Sudanese Adolescent Refugees: Acculturation and Acculturative Stress
Poppitt, Gillian; Frey, Ron
This study explored acculturation and acculturative stress in Sudanese adolescent refugees living in Brisbane. Twenty Sudanese adolescents participated in semi-structured interviews which revealed that the main source of acculturative stress was related to concern over English language proficiency, issues of parental control and conflicting…
Latinos, acculturation, and acculturative stress: a dimensional concept analysis.
Acculturation can be conceived of as a process of adaptation to stressful changes. In the field of public health, research indicates that recently arrived Latino immigrants, presumably most affected by acculturative stress, have better health outcomes than those who have spent greater time in the United States. This "immigrant paradox" is not well understood but supports the distinction between the process of acculturation and acculturative stress. To understand the nature of acculturative stress for Latinos in the context of political, historical, and societal forces. Acculturative stress significantly affects the physical and mental health of many Latino immigrants. Types of stressors vary by ethnicity. Separation from family and lack of a community was the most often-cited stressor for new immigrants. Most Latino immigrants were adversely affected by discrimination. By developing an understanding of acculturative stress, nurses can better attend to the needs of our increasingly diverse population.
Acculturation, acculturative stressors, and family relationships among Latina/o immigrants.
Bostean, Georgiana; Gillespie, Brian Joseph
Family relationships, widely recognized as core to Latino cultures, are known to vary for Latina/o immigrants based on time in the United States. Less is known about (a) how acculturation explains differences in family relationships by time in the US, and (b) whether acculturative stressors influence different aspects of immigrants' family relationships. Drawing on an expanded acculturation framework, we explore whether and how attitudinal familism, family contact, and family conflict among immigrant Latina/os vary based on acculturation and acculturative stressors. Using nationally representative data on foreign-born Latina/os (National Latino and Asian American Study; N = 1,618), ordered logistic and OLS regression analyses examined whether differences in family relationships by time in the US are explained by acculturation factors, and whether acculturative stressors are associated with family relationships when controlling for other important sociodemographic factors. Accounting for acculturation reduces the effect of time in the US on attitudinal familism and family conflict to nonsignificance. Spanish language proficiency and ethnic identity are associated with higher attitudinal familism, while English proficiency is associated with increased family conflict. Additionally, acculturative stressors (involuntary context of exit, hostile context of reception, limited origin country ties) are associated with lower attitudinal familism and higher conflict. Results highlight the importance of (a) examining the ways that migration influences multiple aspects of family relationships, (b) adopting a more comprehensive acculturation framework. Particularly novel are our findings on how acculturative stressors are associated with different family outcomes. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2018 APA, all rights reserved).
Predictors of Soviet Jewish refugees' acculturation: differentiation of self and acculturative stress.
Roytburd, Luba; Friedlander, Myrna L
The authors investigated the acculturation of 108 Jewish young adults who had immigrated to the United States between the ages of 9 and 21 from the former Soviet Union as a function of differentiation of self (M. Bowen, 1978) and acculturative stress. One aspect of differentiation, the ability to take an "I-position" with others, uniquely predicted greater American acculturation and less Russian acculturation, indicating that participants who reported an ability to act on their own needs in the context of social pressure tended to be more assimilated. Russian acculturation was also uniquely associated with more frequent perceived discrimination (one aspect of acculturative stress) during adolescence. Participants who had spent a greater proportion of their lifetime in the United States were more American acculturated and less Russian acculturated, reflecting assimilation rather than biculturalism.
Dietary Acculturation among Filipino Americans.
Vargas, Persephone; Jurado, Leo-Felix
Acculturation, the subsequent changes that occur in one culture after continuous first hand contact with another culture, impacts the dietary habits and health risks of individuals. This study examines the acculturation, dietary habits and anthropometric measurements in a sample of 210 first generation Filipino American immigrants in New Jersey (NJ). Acculturation was measured using the Short Acculturation Scale for Filipino Americans (ASASFA). Dietary acculturation was measured using the Dietary Acculturation Questionnaire for Filipino Americans (DAQFA) and dietary intake was determined using the Block's Brief Food Frequency Questionnaire (BFFQ). Anthropometric measurements were obtained including weight, height and waist circumference. Acculturation had a significant negative relationship with Filipino Dietary acculturation. Western dietary acculturation was significantly correlated with caloric intake (r(208) = 0.193, p Filipino dietary acculturation, dietary intake and anthropometric measurements. The results showed that Filipino American immigrants have increased risks including increased BMI, waist circumference and increased fat intake. Over all, this research highlighted some dietary changes and their effects on dietary intake and health status.
Discrimination, acculturation, acculturative stress, and Latino psychological distress: a moderated mediational model.
Torres, Lucas; Driscoll, Mark W; Voell, Maria
Prior research has found that perceived discrimination is associated with adverse mental health outcomes among Latinos. However, the process by which this relationship occurs remains an understudied area. The present study investigated the role of acculturative stress in underlying the relationship between perceived discrimination and Latino psychological distress. Also examined was the ability of acculturation to serve as a moderator between perceived discrimination and acculturative stress. Among a sample of Latino adults (N = 669), moderated mediational analyses revealed that acculturative stress mediated the perceived discrimination-psychological distress relationship, and that the link between perceived discrimination and acculturative stress was moderated by Anglo behavioral orientation but not Latino behavioral orientation. The findings are discussed within a stress and coping perspective that identifies the psychological consequences associated with perceived discrimination and acculturative stress.
Psychological Theories of Acculturation
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advancements, together with greater mobility. Acculturation psychology aims to comprehend the dynamic psychological processes and outcomes emanating from intercultural contact. Acculturation psychology has been a growing field of research within cross-cultural psychology. Today, psychological theories......The proliferation of cultural transition and intercultural contact has highlighted the importance of psychological theories of acculturation. Acculturation, understood as contact between diverse cultural streams, has become prevalent worldwide due to technological, economical, and educational...... of acculturation also include cognate disciplines such as cultural psychology, social psychology, sociology, and anthropology.The expansion of psychological theories of acculturation has led to advancements in the field of research as well as the bifurcation of epistemological and methodological approaches...
The Specificity Principle in Acculturation Science
Bornstein, Marc H.
The Specificity Principle in Acculturation Science asserts that specific setting conditions of specific people at specific times moderate specific domains in acculturation by specific processes. Our understanding of acculturation depends critically on what is studied where, in whom, how, and when. This article defines, explains, and illustrates the Specificity Principle in Acculturation Science. Research hypotheses about acculturation can be more adequately tested, inconsistencies and discrepancies in the acculturation literature can be satisfactorily resolved, acculturation interventions can be tailored to be more successful, and acculturation policies can be brought to new levels of effectiveness if the specificity principle that governs acculturation science is more widely recognized. PMID:28073331
Acculturation and Psychological Adjustment of Vietnamese Refugees: An Ecological Acculturation Framework.
Salo, Corrina D; Birman, Dina
Acculturation to the culture of the host society as well as to one's heritage culture have been shown to impact immigrants' adjustment during the years following resettlement. While acculturation has been identified as an important factor in adjustment of Vietnamese immigrants (Birman and Tran in Am J Orthopsychiatr 78(1):109-120. doi: 10.1037/0002-9422.214.171.124 , 2008), no clear pattern of findings has emerged and too few studies have employed an ecological approach. The purpose of this paper is to contextualize the study of acculturation and adjustment by taking an ecological approach to exploring these relationships across several life domains, using a bilinear scale, and examining mediators of these relationships for adult Vietnamese refugees (N = 203) in the United States. We call this approach the Ecological Acculturation Framework (EAF). Results of a structural equation model (SEM) showed that job satisfaction fully mediated the relationship between American acculturation and psychological distress, demonstrating that this relationship was specific to an occupational domain. However, while Vietnamese acculturation predicted co-ethnic social support satisfaction, it did not predict reduced psychological distress. Implications for a life domains approach, including domain specificity, are discussed.
Disaggregating the effects of acculturation and acculturative stress on the mental health of Asian Americans.
Hwang, Wei-Chin; Ting, Julia Y
This study examines the impact of level of acculturation and acculturative stress on the mental health of Asian American college students. Hierarchical regression analyses were used to clarify the relation between level of acculturation, acculturative stress, and mental health outcomes (psychological distress and clinical depression). Being less identified with mainstream United States culture was associated with higher psychological distress and clinical depression, but lost significance when acculturative stress was introduced into the model. Retention or relinquishing of identification with one's heritage culture was not associated with mental health outcomes. Although understanding level of acculturation can help us identify those at risk, findings suggest that acculturative stress is a more proximal risk factor and increases risk for mental health problems independently of global perceptions of stress.
Dietary Acculturation among Filipino Americans
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Full Text Available Acculturation, the subsequent changes that occur in one culture after continuous first hand contact with another culture, impacts the dietary habits and health risks of individuals. This study examines the acculturation, dietary habits and anthropometric measurements in a sample of 210 first generation Filipino American immigrants in New Jersey (NJ. Acculturation was measured using the Short Acculturation Scale for Filipino Americans (ASASFA. Dietary acculturation was measured using the Dietary Acculturation Questionnaire for Filipino Americans (DAQFA and dietary intake was determined using the Block’s Brief Food Frequency Questionnaire (BFFQ. Anthropometric measurements were obtained including weight, height and waist circumference. Acculturation had a significant negative relationship with Filipino Dietary acculturation. Western dietary acculturation was significantly correlated with caloric intake (r(208 = 0.193, p < 0.01, percentage fat intake (r(208 = 0.154, p < 0.05, percentage carbohydrate intake (r(208 = −0.172, p < 0.05, Body Mass Index (BMI (r(208 = 0.216, p < 0.01 and waist circumference (r(208 = 0.161, p < 0.01. There was no significant correlation between Filipino dietary acculturation, dietary intake and anthropometric measurements. The results showed that Filipino American immigrants have increased risks including increased BMI, waist circumference and increased fat intake. Over all, this research highlighted some dietary changes and their effects on dietary intake and health status.
Sport and migrants' acculturation
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. Furthermore, an empowering motivational environment characterized by a mastery climate, supportive of the needs of autonomy, competence, and relatedness, was positively linked to attitudes favoring migrants' maintenance of their culture and development of interaction with the host culture, whereas......In the era of globalization, multicultural societies are common-place in most developed countries. Therefore, new challenges at both national and international level have come to the fore, and successful acculturation appears to be the key for maintaining social cohesion and promoting...... the acculturation process and to identify factors that may regulate the acculturation process through sport participation. The second study focuses on adolescent migrants and aimed at identifying differences in acculturation attitudes and acculturative stress among young migrants who participate in sports and those...
The impact of acculturation and acculturative stress on alcohol use across Asian immigrant subgroups.
Park, So-Youn; Anastas, Jeane; Shibusawa, Tazuko; Nguyen, Duy
Acculturation and acculturative stress are examined as predictors of alcohol use among Asian immigrants, using the 2004 National Latino and Asian Americans Survey (NLAAS). Separate regression analyses were conducted for Chinese (n = 600), Filipino (n = 508), and Vietnamese (n = 520) immigrants. Alcohol use varied for the three groups. English proficiency was associated with drinking for all groups. Family conflict was associated with drinking for Chinese immigrants. General acculturative stress and discrimination were associated with drinking for Vietnamese immigrants. Results underscore acculturation and acculturative stress as being contributors to alcohol consumption, and the importance of considering the heterogeneity of Asian immigrants in research on their alcohol use. The study's limitations are noted.
The Relationship between Print Literacy, Acculturation, and Acculturative Stress among Mexican Immigrant Women
Cintron, Alexander Modesto
The purpose of this study was to examine print literacy, acculturation, and acculturative stress among one-hundred and six Mexican immigrant women participating in a family literacy program. The two hypotheses were: (1.) There is a relationship between (a) print literacy as measured by the Print Literacy Questionnaire and (b) acculturation as…
Measuring globalization-based acculturation in Ladakh
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Ozer, Simon; Schwartz, Seth
Theories and methodologies within acculturation psychology have been advanced in orderto capture the complex process of intercultural contact in various contexts. Differentiatingglobalization-based acculturation from immigrant-based acculturation has broadened thefield of acculturation psychology...... to include groups who are exposed to global culturalstreams without international migration. The globalization-based acculturation process inthe North Indian region of Ladakh appears to be a tricultural encounter, suggesting anaddendum to the bidimensional acculturation model for this group (and perhaps...... for othersas well). This study explores the development, usability, and validity of a tridimensionalacculturation measure aiming to capture the multicultural orientations initiated by theprocess of globalization in Ladakh. The tridimensional acculturation scale was found to fitthe data significantly better...
Acculturation, Acculturative Stress, and Depressive Symptoms in International Migrants: A Study with Vietnamese Women in South Korea.
Cho, Yong Ju; Jang, Yuri; Ko, Jung Eun; Lee, Sun Hae; Moon, Soo Kyung
Globally, there have been increasing numbers of migrant women; these women are at an increased risk for depressive symptoms. The purpose of this study was to examine the associations among acculturation, acculturative stress and depressive symptoms in Vietnamese women who migrated to South Korea through marriages. We hypothesized that acculturative stress would serve as a mediator in the relationship between acculturation and depressive symptoms. Our findings from surveys with 217 Vietnamese immigrant women showed that the indirect effect of acculturation on depressive symptoms, mediated through acculturative stress [- .15 (.04)], was significant (bias corrected 95% confidence interval for the indirect effect = - .25, - .08). Low levels of acculturation increased acculturative stress, which in turn led to the elevated symptoms of depression. Our findings not only illuminate the adaptation processes of international, female migrants but also suggest avenues to protect and promote their mental well-being.
Reconsidering the “acculturation gap” narrative through an analysis of parent–adolescent acculturation differences in Mexican American families
Nieri, Tanya; Grindal, Matthew; Adams, Michele A.; Cookston, Jeffrey T.; Fabricius, William V.; Parke, Ross D.; Saenz, Delia S.
Using a sample of 193 Mexican American adolescents (M age at Wave 1 = 14) and three waves of data over two years, this study longitudinally examined the effects of parent-youth acculturation differences, relative to no differences, on parent-adolescent relationship quality and youth problem behavior. We examined parent-youth differences in overall acculturation, Mexican acculturation, and American acculturation. We differentiated between cases in which the adolescent was more acculturated than the parent and cases in which the parent was more acculturated than the adolescent. Adolescents were more commonly similar to their parents than different. Where differences existed, adolescents were not uniformly more American than their parents, no type of difference was associated with parent-adolescent relationship quality, and no type of difference in overall acculturation was associated with youth problem behavior. One type of difference by dimension (adolescent had less Mexican acculturation than mother) was associated with less risk of problem behavior. PMID:27695153
Acculturation and Health of Korean American Adults.
Shin, Cha-Nam; Lach, Helen W
Increasing cultural diversity in the United States and significant health disparities among immigrant populations make acculturation an important concept to measure in health research. The purpose of this cross-sectional, descriptive study was to examine acculturation and health of Korean American adults. A convenience sample of 517 Korean American adults in a Midwestern city completed a survey in either English or Korean. All four groups of Berry's acculturation model were identified using cluster analysis with Lee's Acculturation Scale. Assimilation, integration, and separation were found in the English survey sample, whereas integration, separation, and marginalization were found in the Korean survey sample. Moreover, the findings revealed that acculturation is a bidimensional process, and the unique nature of samples may determine acculturation groups. Physical health and mental health were significantly related to acculturation in the English survey sample. However, there was not a significant relationship between health and acculturation in the Korean survey sample. © The Author(s) 2014.
The Interplay of International Students' Acculturative Stress, Social Support, and Acculturation Modes
Sullivan, Christopher; Kashubeck-West, Susan
This study examined the relationship between acculturation modes (assimilation, integration, separation and marginalization), social support, and acculturative stress in undergraduate and graduate international students (N=104) at a medium-sized public university in the Midwestern United States. The study found that international students with…
Unidimensional and Bidimensional Approaches to Measuring Acculturation.
Shin, Cha-Nam; Todd, Michael; An, Kyungeh; Kim, Wonsun Sunny
Researchers easily overlook the complexity of acculturation measurement in research. This study is to elaborate the shortcomings of unidimensional approaches to conceptualizing acculturation and highlight the importance of using bidimensional approaches in health research. We conducted a secondary data analysis on acculturation measures and eating habits obtained from 261 Korean American adults in a Midwestern city. Bidimensional approaches better conceptualized acculturation and explained more of the variance in eating habits than did unidimensional approaches. Bidimensional acculturation measures combined with appropriate analytical methods, such as a cluster analysis, are recommended in health research because they provide a more comprehensive understanding of acculturation and its association with health behaviors than do other methods.
Minority acculturation and peer rejection: Costs of acculturation misfit with peer-group norms.
Celeste, Laura; Meeussen, Loes; Verschueren, Karine; Phalet, Karen
How do minority adolescents' personal acculturation preferences and peer norms of acculturation affect their social inclusion in school? Turkish and Moroccan minority adolescents (N = 681) reported their preferences for heritage culture maintenance, mainstream culture adoption, and their experiences of peer rejection as a key indicator of adjustment problems. Additionally, we aggregated peer acculturation norms of maintenance and adoption within ethnically diverse classrooms (N = 230 in 50 Belgian schools), distinguishing between co-ethnic (Turkish or Moroccan classmates only, N = 681) and cross-ethnic norms (also including N = 1,930 other classmates). Cross-ethnic peer-group norms (of adoption and maintenance) and co-ethnic norms (of maintenance, marginally) predicted minority experiences of peer rejection (controlling for ethnic composition). Moreover, misfit of minorities' own acculturation preferences with both cross-ethnic and co-ethnic peer-group norms was harmful. When cross-ethnic norms stressed adoption, 'integrationist' minority youth - who combined culture adoption with maintenance - experienced most peer rejection. Yet, when co-ethnic peers stressed maintenance, 'assimilationist' minority youth experienced most rejection. In conclusion, acculturation misfit with peer-group norms is a risk factor for minority inclusion in ethnically diverse environments. © 2016 The British Psychological Society.
Acculturation Dissonance, Acculturation Strategy, Depressive Symptoms, and Delinquency in Latina/o Adolescents
Frazer, Andrew L.; Rubens, Sonia; Johnson-Motoyama, Michelle; DiPierro, Moneika; Fite, Paula J.
Background: Two risk factors for negative outcomes in Latina/o youth are acculturation dissonance (i.e., discrepant family cultural orientations) and the endorsement of an assimilation strategy of acculturation (i.e., valuing dominant mainstream culture over culture of origin). Though these have been uniquely studied as risk factors for…
Acculturation Process and Distress: Mediating Roles of Sociocultural Adaptation and Acculturative Stress
Wu, Ellery K. Y.; Mak, Winnie W. S.
The present study applied the theory of planned behavior (TPB) to unfold the social cognitive antecedents of acculturation and investigated the effects of acculturation on psychological distress using a longitudinal design. A total of 180 mainland Chinese university students studying in Hong Kong completed three sets of questionnaires every 2…
Acculturation, personality, and psychological adjustment.
Ahadi, Stephan A; Puente-Díaz, Rogelio
Two studies investigated relationships between traditional indicators of acculturation, cultural distance, acculturation strategies, and basic dimensions of personality as they pertain to psychological adjustment among Hispanic students. Although personality characteristics have been shown to be important determinants of psychological well-being, acculturation research has put less emphasis on the role of personality in the well-being of immigrants. Hierarchical regression analysis showed that basic dimensions of personality such as extraversion and neuroticism were strongly related to psychological adjustment. Acculturation strategies did not mediate the effect of personality variables, but cultural resistance made a small, independent contribution to the explanation of some aspects of negative psychological adjustment. The implications of the results were discussed.
Acculturation in Context: The Moderating Effects of Immigrant and Native Peer Orientations on the Acculturation Experiences of Immigrants.
Titzmann, Peter F; Jugert, Philipp
Immigrant adolescents have to navigate through a complex social environment consisting of, at least, both a native and a co-ethnic community. This study used a multi-level framework to consider two research questions involving this complexity. The individual-level associations of acculturation orientations and acculturative hassles (language and sociocultural adaptation) was assessed in immigrant youths, and whether this association differs depending on the school-level acculturation orientations held by co-ethnic peers, and the school-level orientations toward immigrants held by native German peers. We then investigated whether acculturative hassles are associated with the psychosocial functioning (self-efficacy, depressive symptoms) of immigrant adolescents. The sample comprised 650 ethnic German Diaspora migrant adolescents (mean age 15.6 years, 53.7 % female) and their 787 native German peers (mean age 15.05 years, 51 % female). The results showed that contextual factors (co-ethnic acculturation orientation, native friendship preferences) moderated the association between the acculturation orientations of adolescent immigrants and both types of acculturative hassles. Acculturative hassles, in turn, were associated with the psychosocial functioning of adolescents. This research demonstrates that a person-by-context perspective is needed to better understand the adaptation of adolescent immigrants. This perspective has to take into account both the native and the co-ethnic peer environment.
Language Learners' Acculturation Attitudes
Rafieyan, Vahid; Orang, Maryam; Bijami, Maryam; Nejad, Maryam Sharafi; Eng, Lin Siew
Learning a language involves knowledge of both linguistic competence and cultural competence. Optimal development of linguistic competence and cultural competence, however, requires a high level of acculturation attitude toward the target language culture. To this end, the present study explored the acculturation attitudes of 70 Iranian…
Acculturation Predicts Negative Affect and Shortened Telomere Length.
Ruiz, R Jeanne; Trzeciakowski, Jerome; Moore, Tiffany; Ayers, Kimberly S; Pickler, Rita H
Chronic stress may accelerate cellular aging. Telomeres, protective "caps" at the end of chromosomes, modulate cellular aging and may be good biomarkers for the effects of chronic stress, including that associated with acculturation. The purpose of this analysis was to examine telomere length (TL) in acculturating Hispanic Mexican American women and to determine the associations among TL, acculturation, and psychological factors. As part of a larger cross-sectional study of 516 pregnant Hispanic Mexican American women, we analyzed DNA in blood samples (N = 56) collected at 22-24 weeks gestation for TL as an exploratory measure using monochrome multiplex quantitative telomere polymerase chain reaction (PCR). We measured acculturation with the Acculturation Rating Scale for Mexican Americans, depression with the Beck Depression Inventory, discrimination with the Experiences of Discrimination Scale, and stress with the Perceived Stress Scale. TL was negatively moderately correlated with two variables of acculturation: Anglo orientation and greater acculturation-level scores. We combined these scores for a latent variable, acculturation, and we combined depression, stress, and discrimination scores in another latent variable, "negative affectivity." Acculturation and negative affectivity were bidirectionally correlated. Acculturation significantly negatively predicted TL. Using structural equation modeling, we found the model had an excellent fit with the root mean square error of approximation estimate = .0001, comparative fit index = 1.0, Tucker-Lewis index = 1.0, and standardized root mean square residual = .05. The negative effects of acculturation on the health of Hispanic women have been previously demonstrated. Findings from this analysis suggest a link between acculturation and TL, which may indicate accelerated cellular aging associated with overall poor health outcomes. © The Author(s) 2016.
Decomposing associations between acculturation and drinking in Mexican Americans
Mills, Britain A.; Caetano, Raul
Background Acculturation to life in the United States is a known predictor of Hispanic drinking behavior. We compare the ability of 2 theoretical models of this effect – sociocultural theory and general stress theory – to account for associations between acculturation and drinking in a sample of Mexican Americans. Limitations of previous evaluations of these theoretical models are addressed by using a broader range of hypothesized cognitive mediators and a more direct measure of acculturative stress. In addition, we explore nonlinearities as possible underpinnings of attenuated acculturation effects among males. Methods Respondents (N = 2,595, current drinker N = 1,351) were interviewed as part of 2 recent multistage probability samples in a study of drinking behavior among Mexican Americans in the United States. The ability of norms, drinking motives, alcohol expectancies, and acculturation stress to account for relations between acculturation and drinking outcomes (volume and heavy drinking days) were assessed with a hierarchical linear regression strategy. Nonlinear trends were assessed by modeling quadratic effects of acculturation and acculturation stress on cognitive mediators and drinking outcomes. Results Consistent with previous findings, acculturation effects on drinking outcomes were stronger for females than males. Among females, only drinking motives explained acculturation associations with volume or heavy drinking days. Among males, acculturation was linked to increases in norms, and norms were positive predictors of drinking outcomes. However, adjusted effects of acculturation were non-existent or trending in a negative direction, which counter-acted this indirect normative influence. Acculturation stress did not explain positive associations between acculturation and drinking. Conclusions Stress and alcohol outcome expectancies play little role in the positive linear association between acculturation and drinking outcomes, but drinking motives
Decomposing associations between acculturation and drinking in Mexican Americans.
Mills, Britain A; Caetano, Raul
Acculturation to life in the United States is a known predictor of Hispanic drinking behavior. We compare the ability of 2 theoretical models of this effect-sociocultural theory and general stress theory-to account for associations between acculturation and drinking in a sample of Mexican Americans. Limitations of previous evaluations of these theoretical models are addressed using a broader range of hypothesized cognitive mediators and a more direct measure of acculturative stress. In addition, we explore nonlinearities as possible underpinnings of attenuated acculturation effects among men. Respondents (N = 2,595, current drinker N = 1,351) were interviewed as part of 2 recent multistage probability samples in a study of drinking behavior among Mexican Americans in the United States. The ability of norms, drinking motives, alcohol expectancies, and acculturation stress to account for relations between acculturation and drinking outcomes (volume and heavy drinking days) were assessed with a hierarchical linear regression strategy. Nonlinear trends were assessed by modeling quadratic effects of acculturation and acculturation stress on cognitive mediators and drinking outcomes. Consistent with previous findings, acculturation effects on drinking outcomes were stronger for women than men. Among women, only drinking motives explained acculturation associations with volume or heavy drinking days. Among men, acculturation was linked to increases in norms, and norms were positive predictors of drinking outcomes. However, adjusted effects of acculturation were nonexistent or trending in a negative direction, which counteracted this indirect normative influence. Acculturation stress did not explain the positive associations between acculturation and drinking. Stress and alcohol outcome expectancies play little role in the positive linear association between acculturation and drinking outcomes, but drinking motives appear to at least partially account for this effect
Predicting levels of Latino depression: acculturation, acculturative stress, and coping.
Past research has noted that aspects of living in the United States place Latinos at risk for experiencing psychological problems. However, the specific features of the adaptation process that contribute to depression remain unclear. The purpose of the present study was to investigate the ability of acculturation, acculturative stress, and coping to predict membership into low, medium, and high groups of depression among Latinos. Within a group of 148 Latino adults from the community, a multinomial logistic regression revealed that an Anglo orientation, English competency pressures, and active coping differentiated high from low depression and that a Latino orientation and, to some extent, the pressure to acculturate distinguished medium from low depression. These results highlight a pattern of characteristics that function as risk and protective factors in relation to level of symptom severity. The findings are discussed in terms of implications for Latino mental health, including considerations for intervention and prevention. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2010 APA, all rights reserved.
Acculturation and Acculturative Stress as Predictors of Psychological Distress and Quality-of-Life Functioning in Hispanic Psychiatric Patients
Thoman, Lisa Vinuesa; Suris, Alina
This study examined acculturation level and type, acculturative stress, and several demographic variables as predictors of psychological distress and health-related quality of life in a sample of 101 Hispanic patients at a community psychiatric clinic. Acculturative stress was predictive of psychological distress beyond the effects of the…
Ethnic, Gender, and Acculturation Influences on Sexual Behaviors
Much research has been conducted on ethnic differences in sexuality, but few studies have systematically assessed the importance of acculturation in sexual behavior. The present study assessed general differences in normative sexual practices in healthy Euro-American, Asian, and Hispanic populations, using measures of acculturation to analyze the relative effects of heritage and mainstream cultures within each group. A total of 1,419 undergraduates (67% Euro-American, 17% Hispanic, 16% Asian; 33% men, 67% women) completed questionnaires which assessed sexual experience and causal sexual behaviors. In concordance with previous studies, Asians reported more conservative levels of sexual experience and frequency of sexual behaviors, fewer lifetime partners, and later ages of sexual debut than Euro-American or Hispanic counterparts. Hispanic reported sexual experiences similar to that of Euro-Americans. There was a significant interaction between mainstream and heritage acculturation in predicting number of lifetime sexual partners in Asian women such that the relationship between heritage acculturation and casual sexual behavior was stronger at lower levels of mainstream acculturation. On the other hand, in Hispanic men, higher levels of mainstream acculturation predicted more casual sexual behavior (one-time sexual encounters and number of lifetime sexual partners) when heritage acculturation was low but less casual sexual behavior when heritage acculturation was high. These results suggest that, for sexual behavior, Hispanic men follow an “ethnogenesis” model of acculturation while Asian women follow an “assimilation” model of acculturation. PMID:18931901
Recent cannabis use among adolescent and young adult immigrants in the Netherlands - the roles of acculturation strategy and linguistic acculturation
Delforterie, M.J.; Creemers, H.E.; Huizink, A.C.
Background: The present study examined the relation between two different acculturation measures (i.e., linguistic acculturation and the acculturation strategies integration, separation and marginalization) and past year cannabis use. Additionally, we studied the mediating role of affiliation with
Is Acculturation a Dynamic Construct?: The Influence of Method of Priming Culture on Acculturation
Recent evidence suggests that culture is a dynamic construct activated in response to cues encountered in a given situation. Research on acculturation indicates that this is a complex construct that might be domain specific. Two studies were undertaken to investigate the effect of two ways of priming culture on acculturation and enculturation…
Acculturation and sexuality: investigating gender differences in erotic plasticity.
Benuto, Lorraine; Meana, Marta
The contention that women are more erotically plastic than men is supported by a significant body of data, from which it has been inferred (Baumeister, 2000) that female sexuality may be more flexible and more heavily influenced by contextual factors than that of men. As a direct test of erotic plasticity, the present study investigated the extent to which acculturation was associated differentially (as would be predicted by the theory of greater female erotic plasticity) with the sexual attitudes and experiences of 111 college men and 167 college women. For sexual attitudes, main effects were found for gender, acculturation level, and ethnicity. Women endorsed more conservative attitudes than men, less acculturated individuals endorsed more conservative sexual attitudes than the more acculturated group, and Asian Americans had the most conservative sexual attitudes. For sexual experience, a main effect was found for acculturation, with the more highly acculturated group reporting a greater variety of sexual experiences than the less acculturated group. There were no gender-by-acculturation interactions. This study thus did not find support for the theory of female erotic plasticity, insofar as the impact of acculturation on a sample of ethno-culturally diverse college students.
The Impact of Acculturation Style and Acculturative Hassles on the Mental Health of Somali Adolescent Refugees.
Lincoln, Alisa K; Lazarevic, Vanja; White, Matthew T; Ellis, B Heidi
Refugee adolescents often immigrate to a new society because of experiences of persecution and trauma, which can have profound effects on their mental health. Once they immigrate, many refugees experience stressors related to resettlement and acculturation in the new society. The current study examined relationships among acculturation styles and hassles and the well-being of young refugees as well as the role of gender. Data were collected from 135 young refugees (M age = 15.39, SD = 2.2; 62 % male) from Somalia resettled in the United States The findings from our study indicate that in addition to trauma history, acculturative hassles and acculturation style impact the wellbeing of Somali refugee adolescents. These findings indicate the need to understand both past experiences as well as current challenges. Potential areas for intervention are discussed.
Recent cannabis use among adolescent and young adult immigrants in the Netherlands – The roles of acculturation strategy and linguistic acculturation
Delforterie, M.J.; Creemers, H.E.; Huizink, A.C.
Background: The present study examined the relation between two different acculturation measures (i.e., linguistic acculturation and the acculturation strategies integration, separation and marginalization) and past year cannabis use. Additionally, we studied the mediating role of affiliation with
Relationship between perceived acculturation expectations and Muslim minority youth's acculturation and adaptation
Kunst, J. R.; Sam, D. L.
Acculturation strategies have frequently been used to describe how members of ethnic minorities reconcile their heritage culture with the culture of their society of residence. Recently, studies have started to pay increased attention to the fact that the choice of acculturation strategy does not take place in a social vacuum. In the present study, we test whether the perception of assimilation expectations held by the societal majority (PSAE) as well as separation expectations held by ethnic...
Language Acculturation, Acculturation-Related Stress, and Marital Quality in Chinese American Couples.
Hou, Yang; Neff, Lisa A; Kim, Su Yeong
The current study examines the longitudinal indirect pathways linking language acculturation to marital quality. Three waves of data were collected from 416 Chinese American couples over eight years ( M age.wave1 = 48 for husbands, 44 for wives). Actor-partner interdependence model analyses revealed that for both husbands and wives, lower levels of language acculturation were associated with higher levels of stress over being stereotyped as a perpetual foreigner. Individuals' foreigner stress, in turn, was directly related to greater levels of their own and their partners' marital warmth, suggesting that foreigner stress may have some positive relational effects. However, individuals' foreigner stress also was associated with increases in their own depressive symptoms, which predicted higher levels of marital hostility in the partner. Overall, these results underscore the complexity of how language acculturation and foreigner stress relate to marital quality and the importance of considering the interdependence of the marital system.
Effects of Latino children on their mothers' dietary intake and dietary behaviors: The role of children's acculturation and the mother-child acculturation gap.
Soto, Sandra H; Arredondo, Elva M; Marcus, Bess; Shakya, Holly B; Roesch, Scott; Ayala, Guadalupe X
Research shows that acculturation is important to Latinas' dietary intake and related behaviors. Although evidence suggests children may also play a role, it remains unclear whether children's acculturation is related to mothers' dietary intake/behaviors. We examined the relationship between Latino children's acculturation and mothers' dietary intake/behaviors. We also examined the mother-child acculturation gap to identify dyad characteristics associated with mothers' diet. Baseline surveys were collected in 2010 from 314 Latino mother-child (7-13 years old) dyads of Mexican-origin enrolled in a family-based dietary intervention in Southern California, USA. Mother's daily intake of fruits, vegetables, and sugary beverages, percent of calories from fat, weekly away-from-home eating, and percent of weekly grocery dollars spent on fruits and vegetables were assessed via self-report. Mothers' and children's bidimensional acculturation were examined using acculturation groups (e.g., assimilated, bicultural) derived from Hispanic and non-Hispanic dimensions of language. We also assessed the acculturation gap between mothers and children with the a) difference in acculturation between mothers' and children's continuous acculturation scores and b) mother-child acculturation gap typologies (e.g., traditional mothers of assimilated children). Findings show that having an assimilated versus a bicultural child was negatively associated with mothers' vegetable intake and positively associated with mothers' sugary beverage intake, percent of calories from fat, and frequency of away-from-home eating, regardless of mothers' acculturation. Traditional mothers of assimilated children reported more sugary beverage intake, calories from fat, and more frequent away-from-home eating than traditional mothers of bicultural children. Results suggest that children's acculturation is associated with their mothers' dietary intake/behaviors and traditional mothers of assimilated children
Acculturative dissonance, ethnic identity, and youth violence.
Le, Thao N; Stockdale, Gary
Studies suggest that the process of acculturation for immigrant youth, particularly for second-generation youth, is significantly associated with delinquency and violence. This study explored the acculturation-violence link with respect to acculturative dissonance and ethnic identity. The results revealed in a sample of 329 Chinese, Cambodian, Mien/Laotian, and Vietnamese youth that acculturative dissonance was significantly predictive of serious violence, with full mediation through peer delinquency. Ethnic identity was not significantly associated with peer delinquency or serious violence. Although acculturative dissonance and ethnic identity accounted for a small percentage of variance in violence compared with peer delinquency, it cannot be discounted as trivial. Structural equation analyses provided support for both measurement and structural invariance across the four ethnic groups, lending support for cross-cultural comparisons. The results also lend support for the inclusion of cultural factors in youth violence prevention and intervention efforts. 2008 APA
Acculturation Versus Cultural Retention: The Interactive Impact of Acculturation and Co-ethnic Ties on Substance Use Among Chinese Students in the United States.
Yang, Xiaozhao Yousef; Yang, Fenggang
Acculturation is often found to increase substance use among immigrants in the U.S., but such effect may depend on how immigrants are attached to their co-ethnic community. Meanwhile, the high socioeconomic status of some new immigrant groups also challenges the classical assumption that ties to co-ethnic community are associated with deviance. With a sample (n = 960) collected from a population of Chinese students in a large public university in the U.S., we tested how do the interplays between acculturation and co-ethnic ties affect substance use. This study establishes that: (1) different dimensions of acculturation have opposite effects on substance use; (2) acculturative stress does not explain the association between acculturation and substance use; (3) acculturation increases the likelihood of substance use only when one has weak attachment to their co-ethnic community. The findings are consistent for three dependent variables: smoking, drinking, and drunkenness, and for the different constructs of acculturation and co-ethnic ties. Ties to co-ethnic community may provide important social support for immigrants, while acculturation may alleviate the insular subculture that promotes at-risk behaviors. We encourage policy makers to consider the cooperative nature of acculturation and cultural retention for the improvement of health among this growing population.
Assessment of acculturation in minority health research
Fox, Molly; Thayer, Zaneta; Wadhwa, Pathik D.
Acculturation represents an important construct in the context of health disparities. Although several studies have reported relationships between various aspects of acculturation and health in minority populations, crucial inconsistencies remain. One likely reason for these inconsistencies may relate to limitations in the conceptualization and operationalization of acculturation, particularly in the context of health research. The acculturation construct underwent major conceptual and operational change when it was adapted from anthropology to psychology, and we argue another major shift is now required for use of this construct in health research. Issues include determining whether acculturation measures should focus on an individual’s internal attitudes or overt behaviors; whether they should characterize cultural orientation status at a given point in time or change over time; whether measures should be culture-specific or more global in nature; how the issue of multiculturalism should be addressed; how measures can optimally incorporate multiple dimensions of acculturation; and whether proxy measures should be used. These issues are important in the context of health research because of their implications for determining the direct and indirect effects of cultural change on health-related biological and behavioral processes. We elaborate on and address each of these issues from a perspective that spans multiple disciplines across the biological and social sciences, and offer concrete recommendations with the ultimate goal of achieving a better understanding of the role of acculturation in minority health and health disparities. PMID:28135691
Assessment of acculturation in minority health research.
Fox, Molly; Thayer, Zaneta; Wadhwa, Pathik D
Acculturation represents an important construct in the context of health disparities. Although several studies have reported relationships between various aspects of acculturation and health in minority populations, crucial inconsistencies remain. One likely reason for these inconsistencies may relate to limitations in the conceptualization and operationalization of acculturation, particularly in the context of health research. The acculturation construct underwent major conceptual and operational change when it was adapted from anthropology to psychology, and we argue another major shift is now required for use of this construct in health research. Issues include determining whether acculturation measures should focus on an individual's internal attitudes or overt behaviors; whether they should characterize cultural orientation status at a given point in time or change over time; whether measures should be culture-specific or more global in nature; how the issue of multiculturalism should be addressed; how measures can optimally incorporate multiple dimensions of acculturation; and whether proxy measures should be used. These issues are important in the context of health research because of their implications for determining the direct and indirect effects of cultural change on health-related biological and behavioral processes. We elaborate on and address each of these issues from a perspective that spans multiple disciplines across the biological and social sciences, and offer concrete recommendations with the ultimate goal of achieving a better understanding of the role of acculturation in minority health and health disparities. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Impact of Social Support and Coping on Acculturation and Acculturative Stress of East Asian International Students
Ra, Young-An; Trusty, Jerry
The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of social support and coping on acculturation and acculturative stress of international students. The authors used hierarchical multiple regression analysis to study a sample of 232 East Asian international students. The results indicate that social support and coping were partial mediators…
Acculturation and depressive symptoms among Turkish immigrants in Germany.
Morawa, Eva; Erim, Yesim
The present study explores the impact of acculturation on depressive symptoms among Turkish immigrants in Germany, taking into account different dimensions of cultural orientation. A total of 471 patients from two selected samples (254 primary care patients and 217 outpatients of a psychosomatic department) participated. Levels of acculturation were measured as orientation towards culture of origin (CO), and orientation towards the host culture (HC). Acculturation strategies (integration, assimilation, separation, and marginalization) were also assessed as well as their association with depressive symptoms (BDI). Furthermore, gender- and migration-related differences in terms of acculturation and levels of depressive symptomatology were analyzed. Integration was the acculturation strategy associated with the lowest level of depressive symptoms (M = 14.6, SD = 11.9), while marginalization was associated with the highest (M = 23.5, SD = 14.7). Gender was not found to have a significant impact on acculturation but influenced depressive symptoms, with women (M = 21.8, SD = 13.3) reporting higher levels of depressive symptomatology than men (M = 15.1, SD = 14.0; p acculturation and mental health.
A test of the domain-specific acculturation strategy hypothesis.
Miller, Matthew J; Yang, Minji; Lim, Robert H; Hui, Kayi; Choi, Na-Yeun; Fan, Xiaoyan; Lin, Li-Ling; Grome, Rebekah E; Farrell, Jerome A; Blackmon, Sha'kema
Acculturation literature has evolved over the past several decades and has highlighted the dynamic ways in which individuals negotiate experiences in multiple cultural contexts. The present study extends this literature by testing M. J. Miller and R. H. Lim's (2010) domain-specific acculturation strategy hypothesis-that individuals might use different acculturation strategies (i.e., assimilated, bicultural, separated, and marginalized strategies; J. W. Berry, 2003) across behavioral and values domains-in 3 independent cluster analyses with Asian American participants. Present findings supported the domain-specific acculturation strategy hypothesis as 67% to 72% of participants from 3 independent samples using different strategies across behavioral and values domains. Consistent with theory, a number of acculturation strategy cluster group differences emerged across generational status, acculturative stress, mental health symptoms, and attitudes toward seeking professional psychological help. Study limitations and future directions for research are discussed.
Pizza Oncom Keju Acculturation Of Western And Eastern Culinary
Oda I. B. Hariyanto
The dynamic of human movement allows to be happened the cultural acculturation between nations and tribes. Acculturation process runs well if it produces the integration of cultural elements. Culinary is a part of culture that is inherent culture on that nation therefore the dynamic of human movement allows to be happened culinary acculturation among nations. Culinary acculturation can be happened in various forms the entry of foreign culinary elements into traditional culinary or vice versa....
Acculturation stress and drinking problems among urban heavy drinking Latinos in the Northeast.
Lee, Christina S; Colby, Suzanne M; Rohsenow, Damaris J; López, Steven R; Hernández, Lynn; Caetano, Raul
This study investigates the relationship between the level of acculturation and acculturation stress and the extent to which each predicts problems related to drinking. Hispanics who met criteria for hazardous drinking completed measures of acculturation, acculturation stress, and drinking problems. Sequential multiple regression was used to determine whether the levels of self-reported acculturation stress predicted concurrent alcohol problems after controlling for the predictive value of the acculturation level. Acculturation stress accounted for a significant variance in drinking problems, while adjusting for acculturation, income, and education. Choosing to drink in response to acculturation stress should be an intervention target with Hispanic heavy drinkers.
Gender, Acculturation, Food Patterns, and Overweight in Korean Immigrants
Jasti, Sunitha; Lee, Chang Hyun; Doak, Colleen
Objective: To describe acculturation, food patterns, overweight, and gender differences among Korean immigrants in the United States. Methods: A cross-sectional exploratory survey assessed acculturation, food frequencies, and weight status of 195 Korean immigrants. Results: Acculturated Korean immigrants (score greater than or equal to] 2.5) were…
Socio-Psychological Predictors of Acculturative Stress among Latino Adults.
Miranda, Alexis O.; Matheny, Kenneth B.
A random sample (N=197) of two social service agencies completed a questionnaire to assess family cohesion and adaptability, acculturation, acculturative stress, and coping-resources effectiveness among Latino adults. The results suggest that acculturative stress experienced by Latinos relates to the efficacy of stress-coping resources, degree of…
Impact of acculturation on cardiovascular risk factors among elderly Mexican Americans.
López, Lenny; Peralta, Carmen A; Lee, Anne; Zeki Al Hazzouri, Adina; Haan, Mary N
Higher levels of acculturation among Latinos have been shown to be associated with a higher prevalence of cardiovascular (CV) risk factors in some studies of middle-age persons. The association of acculturation and prevalence of CV risk factors in elderly Latinos is less well established. Acculturation was measured using the validated bidimensional Acculturation Rating Scale for Mexican Americans-II. We conducted a cross-sectional analysis of the association of acculturation with prevalence of CV risk factors among 1789 elderly men and women from the Sacramento Area Latino Study on Aging using multivariate linear and logistic regression. We tested for the interaction of acculturation with risk factors by nativity status. Median age was 69.8 years. Higher acculturation was associated with lower systolic blood pressure, lower low-density lipoprotein, higher high-density lipoprotein, and lower prevalence of CV disease after age and sex adjustment. Higher acculturation remained associated with lower level of low-density lipoprotein and higher level of high-density lipoprotein after full adjustment. Nativity status did not affect these results. Contrary to other reports in middle-aged persons, higher levels of acculturation were associated with better lipid profiles and no significant differences in other CV risk factors by acculturation level in elderly Latinos. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Acculturation: state of the science in nursing.
Buscemi, Charles P
With the onset of global migration, nurses are faced with dealing with cultures from around the world. Having an understanding of transcultural nursing concepts and translating them to practice will be key to nurses meeting the needs of an ever changing patient population. Acculturation is one example of how transcultural nursing concepts need to be better understood. The purpose of this paper is to describe the state of the science of acculturation in terms of the nursing discipline. It offers a historical review and evolution of acculturation, uses in nursing theory, and clinical implications.
Effects of acculturation on prenatal anxiety among Latina women.
Barcelona de Mendoza, Veronica; Harville, Emily; Theall, Katherine; Buekens, Pierre; Chasan-Taber, Lisa
Anxiety in pregnancy has been associated with adverse birth outcomes. Relatively few studies have investigated how acculturation affects mental health in pregnancy among Latinas. The goal of this study was to determine if acculturation was associated with anxiety over the course of pregnancy in a sample of predominantly Puerto Rican women. Women were recruited in pregnancy for participation in Proyecto Buena Salud, a prospective cohort study of Latina women (n = 1412). Acculturation was measured via the Psychological Acculturation Scale (PAS), language preference and generation in the USA. Anxiety was measured using the State-Trait Anxiety Instrument. Linear and logistic multivariable regressions were used to investigate associations. After adjustment, women with bicultural identification had significantly lower trait anxiety scores in early pregnancy (β = -3.62, SE = 1.1, p acculturated women. Women with higher levels of acculturation as indicated by English-language preference (β = 1.41, SE = 0.7, p = 0.04) and second or third generation in the USA had significantly higher trait anxiety scores in early pregnancy (β = 1.83, SE = 0.6, p acculturation was associated with lower trait anxiety in early pregnancy, while English-language preference and higher generation in the USA were associated with higher trait anxiety in early pregnancy.
Expanding the Acculturation Gap-Distress Model: An Integrative Review of Research
Telzer, Eva H.
The acculturation gap-distress model purports that immigrant children acculturate to their new culture at a quicker pace than their parents, leading to family conflict and youth maladjustment. This article reviews literature on the acculturation gap-distress model, showing that acculturation gaps function in unique ways depending on many social…
Effects of basic human values on host community acculturation orientations.
Sapienza, Irene; Hichy, Zira; Guarnera, Maria; Nuovo, Santo Di
Although literature provides evidence for the relationship between values and acculturation, the relationship between host community acculturation orientations has not yet been investigated. In this study we tested the effects of four high-order values (openness to change, self-transcendence, conservation, and self-enhancement, devised according to Schwartz's model) on host community acculturation orientations towards immigrants (devised according the interactive acculturation model) in the public domain of employment and the private domain of endogamy/exogamy. Participants were 264 Italian University students, who completed a questionnaire containing the Portrait Values Questionnaire, a measure of personal values, and the Host Community Acculturation Scale, aimed at measuring Italian acculturation strategies towards three groups of immigrants: Immigrants (the general category), Chinese (the valued immigrant group), and Albanians (the devalued immigrant group). Results showed that personal values are related to the adoption of acculturation orientations: In particular, the values that mostly impacted on acculturation orientations were self-transcendence and conservation. Values concerning self-transcendence encourage the adoption of integrationism, integrationism-transformation, and individualism and reduce the adoption of assimilationism, segregationism, and exclusionism. Values concerning conservation encourage the adoption of assimilation, segregation and exclusion orientations and reduce the adoption of both types of integrationism and individualism. Minor effects were found regarding self-enhancement and openness to change.
Acculturation and cigarette smoking in Hispanic women: A meta-analysis.
Kondo, Karli K; Rossi, Joseph S; Schwartz, Seth J; Zamboanga, Byron L; Scalf, Carissa D
The present study was a random-effects model meta-analysis of 26 studies published between 1990 and 2010 (k = 32; n = 39,777) that (a) examined the association between acculturation and cigarette smoking in Hispanic women and (b) evaluated age, national origin, and measure and dimensionality (unidimensional vs. bidimensional) of acculturation as moderating variables. Results indicate a strong positive relationship and suggest larger effects of acculturation on cigarette smoking in women of Mexican descent as compared with women originating from other Latin American countries for current and lifetime smoking, as well as smoking overall. The effect of acculturation on cigarette smoking was larger in adults as compared with adolescents for current smoking and smoking overall. Few differences in effect size by measure or dimensionality of acculturation emerged. Results are discussed with regard to implications for future research and the measurement of acculturation.
Recent cannabis use among adolescent and young adult immigrants in the Netherlands--the roles of acculturation strategy and linguistic acculturation.
Delforterie, Monique J; Creemers, Hanneke E; Huizink, Anja C
The present study examined the relation between two different acculturation measures (i.e., linguistic acculturation and the acculturation strategies integration, separation and marginalization) and past year cannabis use. Additionally, we studied the mediating role of affiliation with cannabis-using peers. Data were utilized from i4culture, a Dutch study on immigrant adolescents and young adults aged 15-24 years. Participants belonged to the five largest immigrant populations in the Netherlands, living in or around the four major Dutch cities: Amsterdam, the Hague, Rotterdam, and Utrecht. In total, 771 adolescents and young adults (mean age 19.29, SD=2.61, 53.8% female) from Surinamese (n=210, 27.2%), Moroccan (n=209, 27.1%), Turkish (n=110, 14.3%), Antillean (n=109, 14.1%), and Asian (n=133, 17.3%) backgrounds participated. With questionnaires, past year cannabis use, acculturation strategy, linguistic acculturation, and affiliation with cannabis-using peers were assessed. Using logistic regression analyses, we found no relation between acculturation strategy and past year cannabis use (OR=1.25, p=0.38 for separation vs integration and OR=0.86, p=0.50 for marginalization vs integration). Linguistic acculturation was positively related to cannabis use (OR=2.20, p<0.01). Affiliation with cannabis-using peers partly mediated this relation (OR=1.09, p<0.01). Non-Western immigrant youngsters who speak the host culture's language at home are more likely to use cannabis than youngsters who speak their native language at home. The former group is more likely to affiliate with cannabis-using peers, which partly explains their increased risk of cannabis use. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Identity and acculturation : The case for Africa
Adams, Byron G.; van de Vijver, Fons J. R.
Despite the multicultural nature of African societies, there is still very little knowledge about acculturation and its association with identity on this continent. Acculturation processes and outcomes are strongly associated with identity. The objective of this article is to relate different models
A Quantitative Analysis of Latino Acculturation and Alcohol Use: Myth Versus Reality.
Alvarez, Miriam J; Frietze, Gabriel; Ramos, Corin; Field, Craig; Zárate, Michael A
Research on health among Latinos often focuses on acculturation processes and the associated stressors that influence drinking behavior. Given the common use of acculturation measures and the state of the knowledge on alcohol-related health among Latino populations, the current analyses tested the efficacy of acculturation measures to predict various indicators of alcohol consumption. Specifically, this quantitative review assessed the predictive utility of acculturation on alcohol consumption behaviors (frequency, volume, and quantity). Two main analyses were conducted-a p-curve analysis and a meta-analysis of the observed associations between acculturation and drinking behavior. Results demonstrated that current measures of acculturation are a statistically significant predictor of alcohol use (Z = -20.75, p acculturation. Altogether, results demonstrated that acculturation is a useful predictor of alcohol use. In addition, the meta-analysis revealed that a small positive correlation exists between acculturation and alcohol use in Latinos with a between-study variance of only 1.5% (τ 2 = 0.015). Our analyses reveal that the association between current measures of acculturation and alcohol use is relatively small. Copyright © 2017 by the Research Society on Alcoholism.
Acculturation and adaptation among Lithuanian workers in Norway (a case study)
Kmite, Liuda Jr
Migration and intercultural relations In a new culture, migrants experience acculturation. Through acculturation migrants may choose which acculturation strategy to use. In 2010, emigration from Lithuania increased four times. Lithuanians account for several per cent of all migrants in Norway. The study aims to assess the acculturation strategies which Lithuanian workers in Rogaland area (Norway) adopt.
Pizza Oncom Keju Acculturation Of Western And Eastern Culinary
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Oda I. B. Hariyanto
Full Text Available The dynamic of human movement allows to be happened the cultural acculturation between nations and tribes. Acculturation process runs well if it produces the integration of cultural elements. Culinary is a part of culture that is inherent culture on that nation therefore the dynamic of human movement allows to be happened culinary acculturation among nations. Culinary acculturation can be happened in various forms the entry of foreign culinary elements into traditional culinary or vice versa. The review of culinary acculturation is conducted through qualitative approach with multidisciplinary sciences with the reason that culinary is part of culture. Culinary product studied is Pizza Oncom Keju that is original from Indonesia. The study result states that the goal of culinary acculturation for insider first is relate to how traditional culinary keep exist and it is most popular by society in the situation of rampant foreign culinary. Second put traditional elements into foreign culinary so it happens diversification of culinary products becomes the treasures of a nations culinary wealth. Diversification is happened when the characteristic of traditional culinary is present in foreign culinary. One of culinary product of western and eastern acculturation result is Pizza Oncom Keju where it mixes the basic materials of flatbread with traditional elements of West Java which is spices and oncom.
Remote Acculturation: The "Americanization" of Jamaican Islanders
Ferguson, Gail M.; Bornstein, Marc H.
Twenty-first century globalization forces of technology and trade transport cultures across territorial borders. Cultural exchange now occurs in the absence of first-hand continuous contact that accompanies population migration. We propose and test a modern type of acculturation--"remote acculturation"--associated with indirect and/or…
Attitude as a Mediator between Acculturation and Behavioral Intention.
Ebrahim, Nasser B; Davis, Sharon; Tomaka, Joe
Immigrants, specifically African-born black persons, are affected by the HIV epidemic in the U.S. The low level of condom use among immigrants is a risk factor for contracting HIV and STIs. Immigrants go through acculturation process in their new adopted countries-a process reported to influence many health risks and protective factors; however, the mechanism through which acculturation influences health behaviors is not well understood. Thus, study examined the mediating role of attitude in the relationship between acculturation and the intention to use male condoms in steady heterosexual relationships among Somali and Ethiopian immigrants in Minnesota. The study was a regression analysis and the method of data collection cross-sectional. Participants were (n = 205) Somali and Ethiopian immigrants in Minnesota who volunteered for the study. Study participants responded to questions on attitudes, behavioral intention, and acculturation levels. The indirect effect of acculturation through the mediator, attitude, was not significant, product coefficient (a × b) = 0.04, 95% CI: [0.00, 0.11]; hence attitude did not mediate the relationship between acculturation and the intention to use condoms in the study population. However, there were significant direct and total effects of acculturation (c' = .27, p < .05; c = .31, p < .05), respectively, on intention to use condoms. Results of the study may suggest that public health intervention strategies targeting condom use among immigrants should incorporate programs that improve English language training tailored to the cultural practices and values of the immigrants, and consider the effect of acculturation on condom use. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
John Henryism Active Coping, Acculturation, and Psychological Health in Korean Immigrants.
Logan, Jeongok G; Barksdale, Debra J; James, Sherman A; Chien, Lung-Chang
This study aimed to explore the levels of John Henryism (JH) active coping and its association with acculturation status and psychological health (specifically perceived stress, acculturative stress, anxiety, and depression) in Korean immigrants to the United States. In 102 Korean immigrants, JH active coping was measured by the JH Scale; acculturation by the Bidimensional Acculturation Scale; perceived stress by the Perceived Stress Scale; acculturative stress by the Social, Attitudinal, Familial, and Environmental Scale; anxiety by the State Anxiety Subscale of the Spielberger State-Trait Anxiety Inventory; and depression by the Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression Scale. The levels of JH active coping in this sample of Korean immigrants appear to be lower than the levels reported in other racial groups. Independent of demographic factors, JH active coping was a significant predictor of higher acculturation status and better psychological health as indicated by lower levels of perceived stress, acculturative stress, anxiety, and depressive symptoms.
Impact of Parents' Motivation for Ethnocultural Continuity and Acculturation Strategies on Acculturation of Children in Russian Families in Latvia
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Full Text Available The paper presents outcomes of an empirical research on the relationship between motivation for ethnocultural continuity and acculturation strategies in ethnocultural minorities (with Russians in Latvia as an example. Since acculturation is a process that affects several generations, we adopted a research plan that involved representatives of two generations of a family (parents and children. 112 Russian families participated in the research (parents: N=112, age 35—59, Me=42; children: N=112, age 16—24, Me=17. A questionnaire we used included J. Berry's acculturation strategies, scales of satisfaction with life and oneself, and the Motivation for Ethnocultural Continuity scale by C. Ward. The employed structural modeling revealed that acculturation strategies of the children correlate significantly with those of their parents as well as with their own motivation for ethnicultural continuity. The adolescents' choice of integration strategy is positively related to their satisfaction with themselves; however, in the cases of marginalization and assimilation this relation is negative.
Predictors of Familial Acculturative Stress in Asian American College Students
Castillo, Linda G.; Zahn, Marion P.; Cano, Miguel A.
The authors examined the predictors of familial acculturative stress in 85 Asian American college students. Participants were primarily 1st- and 2nd-generation U.S. citizens. Results showed that perceived acculturative family conflict and family intragroup marginalization were related to higher levels of familial acculturative stress for…
Acculturative stressor and meaning of life as predictors of negative affect in acculturation: a cross-cultural comparative study between Chinese international students in Australia and Hong Kong.
Pan, Jia-Yan; Wong, Daniel Fu Keung; Joubert, Lynette; Chan, Cecilia Lai Wan
The purpose of the present study was to compare the predictive effects of acculturative stressor and meaning of life on negative affect in the process of acculturation between Chinese international students in Australia and Hong Kong. Four hundred mainland Chinese students studying at six universities in Hong Kong and 227 Chinese international students studying at the University of Melbourne in Australia completed a questionnaire that included measures of acculturative stressor, meaning of life, negative affect and demographic information. The Australian sample was found to have a higher level of acculturative stressor and negative affect than the Hong Kong sample. Acculturative stressor had a positive impact on negative affect in both samples, but the impact of different domains of acculturative stressor on negative affect varied between the two groups. Finally, meaning of life partially mediated the relationship between acculturative stressor and negative affect in the Hong Kong sample, but no such effect was found in the Australia sample. Acculturative stressor is a critical risk factor for negative affect in acculturation for Chinese international students in Australia and Hong Kong. Meaning of life acted as a protective factor that mitigated negative affect for mainland Chinese students in Hong Kong, but not for the Chinese international students in Australia. The theoretical and practical implications for resilience-based and meaning-oriented intervention for Chinese international students are discussed.
An Exploration of Dietary Acculturation in Hispanic Males Residing in Mississippi
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Diana Cuy Castellanos
Full Text Available The purpose of this research was to explore dietary acculturation in Hispanic males in the context of the Operant Theory of Acculturation. This was a qualitative study using grounded theory to guide methodological procedures. Semi-structured interviews, a focus group, the Acculturation-Rating Scale for Mexican-Americans-II and the Marginality Scale, and photovoice with follow-up interviews were used to explore dietary acculturation in the participant sample. Thirty-five first- and second-generation Hispanic males residing in Mississippi were recruited and categorized into one of three different bidimensional acculturation groups as determined by the Acculturation-Rating Scale for Mexican-Americans-II and the Marginality Scale. Main dietary influencing themes identified were intrapersonal and environmental dietary factors. The subthemes included values, attitudes, beliefs, knowledge, and preference for the intrapersonal factors and availability; living structure; accessibility; food preparation skill; and time for the environmental factors. The factors are not mutually exclusive and show the complexity of the dietary acculturation process. This research can be used to guide future research and inform nutrition intervention development for this population.
History and Acculturation of the Dakota Indians.
Satterlee, James L.; Malan, Vernon D.
Relating the history of the Dakota Indians from their origins to the present time, this document also examines the effects of acculturation on these Sioux people. Beginning with the Paleo-Indians of North America, it details the structure of the Dakota culture and attempts to acculturate the Indians into white society. Historical and current…
Ethnic identity and acculturation of Turkish-Bulgarian adolescents
Dimitrova, R.; Bender, M.; Chasiotis, A.; van de Vijver, A.J.R.
We investigated associations of ethnic identity, acculturation orientations, and acculturation outcomes (psychological well-being and socio-cultural adjustment) in a sample of 279 Turkish-Bulgarian adolescents through self-reports and parent reports. This group has a long history of discrimination
Acculturation Processes of Hmong in Eastern Wisconsin
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John Kha Lee
Full Text Available This study examines acculturation processes among Hmong who live in Eastern Wisconsin by using the East Asian Acculturation Measure (EAAM, which was developed by Barry (2001. The results indicated that in terms of Acculturation, Hmong ranked highest in integration, then separation, assimilation, and lastly marginalization. Questions on each dimension of integration, separation, assimilation, and marginalization were analyzed and positive correlations were found between the youngest of the generations, the length of residency in the United States, and the ability to speak, read, and write in English. In contrast, the older the age of the participant when they came to the United States had a positive correlation with separation. The ability to speak, read, and write in English had a positive correlation with assimilation, and the older the age of coming to the United States had a positive correlation with marginalization. Assimilation and separation had a positive correlation with marginalization, while integration had a negative correlation with marginalization and a positive correlation with assimilation, and separation had no correlation with marginalization. Results are discussed in regards to previous Hmong acculturation studies.
Acculturation and coping strategies in the workplace
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Full Text Available The paper presents empirical study of the level of organizational acculturation and the frequency of use of coping strategies in Bulgarian sample. The relationship between them and their dependence on socio-demographic factors were also examined. The aim of the research conducted was to verify the hypotheses that certain socio-demographic factors had a statistically significant impact on the phenomena studied, and that the use of control-oriented coping strategies was related to higher levels of acculturation in organization. The results obtained when applying analysis of variance indicated statistically significant differences in the level of acculturation and the frequency of use of coping strategies depending on part of the socio-demographic factors observed, confirming partially the first hypothesis formulated. The second hypothesis was fully confirmed. The findings of correlation analysis indicated that high levels of acculturation in organization correlated statistically significantly with the coping strategies of Increasing efforts, Confidence in success, Change of situation and Time management, all of which are part of the control-oriented coping.
Acculturation Stress and Drinking Problems Among Urban Heavy Drinking Latinos in the Northeast
Lee, Christina S.; Colby, Suzanne M.; Rohsenow, Damaris J.; López, Steven R.; Hernández, Lynn; Caetano, Raul
This study investigates the relationship between level of acculturation and acculturation stress, and the extent to which each predicts problems related to drinking. Hispanics who met criteria for hazardous drinking completed measures of acculturation, acculturation stress, and drinking problems. Sequential multiple regression was used to determine whether levels of self-reported acculturation stress predicted concurrent alcohol problems after controlling for the predictive value of accultura...
The multicultural workplace: interactive acculturation and intergroup relations
Oerlemans, W.G.M.; Peeters, M.C.W.
Purpose : – The paper's aim is to introduce the interactive acculturation model (IAM) of Bourhis et al. to predict how disconcordance in acculturation orientations between host community and immigrant workers relates to the quality of intergroup work-relations. Design/methodology/approach : – The
Rethinking the acculturation gap-distress theory among asian americans: Testing bidirectional indirect relations.
Lui, P Priscilla
The acculturation gap-distress theory postulates that parent-offspring acculturation mismatch precipitates greater intergenerational conflict in immigrant families, which in turn increases the risk for psychological problems among offspring. Whereas cross-sectional studies have shown support for these theory-informed relations, comparatively little is known about whether acculturation mismatch negatively affects psychological functioning, or whether offspring's psychological problems precipitate greater perceived acculturation mismatch via intergenerational cultural conflict. Furthermore, more research is needed to investigate how acculturation and family conflict affect Asian Americans transitioning into college and emerging adulthood. Across two measurement occasions, two cohorts of Asian American first-year college students (N = 555, Mage = 17.99, 56.0% women) completed survey questionnaires assessing their perception of parent-offspring acculturation discrepancies, acculturation-related intergenerational conflict, and internalizing and externalizing symptoms. For both sets of psychological functioning, gender invariant structural equation models testing the bidirectional relations demonstrated adequate fit for the data. In the case of externalizing symptoms, acculturation mismatch marginally significantly predicted subsequent intergenerational conflict, but acculturation mismatch did not predict externalizing symptoms via intergenerational cultural conflict. By contrast, offspring's internalizing and externalizing symptoms respectively predicted greater self-reported intergenerational cultural conflict, which in turn predicted perceived parent-offspring acculturation mismatch over time. These indirect relations suggested that both internalizing and externalizing symptoms indirectly contributed to greater acculturation mismatch through the presence of intergenerational cultural conflict, but data did not support the acculturation gap-distress theory. Theoretical
Adolescent relationship violence and acculturation among NYC Latinos.
DuPont-Reyes, Melissa; Fry, Deborah; Rickert, Vaughn; Davidson, Leslie L
Acculturation has been shown to positively and negatively affect Latino health. Little research investigates the overlap between acculturation and the different types of relationship violence among Latino youth and most research in this area predominantly involves Mexican-American samples. The current study examined associations between indices of acculturation (language use at home, chosen survey language, and nativity) and relationship physical violence and sexual coercion, both received and delivered, among predominantly Dominican and Puerto Rican adolescents from New York City. From 2006 to 2007, 1,454 adolescents aged 13-21 years in New York City completed an anonymous survey that included the Conflict in Adolescent Relationships Inventory which estimates experiences of physical violence and sexual coercion, both received and delivered, in the previous year. This analysis includes bivariate and multivariate methods to test the associations between language use at home, chosen survey language, and nativity with the different types of relationship violence. Among females, there is a significant association between language use at home and overall level of acculturation with delivering and receiving relationship physical violence; however, we did not find this association in delivering and receiving relationship sexual coercion. We found no association between acculturation and any type of relationship violence among males. Among Latina females, language spoken at home is an indicator of other protective factors of physical relationship violence. Future research in this area should explore the potential protective factors surrounding relationship violence among Latina females of various subgroups using comprehensive measures of acculturation, household composition and family engagement.
The Relationships among Perfectionism, Acculturation, and Stress in Asian International Students
Nilsson, Johanna E.; Butler, Jenay; Shouse, Sarah; Joshi, Chetan
This study examined relationships among perfectionism, acculturation, and stress in 76 Asian international students. Results showed that perfectionism and acculturation predicted stress, together accounting for 50% of the variance in stress. Furthermore, acculturation explained students' experience of stress above and beyond perfectionism, and 1…
Neuroticism, acculturation and the cortisol awakening response in Mexican American adults.
Mangold, Deborah; Mintz, Jim; Javors, Martin; Marino, Elise
Neuroticism is associated with greater susceptibility to the adverse effects of stress and greater exposure to the stressors associated with acculturation in U.S. born Mexican Americans. Neuroticism and acculturation have been associated with injury to crucial stress response systems and are known risk factors for certain mood and anxiety disorders. The purpose of the current study was to examine the effects of neuroticism, and acculturation on the cortisol awakening response (CAR) in healthy Mexican-American adults. Salivary cortisol samples were collected at awakening and 30, 45, and 60 min thereafter, on two consecutive weekdays from 59 healthy Mexican American adult males (26) and females (33), ages 18 to 38 years. Participants were assessed for level of neuroticism and acculturation. Data were analyzed using a mixed effects regression model with repeated measures at four time points. Results showed a significant Neuroticism×Acculturation×Time interaction. The CAR was virtually eliminated in highly acculturated Mexican Americans with greater Anglo orientation and high neuroticism compared with less acculturated Mexican Americans with greater Mexican orientation and lower neuroticism. Findings suggest that some Mexican Americans with high levels of neuroticism may be particularly susceptible to certain challenges and stressors associated with acculturation leading over time to the development of allostatic load, desensitization of the Hypothalamic CRF system and attenuation of the CAR. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Discrimination and Acculturative Stress among First-Generation Dominicans
Dawson, Beverly Araujo; Panchanadeswaran, Subadra
The present study examined the relationship between discriminatory experiences and acculturative stress levels among a sample of 283 Dominican immigrants. Findings from a linear regression analysis revealed that experiences of daily racial discrimination and major racist events were significant predictors of acculturative stress after controlling…
The Impact of Acculturation Strategy and Social Supports on Acculturative Stress and Academic Performance among Hispanic/Latino/a College Students
This study examined the relationship between Acculturation Strategy and Social Supports on Acculturative Stress and Academic Performance Among Hispanic/Latino/a College students. The sample of approximately 522 students was recruited at the City College of The City University of New York. Various statistical methods, including one way ANOVAS,…
Minorities' acculturation and social adjustment: The moderator role of meta-perceptions of majority's acculturation attitudes.
António, João H C; Monteiro, Maria Benedicta
Two studies addressed the role of Black meta-perception of acculturation attitudes on the relation between minority acculturation attitudes and their social adjustment (school achievement and perceived quality of intergroup relations). Participants in both studies were Black Lusophone adolescents living in Portugal. Study 1 (N = 140) indicated that participants' attitude regarding the host culture was positively correlated with their school achievement and to their evaluation of intergroup relations. It also indicated that participants' meta-perception of majority attitude add to the explained variance of participants' social adjustment. Study 2 (N = 62) manipulated the perceived majority high/low support of immigrants' learning the host culture. The dependent variable (DV) was perceived quality of intergroup relations. Only in the low support condition were participants' attitudes towards the host culture positively related to perceived quality of Black-White relationships. These results suggest that perceived social context is central to understand the relationship between minority adolescents' acculturation attitudes and key dimensions of their adjustment to host societies. © 2015 International Union of Psychological Science.
Acculturative Stress and School Belonging among Latino Youth
Roche, Cathy; Kuperminc, Gabriel P.
Dimensions of acculturative stress and their implications for school belonging and achievement were examined among 199 Latino middle-school students. The proposed model hypothesized that school belonging would mediate the association between acculturative stress dimensions and low school achievement. Eighty percent youth of the sample were…
Acculturation and Life Satisfaction Among Immigrant Mexican Adults
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Flavio F. Marsiglia
Full Text Available The numbers of Mexican Americans living in the United States, many of whom are first generation immigrants, are increasing. The process of immigration and acculturation can be accompanied by stress, as an individual attempts to reconcile two potentially competing sets of norms and values and to navigate a new social terrain. However, the outcomes of studies investigating the relationship between levels of acculturation and well-being are mixed. To further investigate the dynamic of acculturation, this article will address the impact of acculturation and familismo, on reported life satisfaction and resilience among Mexican American adults living in the Southwest (N=307, the majority (89% of which are immigrants. The findings indicate that bilingual individuals report significantly higher levels of life satisfaction and resilience than their Spanish-speaking counterparts do. Speaking primarily English only predicted higher levels of resilience but not life satisfaction. Implications for social work practice with Mexican American immigrants are discussed.
Acculturation, perceived discrimination, and psychological distress: Experiences of South Asians in Hong Kong.
Tonsing, Kareen N; Tse, Samson; Tonsing, Jenny C
Although migration itself may not compromise the mental health of immigrants, the acculturative process can involve highly stressful factors that are specific to immigrant and minority status. Using structural equation modeling, this study examined the relations between acculturation orientations, perceived discrimination, acculturative stress, and psychological distress among 229 Pakistani and 218 Nepalese migrants living in Hong Kong. Although the initial hypothesized model was not confirmed, a modified model with good fit indices showed that acculturation orientation mediated the relationships of perceived discrimination and acculturative stress with psychological distress. Of all the factors in the model, acculturative stress had the strongest association with psychological distress. © The Author(s) 2015.
Domains and dimensions in acculturation: Implicit theories of Turkish–Dutch
Arends-Tóth, Judit; van de Vijver, Fons J. R.
The present study aims to further our understanding of psychological acculturation by examining which current models of acculturation correspond most with implicit theories of Turkish-Dutch. Current theoretical models of acculturation differ in two aspects: dimensionality (unidimensional adaptation, a bidimensional combination of culture maintenance and adaptation, or a multidimensional fusion of two cultures) and domain specificity (trait or domain-specific models). Domain specificity of acc...
Acculturation and Its Discontents: A Case for Bringing Anthropology Back into the Conversation
Guarnaccia, Peter J.; Hausmann-Stabile, Carolina
Anthropologists’ contribution to the study of cultural change is urgent in light of the increasing number of people of different backgrounds who are migrating around the globe and settling in new communities, and the opportunities and challenges that come along with that process. By examining the anthropological literature on acculturation going back to the 1936 Memorandum by Redfield, Linton and Herskovits, this paper reviews and assesses the discipline’s perspective on acculturation, and lays out the case for why it is critical for anthropologists to re-engage the concept. Although other disciplines, particularly psychology and sociology, have dominated the field of acculturation research more recently, they mostly have done so with a narrow focus. While it is important to acknowledge the pitfalls of anthropology’s past study of acculturation, there are important features of the acculturation construct that continue to be relevant. Among these are the study of acculturation as a process that is multidimensional; the investigation of how different kinds of power affect the acculturation process; the impacts of attitudes, actions and policies of the receiving group on how acculturation proceeds; the role of “real history” in understanding processes of acculturation; and the global perspective on these processes. We suggest ways in which anthropologists can reignite the field of acculturation research by engaging with Redfield, Linton and Herskovits’ framework and subsequent anthropological literature. PMID:27595125
Psychiatric comorbidity and acculturation stress among Puerto Rican substance abusers.
Conway, Kevin P; Swendsen, Joel D; Dierker, Lisa; Canino, Glorisa; Merikangas, Kathleen R
Although acculturation to the United States has been associated with an increase in substance, mood, and anxiety disorders in Latino populations, few studies have examined this concept relative to comorbidity among these syndromes. This study compares the prevalence and patterns of psychiatric comorbidity among Puerto Ricans with substance use disorders living in San Juan (Puerto Rico) to those who have migrated to New Haven (Connecticut) and examines the association between acculturation-related stress and the prevalence and patterns of psychiatric comorbidity among those who have migrated to New Haven. Lifetime levels of nearly all comorbid psychiatric disorders among respondents with substance use disorders were generally similar across sites. However, the risk of any co-occurring psychiatric disorder was higher among substance use disorder cases in New Haven who reported high levels of total acculturation stress and family-specific acculturation stress. These findings were generally accounted for by associations between affective disorders and high scores on these indicators of acculturation stress. The overall prevalence and patterns of psychiatric comorbidity are remarkably similar among Puerto Rican substance abusers whether they live in San Juan or have migrated to New Haven, thereby demonstrating robustness to differences in geographic location. Nevertheless, the degree of acculturation-related family stress is positively associated with co-occurring substance and psychiatric disorders, particularly affective disorders. Intervention in family strain related to the acculturation process may diminish the development of comorbid mental disorders and assist in implementing successful treatment of substance abuse.
Acculturation and substance use in a Mexican American college student sample.
Mercado, Alfonso; Ramirez, Maria; Sharma, Rachita; Popan, Jason; Avalos Latorre, Maria Luisa
Although the association between acculturation and substance use among Latino groups is important, it is often understudied, especially within specific Latino groups living in geographically distinct communities, such as the Mexican American population in South Texas. The researchers of this study aimed to better understand the effect of acculturation on substance use and alcohol dependence in a Mexican American college student population. This survey study investigated the correlation between acculturation and substance use and dependence by using the Vancouver Index of Acculturation (VIA), items related to substance use (nicotine, marijuana, and cocaine) in a Mexican American college student sample (N = 1,494), and the Short Alcohol Dependence Data Questionnaire (SADD; N = 715). The study was conducted in the Texas-Mexico border region. The results suggest that higher levels of acculturation do not predict increased drug use or alcohol dependence in the Mexican American college students. However, acculturation was found to be associated with lower use of cocaine and marijuana. The discussion examines commonalities and differences in drug use and dependence. Specifically, acculturation seems to have an inverse relationship to substance use and may serve as a protective factor to licit and illicit drug use among Mexican American college students.
A Content Analysis of Acculturation Research in the Career Development Literature
Miller, Matthew J.; Kerlow-Myers, Andrew E.
The purpose of the present study was to highlight the importance of acculturation as an explanatory variable in career development and to provide an empirical review of acculturation research in the career development literature. Acculturation is a cultural variable that has been linked to a number of important career development outcomes for…
Acculturation and its implications on parenting for Chinese immigrants: a systematic review.
Ho, Grace W K
To systematically review and synthesize existing findings on acculturation and its implications on parenting for Chinese immigrants. Three electronic databases were searched for original research articles that examined acculturation and its influence on parenting in Chinese immigrants. Twenty-two studies were included. Findings suggest that acculturation influences parenting beliefs, attitudes, and practices, as well as parent-child relationships among Chinese immigrants. Acculturation discrepancies between parents and children are associated with negative child outcomes. Further research is needed to better understand the relationships among acculturation and parenting perceptions, parent-child relationships, and parent-child acculturation discrepancies and associated child outcomes. In particular, longitudinal studies with larger samples and multiple methods are needed to suggest causal inferences and validate these relationships. Nurses are at the unique junction to identify these problems through interacting with individuals and families at the clinical and mental/community health levels.
EAP Curriculum Alignment and Social Acculturation: Student Perceptions
Tweedie, M. Gregory; Kim, Marcia
The role of English as a second language (ESL) teachers and instruction as factors in student social and psychological acculturation is widely acknowledged. However, the function of English for Academic Purposes (EAP) is less well known in this regard, because research has focused largely on academic acculturation. This qualitative study…
Acculturation and Depressive Symptoms among Turkish Immigrants in Germany
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Full Text Available The present study explores the impact of acculturation on depressive symptoms among Turkish immigrants in Germany, taking into account different dimensions of cultural orientation. A total of 471 patients from two selected samples (254 primary care patients and 217 outpatients of a psychosomatic department participated. Levels of acculturation were measured as orientation towards culture of origin (CO, and orientation towards the host culture (HC. Acculturation strategies (integration, assimilation, separation, and marginalization were also assessed as well as their association with depressive symptoms (BDI. Furthermore, gender- and migration-related differences in terms of acculturation and levels of depressive symptomatology were analyzed. Integration was the acculturation strategy associated with the lowest level of depressive symptoms (M = 14.6, SD = 11.9, while marginalization was associated with the highest (M = 23.5, SD = 14.7. Gender was not found to have a significant impact on acculturation but influenced depressive symptoms, with women (M = 21.8, SD = 13.3 reporting higher levels of depressive symptomatology than men (M = 15.1, SD = 14.0; p < 0.001. In first generation immigrants, significantly higher CO (M = 46.6, SD = 8.3; p < 0.001, lower HC (M = 31.0, SD = 9.6; p < 0.001, and higher levels of depressive symptoms (M = 20.2, SD = 14.1; p < 0.001 were found in comparison to second generation immigrants (CO: M = 41.3, SD = 7.4; HC: M = 36.2, SD = 8.8; depressive symptoms: M = 14.0, SD = 12.9. Our results suggest that orientation towards both the heritage and the host culture has a positive effect on the mental health status of immigrants. Future research needs to include representative samples of migrants from different cultures to further explore the association between acculturation and mental health.
Acculturation, adaptation, and mental health among Ladakhi college students
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The Indian region of Ladakh has recently undergone comprehensive sociocultural changes through the process of acculturation. The present study employs an acculturation psychological framework to assess how two groups of Ladakhi college students navigate through different degrees of exposure...
Social Support and Acculturative Stress among Korean International Students
Previous studies have reported that international students in the US experience unique difficulties and acculturative stress related to cultural differences, language barriers, academic pressure, and interpersonal relationships (Mallinckrodt & Leong, 1992). Berry, Kim, Minde, and Mok (1987) defined this "acculturative stress" as…
Acculturation and smoking in North Americans of Chinese ancestry: A systematic review.
Gotay, Carolyn C; Reid, Michelle S; Dawson, Marliese Y; Wang, Shouzheng
Many North American immigrants come from China. Given the critical impact of tobacco use on health, it is important to understand rates and correlates of smoking in this population. This systematic review addressed the question: based on current research, what is the association between acculturation and smoking behaviours in Chinese immigrants to North America? The search was conducted in PubMed, Medline, Web of Science, and Academic Search Complete for papers published from 2005 to 2014. Data were extracted from Canadian and American studies for population characteristics, study design, measures of smoking and acculturation, and findings regarding smoking rates and associations between smoking and acculturation. The literature search identified 147 articles, and 14 met inclusion criteria. Three studies were based on Canadian samples and the remaining 11 were from the United States. Of the 14 papers, 3 reported findings for youth and 11 for adults. Among adults, daily smoking rates were consistently much higher in men than women; for men, rates varied from 9% to 30%. Language use and time in North America were the most common indicators of acculturation. Almost all studies found a relationship between acculturation and smoking, such that more acculturated men smoke less and more acculturated women smoke more. The findings suggest that the association between acculturation and smoking is gender-specific. This correlation is found in youth and adults and in both Canada and the US. Increased acculturation has a protective effect on smoking for Chinese North American men, but a harmful effect for women. Tobacco control interventions need to develop targeted strategies appropriate to these different populations.
Acculturation levels and personalizing orthognathic surgery for the Asian American patient.
Sy, A A; Kim, W S; Chen, J; Shen, Y; Tao, C; Lee, J S
This study was performed to investigate whether the level of acculturation among Asians living in the USA plays a significant role in their opinion of facial profiles. One hundred and ninety-eight Asian American subjects were asked to complete a pre-validated survey to measure their level of acculturation and to evaluate four sets of pictures that displayed a class II male, class II female, class III male, and class III female. Each set consisted of three lateral profile pictures: an initial unaltered photo, a picture simulating a flatter profile (orthodontic camouflage in class II; mandibular setback in class III), and a picture simulating a fuller profile (mandibular advancement in class II; maxillary advancement in class III). For the class II male, subjects who were more acculturated indicated that a flatter profile (orthodontic camouflage) was less attractive. For the class II female, higher acculturated subjects chose expansive treatment (mandibular advancement) as more aesthetic compared to the less acculturated subjects. Each of these scenarios had statistically significant odds ratios. In general, highly acculturated subjects preferred a fuller facial profile, while low acculturated subjects preferred a flatter facial profile appearance, except for the class III female profile, which did not follow this trend. Copyright © 2016 International Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Differences in mental health outcomes by acculturation status following a major urban disaster.
Adams, Richard E; Boscarino, Joseph A
A number of studies have assessed the association between acculturation and psychological outcomes following a traumatic event. Some suggest that low acculturation is associated with poorer health outcomes, while others show no differences or that low acculturation is associated with better outcomes. One year after the terrorist attacks on the World Trade Center, we surveyed a multi-ethnic population of New York City adults (N= 2,368). We assessed posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), major depression, panic attack, anxiety symptoms, and general physical and mental health status. We classified study respondents into "low," "moderate," or "high" acculturation, based on survey responses. Bivariate results indicated that low acculturation individuals were more likely to experience negative life events, have low social support, and less likely to have pre-disaster mental health disorders. Those in the low acculturation group were also more likely to experience post-disaster perievent panic attacks, have higher anxiety, and have poorer mental health status. However, using logistic regression to control for confounding, and adjusting for multiple comparisons, we found that none of these outcomes were associated with acculturation status. Thus, our study suggests that acculturation was not associated with mental health outcomes following a major traumatic event.
Concept analysis of acculturation in Filipino immigrants within health context.
Although acculturation has been widely used as a health research variable among other immigrant populations, it is nonexistent to the Filipino immigrant population. Accurate assessment, measurement, and exploration of acculturation of Filipinos in the United States can help improve the overall health care of this population. The work of Walker and Avant is used as a guide to analyze and clarify the operational definition of acculturation of this group within the context of health. © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
The relationship between acculturation and infant feeding styles in a Latino population.
Dancel, Liz D; Perrin, Eliana; Yin, Shonna H; Sanders, Lee; Delamater, Alan; Perreira, Krista M; Bronaugh, Andrea B; Eden, Svetlana; Shintani, Ayumi; Rothman, Russell L
To assess the relationship between parental acculturation and infant feeding style in a sample of Latino parents. A post hoc analysis was performed using data from an ongoing four-site randomized controlled trial to promote early childhood obesity prevention. Cross-sectional data of parent-child dyads at the 12-month well-child visit who self-reported their Latino ethnicity were analyzed. The Short Acculturation Scale for Hispanics (SASH) and a subset of the Infant Feeding Style Questionnaire (IFSQ) that assessed four primary feeding styles were administered. SASH level (low vs. high) with each feeding style was compared by analyses. Complete SASH data were available for 398 of 431 Latino dyads. Median SASH score was 1.8 (IQR 1.4-2.7); 82% of participants had low acculturation (score parents with lower acculturation were more likely than those with higher acculturation to endorse feeding styles that are associated with child obesity. Further research is needed to determine why acculturation and feeding style relate. © 2015 The Obesity Society.
Aspects of acculturation stress among international students attending a university in the USA.
Chavajay, Pablo; Skowronek, Jeffrey
Acculturation stress reported by 130 international students attending a university in Utah for about 2 yr. was examined. On the Acculturative Stress Scale for International Students, few students reported experiencing acculturation stress, but responses to four open-ended questions indicated many students perceived experience of acculturation stresses related to discrimination, feelings of loneliness, and academic concerns. The contrast of findings for the scale scores and the open-ended questions indicate the complexity of assessing international students' acculturation experiences of living and studying in the USA and suggest the usefulness of complementary methodologies for assessing such experience.
The experience of acculturative stress-related growth from immigrants’ perspectives
Kim, Junhyoung; Kim, Hakjun
Previous literature has mainly focused on the positive effects of stress associated with disability and illness, called stress-related growth. Little research has explored positive changes as a result of acculturative stress among a group of immigrants. In particular, older Asian immigrants may experience a high level of stress related to acculturation because they may face more challenges to adapt to and navigate a new culture. This study was designed to capture the characteristics of stress-related growth associated with acculturative stress. Using in-depth interviews among 13 older Korean immigrants, three main themes associated with the stress-coping strategies were identified: (a) the development of mental toughness, (b) engagement in meaningful activities, and (c) promotion of cultural understanding. These themes indicate that by following the stressful acculturation process, participants developed a better understanding of the new culture, engaged in various leisure activities, and enhanced mental strength. This finding provides information on how immigrants deal with acculturative stress and have positive psychological changes, which results in a sense of happiness and psychological well-being. PMID:24070225
The experience of acculturative stress-related growth from immigrants’ perspectives
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Full Text Available Previous literature has mainly focused on the positive effects of stress associated with disability and illness, called stress-related growth. Little research has explored positive changes as a result of acculturative stress among a group of immigrants. In particular, older Asian immigrants may experience a high level of stress related to acculturation because they may face more challenges to adapt to and navigate a new culture. This study was designed to capture the characteristics of stress-related growth associated with acculturative stress. Using in-depth interviews among 13 older Korean immigrants, three main themes associated with the stress-coping strategies were identified: (a the development of mental toughness, (b engagement in meaningful activities, and (c promotion of cultural understanding. These themes indicate that by following the stressful acculturation process, participants developed a better understanding of the new culture, engaged in various leisure activities, and enhanced mental strength. This finding provides information on how immigrants deal with acculturative stress and have positive psychological changes, which results in a sense of happiness and psychological well-being.
Relationship between Acculturation Attitude and Effectiveness of Pragmatic Instruction
Attitude toward accepting target language culture or maintaining heritage culture referred to as acculturation attitude can determine language learners' pragmatic gains during an educational sojourn. To this end, the current study investigated the relationship between language learners' acculturation attitudes during an educational sojourn and the…
Acculturative Stress and Adjustment Experiences of Greek International Students
Poulakis, Mixalis; Dike, Craig A.; Massa, Amber C.
This study investigated eight Greek international college students' experiences of acculturation and acculturative stress at a mid-western university in the United States. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with participants and Consensual Qualitative Research methodology was utilized for data analysis to identify contextual themes and…
Parent-child acculturation profiles as predictors of Chinese American adolescents' academic trajectories.
Kim, Su Yeong; Wang, Yijie; Chen, Qi; Shen, Yishan; Hou, Yang
Acculturation plays a critical role in the adjustment of Asian Americans, as a large proportion of them are immigrants in the US. However, little is known about how acculturation influences Asian American adolescents' academic trajectories over time. Using a longitudinal sample of 444 Chinese American families (54% female children), the current study explored the effect of mothers', fathers', and adolescents' individual acculturation profiles and parent-child acculturation dissonance on adolescents' academic trajectories from 8th to 12th grade. Academic performance was measured by grade point average (GPA), and by standardized test scores in English language arts (ELA) and Math every year. Latent growth modeling analyses showed that adolescents with a Chinese-oriented father showed faster decline in GPA, and Chinese-oriented adolescents had lower initial ELA scores. Adolescents whose parents had American-oriented acculturation profiles tended to have lower initial Math scores. These results suggest that Chinese and American profiles may be disadvantageous for certain aspects of academic performance, and bicultural adolescents and/or adolescents with bicultural parents are best positioned to achieve across multiple domains. In terms of the role of parent-child acculturation dissonance on academic trajectories, the current study highlighted the importance of distinguishing among different types of dissonance. Adolescents who were more Chinese-oriented than their parents tended to have the lowest initial ELA scores, and adolescents experiencing more normative acculturation dissonance (i.e., who were more American-oriented than their parents) had the highest initial ELA scores. No effects of parent-child acculturation dissonance were observed for GPAs or standardized Math scores. Altogether, the current findings add nuances to the current understanding of acculturation and adolescent adjustment.
Parent-Child Acculturation Profiles as Predictors of Chinese American Adolescents’ Academic Trajectories
Kim, Su Yeong; Wang, Yijie; Chen, Qi; Shen, Yishan; Hou, Yang
Acculturation plays a critical role in the adjustment of Asian Americans, as a large proportion of them are immigrants in the U.S. However, little is known about how acculturation influences Asian American adolescents’ academic trajectories over time. Using a longitudinal sample of 444 Chinese American families (54% female children), the current study explored the effect of mothers’, fathers’, and adolescents’ individual acculturation profiles and parent-child acculturation dissonance on adolescents’ academic trajectories from 8th to 12th grade. Academic performance was measured by Grade Point Average (GPA), and by standardized test scores in English Language Arts (ELA) and Math every year. Latent growth modeling analyses showed that adolescents with a Chinese-oriented father showed faster decline in GPA, and Chinese-oriented adolescents had lower initial ELA scores. Adolescents whose parents had American-oriented acculturation profiles tended to have lower initial Math scores. These results suggest that Chinese and American profiles may be disadvantageous for certain aspects of academic performance, and bicultural adolescents and/or adolescents with bicultural parents are best positioned to achieve across multiple domains. In terms of the role of parent-child acculturation dissonance on academic trajectories, the current study highlighted the importance of distinguishing among different types of dissonance. Adolescents who were more Chinese-oriented than their parents tended to have the lowest initial ELA scores, and adolescents experiencing more normative acculturation dissonance (i.e., who were more American-oriented than their parents) had the highest initial ELA scores. No effects of parent-child acculturation dissonance were observed for GPAs or standardized Math scores. Altogether, the current findings add nuances to the current understanding of acculturation and adolescent adjustment. PMID:24820295
Does neighbourhood composition modify the association between acculturation and unhealthy dietary behaviours?
Zhang, Donglan; van Meijgaard, Jeroen; Shi, Lu; Cole, Brian; Fielding, Jonathan
Studies have shown that immigrants' acculturation is associated with numerous unhealthy behaviours. Yet, the role of environmental factors in modifying the effect of acculturation on health behaviours has received little attention. This study aims to create a more nuanced understanding of the health effects of acculturation by examining how neighbourhood immigrant composition modifies the association between individuals' eating patterns and acculturation. Cross-sectional Data from Los Angeles County Health Survey 2007 adult sample were linked to data on retail food establishments and US Census 2000 neighbourhood characteristics. Acculturation was measured by language spoken at home and years stayed in the US. Eating fast food more than once per week and eating zero serving of fruit or vegetables during the previous day were used as proxy indicators for unhealthy dietary behaviour. Multilevel logistic regression models were performed in the full sample and in the sample with only Latino adults. Immigrants' lack of acculturation and living in a neighbourhood with a high percentage immigrants were associated with healthier dietary behaviour. We also identified that lack of acculturation conveyed a significantly stronger protective effect on regular fast-food consumption for immigrants living in neighbourhoods with higher percentage immigrants (OR: 0.34, 95% CI: 0.12 to 0.93). Among immigrants in Los Angeles County, living in a neighbourhood with a high density of other immigrants attenuates the negative effects of acculturation on healthy eating behaviours. Healthy eating promotion efforts should build on this protective effect in outreach to acculturating immigrant communities. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.
Majority members' acculturation goals as predictors and effects of attitudes and behaviours towards migrants.
Geschke, Daniel; Mummendey, Amélie; Kessler, Thomas; Funke, Friedrich
Migration causes permanent processes of acculturation involving migrants but also members of mainstream society. A longitudinal field study with 70 German majority members investigated how their acculturation goals causally related to their attitudes and behaviours towards migrants. We distinguished acculturation goals concerning the migrants' culture(s) (what migrants should do) and acculturation goals concerning the usually neglected own changing mainstream culture. Both were conceived along the two dimensions of 'culture maintenance' and 'culture adoption'. Cross-sectionally we found many strong links between acculturation goals and attitudes and behaviours towards migrants, only some of which held longitudinally. As hypothesized there was no clear one-sided causal direction. As many causal links lead from acculturation goals to attitudes and behaviours, as in the opposite direction. Majority members' German culture acculturation goals proved especially valuable, because they determined attitudes and behaviour towards migrants most strongly.
The Influence of Sub cultural and Personality Factors on Consumer Acculturation
Leon G Schiffman; William R Dillon; Festus E Ngumah
This paper explores the potential role of subculture (religious) and personality (Rockeach Dogmatism Scale) characteristics in explaining differences in the extent of consumer acculturation. The survey results suggest that for a complex and heterogeneous nation like Nigeria, there are significant within-nation differences that may influence consumer acculturation. Implications and suggestions for future cross-cultural consumer research taking an acculturation perspective are indicated.© 1981 ...
A Meta-Analysis of Acculturation/Enculturation and Mental Health
Yoon, Eunju; Chang, Chih-Ting; Kim, Soyeon; Clawson, Angela; Cleary, Sarah Elizabeth; Hansen, Meghan; Bruner, John P.; Chan, Theresa K.; Gomes, Alexandrina M.
This meta-analytic study examined the relationship among the constructs of acculturation, enculturation, and acculturation strategies (i.e., integration, assimilation, separation, marginalization), and mental health. Data from 325 studies (163 journal articles and 162 dissertation studies) were analyzed using a random-effects model, across a broad…
Pathways between Acculturation and Health: Does the Measure Matter?
Miranda, Patricia Y.; Gonzalez, Hector M.; Tarraf, Wassim
The purpose of this study was to assess the association between acculturation and functional health using multiple proxies of acculturation to examine explanatory pathways to clarify disparate health findings. A population-based cross-sectional, multistage probability sample from the Hispanic Established Populations for the Epidemiologic Studies…
Acculturation Influences Postpartum Eating, Activity, and Weight Retention in Low-Income Hispanic Women.
Martin, Chantel L; Tate, Deborah F; Schaffner, Andrew; Brannen, Anna; Hatley, Karen Erickson; Diamond, Molly; Munoz-Christian, Karen; Pomeroy, Jeremy; Sanchez, Teresa; Mercado, Adrian; Hagobian, Todd; Phelan, Suzanne
Low-income Hispanic women experience elevated rates of high postpartum weight retention (PPWR), which is an independent risk factor for lifetime obesity. Sociocultural factors might play an important role among Hispanic women; however, very few studies have examined this association. The purpose of our study was to examine the associations between acculturation and maternal diet, physical activity, and PPWR. This is a cross-sectional study of baseline data from 282 Hispanic women participating in the FitMoms/Mamás Activas study, a randomized controlled trial examining the impact of primarily an internet-based weight control program, in reducing PPWR among low-income women. We performed multivariable linear regression to examine the association of acculturation with diet quality, physical activity, and PPWR at study entry. A total of 213 (76%) women had acculturation scores reflecting Mexican orientation or bicultural orientation, whereas 69 (24%) had scores that represented assimilation to Anglo culture. Women who were more acculturated had lower intakes of fruits and vegetables, lower HEI scores, and lower physical activity levels than women who were less acculturated (p acculturation and PPWR in that for every 1-unit increase in acculturation score, PPWR increased, on average, by 0.80 kg. Higher acculturation was associated with poorer diet and physical activity behaviors and greater PPWR.
Gender roles and acculturation: relationships with cancer screening among Vietnamese American women.
Nguyen, Anh B; Clark, Trenette T; Belgrave, Faye Z
The aim of this study was to examine the influence of demographic variables and the interplay between gender roles and acculturation on breast and cervical cancer screening outcomes among Vietnamese American women. Convenience sampling was used to recruit 100 Vietnamese women from the Richmond, VA, metropolitan area. Women were recruited to participate in a larger cancer screening intervention. All participants completed measures on demographic variables, gender roles, acculturation, and cancer screening variables. Findings indicated that traditional masculine gender roles were associated with increased self-efficacy for breast and cervical cancer screening. Higher levels of acculturation were associated with higher probability of having had a Papanicolaou test. In addition, acculturation moderated the relationship between traditional female gender roles and cancer screening variables. For highly acculturated women, higher levels of feminine gender roles predicted higher probability of having had a previous clinical breast exam and higher levels of self-efficacy for cervical cancer screening, while the opposite was true for lower acculturated women. The findings of this study indicate the important roles that sociodemographic variables, gender roles, and acculturation play in affecting health attitudes and behaviors among Vietnamese women. These findings also help to identify a potentially high-risk subgroup and existing gaps that need to be targeted by preventive interventions.
Gender Roles and Acculturation: Relationships With Cancer Screening Among Vietnamese American Women
Nguyen, Anh B.; Clark, Trenette T.; Belgrave, Faye Z.
The aim of this study was to examine the influence of demographic variables and the interplay between gender roles and acculturation on breast and cervical cancer screening outcomes among Vietnamese American women. Convenience sampling was used to recruit 100 Vietnamese women from the Richmond, VA, metropolitan area. Women were recruited to participate in a larger cancer screening intervention. All participants completed measures on demographic variables, gender roles, acculturation, and cancer screening variables. Findings indicated that traditional masculine gender roles were associated with increased self-efficacy for breast and cervical cancer screening. Higher levels of acculturation were associated with higher probability of having had a Papanicolaou test. In addition, acculturation moderated the relationship between traditional female gender roles and cancer screening variables. For highly acculturated women, higher levels of feminine gender roles predicted higher probability of having had a previous clinical breast exam and higher levels of self-efficacy for cervical cancer screening, while the opposite was true for lower acculturated women. The findings of this study indicate the important roles that sociodemographic variables, gender roles, and acculturation play in affecting health attitudes and behaviors among Vietnamese women. These findings also help to identify a potentially high-risk subgroup and existing gaps that need to be targeted by preventive interventions. PMID:24491129
Acculturation, out-group positivity and eating disorders symptoms among Emirati women.
Thomas, Justin; O'Hara, Lily; Quadflieg, Susanne; Weissgerber, Sophia Christin
Western acculturation has been implicated in the development of eating disorders among populations living outside Europe and North America. This study explored the relationship between Western acculturation, in-group/out-group evaluations and eating disorders symptoms among female citizens of the United Arab Emirates (UAE). Emirati college women (N = 209) completed an affective priming task, designed to implicitly assess in-group (Emirati) and out-group (American) evaluations. Participants also completed the Westernization Survey, a widely used self-report measure of acculturation, and the Eating Attitudes Test (EAT-26). Across the whole sample, out-group positivity was correlated with higher levels of eating disorder symptoms. Participants classified as at risk for eating disorders showed a clear out-group preference (out-group positivity greater than in-group positivity). Western acculturation was also positively correlated with eating disorder symptoms. Overall, these findings lend further support to the acculturation hypothesis of eating disorders in the context of Emirati college women.
THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN IMMIGRATION, ACCULTURATION AND PSYCHOLOGICAL WELL-BEING THE CASE OF TURKISH YOUTH IN AUSTRIA
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Full Text Available Psychological research in culturally plural societies has traditionally been divided into two domains: acculturation and ethnic relations. Berry’s model of acculturation and psychological well-being is highly regarded and widely recognized as in the field. His two-dimensional model of acculturation is based upon the multicultural ideology where individuals and groups are given the opportunity to choose among various elements of ethnic and host cultures to form their own unique blends of identity and culture. The findings support the Berry’s proposal that acculturation is two-dimensional (ethnic/cultural and host society identification for acculturating immigrants. But the process of acculturation is different depending on the life domains being considered. Youngsters do not endorse both cultures to the same degree in all domains, which means acculturation preferences for Turkish youngsters between the ages of 12-15 are domain dependent. In terms of average point acculturation preferences, Turkish youth endorsed integration more than any other acculturation strategies. Significant correlation was found among self-esteem and separation acculturation attitude for reading books domain. Second significant correlation was found among self-esteem and margina¬lization acculturation attitude for work domain.
An integrative theoretical framework of acculturation and salutogenesis.
Riedel, Jeannette; Wiesmann, Ulrich; Hannich, Hans-Joachim
During the last two decades, the number of international migrants worldwide has constantly risen. In this context, cross-cultural dimensions of psychological disorders receive increased attention, especially depression, anxiety and post-traumatic stress disorders among the migrant population. In this paper we propose a theoretical framework for the understanding of migrant mental health. This framework combines elements from Berry's acculturation model and Antonovsky's salutogenic theory. The former illustrates the main factors that affect an individual's adaptation in a new cultural context. The term acculturative stress denotes unresolved problems resulting from intercultural contact that cannot be overcome easily by simply adjusting or assimilating. The latter specifies the relationship between culturally associated stress and mental health more distinctive, introducing the concepts of generalized resistance resources and sense of coherence that determine mental health outcomes of migrants during acculturative stress periods. Specifically, we provide an integrative framework of acculturation and salutogenesis that helps to integrate inconsistent findings in the migrant mental health literature. The current paper focuses on the effect of resource factors for positive mental health outcomes in the migrant population and summarises some implications for future research activities.
Smoking during pregnancy among Turkish immigrants in Germany-are there associations with acculturation?
Reiss, Katharina; Breckenkamp, Jürgen; Borde, Theda; Brenne, Silke; David, Matthias; Razum, Oliver
We analyzed the association between different acculturation measures and smoking among pregnant immigrant women from Turkey and compared smoking rates between Turkish and German women. Perinatal data from a project on the influence of migration and acculturation on pregnancy and birth in Berlin was analyzed. An acculturation index (FRAKK) and two proxy measures (German language proficiency, length of stay in Germany) were used. We performed logistic regression models and calculated age-standardized prevalence ratios (SPR). Smoking prevalence was 19.8% among pregnant Turkish women (n = 702) and 17.8% among German women (n = 2,999). The chance of being a smoker was significantly higher among Turkish women with a length of stay of ≥20 years compared to 0-4 years (OR = 3.63, 95% CI = 1.64-8.05); with good/very good language skills compared to none/minor skills; with high levels of acculturation compared to low levels (the latter only among 18-29-year-old women). Compared to German women, Turkish women with a short length of stay, low acculturation scores and none/minor language skills had lower smoking rates. This finding inverts with long length of stay, high acculturation scores and good/very good language skills (≥20 years: SPR = 2.14, 95% CI = 1.56-2.94). Smoking among pregnant Turkish women increases with increasing acculturation. Additionally, immigrant women with a low acculturation level are less often smokers and women with a high level are more often smokers than German women. Prevention measures have to prevent women with a low acculturation from starting to smoke and to induce those with a high acculturation to quit. As smoking and acculturation are group phenomena, it is necessary to involve immigrant communities. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Research on Nicotine and Tobacco. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: email@example.com.
The Impact of Acculturation on Hispanic Students' Learning Styles
Gonyea, Nathan E.
The present study investigated the impact of acculturation on the learning styles of 151 Hispanic students enrolled in a Hispanic Serving Institution in South Texas, controlling for age, gender, and country of origin. Acculturation did not significantly predict learning style when controlling for these three variables. These results may be because…
Validating the Riverside Acculturation Stress Inventory with Asian Americans
Miller, Matthew J.; Kim, Jungeun; Benet-Martinez, Veronica
An emerging body of empirical research highlights the impact of acculturative stress in the lives of culturally diverse populations. Therefore, to facilitate future research in this area, we conducted 3 studies to examine the psychometric properties of the Riverside Acculturation Stress Inventory (RASI; Benet-Martinez & Haritatos, 2005) and its 5…
Acculturation, Social Self-Control, and Substance Use Among Hispanic Adolescents
Pokhrel, Pallav; Herzog, Thaddeus A.; Sun, Ping; Rohrbach, Louise A.; Sussman, Steve
It is unclear how acculturation is related to self-control characteristics and whether part of the effect of acculturation on Hispanic adolescents’ substance use behavior is mediated through lower self-control. We tested social self-control, peer substance use, and baseline substance use as mediators of the effect of Hispanic (predominantly Mexican or Mexican American) adolescents’ level of U.S. acculturation on their substance use behavior 1 year later. In addition, we tested gender as a possible moderator of the pathways involved in the mediation model. Participants included 1,040 self-identified Hispanic/Latino adolescents (M = 14.7; SD = 0.90; 89% Mexican/Mexican American) recruited from nine public high schools. Acculturation was measured in terms of adolescents’ extent of English language use in general, at home, with friends, and their use of the English-language entertainment media. Analyses were conducted using structural equation modeling and controlled for potential confounders such as age and parental education. Results indicated a statistically significant three-path mediation in which poor social self-control and peer substance use mediated the effects of acculturation on prospective substance use. Paths in the mediation model were not found to differ by gender. Our findings suggest that acculturation may influence adolescents’ self-control characteristics related to interpersonal functioning, which may in turn influence their affiliation with substance-using friends and substance use behavior. Implications of the findings are discussed in terms of future research and prevention programming. PMID:23772765
[Acculturation orientations and psychosocial adaptation among adolescents with immigrant background].
Goutaudier, N; Chauchard, E; Melioli, T; Valls, M; van Leeuwen, N; Chabrol, H
The aim of the study was to explore the typology of adolescents with immigrant background based on the orientations of acculturation and to estimate the psychosocial adaptation of the various subtypes. A sample of 228 French high school students with an immigrant background completed a questionnaire assessing acculturation orientations (Immigrant Acculturation Scale; Barrette et al., 2004), antisocial behaviors, depressive symptoms and self-esteem. Cluster analysis based on acculturation orientations was performed using the k-means method. Cluster analysis produced four distinct acculturation profiles: bicultural (31%), separated (28%), marginalized (21%), and assimilated-individualistic (20%). Adolescents in the separated and marginalized clusters, both characterized by rejection of the host culture, reported higher levels of antisocial behavior. Depressive symptoms and self-esteem did not differ between clusters. Several hypotheses may explain the association between separation and delinquency. First, separation and rejection of the host culture may lead to rebellious behavior such as delinquency. Conversely, delinquent behavior may provoke rejection or discrimination by peers or school, or legal sanctions that induce a reciprocal process of rejection of the host culture and separation. The relationship between separation and antisocial behavior may be bidirectional, each one reinforcing the other, resulting in a negative spiral. This study confirms the interest of the study of the orientations of acculturation in the understanding of the antisocial behavior of adolescents with immigrant background. Copyright © 2014 L’Encéphale, Paris. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.
Validation of the Multidimensional Acculturative Stress Inventory on adolescents of Mexican origin.
Rodriguez, Norma; Flores, Thomas; Flores, Ramon T; Myers, Hector F; Vriesema, Christine Calderon
The Multidimensional Acculturative Stress Inventory (MASI), a 36-item measure that assesses acculturative stress among people of Mexican origin living in the United States, was tested on 331 adolescent (14-20 years of age) high school students (204 female, 127 male) of Mexican origin. Exploratory factor analyses yielded 4 factors: bicultural practices conflict (9 items), Spanish competency pressures (8 items), English competency pressures (8 items), and bicultural self-consciousness (2 items). These factors accounted for 59.5% of the variance and correlated in the expected directions with criterion measures of acculturation and the Psychological General Well-Being Schedule. Bicultural practices conflict and bicultural self-consciousness emerged as the first and fourth factors for adolescents, which differed from the last 2 factors observed in a previous study of adults by Rodriguez, Myers, Mira, Flores, and Garcia-Hernandez (2002)--pressure to acculturate and pressure against acculturation. Comparisons of the MASI factor structures between adolescents and adults also revealed that English competency pressures and Spanish competency pressures played a prominent role for both adolescents in this study and adults in the study by Rodriguez et al. (2002). The congruence and difference in factor structure of the MASI between adolescents and adults indicates that both groups experience acculturative stress because of English- and Spanish-language competency pressures, but adolescents differentially experience difficulties in negotiating between American and Latino practices and identities. The results highlight the importance of assessing acculturative stress from both Latino and American culture and recognizing the varying levels of these sources of acculturative stress by generation. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).
Acculturative stress negatively impacts maternal depressive symptoms in Mexican-American women during pregnancy
D’Anna-Hernandez, Kimberly L.; Aleman, Brenda; Flores, Ana-Mercedes
Background Mexican-American women exhibit high rates of prenatal maternal depressive symptoms relative to the general population. Though pregnant acculturated Mexican-American women experience cultural stressors such as acculturation, acculturative stress and discrimination that may contribute to elevated depressive symptoms, the contribution of these socio-cultural correlates to depressive symptomology is unknown. Method Ninety-eight pregnant women of Mexican descent were recruited from a community hospital clinic during their first trimester. Women completed surveys about acculturation, acculturative stress, perceived discrimination, general perceived stress, and maternal depressive symptoms as well as the potential protective factor of Mexican cultural values. Results Women who experienced greater acculturative and perceived stress, but not perceived discrimination or acculturation, reported significantly elevated depressive symptoms during pregnancy. Also, women who experienced greater acculturative stress identified with a mixture of Mexican and American cultural values. However, only the Mexican cultural value of respect was protective against maternal depressive symptoms while adhering to the Anglo value of independence and self-reliance was a risk factor. Limitations A limitation in the study is the cross-sectional and descriptive self-report nature of the work, underscoring the need for additional research. Moreover, physiological measures of stress were not analyzed in the current study. Conclusions Results point to acculturative stress, above other cultural stressors, as a potential intervention target in culturally competent obstetric care. These findings have implications for maternal mental health treatment during pregnancy, which likely affects maternal-fetal programming and may favorably affect perinatal outcomes in the vulnerable Mexican-American population. PMID:25699668
Adapting a measure of acculturation for Chinese-American children aged 9-13 years
Acculturation among those of Chinese descent may be related to changes in health behaviors and disease risks. Research with Chinese children to understand their acculturative processes early in life is important; however, there is no known instrument to measure acculturation for this population. Thi...
Early Life and Environmental Risk Factors Modify the Effect of Acculturation on Hispanic Children's Asthma.
Chavez-Payan, Paola; Grineski, Sara E; Collins, Timothy W
Acculturation tends to erode Hispanic immigrants' initial health advantage. Using a more nuanced conceptualization of acculturation than previous studies, we explore the associations between acculturation and Hispanic children's asthma. Data came from an observational mail survey of caretakers of Hispanic schoolchildren in El Paso, Texas (N = 1,513). Results from generalized linear models (GzLMs) demonstrate that acculturation was a significant positive predictor of asthma. The addition of interaction terms revealed that prenatal smoking, low birth weight, breastfeeding, and pest exposure significantly modified the effect of acculturation on asthma. Results suggest that although higher levels of acculturation were detrimental overall, the effects were not equally damaging for all Hispanic children. Findings foster an understanding of how the effect of acculturation on Hispanic children's asthma is intensified or attenuated by distinct individual-level risk factors.
The metabolic syndrome, biomarkers, and the acculturation-health relationship among older Mexican Americans.
González, Hector M; Tarraf, Wassim; Haan, Mary N
To examine the acculturation-health relationship using metabolic syndrome biomarkers. Cross-sectional sample data. 1,789 Mexican Americans (60 years and older) from northern California. Biomarkers (waist circumference, blood pressure, fasting plasma glucose, triglycerides, and high-density lipids) were used to construct the metabolic syndrome indicator using American Heart Association criteria. MAIN PREDICTOR: Acculturation Rating Scale for Mexican Americans-II scores. Higher acculturation scores were associated with a significantly lower risk for the metabolic syndrome for foreign-born, but not U.S.-born, Mexican Americans. Immigrant health advantages over U.S.-born Mexican Americans are not evident in older adulthood. Higher acculturation was associated with lowered metabolic syndrome risk among older foreign-born Mexican Americans. This suggests that the prevailing acculturative stress hypothesis may not apply to the health of older adults and that any negative relationship between acculturation and health found in younger adults may yield to different developmental health influences in later adulthood.
Implications of Adolescents’ Acculturation Strategies for Personal and Collective Self-esteem
Giang, Michael T.; Wittig, Michele A.
Berry, Trimble, and Olmedo’s (1986) acculturation model was used to investigate the relationship among adolescents’ acculturation strategies, personal self-esteem, and collective self-esteem. Using data from 427 high school students, factor analysis results distinguished Collective Self-esteem Scale constructs (Luhtanen & Crocker, 1992) from both ethnic identity and outgroup orientation subscales of the Multigroup Ethnic Identity Measure (Phinney, 1992). Subsequent results showed that: 1) both acculturation dimensions were correlated with personal and collective self-esteems, 2) integrationists shared similar levels of personal and collective self-esteems with assimilationists and/or separationists, and 3) marginalizationists generally had the lowest levels of personal and collective self-esteems. Implications are drawn for understanding acculturation among adolescents and for the utility of group-level measures of self-esteem. PMID:17087532
Sleep Moderates and Mediates the Relationship Between Acculturation and Depressive Symptoms in Pregnant Mexican-American Women.
D'Anna-Hernandez, Kimberly L; Garcia, Esmeralda; Coussons-Read, Mary; Laudenslager, Mark L; Ross, Randal G
Greater acculturation is associated with adverse perinatal outcomes in Mexican-American women, but the mechanisms by which acculturation influences perinatal outcomes are unclear. Pregnant acculturated Mexican-American women are more likely to engage in unhealthy prenatal behaviors relative to those less acculturated, including poor sleep. As sleep disruptions are associated with acculturation and negative perinatal outcomes, particularly maternal depression, alterations in sleep may adversely affect pregnant Mexican-American women. Sixty pregnant women of Mexican descent completed surveys about sleep, acculturation, depressive symptoms and potential protective factor of social support. Acculturation, but not social support, significantly predicted increased sleep disruptions as well as overall feeling less refreshed upon waking across pregnancy. Moderation analysis indicated that more acculturated women who took longer to fall asleep reported increased depressive symptoms. Feeling refreshed upon waking also mediated the relationship between increased acculturation and elevated maternal depressive symptoms. Acculturation and altered sleep contribute to greater risk in Mexican-American women for maternal depressive symptoms in the perinatal period. These findings have implications for prevention and treatment of maternal mental health disorders, which may adversely affect perinatal outcomes in the vulnerable Mexican-American population.
Acculturation Stress and Bullying among Immigrant Youths in Spain
Messinger, Adam M.; Nieri, Tanya A.; Villar, Paula; Luengo, Maria Angeles
Few bullying studies focus on immigrant youths or acculturation stress as a risk factor for bullying and being bullied. Employing a sample of 1,157 foreign-born secondary students in Spain, we found that acculturation stress was widely experienced, although the average level of stress was moderate. Five percent of the sample reported being…
Rethinking the Concept of Acculturation: Implications for Theory and Research
Schwartz, Seth J.; Unger, Jennifer B.; Zamboanga, Byron L.; Szapocznik, Jose
This article presents an expanded model of acculturation among international migrants and their immediate descendants. Acculturation is proposed as a multidimensional process consisting of the confluence among heritage-cultural and receiving-cultural practices, values, and identifications. The implications of this reconceptualization for the…
A Review of Acculturation Measures and Their Utility in Studies Promoting Latino Health
Wallace, Phyllis M.; Pomery, Elizabeth A.; Latimer, Amy E.; Martinez, Josefa L.; Salovey, Peter
The authors reviewed the acculturation literature with the goal of identifying measures used to assess acculturation in Hispanic populations in the context of studies of health knowledge, attitudes, and behavior change. Twenty-six acculturation measures were identified and summarized. As the Hispanic population continues to grow in the United…
Lee Acculturation Dream Scale for Korean-American college students.
Lee, Sang Bok
This study examined acculturation as represented in dream narratives of 165 Korean immigrant college students living in the USA. A total of 165 dreams were collected and evaluated using the Lee Acculturation Dream Scale, for which locations of dream contents were coded. 39% of the dreams took place in South Korea, while 38% were in the USA. Also, 16% of the dreams included both locations, whereas 7% had no specific dream location. The dreams contained overlapping dream messages, images, scenes, and interactions in both South Korea and the USA. A two-sample t test on the mean scores of the Lee Acculturation Dream Scale indicated no significant difference between men and women.
Acculturation factors and substance use among Asian American youth.
Le, Thao N; Goebert, Deborah; Wallen, Judy
In this study of 329 Cambodian, Chinese, Laotian/Mien, and Vietnamese youth in Oakland, California, acculturation factors of individualism-collectivism and acculturative dissonance were examined as risk and protective factors for substance use. Results of structural equation modeling and bootstrapping revealed that peer substance use was a robust mediator between individualism and youth's self-reported substance use, particularly among Vietnamese and males. Peer substance use also significantly mediated the relation between collectivism and substance use for females. As such, there appears to be ethnic and gender group variations in the saliency of cultural/acculturation factors with respect to substance use. Implications for substance use prevention programs for ethnic and immigrant youth are discussed.
Immigration and acculturation-related factors and asthma morbidity in Latino children.
Koinis-Mitchell, Daphne; Sato, Amy F; Kopel, Sheryl J; McQuaid, Elizabeth L; Seifer, Ronald; Klein, Robert; Esteban, Cynthia; Lobato, Debra; Ortega, Alexander N; Canino, Glorisa; Fritz, Gregory K
This article presents a summary of findings from asthma studies focusing on immigration and acculturation-related factors. A study examining associations between these processes, family cohesion and social support networks, and asthma morbidity in a sample of Dominican and Puerto Rican caregivers residing in the mainland U.S., is also described. Latino children with asthma (n = 232), ages 7-16 (49% female) and their caregivers completed interview-based questionnaires on immigration and acculturation-related processes, family characteristics, and asthma morbidity. The frequency of ED use due to asthma may be higher for children of caregivers born in Puerto Rico. Acculturative stress levels were higher for Puerto Rican born caregivers residing in the mainland U.S. Asthma-related educational and intervention programs for Latino children and families should be tailored to consider the effects that the immigration and acculturation experience can have on asthma management. Specific family-based supports focused on decreasing stress related to the acculturation process, and increasing social and family support around the asthma treatment process may help to reduce asthma morbidity in Latino children.
The Influence of Acculturation on Traumatic Stress Following Childbirth Among Hispanic Adolescents.
Anderson, Cheryl; Strickland, Sarah
Many studies have explored the role of acculturation on health outcomes; however, no studies to date have examined relationships between acculturation and the traumatic stress of childbirth among Hispanic adolescents. A convenience sample of 66 Hispanic adolescents 13 to 19 years of age completed the Acculturation Rating Scale for Mexican Americans-II (ARSMA-II), a demographic sheet, birth appraisal scale, and the Impact of Event Scale within 72 hours of birth. Significant associations were found between the ARSMA-II subscales and acculturation proxy variables, excluding language; however, only the Mexican Orientation Subscale and generation proxy variable influenced the birth experience. The study findings showed that Hispanic adolescents reporting a more traumatic childbirth identified closer with the Mexican culture and reported fewer family generations residing in the United States. As an overlooked area of research, our findings support the need for additional research related to the traumatic stress of birth among Hispanic adolescents. Using multiple acculturation measurements, including the ARSMA-II, with larger, more diverse samples of adolescents, equally balanced between all categories of acculturation and placement within the five-tier generation matrix, can provide some insightful information and directed health care.
Durational and generational differences in Mexican immigrant obesity: Is acculturation the explanation?
Creighton, Mathew J.; Goldman, Noreen; Pebley, Anne R.; Chung, Chang Y.
Using the Los Angeles Family and Neighborhood Survey (L.A.FANS-2; n = 1610), we explore the link between Mexican immigrant acculturation, diet, exercise and obesity. We distinguish Mexican immigrants and 2nd generation Mexicans from 3rd+ generation whites, blacks and Mexicans. First, we examine variation in social and linguistic measures by race/ethnicity, duration of residence and immigrant generation. Second, we consider the association between acculturation, diet and exercise. Third, we evaluate the degree to which acculturation, diet, exercise, and socioeconomic status explain the association between race/ethnicity, immigrant exposure to the US (duration since immigration/generation), and adult obesity. Among immigrants, we find a clear relationship between acculturation measures, exposure to the US, and obesity-related behaviors (diet and exercise). However, the acculturation measures do not clearly account for the link between adult obesity, immigrant duration and generation, and race/ethnicity. PMID:22575698
Acculturation Needs of Pediatric International Medical Graduates: A Qualitative Study.
Osta, Amanda D; Barnes, Michelle M; Pessagno, Regina; Schwartz, Alan; Hirshfield, Laura E
Phenomenon: International medical graduates (IMGs) play a key role in host countries' health systems but face unique challenges, which makes effective, tailored support for IMGs essential. Prior literature describing the acculturation needs of IMGs focused primarily on communication content and style. We conducted a qualitative study to explore acculturation that might be specific to IMG residents who care for children. In a study conducted from November 2011 to April 2012, we performed four 90-minute semistructured focus groups with 26 pediatric IMG residents from 12 countries. The focus group transcripts were analyzed using open and focused coding methodology. The focus groups and subsequent analysis demonstrated that pediatric IMG residents' socialization to their home culture impacts their transition to practice in the United States; they must adjust not only to a U.S. culture, different from their own, but also to the culture of medicine in the United States. We identified the following new acculturation themes: understanding the education system and family structure, social determinants of health, communication with African American parents, contraception, physician handoffs, physicians' role in prevention, adolescent health, and physicians' role in child advocacy. We further highlight the acculturation challenges faced by pediatric IMG residents and offer brief recommendations for the creation of a deliberate acculturation curriculum for pediatric IMG residents. Insight: Residency training is a unique period in physicians' personal and professional development and can be particularly challenging for IMGs. There is a significant gap in the identified acculturation needs and the current curricula available to IMG residents who care for children.
Acculturation and HIV-related sexual behaviours among international migrants: a systematic review and meta-analysis.
Du, Hongfei; Li, Xiaoming
This review examines the global literature regarding the relationship between acculturation and HIV-related sexual behaviours among international migrants. Seventy-nine articles published in English-language journals prior to July 2012 met the criteria for inclusion. We conducted a systematic review and subset meta-analysis of correlations between acculturation and five types of sexual behaviours including condom use, multiple partnerships, early sexual initiation, sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) and other unsafe sexual practices. Immigrants high in mainstream acculturation were more likely to have multiple partnerships, early sexual initiation, STDs and unsafe sex (rs ranged from 0.10 to 0.16), but acculturation was not associated with condom use (r = 0.02). Gender moderated the relationships between acculturation and multiple partnerships, STDs and unsafe sex. The relationship between acculturation and unsafe sex also varied across ethnicity. These findings suggest that acculturation may serve as a risk factor towards immigrants' HIV-related sexual health. We offered a theoretical framework and suggested applying cross-cultural and longitudinal designs in future research on acculturation and health behaviours.
Acculturation and HIV-related sexual behaviors among international migrants: A systematic review and meta-analysis
This review examines the global literature regarding the relationship between acculturation and HIV-related sexual behaviors among international migrants. Seventy-nine articles published in English-language journals prior to July 2012 met the criteria for inclusion. We conducted a systematic review and subset meta-analysis of correlations between acculturation and five types of sexual behaviors including condom use, multiple partnerships, early sexual initiation, sexually transmitted diseases (STDs), and other unsafe sexual practices. Immigrants high in mainstream acculturation were more likely to have multiple partnerships, early sexual initiation, STDs, and unsafe sex (rs ranged from .10 to .16), but acculturation was not associated with condom use (r = .02). Gender moderated the relationships between acculturation and multiple partnerships, STDs, and unsafe sex. The relationship between acculturation and unsafe sex also varied across ethnicity. These findings suggest that acculturation may serve as a risk factor towards immigrants’ HIV-related sexual health. We offered a theoretical framework and suggested applying cross-cultural and longitudinal designs in future research on acculturation and health behaviors. PMID:25793493
Second language social networks and communication-related acculturative stress: The role of interconnectedness
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Marina M Doucerain
Full Text Available Although a substantial amount of cross-cultural psychology research has investigated acculturative stress in general, little attention has been devoted specifically to communication-related acculturative stress. In line with the view that cross-cultural adaptation and second language (L2 learning are social and interpersonal phenomena, the present study examines the hypothesis that migrants' L2 social network size and interconnectedness predict communication-related acculturative stress. The main idea underlying this hypothesis is that L2 social networks play an important role in fostering social and cultural aspects of communicative competence. Specifically, higher interconnectedness may reflect greater access to unmodified natural cultural representations and L2 communication practices, thus fostering communicative competence through observational learning. As such, structural aspects of migrants' L2 social networks may be protective against acculturative stress arising from chronic communication difficulties. Results from a study of first generation migrant students (N=100 support this idea by showing that both inclusiveness and density of the participants' L2 network account for unique variance in communication-related acculturative stress but not in general acculturative stress. These results support the idea that research on cross-cultural adaptation would benefit from disentangling the various facets of acculturative stress and that the structure of migrants' L2 network matters for language related outcomes. Finally, this study contributes to an emerging body of work that attempts to integrate cultural/cross-cultural research on acculturation and research on intercultural communication and second language learning.
Attachment, Acculturation, and Psychosomatic Complaints among Hispanic American University Students
Wang, Chiachih D. C.; Scalise, Dominick A.; Barajas-Munoz, I. Alejandro; Julio, Kathy; Gomez, Ayleen
This study investigated adult attachment and acculturation frameworks of reported psychosomatic complaints related to perceived discrimination among a sample of Latino/Hispanic university students (N = 160). The model supported by the data suggests that attachment anxiety, acculturation toward the dominant cultural norms, and adherence to…
Needs and Acculturative Stress of International Students in CACREP Programs
Behl, Malvika; Laux, John M.; Roseman, Christopher P.; Tiamiyu, Mojisola; Spann, Sammy
International students enrolled in programs accredited by the Council for Accreditation of Counseling and Related Educational Programs provided acculturative stress and needs data. Acculturative stress was correlated with academic, social, language, and cultural needs. Furthermore, relationships were found between students' types of needs.…
Acculturation, maternal cortisol and birth outcomes in women of Mexican descent
D’Anna, Kimberly L.; Hoffman, M. Camille; Zerbe, Gary O.; Coussons-Read, Mary; Ross, Randal G.; Laudenslager, Mark L.
Objective This study investigated the effects of acculturation on cortisol, a biological correlate of maternal psychological distress, and perinatal infant outcomes, specifically gestational age at birth and birth weight. Methods Fifty-five pregnant women of Mexican descent were recruited from a community hospital and collected saliva samples at home over 3 days during pregnancy at 15–18 (early), 26–2 (mid), and 32+ (late) weeks gestation and once in the postpartum period (4–12 weeks). These values were used to determine the diurnal cortisol slope at each phase of pregnancy. Mothers also completed an acculturation survey and gave permission for a medical chart review to obtain neonate information. Results Multiple regression analyses determined that greater acculturation levels significantly predicted earlier infant gestational age at birth (R2=0.09, p=0.03). T-tests revealed that mothers of low birth weight infants weight (acculturation scores than mothers of infants with birth weight >2500g (t=−2.95, p=0.005). A blunted maternal cortisol slope during pregnancy was also correlated with low birth weight (r=−0.29, p=0.05), but not gestational age (r=−0.08, p=0.59). In addition, more acculturated women had a flatter diurnal cortisol slope late in pregnancy (R2=0.21, p=0.01). Finally diurnal maternal cortisol rhythms were identified as a potential mediator between increased acculturation and birth weight. Conclusions This study associated increased acculturation with perinatal outcomes in the US Mexican population. This relationship may be mediated by prenatal maternal diurnal cortisol, which can program the health of the fetus leading to several adverse perinatal outcomes. PMID:22366584
Acculturative family distancing (AFD) and depression in Chinese American families.
Hwang, Wei-Chin; Wood, Jeffrey J; Fujimoto, Ken
Knowledge of acculturative processes and their impact on immigrant families remains quite limited. Acculturative family distancing (AFD) is the distancing that occurs between immigrant parents and their children and is caused by breakdowns in communication and cultural value differences. It is a more proximal and problem-focused formulation of the acculturation gap and is hypothesized to increase depression via family conflict. Data were collected from 105 Chinese American high school students and their mothers. Rasch modeling was used to refine the AFD measure, and structural equation modeling was used to determine the effects of AFD on youth and maternal depression. Findings indicate that greater AFD was associated with higher depressive symptoms and risk for clinical depression. Family conflict partially mediated this relation for youths, whereas for mothers, AFD directly increased risk for depression. Greater mother-child heritage enculturation discrepancies were associated with greater mother and child AFD. Mainstream acculturation discrepancies and language gaps between mothers and youths were not significantly associated with any of the primary outcome variables. Results highlight the need for better understanding of how AFD and other acculturation-gap phenomena affect immigrant mental health. They also underscore the need for prevention and intervention programs that target communication difficulties and intergenerational cultural value differences. Copyright 2010 APA, all rights reserved.
Cina Benteng: The Latest Generations and Acculturation
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Billy Nathan Setiawan
Full Text Available The aim of this paper was to investigate the acculturation process encountered by the two latest generations of Cina Benteng. A Skype interview was conducted with two young Cina Benteng descents. The analysis was also supported by insightful remark from the parents of the two interviewees. This study discovers that the two generations seem to respond to the acculturation process in different ways. However, although some traditions are no longer relevant to the later generation, their identity as a Chinese descent cannot be easily removed.
Implications of adolescents' acculturation strategies for personal and collective self-esteem.
Giang, Michael T; Wittig, Michele A
Berry, Trimble, and Olmedo's (1986) acculturation model was used to investigate the relationship among adolescents' acculturation strategies, personal self-esteem, and collective self-esteem. Using data from 427 high school students, factor analysis results distinguished Collective Self-esteem Scale constructs (Luhtanen & Crocker, 1992) from both ethnic identity and outgroup orientation subscales of the Multigroup Ethnic Identity Measure (Phinney, 1992). Subsequent results showed that: 1) both acculturation dimensions were correlated with personal and collective self-esteems, 2) integrationists shared similar levels of personal and collective self-esteems with assimilationists and/or separationists, and 3) marginalizationists generally had the lowest levels of personal and collective self-esteems. Implications are drawn for understanding acculturation among adolescents and for the utility of group-level measures of self-esteem. (c) 2006 APA, all rights reserved.
Foreign-Born Concentration and Acculturation to Volunteering among Immigrant Youth
Using children of immigrants sample from National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health, this study investigates how immigrant youth acculturating to the American social norm of volunteering and how the acculturation is modified by living in immigrant neighborhoods. Multilevel logistic regression produces distinct patterns for children living in…
Acculturation and healthy lifestyle habits among Hispanics in United States-Mexico border communities.
Ghaddar, Suad; Brown, Cynthia J; Pagán, José A; Díaz, Violeta
To explore the relationship between acculturation and healthy lifestyle habits in the largely Hispanic populations living in underserved communities in the United States of America along the U.S.-Mexico border. A cross-sectional study was conducted from April 2006 to June 2008 using survey data from the Alliance for a Healthy Border, a program designed to reduce health disparities in the U.S.-Mexico border region by funding nutrition and physical activity education programs at 12 federally qualified community health centers in Arizona, California, New Mexico, and Texas. The survey included questions on acculturation, diet, exercise, and demographic factors and was completed by 2,381 Alliance program participants, of whom 95.3% were Hispanic and 45.4% were under the U.S. poverty level for 2007. Chi-square (χ2) and Student's t tests were used for bivariate comparisons between acculturation and dietary and physical activity measures. Linear regression and binary logistic regression were used to control for factors associated with nutrition and exercise. Based on univariate tests and confirmed by regression analysis controlling for sociodemographic and health variables, less acculturated survey respondents reported a significantly higher frequency of fruit and vegetable consumption and healthier dietary habits than those who were more acculturated. Adjusted binary logistic regression confirmed that individuals with low language acculturation were less likely to engage in physical activity than those with moderate to high acculturation (odds ratio 0.75, 95% confidence interval 0.59-0.95). Findings confirmed an association between acculturation and healthy lifestyle habits and supported the hypothesis that acculturation in border community populations tends to decrease the practice of some healthy dietary habits while increasing exposure to and awareness of the importance of other healthy behaviors.
Acculturation and its impact on professional Chinese immigrants in the Australian workplace
This thesis explores the acculturation experience of professional Chinese immigrants (PCIs) in the Australian workplace. It identifies factors influencing PCIs’ choice of acculturation options and examines the impact of that choice on an individual’s job satisfaction, affective workgroup commitment and work engagement in a group environment. The study adopts a sequential mixed-methods approach of both quantitative and qualitative techniques. Since acculturation is an inevitable process th...
Mother-Youth Acculturation Gaps and Health-Risking/Emotional Problems among Latin-American Adolescents.
Wiesner, Margit; Arbona, Consuelo; Capaldi, Deborah M; Kim, Hyoun K; Kaplan, Charles D
Second-generation Latin-American adolescents tend to show higher levels of various health-risking behaviors and emotional problems than first-generation Latin-American adolescents. This cross-sectional study of 40 mother-adolescent dyads examined the association of mother-youth acculturation gaps to youth adjustment problems. Intergenerational acculturation gaps were assessed as a bidimensional self-report component and a novel observational measurement component. The Latin-American adolescents were predominantly second-generation of Mexican descent (M age = 13.42 years, SD = 0.55). Most of the mothers were born in Mexico (M age = 39.18 years, SD = 5.17). Data were collected from mothers, adolescents, and coders, using questionnaires, structured interviews, and videotaped mother-youth interaction tasks. Findings revealed generally weak support for the acculturation gap-distress hypothesis. In addition, stronger relative adherence to their heritage culture by the adolescents was significantly (p acculturation processes. Mother-youth acculturation gaps in orientation to the heritage culture were the most salient dimension, changing the focus on the original formulation of the acculturation gap-distress hypothesis.
Discrimination and mental health among Somali refugee adolescents: the role of acculturation and gender.
Ellis, B Heidi; MacDonald, Helen Z; Klunk-Gillis, Julie; Lincoln, Alisa; Strunin, Lee; Cabral, Howard J
This study examines the role of social identity (acculturation and gender) in moderating the association between discrimination and Somali adolescent refugees' mental health. Participants were English-speaking Somali adolescent refugees between the ages of 11 and 20 (N = 135). Perceived discrimination, trauma history, posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), depressive symptoms, and behavioral acculturation were assessed in structured interviews. Fourteen in-depth qualitative interviews and 3 focus groups were also conducted. Results indicated that discrimination was common and associated with worse mental health. For girls, greater Somali acculturation was associated with better mental health. Also, the association between discrimination and PTSD was less strong for girls who showed higher levels of Somali acculturation. For boys, greater American acculturation was associated with better mental health, and the association between discrimination and depression was less strong for boys with higher levels of American acculturation. © 2010 American Orthopsychiatric Association.
Adapting a measure of acculturation for cross-cultural research.
dela Cruz, F A; Padilla, G V; Agustin, E O
Although Filipino Americans are projected to become the largest Asian American ethnic group in this millennium, no acculturation measure existed for this group. This article describes a systematic and replicable process used in adapting and modifying A Short Acculturation Scale for Hispanics (ASASH) for use with Filipino Americans. It depicts the multiple and iterative steps of translation and backtranslation to produce A Short Acculturation Scale for Filipino Americans (ASASFA) in English and in Tagalog--the Philippine national language. Also, it describes the methods undertaken for the measures to achieve linguistic and cross-cultural validity through content, technical, experiential, semantic, and conceptual equivalence. With the dearth of linguistically and culturally valid measures for immigrant populations, the adaptation of valid measures developed for other cultures remains a viable option.
The Impact of Acculturation Level on Weight Status and Weight Outcomes in Hispanic Children.
Moreno, Jennette P; Vaughan, Elizabeth; Hernandez, Daphne; Cameron, Ryan T; Foreyt, John P; Johnston, Craig A
Previous studies revealed that higher levels of acculturation are related to obesity in Hispanic adults. Conflicting findings exist regarding this relationship in children, and little is known about the impact of acculturation on children's success in pediatric weight management programs. The purposes of the study were to (1) examine the relationship between acculturation and overweight/obese weight status and (2) determine the impact of acculturation on the changes in weight status among overweight/obese children 12 and 24 months after having participated in a weight management intervention. This is a secondary analysis of aggregated data from three randomized control trials that occurred between 2005 and 2009. Height, weight, and level of acculturation using the Child Short Scale for Hispanics (C-SASH) were measured in a sample of Hispanic children (n = 559). Logistic regression models were used to study phase 1 (n = 559) and phase 2 (n = 142), controlling for child and family characteristics. Children reporting high levels of acculturation had a 52 % lower odds of being overweight or obese. Among overweight/obese children who participated in the intervention, high levels of acculturation demonstrated greater reductions in standardized body mass index (zBMI) at 24 months. The results of this study indicate a need to tailor weight management programs for Hispanic children who have lower levels of acculturation.
Concept, measurement and use of acculturation in health and disease risk studies.
Chakraborty, Bandana M; Chakraborty, Ranajit
Acculturation, a concept with its root in social science and cultural anthropology, is a process intimately related to health behavior and health status of minority populations in a multicultural society. This paper provides a brief review of the subject of acculturation as it relates to health research, showing that this concept has a potential to identify risk factors that underlie increased prevalence of chronic diseases, particularly in immigrant populations. A proper understanding of this is helpful in designing intervention programs to reduce the burden of such diseases and to increase the quality of life in such populations. The concept is defined with an outline of its history showing its evolution over time. Criteria for measuring acculturation are described to illustrate the need of accommodating its multidimensional features. Drawing examples from health research in US Hispanics, the role of acculturation on health behavior is discussed to document that the discordant findings are at least partially due to either use of incomplete dimensions of the concept, or not accounting for the dynamic aspect of its process. Finally, with illustration of a finding from a study among overweight Mexican American women of South Texas, a model of acculturation study is proposed that may be used in other immigrant populations undergoing the acculturation process.
Acculturation and post-migration psychological symptoms among Iraqi refugees: A path analysis.
LeMaster, Joseph W; Broadbridge, Carissa L; Lumley, Mark A; Arnetz, Judith E; Arfken, Cynthia; Fetters, Michael D; Jamil, Hikmet; Pole, Nnamdi; Arnetz, Bengt B
Refugees frequently experience symptoms of posttraumatic stress and depression, which impede their acculturation in the new host country where they are resettling. There are few longitudinal studies investigating predictors of mental health and acculturation during the early postmigration period. We conducted a longitudinal study of 298 Iraqi refugees, assessing them upon arrival to the U.S. and 1 year after migration. Premigration trauma was associated with increased PTSD and depressive symptoms at baseline, and with decreased acculturation 1 year later. Resilience was associated with depressive symptoms at 1-year follow-up, but not with other resettlement outcomes (PTSD symptoms, English-language skills, or acculturation). PTSD and depressive symptoms at baseline predicted the same symptoms at 1-year follow-up, but not any other resettlement outcomes. The number of chronic diseases at baseline predicted worse PTSD and depressive symptoms, acculturation, and English language skills at 1-year follow up. Postmigratory exposure to daily stressors and less social support predicted worse 1-year outcomes. Results suggest that interventions that aim to improve mental health and promote acculturation among refugees should assess their history of trauma, chronic disorders, and psychological symptoms soon after migration, and promptly provide opportunities for social support. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2018 APA, all rights reserved).
Immigration and Acculturation-Related Factors and Asthma Morbidity in Latino Children*
Sato, Amy F.; Kopel, Sheryl J.; McQuaid, Elizabeth L.; Seifer, Ronald; Klein, Robert; Esteban, Cynthia; Lobato, Debra; Ortega, Alexander N.; Canino, Glorisa; Fritz, Gregory K.
Objective This article presents a summary of findings from asthma studies focusing on immigration and acculturation-related factors. A study examining associations between these processes, family cohesion and social support networks, and asthma morbidity in a sample of Dominican and Puerto Rican caregivers residing in the mainland U.S., is also described. Methods Latino children with asthma (n = 232), ages 7–16 (49% female) and their caregivers completed interview-based questionnaires on immigration and acculturation-related processes, family characteristics, and asthma morbidity. Results The frequency of ED use due to asthma may be higher for children of caregivers born in Puerto Rico. Acculturative stress levels were higher for Puerto Rican born caregivers residing in the mainland U.S. Conclusion Asthma-related educational and intervention programs for Latino children and families should be tailored to consider the effects that the immigration and acculturation experience can have on asthma management. Specific family-based supports focused on decreasing stress related to the acculturation process, and increasing social and family support around the asthma treatment process may help to reduce asthma morbidity in Latino children. PMID:21745811
Pathways from acculturation stress to substance use among latino adolescents.
Buchanan, Rachel Lee; Smokowski, Paul Richard
The purpose of this study was to examine the link between acculturation stress and substance use among Latino adolescents. In-home interviews were completed with the participants at four time-points between 2005 and 2007. Path analysis was completed using longitudinal data from 286 Latino adolescents living in North Carolina and Arizona (65% foreign-born). Results indicate that acculturation stress influences family and friend relationships, which in turn affect adolescent mental health problems, and finally, substance use. Key mediators in the pathway from acculturation stress to substance use were parent-adolescent conflict, internalizing, and externalizing problems. Implications for practice and research have been discussed here.
Coping Strategies for Managing Acculturative Stress among Asian International Students
Ra, Young-An; Trusty, Jerry
This article examines the effects of specific coping strategies on managing acculturative stress and acculturation of Asian international students, based on a sample of 220 Asian international students in the U.S. The data were analyzed with hierarchical multiple regression using Baron and Kenny's (1986) mediation procedure. The results supported…
Acculturation and mental health--empirical verification of J.W. Berry's model of acculturative stress
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Koch, M W; Bjerregaard, P; Curtis, C
identity as Greenlander and how well the respondents speak Greenlandic and Danish. The statistical methods included binary logistic regression. RESULTS: We found no connection between Berry's definition of acculturation and mental health among Greenlanders in Denmark. On the other hand, our findings showed...
Acculturation and Intention to Breastfeed among a Population of Predominantly Puerto Rican Women.
Barcelona de Mendoza, Veronica; Harville, Emily; Theall, Katherine; Buekens, Pierre; Chasan-Taber, Lisa
Latinas have high overall breastfeeding initiation rates, yet Puerto Ricans have among the lowest exclusive breastfeeding rates. This study sought to determine if acculturation was associated with intent to breastfeed in a predominantly Puerto Rican population. A cohort of Latina women were enrolled in Proyecto Buena Salud, and provided information on infant feeding intent (n = 1,323). Acculturation was assessed via the Psychological Acculturation Scale (PAS), language preference, and generation in the United States. Increasing acculturation as measured by English language preference (aOR 0.61 [95% CI 0.42-0.88]) and second or third generation in the United States (aOR 0.70 [95% CI 0.52-0.95)] was inversely associated with odds of intending to exclusively breastfeed. Similarly, women with higher levels of acculturation as measured by the PAS (aOR 0.67 [95% CI 0.45-0.99]), English language preference (aOR 0.48 [95% CI 0.33-0.70]) and second or third generation in the United States (aOR 0.42 [95% CI 0.31-0.58]) were less likely to report intent to combination feed as compared with women with lower acculturation. Acculturation was inversely associated with intent to exclusively breastfeed and intent to combination feed in this predominantly Puerto Rican sample. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
How do organizations and social policies 'acculturate' to immigrants? Accommodating skilled immigrants in Canada.
Sakamoto, Izumi; Wei, Yi; Truong, Lele
While the idea of acculturation (Berry 1997) was originally proposed as the mutual change of both parties (e.g., immigrants and the host society), the change processes of host societies are neglected in research. A grounded theory study explored the efforts of human service organizations to 'acculturate' to an increasingly diverse immigrant population, through interviews conducted with service providers serving Mainland Chinese immigrants. Acculturation efforts of human service organizations (mezzo-level acculturation) were often needs-driven and affected by the political will and resultant funding programs (macro-level forces). Even with limitations, human service organizations commonly focused on hiring Mainland Chinese immigrants to reflect the changing demographics of their clientele and creating new programs to meet the language and cultural backgrounds of the clients. To contextualize these organizational efforts, an analysis of how policy changes (macro-level acculturation) interact with organizational practice is presented. Finally, the meaning of acculturation for the host society is discussed.
Advancing Understanding of Acculturation for Adolescents of Asian Immigrants: Person-Oriented Analysis of Acculturation Strategy Among Korean American Youth.
Choi, Yoonsun; Tan, Kevin Poh Hiong; Yasui, Miwa; Hahm, Hyeouk Chris
Acculturation strategy, a significant predictor of immigrant adaptation, has been under-studied with Asian Americans, in particular, Asian American youth. Using person-oriented latent profile analysis, this study identified acculturation strategies among Korean American early adolescents living in the Midwest. Two-hundred ninety-one families were interviewed in 2007 that included 220 youth (mean age 13, 47.7 % female), along with 272 mothers and 164 fathers (N = 656). They were re-interviewed in 2008 (N = 588). The study found three distinct acculturation strategies: separation (11.8 %, n = 26), integrated bicultural (66.9 %, n = 150), and modest bicultural (21.3 %, n = 44). Integrated bicultural youth reported the strongest sense of ethnic identity and the most favorable characteristics, providing empirical support for the benefit of biculturalism. The findings further suggest that separation may not be as detrimental as previously thought, and modest bicultural-biculturalism that is not fully developed-may in fact be less desirable among Korean American youth.
Majority children's evaluation of acculturation preferences of immigrant and emigrant peers
Verkuijten, Maykel; Thijs, Jochem; Sierksma, Jellie; Leerstoel Verkuijten; Migration, Cultural Diversity and Ethnic Relation
Using an experimental design, native majority group children (8-13 years, N = 842) evaluated acculturation strategies (assimilation, integration, and separation) adopted by immigrant and emigrant peers. There were medium to large effects of the perceived acculturation strategies on children's peer
Consumer acculturation of Latin American visitors in Taiwan : a study of food and clothing products
Chang, Aihwa; Lee, Yi-Fan
This study seeks to determine the factors influencing consumer acculturation of Latin American student visitors in Taiwan for the product categories of food and clothing. This research found: (1) some variables of acculturation influence, marketing practices, and situation factors are significantly related to consumer acculturation; (2) four acculturation patterns are discovered and they coincide with Berry's (1997) typology;(3) visitors do not travel in family units, hence their food habits ...
Development and Validation of the Bicultural Youth Acculturation Questionnaire.
Kukaswadia, Atif; Janssen, Ian; Pickett, William; Bajwa, Jasmine; Georgiades, Katholiki; Lalonde, Richard N; Quon, Elizabeth C; Safdar, Saba; Pike, Ian
Acculturation is a multidimensional process involving changes in behaviour and beliefs. Questionnaires developed to measure acculturation are typically designed for specific ethnic populations and adult experiences. This study developed a questionnaire that measures acculturation among ethnically diverse populations of youth that can be included as a module in population surveys. Questionnaires measuring acculturation in youth were identified in the literature. The importance of items from the existing questionnaires was determined using a Delphi process and this informed the development of our questionnaire. The questionnaire was then pilot tested using a sample of 248 Canadians aged 18-25 via an online system. Participants identified as East and South East Asian (27.8%), South Asian (17.7%) and Black (13.7%). The majority were 1st (33.5%) or 2nd generation immigrants (52.0%). After redundant items were eliminated, exploratory factor analysis grouped items into domains, and, for each domain, internal consistency, and convergent validity with immigrant generation then age at immigration estimated. A subset of participants re-completed the questionnaire for reliability estimation. The literature review yielded 117 articles that used 13 questionnaires with a total of 440 questions. The Delphi process reduced these to 32 questions. Pilot testing occurred in 248 Canadians aged 18-25. Following item reduction, 16 questions in three domains remained: dominant culture, heritage language, and heritage culture. All had good internal consistency (Cronbach's alphas > .75). The mean dominant domain score increased with immigrant generation (1st generation: 3.69 (95% CI: 3.49-3.89), 2nd: 4.13 (4.00-4.26), 3rd: 4.40 (4.19-4.61)), and mean heritage language score was higher among those who immigrated after age 12 than before (p = .0001), indicative of convergent validity. This Bicultural Youth Acculturation Questionnaire has demonstrated validity. It can be incorporated into
Development and Validation of the Bicultural Youth Acculturation Questionnaire
Kukaswadia, Atif; Janssen, Ian; Pickett, William; Bajwa, Jasmine; Georgiades, Katholiki; Lalonde, Richard N.; Quon, Elizabeth C.; Safdar, Saba; Pike, Ian
Objectives Acculturation is a multidimensional process involving changes in behaviour and beliefs. Questionnaires developed to measure acculturation are typically designed for specific ethnic populations and adult experiences. This study developed a questionnaire that measures acculturation among ethnically diverse populations of youth that can be included as a module in population surveys. Methods Questionnaires measuring acculturation in youth were identified in the literature. The importance of items from the existing questionnaires was determined using a Delphi process and this informed the development of our questionnaire. The questionnaire was then pilot tested using a sample of 248 Canadians aged 18–25 via an online system. Participants identified as East and South East Asian (27.8%), South Asian (17.7%) and Black (13.7%). The majority were 1st (33.5%) or 2nd generation immigrants (52.0%). After redundant items were eliminated, exploratory factor analysis grouped items into domains, and, for each domain, internal consistency, and convergent validity with immigrant generation then age at immigration estimated. A subset of participants re-completed the questionnaire for reliability estimation. Results The literature review yielded 117 articles that used 13 questionnaires with a total of 440 questions. The Delphi process reduced these to 32 questions. Pilot testing occurred in 248 Canadians aged 18–25. Following item reduction, 16 questions in three domains remained: dominant culture, heritage language, and heritage culture. All had good internal consistency (Cronbach’s alphas > .75). The mean dominant domain score increased with immigrant generation (1st generation: 3.69 (95% CI: 3.49–3.89), 2nd: 4.13 (4.00–4.26), 3rd: 4.40 (4.19–4.61)), and mean heritage language score was higher among those who immigrated after age 12 than before (p = .0001), indicative of convergent validity. Conclusions This Bicultural Youth Acculturation Questionnaire has
A Brief Literature Review on Acculturation Strategies of Overseas Students
Acculturation strategy has been an integral and essential part in the field of acculturation study. The fact that an increasing number of international overseas students wave into China renders this research urgently in need; and new theoretical models emerged constantly, which have had a significant effect on the immigration policies in China.…
Coping, acculturation, and psychological adaptation among migrants: a theoretical and empirical review and synthesis of the literature
Kuo, Ben C.H.
Given the continuous, dynamic demographic changes internationally due to intensive worldwide migration and globalization, the need to more fully understand how migrants adapt and cope with acculturation experiences in their new host cultural environment is imperative and timely. However, a comprehensive review of what we currently know about the relationship between coping behavior and acculturation experience for individuals undergoing cultural changes has not yet been undertaken. Hence, the current article aims to compile, review, and examine cumulative cross-cultural psychological research that sheds light on the relationships among coping, acculturation, and psychological and mental health outcomes for migrants. To this end, this present article reviews prevailing literature pertaining to: (a) the stress and coping conceptual perspective of acculturation; (b) four theoretical models of coping, acculturation and cultural adaptation; (c) differential coping pattern among diverse acculturating migrant groups; and (d) the relationship between coping variabilities and acculturation levels among migrants. In terms of theoretical understanding, this review points to the relative strengths and limitations associated with each of the four theoretical models on coping-acculturation-adaptation. These theories and the empirical studies reviewed in this article further highlight the central role of coping behaviors/strategies in the acculturation process and outcome for migrants and ethnic populations, both conceptually and functionally. Moreover, the review shows that across studies culturally preferred coping patterns exist among acculturating migrants and migrant groups and vary with migrants' acculturation levels. Implications and limitations of the existing literature for coping, acculturation, and psychological adaptation research are discussed and recommendations for future research are put forth. PMID:25750766
Latino parent acculturation stress: Longitudinal effects on family functioning and youth emotional and behavioral health.
Lorenzo-Blanco, Elma I; Meca, Alan; Unger, Jennifer B; Romero, Andrea; Gonzales-Backen, Melinda; Piña-Watson, Brandy; Cano, Miguel Ángel; Zamboanga, Byron L; Des Rosiers, Sabrina E; Soto, Daniel W; Villamar, Juan A; Lizzi, Karina M; Pattarroyo, Monica; Schwartz, Seth J
Latino parents can experience acculturation stressors, and according to the Family Stress Model (FSM), parent stress can influence youth mental health and substance use by negatively affecting family functioning. To understand how acculturation stressors come together and unfold over time to influence youth mental health and substance use outcomes, the current study investigated the trajectory of a latent parent acculturation stress factor and its influence on youth mental health and substance use via parent-and youth-reported family functioning. Data came from a 6-wave, school-based survey with 302 recent (stress loaded onto a latent factor of acculturation stress at each of the first 4 time points. Earlier levels of and increases in parent acculturation stress predicted worse youth-reported family functioning. Additionally, earlier levels of parent acculturation stress predicted worse parent-reported family functioning and increases in parent acculturation stress predicted better parent-reported family functioning. While youth-reported positive family functioning predicted higher self-esteem, lower symptoms of depression, and lower aggressive and rule-breaking behavior in youth, parent-reported family positive functioning predicted lower youth alcohol and cigarette use. Findings highlight the need for Latino youth preventive interventions to target parent acculturation stress and family functioning. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).
Acculturation and Bicultural Efficacy Effects on Chinese American Immigrants’ Diabetes and Health Management
Chun, Kevin M.; Kwan, Christine M. L.; Strycker, Lisa A.; Chesla, Catherine A.
The primary goal of this study was to examine effects of bicultural efficacy, or perceived confidence in dealing with bicultural acculturation stressors, on type 2 diabetes management and health for first-generation, Cantonese-speaking, Chinese American immigrants (N=162) recruited for a larger community-based diabetes intervention study (Chesla et al., 2013). The current study also tested whether a new Bicultural Efficacy in Health Management (BEFF-HM) scale is a more robust predictor of diabetes and health outcomes than proxy (years in the U.S.) and general acculturation measures. Hierarchical regression analyses of cross-sectional data revealed that high BEFF-HM was significantly related to positive outcomes on five of six diabetes and health measures as hypothesized after accounting for participant characteristics, proxy and general acculturation measures, and social support. Proxy and general acculturation measures failed to predict any study outcome supporting our secondary hypothesis that BEFF-HM is a better predictor of Chinese American immigrants’ diabetes and health management. An immigrant-focused research approach advances understanding of acculturation and bicultural efficacy effects on health by identifying key acculturation domains for study. PMID:27412776
Acculturation and bicultural efficacy effects on Chinese American immigrants' diabetes and health management.
Chun, Kevin M; Kwan, Christine M L; Strycker, Lisa A; Chesla, Catherine A
The primary goal of this study was to examine effects of bicultural efficacy, or perceived confidence in dealing with bicultural acculturation stressors, on type 2 diabetes management and health for first-generation, Cantonese-speaking, Chinese American immigrants (N = 162) recruited for a larger community-based diabetes intervention study (Chesla et al. in Res Nurs Health 36(4):359-372, 2013. doi: 10.1002/nur.21543 ). The current study also tested whether a new Bicultural Efficacy in Health Management (BEFF-HM) scale is a more robust predictor of diabetes and health outcomes than proxy (years in the U.S.) and general acculturation measures. Hierarchical regression analyses of cross-sectional data revealed that high BEFF-HM was significantly related to positive outcomes on five of six diabetes and health measures as hypothesized after accounting for participant characteristics, proxy and general acculturation measures, and social support. Proxy and general acculturation measures failed to predict any study outcome supporting our secondary hypothesis that BEFF-HM is a better predictor of Chinese American immigrants' diabetes and health management. An immigrant-focused research approach advances understanding of acculturation and bicultural efficacy effects on health by identifying key acculturation domains for study.
Family cohesion moderates the relationship between acculturative stress and depression in Japanese adolescent temporary residents.
Roley, Michelle E; Kawakami, Ryoko; Baker, Jessica; Hurtado, Gabriela; Chin, Andrew; Hovey, Joseph D
Acculturative stress is a risk factor for depression, and may be important in the risk for depression among acculturating Japanese adolescents. However, little to no research has been published on the mental health of acculturating Japanese adolescents. Further, although family cohesion has been shown to be protective against depression across ethnic groups, no prior research has examined family cohesion as a protective factor for Japanese adolescents. To examine these relationships, 26 Japanese temporary resident adolescents and 76 parents in the Midwest were recruited to participate. Moderate to strong correlations between acculturative stress, depression, likelihood for and seriousness of family conflict were found. A regression analysis found that likelihood for family conflict moderated the relationship between acculturative stress and depression. Findings broaden our understanding of the role of acculturative stress and family conflict on depression risk for Japanese adolescent immigrants.
Second language social networks and communication-related acculturative stress: The role of interconnectedness
Marina M Doucerain; Raheleh eShiri Varnaamkhaasti; Norman eSegalowitz; Norman eSegalowitz; Andrew G Ryder; Andrew G Ryder
Although a substantial amount of cross-cultural psychology research has investigated acculturative stress in general, little attention has been devoted specifically to communication-related acculturative stress. In line with the view that cross-cultural adaptation and second language (L2) learning are social and interpersonal phenomena, the present study examines the hypothesis that migrants' L2 social network size and interconnectedness predict communication-related acculturative stress. The...
Acculturation conflict among Latino youth: Discrimination, ethnic identity, and depressive symptoms.
Huq, Nadia; Stein, Gabriela L; Gonzalez, Laura M
Patterns of parent-adolescent conflict differ between immigrant and nonimmigrant families living in the United States (Fuligni, 1998). Despite this, there is limited empirical literature examining the nuanced nature of parent-adolescent conflict in immigrant families. To fill this gap, the current study examined the role of 2 types of conflict (i.e., general and acculturation) in predicting psychosocial outcomes (i.e., depressive symptoms and ethnic identity) among Latino adolescents, and whether these relationships differ within the context of peer discrimination. All survey administration was completed in the participating school's cafeteria. The sample consisted of 7th through 10th graders (n = 172) with a mean age of 14.01 years (SD = 1.32.) The sample consisted of 53% females, and was primarily Mexican in origin (78%). As hypothesized, parent-adolescent acculturation conflict uniquely predicted greater depressive symptoms and lower ethnic private regard, even when controlling for parent-adolescent general conflict. However, acculturation conflict predicted lower ethnic private regard only in the presence of greater peer discrimination. More specifically, peer discrimination moderated the relation between acculturation conflict and ethnic private regard such that adolescents who reported the highest levels of acculturation conflict and peer discrimination reported the lowest levels of ethnic private regard. These results suggest that for Latino youth and their families, acculturation conflict may be particularly problematic, as compared with general conflict. In addition, youth who face ethnicity-based stressors in both familial and school contexts are especially at risk in their ethnic identity development. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).
Acculturation Strategies, Social Support, and Cross-Cultural Adaptation: A Mediation Analysis
Ng, Ting Kin; Tsang, Kwok Kuen; Lian, Yi
Previous acculturation research has established the influences of acculturation strategies and social support on cross-cultural adaptation. The present study attempted to elaborate these direct associations by proposing that social support and the use of the integration and marginalization strategies might affect psychological adaptation…
Is greater acculturation associated with an increased prevalence of cardiovascular risk factors among Latinos in South Florida?
Chang, Aileen; Kenya, Sonjia; Ilangovan, Kumar; Li, Hua; Koru-Sengul, Tulay; Alonzo, Yisel; Carrasquillo, Olveen
To examine the association of acculturation with various cardiovascular risk factors (CRFs) among Latinos with diabetes in South Florida. In a cross-sectional analysis of data collected from 300 Latinos with poorly controlled diabetes we measured acculturation using the Marin Short Acculturation Scale. We examined correlations between acculturation and the following 7 CRFs: hemoglobin A1C, low-density lipoprotein, systolic blood pressure, body mass index, smoking status, physical activity, and fruit and vegetable intake. Cubans made up 38% of our population; no other Latino subgroup represented over 17% of the sample. Of the 8 outcomes examined, only smoking was associated with increased acculturation; 12% of Latinos in the 2 lowest acculturation groups were current smokers versus 25% in the highest acculturation group (P=0.02). Furthermore, Cuban Americans from our sample had over double the prevalence of smoking compared with non-Cubans in both the lowest and highest acculturation groups. With the exception of smoking, our data does not support a link between increased acculturation and higher prevalence of CRFs in Latinos with diabetes. Smoking prevention and cessation programs targeting Latinos and particularly among Cubans are needed.
Measuring culture: a critical review of acculturation and health in Asian immigrant populations.
Salant, Talya; Lauderdale, Diane S
The number of studies examining how acculturation affects the health of Asian immigrants has increased in recent years. The proliferation of studies reflects the growing size and heterogeneity of Asian immigrant populations in the United States, Canada, Australia, New Zealand, and the United Kingdom. This paper compares various approaches to acculturation within the health literature on Asian immigrants by reviewing the literature in three-health domains (1) mental health (2) physical health and (3) health services use. The review critically examines the conceptualizations and measures of acculturation in these three domains and presents major findings. We observe that measurement difficulties posed by the experiences of heterogeneous Asian groups compound theoretical and disciplinary disparities between acculturation instruments. The extent to which conceptual and methodological critiques of acculturation studies in Hispanic populations apply to studies of Asian populations is also discussed. The critical review thus provides insights into the diverse ways that the relationship between culture and health is measured in this complicated and growing literature.
Acculturation and Plasma Fatty Acid Concentrations in Hispanic and Chinese-American Adults: The Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis.
Diep, Cassandra S; Lemaitre, Rozenn N; Chen, Tzu-An; Baranowski, Tom; Lutsey, Pamela L; Manichaikul, Ani W; Rich, Stephen S; St-Jules, David E; Steffen, Brian T; Tsai, Michael Y; Siscovick, David S; Frazier-Wood, Alexis C
Acculturation to the U.S. is associated with increased risk of cardiovascular disease, but the etiologic pathways are not fully understood. Plasma fatty acid levels exhibit ethnic differences and are emerging as biomarkers and predictors of cardiovascular disease risk. Thus, plasma fatty acids may represent one pathway underlying the association between acculturation and cardiovascular disease. We investigated the cross-sectional relationship between acculturation and plasma phospholipid fatty acids in a diverse sample of Hispanic- and Chinese-American adults. Participants included 377 Mexican, 320 non-Mexican Hispanic, and 712 Chinese adults from the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis, who had full plasma phospholipid assays and acculturation information. Acculturation was determined from three proxy measures: nativity, language spoken at home, and years in the U.S., with possible scores ranging from 0 (least acculturated) to 5 (most acculturated) points. α-Linolenic acid, linoleic acid, eicosapentaenoic acid, docosahexaenoic acid, and arachidonic acid were measured in fasting plasma. Linear regression models were conducted in race/ethnicity-stratified analyses, with acculturation as the predictor and plasma phospholipid fatty acids as the outcome variables. We ran secondary analyses to examine associations between acculturation and dietary fatty acids for comparison. Covariates included age, gender, education, and income. Contrary to our hypothesis, no statistically significant associations were detected between acculturation and plasma phospholipid fatty acids for Chinese, non-Mexican Hispanic, or Mexican participants. However, acculturation was related to dietary total n-6 fatty acids and dietary n-3/n-6 ratios in expected directions for Mexican, non-Mexican Hispanic, and combined Hispanic participants. In Chinese individuals, acculturation was unexpectedly associated with lower arachidonic acid intake. Absence of associations between acculturation and
Policing the nation: Acculturation and street-level bureaucrats in professional life
Gowricharn, R.S.; Cankaya, S.
Assimilation of migrants is assumed to happen through acculturation, which is depicted as neutral, unintended and invisible. In most accounts the role of social actors is pushed into the background, and the conditions that shape and determine the direction of the acculturation are ignored. A further
Dietary acculturation among the South-Asian Surinamese population in the Netherlands: the HELIUS study.
Raza, Qaisar; Nicolaou, Mary; Snijder, Marieke B; Stronks, Karien; Seidell, Jacob C
To test Koctürk's model of dietary change among South-Asian Surinamese in the Netherlands. The model categorizes foods into staple, complementary and accessory foods and postulates that dietary change after migration begins with accessory foods while foods associated with ethnic identity (staple foods) change at a slower rate. Cross-sectional data from the HELIUS study. Dietary intake was assessed with an FFQ. Acculturation was based on social contacts and sense of belonging and was translated into four strategies of acculturation: assimilation, integration, separation and marginalization. Other indicators of acculturation included residence duration, age at migration and migration generation status. Amsterdam, the Netherlands. Participants of Dutch (n 1456) and South-Asian Surinamese origin (n 968). Across all acculturation strategies, South-Asian Surinamese participants reported significantly higher intakes of rice (staple food) and chicken (complementary food) and significantly lower intakes of red meat and vegetables (complementary foods) and cookies and sweets (accessory food) than Dutch participants. Men, second-generation and assimilated South-Asian Surinamese were inclined towards Dutch foods such as potato, pasta and red meat. Accessory foods like fruits showed variation across acculturation strategies. Consistent with the Koctürk model, the intake of staple foods was stable among South-Asian Surinamese irrespective of acculturation strategy while the intake of accessory foods like fruit varied. Contrary to expectations, South-Asian Surinamese showed consistently high intakes of complementary foods like chicken and fish irrespective of acculturation strategy. Public health practitioners should take into consideration the complex and dynamic nature of dietary acculturation.
Acculturative stress is associated with trajectory of anxiety symptoms during pregnancy in Mexican-American women.
Preciado, Andrea; D'Anna-Hernandez, Kimberly
Over half of pregnant women report anxiety symptoms and these symptoms may be precipitated by stressful experiences. Anxiety rates may be higher in Mexican-American women who experience sociocultural stressors, such as acculturation, acculturative stress and discrimination. However, the role of such stressors on the trajectory of anxiety symptoms across pregnancy is not yet known. Mexican-American women (n=151) completed surveys across pregnancy about acculturation, acculturative stress, perceived discrimination, and state anxiety. Multilevel modeling found that acculturation (Anglo orientation, b=0.050, SE=0.379, t (137.561)=0.134, p=0.894; Mexican orientation, b=0.775, SE=0.692, t (133.424)=1.121, p=0.264) and perceived discrimination (b=-1.259, SE=0.921, t (137.489)=-1.367, p=0.174) were not associated with the trajectory of anxiety symptoms. However, acculturative stress, even while controlling for perceived stress, was associated with high levels of anxiety symptoms that were elevated early in pregnancy (b=-0.045, SE=0.022, t (135.749)=-2, p=0.047). This work highlights the unique role of acculturative stress in risk for prenatal anxiety in early pregnancy. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.
Measuring acculturation and symptoms of depression of foreign immigrants in the Athens area.
Madianos, M G; Gonidakis, F; Ploubidis, D; Papadopoulou, E; Rogakou, E
Acculturation is the phenomenon that results when a group with one culture comes into continuous contact with a host culture and changes occur in the original culture of either one or both groups. Acculturation has also been linked with stress-related psychological disorder and depression. This article investigates the acculturation process and the depressive state of foreign immigrants living in the greater Athens area. All consecutive cases of 157 foreign immigrants who visited a nongovernmental organization (NGO) providing consultative services to immigrants were interviewed using a structured questionnaire including the Immigrant Acculturation Scale (IAS) and the Centre for Epidemiologic Studies - Depression (CES-D) scale. Factor analysis of IAS yielded a three-factor solution and 17 items with loadings ranging from 0.74 to 0.41. This scale was also tested and proven to be reliable. The main finding is that the higher the acculturation level of the immigrant individual, the lower the CES-D scale score; the fewer the depressive symptoms are self-reported. Length of stay, existence of family in Greece, legal status of residence and employment were also found to have an effect on depressive symptomatology. Acculturation could be seen as a beneficial mechanism protecting the individual to be exposed to stressful non-adaptive behaviour.
Influence of Family Perceptions of Acting White on Acculturative Stress in African American College Students
Thompson, Keisha V.; Lightfoot, Nicole L.; Castillo, Linda G.; Hurst, Morgan L.
This study examined family-oriented stressors on acculturative stress in 83 African American college students attending a predominately White university. Results showed that family pressure for participants not to acculturate, pressure to maintain ethnic group language, perception of Acting White, and acculturation level were related to higher…
Acculturation level and caregiver outcomes from a randomized intervention trial to enhance caregivers' health: evidence from REACH II.
Meyer, Oanh L; Liu, Xiaoyan Lucia; Tancredi, Daniel; Ramirez, A Susana; Schulz, Richard; Hinton, Ladson
Latinos comprise a growing segment of the caregiver population and vary widely in acculturation, yet little is known regarding how acculturation might affect caregiver stress or intervention outcomes. This study examined the relationship between acculturation and burden, bother, and depression in Latino dementia caregivers at baseline and following an intervention. This was a secondary data analysis of 211 Latino caregivers of older adults with dementia from Resources for Enhancing Alzheimer's Caregiver Health (REACH) II, a multisite randomized trial of caregiver interventions. Baseline and follow-up data were used to run mixed-effects models examining the main and moderating effect of acculturation on caregiver stress. No significant main effect of acculturation was found for any of the outcome measures, controlling for demographic covariates. Acculturation moderated the effect of the intervention on caregiver burden: those who were more acculturated benefited more from the intervention. Differential acculturation for Latino caregivers was not directly associated with caregiver burden, bother, or depression, but was associated with reducing burden from the intervention. Future research should explore by what mechanism acculturation influences caregiver burden following an intervention.
Acculturation, childhood trauma and the cortisol awakening response in Mexican-American adults.
Mangold, Deborah; Wand, Gary; Javors, Martin; Mintz, James
Exposure to chronic and traumatic stress has been associated with the dysregulation of crucial stress response systems. Acculturation has been associated with unique forms of chronic psychosocial stress. The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of exposure to early traumatic stress and acculturation on dysregulation of the cortisol awakening response (CAR) in Mexican-American adults. Salivary cortisol samples were collected at awakening and 30, 45, and 60 min thereafter, on two consecutive weekdays from 59 healthy Mexican-American adult males (26) and females (33), ages 18-38 years. Participants were assessed for level of acculturation and exposure to early trauma. Data were analyzed using a mixed effects regression model with repeated measures at four time points. Mixed effects regression results indicated a significant Early Trauma x Time interaction (p=.0029) and a significant Acculturation x Time interaction (p=.0015), after controlling for age and sex. Subsequent analyses of the interaction of Trauma x Acculturation x Time showed that more than minimal exposure to either risk factor was associated with attenuation of the awakening cortisol response (p=.0002). Higher levels of acculturation with greater Anglo-orientation were associated with attenuation of the CAR in Mexican-American adults. Both moderate and higher levels of exposure to early trauma were associated with an attenuated CAR. However, greater exposure to both risk factors was only incrementally worse than exposure to either one. Copyright (c) 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Differences in Mental Health Outcomes by Acculturation Status following a Major Urban Disaster
Adams, Richard E.; Boscarino, Joseph A.
A number of studies have assessed the association between acculturation and psychological outcomes following a traumatic event. Some suggest that low acculturation is associated with poorer health outcomes, while others show no differences or that low acculturation is associated with better outcomes. One year after the terrorist attacks on the World Trade Center, we surveyed a multi-ethnic population of New York City adults (N=2,368). We assessed posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), major de...
Acculturation, meal frequency, eating-out, and body weight in Korean Americans.
Consuming regular meals has been studied in relation to better health, while higher regularity of eating-out has been linked to obesity. This study examined whether acculturation was associated with regularity of meals, eating-out, and overweight in Korean Americans. Pre-tested questionnaires were mailed to a U.S. national sample with Korean American surnames, and 55% of the deliverable sample responded, producing 356 usable questionnaires. Acculturation was measured using a two-culture matrix model and Gordon's theoretical work, and showed there were three distinct groups (acculturated, bicultural, and traditional). Only 36% reported that they regularly ate three meals a day. Breakfast was the least frequent meal of the day with 43% reporting eating breakfast everyday. More than half (58%) reported that they usually eat out or get take-out food at least once a week. After controlling for age, sex, income, education, and working status, higher acculturation was related to greater regularity of eating-out, but not meal regularity. A total of 28% of men and 6% of women were overweight (BMI>25), and there were significant and positive relationships between body weight status and acculturation in men but not women. However, no significant relationships between frequency of meals and eating-out and overweight status were present. This study did not find significant relationships of meal regularity and eating-out with body weight, however, given the positive relationship between acculturation and eating-out among the subjects and the well-established relationship between eating-out and obesity, nutrition education about skipping meals and eating-for Korean Americans may be useful to prevent such relationships from developing.
Acculturation, self-construal, mental and physical health: an explorative study of East Asian students in Germany.
Shim, Gayoung; Freund, Henning; Stopsack, Malte; Kämmerer, Annette; Barnow, Sven
The present study explores acculturation and its associated aspects of two East Asian student groups with different levels of exposure to German culture (100 international students from East Asian countries [IS]; 61 second generation students of East Asian descent [SGS]). First, we investigated the relationships between acculturation, self-construal, depressive and somatic symptoms, and differences between the student groups in these variables. Second, the four acculturation types (integration, assimilation, separation and marginalization) were examined regarding their relationship to self-construal and health outcomes. The results showed that the acculturation dimensions (mainstream, heritage) were relevant to the level of depressive symptoms for IS which was not the case for SGS. Furthermore, IS reported more somatic symptoms whereas there was no difference between the two groups in the level of depressive symptoms. In the analysis of acculturation types, assimilated and integrated students were characterized by high independent self-construal, while separated and integrated students showed high interdependent self-construal. Assimilated students displayed the least depressive symptoms of all acculturation groups. This study highlights different characteristics of East Asian students in acculturation, self-construal and health outcomes, and discusses the complexity of the relationships between acculturation types and health. © 2013 International Union of Psychological Science.
Acculturation and health-related quality of life among Vietnamese immigrant women in transnational marriages in Taiwan.
Yang, Yung-Mei; Wang, Hsiu-Hung
To examine associations between demographic variables, acculturation, and health-related quality of life among Vietnamese immigrant women in transnational marriages in Taiwan. A cross-sectional survey of 203 participants in southern Taiwan. Instruments included a demographic inventory, the Suinn-Lew Asian Self-Identity Acculturation Scale, and the Short Form Health Survey-Version 2. Most participants had low acculturation levels. Length of residency, number of children, marital status, level of education, religion of spouse, and employment status of spouse significantly correlated with level of acculturation, as did mental health, bodily pain, vitality, and social functioning. Programs are needed to encourage social assimilation for Vietnamese immigrant women in Taiwan. Culturally sensitive medical evaluations will ensure early treatment of mental and physical health problems caused by the stress of acculturation. An increased understanding of variables affecting Southeast Asian immigrant women's acculturation process will improve health status.
Association of acculturation with drinking games among Hispanic college students.
Schwartz, Seth J; Zamboanga, Byron L; Tomaso, Cara C; Kondo, Karli K; Unger, Jennifer B; Weisskirch, Robert S; Ham, Lindsay S; Meca, Alan; Cano, Miguel Ángel; Whitbourne, Susan Krauss; Brittian, Aerika S; Des Rosiers, Sabrina E; Hurley, Eric A; Vazsonyi, Alexander T; Ravert, Russell D
This cross-sectional study was conducted to investigate which components of acculturation relate to drinking games participation among Hispanic college students. We also sought to examine whether the relationships between acculturation and drinking games would differ from the associations between acculturation and other alcohol-related outcomes. A sample of 1,397 Hispanic students aged 18-25 (75% women; 77% US-born) from 30 US colleges and universities completed a confidential online survey. Associations among acculturative processes, drinking games participation, general alcohol consumption, and negative drinking consequences differed across gender. Most significant findings emerged in the domain of cultural practices. For women, US cultural practices were associated with greater general alcohol consumption, drinking games frequency, and amount of alcohol consumed while gaming, whereas for men, US cultural practices were associated with general alcohol consumption and negative drinking consequences. Hispanic and US cultural practices, values, and identifications were differentially associated with drinking games participation, and these associations differed by gender. It is therefore essential for college student alcohol research to examine US culture acquisition and Hispanic culture retention separately and within the domains of cultural practices, values, and identifications.
Bicultural Advertising and Hispanic Acculturation
Tsai, Wan-Hsiu Sunny; Li, Cong
This study examined the moderating effects of acculturation modes (assimilated, integrated, and separated) on Hispanic consumers' responses to three advertising targeting strategies (Caucasian targeted, bicultural, and Hispanic targeted). The hypotheses were empirically tested in a 3 x 3 factorial experiment with 155 self-identified Hispanic adult…
Innovative practice: exploring acculturation theory to advance rehabilitation from pediatric to adult "cultures" of care.
Nguyen, Tram; Baptiste, Sue
This perspective paper explores the application of acculturation and the inherent concepts and ideas associated with this theory in rehabilitation to provide a framework for interpreting patient circumstances, responses and behaviours as they move from one culture to the next. Traditionally acculturation theory has been use to examine changes in culture in an ethnic or country sense, however, this paper is among the first to apply acculturation theory to the rehabilitation service cultures from pediatric to adult care for youth with chronic health conditions. The objectives of this paper are threefold: (1) to critically appraise key literature in the development of acculturation theory, (2) to discuss how acculturation theory can be applied in rehabilitation practice through a clinical vignette, and finally (3) to discuss how acculturation theory can advance rehabilitation by enhancing client-centered practice. Acculturation theory can provide insight into how patients are experiencing a change in health care "cultures", in the context of their overarching life circumstances. This, coming from a broader societal perspective can in turn inform an optimal approach to client-centered practice, and the application of rehabilitation-specific team inputs. This theoretical framework can heighten practitioners' awareness of patients' unique worldviews related to their expectations for care and treatment thus reducing fear of diversity to establish positive partnerships between patients and clinicians. An understanding of patients' acculturation processes will add new insight into how we can best deliver services and supports to optimise health, opportunities and experiences for youth with chronic conditions.
Measuring acculturation and enculturation among Chinese Canadian older adults.
Tieu, Yvonne; Konnert, Candace
Cultural adaptation is important to assess; however, most acculturation measures are unidimensional with little psychometric data for older immigrants. This study assessed a bidimensional measure, the Vancouver Index of Acculturation (VIA; Ryder, Alden, & Paulhus, 2000), among 149 (mean age: 73.92 years) Chinese Canadians. Internal consistencies were .84 and .83 for the Mainstream and Heritage subscales respectively, and they were orthogonal. Convergent and discriminant validity were demonstrated by predicted correlations between the VIA subscales and age at immigration, years in Canada, English fluency, and the Belief in Chinese Culture and Values Scale (BCCV; Lai & Chau, 2007). The VIA accounted for significantly more variance in language ability than the BCCV, above and beyond acculturation proxies. Exploratory factor analysis replicated the two-factor structure reported by Ryder et al. (2000). A confirmatory factor analysis indicated poor fit. This study supports a bidimensional model of cultural adaptation among older Chinese Canadians.
Acculturation orientations affect the evolution of a multicultural society.
Erten, E Yagmur; van den Berg, Pieter; Weissing, Franz J
The migration of people between different cultures has affected cultural change throughout history. To understand this process, cross-cultural psychologists have used the 'acculturation' framework, classifying 'acculturation orientations' along two dimensions: the willingness to interact with culturally different individuals, and the inclination to retain the own cultural identity ('cultural conservatism'). Here, using a cultural evolution approach, we construct a dynamically explicit model of acculturation. We show that the evolution of a multicultural society, where immigrant and resident culture stably coexist, is more likely if individuals readily engage in cross-cultural interactions, and if resident individuals are more culturally conservative than immigrants. This result holds if some cultural traits pay off better than others, and individuals use social learning to adopt more advantageous cultural traits. Our study demonstrates that formal dynamic models can help us understand how individual orientations towards immigration eventually determine the population-level distribution of cultural traits.
Social support, acculturation, and optimism: understanding positive health practices in Asian American college students.
Ayres, Cynthia G; Mahat, Ganga
This study developed and tested a theory to better understand positive health practices (PHP) among Asian Americans aged 18 to 21 years. It tested theoretical relationships postulated between PHP and (a) social support (SS), (b) optimism, and (c) acculturation, and between SS and optimism and acculturation. Optimism and acculturation were also tested as possible mediators in the relationship between SS and PHP. A correlational study design was used. A convenience sample of 163 Asian college students in an urban setting completed four questionnaires assessing SS, PHP, optimism, and acculturation and one demographic questionnaire. There were statistically significant positive relationships between SS and optimism with PHP, between acculturation and PHP, and between optimism and SS. Optimism mediated the relationship between SS and PHP, whereas acculturation did not. Findings extend knowledge regarding these relationships to a defined population of Asian Americans aged 18 to 21 years. Findings contribute to a more comprehensive knowledge base regarding health practices among Asian Americans. The theoretical and empirical findings of this study provide the direction for future research as well. Further studies need to be conducted to identify and test other mediators in order to better understand the relationship between these two variables.
Forbearance coping, identification with heritage culture, acculturative stress, and psychological distress among Chinese international students.
Wei, Meifen; Liao, Kelly Yu-Hsin; Heppner, Puncky Paul; Chao, Ruth Chu-Lien; Ku, Tsun-Yao
Based on Berry's (1997) theoretical framework for acculturation, our goal in this study was to examine whether the use of a culturally relevant coping strategy (i.e., forbearance coping, a predictor) would be associated with a lower level of psychological distress (a psychological outcome), for whom (i.e., those with weaker vs. stronger identification with heritage culture, a moderator), and under what situations (i.e., lower vs. higher acculturative stress, a moderator). A total of 188 Chinese international students completed an online survey. Results from a hierarchical regression indicated a significant 3-way interaction of forbearance coping, identification with heritage culture, and acculturative stress on psychological distress. For those with a weaker identification with their heritage culture, when acculturative stress was higher, the use of forbearance coping was positively associated with psychological distress. However, this was not the case when acculturative stress was lower. In other words, the use of forbearance coping was not significantly associated with psychological distress when acculturative stress was lower. Moreover, for those with a stronger cultural heritage identification, the use of forbearance coping was not significantly associated with psychological distress regardless of whether acculturative stress was high or low. Future research and implications are discussed. (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved.
Acculturation and Hope as Predictors of Career Decision Self-Efficacy among Korean International Undergraduate Students
This study examined the role of acculturation to the host culture, acculturation to the home culture, and dispositional hope in career decision self-efficacy (CDSE) in a sample of 213 Korean international undergraduate students enrolled in U.S. universities. The findings revealed that hope and acculturation to the host culture uniquely and…
Acculturation among Latino Bilingual Education Teacher Candidates: Implications for Teacher Preparation Institutions
Flores, Belinda Bustos; Clark, Ellen Riojas; Guerra, Norma S.; Sanchez, Serafin V.
This study examined acculturation among Latino bilingual education teacher candidates to identify psychosocial distinctions among 3 identified groups: 1st-generation college students, 2nd-generation paraprofessionals, and immigrant "normalistas" (normal school foreign-trained teachers). Using acculturation scales, we observed overall group and…
The relationship between acculturation strategies and depressive and anxiety disorders in Turkish migrants in the Netherlands.
Ünlü Ince, Burçin; Fassaert, Thijs; de Wit, Matty A S; Cuijpers, Pim; Smit, Jan; Ruwaard, Jeroen; Riper, Heleen
Turkish migrants in the Netherlands have a high prevalence of depressive and/or anxiety disorders. Acculturation has been shown to be related to higher levels of psychological distress, although it is not clear whether this also holds for depressive and anxiety disorders in Turkish migrants. This study aims to clarify the relationship between acculturation strategies (integration, assimilation, separation and marginalization) and the prevalence of depressive and anxiety disorders as well as utilisation of GP care among Turkish migrants. Existing data from an epidemiological study conducted among Dutch, Turkish and Moroccan inhabitants of Amsterdam were re-examined. Four scales of acculturation strategies were created in combination with the bi-dimensional approach of acculturation by factor analysis. The Lowlands Acculturation Scale and the Composite International Diagnostic Interview were used to assess acculturation and mood and anxiety disorders. Socio-demographic variables, depressive, anxiety and co-morbidity of both disorders and the use of health care services were associated with the four acculturation strategies by means of Chi-Squared and Likelihood tests. Three two-step logistic regression analyses were performed to control for possible, confounding variables. The sample consisted of 210 Turkish migrants. Significant associations were found between the acculturation strategies and age (p acculturation strategies and depressive disorders (p = .049): integration was associated with a lower risk of depression, separation with a higher risk. Using the axis separately, participation in Dutch society showed a significant relationship with a decreased risk of depressive, anxiety and co-morbidity of both disorders (OR = .15; 95% CI: .024 - .98). Non-participation showed no significant association. No association was found between the acculturation strategies and uptake of GP care. Turkish migrants who integrate may have a lower risk of developing a
The role of acculturation and family functioning in predicting HIV risk behaviors among Hispanic delinquent youth.
Farrelly, Colleen; Cordova, David; Huang, Shi; Estrada, Yannine; Prado, Guillermo
The present study examined the relationship between Berry's acculturation typology and HIV risk behaviors and whether family functioning mediated any such effects. A total of 235 high risk Hispanic adolescents were categorized into one of Berry's four acculturation typologies through the use of cut-off scores on measures of Hispanicism and Americanism. Structural equation modeling was used to examine the effects of acculturation typology on HIV risk behaviors and the indirect effects of acculturation typology on HIV risk behaviors through family functioning. Acculturation typology was related to HIV risk behaviors. Family functioning partially mediated the effects of acculturation typology on the HIV risk behavior outcomes. These findings suggest that both Americanism and Hispanicism play an important role in the etiology of HIV risk behaviors among Hispanic youth and that both, along with family functioning, are important to consider when designing preventive interventions for this population.
Acculturation and Adverse Birth Outcomes in a Predominantly Puerto Rican Population.
Barcelona de Mendoza, Veronica; Harville, Emily; Theall, Katherine; Buekens, Pierre; Chasan-Taber, Lisa
Introduction Latinas in the United States on average have poorer birth outcomes than Whites, yet considerable heterogeneity exists within Latinas. Puerto Ricans have some of the highest rates of adverse outcomes and are understudied. The goal of this study was to determine if acculturation was associated with adverse birth outcomes in a predominantly Puerto Rican population. Methods We conducted a secondary analysis of Proyecto Buena Salud, a prospective cohort study conducted from 2006 to 2011. A convenience sample of pregnant Latina women were recruited from a tertiary care hospital in Massachusetts. Acculturation was measured in early pregnancy; directly via the Psychological Acculturation Scale, and via proxies of language preference and generation in the United States. Birth outcomes (gestational age and birthweight) were abstracted from medical records (n = 1362). Results After adjustment, psychological acculturation, language preference, and generation was not associated with odds of preterm birth. However, every unit increase in psychological acculturation score was associated with an increase in gestational age of 0.22 weeks (SE = 0.1, p = 0.04) among all births. Women who preferred to speak Spanish (β = -0.39, SE = 0.2, p = 0.02) and who were first generation in the US (β = -0.33, SE = 0.1, p = 0.02) had significantly lower gestational ages than women who preferred English or who were later generation, respectively. Similarly, women who were first generation had babies who weighed 76.11 g less (SE = 35.2, p = 0.03) than women who were later generation. Discussion We observed a small, but statistically significant adverse impact of low acculturation on gestational age and birthweight in this predominantly Puerto Rican population.
The Acculturation Experiences of Foreign-Born Students of Color in Physics
Fries-Britt, Sharon; George Mwangi, Chrystal A.; Peralta, Alicia M.
This study focuses on 15 foreign-born students majoring in physics who are also racial/ethnic minorities. We address the research question: What are the acculturation experiences of foreign-born Students of Color majoring in physics? Berry's (2003) theory of acculturation and Bandura's (1994) theory of self-efficacy were substantive…
Acculturation Strategies and Mental Health in Gay, Lesbian, and Bisexual Youth
Cox, Nele; Vanden Berghe, Wim; Dewaele, Alexis; Vincke, John
In this article, we examine the impact of acculturation strategies on minority stress and mental health in lesbian, gay, or bisexual (LGB) youth in Flanders, Belgium. Building on previous identity minority studies and on the social stress model, we investigate how LGB youth acculturate within both the LGB subculture and mainstream society and how…
The Cortisol Awakening Response Mediates the Relationship Between Acculturative Stress and Self-Reported Health in Mexican Americans.
Garcia, Antonio F; Wilborn, Kristin; Mangold, Deborah L
The assessment of acculturative stress as synonymous with acculturation level overlooks the dynamic, interactive, and developmental nature of the acculturation process. An individual's unique perception and response to a range of stressors at each stage of the dynamic process of acculturation may be associated with stress-induced alterations in important biological response systems that mediate health outcomes. Evidence suggests the cortisol awakening response (CAR) is a promising pre-clinical biomarker of stress exposure that may link acculturative stress to self-reported health in Mexican Americans. The aim of the current study was to examine whether alterations in the CAR mediate the relationship between acculturative stress and self-reported health in Mexican Americans. Salivary cortisol samples were collected at awakening, 30, 45, and 60 min thereafter, on two consecutive weekdays from a sample of adult Mexican Americans. Acculturative stress and self-reported health were assessed. Data were aggregated and analyzed (n = 89) using a mixed effects regression model and path analysis. Poorer self-reported health was associated with attenuated CAR profiles (primarily due to a diminished post-awakening rise in cortisol) predicted by both moderate and high levels of exposure to acculturative stress. Stress-induced alterations in the CAR mediated the relationship between exposure to acculturative stressors and self-reported health. Findings demonstrate that different levels of acculturative stress are associated with distinct CAR profiles and suggest the CAR is one possible biological pathway through which exposure to culturally unique stressors may be linked to health disparities.
Effects of language of assessment on the measurement of acculturation: measurement equivalence and cultural frame switching.
Schwartz, Seth J; Benet-Martínez, Verónica; Knight, George P; Unger, Jennifer B; Zamboanga, Byron L; Des Rosiers, Sabrina E; Stephens, Dionne P; Huang, Shi; Szapocznik, José
The present study used a randomized design, with fully bilingual Hispanic participants from the Miami area, to investigate 2 sets of research questions. First, we sought to ascertain the extent to which measures of acculturation (Hispanic and U.S. practices, values, and identifications) satisfied criteria for linguistic measurement equivalence. Second, we sought to examine whether cultural frame switching would emerge--that is, whether latent acculturation mean scores for U.S. acculturation would be higher among participants randomized to complete measures in English and whether latent acculturation mean scores for Hispanic acculturation would be higher among participants randomized to complete measures in Spanish. A sample of 722 Hispanic students from a Hispanic-serving university participated in the study. Participants were first asked to complete translation tasks to verify that they were fully bilingual. Based on ratings from 2 independent coders, 574 participants (79.5% of the sample) qualified as fully bilingual and were randomized to complete the acculturation measures in either English or Spanish. Theoretically relevant criterion measures--self-esteem, depressive symptoms, and personal identity--were also administered in the randomized language. Measurement equivalence analyses indicated that all of the acculturation measures--Hispanic and U.S. practices, values, and identifications-met criteria for configural, weak/metric, strong/scalar, and convergent validity equivalence. These findings indicate that data generated using acculturation measures can, at least under some conditions, be combined or compared across languages of administration. Few latent mean differences emerged. These results are discussed in terms of the measurement of acculturation in linguistically diverse populations. 2014 APA
Acculturation is associated with left ventricular mass in a multiethnic sample: the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis.
Effoe, Valery S; Chen, Haiying; Moran, Andrew; Bertoni, Alain G; Bluemke, David A; Seeman, Teresa; Darwin, Christine; Watson, Karol E; Rodriguez, Carlos J
Acculturation involves stress-related processes and health behavioral changes, which may have an effect on left ventricular (LV) mass, a risk factor for cardiovascular disease (CVD). We examined the relationship between acculturation and LV mass in a multiethnic cohort of White, African-American, Hispanic and Chinese subjects. Cardiac magnetic resonance assessment was available for 5004 men and women, free of clinical CVD at baseline. Left ventricular mass index was evaluated as LV mass indexed by body surface area. Acculturation was characterized based on language spoken at home, place of birth and length of stay in the United States (U.S.), and a summary acculturation score ranging from 0 = least acculturated to 5 = most acculturated. Mean LV mass index adjusted for traditional CVD risk factors was compared across acculturation levels. Unadjusted mean LV mass index was 78.0 ± 16.3 g/m(2). In adjusted analyses, speaking exclusively English at home compared to non-English language was associated with higher LV mass index (81.3 ± 0.4 g/m(2) vs 79.9 ± 0.5 g/m(2), p = 0.02). Among foreign-born participants, having lived in the U.S. for ≥ 20 years compared to acculturation score, those with the highest score had greater LV mass index (78.9 ± 1.1 g/m(2) vs 81.1 ± 0.4 g/m(2), p = 0.002). There was heterogeneity in which measure of acculturation was associated with LV mass index across ethnic groups. Greater acculturation is associated with increased LV mass index in this multiethnic cohort. Acculturation may involve stress-related processes as well as behavioral changes with a negative effect on cardiovascular health.
NEW ARCHITECTURE WITH OLD IDEAS: AN EGYPTIAN ACCULTURATION.
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Khaled S. Asfour
I argue throughout the article that the travelling icon despite losing most of its original content still maintained its power to disseminate among the newly rising elite of Egypt. The power to disseminate was based on a consistent campaign carried out by Rifa‘a al-Tahtawi (and successive intellectuals on issues of progress and modernity. al-Tahtawi devised a theory of progress that triggered a huge process of acculturation. This led to the evolution of the new villa so particular to the Egyptian society. It was not a mere copy of the Palladian villa but an acculturated one that had no precedence.
Acculturation and obesity among migrant populations in high income countries – a systematic review
Background There is evidence to suggest that immigrant populations from low or medium-income countries to high income countries show a significant change in obesogenic behaviors in the host society, and that these changes are associated with acculturation. However, the results of studies vary depending on how acculturation is measured. The objective of this study is to systematically review the evidence on the relationship between acculturation - as measured with a standardized acculturation scale - and overweight/obesity among adult migrants from low/middle countries to high income countries. Methods A systematic review of relevant studies was undertaken using six EBSCOhost databases and following the Centre for Reviews and Dissemination’s Guidance for Undertaking Reviews in Health Care. Results The initial search identified 1135 potentially relevant publications, of which only nine studies met the selection criteria. All of the studies were from the US with migrant populations from eight different countries. Six studies employed bi-directional acculturation scales and three used uni-directional scales. Six studies indicated positive general associations between higher acculturation and body mass index (BMI), and three studies reported that higher acculturation was associated with lower BMI, as mainly among women. Conclusion Despite the small number of studies, a number of potential explanatory hypotheses were developed for these emerging patterns. The ‘Healthy Migrant Effect’ may diminish with greater acculturation as the host culture potentially promotes more unhealthy weight gain than heritage cultures. This appears particularly so for men and a rapid form of nutrition transition represents a likely contributor. The inconsistent results observed for women may be due to the interplay of cultural influences on body image, food choices and physical activity. That is, the Western ideal of a slim female body and higher values placed on physical activity and
The Effects of Parental Acculturation and Parenting Practices on the Substance Use of Mexican-Heritage Adolescents from Southwestern Mexican Neighborhoods
MARSIGLIA, FLAVIO F.; NAGOSHI, JULIE L.; PARSAI, MONICA; CASTRO, FELIPE GONZÁLEZ
A sample of 189 Mexican-heritage seventh grade adolescents reported their substance use, while one of the child’s parents reported parent’s acculturation and communication, involvement, and positive parenting with his or her child. Higher levels of parental acculturation predicted greater marijuana use, whereas parent communication predicted lower cigarette and marijuana use among girls. A significant parent acculturation by parent communication interaction for cigarette use was due to parent communication being highly negatively associated with marijuana use for high acculturated parents, with attenuated effects for low acculturated parents. A significant child gender by parent acculturation by parent positive parenting interaction was found. For girls, positive parenting had a stronger association with lower cigarette use for high acculturated parents. For boys, positive parenting had a stronger association with reduced cigarette use for low acculturated parents. Discussion focuses on how acculturation and gender impact family processes among Mexican-heritage adolescents. PMID:25176121
Conceptual parameters of acculturation within the Asian and Pacific Islander American populations: applications for nursing practice and research.
Asian and Pacific Islander Americans (A&PIAs) are experiencing health inequities. For example, A&PIA is the only racial/ethnic group in America to experience cancer as their leading cause of death. Several studies within the A&PIA population have pointed to acculturation as a significant variable to explain their health and health-seeking behaviors. Acculturation is a key construct in understanding the health of the A&PIA population. The purpose of this concept analysis is to provide a current conceptual understanding of the relationship between acculturation and health, especially within the A&PIA populations, which will serve as a pragmatic guideline for nursing practice and research. Understanding the contemporary issues surrounding the conceptual application of acculturation will aid in the development of appropriate programs to reduce health inequities. Acculturation was explored using the Morse method of concept analysis. An iterative historical and contemporary literature review across the disciplines of anthropology, sociology, psychology, medicine, and nursing was completed. Analytical questions asked of the resultant data provided the theoretical definition, antecedents, key attributes, outcomes, and implications. The concept analysis resulted in a new theoretical definition that includes multidimensional concepts of acculturation. Dilemmas in the measurement of key attributes of acculturation include unidirectional and bidirectional analysis, psychometric issues, and the appropriateness of proxy measurements. Outcomes of acculturation on health can be positive or negative and depend on an individual's or group's ability to navigate freely with necessary supports. Results of the conceptual analysis resulted in recommendations for nursing practice and future acculturation research. While debate continues about the appropriate use and definition of acculturation, researchers agree that it is an important construct in understanding the health of migrating
Levels of Acculturation of Chinese Older Adults in the Greater Chicago Area - The Population Study of Chinese Elderly in Chicago.
Dong, XinQi; Bergren, Stephanie M; Chang, E-Shien
Acculturation is a difficult process for minority older adults for a variety of reasons, including access and exposure to mainstream culture, competing ethnic identities, and linguistic ability and preference. There is a paucity of research regarding overall level of acculturation for Chinese older adults in the United States. This study aimed to provide an overall estimate of level of acculturation of Chinese older adults in the United States and to examine correlations between sociodemographic characteristics, self-reported health measures, and level of acculturation. Data were collected through the Population Study of Chinese Elderly in Chicago (PINE) study. This community-based participatory research study surveyed 3,159 Chinese older adults aged 60 and older. The PINE Study Acculturation Scale was used to assess level of acculturation in three dimensions: language preference, media use, and ethnic social relations. Mean acculturation level for all items was 15.3 ± 5.1, indicating low levels of acculturation. Older age, more offspring, lower income, fewer years living in the United States, lower overall health status, and lower quality of life were associated with lower levels of acculturation. Level of acculturation was low in Chinese older adults, and certain subsets of the population were more likely to have a lower level of acculturation. Future research should investigate causality and effects of level of acculturation. © 2015, Copyright the Authors Journal compilation © 2015, The American Geriatrics Society.
Acculturation and Adjustment among Immigrant Chinese Parents: Mediating Role of Parenting Efficacy
Costigan, Catherine L.; Koryzma, Celine M.
This study examined parenting efficacy beliefs as a mediator of the association between acculturation and adjustment. The sample consisted of 177 immigrant Chinese mothers and fathers with early adolescent children in Canada. Acculturation was assessed bidimensionally as Canadian and Chinese orientations. A latent psychological adjustment variable…
Acculturation, Enculturation, Perceived Racism, and Psychological Symptoms among Asian American College Students
Alamilla, Saul G.; Kim, Bryan S. K.; Walker, Tamisha; Sisson, Frederick Riley
This study examined the potential moderating influences of behavioral and values acculturation and enculturation in a sample of 113 Asian Americans. Findings from regression analyses revealed that acculturation to European American cultural values, alone and in interaction with perceived racism, was related to less psychological symptoms, whereas…
Acculturation Attitudes and Sociocultural Adaptation of Chinese Mainland Sojourners in Hong Kong
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Full Text Available Within these years, there has been a significant increase in the number of Chinese Mainland sojourners studying in Hong Kong. Due to the huge differences in various aspects like language, culture, cultural value, it would be considerably difficult for the Chinese Mainland students to adapt to the Hong Kong environment. This article investigates the ways for a group of doctoral students from Chinese Mainland to acculturate in Hong Kong. With the help of questionnaires, the difficulties that the sojourners have encountered in social situations are measured. It is found out that age and gender may have influenced the participants’ acculturation strategies, and interpersonal relationship is that which the subjects have the most difficulties with, while academic domain is the area with the least difficulties. Meanwhile, the results have shown that competence of local language is not a determinant factor of the sociocultural adaptation, and female subjects seem to adapt better than male subjects. Keywords: sojourner, acculturation, sociocultural adaptation, acculturation strategy
Second language social networks and communication-related acculturative stress: the role of interconnectedness.
Doucerain, Marina M; Varnaamkhaasti, Raheleh S; Segalowitz, Norman; Ryder, Andrew G
Although a substantial amount of cross-cultural psychology research has investigated acculturative stress in general, little attention has been devoted specifically to communication-related acculturative stress (CRAS). In line with the view that cross-cultural adaptation and second language (L2) learning are social and interpersonal phenomena, the present study examines the hypothesis that migrants' L2 social network size and interconnectedness predict CRAS. The main idea underlying this hypothesis is that L2 social networks play an important role in fostering social and cultural aspects of communicative competence. Specifically, higher interconnectedness may reflect greater access to unmodified natural cultural representations and L2 communication practices, thus fostering communicative competence through observational learning. As such, structural aspects of migrants' L2 social networks may be protective against acculturative stress arising from chronic communication difficulties. Results from a study of first generation migrant students (N = 100) support this idea by showing that both inclusiveness and density of the participants' L2 network account for unique variance in CRAS but not in general acculturative stress. These results support the idea that research on cross-cultural adaptation would benefit from disentangling the various facets of acculturative stress and that the structure of migrants' L2 network matters for language related outcomes. Finally, this study contributes to an emerging body of work that attempts to integrate cultural/cross-cultural research on acculturation and research on intercultural communication and second language learning.
The experience of acculturative stress-related growth from immigrants’ perspectives
Kim, Junhyoung; Kim, Hakjun
Previous literature has mainly focused on the positive effects of stress associated with disability and illness, called stressrelated growth. Little research has explored positive changes as a result of acculturative stress among a group of immigrants. In particular, older Asian immigrants may experience a high level of stress related to acculturation because they may face more challenges to adapt to and navigate a new culture. This study was designed to capture the characteristics of stress-...
Does Acculturation and Stigma Affect Hmong Women’s Attitudes Toward and Willingness to Seek Counseling Services?
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Full Text Available Although the Hmong have resided in the United States since the 1970s, there has been limited research exploring the effect of acculturation and stigma on the Hmong community and their perspective of mental health services. This study investigated the relationship between Hmong women’s level of acculturation, perception of stigma, and the expression of attitudes toward professional psychological help and willingness to see a counselor. The 222 Hmong women completed a Demographic Questionnaire Form (DQF, the Suinn-Lew Asian Self-Identity Acculturation Scale (SL-ASIA, then the Stigma for Receiving Psychological Help (SSRPH, the Attitudes Toward Seeking Professional Psychological Help-Short Form (SSRPH-SF, and finally, the Willingness to See a Counselor questionnaire (WSC. Almost 86% of the Hmong women were between 18 and 35 years old, and 96.4% lived in the United States for 20 or more years and almost 53% practice Shamanism. Data analysis of the research hypotheses found that there was a weak positive significant correlation between acculturation and willingness to seek services. Additionally, the relationship between acculturation and attitudes toward counseling services, expression of attitudes and perception of stigma was statistically significant. However, the relationships between the other study variables: perception of stigma and acculturation, expression of attitudes and acculturation, and acculturation and willingness were not statistically significant. The findings of this study will enhance our understanding of Hmong women and their views of counseling.
Turkish and Moroccan Young Adults in the Netherlands: The Relationship Between Acculturation and Psychological Problems.
Özbek, Emel; Bongers, Ilja L; Lobbestael, Jill; van Nieuwenhuizen, Chijs
This study investigated the relationship between acculturation and psychological problems in Turkish and Moroccan young adults living in the Netherlands. A sample of 131 healthy young adults aged between 18 and 24 years old, with a Turkish or Moroccan background was recruited using snowball sampling. Data on acculturation, internalizing and externalizing problems, beliefs about psychological problems, attributions of psychological problems and barriers to care were collected and analyzed using Latent Class Analysis and multinomial logistic regression. Three acculturation classes were identified in moderately to highly educated, healthy Turkish or Moroccan young adults: integration, separation and diffusion. None of the participants in the sample were marginalized or assimilated. Young adults reporting diffuse acculturation reported more internalizing and externalizing problems than those who were integrated or separated. Separated young adults reported experiencing more practical barriers to care than integrated young adults. Further research with a larger sample, including young adult migrants using mental health services, is required to improve our understanding of acculturation, psychological problems and barriers to care in this population. Including experiences of discrimination in the model might improve our understanding of the relationship between different forms of acculturation and psychological problems.
Remote Acculturation of Early Adolescents in Jamaica towards European American Culture: A Replication and Extension.
Ferguson, Gail M; Bornstein, Marc H
Remote acculturation is a modern form of non-immigrant acculturation identified among early adolescents in Jamaica as "Americanization". This study aimed to replicate the original remote acculturation findings in a new cohort of early adolescents in Jamaica ( n = 222; M = 12.08 years) and to extend our understanding of remote acculturation by investigating potential vehicles of indirect and intermittent intercultural contact. Cluster analyses replicated prior findings: Relative to Traditional Jamaican adolescents (62%), Americanized Jamaican adolescents (38%) reported stronger European American cultural orientation, lower Jamaican orientation, lower family obligations, and greater conflict with parents. More U.S. media (girls) and less local media and local sports (all) were the primary vehicles of intercultural contact predicting higher odds of Americanization. U.S. food, U.S. tourism, and transnational communication were also linked to U.S. orientation. Findings have implications for acculturation research and for practice and policy targeting Caribbean youth and families.
Acculturation, psychiatric comorbidity and posttraumatic stress disorder in a Taiwanese aboriginal population.
Lee, Chau-Shoun; Chang, Jung-Chen; Liu, Chia-Yih; Chang, Ching-Jui; Chen, Tony H H; Chen, Chien-Hsiun; Cheng, Andrew T A
This study investigates acculturation and other antecedent psychiatric and socio-environmental risk factors for posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in one aboriginal group (the Bunun) exposed to an earthquake disaster in Taiwan. Respondents (n = 196) were assessed 5 months after the disaster, using a Chinese version of the Schedules for Clinical Assessment in Neuropsychiatry and the Taiwan Aboriginal Acculturation Scale. Four risk factors exerted independent effect on the risk of PTSD, including magnitude of the earthquake, subsequent traumas, antecedent major depressive disorder and acculturation status. Public mental health programs need to consider the liability to PTSD in populations with different ethnicity and socio-cultural environments.
Acculturation and biobehavioral profiles in pregnant women of Hispanic origin: generational differences.
Ruiz, Roberta J; Stowe, Raymond P; Brown, Adama; Wommack, Joel
In Hispanics, acculturation may lead to negative health outcomes. This study used a cross-sectional design to investigate the psychosocial and biological risks in acculturating pregnant women of Hispanic origin (n = 470). Psychosocial risks-depressive symptoms, anxiety, and stress-were assessed by self-report, whereas biological measures included stress-related and reproductive hormones. Mental health deteriorated across generations, with worsening depression, anxiety, and stress with successive generations. Stress and reproductive hormone levels decreased across generations, whereas body mass index and number of sexual partners increased. These data provide potential biobehavioral explanations of the relationship between acculturation and declining health among Hispanic women in the United States.
Further Examining Berry's Model: The Applicability of Latent Profile Analysis to Acculturation
Fox, Rina S.; Merz, Erin L.; Solórzano, Martha T.; Roesch, Scott C.
This study used latent profile analysis (LPA) to identify acculturation profiles. A three-profile solution fit the data best, and comparisons on demographic and psychosocial outcomes as a function of profile yielded expected results. The findings support using LPA as a parsimonious way to model acculturation without anticipating profiles in…
The Mexican Health Paradox: Expanding the Explanatory Power of the Acculturation Construct
Horevitz, Elizabeth; Organista, Kurt C.
The Mexican health paradox refers to initially favorable health and mental health outcomes among recent Mexican immigrants to the United States. The subsequent rapid decline in Mexican health outcomes has been attributed to the process of acculturation to U.S. culture. However, the construct of acculturation has come under significant criticism…
Life Experiences of Hispanic Adolescents: Developmental and Language Considerations in Acculturation Stress
Cervantes, Richard C.; Cordova, David
Hispanic youth currently constitute the largest and fastest growing of all ethnic and racial groups in the United States. In addition to normal developmental life stressors, Hispanic youth also face minority status and acculturation-related stress. This study examined the psychosocial and acculturative stressors of Hispanic youth (n=170) residing…
Assessing Acculturative Stress of International Students at a U.S. Community College
Hansen, Hardaye R.; Shneyderman, Yuliya; McNamara, Gloria S.; Grace, Lisa
Research shows that international college students experience high levels of acculturative stress, which can adversely impact their health and college success. The levels of immersion in one's native culture and the culture of the U.S. may impact levels of acculturative stress in international students. This cross-sectional study examined…
Change in self-reported health status among immigrants in the United States: associations with measures of acculturation.
Lee, Sunmin; O'Neill, Allison H; Ihara, Emily S; Chae, David H
Although acculturation may have positive effects for immigrants, including better socioeconomic profiles and increased occupational opportunities, their health profiles deteriorate with longer duration in the U.S. Prior research indicates that increasing acculturation is associated with some poorer health outcomes among immigrants in the U.S. However, most of these studies have used length of stay or English language proficiency as proxies for acculturation, and have mainly examined self-reported "current" health outcomes. This study advances knowledge on associations between acculturation and health among immigrants by explicitly examining self-reported "change" in health since immigration, in relation to acculturation-related variables. We use data from the New Immigrant Survey (NIS; 2003-2004), a cross-sectional study of legal immigrants to the U.S. In addition to testing more conventionally examined proxies of acculturation (length of stay and English proficiency), we also examine English language use and self-reported change in diet. Multivariable logistic regression analyses on 5,982 participants generally supported previous literature indicating a deleterious impact of acculturation, with increasing duration of stay and greater self-reported change in diet being associated with a poorer change in health since moving to the U.S. Although English language proficiency and use were associated with greater odds of reporting a worse change in health when examined individually, they were non-significant in multivariable models including all acculturation measures. Findings from this study suggest that when taking into account multiple measures of acculturation, language may not necessarily indicate unhealthy assimilation and dietary change may be a pathway leading to declines in immigrant health. Increasing duration in the U.S. may also reflect the adoption of unhealthy behaviors, as well as greater exposure to harmful sources of psychosocial stress including
Change in self-reported health status among immigrants in the United States: associations with measures of acculturation.
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Full Text Available Although acculturation may have positive effects for immigrants, including better socioeconomic profiles and increased occupational opportunities, their health profiles deteriorate with longer duration in the U.S. Prior research indicates that increasing acculturation is associated with some poorer health outcomes among immigrants in the U.S. However, most of these studies have used length of stay or English language proficiency as proxies for acculturation, and have mainly examined self-reported "current" health outcomes. This study advances knowledge on associations between acculturation and health among immigrants by explicitly examining self-reported "change" in health since immigration, in relation to acculturation-related variables. We use data from the New Immigrant Survey (NIS; 2003-2004, a cross-sectional study of legal immigrants to the U.S. In addition to testing more conventionally examined proxies of acculturation (length of stay and English proficiency, we also examine English language use and self-reported change in diet. Multivariable logistic regression analyses on 5,982 participants generally supported previous literature indicating a deleterious impact of acculturation, with increasing duration of stay and greater self-reported change in diet being associated with a poorer change in health since moving to the U.S. Although English language proficiency and use were associated with greater odds of reporting a worse change in health when examined individually, they were non-significant in multivariable models including all acculturation measures. Findings from this study suggest that when taking into account multiple measures of acculturation, language may not necessarily indicate unhealthy assimilation and dietary change may be a pathway leading to declines in immigrant health. Increasing duration in the U.S. may also reflect the adoption of unhealthy behaviors, as well as greater exposure to harmful sources of psychosocial
Pathways between acculturation and health behaviors among residents of low-income housing: the mediating role of social and contextual factors.
Allen, Jennifer Dacey; Caspi, Caitlin; Yang, May; Leyva, Bryan; Stoddard, Anne M; Tamers, Sara; Tucker-Seeley, Reginald D; Sorensen, Glorian C
Acculturation may influence health behaviors, yet mechanisms underlying its effect are not well understood. In this study, we describe relationships between acculturation and health behaviors among low-income housing residents, and examine whether these relationships are mediated by social and contextual factors. Residents of 20 low-income housing sites in the Boston metropolitan area completed surveys that assessed acculturative characteristics, social/contextual factors, and health behaviors. A composite acculturation scale was developed using latent class analysis, resulting in four distinct acculturative groups. Path analysis was used to examine interrelationships between acculturation, health behaviors, and social/contextual factors, specifically self-reported social ties, social support, stress, material hardship, and discrimination. Of the 828 respondents, 69% were born outside of the U.S. Less acculturated groups exhibited healthier dietary practices and were less likely to smoke than more acculturated groups. Acculturation had a direct effect on diet and smoking, but not physical activity. Acculturation also showed an indirect effect on diet through its relationship with material hardship. Our finding that material hardship mediated the relationship between acculturation and diet suggests the need to explicate the significant role of financial resources in interventions seeking to promote healthy diets among low-income immigrant groups. Future research should examine these social and contextual mediators using larger, population-based samples, preferably with longitudinal data. Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.
Associations between language acculturation, age of immigration, and obesity in the Mexican American Mano A Mano cohort.
Chrisman, Matthew; Chow, Wong-Ho; Daniel, Carrie R; Wu, Xifeng; Zhao, Hua
As Mexican immigrants to the U.S. become acculturated, they face worsening health outcomes such as obesity. The role of language acculturation in the development of obesity has not been thoroughly examined. To examine associations between language acculturation and obesity, data were drawn from the Mexican-American Mano A Mano cohort study. Participants aged 20 years and over (n=18,298) completed baseline questionnaires on socio-demographic and behavioural factors, including physical activity and sitting time. The Bi-dimensional Acculturation Scale for Hispanics assessed language acculturation. Multivariate-adjusted logistic regression was conducted to investigate associations between language acculturation, immigration age, and obesity, and whether sitting time and physical activity mediated these associations. Individuals with obesity were more linguistically acculturated than individuals who were normal weight or overweight (Pobesity (OR=1.35, 95% CI: 1.12-1.62) in U.S.-born participants and lower risk in Mexico-born participants (OR=0.90, 95%CI=0.81-1.00). For Mexico-born participants, arrival in the U.S. as an adult (≥20years old) was associated with a reduced obesity risk (OR=0.74, 95% CI: 0.67-0.80). Sitting time mediated the association between language acculturation and obesity. Language acculturation may influence obesity development among the U.S.-born Mexican Americans in this cohort, but not their Mexico-born counterparts. Sitting time could be targeted in obesity prevention efforts in this population. Copyright © 2017 Asia Oceania Association for the Study of Obesity. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Acculturation is Not Related to Physical Activity Stage of Change for Children in Hawai'i.
Rotter, Markus; Nigg, Claudio R; Renda, Gloria A; Novotny, Rachel
The relationship between acculturation and physical activity stages of change is unexplored. Stages of change conceptualize behavior change as a progression through a series of five stages indicating the readiness to change behavior. The level of acculturation can be assessed using the Ethnocultural Identity Behavioral Index (EIBI) which is based on three factors: Cultural Activities, Social Interaction and Language Opportunities. The purpose of this project was to explore the relationship between parental acculturation and physical activity stages of change in Hawai'i children. Participants (N = 85; 62% female; aged 5-8 years; 22% Native Hawaiian or Other Pacific Islanders, 42% Asian, 25% White, and 11% Other) completed the EIBI and a physical activity stages of change measure. Acculturation factor means were: Cultural Activities = 4 (SD = 1.26), Social Interaction = 3 (SD = 1.04), and Language Opportunities = 4 (SD = 1.29). The physical activity stages of change distribution was Precontemplation = 11 (13%), Contemplation/Preparation = 15 (18%), and Action/Maintenance = 59 (69%). Analysis of covariance (ANCOVA) for Cultural Activities F(3, 81) = 0.77, P = .47, Social Interaction F(3, 81) = 0.93, P = .40; and Language Opportunities F(3, 81) = 1.34, P = .27 showed no significant differences between physical activity stages of change. The results of our study do not show an association between acculturation and readiness to change for physical activity. The lack of differences may be due to participants being moderately acculturated, possibly lessening the differentiation of acculturation by physical activity stages of change.
Health risk behaviors and depressive symptoms among Hispanic adolescents: Examining acculturation discrepancies and family functioning.
Cano, Miguel Ángel; Schwartz, Seth J; Castillo, Linda G; Unger, Jennifer B; Huang, Shi; Zamboanga, Byron L; Romero, Andrea J; Lorenzo-Blanco, Elma I; Córdova, David; Des Rosiers, Sabrina E; Lizzi, Karina M; Baezconde-Garbanati, Lourdes; Soto, Daniel W; Villamar, Juan Andres; Pattarroyo, Monica; Szapocznik, José
Drawing from a theory of bicultural family functioning 2 models were tested to examine the longitudinal effects of acculturation-related variables on adolescent health risk behaviors and depressive symptoms (HRB/DS) mediated by caregiver and adolescent reports of family functioning. One model examined the effects of caregiver-adolescent acculturation discrepancies in relation to family functioning and HRB/DS. A second model examined the individual effects of caregiver and adolescent acculturation components in relation to family functioning and HRB/DS. A sample of 302 recently immigrated Hispanic caregiver-child dyads completed measures of Hispanic and U.S. cultural practices, values, and identities at baseline (predictors); measures of family cohesion, family communications, and family involvement 6 months postbaseline (mediators); and only adolescents completed measures of smoking, binge drinking, inconsistent condom use, and depressive symptoms 1 year postbaseline (outcomes). Measures of family cohesion, family communications, and family involvement were used to conduct a confirmatory factor analysis to estimate the fit of a latent construct for family functioning. Key findings indicate that (a) adolescent acculturation components drove the effect of caregiver-adolescent acculturation discrepancies in relation to family functioning; (b) higher levels of adolescent family functioning were associated with less HRB/DS, whereas higher levels of caregiver family functioning were associated with more adolescent HRB/DS; (c) and only adolescent reports of family functioning mediated the effects of acculturation components and caregiver-adolescent acculturation discrepancies on HRB/DS. (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).
Acculturation and Postpartum Depressive Symptoms among Hispanic Women in the United States: Systematic Review.
Alhasanat, Dalia; Giurgescu, Carmen
The purpose of this review was to evaluate studies that examined the relationship between acculturation and postpartum depression (PPD) among immigrant and/or refugee women in the United States. A systematic, computer-assisted search of quantitative, English-language, peer-reviewed, published research articles was conducted in the Scopus, PsycINFO, Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature (CINAHL), and Maternity and Infant Care databases using the keyword terms of "postpartum depression" and "perinatal depression" in combination with "acculturation." Studies were included if they were conducted in the United States. Seven studies met inclusion criteria. Three studies used longitudinal designs and four used cross-sectional designs. All were conducted with Hispanic women. Only one study used a diagnostic tool to measure PPD; the remaining studies used screening tools to measure postpartum depressive symptoms. Most studies used country of birth, country of residence, and language preferences to measure acculturation. Five studies reported acculturation was positively related to risk of postpartum depressive symptoms, and two studies reported no relationship. Higher levels of acculturation were related to higher risk of postpartum depressive symptoms in Hispanic women living in the United States. Nurses should have an understanding of stressors of immigrant women to guide their assessment and screening for postpartum depressive symptoms and make appropriate referrals. More research is needed to confirm the relationship between acculturation and PPD among immigrant women from different cultural backgrounds.
Effect of acculturation and mutuality on family loyalty among Mexican American caregivers of elders.
Kao, Hsueh-Fen S; An, Kyungeh
Informal family care for elders is conventional in Mexican American communities despite increasing intergenerational gaps in filial values. In our study, we explored whether acculturation and dyadic mutuality, as perceived by Mexican American family caregivers, explain the caregivers' expectations of family loyalty toward elderly relatives. A nonexperimental, correlational design with convenience sampling was used in El Paso, Texas, from October 2007 to January 2008. Three bilingual promotoras collected data from 193 Mexican American adult caregivers of community-dwelling elders using three scales designed for Mexican Americans: the Acculturation Rating Scale for Mexican Americans II-Short Form, the Mutuality Scale, and the Expectations of Family Loyalty of Children Toward Elderly Relatives Scale. Confirmatory factor analysis was used to analyze the data. Acculturation had a marginal effect (r = .21, p loyalty toward elderly relatives. There was no significant correlation between acculturation and mutuality (r = .05). Although Mexican American caregivers with strong Mexican orientation may have high expectations of family loyalty toward elderly relatives, mutuality exhibits more significant effects on expectations. Among Mexican Americans, mutuality between the caregiving dyad, as perceived by caregivers, may be a better predictor of filial values than caregivers' acculturation alone. It may be useful to incorporate the dual paradigm of acculturation and mutuality into immigrant family care for elderly relatives. © 2012 Sigma Theta Tau International.
Acculturation strategies among ethnic minority workers and the role of intercultural personality traits
Luijters, K.; Van der Zee, K.I.; Otten, S.
In an increasingly diverse work context minority employees strive to place and define themselves in terms of work and cultural identities. Based on Berry's acculturation model (1990), we defined and tested preferred acculturation strategies at work. It was predicted that the dual identity,
Acculturative Stress, Parental and Professor Attachment, and College Adjustment in Asian International Students
Han, Suejung; Pistole, M. Carole; Caldwell, Jarred M.
This study examined parental and professor attachment as buffers against acculturative stress and as predictors of college adjustment of 210 Asian international students (AISs). Moderated hierarchical regression analyses revealed that acculturative stress negatively and secure parental and professor attachment positively predicted academic…
Acculturation, depression and oral health of immigrants in the USA.
Luo, Huabin; Hybels, Celia F; Wu, Bei
The objectives were to describe the oral health status of immigrants in the USA, describe the association between acculturation and oral health by accounting for the effects of depression and to explore the effects of interaction between acculturation and depression on the oral health of immigrants. Data were from the 2011-2012 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES). Oral health status was assessed by both self-rated oral health and clinically diagnosed periodontitis, each coded as a binary outcome. Acculturation was operationalised as length of stay in the USA and speaking English at home. Depression was assessed using the Patient Health Questionnaire-9. Multiple logistic regression models were used to examine the association of acculturation and depression status with oral health. In 2011-2012, 36.6% immigrants reported poor oral health and 53.0% were diagnosed with periodontitis. A length of stay in the USA of 30+ years (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] = 0.43, 95% confidence interval [95% CI]: 0.21-0.89) reduced the odds of having periodontitis in comparison with a length of stay in the USA of fewer than 5 years. Speaking English at home (AOR = 0.64, 95% CI: 0.43-0.96) reduced the odds of having periodontitis compared with speaking other languages. Depression was negatively associated with self-reported good oral health (AOR = 0.43, 95% CI: 0.20-0.92) and positively associated with clinically diagnosed periodontitis (AOR = 1.89, 95% CI: 1.18-3.04). The effects of acculturation did not differ according to depression status. A longer stay in the USA and speaking English at home were associated with less periodontitis among the immigrants. © 2017 FDI World Dental Federation.
United States Acculturation and Cancer Patients’ End-of-Life Care
Wright, Alexi A.; Stieglitz, Heather; Kupersztoch, Yankel M.; Paulk, M. Elizabeth; Kim, Yookyung; Katz, Ingrid T.; Munoz, Francisco; Jimenez, Rachel B.; Mutchler, Jan; Rivera, Lorna; Back, Anthony L.; Prigerson, Holly G.
Background Culture shapes how people understand illness and death, but few studies examine whether acculturation influences patients’ end-of-life treatment preferences and medical care. Methods and Findings In this multi-site, prospective, longitudinal cohort study of terminally-ill cancer patients and their caregivers (n = 171 dyads), trained interviewers administered the United States Acculturation Scale (USAS). The USAS is a 19-item scale developed to assess the degree of “Americanization” in first generation or non-US born caregivers of terminally-ill cancer patients. We evaluated the internal consistency, concurrent, criterion, and content validity of the USAS. We also examined whether caregivers’ USAS scores predicted patients’ communication, treatment preferences, and end-of-life medical care in multivariable models that corrected for significant confounding influences (e.g. education, country of origin, English proficiency). The USAS measure was internally consistent (Cronbach α = 0.98); and significantly associated with US birthplace (r = 0.66, Punit (AOR = 1.36, 95% CI:1.05–1.76). Scores indicating greater acculturation were also associated with increased odds of patient participation in clinical trials (AOR = 2.20, 95% CI:1.28–3.78), compared with lower USAS scores, and greater odds of patients receiving chemotherapy (AOR = 1.59, 95% CI:1.20–2.12). Conclusion The USAS is a reliable and valid measure of “Americanization” associated with advanced cancer patients’ end-of-life preferences and care. USAS scores indicating greater caregiver acculturation were associated with increased odds of patient participation in cancer treatment (chemotherapy, clinical trials) compared with lower scores. Future studies should examine the effects of acculturation on end-of-life care to identify patient and provider factors that explain these effects and targets for future interventions to improve care (e.g., by designing more
Implications of Adolescents’ Acculturation Strategies for Personal and Collective Self-esteem
Giang, Michael T.; Wittig, Michele A.
Berry, Trimble, and Olmedo’s (1986) acculturation model was used to investigate the relationship among adolescents’ acculturation strategies, personal self-esteem, and collective self-esteem. Using data from 427 high school students, factor analysis results distinguished Collective Self-esteem Scale constructs (Luhtanen & Crocker, 1992) from both ethnic identity and outgroup orientation subscales of the Multigroup Ethnic Identity Measure (Phinney, 1992). Subsequent results showed that: 1) bot...
The Impact of Acculturation and Racialization on Self-Rated Health Status Among U.S. Latinos.
Vasquez Guzman, Cirila Estela; Sanchez, Gabriel R
We investigate the Hispanic paradox by examining the relationship between acculturation and health status of Latinos to understand nuances among this growing heterogeneous population using a 2011 Latino Decisions survey. We find that acculturation remains an important determinant of Latino health; however, this varies based on whether the sample is restricted to immigrants or includes all Latino adults and on the measures of acculturation employed. We find Latino citizens reported better health than non-citizens; however, other acculturation measures, such as language use and time in the U.S. do not have a marked effect. Furthermore, skin color matters only for U.S.-born Latinos. Racialization is therefore important to consider within the context of the Hispanic paradox. Our findings suggest that some of the disadvantages stemming from minority status in the U.S. are more prominent among Latinos who have greater experience with the racial hierarchy of the U.S. and greater acculturation more broadly.
Acculturative Stress, Self-Esteem, and Eating Pathology in Latina and Asian American Female College Students.
Claudat, Kimberly; White, Emily K; Warren, Cortney S
The overarching purpose of this study was to explore the relationships among acculturative stress, self-esteem, and eating pathology in Asian American and Latina female college students. Participants (N = 638, mean age = 19.88) completed self-report measures of the variables of interest online. Bivariate correlations indicated that for women of both ethnic groups, acculturative stress was negatively correlated with self-esteem and positively correlated with eating pathology. Multigroup structural equation modeling indicated that for Asian American and Latina women, self-esteem partially mediated the relationship between acculturative stress and eating pathology. However, self-esteem did not serve as a significant moderator of this relationship for either ethnic group. Overall, data suggest that acculturative stress is associated with increased eating pathology and self-esteem may mediate this relationship. These relationships suggest that assessment of eating pathology and self-esteem may be indicated for women presenting clinically with acculturative stress concerns. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Acculturation and gestational weight gain in a predominantly puerto rican population
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Full Text Available Abstract Background Identifying risk factors that affect excess weight gain during pregnancy is critical, especially among women who are at a higher risk for obesity. The goal of this study was to determine if acculturation, a possible risk factor, was associated with gestational weight gain in a predominantly Puerto Rican population. Methods We utilized data from Proyecto Buena Salud, a prospective cohort study of Hispanic women in Western Massachusetts, United States. Height, weight and gestational age were abstracted from medical records among participants with full-term pregnancies (n=952. Gestational weight gain was calculated as the difference between delivery and prepregnancy weight. Acculturation (measured via a psychological acculturation scale, generation in the US, place of birth and spoken language preference was assessed in early pregnancy. Results Adjusting for age, parity, perceived stress, gestational age, and prepregnancy weight, women who had at least one parent born in Puerto Rico/Dominican Republic (PR/DR and both grandparents born in PR/DR had a significantly higher mean total gestational weight gain (0.9 kg for at least one parent born in PR/DR and 2.2kg for grandparents born in PR/DR and rate of weight gain (0.03 kg/wk for at least one parent born in PR/DR and 0.06 kg/wk for grandparents born in PR/DR vs. women who were of PR/DR born. Similarly, women born in the US had significantly higher mean total gestational weight gain (1.0 kg and rate of weight gain (0.03 kg/wk vs. women who were PR/ DR born. Spoken language preference and psychological acculturation were not significantly associated with total or rate of pregnancy weight gain. Conclusion We found that psychological acculturation was not associated with gestational weight gain while place of birth and higher generation in the US were significantly associated with higher gestational weight gain. We interpret these findings to suggest the potential importance of the
Acculturation and gestational weight gain in a predominantly Puerto Rican population.
Tovar, Alison; Chasan-Taber, Lisa; Bermudez, Odilia I; Hyatt, Raymond R; Must, Aviva
Identifying risk factors that affect excess weight gain during pregnancy is critical, especially among women who are at a higher risk for obesity. The goal of this study was to determine if acculturation, a possible risk factor, was associated with gestational weight gain in a predominantly Puerto Rican population. We utilized data from Proyecto Buena Salud, a prospective cohort study of Hispanic women in Western Massachusetts, United States. Height, weight and gestational age were abstracted from medical records among participants with full-term pregnancies (n=952). Gestational weight gain was calculated as the difference between delivery and prepregnancy weight. Acculturation (measured via a psychological acculturation scale, generation in the US, place of birth and spoken language preference) was assessed in early pregnancy. Adjusting for age, parity, perceived stress, gestational age, and prepregnancy weight, women who had at least one parent born in Puerto Rico/Dominican Republic (PR/DR) and both grandparents born in PR/DR had a significantly higher mean total gestational weight gain (0.9 kg for at least one parent born in PR/DR and 2.2 kg for grandparents born in PR/DR) and rate of weight gain (0.03 kg/wk for at least one parent born in PR/DR and 0.06 kg/wk for grandparents born in PR/DR) vs. women who were of PR/DR born. Similarly, women born in the US had significantly higher mean total gestational weight gain (1.0 kg) and rate of weight gain (0.03 kg/wk) vs. women who were PR/ DR born. Spoken language preference and psychological acculturation were not significantly associated with total or rate of pregnancy weight gain. We found that psychological acculturation was not associated with gestational weight gain while place of birth and higher generation in the US were significantly associated with higher gestational weight gain. We interpret these findings to suggest the potential importance of the US "obesogenic" environment in influencing unhealthy
Latino Parent Acculturation Stress: Longitudinal Effects on Family Functioning and Youth Emotional and Behavioral Health
Lorenzo-Blanco, Elma I.; Meca, Alan; Unger, Jennifer B.; Romero, Andrea; Gonzales-Backen, Melinda; Piña-Watson, Brandy; Cano, Miguel A.; Zamboanga, Byron L.; Des Rosiers, Sabrina E.; Soto, Daniel W.; Villamar, Juan A.; Lizzi, Karina M.; Pattarroyo, Monica; Schwartz, Seth J.
Latino parents can experience acculturation stressors, and according to the Family Stress Model, parent stress can influence youth mental health and substance use by negatively affecting family functioning. To understand how acculturation stressors come together and unfold over time to influence youth mental health and substance use outcomes, the current study investigated the trajectory of a latent parent acculturation stress factor and its influence on youth mental health and substance use ...
[Acculturation, bicultural identity and psychiatric morbidity in young Turkish patients in Germany].
Gül, Vahdet; Kolb, Semra
This study was designed to examine, with the use of Berry's acculturation concept (2003), personal self-esteem and collective esteem in the acculturation of young Turks in Germany. Further, it was aimed to examine whether ethnic identity is linked to better mental health. Consecutive psychiatric primary care patients with Turkish background were screened with the 5-item Acculturation Questionnaire, adopted from the Latin American Validated Acculturation Scale. The interviewed patients were also assessed for psychiatric disorders according to ICD-10. By using the acculturation questionnaire among 220 patients included to this study, 154 (70%) patients, (88 male- 57,14%, mean age:22,1 sd. +/- 3,26 and 66 female- 42,85%, mean age: 21,73 sd. +/- 1,19) were found to be relatively good adjusted (group 1), and of 66 (30%) patients (44 male- 66,6%, mean age:26,3 sd. +/-3,39 and 22 female- 33,3%, mean age:25,88 sd. +/- 3,41) were found to be relatively poor adjusted (group 2) to the host community. The psychiatric co-morbidity showed in these two groups two distinct patterns (pGermany as country of birth, whereas poor adaptation was related to: dominance of ethnic culture and language, and being born outside of Germany. The research presented provides firm evidence for a bicultural identity through assessments of several domains of acculturation: language spoken most of the time, language thought, ethnic identity, birthplace and the degree of adjustment to the host community. Cultural identity is one of the key determinants of mental health in evaluating adaptation to the host culture among immigrants. It is vital for the mental health professionals to understand the roles, context, and therapeutic consequences that originate from culture.
Acculturation, social alienation, and depressed mood in midlife women from the former Soviet Union.
Miller, Arlene Michaels; Sorokin, Olga; Wang, Edward; Feetham, Suzanne; Choi, Michelle; Wilbur, JoEllen
Level of acculturation has been linked to depressed mood in studies across culturally diverse immigrant groups. The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of acculturation, social alienation, personal and family stress, and demographic characteristics on depressed mood in midlife immigrant women from the former Soviet Union. Structural equation modeling showed that higher acculturation scores, measured by English language and American behavior, were indirectly related to lower scores for depressed mood. Higher acculturation levels promoted mental health indirectly by reducing social alienation and, subsequently, lowering family and personal stress, both of which had direct relationships to symptoms of depression. These findings support the ecological framework that guided our research and point to the importance of focusing on contextual factors in developing interventions for new immigrants. Copyright 2006 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
The relationship between collective self-esteem, acculturation, and alcohol-related consequences among Asian American young adults.
Pedersen, Eric R; Hsu, Sharon Hsin; Neighbors, Clayton; Lee, Christine M; Larimer, Mary E
We examined the relationship between collective self-esteem (i.e., the value one places on being part of a collective group), acculturation, and alcohol-related consequences in a sample of 442 Asian American young adults. We found that membership self-esteem and public collective self-esteem interacted with acculturation such that low levels of both predicted greater rates of consequences. Participants with lower acculturation and greater private collective self-esteem experienced more alcohol consequences. This study suggests that differential aspects of collective self-esteem may serve as protective or risk factors for Asian American young adults depending on degree of acculturation.
Body satisfaction, thin-ideal internalization, and perceived pressure to be thin among Canadian women: The role of acculturation and religiosity.
Chaker, Zina; Chang, Felicia M; Hakim-Larson, Julie
In an online study, 143 Canadian women of various religious backgrounds completed measures of acculturation, religiosity, body satisfaction, internalization of the thin ideal, perceived pressure from media, and manner of dress. Heritage acculturation correlated with appearance satisfaction, but not weight satisfaction. After accounting for BMI and social desirability, higher heritage acculturation and lower mainstream acculturation were associated with lower perceived pressure from media. Thus, heritage acculturation across religious denominations may serve as a buffer against appearance dissatisfaction and perceived media pressure. Manner of dress among the Muslim subgroup and its relation to religiosity and acculturation were also assessed. Muslim women who dressed in greater accordance with Islamic principles reported lower heritage acculturation and greater religiosity. Thus, Muslim women's manner of dress was related to their religiosity and the extent to which they embraced cultural values. These findings are discussed in terms of the possible distinctions between heritage acculturation and religiosity. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Acculturation, enculturation, and Asian American college students' mental health and attitudes toward seeking professional psychological help.
Miller, Matthew J; Yang, Minji; Hui, Kayi; Choi, Na-Yeun; Lim, Robert H
In the present study, we tested a theoretically and empirically derived partially indirect effects acculturation and enculturation model of Asian American college students' mental health and attitudes toward seeking professional psychological help. Latent variable path analysis with 296 self-identified Asian American college students supported the partially indirect effects model and demonstrated the ways in which behavioral acculturation, behavioral enculturation, values acculturation, values enculturation, and acculturation gap family conflict related to mental health and attitudes toward seeking professional psychological help directly and indirectly through acculturative stress. We also tested a generational status moderator hypothesis to determine whether differences in model-implied relationships emerged across U.S.- (n = 185) and foreign-born (n = 107) participants. Consistent with this hypothesis, statistically significant differences in structural coefficients emerged across generational status. Limitations, future directions for research, and counseling implications are discussed.
Family cohesion, acculturation, maternal cortisol, and preterm birth in Mexican-American women
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Full Text Available R Jeanne Ruiz,1 Rita H Pickler,2 C Nathan Marti,3 Nancy Jallo41College of Nursing, The Ohio State University, Columbus, OH, USA; 2Department of Patient Services, Cincinnati Children's Hospital Medical Center, Cincinnati, OH, USA; 3Abacist Analytics, Austin, TX, USA; 4School of Nursing, Virginia Commonwealth University, Richmond, VA, USAObjective: To examine the potential moderating effects of family cohesion and acculturation on the physiological stress response (cortisol as a predictor of preterm birth (PTB in pregnant Mexican-American women.Methods: The sample included 470 participants; 33 had preterm births. All participants were self-identified as Mexican-American. In this cross-sectional study, family cohesion was measured by a self-report questionnaire. Acculturation was measured by self-report questionnaire as well as by years in the United States and country of birth. Stress was measured by serum cortisol. All measures were obtained at 22—24 weeks gestation. Additional data including history of PTB were obtained from the health record. Data analysis was primarily conducted using logistic regression.Results: The relationship between stress and PTB was predicted by family cohesion (estimate/standard error [E/SE] = —2.46, P = 0.014 and acculturation (E/SE = 2.56, P = 0.011. In addition, there was an interaction between family cohesion and history of previous PTB (E/SE = —2.12, P = 0.035.Conclusion: Results indicate that the impact of cortisol on PTB is predicted by acculturation and family cohesion such that higher levels of cortisol in conjunction with higher levels of acculturation and lower levels of family cohesion are associated with increased risk of PTB. In addition, low family cohesion in combination with a history of PTB was associated with higher levels of PTB. Assessment of family cohesion, including problem solving, adherence to family decisions, family shared space, and activity, should be included as part of prenatal
Levels of Acculturation, Marital Satisfaction, and Depression among Chicana Workers: A Psychological Perspective.
Flores-Ortiz, Yvette G.
A survey of 37 Mexican immigrant and Chicana working women, aged 18-58, mostly married or formerly married, examined the interrelationships among acculturation, educational attainment, family life and structure, work attitudes, marital satisfaction, and psychiatric symptoms. More acculturated and more highly educated women continued to have strong…
Patterns of psychological acculturation in adult and adolescent Moroccan immigrants living in the Netherlands
Stevens, G.W.J.M.; Pels, T.V.M.; Vollebergh, W.A.M.; Crijnen, A.A.M.
Psychological acculturation patterns within a Moroccan adult and adolescent population in the Netherlands were determined through latent class analysis. The Psychological Acculturation Scale (PAS) was adapted, and strong psychometric properties were demonstrated. We found Dutch and Moroccan
Acculturative stress, work-related psychosocial factors and depression in Korean-Chinese migrant workers in Korea.
Lee, Hyeonkyeong; Ahn, Hyunmi; Miller, Arlene; Park, Chang Gi; Kim, Sun Jung
The purposes of this study were to identify the relationships among acculturative stress, work-related psychosocial factors and depression in Korean-Chinese migrant workers living in Korea and to determine whether work-related psychosocial factors mediate the relationship between acculturative stress and depression. A descriptive correlational cross-sectional design was used. A convenience sample of 200 Korean-Chinese full-time migrant workers was recruited, and 170 completed questionnaires were included in the analysis. Acculturative stress was assessed by Sandh and Asrabadi's Acculturative Stress Scale. Work-related psychosocial factors were assessed by job demand, insufficient job control and interpersonal conflict measures from the Korean Occupational Stress Scale. Depression was assessed by the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale. Self-administered or face-to-face surveys were conducted by trained data collectors. Multiple regression and path analysis were used. Roughly 30% of the sample met the criteria for depression. Female workers had significantly higher depression scores than male workers. Acculturative stress and work-related psychosocial factors significantly predicted 26.3% of the variance in depression. A path model revealed the mediating effect of job demand on the relationship between acculturative stress and depression. Our results indicate that work-related psychosocial factors are salient factors that lead to depression among Korean-Chinese migrant workers living in Korea. The results suggest that occupational health-care professionals should promote the prevention and management of depression in this population and highlight the importance of acculturation context in the development of interventions designed to reduce work-related stress.
Minimizing cross-cultural maladaptation: How minority status facilitates change in international acculturation.
Volpone, Sabrina D; Marquardt, Dennis J; Casper, Wendy J; Avery, Derek R
Culturally savvy organizations recognize that selecting and developing people who can be effective in a global workforce is important in today's business environment. Nevertheless, many companies struggle to identify and develop talent who are happy and successful working and living outside their home country. We examine 1 factor that may foster success in a host country-minority status in 1's home country-as a predictor of change in acculturation over time. Specifically, we draw on the conservation of resources model to suggest that international students who have been a member of more minority groups in their home country have unique experiences working with dissimilar others that offer advantages when acculturating to new cultures and novel situations. Then, change in host country acculturation is explored as a mechanism to explain how minority status in the home country relates to intentions to leave the host country and psychological well-being 6 months after entry. Two moderators (cultural intelligence, perceived diversity climate of the host institution) of these relationships are also examined. Results revealed that the relationship between minority status in the home country and change in host country acculturation was positive and stronger for those with higher cultural intelligence. Further, the relationship between change in host country acculturation and psychological well-being was positive when perceived diversity climate of the host institution was high, but was not significant when perceived diversity climate was low. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2018 APA, all rights reserved).
How much orientation towards the host culture is healthy? Acculturation style as risk enhancement for depressive symptoms in immigrants.
Behrens, Katharina; del Pozo, Melina A; Großhennig, Anika; Sieberer, Marcel; Graef-Calliess, Iris T
As the specific acculturative tasks and challenges involved in the migration process can lead to an increased risk for depressive symptoms, the study was designed to gain further insight into the interrelation between acculturation styles and mental health. A total of n = 90 patients with different ethnic backgrounds from an outpatient consultation service for immigrants at the Hannover Medical School were investigated by the Hannover Migration and Mental Health Interview (HMMH), the Centre for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale (CES-D) and the Frankfurt Acculturation Scale (FRAKK). The majority of the subjects (84.4%) had a clinically significant depression. The extent of depressive symptoms was determined by the selected acculturation style (1) (F = 3.29, p = .025): Subjects with integration as acculturation style showed less depressive symptoms than subjects with assimilation as acculturation style. Furthermore, subjects with segregation as acculturation style also showed less depressive symptoms than subjects with assimilation. The results suggest that even when undergoing extreme emotional distress, eventually leading to mental disorder, integration, as an acculturation style, seems to serve as a protective resource and possibly prevents further decline. © The Author(s) 2014.
Gender Identity, Ethnicity, Acculturation, and Drug Use: Exploring Differences among Adolescents in the Southwest
Kulis, Stephen; Marsiglia, Flavio Francisco; Hurdle, Donna
This article presents the findings of a survey completed by 1351 predominantly Mexican American middle school students residing in a large urban center in the U.S. Southwest. The study explores possible associations between drug use attitudes and behaviors and gender (biological sex), gender identity, ethnicity, and acculturation status. Based on the concepts of “machismo” and “marianismo” that have been used to describe Mexican populations, four dimensions of gender identity were measured: aggressive masculinity, assertive masculinity, affective femininity, and submissive femininity. In explaining a variety of indicators of drug use behaviors and anti-drug norms, gender alone had limited explanatory power, while gender identity—often regardless of gender—was a better predictor. Aggressive masculinity was generally associated with higher risk of drug use, while the other three gender identity measures had selected protective effects. However, the impact of gender identity was strongly mediated by acculturation. Less acculturated Mexican American students reported lower aggressive masculinity scores than non-Latinos. Less acculturated Mexican American girls reported both the lowest aggressive masculinity scores and the highest submissive femininity scores. More acculturated Mexican American students, along with the less acculturated Mexican American boys, did not appear to be following a polarized approach to gender identity (machismo and marianismo) as was expected. The findings suggest that some aspects of culturally prescribed gender roles can have a protective effect against drug use behaviors and attitudes, possibly for both girls and boys. PMID:21359134
Acculturation and perceived stress in HIV+ immigrants: depression symptomatology in Asian and Pacific Islanders.
Chen, Wei-Ti; Guthrie, Barbara; Shiu, Cheng-Shi; Yang, Joyce P; Weng, Zhongqi; Wang, Lixuan; Kamitani, Emiko; Fukuda, Yumiko; Luu, Binh Vinh
Asians and Pacific Islanders (API) are among the fastest growing minority groups within the USA, and this growth has been accompanied by an increase in HIV incidence. Between 2000 and 2010, the API HIV infection rate increased from 4.5% to 8.7%; however, there is a paucity of HIV-related research for this group, and even less is known about the prevalence and correlates of antiretroviral therapy adherence behavior, quality of life, impact of stress, and efficacious self-management among HIV+ API Americans. This paper examines how acculturation and perceived stress affect depression symptomatology and treatment seeking in the HIV+ API population. A series of cross-sectional audio computer-assisted self-interviews were conducted with a convenience sample of 50 HIV+ API (29 in San Francisco and 21 in New York City). The relationship between acculturation and perceived stress was analyzed, and the results indicate that for those HIV+ API who reported low or moderate acculturation (as compared to those who reported high acculturation), stress was significantly mediated by depression symptomology. Interventions to address acculturation and reduce perceived stress among API generally and Asians specifically are therefore needed.
Education, Ethnic Identity, and Acculturation as Predictors of Self-Esteem in Latino Adolescents
Cavazos-Rehg, Patricia A.; DeLucia-Waack, Janice L.
This study examines the self-esteem, acculturation, and ethnic identity of 150 Latino adolescents enrolled in either a bilingual or traditional education program. Bilingual education programs were established to ensure that academic failure was not the product of limited English proficiency. Grade point average (GPA), acculturation, and ethnic…
The Most Familiar Stranger: The Acculturation of Mainland Chinese Students Studying in Taiwan
Chao, Ren-Fang; Yen, Jih-Rong
Mainland China and Taiwan have a homogenous macroculture, but a heterogenous microculture. To understand the acculturation of students from mainland China to Taiwan, the present study applies Berry's (1997) two-dimensional model of acculturation, together with the concept of cultural types as its analytical framework, using focus group interviews…
Majority Children's Evaluation of Acculturation Preferences of Immigrant and Emigrant Peers
Verkuyten, Maykel; Thijs, Jochem; Sierksma, Jellie
Using an experimental design, native majority group children (8-13 years, N = 842) evaluated acculturation strategies (assimilation, integration, and separation) adopted by immigrant and emigrant peers. There were medium to large effects of the perceived acculturation strategies on children's peer evaluations. Overall, assimilation was valued…
Acculturation-Related Stress and Mental Health Outcomes among Three Generations of Hispanic Adolescents
Cervantes, Richard C.; Padilla, Amado M.; Napper, Lucy E.; Goldbach, Jeremy T.
Stress associated with acculturation and minority status among Hispanic youth is understudied. Using survey data from the Hispanic Stress Inventory-Adolescent Version (HSI-A), we examined psychosocial stress across eight domains including family economic stress and acculturation-gap stress in a national sample of three generations (first, second,…
Unidimensional versus Multidimensional Approaches to the Assessment of Acculturation for Asian American Populations.
Abe-Kim, Jennifer; Okazaki, Sumie; Goto, Sharon G.
Examines approaches to assessing acculturation among Asian Americans college students in relation to the cultural indicators of individualism-collectivism, self-construal, impression management, and loss of face. An uneven nature of these relationships was found which is significant in light of the fact that acculturation differences are often…
Acculturation, Familism and Mother-Daughter Relations among Suicidal and Non-Suicidal Adolescent Latinas
Zayas, Luis H.; Bright, Charlotte L.; Alvarez-Sanchez, Thyria; Cabassa, Leopoldo J.
We examined the role of acculturation, familism and Latina mother-daughter relations in suicide attempts by comparing 65 adolescents with recent suicide attempts and their mothers to 75 teens without any attempts and their mothers. Attempters and non-attempters were similar in acculturation and familistic attitudes but attempters report…
ACCULTURATION AS A PREDICTOR OF HEALTH PROMOTING AND LIFESTYLE PRACTICES OF ARAB AMERICANS: A DESCRIPTIVE STUDY.
Jadalla, Ahlam A; Hattar, Marianne; Schubert, Christiane C
A cross-sectional descriptive study was done using the Acculturation Rating scale of Arab Americans-II, and the Health Promotion and Lifestyle Profile II to assess the relationship between acculturation and health promotion practices among Arab Americans. Findings showed that attraction to American culture was the most important predictor of physical activity; whereas attraction to Arabic culture was the most important predictor of stress management and nutritional practices. Results suggest that, when demographics are controlled, acculturation predicts various health promotion practices in different patterns among members of this group. These findings contribute to a better understanding of acculturation's influence on immigrants' health promotion practices.
Acculturation, gender disparity, and the sexual behavior of Asian American youth.
Asian American youth are less likely to be sexually active than adolescents from other ethnic groups; however, with acculturation, they may adopt the more liberal sexual norms of American society. Moreover, owing to differing parental expectations for sons and daughters about sexuality, gender disparity might exist in the adoption of American sexual norms. This article used the proportional hazards model and the generalized estimating equations Poisson model to examine how acculturation influences the initiation of sexual intercourse and the number of sexual partners. The results show that acculturation leads to more liberal sexual mores among Asian American youth. However, despite what might be expected from the sexual double standard, the models show that more acculturated females, as indicated by their use of English at home, had an earlier onset of sexual intercourse and a higher number of sexual partners. This is the opposite of what would be predicted by the sexual double standard theory. This might be due to the fact that Asian females tend to be more socially accepted by the host society than Asian males. Information on partners shows that Asian American females have more diversified racial backgrounds than their male counterparts. They are also more likely to have older sexual partners.
Coparenting in immigrant Chinese Canadian families: the role of discrepancies in acculturation and expectations for adolescent assistance.
Chance, Lauren J; Costigan, Catherine L; Leadbeater, Bonnie J
For immigrant families, differential acculturation between mothers and fathers may present challenges to parenting adolescents. The current study investigated the concurrent relations among discrepancies in parental acculturation, discrepancies in parental expectations for adolescents, and coparenting quality with a sample of 162 married immigrant Chinese Canadian couples with adolescents (mean age = 14.94 years; SD = 1.73). Acculturation was assessed as parents' behavioral involvement in both Canadian and Chinese cultures. As predicted, mother-father differences in acculturation (in relation to both cultures) were related to discrepant expectations for how much adolescents should assist the family. Further, mother-father differences in Chinese acculturation were related to fathers' perceptions of a poorer coparenting relationship. Finally, this relation was partially mediated by discrepant parental expectations for adolescent assistance. Implications for parenting roles, enculturation, family dynamics, and intervention are considered.
With a Little Help from Our Friends: The Impact of Cross-group Friendship on Acculturation Preferences
Zagefka, Hanna; Lay, Siugmin; Astudillo, Jorge; Lickel, Brian; Brown, Rupert; Tropp, Linda; Gonzalez, Roberto; Bernardino, Michelle; Hässler, Tabea
Despite extensive research on intergroup contact and acculturation, our understanding of how contact affects receiving society members' preferences for acculturation orientation of immigrants over time is still relatively rudimentary. This longitudinal study examined how perceived group similarity and outgroup trust mediate the effects of cross-group friendship on acculturation preferences (culture maintenance and culture adoption) of the receiving society. It was predicted that cross-group f...
NEIGHBORHOOD IMMIGRANT CONCENTRATION, ACCULTURATION, AND CULTURAL ALIENATION IN FORMER SOVIET IMMIGRANT WOMEN.
Miller, Arlene Michaels; Birman, Dina; Zenk, Shannon; Wang, Edward; Sorokin, Olga; Connor, Jorgia
Several acculturation theories note the importance of surrounding context, but few studies describe neighborhood influences on immigrant adaptation. The purpose of this study was to examine relationships among neighborhood immigrant concentration, acculturation, and alienation for 151 women aged 44-80 from the former Soviet Union who lived in the US fewer than 13 years. Participants resided in 65 census tracts in the Chicago area with varying concentrations of Russian-speaking and diverse immigrants. Results from self-report questionnaires suggest that the effect of acculturation on alienation varies depending on neighborhood characteristics. The study also demonstrates the complexity of individual and contextual influences on immigrant adoption. Understanding these relationships is important for developing community-based and neighborhood-level interventions to enhance the mental health of immigrants.
The influence of acculturation on mental health and specialized mental healthcare for non-western migrants.
Nap, Annelies; van Loon, Annelies; Peen, Jaap; van Schaik, Digna Jf; Beekman, Aartjan Tf; Dekker, Jack Jm
The level of acculturation of migrants varies and is associated with variations in mental health. However, this association is complex and may differ among migrant groups. The aim of this study is to explore the association between acculturation, mental health and treatment effect. In a longitudinal cohort study of patients treated in specialized mental health facilities, different dimensions of acculturation (skills, social integration, traditions, norms/values and feelings of loss) were explored for Moroccan, Turkish and Surinamese migrants in the Netherlands. Furthermore, the associations between acculturation status and symptom levels, quality of life, care needs and effects of mental health treatment were examined. Data were analyzed with analysis of covariance, correlation analysis and multiple regression analysis. Acculturation status differed among migrant groups. Turkish migrants showed most original culture maintenance (traditions, norms/values), Surinamese migrants showed most participation in Dutch society (skills, social integration), while Moroccan migrants were situated in between. Higher cultural adaptation was associated with less need for care, lower symptom levels and a higher quality of life. Participation significantly predicted lower symptom levels (p acculturation status is associated with symptom levels, quality of life and perceived need for care of migrants. Moreover, participation in Dutch society appears to be a favorable factor for treatment effect. It is of importance for professionals in clinical practice to be attentive to this. © The Author(s) 2014.
Acculturation of Javanese And Malay Islam in Wedding Tradition of Javanese Ethnic Community at Selangor, Malaysia
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Full Text Available This study is to see the level of acculturation of Javanese and Malay Islams in Javanese community wedding at Selangor Malaysia. According to the theory of culture, each culture has a uniqueness, as a individual uniqueness. The unique culture of Javanese ethnic wedding in Selangor is believed to be a process of negotiation between Malay and Javanese culture.. Acculturation theory is used in this research to explain and understand the reality of that culture. The study concluded that ethnic wedding traditions of Javanese Islam in Selangor pointed to the high level of acculturation. The acculturation leads to a “substitution” and “syncretism”. The substitution refers to the meaning that the Javanese tradition for the most replaced with new cultures (Malay. Acculturation can also be said as a cultural syncretism, the mixing of these two cultures into a new culture that are distinctive.Copyright (c 2016 by KARSA. All right reserved DOI: 10.19105/karsa.v24i1.1008
Migration, Acculturation and Environment: Determinants of Obesity among Iranian Migrants in Australia
Delavari, Maryam; Sønderlund, Anders Larrabee; Mellor, David; Mohebbi, Mohammadreza; Swinburn, Boyd
While migration from low- to high-income countries is typically associated with weight gain, the obesity risks of migration from middle-income countries are less certain. In addition to changes in behaviours and cultural orientation upon migration, analyses of changes in environments are needed to explain post-migration risks for obesity. The present study examines the interaction between obesity-related environmental factors and the pattern of migrant acculturation in a sample of 152 Iranian immigrants in Victoria, Australia. Weight measurements, demographics, physical activity levels and diet habits were also surveyed. The pattern of acculturation (relative integration, assimilation, separation or marginalization) was not related to body mass index, diet, or physical activity behaviours. Three relevant aspects of participants’ perception of the Australian environment (physically active environments, social pressure to be fit, unhealthy food environments) varied considerably by demographic characteristics, but only one (physically active environments) was related to a pattern of acculturation (assimilation). Overall, this research highlighted a number of key relationships between acculturation and obesity-related environments and behaviours for our study sample. Theoretical models on migration, culture and obesity need to include environmental factors. PMID:25648171
[Mental health and stress by acculturation in immigrants from South America in northern Chile].
Urzúa M, Alfonso; Heredia B, Osvaldo; Caqueo-Urízar, Alejandra
Coping with changes brought about by immigration and social circumstances that often characterize this process may cause mental health problems. To analyze the relationship between acculturation stress and mental health symptoms in South American immigrants residing in Antofagasta, Chile. The OQ questionnaire, which assesses mental health and the acculturation stress questionnaire from Ruiz, were answered by 431 immigrants (53.8% Colombian and 46.2% Peruvian) aged between 18 and 65 years old. The major source of acculturation stress was distance from origin, followed by difficulties in social relationships and perceived discrimination and rejection. About 50% of respondents had elevated levels of discomfort in their life, with mental health problems derived from their adjustment to social roles and relationships. There was a high correlation between acculturation stress levels and severity of mental health symptoms. Immigrants are exposed to high levels of stress resulting in a negative impact on their mental health.
Acculturation and Self-Rated Mental Health Among Latino and Asian Immigrants in the United States: A Latent Class Analysis.
Bulut, Elif; Gayman, Matthew D
This study assesses variations in acculturation experiences by identifying distinct acculturation classes, and investigates the role of these acculturation classes for self-rated mental health among Latino and Asian immigrants in the United States. Using 2002-2003 the National Latino and Asian American Study, Latent Class Analysis is used to capture variations in immigrant classes (recent arrivals, separated, bicultural and assimilated), and OLS regressions are used to assess the link between acculturation classes and self-rated mental health. For both Latinos and Asians, bicultural immigrants reported the best mental health, and separated immigrants and recent arrivals reported the worst mental health. The findings also reveal group differences in acculturation classes, whereby Latino immigrants were more likely to be in the separated class and recent arrivals class relative to Asian immigrants. While there was not a significant group difference in self-rated mental health at the bivariate level, controlling for acculturation classes revealed that Latinos report better self-rated mental health than Asians. Thus, Latino immigrants would actually have better self-rated mental health than their Asian counterparts if they were not more likely to be represented in less acculturated classes (separated class and recent arrivals) and/or as likely to be in the bicultural class as their Asian counterparts. Together the findings underscore the nuanced and complex nature of the acculturation process, highlighting the importance of race differences in this process, and demonstrate the role of acculturation classes for immigrant group differences in self-rated mental health.
THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN CULTURAL IDENTITY AND SELF-ESTEEM AMONG CHINESE UYGHUR COLLEGE STUDENTS: THE MEDIATING ROLE OF ACCULTURATION ATTITUDES.
Dong, Li; Lin, Chongde; Li, Tsingan; Dou, Donghui; Zhou, Liqing
Most acculturation research throughout the world has been conducted in immigrant settings. In order to examine the generalizability of the previous conclusions in immigrant settings, the present study tried to explore the relationship between cultural identity and self-esteem and the mediating role of acculturation attitudes in China. Using the cross-sectional design, a total number of 342 Uyghur college students were asked to complete a survey comprising the Multi-Group Ethnic/National Identity Measure-Revised Scale, the Acculturation Attitudes Scale, and the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale. Using hierarchical multiple regression, the results indicated that cultural identity was positively correlated with self-esteem. A significant mediation of acculturation was observed between cultural identity and self-esteem. These findings demonstrated the significance of cultural identity and acculturation attitudes in the adaptation of Chinese Uyghur college students, in which integration is an optimal acculturation attitude.
Intergenerational Transmission of Educational Attitudes in Chinese American Families: Interplay of Socioeconomic Status and Acculturation
Shen, Yishan; Kim, Su Yeong; Wang, Yijie
This longitudinal study examined the influence of parents’ educational attitudes on adolescents’ educational attitudes and identified antecedents (i.e., parent education, family income, and parent acculturation), consequences (i.e., academic achievement and engagement), and a potential moderator (i.e., adolescent acculturation) of the transmission process. The sample was 444 Chinese American mothers, fathers, and adolescents (12–15 at W1). Using path analysis, this study found significant two-way interactions among parent education, income, and acculturation in predicting parents’ concurrent positive educational attitudes, which, in turn, predicted adolescents’ attitudes at W2. The latter link was further moderated by W1 and W2 adolescent acculturation for mother-adolescent and father-adolescent dyads. Adolescents’ positive educational attitudes at W2, in turn, were positively associated with their concurrent academic achievement and engagement. PMID:27138812
Acculturation and other risk factors of depressive disorders in individuals with Turkish migration backgrounds.
Janssen-Kallenberg, Hanna; Schulz, Holger; Kluge, Ulrike; Strehle, Jens; Wittchen, Hans-Ulrich; Wolfradt, Uwe; Koch-Gromus, Uwe; Heinz, Andreas; Mösko, Mike; Dingoyan, Demet
Acculturation is a long-term, multi-dimensional process occurring when subjects of different cultures stay in continuous contact. Previous studies have suggested that elevated rates of depression among different migrant groups might be due to patterns of acculturation and migration related risk factors. This paper focused on prevalence rates of depressive disorders and related risk factors among individuals with Turkish migration backgrounds. A population-based sample of 662 individuals with Turkish migration backgrounds were interviewed by bilingual interviewers using a standardised diagnostic interview for DSM-IV-TR and ICD-10 diagnoses (CIDI DIA-X Version 2.8). Associations between 12-month prevalence rates of depressive disorders with potential risk factors were assessed, including gender, age, socioeconomic status, acculturation status and migration status. 12-month prevalence rates of any depressive disorder were 29.0%, 14.4% of major depressive disorder (MDD) and 14.7% of dysthymia. Older age and low socioeconomic status were most consistently related to higher risks of depressive disorders. Acculturation status showed associations with subtypes of depressive disorder. Associations differed between men and women. Symptom severity of MDD was linked to gender, with females being more affected by severe symptoms. The prevalence of depressive disorders is high in individuals with Turkish migration backgrounds, which can be partly explained by older age, low socioeconomic status and acculturation pressures. Only a limited number of risk factors were assessed. Acculturation in particular is a complex process which might not be sufficiently represented by the applied measures. Further risk factors have to be identified in representative samples of this migrant group.
Investigating acculturation, diet, and physical activity among Chinese-American children aged 9-13 years
Acculturation among those of Chinese descent may be related to changes in diet and physical activity. Research to understand the acculturative process early in life is important; however, there is no qualitative research directly with Chinese-American children. This study, currently in progress, a...
Acculturation, Body Image, Self-Esteem, and Eating-Disorder Symptomatology in Adolescent Mexican American Women.
Joiner, Greg W.; Kashubeck, Susan
Investigated the relationship among acculturation, body image, self-esteem, and eating disorder symptomatology in 120 Mexican-American adolescent women. Findings indicate that acculturation levels were not related to anorexic or bulimic symptomatology, self-esteem, body dissatisfaction or thinness of ideal and attractive figures. Also, lower…
US acculturation, food intake, and obesity among Asian-Pacific hotel workers.
Novotny, Rachel; Williams, Andrew E; Vinoya, Aleli C; Oshiro, Caryn E S; Vogt, Thomas M
Both obesity and immigration continue to increase in the United States. Studies suggest that a transition in lifestyle patterns, such as food intake, may mediate the relationship between immigration and obesity. We examine obesity among hotel workers in relation to age, sex, race/ethnicity, and indicators of food intake, immigration, and acculturation. Four thousand five hundred thirty hotel workers in 30 hotels were studied from the first year of the Work, Weight and Wellness program, before intervention (during 2005-2006). Weight and height were measured, whereas race/ethnicity, language, education, immigration, acculturation, and food intake variables were assessed by questionnaire. The study included 43% male and 57% female hotel workers (mean age 44.4+/-11.3 years; 42% Filipino, 32% other Asian, 13% Pacific Islander, 9% white, 1% black/African American, and 3% other race/ethnicity). On average (mean value), 55% of participants were born outside the United States; 57% were overweight or obese (body mass index [BMI] >25). The BMI of those born in the United States was 1.3 higher than that of those born in another country, adjusting for sex and race/ethnicity. Intake of sweet drinks and meat was positively associated with BMI while intake of fruit was negatively associated with BMI. Age at arrival in United States ("generation") was negatively associated with BMI, whereas greater acculturation was positively associated with BMI. Food intake behaviors are probably related to place of birth, generation of migration to the United States, and acculturation. Direct measures of food intake added explanatory power to models, suggesting the importance of food intake to obesity. Further study of the influence of immigration, acculturation, and food intake on obesity using longitudinal study designs is warranted.
The Relationship Between Collective Self-Esteem, Acculturation, and Alcohol-Related Consequences Among Asian American Young Adults
PEDERSEN, ERIC R.; HSU, SHARON HSIN; NEIGHBORS, CLAYTON; LEE, CHRISTINE M.; LARIMER, MARY E.
We examined the relationship between collective self-esteem (i.e., the value one places on being part of a collective group), acculturation, and alcohol-related consequences in a sample of 442 Asian American young adults. We found that membership self-esteem and public collective self-esteem interacted with acculturation such that low levels of both predicted greater rates of consequences. Participants with lower acculturation and greater private collective self-esteem experienced more alcoho...
Integrating Two Cultures Successfully: Factors Influencing Acculturation Attitude of International Postgraduate Students in Malaysia
Shafaei, Azadeh; Abd Razak, Nordin; Nejati, Mehran
Based on Berry's seminal work on the acculturation process, this study examines the pattern of acculturation attitude among international postgraduate students in Malaysia, an emerging education hub in Asia. It also investigates the influence of several demographic factors (gender, geographical region, marital status, and education level) and…
Acculturation and Religion in Schools: The Views of Young People from Minority Belief Backgrounds
Niens, Ulrike; Mawhinney, Alison; Richardson, Norman; Chiba, Yuko
This paper aims to explore the relationship between religious identity, acculturation strategies and perceptions of acculturation orientation in the school context amongst young people from minority belief backgrounds. Based on a qualitative study including interviews with 26 young people from religious minority belief backgrounds in Northern…
Dietary acculturation and body composition predict American Hmong children's blood pressure.
Smith, Chery; Franzen-Castle, Lisa
Determine how dietary acculturation, anthropometric measures (height, weight, circumferences, and skinfolds), body mass index (BMI), and waist hip ratios (WHRs) are associated with blood pressure (BP) measures in Hmong children living in Minnesota. Acculturation was measured using responses to questions regarding language usage, social connections, and diet. Dietary assessment was completed using the multiple-pass 24-h dietary recall method on two different days. Anthropometric and BP measurement were taken using standard procedures, and BMI and WHR were calculated. Data analyses included descriptive statistics, ANOVA, and stepwise regression analyses. Using stepwise regression analysis, hip circumference (HC) predicted boys' systolic (S)BP (R(2) = 0.55). For girls' SBP, mid-upper arm circumference, WHR, low calcium consumption, and height percentile jointly explained 41% of the total variation. Mid upper arm circumference (MAC) and carbohydrate consumption predicted 35% of the variance for boys' diastolic (D)BP, and HC, dairy consumption, and calcium intake predicted 31% of the total variance for girls' DBP. Responses to dietary acculturation questions revealed between group differences for breakfast with half of the younger Born-Thailand/Laos (Born-T/L) consuming mostly Hmong food, while at dinner Born-US consumed a mixed diet and Born-T/L were more likely to consume Hmong food. Dietary acculturation and body composition predict Hmong children's BP. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Acculturative Stress and Risky Sexual Behavior: The Roles of Sexual Compulsivity and Negative Affect.
Jardin, Charles; Garey, Lorra; Sharp, Carla; Zvolensky, Michael J
Recent syndemic models of sexual health disparities affecting racial/ethnic minorities have highlighted the role of discrimination. Yet no previous work has examined how acculturative stress (distress at the transition from one's original culture toward a new culture) associates with sexual HIV-risk behavior (SHRB). Work among other minority populations suggests sexual compulsivity (SC) may contribute to syndemic sexual health disparities as a means of coping with distress. With this in mind, the present study examined whether SC explained the relation between acculturative stress and SHRB. Separate analyses were conducted for males and females within a sample of 758 sexually initiated racial/ethnic minority college students. Among males and females, acculturative stress had an indirect effect on SHRB via SC. As the first study to examine SHRB in relation to acculturative stress, findings provide preliminary evidence that targeting SC among racial/ethnic minorities may help reduce sexual health disparities. © The Author(s) 2015.
A Multi-Study Analysis of Conceptual and Measurement Issues Related to Health Research on Acculturation in Latinos
Andrews, Arthur R.; Bridges, Ana J.; Gomez, Debbie
Purpose The aims of the study were to evaluate the orthogonality of acculturation for Latinos. Design Regression analyses were used to examine acculturation in two Latino samples (N = 77; N = 40). In a third study (N = 673), confirmatory factor analyses compared unidimensional and bidimensional models. Method Acculturation was assessed with the ARSMA-II (Studies 1 and 2), and language proficiency items from the Children of Immigrants Longitudinal Study (Study 3). Results In Studies 1 and 2, the bidimensional model accounted for slightly more variance (R2Study 1 = .11; R2Study 2 = .21) than the unidimensional model (R2Study 1 = .10; R2Study 2 = .19). In Study 3, the bidimensional model evidenced better fit (Akaike information criterion = 167.36) than the unidimensional model (Akaike information criterion = 1204.92). Discussion/Conclusions Acculturation is multidimensional. Implications for Practice Care providers should examine acculturation as a bidimensional construct. PMID:23361579
Gender Roles and Acculturation: Relationships With Cancer Screening Among Vietnamese American Women
Nguyen, Anh B.; Clark, Trenette T.; Belgrave, Faye Z.
The aim of this study was to examine the influence of demographic variables and the interplay between gender roles and acculturation on breast and cervical cancer screening outcomes among Vietnamese American women. Convenience sampling was used to recruit 100 Vietnamese women from the Richmond, VA, metropolitan area. Women were recruited to participate in a larger cancer screening intervention. All participants completed measures on demographic variables, gender roles, acculturation, and canc...
Multi-Dimensionality of Acculturative Stress among Chinese International Students: What Lies behind Their Struggles?
Zhang, Yue; Jung, Eunjoo
This study aimed to identify the underlying dimensions of acculturative stress that Chinese international students may encounter in the U.S. In addition, we re-examined students' background characteristics and perceived social support from family, friends, and their school as predictors of students' different dimensions of acculturative stress. In…
Acculturation and parent-adolescent communication about sex in Filipino-American families: a community-based participatory research study.
Chung, Paul J; Travis, Raphael; Kilpatrick, Shelley D; Elliott, Marc N; Lui, Camillia; Khandwala, Shefali B; Dancel, Theresa M; Vollandt, Lori; Schuster, Mark A
To examine whether acculturation is associated with parent-adolescent communication about sex in Filipino-American families. Filipino-Americans, the United States' second-largest Asian and Pacific Islander (API) group, have more adolescent pregnancy and HIV infection than other APIs. High-quality parent-adolescent communication about sex has been associated with healthy sexual development, and acculturation has been associated with various increased health risks. Whether acculturation affects parent-adolescent communication is unknown. We surveyed 120 pairs of Filipino-American parents and adolescents at a single large high school. We asked adolescents about their frequency of parent-adolescent communication about sex and measured adolescent acculturation in two ways: disagreement with traditional Asian values and preferential use of English. In bivariate and multivariate regressions, we examined whether adolescent acculturation was associated with adolescent reports of parent-adolescent communication. Few adolescents (22%) reported regularly discussing sex with parents. Although most adolescents (72%) agreed with traditional Asian values, most (63%) preferred using English. In bivariate regressions, less parent-adolescent communication about sex was associated with less adolescent agreement with traditional Asian values (p = .002) and more adolescent English use (p = .009). In multivariate regressions, these associations were largely explained by adolescent perceptions of parent knowledge about their whereabouts and activities. Acculturation may influence Filipino-American parent-adolescent communication about sex and, consequently, Filipino-American adolescent sexual health. Health care and public health providers may need to tailor adolescent sexual health programs based on acculturation or other immigration-related factors.
Predictors of acculturative hassles among Vietnamese refugees in Norway: Results from a long-term longitudinal study.
Tingvold, Laila; Vaage, Aina Basilier; Allen, James; Wentzel-Larsen, Tore; van Ta, Thong; Hauff, Edvard
We investigated acculturative hassles in a community cohort of Vietnamese refugees in Norway (n = 61), exploring cross-sectional data and longitudinal predictors of acculturative hassles using data from their arrival in Norway in 1982 (T1), with follow up in 1985 (T2) and in 2005-2006 (T3). To our knowledge, this is the first longitudinal study of predictors of acculturative hassles in a refugee population. Results indicated that more communication problems and less Norwegian language competence were related to most hassles at T3. Higher psychological distress, lower quality of life, lower self-reported state of health, and less education at T3 were associated with higher levels of hassles at T3. More psychological distress at T2 and less education at arrival (T1) were significant predictors for more acculturative hassles at T3. These data suggest that addressing psychological distress during the early phase in a resettlement country may promote long-term refugee adjustment and, in particular, reduce exposure to acculturative hassles. © The Author(s) 2015.
Interactive Effect of Immigration-Related Factors with Legal and Discrimination Acculturative Stress in Predicting Depression Among Asian American Immigrants.
Singh, Shipra; Schulz, Amy Jo; Neighbors, Harold W; Griffith, Derek M
This study examined the impact of discrimination and legal acculturative stress on Major Depression Episode lifetime among Asian American immigrants. It further examined the role of immigration related-factors (age at immigration, reason for immigration, and years spent in the U.S.) on the relationship of acculturative stress and Major Depression Episode lifetime. The National Latino and Asian American Study 2002-2003 dataset was used. The study findings were: (1) high discrimination and legal acculturative stress were associated with Major Depression Episode lifetime; (2) age at immigration buffered the relationship of discrimination acculturative stress and Major Depression Episode lifetime as well as the relationship of legal acculturative stress and Major Depression Episode lifetime; and (3) years spent in the U.S. buffered the relationship of discrimination acculturative stress and Major Depression Episode lifetime only. These findings highlight the complex relationship of factors that impact the mental health of the Asian American immigrants.
Filipino American grandparent caregivers' roles, acculturation, and perceived health status.
Kataoka-Yahiro, Merle R
The purpose of this exploratory study was to describe the relationships between roles, acculturation, and perceived health status among 47 FA grandparent caregivers who were providing extensive caregiving to their grandchildren. Role satisfaction was significantly related to perceived health status. Role occupancy was significantly related to years lived in the U.S. and employment. Role integration and role stress were significantly related to gender and income. Acculturation was significantly related to role involvement, years lived in the U.S., language spoken, and education. The findings of this health disparities research study will lead to more contextual work in this area of study.
Blood folate concentrations among women of childbearing age by race/ethnicity and acculturation, NHANES 2001-2010.
Marchetta, Claire M; Hamner, Heather C
Hispanic women have higher rates of neural tube defects and report lower total folic acid intakes than non-Hispanic white (NHW) women. Total folic acid intake, which is associated with neural tube defect risk reduction, has been found to vary by acculturation factors (i.e. language preference, country of origin, or time spent in the United States) among Hispanic women. It is unknown whether this same association is present for blood folate status. The objective of this research was to assess the differences in serum and red blood cell (RBC) folate concentrations between NHW women and Mexican American (MA) women and among MA women by acculturation factors. Cross-sectional data from the 2001-2010 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) were used to investigate how blood folate concentrations differ among NHW or MA women of childbearing age. The impact of folic acid supplement use on blood folate concentrations was also examined. MA women with lower acculturation factors had lower serum and RBC folate concentrations compared with NHW women and to their more acculturated MA counterparts. Consuming a folic acid supplement can minimize these disparities, but MA women, especially lower acculturated MA women, were less likely to report using supplements. Public health efforts to increase blood folate concentrations among MA women should consider acculturation factors when identifying appropriate interventions. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Acculturation and Healthy Lifestyle Among Latinos With Diabetes
Mainous, Arch G.; Diaz, Vanessa A.; Geesey, Mark E.
PURPOSE Latinos have a high prevalence of diabetes and disproportionately experience diabetic complications. We sought to examine the association of acculturation on healthy lifestyle habits among the Latino population in the United States with diabetes.
Acculturation, Gender, Depression, and Cigarette Smoking Among U.S. Hispanic Youth: The Mediating Role of Perceived Discrimination
Lorenzo-Blanco, Elma I.; Unger, Jennifer B.; Ritt-Olson, Anamara; Soto, Daniel; Baezconde-Garbanati, Lourdes
Hispanic youth are at risk for experiencing depressive symptoms and smoking cigarettes, and risk for depressive symptoms and cigarette use increase as Hispanic youth acculturate to U.S. culture. The mechanism by which acculturation leads to symptoms of depression and cigarette smoking is not well understood. The present study examined whether perceived discrimination explained the associations of acculturation with depressive symptoms and cigarette smoking among 1,124 Hispanic youth (54% fema...
Acculturation Stress, Drinking, and Intimate Partner Violence among Hispanic Couples in the U.S
Caetano, Raul; Ramisetty-Mikler, Suhasini; Caetano Vaeth, Patrice A.; Harris, T. Robert
This article examines the cross-sectional association between acculturation, acculturation stress, drinking, and intimate partner violence (IPV) among Hispanic couples in the U.S. The data being analyzed come from a multi-cluster random household sample of couples interviewed as part of the second wave of a 5-year national longitudinal study. The…
Acculturation and dietary patterns among residents of Surinamese origin in the Netherlands: the HELIUS dietary pattern study.
Sturkenboom, Suzanne M; Dekker, Louise H; Lamkaddem, Majda; Schaap, Laura A; de Vries, Jeanne H M; Stronks, Karien; Nicolaou, Mary
Insight into the role of acculturation in dietary patterns is important to inform the development of nutrition programmes that target ethnic minority groups. Therefore, the present study aimed to investigate how the adherence to dietary patterns within an ethnic minority population in the Netherlands varies by acculturation level compared with the host population. Cross-sectional study using data of the HELIUS study. Dietary patterns were assessed with an ethnic-specific FFQ. Acculturation was operationalized using unidimensional proxies (residence duration, age at migration and generation status) as well as on the basis of the bidimensional perspective, defined by four distinct acculturation strategies: assimilation, integration, separation and marginalization. Amsterdam, the Netherlands. Participants of Dutch (n 1370) and Surinamese (n 1727) origin. Three dietary patterns were identified: (i) 'noodle/rice dishes and white meat' (traditional Surinamese pattern); (ii) 'red meat, snacks and sweets'; and (iii) 'vegetables, fruit and nuts'. Surinamese-origin respondents adhered more to the traditional Surinamese pattern than the other dietary patterns. Neither the unidimensional proxies nor the bidimensional acculturation strategies demonstrated consistent associations with dietary patterns. The lack of consistent association between acculturation and dietary patterns in the present study indicates that dietary patterns are quite robust. Understanding the continued adherence to traditional dietary patterns when developing dietary interventions in ethnic minority groups is warranted.
The role of acculturation and collectivism in cancer screening for Vietnamese American women.
Nguyen, Anh B; Clark, Trenette T
The aim of this study was to examine the influence of demographic variables and the interplay between collectivism and acculturation on breast and cervical cancer screening outcomes among Vietnamese American women. Convenience sampling was used to recruit 111 Vietnamese women from the Richmond, VA, metropolitan area, who participated in a larger cancer screening intervention. All participants completed measures on demographic variables, collectivism, acculturation, and cancer-screening-related variables (i.e., attitudes, self-efficacy, and screening behavior). Findings indicated that collectivism predicted both positive attitudes and higher levels of self-efficacy with regard to breast and cervical cancer screening. Collectivism also moderated the relationship between acculturation and attitudes toward breast cancer screening such that for women with low levels of collectivistic orientation, increasing acculturation predicted less positive attitudes towards breast cancer screening. This relationship was not found for women with high levels of collectivistic orientation. The current findings highlight the important roles that sociodemographic and cultural variables play in affecting health attitudes, self-efficacy, and behavior among Vietnamese women. The findings potentially inform screening programs that rely on culturally relevant values in helping increase Vietnamese women's motivation to screen.
The impact of acculturation level on weight status and weight outcomes in Mexican American children
Currently 39% of Hispanic children and adolescents are overweight and obese. Higher levels of acculturation have been shown to be related to obesity in Mexican American adults. Conflicting findings exists regarding this relationship in children and little is known about the impact of acculturation o...
Intergenerational Transmission of Educational Attitudes in Chinese American Families: Interplay of Socioeconomic Status and Acculturation
Shen, Yishan; Kim, Su Yeong; Wang, Yijie
This longitudinal study examined the influence of parents' educational attitudes on adolescents' educational attitudes and identified antecedents (i.e., parent education, family income, and parent acculturation), consequences (i.e., academic achievement and engagement), and a potential moderator (i.e., adolescent acculturation) of the transmission…
Analysis of Acculturative Stress and Sociocultural Adaptation among International Students at a Non-Metropolitan University
Mahmood, Hajara; Burke, Monica Galloway
This quantitative descriptive study analyzed levels of acculturative stress and sociocultural adaptation among international students at a non-metropolitan university in the United States related to certain demographic characteristics. Surveys were used to measure international students' levels of acculturative stress and sociocultural adaptation,…
The influence of acculturation on mental health and specialized mental healthcare for non-western migrants
Nap, A.W.; van Loon, A.; Peen, J.; van Schaik, D.J.F.; Beekman, A.T.F.; Dekker, J.J.M.
Background: The level of acculturation of migrants varies and is associated with variations in mental health. However, this association is complex and may differ among migrant groups. Aim: The aim of this study is to explore the association between acculturation, mental health and treatment effect.
Acculturation orientations mediate the link between religious identity and adjustment of Turkish-Bulgarian and Turkish-German adolescents
Dimitrova, Radosveta; Aydinli-Karakulak, Arzu
There is a growing recognition of the need to examine religiousness and conduct research on its influence on acculturation and adjustment among ethnic minorities (G?ng?r et al. in Int J Behav Dev 36:367?373, 2012. doi:10.1177/0165025412448357). The present study compares Turkish minority youth in Bulgaria and Germany by examining relationships among religious identity, acculturation orientations (i.e., cultural maintenance and adoption) and acculturation outcomes (i.e., life satisfaction and ...
Association of gender norms, relationship and intrapersonal variables, and acculturation with sexual communication among young adult Latinos.
Alvarez, Carmen; Villarruel, Antonia
Sexual communication is an important strategy in promoting safer sex behavior, but few investigators have explored sexual communication among young adult Latinos. In this cross-sectional study, we examined the role of traditional gender norms, relationship factors (relationship characteristics and relationship power), intrapersonal factors (attitudes and subjective norms), and acculturation as statistical predictors of three different types of sexual communication (sexual health, pleasure discussions, and physical sexual communication) in Latino women and men. The sample was 220 Latinos (111 women and 109 men) ages 18-30 years who were sexually active in heterosexual relationships. In multiple regression, after controlling for relationship power, intrapersonal factors, and acculturation, traditional gender norms did not predict sexual communication for either women or men. For both women and men, pleasure-focused communication (pleasure discussions and physical sexual communication) increased with acculturation. For women, the strongest predictor of all types of sexual communication was their attitudes toward sexual communication. Greater relationship power and lower acculturation were associated with women's sexual health communication. For men, no variables explained sexual health communication or physical sexual communication, and acculturation and attitude toward pleasure discussions predicted pleasure communication. Women who believed they had power in their relationships and had positive attitudes toward pleasure discussions and a high level of acculturation reported more physical sexual communication. Findings suggest the importance of relationship power, attitudes, and acculturation in young adult Latinos' sexual communication. Sexual risk prevention strategies among young adult Latinos should include encouraging sexual communication by supporting positive attitudes toward pleasure-focused communication. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2015 Wiley
Acculturation and self-reported health among Hispanics using a socio-behavioral model: the North Texas Healthy Heart Study.
Johnson, Katandria L; Carroll, Joan F; Fulda, Kimberly G; Cardarelli, Kathryn; Cardarelli, Roberto
Acculturation is a continuous, firsthand contact with other cultures functioning at both group and individual levels and is reflected in our culturally diverse society, calling for a greater understanding of the environmental and cultural impact on health. Self-reported health (SRH), a robust and well validated predictor of future mortality for all racial/ethnic groups, has been differentially reported by Hispanics compared to whites, especially based on their acculturation status. This study investigated the relationship between acculturation and SRH among Hispanics. An adapted Andersen framework was used to develop logistic regression models to assess for an association between acculturation and general health status. Hispanic participants (n = 135), as part of the North Texas Healthy Heart Study, were administered standardized questionnaires on acculturation, psychosocial measures which included sense of control, stress, depression and social support and a single item SRH measure. In addition, physiological measurements and demographic characteristics including age, gender, body mass index, medical history, and socioeconomic status were also obtained. Bivariate analyses found Mexican-oriented participants 3.16 times more likely to report fair/poor SRH compared to Anglo-oriented Hispanics. Acculturation was also associated with SRH in multiple regression models controlling for enabling, need, and predisposing factors together (OR: 3.53, 95% CI: 1.04, 11.97). Acculturation status was associated with SRH after accounting for other underlying factors. Medical and public health professionals should promote the use of acculturation measures in order to better understand its role in Hispanic behaviors, health outcomes and health care use. Such research findings will contribute to the design of culturally sensitive prevention and treatment strategies for diverse and immigrant populations.
Acculturation and self-reported health among Hispanics using a socio-behavioral model: the North Texas Healthy Heart Study
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Fulda Kimberly G
Full Text Available Abstract Background Acculturation is a continuous, firsthand contact with other cultures functioning at both group and individual levels and is reflected in our culturally diverse society, calling for a greater understanding of the environmental and cultural impact on health. Self-reported health (SRH, a robust and well validated predictor of future mortality for all racial/ethnic groups, has been differentially reported by Hispanics compared to whites, especially based on their acculturation status. This study investigated the relationship between acculturation and SRH among Hispanics. An adapted Andersen framework was used to develop logistic regression models to assess for an association between acculturation and general health status. Methods Hispanic participants (n = 135, as part of the North Texas Healthy Heart Study, were administered standardized questionnaires on acculturation, psychosocial measures which included sense of control, stress, depression and social support and a single item SRH measure. In addition, physiological measurements and demographic characteristics including age, gender, body mass index, medical history, and socioeconomic status were also obtained. Results Bivariate analyses found Mexican-oriented participants 3.16 times more likely to report fair/poor SRH compared to Anglo-oriented Hispanics. Acculturation was also associated with SRH in multiple regression models controlling for enabling, need, and predisposing factors together (OR: 3.53, 95% CI: 1.04, 11.97. Conclusions Acculturation status was associated with SRH after accounting for other underlying factors. Medical and public health professionals should promote the use of acculturation measures in order to better understand its role in Hispanic behaviors, health outcomes and health care use. Such research findings will contribute to the design of culturally sensitive prevention and treatment strategies for diverse and immigrant populations.
A study of acculturation in psychotic and non-psychotic immigrants living in Athens.
Gonidakis, F; Lembesi, E; Kontaxakis, V P; Havaki-Kontaxaki, B J; Ploumpidis, D; Madianos, M; Papadimitriou, G N
Acculturation is the phenomenon that results when a group with one culture comes into continuous contact with a host culture. To investigate the correlation between acculturation and psychotic symptomatology in a group of immigrants suffering from psychosis and to explore differences in demographic factors related with the acculturation process between individuals with and without psychosis. Sixty-five patients and 317 non-psychotic immigrants were interviewed using the Immigrant Acculturation Scale (IAS) and a structured questionnaire for demographic data. The Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS), the Calgary Depression Scale for Schizophrenia (CDSS) and the Global Assessment of Functioning (GAF) were also administered to all immigrants suffering from psychosis. Total IAS scores, as well as IAS everyday life scores, were positively correlated with GAF scores. IAS everyday life score in the patient group related with religion, marital status, gender and years in Greece, while in the non-psychosis group it was related with gender and years in Greece. IAS wishful orientation/nostos (the strong desire for one's homeland) related with religion in both groups. The IAS identity in the psychosis group did not show any significant relation with any of the variables, while in the non-patient group, it was related with marital status, gender and years in Greece. Age, duration of residence in Greece and higher adoption of Greek ethnic identity were the variables that differentiated the two groups of immigrants. Acculturation in immigrants suffering from psychosis could be seen as a process that does not correlate strongly with the severity of the symptomatology but is probably influenced by different set of factors.
A life domains perspective on acculturation and psychological adjustment: a study of refugees from the former Soviet Union.
Birman, Dina; Simon, Corrina D; Chan, Wing Yi; Tran, Nellie
The study articulates a contextual approach to research on acculturation of immigrants, suggesting that the relationship between acculturation and adjustment is dependent on the cultural demands of the life domains considered. Specifically, the study investigated the mediating effects of adjustment in occupational and social life domains on the relationship between acculturation and psychological adjustment for 391 refugees from the former Soviet Union. The study used bilinear measures of acculturation to the host (American) and heritage (Russian) cultures. Using Structural Equation Modeling, the study confirmed the hypothesized relationships, such that the positive effects of American acculturation on psychological adjustment were mediated by occupational adjustment, and the effects of Russian acculturation on psychological adjustment were mediated by satisfaction with co-ethnic social support. Psychological adjustment was measured in two ways, as psychological well-being, using a measure of life satisfaction, and as symptoms of depression and anxiety, using the Hopkins symptom checklist (HSCL). Life satisfaction served as a mediator between adjustment in occupational and social domains and HSCL, suggesting that it may be an intervening variable through which environmental stress associated with immigration contributes to the development of symptoms of mental disorder.
The influence of linguistic and psychological acculturation on recent cannabis use in adolescent and young adult immigrants in the Netherlands.
Delforterie, M.J.; Creemers, H.E.; Huizink, A.C.
According to the cultural values paradigm, acculturation to a culture with more positive values regarding substance use may be a risk factor for cannabis use. More acculturated youths could be more likely to affiliate with cannabis-using peers, mediating the relationship between acculturation and
Acculturation and Substance Use among Hispanic Early Adolescents: Investigating the Mediating Roles of Acculturative Stress and Self-Esteem
Zamboanga, Byron L.; Schwartz, Seth J.; Jarvis, Lorna Hernandez; Van Tyne, Kathryne
We examined the extent to which Hispanic orientation and American orientation are associated with substance use (cigarette, alcohol, and marijuana) both directly and indirectly through acculturative stress and self-esteem. Participants were 347 Hispanic early adolescents (50.7% male; mean age = 12.57, SD = 0.92, range 11-15) from two middle…
Health Promotion Behavior of Chinese International Students in Korea Including Acculturation Factors: A Structural Equation Model
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Sun Jung Kim, RN, PhD
Conlcusions: The Chinese students in Korea with higher self-esteem, perceived health status, acculturation level, and lower acculturative stress reported higher health promotion behavior. The findings can be applied to develop health promotion strategies for this population.
Acculturation, gender, and mental health of Southeast Asian immigrant youth in Canada.
Hilario, Carla T; Vo, Dzung X; Johnson, Joy L; Saewyc, Elizabeth M
The relationships between mental health, protective factors and acculturation among Southeast Asian youth were examined in this study using a gender-based analysis. Population-based data from the 2008 British Columbia Adolescent Health Survey were used to examine differences in extreme stress and despair by acculturation. Associations between emotional distress and hypothesized protective factors were examined using logistic regression. Stratified analyses were performed to assess gender-related differences. Recent immigrant youth reported higher odds of emotional distress. Family connectedness and school connectedness were linked to lower odds of extreme stress and despair among girls. Family connectedness was associated with lower odds of extreme stress and despair among boys. Higher cultural connectedness was associated with lower odds of despair among boys but with higher odds of extreme stress among girls. Findings are discussed in relation to acculturation and gender-based patterns in protective factors for mental health among Southeast Asian immigrant youth.
Acculturation and Substance Use: Social Influence as a Mediator among Hispanic Alternative High School Youth
Myers, Raquel; Chou, Chih-Ping; Sussman, Steve; Baezconde-Garbanati, Lourdes; Pachon, Harry; Valente, Thomas W.
Research suggests that acculturation increases the risk of substance use among Hispanic youth. However, this process is not well understood. This study examined associations between acculturation and several substance use indicators among a sample of 714 Hispanic youth attending alternative high schools in southern California. Peer social…
Health Promotion Behavior of Chinese International Students in Korea Including Acculturation Factors: A Structural Equation Model.
Kim, Sun Jung; Yoo, Il Young
The purpose of this study was to explain the health promotion behavior of Chinese international students in Korea using a structural equation model including acculturation factors. A survey using self-administered questionnaires was employed. Data were collected from 272 Chinese students who have resided in Korea for longer than 6 months. The data were analyzed using structural equation modeling. The p value of final model is .31. The fitness parameters of the final model such as goodness of fit index, adjusted goodness of fit index, normed fit index, non-normed fit index, and comparative fit index were more than .95. Root mean square of residual and root mean square error of approximation also met the criteria. Self-esteem, perceived health status, acculturative stress and acculturation level had direct effects on health promotion behavior of the participants and the model explained 30.0% of variance. The Chinese students in Korea with higher self-esteem, perceived health status, acculturation level, and lower acculturative stress reported higher health promotion behavior. The findings can be applied to develop health promotion strategies for this population. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.
Acculturation Strategies Among South Asian Immigrants: The Mediators of Atherosclerosis in South Asians Living in America (MASALA) Study.
Needham, Belinda L; Mukherjee, Bhramar; Bagchi, Pramita; Kim, Catherine; Mukherjea, Arnab; Kandula, Namratha R; Kanaya, Alka M
In the past, epidemiologic research on acculturation and health has been criticized for its conceptual ambiguity and simplistic measurement approaches. This study applied a widely-used theoretical framework from cross-cultural psychology to identify acculturation strategies among South Asian immigrants in the US and to examine sociodemographic correlates of acculturation strategies. Data were from the Mediators of Atherosclerosis in South Asians Living in America study. We used latent class analysis to identify groups of individuals that were similar based on cultural attitudes and behaviors. We used latent class regression analysis to examine sociodemographic correlates of acculturation strategies. We found that South Asian immigrants employed three acculturation strategies, including separation (characterized by a relatively high degree of preference for South Asian culture over US culture), assimilation (characterized by a relatively high degree of preference for US culture over South Asian culture), and integration (characterized by a similar level of preference for South Asian and US cultures). Respondents with no religious affiliation, those with higher levels of income, those who lived a greater percentage of their lives in the US, and those who spoke English well or very well were less likely to use the separation strategy than the assimilation or integration strategies. Using epidemiologic cohort data, this study illustrated a conceptual and methodological approach that addresses limitations of previous research on acculturation and health. More work is needed to understand how the acculturation strategies identified in this study affect the health of South Asian immigrants in the US.
The Hispanic Americans Baseline Alcohol Survey (HABLAS): the association between acculturation, birthplace and alcohol consumption across Hispanic national groups.
Vaeth, Patrice A C; Caetano, Raul; Rodriguez, Lori A
Acculturation to U.S. society has been associated with an increase in drinking and binge drinking among Hispanics. This paper examines the association between acculturation and three drinking-related outcomes: average number of drinks consumed, binge drinking, and drinking 12 drinks or more in a single day in four major Hispanic national groups. The 2006 Hispanic Americans Baseline Alcohol Survey used a multistage cluster sample design to interview 5224 adult Hispanics (18+ years) in five selected U.S. metropolitan areas: Miami, New York, Philadelphia, Houston, and Los Angeles. The four national groups interviewed were: Puerto Ricans, Cuban Americans, Mexican Americans, and South/Central Americans. The survey response rate was 76%. Data on drinking behavior were collected and the analyses include bivariate and multivariate regression techniques. Multivariate analysis did not show an association between acculturation and volume of drinking, binge drinking, or drinking 12 or more drinks in a single day among men. Acculturation stress, however, was associated with drinking 12 or more in a day among men. Among women, high acculturation was associated with a higher volume of drinking, and it also interacted with national group to increase the likelihood of binge drinking. Acculturation does not have a homogeneous effect on drinking across gender and Hispanic national groups. The results confirm that acculturation has a more consistent association with increased drinking and binge drinking among women than among men. The effect of acculturation is therefore gender-specific. This heterogeneity across Hispanic national groups must be considered in future research, treatment, and prevention efforts. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Developmental Trajectories of Acculturation in Hispanic Adolescents: Associations with Family Functioning and Adolescent Risk Behavior
Schwartz, Seth J.; Des Rosiers, Sabrina; Huang, Shi; Zamboanga, Byron L.; Unger, Jennifer B.; Knight, George P.; Pantin, Hilda; Szapocznik, Jose
This study examined longitudinal acculturation patterns, and their associations with family functioning and adolescent risk behaviors, in Hispanic immigrant families. A sample of 266 Hispanic adolescents (M[subscript age] = 13.4) and their primary parents completed measures of acculturation, family functioning, and adolescent conduct problems,…
Acculturation Style and Alcohol Use among African American College Students: An Exploration of Potential Moderators
Abdullah, Tahirah; Brown, Tamara L.
This study examined whether a relationship exists between acculturation and alcohol use among African American college students and if the relationship varies by religiosity and gender. Most researchers use unidimensional African American acculturation measures that cannot capture the construct's complexity; this study is the first to use a…
"Try Walking in Our Shoes": Teaching Acculturation and Related Cultural Adjustment Processes through Role-Play
Zamboanga, Byron L.; Ham, Lindsay S.; Tomaso, Cara C.; Audley, Shannon; Pole, Nnamdi
In this article, we describe several role-playing exercises on acculturation and relevant cultural adjustment processes that we incorporated into Tomcho and Foel's classroom activity on acculturation, and we report data that examine subsequent changes in students' responses on pretest and posttest measures shortly after the activity and present…
Cultural Adaptation of Chinese International College Students in the U.S.: Parenting, Communication, and Acculturation
After Chinese students come to the U.S., the acculturation process is an important predictor of Chinese international college students' personal well-being and future academic achievement. Researchers and practitioners keep seeking factors that could help them in the acculturation process. This research investigated how those students' parenting…
Personality and Dutch emigrants' reactions to acculturation strategies
Bakker, Winny; Van der Zee, Karen; Van Oudenhoven, Jan Pieter
This experimental questionnaire study examined individual differences in affective and normative reactions to acculturation strategies. A sample of 265 Dutch emigrants with a dual cultural background read scenarios describing the experiences of an emigrant. Eight (4 x 2) different scenario versions
Acculturation and self-rated health among Arctic indigenous peoples: a population-based cross-sectional study
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Full Text Available Abstract Background Acculturation is for indigenous peoples related to the process of colonisation over centuries as well as the on-going social transition experienced in the Arctic today. Changing living conditions and lifestyle affect health in numerous ways in Arctic indigenous populations. Self-rated health (SRH is a relevant variable in primary health care and in general public health assessments and monitoring. Exploring the relationship between acculturation and SRH in indigenous populations having experienced great societal and cultural change is thus of great importance. Methods The principal method in the Survey of Living Conditions in the Arctic (SLiCA was standardised face-to-face interviews using a questionnaire. Very high overall participation rates of 83% were obtained in Greenland and Alaska, whilst a more conventional rate of 57% was achieved in Norway. Acculturation was conceptualised as certain traditional subsistence activities being of lesser importance for people’s ethnic identity, and poorer spoken indigenous language ability (SILA. Acculturation was included in six separate gender- and country-specific ordinal logistic regressions to assess qualitative effects on SRH. Results Multivariable analyses showed that acculturation significantly predicted poorer SRH in Greenland. An increased subsistence score gave an OR of 2.32 (P Conclusions This study shows that aggregate acculturation is a strong risk factor for poorer SRH among the Kalaallit of Greenland and female Iñupiat of Alaska, but our cross-sectional study design does not allow any conclusion with regard to causality. Limitations with regard to wording, categorisations, assumed cultural differences in the conceptualisation of SRH, and confounding effects of health care use, SES and discrimination, make it difficult to appropriately assess how strong this effect is though.
Second language social networks and communication-related acculturative stress: the role of interconnectedness
Doucerain, Marina M.; Varnaamkhaasti, Raheleh S.; Segalowitz, Norman; Ryder, Andrew G.
Although a substantial amount of cross-cultural psychology research has investigated acculturative stress in general, little attention has been devoted specifically to communication-related acculturative stress (CRAS). In line with the view that cross-cultural adaptation and second language (L2) learning are social and interpersonal phenomena, the present study examines the hypothesis that migrants’ L2 social network size and interconnectedness predict CRAS. The main idea underlying this hypo...
Acculturation, Familism and Mother-Daughter Relations Among Suicidal and Non-Suicidal Adolescent Latinas
Zayas, Luis H.; Bright, Charlotte L.; Álvarez-Sánchez, Thyria; Cabassa, Leopoldo J.
We examined the role of acculturation, familism and Latina mother-daughter relations in suicide attempts by comparing 65 adolescents with recent suicide attempts and their mothers to 75 teens without any attempts and their mothers. Attempters and non-attempters were similar in acculturation and familistic attitudes but attempters report significantly less mutuality and communication with their mothers than non-attempters. Mothers of attempters reported lower mutuality and communication with t...
Finding benefits from acculturative stress among Asian Americans: Self-reflection moderating the mediating effects of ethnocultural empathy on positive outcomes.
Wei, Meifen; Li, Chun-I; Wang, Cixin; Ko, Stacy Y
This study examined a moderated mediation model to see whether self-reflection moderated (a) the association between acculturative stress and ethnocultural empathy and (b) the indirect effects of acculturative stress on 2 positive outcomes (i.e., bicultural competence and making positive sense of adversity) through ethnocultural empathy. A total of 330 Asian American college students from a West coast university participated in an online survey. Results from PROCESS supported hypotheses. First, self-reflection significantly moderated the effects of acculturative stress on ethnocultural empathy. Specifically, the effect of acculturative stress on ethnocultural empathy was significantly positive for those with lower self-reflection. Conversely, this effect was not significant for those with higher self-reflection, but ethnocultural empathy was consistently high across all levels of acculturative stress for those with higher self-reflection. Post hoc exploratory analyses examined the moderated mediation model using each of the 5 domains of acculturative stress as predictors; results supported the moderated mediation hypotheses for 2 domains, discrimination and cultural isolation. Second, self-reflection significantly moderated the indirect effects of acculturative stress on 2 positive outcomes through ethnocultural empathy. Results from conditional indirect effects suggested that the indirect effects of acculturative stress on 2 positive outcomes through ethnocultural empathy were significantly positive for those with lower self-reflection. Conversely, the indirect effects were not significant for those with higher self-reflection, but the 2 positive outcomes stayed high at all levels of acculturative stress. Post hoc analyses found that 5 of 6 components of bicultural competence used as outcome variables supported the moderation mediation hypotheses. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).
Do parent–child acculturation gaps affect early adolescent Latino alcohol use? A study of the probability and extent of use
The literature has been mixed regarding how parent–child relationships are affected by the acculturation process and how this process relates to alcohol use among Latino youth. The mixed results may be due to, at least, two factors: First, staggered migration in which one or both parents arrive to the new country and then send for the children may lead to faster acculturation in parents than in children for some families. Second, acculturation may have different effects depending on which aspects of alcohol use are being examined. This study addresses the first factor by testing for a curvilinear trend in the acculturation-alcohol use relationship and the second by modeling past year alcohol use as a zero inflated negative binomial distribution. Additionally, this study examined the unique and mediation effects of parent–child acculturation discrepancies (gap), mother involvement in children’s schooling, father involvement in children’s schooling, and effective parenting on youth alcohol use during the last 12 months, measured as the probability of using and the extent of use. Direct paths from parent–child acculturation discrepancy to alcohol use, and mediated paths through mother involvement, father involvement, and effective parenting were also tested. Only father involvement fully mediated the path from parent–child acculturation discrepancies to the probability of alcohol use. None of the variables examined mediated the path from parent–child acculturation discrepancies to the extent of alcohol use. Effective parenting was unrelated to acculturation discrepancies; however, it maintained a significant direct effect on the probability of youth alcohol use and the extent of use after controlling for mother and father involvement. Implications for prevention strategies are discussed. PMID:23347822
Role of social support, hardiness, and acculturation as predictors of mental health among international students of Asian Indian origin.
Atri, Ashutosh; Sharma, Manoj; Cottrell, Randall
This study determined the role of social support, hardiness, and acculturation as predictors of mental health among international Asian Indian students enrolled at two large public universities in Ohio. A sample of 185 students completed a 75-item online instrument assessing their social support levels, acculturation, hardiness, and their mental health. Regression analyses were conducted to test for variance in mental health attributable to each of the three independent variables. The final regression model revealed that the belonging aspect of social support, acculturation and prejudice of acculturation scale, and commitment and control of hardiness were all predictive of mental health (R2 = 0.523). Recommendations have been offered to develop interventions that will help strengthen the social support, hardiness, and acculturation of international students and help improve their mental health. Recommendations for development of future Web-based studies also are offered.
Perceived Support as a Predictor of Acculturative Stress among International Students in the United States
A quantitative study was conducted to measure the acculturative stress of international students and investigate the predictors of acculturative stress. A total of 186 students participated in the survey. Results showed that 22.4% of the students in this study exceeded the normal stress level and might need counseling or psychological…
Acculturation dimensions and 12-month mood and anxiety disorders across US Latino subgroups in the National Epidemiologic Survey of Alcohol and Related Conditions.
Fernández, R Lewis; Morcillo, C; Wang, S; Duarte, C S; Aggarwal, N K; Sánchez-Lacay, J A; Blanco, C
Individual-level measures of acculturation (e.g. age of immigration) have a complex relationship with psychiatric disorders. Fine-grained analyses that tap various acculturation dimensions and population subgroups are needed to generate hypotheses regarding the mechanisms of action for the association between acculturation and mental health. Study participants were US Latinos (N = 6359) from Wave 2 of the 2004-2005 National Epidemiologic Survey of Alcohol and Related Conditions (N = 34 653). We used linear χ2 tests and logistic regression models to analyze the association between five acculturation dimensions and presence of 12-month DSM-IV mood/anxiety disorders across Latino subgroups (Mexican, Puerto Rican, Cuban, 'Other Latinos'). Acculturation dimensions associated linearly with past-year presence of mood/anxiety disorders among Mexicans were: (1) younger age of immigration (linear χ2 1 = 11.04, p acculturation were found among Puerto Ricans. The relationship between different acculturation dimensions and 12-month mood/anxiety disorder varies across ethnic subgroups characterized by cultural and historical differences. The association between acculturation measures and disorder may depend on the extent to which they index protective or pathogenic adaptation pathways (e.g. loss of family support) across population subgroups preceding and/or following immigration. Future research should incorporate direct measures of maladaptive pathways and their relationship to various acculturation dimensions.
Acculturation and Diabetes Risk in the Mexican American Mano a Mano Cohort.
Anderson, Chelsea; Zhao, Hua; Daniel, Carrie R; Hromi-Fiedler, Amber; Dong, Qiong; Elhor Gbito, Kplola Y; Wu, Xifeng; Chow, Wong-Ho
To investigate the association between acculturation and diabetes risk in the Mexican American Mano a Mano (hand to hand) Cohort. We recruited 15 975 men and women in the Houston, Texas, area from 2001 to 2014. We used language use, birth country, and duration of US residence (among Mexico-born) to assess acculturation. Participants self-reported a physician's diagnosis of diabetes during annual follow-up over an average of 5.4 (range = 1-13) years. Self-reported diabetes status was validated in medical records for a subset of 235 participants with 98% agreement. Diabetes risk was higher among immigrants with 15 to 19, 20 to 24, and 25 or more years (relative risk = 1.47; 95% confidence interval = 1.07, 2.01) of US residence, relative to those with less than 5 years. Neither language acculturation nor birth country was significantly associated with diabetes risk. Among participants born in Mexico, diabetes risk increased with longer duration of US residence.
[Effects of Korean proficiency and parent-child cohesion on self-esteem and acculturation among children from multicultural families].
Kim, Mi Ye; Lim, Ji Young; Chung, Grace H
There is evidence that parent-child cohesion is a potentially influential factor in children's self-esteem and acculturation. However, no research to date has examined cohesion with parents as a potential pathway between Korean proficiency and self-esteem or acculturation among children from multicultural families. This study was done to address these limitations by examining whether and to what extent cohesion with parents mediated the effect of Korean proficiency on self-esteem and acculturation among children from multicultural families. Data were collected from a sample of 138 mothers and their children living in Seoul, Daegu, Kyungi province, and Kyungpook province. Multiple regression analysis was used to examine the relationships between the variables of interest. Mediation effects of cohesion with parents were tested by following the procedure recommended by Baron and Kenny (1986). Cohesion with parents partially mediated the relationship between Korean proficiency and self-esteem. For children's acculturation, the effect of Korean proficiency was partially mediated through father-child cohesion. Mother-child cohesion completely mediated the relationship between Korean proficiency and acculturation. These findings suggest that to help children from multicultural families experiencing difficulties with self-esteem or acculturation, it might be useful to develop programs that are aimed at strengthen cohesion with parents.
Acculturation and Dietary Intakes by Gender Among Mongolians in South Korea: Nutrition Education Implication for Multicultural Families.
Park, Hae Ryun; Tserendejid, Zuunnast; Lee, Joung Hee; Lim, Young Suk
We explored the relationship between acculturation and dietary intake by gender for 500 Mongolians residing in South Korea. The high acculturation (HA) group females consumed more fish and shellfish, vegetables, beans, and rice, and less meats, flours, and oil than the low acculturation (LA) group did. However, there was no statistical difference in food group intake between HA and LA group males. HA group females showed higher intake of carbohydrates, fiber, sodium, potassium, calcium, vitamin A, and folate compared with LA group females. However, only folate and vitamin B2 intake was statistically different between HA and LA group males. Acculturation and gender interactions were found for the consumption of meats, flours, fish and shellfish, beans, and vegetables. The findings from this study have implications for developing customized nutrition intervention programs by gender for immigrants.
Acculturation and self-rated health among Arctic indigenous peoples: a population-based cross-sectional study.
Eliassen, Bent-Martin; Braaten, Tonje; Melhus, Marita; Hansen, Ketil Lenert; Broderstad, Ann Ragnhild
Acculturation is for indigenous peoples related to the process of colonisation over centuries as well as the on-going social transition experienced in the Arctic today. Changing living conditions and lifestyle affect health in numerous ways in Arctic indigenous populations. Self-rated health (SRH) is a relevant variable in primary health care and in general public health assessments and monitoring. Exploring the relationship between acculturation and SRH in indigenous populations having experienced great societal and cultural change is thus of great importance. The principal method in the Survey of Living Conditions in the Arctic (SLiCA) was standardised face-to-face interviews using a questionnaire. Very high overall participation rates of 83% were obtained in Greenland and Alaska, whilst a more conventional rate of 57% was achieved in Norway. Acculturation was conceptualised as certain traditional subsistence activities being of lesser importance for people's ethnic identity, and poorer spoken indigenous language ability (SILA). Acculturation was included in six separate gender- and country-specific ordinal logistic regressions to assess qualitative effects on SRH. Multivariable analyses showed that acculturation significantly predicted poorer SRH in Greenland. An increased subsistence score gave an OR of 2.32 (Pcultural differences in the conceptualisation of SRH, and confounding effects of health care use, SES and discrimination, make it difficult to appropriately assess how strong this effect is though.
Health-Seeking Behaviors of Filipino Migrants in Australia: The Influence of Persisting Acculturative Stress and Depression.
Maneze, Della; Salamonson, Yenna; Poudel, Chandra; DiGiacomo, Michelle; Everett, Bronwyn; Davidson, Patricia M
This study examined the relationships among the constructs of acculturative stress, depression, English language use, health literacy, and social support and the influence of these factors on health-seeking behaviors of Filipino Australians. Using a self-administered questionnaire, 552 respondents were recruited from November 2010 to June 2011. Structural equation modelling was used to examine relationships. A direct and negative relationship between health-seeking behaviors and depression, and an indirect relationship with acculturative stress, was observed mediated through depression. Social support had an important moderating influence on these effects. Although there was an inverse relationship between age and English language usage and depression, age was positively related to health-seeking behavior. Despite their long duration of stay, Filipino Australian migrants continue to experience acculturative stress and depression leading to lower health-seeking behaviors. This study highlights the importance of screening for acculturative stress and depression in migrants and fostering social support.
A Cluster Analytic Examination of Acculturation and Health Status among Asian Americans in the Washington DC Metropolitan Area, United States
Lee, Sunmin; Chen, Lu; He, Xin; Miller, Matthew J.; Juon, Hee-Soon
Previous studies reported mixed findings on the relationship between acculturation and health status among Asian Americans due to different types of acculturation measures used or different Asian subgroups involved in various studies. We aim to fill the gap by applying multiple measures of acculturation in a diverse sample of Asian subgroups. A cross sectional study was conducted among Chinese, Korean and Vietnamese Americans in Washington D.C. Metropolitan Area to examine the association between health status and acculturation using multiple measures including the Suinn-Lew Asian Self-Identity Acculturation (SL-ASIA) scale, clusters based on responses to SL-ASIA, language preference, length of stay, age at arrival in the United Sates and self-identity. Three clusters (Asian (31%); Bicultural (47%); and American (22%)) were created by using a two-step hierarchical method and Bayesian Information Criterion values. Across all the measures, more acculturated individuals were significantly more likely to report good health than those who were less acculturated after adjusting for covariates. Specifically, those in the American cluster were 3.8 times (95% Confidence Interval (CI): 2.2, 6.6) more likely and those in the Bicultural cluster were 1.7 times more likely (95% CI: 1.1, 2.4) to report good health as compared to those in the Asian cluster. When the conventional standardized SL-ASIA summary score (range: −1.4 to 1.4) was used, a one point increase was associated with 2.2 times greater odds of reporting good health (95% CI: 1.5, 3.2). However, the interpretation may be challenging due to uncertainty surrounding the meaning of a one point increase in SL-ASIA summary score. Among all the measures used, acculturation clusters better approximated the acculturation process and provided us with a more accurate test of the association in the population. Variables included in this measure were more relevant for our study sample and may have worked together to capture the
Path Analysis of Acculturative Stress Components and Their Relationship with Depression Among International Students in China.
Liu, Yang; Chen, Xinguang; Li, Shiyue; Yu, Bin; Wang, Yan; Yan, Hong
Acculturative stress prevents international students from adapting to the host culture, increasing their risk for depression. International students in China are a growing and at-risk population for acculturative stress and depression. With data from the International Student Health and Behaviour Survey (Yu et al., ) in China, seven acculturative stress components were detected in a previous study (Yu et al., ), including a central component (self-confidence), three distal components (value conflict, identity threat and rejection) and three proximal components (poor cultural competence, opportunity deprivation and homesickness). The current study extended the previous study to investigate the relationship between these components and depression with data also from International Student Health and Behaviour Survey. Participants were 567 students (59% male, 40.4% African, mean age = 22.75, SD = 4.11) recruited in Wuhan, China. The sample scored high on the Acculturative Stress Scale for International Students (M = 92.81, SD = 23.93) and Center for Epidemiologic Studies Short Depression Scale (M = 0.97, SD = 0.53). Acculturative stress was positively associated with depression; the association between the three distal stress components and depression was fully mediated through self-confidence, while the three proximal components had a direct effect and a self-confidence-mediated indirect effect. These findings extended the value of the previous study, highlighted the central role of self-confidence in understanding acculturative stress and depression and provided new data supporting more effective counselling for international students in China. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Acculturation, psychological adjustment, and parenting styles of Chinese immigrant mothers in the United States.
Yu, Jing; Cheah, Charissa S L; Calvin, Grace
This study examined whether acculturation to American culture, maintenance of Chinese culture, and their interaction predicted Chinese immigrant parents' psychological adjustment and parenting styles. We hypothesized that American orientation would be associated with more positive psychological well-being and fewer depressive symptoms in immigrant mothers, which in turn would be associated with more authoritative parenting and less authoritarian parenting. The examination of the roles of Chinese orientation and the interaction of the 2 cultural orientations in relation to psychological adjustment and parenting were exploratory. Participants were 164 first-generation Chinese immigrant mothers in the United States (Mage = 37.80). Structural equation modeling was used to examine the direct and indirect effects of acculturation on psychological adjustment and parenting. Bootstrapping technique was used to explore the conditional indirect effects of acculturation on parenting as appropriate. American orientation was strongly associated with positive psychological well-being, which was in turn related to more authoritative parenting and less authoritarian parenting. Moreover, American and Chinese orientations interacted to predict depressive symptoms, which were in turn associated with more authoritarian parenting. Specifically, American orientation was negatively associated with depressive symptoms only at mean or high levels of Chinese orientation. Results suggest acculturation as a distal contextual factor and psychological adjustment as 1 critical mechanism that transmits effects of acculturation to parenting. Promoting immigrant parents' ability and comfort in the new culture independently or in conjunction with encouraging biculturalism through policy intervention efforts appear crucial for the positive adjustment of Chinese immigrant parents and children. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).
Acculturation, Psychological Adjustment, and Parenting Styles of Chinese Immigrant Mothers in the U.S.
Yu, Jing; Cheah, Charissa S. L.; Calvin, Grace
Objectives This study examined whether acculturation to American culture, maintenance of Chinese culture, and their interaction predicted Chinese immigrant parents’ psychological adjustment and parenting styles. We hypothesized that American orientation would be associated with more positive psychological well-being and fewer depressive symptoms in immigrant mothers, which in turn would be associated with more authoritative parenting and less authoritarian parenting. The examination of the roles of Chinese orientation and the interaction of the two cultural orientations in relation to psychological adjustment and parenting were exploratory. Methods Participants were 164 first-generation Chinese immigrant mothers in the U.S. (Mage = 37.80). Structural equation modeling was used to examine the direct and indirect effects of acculturation on psychological adjustment and parenting. Bootstrapping technique was used to explore the conditional indirect effects of acculturation on parenting as appropriate. Results American orientation was strongly associated with positive psychological well-being, which was in turn related to more authoritative parenting and less authoritarian parenting. Moreover, American and Chinese orientations interacted to predict depressive symptoms, which were in turn associated with more authoritarian parenting. Specifically, American orientation was negatively associated with depressive symptoms only at mean or high levels of Chinese orientation. Conclusions Results suggest acculturation as a distal contextual factor and psychological adjustment as one critical mechanism that transmits the effects of acculturation to parenting. Promoting immigrant parents’ ability and comfort in the new culture independently or in conjunction with encouraging biculturalism through policy intervention efforts appear crucial for the positive adjustment of Chinese immigrant parents and children. PMID:27077796
The Role of Physical Activity and Sedentary Behaviors in Explaining the Association Between Acculturation and Obesity Among Mexican-American Adults.
Murillo, Rosenda; Albrecht, Sandra S; Daviglus, Martha L; Kershaw, Kiarri N
We investigated associations of acculturation with various types of activity (moderate-vigorous leisure-time physical activity [LTPA], moderate-vigorous work- and transportation-related physical activity, and sedentary activity), and whether these activities mediated the acculturation-obesity association among Mexican-Americans. Cross-sectional. National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 2007-2010. Mexican-American NHANES participants aged ≥20 years (n = 1902). Demographic characteristics, physical activity, sedentary behavior, acculturation, and body mass index. Multinomial logistic regression was used to estimate associations of acculturation with categories of self-reported activity. Path analysis was used to test whether the activity measures mediated acculturation-obesity associations. In adjusted models, compared to U.S.-born Mexican-Americans, foreign-born Mexican-Americans living in the United States for less than 10 years were significantly less likely to be in the highest LTPA and sedentary activity categories, and more likely to be in the highest total and transportation activity categories. Foreign-born Mexican-Americans living in the United States for 10 years or more were significantly less likely to engage in high sedentary activity but more likely to engage in high transportation activity. Sedentary behavior was the strongest mediator of the acculturation-obesity association, accounting for 40.7% and 57.1% of the total effect of acculturation on obesity among foreign-born Mexican-Americans living in the United States for less than 10 years and for 10 years or more, respectively, compared to U.S.-born Mexican-Americans. Reducing sedentary behavior may lower the negative impact of acculturation on obesity.
Acculturation and adjustment of elderly émigrés from the former Soviet Union: Alife domains perspective
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Ana G. Genkova
Full Text Available Former Soviet émigrés in the United States are on average older than other immigrant groups, with adultsover 65 comprising a large portion of the Russian-speaking population. Despite known risks associated withold-age migration, however, researchers and providers have underestimated adjustment difficulties forRussian-speaking elderly in U.S. These older adults tend to acquire a new culture with difficulty and remainhighly oriented towards their heritage culture. However, limited research examines how acculturation to boththe culture of origin and the host culture contributes to wellbeing for this immigrant group. This studyassesses the adaptive value of host and heritage acculturation across several domains in the lives of olderémigrés from the former Soviet Union resettled in the Baltimore and Washington, DC areas in the UnitedStates. Acculturation level with respect to both host and heritage culture was measured with the Language,Identity, and Behavior Scale (LIB; Birman and Trickett, 2001 and used to predict psychological, family, social,and medical care adjustment outcomes. Results suggest that acculturation to the host or heritage culture hasdifferent functions depending on life domain. Particularly, high American acculturation contributed to betteradjustment in the psychological, family, and social domains. Heritage acculturation was associated withbetter outcomes in the social domain and had mixed effects for psychological adjustment. Theoreticalimplications highlight the importance of evaluating multiple life domains of adapting through a bilinearacculturation model for the understudied population of elderly immigrants.
The roles of acculturative stress and social constraints on psychological distress in Hispanic/Latino and Asian immigrant college students.
Wong, Celia Ching Yee; Correa, Alma; Robinson, Kendall; Lu, Qian
Acculturative stress has been linked to psychological distress, but few studies have explored the moderating role of social constraints on this relationship. Social constraints are the perception that social networks are unsupportive to stressor-related discussions. In the present study, the relationship between acculturative stress and psychological distress in Hispanic/Latino and Asian immigrants and the moderating role of social constraints in this relationship were examined. Participants were 306 college students (169 Hispanics/Latinos, 137 Asians; 33.9% first-generation immigrants, 66.1% second-generation immigrants) from two Texas universities. Correlation results showed that acculturative stress and social constraints were significantly associated with higher levels of psychological distress in Hispanics/Latinos and Asians. In addition, regression results indicated a significant three-way interaction effect among acculturative stress, social constraints, and racial/ethnic groups. Social constraints were found to moderate the relationship between acculturative stress and psychological distress in Asians but not in Hispanics/Latinos. Significant association between acculturative stress and psychological distress was found in Asians with higher levels of social constraints but not in Asians with lower levels of social constraints. These findings suggested that the interaction effect of acculturative stress and social constraints on psychological distress may be subject to cultural influences, and social constraints may have differential roles in Hispanics/Latinos and Asians. Potential implications on the development of culturally adaptive interventions for different racial/ethnic minority groups were discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).
Effects of Assertiveness Training and Expressive Writing on Acculturative Stress in International Students: A Randomized Trial
Tavakoli, Shedeh; Lumley, Mark A.; Hijazi, Alaa M.; Slavin-Spenny, Olga M.; Parris, George P.
International university students often experience acculturative stress, and culturally appropriate techniques to manage stress are needed. This randomized trial tested the effects of group assertiveness training, private expressive writing, their combination, and a wait-list control on the acculturative stress, affect, and health of 118…
The Relationship between Cultural Values and Learning Preference: The Impact of Acculturation Experiences upon East Asians
Globalization and technology advancement are creating more biculturalism at workplaces and learning settings. However, little is known about acculturation experience and its influence on a person's cultural values and learning preference. The research reported in this study investigates the impact of acculturation experiences upon the relationship…
Minority Students' Psychological Adjustment in the School Context: An Integrative Review of Qualitative Research on Acculturation
Makarova, Elena; Birman, Dina
The present study aims at systematically analyzing the findings reported in qualitative research on acculturation and psychological adjustment in the school context. Content analysis was conducted using the deductively developed and inductively enriched system of categories. The results of the study provide insights into youths' acculturation and…
The Role of Identity in Acculturation among Immigrant People: Theoretical Propositions, Empirical Questions, and Applied Recommendations
Schwartz, Seth J.; Montgomery, Marilyn J.; Briones, Ervin
The present paper advances theoretical propositions regarding the relationship between acculturation and identity. The most central thesis argued is that acculturation represents changes in cultural identity and that personal identity has the potential to "anchor" immigrant people during their transition to a new society. The article emphasizes…
The Relationship between Racial Identity and Acculturative Stress among African American Students in Counselor Training Programs
Stewart, Tiffany A.; Owens, Delila; Queener, John E.; Reynolds, Cynthia A.
In this study, we examined racial identity and acculturative stress among 116 African American counselor education graduate students in Council for the Accreditation of Counseling and Related Educational Programs (CACREP) accredited programs. Results indicated that racial identity and acculturative stress remain viable variables to take into…
The Relationship between Mental Health, Acculturative Stress, and Academic Performance in a Latino Middle School Sample
Albeg, Loren J.; Castro-Olivo, Sara M.
This study evaluated the relationship between acculturative stress, symptoms of internalizing mental health problems, and academic performance in a sample of 94 Latino middle school students. Students reported on symptoms indicative of depression and anxiety related problems and acculturative stress. Teachers reported on students' academic…
Parental acculturation level moderates outcome in peer-involved and parent-involved CBT for anxiety disorders in Latino youth.
Vaclavik, Daniella; Buitron, Victor; Rey, Yasmin; Marin, Carla E; Silverman, Wendy K; Pettit, Jeremy W
Cognitive behavioral therapies (CBTs) are efficacious treatments for anxiety disorders in Latino youth. However, there is a gap in knowledge about moderators of CBT outcomes in Latino youth. This study addresses this gap by examining parental acculturation as a moderator of youth anxiety outcomes in a randomized controlled trial of parent-involved CBT (CBT/P) and peer-involved group CBT (GCBT) in 139 Latino youth (ages 6 to 16 years; mean age = 9.68 years). Comparable youth anxiety reduction effects were found for CBT/P and GCBT. Parental acculturation to majority US culture, but not identification with country of origin, significantly moderated youth anxiety outcomes: at low levels of parental acculturation to majority US culture, youth posttreatment anxiety scores were lower in GCBT than CBT/P; at high levels of parental acculturation to majority US culture, youth posttreatment anxiety scores were lower in CBT/P than GCBT. These findings provide further evidence for the efficacy of CBTs for anxiety disorders in Latino youth and also provide guidance for moving toward personalization of CBTs' selection depending on parental acculturation levels.
Acculturation and the prevalence of pain amongst South Asian minority ethnic groups in the UK.
Palmer, B; Macfarlane, G; Afzal, C; Esmail, A; Silman, A; Lunt, M
Musculoskeletal pain is reported more commonly by South Asians in the UK than by white Europeans. This may result from a variety of factors, including cultural differences, and thus we investigated the extent to which differences in the prevalence of pain within the South Asian population could be explained by differences in acculturation (the extent to which immigrants take on the culture of their host population). Nine hundred and thirty-three Europeans and 1914 South Asian (1165 Indian, 401 Pakistani and 348 Bangladeshi) subjects were recruited from the age-sex registers of 13 general practices in areas with high densities of South Asian populations (Bolton, Oldham, Ashton-under-Lyne and Birmingham). A 28-item acculturation scale was developed, based, on aspects including use of language, clothing style, and use of own-culture media. Principle component analysis generated a score (range 0-100), which was validated against constructs expected to relate to acculturation, such as years of full time education and time spent in the UK. The presence of widespread pain was assessed by the answer to the question 'Have you suffered from pain all over the body in the past month?' Widespread pain was more common in all three South Asian ethnic groups than in the white Europeans [odds ratio (OR) = 3.7, 95% confidence interval (CI) 2.9-4.9], with this increase ranging from 2.7 to 5.8 in the different South Asian subgroups. There was a similar increase in consultation rates for pain. Within the South Asians, pooling all three groups, there was a strong negative association between acculturation score and widespread pain, which remained after adjusting for age and sex: [OR (95% CI) per standard deviation decrease in acculturation score -1.2 (1.0-1.3)]. Adjusting for acculturation accounted for some, but not all, of the differences between the ethnic groups in the prevalence of widespread pain: OR 2.0 (95% CI 1.4-3.0). Widespread pain is more commonly reported in South Asians
Hispanic women's health care provider control expectations: the influence of fatalism and acculturation.
Roncancio, Angelica M; Ward, Kristy K; Berenson, Abbey B
In order to understand how culture influences Hispanic women's views about their health care provider (HCP), we examined the relationship between acculturation and fatalism in the HCP control expectations of Hispanic women. (A HCP control expectation is the extent to which an individual believes that her HCP has control over her health.) We predicted that acculturation would be negatively associated with HCP control expectations, and fatalism would be positively associated with HCP control expectations. A group of 1,027 young Hispanic women (mean age 21.24 years; SD=2.46) who were University of Texas Medical Branch clinic patients completed a comprehensive survey. Structural equation modeling was employed and, as predicted, acculturation was negatively associated with HCP control expectations (pexpectations will help us understand this population's perceptions of their HCPs. This knowledge will assist HCPs in providing culturally competent care which will increase adherence to medical treatment and screening guidelines.
The Effects of Familial Acculturative Stress and Hopelessness on Suicidal Ideation by Immigration Status among College Students
Lane, Robert; Miranda, Regina
Objectives: Based on acculturative family distancing theory, we examined whether familial acculturative stress interacted with hopelessness to predict suicidal ideation differentially among emerging adult immigrant versus nonimmigrant college students. Participants: We recruited 152 generationally and racially/ethnically diverse college students…
The Effects of Attachment and Acculturation on Latino College Students' Relationship Satisfaction with a Close Friend
Rodriguez, Adrian; Ratanasiripong, Paul; Hayashino, Diane; Locks, Angela
This study explored the effects of attachment and acculturation on relationship satisfaction for Latino college students in their current close friendships. Results indicated that attachment but not acculturation predicts relationship satisfaction. Women were more satisfied than men with friends of the same and opposite sex. High-quality close…
Suicidal Ideation and Distress among Immigrant Adolescents: The Role of Acculturation, Life Stress, and Social Support
Cho, Yong-Beom; Haslam, Nick
Acculturative stress and social support play important roles in suicide-related phenomena among adolescent immigrants. To examine their contributions, measures of acculturative and general life stress and a measure of multiple sources of social support were used to predict psychological distress and suicidal ideation among Korean-born high school…
Parent-Child Acculturation Discrepancy, Perceived Parental Knowledge, Peer Deviance, and Adolescent Delinquency in Chinese Immigrant Families
Wang, Yijie; Kim, Su Yeong; Anderson, Edward R.; Chen, Angela Chia-Chen; Yan, Ni
Parent-child acculturation discrepancy has been considered a risk factor for child maladjustment. The current study examined parent-child acculturation discrepancy as an ongoing risk factor for delinquency, through the mediating pathway of parental knowledge of the child's daily experiences relating to contact with deviant peers. Participants were…
Acculturation of Iranians in the United States, the United Kingdom, and the Netherlands A Test of the Multidimensional Individual Difference Acculturation (MIDA) Model
Safdar, S.; Struthers, W.; Van Oudenhoven, J.P.
The present study tested the generalizability of a multidimensional individual difference acculturation (MIDA) model in three cultural contexts. The model includes three predictor variables (Psychosocial Resources, Connectedness, and Hassles), predicting three outcome adaptation variables (In-Group
Acculturation and sleep among a multiethnic sample of women: the Study of Women's Health Across the Nation (SWAN).
Hale, Lauren; Troxel, Wendy M; Kravitz, Howard M; Hall, Martica H; Matthews, Karen A
Mexican immigrants to the United States report longer sleep duration and fewer sleep complaints than their US-born counterparts. To investigate whether this effect extends to other immigrant groups, we examined whether the prevalence of self-reported sleep complaints is higher among US-born Hispanic/Latina, Chinese, and Japanese immigrant women compared to their first-generation immigrant ethnic counterparts as well as to US-born whites. We examined whether these associations persisted after adjusting for sociodemographic and health characteristics and whether acculturation mediated the effects. Cross-sectional observational study. Multisite study in Oakland, CA; Los Angeles, CA; and Newark, NJ. Hispanic/Latina (n = 196), Chinese (n = 228), Japanese (n = 271) and non-Hispanic white (n = 485) women (mean age = 46 y, range 42-52 y) participating in the Study of Women's Health Across the Nation (SWAN); 410 or 59.0% of the nonwhites were first-generation immigrants. None. Questionnaires were used to assess sleep complaints, race/ethnicity, immigrant status, language acculturation (use of English language), and sociodemographic and health variables. Approximately 25% of first-generation immigrant women reported sleep complaints compared to 37% of those who were US-born nonwhites and 42% of US-born whites. Multivariable adjusted logistic regression analyses showed that US-born nonwhites had higher odds of reporting any sleep complaints (odds ratio = 2.1, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.5-3.0), compared to first-generation immigrants. Women with higher levels of language acculturation had greater odds of reporting any sleep complaint compared to those with less language acculturation. Adjustment for language acculturation mediated 40.4% (95% CI 28.5-69.8) of the association between immigrant status and any sleep complaint. When results were stratified by race/ethnicity, significant mediation effects of acculturation were only found for Hispanic/Latina and Japanese women
Acculturation, enculturation, and perceptions of mental disorders in Asian Indian immigrants.
Kumar, Asha; Nevid, Jeffrey S
One hundred eighteen Asian Indian immigrants completed questionnaires assessing behavioral acculturation, values enculturation, and perceptions of the psychological and medical determinants of case descriptions of major depression and schizophrenia, as well as treatment-seeking recommendations and stigma associated with treatment seeking. Case vignettes depicted symptoms meeting the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual for Mental Disorders (4th ed., text revision, American Psychiatric Association, 2000) criteria for major depression and schizophrenia. Results revealed that responses to male case vignettes elicited lower levels of endorsement of psychological determinants and higher levels of endorsement of biological determinants in comparison to female case vignettes. Moreover, vignette gender moderated the relationship between behavioral acculturation and perceptions of the psychological basis of the disorders depicted in the vignettes. Both vignette gender and type of disorder moderated the relationship between years in the United States and perceptions of biological determinants. The study findings were consistent with traditional gender ideals among Asian Indians. Moreover, behavioral acculturation appeared to moderate traditional conceptions of masculinity toward greater recognition of the psychological bases of mental disorders. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2010 APA, all rights reserved.
Global contexts, social capital, and acculturative stress: experiences of Indian immigrant men in New York City.
Immigrants depend on within-group social networks for social support during the acculturation process. Within-group social networks are linked to higher mutual concern and reciprocity, lower acculturative stress, and lower depression among immigrants Studies are limited, however, about immigrants' social support in the contexts of global connectedness and transnational connectivity. Grounded in social capital approach and immigrant health framework, this qualitative, community-based study examined the social networks of immigrant men from India to New York City. Drawing upon the participants' narratives, the author illustrates the ways that social capital influences social networking and acculturative stress in post-immigration sociocultural contexts along with its implications for community-based interventions.
Perceived Ethnic Discrimination versus Acculturation Stress: Influences on Substance Use among Latino Youth in the Southwest
Kulis, Stephen; Marsiglia, Flavio Francisco; Nieri, Tanya
Using a predominately Mexican-origin Latino sample of 5th grade students from the Southwestern United States, this study examined the relative effects of perceived discrimination and acculturation stress on substance use, and it assessed whether these effects were moderated by linguistic acculturation or time in the United States. Although rates…
Acculturation, quality of life and work environment of international nurses in a multi-cultural society: A cross-sectional, correlational study.
Goh, Yong-Shian; Lopez, Violeta
The aim is to examine the acculturation level of international nurses working in a multi-cultural society. The relationship between acculturation, working environment and quality of life of international nurses was also explored. A cross-sectional, correlational study using self-report questionnaire was conducted on 814 international nurses using stratified random sampling based on the nationality distribution of international nurses registered with the Singapore Nursing Board. Outcome measures included World Health Organisation Quality of Life-BREF (WHOQOL_BREF) and Practice Environment Scale of the Nursing Work Index-Revised (PES-NWI-R). Data were collected from June to December 2012. There were variations in the acculturation level among different nationality groups of international nurses. Acculturation levels were the lowest among Mainland Chinese international nurses (M=27.47, SD 5.23). A positive correlation was found between acculturation and quality of life whereas a lower perception of work environment was associated with lower acculturation level. Data obtained from this study can be utilized to develop interventions targeted at the unique needs of the international nurses as they migrate. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
The Multidimensional Influence of Acculturation on Digit Symbol-Coding and Wisconsin Card Sorting Test in Hispanics.
Krch, Denise; Lequerica, Anthony; Arango-Lasprilla, Juan Carlos; Rogers, Heather L; DeLuca, John; Chiaravalloti, Nancy D
The purpose of the current study was to evaluate the relative contribution of acculturation to two tests of nonverbal test performance in Hispanics. This study compared 40 Hispanic and 20 non-Hispanic whites on Digit Symbol-Coding (DSC) and the Wisconsin Card Sorting Test (WCST) and evaluated the relative contribution of the various acculturation components to cognitive test performance in the Hispanic group. Hispanics performed significantly worse on DSC and WCST relative to non-Hispanic whites. Multiple regressions conducted within the Hispanic group revealed that language use uniquely accounted for 11.0% of the variance on the DSC, 18.8% of the variance on WCST categories completed, and 13.0% of the variance in perseverative errors on the WCST. Additionally, years of education in the United States uniquely accounted for 14.9% of the variance in DSC. The significant impact of acculturation on DSC and WCST lends support that nonverbal cognitive tests are not necessarily culture free. The differential contribution of acculturation proxies highlights the importance of considering these separate components when interpreting performance on neuropsychological tests in clinical and research settings. Factors, such as the country where education was received, may in fact be more meaningful information than the years of education of education attained. Thus, acculturation should be considered an important factor in any cognitive evaluation of culturally diverse individuals.
Dimensions of Acculturation in Native American College Students
Reynolds, Amy L.; Sodano, Sandro M.; Ecklund, Timothy R.; Guyker, Wendy
Exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses were applied to the responses of two respective independent samples of Native American college students on the Native American Acculturation Scale (NAAS). Three correlated dimensions were found to underlie NAAS items and these dimensions may also comprise a broader higher order dimension of Native…
Acculturation Stress and Depression among Asian Immigrant Elders
Mui, Ada C.; Kang, Suk-Young
This study examines the association between acculturation stress and depressive symptoms in a regional probability sample (n = 407) of six groups of Asian immigrant elders (Chinese, Korean, Indian, Filipino, Vietnamese, and Japanese). Findings suggest that about 40 percent of the sample were depressed, indicating higher depression rates than found…
Discrimination, Stress, and Acculturation among Dominican Immigrant Women
Dawson, Beverly Araujo
Researchers have well established the association between discriminatory experiences, life chances, and mental health outcomes among Latino/as, especially among Mexican Americans. However, few studies have focused on the impact of stress or the moderating effects of low acculturation levels among recent immigrants, such as Dominicans. Using the…
The Role of Ethnicity and Acculturation in Preoperative Distress in Parents of Children Undergoing Surgery.
Stevenson, Robert S; Rosales, Alvina; Fortier, Michelle A; Campos, Belinda; Golianu, Brenda; Zuk, Jeannie; Gold, Jeffrey; Kain, Zeev N
This study examined the effects of acculturation on anxiety and stress in Latino and non-Latino white parents of children undergoing outpatient surgery. Participants included 686 parent-child dyads from four major children's hospitals in the United States. Latino parents who grew up in the U.S. reported higher levels of anxiety (p = 0.009) and stress (p stress compared to both Spanish-speaking Latino and non-Latino white parents (p's stress and anxiety. Results of the current study were consistent with the immigrant health paradox in that more acculturated Latino parents reported higher levels of anxiety and stress than less acculturated Latino and non-Latino white parents, supporting the need for culturally tailored interventions in the perioperative environment.
Trajectories of victimization in ethnic diaspora immigrant and native adolescents: Separating acculturation from development.
Jugert, Philipp; Titzmann, Peter F
This longitudinal study aimed to differentiate between acculturative and developmental processes by (a) comparing levels and change rates in victimization among ethnic German immigrants and native German adolescents in Germany and Russian Jewish immigrants in Israel, and (b) testing whether interindividual differences in victimization among immigrant youth can be explained by the same general factors as in native groups or by migration-specific factors. In addition, we tested whether or not acculturative and developmental processes interact. The sample comprised 1,300 ethnic German immigrants, 820 native German adolescents, and 1,535 Russian Jewish adolescents. The participants (15.36-years-old) completed 3 annual assessments. Two-part latent growth models showed similar levels and rates of change among all 3 ethnic groups. Interindividual differences in victimization were largely explained by the same general factors across all ethnic groups but acculturation-related hassles explained additional variance among immigrant youth. Acculturation and development interacted such that the protective effect of age did not set in until 3-5 years of residence among both immigrant groups. Results suggest that developmental pathways to victimization are very similar among immigrant and native youth once immigrants successfully have managed the phase transition of resettlement. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).
The Influence of Acculturation and Enculturation on Mexican American High School Students' Decision to Apply to College
Castillo, Linda G.; Lopez-Arenas, Araceli; Saldivar, Isaac M.
This study examined the influence of acculturation, enculturation, parental education level, financial concerns, and gender on 106 Mexican American high school students' decisions to apply to college. Results indicated that acculturation and female gender were significant predictors. Implications for interventions with Latino high school students…
Mothers' Acculturation and Beliefs about Emotions, Mother-Child Emotion Discourse, and Children's Emotion Understanding in Latino Families
Perez Rivera, Marie Belle; Dunsmore, Julie C.
Research Findings: We examined associations among Anglo acculturation, Latino enculturation, maternal beliefs, mother-child emotion talk, and emotion understanding in 40 Latino preschool-age children and their mothers. Mothers self-reported Anglo acculturation, Latino enculturation, and beliefs about the value/danger of children's emotions and…
Contextualizing acculturation: gender, family, and community reception influences on Asian immigrant mental health.
Leu, Janxin; Walton, Emily; Takeuchi, David
This article investigates differences in the mental health among male and female immigrants from an ecological perspective, testing the influences of both individual acculturation domains and social contexts. Data from the first nationally representative psychiatric survey of immigrant Asians in the US is used (N = 1,583). These data demonstrate the importance of understanding acculturation domains (e.g., individual differences in English proficiency, ethnic identity, and time in the US), within the social contexts of family, community, and neighborhood. Results demonstrate that among immigrant Asian women, the association between family conflict and mental health problems is stronger for those with higher ethnic identity; among immigrant Asian men, community reception (e.g., everyday discrimination) was more highly associated with increases in mental health symptoms among those with poor English fluency. Findings suggest that both individual domains of acculturation and social context measures contribute to immigrant mental health, and that it is important to consider these relationships within the context of gender.
The sociocultural model of eating disorders in Mexican American women: behavioral acculturation and cognitive marginalization as moderators.
Warren, Cortney S; Castillo, Linda G; Gleaves, David H
White American cultural values of appearance are implicated in the development of body dissatisfaction. This study examined whether the relationships between awareness of White American appearance ideals, internalization of such ideals, and body dissatisfaction are moderated by behavioral acculturation and attitudinal marginalization in a sample of 94 Mexican American women. Results indicated that behavioral acculturation moderated the relationship between awareness and internalization and cognitive marginalization moderated the relationship between internalization and body dissatisfaction. Body size was positively correlated with body dissatisfaction and negatively correlated with behavioral acculturation. These findings have important implications for clinical practice and research with Mexican American women.
Acculturation styles and their associations with psychiatric symptoms and quality of life in ethnic minorities with schizophrenia.
Weisman de Mamani, Amy; Weintraub, Marc J; Maura, Jessica; Martinez de Andino, Ana; Brown, Caitlin A; Gurak, Kayla
This study examined whether Berry's model of acculturative stress would predict psychiatric symptom severity and quality of life (QoL) in ethnic minorities with schizophrenia. Tested extensively in non-psychiatric populations, Berry's framework generally suggests that integration, or engagement with both the host and minority culture, is most adaptive. Using the Abbreviated Multidimensional Acculturation Scale (AMAS), we tested the hypothesis that individuals with schizophrenia who employed an integrative acculturation strategy would have the highest QoL and lowest symptom severity, followed by the assimilation and enculturation groups, then the marginalized group. Psychiatric symptoms and QoL were regressed on AMAS assimilation scores, enculturation scores, and the interaction term in a sample of 128 Hispanic and Blacks with schizophrenia (M age = 41.28; 70% male). Acculturation strategy was not found to relate to psychiatric symptoms (measured from the Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale). However, acculturation strategy did predict QoL (measured from the Quality of Life Inventory), and results were in line with Berry's model. Marginalization may exacerbate issues surrounding social identity in schizophrenia, including low self-concept clarity and internalized stigma. Encouraging bicultural individuals with schizophrenia to interact with the host culture while also practicing traditions from their minority culture may help improve their quality of life. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.
Acculturation and the prevalence of diabetes in US Latino Adults, National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2007-2010.
O'Brien, Matthew J; Alos, Victor A; Davey, Adam; Bueno, Angeli; Whitaker, Robert C
US Latinos are growing at the fastest rate of any racial/ethnic group in the United States and have the highest lifetime risk of diabetes. Acculturation may increase the risk of diabetes among all Latinos, but this hypothesis has not been studied in a nationally representative sample. The objective of this study was to test the hypothesis that acculturation was associated with an increased risk of diabetes in such a sample. We conducted a cross-sectional analysis including 3,165 Latino participants in the 2007-2010 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. Participants with doctor-diagnosed diabetes and participants without diagnosed diabetes who had glycated hemoglobin (HbA1C) values of 6.5% or higher were classified as having diabetes. An acculturation score, ranging from 0 (lowest) to 3 (highest), was calculated by giving 1 point for each of 3 characteristics: being born in the United States, speaking predominantly English, and living in the United States for 20 years or more. Logistic regression was used to determine the association between acculturation and diabetes. The prevalence of diabetes among Latinos in our sample was 12.4%. After adjusting for sociodemographic factors, the likelihood of diabetes (95% confidence interval [CI]) increased with level of acculturation- 1.71 (95% CI, 1.31-2.23), 1.63 (95% CI, 1.11-2.39), and 2.05 (95% CI, 1.27-3.29) for scores of 1, 2, and 3, respectively. This association persisted after further adjustment for body mass index (BMI), total dietary calories, and physical inactivity. Acculturation was associated with a higher risk of diabetes among US Latinos, and this risk was only partly explained by BMI and weight-related behaviors. Future research should examine the bio-behavioral mechanisms that underlie the relationship between acculturation and diabetes in Latinos.
The effect of acculturation and discrimination on mental health symptoms and risk behaviors among adolescent migrants in Israel.
Nakash, Ora; Nagar, Maayan; Shoshani, Anat; Zubida, Hani; Harper, Robin A
This study examines the role of acculturation, perceived discrimination, and self-esteem in predicting the mental health symptoms and risk behaviors among 1.5 and second generation non-Jewish adolescents born to migrant families compared with native-born Jewish Israeli adolescents in Israel. Participants included n = 65 1.5 migrant adolescents, n = 60 second generation migrant adolescents, and n = 146 age, gender, and socioeconomic matched sample of native-born Jewish Israelis. Participants completed measures of acculturation pattern, perceived discrimination, and self-esteem as well as measures of mental health symptoms and risk behaviors. Results show that migrant adolescents across generations reported worse mental health symptoms compared with native-born Jewish Israelis. However, only the 1.5 generation migrants reported higher engagement in risk behaviors compared with second generation migrants and native-born Jewish Israelis. Our findings further showed that acculturation plays an important role in predicting the mental health status of migrant youth, with those characterized with integrated acculturative pattern reporting lower mental health symptoms compared with assimilated acculturation pattern. Importantly, contextual factors, such as higher perception of discrimination in the receiving culture as well as individual factors such as lower self-esteem and female gender were strongly associated with worse mental health symptoms. The findings manifest the complex relationship between contextual factors and individual level variables in the acculturative process of migrants as well as the importance of examining the effect of migration generation on mental health outcomes.
Acculturation and Communicative Mobility Among Former Soviet Nationalities.
Haarmann, Harald; Holman, Eugene
Discusses the strategies that the former Soviet states are evolving to balance the interests of dominant ethnic groups with those of linguistic minorities while constructing a national identity, highlighting language policy in action and focusing on acculturation processes and geographic mobility among groups. A case study of Estonia is also…
The Effect of Perfectionism and Acculturative Stress on Levels of Depression Experienced by East Asian International Students
Hamamura, Toshitaka; Laird, Philip G.
This study examined relationships among acculturative stress, grade point average satisfaction, maladaptive perfectionism, and depression in 52 East Asian international students and 126 North American students. Results indicated that a combined effect of perfectionism and acculturative stress accounted for more than 30% of the variance related to…
Acculturation, Income and Vegetable Consumption Behaviors Among Latino Adults in the U.S.: A Mediation Analysis with the Bootstrapping Technique.
López, Erick B; Yamashita, Takashi
This study examined whether household income mediates the relationship between acculturation and vegetable consumption among Latino adults in the U.S. Data from the 2009 to 2010 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey were analyzed. Vegetable consumption index was created based on the frequencies of five kinds of vegetables intake. Acculturation was measured with the degree of English language use at home. Path model with bootstrapping technique was employed for mediation analysis. A significant partial mediation relationship was identified. Greater acculturation [95 % bias corrected bootstrap confident interval (BCBCI) = (0.02, 0.33)] was associated with the higher income and in turn, greater vegetable consumption. At the same time, greater acculturation was associated with lower vegetable consumption [95 % BCBCI = (-0.88, -0.07)]. Findings regarding the income as a mediator of the acculturation-dietary behavior relationship inform unique intervention programs and policy changes to address health disparities by race/ethnicity.
The relationship between acculturation and knowledge of health harms and benefits associated with smoking in the Latino population of Minnesota.
Constantine, Melissa L; Rockwood, Todd H; Schillo, Barbara A; Castellanos, Jose William; Foldes, Steven S; Saul, Jessie E
This study sought to examine the relationship between acculturation and the knowledge of smoking and health and perception of benefits associated with smoking within the Latino population of Minnesota. In addition to standard acculturation measures, this study employed a multidimensional model and measures of acculturation. A telephone and in-person administered survey was conducted across the state of Minnesota with Latino men and women. A total of 804 participants completed the survey, 54% were men. The average age of respondents was 37 years; 81% were foreign born and 68% completed the interview in Spanish. Knowledge of the relationship between smoking and lung cancer (99%) and heart disease (93%) was high. Acculturated respondents indicate a more refined knowledge of the relationship between smoking and health conditions not related to smoking (poor vision and arthritis). Smokers identify more benefits associated with smoking than do non-smokers, with gender (male), education (less than high school) and greater acculturation being significant predictors of perceiving benefits.
The relationships among acculturation, biobehavioral risk, stress, corticotropin-releasing hormone, and poor birth outcomes in Hispanic women.
Ruiz, R Jeanne; Dolbier, Christyn L; Fleschler, Robin
To determine the predictive ability of acculturation as an antecedent of stress, biobehavioral risk, corticotropin-releasing hormone levels, and poor birth outcomes in pregnant Hispanic women. A prospective, observational design with data collected at 22-25 weeks of gestation and at birth through medical record review. Public prenatal health clinics in south Texas serving low-income women. Self-identified Hispanic women who had singleton pregnancies, no major medical risk complications, and consented to answer questionnaires as well as a venipuncture and review of their prenatal and birth medical records. Gestational age, Apgar scores, length, weight, percentile size, and head circumference of the infant at birth. Significant differences were seen in infant birth weight, head circumference, and percentile size by acculturation. English acculturation predicted stress, corticotropin-releasing hormone, biobehavioral risk, and decreased gestational age at birth. Investigation must continue to understand the circumstances that give rise to the decline in birth outcomes observed in Hispanics with acculturation to the dominant English culture in the United States.
Ethnic Differences in Sexual Attitudes of U.S. College Students: Gender, Acculturation, and Religiosity Factors
Ahrold, Tierney K.
Although it has been hypothesized that culture and religion play an important role in sexuality, the relative roles of acculturation and religiosity on ethnic differences in sexual attitudes have not been often empirically explored. The present study assessed differences in sexual attitudes in Euro-American, Asian, and Hispanic American populations using measures of acculturation to analyze the relative effects of heritage and mainstream cultures, as well as religiosity, within each ethnic group. A total of 1,415 college students (67% Euro-American, 16% Hispanic, 17% Asian; 32% men, 68% women) completed questionnaires which assessed attitudes towards homosexuality, gender role traditionality, casual sex, and extramarital sex. In concordance with previous studies, Asians reported more conservative sexual attitudes than did their Hispanic and Euro-American peers. Hispanics reported sexual attitudes similar to that of Euro-Americans. For both Hispanic and Asians, higher acculturation predicted sexual attitudes similar to that of Euro-Americans. For Asian, Hispanic, and Euro-American women, there was a significant interaction between intrinsic religiosity and spirituality such that the relationship between conservativism of sexual attitudes and intrinsic religiosity was stronger at higher levels of spirituality. In Euro-Americans and Asians, intrinsic religiosity and religious fundamentalism strongly predicted conservative sexual attitudes; while still significant, these relationships were not as pronounced in the Hispanic sample, implying an ethnic-by-religious effect. Novel to this study, acculturation did not mediate the relationship between religiosity and sexual attitudes, indicating that ethnic differences in religiosity effects were distinct from acculturation. PMID:18839302
Acculturation in the adaptation of Chinese-American women to breast cancer: a mixed-method approach.
Tsai, Tzu-I; Morisky, Donald E; Kagawa-Singer, Marjorie; Ashing-Giwa, Kimlin T
To explore how and to what extent acculturation and immigration affect Chinese-American immigrant women's breast cancer experience. Acculturation is an important indicator for immigrant health. Less empirical research has been conducted on the association between acculturation and breast cancer experience among Chinese immigrant women in the USA. A mixed methods study. A total of 107 Chinese-American women with breast cancer completed the structured questionnaire survey, and 16 women completed face-to-face in-depth interviews. In the quantitative findings, acculturation was related to health beliefs, social support and life stress. Cultural interpretations of the qualitative information are offered to show that breast cancer experience was intertwined with cultural adaptation in a given immigrant environment. Chinese cultural beliefs persistently, even after years of immigration, guide Chinese-American immigrant women to respond to breast cancer across the meaning of health and illness, family ties and involvement and social interaction. Our findings show that acculturation is related to health beliefs, social support and life stress in the trajectory of breast cancer adaptation among Chinese-American immigrant women. Life stresses derived from immigration bring additional difficulties for immigrant women living with cancer. This study pinpoints that traditional cultural beliefs and immigration stress may influence Chinese-American women to cope with breast cancer. To promote culturally sensitive cancer care for immigrants, healthcare professionals should be aware of and learn intercultural competence. Ethnic social support or outreach healthcare programme may benefit new immigrant families or the immigrant families, who lack social connection, to cope with cancer. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.
Lack of acculturation is a risk factor for diabetes in arab immigrants in the US.
Jaber, Linda A; Brown, Morton B; Hammad, Adnan; Zhu, Qian; Herman, William H
To examine the relationship between dysglycemia (impaired fasting glucose, impaired glucose tolerance, and diabetes) and acculturation, physical activity, and perceived stress in Arab immigrants in the U.S. In a cross-sectional population-based study, we examined 520 Arab Americans, aged 20-75 years, who were born in the Middle East and immigrated to southeastern Michigan. Dysglycemia was assessed by history and with a 2-h 75-g oral glucose tolerance test. Acculturation, physical activity, and perceived stress were measured with standardized questionnaires. Associations were found between dysglycemia in men and older age at immigration, unemployment, speaking Arabic with friends, being less active in Arabic organizations, more frequent consumption of Arabic food, and less integration into American society. Dysglycemia in women was associated with being raised in rural areas of the Middle East, older age at immigration, longer length of stay in the U.S., not being employed outside the home, less than high school education, not attending Arabic or American schools, and not being able to read Arabic. Among men, older age at immigration, shorter length of stay in the U.S., less activity in Arab organizations, and eating Arabic food were associated with dysglycemia independent of age and BMI. Among women, acculturation was very low and was confounded with age and BMI as powerful risk factors for dysglycemia. No association was found between physical activity, perceived stress, and the risk of dysglycemia in either sex. Lack of acculturation is an important risk factor for dysglycemia in immigrant Arab Americans. Intervention programs aimed at diabetes prevention should consider the acculturation process.
Explicating Acculturation Strategies among Asian American Youth: Subtypes and Correlates across Filipino and Korean Americans.
Choi, Yoonsun; Park, Michael; Lee, Jeanette Park; Yasui, Miwa; Kim, Tae Yeun
Acculturation strategy, a varying combination of heritage and mainstream cultural orientations and one of the significant determinants of youth development, has been understudied with Asian American youth and particularly at a subgroup-specific level. This study used person-oriented latent profile analysis (LPA) to identify acculturation strategy subtypes among Filipino American and Korean American adolescents living in the Midwest. Associations between the subtypes and numerous correlates including demographics, family process and youth outcomes were also examined. Using large scale survey data (N = 1580; 379 Filipino American youth and 377 parents, and 410 Korean American youth and 414 parents; M AGE of youth = 15.01), the study found three acculturation subtypes for Filipino American youth: High Assimilation with Ethnic Identity, Integrated Bicultural with Strongest Ethnic Identity, and Modest Bicultural with Strong Ethnic Identity; and three acculturation subtypes for Korean American youth: Separation, Integrated Bicultural, and Modest Bicultural with Strong Ethnic Identity. Both Filipino American and Korean American youth exhibited immersion in the host culture while retaining a strong heritage identity. Although bicultural strategies appear most favorable, the results varied by gender and ethnicity, e.g., integrated bicultural Filipino Americans, comprised of more girls, might do well at school but were at risk of poor mental health. Korean American separation, comprised of more boys, demonstrated a small but significant risk in family process and substance use behaviors that merits in-depth examination. The findings deepen the understanding of heterogeneous acculturation strategies among Asian American youth and provide implications for future research.
Obesity Risk in Children: The Role of Acculturation in the Feeding Practices and Styles of Low-Income Hispanic Families.
Power, Thomas G; O'Connor, Teresia M; Orlet Fisher, Jennifer; Hughes, Sheryl O
Parent feeding has been associated with child overweight/obesity in low-income families. Because acculturation to the United States has been associated with increased adult obesity, our study aim was to determine whether acculturation was associated with feeding in these populations. Low-income Hispanic mothers of preschoolers were recruited to participate in a longitudinal study examining child eating behaviors. At baseline, mothers completed questionnaires on feeding styles, feeding practices, and acculturation. Regression analyses compared feeding styles and food parenting practices of first-generation, immigrant mothers born outside the United States (n = 138) and mothers born in the United States (n = 31). The correlates of acculturation with these same constructs were also examined. Immigrant mothers reported using highly directive food parenting practices more often than mothers born in the United States, including pressuring their child to consume more food, using food as a reward, and controlling child food intake by limiting less-healthy foods. First-generation mothers were more likely to show authoritarian, and less likely to show indulgent, feeding styles. Greater maternal acculturation was associated with less restriction of food for weight reasons. Although first-generation, immigrant mothers reported using highly controlling food parenting practices with their children, those born in the United States were more indulgent with their children in the feeding context. Mechanisms that promote greater indulgence in more-acculturated mothers need to be identified.
A Longitudinal Study of Social Capital and Acculturation-Related Stress among Recent Latino Immigrants in South Florida
Concha, Maritza; Sanchez, Mariana; de la Rosa, Mario; Villar, María Elena
This study uses social capital to assess the effects of social support on acculturation-related stress among recently immigrated Hispanics in South Florida before and after immigration. At baseline ("N" = 527), first 12 months in the United States, acculturative stress was negatively related to support from friends ("p" <…
Beyond unequal access: Acculturation, race, and resistance to pharmaceuticalization in the United States
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Full Text Available Trends toward pharmaceuticalization in Western countries have led to increased research and theorizing about the roles macro-level institutions, structures, and collective actors play in contributing to patients’ reliance on prescription drugs. Relatively less work has focused on the degree to which patients resist pharmaceuticalization pressures, and even less research has explored the factors contributing to patients’ resistance to pharmaceuticalization. Drawing on focus groups with patients who had been recently prescribed a prescription drug, this paper investigates how marginalization in the mainstream US society, as measured by acculturation and race, contributes to differences in patients’ subjective experiences and responses to prescription drugs. We find that racial minorities report a greater skepticism of prescription drugs compared to whites and express that they turn to prescription drugs as a last resort. While highly acculturated participants rarely discuss alternatives to prescription drugs, less acculturated racial minorities indicate a preference for complementary and alternative remedies. We draw on the literatures on the pharmaceuticalization of society and the social nature of medicine to examine the role marginalization plays in patients’ views of prescription drugs. Public health research conceives of racial minorities’ lower rates of prescription drug usage compared to whites as primarily a problem of lack of access. Our results suggest another piece to the puzzle: minorities resist pharmaceuticalization pressures to express their cultural and racial identities. Keywords: Medical sociology, Prescription drugs, Race, Acculturation
A meta-ethnography of the acculturation and socialization experiences of migrant care workers.
Ho, Ken H M; Chiang, Vico C L
To report a meta-ethnography of qualitative research studies exploring the acculturation and socialization experiences of migrant care workers. Migrant care workers are increasingly participating in health and social care in developed countries. There is a need to understand this increasingly socioculturally diversified workforce. A comprehensive search through 12 databases and a manual search of journals related to transculture for studies on socialization and acculturation experiences (published 1993-2013) was completed. The inclusion criteria were peer-reviewed studies on the acculturation or socialization experiences of migrant care workers published in English in any country, using a qualitative or mixed-methods approach. This meta-ethnography employed the seven-phase Noblit and Hare method with reciprocal translation, refutational synthesis and lines-of-argument to synthesize qualitative studies. Three main themes were identified: (a) schema for the migration dream: optimism; (b) the reality of the migration dream: so close, yet so far; and (c) resilience: from chaos to order. A general framework of motivated psychosocial and behavioural adaptation was proposed. This meta-ethnography also revealed the vulnerabilities of migrant nurses in the process of acculturation and socialization. The general framework of behavioural and psychosocial adaptation revealed factors that impede and facilitate behavioural and psychosocial changes. Strategies to enrich external and internal resources should be targeted at encouraging multiculturalism and at improving the psychosocial resources of migrant care workers. It is suggested that research investigating the prominence of nursing vulnerabilities be conducted. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Role of Age and Acculturation in Diet Quality Among Mexican Americans - Findings From the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 1999-2012.
Yoshida, Yilin; Scribner, Richard; Chen, Liwei; Broyles, Stephanie; Phillippi, Stephen; Tseng, Tung-Sung
Age and acculturation may play a role in diet quality among Mexican Americans. This study examined diet quality in Mexican Americans by age and whether acculturation influences diet quality across different age groups, using data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES). Diet quality, measured by the Healthy Eating Index 2010, improved with age except in categories of dairy, sodium, and refined grains. More acculturation was associated with lower scores in overall diet quality and categories of vegetables, fruits, and sodium and empty calories across almost all ages, but higher scores in grain categories, especially in younger groups. A diet rich in fruits and vegetables but low in fat and sodium should be promoted among more acculturated Mexican Americans, and whole-grain foods should be promoted among young but less acculturated Mexican Americans.
The influence of acculturation strategies in quality of life by immigrants in Northern Chile.
Urzúa, Alfonso; Ferrer, Rodrigo; Canales Gaete, Valentina; Núñez Aragón, Dominique; Ravanal Labraña, Ivanna; Tabilo Poblete, Bárbara
To establish the influence of acculturation strategies on quality of life, henceforth QoL. Using a cross-sectional design, two questionnaires were applied, the WHOQoL-BREF from the World Health Organization and Basabe's acculturation strategies. The questionnaires were applied to 853 Colombian and Peruvian immigrants living in Northern Chilean cities of Arica, Antofagasta and Santiago de Chile. In the psychological and social domains, as well as in the overall assessment of QoL, the most beneficial strategies are those where customs are maintained from the homeland, where "integration" then "separation" are the most beneficial. On the contrary, when the strategy for maintaining homeland customs is low, the QoL tends to be lower. The strategy of "marginalized" is associated with a lower QoL. Acculturation strategies mildly or moderately affect the psychological and social domains of quality of life as well as the overall assessment of QoL.
The influence of maternal acculturation on child body mass index at age 24 months.
Sussner, Katarina M; Lindsay, Ana C; Peterson, Karen E
Obesity rates in preschool-aged children are greatest among Latinos. Studies of the relationship of acculturation to obesity among Latino immigrants have primarily focused on adults and adolescents. We examined the influence of maternal acculturation on child body mass index (BMI) at age 24 and 36 months among predominantly Latino, low-income mother-child pairs enrolled in the Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants, and Children. Maternal characteristics were obtained from interviewer-administered surveys conducted in English or Spanish at 6 to 20 weeks postpartum among 679 participants in a randomized controlled trial of a health promotion intervention in two urban areas in the Northeast. Acculturation measures included: nativity (born in the United States vs foreign born), parents' nativity, years of US residence ( or =8 years), and exclusive use of native language vs nonexclusive use (mixed or English only). Following repeated mailings and telephone calls requesting permission to obtain their child's height and weight from Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants, and Children records, informed consent was obtained from 108 mothers. Multivariable linear regression models of maternal acculturation and child BMI z score at age 24 months and age 36 months were estimated among all mother-child pairs and within immigrant-only mother-child pairs, adjusting for relevant maternal characteristics. At age 24 months, children of mothers with exclusive use of native language had higher BMI z scores compared to children of mothers with nonexclusive use among 91 mother-child pairs (beta=.74, P=0.02) and within 63 immigrant-only mother-child pairs (beta=.92, P=0.009). Exclusive use of native language was associated with greater BMI in children as young as age 24 months. Future research should examine the mechanisms by which mothers' language acculturation may affect proximal determinants of energy balance in preschool children, including
Acculturation, Gender, Depression, and Cigarette Smoking among U.S. Hispanic Youth: The Mediating Role of Perceived Discrimination
Lorenzo-Blanco, Elma I.; Unger, Jennifer B.; Ritt-Olson, Anamara; Soto, Daniel; Baezconde-Garbanati, Lourdes
Hispanic youth are at risk for experiencing depressive symptoms and smoking cigarettes, and risk for depressive symptoms and cigarette use increase as Hispanic youth acculturate to U.S. culture. The mechanism by which acculturation leads to symptoms of depression and cigarette smoking is not well understood. The present study examined whether…
Obstetric care quality indicators and outcomes based on the degree of acculturation of immigrants-results from a cross-sectional study in Berlin.
David, Matthias; Borde, Theda; Brenne, Silke; Ramsauer, Babett; Hinkson, Larry; Henrich, Wolfgang; Razum, Oliver; Breckenkamp, Jürgen
Acculturation is a complex, multidimensional process involving the integration of the traditional norms, values, and lifestyles of a new cultural environment. It is, however, unclear what impact the degree of acculturation has on obstetric outcomes. Data collection was performed in 2011 and 2012 at three obstetric tertiary centers in Berlin, Germany. Standardized interviews (20-30 min.) were performed with support of evaluated questionnaires. The primary collected data were then linked to the perinatal data recorded at the individual clinics provided from the obstetric centers which correspond with the routinely centralized data collected for quality assurance throughout Germany. The questionnaire included questions on sociodemographic, health care, and migrant-related aspects. Migrant women and women with a migration background were assessed using the Frankfurt Acculturation Scale, a one-dimensional measurement tool to assess the degree of acculturation (15 items on language and media usage as well as integration into social networks). In summary, 7100 women were available for the survey (response rate of 89.6%) of which 3765 (53%) had a migration background. The probability of low acculturation is significantly (p relationships between the degree of acculturation and obstetric parameters show no significant differences for prematurity, 5 min.-Apgar values > 7, arterial umbilical cord pH values > 7.00 and admissions to the neonatal unit. In Berlin, among migrant women a low degree of acculturation may have an unfavorable effect on the utilization of pregnancy care provision. However, there were no relevant differences in obstetric outcome parameters in relation to the degree of acculturation within the migrant population of Berlin.
Latin-American and Chinese students coping with acculturation stress
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N M Lykova
Full Text Available The article describes the results of the research of coping styles of Latin-American and Chinese students from Peoples' Friendship University of Russia in conditions of acculturation stress, in comparison with coping styles of Chinese students who study in their homeland.
Rural-to-Urban Migration: Socioeconomic Status But Not Acculturation was Associated with Overweight/Obesity Risk.
Hilmers, A; Bernabé-Ortiz, A; Gilman, RH; McDermott, AY; Smeeth, L; Miranda, JJ
: To investigate whether socioeconomic status (SES) and acculturation predict overweight/obesity risk as well as the mediating effect of physical activity (PA) in the context of internal migration. Cross-sectional study of 587 rural-to-urban migrants participating in the PERU MIGRANT study. Analyses were conducted using logistic regression and structured equation modeling. Interaction effects of SES and acculturation were tested. Models were controlled for age, gender and education. Only SES ...
Art Therapy and Experiences of Acculturation and Immigration
Linesch, Debra; Ojeda, Angelica; Fuster, Maria Elena; Moreno, Stephanie; Solis, Guadalupe
This article describes an expanded case study methodology that was used to explore the value that art therapy processes have in expression and understanding of the complications of immigration and acculturation. Data collected from two art therapy groups of Hispanic/Latino youth and immigrant women at an urban parish were analyzed to develop an…
Acculturation Models of Immigrant Soviet Adolescents in Israel
Shamai, Shmuel; Ilatov, Zinaida
This study probed acculturation in Israel of immigrant students from the former USSR from the perception of the host society and the students. The finding from a questionnaire distributed to Israeli-born and immigrant students indicated that most but not all of the Israel-born students applied an assimilatory model while the immigrants were split…
A prospective study of social difficulties, acculturation and persistent depression in Pakistani women living in the UK.
Chaudhry, N; Husain, N; Tomenson, B; Creed, F
The reasons for the high prevalence of depressive disorders in women of Pakistani origin living in the UK are not clear. The aim of this study was to determine the relative importance of life events, chronic social difficulties and acculturation in a population-based sample of British Pakistani women. A cross-sectional and prospective cohort study of 18- to 65-year-old Pakistani women in UK was carried out. The Schedule for Clinical Assessment in Neuropsychiatry for diagnosis, the Life Events and Difficulties Schedule for social stress and an acculturation questionnaire were used. Depressive disorder at baseline was associated with older age, social isolation and marked difficulties involving health and close relationships. Depressive disorder at follow-up was associated with severity of depression at baseline, difficulties in close relationships and two aspects of acculturation, especially less acculturation in relation to use of the English language. Lack of acculturation, especially less familiarity with the English language, is an independent predictor of persistence of depression in Pakistani women in UK. This needs to be taken into consideration when planning treatment, which also needs to address the personal difficulties associated with persistent depression. The implication of this work is that women of Pakistani origin with depression should be encouraged to receive help in the use of English as one part of treatment that may prevent relapse.
Health locus of control, acculturation, and health-related Internet use among Latinas.
Roncancio, Angelica M; Berenson, Abbey B; Rahman, Mahbubur
Among individuals residing in the United States, the Internet is the third most used source for obtaining health information. Little is known, however, about its use by Latinas. To understand health-related Internet use among Latinas, the authors examined it within the theoretical frameworks of health locus of control and acculturation. The authors predicted that acculturation would serve as a mediator between health locus of control and health-related Internet use, age and health-related Internet use, income and health-related Internet use, and education and health-related Internet use. Data were collected via a 25-minute self-report questionnaire. The sample consisted of 932 young (M age = 21.27 years), low-income Latinas. Using structural equation modeling, the authors observed that acculturation partially mediated the relation between health locus of control and health-related Internet use and fully mediated the relations among age, income, and Internet use. An internal health locus of control (p income (p Internet use. The Internet is a powerful tool that can be used to effectively disseminate information to Latinas with limited access to health care professionals. These findings can inform the design of Internet-based health information dissemination studies targeting Latinas.
Mexican American adolescent couples' vulnerability for observed negativity and physical violence: Pregnancy and acculturation mismatch.
Williams, Lela Rankin; Rueda, Heidi Adams
Stress and vulnerability for dating violence may be heightened among acculturating Mexican American (MA) adolescents, and MA adolescent parents, because of differing cultural values and norms within romantic relationships. We hypothesized, in a sample of MA heterosexual couples (N = 30, 15-17 years), that: 1) within-couple level acculturation discrepancies, and pregnancy/parenting, would predict physical violence perpetration, and 2) that this association would have an indirect effect through couple-level negativity during an observed dyadic video-taped discussion of conflict. Using a path model we found that pregnant/parenting adolescents (B = .37, SE = .16, p = .002), and couples with greater acculturation mismatch resulted in greater couple negativity (B = .16, SE = .06, p = .01), which was associated with self-reported physical violence perpetration (B = .41, SE = .22, p = .02; indirect effect, B = .15, SE = .07, p = .03). Within-couple acculturation discrepancies and pregnancy/parenting may be a pathway to dating violence through poor communication skills around conflict for MA youth. Support services that strengthen communication skills, particularly for pregnant/parenting couples, are recommended. Copyright © 2016 The Foundation for Professionals in Services for Adolescents. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
The Role of Religion and Acculturation in the Consumer Ethnocentrism of Turkish Immigrants in Germany
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Full Text Available Researchers have invested much effort in the understanding of acculturation-relevant factors that influence immigrants’ psychological and socio-cultural adaptation. Factors that might have an impact on immigrants’ product consumption decisions have comparatively received scarce attention by acculturation and marketing researchers. Immigrants show different product consumption patterns and therefore constitute big consumer groups that can have an impact on both the economy of immigrants’ culture of origin and the host society. The present study investigated Turkish immigrants’ product consumption ethnocentrism. The sample consisted of 599 youth and adult Turkish in Germany drawn from Cologne, the city with the highest ratio of Turkish people in the country. The study sample represented a very similar demographic make-up of the Turkish people in Cologne. The associations between acculturation strategies, loyalty to religion, and product consumption ethnocentrism were quantitatively analyzed based on a field survey. Research findings indicated that participants in the acculturation mode of separation scored significantly higher for consumer ethnocentrism than those showing other orientations, and those with an assimilation orientation scored the least for consumer ethnocentrism. Among the three religiosity dimensions (behavioral, emotional, cognitive investigated in the present study, analyses controlling for a range of socio-demographic variables revealed a positive relationship between the behavior dimension of religiosity and consumer ethnocentrism.
The impact of acculturation and religious identification on perceived discrimination for Arab/Middle Eastern Americans.
Awad, Germine H
The aim of the current study was to determine the impact of acculturation, ethnic identity, and religious affiliation on perceived discrimination for persons of Arab and Middle Eastern descent. Two aspects of acculturation (ethnic society immersion and dominant society immersion), religious affiliation, and ethnic identity were measured using a final sample of 177 individuals of Arab or Middle Eastern descent. Results indicated that Arab/Middle Eastern Americans who reported lower levels of dominant society immersion tended to report higher levels of discrimination. Furthermore, Muslims reported a higher level of discrimination than Christians but this finding was moderated by level of acculturation. Specifically, Muslims who reported a high level of dominant society immersion experienced the most discrimination, whereas Christians who reported a high level of dominant society immersion reported less discrimination. Study implications are discussed. (c) 2009 APA, all rights reserved.
Acculturative stress and experiential avoidance: relations to depression, suicide, and anxiety symptoms among minority college students.
Zvolensky, Michael J; Jardin, Charles; Garey, Lorra; Robles, Zuzuky; Sharp, Carla
Although college campuses represent strategic locations to address mental health disparity among minorities in the US, there has been strikingly little empirical work on risk processes for anxiety/depression among this population. The present investigation examined the interactive effects of acculturative stress and experiential avoidance in relation to anxiety and depressive symptoms among minority college students (n = 1,095; 78.1% female; Mage = 21.92, SD = 4.23; 15.1% African-American (non-Hispanic), 45.3% Hispanic, 32.5% Asian, and 7.1% other races/ethnicities. Results provided empirical evidence of an interaction between acculturative stress and experiential avoidance for suicidal, social anxiety, and anxious arousal symptoms among the studied sample. Inspection of the significant interactions revealed that acculturative stress was related to greater levels of suicidal symptoms, social anxiety, and anxious arousal among minority college students with higher, but not lower, levels of experiential avoidance. However, in contrast to prediction, there was no significant interaction for depressive symptoms. Together, these data provide novel empirical evidence for the clinically-relevant interplay between acculturative stress and experiential avoidance in regard to a relatively wide array of negative emotional states among minority college students.
Acculturation and changes in body mass index, waist circumference, and waist-hip ratio among Filipino Americans with hypertension.
Serafica, Reimund; Angosta, Alona D
The purpose of this research study was to examine whether level of acculturation is a predictor of body mass index, waist circumference, and waist-hip ratio in Filipino Americans with hypertension in the United States. The Filipino Americans (N = 108) were recruited from a primary care clinic in the United States. Two instruments were used to collect and operationalize the variables, specifically: (1) Socioeconomic/Demographic Questionnaire and (2) A Short Acculturation Scale for Filipino Americans. Descriptive statistics and partial least squares were used to calculate the results. The partial least square path model identified acculturation as a predictor of body mass index, wait circumference, and waist-hip ratio among Filipino Americans. The positive path coefficient (β = 0.384) was statistically significant (t = 5.92, P stress the importance of the degree of acculturation when developing culturally appropriate lifestyle and health promotion interventions among immigrant patients with hypertension. Copyright © 2016 American Society of Hypertension. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Acculturation Conflict, Cultural Parenting Self-Efficacy, and Perceived Parenting Competence in Asian American and Latino/a Families.
Kiang, Lisa; Glatz, Terese; Buchanan, Christy M
Parents from immigrant backgrounds must deal with normative parenting demands as well as unique challenges associated with acculturation processes. The current study examines the independent and interactive influences of acculturation conflict and cultural parenting self-efficacy (PSE; e.g., parents' confidence in instilling heritage, American, and bicultural values in their children) on perceptions of general parenting competence. Using data from 58 Asian American and 153 Latin American parents of children in grades 6-12, ethnic differences were also explored. Results suggest that lower acculturation conflict is associated with higher perceptions of general parenting competence for both Asian and Latin American parents. Higher cultural PSE is associated with higher perceived general parenting competence for Latino/a parents only. One significant interaction was found, and only for Asian Americans, whereby the negative association between acculturation conflict and perceptions of parenting competence was weaker for those who felt efficacious in transmitting heritage messages. Results are discussed in light of clinical implications and the need for further recognition and study of culturally relevant factors and frameworks among families from immigrant backgrounds. © 2016 Family Process Institute.
Acculturation and drug addiction stigma among Latinos and African Americans: An examination of a church-based sample
Flórez, Karen R.; Derose, Kathryn Pitkin; Breslau, Joshua; Griffin, Beth Ann; Haas, Ann C.; Kanouse, David E.; Stucky, Brian D.; Williams, Malcolm V.
Background Substance use patterns among Latinos likely reflect changes in attitudes resulting from acculturation, but little is known about Latinos’ attitudes regarding drug addiction. Methods We surveyed a church-based sample of Latinos and African Americans (N=1,235) about attitudes toward drug addiction and socio-demographics. Linear regression models compared Latino subgroups with African-Americans. Results In adjusted models, Latinos had significantly higher drug addiction stigma scores compared to African Americans across all subgroups (U.S.-born Latinos, β = 0.22, pdrug addiction stigma decreases with acculturation, but remains higher among the most acculturated Latinos compared to African-Americans. These attitudes may pose a barrier to treatment for Latino drug users. PMID:25612923
Survey Response Styles, Acculturation, and Culture Among a Sample of Mexican American Adults.
Davis, Rachel E; Resnicow, Ken; Couper, Mick P
A number of studies have investigated use of extreme (ERS) and acquiescent (ARS) response styles across cultural groups. However, due to within-group heterogeneity, it is important to also examine use of response styles, acculturation, and endorsement of cultural variables at the individual level. This study explores relationships between acculturation, six Mexican cultural factors, ERS, and ARS among a sample of 288 Mexican American telephone survey respondents. Three aspects of acculturation were assessed: Spanish use, the importance of preserving Mexican culture, and interaction with Mexican Americans versus Anglos. These variables were hypothesized to positively associate with ERS and ARS. Participants with higher Spanish use did utilize more ERS and ARS; however, value for preserving Mexican culture and interaction with Mexican Americans were not associated with response style use. In analyses of cultural factors, endorsement of familismo and simpatia were related to more frequent ERS and ARS, machismo was associated with lower ERS among men, and la mujer was related to higher ERS among women. Caballerismo was marginally associated with utilization of ERS among men. No association was found between la mujer abnegada and ERS among women. Relationships between male gender roles and ARS were nonsignificant. Relationships between female gender roles and ARS were mixed but trended in the positive direction. Overall, these findings suggest that Mexican American respondents vary in their use of response styles by acculturation and cultural factors. This usage may be specifically influenced by participants' valuing of and engagement with constructs directly associated with social behavior.
Pain among older Hispanics in the United States: is acculturation associated with pain?
Jimenez, Nathalia; Dansie, Elizabeth; Buchwald, Dedra; Goldberg, Jack
Previous studies suggest that acculturation may influence the experience of pain. We conducted a cross-sectional study to estimate the association between acculturation and the prevalence, intensity, and functional limitations of pain in older Hispanic adults in the United States. Participants were English- (HE) and Spanish-speaking (HS) Hispanic and non-Hispanic White (NHW) individuals aged 50 years and older who were interviewed for the Health and Retirement Study during 1998-2008. We measured: 1) acculturation as defined by language used in interviews, and 2) the presence, intensity, and functional limitations of pain. We applied logistic regression using generalized estimating equations, with NHW as the reference category. Among 18,593 participants (16,733 NHW, 824 HE, and 1,036 HS), HS had the highest prevalence (odds ratio [OR] = 1.3; 95% confidence interval [CI = 1.1-1.4) and intensity (OR = 1.6; 95% CI = 1.4-1.9) of pain, but these differences were not significant after adjusting for age, sex, years of education, immigration status (U.S.- vs non-U.S-born), and health status (number of health conditions). Even after adjustment, HS reported the lowest levels of functional limitation (OR = 0.7; 95% CI 0.6-0.9). Pain prevalence and intensity were not related to acculturation after adjusting for sociodemographic factors, while functional limitation was significantly lower among HS even after adjusting for known risk factors. Future studies should explore the reasons for this difference. Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Cultural Values Predicting Acculturation Orientations: Operationalizing a Quantitative Measure
This article proposes that acculturation orientations are related to two sets of cultural values: utilitarianism (Ut) and traditionalism (Tr). While utilitarian values enhance assimilation, traditional values support language and identity maintenance. It is proposed that the propensity to either end of this value opposition can be measured by an…
Acculturative Heterogeneity among Asian/Pacific Islanders in the United States: Associations with DSM Mental and Substance Use Disorders
Salas-Wright, Christopher P.; Lee, Sharon; Vaughn, Michael G.; Jang, Yuri; Sanglang, Cindy C.
Extant studies on the links between acculturation and mental and substance use disorders among Asian/Pacific Islanders have been based on the assumption that acculturation is a homogeneous construct. However, emerging evidence suggests that the various components of acculturation do not manifest independently, but rather cluster in ways that reflect distinct profiles. We employ data on Asian/Pacific Islanders from the National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions (n = 968). Latent profile analysis is used to identify acculturation subgroups on the basis of indicator variables related to cultural identification, language ability and preference, and social engagement. Subsequently, the distribution of outcome variables in the domains of DSM disorders (lifetime history of clinical, personality, and substance use disorders) is examined across latent subgroups. We identified a five class solution: Class 1: “Separated” (12.91%), Class 2: “Partial Bilingual/Bicultural” (30.06%), Class 3: “English Dominant/Asian Oriented” (12.29%), Class 4:”Full Bilingual/Bicultural” (19.42%) and Class 5: “Assimilated” (25.31%). The highest rates of clinical disorders were observed among members of the two classes characterized by a strong preference for the use of the English language (Classes 3 and 5). The highest prevalence of nicotine (12%) and illicit drug use (15%) disorders was observed among members of the “Assimilated” class. Consistent with prior research, findings suggest that risk of morbidity is greater among more acculturated individuals; however, findings also suggest that an important level of nuance can be observed with respect to acculturative subtypes identified on the basis of cultural identification, language ability and preference, and social engagement. PMID:26167805
Acculturative heterogeneity among Asian/Pacific Islanders in the United States: Associations with DSM mental and substance use disorders.
Salas-Wright, Christopher P; Lee, Sharon; Vaughn, Michael G; Jang, Yuri; Sanglang, Cindy C
Extant studies on the links between acculturation and mental and substance use disorders among Asian/Pacific Islanders have been based on the assumption that acculturation is a homogeneous construct. However, emerging evidence suggests that the various components of acculturation do not manifest independently, but rather cluster in ways that reflect distinct profiles. We employ data on Asian/Pacific Islanders from the National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions (n = 968). Latent profile analysis is used to identify acculturation subgroups on the basis of indicator variables related to cultural identification, language ability and preference, and social engagement. Subsequently, the distribution of outcome variables in the domains of DSM disorders (lifetime history of clinical, personality, and substance use disorders) is examined across latent subgroups. We identified a 5-class solution: Class 1: Separated (12.91%), Class 2: Partial Bilingual/Bicultural (30.06%), Class 3: English Dominant/Asian Oriented (12.29%), Class 4: Full Bilingual/Bicultural (19.42%) and Class 5: Assimilated (25.31%). The highest rates of clinical disorders were observed among members of the 2 classes characterized by a strong preference for the use of the English language (Classes 3 and 5). The highest prevalence of nicotine (12%) and illicit drug use (15%) disorders was observed among members of the Assimilated class. Consistent with prior research, findings suggest that risk of morbidity is greater among more acculturated individuals; however, findings also suggest that an important level of nuance can be observed with respect to acculturative subtypes identified on the basis of cultural identification, language ability and preference, and social engagement. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).
Mexican American adolescents' academic achievement and aspirations: the role of perceived parental educational involvement, acculturation, and self-esteem.
Carranza, Francisco D; You, Sukkyung; Chhuon, Vichet; Hudley, Cynthia
As the number of Mexican American school-aged children continues to increase, researchers, practitioners, and policymakers are in critical need of information to better understand and serve them. This study used structural equation modeling to examine the relationship among perceived parental educational involvement (PPEI), acculturation, gender, and self-esteem on the academic achievement and aspirations of Mexican American high school students (N = 298). Results revealed direct effects of perceived parental educational involvement, students' level of acculturation, and students' self-esteem on students' achievement and aspirations. Acculturation and self-esteem also revealed indirect effects on aspirations and achievement through parental educational expectations. Implications of these findings are discussed.
Les paradoxes des distances dans la construction des identités alimentaires par acculturation
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Full Text Available À partir d’une problématique issue d’observations et de lectures sur la mobilité des hommes, le(s distance(s et l’ancrage territorial, nous nous interrogeons sur les paradoxes de l’acculturation dans la (reconstruction des identités alimentaires. Pourquoi certaines populations développent-elles leur culture alimentaire locale dans des territoires d’accueil ? Quel est le rôle du migrant et de la distance sur cette diffusion appuyée par l’acculturation ? Et quelles sont les formes d’ancrages territoriaux expliquant les diffusions de certains produits locaux ?The authors base their research question on the observations and the literature concerning different forms of mobility of human beings and food products, distances and territorial anchoring. They further their analysis on the paradoxes of acculturation process that arise during the identity (reconstruction in the field of food consumption and eating habits. They focus on the place of cross-border migrations in the spreading of genuine country products and/or local eating specialities of the migrant populations in their host countries. What are the different definitions of distance(s that separate the migrant from its home country and from the host culture? What role dœs the migrant play in the spreading of these eating habits? How the acculturation process works? What are the different forms of territorial anchoring to explain the spreading of these genuine country food products?
Association of Filial Responsibility, Ethnicity, and Acculturation Among Japanese American Family Caregivers of Older Adults.
Miyawaki, Christina E
Challenges of filial caregiving practices by 1st-generation immigrants due to differences in caregiving values between their home and host countries are well documented. This study explored the filial responsibility of later generation Japanese American caregivers of older adults. Acculturation and filial responsibility were measured using the Suinn-Lew Asian Self Identity Acculturation scale and Filial Values Index, respectively. A qualitative interview guide was developed using Gordon's assimilation theory, and 21 caregivers ( M age = 68 years, 86% female, seven in each generation) were interviewed. Despite the 3rd-generation caregivers' high acculturation level, their filial responsibility scores remained high. Qualitative interviews also revealed later generation caregivers' strong filial responsibility and continued caregiving involvement. Unexpectedly, caregivers' own future expectancy of care included placement in mainstream residential facilities rather than ethnic-specific settings. Findings point to the need to develop caregiver services that consider later generation caregivers' culture and level of assimilation.
The effect of acculturation on obesity among foreign-born Asians residing in the United States.
Nguyen, Hannah-Hanh D; Smith, Charlotte; Reynolds, Grace L; Freshman, Brenda
This study examined the relationship between acculturation and obesity in foreign-born Asians residing in the United States, using the 2009 California Health Interview Survey secondary data (N = 2,871). Two series of proxies and/or behavioral variables were used to measure level of acculturation: (a) length of US residency (years and percent of life) and (b) English language use and proficiency. It was hypothesized that acculturation measured with both proxies would positively predict obesity among foreign-born Asian adults who live in the United States. Results did not support the relationship between obesity and residency length, and greater English use and proficiency seemed to predict lower obesity. However, additional exploratory analysis was performed for each Asian ethnicity and the results showed that the hypothesized links were partly supported for Filipino subgroup, but the links for Vietnamese subgroup were in the opposite direction of the hypotheses and inconsistent with previous literature.
Ethnic Drinking Culture, Acculturation, and Enculturation in Relation to Alcohol Drinking Behavior Among Marriage-Based Male Immigrants in Taiwan.
Chen, Hung-Hui; Chien, Li-Yin
Drinking behavior among immigrants could be influenced by drinking-related cultural norms in their country of origin and host country. This study examined the association of ethnic drinking culture, acculturation, and enculturation with alcohol drinking among male immigrants in Taiwan. This cross-sectional survey recruited 188 male immigrants. Ethnic drinking culture was divided into dry and wet according to per capita alcohol consumption and abstinent rate in the countries of origin in reference to that in Taiwan. A scale, Bidimensional Acculturation Scale for Marriage-Based Immigrants, was developed to measure acculturation (adaptation to the host culture) and enculturation (maintenance of the original culture). Drinking patterns (abstinent, low-risk drinking, and hazardous drinking) were determined by scores on the Alcohol Use Disorder Identification Test. There was a significant interaction between ethnic drinking culture and enculturation/acculturation on drinking patterns. Multinomial logistic regression models identified that for those from dry ethnic drinking cultures, a high level of acculturation was associated with increased low-risk drinking, while a high level of enculturation was associated with decreased low-risk drinking. For those from wet ethnic drinking cultures, a low level of acculturation and high level of enculturation were associated with increased hazardous drinking. High family socioeconomic status was associated with increased drinking, while perceived insufficient family income was positively associated with hazardous use. To prevent hazardous use of alcohol, health education should be targeted at immigrant men who drink, especially among those who have economic problems, are from wet ethnic drinking cultures, and demonstrate low adaptation to the host culture.
Acculturation Experiences of the Ethiopian Diaspora in USA: The ...
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Research findings indicate that migration from homeland is commonly associated with different kinds of acculturation problems. Other evidences indicate that migration is an opportunity for better life particularly when life at home is seriously negotiated. The third view holds that the outcome of migration is rather a function of ...
Advisory Working Alliance, Perceived English Proficiency, and Acculturative Stress
Wei, Meifen; Tsai, Pei-Chun; Chao, Ruth Chu-Lien; Du, Yi; Lin, Shu-Ping
The aim of this study was to examine the moderators of (a) general or cross-cultural advisory working alliances and (b) perceived English proficiency on the association between acculturative stress and psychological distress. A total of 143 East Asian international students completed an online survey. Results from a hierarchical regression…
Obesity risk in children: The role of acculturation in the feeding practices and styles of low-income Hispanic families
Parent feeding has been associated with child overweight/obesity in low-income families. Because acculturation to the United States has been associated with increased adult obesity, our study aim was to determine whether acculturation was associated with feeding in these populations. Low-income Hisp...
Political Alienation among Migrant Youths: Exploring the Mechanisms of Political Alienation and Acculturation among Migrant Youths in Norwegian Schools
This article addresses the following question: What characterizes the mechanisms of political alienation among non-Western immigrant students, and how might these mechanisms be related to student's acculturation attitudes? A theory of political alienation and acculturation is applied. Substantial quantitative data from Norwegian upper secondary…
Acculturation orientations and Chinese student Sojourners’ career adaptability : the roles of career exploration and cultural distance.
Guan, Y.; Liu, S.; Guo, M.J.; Li, M.; Wu, M.; Chen, S.X.; Xu, S.X.; Tian, L.
Drawing on career construction theory and Berry's acculturation model, this study examined how student sojourners' acculturation orientations predicted their career exploration and career adaptability. We conducted a survey study among Chinese student sojourners (N = 222) and the results showed that after the effects of big-five personality and approach/avoidance traits were controlled, both host culture orientation and home culture orientation had positive indirect effects on career adaptabi...
An examination of the relationships between acculturative stress, perceived discrimination, and eating disorder symptoms among ethnic minority college students.
Kwan, Mun Yee; Gordon, Kathryn H; Minnich, Allison M
Empirical evidence suggests the importance of considering acculturative stress and perceived discrimination in understanding the mental health of ethnic minority groups, including their eating behaviors and associated psychopathology. The current study examined the effect of acculturative stress and perceived discrimination on eating disorder symptoms among ethnic minority undergraduate students. A total of 187 ethnic minority undergraduate students (41.2% men) completed this cross-sectional study by completing self-report questionnaires on a secure online system. Regression analyses revealed a main effect of acculturative stress on eating concern, shape concern, weight concern, drive for thinness, and bulimia but not restraint or body dissatisfaction. Gender moderated the effect of acculturative stress on drive for muscularity, suggesting that this effect was only significant in women, but not men. The main effect of perceived discrimination was significant for restraint, eating concern, shape concern, weight concern, and drive for muscularity but not drive for thinness, bulimia, or body dissatisfaction. Acculturative stress and perceived discrimination are important factors to consider in understanding the development and maintenance of eating disorder symptoms among ethnic minority populations. Targeting these two factors may improve the effectiveness of intervention programs for eating disorder symptoms among ethnic minority undergraduate students. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Acculturation and enculturation as predictors of psychological help-seeking attitudes (HSAs) among racial and ethnic minorities: A meta-analytic investigation.
Sun, Shufang; Hoyt, William T; Brockberg, Dustin; Lam, Jaime; Tiwari, Dhriti
Psychological services are culturally encapsulated for dominant cultural groups, and racial minorities underutilize treatment even though they suffer from more severe psychological distress. Sociocultural factors such as acculturation (one's adaptation into mainstream group) and enculturation (one's adherence to culture of heritage) are hypothesized to affect minorities' attitudes toward seeking psychological services. This meta-analysis examined 3 methods to assess acculturation/enculturation-unidimensional acculturation, bidimensional acculturation, and bidimensional enculturation as predictors of help-seeking attitudes (HSAs)-both positive and negative attitudes-among racial and ethnic minorities in 207 samples drawn from 111 research reports. The omnibus correlations between acculturation/enculturation variables and HSAs were quite small, but in the predicted direction. Moderator analyses suggested a more nuanced understanding of the association between bidimensional enculturation and positive HSAs: This association was significant (r = -.14 95% CI[-.18, -.09]) for Asians and Asian Americans, but very close to zero and nonsignificant for other racial minority groups (African Americans, Latino Americans, and others). In addition, the domain of acculturation/enculturation assessed was predictive of effect size, with enculturation measures containing a higher proportion of cognitive items (e.g., items that assess cultural values and beliefs) showing stronger (more negative) associations with positive HSAs. Post hoc analyses indicated that certain Asian cultural values, including emotional self-control, conformity to social norms, and collectivism, showed especially high negative associations with positive HSAs. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).
Sharpening the Focus on Acculturative Change: ARSMA-II, Stress, Pregnancy Anxiety, and Infant Birthweight in Recently Immigrated Latinas
Campos, Belinda; Schetter, Christine Dunkel; Walsh, Julia A.; Schenker, Marc
Acculturation is conceptualized as a multidimensional process but is typically measured as a concurrent movement away from culture of origin as a new cultural orientation is obtained. In this study, the authors examined the overall and subscale scoring systems of the ARSMA-II, the most popular acculturation measure, for its associations with…
A tale of two cities: replication of a study on the acculturation and adaptation of immigrant adolescents from the former Soviet Union in a different community context.
Birman, Dina; Trickett, Edison; Buchanan, Rebecca M
While a great deal of research has been conducted to understand acculturation and its relationship to adaptation in the new country, surprisingly little attention has been paid to the ways in which the characteristics of the local community impact these processes. The present study addresses this gap in the literature by exploring the potential role of community differences in the acculturation and adaptation processes of 269 refugee and immigrant adolescents from the former Soviet Union who resettled in two different community contexts. Specifically, a prior study on acculturation and adjustment among high school students (D. Birman, E. J. Trickett, & A. Vinokurov, 2002) was replicated with the same émigré population in a contrasting community within the same state. The contrast between these communities allowed us to test hypotheses emerging from an ecological perspective concerning (1) patterns of acculturation, (2) levels of discrimination and its effect on acculturative outcomes, and (3) community differences in the relationship between acculturation and outcomes. In addition to the focus on community differences, the study also employs a multidimensional measure of acculturation and assesses acculturation to both American and Russian culture. Furthermore, adaptation is assessed across different life domains; including peer relationships, family relationships, school adaptation, and psychological adaptation. Findings support the general ecological perspective, suggesting the importance of studying acculturation and adaptation as a reflexive process in which culture and context are very much intertwined.
Acculturation and cancer screening among Asian Americans: role of health insurance and having a regular physician.
Lee, Sunmin; Chen, Lu; Jung, Mary Y; Baezconde-Garbanati, Lourdes; Juon, Hee-Soon
Cancer is the leading cause of death among Asian Americans, but screening rates are significantly lower in Asians than in non-Hispanic Whites. This study examined associations between acculturation and three types of cancer screening (colorectal, cervical, and breast), focusing on the role of health insurance and having a regular physician. A cross-sectional study of 851 Chinese, Korean, and Vietnamese Americans was conducted in Maryland. Acculturation was measured using an abridged version of the Suinn-Lew Asian Self-Identity Acculturation Scale, acculturation clusters, language preference, length of residency in the US, and age at arrival. Age, health insurance, regular physician, gender, ethnicity, income, marital status, and health status were adjusted in the multivariate analysis. Logistic regression analysis showed that various measures of acculturation were positively associated with the odds of having all cancer screenings. Those lived for more than 20 years in the US were about 2-4 times [odds ratio (OR) and 95 % confidence interval (CI) colorectal: 2.41 (1.52-3.82); cervical: 1.79 (1.07-3.01); and breast: 2.11 (1.25-3.57)] more likely than those who lived for less than 10 years to have had cancer screening. When health insurance and having a regular physician were adjusted, the associations between length of residency and colorectal cancer [OR 1.72 (1.05-2.81)] was reduced and the association between length of residency and cervical and breast cancer became no longer significant. Findings from this study provide a robust and comprehensive picture of AA cancer screening behavior. They will provide helpful information on future target groups for promoting cancer screening.
Association between health service utilisation of internal migrant children and parents’ acculturation in Guangdong, China: a cross-sectional study
Peng, Bo-li; Zou, Guan-yang; Chen, Wen; Lin, Yan-wei; Ling, Li
Objectives To assess the health service utilisation of internal migrant children in Guangdong, China, and to explore the association between children’s health service utilisation and their parents’ acculturation. Design Cross-sectional survey between April and May 2016. Setting Six society-run schools of Tianhe and Baiyun districts in Guangzhou City of China. Participants We recruited all students at grade 7 or 8 and one of their parents who resided in Guangzhou over 6 months without permanent registered residence (hukou) in Guangzhou (1161 pairs completed this survey). 258 children were ill within the past 2 weeks or during the last year. Main outcome measures The main outcome was self-reported health service utilisation. Logistic regression analysis was conducted to explore the association between children’s unmet needs for outpatient or inpatient service and their parents’ acculturation (categorised into high, middle and low groups). Results In total, 216 children, or 18.6% of the total subjects, were ill within the past 2 weeks and were in need of outpatient service; 94 children, or 8.1% of the total subjects, were in need of inpatient service. Among them, 17.6% and 46.8% of the migrant children had unmet needs for outpatient and inpatient services, respectively. After controlling for enabling resources and predisposing characteristics, migrant children with parents in the middle-acculturation group (adjusted OR=3.17, 95% CIs 1.2 to 8.3, Pacculturation or low-acculturation groups, although only statistically significant when comparing with the high-acculturation group. Stratified analysis suggested that this association could be moderated by their family economic status. Conclusions Our study suggested that the association between migrant children’s health service utilisation and their parents’ acculturation was complex and could be moderated by family economic status. Increasing the service utilisation among migrant children requires
Perceptions of Vietnamese fathers' acculturation levels, parenting styles, and mental health outcomes in Vietnamese American adolescent immigrants.
Nguyen, Peter V
Vietnamese adult and adolescent immigrants in the United States acculturate to the Western culture at different rates. MostVietnamese parents tend to use the authoritarian parenting method in which dictatorial approaches are enforced, possibly leading to family conflicts and mental health issues. By means of the Suinn-Lew Asian Self-Identity Acculturation Scale, the Parental Authority Questionnaire, the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale, and the Reynolds Adolescent Depression Inventory, this exploratory study surveyed 290Vietnamese American adolescents in a major metropolitan area to examine the relationship between their fathers' acculturation levels and parenting styles and the relationships among parenting styles and self-esteem levels and depression scores of the adolescents. Findings revealed that most of the adolescents perceived that their fathers have not acculturated to the U.S. culture and continue to practice the traditional authoritarian parenting style, regardless of the amount of time spent in the United States. Furthermore, results indicate that adolescents who perceived their fathers as using the authoritarian parenting style reported lower levels of self-esteem and higher depression scores when compared with those who perceived their fathers as using the authoritative parenting style.
Direct and mediated effects of nativity and other indicators of acculturation on Hispanic mothers' use of physical aggression.
Altschul, Inna; Lee, Shawna J
This study used data from 845 foreign-born (n = 328) and native-U.S. born (n = 517) Hispanic mothers who participated in the Fragile Families and Child Wellbeing Study (FFCWS) to examine four indicators of acculturation--nativity, years lived in the United States, religious attendance, and endorsement of traditional gender norms--as predictors of maternal physical aggression directed toward young children. The authors also examined whether psychosocial risk factors associated with child maltreatment and acculturation--maternal alcohol use, depression, parenting stress, and intimate partner aggression and violence--mediate relationships between acculturation and maternal aggression. Foreign-born Hispanic mothers had significantly lower rates of physical aggression than native-born Hispanic mothers. In path modeling results, U.S. nativity, along with maternal alcohol use, parenting stress, and child aggressive behavior, emerged as the strongest risk factors for maternal physical aggression. Among the four acculturation indicators, only foreign birth was directly associated with lower maternal aggression. Study findings suggest immigrant status is a unique protective factor that contributes to lower levels of physical aggression among Hispanic mothers.
The influence of acculturation on substance use behaviors among Latina sexual minority women: the mediating role of discrimination.
Matthews, Alicia; Li, Chien-Ching; Aranda, Frances; Torres, Lourdes; Vargas, Maria; Conrad, Megan
A large body of work has demonstrated that sexual minority women have elevated rates of substance use morbidity, as compared with heterosexual women, and that this might be especially true for women of color. This study examines the influence of acculturation and discrimination on substance use among Latina sexual minority women. Data were collected from 2007 to 2008 as part of a larger community-based survey in the greater Chicago area. Scales measured discrimination, acculturation, and substance use. Structural equation modeling validated scales and examined their relationships, which were further described via mediation analysis. Increased acculturation leads to substance use and this relationship is partially mediated by discrimination (Sobel test = 2.10; p women's and public health organizations.
Acculturation and Cancer Screening among Asian Americans: Role of Health Insurance and Having a Regular Physician
Lee, Sunmin; Chen, Lu; Jung, Mary Y.; Baezconde-Garbanati, Lourdes; Juon, Hee-Soon
Cancer is the leading cause of death among Asian Americans, but screening rates are significantly lower in Asians than in non-Hispanic Whites. This study examined associations between acculturation and three types of cancer screening (colorectal, cervical, and breast), focusing on the role of health insurance and having a regular physician. A cross-sectional study of 851 Chinese, Korean, and Vietnamese Americans was conducted in Maryland. Acculturation was measured using an abridged version o...
Rural-to-Urban Migration: Socioeconomic Status But Not Acculturation was Associated with Overweight/Obesity Risk.
Hilmers, Angela; Bernabé-Ortiz, Antonio; Gilman, Robert H; McDermott, Ann Y; Smeeth, Liam; Miranda, J Jaime
To investigate whether socioeconomic status (SES) and acculturation predict overweight/obesity risk as well as the mediating effect of physical activity (PA) in the context of internal migration. Cross-sectional study of 587 rural-to-urban migrants participating in the PERU MIGRANT study. Analyses were conducted using logistic regression and structured equation modeling. Interaction effects of SES and acculturation were tested. Models were controlled for age, gender and education. Only SES was a significant predictor of overweight/obesity risk. Lower SES decreased the odds of being overweight/obese by 51.4 %. This association did not vary by gender nor was it explained by PA. Mechanisms underlying the relationship between SES and overweight/obesity may differ depending on the geographic location and sociocultural context of the population studied. Research on internal migration and health would benefit from the development of tailored acculturation measures and the evaluation of exploratory models that include diet.
Perceived cultural distance and acculturation among exchange students in Russia
Suanet, I.; van de Vijver, F.J.R.
The relations of perceived cultural distance, personality, acculturation orientations and outcomes were studied among exchange students (N = 187) in Russia who came from various countries in Asia, sub‐Saharan Africa, Latin America and the former Soviet Union. The hypothesis was supported that a
A Question of Balance: Exploring the Acculturation, Integration and Adaptation of Muslim Immigrant Youth
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Full Text Available The paper addresses criticisms of contemporary acculturation research by adopting a mixed method approach (open-ended survey responses, interviews, focus groups and projective techniques to the study of the acculturation experiences of Muslim youth in New Zealand. The research explores: 1 the meaning, definition and achievement of success; 2 the process of negotiating multiple social identities; and 3 the graphic representation of identity. Thematic analysis indicated that young Muslims aspire to achieve success in personal, social, material and religious domains and that they seek to balance potentially competing demands from family, friends, the Muslim community and the wider society. At the same time they aspire to balance multiple identities, retaining religious and cultural elements in the definition of self while endeavoring to integrate into the wider society. The process of achieving this balance is characterized by three strategies: alternating orientations, blending orientations and minimizing differences. The findings are discussed in relation to advancing our understanding of integration as an acculturation option, and the community-based policy implications for multicultural societies are considered.
Fathers' and Mothers' Language Acculturation and Parenting Practices: Links to Mexican American Children's Academic Readiness
Baker, Claire E.
This study used a family-centered ecological lens to examine predictive relations among fathers' and mothers' language acculturation, parenting practices, and academic readiness in a large sample of Mexican American children in preschool (N = 880). In line with prior early childhood research, parent language acculturation was operationalized as…
A Multidimensional Examination of the Acculturation and Psychological Functioning of a Sample of Immigrant Chinese Mothers in the US
Tahseen, Madiha; Cheah, Charissa S. L.
The present research used the cluster analysis method to examine the acculturation of immigrant Chinese mothers (ICMs), and the demographic characteristics and psychological functioning associated with each acculturation style. The sample was comprised of 83 first-generation ICMs of preschool children residing in Maryland, United States (US).…
Acculturation and Perceptions of a Good Death Among Japanese Americans and Japanese Living in the U.S.
Mori, Masanori; Kuwama, Yuichiro; Ashikaga, Takamaru; Parsons, Henrique A; Miyashita, Mitsunori
Acculturation is the phenomenon of the attitudinal changes of individuals who come into continuous contact with another culture. Despite the long history of Japanese immigration to America, little is known about the impact of acculturation on perceptions of a good death. To examine differences in perceptions of a good cancer death among Japanese Americans (JA/A), Japanese living in America (J/A), and the Japanese living in Japan (J/J). We administered surveys among JA/A and J/A and used historical J/J data for reference. Primary endpoint was the proportion of respondents who expressed the necessity of core and optional items of the Good Death Inventory. Group differences ≥20% were deemed clinically important. In total, 441 survey responses in America and 2548 in Japan were obtained. More than 80% of respondents consistently considered nine of 10 core items necessary without significant group differences. No core item reached a ≥20% group difference. Three of the eight optional items reached ≥20% group difference: fighting against disease until one's last moment (49%, P faith (64%, P = 0.0548; 43%, P = 0.0127; and 38%, respectively). Although most core items of a good death were preserved throughout the levels of acculturation, perceptions of some optional items shifted away from Japanese attitudes as individuals became more acculturated. Understanding of different levels of acculturation may help clinicians provide culturally sensitive end-of-life care. Copyright © 2017 American Academy of Hospice and Palliative Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Reconstructing social networks : The Importance of friends and family in the acculturation of unaccompanied minors
The main goal of this study was to explore how social network variables and social skills influence acculturation in a group of immigrants who came to Norway as unaccompanied minor asylum seekers. Acculturation, as measured by ethnic and host culture competence, is seen as a resource for the individual, and a necessity in order to be successful and have a sense of belonging in a given culture. Sixty-two youth who came to Norway as unaccompanied minor asylum seekers (UMAs) between the years 20...
Asian American Acculturation and Enculturation: Construct Clarification and Measurement Consolidation
Zhang, Shengying; Moradi, Bonnie
An overview of the evolution of Asian American acculturation and enculturation theory and measurement is offered, focusing on major theoretical advancements and methodological issues that are salient for measuring these constructs. Informed by these considerations, an empirical approach is taken to clarifying the dimensions of Asian American…
Self-Critical Perfectionism, Acculturative Stress, and Depression among International Students
Rice, Kenneth G.; Choi, Chun-Chung; Zhang, Yanmei; Morero, Yanina Ines; Anderson, Debra
The authors tested a classic diathesis-stress, stress-enhancement model of perfectionism with subgroups of Chinese (N = 129) and Asian Indian (N = 166) international graduate students attending a major U.S. university. More specifically, the authors tested whether self-critical perfectionism, acculturative stress, and their interaction accounted…
School engagement, acculturation, and mental health among migrant adolescents in Israel.
Shoshani, Anat; Nakash, Ora; Zubida, Hani; Harper, Robin A
This study aimed to explore the role of school engagement and the mediation effect of acculturation in predicting 1.5 and second-generation migrant adolescents' mental health and risk behaviors. Participants included 448 seventh to tenth grade Israeli students (mean age 14.50, 53% boys): 128 non-Jewish 1.5 generation migrant adolescents (children of migrants living in Israel), 118 second-generation migrants (children of migrants born and living in Israel), and an age-matched sample of 202 native-born Jewish adolescents. All participants completed a battery of questionnaires assessing mental health symptoms, engagement in risk behaviors, social adjustment, and school engagement. Both migrant adolescent groups also completed an acculturation questionnaire. Differences between groups in school engagement, mental health symptoms, and risk behavior were examined, and structural equation modeling (SEM) was used to investigate the hypothesized mediating effect of acculturation. Findings revealed substantially higher levels of mental health symptoms (p mental health symptoms and risk behaviors-older participants engaged in more risk behaviors (p = .02), and females had elevated mental health symptoms (p = .007). Identification with the host country mediated the relationships between school engagement and mental health symptoms (ps .006 and .008) and risk behaviors (ps .001 and .004) in 1.5 generation and second-generation migrants, respectively. The results are discussed in reference to current theories and research, as well as practical implications for prevention and intervention. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).
Acculturation of Pacific mothers in New Zealand over time: findings from the Pacific Islands Families study
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Schluter Philip J
Full Text Available Abstract Background The epidemiological investigation of acculturation has often been hampered by inconsistent definitions and measurement, and methodological short-comings. Adopting a bi-directional model, with good theoretical and psychometric properties, this study aimed to describe the temporal, ethnic and socio-demographic influences of acculturation for a group of Pacific mothers residing in New Zealand. Methods Pacific mothers of a cohort of Pacific infants born at a large tertiary hospital in South Auckland in 2000 were interviewed at 6-weeks, 4-years and 6-years postpartum. At each measurement wave a home interview lasting approximately 90 minutes was conducted with each mother. Adapting the General Ethnicity Questionnaire, two scales of acculturation were elicited: one measuring New Zealand cultural orientation (NZAccult and one measuring Pacific Islands cultural orientation (PIAccult. Acculturation scores were standardised and analysed using random intercept polynomial and piecewise mixed-effects regression models, accounting for the longitudinal nature of the repeated measured data. Mothers who immigrated to New Zealand and those who lived their lives in New Zealand were investigated separately. Results Overall, 1276 Pacific mothers provided 3104 NZAccult and 3107 PIAccult responses over the three measurement waves. Important and significant differences were observed in both bi-directional acculturation measures between the two maternal groups studied. New Zealand cultural orientation increased, on average, linearly with years lived in New Zealand both for immigrant mothers (0.013 per year, 95% CI: 0.012, 0.014, after adjusting for maternal age, and for mothers who lived their lives in New Zealand (0.008 per year, 95% CI: 0.06, 0.010. Immigrant mothers maintained their Pacific cultural orientation for, on average, 12 years before it began to linearly decrease with each year lived in New Zealand thereafter (-0.009 per year, 95% CI: -0
Acculturation of Pacific mothers in New Zealand over time: findings from the Pacific Islands Families study
Background The epidemiological investigation of acculturation has often been hampered by inconsistent definitions and measurement, and methodological short-comings. Adopting a bi-directional model, with good theoretical and psychometric properties, this study aimed to describe the temporal, ethnic and socio-demographic influences of acculturation for a group of Pacific mothers residing in New Zealand. Methods Pacific mothers of a cohort of Pacific infants born at a large tertiary hospital in South Auckland in 2000 were interviewed at 6-weeks, 4-years and 6-years postpartum. At each measurement wave a home interview lasting approximately 90 minutes was conducted with each mother. Adapting the General Ethnicity Questionnaire, two scales of acculturation were elicited: one measuring New Zealand cultural orientation (NZAccult) and one measuring Pacific Islands cultural orientation (PIAccult). Acculturation scores were standardised and analysed using random intercept polynomial and piecewise mixed-effects regression models, accounting for the longitudinal nature of the repeated measured data. Mothers who immigrated to New Zealand and those who lived their lives in New Zealand were investigated separately. Results Overall, 1276 Pacific mothers provided 3104 NZAccult and 3107 PIAccult responses over the three measurement waves. Important and significant differences were observed in both bi-directional acculturation measures between the two maternal groups studied. New Zealand cultural orientation increased, on average, linearly with years lived in New Zealand both for immigrant mothers (0.013 per year, 95% CI: 0.012, 0.014), after adjusting for maternal age, and for mothers who lived their lives in New Zealand (0.008 per year, 95% CI: 0.06, 0.010). Immigrant mothers maintained their Pacific cultural orientation for, on average, 12 years before it began to linearly decrease with each year lived in New Zealand thereafter (-0.009 per year, 95% CI: -0.010, -0.008), after
Perceived Ethnic Discrimination versus Acculturation Stress: Influences on Substance Use among Latino Youth in the Southwest*
Kulis, Stephen; Marsiglia, Flavio Francisco; Nieri, Tanya
Using a predominately Mexican-origin Latino sample of 5th grade students from the Southwestern United States, this study examined the relative effects of perceived discrimination and acculturation stress on substance use, and it assessed whether these effects were moderated by linguistic acculturation or time in the United States. Although rates of substance use were generally low in the sample, given the young age of the participants, over half (59%) of the sample perceived some discriminati...
Coping, acculturation, and psychological adaptation among migrants: a theoretical and empirical review and synthesis of the literature
Kuo, Ben C.H.
Given the continuous, dynamic demographic changes internationally due to intensive worldwide migration and globalization, the need to more fully understand how migrants adapt and cope with acculturation experiences in their new host cultural environment is imperative and timely. However, a comprehensive review of what we currently know about the relationship between coping behavior and acculturation experience for individuals undergoing cultural changes has not yet been undertaken. Hence, the...
Multicultural markets and acculturation: Implications for service firms
Poulis, Konstantinos; Yamin, Mo; Poulis, Efthimios
Purpose: The purpose is to construct an analytical framework that encapsulates implications for the marketing offering of service firms as a result of observed intra-national ethnic diversity in these firms' markets of operation. Design/methodology/approach: This is a conceptual approach which promotes the idea that acculturation matters for service firms operating in multicultural markets and adopts relevant propositions related to service firms' strategy in such markets. Findings: Integrati...
Reconsidering Hispanic Gang Membership and Acculturation in a Multivariate Context
Miller, Holly Ventura; Barnes, J. C.; Hartley, Richard D.
Previous qualitative research has suggested that Hispanic gang membership is linked to the process of acculturation. Specifically, studies have indicated that those who are less assimilated into mainstream American or "Anglo" society are at greater risk for joining gangs. Building on these observations, this study examines the relationship between…
Identity and Acculturation: Interethnic Relations in the Basque Autonomous Community
Larrañaga, Nekane; Garcia, Iñaki; Azurmendi, Maria-Jose; Bourhis, Richard
This study analyses the influence of ethnic identity on the acculturation orientations of Basque undergraduates, towards groups in traditional contact (native Basques and native Spaniards) and towards recent immigrant groups. Five dimensions were used to measure the Basque and/or Spanish identities: linguistic, cultural, political, global, and the…
Hispanic Men in the United States: Acculturation and Recent Sexual Behaviors With Female Partners, 2006-2010.
Haderxhanaj, Laura T; Rhodes, Scott D; Romaguera, Raul A; Bloom, Fred R; Leichliter, Jami S
We examined Hispanic men's recent risky and protective sexual behaviors with female partners by acculturation. Using the 2006-2010 National Survey of Family Growth, we performed bivariate analyses to compare acculturation groups (Hispanic Spanish-speaking immigrants, Hispanic English-speaking immigrants, Hispanic US natives, and non-Hispanic White men) by demographics and recent sexual behaviors with women. Multivariable logistic regression models for sexual behaviors by acculturation group were adjusted for demographics. Compared with Hispanic Spanish-speaking immigrants, non-Hispanic White men were less likely to report exchange of money or drugs for sex (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] = 0.3; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.1, 0.9), but were also less likely to report condom use at last vaginal (AOR = 0.6; 95% CI = 0.4, 0.8) and anal sex (AOR = 0.4; 95% CI = 0.3, 0.7). Hispanic US natives were less likely to report condom use at last vaginal sex than were Spanish-speaking immigrants (AOR = 0.6; 95% CI = 0.4, 0.8). English- and Spanish-speaking immigrants did not differ in risky or protective sexual behaviors. Our findings suggest that targeted interventions focusing on unique sexual risks and sociodemographic differences by acculturation level, particularly nativity, may be helpful for preventing sexually transmitted infections.
Acculturation, adaptation and multiculturalism among immigrant adolescents in junior vocational education
Geel, Mitch van
This thesis deals with the adaptation and acculturation of immigrant adolescents in junior vocational education. The adaptation of immigrant adolescents fits the notion of an 'immigrant paradox'. Maintaining aspects of the ethnic culture was found positively related to immigrant adolescents'
Acculturation, Enculturation, and Symptoms of Depression in Hispanic Youth: The Roles of Gender, Hispanic Cultural Values, and Family Functioning
Lorenzo-Blanco, Elma I.; Unger, Jennifer B.; Baezconde-Garbanati, Lourdes; Ritt-Olson, Anamara; Soto, Daniel
The risk for depression increases as Hispanic youth acculturate to U.S. society. This association is stronger for Hispanic girls than boys. To better understand the influence of culture and family on depressive symptoms, we tested a process-oriented model of acculturation, cultural values, and family functioning. The data came from Project RED,…
Clarifying the relation of acculturative stress and anxiety/depressive symptoms: The role of anxiety sensitivity among Hispanic college students.
Jardin, Charles; Mayorga, Nubia A; Bakhshaie, Jafar; Garey, Lorra; Viana, Andres G; Sharp, Carla; Cardoso, Jodi Berger; Zvolensky, Michael J
Recent work has highlighted the link between acculturative stress and depression/anxiety symptoms among Hispanic young adults, but the nature of these relations is not well understood. The present study aimed to clarify the relation between acculturative stress and depression/anxiety symptoms by examining anxiety sensitivity, globally and via subfactors, as an explanatory variable. A cross-sectional sample of 788 Hispanic college students (80.8% female; M age = 20.83 years, SD = 1.93) was recruited from a southwestern public university and completed an online self-report assessment battery. Acculturative stress exerted an indirect effect, via the global construct of anxiety sensitivity, on depression symptoms, suicidality, anxious arousal, and social anxiety symptoms. Follow-up simultaneous analytic models demonstrated indirect effects via the anxiety sensitivity subfactors that were pathognomonic with each of the specific affective outcomes. These findings suggest the utility of assessing and targeting anxiety sensitivity in the treatment of acculturative stress-related depression/anxiety problems among Hispanic college students. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2018 APA, all rights reserved).
Knowledge of advance directive and perceptions of end-of-life care in Chinese-American elders: The role of acculturation.
Gao, Xiang; Sun, Fei; Ko, Eunjeong; Kwak, Jung; Shen, Huei-Wern
This study aimed to describe knowledge of an advance directive (AD) and preferences regarding end-of-life (EoL) care communication, decision making, and designation of surrogates in Chinese-American elders and to examine the role of acculturation variables in AD awareness. Survey data were collected through face-to-face interviews on a sample of 385 Chinese-American elders aged 55 or above living in the Phoenix metropolitan area. The choice of language (Mandarin, Cantonese, or English) and place of interview (senior apartments, Chinese senior centers, or homes) was at the respondent's preference. Hierarchical logistic regression analysis was employed to examine the influence of acculturation variables on AD awareness. Some 21% of participants had heard about ADs, and only 10% had completed one. Elders with higher acculturation levels (OR = 1.04, p Acculturation levels influence awareness of an AD, and family values are crucial in EoL care decision making. Cultural factors should be considered in designing and delivering appropriate programs to promote knowledge of EoL care among Chinese-American elders and their families.
Cross-National Applicability of a Parsimonious Measure of Acculturation to Global Consumer Culture.
Durvasula and Lysonski's paper presented a shorter version of the Acculturation to Global Consumer Culture Scale (hereafter AGCC), which was developed by Cleveland and Laroche to address scarcity of measurements that determined how individuals acquired and became a part of the emerging global consumer culture. The following critique discusses a few concerns and three major shortcomings of the paper, including skewed sample frame and incorrect choice of countries for assessing cross-national applicability of the scale, not discussing the differences in the means of the seven distinct dimensions of AGCC across the four nations studied by the authors, and absence of any critical review of existing consumer acculturation scales vis-à-vis AGCC. © The Author(s) 2016.
Family environment and emotional and behavioural symptoms in adolescent Cambodian Refugees: influence of time, gender, and acculturation.
Rousseau, Cécile; Drapeau, Aline; Platt, Robert
For young refugees, the turmoil of adolescence is exacerbated by the acculturation process that sometimes places them at odds with the traditional culture of their ethnic group. The family environment can affect how adolescents cross that pivotal period. This paper focuses on the influence of family environment, gender and acculturation on the mental health of young refugees from early to mid-adolescence. Sixty-seven Cambodian adolescents were followed up from early to mid-adolescence. The effects of the youths' acculturation level, gender, and family environment and structure on internalising and externalising symptoms were analysed through linear regression analyses. Family conflict tends to increase from early to mid-adolescence. The association between family environment and mental health changes over time and, overall, family environment is associated with externalisation whereas gender, acculturation level, and family structure influence internalisation. Cambodian girls and boys cope differently with the challenges of adolescence in the host country, adopting traditional strategies and borrowing new ones from the host culture. Family therapy may help the parents and their adolescents address this process of change, which is both a source of vulnerability and of fulfilment, and enhances the ability of the family to negotiate between the cultural worlds of the home and of the host countries.
Development and validation of the Acculturative Stress Scale for Chinese College Students in the United States (ASSCS).
Chinese students are the biggest ethnic group of international students in the United States. This study aims to develop a reliable and valid scale to accurately measure their acculturative stress. A 72-item pool was sent online to Chinese students and a five-factor scale of 32 items was generated by exploratory factor analysis. The five factors included language insufficiency, social isolation, perceived discrimination, academic pressure, and guilt toward family. The Acculturative Stress Scale for Chinese Students demonstrated high reliability and initial validity by predicting depression and life satisfaction. It was the first Chinese scale of acculturative stress developed and validated among a Chinese student sample in the United States. In the future, the scale can be used as a diagnostic tool by mental health professionals and a self-assessment tool by Chinese students. (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved.
Acculturation of Javanese and Malay Islam in Wedding Tradition of Javanese Ethnic Community at Selangor, Malaysia
This study is to see the level of acculturation of Javanese and Malay Islams in Javanese community wedding at Selangor Malaysia. According to the theory of culture, each culture has a uniqueness, as a individual uniqueness. The unique culture of Javanese ethnic wedding in Selangor is believed to be a process of negotiation between Malay and Javanese culture.. Acculturation theory is used in this research to explain and understand the reality of that culture. The study concluded that ethnic we...
The Role of Social Media in the Acculturation of South Asian Immigrants in the United States: A Phenomenological Study
Some South Asian immigrants in the United States experience acculturative stress as a result of sociocultural differences. Social media is a tool that can facilitate the process of acculturation of some ethnic groups in the United States such as Hispanics. The specific problem that the researcher examined in this study was that the use of social…
Sorting out the competing effects of acculturation, immigrant stress, and social support on depression: a report on Korean women in California.
Ayers, John W; Hofstetter, C Richard; Usita, Paula; Irvin, Veronica L; Kang, Sunny; Hovell, Melbourne F
This research identifies stressors that correlate with depression, focusing on acculturation, among female Korean immigrants in California. Telephone interviews were conducted with female adults of Korean descent (N = 592) from a probability sample from 2006 to 2007. Sixty-five percent of attempted interviews were completed, of which over 90% were conducted in Korean. Analyses include descriptive reports, bivariate correlations, and structural equation modeling. Findings suggest that acculturation did not have a direct impact on depression and was not associated with social support. However, acculturation was associated with reduced immigrant stress which, in turn, was related to decreased levels of depression. Immigrant stress and social support were the principal direct influences on depression, mediating the effect for most other predictors. Stressful experiences associated with immigration may induce depressive feelings. Interventions should facilitate acculturation thereby reducing immigrant stress and expand peer networks to increase social support to assuage depression.
Acculturation and Dating Violence Victimization among Filipino and Samoan Youths
Chung-Do, Jane J.; Goebert, Deborah A.
Dating violence victimization is an important public health issue. Recent studies on minority youths have found higher risks of dating violence victimization compared to White youths. This study examined the influence of acculturation components on youths' experiences of dating violence by utilizing data from a survey of 193 Samoan and Filipino…
Acculturation-Based and Everyday Family Conflict in Chinese American Families
Juang, Linda P.; Syed, Moin; Cookston, Jeffrey T.; Wang, Yijie; Kim, Su Yeong
Everyday conflict (studied primarily among European American families) is viewed as an assertion of autonomy from parents that is normative during adolescence. Acculturation-based conflict (studied primarily among Asian- and Latino-heritage families) is viewed as a threat to relatedness with parents rather than the normative assertion of autonomy.…
Acculturation and weight change in Asian-American children: Evidence from the ECLS-K:2011.
Diep, Cassandra S; Baranowski, Tom; Kimbro, Rachel T
Despite relatively low rates of overweight and obesity among Asian-American children, disparities exist based on acculturation, socioeconomic status, and Asian ethnicity. The purpose of this study was to examine the association between acculturation and weight change in Asian-American children. Secondary aims were to compare changes by Asian ethnic group and acculturation x socioeconomic status. Participants included 1200 Asian-American children from the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study, Kindergarten Class of 2010-11, a longitudinal study of U.S. children attending kindergarten in 2010-2011. Multinomial logistic regressions were conducted to predict weight change based on body mass indices in kindergarten (spring 2011) and second grade (spring 2013): consistently healthy weight, consistently overweight/obese, healthy weight change, and unhealthy weight change. Models included demographic, household, socioeconomic status, and acculturation measures, specifically mother's English proficiency and percentage of life spent in the U.S. Overall, 72.3% of children were at healthy weights in kindergarten and second grade. Of all Asian ethnic groups, Filipino children had the highest rate of being consistently overweight/obese (24.8%) and the lowest rate of being consistently healthy weight (62.9%). In addition, mother's English proficiency predicted unhealthy weight change (OR: 0.83; 95% CI: 0.75-0.92) and healthy weight change (OR: 0.75; 95% CI: 0.65-0.86), relative to "consistently healthy weight." English proficiency also predicted being consistently overweight/obese for children with less educated mothers. Findings enhance our understanding of obesity disparities within Asian Americans and highlight the need to disaggregate the population. Obesity interventions are needed for Filipino children and families with low socioeconomic status but high English proficiency. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Prenatal and Postnatal Mother-to-Child Transmission of Acculturation's Health Effects in Hispanic Americans.
Fox, Molly; Thayer, Zaneta M; Ramos, Isabel F; Meskal, Sarah J; Wadhwa, Pathik D
Hispanic Americans consistently exhibit an intergenerational increase in the prevalence of many noncommunicable chronic physical and mental disorders. We review and synthesize evidence suggesting that a constellation of prenatal and postnatal factors may play crucial roles in explaining this trend. We draw from relevant literature across several disciplines, including epidemiology, anthropology, psychology, medicine (obstetrics, neonatology), and developmental biology. Our resulting model is based on evidence that among women, the process of postmigration cultural adjustment (i.e., acculturation) is associated, during pregnancy and after delivery, with psychological and behavioral states that can affect offspring development in ways that may alter susceptibility to noncommunicable chronic disease risk in subsequent-generation Hispanic Americans. We propose one integrated process model that specifies the biological, behavioral, psychological, and sociocultural pathways by which maternal acculturation may influence the child's long-term health. We synthesize evidence from previous studies to describe how acculturation among Hispanic American mothers is associated with alterations to the same biobehavioral systems known to participate in the processes of prenatal and postnatal developmental programming of disease risk. In this manner, we focus on the concepts of biological and cultural mother-to-child transmission across the prenatal and postnatal life phases. We critique and draw from previous hypotheses that have sought to explain this phenomenon (of declining health across generations). We offer recommendations for examining the transgenerational effects of acculturation. A life course model with a greater focus on maternal health and well-being may be key to understanding transgenerational epidemiological trends in minority populations, and interventions that promote women's wellness may contribute to the elimination or reduction of health disparities.
Acculturation matters in the relation between ambivalence over emotional expressions and well-being among Chinese American breast cancer survivors.
Tsai, William; Lu, Qian
Ambivalence over emotional expression (AEE) is the inner conflict of desiring emotion expression and fearing consequence of emotion expression. Few studies to date have examined the effects of AEE within an ethnic group that prioritizes emotional self-control. The present study examined the associations between AEE and well-being (viz., quality of life and depressive symptoms) as a function of acculturation among a sample of Chinese American breast cancer survivors. Ninety-six Chinese breast cancer survivors (M age = 54.64 years old, SD = 7.98) were recruited from Southern California. Participants filled out a paper-pen questionnaire containing the Ambivalence over Emotional Expression Questionnaire (AEQ), the Functional Assessment of Cancer Therapy-Breast (FACT-B), and the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale-Short Form (CESD-10). Acculturation was a statistically significant moderator of the relations between AEE and depressive symptoms, and a statistically marginally significant moderator of the relations between AEE and quality of life. Simple slopes revealed that AEE was negatively associated with quality of life (B = -.45, p acculturation, but not associated for women with low acculturation (Bs = -.15 and .04, ps > .05, for quality of life and depressive symptoms, respectively). These results suggest that less acculturated Chinese breast cancer survivors are protected by Chinese cultural values of emotional self-control and restraint, and thus do not experience the detrimental effects of AEE on their depressive symptoms and quality of life. Implications are discussed.
Discrimination, acculturation and other predictors of depression among pregnant Hispanic women.
Walker, Janiece L; Ruiz, R Jeanne; Chinn, Juanita J; Marti, Nathan; Ricks, Tiffany N
The purpose of our study was to examine the effects of socioeconomic status, acculturative stress, discrimination, and marginalization as predictors of depression in pregnant Hispanic women. A prospective observational design was used. Central and Gulf coast areas of Texas in obstetrical offices. A convenience sample of 515 pregnant, low income, low medical risk, and self-identified Hispanic women who were between 22-24 weeks gestation was used to collect data. The predictor variables were socioeconomic status, discrimination, acculturative stress, and marginalization. The outcome variable was depression. Education, frequency of discrimination, age, and Anglo marginality were significant predictors of depressive symptoms in a linear regression model, F (6, 458) = 8.36, Pdiscrimination was the strongest positive predictor of increased depressive symptoms. It is important that health care providers further understand the impact that age and experiences of discrimination throughout the life course have on depressive symptoms during pregnancy.
The Influence of Linguistic Acculturation and Gender on the Initiation of Substance Use among Mexican Heritage Preadolescents in the Borderlands
Marsiglia, Flavio F.; Yabiku, Scott T.; Kulis, Stephen; Nieri, Tanya; Parsai, Monica; Becerra, David
This article examined the impact of linguistic acculturation and gender on the substance use initiation of a sample of 1,473 Mexican heritage preadolescents attending 30 public schools in Phoenix, Arizona. It was hypothesized that linguistic acculturation operates differently as a risk or protective factor for young children than for older youth.…
The Role of Enculturation and Acculturation on Latina College Student Distress
Cano, Miguel Angel; Castillo, Linda G.
This study investigated the relationship of acculturation, enculturation, and White attitudinal marginalization with distress among 214 Latina college students. Results showed that 12% of the variance in perceived distress was accounted for by all predictor variables with only behavioral enculturation and White attitudinal marginalization being…
Coping strategies to manage acculturative stress: Meaningful activity participation, social support, and positive emotion among Korean immigrant adolescents in the USA
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Full Text Available During acculturation, Asian immigrant adolescents have numerous challenges such as language barriers, cultural and ethnic differences, different school environments, discrimination experiences, and intergroup conflicts and tension. These challenges generate acculturative stress, which negatively affects the perception of health and well-being among Asian immigrant adolescents. This article explored how Asian immigrant adolescents perceive and cope with acculturative stress. In particular, this study examined the stress-coping strategies in the adaptation process as experienced by Korean immigrant adolescents. Three main themes associated with the stress-coping strategies were captured: (a engagement in meaningful activities; (b social support; and (c positive emotion. This finding implies that Asian immigrant adolescents create and develop their own strategies to deal with acculturative stress, which results in a sense of happiness and psychological well-being. This study discuss the future implications on how to improve the perception of health and well-being among Asian immigrant adolescents.
Some Mid-Life Ruminations on the Human Capacity to Transcend One's Acculturation.
Rousseve, Ronald J.
The dialectical capacity of human consciousness enables us to generate alternatives in opposition to previous conditioning. Transcending one's acculturation need not leave one searching for gurus. Authentic personal meaning may be attained from an existential reawakening. (RM)
Acculturation Strategy, Integration Paradoxes and Educational Adaptation--A Case Study of Chinese Visiting Scholar's Family in the United States
Weidong, Li; Chen, Sisi
In this case study, we developed a theoretical framework for examining the relationship between acculturation strategy and educational adaptation. By interviews and observations of one Chinese visiting scholar's family in the United States, we found that the family utilized "integration" as the acculturation strategy to adapt to the US…
Association of depression, psycho-social stress and acculturation with respiratory disease among Puerto Rican adults in Massachusetts.
Henkin, Stanislav; Tucker, Katherine L; Gao, Xiang; Falcon, Luis M; Qawi, Imrana; Brugge, Doug
To assess associations between acculturation, depression, and self-reported stress score with reported diagnosis of respiratory disease (RD) in Puerto Rican adults, participants (N = 1,168) were identified from areas of high Hispanic density in the Boston, MA metropolitan area. Eligible participants were interviewed in the home by bilingual interviewers in either Spanish or English. Scales included topics ranging from general background to depressive symptomatology. Respiratory disease was self-reported and checked against prescribed medication. More than one-third (37.8%) of subjects reported doctor-diagnosed RD. A final binary logistical regression model (N = 850), which was adjusted for potential confounders (sex, age, education, poverty) showed that RD was significantly associated with psychological acculturation (OR = 1.97, P = 0.005), depressive symptomatology (OR = 1.52, P = 0.03) high perceived stress score (OR = 1.97, P = 0.009), and current smoking (OR = 1.61, P = 0.03). Significant inverse associations included a high level of language acculturation (OR = 0.65, P = 0.03), light (OR = 0.67, P = 0.01) and moderate to heavy physical activity versus sedentary physical activity (OR = 0.40, P = 0.03). We found self reported physician diagnosed RD was associated with high perceived stress and depression, as well as higher levels of psychological acculturation. Longitudinal research is needed to determine if there is a causal pathway for these associations.
Hispanic Men in the United States: Acculturation and Recent Sexual Behaviors With Female Partners, 2006–2010
Rhodes, Scott D.; Romaguera, Raul A.; Bloom, Fred R.; Leichliter, Jami S.
Objectives. We examined Hispanic men’s recent risky and protective sexual behaviors with female partners by acculturation. Methods. Using the 2006–2010 National Survey of Family Growth, we performed bivariate analyses to compare acculturation groups (Hispanic Spanish-speaking immigrants, Hispanic English-speaking immigrants, Hispanic US natives, and non-Hispanic White men) by demographics and recent sexual behaviors with women. Multivariable logistic regression models for sexual behaviors by acculturation group were adjusted for demographics. Results. Compared with Hispanic Spanish-speaking immigrants, non-Hispanic White men were less likely to report exchange of money or drugs for sex (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] = 0.3; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.1, 0.9), but were also less likely to report condom use at last vaginal (AOR = 0.6; 95% CI = 0.4, 0.8) and anal sex (AOR = 0.4; 95% CI = 0.3, 0.7). Hispanic US natives were less likely to report condom use at last vaginal sex than were Spanish-speaking immigrants (AOR = 0.6; 95% CI = 0.4, 0.8). English- and Spanish-speaking immigrants did not differ in risky or protective sexual behaviors. Conclusions. Our findings suggest that targeted interventions focusing on unique sexual risks and sociodemographic differences by acculturation level, particularly nativity, may be helpful for preventing sexually transmitted infections. PMID:26066961
Level of acculturation, food intake, dietary changes, and health status of first-generation Filipino Americans in Southern California.
Dela Cruz, Felicitas A; Lao, Brigette T; Heinlein, Catherine
This exploratory descriptive study investigates the acculturation level, food intake, dietary changes and practices, health status perceptions, and diet-related health indicators-body mass index (BMI), waist and hip circumferences, and waist-to-hip ratio-of first-generation Filipino Americans (FAs) in Southern California. Healthy FA adults-20 women and 10 men-were interviewed. Acculturation level was obtained using A Short Acculturation Scale for Filipino Americans. A 24-h dietary recall elicited their food intake. Survey questions revealed dietary changes and practices, health status perceptions, and sociodemographic characteristics. Height, weight, waist and hip circumferences were measured. FAs consider themselves more Filipino than American, but their acculturation level reflects transitioning into biculturalism. FAs relinquish, maintain, and adapt elements of both Philippine and U.S. cultures in food intake, dietary changes, and practices. Although FAs perceive their health status as very good to excellent, many exceed the cut-off points for BMI, waist circumference, and waist-to-hip ratio. This study underscores the importance of nurse practitioners and other healthcare givers conducting cultural dietary assessment as a basis for culturally appropriate dietary counseling. The inclusion of waist measurement to regularly monitor abdominal obesity-a predictor of cardiovascular disease and diabetes-is highly recommended. ©2013 The Author(s) ©2013 American Association of Nurse Practitioners.
Gender Differences in Stressors Related to Migration and Acculturation in Patients with Psychiatric Disorders and Turkish Migration Background.
Müller, Matthias Johannes; Koch, Eckhardt
Migration, acculturation, and psychiatric disorders may cause stress and adaptation processes differently in men and women, but empirical research is scarce. In a retrospective study n = 62 Turkish migrants and n = 62 native German inpatients with depressive or anxiety disorders, matched for age, gender, and diagnoses, were compared using a 10-item instrument for the assessment of migration- and acculturation related stressors (MIGSTR10). Gender differences in the prevalence of stressors and in the total sum of stressors were calculated and compared between migrants and indigenous patients. Results showed a higher global stress level in migrants and in women than in men with migration background. Regarding single stressors, the perceived loss of status was significantly more prevalent and more pronounced in men than in women (P stress should be taken into account in migration and acculturation research.
The Role of Acculturation in the Civic Engagement of Latino Immigrants
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Cristina Michele Tucker
Full Text Available Despite continued growth and dispersion of the Latino immigrant population in the United States, the lingering effects of a sluggish national economy and growing anti-immigrant sentiments have contributed to ongoing marginalization and exclusion, further hindering their participation in American civic life. Despite these challenges, Latino immigrants have remained engaged, yet the factors and processes that facilitate participation in American society remain poorly understood. Data from the Latino National Survey and focus groups with Latino immigrants were used to examine how variations in levels of acculturation, demographic characteristics, socioeconomic status (SES, and characteristics of the immigrant experience influence the civic engagement of Latino immigrants in American society. We found that citizenship, length of residence in the United States, and higher SES enhanced civic engagement, while brown skin color, migration for economic reasons, and Mexican ancestry decreased participation. The level of acculturation significantly moderated the effects of these contextual factors.
Disparities in drinking patterns and risks among ethnic majority and minority groups in China: The roles of acculturation, religion, family and friends.
He, Jianhui; Assanangkornchai, Sawitri; Cai, Le; McNeil, Edward
Studies investigating alcohol consumption related factors have rarely focused on the relationship between acculturation, religion and drinking patterns. The objective of this study is to explore the predictors of drinking patterns and their mutual relationships, especially acculturation, ethnicity and religion. A cross-sectional household survey using a multistage systematic sampling technique was conducted in Yunnan Province of China. A revised Vancouver Index of Acculturation (VIA) and Alcohol Use Disorder Identification Test (AUDIT) Chinese version were used to measure acculturation and drinking patterns. Structural equation modeling (SEM) was used to explore the structures of how predictors affect drinking patterns. A total of 977 subjects aged 12-35 years were surveyed. A higher percentage of binge drinking was found among Lisu people. However, the proportion of drinking until intoxication was highest among Han. Gender and enculturation had both direct (standardized β=-0.193, -0.079) and indirect effects (standardized β=-0.126, 0.033) on risky drinking pattern; perceived risk of alcohol consumption (-0.065), family drinking environment (0.061), and friend drinking environment (0.352) affected risky drinking pattern directly, while education level (0.066), ethnicity (-0.038), acculturation (0.012), religious belief (-0.038), and age group (0.088) had indirect effects. Risky drinking pattern was associated with gender and aboriginal culture enculturation both directly and indirectly, and related to mainstream culture acculturation and religious belief indirectly. Other demographic (such as education level) and social family factors (friend drinking environment for example) also had effects on risky drinking pattern. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
The relationship between psychosocial status, acculturation and country of origin in mid-life Hispanic women: data from the Study of Women's Health Across the Nation (SWAN).
Green, R; Santoro, N F; McGinn, A P; Wildman, R P; Derby, C A; Polotsky, A J; Weiss, G
To test the hypothesis that psychosocial symptomatology differs by country of origin and acculturation among Hispanic women, we examined 419 women, aged 42-52 years at baseline, enrolled in the New Jersey site of the Study of Women's Health Across the Nation (SWAN). Women were categorized into six groups: Central (CA, n = 29) or South American (SA, n = 106), Puerto Rican (PR, n = 56), Dominican (D, n = 42), Cuban (Cu, n = 44) and non-Hispanic Caucasian (NHC, n = 142). Acculturation, depressive symptoms, hostility/cynicism, mistreatment/discrimination, sleep quality, social support, and perceived stress were assessed at baseline. Physical functioning, trait anxiety and anger were assessed at the fourth annual follow-up. Comparisons between Hispanic and non-Hispanic Caucasians used χ², t test or non-parametric alternatives; ANOVA or Kruskal-Wallis testing examined differences among the five Hispanic sub-groups. Multivariable regression models used PR women as the reference group. Hispanic women were overall less educated, less acculturated (p stress, and less mistreatment/discrimination than NHCs. Along with D women, PR women reported worse sleep than Cu women (p acculturated (21.4% highly acculturated vs. CA (0.0%), D (4.8%), SA (4.8%) and Cu (2.3%) women; p acculturation was associated with more favorable psychosocial status, but PR ethnicity was negatively related to psychosocial status. Psychosocial symptomatology among Hispanic women differs by country of origin and the relatively adverse profile of Puerto Rican women is not explained by acculturation.
Acculturation and health-related quality of life: results from the German National Cohort migrant feasibility study.
Brand, Tilman; Samkange-Zeeb, Florence; Ellert, Ute; Keil, Thomas; Krist, Lilian; Dragano, Nico; Jöckel, Karl-Heinz; Razum, Oliver; Reiss, Katharina; Greiser, Karin Halina; Zimmermann, Heiko; Becher, Heiko; Zeeb, Hajo
We assessed the association between acculturation and health-related quality of life (HRQoL) among persons with a Turkish migrant background in Germany. 1226 adults of Turkish origin were recruited in four German cities. Acculturation was assessed using the Frankfurt Acculturation Scale resulting in four groups (integration, assimilation, separation and marginalization). Short Form-8 physical and mental components were used to assess the HRQoL. Associations were analysed with linear regression models. Of the respondents, 20% were classified as integrated, 29% assimilated, 29% separated and 19% as marginalized. Separation was associated with poorer physical and mental health (linear regression coefficient (RC) = -2.3, 95% CI -3.9 to -0.8 and RC = -2.4, 95% CI -4.4 to -0.5, respectively; reference: integration). Marginalization was associated with poorer mental health in descendants of migrants (RC = -6.4, 95% CI -12.0 to -0.8; reference: integration). Separation and marginalization are associated with a poorer HRQoL. Policies should support the integration of migrants, and health promotion interventions should target separated and marginalized migrants to improve their HRQoL.
The Knowing-Doing Gap in Advance Directives in Asian Americans: The Role of Education and Acculturation.
Jang, Yuri; Park, Nan Sook; Chiriboga, David A; Radhakrishnan, Kavita; Kim, Miyong T
The purposes of the present study were (1) to explore the completion rate of advance directives (ADs) in a sample of Asian Americans and (2) to examine the direct and moderating effects of knowledge of AD, education, and acculturation in predicting AD completion. Education and acculturation were conceptualized as moderators in the link between knowledge and completion of ADs. Using data from 2609 participants in the 2015 Asian American Quality of Life survey (aged 18-98), logistic regression analyses on AD completion were conducted, testing both direct and moderating effects. The overall AD completion rate in sample was about 12%. The AD knowledge and acculturation independently predicted AD completion. No direct effect of education was found; however, it interacted with AD knowledge. The AD knowledge was more likely to be translated into completion in the group with higher education. The AD completion rate observed in the present sample of Asian Americans was much lower than that of the US general population (26%-36%). The interactive role of education helps to explain the gap between AD knowledge and completion and suggests intervention strategies.
Acculturation strategies in migration stress among Kurdish men in Sweden: a narrative approach.
Taloyan, Marina; Johansson, Leena Maria; Saleh-Stattin, Nuha; Al-Windi, Ahmad
Acculturation is defined as cultural changes and consequences of long contact between two different cultural groups. A total of 10 Kurdish men, aged from 24 to 60 years, were interviewed face-to-face to explore the acculturation pattern reported by them through their individual life stories during the whole migration process. The analysis was based on the narrative methodology. The adjustment strategies identified were contributing to Kurdish culture and the home country, getting an education, creating one's own society/building a family, achieving inner security and balance, being active and occupied, and coping with ongoing political instability in the country of origin. The majority of them respond actively to stressful situations in their lives, and it is important for these Kurdish men to be included and acknowledged as individuals.
Second language learning and acculturation: The role of motivation and goal content congruence
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Full Text Available Abstract This study explored how having differing goals and motives for learning a second language influences adaptation in the foreign culture. Specifically, we compared English as a second language (ESL students in two programs, which differed in their long-term goal orientations. Some students were taking ESL courses in order to attend university in their second language, whereas other ESL students took courses that were not followed by an immediate reward. Students in both programs completed measures of acculturation as well as measures of intrinsic and extrinsic motivation for learning English. We found that adaptation to the foreign culture, in the form of acculturation, is best facilitated by congruence between students’ motives and goals. The findings are discussed in terms of their methodological and pedagogical implications
The influence of culture of honor and emotional intelligence in the acculturation of Moroccan immigrant women.
Lopez-Zafra, Esther; El Ghoudani, Karima
Migration is a normal process of people seeking new opportunities, work, or leisure in societies. The way people adapt to a new country (acculturation) is a complex process in which immigrants' evaluations about the culture of origin and their perceptions of the host country interact. The combination of these two factors produces four types of acculturation: separation, assimilation, integration, and marginalization. Several variables, such as personality, attitudes, and emotional intelligence, have been studied to help explain this process. However, the impact of a culture of honor and its interaction with other variables remains an open question that may help to explain how migrants can better adjust to their host culture. In this study, we examine the influence of the culture of honor (social) and emotional intelligence (individual) on acculturation. In a sample of 129 Moroccan women (mean age = 29, SD = 9.40) immigrants in Spain (mean time in Spain = 6 years, SD = 3.60), we investigated the relations among the variables of interest. Our results show that no significant differences emerged in the scores given for culture of honor (CH) and the acculturation strategies of the Moroccan immigrant women F(3, 99) = .233; p = .87. However women who preferred the integration strategy scored highest on emotional intelligence (EI), whereas the assimilated immigrants showed the lowest scores for EI F(3, 92) = 4.63; p = .005. Additionally, only in the case of integration does EI mediate between CH and the value given to the immigrant's own and host cultures (p <.001).
The development and psychometric testing of East Asian Acculturation Scale among Asian immigrant women in Taiwan.
Kuo, Shu-Fen; Chang, Wen-Yin; Chang, Lu-I; Chou, Yu-Hua; Chen, Ching-Min
This is a report of development and psychometric testing of the East Asian Acculturation Measure-Chinese version (EAAM-C) scale. An instrument validation design with a cross-sectional survey was conducted. The process was carried in two phases. In Phase 1, Barry's East Asian Acculturation Measure was translated and back translated to evaluate its content, face validity, and feasibility validity. In Phase 2, the 16-item EAAM-C was pilot-tested among 485 female immigrants for test-retest reliability, internal consistency, theoretically-supported construct validity and concurrent validity. The pilot work and the survey results indicated the tools possessed adequate content and face validity. The Cronbach's Alphas for the EAAM-C was 0.72, and 0.76-0.79 for its subscales, and the correlation of test-retest reliability (at 3 weeks) was 0.75. After dropping one item, four theoretically-supported factors which explained 61.82% of the variance were abstracted using exploratory factor analysis: assimilation, integration, separation, and marginalization. Based on the underlying four-factor theoretical structures of the EAAM, the confirmatory factor analysis of the EAAM-C was further examined. The analysis revealed that the four-factor model was an acceptable fit for the data which demonstrated adequate finding in its construct validity. These factors were inter-correlated, and showed statistically significant correlation with the Chinese Health Questionnaire, indicating adequate concurrent validity. The scale shows acceptable validity and consistency, and suggests that immigrant acculturation is a complex construct. This quick evaluation instrument can be applied to assess clients' acculturation and in further developing certain interventions to improve their health.
Preventing Smoking among Hispanic Preadolescents: Program Orientation, Participant Individualism-Collectivism, and Acculturation
Lopez, Stella G.; Garza, Raymond T.; Gonzalez-Blanks, Ana G.
The present study examined the role of individualism-collectivism (IC) and acculturation in smoking prevention programs for Hispanic preadolescents. The sixth graders received a collectivist or individualist curriculum. Both programs contained knowledge-based facts about smoking. The collectivist condition included an interdependent…
Resilience mediated the association between acculturation and psychological growth in college students from Hong Kong to Guangzhou, China.
Yu, Nancy Xiaonan; Liu, Chang; Yue, Zhenzhu
The number of Hong Kong citizens living in mainland China is increasing. The process of acculturation may create opportunities for psychological growth. This study aimed at examining whether resilience mediated the effects of acculturation on psychological growth in college students from Hong Kong to Guangzhou. In this cross-sectional survey, 164 college students in Guangzhou who were Hong Kong permanent residents (female: 46%, age: 21.09 ± 1.50) joined the study. The integration group reported more psychological growth than the assimilation, separation, and marginalization groups. Resilience partially mediated the effect of integration on psychological growth and fully mediated the effect of marginalization on psychological growth. Resilience represents one of the mechanisms to explain beneficial effects of integration on psychological growth in college students from Hong Kong to Guangzhou. Theoretical considerations to rethink the acculturation model, implications for developing intervention programs, and recommendations for future research are discussed.
Refugees, Migrants, Visitors and Internally Displaced Persons: Investigating Acculturation in Academia
Rowe, Nicholas; Martin, Rose; Knox, Sarah; Mabingo, Alfdaniels
What is the boundary of the academic space, and who can belong within it? The migration of skilled practitioners into Academia from other workplaces brings with it the opportunity to expand the understandings and functions of higher education. Similar to processes of geographic/political migration, the acculturation resulting from this…
Family Support and Family Negativity as Mediators of the Relation between Acculturation and Postpartum Weight in Low-Income Mexican-Origin Women.
Jewell, Shannon L; Letham-Hamlett, Kirsten; Hanna Ibrahim, Mariam; Luecken, Linda J; MacKinnon, David P
Obesity presents a significant health concern among low-income, ethnic minority women of childbearing age. The study investigated the influence of maternal acculturation, family negativity, and family support on postpartum weight loss among low-income Mexican-origin women. Low-income Mexican-origin women (N=322; 14% born in the U.S.) were recruited from a prenatal clinic in an urban area of the Southwest U.S. Acculturation was assessed during a prenatal home visit (26-38 weeks gestation), and post-birth family support and general family negativity were assessed at 6 weeks postpartum. Objective maternal weight measures were obtained at five time points across the first postpartum year. Higher acculturation predicted higher family support and family negativity. Higher family support predicted decreasing weight across the first postpartum year, and higher family negativity predicted higher weight at 6 weeks postpartum and increasing weight across the first postpartum year. In combination, family negativity and support mediated the impact of acculturation on postpartum weight gain. Cultural and family-related factors play a significant role in postpartum weight gain and loss for low-income Mexican-origin women.
Parent–Child Acculturation, Parenting, and Adolescent Depressive Symptoms in Chinese Immigrant Families
Kim, Su Yeong; Chen, Qi; Li, Jing; Huang, Xuan; Moon, Ui Jeong
Using a sample of 388 father–adolescent and 399 mother–adolescent dyads in Chinese immigrant families, the current investigation tested Portes and Rumbaut's (1996) assertion that generational dissonance may indicate a family context that places children at increased risk for adverse outcomes. Study findings suggest that a high discrepancy in father–adolescent acculturation levels relates significantly to more adolescent depressive symptoms. The study further demonstrates that the quality of the parenting relationship between fathers and adolescents operates as a mediator between father–adolescent acculturation discrepancy and adolescent depressive symptoms. Specifically, a high level of discrepancy in American orientation between fathers and adolescents is associated with unsupportive parenting practices, which, in turn, are linked to more adolescent depressive symptoms. These relationships are significant even after controlling for the influence of family socioeconomic status and parents’ and adolescents’ sense of discrimination within the larger society. PMID:19586205
Acculturation, immigration status and cardiovascular risk factors among Portuguese immigrants to Luxembourg: findings from ORISCAV-LUX study.
Alkerwi, Ala'a; Sauvageot, Nicolas; Pagny, Sybil; Beissel, Jean; Delagardelle, Charles; Lair, Marie-Lise
No previous study has examined the prevalence of cardiovascular risk factors and explored the influence of immigration status and acculturation on overweight/obesity among the Portuguese immigrants to Luxembourg. Our objectives were to (1) compare the prevalence of cardiovascular risk factors between native Luxembourgers and Portuguese immigrants, (2) examine the relationship between immigrant generation status, proportion of life spent in Luxembourg and language proficiency or preference (as proxy variables of acculturation) and overweight/obesity among Portuguese immigrants, and (3) elucidate the role of underlying socioeconomic, behavioral and dietary factors in overweight/obesity differences among the two populations. Recent national cross-sectional data from ORISCAV-LUX survey 2007-2008, composed of 843 subjects were analyzed. Overweight/obesity was defined as body mass index (BMI) >25 kg/m(2). Acculturation score was measured by using immigrant generation status, proportion of life spent in Luxembourg, and language proficiency or preference. Univariable and multivariable logistic regression analyses were performed to examine the association between acculturation markers and overweight/obesity. Further, a series of successive models were fitted to explore the separated and added impact of potential mediators (socioeconomic status, physical activity, dietary factors) on overweight/obesity among Luxembourgers and Portuguese immigrants. Compared to Luxembourgers, Portuguese immigrants of first and second generation were younger and currently employed. About 68% of first generation Portuguese had only primary school, and about 44% were living below poverty threshold. Although the cardiovascular risk factors were comparable, Portuguese immigrants were more frequently overweight and obese than Luxembourgers, even after age and gender standardization to the European population. Overweight/obesity was significantly higher among Portuguese of first generation compared
Acculturation, Discrimination, and Depressive Symptoms among Chinese American Adolescents: A Longitudinal Study
Juang, Linda P.; Cookston, Jeffrey T.
This study focused on the perceptions of discrimination for Chinese American adolescents: how perceptions changed over time, how generational status and acculturation were related to these changes, and whether earlier discrimination experiences were related to subsequent depressive symptomatology. The sample included 309 Chinese American…
Attachment, Coping, Acculturative Stress, and Quality of Life among Haitian Immigrants
Belizaire, Lonette S.; Fuertes, Jairo N.
This study investigated the relationship between attachment, coping, acculturative stress, and quality of life (QOL) in a sample of Haitian immigrants in the United States. Results indicated that an increase in years living in the United States and greater anxiety attachment were negatively associated with QOL and that higher levels of adaptive…
Gender, Development, Values, Adaptation, and Discrimination in Acculturating Adolescents: The Case of Turk Heritage Youth Born and Living in Belgium
Güngör, Derya; Bornstein, Marc H
This study addressed gender differences and similarities in acculturation, values, adaptation, and perceived discrimination among middle (14-17 years) and late (18-20 years) adolescents. Girls perceived less discrimination and showed better adaptation than did boys. All adolescents valued openness to change and self-transcendence similarly, but older adolescents attached greater importance to their heritage culture and conservatism. Overall, a larger gender gap in acculturation experiences em...
Examining the Impact of Latino Nativity, Migration, and Acculturation Factors on Colonoscopy Screening.
Costas-Muñiz, Rosario; Jandorf, Lina; Philip, Errol; Cohen, Noah; Villagra, Cristina; Sriphanlop, Pathu; Schofield, Elizabeth; DuHamel, Katherine
Latinos are a diverse population comprised of multiple countries of origin with varying cultural profiles. This study examines differences in colonoscopy completion across place of birth and migration-related factors in a sample of predominantly Dominican and Puerto Rican Latinos living in New York City after receiving a recommendation for colonoscopy screening and navigation services. The sample included 702 Latinos recruited for two cancer screening projects targeting Latinos eligible for colonoscopy who seek healthcare in New York City. Participants completed a survey that included sociodemographic, health-related questions, psychosocial assessments and cancer screening practices, in Spanish or English. Migration, acculturation, and language factors were found to predict colonoscopy completion. The results indicated that Latinos born in the Dominican Republic and Central America were more likely to complete a screening colonoscopy than their counterparts born in the US. Further, those who emigrated at an older age, who have resided in the US for less than 20 years, preferred Spanish and those with lower US acculturation levels were also more likely to complete a screening colonoscopy. The findings suggest that Latinos who are less acculturated to the US are more likely to complete a screening colonoscopy after receiving a physician recommendation for colonoscopy screening. The results provide important information that can inform clinical practice and public health interventions. Continued attention to cultural and migration influences are important areas for cancer screening intervention development.
Ethnicity and Acculturation: Influences on Asian American Consumers' Purchase Decision Making for Social Clothes.
Kang, Jikyeong; Kim, Youn-Kyung
Responses from 172 Chinese Americans, 185 Japanese Americans, and 144 Korean Americans revealed distinct reference group, media, and store attribute influences on clothing purchases. Patterns differed depending on degree of acculturation. (SK)
The association between acculturation and dietary patterns of South Asian immigrants.
Lesser, Iris A; Gasevic, Danijela; Lear, Scott A
Dietary acculturation, specifically the adoption of western dietary habits, may result in adverse health effects such as obesity and type 2 diabetes. Therefore, it is necessary to explore the role of acculturation in dietary patterns as well as awareness and knowledge of healthy nutrition among South Asian immigrants. This is an especially important population to target as South Asians have higher prevalence rates of type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease, which may be magnified with immigration. The current investigation is a sub-study of the Multi-Cultural Community Health Assessment Trial (M-CHAT). There were 207 participants of South Asian origin included in the initial study, 129 were born outside of Canada and had immigrated after the age of 18. The length of residence in Canada was used as a marker for acculturation. A questionnaire addressing perceived changes in dietary patterns, food preparation, and nutrition knowledge and awareness since immigration was used to assess dietary practices. The association between length of residence and variables related to perceived changes in dietary patterns was explored with Spearman correlation and significant associations were subsequently analyzed with ordinal logistic regression analysis adjusted for age, sex, education and body mass index. South Asian immigrants in Canada reported a variety of positive dietary practices, including an increased consumption of fruits and vegetables and an improvement in food preparation (including an increase in grilling and a decrease in deep frying when cooking). However, there was a reported increase in the consumption of convenience foods, sugar-sweetened beverages, red meat and in dining out. South Asian immigrants in Canada reported a variety of positive dietary practices including an improvement in food preparation. Future health promotion strategies should encourage cultural sensitivity in efforts to reduce the consumption of sugar-sweetened beverage, convenience foods
The association between acculturation and dietary patterns of South Asian immigrants.
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Iris A Lesser
Full Text Available Dietary acculturation, specifically the adoption of western dietary habits, may result in adverse health effects such as obesity and type 2 diabetes. Therefore, it is necessary to explore the role of acculturation in dietary patterns as well as awareness and knowledge of healthy nutrition among South Asian immigrants. This is an especially important population to target as South Asians have higher prevalence rates of type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease, which may be magnified with immigration. The current investigation is a sub-study of the Multi-Cultural Community Health Assessment Trial (M-CHAT. There were 207 participants of South Asian origin included in the initial study, 129 were born outside of Canada and had immigrated after the age of 18. The length of residence in Canada was used as a marker for acculturation. A questionnaire addressing perceived changes in dietary patterns, food preparation, and nutrition knowledge and awareness since immigration was used to assess dietary practices. The association between length of residence and variables related to perceived changes in dietary patterns was explored with Spearman correlation and significant associations were subsequently analyzed with ordinal logistic regression analysis adjusted for age, sex, education and body mass index. South Asian immigrants in Canada reported a variety of positive dietary practices, including an increased consumption of fruits and vegetables and an improvement in food preparation (including an increase in grilling and a decrease in deep frying when cooking. However, there was a reported increase in the consumption of convenience foods, sugar-sweetened beverages, red meat and in dining out. South Asian immigrants in Canada reported a variety of positive dietary practices including an improvement in food preparation. Future health promotion strategies should encourage cultural sensitivity in efforts to reduce the consumption of sugar-sweetened beverage
"Almost a Woman": A Look at Acculturation through Literature and Film
This article focuses on the complex web of issues involved in Esmeralda Santiago's acculturation to US society after arriving from Puerto Rico as a girl. The article is based on examples from Santiago's second memoir, "Almost a Woman" (1998) and the 2001 film adaptation of this memoir; the observations of critics who have written about…
School Engagement, Acculturation, and Mental Health among Migrant Adolescents in Israel
Shoshani, Anat; Nakash, Ora; Zubida, Hani; Harper, Robin A.
This study aimed to explore the role of school engagement and the mediation effect of acculturation in predicting 1.5 and second-generation migrant adolescents' mental health and risk behaviors. Participants included 448 seventh to tenth grade Israeli students (mean age 14.50, 53% boys): 128 non-Jewish 1.5 generation migrant adolescents (children…
Perceived ethnic discrimination, acculturation, and psychological distress in women of Turkish origin in Germany.
Aichberger, Marion C; Bromand, Zohra; Rapp, Michael A; Yesil, Rahsan; Montesinos, Amanda Heredia; Temur-Erman, Selver; Heinz, Andreas; Schouler-Ocak, Meryam
Discrimination is linked to various health problems, including mental disorders like depression and also has a negative effect on the access to mental health care services. Little is known about factors mitigating the association between ethnic discrimination and mental distress. The present study examined the extent of the relationship between perceived ethnic discrimination and psychological distress among women of Turkish origin residing in Berlin, and explored whether this association is moderated by acculturation strategies while controlling for known predictors of distress in migrant populations. A total of 205 women of Turkish origin participated in the study. 55.1% of the participants reported some degree of ethnic discrimination. The degree of reported discrimination varied according to acculturation. The highest level of ethnic discrimination was found in the second generation separated group and both generations of the marginalized group. Further, the results indicate an association between ethnic discrimination and distress while adjusting for known socio-demographic predictors of distress, migration-related factors, and neuroticism (B = 5.56, 95% CI 2.44-8.68, p acculturation strategy, showing an association only in the separated group. The findings highlight the effects of ethnic discrimination beyond the influence of known risk factor for psychological distress in migrants, such as unemployment, being single, having a limited residence permit or the presence of personality structures that may increase vulnerability for stress responses and mental disorders.
Using the Social, Attitudinal, Familial, and Environmental (S.A.F.E.) Acculturation Stress Scale to Assess the Adjustment Needs of Hispanic College Students.
Fuertes, Jairo N.; Westbrook, Franklin D.
Reexamined the validity and reliability of the 24-item S.A.F.E. scale and found it to be a reliable measure of Hispanics' acculturation stress. Also studied the effect of generational status, gender, and socioeconomic status on the levels of acculturation stress experienced by this sample. (RJM)
Generation and acculturation status are associated with dietary intake and body weight in Mexican American adolescents.
Liu, Ji-Hong; Chu, Yong H; Frongillo, Edward A; Probst, Janice C
Mexican American children are disproportionately affected by obesity. Data on how the acculturation process influences diet and body weight among adolescents are limited. We used the data from the 1999-2004 NHANES, restricting to 2286 Mexican American children between 12 and 19 y old. Acculturation was measured by generation status and language preference. Diet was assessed using 24-h diet recall. Multiple linear, Tobit, logistic, and quantile regression models were used. We found, after adjusting for socio-demographic factors, health, dietary intake, physical activity, and sedentary behaviors compared to the first generation, second and third generations had greater odds of overweight and obesity. Adolescents in the second generation had higher BMI Z-scores than adolescents in the first and third generations. Both second and third generation adolescents consumed less fruit, whole fruit, vegetables, grains, and meats but more sweetened beverages, whole grains, saturated fat, sodium, oil, and energy from discretionary foods. Higher language acculturation was associated with poorer diet and greater body weight. Our findings suggest that Mexican American adolescents face challenges in terms of poorer diet and excessive weight gain associated with their immigration experience.
Coping with a New Health Culture: Acculturation and Online Health Information Seeking Among Chinese Immigrants in the United States.
Wang, Weirui; Yu, Nan
As a culturally diverse country, the U.S. hosts over 39 million immigrants who may experience various cultural and linguistic obstacles to receiving quality health care. Considering online sources an important alternative for immigrants to access health information, this study investigates how Chinese immigrants in the U.S. seek health information online. A cross-sectional survey was conducted among Chinese immigrants who currently live in the U.S. to understand how acculturation strategies they use to adapt to the host society influence their Internet-based health information seeking behaviors. Our findings revealed that the language and web sources immigrants choose to use can be predicted by the acculturation strategies they utilize to cope with the new culture. This study serves as a timely and imperative call for further consideration of the role that acculturation plays in determining how immigrants seek health information and utilize the healthcare services of their host society.