the glass marking that caused a problem due to the generation of cracks is also explained. The machining characteristics significantly vary depending on the type of glass. During actual marking, sample processing must be beforehand carried out to optimize the processing conditions after confirming that there is no problem in practical use. For marking on the glass used for liquid-crystal board, it is valid to improve the density of a dot and increase the number of shots per dot for obtaining high visibility. However, cracks may occur in the clearance of each dot because of the thermal effect. Therefore, the processing conditions must be optimized according to the glass type and crack generation state. The generation of cracks can be suppressed by setting the processing conditions to the optimum level. As a result, satisfactory marking is obtained. 8 refs., 6 figs.

  11. Plasmodium falciparum Sec24 marks transitional ER that exports a model cargo via a diacidic motif.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Marcus C S; Moura, Pedro A; Miller, Elizabeth A; Fidock, David A

    2008-06-01

    Exit from the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) often occurs at distinct sites of vesicle formation known as transitional ER (tER) that are enriched for COPII vesicle coat proteins. We have characterized the organization of ER export in the malaria parasite, Plasmodium falciparum, by examining the localization of two components of the COPII machinery, PfSec12 and PfSec24a. PfSec12 was found throughout the ER, whereas the COPII cargo adaptor, PfSec24a, was concentrated at distinct foci that likely correspond to tER sites. These foci were closely apposed to cis-Golgi sites marked by PfGRASP-GFP, and upon treatment with brefeldin A they accumulated a model cargo protein via a process dependent on the presence of an intact diacidic export motif. Our data suggest that the cargo-binding function of PfSec24a is conserved and that accumulation of cargo in discrete tER sites depends upon positive sorting signals. Furthermore, the number and position of tER sites with respect to the cis-Golgi suggests a co-ordinated biogenesis of these domains.

  12. Cytokinin Determines Thiol-Mediated Arsenic Tolerance and Accumulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohan, Thotegowdanapalya C; Castrillo, Gabriel; Navarro, Cristina; Zarco-Fernández, Sonia; Ramireddy, Eswarayya; Mateo, Cristian; Zamarreño, Angel M; Paz-Ares, Javier; Muñoz, Riansares; García-Mina, Jose M; Hernández, Luis E; Schmülling, Thomas; Leyva, Antonio

    2016-06-01

    The presence of arsenic in soil and water is a constant threat to plant growth in many regions of the world. Phytohormones act in the integration of growth control and stress response, but their role in plant responses to arsenic remains to be elucidated. Here, we show that arsenate [As(V)], the most prevalent arsenic chemical species in nature, causes severe depletion of endogenous cytokinins (CKs) in the model plant Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana). We found that CK signaling mutants and transgenic plants with reduced endogenous CK levels showed an As(V)-tolerant phenotype. Our data indicate that in CK-depleted plants exposed to As(V), transcript levels of As(V)/phosphate-transporters were similar or even higher than in wild-type plants. In contrast, CK depletion provoked the coordinated activation of As(V) tolerance mechanisms, leading to the accumulation of thiol compounds such as phytochelatins and glutathione, which are essential for arsenic sequestration. Transgenic CK-deficient Arabidopsis and tobacco lines show a marked increase in arsenic accumulation. Our findings indicate that CK is an important regulatory factor in plant adaptation to arsenic stress.

  13. TDP-43 regulates endogenous retrovirus-K viral protein accumulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manghera, Mamneet; Ferguson-Parry, Jennifer; Douville, Renée N

    2016-10-01

    The concomitant expression of neuronal TAR DNA binding protein 43 (TDP-43) and human endogenous retrovirus-K (ERVK) is a hallmark of ALS. Since the involvement of TDP-43 in retrovirus replication remains controversial, we sought to evaluate whether TDP-43 exerts an effect on ERVK expression. In this study, TDP-43 bound the ERVK promoter in the context of inflammation or proteasome inhibition, with no effect on ERVK transcription. However, over-expression of ALS-associated aggregating forms of TDP-43, but not wild-type TDP-43, significantly enhanced ERVK viral protein accumulation. Human astrocytes and neurons further demonstrated cell-type specific differences in their ability to express and clear ERVK proteins during inflammation and proteasome inhibition. Astrocytes, but not neurons, were able to clear excess ERVK proteins through stress granule formation and autophagy. In vitro findings were validated in autopsy motor cortex tissue from patients with ALS and neuro-normal controls. We further confirmed marked enhancement of ERVK in cortical neurons of patients with ALS. Despite evidence of enhanced stress granule and autophagic response in ALS cortical neurons, these cells failed to clear excess ERVK protein accumulation. This highlights how multiple cellular pathways, in conjunction with disease-associated mutations, can converge to modulate the expression and clearance of viral gene products from genomic elements such as ERVK. In ALS, ERVK protein aggregation is a novel aspect of TDP-43 misregulation contributing towards the pathology of this neurodegenerative disease. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Influences of petroleum on accumulation of copper and cadmium in the polychaete Nereis diversicolor

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SUN Fu-hong; ZHOU Qi-xing; ZHANG Qian-ru

    2006-01-01

    Using the exposure simulation experiment, the action of petroleum affecting the accumulation of the trace metals including copper (Cu) and cadmium (Cd) in littoral polychaete Nereis diversicolor collected from the Shuangtaizi Estuary in Liaoning Province,China was examined. The results showed that there was a markedly non-linear relationship between the accumulation of Cu in worms and the experimental concentration of Cu in exposure solutions when the concentration of petroleum remained at 0, 100, and 220 μl/L, respectively. However, significantly non-linear relationship for worms exposed to Cd was observed only when the concentration of added petroleum was 0 and 220 μl/L. The accumulation of Cu in worms did not differ significantly among the three different levels of petroleum concentrations combined with various concentrations of Cu. So was the accumulation of Cd in worms (p>0.05).However, the addition of petroleum in exposure solutions brought about an increase in the accumulation of Cu in Nereis diversicolor,in comparison with single Cu pollution. On the other hand, when the concentration of added petroleum remained at 100 μl/L, the accumulation of Cd in worms was lower than that in worms exposed to various concentrations of only cadmium. However, the worms exposed to Cd and petroleum 220 μl/L did not show obvious and identical increase in the accumulation of Cd, compared with single Cd exposure. The accumulation of both Cu and Cd in worms did not increase significantly with the increases in concentrations of Cu or Cd in exposure solutions combined with petroleum (0, 100, and 220 μl/L) under the experimental conditions. Although Nereis diversicolor is exposed to very high Cu and Cd in exposure solutions, accumulation and detoxification mechanisms are sufficient to cope with the extra metal influx in order to survive.

  15. Diethylene glycol-induced toxicities show marked threshold dose response in rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Landry, Greg M., E-mail: Landry.Greg@mayo.edu [Department of Pharmacology, Toxicology, & Neuroscience, Louisiana State University Health Sciences Center, Shreveport, LA (United States); Dunning, Cody L., E-mail: cdunni@lsuhsc.edu [Department of Pharmacology, Toxicology, & Neuroscience, Louisiana State University Health Sciences Center, Shreveport, LA (United States); Abreo, Fleurette, E-mail: fabreo@lsuhsc.edu [Department of Pathology, Louisiana State University Health Sciences Center, Shreveport, LA (United States); Latimer, Brian, E-mail: blatim@lsuhsc.edu [Department of Pharmacology, Toxicology, & Neuroscience, Louisiana State University Health Sciences Center, Shreveport, LA (United States); Orchard, Elysse, E-mail: eorcha@lsuhsc.edu [Department of Pharmacology, Toxicology, & Neuroscience, Louisiana State University Health Sciences Center, Shreveport, LA (United States); Division of Animal Resources, Louisiana State University Health Sciences Center, Shreveport, LA (United States); McMartin, Kenneth E., E-mail: kmcmar@lsuhsc.edu [Department of Pharmacology, Toxicology, & Neuroscience, Louisiana State University Health Sciences Center, Shreveport, LA (United States)

    2015-02-01

    Diethylene glycol (DEG) exposure poses risks to human health because of widespread industrial use and accidental exposures from contaminated products. To enhance the understanding of the mechanistic role of metabolites in DEG toxicity, this study used a dose response paradigm to determine a rat model that would best mimic DEG exposure in humans. Wistar and Fischer-344 (F-344) rats were treated by oral gavage with 0, 2, 5, or 10 g/kg DEG and blood, kidney and liver tissues were collected at 48 h. Both rat strains treated with 10 g/kg DEG had equivalent degrees of metabolic acidosis, renal toxicity (increased BUN and creatinine and cortical necrosis) and liver toxicity (increased serum enzyme levels, centrilobular necrosis and severe glycogen depletion). There was no liver or kidney toxicity at the lower DEG doses (2 and 5 g/kg) regardless of strain, demonstrating a steep threshold dose response. Kidney diglycolic acid (DGA), the presumed nephrotoxic metabolite of DEG, was markedly elevated in both rat strains administered 10 g/kg DEG, but no DGA was present at 2 or 5 g/kg, asserting its necessary role in DEG-induced toxicity. These results indicate that mechanistically in order to produce toxicity, metabolism to and significant target organ accumulation of DGA are required and that both strains would be useful for DEG risk assessments. - Highlights: • DEG produces a steep threshold dose response for kidney injury in rats. • Wistar and F-344 rats do not differ in response to DEG-induced renal injury. • The dose response for renal injury closely mirrors that for renal DGA accumulation. • Results demonstrate the importance of DGA accumulation in producing kidney injury.

  16. Complement drives glucosylceramide accumulation and tissue inflammation in Gaucher disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandey, Manoj K; Burrow, Thomas A; Rani, Reena; Martin, Lisa J; Witte, David; Setchell, Kenneth D; Mckay, Mary A; Magnusen, Albert F; Zhang, Wujuan; Liou, Benjamin; Köhl, Jörg; Grabowski, Gregory A

    2017-03-02

    Gaucher disease is caused by mutations in GBA1, which encodes the lysosomal enzyme glucocerebrosidase (GCase). GBA1 mutations drive extensive accumulation of glucosylceramide (GC) in multiple innate and adaptive immune cells in the spleen, liver, lung and bone marrow, often leading to chronic inflammation. The mechanisms that connect excess GC to tissue inflammation remain unknown. Here we show that activation of complement C5a and C5a receptor 1 (C5aR1) controls GC accumulation and the inflammatory response in experimental and clinical Gaucher disease. Marked local and systemic complement activation occurred in GCase-deficient mice or after pharmacological inhibition of GCase and was associated with GC storage, tissue inflammation and proinflammatory cytokine production. Whereas all GCase-inhibited mice died within 4-5 weeks, mice deficient in both GCase and C5aR1, and wild-type mice in which GCase and C5aR were pharmacologically inhibited, were protected from these adverse effects and consequently survived. In mice and humans, GCase deficiency was associated with strong formation of complement-activating GC-specific IgG autoantibodies, leading to complement activation and C5a generation. Subsequent C5aR1 activation controlled UDP-glucose ceramide glucosyltransferase production, thereby tipping the balance between GC formation and degradation. Thus, extensive GC storage induces complement-activating IgG autoantibodies that drive a pathway of C5a generation and C5aR1 activation that fuels a cycle of cellular GC accumulation, innate and adaptive immune cell recruitment and activation in Gaucher disease. As enzyme replacement and substrate reduction therapies are expensive and still associated with inflammation, increased risk of cancer and Parkinson disease, targeting C5aR1 may serve as a treatment option for patients with Gaucher disease and, possibly, other lysosomal storage diseases.

  17. 47 CFR 36.505 - Accumulated amortization-Tangible-Account 3400 (Class B Telephone Companies); Accumulated...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... (Class B Telephone Companies); Accumulated amortization-Capital Leases-Account 3410 (Class A Telephone... and Deferrals § 36.505 Accumulated amortization—Tangible—Account 3400 (Class B Telephone Companies); Accumulated amortization—Capital Leases—Account 3410 (Class A Telephone Companies). (a) Amounts in...

  18. Impact of Peer Evaluation Confidentiality on Student Marks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, Christina Hamme; Peterson, N. Andrew

    2011-01-01

    Although group work is commonly used in university-level instruction, social loafing, domineering team members, poor attenders, and inequitable distribution of marks have been identified as obstacles to team-based learning. Peer evaluation has been proposed as one vehicle to address these issues. For use in grading, peer evaluations are often…

  19. 22 CFR 9.7 - Identification and marking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... guidance in 12 Foreign Affairs Manual (FAM). (b) Foreign government information shall retain its original... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Identification and marking. 9.7 Section 9.7 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE GENERAL SECURITY INFORMATION REGULATIONS § 9.7 Identification and...

  20. Precise breast implant placement using percutaneous chest wall markings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janna Joethy

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Traditionally, pre-operative breast markings are usually made using an indelible marker. These markings are at risk of being removed by pre-operative cleaning, positional changes and parenchymal changes post-incision. We present our approach to breast surgery with rib or intercostal markings using methylene blue. Methods: Using an indelible marker, markings are made on the breast and the inframammary crease. A blue needle (23 G mounted on a 1 ml syringe is prepared, and aliquots of 0.1 ml of methylene blue are injected. Excessive infiltration and pre-operative local anaesthetic infiltration result in diffusion of the dye and difficulty with accuracy. Dye is injected directly over the bony periosteum closest to the inframammary fold. Results: We achieved good symmetry of bilateral breast implants. Photographs were taken pre-operative and 3 months post-operative and were evaluated independently by medical officers. All results were rated as good or very good. We had 39 patients and follow-up was between 3 and 24 months. There were no implant-related complications. Conclusions: For accurate implant placement, a fixed position must be found. Our technique utilises the relative immobility of the ribs for accurate implant placement. Disadvantages to our method were few, and we had two cases of dizziness or patients feeling faint due to pain. There is also a potential allergic or anaphylaxis reaction, but we did not experience any allergic reaction.

  1. May 2012 DMM Podcast: an interview with Mark Fishman

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    SUMMARY Mark Fishman, President of the Novartis Institutes for BioMedical Research, discusses developing the zebrafish as a research tool, academia-industry collaborations and perspectives on the future of drug development. Narrated by Sarah E. Allan. To listen to this podcast, visit http://www.biologists.com/DMM/podcasts/index.html.

  2. Case Marking in Hungarian Children with Specific Language Impairment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lukács, Ágnes; Kas, Bence; Leonard, Laurence B.

    2013-01-01

    This study examines whether children with specific language impairment (SLI) acquiring a language with a rich case marking system (Hungarian) have difficulty with case, and, if so, whether the difficulty is comparable for spatial and nonspatial meanings. Data were drawn from narrative samples and from a sentence repetition task. Suffixes were…

  3. 46 CFR 195.11-20 - Marking and label plate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Marking and label plate. 195.11-20 Section 195.11-20... plate. (a) All vans shall be provided with a label plate stating light weight, gross weight, and power requirements where applicable. (b) For vans subject to inspection label plates shall provide space for the date...

  4. Authoritative Texts of the Published Works of Mark Twain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerber, John C.

    This report describes a long-range project designed to make available to the general public all the printed works authored by Mark Twain in "authoritative texts" that correspond as closely as possible with his last known or discoverable intent. Briefly outlined are the project's methodology for selection of 13 editors working under a four-man…

  5. Like Old Man River, Mark Twain Just Keeps Rolling Along.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hearn, Michael Patrick

    1995-01-01

    Suggests that although Mark Twain may have been a natural storyteller, he was not by nature a novelist. Addresses Twain's attitude towards fiction, and discusses "The Adventures of Tom Sawyer,""The Adventures of Huckleberry Finn,""The Prince and the Pauper,""A Connecticut Yankee in King Arthur's Court," and Twain's later works. (RS)

  6. Follow-up Evaluation of Mark Twain Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gross, Susan

    The Mark Twain School provides a short term individualized educational program for seriously emotionally disturbed students with learning problems in grades 6 through 12 in Montgomery County (Maryland) Public Schools (MCPS). During the 1980-81 school year the Department of Educational Accountability, at the request of the Office of Continuum…

  7. The Information Literacy of Survey Mark Hunting: A Dialogue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer Galas

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available In Brief: This article makes connections between the ACRL Framework for Information Literacy for Higher Education and the activity of survey mark hunting. After a brief review of the literature related to geographic information systems (GIS, information literacy, and gamification of learning, the authors enter into a dialogue in which they discover and describe the...

  8. Mark 4A DSN receiver-exciter and transmitter subsystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wick, M. R.

    1986-01-01

    The present configuration of the Mark 4A DSN Receiver-Exciter and Transmitter Subsystems is described. Functional requirements and key characteristics are given to show the differences in the capabilities required by the Networks Consolidation task for combined High Earth Orbiter and Deep Space Network tracking support.

  9. James Mark Baldwin and the Aesthetic Development of the Individual.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parsons, Michael J.

    1980-01-01

    This paper recounts the ideas of the American cognitive-developmental psychologist James Mark Baldwin (1861-1934) on aesthetic experience: his conceptualization of aesthetic experience as immediate, semblant, personalized, and idealized; and his three-stage theory of aesthetic development. (SJL)

  10. Review: Askew, Mark (ed.: Legitimacy Crisis in Thailand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Napisa Waitoolkiat

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Review of the edited volume: Askew, Mark (ed. (2010, Legitimacy Crisis in Thailand, Chiang Mai, Thailand: Silkworm Books (= King Prajadhipok’s Institute Yearbook No. 5 (2008/09. ISBN 978-974-9511-97-8, 340 pages

  11. The Genetic Psychologies of James Mark Baldwin and Jean Piaget.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cahan, Emily D.

    1984-01-01

    Describes the ideas proposed by James Mark Baldwin which anticipated much of Jean Piaget's work. The goals, genetic approach, and epistemological assumptions underlying Piaget's inquiry into cognitive development found explicit statement in Baldwin's work. Discusses Baldwin's current importance for psychology. (Author/CB)

  12. Modelling the interplay of multiple cues in prosodic focus marking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anja Arnhold

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Focus marking is an important function of prosody in many languages. While many phonological accounts concentrate on fundamental frequency (F0, studies have established several additional cues to information structure. However, the relationship between these cues is rarely investigated. We simultaneously analyzed five prosodic cues to focus—F0 range, word duration, intensity, voice quality, the location of the F0 maximum, and the occurrence of pauses—in a set of 947 simple Subject Verb Object (SVO sentences uttered by 17 native speakers of Finnish. Using random forest and generalized additive mixed modelling, we investigated the systematicity of prosodic focus marking, the importance of each cue as a predictor, and their functional shape. Results indicated a highly consistent differentiation between narrow focus and givenness, marked by at least F0 range, word duration, intensity, and the location of the F0 maximum, with F0 range being the most important predictor. No cue had a linear relationship with focus condition. To account for the simultaneous significance of several predictors, we argue that these findings support treating multiple prosodic cues to focus in Finnish as correlates of prosodic phrasing. Thus, we suggest that prosodic phrasing, having multiple functions, is also marked with multiple cues to enhance communicative efficiency.

  13. Selected results from the Mark II at SPEAR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scharre, D.L.

    1980-06-01

    Recent results on radiative transitions from the psi(3095), charmed meson decay, and the Cabibbo-suppressed decay tau ..-->.. K* ..nu../sub tau/ are reviewed. The results come primarily from the Mark II experiment at SPEAR, but preliminary results from the Crystal Ball experiment on psi radiative transitions are also discussed.

  14. Prosodic Marking of Information Structure by Malaysian Speakers of English

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gut, Ulrike; Pillai, Stefanie

    2014-01-01

    Various researchers have shown that second language (L2) speakers have difficulties with marking information structure in English prosodically: They deviate from native speakers not only in terms of pitch accent placement (Grosser, 1997; Gut, 2009; Ramírez Verdugo, 2002) and the type of pitch accent they produce (Wennerstrom, 1994, 1998) but also…

  15. "Denture marking" as an aid to forensic identification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohan, Jayashree; Kumar, C Dhinesh; Simon, Paul

    2012-09-01

    "Identification through forensic science is an art of giving the corpse a name A real life detective work that would put even Sherlock Homes to shame." Forensic dentistry deals with proper handling and examination of dental evidence and proper evaluation and presentation of dental findings in interest of justice. Denture marking or labeling is not a new concept in either Prosthetic or Forensic dentistry and its routine practice has been urged by Forensic dentists internationally for many years. Denture marking is accepted as a means of identifying dentures and persons in geriatric institutions or post mortem during war, crimes, and civil unrest, natural and mass disasters. Prosthodontists are playing very important role in forensic dentistry as they are concerned with fabrication of various prostheses which can serve as an important tool for identification. Identification is essential requirement of any medico-legal investigation because a wrong identity may pose a problem in delivering justice. The main objective of this article is to discuss the various methods of denture marking and to emphasize the importance of denture marking for person identification in medico legal investigations.

  16. 46 CFR 160.077-31 - PFD Marking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    .... Each recreational hybrid PFD must be marked with the following text using capital letters where shown... DEATH BY DROWNING —YOU MAY HAVE TO INFLATE THIS PFD TO FLOAT. —TRY THIS PFD IN THE WATER EACH SEASON TO... capital letters where shown and be presented in the exact order shown: Type PFD Commercial...

  17. The Genetic Psychologies of James Mark Baldwin and Jean Piaget.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cahan, Emily D.

    1984-01-01

    Describes the ideas proposed by James Mark Baldwin which anticipated much of Jean Piaget's work. The goals, genetic approach, and epistemological assumptions underlying Piaget's inquiry into cognitive development found explicit statement in Baldwin's work. Discusses Baldwin's current importance for psychology. (Author/CB)

  18. Koht, kust tagasi ei tulda / Mark Jenkins ; fotod Cory Richards

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Jenkins, Mark

    2015-01-01

    National Geographicu ekspeditsiooni, mille koosseisu kuulusid Renan Ozturk, Mark Jenkins, Cory Richards, Emily Harrington ja Kilaree O'Neill, püüdlustest tõusta Kagu-Aasia kõrgeima mäe Hkakabo Razi tippu ning mõõta selle täpset kõrgust GPS-i abil

  19. Koht, kust tagasi ei tulda / Mark Jenkins ; fotod Cory Richards

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Jenkins, Mark

    2015-01-01

    National Geographicu ekspeditsiooni, mille koosseisu kuulusid Renan Ozturk, Mark Jenkins, Cory Richards, Emily Harrington ja Kilaree O'Neill, püüdlustest tõusta Kagu-Aasia kõrgeima mäe Hkakabo Razi tippu ning mõõta selle täpset kõrgust GPS-i abil

  20. Realisatie van mestvergisting op De Marke : onderzoek en demonstratie

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kool, A.; Hilhorst, G.J.; Vegte, van der D.Z.

    2005-01-01

    Op De Marke doen CLM en het Praktijkonderzoek ASG sinds enige jaren onderzoek naar de perspectieven van mestvergisting. Ze onderzoeken rentabiliteit, vermindering van de emissie van broeikasgassen en de mogelijkheden voor co-vergisting. Dit rapport beschrijft de ervaringen van de eerste jaren onderz