WorldWideScience

Sample records for accretion discs formed

  1. How do accretion discs break?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dogan, Suzan

    2016-07-01

    Accretion discs are common in binary systems, and they are often found to be misaligned with respect to the binary orbit. The gravitational torque from a companion induces nodal precession in misaligned disc orbits. In this study, we first calculate whether this precession is strong enough to overcome the internal disc torques communicating angular momentum. We compare the disc precession torque with the disc viscous torque to determine whether the disc should warp or break. For typical parameters precession wins: the disc breaks into distinct planes that precess effectively independently. To check our analytical findings, we perform 3D hydrodynamical numerical simulations using the PHANTOM smoothed particle hydrodynamics code, and confirm that disc breaking is widespread and enhances accretion on to the central object. For some inclinations, the disc goes through strong Kozai cycles. Disc breaking promotes markedly enhanced and variable accretion and potentially produces high-energy particles or radiation through shocks. This would have significant implications for all binary systems: e.g. accretion outbursts in X-ray binaries and fuelling supermassive black hole (SMBH) binaries. The behaviour we have discussed in this work is relevant to a variety of astrophysical systems, for example X-ray binaries, where the disc plane may be tilted by radiation warping, SMBH binaries, where accretion of misaligned gas can create effectively random inclinations and protostellar binaries, where a disc may be misaligned by a variety of effects such as binary capture/exchange, accretion after binary formation.

  2. Broken discs: warp propagation in accretion discs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nixon, Christopher J.; King, Andrew R.

    2012-04-01

    We simulate the viscous evolution of an accretion disc around a spinning black hole. In general, any such disc is misaligned, and warped by the Lense-Thirring effect. Unlike previous studies, we use effective viscosities constrained to be consistent with the internal fluid dynamics of the disc. We find that non-linear fluid effects, which reduce the effective viscosities in warped regions, can promote breaking of the disc into two distinct planes. This occurs when the Shakura & Sunyaev dimensionless viscosity parameter α is ≲0.3 and the initial angle of misalignment between the disc and hole is ≳45°. The break can be a long-lived feature, propagating outwards in the disc on the usual alignment time-scale, after which the disc is fully co-aligned or counter-aligned with the hole. Such a break in the disc may be significant in systems where we know the inclination of the outer accretion disc to the line of sight, such as some X-ray binaries: the inner disc, and so any jets, may be noticeably misaligned with respect to the orbital plane.

  3. Strongly magnetized accretion discs require poloidal flux

    CERN Document Server

    Salvesen, Greg; Simon, Jacob B; Begelman, Mitchell C

    2016-01-01

    Motivated by indirect observational evidence for strongly magnetized accretion discs around black holes, and the novel theoretical properties of such solutions, we investigate how a strong magnetization state can develop and persist. To this end, we perform local simulations of accretion discs with an initially purely toroidal magnetic field of equipartition strength. We demonstrate that discs with zero net vertical magnetic flux and realistic boundary conditions cannot sustain a strong toroidal field. However, a magnetic pressure-dominated disc can form from an initial configuration with a sufficient amount of net vertical flux and realistic boundary conditions. Our results suggest that poloidal flux is a necessary prerequisite for the sustainability of strongly magnetized accretion discs.

  4. Strongly magnetized accretion discs require poloidal flux

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salvesen, Greg; Armitage, Philip J.; Simon, Jacob B.; Begelman, Mitchell C.

    2016-08-01

    Motivated by indirect observational evidence for strongly magnetized accretion discs around black holes, and the novel theoretical properties of such solutions, we investigate how a strong magnetization state can develop and persist. To this end, we perform local simulations of accretion discs with an initially purely toroidal magnetic field of equipartition strength. We demonstrate that discs with zero net vertical magnetic flux and realistic boundary conditions cannot sustain a strong toroidal field. However, a magnetic pressure-dominated disc can form from an initial configuration with a sufficient amount of net vertical flux and realistic boundary conditions. Our results suggest that poloidal flux is a necessary prerequisite for the sustainability of strongly magnetized accretion discs.

  5. Eclipse mapping of accretion discs

    CERN Document Server

    Baptista, R

    2000-01-01

    The eclipse mapping method is an inversion technique that makes use of the information contained in eclipse light curves to probe the structure, the spectrum and the time evolution of accretion discs. In this review I present the basics of the method and discuss its different implementations. I summarize the most important results obtained to date and discuss how they have helped to improve our understanding of accretion physics, from testing the theoretical radial brightness temperature distribution and measuring mass accretion rates to showing the evolution of the structure of a dwarf novae disc through its outburst cycle, from isolating the spectrum of a disc wind to revealing the geometry of disc spiral shocks. I end with an outline of the future prospects.

  6. Black hole accretion disc impacts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pihajoki, P.

    2016-04-01

    We present an analytic model for computing the luminosity and spectral evolution of flares caused by a supermassive black hole impacting the accretion disc of another supermassive black hole. Our model includes photon diffusion, emission from optically thin regions and relativistic corrections to the observed spectrum and time-scales. We test the observability of the impact scenario with a simulated population of quasars hosting supermassive black hole binaries. The results indicate that for a moderate binary mass ratio of 0.3, and impact distances of 100 primary Schwarzschild radii, the accretion disc impacts can be expected to equal or exceed the host quasar in brightness at observed wavelength λ = 510 nm up to z = 0.6. We conclude that accretion disc impacts may function as an independent probe for supermassive black hole binaries. We release the code used for computing the model light curves to the community.

  7. Black hole accretion disc impacts

    CERN Document Server

    Pihajoki, Pauli

    2015-01-01

    We present an analytic model for computing the luminosity and spectral evolution of flares caused by a supermassive black hole impacting the accretion disc of another supermassive black hole. Our model includes photon diffusion, emission from optically thin regions and relativistic corrections to the observed spectrum and time-scales. We test the observability of the impact scenario with a simulated population of quasars hosting supermassive black hole binaries. The results indicate that for a moderate binary mass ratio of 0.3, and impact distances of 100 primary Schwarzschild radii, the accretion disc impacts can be expected to equal or exceed the host quasar in brightness at observed wavelength {\\lambda} = 510 nm up to z = 0.6. We conclude that accretion disc impacts may function as an independent probe for supermassive black hole binaries. We release the code used for computing the model light curves to the community.

  8. Accreting planets as dust dams in `transition' discs

    CERN Document Server

    Owen, James E

    2014-01-01

    We investigate under what circumstances an embedded planet in a protoplanetary disc may sculpt the dust distribution such that it observationally presents as a `transition' disc. We concern ourselves with `transition' discs that have large holes ($\\gtrsim 10$ AU) and high accretion rates ($\\sim 10^{-9}-10^{-8}$ M$_\\odot$ yr$^{-1}$). Particularly, those discs which photoevaporative models struggle to explain. Assuming the standard picture for how massive planets sculpt their parent discs, along with the observed accretion rates in `transition' discs, we find that the accretion luminosity from the forming planet is significant, and can dominate over the stellar luminosity at the gap edge. This planetary accretion luminosity can apply a significant radiation pressure to small ($s\\lesssim 1\\mu$m) dust particles provided they are suitably decoupled from the gas. Secular evolution calculations that account for the evolution of the gas and dust components in a disc with an embedded, accreting planet, show that only ...

  9. Massive star formation by accretion. I. Disc accretion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haemmerlé, L.; Eggenberger, P.; Meynet, G.; Maeder, A.; Charbonnel, C.

    2016-01-01

    Context. Massive stars likely form by accretion and the evolutionary track of an accreting forming star corresponds to what is called the birthline in the Hertzsprung-Russell (HR) diagram. The shape of this birthline is quite sensitive to the evolution of the entropy in the accreting star. Aims: We first study the reasons why some birthlines published in past years present different behaviours for a given accretion rate. We then revisit the question of the accretion rate, which allows us to understand the distribution of the observed pre-main-sequence (pre-MS) stars in the HR diagram. Finally, we identify the conditions needed to obtain a large inflation of the star along its pre-MS evolution that may push the birthline towards the Hayashi line in the upper part of the HR diagram. Methods: We present new pre-MS models including accretion at various rates and for different initial structures of the accreting core. We compare them with previously published equivalent models. From the observed upper envelope of pre-MS stars in the HR diagram, we deduce the accretion law that best matches the accretion history of most of the intermediate-mass stars. Results: In the numerical computation of the time derivative of the entropy, some treatment leads to an artificial loss of entropy and thus reduces the inflation that the accreting star undergoes along the birthline. In the case of cold disc accretion, the existence of a significant swelling during the accretion phase, which leads to radii ≳ 100 R⊙ and brings the star back to the red part of the HR diagram, depends sensitively on the initial conditions. For an accretion rate of 10-3M⊙ yr-1, only models starting from a core with a significant radiative region evolve back to the red part of the HR diagram. We also obtain that, in order to reproduce the observed upper envelope of pre-MS stars in the HR diagram with an accretion law deduced from the observed mass outflows in ultra-compact HII regions, the fraction of the

  10. Magnetised accretion discs in Kerr spacetimes

    CERN Document Server

    Ranea-Sandoval, Ignacio F

    2014-01-01

    We study the effect caused by external magnetic fields on the observed thermal spectra and iron line profiles of thin accretion discs formed around Kerr black holes and naked singularities. We aim to provide a tool that can be used to estimate the presence of magnetic fields in the neighbourhood of a compact object and to probe the cosmic censorship conjecture in these particular astrophysical environments. We developed a numerical scheme able to calculate thermal spectra of magnetised Page-Thorne accretion discs formed around rotating black holes and naked singularities as seen by an arbitrary distant observer. We incorporated two different magnetic field configurations: uniform and dipolar, using a perturbative scheme in the coupling constant between matter and magnetic field strength. Under the same assumptions, we obtained observed synthetic line profiles of the 6.4 keV fluorescent iron line. We show that an external magnetic field produces potentially observable modifications on the thermal energy spectr...

  11. Accretion and plasma outflow from dissipationless discs

    OpenAIRE

    Bogovalov, Sergei; Kelner, Stanislav

    2008-01-01

    We consider an extreme case of disc accretion onto a gravitating centre when the viscosity in the disc is negligible. The angular momentum and the rotational energy of the accreted matter is carried out by a magnetized wind outflowing from the disc. The outflow of matter from the disc occurs due to the Blandford & Payne(1982) centrifugal mechanism. The disc is assumed to be cold. Accretion and outflow are connected by the conservation of the energy, mass and the angular momentum. The basic pr...

  12. Black hole feedback from thick accretion discs

    CERN Document Server

    Sadowski, Aleksander; Abramowicz, Marek A; Narayan, Ramesh

    2015-01-01

    We study energy flows in geometrically thick accretion discs, both optically thick and thin, using general relativistic, three-dimensional simulations of black hole accretion flows. We find that for non-rotating black holes the efficiency of the total feedback from thick accretion discs is $3\\%$ - roughly half of the thin disc efficiency. This amount of energy is ultimately distributed between outflow and radiation, the latter scaling weakly with the accretion rate for super-critical accretion rates, and returned to the interstellar medium. Accretion on to rotating black holes is more efficient because of the additional extraction of rotational energy. However, the jet component is collimated and likely to interact only weakly with the environment, whereas the outflow and radiation components cover a wide solid angle.

  13. Optically-thick accretion discs with advection

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈林红; 吴枚; 尚仁成

    2002-01-01

    The structures of optically-thick accretion discs with radial advection have been investigated by the iteration and integration algorithms. The advective cooling term changes mostly the inner part of disc solution, and even results in an optically-thick advection-dominated accretion flow (ADAF). Three distinct branches-the outer Shakura-Sunyaev disc (SSD), the inner ADAF and the middle transition layer-are found for a super-Eddington disc. The SSD-ADAF transition radius can be estimated as 18(M/ME)RG where RG is the Schwarzschild radius, M is the mass accretion rate and ME is the Eddington accretion rate. SSD solutions calculated with the iteration and integration methods are identical, while ADAF solutions obtained by these two methods differ greatly. Detailed algorithms and their differences have been analysed. The iteration algorithm is not self-consistent, since it implies that the dimensionless advection factor ξ is invariant, but in the inner ADAF region the variation of ξ is not negligible. The integration algorithm is always effective for the whole region of an optically-thick disc if the accretion rate is no smaller than 10-4ME. For optically-thin discs, the validity of these two algorithms is different. We suggest that the integration method be employed to calculate the global solution of a disc model without assuming ξ to be a constant. We also discuss its application to the emergent continuum spectrum in order to explain observational facts.

  14. Magnetohydrodynamic turbulence in warped accretion discs

    CERN Document Server

    Torkelsson, U; Brandenburg, A; Pringle, J E; Nordlund, A A; Stein, R F; Nordlund, AA.

    2001-01-01

    Warped, precessing accretion discs appear in a range of astrophysical systems, for instance the X-ray binary Her X-1 and in the active nucleus of NGC4258. In a warped accretion disc there are horizontal pressure gradients that drive an epicyclic motion. We have studied the interaction of this epicyclic motion with the magnetohydrodynamic turbulence in numerical simulations. We find that the turbulent stress acting on the epicyclic motion is comparable in size to the stress that drives the accretion, however an important ingredient in the damping of the epicyclic motion is its parametric decay into inertial waves.

  15. Migration of accreting planets in radiative discs from dynamical torques

    CERN Document Server

    Pierens, Arnaud

    2016-01-01

    We present the results of hydrodynamical simulations of the orbital evolution of planets undergoing runaway gas accretion in radiative discs. We consider accreting disc models with constant mass flux through the disc, and where radiative cooling balances the effect of viscous heating and stellar irradiation. We assume that 20-30 $M_\\oplus$ giant planet cores are formed in the region where viscous heating dominates and migrate outward under the action of a strong corotation torque. In the case where gas accretion is neglected, we find evidence for strong dynamical torques in accreting discs with accretion rates ${\\dot M}\\gtrsim 7\\times 10^{-8} \\;M_\\odot/yr$. Their main effect is to increase outward migration rates by a factor of $\\sim 2$ typically. In the presence of gas accretion, however, runaway outward migration is observed with the planet passing through the zero-torque radius and the transition between the viscous heating and stellar heating dominated regimes. The ability for an accreting planet to enter...

  16. Accretion Discs Show Their True Colours

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-07-01

    Quasars are the brilliant cores of remote galaxies, at the hearts of which lie supermassive black holes that can generate enough power to outshine the Sun a trillion times. These mighty power sources are fuelled by interstellar gas, thought to be sucked into the hole from a surrounding 'accretion disc'. A paper in this week's issue of the journal Nature, partly based on observations collected with ESO's Very Large Telescope, verifies a long-standing prediction about the intensely luminous radiation emitted by these accretion discs. Uncovering the disc ESO PR Photo 21/08 Uncovering the inner disc "Astronomers were puzzled by the fact that the best models of these discs couldn't quite be reconciled with some of the observations, in particular, with the fact that these discs did not appear as blue as they should be," explains lead-author Makoto Kishimoto. Such a discrepancy could be the signal that there was something very wrong with the models. With his colleagues, he investigated this discrepancy by studying the polarised light from six quasars. This enabled them to demonstrate that the disc spectrum is as blue as predicted. "The crucial observational difficulty here has been that the disc is surrounded by a much larger torus containing hot dust, whose light partly outshines that of the disc," says Kishimoto. "Because the light coming from the disc is scattered in the disc vicinity and thus polarised, by observing only polarised light from the quasars, one can uncover the buried light from the disc." In a similar way that a fisherman would wear polarised sunglasses to help get rid of the glare from the water surface and allow him to see more clearly under the water, the filter on the telescope allowed the astronomers to see beyond surrounding clouds of dust and gas to the blue colour of the disc in infrared light. The observations were done with the FORS and ISAAC instruments on one of the 8.2-m Unit Telescopes of ESO's Very Large Telescope, located in the Atacama

  17. Eclipse Mapping: Astrotomography of Accretion Discs

    CERN Document Server

    Baptista, Raymundo

    2015-01-01

    The Eclipse Mapping Method is an indirect imaging technique that transforms the shape of the eclipse light curve into a map of the surface brightness distribution of the occulted regions. Three decades of application of this technique to the investigation of the structure, the spectrum and the time evolution of accretion discs around white dwarfs in cataclysmic variables have enriched our understanding of these accretion devices with a wealth of details such as (but not limited to) moving heating/cooling waves during outbursts in dwarf novae, tidally-induced spiral shocks of emitting gas with sub-Keplerian velocities, elliptical precessing discs associated to superhumps, and measurements of the radial run of the disc viscosity through the mapping of the disc flickering sources. This chapter reviews the principles of the method, discusses its performance, limitations, useful error propagation procedures, as well as highlights a selection of applications aimed at showing the possible scientific problems that ha...

  18. Modeling quasar accretion disc temperature profiles

    CERN Document Server

    Hall, Patrick B; Chajet, L S; Weiss, E; Nixon, C J

    2013-01-01

    Microlensing observations indicate that quasar accretion discs have half-light radii larger than expected from standard theoretical predictions based on quasar fluxes or black hole masses. Blackburne and colleagues have also found a very weak wavelength dependence of these half-light radii. We consider disc temperature profile models that might match these observations. Nixon and colleagues have suggested that misaligned accretion discs around spinning black holes will be disrupted at radii small enough for the Lense-Thirring torque to overcome the disc's viscous torque. Gas in precessing annuli torn off a disc will spread radially and intersect with the remaining disc, heating the disc at potentially large radii. However, if the intersection occurs at an angle of more than a degree or so, highly supersonic collisions will shock-heat the gas to a Compton temperature of T~10^7 K, and the spectral energy distributions (SEDs) of discs with such shock-heated regions are poor fits to observations of quasar SEDs. T...

  19. Satellites in discs regulating the accretion luminosity

    CERN Document Server

    Syer, D; Syer, Dave; Clarke, Cathie

    1995-01-01

    We demonstrate, using a simple analytic model, that the presence of a massive satellite can globally modify the structure and emission properties of an accretion disc to which it is tidally coupled. We show, using two levels of numerical approximation, that the analytic model gives reasonable results. The results are applicable to two astrophysical situations. In the case of an active galactic nucleus, we consider the case of a \\sim 10^3\\Msun compact companion to the central black-hole and show that it could modulate the emitted spectrum on a timescale of \\sim10^5 years. In the case of a T Tauri accretion disc, a satellite such as a sub-dwarf or giant planet could modify the disc spectral energy distribution over a substantial fraction of the T Tauri star lifetime.

  20. Migration of accreting planets in radiative discs from dynamical torques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pierens, A.; Raymond, S. N.

    2016-11-01

    We present the results of hydrodynamical simulations of the orbital evolution of planets undergoing runaway gas accretion in radiative discs. We consider accreting disc models with constant mass flux through the disc, and where radiative cooling balances the effect of viscous heating and stellar irradiation. We assume that 20-30 M⊕ giant planet cores are formed in the region where viscous heating dominates and migrate outward under the action of a strong entropy-related corotation torque. In the case where gas accretion is neglected and for an α viscous stress parameter α = 2 × 10-3, we find evidence for strong dynamical torques in accreting discs with accretion rates {dot{M}}≳ 7× 10^{-8} M_{⊙} yr{}^{-1}. Their main effect is to increase outward migration rates by a factor of ˜2 typically. In the presence of gas accretion, however, runaway outward migration is observed with the planet passing through the zero-torque radius and the transition between the viscous heating and stellar heating dominated regimes. The ability for an accreting planet to enter a fast migration regime is found to depend strongly on the planet growth rate, but can occur for values of the mass flux through the disc of {dot{M}}≳ 5× 10^{-8} M_{⊙} yr{}^{-1}. We find that an episode of runaway outward migration can cause an accreting planet formed in the 5-10 au region to temporarily orbit at star-planet separations as large as ˜60-70 au. However, increase in the amplitude of the Lindblad torque associated with planet growth plus change in the streamline topology near the planet systematically cause the direction of migration to be reversed. Subsequent evolution corresponds to the planet migrating inward rapidly until it becomes massive enough to open a gap in the disc and migrate in the type II regime. Our results indicate that a planet can reach large orbital distances under the combined effect of dynamical torques and gas accretion, but an alternative mechanism is required to

  1. Virial theorem for radiating accretion discs

    OpenAIRE

    Mach, Patryk

    2011-01-01

    A continuum version of the virial theorem is derived for a radiating self-gravitating accretion disc around a compact object. The central object is point-like, but we can avoid the regularization of its gravitational potential. This is achieved by applying a modified Pohozaev-Rellich identity to the gravitational potential of the disk only. The theorem holds for general stationary configurations, including discontinuous flows (shock waves, contact discontinuities). It is used to test numerica...

  2. Magnetically driven accretion in protoplanetary discs

    CERN Document Server

    Simon, Jacob B; Kunz, Matthew W; Armitage, Philip J

    2015-01-01

    We characterize magnetically driven accretion at radii between 1 au and 100 au in protoplanetary discs, using a series of local non-ideal magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) simulations. The simulations assume a Minimum Mass Solar Nebula (MMSN) disc that is threaded by a net vertical magnetic field of specified strength. Confirming previous results, we find that the Hall effect has only a modest impact on accretion at 30 au, and essentially none at 100 au. At 1-10 au the Hall effect introduces a pronounced bi-modality in the accretion process, with vertical magnetic fields aligned to the disc rotation supporting a strong laminar Maxwell stress that is absent if the field is anti-aligned. In the anti-aligned case, we instead find evidence for bursts of turbulent stress at 5-10 au, which we tentatively identify with the non-axisymmetric Hall-shear instability. The presence or absence of these bursts depends upon the details of the adopted chemical model, which suggests that appreciable regions of actual protoplanetary di...

  3. Spiral waves in accretion discs - observations

    CERN Document Server

    Steeghs, D

    2000-01-01

    I review the observational evidence for spiral structure in the accretion discs of cataclysmic variables (CVs). Doppler tomography is ideally suited to resolve and map such co-rotating patterns and allows a straightforward comparison with theory. The dwarf nova IP Pegasi presents the best studied case, carrying two spiral arms in a wide range of emission lines throughout its outbursts. Both arms appear at the locations where tidally driven spiral waves are expected, with the arm closest to the gas stream weaker in the lines compared to the arm closest to the companion. Eclipse data indicates sub-Keplerian velocities in the outer disc. The dramatic disc structure changes in dwarf novae on timescales of days to weeks, provide unique opportunities for our understanding of angular momentum transport and the role of density waves on the structure of accretion discs. I present an extension to the Doppler tomography technique that relaxes one of the basic assumptions of tomography, and is able to map modulated emiss...

  4. Massive star formation by accretion I. Disc accretion

    CERN Document Server

    Haemmerlé, Lionel; Meynet, Georges; Maeder, André; Charbonnel, Corinne

    2016-01-01

    Massive stars likely form by accretion and the evolutionary track of an accreting forming star corresponds to what is called the birthline in the HR diagram. The shape of this birthline is quite sensitive to the evolution of the entropy in the accreting star. We first study the reasons why some birthlines published in past years present different behaviours for a given accretion rate. We then revisit the question of the accretion rate, which allows us to understand the distribution of the observed pre-main-sequence (pre-MS) stars in the Hertzsprung-Russell (HR) diagram. Finally, we identify the conditions needed to obtain a large inflation of the star along its pre-MS evolution that may push the birthline towards the Hayashi line in the upper part of the HR diagram. We present new pre-MS models including accretion at various rates and for different initial structures of the accreting core. From the observed upper envelope of pre-MS stars in the HR diagram, we deduce the accretion law that best matches the acc...

  5. Face-on accretion onto a protoplanetary disc

    CERN Document Server

    Wijnen, T P G; Pelupessy, F I; Zwart, S Portegies

    2016-01-01

    Globular clusters (GCs) are known to harbor multiple stellar populations. To explain these observations Bastian et al. suggested a scenario in which a second population is formed by the accretion of enriched material onto the low-mass stars in the initial GC population. The idea is that the low-mass, pre-main sequence stars sweep up gas expelled by the massive stars of the same generation into their protoplanetary disc as they move through the GC core. We perform simulations with 2 different smoothed particle hydrodynamics codes to investigate if a low-mass star surrounded by a protoplanetary disc can accrete the amount of enriched material required in this scenario. We focus on the gas loading rate onto the disc and star as well as on the lifetime of the disc. We find that the gas loading rate is a factor of 2 smaller than the geometric rate, because the effective cross section of the disc is smaller than its surface area. The loading rate is consistent for both codes, irrespective of resolution. The disc ga...

  6. Face-on accretion onto a protoplanetary disc

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wijnen, T. P. G.; Pols, O. R.; Pelupessy, F. I.; Portegies Zwart, S.

    2016-10-01

    Context. Stars are generally born in clustered stellar environments, which can affect their subsequent evolution. An example of this environmental influence can be found in globular clusters (GCs) harbouring multiple stellar populations. An evolutionary scenario in which a second (and possibly higher order) population is formed by the accretion of chemically enriched material onto the low-mass stars in the initial GC population has been suggested to explain the multiple stellar populations. The idea, dubbed early disc accretion, is that the low-mass, pre-main-sequence stars sweep up gas expelled by the more massive stars of the same generation into their protoplanetary disc as they move through the cluster core. The same process could also occur, to a lesser extent, in embedded stellar systems that are less dense. Aims: Using assumptions that represent the (dynamical) conditions in a typical GC, we investigate whether a low-mass star of 0.4 M⊙ surrounded by a protoplanetary disc can accrete a sufficient amount of enriched material to account for the observed abundances in so-called second generation GC stars. In particular, we focus on the gas-loading rate onto the disc and star, as well as on the lifetime and stability of the disc. Methods: We perform simulations at multiple resolutions with two different smoothed particle hydrodynamics codes and compare the results. Each code uses a different implementation of the artificial viscosity. Results: We find that the gas-loading rate is about a factor of two smaller than the rate based on geometric arguments, because the effective cross-section of the disc is smaller than its surface area. Furthermore, the loading rate is consistent for both codes, irrespective of resolution. Although the disc gains mass in the high-resolution runs, it loses angular momentum on a timescale of 104 yr. Two effects determine the loss of (specific) angular momentum in our simulations: (1) continuous ram pressure stripping and (2

  7. Type I migration in optically thick accretion discs

    OpenAIRE

    Yamada, K; Inaba, S.

    2012-01-01

    We study the torque acting on a planet embedded in an optically thick accretion disc, using global two-dimensional hydrodynamic simulations. The temperature of an optically thick accretion disc is determined by the energy balance between the viscous heating and the radiative cooling. The radiative cooling rate depends on the opacity of the disc. The opacity is expressed as a function of the temperature. We find the disc is divided into three regions that have different temperature distributio...

  8. The growth of planets by pebble accretion in evolving protoplanetary discs

    CERN Document Server

    Bitsch, Bertram; Johansen, Anders

    2015-01-01

    The formation of planets depends on the underlying protoplanetary disc structure, which influences both the accretion and migration rates of embedded planets. The disc itself evolves on time-scales of several Myr during which both temperature and density profiles change as matter accretes onto the central star. Here we use a detailed model of an evolving disc to determine the growth of planets by pebble accretion and their migration through the disc. Cores that reach their pebble isolation mass accrete gas to finally form giant planets with extensive gas envelopes, while planets that do not reach pebble isolation mass are stranded as ice giants and ice planets containing only minor amounts of gas in their envelopes. Unlike earlier population synthesis models, our model works without any artificial reductions in migration speed and for protoplanetary discs with gas and dust column densities similar to those inferred from observations. We find that in our nominal disc model the emergence of planetary embryos pr...

  9. The dynamics of eccentric accretion discs in superhump systems

    CERN Document Server

    Goodchild, S; Goodchild, Simon; Ogilvie, Gordon

    2006-01-01

    We have applied an eccentric accretion disc theory in simplified form to the case of an accretion disc in a binary system, where the disc contains the 3:1 Lindblad resonance. This is relevant to the case of superhumps in SU Ursae Majoris cataclysmic variables and other systems, where it is thought that this resonance leads to growth of eccentricity and a modulation in the light curve due to the interaction of a precessing eccentric disc with tidal stresses. A single differential equation is formulated which describes the propagation, resonant excitation and viscous damping of eccentricity. The theory is first worked out in the simple case of a narrow ring and leads to the conclusion that the eccentricity distribution is locally suppressed by the presence of the resonance, creating a dip in the eccentricity at the resonant radius. Application of this theory to the superhump case confirms this conclusion and produces a more accurate expression for the precession rate of the disc than has been previously accompl...

  10. Bulk Comptonization by turbulence in accretion discs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaufman, J.; Blaes, O. M.

    2016-06-01

    Radiation pressure dominated accretion discs around compact objects may have turbulent velocities that greatly exceed the electron thermal velocities within the disc. Bulk Comptonization by the turbulence may therefore dominate over thermal Comptonization in determining the emergent spectrum. Bulk Comptonization by divergenceless turbulence is due to radiation viscous dissipation only. It can be treated as thermal Comptonization by solving the Kompaneets equation with an equivalent `wave' temperature, which is a weighted sum over the power present at each scale in the turbulent cascade. Bulk Comptonization by turbulence with non-zero divergence is due to both pressure work and radiation viscous dissipation. Pressure work has negligible effect on photon spectra in the limit of optically thin turbulence, and in this limit radiation viscous dissipation alone can be treated as thermal Comptonization with a temperature equivalent to the full turbulent power. In the limit of extremely optically thick turbulence, radiation viscous dissipation is suppressed, and the evolution of local photon spectra can be understood in terms of compression and expansion of the strongly coupled photon and gas fluids. We discuss the consequences of these effects for self-consistently resolving and interpreting turbulent Comptonization in spectral calculations in radiation magnetohydrodynamic simulations of high luminosity accretion flows.

  11. Outflows from dynamo-active protostellar accretion discs

    CERN Document Server

    Von Rekowski, B; Dobler, W; Shukurov, A M; Brandenburg, Axel; Dobler, Wolfgang; Rekowski, Brigitta von; Shukurov, Anvar

    2003-01-01

    An axisymmetric model of a cool, dynamo-active accretion disc is applied to protostellar discs. Thermally and magnetically driven outflows develop that are not collimated within 0.1 AU. In the presence of a central magnetic field from the protostar, accretion onto the protostar is highly episodic, which is in agreement with earlier work.

  12. Some challenges and directions for next generation accretion disc theory

    CERN Document Server

    Blackman, Eric G

    2015-01-01

    Accretion disc theory is far less developed than that of stellar evolution, although a similarly mature phenomenological picture is ultimately desired. While conceptual progress from the interplay of theory and numerical simulations has amplified awareness of the role of magnetic fields in angular momentum transport, there remains a significant gap between the output of magneto-rotational instability (MRI) simulations and the synthesis of lessons learned into improved practical models. If discs are turbulent, then axisymmetric models must be recognized to be sensible only as mean field theories. Such is the case for the wonderfully practical and widely used framework of Shakura-Sunyaev (SS73). This model is most justifiable when the radial angular momentum transport dominates in discs and the transport is assumed to take the form of a local viscosity. However, the importance of large scale fields in coronae and jets and numerical evidence from MRI simulations points to a significant fraction of transport bein...

  13. The evolution of misaligned accretion discs and spinning black holes

    CERN Document Server

    Pringle, J E

    2006-01-01

    In this paper we consider the process of alignment of a spinning black hole and a surrounding misaligned accretion disc. We use a simplified set of equations, that describe the evolution of the system in the case where the propagation of warping disturbances in the accretion disc occurs diffusively, a situation likely to be common in the thin discs in Active Galactic Nuclei (AGN). We also allow the direction of the hole spin to move under the action of the disc torques. In such a way, the evolution of the hole-disc system is computed self-consistently. We consider a number of different situations and we explore the relevant parameter range, by varying the location of the warp radius $R_{\\rm w}$ and the propagation speed of the warp. We find that the dissipation associated with the twisting of the disc results in a large increase in the accretion rate through the disc, so that AGN accreting from a misaligned disc are likely to be significantly more luminous than those accreting from a flat disc. We compute exp...

  14. The evolution of misaligned accretion discs and spinning black holes

    OpenAIRE

    LODATO G; Pringle, J. E.

    2006-01-01

    In this paper we consider the process of alignment of a spinning black hole and a surrounding misaligned accretion disc. We use a simplified set of equations, that describe the evolution of the system in the case where the propagation of warping disturbances in the accretion disc occurs diffusively, a situation likely to be common in the thin discs in Active Galactic Nuclei (AGN). We also allow the direction of the hole spin to move under the action of the disc torques. In such a way, the evo...

  15. Convection in axially symmetric accretion discs with microscopic transport coefficients

    CERN Document Server

    Malanchev, K L; Shakura, N I

    2016-01-01

    The vertical structure of stationary thin accretion discs is calculated from the energy balance equation with heat generation due to microscopic ion viscosity {\\eta} and electron heat conductivity {\\kappa}, both depending on temperature. In the optically thin discs it is found that for the heat conductivity increasing with temperature, the vertical temperature gradient exceeds the adiabatic value at some height, suggesting convective instability in the upper disc layer. There is a critical Prandtl number, Pr = 4/9, above which a Keplerian disc become fully convective. The vertical density distribution of optically thin laminar accretion discs as found from the hydrostatic equilibrium equation cannot be generally described by a polytrope but in the case of constant viscosity and heat conductivity. In the optically thick discs with radiation heat transfer, the vertical disc structure is found to be convectively stable for both absorption dominated and scattering dominated opacities, unless a very steep dependen...

  16. The growth of planets by pebble accretion in evolving protoplanetary discs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bitsch, Bertram; Lambrechts, Michiel; Johansen, Anders

    2015-10-01

    The formation of planets depends on the underlying protoplanetary disc structure, which in turn influences both the accretion and migration rates of embedded planets. The disc itself evolves on time scales of several Myr, during which both temperature and density profiles change as matter accretes onto the central star. Here we used a detailed model of an evolving disc to determine the growth of planets by pebble accretion and their migration through the disc. Cores that reach their pebble isolation mass accrete gas to finally form giant planets with extensive gas envelopes, while planets that do not reach pebble isolation mass are stranded as ice giants and ice planets containing only minor amounts of gas in their envelopes. Unlike earlier population synthesis models, our model works without any artificial reductions in migration speed and for protoplanetary discs with gas and dust column densities similar to those inferred from observations. We find that in our nominal disc model, the emergence of planetary embryos preferably should occur after approximately 2 Myr in order to not exclusively form gas giants, but also ice giants and smaller planets. The high pebble accretion rates ensure that critical core masses for gas accretion can be reached at all orbital distances. Gas giant planets nevertheless experience significant reduction in semi-major axes by migration. Considering instead planetesimal accretion for planetary growth, we show that formation time scales are too long to compete with the migration time scales and the dissipation time of the protoplanetary disc. All in all, we find that pebble accretion overcomes many of the challenges in the formation of ice and gas giants in evolving protoplanetary discs. Appendices are available in electronic form at http://www.aanda.org

  17. Black hole accretion discs and screened scalar hair

    CERN Document Server

    Davis, Anne-Christine; Jha, Rahul

    2016-01-01

    We present a novel way to investigate scalar field profiles around black holes with an accretion disc for a range of models where the Compton wavelength of the scalar is large compared to other length scales. By analysing the problem in "Weyl" coordinates, we are able to calculate the scalar profiles for accretion discs in the static Schwarzschild, as well as rotating Kerr, black holes. We comment on observational effects.

  18. Black hole accretion discs and screened scalar hair

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Anne-Christine; Gregory, Ruth; Jha, Rahul

    2016-10-01

    We present a novel way to investigate scalar field profiles around black holes with an accretion disc for a range of models where the Compton wavelength of the scalar is large compared to other length scales. By analysing the problem in ``Weyl" coordinates, we are able to calculate the scalar profiles for accretion discs in the static Schwarzschild, as well as rotating Kerr, black holes. We comment on observational effects.

  19. Some Interesting Behaviour of Accreting Particles in the Gap Region of Black Hole Accretion Discs

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Ding-Xiong; XIAO Kan; LEI Wei-Hua

    2001-01-01

    Some interesting behaviour of accreting particles in the gap region between the horizon of the Kerr black hole and the inner edge of the surrounding disc is investigated. The following results are obtained. (i) Spacetime coincidence of the maximum of angular velocity of accreting particles and that of the black hole horizon is extended to the more general disc-accretion. (ii) The possibility is discussed of negative energy of accreting particles in prograde orbit inside the ergosphere of the Kerr black hole, which is surrounded by strong enough magnetic field.

  20. Oscillations of Thick Accretion Discs Around Black Holes - II

    CERN Document Server

    Rubio-Herrera, E; Rubio-Herrera, Eduardo; Lee, William H.

    2005-01-01

    We present a numerical study of the global modes of oscillation of thick accretion discs around black holes. We have previously studied the case of constant distributions of specific angular momentum. In this second paper, we investigate (i) how the size of the disc affects the oscillation eigenfrequencies, and (ii) the effect of power-law distributions of angular momentum on the oscillations. In particular, we compare the oscillations of the disc with the epicyclic eigenfrequencies of a test particle with different angular momentum distributions orbiting around the central object. We find that there is a frequency shift away from the epicyclic eigenfrequency of the test particle to lower values as the size of the tori is increased. We have also studied the response of a thick accretion disc to a localized external perturbation using non constant specific angular momentum distributions within the disc. We find that in this case it is also possible (as reported previously for constant angular momentum distribu...

  1. Accretion and magnetic field morphology around Class 0 stage protostellar discs

    CERN Document Server

    Seifried, D; Pudritz, R E; Klessen, R S

    2014-01-01

    We analyse the results of existing and newly performed and simulations of turbulent, collapsing molecular cloud cores focussing on the formation of Class 0 stage protostellar discs and the physical conditions in their surroundings. We show that for a wide range of initial conditions rotationally supported discs are formed in the Class 0 stage already. In particular, we show that even mild, i.e. subsonic turbulent motions, reduce the magnetic braking efficiency sufficiently in order to allow Keplerian discs to form. Based on this result we suggest that already during the Class 0 stage the fraction of Keplerian discs is significantly higher than 50%. This is consistent with recent observational trends but significantly higher than predictions based on simulations with misaligned magnetic fields and disc angular momentum vectors, demonstrating the importance of turbulent motions for the formation of Keplerian discs. We show that the accretion of mass and angular momentum in the surroundings of protostellar discs...

  2. Suppression of the accretion rate in thin discs around binary black holes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ragusa, Enrico; Lodato, Giuseppe; Price, Daniel J.

    2016-08-01

    We present three-dimensional Smoothed Particle Hydrodynamics (SPH) simulations investigating the dependence of the accretion rate on the disc thickness around an equal-mass, circular black hole binary system. We find that for thick/hot discs, with H/R ≳ 0.1, the binary torque does not prevent the gas from penetrating the cavity formed in the disc by the binary (in line with previous investigations). The situation drastically changes for thinner discs; in this case the mass accretion rate is suppressed, such that only a fraction (linearly dependent on H/R) of the available gas is able to flow within the cavity and accrete on to the binary. Extrapolating this result to the cold and thin accretion discs expected around supermassive black hole binary systems implies that this kind of system accretes less material than predicted so far, with consequences not only for the electromagnetic and gravitational waves emissions during the late inspiral phase but also for the recoil speed of the black hole formed after binary coalescence, thus influencing also the evolutionary path both of the binary and of the host galaxy. Our results, being scale-free, are also applicable to equal-mass, circular binaries of stellar mass black holes, such as the progenitor of the recently discovered gravitational wave source GW150914.

  3. Suppression of the accretion rate in thin discs around binary black holes

    CERN Document Server

    Ragusa, Enrico; Price, Daniel J

    2016-01-01

    We present three-dimensional Smoothed Particle Hydrodynamics (SPH) simulations investigating the dependence of the accretion rate on the disc thickness around an equal-mass, circular black hole binary system. We find that for thick/hot discs, with $H/R\\gtrsim 0.1$, the binary torque does not prevent the gas from penetrating the cavity formed in the disc by the binary (in line with previous investigations). The situation drastically changes for thinner discs, in this case the mass accretion rate is suppressed, such that only a fraction (linearly dependent on $H/R$) of the available gas is able to flow within the cavity and accrete on to the binary. Extrapolating this result to the cold and thin accretion discs expected around supermassive black hole binary systems implies that this kind of systems accretes less material than predicted so far, with consequences not only for the electromagnetic and gravitational waves emissions during the late inspiral phase but also for the recoil speed of the black hole formed...

  4. On the diffusive propagation of warps in thin accretion discs

    OpenAIRE

    LODATO G; Price, D.

    2010-01-01

    In this paper we revisit the issue of the propagation of warps in thin and viscous accretion discs. In this regime warps are know to propagate diffusively, with a diffusion coefficient approximately inversely proportional to the disc viscosity. Previous numerical investigations of this problem (Lodato & Pringle 2007) did not find a good agreement between the numerical results and the predictions of the analytic theories of warp propagation, both in the linear and in the non-linear case. Here,...

  5. Braking down an accreting protostar: disc-locking, disc winds, stellar winds, X-winds and Magnetospheric Ejecta

    CERN Document Server

    Ferreira, Jonathan

    2013-01-01

    Classical T Tauri stars are low mass young forming stars that are surrounded by a circumstellar accretion disc from which they gain mass. Despite this accretion and their own contraction that should both lead to their spin up, these stars seem to conserve instead an almost constant rotational period as long as the disc is maintained. Several scenarios have been proposed in the literature in order to explain this puzzling "disc-locking" situation: either deposition in the disc of the stellar angular momentum by the stellar magnetosphere or its ejection through winds, providing thereby an explanation of jets from Young Stellar Objects. In this lecture, these various mechanisms will be critically detailed, from the physics of the star-disc interaction to the launching of self-confined jets (disc winds, stellar winds, X-winds, conical winds). It will be shown that no simple model can account alone for the whole bulk of observational data and that "disc locking" requires a combination of some of them.

  6. Convection in axially symmetric accretion discs with microscopic transport coefficients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malanchev, K. L.; Postnov, K. A.; Shakura, N. I.

    2016-09-01

    The vertical structure of stationary thin accretion discs is calculated from the energy balance equation with heat generation due to microscopic ion viscosity η and electron heat conductivity κ, both depending on temperature. In the optically thin discs it is found that for the heat conductivity increasing with temperature, the vertical temperature gradient exceeds the adiabatic value at some height, suggesting convective instability in the upper disc layer. There is a critical Prandtl number, Pr = 4/9, above which a Keplerian disc become fully convective. The vertical density distribution of optically thin laminar accretion discs as found from the hydrostatic equilibrium equation cannot be generally described by a polytrope but in the case of constant viscosity and heat conductivity. In the optically thick discs with radiation heat transfer, the vertical disc structure is found to be convectively stable for both absorption dominated and scattering dominated opacities, unless a very steep dependence of the viscosity coefficient on temperature is assumed. A polytropic-like structure in this case is found for Thomson scattering dominated opacity.

  7. Mass loss from advective accretion disc around rotating black holes

    CERN Document Server

    Aktar, Ramiz; Nandi, Anuj

    2015-01-01

    We examine the properties of the outflowing matter from an advective accretion disc around a spinning black hole. During accretion, rotating matter experiences centrifugal pressure supported shock transition that effectively produces a virtual barrier around the black hole in the form of post-shock corona (hereafter, PSC). Due to shock compression, PSC becomes hot and dense that eventually deflects a part of the inflowing matter as bipolar outflows because of the presence of extra thermal gradient force. In our approach, we study the outflow properties in terms of the inflow parameters, namely specific energy (${\\mathcal E}$) and specific angular momentum ($\\lambda$) considering the realistic outflow geometry around the rotating black holes. We find that spin of the black hole ($a_k$) plays an important role in deciding the outflow rate $R_{\\dot m}$ (ratio of mass flux of outflow and inflow), in particular, $R_{\\dot m}$ is directly correlated with $a_k$ for the same set of inflow parameters. It is found that ...

  8. Standing Rankine-Hugoniot Shocks in Black Hole Accretion Discs

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GU Wei-Min; LU Ju-Fu

    2004-01-01

    @@ We study the problem of standing shocks in viscous disc-like accretion flows around black holes. For the first time we parametrize such a flow with two physical constants, namely the specific angular momentum accreted by the black hole j and the energy quantity K. By providing the global dependence of shock formation in the j - K parameter space, we show that a significant parameter region can ensure solutions with Rankine-Hugoniot shocks; and that the possibilities of shock formation are the largest for inviscid flows, decreasing with increasing viscosity, and ceasing to exist for a strong enough viscosity. Our results support the view that the standing shock is an essential ingredient in black hole accretion discs and is a general phenomenon in astrophysics, and that there should be a continuous change from the properties of inviscid flows to those of viscous ones.

  9. Thin accretion discs are stabilized by a strong magnetic field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sądowski, Aleksander

    2016-07-01

    By studying three-dimensional, radiative, global simulations of sub-Eddington, geometrically thin (H/R ≈ 0.15) black hole accretion flows we show that thin discs which are dominated by magnetic pressure are stable against thermal instability. Such discs are thicker than predicted by the standard model and show significant amount of dissipation inside the marginally stable orbit. Radiation released in this region, however, does not escape to infinity but is advected into the black hole. We find that the resulting accretion efficiency (5.5 ± 0.5 per cent for the simulated 0.8dot{M}_Edd disc) is very close to the predicted by the standard model (5.7 per cent).

  10. Evolution of linear warps in accretion discs and applications to protoplanetary discs in binaries

    CERN Document Server

    Foucart, Francois

    2014-01-01

    The existence of warped accretion discs is expected in a wide variety of astrophysical systems, including circumstellar discs in binaries and discs around binary protostars. A common feature of these discs is that they are perturbed by a misaligned external potential. In this paper, we study the long-term evolution of the disc warp and precession in the case of thick discs (with the dimensionless thickness $H/r$ larger than the viscosity parameter $\\alpha$) in which bending waves can propagate. For small warps, such discs undergo approximately rigid-body precession with a coherent global frequency. We derive the analytical expressions for the warp/twist profiles of the disc and the alignment timescale for a variety of disc models/parameters. Applying our results to circumbinary discs, we find that these discs align with the orbital plane of the binary on a timescale comparable to the global precession time of the disc, and typically much smaller than its viscous timescale. The development of parametric instab...

  11. Supermassive star formation via episodic accretion: protostellar disc instability and radiative feedback efficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakurai, Y.; Vorobyov, E. I.; Hosokawa, T.; Yoshida, N.; Omukai, K.; Yorke, H. W.

    2016-06-01

    The formation of supermassive stars (SMSs) is a potential pathway to seed supermassive black holes in the early universe. A critical issue for forming SMSs is stellar UV feedback, which may limit the stellar mass growth via accretion. In this paper, we study the evolution of an accreting SMS and its UV emissivity with realistic variable accretion from a circumstellar disc. First we conduct a 2D hydrodynamical simulation to follow the protostellar accretion until the stellar mass exceeds 104 M⊙. The disc fragments by gravitational instability, creating many clumps that migrate inward to fall on to the star. The resulting accretion history is highly time-dependent: short episodic accretion bursts are followed by longer quiescent phases. We show that the disc for the direct collapse model is more unstable and generates greater variability than normal Pop III cases. Next, we conduct a stellar evolution calculation using the obtained accretion history. Our results show that, regardless of the variable accretion, the stellar radius monotonically increases with almost constant effective temperature at Teff ≃ 5000 K as the stellar mass increases. The resulting UV feedback is too weak to hinder accretion due to the low flux of stellar UV photons. The insensitivity of stellar evolution to variable accretion is attributed to the fact that time-scales of variability, ≲103 yr, are too short to affect the stellar structure. We argue that this evolution will continue until the SMS collapses to produce a black hole by the general relativistic instability after the mass reaches ≳105 M⊙.

  12. Circum-planetary discs as bottlenecks for gas accretion onto giant planets

    CERN Document Server

    Rivier, Guillaume; Morbidelli, Alessandro; Brouet, Yann

    2012-01-01

    With hundreds of exoplanets detected, it is necessary to revisit giant planets accretion models to explain their mass distribution. In particular, formation of sub-jovian planets remains unclear, given the short timescale for the runaway accretion of massive atmospheres. However, gas needs to pass through a circum-planetary disc. If the latter has a low viscosity (as expected if planets form in "dead zones"), it might act as a bottleneck for gas accretion. We investigate what the minimum accretion rate is for a planet under the limit assumption that the circum-planetary disc is totally inviscid, and the transport of angular momentum occurs solely because of the gravitational perturbations from the star. To estimate the accretion rate, we present a steady-state model of an inviscid circum-planetary disc, with vertical gas inflow and external torque from the star. Hydrodynamical simulations of a circum-planetary disc were conducted in 2D, in a planetocentric frame, with the star as an external perturber in orde...

  13. Supermassive star formation via episodic accretion: protostellar disc instability and radiative feedback efficiency

    CERN Document Server

    Sakurai, Yuya; Hosokawa, Takashi; Yoshida, Naoki; Omukai, Kazuyuki; Yorke, Harold W

    2015-01-01

    The formation of SMSs is a potential pathway to seed SMBHs in the early universe. A critical issue for forming SMSs is stellar UV feedback, which may limit the stellar mass growth via accretion. In this paper we study the evolution of an accreting SMS and its UV emissivity under conditions of realistic variable accretion from a self-gravitating circumstellar disc. First we conduct a 2D hydrodynamical simulation to follow the long-term protostellar accretion until the stellar mass exceeds $10^4~M_\\odot$. The disc fragments due to gravitational instability, creating a number of small clumps that rapidly migrate inward to fall onto the star. The resulting accretion history is thus highly time-dependent: short episodic accretion bursts are followed by longer, relative quiescent phases. We show that the circumstellar disc for the so-called direct collapse model is more unstable and generates greater variability over shorter timescales than normal Pop III cases. We conduct a post-process stellar evolution calculati...

  14. Accretion Discs with an Inner Spiral Density Wave

    CERN Document Server

    Montgomery, M M

    2010-01-01

    In Montgomery (2009a), we show that accretion discs in binary systems could retrogradely precess by tidal torques like the Moon and the Sun on a tilted, spinning, non-spherical Earth. In addition, we show that the state of matter and the geometrical shape of the celestial object could significantly affect the precessional value. For example, a Cataclysmic Variable (CV) Dwarf Novae (DN) non-magnetic system that shows negative superhumps in its light curve can be described by a retrogradely precessing, differentially rotating, tilted disc. Because the disc is a fluid and because the gas stream overflows the tilted disc and particles can migrate into inner disc annuli, coupled to the disc could be a retrogradely precessing inner ring that is located near the innermost annuli of the disc. However, numerical simulations by Bisikalo et al. (2003, 2004) and this work show that an inner spiral density wave can be generated instead of an inner ring. Therefore, we show that retrograde precession in non-magnetic, spinni...

  15. Numerical simulations of thin accretion discs with PLUTO

    OpenAIRE

    Parthasarathy, Varadarajan; Kluzniak, Wlodek

    2014-01-01

    Our goal is to perform global simulations of thin accretion discs around compact bodies like neutron stars with dipolar magnetic profile and black holes by exploiting the facilities provided by state-of-the-art grid-based, high resolution shock capturing (HRSC) and finite volume codes. We have used the Godunov-type code PLUTO to simulate a thin disc around a compact object prescribed with a pseudo-Newtonian potential in a purely hydrodynamical (HD) regime, with numerical viscosity as a first ...

  16. Numerical simulations of thin accretion discs with PLUTO

    CERN Document Server

    Parthasarathy, Varadarajan

    2014-01-01

    Our goal is to perform global simulations of thin accretion discs around compact bodies like neutron stars with dipolar magnetic profile and black holes by exploiting the facilities provided by state-of-the-art grid-based, high resolution shock capturing (HRSC) and finite volume codes. We have used the Godunov-type code PLUTO to simulate a thin disc around a compact object prescribed with a pseudo-Newtonian potential in a purely hydrodynamical (HD) regime, with numerical viscosity as a first step towards achieving our goal as mentioned above.

  17. Efficiency of gas cooling and accretion at the disc-corona interface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armillotta, L.; Fraternali, F.; Marinacci, F.

    2016-08-01

    In star-forming galaxies, stellar feedback can have a dual effect on the circumgalactic medium both suppressing and stimulating gas accretion. The trigger of gas accretion can be caused by disc material ejected into the halo in the form of fountain clouds and by its interaction with the surrounding hot corona. Indeed, at the disc-corona interface, the mixing between the cold/metal-rich disc gas (T ≲ 104 K) and the hot coronal gas (T ≳ 106 K) can dramatically reduce the cooling time of a portion of the corona and produce its condensation and accretion. We studied the interaction between fountain clouds and corona in different galactic environments through parsec-scale hydrodynamical simulations, including the presence of thermal conduction, a key mechanism that influences gas condensation. Our simulations showed that the coronal gas condensation strongly depends on the galactic environment, in particular it is less efficient for increasing virial temperature/mass of the haloes where galaxies reside and it is fully ineffective for objects with virial masses larger than 1013M⊙. This result implies that the coronal gas cools down quickly in haloes with low-intermediate virial mass (Mvir ≲ 3 × 1012M⊙) but the ability to cool the corona decreases going from late-type to early-type disc galaxies, potentially leading to the switching off of accretion and the quenching of star formation in massive systems.

  18. Efficiency of gas cooling and accretion at the disc-corona interface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armillotta, L.; Fraternali, F.; Marinacci, F.

    2016-11-01

    In star-forming galaxies, stellar feedback can have a dual effect on the circumgalactic medium both suppressing and stimulating gas accretion. The trigger of gas accretion can be caused by disc material ejected into the halo in the form of fountain clouds and by its interaction with the surrounding hot corona. Indeed, at the disc-corona interface, the mixing between the cold/metal-rich disc gas (T ≲ 104 K) and the hot coronal gas (T ≳ 106 K) can dramatically reduce the cooling time of a portion of the corona and produce its condensation and accretion. We studied the interaction between fountain clouds and corona in different galactic environments through parsec-scale hydrodynamical simulations, including the presence of thermal conduction, a key mechanism that influences gas condensation. Our simulations showed that the coronal gas condensation strongly depends on the galactic environment, in particular it is less efficient for increasing virial temperature/mass of the haloes where galaxies reside and it is fully ineffective for objects with virial masses larger than 1013 M⊙. This result implies that the coronal gas cools down quickly in haloes with low-intermediate virial mass (Mvir ≲ 3 × 1012 M⊙) but the ability to cool the corona decreases going from late-type to early-type disc galaxies, potentially leading to the switching off of accretion and the quenching of star formation in massive systems.

  19. Evolution of transonicity in an accretion disc

    CERN Document Server

    Ray, A K; Ray, Arnab K.; Bhattacharjee, Jayanta K.

    2007-01-01

    For inviscid, rotational accretion flows driven by a general pseudo-Newtonian potential on to a Schwarzschild black hole, the only possible fixed points are saddle points and centre-type points. For the specific choice of the Newtonian potential, the flow has only two critical points, of which the outer one is a saddle point while the inner one is a centre-type point. A restrictive upper bound is imposed on the admissible range of values of the angular momentum of sub-Keplerian flows through a saddle point. These flows are very unstable to any deviation from a necessarily precise boundary condition. The difficulties against the physical realisability of a solution passing through the saddle point have been addressed through a temporal evolution of the flow, which gives a non-perturbative mechanism for selecting a transonic solution passing through the saddle point. An equation of motion for a real-time perturbation about the stationary flows reveals a very close correspondence with the metric of an acoustic b...

  20. 3D Finite Volume Simulation of Accretion Discs with Spiral Shocks

    CERN Document Server

    Makita, M; Makita, Makoto; Matsuda, Takuya

    1998-01-01

    We perform 2D and 3D numerical simulations of an accretion disc in a close binary system using the Simplified Flux vector Splitting (SFS) finite volume method. In our calculations, gas is assumed to be the ideal one, and we calculate the cases with gamma=1.01, 1.05, 1.1 and 1.2. The mass ratio of the mass losing star to the mass accreting star is unity. Our results show that spiral shocks are formed on the accretion disc in all cases. In 2D calculations we find that the smaller gamma is, the more tightly the spiral winds. We observe this trend in 3D calculations as well in somewhat weaker sense.

  1. Retrograde binaries of massive black holes in circumbinary accretion discs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amaro-Seoane, Pau; Maureira-Fredes, Cristián; Dotti, Massimo; Colpi, Monica

    2016-06-01

    Context. We explore the hardening of a massive black hole binary embedded in a circumbinary gas disc under a specific circumstance: when the binary and the gas are coplanar and the gas is counter-rotating. The binary has unequal mass and the interaction of the gas with the lighter secondary black hole is the main cause of the braking torque on the binary that shrinks with time. The secondary black hole, revolving in the direction opposite to the gas, experiences a drag from gas-dynamical friction and from direct accretion of part of it. Aims: In this paper, using two-dimensional (2D) hydrodynamical grid simulations we investigate the effect of changing the accretion prescriptions on the dynamics of the secondary black hole, which in turn affect the binary hardening and eccentricity evolution. Methods: We find that realistic accretion prescriptions lead to results that differ from those inferred assuming accretion of all the gas within the Roche Lobe of the secondary black hole. Results: When considering gas accretion within the gravitational influence radius of the secondary black hole (which is smaller than the Roche Lobe radius) to better describe gas inflows, the shrinking of the binary is slower. In addition, in this case, a smaller amount of accreted mass is required to reduce the binary separation by the same amount. Different accretion prescriptions result in different discs' surface densities, which alter the black hole's dynamics back. Full 3D Smoothed-particle hydrodynamics realizations of a number of representative cases, run over a shorter interval of time, validate the general trends observed in the less computationally demanding 2D simulations. Conclusions: Initially circular black hole binaries increase their eccentricity only slightly, which then oscillates around small values (<0.1) while they harden. By contrast, initially eccentric binaries become more and more eccentric. A semi-analytical model describing the black hole's dynamics under

  2. Hydrodynamical stability of thin accretion discs: transient growth of global axisymmetric perturbations

    CERN Document Server

    Umurhan, O M; Regev, O; Shaviv, G

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to explore how accretion discs manifest the phenomenon of transient growth on a global scale. We investigate analytically the time response of a thin accretion disc to particular axisymmetric perturbations. To facilitate an analytical treatment we replace the energy equation with a general polytropic assumption. The asymptotic expansion of Klu\\'zniak & Kita (2000), which extended the method of Regev (1983) to a full steady polytropic disc (with $n=3/2$), is further developed and implemented for both the steady (for any polytropic index) and time-dependent problems. The spatial form and temporal behaviour of selected dynamical disturbances are studied in detail. We identify the perturbation space which leads to transient growth and provide analytical solutions which manifest this expected transient growth behaviour. Three terms (physical causes) responsible for the appearance of transient growth are identified. Two depend explicitly on the viscosity while the third one is relev...

  3. Three-dimensional simulations of supercritical black hole accretion discs - luminosities, photon trapping and variability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sądowski, Aleksander; Narayan, Ramesh

    2016-03-01

    We present a set of four three-dimensional, general relativistic, radiation magnetohydrodynamical simulations of black hole accretion at supercritical mass accretion rates, dot{M} > dot{M}_Edd. We use these simulations to study how disc properties are modified when we vary the black hole mass, the black hole spin, or the mass accretion rate. In the case of a non-rotating black hole, we find that the total efficiency is of the order of 3 per cent dot{M} c^2, approximately a factor of 2 less than the efficiency of a standard thin accretion disc. The radiation flux in the funnel along the axis is highly super-Eddington, but only a small fraction of the energy released by accretion escapes in this region. The bulk of the 3 per cent dot{M} c^2 of energy emerges farther out in the disc, either in the form of photospheric emission or as a wind. In the case of a black hole with a spin parameter of 0.7, we find a larger efficiency of about 8 per cent dot{M} c^2. By comparing the relative importance of advective and diffusive radiation transport, we show that photon trapping is effective near the equatorial plane. However, near the disc surface, vertical transport of radiation by diffusion dominates. We compare the properties of our fiducial three-dimensional run with those of an equivalent two-dimensional axisymmetric model with a mean-field dynamo. The latter simulation runs nearly 100 times faster than the three-dimensional simulation, and gives very similar results for time-averaged properties of the accretion flow, but does not reproduce the time-variability.

  4. An Accretion Disc Model For Eclipsing Binary System: AV Del

    CERN Document Server

    Ghoreyshi, Sayyed Mohammad Reza; Salehi, Fatemeh

    2008-01-01

    We investigate the light and radial-velocity curves of the eclipsing binary AV Del. Using the most new version of Wilson & Van Hamme (2003) code, the absolute elements, fundamental orbital and physical parameters of the system are determined. Then, using the new SHELLSPEC code, we study and present an accretion disc model for the system. We found AV Del is a semi-detached system which has an accretion disc around the primary star. By combining the radial-velocity and light curve analysis, we derive accurate absolute masses for the components of M1=1.449 Msun and M2 =0.687 Msun and radii of R1=2.61 Rsun and R2=4.21 Rsun as well as effective temperatures of T1=6000 K and T2= 4281 K for the primary and the secondary, respectively. Also, we derived a temperature of T=5700 K for the disc. Finally, our results are compared with those of previous authors.

  5. Slim accretion discs a model for ADAF-SLE transitions

    CERN Document Server

    Igumenshchev, I V; Novikov, I D

    1997-01-01

    We numerically construct slim, global, vertically integrated models of optically thin, transonic accretion discs around black holes, assuming a regularity condition at the sonic radius and boundary conditions at the outer radius of the disc and near the black hole. In agreement with several previous studies, we find two branches of shock-free solutions, in which the cooling is dominated either by advection, or by local radiation. We also confirm that the part of the accretion flow where advection dominates is in some circumstances limited in size: it does not extend beyond a certain outer limiting radius. New results found in our paper concern the location of the limiting radius and properties of the flow near to it. In particular, we find that beyond the limiting radius, the advective dominated solutions match on to Shapiro, Lightman & Eardley (SLE) discs through a smooth transition region. Therefore, the full global solutions are shock-free and unlimited in size. There is no need for postulating an extr...

  6. On the Stability of Elliptical Vortices in Accretion Discs

    CERN Document Server

    Lesur, G

    2009-01-01

    (Abriged) The existence of large-scale and long-lived 2D vortices in accretion discs has been debated for more than a decade. They appear spontaneously in several 2D disc simulations and they are known to accelerate planetesimal formation through a dust trapping process. However, the issue of the stability of these structures to the imposition of 3D disturbances is still not fully understood, and it casts doubts on their long term survival. Aim: We present new results on the 3D stability of elliptical vortices embedded in accretion discs, based on a linear analysis and several non-linear simulations. Methods: We derive the linearised equations governing the 3D perturbations in the core of an elliptical vortex, and we show that they can be reduced to a Floquet problem. We solve this problem numerically in the astrophysical regime and we present several analytical limits for which the mechanism responsible for the instability can be explained. Finally, we compare the results of the linear analysis to some high ...

  7. Exploring accretion disc physics and black hole growth with regular monitoring of ultrafast AGN winds

    CERN Document Server

    Pounds, Ken; Nixon, Chris

    2016-01-01

    15 years of XMM-Newton observations have established that ultra-fast, highly ionized winds are common in radio-quiet AGN. A simple theory of Eddington-limited accretion correctly predicts the typical velocity (~0.1c) and high ionization of such winds, with observed flow energy capable of ejecting star-forming gas. With a recent extended XMM-Newton observation of the archetypal UFO, PG1211+143, revealing a more complex flow pattern, we suggest that targetted observations over the next decade offer unique potential for probing the inner accretion disc structure and SMBH growth.

  8. The structure and radiation spectra of illuminated accretion discs in AGN. I. Moderate illumination

    CERN Document Server

    Rózanska, A R; Czerny, B; Collin, S

    2002-01-01

    We present detailed computations of the vertical structure of an accretion disc illuminated by hard X-ray radiation with the code {\\sc titan-noar} suitable for Compton thick media. The energy generated via accretion is dissipated partially in the cold disc as well as in the X-ray source. We study the differences between the case where the X-ray source is in the form of a lamp post above the accretion disc and the case of a heavy corona. We consider radiative heating via Comptonization together with heating via photo-absorption on numerous heavy elements as carbon, oxygen, silicon, iron. The transfer in lines is precisely calculated. A better description of the heating/cooling through the inclusion of line transfer, a correct description of the temperature in the deeper layers, a correct description of the entire disc vertical structure, as well as the study of the possible coronal pressure effect, constitute an improvement in comparison to previous works. We show that exact calculations of hydrostatic equilib...

  9. Accretion discs around black holes two dimensional, advection cooled flows

    CERN Document Server

    Igumenshchev, I V; Abramowicz, M A; Igumenshchev, Igor V; Chen, Xingming; Abramowicz, Marek Artur

    1995-01-01

    Two-dimensional accretion flows near black holes have been investigated by time-dependent hydrodynamical calculations. We assume that the flow is axisymmetric and that radiative losses of internal energy are negligible, so that the disc is geometrically thick and hot. Accretion occurs due to the overflow of the effective potential barrier near the black hole, similar to the case of the Roche lobe overflowing star in a binary system. We make no pre-assumptions on the properties of the flow, instead our models evolve self-consistently from an initially non-accreting state. The viscosity is due to the the small-scale turbulence and it is described by the \\alpha-viscosity prescription. We confirm earlier suggestions that viscous accretion flows are convectively unstable. We found that the instability produces transient eddies of various length-scales. The eddies contribute to the strength of the viscosity in the flow by redistributing the angular momentum. They also introduce low amplitude oscillatory variations ...

  10. Characterising the Gravitational Instability in Cooling Accretion Discs

    CERN Document Server

    Cossins, Peter; Clarke, Cathie

    2008-01-01

    We perform numerical analyses of the structure induced by gravitational instabilities in cooling gaseous accretion discs. For low enough cooling rates a quasi-steady configuration is reached, with the instability saturating at a finite amplitude in a marginally stable disc. We find that the saturation amplitude scales with the inverse square root of the cooling parameter beta = t_cool / t_dyn, which indicates that the heating rate induced by the instability is proportional to the energy density of the induced density waves. We find that at saturation the energy dissipated per dynamical time by weak shocks due is of the order of 20 per cent of the wave energy. From Fourier analysis of the disc structure we find that while the azimuthal wavenumber is roughly constant with radius, the mean radial wavenumber increases with radius, with the dominant mode corresponding to the locally most unstable wavelength. We demonstrate that the density waves excited in relatively low mass discs are always close to co-rotation,...

  11. Have proto-planetary discs formed planets?

    CERN Document Server

    Greaves, J S

    2010-01-01

    It has recently been noted that many discs around T Tauri stars appear to comprise only a few Jupiter-masses of gas and dust. Using millimetre surveys of discs within six local star-formation regions, we confirm this result, and find that only a few percent of young stars have enough circumstellar material to build gas giant planets, in standard core accretion models. Since the frequency of observed exo-planets is greater than this, there is a `missing mass' problem. As alternatives to simply adjusting the conversion of dust-flux to disc mass, we investigate three other classes of solution. Migration of planets could hypothetically sweep up the disc mass reservoir more efficiently, but trends in multi-planet systems do not support such a model, and theoretical models suggest that the gas accretion timescale is too short for migration to sweep the disc. Enhanced inner-disc mass reservoirs are possible, agreeing with predictions of disc evolution through self-gravity, but not adding to millimetre dust-flux as t...

  12. Efficiency of gas cooling and accretion at the disc-corona interface

    CERN Document Server

    Armillotta, L; Marinacci, F

    2016-01-01

    In star-forming galaxies, stellar feedback can have a dual effect on the circumgalactic medium both suppressing and stimulating gas accretion. The trigger of gas accretion can be caused by disc material ejected into the halo in the form of fountain clouds and by its interaction with the surrounding hot corona. Indeed, at the disc-corona interface, the mixing between the cold/metal-rich disc gas (T ~ 10^6 K) can dramatically reduce the cooling time of a portion of the corona and produce its condensation and accretion. We studied the interaction between fountain clouds and corona in different galactic environments through parsec-scale hydrodynamical simulations, including the presence of thermal conduction, a key mechanism that influences gas condensation. Our simulations showed that the coronal gas condensation strongly depends on the galactic environment, in particular it is less efficient for increasing virial temperature/mass of the haloes where galaxies reside and it is fully ineffective for objects with v...

  13. Dynamo generated magnetic configurations in accretion discs and the nature of quasi-periodic oscillations in accreting binary systems

    CERN Document Server

    Moss, David; Suleimanov, Valery

    2016-01-01

    Magnetic fields are important for accretion disc structure. Magnetic fields in a disc system may be transported with the accreted matter. They can be associated with either the central body and/or jet, and be fossil or dynamo excited in situ. We consider dynamo excitation of magnetic fields in accretion discs of accreting binary systems in an attempt to clarify possible configurations of dynamo generated magnetic fields. We first model the entire disc with realistic radial extent and thickness using an alpha-quenching non-linearity. We then study the simultaneous effect of feedback from the Lorentz force from the dynamo-generated field. We perform numerical simulations in the framework of a relatively simple mean-field model which allows the generation of global magnetic configurations. We explore a range of possibilities for the dynamo number, and find quadrupolar-type solutions with irregular temporal oscillations that might be compared to observed rapid luminosity fluctuations. The dipolar symmetry models ...

  14. On the diffusive propagation of warps in thin accretion discs

    CERN Document Server

    Lodato, G

    2010-01-01

    In this paper we revisit the issue of the propagation of warps in thin and viscous accretion discs. In this regime warps are know to propagate diffusively, with a diffusion coefficient approximately inversely proportional to the disc viscosity. Previous numerical investigations of this problem (Lodato & Pringle 2007) did not find a good agreement between the numerical results and the predictions of the analytic theories of warp propagation, both in the linear and in the non-linear case. Here, we take advantage of a new, low-memory and highly efficient SPH code to run a large set of very high resolution simulations (up to 20 million SPH particles) of warp propagation, implementing an isotropic disc viscosity in different ways, to investigate the origin of the discrepancy between the theory and the numerical results. Our new and improved analysis now shows a remarkable agreement with the analytic theory both in the linear and in the non-linear regime, in terms of warp diffusion coefficient and precession ra...

  15. Warp diffusion in accretion discs: a numerical investigation

    CERN Document Server

    Lodato, Giuseppe

    2007-01-01

    In this paper we explore numerically the evolution of a warped accretion disc. Here, we focus here on the regime where the warp evolves diffusively. By comparing the numerical results to a simple diffusion model, we are able to determine the diffusion coefficient of the warp, $\\alpha_2$, as a function of the relevant disc parameters. We find that while in general the disc behaviour is well reproduced by the diffusion model and for relatively large viscosities the warp diffusion is well described by the linear theory (in particular confirming that the warp diffusion coefficient is inversely proportional to viscosity), significant non-linear effects are present as the viscosity becomes smaller, but still dominates over wave-propagation effects. In particular, we find that the inverse dependence of the diffusion coefficient on viscosity breaks down at low viscosities, so that $\\alpha_2$ never becomes larger than a saturation value $\\alpha_{\\rm max}$ of order unity. This can have major consequences in the evoluti...

  16. Self-regulated gravitational accretion in protostellar discs

    CERN Document Server

    Vorobyov, E I

    2007-01-01

    We present a numerical model for the evolution of a protostellar disc that has formed self-consistently from the collapse of a molecular cloud core. The global evolution of the disc is followed for several million years after its formation. The capture of a wide range of spatial and temporal scales is made possible by use of the thin-disc approximation. We focus on the role of gravitational torques in transporting mass inward and angular momentum outward during different evolutionary phases of a protostellar disc with disc-to-star mass ratio of order 0.1. In the early phase, when the infall of matter from the surrounding envelope is substantial, mass is transported inward by the gravitational torques from spiral arms that are a manifestation of the envelope-induced gravitational instability in the disc. In the late phase, when the gas reservoir of the envelope is depleted, the distinct spiral structure is replaced by ongoing irregular nonaxisymmetric density perturbations. The amplitude of these density pertu...

  17. Constraints on active galactic nucleus accretion disc viscosity derived from continuum variability

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R.L.C. Starling; A. Siemiginowska; P. Uttley; R. Soria

    2004-01-01

    We estimate a value of the viscosity parameter in active galactic nucleus (AGN) accretion discs for the Palomar-Green quasar sample. We assume that optical variability on time-scales of months to years is caused by local instabilities in the inner accretion disc. Comparing the observed variability t

  18. An accurate geometric distance to the compact binary SS Cygni vindicates accretion disc theory

    CERN Document Server

    Miller-Jones, J C A; Knigge, C; Körding, E G; Templeton, M; Waagen, E O

    2013-01-01

    Dwarf novae are white dwarfs accreting matter from a nearby red dwarf companion. Their regular outbursts are explained by a thermal-viscous instability in the accretion disc, described by the disc instability model that has since been successfully extended to other accreting systems. However, the prototypical dwarf nova, SS Cygni, presents a major challenge to our understanding of accretion disc theory. At the distance of 159 +/- 12 pc measured by the Hubble Space Telescope, it is too luminous to be undergoing the observed regular outbursts. Using very long baseline interferometric radio observations, we report an accurate, model-independent distance to SS Cygni that places the source significantly closer at 114 +/- 2 pc. This reconciles the source behavior with our understanding of accretion disc theory in accreting compact objects.

  19. Hydrodynamical stability of thin accretion discs: transient growth of global axisymmetric perturbations

    OpenAIRE

    Umurhan, O. M.; Nemirovsky, A.; Regev, O.; Shaviv, G.

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to explore how accretion discs manifest the phenomenon of transient growth on a global scale. We investigate analytically the time response of a thin accretion disc to particular axisymmetric perturbations. To facilitate an analytical treatment we replace the energy equation with a general polytropic assumption. The asymptotic expansion of Klu\\'zniak & Kita (2000), which extended the method of Regev (1983) to a full steady polytropic disc (with $n=3/2$), is furthe...

  20. Jet launching theory and the vertical structure of a magnetically-dominated thin accretion disc

    OpenAIRE

    Rudiger, G.; Shalybkov, D. A.

    2001-01-01

    The presence of an imposed external magnetic field may drastically influence the structure of thin accretion discs. The magnetic field energy is here assumed to be in balance with the thermal energy of the accretion flow. The vertical magnetic field, its toroidal component B^tor at the disc surface (due to different rotation rates between disc and its magnetosphere), the turbulent magnetic Prandtl number and the viscosity-alpha are the key parameters of our model. Inside the corotation radius...

  1. Inhomogeneous accretion discs and the soft states of black hole X-ray binaries

    OpenAIRE

    Dexter, Jason; Quataert, Eliot

    2012-01-01

    Observations of black hole binaries (BHBs) have established a rich phenomenology of X-ray states. The soft states range from the low variability, accretion disc dominated thermal state (TD) to the higher variability, non-thermal steep power law state (SPL). The disc component in all states is typically modeled with standard thin disc accretion theory. However, this theory is inconsistent with optical/UV spectral, variability, and gravitational microlensing observations of active galactic nucl...

  2. Electromagnetic vs. Lense-Thirring alignment of black hole accretion discs

    CERN Document Server

    Polko, Peter

    2015-01-01

    Accretion discs and black holes (BHs) have angular momenta that are generally misaligned with respect to each other, which can lead to warps in the discs and bends in any jets produced. We consider a disc that is misaligned at large radii and torqued by Lense-Thirring (LT) precession and a Blandford-Znajek (BZ) jet torque. We consider a variety of disc states that include radiatively inefficient thick discs, radiatively efficient thin discs, and super-Eddington accretion discs. The magnetic field strength of the BZ jet is chosen as either from standard equipartition arguments or from magnetically arrested disc (MAD) simulations. We show that standard thin accretion discs can reach spin-disc alignment out to large radii long before LT would play a role, as caused by the slow infall time that gives even a weak BZ jet time to align the disc. We show that geometrically thick radiatively inefficient discs and super-Eddington discs in the MAD state reach disc-spin alignment near the black hole when density profiles...

  3. Magnetised Accretion Discs in Kerr Spacetimes II: Hot Spots

    CERN Document Server

    García, Federico; Johannsen, Tim

    2015-01-01

    Context. Quasi-periodic variability has been observed in a number of X-ray binaries harboring black hole candidates. In general relativity, black holes are uniquely described by the Kerr metric and, according to the cosmic censorship conjecture, curvature singularities always have to be clothed by an event horizon. Aims. In this paper, we study the effect of an external magnetic field on the observed light curves of orbiting hot spots in thin accretion discs around Kerr black holes and naked singularities. Methods. We employ a ray-tracing algorithm to calculate the light curves and power spectra of such hot spots as seen by a distant observer for uniform and dipolar magnetic field configurations assuming a weak coupling between the magnetic field and the disc matter. Results. We show that the presence of an external dipolar magnetic field leads to potentially observable modifications of these signals for both Kerr black holes and naked singularities, while an external uniform magnetic field has practically no...

  4. Accretion-disc precession in UX Ursae Majoris

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Miguel, E.; Patterson, J.; Cejudo, D.; Ulowetz, J.; Jones, J. L.; Boardman, J.; Barret, D.; Koff, R.; Stein, W.; Campbell, T.; Vanmunster, T.; Menzies, K.; Slauson, D.; Goff, W.; Roberts, G.; Morelle, E.; Dvorak, S.; Hambsch, F.-J.; Starkey, D.; Collins, D.; Costello, M.; Cook, M. J.; Oksanen, A.; Lemay, D.; Cook, L. M.; Ogmen, Y.; Richmond, M.; Kemp, J.

    2016-04-01

    We report the results of a long campaign of time series photometry on the nova-like variable UX Ursae Majoris during 2015. It spanned 150 nights, with ˜ 1800 h of coverage on 121 separate nights. The star was in its normal `high state' near magnitude V = 13, with slow waves in the light curve and eclipses every 4.72 h. Remarkably, the star also showed a nearly sinusoidal signal with a full amplitude of 0.44 mag and a period of 3.680 ± 0.007 d. We interpret this as the signature of a retrograde precession (wobble) of the accretion disc. The same period is manifest as a ±33 s wobble in the timings of mid-eclipse, indicating that the disc's centre of light moves with this period. The star also showed strong `negative superhumps' at frequencies ωorb + N and 2ωorb + N, where ωorb and N are, respectively, the orbital and precession frequencies. It is possible that these powerful signals have been present, unsuspected, throughout the more than 60 yr of previous photometric studies.

  5. Accretion-disc precession in UX Ursae Majoris

    CERN Document Server

    de Miguel, E; Cejudo, D; Ulowetz, J; Jones, J L; Boardman, J; Barret, D; Koff, R; Stein, W; Campbell, T; Vanmunster, T; Menzies, K; Slauson, D; Goff, W; Roberts, G; Morelle, E; Dvorak, S; Hambsch, F -J; Starkey, D; Collins, D; Costello, M; Cook, M J; Oksanen, A; Lemay, D; Cook, L M; Ogmen, Y; Richmond, M; Kemp, J

    2015-01-01

    We report the results of a long campaign of time-series photometry on the nova-like variable UX Ursae Majoris during 2015. It spanned 150 nights, with ~1800 hours of coverage on 121 separate nights. The star was in its normal `high state' near magnitude V=13, with slow waves in the light curve and eclipses every 4.72 hours. Remarkably, the star also showed a nearly sinusoidal signal with a full amplitude of 0.44 mag and a period of 3.680 +/- 0.007 d. We interpret this as the signature of a retrograde precession (wobble) of the accretion disc. The same period is manifest as a +/-33 s wobble in the timings of mid-eclipse, indicating that the disc's centre of light moves with this period. The star also showed strong `negative superhumps' at frequencies w_orb+N and 2w_orb+N, where w_orb and N are respectively the orbital and precession frequencies. It is possible that these powerful signals have been present, unsuspected, throughout the more than 60 years of previous photometric studies.

  6. On the accretion disc and evolutionary stage of beta Lyrae

    CERN Document Server

    Mennickent, R E

    2013-01-01

    We modeled the V-band light curve of beta Lyrae with two stellar components plus an optically thick accretion disc around the gainer assuming a semidetached configuration. We present the results of this calculation, giving physical parameters for the stars and the disc, along with general system dimensions. We discuss the evolutionary stage of the system finding the best match with one of the evolutionary models of Van Rensbergen et al. According to this model, the system is found at age 2.30E7 years, in the phase of rapid mass transfer, the second one in the life of this binary, in a Case-B mass-exchange stage with dM/dt = 1.58E-5 Msun/year. This result, along with the reported rate of orbital period change and observational evidence of mass loss, suggests that the mass transfer in beta Lyrae, is quasi-conservative. The best model indicates that beta Lyrae finished a relatively large mass loss episode 31400 years ago. The light curve model that best fit the observations has inclination angle i = 81 degree, M...

  7. Response of a circumbinary accretion disc to black hole mass loss

    CERN Document Server

    Rosotti, Giovanni P; Price, Daniel J

    2012-01-01

    We investigate the evolution of the surface density of a circumbinary accretion disc after the mass loss induced by the merger of two supermassive black holes. We first introduce an ana- lytical model, under the assumption of a disc composed of test particles, to derive the surface density evolution of the disc following the mass loss. The model predicts the formation of sharp density peaks in the disc; the model also allows us to compute the typical timescale for the formation of these peaks. To test and validate the model, we run numerical simulations of the process using the Smoothed Particle Hydrodynamics (SPH) code PHANTOM, taking fluid effects into account. We find good agreement in the shape and position of the peaks between the model and the simulations. In a fluid disc, however, the epicyclic oscillations induced by the mass loss can dissipate, and only some of the predicted peaks form in the simulation. To quantify how fast this dissipation proceeds, we introduce an appropriate parameter, and we sho...

  8. Modelling accretion disc and stellar wind interactions: the case of Sgr A*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christie, I. M.; Petropoulou, M.; Mimica, P.; Giannios, D.

    2016-07-01

    Sgr A* is an ideal target to study low-luminosity accreting systems. It has been recently proposed that properties of the accretion flow around Sgr A* can be probed through its interactions with the stellar wind of nearby massive stars belonging to the S-cluster. When a star intercepts the accretion disc, the ram and thermal pressures of the disc terminate the stellar wind leading to the formation of a bow shock structure. Here, a semi-analytical model is constructed which describes the geometry of the termination shock formed in the wind. With the employment of numerical hydrodynamic simulations, this model is both verified and extended to a region prone to Kelvin-Helmholtz instabilities. Because the characteristic wind and stellar velocities are in ˜108 cm s-1 range, the shocked wind may produce detectable X-rays via thermal bremsstrahlung emission. The application of this model to the pericentre passage of S2, the brightest member of the S-cluster, shows that the shocked wind produces roughly a month long X-ray flare with a peak luminosity of L ≈ 4 × 1033 erg s-1 for a stellar mass-loss rate, disc number density, and thermal pressure strength of dot{M}_w= 10^{-7} M_{⊙} yr^{-1}, nd = 105 cm-3, and α = 0.1, respectively. This peak luminosity is comparable to the quiescent X-ray emission detected from Sgr A* and is within the detection capabilities of current X-ray observatories. Its detection could constrain the density and thickness of the disc at a distance of ˜3000 gravitational radii from the supermassive black hole.

  9. Inhomogeneous accretion discs and the soft states of black hole X-ray binaries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dexter, Jason; Quataert, Eliot

    2012-10-01

    Observations of black hole binaries (BHBs) have established a rich phenomenology of X-ray states. The soft states range from the low variability, accretion disc dominated thermal (TD) state to the higher variability, non-thermal steep power law (SPL) state. The disc component in all states is typically modelled with standard thin disc accretion theory. However, this theory is inconsistent with optical/UV spectral, variability and gravitational microlensing observations of active galactic nuclei (AGNs), the supermassive analogues of BHBs. An inhomogeneous disc (ID) model with large (≃0.4 dex) temperature fluctuations in each radial annulus can qualitatively explain all of these AGN observations. The inhomogeneity may be a consequence of instabilities in radiation-dominated discs, and therefore may be present in BHBs as well. We show that ID models can explain many features of the TD and SPL states of BHBs. The observed relationships between spectral hardness, disc fraction and rms variability amplitude in BHBs are reproduced with temperature fluctuations similar to those inferred in AGNs, suggesting a unified picture of luminous accretion discs across orders of magnitude in black hole mass. This picture can be tested with spectral fitting of ID models, X-ray polarization observations and radiation magnetohydrodynamic simulations. If BHB accretion discs are indeed inhomogeneous, only the most disc-dominated states (disc fraction ≳0.95) can be used to robustly infer black hole spin using current continuum fitting methods.

  10. Magnetised accretion discs in Kerr spacetimes. II. Hot spots

    Science.gov (United States)

    García, Federico; Ranea-Sandoval, Ignacio F.; Johannsen, Tim

    2016-03-01

    Context. Quasi-periodic variability has been observed in a number of X-ray binaries that harbor black hole candidates. In general relativity, black holes are uniquely described by the Kerr metric and, according to the cosmic censorship conjecture, curvature singularities always have to be clothed by an event horizon. Aims: In this paper, we study the observed light curves that arise from orbiting hotspots in thin accretion discs around Kerr black holes and naked singularities, and the effect introduced by the presence of an external magnetic field. Methods: We employ a ray-tracing algorithm to calculate the light curves and power spectra of these hot spots as seen by a distant observer for uniform and dipolar magnetic field configurations, assuming a weak coupling between the magnetic field and the disc matter. Results: We show that the presence of an external dipolar magnetic field leads to potentially observable modifications of these light curves for both Kerr black holes and naked singularities, while an external uniform magnetic field has practically no effect. In particular, we demonstrate that the emission from a hotspot, which is orbiting near the innermost stable circular orbit of a naked singularity in a dipolar magnetic field, can be significantly harder than the emission of the same hotspot in the absence of this type of magnetic field. Conclusions: The comparison of our model with observational data may allow us to study the geometry of magnetic fields around compact objects and to test the cosmic censorship conjecture in conjunction with other observables, such as thermal continuum spectra and iron line profiles.

  11. The Eye of the Storm: Light from the Inner Plunging Region of Black Hole Accretion Discs

    CERN Document Server

    Zhu, Yucong; Narayan, Ramesh; Kulkarni, Akshay K; Penna, Robert F; McClintock, Jeffrey E

    2012-01-01

    It is generally thought that the light coming from the inner plunging region of black hole accretion discs contributes negligibly to the disc's overall spectrum, i.e. the plunging fluid is swallowed by the black hole before it has time to radiate. In the standard disc model used to fit X-ray observations of accretion discs, the plunging region is assumed to be perfectly dark. However, numerical simulations that include the full physics of the magnetized flow predict that a small fraction of the disc's total luminosity emanates from this plunging region. In this work, we investigate the observational consequences of this neglected inner light. We compute radiative transfer based disc spectra that correspond to 3D general relativistic magnetohydrodynamic simulated discs (which produce light inside their plunging regions). In the context of black hole spin estimation, we find that this neglected inner light only has a modest effect (this bias is less than typical observational systematic errors). For rapidly spi...

  12. The signature of the magnetorotational instability in the Reynolds and Maxwell stress tensors in accretion discs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pessah, Martin Elias; Chan, Chi-kwan; Psaltis, Dimitrios

    2006-01-01

    The magnetorotational instability is thought to be responsible for the generation of magnetohydrodynamic turbulence that leads to enhanced outward angular momentum transport in accretion discs. Here, we present the first formal analytical proof showing that, during the exponential growth of the i......The magnetorotational instability is thought to be responsible for the generation of magnetohydrodynamic turbulence that leads to enhanced outward angular momentum transport in accretion discs. Here, we present the first formal analytical proof showing that, during the exponential growth...

  13. X-ray variability of SS433: effects of the supercritical accretion disc

    CERN Document Server

    Atapin, Kirill; Medvedev, Aleksei; Vinokurov, Alexander

    2014-01-01

    We study a stochastic variability of SS433 in the $10^{-4} - 5\\times 10^{-2}$ Hz frequency range based on RXTE data, and on simultaneous observations with RXTE and optical telescopes. We find that the cross-correlation functions and power spectra depend drastically on the precession phase of the supercritical accretion disc. When the wind funnel of the disc is maximally open to the observer, a flat part emerges in the power spectrum; a break is observed at the frequency $1.7\\times10^{-3}$ Hz, with a power-law index $\\beta \\approx 1.67$ at higher frequencies. The soft emission forming mostly in the jets, lags behind the hard and optical emission. When the observer does not see the funnel and jets (the `edge-on' disc), the power spectrum is described by a single power-law with $\\beta \\approx 1.34$ and no correlations between X-ray ranges are detected. We investigated two mechanisms to explain the observed variability at the open disc phase, 1) reflection of radiation at the funnel wall (X-rays and optical) and ...

  14. Inhomogeneous accretion discs and the soft states of black hole X-ray binaries

    CERN Document Server

    Dexter, Jason

    2012-01-01

    Observations of black hole binaries (BHBs) have established a rich phenomenology of X-ray states. The soft states range from the low variability, accretion disc dominated thermal state (TD) to the higher variability, non-thermal steep power law state (SPL). The disc component in all states is typically modeled with standard thin disc accretion theory. However, this theory is inconsistent with optical/UV spectral, variability, and gravitational microlensing observations of active galactic nuclei (AGNs), the supermassive analogs of BHBs. An inhomogeneous disc (ID) model with large (~0.4 dex) temperature fluctuations in each radial annulus can qualitatively explain all of these AGN observations. The inhomogeneity may be a consequence of instabilities in radiation dominated discs, and therefore may be present in BHBs as well. We show that ID models can explain many features of the TD and SPL states of BHBs. The observed relationships between spectral hardness, disc fraction, and rms variability amplitude in BHBs ...

  15. X-ray reflection in oxygen-rich accretion discs of ultracompact X-ray binaries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madej, O. K.; Garcia, Jeronimo; Jonker, P. G.;

    2014-01-01

    . The donor star in these sources is a carbon-oxygen or oxygen-neon-magnesium white dwarf. Hence, the accretion disc is enriched with oxygen which makes the O viii Ly alpha line particularly strong. Modelling the X-ray reflection off a carbon- and oxygen-enriched, hydrogen- and helium-poor disc with models...

  16. A laboratory plasma experiment for studying magnetic dynamics of accretion discs and jets

    OpenAIRE

    Hsu, S. C.; Bellan, P. M.

    2002-01-01

    This work describes a laboratory plasma experiment and initial results which should give insight into the magnetic dynamics of accretion discs and jets. A high-speed multiple-frame CCD camera reveals images of the formation and helical instability of a collimated plasma, similar to MHD models of disc jets, and also plasma detachment associated with spheromak formation, which may have relevance to disc winds and flares. The plasmas are produced by a planar magnetized coaxial gun. The resulting...

  17. Star-disc interaction in galactic nuclei: orbits and rates of accreted stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennedy, Gareth F.; Meiron, Yohai; Shukirgaliyev, Bekdaulet; Panamarev, Taras; Berczik, Peter; Just, Andreas; Spurzem, Rainer

    2016-07-01

    We examine the effect of an accretion disc on the orbits of stars in the central star cluster surrounding a central massive black hole by performing a suite of 39 high-accuracy direct N-body simulations using state-of-the art software and accelerator hardware, with particle numbers up to 128k. The primary focus is on the accretion rate of stars by the black hole (equivalent to their tidal disruption rate for black holes in the small to medium mass range) and the eccentricity distribution of these stars. Our simulations vary not only the particle number, but disc model (two models examined), spatial resolution at the centre (characterized by the numerical accretion radius) and softening length. The large parameter range and physically realistic modelling allow us for the first time to confidently extrapolate these results to real galactic centres. While in a real galactic centre both particle number and accretion radius differ by a few orders of magnitude from our models, which are constrained by numerical capability, we find that the stellar accretion rate converges for models with N ≥ 32k. The eccentricity distribution of accreted stars, however, does not converge. We find that there are two competing effects at work when improving the resolution: larger particle number leads to a smaller fraction of stars accreted on nearly circular orbits, while higher spatial resolution increases this fraction. We scale our simulations to some nearby galaxies and find that the expected boost in stellar accretion (or tidal disruption, which could be observed as X-ray flares) in the presence of a gas disc is about a factor of 10. Even with this boost, the accretion of mass from stars is still a factor of ˜100 slower than the accretion of gas from the disc. Thus, it seems accretion of stars is not a major contributor to black hole mass growth.

  18. X-ray variability of SS 433: effects of the supercritical accretion disc

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atapin, Kirill; Fabrika, Sergei; Medvedev, Aleksei; Vinokurov, Alexander

    2015-01-01

    We study a stochastic variability of SS 433 in the 10-4-5 × 10-2 Hz frequency range based on RXTE data, and on simultaneous observations with RXTE and optical telescopes. We find that the cross-correlation functions and power spectra depend drastically on the precession phase of the supercritical accretion disc. When the wind funnel of the disc is maximally open to the observer, a flat part emerges in the power spectrum; a break is observed at the frequency 1.7 × 10-3 Hz, with a power-law index β ≈ 1.67 at higher frequencies. The soft emission forming mostly in the jets lags behind the hard and optical emission. When the observer does not see the funnel and jets (the `edge-on' disc), the power spectrum is described by a single power-law with β ≈ 1.34 and no correlations between X-ray ranges are detected. We investigated two mechanisms to explain the observed variability at the open disc phase: (1) reflection of radiation at the funnel wall (X-rays and optical) and (2) the gas cooling in the jets (X-rays only). The X-ray variability is determined by the contribution of both mechanisms; however, the contribution of the jets is much higher. We found that the funnel size is (2-2.5) × 1012 cm, and the opening angle is ϑf ˜ 50°. X-ray jets may consist of three fractions with different densities: 8 × 1013, 3 × 1013 and 5 × 1011 cm-3, with most of the jet's mass falling within the latter fraction. We suppose that revealed flat part in the power spectrum may be related to an abrupt change in the disc structure and viscous time-scale at the spherization radius, because the accretion disc becomes thick at this radius, h/r ˜ 1. The extent of the flat spectrum depends on the variation of viscosity at the spherization radius.

  19. Production of 56Ni in black hole-neutron star merger accretion disc outflows

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The likely outcome of a compact object merger event is a central black hole surrounded by a rapidly accreting torus of debris. This disc of debris is a rich source of element synthesis, the outcome of which is needed to predict electromagnetic counterparts of individual events and to understand the contribution of mergers to galactic chemical evolution. Here we study disc outflow nucleosynthesis in the context of a two-dimensional, time-dependent black hole-neutron star merger accretion disc model. We use two time snapshots from this model to examine the impact of the evolution of the neutrino fluxes from the disc on the element synthesis. While the neutrino fluxes from the early-time disc snapshot appear to favor neutron-rich outflows, by the late-time snapshot the situation is reversed. As a result we find copious production of 56Ni in the outflows. (paper)

  20. Low-mass gas envelopes around accreting cores embedded in radiative 3D discs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lega, Elena; Lambrechts, Michiel

    2016-10-01

    Planets with a core mass larger than few Earth masses and a gaseous envelope not exceeding about 10% of the total mass budget are common. Such planets are present in the Solar System (Uranus, Neptune) and are frequently observed around other stars.Our knowledge about the evolution of gas envelopes is mainly based on 1D models. However, such models cannot investigate the complex interaction between the forming envelope and the surrounding gas disc.In this work we perform 3D hydrodynamics simulations accounting for energy transfer and radiative cooling using the FARGOCA code (Lega et al., MNRAS 440, 2014). In addition to the usually considered heatingsources, namely viscous and compressional heating, we have modeled the energy deposited by the accretion of solids.We show that the thermal evolution of the envelope of a 5 Earth mass core is mainly dominated by compressional heating for accretion rates lower than 5 Earth masses per 105 years.Additionally, we demonstrate efficient gas circulation through the envelope. Under certain conditions, the competition between gas circulation and cooling of the envelope can efficiently delay the onset of runaway accretion. This could help in explaining the population of planets with low-mass gas envelope.

  1. Iron line profiles and self-shadowing from relativistic thick accretion discs

    CERN Document Server

    Wu, Sheng-Miao

    2007-01-01

    We present Fe Kalpha line profiles from and images of relativistic discs with finite thickness around a rotating black hole using a novel code. The line is thought to be produced by iron fluorescence of a relatively cold X-ray illuminated material in the innermost parts of the accretion disc and provides an excellent diagnostic of accretion flows in the vicinity of black holes. Previous studies have concentrated on the case of a thin, Keplerian accretion disc. This disc must become thicker and sub-Keplerian with increasing accretion rates. These can affect the line profiles and in turn can influence the estimation of the accretion disc and black hole parameters from the observed line profiles. We here embark on, for the first time, a fully relativistic computation which offers key insights into the effects of geometrical thickness and the sub-Keplerian orbital velocity on the line profiles. We include all relativistic effects such as frame-dragging, Doppler boost, time dilation, gravitational redshift and lig...

  2. On the Bardeen-Petterson Effect in black hole accretion discs

    CERN Document Server

    Nealon, Rebecca; Nixon, Chris

    2015-01-01

    We investigate the effect of black hole spin on warped or misaligned accretion discs - in particular i) whether or not the inner disc edge aligns with the black hole spin and ii) whether the disc can maintain a smooth transition between an aligned inner disc and a misaligned outer disc, known as the Bardeen-Petterson effect. We employ high resolution 3D smoothed particle hydrodynamics simulations of $\\alpha$-discs subject to Lense-Thirring precession, focussing on the bending wave regime where the disc viscosity is smaller than the aspect ratio $\\alpha \\lesssim H/R$. We first address the controversy in the literature regarding possible steady-state oscillations of the tilt close to the black hole. We successfully recover such oscillations in 3D at both small and moderate inclinations ($\\lesssim 15^{\\circ}$), provided both Lense-Thirring and Einstein precession are present, sufficient resolution is employed, and provided the disc is not so thick so as to simply accrete misaligned. Second, we find that discs in...

  3. Energetic Argument for Bimodal Black Hole Accretion discs

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    林一清; 卢炬甫; 顾为民

    2002-01-01

    Based on simple energetic considerations, we show that two crucial ingredients of bimodal black hole accretiondiscs, namely the sonic point and the transition radius, can be determined from the disc constant parameters.Thus, we can further justify the model of bimodal discs containing thermal instability triggered transition.

  4. Problem of non-rotating black hole accretion disc main enegy releas region extension

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We consider the size of region of the main energy release of black hol acretion discs. This problem is deeply connected with accretion process at the innermost region of accretion disc and with boundary condition at its inner edge. Ou main result is demonstration that the region of the main energy release is strongly localized. It is shown that for accretion onto non-rotating black hol the main portion of the liberated energy is released within a rather narrow radial range 5N≤13M. This property can have profound effect on spectrum and variability of the radiation of the acretion disc as a whole. In particular, the asymmetry of the main energy release region is favourable for the mechanism of the millisecond variability proposed earlier by the authors. (author). 15 refs.; 5 figs

  5. Evolution of Accretion Discs around a Kerr Black Hole using Extended Magnetohydrodynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Foucart, Francois; Gammie, Charles F; Quataert, Eliot

    2015-01-01

    Black holes accreting well below the Eddington rate are believed to have geometrically thick, optically thin, rotationally supported accretion discs in which the Coulomb mean free path is large compared to $GM/c^2$. In such an environment, the disc evolution may differ significantly from ideal magnetohydrodynamic predictions. We present non-ideal global axisymmetric simulations of geometrically thick discs around a rotating black hole. The simulations are carried out using a new code ${\\rm\\it grim}$, which evolves a covariant extended magnetohydrodynamics model derived by treating non-ideal effects as a perturbation of ideal magnetohydrodynamics. Non-ideal effects are modeled through heat conduction along magnetic field lines, and a difference between the pressure parallel and perpendicular to the field lines. The model relies on an effective collisionality in the disc from wave-particle scattering and velocity-space (mirror and firehose) instabilities. We find that the pressure anisotropy grows to match the ...

  6. Magnetic Coupling of a Rotating Black Hole with the SurroundingAccretion Disc

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    汪定雄; 肖看; 雷卫华

    2001-01-01

    The evolution characteristics and energy extraction of a rotating black hole are investigated by considering the magnetic coupling with the surrounding accretion disc. It is found that both the mass and spin of the black hole might be reduced by the joint effects of disc accretion and magnetic coupling, provided that the latter is stronger than the former. The efficiencies of the two energy mechanisms are calculated and compared to a variety of parameters. In addition, the validity of the laws of black hole thermodynamics is discussed.

  7. Stability of slim accretion discs - effects of central mass and viscosity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Slim accretion discs have a total luminosity of the order L/LE = m ∝ 1, where LE is the Eddington luminosity and m = M/Mc, where Mc is a critical accretion rate, related to the Teddington one. The local stability properties of such discs are examined, in the three-dimensional parameter space spanned by the (α, μ, m) axes, where α and μ are two viscosity parameters, and m = M/Msun the central mass. We suggest that various types of observed quasi-periodic behaviour may be connected with slim disc instabilities. If this turns out to be correct, the so-called normal and horizontal branch oscillations could be due to unstable thermal and acoustic modes, respectively. It is subsequently shown that some of the observed short-term (quasi-periodic) variability in active galactic nuclei may also originate from short-wavelength acoustic modes in the innermost region of the disc. Consequently, observational characteristics, in connection with stability theory, may yield estimates of basic accretion parameters. In the case of the Seyfert galaxy NGC 6814, this process seems to favour (α, μ, m, m) ≅ (0.5, 0, 106, 10-2). We finally conclude that this line of work may provide additional evidence for both accretion discs and black holes, in various compact sources. (orig.)

  8. The truncated and evolving inner accretion disc of the black hole GX 339-4

    CERN Document Server

    Plant, D S; Ponti, G; Munoz-Darias, T; Coriat, M

    2013-01-01

    The nature of accretion onto stellar mass black holes in the low/hard state remains unresolved, with some evidence suggesting that the inner accretion disc is truncated and replaced by a hot flow. However the detection of relativistic broadened iron emission lines, even at relatively low luminosities, seems to require an accretion disc extending fully to its innermost stable circular orbit. Modelling such features is however highly susceptible to degeneracies, which could easily bias any interpretation. We present the first systematic study of the iron line region to track how the inner accretion disc evolves in the low/hard state of the black hole GX 339-4. Our four observations display increased broadening of the iron line over two magnitudes in luminosity, which we use to track any variation of the disc inner radius. We find that the disc extends closer to the black hole at higher luminosities, but is consistent with being truncated throughout the entire low/hard state, a result which renders black hole sp...

  9. Infrared accretion disc mapping of the dwarf nova V2051 Ophiuchi in outburst and in quiescence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wojcikiewicz, E.; Baptista, R.

    2014-10-01

    Dwarf novae are compact binaries where a late-type star (the secondary) fills its Roche lobe and transfers matter to a companion white dwarf (the primary) via an accretion disc. They show outbursts which recur on timescales of weeks to years, where the accretion disc brightens by factors 20 to 100 either due to a thermal-viscous instability in the disc (DI model) or to a burst of enhanced mass-transfer from the secondary (MTI model). We report time-series of fast photometry of the dwarf nova V2051 Oph in the J and H bands, obtained with the CAMIV at the 1.6 m telescope of Observatório Pico dos Dias/Brazil, during the decline of an outburst in 2005 June, and in 2008 when the object was in quiescence. We modeled the ellipsoidal variations caused by the secondary to infer its contribution to the J and H fluxes, and fitted stellar atmosphere models to find a photometric parallatic distance of d = (111± 14)pc. Front-back brightness asymmetries in J and H-band eclipse maps along the decline from the 2005 outburst suggest that the accretion disc had a non-negligible opening angle which decreased as the disc cooled down. The time evolution of the disc radial temperature distribution along the outburst decline shows a cooling wave which accelerates as is travels inwards - in contradiction to a basic prediction from the DI model.

  10. A Laboratory Plasma Experiment for Studying Magnetic Dynamics of Accretion Discs and Jets

    CERN Document Server

    Hsu, S C

    2002-01-01

    This work describes a laboratory plasma experiment and initial results which should give insight into the magnetic dynamics of accretion discs and jets. A high-speed multiple-frame CCD camera reveals images of the formation and helical instability of a collimated plasma, similar to MHD models of disc jets, and also plasma detachment associated with spheromak formation, which may have relevance to disc winds and flares. The plasmas are produced by a planar magnetized coaxial gun. The resulting magnetic topology is dependent on the details of magnetic helicity injection, namely the force-free state eigenvalue alpha_gun imposed by the coaxial gun.

  11. Axisymmetric Waves in Isothermal Accretion Discs with Vertical Self-Gravity

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Xiao-Ci; YANG Lan-Tian; WU Shao-Ping; DING Shi-Xue

    2001-01-01

    We extend the research of axisymmetric waves in accretion discs with three-dimensional structure to the case that vertical self-gravity of the discs is included. We derive and analyze the dispersion relation and solve the eigenfunctions numerically. The following results have been reached: vertical self-gravity expands the forbidden region of the wave propagation. As the influence of the vertical self-gravity increases, the group velocities of the waves get smaller and the vertical nodes of the wave shrink to the middle plane of the disc.

  12. Kinematics and Excitation of the Molecular Hydrogen Accretion Disc in NGC 1275

    CERN Document Server

    Scharwaechter, J; Dopita, M A; Beck, T L

    2012-01-01

    We report the results of high spatial and spectral resolution integral-field spectroscopy of the central ~3 x 3 arcsec^2 of the active galaxy NGC 1275 (Perseus A), based on observations with the Near-infrared Integral Field Spectrograph (NIFS) and the ALTAIR adaptive-optics system on the Gemini North telescope. The circum-nuclear disc in the inner R~50 pc of NGC 1275 is seen in both the H2 and [FeII] lines. The disc is interpreted as the outer part of a collisionally-excited turbulent accretion disc. The kinematic major axis of the disc at a position angle of 68 deg is oriented perpendicular to the radio jet. A streamer-like feature to the south-west of the disc, detected in H2 but not in [FeII], is discussed as one of possibly several molecular streamers, presumably falling into the nuclear region. Indications of an ionization structure within the disc are deduced from the HeI and Br gamma emission lines, which may partially originate from the inner portions of the accretion disc. The kinematics of these two...

  13. Viscous Hydrodynamics Simulations of Circumbinary Accretion Discs: Variability, Quasi-Steady State, and Angular Momentum Transfer

    CERN Document Server

    Miranda, Ryan; Lai, Dong

    2016-01-01

    Circumbinary discs are found in a variety of astrophysical contexts, including around young stellar binaries and supermassive black hole binaries. We carry out a suite of numerical simulations of circumbinary discs, solving the viscous hydrodynamics equations on a polar grid covering an extended disc outside the binary co-orbital region. We use carefully controlled outer boundary conditions and long-term integrations to ensure that the disc reaches a quasi-steady state, in which the time-averaged mass accretion rate onto the binary, $\\langle\\dot{M}\\rangle$, matches the mass supply rate at the outer disc. We focus on binaries with comparable masses, but with a wide range of eccentricities ($e_\\mathrm{B}$). For $e_\\mathrm{B} \\lesssim 0.05$, the mass accretion rate of the binary is modulated with a period of about $5$ times the binary period; otherwise it is modulated at the binary period. The inner part of the circumbinary disc generally becomes coherently eccentric. For low and high $e_\\mathrm{B}$, the disc li...

  14. Spiral-driven accretion in protoplanetary discs - II Self-similar solutions

    CERN Document Server

    Hennebelle, Patrick; Fromang, Sébastien

    2016-01-01

    Accretion discs are ubiquitous in the universe and it is a crucial issue to understand how angular momentum and mass are being radially transported in these objects. Here, we study the role played by non-linear spiral patterns within hydrodynamical and non self-gravitating accretion disc assuming that external disturbances such as infall onto the disc may trigger them. To do so, we computed self-similar solutions that describe discs in which a spiral wave propagates. Such solutions present both shocks and critical sonic points that we carefully analyze. For all allowed temperatures and for several spiral shocks, we calculated the wave structure. In particular we inferred the angle of the spiral patern, the stress it exerts on the disc as well as the associated flux of mass and angular momentum as a function of temperature. We quantified the rate of angular momentum transport by means of the dimensionless $\\alpha$ parameter. For the thickest disc we considered (corresponding to $h/r$ values of about 1/3), we f...

  15. Magneto centrifugal winds from accretion discs around black hole binaries

    CERN Document Server

    Chakravorty, S; Ferreira, J; Henri, G; Belmont, R; Clavel, M; Corbel, S; Rodriguez, J; Coriat, M; Drappeau, S; Malzac, J

    2016-01-01

    We want to test if self-similar magneto-hydrodynamic (MHD) accretion-ejection models can explain the observational results for accretion disk winds in BHBs. In our models, the density at the base of the outflow, from the accretion disk, is not a free parameter, but is determined by solving the full set of dynamical MHD equations without neglecting any physical term. Different MHD solutions were generated for different values of (a) the disk aspect ratio ($\\varepsilon$) and (b) the ejection efficiency ($p$). We generated two kinds of MHD solutions depending on the absence (cold solution) or presence (warm solution) of heating at the disk surface. The cold MHD solutions are found to be inadequate to account for winds due to their low ejection efficiency. The warm solutions can have sufficiently high values of $p (\\gtrsim 0.1)$ which is required to explain the observed physical quantities in the wind. The heating (required at the disk surface for the warm solutions) could be due to the illumination which would b...

  16. Migration of massive black hole binaries in self--gravitating accretion discs: Retrograde versus prograde

    CERN Document Server

    Roedig, Constanze

    2013-01-01

    We study the interplay between mass transfer, accretion and gravitational torques onto a black hole binary migrating in a self-gravitating, retrograde circumbinary disc. A direct comparison with an identical prograde disc shows that: (i) because of the absence of resonances, the cavity size is a factor a(1+e) smaller for retrograde discs; (ii) nonetheless the shrinkage of a circular binary semi--major axis, a, is identical in both cases; (iii) a circular binary in a retrograde disc remains circular while eccentric binaries grow more eccentric. For non-circular binaries, we measure the orbital decay rates and the eccentricity growth rates to be exponential as long as the binary orbits in the plane of its disc. Additionally, for these co-planar systems, we find that interaction (~ non--zero torque) stems only from the cavity edge plus a(1+e) in the disc, i.e. for dynamical purposes, the disc can be treated as a annulus of small radial extent. We find that simple 'dust' models in which the binary- disc interacti...

  17. Tilted black hole accretion disc models of Sagittarius A*: time-variable millimetre to near-infrared emission

    OpenAIRE

    Dexter, Jason; Fragile, P. Chris

    2012-01-01

    High-resolution, multi-wavelength, and time-domain observations of the Galactic centre black hole candidate, Sgr A*, allow for a direct test of contemporary accretion theory. To date, all models have assumed alignment between the accretion disc and black hole angular momentum axes, but this is unjustified for geometrically thick accretion flows like that onto Sgr A*. Instead, we calculate images and spectra from a set of simulations of accretion flows misaligned ('tilted') by 15 degrees from ...

  18. Corotational instability, magnetic resonances and global inertial-acoustic oscillations in magnetized black hole accretion discs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Wen; Lai, Dong

    2011-01-01

    Low-order, non-axisymmetric p-modes (also referred as inertial-acoustic modes) in hydrodynamic accretion discs around black holes are plausible candidates for high-frequency quasi-periodic oscillations (QPOs) observed in a number of accreting black hole systems. These modes are trapped in the innermost region of the accretion disc, and are subject to global instabilities due to wave absorption at the corotation resonance (where the wave pattern frequency ω/m equals the disc rotation rate Ω), when the fluid vortensity, ζ=κ2/(2ΩΣ) (where κ and Σ are the radial epicyclic frequency and disc surface density, respectively), has a positive gradient. We investigate the effects of disc magnetic fields on the wave absorption at corotation and the related wave super-reflection of the corotation barrier, and on the overstability of disc p-modes. In general, in the presence of magnetic fields, the p-modes have the character of inertial-fast magnetosonic waves in their propagation zone. For discs with a pure toroidal field, the corotation resonance is split into two magnetic resonances, where the wave frequency in the corotating frame of the fluid, ?, matches the slow magnetosonic wave frequency. Significant wave energy/angular momentum absorption occurs at both magnetic resonances, but with opposite signs, such that one of them enhances the super-reflection while the other diminishes it. The combined effect of the two magnetic resonances is to reduce the super-reflection and the growth rate of the overstable p-modes. Our calculations show that even a subthermal toroidal field (with the magnetic pressure less than the gas pressure) may suppress the overstability of hydrodynamic (B= 0) p-modes. For accretion discs with mixed (toroidal and vertical) magnetic fields, two additional Alfvén resonances appear, where ? matches the local Alfvén wave frequency. The effect of these additional resonances is to further reduce or diminish the growth rate of p-modes. Our results

  19. BEYOND THE STANDARD MODEL OF THE DISC–LINE SPECTRAL PROFILES FROM BLACK HOLE ACCRETION DISCS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vjaceslav Sochora

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The strong gravitational field of a black hole has distinct effects on the observed profile of a spectral line from an accretion disc near a black hole. The observed profile of the spectral line is broadened and skewed by a fast orbital motion and redshifted by a gravitational field. These effects can help us to constrain the parameters of a system with a black hole, both in active galactic nuclei and in a stellar-mass black hole. Here we explore the fact that an accretion disc emission can be mathematically imagined as a superposition of radiating accretion rings that extend from the inner edge to the outer rim of the disc, with some radially varying emissivity. In our work, we show that a characteristic double-horn profile of several radially confined (relatively narrow accretion rings or belts could be recognized by the planned instruments onboard future satellites (such as the proposed ESA Large Observatory for X-ray Timing.

  20. Precession and accretion in circumbinary discs: The case of HD 104237

    CERN Document Server

    Dunhill, Alex; Dougados, Catherine

    2014-01-01

    We present the results of smoothed particle hydrodynamics (SPH) simulations of the disc around the young, eccentric stellar binary HD 104237. We find that the binary clears out a large cavity in the disc, driving a significant eccentricity at the cavity edge. This then precesses around the binary at a rate of $\\dot{\\varpi} = 0.48^{\\circ}T_{\\mathrm{b}}^{-1}$, which for HD 104237 corresponds to 40 years. We find that the accretion pattern into the cavity and onto the binary changes with this precession, resulting in a periodic accretion variability driven purely by the physical parameters of the binary and its orbit. For each star we find that this results in order of magnitude changes in the accretion rate. We also find that the accretion variability allows the primary to accrete gas at a higher rate than the secondary for approximately half of each precession period. Using a large number of 3-body integrations of test particles orbiting different binaries, we find good agreement between the precession rate of...

  1. Retrograde binaries of massive black holes in circum-binary accretion discs

    CERN Document Server

    Amaro-Seoane, Pau; Dotti, Massimo; Colpi, Monica

    2016-01-01

    We explore the hardening of a massive black hole binary embedded in a circum-binary gas disc when the binary and the gas are coplanar and the gas is counter-rotating. The secondary black hole, revolving in the direction opposite to the gas, experiences a drag from gas-dynamical friction and from direct accretion of part of it. Using two-dimensional (2D) hydrodynamical grid simulations we investigate the effect of changing the accretion prescriptions on the dynamics of the secondary black hole which in turn affect the binary hardening and eccentricity evolution. We find that realistic accretion prescriptions lead to results that differ from those inferred assuming accretion of all the gas within the Roche Lobe of the secondary black hole. Different accretion prescriptions result in different disc's surface densities which alter the black hole's dynamics back. Full 3D SPH realizations of a number of representative cases, run over a shorter interval of time, validate the general trends observed in the less compu...

  2. Energy dissipation and angular momentum transfer within a magnetically torqued accretion disc

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    We discuss transportation and redistribution of energy and angular momentum in the magnetic connection(MC) process and Blandford-Payne(BP) process.MC results in readjusting the interior viscous torque,and its effects are operative not only in but also beyond the MC region.The BP process is invoked to transfer the "excessive" angular momentum from an accretion disc.In addition,we derive a criterion for the interior viscous torque to resolve the puzzle of the overall equilibrium of angular momentum in disc accretion.It turns out that the efficiency of BP at extracting angular momentum and the intensity of the outflow are required to be greater than some critical values.

  3. Forming an O Star via Disk Accretion?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiu, Keping; Zhang, Qizhou; Beuther, Henrik; Fallscheer, Cassandra

    2012-09-01

    We present a study of outflow, infall, and rotation in a ~105 L ⊙ star-forming region, IRAS 18360-0537, with Submillimeter Array and IRAM 30 m observations. The 1.3 mm continuum map shows a 0.5 pc dust ridge, of which the central compact part has a mass of ~80 M ⊙ and harbors two condensations, MM1 and MM2. The CO (2-1) and SiO (5-4) maps reveal a biconical outflow centered at MM1, which is a hot molecular core (HMC) with a gas temperature of 320 ± 50 K and a mass of ~13 M ⊙. The outflow has a gas mass of 54 M ⊙ and a dynamical timescale of 8 × 103 yr. The kinematics of the HMC are probed by high-excitation CH3OH and CH3CN lines, which are detected at subarcsecond resolution and unveil a velocity gradient perpendicular to the outflow axis, suggesting a disk-like rotation of the HMC. An infalling envelope around the HMC is evidenced by CN lines exhibiting a profound inverse P Cygni profile, and the estimated mass infall rate, 1.5 × 10-3 M ⊙ yr-1, is well comparable to that inferred from the mass outflow rate. A more detailed investigation of the kinematics of the dense gas around the HMC is obtained from the 13CO and C18O (2-1) lines; the position-velocity diagrams of the two lines are consistent with the model of a free-falling and Keplerian-like rotating envelope. The observations suggest that the protostar of a current mass ~10 M ⊙ embedded within MM1 will develop into an O star via disk accretion and envelope infall.

  4. FORMING AN O STAR VIA DISK ACCRETION?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Qiu Keping [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Radioastronomie, Auf dem Huegel 69, D-53121 Bonn (Germany); Zhang Qizhou [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Beuther, Henrik; Fallscheer, Cassandra, E-mail: kqiu@mpifr-bonn.mpg.de [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Astronomie, Koenigstuhl 17, D-69117 Heidelberg (Germany)

    2012-09-10

    We present a study of outflow, infall, and rotation in a {approx}10{sup 5} L{sub Sun} star-forming region, IRAS 18360-0537, with Submillimeter Array and IRAM 30 m observations. The 1.3 mm continuum map shows a 0.5 pc dust ridge, of which the central compact part has a mass of {approx}80 M{sub Sun} and harbors two condensations, MM1 and MM2. The CO (2-1) and SiO (5-4) maps reveal a biconical outflow centered at MM1, which is a hot molecular core (HMC) with a gas temperature of 320 {+-} 50 K and a mass of {approx}13 M{sub Sun }. The outflow has a gas mass of 54 M{sub Sun} and a dynamical timescale of 8 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 3} yr. The kinematics of the HMC are probed by high-excitation CH{sub 3}OH and CH{sub 3}CN lines, which are detected at subarcsecond resolution and unveil a velocity gradient perpendicular to the outflow axis, suggesting a disk-like rotation of the HMC. An infalling envelope around the HMC is evidenced by CN lines exhibiting a profound inverse P Cygni profile, and the estimated mass infall rate, 1.5 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -3} M{sub Sun} yr{sup -1}, is well comparable to that inferred from the mass outflow rate. A more detailed investigation of the kinematics of the dense gas around the HMC is obtained from the {sup 13}CO and C{sup 18}O (2-1) lines; the position-velocity diagrams of the two lines are consistent with the model of a free-falling and Keplerian-like rotating envelope. The observations suggest that the protostar of a current mass {approx}10 M{sub Sun} embedded within MM1 will develop into an O star via disk accretion and envelope infall.

  5. Changes in the structure of the accretion disc of EX Draconis through the outburst cycle

    CERN Document Server

    Baptista, R; Baptista, Raymundo

    2000-01-01

    (Abridged) We report on the analysis of high-speed photometry of the dwarf nova EX Dra through its outburst cycle with eclipse mapping techniques. The eclipse maps show evidence of the formation of a one-armed spiral structure in the disc at the early stages of the outburst and reveal how the disc expands during the rise until it fills most of the primary Roche lobe at maximum light. The eclipse maps also suggest the presence of an inward and an outward-moving heating wave during the rise and an inward-moving cooling wave in the decline. Our results suggest a systematic deceleration of both the heating and the cooling waves as they travel across the disc, in agreement with predictions of the disc instability model. The analysis of the brightness temperature profiles indicates that most of the disc appears to be in steady-state during quiescence and at outburst maximum, but not during the intermediate stages. As a general trend, the mass accretion rate in the outer regions is larger than in the inner disc on t...

  6. Estimation of mass outflow rates from viscous relativistic accretion discs around black holes

    CERN Document Server

    Chattopadhyay, Indranil

    2016-01-01

    We investigated flow in Schwarzschild metric, around a non-rotating black hole and obtained self-consistent accretion - ejection solution in full general relativity. We covered the whole of parameter space in the advective regime to obtain shocked, as well as, shock-free accretion solution. We computed the jet streamline using von - Zeipel surfaces and projected the jet equations of motion on to the streamline and solved them simultaneously with the accretion disc equations of motion. We found that steady shock cannot exist {for $\\alpha \\gsim0.06$} in the general relativistic prescription, but is lower if mass - loss is considered too. We showed that for fixed outer boundary, the shock moves closer to the horizon with increasing viscosity parameter. The mass outflow rate increases as the shock moves closer to the black hole, but eventually decreases, maximizing at some intermediate value of shock {location}. The jet terminal speed increases with stronger shocks, quantitatively speaking, the terminal speed of ...

  7. Star-disc interaction in galactic nuclei: orbits and rates of accreted stars

    CERN Document Server

    Kennedy, Gareth F; Shukirgaliyev, Bekdaulet; Panamarev, Taras; Berczik, Peter; Just, Andreas; Spurzem, Rainer

    2016-01-01

    We examine the effect of an accretion disc on the orbits of stars in the central star cluster surrounding a central massive black hole by performing a suite of 39 high-accuracy direct N-body simulations using state-of-the art software and accelerator hardware, with particle numbers up to 128k. The primary focus is on the accretion rate of stars by the black hole (equivalent to their tidal disruption rate for black holes in the small to medium mass range) and the eccentricity distribution of these stars. Our simulations vary not only the particle number, but disc model (two models examined), spatial resolution at the centre (characterised by the numerical accretion radius) and softening length. The large parameter range and physically realistic modelling allow us for the first time to confidently extrapolate these results to real galactic centres. While in a real galactic centre both particle number and accretion radius differ by a few orders of magnitude from our models, which are constrained by numerical cap...

  8. Early Disc Accretion as the Origin of Abundance Anomalies in Globular Clusters

    CERN Document Server

    Bastian, N; de Mink, S E; Longmore, S N; Goodwin, S P; Gieles, M

    2013-01-01

    Globular clusters (GCs), once thought to be well approximated as simple stellar populations (i.e. all stars having the same age and chemical abundance), are now known to host a variety of anomalies, such as multiple discrete (or spreads in) populations in colour-magnitude diagrams and abundance variations in light elements (e.g., Na, O, Al). Multiple models have been put forward to explain the observed anomalies, although all have serious shortcomings (e.g., requiring a non-standard initial mass function of stars and GCs to have been initially 10-100 times more massive than observed today). These models also do not agree with observations of massive stellar clusters forming today, which do not display significant age spreads nor have gas/dust within the cluster. Here we present a model for the formation of GCs, where low mass pre-main sequence (PMS) stars accrete enriched material released from interacting massive binary and rapidly rotating stars onto their circumstellar discs, and ultimately onto the young ...

  9. Evolution of accretion discs around a kerr black hole using extended magnetohydrodynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foucart, Francois; Chandra, Mani; Gammie, Charles F.; Quataert, Eliot

    2016-02-01

    Black holes accreting well below the Eddington rate are believed to have geometrically thick, optically thin, rotationally supported accretion discs in which the Coulomb mean free path is large compared to GM/c2. In such an environment, the disc evolution may differ significantly from ideal magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) predictions. We present non-ideal global axisymmetric simulations of geometrically thick discs around a rotating black hole. The simulations are carried out using a new code GRIM, which evolves a covariant extended magnetohydrodynamics model derived by treating non-ideal effects as a perturbation of ideal MHD. Non-ideal effects are modelled through heat conduction along magnetic field lines, and a difference between the pressure parallel and perpendicular to the field lines. The model relies on an effective collisionality in the disc from wave-particle scattering and velocity-space (mirror and firehose) instabilities. We find that the pressure anisotropy grows to match the magnetic pressure, at which point it saturates due to the mirror instability. The pressure anisotropy produces outward angular momentum transport with a magnitude comparable to that of MHD turbulence in the disc, and a significant increase in the temperature in the wall of the jet. We also find that, at least in our axisymmetric simulations, conduction has a small effect on the disc evolution because (1) the heat flux is constrained to be parallel to the field and the field is close to perpendicular to temperature gradients, and (2) the heat flux is choked by an increase in effective collisionality associated with the mirror instability.

  10. Forming the cores of giant planets from the radial pebble flux in protoplanetary discs

    CERN Document Server

    Lambrechts, Michiel

    2014-01-01

    The formation of planetary cores must proceed rapidly in order for the giant planets to accrete their gaseous envelopes before the dissipation of the protoplanetary gas disc ( 100 M_E), but preferentially form Neptune-mass planets or smaller (< 10 M_E). This is consistent with exoplanet surveys which show that gas giants are relatively uncommon around stars of low mass or low metallicity.

  11. Time-dependent models of accretion discs with nuclear burning following the tidal disruption of a white dwarf by a neutron star

    Science.gov (United States)

    Margalit, Ben; Metzger, Brian D.

    2016-09-01

    We construct time-dependent one-dimensional (vertically averaged) models of accretion discs produced by the tidal disruption of a white dwarf (WD) by a binary neutron star (NS) companion. Nuclear reactions in the disc mid-plane burn the WD matter to increasingly heavier elements at sequentially smaller radii, releasing substantial energy which can impact the disc dynamics. A model for disc outflows is employed, by which cooling from the outflow balances other sources of heating (viscous, nuclear) in regulating the Bernoulli parameter of the mid-plane to a fixed value ≲0. We perform a comprehensive parameter study of the compositional yields and velocity distributions of the disc outflows for WDs of different initial compositions. For C/O WDs, the radial composition profile of the disc evolves self-similarly in a quasi-steady-state manner, and is remarkably robust to model parameters. The nucleosynthesis in helium WD discs does not exhibit this behaviour, which instead depends sensitively on factors controlling the disc mid-plane density (e.g. the strength of the viscosity, α). By the end of the simulation, a substantial fraction of the WD mass is unbound in outflows at characteristic velocities of ˜109 cm s-1. The outflows from WD-NS merger discs contain 10-4-3 × 10-3 M⊙ of radioactive 56Ni, resulting in fast (˜ week long) dim (˜1040 erg s-1) optical transients; shock heating of the ejecta by late-time outflows may increase the peak luminosity to ˜1043 erg s-1. The accreted mass on to the NS is probably not sufficient to induce gravitational collapse, but may be capable of spinning up the NS to periods of ˜10 ms, illustrating the feasibility of this channel in forming isolated millisecond pulsars.

  12. Accretion discs, coronae and jets in black hole binaries: prospects for Simbol-X

    CERN Document Server

    Malzac, Julien

    2008-01-01

    The phenomenology of accretion disc, coronnae and jets in X-ray binaries is rather well established. However the structure of the accretion flow in the various spectral states is still debated and the connection between the hot flow and compact jet is far from being understood. Simbol-X should address these two important questions in several ways. First, it will provide us with the capability of producing high sensivity, broad band spectra and therefore constrain simultaneously the shape and luminosity of all spectral components (iron line, reflection bump, thermal disc and comptonised emission) which in turn provides information on the geometry of the accretion flow. It will also determine the exact contribution of jets to the X-ray band both in bright and quiescent states. Finally it will shed new lights on the underlying mechanisms triggering spectral state transitions by allowing us to follow in exquisite details the rapid spectral evolution and its correlation with the radio jet emission during those tra...

  13. Accretion Disc Time Lag Distributions: Applying CREAM to Simulated AGN Light Curves

    CERN Document Server

    Starkey, David; Villforth, Carolin

    2015-01-01

    Active Galactic Nuclei (AGN) vary in their brightness across all wavelengths. Moreover, longer wavelength ultraviolet - optical continuum light curves appear to be delayed with respect to shorter wavelength light curves. A simple way to model these delays is by assuming thermal reprocessing of a variable point source (a lamp post) by a blackbody accretion disc. We introduce a new method, CREAM (\\textbf{C}ontinuum \\textbf{RE}processed \\textbf{A}GN \\textbf{M}arkov Chain Monte Carlo), that models continuum variations using this lamp post model. The disc light curves lag the lamp post emission with a time delay distribution sensitive to the disc temperature-radius profile and inclination. We test CREAM's ability to recover both inclination and product of black hole mass and accretion rate $\\mmdot$, and show that the code is also able to infer the shape of the driving light curve. CREAM is applied to synthetic light curves expected from 1000 second exposures of a 17th magnitude AGN with a 2m telescope in Sloan g a...

  14. Properties of thick discs formed in clumpy galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Inoue, Shigeki

    2014-01-01

    We examine a possible formation scenario of galactic thick discs with numerical simulations. Thick discs have previously been argued to form in clumpy disc phase in the high-redshift Universe, which host giant clumps of <10^9 M_sun in their highly gas-rich discs. We performed SPH simulations using isolated galaxy models for the purpose of verifying whether dynamical and chemical properties of the thick discs formed in such clumpy galaxies are compatible with observations. The results of our simulations seem nearly consistent with observations in dynamical properties such as radial and vertical density profiles, significant rotation velocity lag with height and distributions of orbital eccentricities. In addition, the thick discs in our simulations indicate nearly exponential dependence of azimuthal and vertical velocity dispersions with radius, nearly isothermal kinematics in vertical direction and negligible metallicity gradients in radial and vertical directions. However, our simulations cannot reproduce...

  15. Microphysical dissipation, turbulence and magnetic fields in hyper-accreting discs

    CERN Document Server

    Rossi, Elena M; Menou, Kristen

    2008-01-01

    Hyper-accreting discs occur in compact-object mergers and collapsars, and may power gamma-ray bursts (GRBs). We calculate the microscopic viscosity and resistivity of plasma in these discs, and discuss the implications for their global structure and evolution. In the neutrino-cooled innermost regions, the viscosity is provided mainly by mildly degenerate electrons, while the resistivity is modified from the Spitzer value due to the effects of both relativity and degeneracy. The plasma behaves as an almost ideal MHD fluid. Among the non-ideal MHD effects the Hall term is relatively the most important, while the magnetic Prandtl number, Pr (the ratio of viscosity to resistivity), is typically larger than unity: 10 < Pr < 6000. The outer radiatively inefficient regions also display high Pr. Numerical simulations of the magneto-rotational instability indicate that the saturation level and angular momentum transport efficiency may be greatly enhanced at high Pr. If this behaviour persists in the presence of ...

  16. Energy, momentum and mass outflows and feedback from thick accretion discs around rotating black holes

    CERN Document Server

    Sadowski, A; Penna, R; Zhu, Y

    2013-01-01

    A set of long-duration general relativistic magnetohydrodynamic simulations of radiatively inefficient accretion discs around rotating black holes are presented, and are used to estimate the energy, mass and momentum outflow rates from such systems. Outflows occur via two fairly distinct modes: a relativistic jet and a sub-relativistic wind. The jet power depends strongly on the black hole spin and on the magnetic flux at the horizon. Unless these are very small, the energy output in the jet dominates over that in the wind. In the limit of a rapidly spinning black hole accreting in the magnetically arrested limit, when the magnetic flux at the black hole is maximum, the jet power exceeds the total rate of accretion of rest mass energy. However, because of strong collimation, the jet probably does not have a significant effect on its surrounding. In the case of an accreting supermassive black hole, external feedback via a jet is likely important only on the largest galaxy cluster scales. The power in the wind ...

  17. Flickering of accreting white dwarfs: the remarkable amplitude - flux relation and disc viscocity

    CERN Document Server

    Zamanov, R K; Latev, G; Sokoloski, J L; Stoyanov, K A; Genkov, V; Tsvetkova, S V; Tomov, T; Antov, A; Bode, M F

    2015-01-01

    We analyze optical photometric data of short term variability (flickering) of accreting white dwarfs in cataclysmic variables (KR Aur, MV Lyr, V794 Aql, TT Ari, V425 Cas), recurrent novae (RS Oph and T CrB) and jet-ejecting symbiotic stars (CH Cyg and MWC 560). We find that the amplitude-flux relationship is visible over four orders of magnitude, in the range of fluxes from $10^{29}$ to $10^{33}$ erg s$^{-1}$ \\AA$^{-1}$, as a "statistically perfect" correlation with correlation coefficient 0.96 and p-value $ \\sim 10^{-28}$. In the above range, the amplitude of variability for any of our 9 objects is proportional to the flux level with (almost) one and the same factor of proportionality for all 9 accreting white dwarfs with $\\Delta F = 0.36 (\\pm 0.05) F_{av}$, $\\sigma_{rms} = 0.086(\\pm 0.011) F_{av}$, and $\\sigma_{rms} / \\Delta F = 0.24 \\pm 0.02$. Over all, our results indicate that the viscosity in the accretion discs is practically the same for all 9 objects in our sample, in the mass accretion rate range $2...

  18. General relativistic spectra of accretion discs around rapidly rotating neutron stars Effect of light bending

    CERN Document Server

    Bhattacharya, S; Thampan, A V; Bhattacharyya, Sudip; Bhattacharya, Dipankar; Thampan, Arun V.

    2001-01-01

    We present computed spectra, as seen by a distant observer, from the accretion disc around a rapidly rotating neutron star. Our calculations are carried out in a fully general relativistic framework, with exact treatment of rotation. We take into account the Doppler shift, gravitational redshift and light bending effects in order to compute the observed spectrum. We find that light bending significantly modifies the high-energy part of the spectrum. Computed spectra for slowly rotating neutron stars are also presented. These results would be important for modelling the observed X-ray spectra of Low Mass X-ray Binaries containing fast spinning neutron stars.

  19. Linear and nonlinear evolution of the vertical shear instability in accretion discs

    CERN Document Server

    Nelson, Richard P; Umurhan, Orkan M

    2012-01-01

    (Abridged) We analyse the stability and evolution of power-law accretion disc models. These have midplane densities that follow radial power-laws, and have either temperature or entropy distributions that are power-law functions of cylindrical radius. We employ two different hydrodynamic codes to perform 2D-axisymmetric and 3D simulations that examine the long-term evolution of the disc models as a function of the power-law indices of the temperature or entropy, the thermal relaxation time of the fluid, and the viscosity. We present a stability analysis of the problem that we use to interpret the simulation results. We find that disc models whose temperature or entropy profiles cause the equilibrium angular velocity to vary with height are unstable to the growth of modes with wavenumber ratios |k_R/k_Z| >> 1 when the thermodynamic response of the fluid is isothermal, or the thermal evolution time is comparable to or shorter than the local dynamical time scale. These discs are subject to the Goldreich-Schubert...

  20. Cometary ices in forming protoplanetary disc midplanes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drozdovskaya, Maria N.; Walsh, Catherine; van Dishoeck, Ewine F.; Furuya, Kenji; Marboeuf, Ulysse; Thiabaud, Amaury; Harsono, Daniel; Visser, Ruud

    2016-10-01

    Low-mass protostars are the extrasolar analogues of the natal Solar system. Sophisticated physicochemical models are used to simulate the formation of two protoplanetary discs from the initial prestellar phase, one dominated by viscous spreading and the other by pure infall. The results show that the volatile prestellar fingerprint is modified by the chemistry en route into the disc. This holds relatively independent of initial abundances and chemical parameters: physical conditions are more important. The amount of CO2 increases via the grain-surface reaction of OH with CO, which is enhanced by photodissociation of H2O ice. Complex organic molecules are produced during transport through the envelope at the expense of CH3OH ice. Their abundances can be comparable to that of methanol ice (few per cent of water ice) at large disc radii (R > 30 au). Current Class II disc models may be underestimating the complex organic content. Planet population synthesis models may underestimate the amount of CO2 and overestimate CH3OH ices in planetesimals by disregarding chemical processing between the cloud and disc phases. The overall C/O and C/N ratios differ between the gas and solid phases. The two ice ratios show little variation beyond the inner 10 au and both are nearly solar in the case of pure infall, but both are subsolar when viscous spreading dominates. Chemistry in the protostellar envelope en route to the protoplanetary disc sets the initial volatile and prebiotically significant content of icy planetesimals and cometary bodies. Comets are thus potentially reflecting the provenances of the midplane ices in the solar nebula.

  1. Transient jet formation and state transitions from large-scale magnetic reconnection in black hole accretion discs

    CERN Document Server

    Dexter, Jason; Markoff, Sera; Tchekhovskoy, Alexander

    2013-01-01

    Magnetically arrested accretion discs (MADs), where the magnetic pressure in the inner disc is dynamically important, provide an alternative mechanism for regulating accretion to what is commonly assumed in black hole systems. We show that a global magnetic field inversion in the MAD state can destroy the jet, significantly increase the accretion rate, and move the effective inner disc edge in to the marginally stable orbit. Reconnection of the MAD field in the inner radii launches a new type of transient outflow containing hot plasma generated by magnetic dissipation. This transient outflow can be as powerful as the steady magnetically-dominated Blandford-Znajek jet in the MAD state. The field inversion qualitatively describes many of the observational features associated with the high luminosity hard to soft state transition in black hole X-ray binaries: the jet line, the transient ballistic jet, and the drop in rms variability. These results demonstrate that the magnetic field configuration can influence t...

  2. Cometary ices in forming protoplanetary disc midplanes

    CERN Document Server

    Drozdovskaya, Maria N; van Dishoeck, Ewine F; Furuya, Kenji; Marboeuf, Ulysse; Thiabaud, Amaury; Harsono, Daniel; Visser, Ruud

    2016-01-01

    Low-mass protostars are the extrasolar analogues of the natal Solar System. Sophisticated physicochemical models are used to simulate the formation of two protoplanetary discs from the initial prestellar phase, one dominated by viscous spreading and the other by pure infall. The results show that the volatile prestellar fingerprint is modified by the chemistry en route into the disc. This holds relatively independent of initial abundances and chemical parameters: physical conditions are more important. The amount of CO2 increases via the grain-surface reaction of OH with CO, which is enhanced by photodissociation of H2O ice. Complex organic molecules are produced during transport through the envelope at the expense of CH3OH ice. Their abundances can be comparable to that of methanol ice (few % of water ice) at large disc radii (R > 30 AU). Current Class II disc models may be underestimating the complex organic content. Planet population synthesis models may underestimate the amount of CO2 and overestimate CH3...

  3. Convergence of SPH simulations of self-gravitating accretion discs: Sensitivity to the implementation of radiative cooling

    OpenAIRE

    Rice, W. K. M.; Forgan, D. H.; Armitage, P. J.

    2011-01-01

    Recent simulations of self-gravitating accretion discs, carried out using a three-dimensional Smoothed Particle Hydrodynamics (SPH) code by Meru and Bate, have been interpreted as implying that three-dimensional global discs fragment much more easily than would be expected from a two-dimensional local model. Subsequently, global and local two-dimensional models have been shown to display similar fragmentation properties, leaving it unclear whether the three-dimensional results reflect a physi...

  4. A Constraint of Black Hole Mass and the Inner Edge Radius of Relativistic Accretion Disc

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HE Liang; HUANG Chang-Yin; WANG Ding-Xiong

    2011-01-01

    A constraint to black hole(BH)accretion has previously been derived for the inner edge fixed at the innermost stable circular orbit(ISCO) and the innermost bound circular orbit(IBCO). This constraint is referred to as the mass-radius(MR) relation in this study, and the validity of the MR relation is discussed for different cases. It is shown that the product of the BH mass and the inner edge radius decreases monotonically in the accretion process for the inner edge located between IBCO and ISCO. In addition, we discuss the validity of the MR relation by considering the magnetic coupling(MC) effects of a Kerr BH with its surrounding disc. Although theoretically the product of the BH mass and the radius of ISCO increases(decreases) with time for a BH spin greater(less)than some critical value in the MC process, this relation is approximately valid for an Eddington accretion rate persisting for a rather long time, such as more than 10(6) years. Finally ,we discuss the possible application of the MR relation to astrophysics.

  5. Lithium and oxygen in globular cluster dwarfs and the early disc accretion scenario

    CERN Document Server

    Salaris, M

    2014-01-01

    A new scenario --early disc accretion-- has been recently proposed to explain the discovery of multiple stellar populations in Galactic globular clusters. According to this model, the existence of well defined (anti)-correlations amongst light element abundances (i.e. C, N, O, Na) in the photospheres of stars belonging to the same cluster (and the associated helium enrichment), is caused by accretion of the ejecta of short lived interacting massive binary systems (and single fast rotating massive stars) on fully convective pre-main sequence low- and very low-mass stars, during the early stages of the cluster evolution. We investigated the constraints provided by considering simultaneously the observed spread of lithium and oxygen (and when possible also sodium) abundances for samples of turn-off stars in NGC6752, NGC6121 (M4), and NGC104 (47Tuc), and the helium abundance of their multiple main sequences. These observations provide a very powerful test for the accretion scenario, because the observed O, Li and...

  6. Radiation-dominated boundary layer between an accretion disc and the surface of a neutron star: theory and observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilfanov, M. R.; Sunyaev, R. A.

    2014-04-01

    Observations of low-mass X-ray binaries in our Galaxy and external galaxies have drawn attention to the accretion disc boundary layer where the accreting matter slows down from its Keplerian orbital velocity of about half of the speed of light to a neutron star's rotational velocity and in which it releases about half of its gravitational energy. Correspondingly, a hot spectral component appears in the emission of accreting neutron stars, which is absent in accreting black holes. We review different approaches to the problem of the radiation-dominated boundary layer. In particular, we consider the theory of a levitating spreading layer, which assumes that the accreting matter slows down while spreading over the neutron star surface.

  7. Forming an O Star via Disk Accretion?

    OpenAIRE

    Qiu, Keping; Zhang, Qizhou; Beuther, Henrik; Fallscheer, Cassandra

    2012-01-01

    We present a study of outflow, infall, and rotation in a ~10^5 Lsun (solar luminosity) star-forming region, IRAS 18360-0537, with Submillimeter Array (SMA) and IRAM 30m observations. The 1.3 mm continuum map shows a 0.5 pc dust ridge, of which the central compact part has a mass of ~80 Msun (solar mass) and harbors two condensations, MM1 and MM2. The CO (2--1) and SiO (5--4) maps reveal a biconical outflow centered at MM1, which is a hot molecular core (HMC) with a gas temperature of 320+/-50...

  8. Transient accretion disc-like envelope in the symbiotic binary BF Cygni during its 2006 - 2015 optical outburst

    CERN Document Server

    Tomov, N A; Bisikalo, D V

    2015-01-01

    The optical light of the symbiotic binary BF Cygni during its last eruption after 2006 shows orbital variations because of an eclipse of the outbursting compact object. The first orbital minimum is deeper than the following ones. Moreover, the Balmer profiles of this system acquired additional satellite components indicating bipolar collimated outflow at one time between the first and second orbital minima. This behaviour is interpreted in the framework of the model of collimated stellar wind from the outbursting object. It is supposed that one extended disc-like envelope covering the accretion disc of the compact object and collimating its stellar wind forms in the period between the first and second minima. The uneclipsed part of this envelope is responsible for the decrease of the depth of the orbital minimum. The calculated $UBVR_{C}I_{C}$ fluxes of this uneclipsed part are in agreement with the observed residual of the depths of the first and second orbital minima. The parameters of the envelope require ...

  9. Forming an O Star via Disk Accretion?

    CERN Document Server

    Qiu, Keping; Beuther, Henrik; Fallscheer, Cassandra

    2012-01-01

    We present a study of outflow, infall, and rotation in a ~10^5 Lsun (solar luminosity) star-forming region, IRAS 18360-0537, with Submillimeter Array (SMA) and IRAM 30m observations. The 1.3 mm continuum map shows a 0.5 pc dust ridge, of which the central compact part has a mass of ~80 Msun (solar mass) and harbors two condensations, MM1 and MM2. The CO (2--1) and SiO (5--4) maps reveal a biconical outflow centered at MM1, which is a hot molecular core (HMC) with a gas temperature of 320+/-50 K and a mass of ~13 Msun. The outflow has a gas mass of 54 Msun and a dynamical timescale of 8,000 yr. The kinematics of the HMC is probed by high-excitation CH3OH and CH3CN lines, which are detected at sub-arcsecond resolution and unveil a velocity gradient perpendicular to the outflow axis, suggesting a disk-like rotation of the HMC. An infalling envelope around the HMC is evidenced by CN lines exhibiting a profound inverse P-Cygni profile, and the estimated mass infall rate, 1.5x10^{-3} Msun/yr, is well comparable to ...

  10. Transport of magnetic flux and the vertical structure of accretion discs: II. Vertical profile of the diffusion coefficients

    CERN Document Server

    Guilet, Jerome

    2012-01-01

    We investigate the radial transport of magnetic flux in a thin accretion disc, the turbulence being modelled by effective diffusion coefficients (viscosity and resistivity). Both turbulent diffusion and advection by the accretion flow contribute to flux transport, and they are likely to act in opposition. We study the consequences of the vertical variation of the diffusion coefficients, due to a varying strength of the turbulence. For this purpose, we consider three different vertical profiles of these coefficients. The first one is aimed at mimicking the turbulent stress profile observed in numerical simulations of MHD turbulence in stratified discs. This enables us to confirm the robustness of the main result of Paper I obtained for uniform diffusion coefficients that, for weak magnetic fields, the contribution of the accretion flow to the transport velocity of magnetic flux is much larger than the transport velocity of mass. We then consider the presence of a dead zone around the equatorial plane, where th...

  11. Propeller outflows from an MRI disc

    CERN Document Server

    Lii, Patrick S; Ustyugova, Galina V; Koldoba, Alexander V; Lovelace, Richard V E

    2013-01-01

    We present the results of axisymmetric simulations of MRI-driven accretion onto a rapidly rotating, magnetized star accreting in the propeller regime. The stellar magnetosphere corotates with the star, forming a centrifugal barrier at the disc-magnetosphere boundary which inhibits matter accretion onto the star. Instead, the disc matter accumulates at the disc-magnetosphere interface and slowly diffuses into the inner magnetosphere where it picks up angular momentum and is quickly ejected from the system as an outflow. Due to the interaction of the matter with the magnetosphere, this wind is discontinuous and is launched as discrete plasmoids. If the ejection rate is lower than the disc accretion rate, the matter accumulates at the disc-magnetosphere boundary faster than it can be ejected. In this case, accretion onto the star proceeds through the episodic accretion instability in which episodes of matter accumulation are followed by simultaneous accretion and ejection. During the accretion phase of this inst...

  12. Supercritical Accretion Discs in Ultraluminous X-ray Sources and SS 433

    CERN Document Server

    Fabrika, Sergei; Vinokurov, Alexander; Sholukhova, Olga; Shidatsu, Megumi

    2015-01-01

    The black hole mass and accretion rate in Ultraluminous X-ray sources (ULXs) in external galaxies, whose X-ray luminosities exceed those of the brightest black holes in our Galaxy by hundreds and thousands of times$^{1,2}$, is an unsolved problem. Here we report that all ULXs ever spectroscopically observed have about the same optical spectra apparently of WNL type (late nitrogen Wolf-Rayet stars) or LBV (luminous blue variables) in their hot state, which are very scarce stellar objects. We show that the spectra do not originate from WNL/LBV type donors but from very hot winds from the accretion discs with nearly normal hydrogen content, which have similar physical conditions as the stellar winds from these stars. The optical spectra are similar to that of SS 433, the only known supercritical accretor in our Galaxy$^{3}$, although the ULX spectra indicate a higher wind temperature. Our results suggest that ULXs with X-ray luminosities of $\\sim 10^{40}$ erg s$^{-1}$ must constitute a homogeneous class of objec...

  13. Line driven winds and the UV turnover in AGN accretion discs

    CERN Document Server

    Laor, Ari

    2013-01-01

    AGN SEDs generally show a turnover at lambda 1000A, implying a maximal accretion disc (AD) temperature of T_max~50,000K. Massive O stars display a similar T_max, associated with a sharp rise in a line driven mass loss Mdot_wind with increasing surface temperature. AGN AD are also characterized by similar surface gravity to massive O stars. The Mdot_wind of O stars reaches ~10^-5 Msun/year. Since the surface area of AGN AD can be 10^6 larger, the implied Mdot_wind in AGN AD can reach the accretion rate Mdot. A rise to Mdot_wind Mdot towards the AD center may therefore set a similar cap of T_max~50,000K. To explore this idea, we solve the radial structure of an AD with a mass loss term, and calculate the implied AD emission using the mass loss term derived from observations of O stars. We find that Mdot_wind becomes comparable to Mdot typically at a few 10s of GM/c^2. Thus, the standard thin AD solution is effectively truncated well outside the innermost stable orbit. The calculated AD SED shows the observed tu...

  14. Corotational Instability, Magnetic Resonances and Global Inertial-Acoustic Oscillations in Magnetized Black-Hole Accretion Discs

    CERN Document Server

    Fu, Wen

    2010-01-01

    Low-order, non-axisymmetric p-modes (also referred as inertial-acoustic modes) trapped in the inner-most region of hydrodynamic accretion discs around black holes, are plausible candidates for high-frequency quasi-periodic oscillations (QPOs) observed in a number of accreting black-hole systems. These modes are subject to global instabilities due to wave absorption at the corotation resonance (where the wave pattern frequency $\\omega/m$ equals the disc rotation rate $\\Omega$), when the fluid vortensity, $\\zeta=\\kappa^2/(2\\Omega\\Sigma)$ (where $\\kappa$ and $\\Sigma$ are the radial epicyclic frequency and disc surface density, respectively), has a positive gradient. We investigate the effects of disc magnetic fields on the wave absorption at corotation and the related wave super-reflection of the corotation barrier, and on the overstability of disc p-modes. For discs with a pure toroidal field, the corotation resonance is split into two magnetic resonances, where the wave frequency in the corotating frame of the...

  15. Disc fragmentation rarely forms planetary-mass objects

    CERN Document Server

    Rice, Ken; Forgan, Duncan; Biller, Beth

    2015-01-01

    It is now reasonably clear that disc fragmentation can only operate in the outer parts of protostellar discs ($r > 50$ au). It is also expected that any object that forms via disc fragmentation will have an initial mass greater than that of Jupiter. However, whether or not such a process actually operates, or can play a significant role in the formation of planetary-mass objects, is still unclear. We do have a few examples of directly imaged objects that may have formed in this way, but we have yet to constrain how often disc fragmentation may actually form such objects. What we want to consider here is whether or not we can constrain the likely population of planetary-mass objects formed via disc fragmentation by considering how a population of objects at large radii ($a > 50$) au - if they do exist - would evolve under perturbations from more distant stellar companions. We find that there is a specific region of parameter space to which such objects would be scattered and show that the known exoplanets in t...

  16. Changes in the structure of the accretion disc of HS1804+67 through the outburst cycle

    CERN Document Server

    Baptista, R; Baptista, Raymundo

    1999-01-01

    We report on the analysis of high-speed photometry of the dwarf-nova HS1804+67 through its outburst cycle with eclipse mapping techniques. Eclipse maps show evidences of the formation of a spiral structure in the disc at the early stages of the outburst and reveal how the disc expands during the rise until its fills most of the primary Roche lobe at maximum light. During the decline phase, the disc becomes progressively fainter as the cooling front moves inwards from the outer regions, until only a small bright region around the white dwarf is left at minimum light. The variable part of the uneclipsed light is possibly due to emission in a wind emanating from the inner parts of the disc. The emission from this region is sensitive to the mass accretion rate.

  17. Long-term quasi-periodicity of 4U 1636-536 resulting from accretion disc instability

    CERN Document Server

    Wisniewicz, Mateusz; Gondek-Rosinska, Dorota; Zdziarski, Andrzej A; Janiuk, Agnieszka

    2015-01-01

    We present the results of a study of the low-mass X-ray binary 4U 1636-536. We have performed temporal analysis of all available RXTE/ASM, Swift/BAT and MAXI data. We have confirmed the previously discovered quasi-periodicity of ~45 d present during ~2004, however we found it continued to 2006. At other epochs, the quasi-periodicity is only transient, and the quasi-period, if present, drifts. We have then applied a time-dependent accretion disc model to the interval with the significant X-ray quasi-periodicity. For our best model, the period and the amplitude of the theoretical light curve agree well with that observed. The modelled quasi-periodicity is due to the hydrogen thermal-ionization instability occurring in outer regions of the accretion disc. The model parameters are the average mass accretion rate (estimated from the light curves), and the accretion disc viscosity parameters, for the hot and cold phases. Our best model gives relatively low values of viscosity parameter for cold phase 0.01 and for h...

  18. Simultaneous independent measurements of a truncated inner accretion disc in the low/hard state of GX 399$-$4

    CERN Document Server

    Plant, D S; Fender, R P

    2014-01-01

    We present results from three recent XMM-Newton observations of GX 339$-$4 in the low/hard state, taken during the decay of a bright (peak $\\sim 0.05$ L$_{\\rm Edd}$) failed outburst. Uniquely, these are the first XMM-Newton EPIC-pn observations of this source using an imaging mode, which significantly enhances the quality of the data at hand. In particular, thanks to the larger available bandpass, this allows an unprecedented constraint of the thermal accretion disc component, and the level of photoelectric absorption. We simultaneously measured the inner radius of the accretion disc via the broadened Fe K$\\alpha$ line and the disc component. The two methods agree, and the measured radii show good consistency over the three epochs. We find that the inner radius is at 20-30 $r_{\\rm g}$, adding to the growing direct evidence for truncation of the inner accretion disc in the low/hard state.

  19. Propeller outflows from an MRI disc

    OpenAIRE

    Lii, Patrick S.; Romanova, Marina M.; Ustyugova, Galina V.; Koldoba, Alexander V.; Lovelace, Richard V. E.

    2013-01-01

    We present the results of axisymmetric simulations of MRI-driven accretion onto a rapidly rotating, magnetized star accreting in the propeller regime. The stellar magnetosphere corotates with the star, forming a centrifugal barrier at the disc-magnetosphere boundary which inhibits matter accretion onto the star. Instead, the disc matter accumulates at the disc-magnetosphere interface and slowly diffuses into the inner magnetosphere where it picks up angular momentum and is quickly ejected fro...

  20. The mass donor star and the accretion disc of the dwarf nova V2051 Ophiuchi in the infrared

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wojcikiewicz, Eduardo; Baptista, Raymundo; Ribeiro, Tiago

    2016-07-01

    We report the analysis of infrared JHK_s high speed photometry of the dwarf nova V2051 Oph in quiescence. We model the ellipsoidal variations in the light curve to measure the fluxes of the mass donor star. Its colors are consistent with an M8 ± 1 spectral type with an equivalent blackbody temperature of T_{bb}= (2700± 300) K, in agreement with spectroscopic measurements and with theoretical expectation for donor stars at the same orbital period. We use the mass donor star fluxes and the Barnes & Evans relation to find a photometric parallax distance of (102 ± 16) pc to the binary. At this distance the outbursts of V2051 Oph occur at disc temperatures everywhere lower than the minimum/critical temperature predicted by the disc instability model, underscoring previous suggestions that they are powered by mass transfer bursts. We subtract the contribution of the mass donor star and apply eclipse mapping techniques to the remaining light curve in order to investigate the structure and emission of its accretion disc. The infrared accretion disc is bright and 'blue' in the inner regions and becomes progressively fainter and redder with increasing radii, indicating that the disc temperature decreases with radius. Bulges in the eclipse shape, more prominent in the H and K_s bands, lead to asymmetric arcs in the eclipse maps reminiscent of the spiral arms found in disc maps of outbursting dwarf novae. The arcs show an azimuthal extent of ˜90^o, extend from the intermediate to the outer disc regions (0.3-0.4 R_{L1}, where R_{L1} is the distance from disc center to the inner lagrangian point), and account for ≃ 30 per cent of the total flux in the H and K_s bands.

  1. Comparison of ejection events in the jet and accretion disc outflows in 3C 111

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tombesi, F.; Sambruna, R. M.; Marscher, A. P.; Jorstad, S. G.; Reynolds, C. S.; Markowitz, A.

    2012-07-01

    We present a comparison of the parameters of accretion disc outflows and the jet of the broad-line radio galaxy 3C 111 on subparsec (sub-pc) scales. We make use of published X-ray observations of ultra-fast outflows (UFOs) and new 43-GHz Very Long Baseline Array images to track the jet knot ejection. We find that the superluminal jet coexists with the mildly relativistic outflows on sub-pc scales, possibly indicating a transverse stratification of a global flow. The two are roughly in pressure equilibrium, with the UFOs potentially providing additional support for the initial jet collimation. The UFOs are much more massive than the jet, but their kinetic power is probably about an order of magnitude lower, at least for the observations considered here. However, their momentum flux is equivalent and both of them are powerful enough to exert a concurrent feedback impact on the surrounding environment. A link between these components is naturally predicted in the context of magnetohydrodynamic models for jet/outflow formation. However, given the high radiation throughput of active galactic nuclei, radiation pressure should also be taken into account. From the comparison with the long-term 2-10 keV Rossi X-ray Timing Explorer light curve, we find that the UFOs are preferentially detected during periods of increasing flux. We also find the possibility to place the UFOs within the known X-ray dips-jet ejection cycles, which has been shown to be a strong proof of the disc-jet connection, in analogue with stellar mass black holes. However, given the limited number of observations presently available, these relations are only tentative and additional spectral monitoring is needed to test them conclusively.

  2. Super- and sub-Eddington accreting massive black holes: A comparison of slim and thin accretion discs through study of the spectral energy distribution

    CERN Document Server

    Castello-Mor, Nuria; Kaspi, Shai

    2016-01-01

    We employ optical and UV observations to present SEDs for two reverberation-mapped samples of super-Eddington and sub-Eddington AGN with similar luminosity distributions. The samples are fitted with accretion disc models in order to look for SED differences that depend on the Eddington ratio. The fitting takes into account measured BH mass and accretion rates, BH spin and intrinsic reddening of the sources. All objects in both groups can be fitted by thin AD models over the range 0.2-1$\\,\\mu$m with reddening as a free parameter. The intrinsic reddening required to fit the data are relatively small, $E(B-V)\\leq0.2$~mag, except for one source. Super-Eddington AGN seem to require more reddening. The distribution of $E(B-V)$ is similar to what is observed in larger AGN samples. The best fit disc models for the two groups are very different, with super-Eddington sources require much more luminous far-UV continuum. The exact amount depends on the possible saturation of the UV radiation in slim discs. In particular,...

  3. Magnetic field structure in accretion columns on HMXB and effects on CRSF

    OpenAIRE

    Mukherjee Dipanjan; Bhattacharya Dipankar; Mignone Andrea

    2013-01-01

    In accreting neutron star binaries, matter is channelled by the magnetic fields from the accretion disc to the poles of neutron stars forming an accretion mound. We model such mounds by numerically solving the Grad-Shafranov equation for axisymmetric static MHD equilibria. From our solutions we infer local distortion of field lines due to the weight of accreted matter. Variation in mass loading at the accretion disc will alter the shape of the accretion mound which will also affect the local ...

  4. Active galactic nuclei at z ˜ 1.5: III. Accretion discs and Black Hole Spin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capellupo, D. M.; Netzer, H.; Lira, P.; Trakhtenbrot, B.; Mejía-Restrepo, J.

    2016-04-01

    This is the third paper in a series describing the spectroscopic properties of a sample of 39 AGN at z ˜ 1.5, selected to cover a large range in black hole mass (MBH) and Eddington ratio (L/LEdd). In this paper, we continue the analysis of the VLT/X-shooter observations of our sample with the addition of 9 new sources. We use an improved Bayesian procedure, which takes into account intrinsic reddening, and improved MBH estimates, to fit thin accretion disc (AD) models to the observed spectra and constrain the spin parameter (a★) of the central black holes. We can fit 37 out of 39 AGN with the thin AD model, and for those with satisfactory fits, we obtain constraints on the spin parameter of the BHs, with the constraints becoming generally less well defined with decreasing BH mass. Our spin parameter estimates range from ˜-0.6 to maximum spin for our sample, and our results are consistent with the "spin-up" scenario of BH spin evolution. We also discuss how the results of our analysis vary with the inclusion of non-simultaneous GALEX photometry in our thin AD fitting. Simultaneous spectra covering the rest-frame optical through far-UV are necessary to definitively test the thin AD theory and obtain the best constraints on the spin parameter.

  5. Comparison of ejection events in the jet and accretion disc outflows in 3C 111

    CERN Document Server

    Tombesi, F; Marscher, A P; Jorstad, S G; Reynolds, C S; Markowitz, A

    2012-01-01

    We present a comparison of the parameters of accretion disc outflows and the jet of the broad-line radio galaxy 3C 111 on sub-pc scales. We make use of published X-ray observations of ultra-fast outflows (UFOs) and new 43GHz VLBA images to track the jet knots ejection. We find that the superluminal jet coexists with the mildly relativistic outflows on sub-pc scales, possibly indicating a transverse stratification of a global flow. The two are roughly in pressure equilibrium, with the UFOs potentially providing additional support for the initial jet collimation. The UFOs are much more massive than the jet, but their kinetic power is probably about an order of magnitude lower, at least for the observations considered here. However, their momentum flux is equivalent and both of them are powerful enough to exert a concurrent feedback impact on the surrounding environment. A link between these components is naturally predicted in the context of MHD models for jet/outflow formation. However, given the high radiatio...

  6. Active galactic nuclei at z ~ 1.5: I. Spectral energy distribution and accretion discs

    CERN Document Server

    Capellupo, Daniel M; Lira, Paulina; Trakhtenbrot, Benny; Mejía-Restrepo, Julían

    2014-01-01

    The physics of active super massive black holes (BHs) is governed by their mass (M_BH), spin (a*) and accretion rate ($\\dot{M}$). This work is the first in a series of papers with the aim of testing how these parameters determine the observable attributes of active galactic nuclei (AGN). We have selected a sample in a narrow redshift range, centered on z~1.55, that covers a wide range in M_BH and $\\dot{M}$, and are observing them with X-shooter, covering rest wavelengths ~1200-9800 \\AA. The current work covers 30 such objects and focuses on the origin of the AGN spectral energy distribution (SED). After estimating M_BH and $\\dot{M}$ based on each observed SED, we use thin AD models and a Bayesian analysis to fit the observed SEDs in our sample. We are able to fit 22/30 of the SEDs. Out of the remaining 8 SEDs, 3 can be fit by the thin AD model by correcting the observed SED for reddening within the host galaxy and 4 can be fit by adding a disc wind to the model. In four of these 8 sources, Milky Way-type exti...

  7. Active galactic nuclei at z ~ 1.5: III. Accretion discs and black hole spin

    CERN Document Server

    Capellupo, Daniel M; Lira, Paulina; Trakhtenbrot, Benny; Mejía-Restrepo, Julián

    2016-01-01

    This is the third paper in a series describing the spectroscopic properties of a sample of 39 AGN at $z \\sim 1.5$, selected to cover a large range in black hole mass ($M_{BH}$) and Eddington ratio ($L/L_{Edd}$). In this paper, we continue the analysis of the VLT/X-shooter observations of our sample with the addition of 9 new sources. We use an improved Bayesian procedure, which takes into account intrinsic reddening, and improved $M_{BH}$ estimates, to fit thin accretion disc (AD) models to the observed spectra and constrain the spin parameter ($a_*$) of the central black holes. We can fit 37 out of 39 AGN with the thin AD model, and for those with satisfactory fits, we obtain constraints on the spin parameter of the BHs, with the constraints becoming generally less well defined with decreasing BH mass. Our spin parameter estimates range from $\\sim$$-$0.6 to maximum spin for our sample, and our results are consistent with the "spin-up" scenario of BH spin evolution. We also discuss how the results of our anal...

  8. Active galactic nuclei at z ˜ 1.5 - III. Accretion discs and black hole spin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capellupo, D. M.; Netzer, H.; Lira, P.; Trakhtenbrot, B.; Mejía-Restrepo, J.

    2016-07-01

    This is the third paper in a series describing the spectroscopic properties of a sample of 39 AGN at z ˜ 1.5, selected to cover a large range in black hole mass (MBH) and Eddington ratio (L/LEdd). In this paper, we continue the analysis of the VLT/X-shooter observations of our sample with the addition of nine new sources. We use an improved Bayesian procedure, which takes into account intrinsic reddening, and improved MBH estimates, to fit thin accretion disc (AD) models to the observed spectra and constrain the spin parameter (a*) of the central black holes. We can fit 37 out of 39 AGN with the thin AD model, and for those with satisfactory fits, we obtain constraints on the spin parameter of the BHs, with the constraints becoming generally less well defined with decreasing BH mass. Our spin parameter estimates range from ˜-0.6 to maximum spin for our sample, and our results are consistent with the `spin-up' scenario of BH spin evolution. We also discuss how the results of our analysis vary with the inclusion of non-simultaneous GALEX photometry in our thin AD fitting. Simultaneous spectra covering the rest-frame optical through far-UV are necessary to definitively test the thin AD theory and obtain the best constraints on the spin parameter.

  9. Fundamental parameters of the close interacting binary HD170582 and its luminous accretion disc

    CERN Document Server

    Mennickent, R E; Cabezas, M; Cséki, A; G., J Rosales; Niemczura, E; Araya, I; Curé, M

    2015-01-01

    We present a spectroscopic and photometric study of the Double Period Variable HD170582. Based on the study of the ASAS V-band light curve we determine an improved orbital period of 16.87177 $\\pm$ 0.02084 days and a long period of 587 days. We disentangled the light curve into an orbital part, determining ephemerides and revealing orbital ellipsoidal variability with unequal maxima, and a long cycle, showing quasi-sinusoidal changes with amplitude $\\Delta V$= 0.1 mag. Assuming synchronous rotation for the cool stellar component and semi-detached configuration we find a cool evolved star of $M_{2}$ = 1.9 $\\pm$ 0.1 $M_{\\odot}$, $T_{2}$ = 8000 $\\pm$ 100 $K$ and $R_{2}$ = 15.6 $\\pm$ 0.2 $R_{\\odot}$, and an early B-type dwarf of $M_{1}$ = 9.0 $\\pm$ 0.2 $M_{\\odot}$. The B-type star is surrounded by a geometrically and optically thick accretion disc of radial extension 20.8 $\\pm$ 0.3 $R_{\\odot}$ contributing about 35% to the system luminosity at the $V$ band. Two extended regions located at opposite sides of the dis...

  10. An Accretion Disc-Irradiation Hybrid Model for The Optical/UV Variability in Radio-Quiet Quasars

    CERN Document Server

    Liu, Hui; Gu, Minfeng

    2016-01-01

    The optical/ultraviolet (UV) variability of quasars has been discovered to be correlated with other quasar properties, such as luminosity, black hole mass and rest-frame wavelength. However,the origin of variability has been a puzzle so far. In this work, we upgrade the accretion disc model (Li & Cao 2008), which assumed the variability is caused by the change of global mass accretion rate, by constraining the disc size to match the viscous timescale of accretion disc to the variability timescale observed and by including the irradiation/X-ray reprocessing to make the emitted spectrum become steeper. We find this hybrid model can reproduce the observed bluer-when-brighter trend quite well, which is used to validate the theoretical model by several works recently. The traditional correlation between the variability amplitude and rest-frame wavelength can also be well fitted by our model. In addition, a weak positive correlation between variability amplitude and black hole mass is present, qualitatively con...

  11. An accretion disc-irradiation hybrid model for the optical/UV variability in radio-quiet quasars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Hui; Li, Shuang-Liang; Gu, Minfeng; Guo, Hengxiao

    2016-10-01

    The optical/ultraviolet (UV) variability of quasars has been discovered to be correlated with other quasar properties, such as luminosity, black hole mass and rest-frame wavelength. However, the origin of variability has been a puzzle so far. In this work, we upgrade the accretion disc model, which assumed the variability is caused by the change of global mass accretion rate, by constraining the disc size to match the viscous time-scale of accretion disc to the variability time-scale observed and by including the irradiation/X-ray reprocessing to make the emitted spectrum become steeper. We find this hybrid model can reproduce the observed bluer-when-brighter trend quite well, which is used to validate the theoretical model by several works recently. The traditional correlation between the variability amplitude and rest-frame wavelength can also be well fitted by our model. In addition, a weak positive correlation between variability amplitude and black hole mass is present, qualitatively consistent with recent observations.

  12. On the variation of black hole accretion disc radii as a function of state and accretion rate

    CERN Document Server

    Cabanac, C; Dunn, R J H; Koerding, E G

    2009-01-01

    Black hole binary transients undergo dramatic evolution in their X-ray timing and spectral behaviour during outbursts. In recent years a paradigm has arisen in which "soft" X-ray states are associated with an inner disc radius at, or very close to, the innermost stable circular orbit (ISCO) around the black hole, while in "hard" X-ray states the inner edge of the disc is further from the black hole. Models of advective flows suggest that as the X-ray luminosity drops in hard states, the inner disc progressively recedes, from a few to hundreds gravitational radii. Recent observations which show broad iron line detections and estimates of the disc component strength suggest that a non-recessed disc could still be present in bright hard states. In this study we present a comprehensive analysis of the spectral components associated with the inner disc, utilising data from instruments with sensitive low-energy responses and including reanalyses of previously published results. A key component of the study is to fu...

  13. Infalling clouds onto super-massive black hole binaries - I. Formation of discs, accretion and gas dynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Goicovic, F G; Sesana, A; Stasyszyn, F; Amaro-Seoane, P; Tanaka, T L

    2015-01-01

    There is compelling evidence that most -if not all- galaxies harbour a super-massive black hole (SMBH) at their nucleus, hence binaries of these massive objects are an inevitable product of the hierarchical evolution of structures in the universe, and represent an important but thus-far elusive phase of galaxy evolution. Gas accretion via a circumbinary disc is thought to be important for the dynamical evolution of SMBH binaries, as well as in producing luminous emission that can be used to infer their properties. One plausible source of the gaseous fuel is clumps of gas formed due to turbulence and gravitational instabilities in the interstellar medium, that later fall toward and interact with the binary. In this context, we model numerically the evolution of turbulent clouds in near-radial infall onto equal-mass SMBH binaries, using a modified version of the SPH code GADGET-3. We present a total of 12 simulations that explore different possible pericentre distances and relative inclinations, and show that t...

  14. Hot-spot model for accretion disc variability as random process - II. Mathematics of the power-spectrum break frequency

    CERN Document Server

    Pechacek, Tomas; Karas, Vladimir; Czerny, Bozena; Dovciak, Michal

    2013-01-01

    We study some general properties of accretion disc variability in the context of stationary random processes. In particular, we are interested in mathematical constraints that can be imposed on the functional form of the Fourier power-spectrum density (PSD) that exhibits a multiply broken shape and several local maxima. We develop a methodology for determining the regions of the model parameter space that can in principle reproduce a PSD shape with a given number and position of local peaks and breaks of the PSD slope. Given the vast space of possible parameters, it is an important requirement that the method is fast in estimating the PSD shape for a given parameter set of the model. We generated and discuss the theoretical PSD profiles of a shot-noise-type random process with exponentially decaying flares. Then we determined conditions under which one, two, or more breaks or local maxima occur in the PSD. We calculated positions of these features and determined the changing slope of the model PSD. Furthermor...

  15. Accretion disc dynamo activity in local simulations spanning weak-to-strong net vertical magnetic flux regimes

    CERN Document Server

    Salvesen, Greg; Armitage, Philip J; Begelman, Mitchell C

    2015-01-01

    Strongly magnetized accretion discs around black holes have attractive features that may explain enigmatic aspects of X-ray binary behaviour. The structure and evolution of these discs are governed by a dynamo-like mechanism, which channels part of the accretion power liberated by the magnetorotational instability (MRI) into an ordered toroidal magnetic field. To study dynamo activity, we performed three-dimensional, stratified, isothermal, ideal magnetohydrodynamic shearing box simulations. The strength of the self-sustained toroidal magnetic field depends on the net vertical magnetic flux, which we vary across almost the entire range over which the MRI is linearly unstable. We quantify disc structure and dynamo properties as a function of the initial ratio of mid-plane gas pressure to vertical magnetic field pressure, $\\beta_0^{\\rm mid} = p_{\\rm gas} / p_B$. For $10^5 \\geq \\beta_0^{\\rm mid} \\geq 10$ the effective $\\alpha$-viscosity parameter scales as a power-law. Dynamo activity persists up to and includin...

  16. Tilted black hole accretion disc models of Sagittarius A*: time-variable millimetre to near-infrared emission

    CERN Document Server

    Dexter, Jason

    2012-01-01

    High-resolution, multi-wavelength, and time-domain observations of the Galactic centre black hole candidate, Sgr A*, allow for a direct test of contemporary accretion theory. To date, all models have assumed alignment between the accretion disc and black hole angular momentum axes, but this is unjustified for geometrically thick accretion flows like that onto Sgr A*. Instead, we calculate images and spectra from a set of simulations of accretion flows misaligned ('tilted') by 15 degrees from the black hole spin axis and compare them with millimetre (mm) to near-infrared (NIR) observations. Non-axisymmetric standing shocks from eccentric fluid orbits dominate the emission, leading to a wide range of possible image morphologies. These effects invalidate previous parameter estimates from model fitting, including estimates of the dimensionless black hole spin, except possibly at low values of spin or tilt. At 1.3mm, the images have crescent morphologies, and the black hole shadow may still be accessible to future...

  17. Convergence of SPH simulations of self-gravitating accretion discs: Sensitivity to the implementation of radiative cooling

    CERN Document Server

    Rice, W K M; Armitage, P J

    2011-01-01

    Recent simulations of self-gravitating accretion discs, carried out using a three-dimensional Smoothed Particle Hydrodynamics (SPH) code by Meru and Bate, have been interpreted as implying that three-dimensional global discs fragment much more easily than would be expected from a two-dimensional local model. Subsequently, global and local two-dimensional models have been shown to display similar fragmentation properties, leaving it unclear whether the three-dimensional results reflect a physical effect or a numerical problem associated with the treatment of cooling or artificial viscosity in SPH. Here, we study how fragmentation of self-gravitating disc flows in SPH depends upon the implementation of cooling. We run disc simulations that compare a simple cooling scheme, in which each particle loses energy based upon its internal energy per unit mass, with a method in which the cooling is derived from a smoothed internal energy density field. For the simple per particle cooling scheme, we find a significant in...

  18. Outflow and Accretion in Massive Star Forming Regions

    CERN Document Server

    Klaassen, P D

    2007-01-01

    In order to distinguish between the various components of massive star forming regions (i.e. infalling, outflowing and rotating gas structures) within our own Galaxy, we require high angular resolution observations which are sensitive to structures on all size scales. To this end, we present observations of the molecular and ionized gas towards massive star forming regions at 230 GHz from the SMA (with zero spacing from the JCMT) and at 22 and 23 GHz from the VLA at arcsecond or better resolution. These observations (of sources such as NGC7538, W51e2 and K3-50A) form an integral part of a multi-resolution study of the molecular and ionized gas dynamics of massive star forming regions (i.e. Klaassen & Wilson 2007). Through comparison of these observations with 3D radiative transfer models, we hope to be able to distinguish between various modes of massive star formation, such as ionized or halted accretion (i.e Keto 2003 or Klaassen et al. 2006 respectively).

  19. Tilted black hole accretion disc models of Sagittarius A*: time-variable millimetre to near-infrared emission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dexter, Jason; Fragile, P. Chris

    2013-07-01

    High-resolution, multiwavelength and time-domain observations of the Galactic Centre black hole candidate, Sgr A*, allow for a direct test of contemporary accretion theory. Most models assume alignment between the accretion disc and black hole angular momentum axes, but this is not necessarily the case for geometrically thick accretion flows like that on to Sgr A*. Instead, we calculate images and spectra from a set of numerical simulations of accretion flows misaligned (`tilted') by 15° from the black hole spin axis and compare them with millimetre (mm) to near-infrared (NIR) observations. Non-axisymmetric standing shocks from eccentric fluid orbits dominate the emission, leading to a wide range of possible image morphologies. The strong effects of disc tilt lead to poorly constrained model parameters. These results suggest that previous parameter estimates from fitting aligned models, including estimates of the dimensionless black hole spin, likely only apply for small values of spin or tilt (upper limits of a 1012 K). These electrons can naturally produce the observed NIR flux, spectral index and rapid variability (`flaring'). This NIR emission is uncorrelated with that in the mm, which also agrees with observations. These are the first numerical models to explain the time-variable mm to NIR emission of Sgr A*. Predictions of the model include significant structural changes observable with mm-VLBI on both the dynamical (hour) and Lense-Thirring precession (day-year) time-scales, and ≃ 30-50 μas changes in centroid position from extreme gravitational lensing events during NIR flares, detectable with the future VLT instrument GRAVITY. We further predict that multiwavelength monitoring should find no significant correlations between mm and NIR/X-ray light curves. The weak correlations reported to date are shown to be consistent with our model, where they are artefacts of the short light-curve durations. If the observed NIR emission is caused by shock heating in

  20. SOAR observations of the high-viscosity accretion disc of the dwarf nova V4140 Sagitarii in quiescence and in outburst

    CERN Document Server

    Baptista, Raymundo; Oliveira, Alexandre S

    2016-01-01

    We report the analysis of 22 B-band light curves of the dwarf nova V4140 Sgr obtained with SOI/SOAR during two nights along the decline of a superoutburst in 2006 Sep 12-24 and in quiescence over 50 days following the superoutburst. Three-dimensional eclipse mapping of the outburst light curves indicates that the accretion disc is elliptical (eccentricity e=0.13) and that superhump maximum occurs when the mass donor star is aligned with the bulge of the elliptical disc. The accretion disc is geometrically thin both in outburst and in quiescence; it fills the primary Roche lobe in outburst and shrinks to about half this size in quiescence. The stability of the eclipse shape, width and depth along quiescence and the derived disc surface brightness distribution indicate that the quiescent accretion disc is in a high-viscosity, steady-state. Flickering mapping of the quiescent data reveal that the low-frequency flickering arises from an azimuthally-extended stream-disc impact region at disc rim and from the inner...

  1. Spatially-resolved spectra of the accretion disc of the novalike UU Aquarii

    CERN Document Server

    Baptista, R; Steiner, J E; Horne, K; Baptista, Raymundo; Horne, Keith

    2000-01-01

    Time-resolved spectroscopy of the novalike variable UU Aquarii is analyzedwith eclipse mapping techniques to produce spatially resolved spectra of itsaccretion disc and gas stream as a function of distance from disc centre in therange 3600-6900 \\AA. The spatially-resolved spectra show that the continuumemission becomes progressively fainter and redder for increasing disc radius --reflecting the radial temperature gradient -- and reveal that the HI and HeIlines appear as deep, narrow absorption features in the inner disc regionstransitioning to emission with P Cygni profiles for intermediate and large discradii. The spectrum of the uneclipsed component has strong HI and HeI emissionlines plus a Balmer jump in emission and is explained as optically thinemission from a vertically extended disc chromosphere + wind. Most of the lineemission probably arises from the wind. The spatially-resolved spectra alsosuggest the existence of gas stream ``disk-skimming'' overflow in UU Aqr, whichcan be seen down to R \\simeq 0....

  2. Convergence of smoothed particle hydrodynamics simulations of self-gravitating accretion discs: sensitivity to the implementation of radiative cooling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rice, W. K. M.; Forgan, D. H.; Armitage, P. J.

    2012-02-01

    Recent simulations of self-gravitating accretion discs, carried out using a three-dimensional smoothed particle hydrodynamics (SPH) code by Meru & Bate, have been interpreted as implying that three-dimensional global discs fragment much more easily than would be expected from a two-dimensional local model. Subsequently, global and local two-dimensional models have been shown to display similar fragmentation properties, leaving it unclear whether the three-dimensional results reflect a physical effect or a numerical problem associated with the treatment of cooling or artificial viscosity in SPH. Here, we study how fragmentation of self-gravitating disc flows in SPH depends upon the implementation of cooling. We run disc simulations that compare a simple cooling scheme, in which each particle loses energy based upon its internal energy per unit mass, with a method in which the cooling is derived from a smoothed internal energy density field. For the simple per particle cooling scheme, we find a significant increase in the minimum cooling time-scale for fragmentation with increasing resolution, matching previous results. Switching to smoothed cooling, however, results in lower critical cooling time-scales, and tentative evidence for convergence at the highest spatial resolution tested. We conclude that precision studies of fragmentation using SPH require careful consideration of how cooling (and, probably, artificial viscosity) is implemented, and that the apparent non-convergence of the fragmentation boundary seen in prior simulations is likely a numerical effect. In real discs, where cooling is physically smoothed by radiative transfer effects, the fragmentation boundary is probably displaced from the two-dimensional value by a factor that is only of the order of unity.

  3. Mid-infrared microlensing of accretion disc and dusty torus in quasars: effects on flux ratio anomalies

    CERN Document Server

    Sluse, D; Anguita, T; Wucknitz, O; Wambsganss, J

    2013-01-01

    Multiply-imaged quasars and AGNs observed in the mid-infrared (MIR) range are commonly assumed to be unaffected by the microlensing produced by the stars in their lensing galaxy. In this paper, we investigate the validity domain of this assumption. Indeed, that premise disregards microlensing of the accretion disc in the MIR range, and does not account for recent progress in our knowledge of the dusty torus. To simulate microlensing, we first built a simplified image of the quasar composed of an accretion disc, and of a larger ring-like torus. The mock quasars are then microlensed using an inverse ray-shooting code. We simulated the wavelength and size dependence of microlensing for different lensed image types and fraction of compact objects projected in the lens. This allows us to derive magnification probabilities as a function of wavelength, as well as to calculate the microlensing-induced deformation of the spectral energy distribution of the lensed images. We find that microlensing variations as large a...

  4. Reaching the Peak of the quasar spectral energy distribution - II. Exploring the accretion disc, dusty torus and host galaxy

    CERN Document Server

    Collinson, James S; Landt, Hermine; Done, Chris; Elvis, Martin; McDowell, Jonathan C

    2016-01-01

    We continue our study of the spectral energy distributions (SEDs) of 11 AGN at 1.5 < z < 2.2, with optical-NIR spectra, X-ray data and mid-IR photometry. In a previous paper we presented the observations and models; in this paper we explore the parameter space of these models. We first quantify uncertainties on the black hole masses (M$_{\\rm BH}$) and degeneracies between SED parameters. The effect of BH spin is tested, and we find that while low to moderate spin values (a$_*$ $\\leq$ 0.9) are compatible with the data in all cases, maximal spin (a$_*$ = 0.998) can only describe the data if the accretion disc is face-on. The outer accretion disc radii are well constrained in 8/11 objects, and are found to be a factor ~5 smaller than the self-gravity radii. We then extend our modelling campaign into the mid-IR regime with WISE photometry, adding components for the host galaxy and dusty torus. Our estimates of the host galaxy luminosities are consistent with the M$_{\\rm BH}$-bulge relationship, and the meas...

  5. Spiral structures and temperature distribution in the quiescent accretion disc of the cataclysmic binary V2051 Ophiuchi

    CERN Document Server

    Rutkowski, Artur; Preston, George W; Pych, Wojciech

    2016-01-01

    We present the capabilities of our new code for obtaining Doppler maps implementing the maximum likelihood approach. As test data, we used observations of the dwarf nova V2051 Ophiuchi. The system was observed in quiescence at least 16 d before the onset of the next outburst. Using Doppler maps obtained for ten emission lines covering three orbital cycles, we detected spiral structures in the accretion disc of V2051 Oph. However, these structures could be biased as our data sampled the orbital period of the binary at only eight different orbital phases. Our Doppler maps show evolution from a one-arm wave structure in H$\\alpha$ to two-armed waves in the other lines. The location of the two-arm structures agrees with simulations showing tidally driven spiral waves in the accretion disc. During consecutive cycles, the qualitative characteristics of the detected structures remained similar but the central absorption increased. For the first time, using the Doppler tomography method, we obtained temperature maps o...

  6. Corotational Instability of Inertial-Acoustic Modes in Black Hole Accretion Discs and Quasi-Periodic Oscillations

    CERN Document Server

    Lai, Dong

    2008-01-01

    We study the global stability of non-axisymmetric p-modes (also called inertial-acoustic modes) trapped in the inner-most regions of accretion discs around black holes. We show that the lowest-order (highest-frequency) p-modes, with frequencies $\\omega=(0.5-0.7) m\\Omega_{\\rm ISCO}$, can be overstable due to general relativistic effects, according to which the radial epicyclic frequency is a non-monotonic function of radius near the black hole. The mode is trapped inside the corotation resonance radius and carries a negative energy. The mode growth arises primarily from wave absorption at the corotation resonance, and the sign of the wave absorption depends on the gradient of the disc vortensity. When the mode frequency is sufficiently high, such that the slope of the vortensity is positive at corotation positive wave energy is absorbed at the resonance, leading to the growth of mode amplitude. We also study how the rapid radial inflow at the inner edge of the disc affects the mode trapping and growth. Our ana...

  7. Dependence of fragmentation in self-gravitating accretion discs on small scale structure

    CERN Document Server

    Young, Matthew D

    2015-01-01

    We propose a framework for understanding the fragmentation criterion for self-gravitating discs which, in contrast to studies that emphasise the `gravoturbulent' nature of such discs, instead focuses on the properties of their quasi-regular spiral structures. Within this framework there are two evolutionary paths to fragmentation: i) collapse on the free-fall time, which requires that the ratio of cooling time to dynamical time ($\\beta$) $< 3$ and ii) quasistatic collapse on the cooling time at a rate that is sufficiently fast that fragments are compact enough to withstand disruption when they encounter spiral features in the disc. We perform 2D grid simulations which demonstrate numerically converged fragmentation at $\\beta < 3$ (in good agreement with Paardekooper et al. (2011) and others) and argue that this is a consequence of the fact that such simulations smooth the gravitational force on the scale $H$, the scale height of the disc. Such simulations thus only allow fragmentation via route i) above...

  8. The mode of gas accretion onto star-forming galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Marinacci, F; Fraternali, F; Nipoti, C; Ciotti, L; Londrillo, P

    2010-01-01

    It is argued that galaxies like ours sustain their star formation by transferring gas from an extensive corona to the star-forming disc. The transfer is effected by the galactic fountain -- cool clouds that are shot up from the plane to kiloparsec heights above the plane. The Kelvin-Helmholtz instability strips gas from these clouds. If the pressure and the the metallicity of the corona are high enough, the stripped gas causes a similar mass of coronal gas to condense in the cloud's wake. Hydrodynamical simulations of cloud-corona interaction are presented. These confirm the existence of a critical ablation rate above which the corona is condensed, and imply that for the likely parameters of the Galactic corona this rate lies near the actual ablation rate of clouds. In external galaxies trails of HI behind individual clouds will not be detectable, although the integrated emission from all such trails should be significant. Parts of the trails of the clouds that make up the Galaxy's fountain should be observab...

  9. The response of an accretion disc to an inclined dipole with application to $AA \\Tau$

    CERN Document Server

    Terquem, C; Terquem, Caroline; Papaloizou, John C. B.

    2000-01-01

    We compute the warping of a disc induced by an inclined dipole. We consider a magnetised star surrounded by a thin Keplerian diamagnetic disc with an inner edge that corotates with the star. We suppose the stellar field is a dipole with an axis that is slightly misaligned with the stellar rotation axis. The rotation axes of the disc material orbiting at large distances from the star and that of the star are supposed to coincide. The misalignment of the magnetic and rotation axes results in the magnetic pressure not being the same on the upper and lower surfaces of the disc. The resultant net vertical force produces a warp which appears stationary in a frame corotating with the star. We find that, if viscosity is large enough (alpha on the order of 0.01-0.1) to damp bending waves as they propagate away, a smoothly varying warp of the inner region of the disc is produced. The amplitude of the warp can easily be on the order of ten percent of the disc inner radius for reasonably small misalignment angles (less t...

  10. The imprint of satellite accretion on the chemical and dynamical properties of disc galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Ruiz-Lara, T; Gibson, B K; Pérez, I; Florido, E; Minchev, I; Sánchez-Blázquez, P

    2015-01-01

    Aims: We study the effects of the cosmological assembly history on the chemical and dynamical properties of the discs of spiral galaxies as a function of radius. Methods: We make use of the simulated Milky-Way mass, fully-cosmological discs, from {\\tt RaDES} (Ramses Disc Environment Study). We analyse their assembly history by examining the proximity of satellites to the galactic disc, instead of their merger trees, to better gauge which satellites impact the disc. We present stellar age and metallicity profiles, Age-Metallicity Relation (AMR), Age-Velocity dispersion Relation (AVR), and Stellar Age Distribution (SAD) in several radial bins for the simulated galaxies. Results: Assembly histories can be divided into three different stages: i) a merger dominated phase, when a large number of mergers with mass ratios of $\\sim$1:1 take place (lasting $\\sim$3.2$\\pm$0.4 Gyr on average); ii) a quieter phase, when $\\sim$1:10 mergers take place (lasting $\\sim$4.4$\\pm$2.0 Gyr) - these two phases are able to kinematical...

  11. Connection of Screw Instability with Electric Current in an Accretion Disc around a Black Hole

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LAN Xiao-Xia; WANG Ding-Xiong; GAN Zhao-Ming

    2005-01-01

    @@ The screw instability of the magnetic field is discussed based on its poloidal configuration generated by a single toroidal electric current flowing in the equatorial plane of a Kerr Mack hole (BH). The rotation of the BH relative to the disc induces an electromotive force, which in turn results in a poloidal electric current. By using Ampere's law, we calculate the toroidal component of the magnetic field and derive a criterion for the screw instability of the magnetic field connecting the rotating BH with its surrounding disc. It is determined that the screw instability is related to two parameters: the radius of the disc and the BH spin. The occurrence of screw instability is depicted in a parameter space. In addition, we discuss the effect of the screw instability on magnetic extraction of energy from the rotating BH.

  12. Challenges in Forming the Solar System's Giant Planet Cores via Pebble Accretion

    CERN Document Server

    Kretke, K A

    2014-01-01

    Though ~10 Earth mass rocky/icy cores are commonly held as a prerequisite for the formation of gas giants, theoretical models still struggle to explain how these embryos can form within the lifetimes of gaseous circumstellar disks. In recent years, aerodynamic-aided accretion of "pebbles," objects ranging from centimeters to meters in size, has been suggested as a potential solution to this long-standing problem. While pebble accretion has been demonstrated to be extremely effective in local simulations that look at the detailed behavior of these pebbles in the vicinity of a single planetary embryo, to date there have been no global simulations demonstrating the effectiveness of pebble accretion in a more complicated, multi-planet environment. Therefore, we have incorporated the aerodynamic-aided accretion physics into LIPAD, a Lagrangian code which can follow the collisional / accretional / dynamical evolution of a protoplanetary system, to investigate the how pebble accretion manifests itself in the larger ...

  13. Demographics of Transition Discs in Ophiuchus and Taurus

    CERN Document Server

    Najita, Joan R; Muzerolle, James

    2015-01-01

    Transition disc systems are young stars that appear to be on the verge of dispersing their protoplanetary discs. We explore the nature of these systems by comparing the stellar accretion rates and disc masses of transition discs and normal T Tauri stars in Taurus and Ophiuchus. After controlling for the known dependencies of stellar accretion rate and disc mass and on age, stellar accretion rate on stellar mass, and disc mass on the presence of stellar or sub-stellar companions, we find that the normal T Tauri stars show a trend of stellar accretion rate increasing with disc mass. The transition discs tend to have higher average disc masses than normal T Tauri stars as well as lower accretion rates than normal T Tauri stars of the same disc mass. These results are most consistent with the interpretation that the transition discs have formed objects massive enough to alter the accretion flow, i.e., single or multiple giant planets. Several Ophiuchus T Tauri stars that are not known transition disc systems also...

  14. The rise and fall of stellar discs across the peak of cosmic star formation history: mergers versus smooth accretion

    CERN Document Server

    Welker, Charlotte; Devriendt, Julien; Pichon, Christophe; Kaviraj, Sugata; Peirani, Sebastien

    2015-01-01

    Building galaxy merger trees from a state-of-the-art cosmological hydrodynamics simulation, Horizon-AGN, we perform a statistical study of how mergers and smooth accretion drive galaxy morphologic properties above $z > 1$. More specifically, we investigate how stellar densities, effective radii and shape parameters derived from the inertia tensor depend on mergers of different mass ratios. We find strong evidence that smooth accretion tends to flatten small galaxies over cosmic time, leading to the formation of disks. On the other hand, mergers, and not only the major ones, exhibit a propensity to puff up and destroy stellar disks, confirming the origin of elliptical galaxies. We also find that elliptical galaxies are more susceptible to grow in size through mergers than disc galaxies with a size-mass evolution $r \\prop M^{1.2}$ instead of $r \\prop M^{-0.5} - M^{0.5}$ depending on the merger mass ratio. The gas content drive the size-mass evolution due to merger with a faster size growth for gas-poor galaxies...

  15. X-ray reflection in oxygen-rich accretion discs of ultra-compact X-ray binaries

    CERN Document Server

    Madej, O K; Jonker, P G; Parker, M L; Ross, R; Fabian, A C; Chenevez, J

    2014-01-01

    We present spectroscopic X-ray data of two candidate ultra-compact X-ray binaries: 4U~0614+091 and 4U~1543$-$624. We confirm the presence of a broad O VIII Ly$\\alpha$ reflection line (at $\\approx18\\ \\AA$) using {\\it XMM-Newton} and {\\it Chandra} observations obtained in 2012 and 2013. The donor star in these sources is carbon-oxygen or oxygen-neon-magnesium white dwarf. Hence, the accretion disc is enriched with oxygen which makes the O VIII Ly$\\alpha$ line particularly strong. We also confirm the presence of a strong absorption edge at $\\approx14$ \\AA\\ so far interpreted in the literature as due to absorption by neutral neon in the circumstellar and interstellar medium. However, the abundance required to obtain a good fit to this edge is $\\approx3-4$ times solar, posing a problem for this interpretation. Furthermore, modeling the X-ray reflection off a carbon and oxygen enriched, hydrogen and helium poor disc with models assuming solar composition likely biases several of the best-fit parameters. In order to...

  16. The effects of high density on the X-ray spectrum reflected from accretion discs around black holes

    Science.gov (United States)

    García, Javier A.; Fabian, Andrew C.; Kallman, Timothy R.; Dauser, Thomas; Parker, Michael L.; McClintock, Jeffrey E.; Steiner, James F.; Wilms, Jörn

    2016-10-01

    Current models of the spectrum of X-rays reflected from accretion discs around black holes and other compact objects are commonly calculated assuming that the density of the disc atmosphere is constant within several Thomson depths from the irradiated surface. An important simplifying assumption of these models is that the ionization structure of the gas is completely specified by a single, fixed value of the ionization parameter ξ, which is the ratio of the incident flux to the gas density. The density is typically fixed at ne = 1015 cm-3. Motivated by observations, we consider higher densities in the calculation of the reflected spectrum. We show by computing model spectra for ne ≳ 1017 cm-3 that high-density effects significantly modify reflection spectra. The main effect is to boost the thermal continuum at energies ≲ 2 keV. We discuss the implications of these results for interpreting observations of both active galactic nuclei and black hole binaries. We also discuss the limitations of our models imposed by the quality of the atomic data currently available.

  17. A photo-evaporative gap in the closest planet forming disc

    CERN Document Server

    Ercolano, Barbara; Picogna, Giovanni; Testi, Leonardo

    2016-01-01

    The dispersal of the circumstellar discs of dust and gas surrounding young low- mass stars has important implications for the formation of planetary systems. Photo- evaporation from energetic radiation from the central object is thought to drive the dispersal in the majority of discs, by creating a gap which disconnects the outer from the inner regions of the disc and then disperses the outer disc from the inside-out, while the inner disc keeps draining viscously onto the star. In this Letter we show that the disc around TW Hya, the closest protoplanetary disc to Earth, may be the first object where a photoevaporative gap has been imaged around the time at which it is being created. Indeed the detected gap in the ALMA images is consistent with the expectations of X-ray photoevaporation models, thus not requiring the presence of a planet. The photoevaporation model is also consistent with a broad range of properties of the TW Hya system, e.g. accretion rate and the location of the gap at the onset of dispersal...

  18. Testing black hole neutrino-dominated accretion discs for long-duration gamma-ray bursts

    CERN Document Server

    Song, Cui-Ying; Gu, Wei-Min; Tian, Jian-Xiang

    2016-01-01

    Long-duration gamma-ray bursts (LGRBs) are generally considered to originate from the massive collapsars. It is believed that the central engine of gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) is a neutrino-dominated accretion flow (NDAF) around a rotating stellar-mass black hole (BH). The neutrino annihilation above the NDAF is a feasible mechanism to power GRB. In this work, we analyse the distributions of the isotropic gamma-ray radiated energy and jet kinetic energy of 48 LGRBs. According to the NDAF and fireball models, we estimate the mean accreted masses of LGRBs in our sample to investigate whether the NDAFs can power LGRBs with the reasonable BH parameters and conversion efficiency of neutrino annihilation. The results indicate that most of the values of the accreted masses are less than $5~M_\\odot$ for the extreme Kerr BHs and high conversion efficiency. It suggests that the NDAFs may be suitable for most of LGRBs except for some extremely high energy sources.

  19. Eclipse maps of spiral shocks in the accretion disc of IP Pegasi in outburst

    CERN Document Server

    Baptista, R; Steeghs, D; Baptista, Raymundo

    2000-01-01

    Eclipse lightcurves of the dwarf nova IP Peg during the November 1996outburst are analysed with eclipse mapping techniques to constrain the locationand investigate the spatial structure of the spiral shocks observed in theDoppler tomograms (Harlaftis et al. 1999). Eclipse maps in the blue continuumand in the CIII+NIII 4650 emission line show two asymmetric arcs of \\sim 90degrees in azimuth and extending from intermediate to the outer disc regions (R\\simeq 0.2 - 0.6 R_{L1}, where R_{L1} is the distance from disc centre to theinner Lagrangian point) which are interpreted as being the spiral shocks seenin the Doppler tomograms. The HeII 4686 eclipse map also shows two asymmetricarcs diluted by a central brightness source. The central source probablycorresponds to the low-velocity component seen in the Doppler tomogram and isunderstood in terms of gas outflow in a wind emanating from the inner parts ofthe disc. We estimate that the spirals contribute about 16 and 30 per cent ofthe total line flux, respectively, f...

  20. Accretion disc-corona and jet emission from the radio-loud narrow-line Seyfert 1 galaxy RX J1633.3+4719

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mallick, Labani; Dewangan, G. C.; Gandhi, P.; Misra, R.; Kembhavi, A. K.

    2016-08-01

    We perform X-ray/ultraviolet (UV) spectral and X-ray variability studies of the radio-loud narrow-line Seyfert 1 (NLS1) galaxy RX J1633.3+4719 using XMM-Newton and Suzaku observations from 2011 and 2012. The 0.3-10 keV spectra consist of an ultrasoft component described by an accretion disc blackbody (kT_in = 39.6^{+11.2}_{-5.5} eV) and a power law due to the thermal Comptonization (Γ = 1.96^{+0.24}_{-0.31}) of the disc emission. The disc temperature inferred from the soft excess is at least a factor of 2 lower than that found for the canonical soft excess emission from radio-quiet NLS1s. The UV spectrum is described by a power law with photon index 3.05^{+0.56}_{-0.33}. The observed UV emission is too strong to arise from the accretion disc or the host galaxy, but can be attributed to a jet. The X-ray emission from RX J1633.3+4719 is variable with fractional variability amplitude Fvar = 13.5 ± 1.0 per cent. In contrast to radio-quiet active galactic nuclei (AGN), X-ray emission from the source becomes harder with increasing flux. The fractional rms variability increases with energy and the rms spectrum is well described by a constant disc component and a variable power-law continuum with the normalization and photon index being anticorrelated. Such spectral variability cannot be caused by variations in the absorption and must be intrinsic to the hot corona. Our finding of possible evidence for emission from the inner accretion disc, jet and hot corona from RX J1633.3+4719 in the optical to X-ray bands makes this object an ideal target to probe the disc-jet connection in AGN.

  1. The angular momentum of hot coronae around spiral galaxies and its impact on the evolution of star forming discs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pezzulli, G.; Fraternali, F.; Binney, J.

    2016-06-01

    Galaxy formation theory and recent observations indicate that spiral galaxies are surrounded by massive and hot coronae, which potentially constitute a huge source of mass and angular momentum for the star forming discs embedded within them. Accretion from these reservoirs is likely a key ingredient for the evolution of spiral galaxies, but our understanding of the involved processes requires more observational and theoretical investigation, both at global and local scales. In this talk, I focus on some theoretical aspects of the angular momentum distribution of hot coronae. I address, in particular, whether these structures can sustain the inside-out growth of spiral galaxies and what are the dynamical consequences of the accretion of hot coronal gas onto the disc. These processes can have a big impact on observable quantities, most notably gas-phase abundance gradients, which can be used to put constraints on theory. I finally mention ongoing work to understand whether a cosmologically motivated angular momentum distribution for the hot gas is compatible with the constraints from galaxy evolution.

  2. Evidence for Ionised Accretion Discs in Five Narrow-Line Seyfert 1 Galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Ballantyne, D R; Fabian, A C

    2000-01-01

    (Abridged) We present the results of fitting ASCA spectra of six narrow-line Seyfert 1 (NLS1) galaxies with the ionised reflection models of Ross & Fabian (1993). We find that five of the galaxies (TONS 180, PKS 0558-504, Ark 564, Mrk 335 and PG 1244+026) are well fit by the ionised disc model, and these are often better fits than the alternative models considered. The sixth galaxy, NGC 4051, has additional spectral complexity that cannot be well described by a simple ionised disc model or any of the other alternative models. All six of the NLS1s we considered show evidence for a broad Fe Kalpha line, but none of the line centroids are consistent with emission from highly ionised Fe. This is most likely due to the line being redshifted because of relativistic effects. We note that sources with larger ionisation parameters tend to have larger Fe Kalpha EWs. We interpret this as evidence that ionised Fe features are making their presence felt in the spectra. Since most of our sources have steep spectra, hig...

  3. A changing inner radius in the accretion disc of Q0056-363?

    CERN Document Server

    Matt, G; Bianchi, S; Falocco, S; Maiolino, R; Reeves, J N; Zappacosta, L

    2005-01-01

    Q0056-363 is the most powerful X-ray quasar known to exhibit a broad, likely relativistic iron line (Porquet & Reeves 2003). It has been observed twice by XMM-$Newton$, three and half years apart (July 2000 and December 2003). In the second observation, the UV and soft X-ray fluxes were fainter, the hard X-ray power law flatter, and the iron line equivalent width (EW) smaller than in the 2000 observation. These variations can all be explained, at least qualitatively, if the disc is truncated in the second observation. We report also on the possible detection of a transient, redshifted iron absorption line during the 2003 observation.

  4. The central parsecs of M87: jet emission and an elusive accretion disc

    CERN Document Server

    Prieto, M A; Markoff, S; Espada, D; Gonzalez-Martin, O

    2015-01-01

    We present the first time-simultaneous high angular resolution spectral energy distribution (SED) of the core of M87 at a scale of 0.4 arcsecs across the electromagnetic spectrum. Two activity periods of the core of M87 are sampled: a quiescent mode, representative of the most common state of M87, and an active one, represented by the outburst occurring in 2005. The main difference between both SEDs is a shift in flux in the active SED by a factor of about two, their shapes remaining similar across the entire spectrum. The shape of the compiled SEDs is remarkably different from those of active galactic nuclei (AGN). It lacks three major AGN features: the IR bump, the inflection point at about 1 micron and the blue bump. The SEDs also differ from the spectrum of a radiatively inefficient accretion flow. Down to the scales of ~12 pc from the centre, we find that the emission from a jet gives an excellent representation of the spectrum over ten orders of magnitude in frequency for both the active and the quiesce...

  5. On the mechanism of self gravitating Rossby interfacial waves in proto-stellar accretion discs

    CERN Document Server

    Yellin-Bergovoy, Ron; Umurhan, Orkan M

    2015-01-01

    The dynamical response of edge waves under the influence of self-gravity is examined in an idealized two-dimensional model of a proto-stellar disc, characterized in steady state as a rotating vertically infinite cylinder of fluid with constant density except for a single density interface at some radius r0. The fluid in basic state is prescribed to rotate with a Keplerian profile $\\Omega_k(r)\\sim r^{-3/2}$ modified by some additional azimuthal sheared flow. A linear analysis shows that there are two azimuthally propagating edge waves, kin to the familiar Rossby waves and surface gravity waves in terrestrial studies, which move opposite to one another with respect to the local basic state rotation rate at the interface. Instability only occurs if the radial pressure gradient is opposite to that of the density jump (unstably stratified) where self-gravity acts as a wave stabilizer irrespective of the stratification of the system. The propagation properties of the waves are discussed in detail in the language of...

  6. Accretion disc-corona and jet emission from the radio-loud Narrow Line Seyfert 1 galaxy RXJ1633.3+4719

    CERN Document Server

    Mallick, Labani; Gandhi, P; Misra, R; Kembhavi, A K

    2016-01-01

    We perform X-ray/UV spectral and X-ray variability study on the radio-loud Narrow Line Seyfert 1 (NLS1) galaxy RXJ1633.3+4719 using XMM-Newton and Suzaku observations performed in 2011 and 2012. The 0.3$-$10 keV spectra consist of an ultra-soft component below $0.5$ keV, described by an accretion disc blackbody ($kT_{in} = 39.6^{+11.2}_{-5.5}$ eV) and a power-law due to thermal Comptonization ($\\Gamma=1.96^{+0.24}_{-0.31}$) of the disc emission. The disc temperature inferred from the soft excess is at least a factor of two lower than that found for the canonical soft excess emission from radio-quiet NLS1s. The UV spectrum is described by a power-law with photon index $3.05^{+0.56}_{-0.33}$. The observed UV emission is too strong to arise from the accretion disc or the host galaxy but can be attributed to a jet. The optical to X-ray spectral index of the source is consistent with radio-loud AGN. The X-ray emission from RXJ1633.3+4719 is variable with fractional variability amplitude $F_{var}$=13.5$\\pm1.0\\%$. I...

  7. On the mechanism of self gravitating Rossby interfacial waves in proto-stellar accretion discs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yellin-Bergovoy, Ron; Heifetz, Eyal; Umurhan, Orkan M.

    2016-05-01

    The dynamical response of edge waves under the influence of self-gravity is examined in an idealized two-dimensional model of a proto-stellar disc, characterized in steady state as a rotating vertically infinite cylinder of fluid with constant density except for a single density interface at some radius r0. The fluid in basic state is prescribed to rotate with a Keplerian profile $\\Omega_k(r)\\sim r^{-3/2}$ modified by some additional azimuthal sheared flow. A linear analysis shows that there are two azimuthally propagating edge waves, kin to the familiar Rossby waves and surface gravity waves in terrestrial studies, which move opposite to one another with respect to the local basic state rotation rate at the interface. Instability only occurs if the radial pressure gradient is opposite to that of the density jump (unstably stratified) where self-gravity acts as a wave stabilizer irrespective of the stratification of the system. The propagation properties of the waves are discussed in detail in the language of vorticity edge waves. The roles of both Boussinesq and non-Boussinesq effects upon the stability and propagation of these waves with and without the inclusion of self-gravity are then quantified. The dynamics involved with self-gravity non- Boussinesq effect is shown to be a source of vorticity production where there is a jump in the basic state density, in addition, self-gravity also alters the dynamics via the radial main pressure gradient, which is a Boussinesq effect . Further applications of these mechanical insights are presented in the conclusion including the ways in which multiple density jumps or gaps may or may not be stable.

  8. Model of Forming-Accretion on Blast Furnace Copper Stave and Industrial Application

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WU Tong; CHENG Su-sen

    2012-01-01

    Copper staves have been equipped on nearly all of BF (blast furnaces) with volume over than 1000 m3 in China since their introduction from abroad about more than 10 years ago. Because of short application and lack of experience, phenomena of thickened or naked of copper stave happen occasionally which influence production severely. So it is important to study the model of forming-accretion on BF copper stave and realize real-time monitoring of forming-accretion on different copper staves. Therefore, mathematic model of calculating accretion thickness by heat flow of BF is proposed, and the calculated results indicate that accretion thickness could be kept at a reasonable range of around 50 mm by controlling heat flux around 22.0 kW/mz. The monitoring program based on the model was applied to a certain BF in China successfully, and it is found that slip of BF near the inner wall is one of most important reasons that cause fluctuation of accretion thickness. During the period of scheduled maintenance of the certain BF, the thickness of accretion measured through the static pressure holes is in good accordance with the value calculated by the monitoring program, so the results calculated by the monitoring program can be used to guide industrial production

  9. Dispersing the Gaseous Protoplanetary Disc and Halting Type II Migration

    CERN Document Server

    Lecar, M

    2003-01-01

    More than 30 extra-solar Jupiter-like planets have shorter periods than the planet Mercury. It is generally accepted that they formed further out, and migrated inwards. In order to be driven by tidal torques from the gaseous disc, the disc exterior to the planet had to contain about a planetary mass. The fact that the planets stopped migrating means that their outer disc was removed. We suggest that the outer disc was accreted by the planet. In this scenario, the endgame is a race. The planet survives if it accretes its outer disc before being accreted by the star. The winner is determined solely by the ratio of the mass of the outer disc to the local surface density of the disc.

  10. The broad emission-line region: the confluence of the outer accretion disc with the inner edge of the dusty torus

    CERN Document Server

    Goad, M R; Ruff, A J

    2012-01-01

    (Abridged) We investigate the observational characteristics of BLR geometries in which the BLR clouds bridge the gap, both in distance and scale height, between the outer accretion disc and the hot dust, forming an effective surface of a "bowl". The gas dynamics are dominated by gravity, and we include the effects of transverse Doppler shift, gravitational redshift and scale-height dependent macro-turbulence. Our simple model reproduces many of the phenomena observed in broad emission-line variability studies, including (i) the absence of response in the core of the optical recombination lines on short timescales, (ii) the enhanced red-wing response on short timescales, (iii) differences between the measured delays for the HILs and LILs, and (iv) identifies turbulence as a means of producing Lorentzian profiles (esp. for LILs) in low inclination systems, and for suppressing significant continuum--emission-line delays between the line wings and line core (esp. in LILs). A key motivation of this work was to rev...

  11. Impacts of a Flaring Star-forming Disc and Stellar Radial Mixing on the Vertical Metallicity Gradient

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawata, Daisuke; Grand, Robert J. J.; Gibson, Brad K.; Casagrande, Luca; Hunt, Jason A. S.; Brook, Chris B.

    2016-09-01

    Using idealised N-body simulations of a Milky Way-sized disc galaxy, we qualitatively study how the metallicity distributions of the thin disc star particles are modified by the formation of the bar and spiral arm structures. The thin disc in our numerical experiments initially has a tight negative radial metallicity gradient and a constant vertical scale-height. We show that the radial mixing of stars drives a positive vertical metallicity gradient in the thin disc. On the other hand, if the initial thin disc is f flared, with vertical scale-height increasing with galactocentric radius, the metal poor stars originally in the outer disc become dominant in regions above the disc plane at every radii. This process can drive a negative vertical metallicity gradient, which is consistent with the current observed trend. This model mimics a scenario where the star-forming thin disc was flared in the outer region at earlier epochs. Our numerical experiment with an initial flared disc predicts that the negative vertical metallicity gradient of the mono-age relatively young thin disc population should be steeper in the inner disc, and the radial metallicity gradient of the mono-age population should be shallower at greater heights above the disc plane. We also predict that the metallicity distribution function of mono-age young thin disc populations above the disc plane would be more positively skewed in the inner disc compared to the outer disc.

  12. Challenges in forming the solar system's giant planet cores via pebble accretion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kretke, K. A.; Levison, H. F., E-mail: kretke@boulder.swri.edu [Southwest Research Institute, 1050 Walnut Street, Suite 300, Boulder, CO 80302 (United States)

    2014-12-01

    Though ∼10 M {sub ⊕} mass rocky/icy cores are commonly held as a prerequisite for the formation of gas giants, theoretical models still struggle to explain how these embryos can form within the lifetimes of gaseous circumstellar disks. In recent years, aerodynamic-aided accretion of 'pebbles', objects ranging from centimeters to meters in size, has been suggested as a potential solution to this long-standing problem. While pebble accretion has been demonstrated to be extremely effective in local simulations that look at the detailed behavior of these pebbles in the vicinity of a single planetary embryo, to date there have been no global simulations demonstrating the effectiveness of pebble accretion in a more complicated, multi-planet environment. Therefore, we have incorporated the aerodynamic-aided accretion physics into LIPAD, a Lagrangian code that can follow the collisional/accretional/dynamical evolution of a protoplanetary system, to investigate how pebble accretion manifests itself in the larger planet formation picture. We find that under generic circumstances, pebble accretion naturally leads to an 'oligarchic' type of growth in which a large number of planetesimals grow to similar-sized planets. In particular, our simulations tend to form hundreds of Mars- and Earth-mass objects between 4 and 10 AU. While merging of some oligarchs may grow massive enough to form giant planet cores, leftover oligarchs lead to planetary systems that cannot be consistent with our own solar system. We investigate various ideas presented in the literature (including evaporation fronts and planet traps) and find that none easily overcome this tendency toward oligarchic growth.

  13. Challenges in forming the solar system's giant planet cores via pebble accretion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Though ∼10 M ⊕ mass rocky/icy cores are commonly held as a prerequisite for the formation of gas giants, theoretical models still struggle to explain how these embryos can form within the lifetimes of gaseous circumstellar disks. In recent years, aerodynamic-aided accretion of 'pebbles', objects ranging from centimeters to meters in size, has been suggested as a potential solution to this long-standing problem. While pebble accretion has been demonstrated to be extremely effective in local simulations that look at the detailed behavior of these pebbles in the vicinity of a single planetary embryo, to date there have been no global simulations demonstrating the effectiveness of pebble accretion in a more complicated, multi-planet environment. Therefore, we have incorporated the aerodynamic-aided accretion physics into LIPAD, a Lagrangian code that can follow the collisional/accretional/dynamical evolution of a protoplanetary system, to investigate how pebble accretion manifests itself in the larger planet formation picture. We find that under generic circumstances, pebble accretion naturally leads to an 'oligarchic' type of growth in which a large number of planetesimals grow to similar-sized planets. In particular, our simulations tend to form hundreds of Mars- and Earth-mass objects between 4 and 10 AU. While merging of some oligarchs may grow massive enough to form giant planet cores, leftover oligarchs lead to planetary systems that cannot be consistent with our own solar system. We investigate various ideas presented in the literature (including evaporation fronts and planet traps) and find that none easily overcome this tendency toward oligarchic growth.

  14. Large-scale magnetic field in the accretion discs of young stars: the influence of magnetic diffusion, buoyancy and Hall effect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khaibrakhmanov, S. A.; Dudorov, A. E.; Parfenov, S. Yu.; Sobolev, A. M.

    2016-09-01

    We investigate the fossil magnetic field in the accretion and protoplanetary discs using the Shakura and Sunyaev approach. The distinguishing feature of this study is the accurate solution of the ionization balance equations and the induction equation with Ohmic diffusion, magnetic ambipolar diffusion, buoyancy and the Hall effect. We consider the ionization by cosmic rays, X-rays and radionuclides, radiative recombinations, recombinations onto dust grains, and also thermal ionization. The buoyancy appears as the additional mechanism of magnetic flux escape in the steady-state solution of the induction equation. Calculations show that Ohmic diffusion and magnetic ambipolar diffusion constraint the generation of the magnetic field inside the `dead' zones. The magnetic field in these regions is quasi-vertical. The buoyancy constraints the toroidal magnetic field strength close to the disc inner edge. As a result, the toroidal and vertical magnetic fields become comparable. The Hall effect is important in the regions close to the borders of the `dead' zones because electrons are magnetized there. The magnetic field in these regions is quasi-radial. We calculate the magnetic field strength and geometry for the discs with accretion rates (10^{-8}-10^{-6}) {M}_{⊙} {yr}^{-1}. The fossil magnetic field geometry does not change significantly during the disc evolution while the accretion rate decreases. We construct the synthetic maps of dust emission polarized due to the dust grain alignment by the magnetic field. In the polarization maps, the `dead' zones appear as the regions with the reduced values of polarization degree in comparison to those in the adjacent regions.

  15. Interpreting the large amplitude X-ray variation of GRS 1915+105 and IGR J17091-3624 as modulations of an accretion disc

    CERN Document Server

    Pahari, Mayukh; Mukherjee, Arunava; Yadav, J S; Pandey, S K

    2013-01-01

    Using the flux resolved spectroscopy for the first time, we analyse the RXTE/PCA data of the black hole X-ray binaries GRS 1915+105 and IGR J17091-3624, when both sources show large amplitude, quasi-regular oscillations in 2.0-60.0 keV X-ray light curves. For different observations, we extract spectra during the peak (spectrally soft) and dip (spectrally hard) intervals of the oscillation, and find that their spectra are phenomenologically complex, requiring at least two distinct spectral components. Besides a thermal Comptonization component, we find that the disc emission is better modelled by an index-free multicolour disc blackbody component (p-free disc model) rather than that from a standard accretion disc. While the peak and dip spectra are complex, remarkably, their difference spectra constructed by treating dip spectra as the background spectra of the peak spectra, can be modelled as a single p-free disc component. Moreover, the variability at different time-scales and energy bands of the peak flux l...

  16. Transport and Accretion in Planet-Forming Disks

    CERN Document Server

    Turner, N J; Gammie, C; Klahr, H; Lesur, G; Wardle, M; Bai, X -N

    2014-01-01

    Planets appear to form in environments shaped by the gas flowing through protostellar disks to the central young stars. The flows in turn are governed by orbital angular momentum transfer. In this chapter we summarize current understanding of the transfer processes best able to account for the flows, including magneto-rotational turbulence, magnetically-launched winds, self-gravitational instability and vortices driven by hydrodynamical instabilities. For each in turn we outline the major achievements of the past few years and the outstanding questions. We underscore the requirements for operation, especially ionization for the magnetic processes and heating and cooling for the others. We describe the distribution and strength of the resulting flows and compare with the long-used phenomenological $\\alpha$-picture, highlighting issues where the fuller physical picture yields substantially different answers. We also discuss the links between magnetized turbulence and magnetically-launched outflows, and between ...

  17. Large-scale magnetic field in the accretion discs of young stars: the influence of magnetic diffusion, buoyancy and Hall effect

    CERN Document Server

    Khaibrakhmanov, Sergey A; Parfenov, Sergey Yu; Sobolev, Andrey M

    2016-01-01

    We investigate the fossil magnetic field in the accretion and protoplanetary discs using the Shakura and Sunyaev approach. The distinguishing feature of this study is the accurate solution of the ionization balance equations and the induction equation with Ohmic diffusion, magnetic ambipolar diffusion, buoyancy and the Hall effect. We consider the ionization by cosmic rays, X-rays and radionuclides, radiative recombinations, recombinations onto dust grains, and also thermal ionization. The buoyancy appears as the additional mechanism of magnetic flux escape in the steady-state solution of the induction equation. Calculations show that Ohmic diffusion and magnetic ambipolar diffusion constraint the generation of the magnetic field inside the `dead' zones. The magnetic field in these regions is quasi-vertical. The buoyancy constraints the toroidal magnetic field strength close to the disc inner edge. As a result, the toroidal and vertical magnetic fields become comparable. The Hall effect is important in the re...

  18. The broad emission-line region: the confluence of the outer accretion disc with the inner edge of the dusty torus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goad, M. R.; Korista, K. T.; Ruff, A. J.

    2012-11-01

    We have investigated the observational characteristics of a class of broad emission line region (BLR) geometries that connect the outer accretion disc with the inner edge of the dusty toroidal obscuring region (TOR). We suggest that the BLR consists of photoionized gas of densities which allow for efficient cooling by ultraviolet (UV)/optical emission lines and of incident continuum fluxes which discourage the formation of grains, and that such gas occupies the range of distance and scale height between the continuum-emitting accretion disc and the dusty TOR. As a first approximation, we assume a population of clouds illuminated by ionizing photons from the central source, with the scale height of the illuminated clouds growing with increasing radial distance, forming an effective surface of a 'bowl'. Observer lines of sight which peer into the bowl lead to a Type 1 active galactic nuclei (AGN) spectrum. We assume that the gas dynamics are dominated by gravity, and we include in this model the effects of transverse Doppler shift (TDS), gravitational redshift (GR) and scale-height-dependent macroturbulence. Our simple model reproduces many of the commonly observed phenomena associated with the central regions of AGN, including (i) the shorter than expected continuum-dust delays (geometry), (ii) the absence of response in the core of the optical recombination lines on short time-scales (geometry/photoionization), (iii) an enhanced redwing response on short time-scales (GR and TDS), (iv) the observed differences between the delays for high- and low-ionization lines (photoionization), (v) identifying one of the possible primary contributors to the observed line widths for near face-on systems even for purely transverse motion (GR and TDS), (vi) a mechanism responsible for producing Lorentzian profiles (especially in the Balmer and Mg II emission lines) in low-inclination systems (turbulence), (vii) the absence of significant continuum-emission-line delays between the

  19. Did Jupiter's core form in the innermost parts of the Sun's protoplanetary disc?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raymond, Sean N.; Izidoro, Andre; Bitsch, Bertram; Jacobson, Seth A.

    2016-05-01

    Jupiter's core is generally assumed to have formed beyond the snow line. Here we consider an alternative scenario that Jupiter's core may have accumulated in the innermost part of the protoplanetary disc. A growing body of research suggests that small particles (`pebbles') continually drift inward through the disc. If a fraction of drifting pebbles is trapped at the inner edge of the disc, several Earth-mass cores can quickly grow. Subsequently, the core may migrate outward beyond the snow line via planet-disc interactions. Of course, to reach the outer Solar system Jupiter's core must traverse the terrestrial planet-forming region. We use N-body simulations including synthetic forces from an underlying gaseous disc to study how the outward migration of Jupiter's core sculpts the terrestrial zone. If the outward migration is fast (τmig ˜ 104 yr), the core simply migrates past resident planetesimals and planetary embryos. However, if its migration is slower (τmig ˜ 105 yr) the core clears out solids in the inner disc by shepherding objects in mean motion resonances. In many cases, the disc interior to 0.5-1 AU is cleared of embryos and most planetesimals. By generating a mass deficit close to the Sun, the outward migration of Jupiter's core may thus explain the absence of terrestrial planets closer than Mercury. Jupiter's migrating core often stimulates the growth of another large (˜Earth-mass) core - that may provide a seed for Saturn's core - trapped in an exterior resonance. The migrating core also may transport a fraction of terrestrial planetesimals, such as the putative parent bodies of iron meteorites, to the asteroid belt.

  20. Rhodopsin Forms Nanodomains in Rod Outer Segment Disc Membranes of the Cold-Blooded Xenopus laevis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatini Rakshit

    Full Text Available Rhodopsin forms nanoscale domains (i.e., nanodomains in rod outer segment disc membranes from mammalian species. It is unclear whether rhodopsin arranges in a similar manner in amphibian species, which are often used as a model system to investigate the function of rhodopsin and the structure of photoreceptor cells. Moreover, since samples are routinely prepared at low temperatures, it is unclear whether lipid phase separation effects in the membrane promote the observed nanodomain organization of rhodopsin from mammalian species. Rod outer segment disc membranes prepared from the cold-blooded frog Xenopus laevis were investigated by atomic force microscopy to visualize the organization of rhodopsin in the absence of lipid phase separation effects. Atomic force microscopy revealed that rhodopsin nanodomains form similarly as that observed previously in mammalian membranes. Formation of nanodomains in ROS disc membranes is independent of lipid phase separation and conserved among vertebrates.

  1. Accretion of Chondrules formed by Impact Jetting in Magnetically Induced Turbulent Solar Nebula

    CERN Document Server

    Hasegawa, Yasuhiro; Masiero, Joseph; Wakita, Shigeru; Matsumoto, Yuji; Oshino, Shoichi

    2016-01-01

    Chondritic meteorites provide valuable opportunities to investigate origins of the solar system. We explore impact jetting as a mechanism to form chondrules and subsequent pebble accretion as a mechanism to accrete them onto parent bodies of chondrites, and investigate how these two processes can account for the currently available meteoritic data. We find that when the solar nebula is $\\le 5$ times more massive than the minimum-mass solar nebula at $a \\simeq 2-3$ AU and parent bodies of chondrites are $\\le 10^{24}$ g ($\\le$ 500 km in radius) there, impact jetting and subsequent pebble accretion can reproduce a number of properties of the meteoritic data. The properties include the present asteroid belt mass, formation timescale of chondrules, and the magnetic field strength of the nebula derived from chondrules in Semarkona. Since this scenario requires a first generation of planetesimals that trigger impact jetting and serve as parent bodies to accrete chondrules, the upper limit of parent bodies' mass lead...

  2. Fountain-driven gas accretion by the Milky Way

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ciotti L.

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Accretion of fresh gas at a rate of ∼ 1M☉yr−1 is necessary in star-forming disc galaxies, such as the Milky Way, in order to sustain their star-formation rates. In this work we present the results of a new hydrodynamic simulation supporting the scenario in which the gas required for star formation is drawn from the hot corona that surrounds the star-forming disc. In particular, the cooling of this hot gas and its accretion on to the disc are caused by the passage of cold galactic fountain clouds through the corona.

  3. The effect of disc inclination on the main sequence of star-forming galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morselli, L.; Renzini, A.; Popesso, P.; Erfanianfar, G.

    2016-11-01

    We use the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (York et al.) data base to explore the effect of the disc inclination angle on the derived star formation rate (SFR), hence on the slope and width of the main-sequence (MS) relation for star-forming galaxies. We find that SFRs for nearly edge-on discs are underestimated by factors ranging from ˜0.2 dex for low-mass galaxies up to ˜0.4 dex for high-mass galaxies. This results in a substantially flatter MS relation for high-inclination discs compared to that for less inclined ones, though the global effect over the whole sample of star-forming galaxies is relatively minor, given the small fraction of high-inclination discs. However, we also find that galaxies with high-inclination discs represent a non-negligible fraction of galaxies populating the so-called green valley, with derived SFRs intermediate between the MS and those of quenched, passively evolving galaxies.

  4. The rise and fall of stellar discs across the peak of cosmic star formation history: mergers versus smooth accretion

    OpenAIRE

    Welker, Charlotte; Dubois, Yohan; Devriendt, Julien; Pichon, Christophe; Kaviraj, Sugata; Peirani, Sebastien

    2015-01-01

    Building galaxy merger trees from a state-of-the-art cosmological hydrodynamics simulation, Horizon-AGN, we perform a statistical study of how mergers and smooth accretion drive galaxy morphologic properties above $z > 1$. More specifically, we investigate how stellar densities, effective radii and shape parameters derived from the inertia tensor depend on mergers of different mass ratios. We find strong evidence that smooth accretion tends to flatten small galaxies over cosmic time, leading ...

  5. Specific Angular Momentum Distribution of Disc Galaxies Formed in Preheated Intergalactic Media

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LUO Zhi-Jian; FU Li-Ping; SHU Cheng-Gang

    2004-01-01

    Assuming that baryons within a galactic halo have the same specific angular momentum as the dark matter where they locate initially and a disc forms due to the gas cooling and condensation with the conservation of angular momentum, we investigate the angular momentum distribution in a resulting galactic disc under the new preheated galaxy formation model suggested by Mo and Mao (Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 333 (2002) 768).Compared with the observational results, it can be concluded that the preheated galaxy formation model can match current observations. This model can be a good approach to solve the problems of both the angular momentum catastrophe and the mismatch of angular-momentum profiles in current disc galaxy formation models.

  6. Super massive black holes in star forming gaseous circumnuclear discs

    CERN Document Server

    del Valle, Luciano; Molina, Juan; Cuadra, Jorge

    2015-01-01

    Using N-body/SPH simulations we study the evolution of the separation of a pair of SMBHs embedded in a star forming circumnuclear disk (CND). This type of disk is expected to be formed in the central kilo parsec of the remnant of gas-rich galaxy mergers. Our simulations indicate that orbital decay of the SMBHs occurs more quickly when the mean density of the CND is higher, due to increased dynamical friction. However, in simulations where the CND is fragmented in high density gaseous clumps (clumpy CND), the orbits of the SMBHs are erratically perturbed by the gravitational interaction with these clumps, delaying, in some cases, the orbital decay of the SMBHs. The densities of these gaseous clumps in our simulations and in recent studies of clumpy CNDs are significantly higher than the observed density of molecular clouds in isolated galaxies or ULIRGs, thus, we expect that SMBH orbits are perturbed less in real CNDs than in the simulated CNDs of this study and other recent studies. We also find that the migr...

  7. Mass accretion flows in the high-mass star forming complex NGC 6334

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez-Monge, Á.; Schilke, P.; Zernickel, A.; Schmiedeke, A.; Möller, Th.; Qin, S.-L.

    2016-05-01

    The formation of high-mass stars is one of the major topics of astrophysical research, in particular the process of accretion from large-scale clouds down to small-scale cores. We have selected the nearby, filamentary, high-mass star forming complex NGC 6334 to study the gas velocity at different scales and probe the infall rates onto the protostellar cores embedded in the NGC 6334-I and I(N) clusters. This study makes use of single-dish and interferometric submillimeter observations, complemented with 3D numerical non-LTE radiative transfer modeling. We measure a mass accretion rate of 10-5 M⊙ yr-1 throughout the filament increasing up to 10-3 M⊙ yr-1 towards the densest regions where high-mass stars are forming. At smaller scales, our 3D model is consistent with accretion rates of 10-3 M⊙ yr-1 towards the clusters, and 10-4 M⊙ yr-1 onto the protostars.

  8. From birth to death of protoplanetary discs: modelling their formation, evolution and dispersal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimura, Shigeo S.; Kunitomo, Masanobu; Takahashi, Sanemichi Z.

    2016-09-01

    The formation, evolution and dispersal processes of protoplanetary discs are investigated and the disc lifetime is estimated. The gravitational collapse of a pre-stellar core forms both a central star and a protoplanetary disc. The central star grows by accretion from the disc and irradiation by the central star heats up the disc and generates a thermal wind, which results in the disc's dispersal. Using the one-dimensional diffusion equation, we calculate the evolution of protoplanetary discs numerically. To calculate the disc evolution from formation to dispersal, we add source and sink terms that represent gas accretion from pre-stellar cores and photoevaporation, respectively. We find that the disc lifetimes of typical pre-stellar cores are around 2-4 million years (Myr). A pre-stellar core with high angular momentum forms a larger disc with a long lifetime, while a disc around an X-ray-luminous star has a short lifetime. Integrating disc lifetimes under various masses and angular velocities of pre-stellar cores and X-ray luminosities of young stellar objects, we obtain the disc fraction at a given stellar age and mean lifetime of the disc. Our model indicates that the mean lifetime of a protoplanetary disc is 3.7 Myr, which is consistent with the observational estimate from young stellar clusters. We also find that the dispersion of X-ray luminosity is needed to reproduce the observed disc fraction.

  9. On the Early Evolution of Forming Jovian Planets II: Analysis of Accretion and Gravitational Torques

    OpenAIRE

    Nelson, Andrew F.; Benz, Willy

    2003-01-01

    (abridged) We find that a disk can supply a forming planet with mass at an essentially infinite rate ($\\sim1$\\mj/25 yr) so that a gap could form very quickly. We show that mass accretion rates faster than $\\sim10^{-4}$\\mj/yr are not physically reasonable in the limit of either a thin, circumplanetary disk or of a spherical envelope. Planet growth and ultimately survival are therefore limited to the planet's ability to accept additional matter, not by the disk in which it resides. We find that...

  10. The properties of discs around planets and brown dwarfs as evidence for disc fragmentation

    CERN Document Server

    Stamatellos, Dimitris

    2015-01-01

    Direct imaging searches have revealed many very low-mass objects, including a small number of planetary mass objects, as wide-orbit companions to young stars. The formation mechanism of these objects remains uncertain. In this paper we present the predictions of the disc fragmentation model regarding the properties of the discs around such low-mass objects. We find that the discs around objects that have formed by fragmentation in discs hosted by Sun-like stars (referred to as 'parent' discs and 'parent' stars) are more massive than expected from the ${M}_{\\rm disc}-M_*$ relation (which is derived for stars with masses $M_*>0.2 {\\rm M}_{\\odot}$). Accordingly, the accretion rates onto these objects are also higher than expected from the $\\dot{M}_*-M_*$ relation. Moreover there is no significant correlation between the mass of the brown dwarf or planet with the mass of its disc nor with the accretion rate from the disc onto it. The discs around objects that form by disc fragmentation have larger than expected m...

  11. Simulations of the Galactic Centre Stellar Discs In a Warped Disc Origin Scenario

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Galactic Center (GC) hosts a population of young stars some of which seem to form a system of mutually inclined warped discs. While the presence of young stars in the close vicinity of the massive black hole is already problematic, their orbital configuration makes the situation even more puzzling. We present a possible warped disc origin scenario for these stars, which assumes an initially flat accretion disc which develops a warp through Pringle instability, or Bardeen-Petterson Effect. By working out the critical radii and the time scales involved, we argue that disc warping is plausible for GC parameters. We construct time evolution models for such discs considering the discs' self-gravity, and the torques exerted by the surrounding old star cluster. Our simulations suggest that the best agreement for a purely self-gravitating model is obtained for a disc-to-black hole mass ratio of Md/Mbh ∼ 0.001.

  12. Simulations of the Galactic Centre Stellar Discs In a Warped Disc Origin Scenario

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ulubay-Siddiki, A.; Bartko, H.

    2012-07-01

    The Galactic Center (GC) hosts a population of young stars some of which seem to form a system of mutually inclined warped discs. While the presence of young stars in the close vicinity of the massive black hole is already problematic, their orbital configuration makes the situation even more puzzling. We present a possible warped disc origin scenario for these stars, which assumes an initially flat accretion disc which develops a warp through Pringle instability, or Bardeen-Petterson Effect. By working out the critical radii and the time scales involved, we argue that disc warping is plausible for GC parameters. We construct time evolution models for such discs considering the discs' self-gravity, and the torques exerted by the surrounding old star cluster. Our simulations suggest that the best agreement for a purely self-gravitating model is obtained for a disc-to-black hole mass ratio of Md/Mbh ~ 0.001.

  13. Rhodopsin Forms Nanodomains in Rod Outer Segment Disc Membranes of the Cold-Blooded Xenopus laevis

    OpenAIRE

    Tatini Rakshit; Subhadip Senapati; Satyabrata Sinha; Whited, A. M.; Paul S-H Park

    2015-01-01

    Rhodopsin forms nanoscale domains (i.e., nanodomains) in rod outer segment disc membranes from mammalian species. It is unclear whether rhodopsin arranges in a similar manner in amphibian species, which are often used as a model system to investigate the function of rhodopsin and the structure of photoreceptor cells. Moreover, since samples are routinely prepared at low temperatures, it is unclear whether lipid phase separation effects in the membrane promote the observed nanodomain organizat...

  14. The formation of planets by disc fragmentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stamatellos Dimitris

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available I discuss the role that disc fragmentation plays in the formation of gas giant and terrestrial planets, and how this relates to the formation of brown dwarfs and low-mass stars, and ultimately to the process of star formation. Protostellar discs may fragment, if they are massive enough and can cool fast enough, but most of the objects that form by fragmentation are brown dwarfs. It may be possible that planets also form, if the mass growth of a proto-fragment is stopped (e.g. if this fragment is ejected from the disc, or suppressed and even reversed (e.g by tidal stripping. I will discuss if it is possible to distinguish whether a planet has formed by disc fragmentation or core accretion, and mention of a few examples of observed exoplanets that are suggestive of formation by disc fragmentation.

  15. Accretion and Dynamical Interactions in Small-N Star-Forming Clusters I. N=5 case

    CERN Document Server

    Delgado-Donate, E J; Bate, M R

    2003-01-01

    We present results from high-resolution hydrodynamical simulations which explore the effects of small scale clustering in star-forming regions. A large ensemble of small-N clusters with 5 stellar seeds have been modelled and the resulting properties of stars and brown dwarfs statistically derived and compared with observational data. Close dynamical interactions between the protostars and competitive accretion driven by the cloud collapse are shown to produce a distribution of final masses which is bimodal, with most of the mass residing in the binary components. When convolved with a suitable core mass function, the final distribution of masses resembles the observed IMF, both in the stellar and sub-stellar regime. Binaries and single stars are found to constitute two kinematically distinct populations, with about half of the singles attaining velocities > 2 km/s, which might deprive low mass star-forming regions of their lightest members in a few crossing times. The eccentricity distribution of binaries and...

  16. Impacts of a Flaring Star-forming Disc and Stellar Radial Mixing on the Vertical Metallicity Gradient

    CERN Document Server

    Kawata, D; Gibson, B K; Casagrande, L; Hunt, J A S; Brook, C B

    2016-01-01

    Using idealised N-body simulations of a Milky Way-sized disc galaxy, we qualitatively study how the metallicity distributions of the thin disc stars, are modified by the formation of the bar and spiral arm structures. The thin disc of our numerical experiments initially has a tight negative radial metallicity gradient, and a constant vertical scale-height. We show that the radial mixing of stars drives a positive vertical metallicity gradient in the thin disc. On the other hand, if the initial thin disc is flaring, with vertical scale-height increasing with galactocentric radius, the metal poor stars originally in the outer disc become dominant in regions above the disc plane at every radii. This process can drive a negative vertical metallicity gradient, which is consistent with the current observed trend. This model mimics a scenario where the star-forming thin disc was flaring in the outer region at earlier epochs. Our numerical experiments predict that the negative vertical metallicity gradient of the mon...

  17. A Newly Forming Cold Flow Protogalactic Disk, a Signature of Cold Accretion from the Cosmic Web

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, D. Christopher; Matuszewski, Mateusz; Morrissey, Patrick; Neill, James D.; Moore, Anna; Steidel, Charles C.; Trainor, Ryan

    2016-06-01

    How galaxies form from, and are fueled by, gas from the intergalactic medium (IGM) remains one of the major unsolved problems in galaxy formation. While the classical Cold Dark Matter paradigm posits galaxies forming from cooling virialized gas, recent theory and numerical simulations have highlighted the importance of cold accretion flows—relatively cool (T ˜ few × 104 K) unshocked gas streaming along filaments into dark matter halos, including hot, massive, high-redshift halos. These flows are thought to deposit gas and angular momentum into the circumgalactic medium resulting in disk- or ring-like structures, eventually coalescing into galaxies forming at filamentary intersections. We earlier reported a bright, Lyα emitting filament near the QSO HS1549+19 at redshift z = 2.843 discovered with the Palomar Cosmic Web Imager. We now report that the bright part of this filament is an enormous (R > 100 kpc) rotating structure of hydrogen gas with a disk-like velocity profile consistent with a 4 × 1012 M ⊙ halo. The orbital time of the outer part of the what we term a “protodisk” is comparable to the virialization time and the age of the universe at this redshift. We propose that this protodisk can only have recently formed from cold gas flowing directly from the cosmic web.

  18. Giant outburst from the supergiant fast X-ray transient IGR J17544-2619: accretion from a transient disc?

    CERN Document Server

    Romano, P; Mangano, V; Esposito, P; Israel, G; Tiengo, A; Campana, S; Ducci, L; Ferrigno, C; Kennea, J A

    2015-01-01

    Supergiant fast X-ray transients (SFXTs) are high mass X-ray binaries associated with OB supergiant companions and characterised by an X-ray flaring behaviour whose dynamical range reaches 5 orders of magnitude on timescales of a few hundred to thousands of seconds. Current investigations concentrate on finding possible mechanisms to inhibit accretion in SFXTs and explain their unusually low average X-ray luminosity. We present the Swift observations of an exceptionally bright outburst displayed by the SFXT IGR J17544-2619 on 2014 October 10 when the source achieved a peak luminosity of $3\\times10^{38}$ erg s$^{-1}$. This extends the total source dynamic range to $\\gtrsim$10$^6$, the largest (by a factor of 10) recorded so far from an SFXT. Tentative evidence for pulsations at a period of 11.6 s is also reported. We show that these observations challenge, for the first time, the maximum theoretical luminosity achievable by an SFXT and propose that this giant outburst was due to the formation of a transient ac...

  19. Carbon dioxide enhances the development of the ethylene forming enzyme in tobacco leaf discs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Philosoph-Hadas, S.; Aharoni, N.; Yang, S.F.

    1986-01-01

    Since CO/sub 2/ is known to stimulate ethylene production by promoting the conversion of 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid (ACC) to ethylene, the effect of CO/sub 2/ on the activity and the development of the ethylene forming enzyme (EFE) was studied in tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum L. cv Havana 425 and Xanthi) leaf discs. In addition to previous observations that EFE activity is dependent on CO/sub 2/ concentration and is saturable with 2% CO/sub 2/, present data show two saturation curves at 2% and 10% CO/sub 2/. Promotion of EFE development was dependent also on CO/sub 2/ concentration (saturated at 2% CO/sub 2/) and duration (maximum at 24 in the dark), and was abolished by 20 micromolar cycloheximide. Application of exogenous ethylene (20 microliters per liter) or light treatment further increased the CO/sub 2/-enhanced development of EFE, implying that these two factors can also affect EFE development via interaction with CO/sub 2/. The results suggest that CO/sub 2/ exerts its stimulatory effect on the conversion of ACC to ethylene by enhancing not only the activity but also the synthesis of EFE in leaf discs.

  20. A CORRELATION BETWEEN STAR FORMATION RATE AND AVERAGE BLACK HOLE ACCRETION IN STAR-FORMING GALAXIES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We present a measurement of the average supermassive black hole accretion rate (BHAR) as a function of the star formation rate (SFR) for galaxies in the redshift range 0.25 2 Boötes multi-wavelength survey field. The SFR is estimated using 250 μm observations from the Herschel Space Observatory, for which the contribution from the active galactic nucleus (AGN) is minimal. In this sample, 121 AGNs are directly identified using X-ray or mid-IR selection criteria. We combined these detected AGNs and an X-ray stacking analysis for undetected sources to study the average BHAR for all of the star-forming galaxies in our sample. We find an almost linear relation between the average BHAR (in M☉ yr–1) and the SFR (in M☉ yr–1) for galaxies across a wide SFR range 0.85 < log SFR < 2.56: log BHAR = (– 3.72 ± 0.52) + (1.05 ± 0.33)log SFR. This global correlation between SFR and average BHAR is consistent with a simple picture in which SFR and AGN activity are tightly linked over galaxy evolution timescales

  1. Chemistry of atmospheres formed during accretion of the Earth and other terrestrial planets

    CERN Document Server

    Schaefer, L

    2009-01-01

    We used chemical equilibrium and chemical kinetic calculations to model chemistry of the volatiles released by heating different types of carbonaceous, ordinary and enstatite chondritic material as a function of temperature and pressure. Our results predict the composition of atmospheres formed by outgassing during accretion of the Earth and other terrestrial planets. Outgassing of CI and CM carbonaceous chondritic material produces H2O-rich (steam) atmospheres in agreement with the results of impact experiments. However, outgassing of other types of chondritic material produces atmospheres dominated by other gases. Outgassing of ordinary (H, L, LL) and high iron enstatite (EH) chondritic material yields H2-rich atmospheres with CO and H2O being the second and third most abundant gases. Outgassing of low iron enstatite (EL) chondritic material gives a CO-rich atmosphere with H2, CO2, and H2O being the next most abundant gases. Outgassing of CV carbonaceous chondritic material gives a CO2-rich atmosphere with ...

  2. The star formation history and accretion-disc fraction among the K-type members of the Scorpius-Centaurus OB association

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pecaut, Mark J.; Mamajek, Eric E.

    2016-09-01

    We present results of a spectroscopic survey for new K- and M-type members of Scorpius-Centaurus (Sco-Cen), the nearest OB Association (˜100-200 pc). Using an X-ray, proper motion and colour-magnitude selected sample, we obtained spectra for 361 stars, for which we report spectral classifications and Li and Hα equivalent widths. We identified 156 new members of Sco-Cen, and recovered 51 previously published members. We have combined these with previously known members to form a sample of 493 solar-mass (˜0.7-1.3 M⊙) members of Sco-Cen. We investigated the star formation history of this sample, and re-assessed the ages of the massive main-sequence turn-off and the G-type members in all three subgroups. We performed a census for circumstellar discs in our sample using WISE infrared data and find a protoplanetary disc fraction for K-type stars of 4.4^{+1.6}_{-0.9} per cent for Upper Centaurus-Lupus and Lower Centaurus-Crux at ˜16 Myr and 9.0^{+4.0}_{-2.2} per cent for Upper Scorpius at ˜10 Myr. These data are consistent with a protoplanetary disc e-folding time-scale of ˜4-5 Myr for ˜1 M⊙ stars, twice that previously quoted, but consistent with the Bell et al. revised age scale of young clusters. Finally, we construct an age map of Scorpius-Centaurus which clearly reveals substructure consisting of concentrations of younger and older stars. We find evidence for strong age gradients within all three subgroups. None of the subgroups are consistent with being simple, coeval populations which formed in single bursts, but likely represents a multitude of smaller star formation episodes of hundreds to tens of stars each.

  3. Accreting Protoplanets in the LkCa 15 Transition Disk

    CERN Document Server

    Sallum, S; Eisner, J A; Close, L M; Hinz, P; Kratter, K; Males, J; Skemer, A; Macintosh, B; Tuthill, P; Bailey, V; Defrère, D; Morzinski, K; Rodigas, T; Spalding, E; Vaz, A; Weinberger, A J

    2015-01-01

    Exoplanet detections have revolutionized astronomy, offering new insights into solar system architecture and planet demographics. While nearly 1900 exoplanets have now been discovered and confirmed, none are still in the process of formation. Transition discs, protoplanetary disks with inner clearings best explained by the influence of accreting planets, are natural laboratories for the study of planet formation. Some transition discs show evidence for the presence of young planets in the form of disc asymmetries or infrared sources detected within their clearings, as in the case of LkCa 15. Attempts to observe directly signatures of accretion onto protoplanets have hitherto proven unsuccessful. Here we report adaptive optics observations of LkCa 15 that probe within the disc clearing. With accurate source positions over multiple epochs spanning 2009 - 2015, we infer the presence of multiple companions on Keplerian orbits. We directly detect H{\\alpha} emission from the innermost companion, LkCa 15 b, evincing...

  4. The Role of Discs in the Collapse and Fragmentation of Prestellar Cores

    CERN Document Server

    Lomax, O; Hubber, D A

    2015-01-01

    Disc fragmentation provides an important mechanism for producing low mass stars in prestellar cores. Here, we describe Smoothed Particle Hydrodynamics simulations which show how populations of prestellar cores evolve into stars. We find the observed masses and multiplicities of stars can be recovered under certain conditions. First, protostellar feedback from a star must be episodic. The continuous accretion of disc material on to a central protostar results in local temperatures which are too high for disc fragmentation. If, however, the accretion occurs in intense outbursts, separated by a downtime of $\\sim10^4\\,\\mathrm{years}$, gravitational instabilities can develop and the disc can fragment. Second, a significant amount of the cores' internal kinetic energy should be in solenoidal turbulent modes. Cores with less than a third of their kinetic energy in solenoidal modes have insufficient angular momentum to form fragmenting discs. In the absence of discs, cores can fragment but results in a top heavy dist...

  5. The collapse of protoplanetary clumps formed through disc instability: 3D simulations of the pre-dissociation phase

    CERN Document Server

    Galvagni, M; Boley, A C; Mayer, L; Roskar, R; Saha, P

    2012-01-01

    We present 3D smoothed particle hydrodynamics simulations of the collapse of clumps formed through gravitational instability in the outer part of a protoplanetary disc. The initial conditions are taken directly from a global disc simulation, and a realistic equation of state is used to follow the clumps as they contract over several orders of magnitude in density, approaching the molecular hydrogen dissociation stage. The effects of clump rotation, asymmetries, and radiative cooling are studied. Rotation provides support against fast collapse, but non-axisymmetric modes develop and efficiently transport angular momentum outward, forming a circumplanetary disc. This transport helps the clump reach the dynamical collapse phase, resulting from molecular hydrogen dissociation, on a thousand-year timescale, which is smaller than timescales predicted by some previous spherical 1D collapse models. Extrapolation to the threshold of the runaway hydrogen dissociation indicates that the collapse timescales can be shorte...

  6. The inner cavity of the circumnuclear disc

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blank, M.; Morris, M. R.; Frank, A.; Carroll-Nellenback, J. J.; Duschl, W. J.

    2016-06-01

    The circumnuclear disc (CND) orbiting the Galaxy's central black hole is a reservoir of material that can ultimately provide energy through accretion, or form stars in the presence of the black hole, as evidenced by the stellar cluster that is presently located at the CND's centre. In this paper, we report the results of a computational study of the dynamics of the CND. The results lead us to question two paradigms that are prevalent in previous research on the Galactic Centre. The first is that the disc's inner cavity is maintained by the interaction of the central stellar cluster's strong winds with the disc's inner rim, and secondly, that the presence of unstable clumps in the disc implies that the CND is a transient feature. Our simulations show that, in the absence of a magnetic field, the interaction of the wind with the inner disc rim actually leads to a filling of the inner cavity within a few orbital time-scales, contrary to previous expectations. However, including the effects of magnetic fields stabilizes the inner disc rim against rapid inward migration. Furthermore, this interaction causes instabilities that continuously create clumps that are individually unstable against tidal shearing. Thus the occurrence of such unstable clumps does not necessarily mean that the disc is itself a transient phenomenon. The next steps in this investigation are to explore the effect of the magnetorotational instability on the disc evolution and to test whether the results presented here persist for longer time-scales than those considered here.

  7. ALMA resolves the spiraling accretion flow in the luminous OB cluster forming region G33.92+0.11

    CERN Document Server

    Liu, Hauyu Baobab; Jiménez-Serra, Izaskun; Román-Zúñiga, Carlos; Zhang, Qizhou; Li, Zhiyun; Chen, Huei-Ru

    2015-01-01

    How rapidly collapsing parsec-scale massive molecular clumps feed high-mass stars, and how they fragment to form OB clusters, have been outstanding questions in the field of star-formation. In this work, we report the resolved structures and kinematics of the approximately face-on, rotating massive molecular clump, G33.92+0.11. Our high resolution Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array (ALMA) images show that the spiral arm-like gas overdensities form in the eccentric gas accretion streams. First, we resolved that the dominant part of the $\\sim$0.6 pc scale massive molecular clump (3.0$^{+2.8}_{-1.4}$$\\cdot$10$^{3}$ $M_{\\odot}$) G33.92+0.11 A is tangled with several 0.5-1 pc size molecular arms spiraling around it, which may be connected further to exterior gas accretion streams. Within G33.92+0.11 A, we resolved the $\\sim$0.1 pc width gas mini-arms connecting with the two central massive (100-300 $M_{\\odot}$) molecular cores. The kinematics of arms and cores elucidate a coherent accretion flow continui...

  8. Investigating the disc-jet coupling in accreting compact objects using the black hole candidate Swift J1753.5-0127

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Soleri, P.; Fender, R.; Tudose, V.; Maitra, D.; Bell, M.; Linares, M.; Altamirano, D.; Wijnands, R.; Belloni, T.; Casella, P.; Miller-Jones, J. C. A.; Muxlow, T.; Klein-Wolt, M.; Garrett, M.; van der Klis, M.

    2010-01-01

    In studies of accreting black holes in binary systems, empirical relations have been proposed to quantify the coupling between accretion processes and ejection mechanisms. These processes are probed, respectively, by means of X-ray and radio/optical-infrared observations. The relations predict, give

  9. Magnetic field structure in accretion columns on HMXB and effects on CRSF

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mukherjee Dipanjan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In accreting neutron star binaries, matter is channelled by the magnetic fields from the accretion disc to the poles of neutron stars forming an accretion mound. We model such mounds by numerically solving the Grad-Shafranov equation for axisymmetric static MHD equilibria. From our solutions we infer local distortion of field lines due to the weight of accreted matter. Variation in mass loading at the accretion disc will alter the shape of the accretion mound which will also affect the local field distortion. From simulations of cyclotron resonance scattering features from HMXBs, we conclude that local field distortion will greatly affect the shape and nature of the CRSF. From phase resolved spectral analysis one can infer the local field structure and hence the nature of mass loading of field lines at the accretion disc. We also study the stability of such mounds by performing MHD simulations using the PLUTO MHD code. We find that pressure and gravity driven instabilities depend on the total mass accreted and the nature of mass loading of the field lines.

  10. Magnetic field structure in accretion columns on HMXB and effects on CRSF

    CERN Document Server

    Mukherjee, Dipanjan; Mignone, Andrea

    2013-01-01

    In accreting neutron star binaries, matter is channelled by the magnetic fields from the accretion disc to the poles of neutron stars forming an accretion mound. We model such mounds by numerically solving the Grad-Shafranov equation for axisymmetric static MHD equilibria. From our solutions we infer local distortion of field lines due to the weight of accreted matter. Variation in mass loading at the accretion disc will alter the shape of the accretion mound which will also affect the local field distortion. From simulations of cyclotron resonance scattering features from HMXBs, we conclude that local field distortion will greatly affect the shape and nature of the CRSF. From phase resolved spectral analysis one can infer the local field structure and hence the nature of mass loading of field lines at the accretion disc. We also study the stability of such mounds by performing MHD simulations using the PLUTO MHD code. We find that pressure and gravity driven instabilities depend on the total mass accreted an...

  11. On the formation of a quasi-stationary twisted disc after a tidal disruption event

    CERN Document Server

    Xiang-Gruess, M; Papaloizou, J C B

    2016-01-01

    We investigate misaligned accretion discs formed after tidal disruption events that occur when a star encounters a supermassive black hole. We employ the linear theory of warped accretion discs to find the shape of a disc for which the stream arising from the disrupted star provides a source of angular momentum that is misaligned with that of the black hole. For quasi-steady configurations we find that when the warp diffusion or propagation time is large compared to the local mass accretion time and/or the natural disc alignment radius is small, misalignment is favoured. These results have been verified using SPH simulations. We also simulated 1D model discs including gas and radiation pressure. As accretion rates initially exceed the Eddington limit the disc is initially advection dominated. Assuming the $\\alpha$ model for the disc, where it can be thermally unstable it subsequently undergoes cyclic transitions between high and low states. During these transitions the aspect ratio varies from $\\sim 1$ to $\\s...

  12. The migration of gas giant planets in gravitationally unstable discs

    CERN Document Server

    Stamatellos, Dimitris

    2015-01-01

    Planets form in the discs of gas and dust that surround young stars. It is not known whether gas giant planets on wide orbits form the same way as Jupiter or by fragmentation of gravitationally unstable discs. Here we show that a giant planet, which has formed in the outer regions of a protostellar disc, initially migrates fast towards the central star (migration timescale ~10,000 yr) while accreting gas from the disc. However, in contrast with previous studies, we find that the planet eventually opens up a gap in the disc and the migration is essentially halted. At the same time, accretion-powered radiative feedback from the planet, significantly limits its mass growth, keeping it within the planetary mass regime (i.e. below the deuterium burning limit) at least for the initial stages of disc evolution. Giant planets may therefore be able to survive on wide orbits despite their initial fast inward migration, shaping the environment in which terrestrial planets that may harbour life form.

  13. Evolution of Protoplanetary Discs with Magnetically Driven Disc Winds

    CERN Document Server

    Suzuki, Takeru K; Morbidelli, Alessandro; Crida, Aurélien; Guillot, Tristan

    2016-01-01

    Aims: We investigate the evolution of protoplanetary discs (PPDs hereafter) with magnetically driven disc winds and viscous heating. Methods: We consider an initially massive disc with ~0.1 Msun to track the evolution from the early stage of PPDs. We solve the time evolution of surface density and temperature by taking into account viscous heating and the loss of the mass and the angular momentum by the disc winds within the framework of a standard alpha model for accretion discs. Our model parameters, turbulent viscosity, disc wind mass loss, and disc wind torque, which are adopted from local magnetohydrodynamical simulations and constrained by the global energetics of the gravitational accretion, largely depends on the physical condition of PPDs, particularly on the evolution of the vertical magnetic flux in weakly ionized PPDs. Results: Although there are still uncertainties concerning the evolution of the vertical magnetic flux remaining, surface densities show a large variety, depending on the combinatio...

  14. Accretion and differentiation of the terrestrial planets with implications for the compositions of early-formed Solar System bodies and accretion of water

    CERN Document Server

    Rubie, David C; Morbidelli, Alessandro; O'Brien, Dave P; Young, Ed D; de Vries, Jellie; Palme, Herbert; Frost, Daniel J

    2014-01-01

    In order to test planetary accretion and differentiation scenarios, we integrated a multistage core-mantle differentiation model with N-body accretion simulations. Impacts between embryos and planetesimals result in magma ocean formation and episodes of core formation. The core formation model combines rigorous chemical mass balance with metal-silicate element partitioning data. The primary constraint on the combined model is the composition of the Earth's primitive mantle, the composition of the Martian mantle, and the mass fractions of the metallic cores of Earth and Mars. The model is refined by least squares minimization with up to five fitting parameters that consist of the metal-silicate equilibrium pressure and 1-4 parameters that define the starting compositions of primitive bodies. This integrated model has been applied to 6 Grand Tack simulations. Investigations of a broad parameter space indicate that: accretion of Earth was heterogeneous, metal-silicate equilibration pressures increase as accretio...

  15. The properties of brown dwarfs and low-mass hydrogen-burning stars formed by disc fragmentation

    CERN Document Server

    Stamatellos, Dimitris

    2008-01-01

    We suggest that a high proportion of brown dwarfs are formed by gravitational fragmentation of massive extended discs around Sun-like stars. Such discs should arise frequently, but should be observed infrequently, precisely because they fragment rapidly. By performing an ensemble of radiation-hydrodynamic simulations, we show that such discs fragment within a few thousand years, and produce mainlybrown dwarf (BDs) stars, but also planetary mass (PM) stars and very low-mass hydrogen-burning (HB) stars. Most of the the PM stars and BDs are ejected by mutual interactions. We analyse the statistical properties of these stars, and compare them with observations. After a few hundred thousand years the Sun-like primary is typically left with a close low-mass HB companion, and two much wider companions: a low-mass HB star and a BD star, or a BD-BD binary. There is a BD desert extending out to at least ~100 AU; this is because BDs tend to be formed further out than low-mass HB stars, and then they tend to be scattered...

  16. DEUTERIUM BURNING IN MASSIVE GIANT PLANETS AND LOW-MASS BROWN DWARFS FORMED BY CORE-NUCLEATED ACCRETION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bodenheimer, Peter [UCO/Lick Observatory, Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, University of California, Santa Cruz, CA 95064 (United States); D' Angelo, Gennaro; Lissauer, Jack J. [Space Science and Astrobiology Division, NASA-Ames Research Center, Moffett Field, CA 94035 (United States); Fortney, Jonathan J. [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, University of California, Santa Cruz, CA 95064 (United States); Saumon, Didier, E-mail: peter@ucolick.org, E-mail: gennaro.dangelo@nasa.gov, E-mail: Jack.J.Lissauer@nasa.gov, E-mail: jfortney@ucolick.org, E-mail: dsaumon@lanl.gov [Los Alamos National Laboratory, P.O. Box 1663, Los Alamos, NM 87545 (United States)

    2013-06-20

    Using detailed numerical simulations, we study the formation of bodies near the deuterium-burning limit according to the core-nucleated giant planet accretion scenario. The objects, with heavy-element cores in the range 5-30 M{sub Circled-Plus }, are assumed to accrete gas up to final masses of 10-15 Jupiter masses (M{sub Jup}). After the formation process, which lasts 1-5 Myr and which ends with a ''cold-start'', low-entropy configuration, the bodies evolve at constant mass up to an age of several Gyr. Deuterium burning via proton capture is included in the calculation, and we determined the mass, M{sub 50}, above which more than 50% of the initial deuterium is burned. This often-quoted borderline between giant planets and brown dwarfs is found to depend only slightly on parameters, such as core mass, stellar mass, formation location, solid surface density in the protoplanetary disk, disk viscosity, and dust opacity. The values for M{sub 50} fall in the range 11.6-13.6 M{sub Jup}, in agreement with previous determinations that do not take the formation process into account. For a given opacity law during the formation process, objects with higher core masses form more quickly. The result is higher entropy in the envelope at the completion of accretion, yielding lower values of M{sub 50}. For masses above M{sub 50}, during the deuterium-burning phase, objects expand and increase in luminosity by one to three orders of magnitude. Evolutionary tracks in the luminosity versus time diagram are compared with the observed position of the companion to Beta Pictoris.

  17. Pre-main sequence accretion in the low metallicity Galactic star-forming region Sh 2-284

    CERN Document Server

    Kalari, V M

    2014-01-01

    We present optical spectra of pre-main sequence (PMS) candidates around the H$\\alpha$ region taken with the Southern African Large Telescope, SALT, in the low metallicity ($Z$) Galactic region Sh 2-284, which includes the open cluster Dolidze 25 with an atypical low metallicity of $Z$ $\\sim$ 1/5 $Z_{\\odot}$. It has been suggested on the basis of both theory and observations that PMS mass-accretion rates, $\\dot M_{\\rm{acc}}$, are a function of $Z$. We present the first sample of spectroscopic estimates of mass-accretion rates for PMS stars in any low-$Z$ star-forming region. Our data-set was enlarged with literature data of H$\\alpha$ emission in intermediate-resolution R-band spectroscopy. Our total sample includes 24 objects spanning a mass range between 1 - 2 $M_{\\odot}$ and with a median age of approximately 3.5 Myr. The vast majority (21 out of 24) show evidence for a circumstellar disk on the basis of 2MASS and Spitzer infrared photometry. We find $\\dot M_{\\rm{acc}}$ in the 1 - 2 $M_{\\odot}$ interval to d...

  18. The structure of protoplanetary discs around evolving young stars

    CERN Document Server

    Bitsch, Bertram; Lambrechts, Michiel; Morbidelli, Alessandro

    2014-01-01

    The formation of planets with gaseous envelopes takes place in protoplanetary accretion discs on time-scales of several millions of years. Small dust particles stick to each other to form pebbles, pebbles concentrate in the turbulent flow to form planetesimals and planetary embryos and grow to planets, which undergo substantial radial migration. All these processes are influenced by the underlying structure of the protoplanetary disc, specifically the profiles of temperature, gas scale height and density. The commonly used disc structure of the Minimum Mass Solar Nebular (MMSN) is a simple power law in all these quantities. However, protoplanetary disc models with both viscous and stellar heating show several bumps and dips in temperature, scale height and density caused by transitions in opacity, which are missing in the MMSN model. These play an important role in the formation of planets, as they can act as sweet spots for the formation of planetesimals via the streaming instability and affect the direction...

  19. Magnetic white dwarfs with debris discs

    CERN Document Server

    Külebi, Baybars; Lorén-Aguilar, Pablo; Isern, Jordi; García-Berro, Enrique

    2013-01-01

    It has long been accepted that a possible mechanism for explaining the existence of magnetic white dwarfs is the merger of a binary white dwarf system, as there are viable mechanisms for producing sustainable magnetic fields within the merger product. However, the lack of rapid rotators in the magnetic white dwarf population has been always considered a problematic issue of this scenario. Smoothed Particle Hydrodynamics simulations show that in mergers in which the two white dwarfs have different masses a disc around the central compact object is formed. If the central object is magnetized it can interact with the disc through its magnetosphere. The torque applied by the disc changes the spin of the star, whereas the transferred angular momentum from the star to the disc determines the properties of the disc. In this work we build a model for the disc evolution under the effect of magnetic accretion, and for the angular momentum evolution of the star, which can be compared with the observations. Our model pre...

  20. The size evolution of galaxy discs formed within Lambda Cold Dark Matter haloes

    CERN Document Server

    Firmani, C

    2009-01-01

    By means of galaxy evolutionary models, we explore the direct consequences of the LCDM cosmogony on the size evolution of galactic discs, avoiding intentionally the introduction of intermediate (uncertain) astrophysical processes. Based on the shape of the rotation curves and guided by a simplicity criterion, we adopt an average galaxy mass baryon fraction of 0.03. In order to study general behaviors, only models with the average initial conditions are analyzed. The stellar and B-band effective radii, R* and RB, of individual galaxies grow significantly with time (inside-out disc formation) with laws that are weakly dependent on mass, M*,or luminosity, LB. However, the change of R* with z at fixed M* is slow; for z0.75. We find also that at z=0, R* ~ M*^0.38 and RB ~ LB^0.40, remaining the slopes of these relations almost the same up to z ~ 3. Our predictions are in reasonable agreement with observational inferences on the typical radius change with z of late-type galaxies more luminous (massive) than high va...

  1. On the formation of a quasi-stationary twisted disc after a tidal disruption event

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiang-Gruess, M.; Ivanov, P. B.; Papaloizou, J. C. B.

    2016-08-01

    We investigate misaligned accretion discs formed after tidal disruption events that occur when a star encounters a supermassive black hole. We employ the linear theory of warped accretion discs to find the shape of a disc for which the stream arising from the disrupted star provides a source of angular momentum that is misaligned with that of the black hole. For quasi-steady configurations we find that when the warp diffusion or propagation time is large compared to the local mass accretion time and/or the natural disc alignment radius is small, misalignment is favoured. These results have been verified using SPH simulations. We also simulated 1D model discs including gas and radiation pressure. As accretion rates initially exceed the Eddington limit the disc is initially advection dominated. Assuming the α model for the disc, where it can be thermally unstable it subsequently undergoes cyclic transitions between high and low states. During these transitions the aspect ratio varies from ˜1 to ˜10-3 which is reflected in changes in the degree of disc misalignment at the stream impact location. For maximal black hole rotation and sufficiently large values of viscosity parameter α > ˜0.01 - 0.1 the ratio of the disc inclination to that of the initial stellar orbit is estimated to be 0.1 - 0.2 in the advection dominated state, while reaching of order unity in the low state. Misalignment descreases with decrease of α, but increases as the black hole rotation parameter decreases. Thus, it is always significant when the latter is small.

  2. On the formation of planetary systems in photoevaporating transition discs

    CERN Document Server

    Terquem, Caroline

    2016-01-01

    In protoplanetary discs, planetary cores must be at least 0.1 earth mass at 1 au for migration to be significant; this mass rises to 1 earth mass at 5 au. Planet formation models indicate that these cores form on million year timescales. We report here a study of the evolution of 0.1 earth mass and 1 earth mass cores, migrating from about 2 and 5 au respectively, in million year old photoevaporating discs. In such a disc, a gap opens up at around 2 au after a few million years. The inner region subsequently accrete onto the star on a smaller timescale. We find that, typically, the smallest cores form systems of non-resonant planets beyond 0.5 au with masses up to about 1.5 earth mass. In low mass discs, the same cores may evolve in situ. More massive cores form systems of a few earth masses planets. They migrate within the inner edge of the disc gap only in the most massive discs. Delivery of material to the inner parts of the disc ceases with opening of the gap. Interestingly, when the heavy cores do not mig...

  3. Three-Dimensional Hydrodynamic Simulations of Accretion in Short Period Algols

    CERN Document Server

    Raymer, Eric

    2012-01-01

    Recent observations have shown that the direct-impact Algol systems U CrB and RS Vul possess gas located outside of the orbital plane, including a tilted accretion disc in U CrB. Observations of circumstellar gas surrounding the mass donor in RS Vul suggest magnetic effects could be responsible for deflecting the accretion stream out of the orbital plane, resulting in a tilted disc. To determine whether a tilted disc is possible due to a deflected stream, we use three-dimensional hydrodynamic simulations of the mass transfer process in RS Vul. By deflecting the stream 45 degrees out of the orbital plane and boosting the magnitude of the stream's velocity to Mach 30, we mimic the effects of magnetic activity near L1. We find that the modified stream parameters change the direct-impact nature of the system. The stream misses the surface of the star, and a slightly warped accretion disc forms with no more than 3 degrees of disc tilt. The stream-disc interaction for the deflected stream forces a large degree of m...

  4. Radiative Transfer Modelling of the Accretion Flow onto a Star-Forming Core in W51

    CERN Document Server

    Young, L M; Ho, P T P; Young, Lisa M.; Keto, Eric; Ho, Paul T. P.

    1998-01-01

    We present an analysis of the temperature, density, and velocity of the molecular gas in the star-forming core around W51 e2. A previous paper (Ho and Young 1996) describes the kinematic evidence which implies that the core around e2 is contracting onto a young massive star. The current paper presents a technique for modelling the three-dimensional structure of the core by simulating spectral line images of the source and comparing those images to observed data. The primary conclusions of this work are that the molecular gas in e2 is radially contracting at about 5 km/s and that the temperature and density of the gas decrease outward over 0.15 pc scales. The simple model of the collapse of the singular isothermal sphere for low-mass star formation (Shu 1977) is an inadequate description of this high-mass molecular core; better models have temperature decreasing outward as r^-0.6, density as r^-2, and velocity increasing as r^+0.1. The core appears to be spherical rather than disk-like at the scale of these ob...

  5. On the possibility of a warped disc origin of the inclined stellar discs at the Galactic Centre

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ulubay-Siddiki, A.; Bartko, H.; Gerhard, O.

    2013-01-01

    The central parsec of our Galaxy hosts a population of young stars. At distances of r ˜ 0.03-0.5 pc, most of these stars seem to form a system of mutually inclined discs of clockwise and counterclockwise rotating stars. We present a possible warped disc origin scenario for these stars assuming that an initially flat accretion disc becomes warped due to a central radiation source via the Pringle instability or due to a spinning black hole via the Bardeen-Petterson effect before it cools, fragments and forms stars. From simple arguments, we show that this is plausible if the star formation efficiency is high, ɛSF ≲ 1, and the viscosity parameter α ˜ 0.1. After fragmentation, we model the disc as a collection of concentric, circular rings tilted with respect to each other, and construct time evolution models of warped discs for mass ratios and other parameters relevant to the Galactic Centre environment, but also for more massive discs. We take into account the disc's self-gravity in the non-linear regime and the torques exerted by a slightly flattened surrounding star cluster. Our simulations show that a self-gravitating low-mass disc (Md/Mbh ˜ 0.001) precesses with its integrity maintained in the lifetime of the stars, but precesses essentially freely when the torques from a non-spherical cluster are included. An intermediate-mass disc (Md/Mbh ˜ 0.01) breaks into pieces, which precess as independent discs in the self-gravity-only case, and become disrupted in the presence of the star cluster torques. Finally, for a high-mass disc (Md/Mbh ˜ 0.1), the evolution is dominated by self-gravity and the disc is broken but not dissolved. The time-scale after which the disc breaks into pieces scales almost linearly with Md/Mbh for self-gravitating models. Typical values are longer than the age of the stars for Md/Mbh ˜ 0.001, and are in the range ˜8 × 104-105 yr for Md/Mbh ˜ 0.1-0.01, respectively. None of these discs explains the two Galactic Centre discs with

  6. Effect of Be disc evolution on global one-armed oscillations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oktariani, F.; Okazaki, A. T.; Kunjaya, C.; Aprilia

    2016-07-01

    We study the effect of density distribution evolution on the global one-armed oscillation modes in low-viscosity discs around isolated and binary Be stars. Observations show that some Be stars exhibit evidence of formation and dissipation of the equatorial disc. In this paper, we first calculate the density evolution in discs around isolated Be stars. To model the formation stage of the disc, we inject mass at a radius just outside the star at a constant rate for 30-50 yr. As the disc develops, the density distribution approaches the form of the steady disc solution. Then, we turn-off the mass injection to model the disc dissipation stage. The innermost part of the disc starts accretion, and a gap forms between the star and the disc. Next, we calculate the one-armed modes at several epochs. We neglect the effect of viscosity because the time-scale of oscillations is much shorter than the disc evolution time-scale for low viscosity. In the disc formation stage, the eigenfrequency increases with time towards the value for the steady state disc. On the other hand, one-armed eigenmodes in dissipating Be discs have significantly higher eigenfrequencies and narrower propagation regions. Observationally, such a change of mode characteristics can be taken as an evidence for gap opening around the star. In binary Be stars, the characteristics of the disc evolution and the eigenmodes are qualitatively the same as in isolated Be stars, but quantitatively, they have shorter evolution time-scales and higher eigenfrequencies, which is in agreement with the observed trend.

  7. The inner cavity of the circumnuclear disc

    CERN Document Server

    Blank, Marvin; Frank, Adam; Carroll-Nellenback, Jonathan J; Duschl, Wolfgang J

    2016-01-01

    The circumnuclear disc (CND) orbiting the Galaxy's central black hole is a reservoir of material that can ultimately provide energy through accretion, or form stars in the presence of the black hole, as evidenced by the stellar cluster that is presently located at the CND's centre. In this paper, we report the results of a computational study of the dynamics of the CND. The results lead us to question two paradigms that are prevalent in previous research on the Galactic Centre. The first is that the disc's inner cavity is maintained by the interaction of the central stellar cluster's strong winds with the disc's inner rim, and second, that the presence of unstable clumps in the disc implies that the CND is a transient feature. Our simulations show that, in the absence of a magnetic field, the interaction of the wind with the inner disc rim actually leads to a filling of the inner cavity within a few orbital time-scales, contrary to previous expectations. However, including the effects of magnetic fields stabi...

  8. Metallicity inhomogeneities in local star-forming galaxies as sign of recent metal-poor gas accretion

    CERN Document Server

    Almeida, J Sanchez; Munoz-Tunon, C; Elmegreen, D M; Elmegreen, B G; Mendez-Abreu, J

    2014-01-01

    We measure the oxygen metallicity of the ionized gas along the major axis of seven dwarf star-forming galaxies. Two of them, SDSSJ1647+21 and SDSSJ2238+14, show 0.5 dex metallicity decrements in inner regions with enhanced star-formation activity. This behavior is similar to the metallicity drop observed in a number of local tadpole galaxies by Sanchez Almeida et al. (2013) and interpreted as showing early stages of assembling in disk galaxies, with the star formation sustained by external metal-poor gas accretion. The agreement with tadpoles has several implications: (1) it proves that galaxies other than the local tadpoles present the same unusual metallicity pattern. (2) Our metallicity inhomogeneities were inferred using the direct method, thus discarding systematic errors usually attributed to other methods. (3) Taken together with the tadpole data, our findings suggest a threshold around one tenth the solar value for the metallicity drops to show up. Although galaxies with clear metallicity drops are ra...

  9. Dead discs, unstable discs and the stars they surround

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D’Angelo Caroline

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Strong stellar magnetic fields significantly alter the behaviour of surrounding accretion discs. Recent work has demonstrated that at low accretion rates a large amount of mass can remain confined in the disc, contrary to the standard assumption that the magnetic field will expel the disc in an outflow (the “propeller regime”. These “dead discs” often become unstable, causing cycles of accretion onto the central star. Here I present the main predictions of this model, and argue that it provides a good explanation for the peculiar behaviour seen in several accreting sources with strong magnetic fields. I will focus in particular on three accreting millisecond X-ray pulsars: SAX J1808.4-3658, NGC 6440 X-2 and IGR J00291+5934. These sources all show low-frequency quasi-periodic oscillations consistent with a variable accretion rate, as well as unusual outburst patterns that suggest gas is confined in the inner disc regions during quiescence.

  10. The dispersal of protoplanetary discs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ercolano Barbara

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Protoplanetary discs are a natural consequence of the star formation process and as such are ubiquitous around low-mass stars. They are fundamental to planet formation as they hold the reservoir of material from which planets form. Their evolution and final dispersal and the timescales that regulate these process are therefore of particular interest. In this contribution I will review the observational evidence for the dispersal of discs being dominated by two timescales and for the final dispersal to occur quickly and from the inside out. I will discuss the current theoretical models, including X-ray photoevaporation, showing that the latter provides a natural explanation to the observed behaviour and review supporting and contrasting evidence. I will finally introduce a new mechanism based on the interaction between planet formation and photoevaporation that may explain a particular class of transition discs with large inner holes and high accretion rates that are problematic for photoevaporation models and planet formation models alone.

  11. Dynamic processes during accretion into a black hole

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. S. Bisonvatyi-kogan

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Accretion disc theory was first developed as a theory with the local heat balance, where the whole energy produced by a viscous heating was emitted to the sides of the disc. One of the most important new invention of this theory was a phenomenological treatment of the turbulent viscosity, known as “alpha” prescription, when the (rϕ component of the stress tensor was approximated by (αP with a unknown constant α This prescription played the role in the accretion disc theory as well important as the mixing-length theory of convection for stellar evolution. Sources of turbulence in the accretion disc are discussed, including nonlinear hydrodynamic turbulence, convection and magnetic filed role. In parallel to the optically thick geometrically thin accretion disc models, a new branch of the optically thin accretion disc models was discovered, with a larger thickness for the same total luminosity. The choice between these solutions should be done of the base of stability analysis. The ideas underlying the necessity to include advection into the accretion disc theory are presented and first models with advection are reviewed. The present status of the solution for a low-luminous optically thin accretion disc model with advection is discussed and the limits for an advection dominated accretion flows (ADAF imposed by the presence of magnetic field are analyzed.

  12. Reconstructing the star formation history of the Milky Way disc(s) from chemical abundances

    CERN Document Server

    Snaith, O; Di Matteo, P; Lehnert, M D; Combes, F; Katz, D; Gómez, A

    2014-01-01

    We develop a chemical evolution model in order to study the star formation history of the Milky Way. Our model assumes that the Milky Way is formed from a closed box-like system in the inner regions, while the outer parts of the disc experience some accretion. Unlike the usual procedure, we do not fix the star formation prescription (e.g. Kennicutt law) in order to reproduce the chemical abundance trends. Instead, we fit the abundance trends with age in order to recover the star formation history of the Galaxy. Our method enables one to recover with unprecedented accuracy the star formation history of the Milky Way in the first Gyrs, in both the inner (R9-10kpc) discs as sampled in the solar vicinity. We show that, in the inner disc, half of the stellar mass formed during the thick disc phase, in the first 4-5 Gyr. This phase was followed by a significant dip in the star formation activity (at 8-9 Gyr) and a period of roughly constant lower level star formation for the remaining 8 Gyr. The thick disc phase ha...

  13. Interpreting MAD within multiple accretion regimes

    CERN Document Server

    Mocz, Philip

    2014-01-01

    General relativistic magnetohydrodynamic (GRMHD) simulations of accreting black holes in the radiatively inefficient regime show that systems with sufficient magnetic poloidal flux become magnetically arrested disc (MAD) systems, with a well-defined relationship between the magnetic flux and the mass accretion rate. Recently, Zamaninasab (2014) report that the jet magnetic flux and accretion disc luminosity are tightly correlated over 7 orders of magnitude for a sample of 76 radio-loud active galaxies, concluding that the data are explained by the MAD mode of accretion. Their analysis assumes radiatively efficient accretion, and their sample consists primarily of radiatively efficient sources, while GRMHD simulations of MAD thus far have been carried out in the radiatively inefficient regime. We propose a model to interpret MAD systems in the context of multiple accretion regimes, and apply it to the sample in Zamaninasab (2014), along with additional radiatively inefficient sources from archival data. We sho...

  14. Unstable mass-outflows in geometrically thick accretion flows around black holes

    CERN Document Server

    Okuda, Toru

    2015-01-01

    Accretion flows around black holes generally result in mass-outflows that exhibit irregular behavior quite often. Using 2D time-dependent hydrodynamical calculations, we show that the mass-outflow is unstable in the cases of thick accretion flows such as the low angular momentum accretion flow and the advection-dominated accretion flow. For the low angular momentum flow, the inward accreting matter on the equatorial plane interacts with the outflowing gas along the rotational axis and the centrifugally supported oblique shock is formed at the interface of both the flows, when the viscosity parameter $\\alpha$ is as small as $\\alpha \\le 10^{-3}$. The hot and rarefied blobs, which result in the eruptive mass-outflow, are generated in the inner shocked region and grow up toward the outer boundary. The advection-dominated accretion flow attains finally in the form of a torus disc with the inner edge of the disc at $3R_{\\rm g} \\le r \\le 6R_{\\rm g}$ and the center at $6R_ {\\rm g} \\le r \\le 10R_{\\rm g}$, and a series...

  15. Apsidal precession, disc breaking and viscosity in warped discs

    CERN Document Server

    Nealon, Rebecca; Price, Daniel J; King, Andrew

    2015-01-01

    We demonstrate the importance of general relativistic apsidal precession in warped black hole accretion discs by comparing three - dimensional smoothed particle hydrodynamic simulations in which this effect is first neglected, and then included. If apsidal precession is neglected, we confirm the results of an earlier magnetohydrodynamic simulation which made this assumption, showing that at least in this case the $\\alpha$ viscosity model produces very similar results to those of simulations where angular momentum transport is due to the magnetorotational instability. Including apsidal precession significantly changes the predicted disc evolution. For moderately inclined discs thick enough that tilt is transported by bending waves, we find a disc tilt which is nonzero at the inner disc edge and oscillates with radius, consistent with published analytic results. For larger inclinations we find disc breaking.

  16. Composition of early planetary atmospheres - I. Connecting disc astrochemistry to the formation of planetary atmospheres

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cridland, A. J.; Pudritz, R. E.; Alessi, M.

    2016-09-01

    We present a model of the early chemical composition and elemental abundances of planetary atmospheres based on the cumulative gaseous chemical species that are accreted on to planets forming by core accretion from evolving protoplanetary discs. The astrochemistry of the host disc is computed using an ionization-driven, non-equilibrium chemistry network within viscously evolving disc models. We accrete gas giant planets whose orbital evolution is controlled by planet traps using the standard core accretion model and track the chemical composition of the material that is accreted on to the protoplanet. We choose a fiducial disc model and evolve planets in three traps - water ice line, dead zone and heat transition. For a disc with a lifetime of 4.1 Myr, we produce two hot Jupiters (M = 1.43, 2.67 MJupiter, r = 0.15, 0.11 au) in the heat transition and ice line trap and one failed core (M = 0.003 MJupiter, r = 3.7 au) in the dead zone. These planets are found with mixing ratios for CO and H2O of 1.99 × 10-4 and 5.0 × 10-4, respectively, for both hot Jupiters. Additionally, for these planets we find CO2 and CH4, with mixing ratios of 1.8 × 10-6 → 9.8 × 10-10 and 1.1 × 10-8 → 2.3 × 10-10, respectively. These ranges correspond well with the mixing ratio ranges that have been inferred through the detection of emission spectra from hot Jupiters by multiple authors. We compute a carbon-to-oxygen ratio of 0.227 for the ice line planet and 0.279 for the heat transition planet. These planets accreted their gas inside the ice line, hence the sub-solar C/O.

  17. Misaligned gas discs around eccentric black-hole binaries and implications for the final-parsec problem

    CERN Document Server

    Aly, Hossam; Nixon, Chris; King, Andrew

    2015-01-01

    We investigate the evolution of low mass (Md /Mb = 0.005) misaligned gaseous discs around eccentric supermassive black hole (SMBH) binaries. These are expected to form from randomly oriented accretion events onto a SMBH binary formed in a galaxy merger. When expanding the interaction terms between the binary and a circular ring to quadrupole order and averaging over the binary orbit, we expect four non-precessing disc orientations: aligned or counter-aligned with the binary, or polar orbits around the binary eccentricity vector with either sense of rotation. All other orientations precess around either of these, with the polar precession dominating for high eccentricity. These expectations are borne out by smoothed particle hydrodynamics simulations of initially misaligned viscous circumbinary discs, resulting in the formation of polar rings around highly eccentric binaries in contrast to the co-planar discs around circular binaries. Moreover, we observe disc tearing and violent interactions between different...

  18. The Asymptotic Form of Non-Global Logarithms, Black Disc Saturation, and Gluonic Deserts

    CERN Document Server

    Neill, Duff

    2016-01-01

    We develop an asymptotic perturbation theory for the large logarithmic behavior of the non-linear integro-differential equation describing the soft correlations of QCD jet measurements, the Banfi-Marchesini-Smye (BMS) equation. This equation captures the late-time evolution of radiating color dipoles after a hard collision. This allows us to prove that at large values of the control variable (the non-global logarithm, a function of the infra-red energy scales associated with distinct hard jets in an event), the distribution has a gaussian tail. We compute the decay width analytically, giving a closed form expression, and find it to be jet geometry independent, up to the number of legs of the dipole in the active jet. Enabling the asymptotic expansion is the correct perturbative seed, where we perturb around an anzats encoding formally no real emissions, an intuition motivated by the buffer region found in jet dynamics. This must be supplemented with the correct application of the BFKL approximation to the BMS...

  19. Giant planet formation in radially structured protoplanetary discs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coleman, Gavin A. L.; Nelson, Richard P.

    2016-08-01

    Our recent N-body simulations of planetary system formation, incorporating models for the main physical processes thought to be important during the building of planets (i.e. gas disc evolution, migration, planetesimal/boulder accretion, gas accretion on to cores, etc.), have been successful in reproducing some of the broad features of the observed exoplanet population (e.g. compact systems of low-mass planets, hot Jupiters), but fail completely to form any surviving cold Jupiters. The primary reason for this failure is rapid inward migration of growing protoplanets during the gas accretion phase, resulting in the delivery of these bodies on to orbits close to the star. Here, we present the results of simulations that examine the formation of gas giant planets in protoplanetary discs that are radially structured due to spatial and temporal variations in the effective viscous stresses, and show that such a model results in the formation of a population of cold gas giants. Furthermore, when combined with models for disc photoevaporation and a central magnetospheric cavity, the simulations reproduce the well-known hot-Jupiter/cold-Jupiter dichotomy in the observed period distribution of giant exoplanets, with a period valley between 10 and 100 d.

  20. On the warping of Be star discs

    OpenAIRE

    Porter, John M.

    1998-01-01

    The theory of radiatively-induced warps in accretion discs is applied to the discs of Be stars. It is found that these discs may develop warps in their inner regions, although once the warp amplitude is large enough then the interaction between the disc and fast radiatively-driven wind will determine its evolution. The warping is shown to be more important for later than earlier B stars. Although the interaction of the fast-wind with the disc will limit the amplitude of the warp, it cannot dr...

  1. Theory of wind accretion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shakura N.I.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A review of wind accretion in high-mass X-ray binaries is presented. We focus attention to different regimes of quasi-spherical accretion onto the neutron star: the supersonic (Bondi accretion, which takes place when the captured matter cools down rapidly and falls supersonically toward NS magnetospghere, and subsonic (settling accretion which occurs when plasma remains hot until it meets the magnetospheric boundary. Two regimes of accretion are separated by an X-ray luminosity of about 4 × 1036 erg/s. In the subsonic case, which sets in at low luminosities, a hot quasi-spherical shell must be formed around the magnetosphere, and the actual accretion rate onto NS is determined by ability of the plasma to enter the magnetosphere due to Rayleigh-Taylor instability. We calculate the rate of plasma entry the magnetopshere and the angular momentum transfer in the shell due to turbulent viscosity appearing in the convective differentially rotating shell. We also discuss and calculate the structure of the magnetospheric boundary layer where the angular momentum between the rotating magnetosphere and the base of the differentially rotating quasi-spherical shell takes place. We show how observations of equilibrium X-ray pulsars Vela X-1 and GX 301-2 can be used to estimate dimensionless parameters of the subsonic settling accretion theory, and obtain the width of the magnetospheric boundary layer for these pulsars.

  2. Theory of wind accretion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shakura, N. I.; Postnov, K. A.; Kochetkova, A. Yu.; Hjalmarsdotter, L.

    2014-01-01

    A review of wind accretion in high-mass X-ray binaries is presented. We focus attention to different regimes of quasi-spherical accretion onto the neutron star: the supersonic (Bondi) accretion, which takes place when the captured matter cools down rapidly and falls supersonically toward NS magnetospghere, and subsonic (settling) accretion which occurs when plasma remains hot until it meets the magnetospheric boundary. Two regimes of accretion are separated by an X-ray luminosity of about 4 × 1036 erg/s. In the subsonic case, which sets in at low luminosities, a hot quasi-spherical shell must be formed around the magnetosphere, and the actual accretion rate onto NS is determined by ability of the plasma to enter the magnetosphere due to Rayleigh-Taylor instability. We calculate the rate of plasma entry the magnetopshere and the angular momentum transfer in the shell due to turbulent viscosity appearing in the convective differentially rotating shell. We also discuss and calculate the structure of the magnetospheric boundary layer where the angular momentum between the rotating magnetosphere and the base of the differentially rotating quasi-spherical shell takes place. We show how observations of equilibrium X-ray pulsars Vela X-1 and GX 301-2 can be used to estimate dimensionless parameters of the subsonic settling accretion theory, and obtain the width of the magnetospheric boundary layer for these pulsars.

  3. Massive black hole and gas dynamics in mergers of galaxy nuclei - II. Black hole sinking in star-forming nuclear discs

    CERN Document Server

    Lupi, Alessandro; Dotti, Massimo; Colpi, Monica

    2015-01-01

    Mergers of gas-rich galaxies are key events in the hierarchical built-up of cosmic structures, and can lead to the formation of massive black hole binaries. By means of high-resolution hydrodynamical simulations we consider the late stages of a gas-rich major merger, detailing the dynamics of two circumnuclear discs, and of the hosted massive black holes during their pairing phase. During the merger gas clumps with masses of a fraction of the black hole mass form because of fragmentation. Such high-density gas is very effective in forming stars, and the most massive clumps can substantially perturb the black hole orbits. After $\\sim 10$ Myr from the start of the merger a gravitationally bound black hole binary forms at a separation of a few parsecs, and soon after, the separation falls below our resolution limit of $0.39$ pc. At the time of binary formation the original discs are almost completely disrupted because of SNa feedback, while on pc scales the residual gas settles in a circumbinary disc with mass $...

  4. Wave-like warp propagation in circumbinary discs - I. Analytic theory and numerical simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Facchini, Stefano; Lodato, Giuseppe; Price, Daniel J.

    2013-08-01

    In this paper we analyse the propagation of warps in protostellar circumbinary discs. We use these systems as a test environment in which to study warp propagation in the bending-wave regime, with the addition of an external torque due to the binary gravitational potential. In particular, we want to test the linear regime, for which an analytic theory has been developed. In order to do so, we first compute analytically the steady-state shape of an inviscid disc subject to the binary torques. The steady-state tilt is a monotonically increasing function of radius, but misalignment is found at the disc inner edge. In the absence of viscosity, the disc does not present any twist. Then, we compare the time-dependent evolution of the warped disc calculated via the known linearized equations both with the analytic solutions and with full 3D numerical simulations. The simulations have been performed with the PHANTOM smoothed particle hydrodynamics (SPH) code using two million particles. We find a good agreement both in the tilt and in the phase evolution for small inclinations, even at very low viscosities. Moreover, we have verified that the linearized equations are able to reproduce the diffusive behaviour when α > H/R, where α is the disc viscosity parameter. Finally, we have used the 3D simulations to explore the non-linear regime. We observe a strongly non-linear behaviour, which leads to the breaking of the disc. Then, the inner disc starts precessing with its own precessional frequency. This behaviour has already been observed with numerical simulations in accretion discs around spinning black holes. The evolution of circumstellar accretion discs strongly depends on the warp evolution. Therefore, the issue explored in this paper could be of fundamental importance in order to understand the evolution of accretion discs in crowded environments, when the gravitational interaction with other stars is highly likely, and in multiple systems. Moreover, the evolution of

  5. A SCUBA-2 850 micron Survey of Protoplanetary Discs in the IC 348 Cluster

    CERN Document Server

    Cieza, L; Kourkchi, E; Andrews, S; Casassus, S; Graves, S; Schreiber, M

    2015-01-01

    We present 850 micron observations of the 2-3 Myr cluster IC 348 in the Perseus molecular cloud using the SCUBA-2 camera on the James Clerk Maxwell Telescope. Our SCUBA-2 map has a diameter of 30 arcmin and contains ~370 cluster members, including ~200 objects with IR excesses. We detect a total of 13 discs. Assuming standard dust properties and a gas to dust mass ratio of 100, we derive disc masses ranging from 1.5 to 16 M_JUP . We also detect 8 Class 0/I protostars. We find that the most massive discs (M_Disc > 3 MJUP ; 850 micron fux > 10 mJy) in IC 348 tend to be transition objects according to the characteristic "dip" in their infrared Spectral Energy Distributions (SEDs). This trend is also seen in other regions. We speculate that this could be an initial conditions effect (e.g., more massive discs tend to form giant planets that result in transition disc SEDs) and/or a disc evolution effect (the formation of one or more massive planets results in both a transition disc SED and a reduction of the accret...

  6. Predictions for reverberating spectral line from a newly formed black hole accretion disk: case of tidal disruption flares

    CERN Document Server

    Zhang, Wenda; Karas, Vladimir; Dovciak, Michal

    2015-01-01

    Tidal Disruption Events (TDEs) can be perfect probes of dormant SMBHs in normal galaxies. During the rising phase, the accretion luminosity can increase by orders of magnitude in several weeks and the emergent ionizing radiation illuminates the fresh accretion flow. In this paper, we simulated the evolution of the expected spectral line profile of iron due to such a flare by using a ray-tracing code with effects of general relativity (GR) taken into account. We found that the time-dependent profile changes significantly with black hole spin, inclination angle with respect to the black-hole equatorial plane, and the expansion velocity of the ionization front. At low values of spin, a "loop" feature appears in the line profile vs. time plot when the inclination is no less than $30^\\circ$ and the expansion velocity $v_{\\rm exp}$ is no less than half speed of light, due to a shadow in the emission of the truncated disk. In the light curve two peaks occur depending on the inclination angle. At large $v_{\\rm exp}$,...

  7. Deuterium Burning in Massive Giant Planets and Low-Mass Brown Dwarfs formed by Core-Nucleated Accretion

    CERN Document Server

    Bodenheimer, Peter; Lissauer, Jack J; Fortney, Jonathan J; Saumon, Didier

    2013-01-01

    Formation of bodies near the deuterium-burning limit is considered by detailed numerical simulations according to the core-nucleated giant planet accretion scenario. The objects, with heavy-element cores in the range 5-30 Mearth, are assumed to accrete gas up to final masses of 10-15 Jupiter masses (Mjup). After the formation process, which lasts 1-5 Myr and which ends with a 'cold-start', low-entropy configuration, the bodies evolve at constant mass up to an age of several Gyr. Deuterium burning via proton capture is included in the calculation, and we determined the mass, M50, above which more than 50% of the initial deuterium is burned. This often-quoted borderline between giant planets and brown dwarfs is found to depend only slightly on parameters, such as core mass, stellar mass, formation location, solid surface density in the protoplanetary disk, disk viscosity, and dust opacity. The values for M50 fall in the range 11.6-13.6 Mjup, in agreement with previous determinations that do not take the formati...

  8. Structure of radiation dominated gravitoturbulent quasar discs

    CERN Document Server

    Shadmehri, Mohsen; Dib, Sami

    2016-01-01

    Self-gravitating accretion discs in a gravitoturbulent state, including radiation and gas pressures, are studied using a set of new analytical solutions. While the Toomre parameter of the disc remains close to its critical value for the onset of gravitational instability, the dimensionless stress parameter is uniquely determined from the thermal energy reservoir of the disc and its cooling rate. Our solutions are applicable to the accretion discs with dynamically important radiation pressure like in the quasars discs. We show that physical quantities of a gravitoturbulent disc in the presence of radiation are significantly modified compared to solutions with only gas pressure. We show that the dimensionless stress parameter is an increasing function of the radial distance so that its steepness strongly depends on the accretion rate. In a disc without radiation its slope is 4.5, however, we show that in the presence of radiation, it varies between 2 and 4.5 depending on the accretion rate and the central mass....

  9. Growing galaxies via superbubble-driven accretion flows

    CERN Document Server

    Hobbs, Alexander; Nicola, Andrina

    2014-01-01

    We use a suite a cooling halo simulations to study a new mechanism for rapid accretion of hot halo gas onto star-forming galaxies. Correlated supernovae events create converging 'superbubbles' in the halo gas. Where these collide, the density increases, driving cooling filaments of low metallicity gas that feed the disc. At our current numerical resolution (20 pc) we are only able to resolve the most dramatic events; these could be responsible for the build-up of galaxy discs after the most massive gas-rich mergers have completed (z < 1). As we increase the numerical resolution, we find that the filaments persist for longer, driving continued late-time star formation. This suggests that SNe-driven accretion could act as an efficient mechanism for extracting cold gas from the hot halo, driving late-time star formation in disc galaxies. We show that such filament feeding leads to a peak star formation rate (SFR) of $\\sim 3$ M$_{\\rm sun}$ yr$^{-1}$, consistent with estimates for the Milky Way. By contrast, di...

  10. Heat transfer distributions around nominal ice accretion shapes formed on a cylinder in the NASA Lewis icing research tunnel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanfossen, G. J.; Simoneau, R. J.; Olsen, W. A.; Shaw, R. J.

    Local heat transfer coefficients were obtained on irregular cylindrical shapes which typify the accretion of ice on circular cylinders in cross flow. The ice shapes were grown on a 5.1 cm (2.0 in.) diameter cylinder in the NASA Lewis Icing Research Tunnel. The shapes were 2, 5, and 15 min accumulations of glaze ice and 15 min accumulation of rime ice. Heat transfer coefficients were also measured around the cylinder with no ice accretion. These icing shapes were averaged axially to obtain a nominal shape of constant cross section for the heat transfer tests. Heat transfer coefficients around the perimeter of each shape were measured with electrically heated copper strips embedded in the surface of the model which was cast from polyurethane foam. Each strip contained a thermocouple to measure the local surface temperature. The models were run in a 15.2 x 68.6 cm (6 x 27 in.) wind tunnel at several velocities. Background turbulence in the wind tunnel was less than 0.5 percent. The models were also run with a turbulence producing grid which gave about 3.5 percent turbulence at the model location with the model removed. The effect of roughness was also simulated with sand grains glued to the surface. Results are presented as Nusselt number versus angle from the stagnation line for the smooth and rough models for both high and low levels of free stream turblence. Roughness of the surface in the region prior to flow separation plays a major role in determining the heat transfer distribution.

  11. Seeing to the Event Horizon: Probing Accretion Physics with X-ray Reflection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilkins, Dan

    2015-09-01

    Accretion onto supermassive black holes in active galactic nuclei is known to power some of the most luminous objects we see in the Universe, which through their vast energy outputs must have played an important role in shaping the large scale structure of the Universe we see today. Much remains unknown, however, about the fine details of this process; exactly how energy is liberated from accretion flows onto black holes, how the 'corona' that produces the intense X-ray continuum is formed and what governs this process over time. I will outline how the detection of X-rays reflected from the discs of accreting material around black holes by the present generation of large X-ray observatories, shifted in energy and blurred by relativistic effects in the strong gravitational field close to the black hole, has enabled measurements of the inner regions of the accretion flow in unprecedented detail. In particular, exploiting the shift in energy of atomic emission lines by relativistic effects as a function of location on the disc has enabled the measurement of the illumination pattern of the accretion flow by the X-ray continuum from which the geometry of the emitting region can be inferred and how the detection of time lags between the primary and reflected X-rays owing to the additional path the reflected rays must travel between the corona and the disc places further constraints on the nature of the emitting corona. These techniques allow the evolution of the corona that accompanies transitions from high to low X-ray flux to be studied, giving clues to the physical process that forms and powers the intense X-ray source and uncovering evidence for the potential launching of jets. I will discuss the great steps forward in understanding accretion physics that can be made with the Athena X-ray observatory, combining detailed analysis of observations with predictions and models from general relativistic ray tracing simulations. In particular, I will discuss how high

  12. Chemodynamical analysis of bulge stars for simulated disc galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahimi, A.; Kawata, D.; Brook, Chris B.; Gibson, Brad K.

    2010-01-01

    We analyse the kinematics and chemistry of the bulge stars of two simulated disc galaxies using our chemodynamical galaxy evolution code GCD+. First, we compare stars that are born inside the galaxy with those that are born outside the galaxy and are accreted into the centre of the galaxy. Stars that originate outside the bulge are accreted into it early in its formation within 3 Gyr so that these stars have high [α/Fe] as well as a high total energy reflecting their accretion to the centre of the galaxy. Therefore, higher total energy is a good indicator for finding accreted stars. The bulges of the simulated galaxies formed through multiple mergers separated by about a Gyr. Since [α/Fe] is sensitive to the first few Gyr of star formation history, stars that formed during mergers at different epochs show different [α/Fe]. We show that the [Mg/Fe] against star formation time relation can be very useful to identify a multiple merger bulge formation scenario, provided there is sufficiently good age information available. Our simulations also show that stars formed during one of the merger events retain a systematically prograde rotation at the final time. This demonstrates that the orbit of the ancient merger that helped to form the bulge could still remain in the kinematics of bulge stars.

  13. Atlas of Tilted Accretion Disks & Source to Negative Superhumps

    CERN Document Server

    Montgomery, M M

    2009-01-01

    Using smoothed particle hydrodynamics, we numerically simulate steady state accretion discs for Cataclysmic Variable Dwarf Novae systems that have a secondary-to-primary mass ratio (0.35 \\le q \\le 0.55). After these accretion discs have come to quasi-equilibrium, we rotate each disc out of the orbital plane by (\\delta = (1, 2, 3, 4, 5,) or (20)^{o}) to induce negative superhumps. For accretion discs tilted $5^{o}$, we generate light curves and associated Fourier transforms for an atlas on negative superhumps and retrograde precession. Our simulation results suggest that accretion discs need to be tilted more than three degrees for negative superhumps to be statistically significant. We also show that if the disc is tilted enough such that the gas stream strikes a disc face, then a dense cooling ring is generated near the radius of impact. In addition to the atlas, we study these artificially tilted accretion discs to find the source to negative superhumps. Our results suggest that the source is additional lig...

  14. Thin, thick and dark discs in LCDM

    CERN Document Server

    Read, J I; Agertz, O; Debattista, Victor P

    2008-01-01

    In a LCDM cosmology, the Milky Way accretes satellites into the stellar disc. We use cosmological simulations to assess the frequency of near disc plane and higher inclination accretion events, and collisionless simulations of satellite mergers to quantify the final state of the accreted material and the effect on the thin disc. On average, a Milky Way-sized galaxy has 1.5 subhalos with vmax>80km/s; 5 with vmax>60km/s; and 13 with vmax>40km/s merge at redshift z>1. A third of these merge at an impact angle 20 degrees) are twice as likely as low inclination ones. These lead to structures that closely resemble the recently discovered inner/outer stellar halos. They also do more damage to the Milky Way stellar disc creating a more pronounced flare, and warp; both long-lived and consistent with current observations. The most massive mergers (vmax > 80km/s) heat t he thin disc enough to produce a thick disc. These heated thin disc stars are essential for obtaining a thick disc as massive as that seen in the Milky ...

  15. Black hole mergers: do gas discs lead to spin alignment?

    OpenAIRE

    Lodato, Giuseppe; Gerosa, Davide

    2012-01-01

    In this Letter we revisit arguments suggesting that the Bardeen-Petterson effect can coalign the spins of a central supermassive black hole binary accreting from a circumbinary (or circumnuclear) gas disc. We improve on previous estimates by adding the dependence on system parameters, and noting that the nonlinear nature of warp propagation in a thin viscous disc affects alignment. This reduces the disc's ability to communicate the warp, and can severely reduce the effectiveness of disc-assis...

  16. Theory of wind accretion

    CERN Document Server

    Shakura, N I; Kochetkova, A Yu; Hjalmarsdotter, L

    2013-01-01

    A review of wind accretion in high-mass X-ray binaries is presented. We focus attention to different regimes of quasi-spherical accretion onto the neutron star: the supersonic (Bondi) accretion, which takes place when the captured matter cools down rapidly and falls supersonically toward NS magnetospghere, and subsonic (settling) accretion which occurs when plasma remains hot until it meets the magnetospheric boundary. Two regimes of accretion are separated by an X-ray luminosity of about $4\\times10^{36}$ erg/s. In the subsonic case, which sets in at low luminosities, a hot quasi-spherical shell must be formed around the magnetosphere, and the actual accretion rate onto NS is determined by ability of the plasma to enter the magnetosphere due to Rayleigh-Taylor instability. We calculate the rate of plasma entry the magnetopshere and the angular momentum transfer in the shell due to turbulent viscosity appearing in the convective differentially rotating shell. We also discuss and calculate the structure of the ...

  17. Resolving the HD 100546 Protoplanetary System with the Gemini Planet Imager: Evidence for Multiple Forming, Accreting Planets

    CERN Document Server

    Currie, Thayne; Brittain, Sean; Grady, Carol; Burrows, Adam; Muto, Takayuki; Kenyon, Scott J; Kuchner, Marc J

    2015-01-01

    We report Gemini Planet Imager H band high-contrast imaging/integral field spectroscopy and polarimetry of the HD 100546, a 10 $Myr$-old early-type star recently confirmed to host a thermal infrared bright (super)jovian protoplanet at wide separation, HD 100546 b. We resolve the inner disk cavity in polarized light, recover the thermal-infrared (IR) bright arm, and identify one additional spiral arm. We easily recover HD 100546 b and show that much of its emission originates an unresolved, point source. HD 100546 b likely has extremely red infrared colors compared to field brown dwarfs, qualitatively similar to young cloudy superjovian planets, however, these colors may instead indicate that HD 100546 b is still accreting material from a circumplanetary disk. Additionally, we identify a second point source-like peak at $r_{proj}$ $\\sim$ 13 AU, located just interior to or at inner disk wall consistent with being a 10--20 $M_{J}$ candidate second protoplanet-- "HD 100546 c" -- and lying within a weakly polarize...

  18. Coevolution of Binaries and Gaseous Discs

    CERN Document Server

    Fleming, David P

    2016-01-01

    The recent discoveries of circumbinary planets by $\\it Kepler$ raise questions for contemporary planet formation models. Understanding how these planets form requires characterizing their formation environment, the circumbinary protoplanetary disc, and how the disc and binary interact and change as a result. The central binary excites resonances in the surrounding protoplanetary disc that drive evolution in both the binary orbital elements and in the disc. To probe how these interactions impact binary eccentricity and disc structure evolution, N-body smooth particle hydrodynamics (SPH) simulations of gaseous protoplanetary discs surrounding binaries based on Kepler 38 were run for $10^4$ binary periods for several initial binary eccentricities. We find that nearly circular binaries weakly couple to the disc via a parametric instability and excite disc eccentricity growth. Eccentric binaries strongly couple to the disc causing eccentricity growth for both the disc and binary. Discs around sufficiently eccentri...

  19. Separating gas-giant and ice-giant planets by halting pebble accretion

    CERN Document Server

    Lambrechts, Michiel; Morbidelli, Alessandro

    2014-01-01

    In the Solar System giant planets come in two flavours: 'gas giants' (Jupiter and Saturn) with massive gas envelopes and 'ice giants' (Uranus and Neptune) with much thinner envelopes around their cores. It is poorly understood how these two classes of planets formed. High solid accretion rates, necessary to form the cores of giant planets within the life-time of protoplanetary discs, heat the envelope and prevent rapid gas contraction onto the core, unless accretion is halted. We find that, in fact, accretion of pebbles (~ cm-sized particles) is self-limiting: when a core becomes massive enough it carves a gap in the pebble disc. This halt in pebble accretion subsequently triggers the rapid collapse of the super-critical gas envelope. As opposed to gas giants, ice giants do not reach this threshold mass and can only bind low-mass envelopes that are highly enriched by water vapour from sublimated icy pebbles. This offers an explanation for the compositional difference between gas giants and ice giants in the S...

  20. RESOLVING THE HD 100546 PROTOPLANETARY SYSTEM WITH THE GEMINI PLANET IMAGER: EVIDENCE FOR MULTIPLE FORMING, ACCRETING PLANETS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Currie, Thayne [National Astronomical Observatory of Japan, Subaru Telescope (Japan); Cloutier, Ryan [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, University of Toronto, Toronto, ON (Canada); Brittain, Sean [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Clemson University, Clemson, SC (United States); Grady, Carol; Kuchner, Marc J. [Exoplanets and Stellar Astrophysics Laboratory, NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD (United States); Burrows, Adam [Department of Astrophysics Sciences, Princeton University, Princeton, NJ (United States); Muto, Takayuki [Division of Liberal Arts, Kogakuin University, Tokyo (Japan); Kenyon, Scott J. [Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory, Cambridge, MA (United States)

    2015-12-01

    We report Gemini Planet Imager H-band high-contrast imaging/integral field spectroscopy and polarimetry of the HD 100546, a 10 Myr old early-type star recently confirmed to host a thermal infrared (IR) bright (super-)Jovian protoplanet at wide separation, HD 100546 b. We resolve the inner disk cavity in polarized light, recover the thermal IR-bright arm, and identify one additional spiral arm. We easily recover HD 100546 b and show that much of its emission plausibly originates from an unresolved point source. The point-source component of HD 100546 b has extremely red IR colors compared to field brown dwarfs, qualitatively similar to young cloudy super-Jovian planets; however, these colors may instead indicate that HD 100546 b is still accreting material from a circumplanetary disk. Additionally, we identify a second point-source-like peak at r{sub proj} ∼ 14 AU, located just interior to or at the inner disk wall consistent with being a <10–20 M{sub J} candidate second protoplanet—“HD 100546 c”—and lying within a weakly polarized region of the disk but along an extension of the thermal IR-bright spiral arm. Alternatively, it is equally plausible that this feature is a weakly polarized but locally bright region of the inner disk wall. Astrometric monitoring of this feature over the next 2 years and emission line measurements could confirm its status as a protoplanet, rotating disk hot spot that is possibly a signpost of a protoplanet, or a stationary emission source from within the disk.

  1. Debris disc formation induced by planetary growth

    CERN Document Server

    Kobayashi, Hiroshi

    2014-01-01

    Several hundred stars older than 10 million years have been observed to have infrared excesses. These observations are explained by dust grains formed by the collisional fragmentation of hidden planetesimals. Such dusty planetesimal discs are known as debris discs. In a dynamically cold planetesimal disc, collisional coagulation of planetesimals produces planetary embryos which then stir the surrounding leftover planetesimals. Thus, the collisional fragmentation of planetesimals that results from planet formation forms a debris disc. We aim to determine the properties of the underlying planetesimals in debris discs by numerically modelling the coagulation and fragmentation of planetesimal populations. The brightness and temporal evolution of debris discs depend on the radial distribution of planetesimal discs, the location of their inner and outer edges, their total mass, and the size of planetesimals in the disc. We find that a radially narrow planetesimal disc is most likely to result in a debris disc that ...

  2. Circumplanetary disc or circumplanetary envelope?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szulágyi, J.; Masset, F.; Lega, E.; Crida, A.; Morbidelli, A.; Guillot, T.

    2016-08-01

    We present three-dimensional simulations with nested meshes of the dynamics of the gas around a Jupiter mass planet with the JUPITER and FARGOCA codes. We implemented a radiative transfer module into the JUPITER code to account for realistic heating and cooling of the gas. We focus on the circumplanetary gas flow, determining its characteristics at very high resolution (80 per cent of Jupiter's diameter). In our nominal simulation where the temperature evolves freely by the radiative module and reaches 13000 K at the planet, a circumplanetary envelope was formed filling the entire Roche lobe. Because of our equation of state is simplified and probably overestimates the temperature, we also performed simulations with limited maximal temperatures in the planet region (1000, 1500, and 2000 K). In these fixed temperature cases circumplanetary discs (CPDs) were formed. This suggests that the capability to form a CPD is not simply linked to the mass of the planet and its ability to open a gap. Instead, the gas temperature at the planet's location, which depends on its accretion history, plays also fundamental role. The CPDs in the simulations are hot and cooling very slowly, they have very steep temperature and density profiles, and are strongly sub-Keplerian. Moreover, the CPDs are fed by a strong vertical influx, which shocks on the CPD surfaces creating a hot and luminous shock-front. In contrast, the pressure supported circumplanetary envelope is characterized by internal convection and almost stalled rotation.

  3. Giant planet formation in radially structured protoplanetary discs

    CERN Document Server

    Coleman, Gavin A L

    2016-01-01

    Our recent N-body simulations of planetary system formation, incorporating models for the main physical processes thought to be important during the building of planets (i.e. gas disc evolution, migration, planetesimal/boulder accretion, gas accretion onto cores, etc.), have been successful in reproducing some of the broad features of the observed exoplanet population (e.g. compact systems of low mass planets, hot Jupiters), but fail completely to form any surviving cold Jupiters. The primary reason for this failure is rapid inward migration of growing protoplanets during the gas accretion phase, resulting in the delivery of these bodies onto orbits close to the star. Here, we present the results of simulations that examine the formation of gas giant planets in protoplanetary discs that are radially structured due to spatial and temporal variations in the effective viscous stresses, and show that such a model results in the formation of a population of cold gas giants. Furthermore, when combined with models f...

  4. Why stellar feedback promotes disc formation in simulated galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Übler, Hannah; Oser, Ludwig; Aumer, Michael; Sales, Laura V; White, Simon

    2014-01-01

    We study how feedback influences baryon infall onto galaxies using cosmological, zoom-in simulations of haloes with present mass $\\mathrm{M}_{\\mathrm{vir}}=6.9\\times10^{11} \\mathrm{M}_{\\odot}$ to $1.7\\times10^{12} \\mathrm{M}_{\\odot}$. Starting at $z=4$ from identical initial conditions, implementations of weak and strong stellar feedback produce bulge- and disc-dominated galaxies, respectively. Strong feedback favours disc formation: (1) because conversion of gas into stars is suppressed at early times, as required by abundance matching arguments, resulting in flat star formation histories and higher gas fractions; (2) because $50\\%$ of the stars form ${\\it in}$ ${\\it situ}$ from recycled disc gas with angular momentum only weakly related to that of the $z=0$ dark halo; (3) because late-time gas accretion is typically an order of magnitude stronger and has higher specific angular momentum, with recycled gas dominating over primordial infall; (4) because $25-30\\%$ of the total accreted gas is ejected entirely ...

  5. Tracing Planets in Circumstellar Discs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Uribe Ana L.

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Planets are assumed to form in circumstellar discs around young stellar objects. The additional gravitational potential of a planet perturbs the disc and leads to characteristic structures, i.e. spiral waves and gaps, in the disc density profile. We perform a large-scale parameter study on the observability of these planet-induced structures in circumstellar discs in the (submm wavelength range for the Atacama Large (SubMillimeter Array (ALMA. On the basis of hydrodynamical and magneto-hydrodynamical simulations of star-disc-planet models we calculate the disc temperature structure and (submm images of these systems. These are used to derive simulated ALMA maps. Because appropriate objects are frequent in the Taurus-Auriga region, we focus on a distance of 140 pc and a declination of ≈ 20°. The explored range of star-disc-planet configurations consists of six hydrodynamical simulations (including magnetic fields and different planet masses, nine disc sizes with outer radii ranging from 9 AU to 225 AU, 15 total disc masses in the range between 2.67·10-7 M⊙ and 4.10·10-2 M⊙, six different central stars and two different grain size distributions, resulting in 10 000 disc models. At almost all scales and in particular down to a scale of a few AU, ALMA is able to trace disc structures induced by planet-disc interaction or the influence of magnetic fields in the wavelength range between 0.4...2.0 mm. In most cases, the optimum angular resolution is limited by the sensitivity of ALMA. However, within the range of typical masses of protoplane tary discs (0.1 M⊙...0.001 M⊙ the disc mass has a minor impact on the observability. At the distance of 140 pc it is possible to resolve discs down to 2.67·10-6 M⊙ and trace gaps in discs with 2.67·10-4 M⊙ with a signal-to-noise ratio greater than three. In general, it is more likely to trace planet-induced gaps in magneto-hydrodynamical disc models, because gaps are wider in the presence of

  6. On the formation of compact planetary systems via concurrent core accretion and migration

    CERN Document Server

    Coleman, Gavin A L

    2016-01-01

    We present the results of planet formation N-body simulations based on a comprehensive physical model that includes planetary mass growth through mutual embryo collisions and planetesimal/boulder accretion, viscous disc evolution, planetary migration and gas accretion onto planetary cores. The main aim of this study is to determine which set of model parameters leads to the formation of planetary systems that are similar to the compact low mass multi-planet systems that have been discovered by radial velocity surveys and the Kepler mission. We vary the initial disc mass, solids-to-gas ratio and the sizes of the boulders/planetesimals, and for a restricted volume of the parameter space we find that compact systems containing terrestrial planets, super-Earths and Neptune-like bodies arise as natural outcomes of the simulations. Disc models with low values of the solids-to-gas ratio can only form short-period super-Earths and Neptunes when small planetesimals/boulders provide the main source of accretion, since ...

  7. On the formation of compact planetary systems via concurrent core accretion and migration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coleman, Gavin A. L.; Nelson, Richard P.

    2016-04-01

    We present the results of planet formation N-body simulations based on a comprehensive physical model that includes planetary mass growth through mutual embryo collisions and planetesimal/boulder accretion, viscous disc evolution, planetary migration and gas accretion on to planetary cores. The main aim of this study is to determine which set of model parameters leads to the formation of planetary systems that are similar to the compact low-mass multiplanet systems that have been discovered by radial velocity surveys and the Kepler mission. We vary the initial disc mass, solids-to-gas ratio and the sizes of the boulders/planetesimals, and for a restricted volume of the parameter space we find that compact systems containing terrestrial planets, super-Earths and Neptune-like bodies arise as natural outcomes of the simulations. Disc models with low values of the solids-to-gas ratio can only form short-period super-Earths and Neptunes when small planetesimals/boulders provide the main source of accretion, since the mobility of these bodies is required to overcome the local isolation masses for growing embryos. The existence of short-period super-Earths around low-metallicity stars provides strong evidence that small, mobile bodies (planetesimals, boulders or pebbles) played a central role in the formation of the observed planets.

  8. Ringed accretion disks: instabilities

    CERN Document Server

    Pugliese, D

    2016-01-01

    We analyze the possibility that several instability points may be formed, due to the Paczy\\'nski mechanism of violation of mechanical equilibrium, in the orbiting matter around a supermassive Kerr black hole. We consider recently proposed model of ringed accretion disk, made up by several tori (rings) which can be corotating or counterrotating relative to the Kerr attractor due to the history of the accretion process. Each torus is governed by the general relativistic hydrodynamic Boyer condition of equilibrium configurations of rotating perfect fluids. We prove that the number of the instability points is generally limited and depends on the dimensionless spin of the rotating attractor.

  9. Accretion-induced variability links young stellar objects, white dwarfs, and black holes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scaringi, Simone; Maccarone, Thomas J; Körding, Elmar; Knigge, Christian; Vaughan, Simon; Marsh, Thomas R; Aranzana, Ester; Dhillon, Vikram S; Barros, Susana C C

    2015-10-01

    The central engines of disc-accreting stellar-mass black holes appear to be scaled down versions of the supermassive black holes that power active galactic nuclei. However, if the physics of accretion is universal, it should also be possible to extend this scaling to other types of accreting systems, irrespective of accretor mass, size, or type. We examine new observations, obtained with Kepler/K2 and ULTRACAM, regarding accreting white dwarfs and young stellar objects. Every object in the sample displays the same linear correlation between the brightness of the source and its amplitude of variability (rms-flux relation) and obeys the same quantitative scaling relation as stellar-mass black holes and active galactic nuclei. We also show that the most important parameter in this scaling relation is the physical size of the accreting object. This establishes the universality of accretion physics from proto-stars still in the star-forming process to the supermassive black holes at the centers of galaxies. PMID:26601307

  10. Hyper-Eddington mass accretion onto a black hole with super-Eddington luminosity

    CERN Document Server

    Sakurai, Yuya; Haiman, Zoltán

    2016-01-01

    We perform one-dimensional radiation hydrodynamical simulations to solve spherically symmetric accretion flows onto massive black holes (BHs) with a very high rate. Assuming that photon trapping limits the luminosity emerging from the central region to $L\\lesssim L_{\\rm Edd}$, IHO16 have shown that a sufficiently rapid accretion flow settles to a "hyper-Eddington" solution, with a steady and isothermal ($T\\simeq 8000$ K) Bondi profile reaching $\\gtrsim 5000$ times the Eddington accretion rate $\\dot{M}_{\\rm Edd}\\equiv L_{\\rm Edd}/c^2$. Here we address the possibility that gas accreting with finite angular momentum forms a bright nuclear accretion disc, with a luminosity exceeding the Eddington limit ($1\\lesssim L/L_{\\rm Edd} \\lesssim 100$). Combining our simulations with an analytic model, we find that a transition to steady hyper-Eddington accretion still occurs, as long as the luminosity of the central source remains below $L/L_{\\rm Edd} \\lesssim 35~(M_{\\rm BH}/10^4~M_\\odot)^{3/2} (n_\\infty/10^5~{\\rm cm^{-3}...

  11. Accretion-induced variability links young stellar objects, white dwarfs, and black holes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scaringi, Simone; Maccarone, Thomas J; Körding, Elmar; Knigge, Christian; Vaughan, Simon; Marsh, Thomas R; Aranzana, Ester; Dhillon, Vikram S; Barros, Susana C C

    2015-10-01

    The central engines of disc-accreting stellar-mass black holes appear to be scaled down versions of the supermassive black holes that power active galactic nuclei. However, if the physics of accretion is universal, it should also be possible to extend this scaling to other types of accreting systems, irrespective of accretor mass, size, or type. We examine new observations, obtained with Kepler/K2 and ULTRACAM, regarding accreting white dwarfs and young stellar objects. Every object in the sample displays the same linear correlation between the brightness of the source and its amplitude of variability (rms-flux relation) and obeys the same quantitative scaling relation as stellar-mass black holes and active galactic nuclei. We also show that the most important parameter in this scaling relation is the physical size of the accreting object. This establishes the universality of accretion physics from proto-stars still in the star-forming process to the supermassive black holes at the centers of galaxies.

  12. Hot accretion flow with radiative cooling: state transitions in black hole X-ray binaries

    CERN Document Server

    Wu, Mao-Chun; Yuan, Ye-Fei; Gan, Zhao-Ming

    2016-01-01

    We investigate state transitions in black hole X-ray binaries through different parameters by using two-dimensional axisymmetric hydrodynamical simulation method. For radiative cooling in hot accretion flow, we take into account the bremsstrahlung, synchrotron and synchrotron-self Comptonization self-consistently in the dynamics. Our main result is that the state transitions occur when the accretion rate reaches a critical value $\\dot M \\sim 3\\alpha\\ \\dot M_{\\rm Edd}$, above which cold and dense clumpy/filamentary structures are formed, embedded within the hot gas. We argued this mode likely corresponds to the proposed two-phase accretion model, which may be responsible for the intermediate state of black hole X-ray binaries. When the accretion rate becomes sufficiently high, the clumpy/filamentary structures gradually merge and settle down onto the mid-plane. Eventually the accretion geometry transforms to a disc-corona configuration. In summary our results are consistent with the truncated accretion scenari...

  13. Hot accretion flow with radiative cooling: state transitions in black hole X-ray binaries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Mao-Chun; Xie, Fu-Guo; Yuan, Ye-Fei; Gan, Zhaoming

    2016-06-01

    We investigate state transitions in black hole X-ray binaries through different parameters by using two-dimensional axisymmetric hydrodynamical simulation method. For radiative cooling in hot accretion flow, we take into account the bremsstrahlung, synchrotron and synchrotron self-Comptonization self-consistently in the dynamics. Our main result is that the state transitions occur when the accretion rate reaches a critical value dot{M} ˜ 3α dot{M}_Edd, above which cold and dense clumpy/filamentary structures are formed, embedded within the hot gas. We argued this mode likely corresponds to the proposed two-phase accretion model, which may be responsible for the intermediate state of black hole X-ray binaries. When the accretion rate becomes sufficiently high, the clumpy/filamentary structures gradually merge and settle down on to the mid-plane. Eventually the accretion geometry transforms to a disc-corona configuration. In summary, our results are consistent with the truncated accretion scenario for the state transition.

  14. Dark Matter Disc Enhanced Neutrino Fluxes from the Sun and Earth

    CERN Document Server

    Bruch, Tobias; Read, Justin; Baudis, Laura; Lake, George

    2009-01-01

    As disc galaxies form in a hierarchical cosmology, massive merging satellites are preferentially dragged towards the disc plane. The material accreted from these satellites forms a dark matter disc that contributes 0.25 - 1.5 times the non-rotating halo density at the solar position. Here, we show the importance of the dark disc for indirect dark matter detection in neutrino telescopes. Previous predictions of the neutrino flux from WIMP annihilation in the Earth and the Sun have assumed that Galactic dark matter is spherically distributed with a Gaussian velocity distribution, the standard halo model. Although the dark disc has a local density comparable to the dark halo, its higher phase space density at low velocities greatly enhances capture rates in the Sun and Earth. For typical dark disc properties, the resulting muon flux from the Earth is increased by three orders of magnitude over the SHM, while for the Sun the increase is an order of magnitude. This significantly increases the sensitivity of neutri...

  15. The young nuclear stellar disc in the SB0 galaxy NGC 1023

    CERN Document Server

    Corsini, E M; Pastorello, N; Bontà, E Dalla; Pizzella, A; Portaluri, E

    2015-01-01

    Small kinematically-decoupled stellar discs with scalelengths of a few tens of parsec are known to reside in the centre of galaxies. Different mechanisms have been proposed to explain how they form, including gas dissipation and merging of globular clusters. Using archival Hubble Space Telescope imaging and ground-based integral-field spectroscopy, we investigated the structure and stellar populations of the nuclear stellar disc hosted in the interacting SB0 galaxy NGC 1023. The stars of the nuclear disc are remarkably younger and more metal rich with respect to the host bulge. These findings support a scenario in which the nuclear disc is the end result of star formation in metal enriched gas piled up in the galaxy centre. The gas can be of either internal or external origin, i.e. from either the main disc of NGC 1023 or the nearby satellite galaxy NGC 1023A. The dissipationless formation of the nuclear disc from already formed stars, through the migration and accretion of star clusters into the galactic cen...

  16. Appearance of Keplerian discs orbiting Kerr superspinars

    CERN Document Server

    Stuchlik, Zdenek; 10.1088/0264-9381/27/21/215017

    2011-01-01

    We study optical phenomena related to appearance of Keplerian accretion discs orbiting Kerr superspinars predicted by the string theory. The superspinar exterior is described by the standard Kerr naked singularity geometry breaking the black hole limit on the internal angular momentum (spin). We construct local photon escape cones for a variety of orbiting sources that enable to determine the superspinars silhouette in the case of distant observers. We show that the superspinar silhouette depends strongly on the assumed edge where the external Kerr spacetime is joined to the internal spacetime governed by the string theory and significantly differs from the black hole silhouette. The appearance of the accretion disc is strongly dependent on the value of the superspinar spin in both their shape and frequency shift profile. Apparent extension of the disc grows significantly with growing spin, while the frequency shift grows with descending spin. This behavior differs substantially from appearance of discs orbit...

  17. METAL-POOR, COOL GAS IN THE CIRCUMGALACTIC MEDIUM OF A z = 2.4 STAR-FORMING GALAXY: DIRECT EVIDENCE FOR COLD ACCRETION?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Crighton, Neil H. M.; Hennawi, Joseph F. [Max-Planck-Institut für Astronomie, Königstuhl 17, Heidelberg D-69117 (Germany); Prochaska, J. Xavier, E-mail: neilcrighton@gmail.com [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, UCO/Lick Observatory, University of California, 1156 High Street, Santa Cruz, CA 95064 (United States)

    2013-10-20

    In our current galaxy formation paradigm, high-redshift galaxies are predominantly fueled by accretion of cool, metal-poor gas from the intergalactic medium. Hydrodynamical simulations predict that this material should be observable in absorption against background sightlines within a galaxy's virial radius, as optically thick Lyman limit systems (LLSs) with low metallicities. Here we report the discovery of exactly such a strong metal-poor absorber at an impact parameter R = 58 kpc from a star-forming galaxy at z = 2.44. Besides strong neutral hydrogen (N{sub H{sup 0}}=10{sup 19.50±0.16} cm{sup -2}) we detect neutral deuterium and oxygen, allowing a precise measurement of the metallicity: log{sub 10}(Z/Z {sub ☉}) = –2.0 ± 0.17, or (7-15) × 10{sup –3} solar. Furthermore, the narrow deuterium linewidth requires a cool temperature <20,000 K. Given the striking similarities between this system and the predictions of simulations, we argue that it represents the direct detection of a high-redshift cold-accretion stream. The low-metallicity gas cloud is a single component of an absorption system exhibiting a complex velocity, ionization, and enrichment structure. Two other components have metallicities >0.1 solar, 10 times larger than the metal-poor component. We conclude that the photoionized circumgalactic medium (CGM) of this galaxy is highly inhomogeneous: the majority of the gas is in a cool, metal-poor and predominantly neutral phase, but the majority of the metals are in a highly ionized phase exhibiting weak neutral hydrogen absorption but strong metal absorption. If such inhomogeneity is common, then high-resolution spectra and detailed ionization modeling are critical to accurately appraise the distribution of metals in the high-redshift CGM.

  18. Hyper-Eddington mass accretion on to a black hole with super-Eddington luminosity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakurai, Yuya; Inayoshi, Kohei; Haiman, Zoltán

    2016-10-01

    We perform 1D radiation hydrodynamical simulations to solve accretion flows on to massive black holes (BHs) with a very high rate. Assuming that photon trapping limits the luminosity emerging from the central region to L ≲ LEdd, Inayoshi, Haiman & Ostriker (2016) have shown that an accretion flow settles to a `hyper-Eddington solution, with a steady and isothermal (T ≃ 8000 K) Bondi profile reaching ≳ 5000 times the Eddington accretion rate dot{M}_Eddequiv L_Edd/c^2. Here, we address the possibility that gas accreting with finite angular momentum forms a bright nuclear accretion disc, with a luminosity exceeding the Eddington limit (1 ≲ L/LEdd ≲ 100). Combining our simulations with an analytic model, we find that a transition to steady hyper-Eddington accretion still occurs, as long as the luminosity remains below L/LEdd ≲ 35 (MBH/104 M⊙)3/2(n∞/105 cm-3)(T∞/104 K)-3/2(r⋆/1014 cm)-1/2, where n∞ and T∞ are the density and temperature of the ambient gas, and r⋆ is the radius of the photosphere, at which radiation emerges. If the luminosity exceeds this value, accretion becomes episodic. Our results can be accurately recovered in a toy model of an optically thick spherical shell, driven by radiation force into a collapsing medium. When the central source is dimmer than the above critical value, the expansion of the shell is halted and reversed by ram pressure of the collapsing medium, and by shell's weight. Our results imply that rapid, unimpeded hyper-Eddington accretion is possible even if the luminosity of the central source far exceeds the Eddington limit, and can be either steady or strongly episodic.

  19. Metal-Poor, Cool Gas in the Circumgalactic Medium of a z = 2.4 Star-Forming Galaxy: Direct Evidence for Cold Accretion?

    CERN Document Server

    Crighton, Neil H M; Prochaska, J Xavier

    2013-01-01

    In our current galaxy formation paradigm, high-redshift galaxies are predominantly fuelled by accretion of cool, metal-poor gas from the intergalactic medium. Hydrodynamical simulations predict that this material should be observable in absorption against background sightlines within a galaxy's virial radius, as optically thick Lyman-limit systems (LLSs) with low metallicities. Here we report the discovery of exactly such a strong metal-poor absorber at an impact parameter R_perp = 58 kpc from a star-forming galaxy at z = 2.44. Besides strong neutral hydrogen [N(HI) = 10^(19.50 +/- 0.16) cm^-2] we detect neutral deuterium and oxygen, allowing a precise measurement of the metallicity: log10(Z / Zsolar) = -2.0 +/- 0.17, or (7-15) x 10^-3 solar. Furthermore, the narrow deuterium linewidth requires a cool temperature 0.1 solar, ten times larger than the metal-poor component. We conclude that the photoionized circumgalactic medium (CGM) of this galaxy is highly inhomogeneous: the majority of the gas is in a cool,...

  20. Metal-poor, Cool Gas in the Circumgalactic Medium of a z = 2.4 Star-forming Galaxy: Direct Evidence for Cold Accretion?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crighton, Neil H. M.; Hennawi, Joseph F.; Prochaska, J. Xavier

    2013-10-01

    In our current galaxy formation paradigm, high-redshift galaxies are predominantly fueled by accretion of cool, metal-poor gas from the intergalactic medium. Hydrodynamical simulations predict that this material should be observable in absorption against background sightlines within a galaxy's virial radius, as optically thick Lyman limit systems (LLSs) with low metallicities. Here we report the discovery of exactly such a strong metal-poor absorber at an impact parameter R = 58 kpc from a star-forming galaxy at z = 2.44. Besides strong neutral hydrogen (N_{{H}^0}=10^{19.50+/- 0.16}\\, cm^{-2}) we detect neutral deuterium and oxygen, allowing a precise measurement of the metallicity: log10(Z/Z ⊙) = -2.0 ± 0.17, or (7-15) × 10-3 solar. Furthermore, the narrow deuterium linewidth requires a cool temperature 0.1 solar, 10 times larger than the metal-poor component. We conclude that the photoionized circumgalactic medium (CGM) of this galaxy is highly inhomogeneous: the majority of the gas is in a cool, metal-poor and predominantly neutral phase, but the majority of the metals are in a highly ionized phase exhibiting weak neutral hydrogen absorption but strong metal absorption. If such inhomogeneity is common, then high-resolution spectra and detailed ionization modeling are critical to accurately appraise the distribution of metals in the high-redshift CGM. .

  1. On the accretion process in a high-mass star forming region - A multitransitional THz Herschel-HIFI study of ammonia toward G34.26+0.15

    CERN Document Server

    Hajigholi, M; Wirström, E S; Black, J H; Bergman, P; Olofsson, A O H; Olberg, M; Wyrowski, F; Coutens, A; Hjalmarson, Å; Menten, K M

    2016-01-01

    [Abridged] Our aim is to explore the gas dynamics and the accretion process in the early phase of high-mass star formation. The inward motion of molecular gas in the massive star forming region G34.26+0.15 is investigated by using high-resolution profiles of seven transitions of ammonia at THz frequencies observed with Herschel-HIFI. The shapes and intensities of these lines are interpreted in terms of radiative transfer models of a spherical, collapsing molecular envelope. An accelerated Lambda Iteration (ALI) method is used to compute the models. The seven ammonia lines show mixed absorption and emission with inverse P-Cygni-type profiles that suggest infall onto the central source. A trend toward absorption at increasingly higher velocities for higher excitation transitions is clearly seen in the line profiles. The $J = 3\\leftarrow2$ lines show only very weak emission, so these absorption profiles can be used directly to analyze the inward motion of the gas. This is the first time a multitransitional study...

  2. Snow accretion on overhead wires

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sakamoto, Y. [Meteorological Research Inst. for Technology Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan); Tachizaki, S.; Sudo, N. [Tohoku Electric Power Co. Ltd., Miyagi (Japan)

    2005-07-01

    Wet snow accretion can cause extensive damage to transmission systems. This paper reviewed some of the difficulties faced by researchers in the study of wet snow accretion on overhead lines in Japan. The study of snow accretion phenomena is complicated by the range of phase changes in water. Snowflakes produced in an upper atmospheric layer with a temperature below freezing do not melt when they go through a lower atmospheric layer with a temperature above freezing, but are in a mixed state of solid and liquid due to the latent heat of melting. The complicated properties of water make studies of snow accretion difficult, as well as the fact that snow changes its physical properties rapidly, due to the effects of ambient temperature, rainfall, and solar radiation. The adhesive forces that cause snow accretion include freezing; bonding through freezing; sintering; condensation and freezing of vapor in the air; mechanical intertwining of snowflakes; capillary action due to liquids; coherent forces between ice particles and water formed through the metamorphosis of snowflakes. In addition to these complexities, differences in laboratory room environments and natural snow environments can also pose difficulties for researchers. Equations describing the relationship between the density of accreted snow and the meteorological parameters involved were presented, as well as empirical equations which suggested that snow accretion efficiency has a dependency on air temperature. An empirical model for estimating snow loads in Japan was outlined, as well as various experiments observing show shedding. Correlations for wet snow accretion included precipitation intensity; duration of precipitation; air temperature; wind speed and wind direction in relation to the overhead line. Issues concerning topography and wet snow accretion were reviewed. It was concluded that studies of snow accretion will benefit by the collection of data in each matrix of the relevant parameters. 12 refs

  3. Galactic Centre stellar winds and Sgr A* accretion

    CERN Document Server

    Cuadra, J; Springel, V; Matteo, T D

    2006-01-01

    (ABRIDGED) We present in detail our new 3D numerical models for the accretion of stellar winds on to Sgr A*. In our most sophisticated models, we put stars on realistic orbits around Sgr A*, include `slow' winds (300 km/s), and account for radiative cooling. We first model only one phase `fast' stellar winds (1000 km/s). For wind sources fixed in space, the accretion rate is Mdot ~ 1e-5 Msun/yr, fluctuates by < 10%, and is in a good agreement with previous models. In contrast, Mdot decreases by an order of magnitude for stars following circular orbits, and fluctuates by ~ 50%. Then we allow a fraction of stars to produce slow winds. Much of these winds cool radiatively, forming cold clumps immersed into the X-ray emitting gas. We test two orbital configurations for the stars in this scenario, an isotropic distribution and two rotating discs with perpendicular orientation. The morphology of cold gas is quite sensitive to the orbits. In both cases, however, most of the accreted gas is hot, with an almost con...

  4. Dynamics of accretion disks in a constant curvature f(R)-gravity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alipour, N.; Khesali, A. R.; Nozari, K.

    2016-07-01

    So far the basic physical properties of matter forming a thin accretion disc in the static and spherically symmetric space-time metric of the vacuum f(R) modified gravity models (Pun et al. in Phys. Rev. D 78:024043, 2008) and building radiative models of thin accretion disks for both Schwarzschild and Kerr black holes in f(R) gravity (Perez et al. in Astron. Astrophys. 551:4, 2013) were addressed properly. Also von Zeipel surfaces and convective instabilities in f(R)-Schwarzschild(Kerr) background have been investigated recently (Alipour et al. in Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 454:1992, 2015). In this streamline, here we study the effects of radial and angular pressure gradients on thick accretion disks in Schwarzschild geometries in a constant curvature f(R) modified gravity. Since thick accretion disks have high accretion rate, we study configuration and structure of thick disks by focusing on the effect of pressure gradient on formation of the disks. We clarify our study by assuming two types of equation of state: polytropic and Clapeyron equation of states.

  5. Spectral variability of classical T Tauri stars accreting in an unstable regime

    CERN Document Server

    Kurosawa, Ryuichi

    2013-01-01

    Classical T Tauri stars (CTTSs) are variable in different time-scales. One type of variability is possibly connected with the accretion of matter through the Rayleigh-Taylor instability that occurs at the interface between an accretion disc and a stellar magnetosphere. In this regime, matter accretes in a several temporarily formed accretion streams or `tongues' which appear in random locations, and produce stochastic photometric and line variability. We use the results of global three-dimensional magnetohydrodynamic simulations of matter flows in both stable and unstable accretion regimes to calculate time-dependent hydrogen line profiles and study their variability behaviours. In the stable regime, some hydrogen lines (e.g. H-beta, H-gamma, H-delta, Pa-beta and Br-gamma) show a redshifted absorption component only during a fraction of a stellar rotation period, and its occurrence is periodic. However, in the unstable regime, the redshifted absorption component is present rather persistently during a whole s...

  6. The growth of discs and bulges during hierarchical galaxy formation - I. Fast evolution versus secular processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tonini, C.; Mutch, S. J.; Croton, D. J.; Wyithe, J. S. B.

    2016-07-01

    We present a theoretical model for the evolution of mass, angular momentum and size of galaxy discs and bulges, and we implement it into the semi-analytic galaxy formation code, Semi-Analytic Galaxy Evolution. The model follows both secular and violent evolutionary channels, including smooth accretion, disc instabilities, minor and major mergers. We find that the combination of our recipe with hierarchical clustering produces two distinct populations of bulges: merger-driven bulges, akin to classical bulges and ellipticals, and instability-driven bulges, akin to secular (or pseudo-)bulges. The model mostly reproduces the mass-size relation of gaseous and stellar discs, the evolution of the mass-size relation of ellipticals, the Faber-Jackson relation, and the magnitude-colour diagram of classical and secular bulges. The model predicts only a small overlap of merger-driven and instability-driven components in the same galaxy, and predicts different bulge types as a function of galaxy mass and disc fraction. Bulge type also affects the star formation rate and colour at a given luminosity. The model predicts a population of merger-driven red ellipticals that dominate both the low-mass and high-mass ends of the galaxy population, and span all dynamical ages; merger-driven bulges in disc galaxies are dynamically old and do not interfere with subsequent evolution of the star-forming component. Instability-driven bulges dominate the population at intermediate galaxy masses, especially thriving in massive discs. The model green valley is exclusively populated by instability-driven bulge hosts. Through the present implementation, the mass accretion history is perceivable in the galaxy structure, morphology and colours.

  7. Wind accretion: Theory and Observations

    CERN Document Server

    Shakura, N I; Kochetkova, A Yu; Hjalmarsdotter, L; Sidoli, L; Paizis, A

    2014-01-01

    A review of wind accretion in HMXB is presented. We focus on different regimes of quasi-spherical accretion onto a NS: supersonic (Bondi) accretion, which takes place when the captured matter cools down rapidly and falls supersonically towards the NS magnetosphere, and subsonic (settling) accretion which occurs when the plasma remains hot until it meets the magnetospheric boundary. The two regimes are separated by a limit in X-ray luminosity at about 4 10^{36} erg/s. In subsonic accretion, which works a hot quasi-spherical shell must form around the magnetosphere, and the actual accretion rate onto the NS is determined by the ability of the plasma to enter the magnetosphere due to the Rayleigh-Taylor instability. Two regimes of subsonic accretion are possible, depending on the plasma cooling mechanism (Compton or radiative) near the magnetopshere. The transition from the high-luminosity regime with Compton cooling to the low-luminosity (L_x < 3\\times 10^35 erg/s) regime with radiative cooling can be respon...

  8. Understanding X-ray reflection as a probe of accreting black holes

    OpenAIRE

    Wilkins, Daniel Richard

    2013-01-01

    The reflection of the X-rays emitted from a corona of energetic particles surrounding an accreting black hole from the accretion disc is investigated in the context of probing the structure of the central regions as well as the physical processes that power some of the brightest objects seen in the Universe. A method is devised to measure the emissivity profile of the accretion disc, that is the reflected flux as a function of radius in the disc. This method exploits the variation in the D...

  9. AGN fuelling: Bridging Large and Small Scales - Overlapping Inflows as Catalysts of Accretion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manuel Carmona Loaiza, Juan Manuel

    2015-05-01

    One of the biggest challenges in understanding the fuelling of supermassive black holes in active galactic nuclei (AGN) is not on accounting for the source of fuel, as a galaxy can comfortably supply the required mass budget, but on its actual delivery. While a clear picture has been developed for the large scale (~ kpc) down to the intermediate one (~ 100 pc), and for the smallest scales (~ 0.1 pc) where an accretion disc likely forms, a bridge that has proven difficult to build is that between ~ 100 pc and ~ 0.1 pc. It is feared that gas at these scales might still retain enough angular momentum and settle into a larger scale disc with very low or no inflow to form or replenish the inner accretion disc (on ~ 0.01 pc scales). In this Thesis, I present numerical simulations in which a rotating gaseous shell flows towards a SMBH because of its lack of rotational support. As inflow proceeds, gas from the shell impacts an already present nuclear (~ 10pc) disc. The cancellation of angular momentum and redistribution of gas, due to the misalignment between the angular momentum of the shell and that of the disc, is studied in this scenario. The underlying hypothesis is that even if transport of angular momentum at these scales may be inefficient, the interaction of an inflow with a nuclear disc would still provide a mechanism to bring mass inwards because of the cancellation of angular momentum. I quantify the amount of gas such a cancellation would bring to the central parsec under different circumstances: Co- and counter-rotation between the disc and the shell and the presence or absence of an initial turbulent kick; I also discuss the impact of self gravity in our simulations. The scenario we study is highly idealized and designed to capture the specific outcomes produced by the mechanism proposed. I find that angular momentum cancellation and redistribution via hydrodynamical shocks leads to sub-pc inflows enhanced by more than 2-3 orders of magnitude. In all of our

  10. Wind accretion: Theory and observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shakura, N. I.; Postnov, K. A.; Kochetkova, A. Yu.; Hjalmarsdotter, L.; Sidoli, L.; Paizis, A.

    2015-07-01

    A review of wind accretion in high-mass X-ray binaries is presented. We focus on different regimes of quasi-spherical accretion onto the neutron star (NS): the supersonic (Bondi) accretion, which takes place when the captured matter cools down rapidly and falls supersonically towards the NS magnetosphere, and subsonic (settling) accretion which occurs when plasma remains hot until it meets the magnetospheric boundary. These two regimes of accretion are separated by an X-ray luminosity of about 4 × 1036 erg s-1. In the subsonic case, which sets in at lower luminosities, a hot quasi-spherical shell must form around the magnetosphere, and the actual accretion rate onto NS is determined by the ability of the plasma to enter the magnetosphere due to Rayleigh-Taylor instability. In turn, two regimes of subsonic accretion are possible, depending on plasma cooling mechanism (Compton or radiative) near the magnetopshere. The transition from the high-luminosity with Compton cooling to the lowluminosity (Lx ≲ 3 × 1035 erg s-1) with radiative cooling can be responsible for the onset of the off states repeatedly observed in several low-luminosity slowly accreting pulsars, such as Vela X-1, GX 301-2, and 4U 1907+09. The triggering of the transitionmay be due to a switch in the X-ray beam pattern in response to a change in the optical depth in the accretion column with changing luminosity. We also show that in the settling accretion theory, bright X-ray flares (~1038-1040 erg) observed in supergiant fast X-ray transients (SFXT) can be produced by sporadic capture of magnetized stellar wind plasma. At sufficiently low accretion rates, magnetic reconnection can enhance the magnetospheric plasma entry rate, resulting in copious production of X-ray photons, strong Compton cooling and ultimately in unstable accretion of the entire shell. A bright flare develops on the free-fall time scale in the shell, and the typical energy released in an SFXT bright flare corresponds to the mass

  11. Intermediate mass black holes in AGN discs - I. Production and growth

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKernan, B.; Ford, K. E. S.; Lyra, W.; Perets, H. B.

    2012-09-01

    Here we propose a mechanism for efficiently growing intermediate mass black holes (IMBH) in discs around supermassive black holes. Stellar mass objects can efficiently agglomerate when facilitated by the gas disc. Stars, compact objects and binaries can migrate, accrete and merge within discs around supermassive black holes. While dynamical heating by cusp stars excites the velocity dispersion of nuclear cluster objects (NCOs) in the disc, gas in the disc damps NCO orbits. If gas damping dominates, NCOs remain in the disc with circularized orbits and large collision cross-sections. IMBH seeds can grow extremely rapidly by collisions with disc NCOs at low relative velocities, allowing for super-Eddington growth rates. Once an IMBH seed has cleared out its feeding zone of disc NCOs, growth of IMBH seeds can become dominated by gas accretion from the active galactic nucleus (AGN) disc. However, the IMBH can migrate in the disc and expand its feeding zone, permitting a super-Eddington accretion rate to continue. Growth of IMBH seeds via NCO collisions is enhanced by a pile-up of migrators. We highlight the remarkable parallel between the growth of IMBH in AGN discs with models of giant planet growth in protoplanetary discs. If an IMBH becomes massive enough it can open a gap in the AGN disc. IMBH migration in AGN discs may stall, allowing them to survive the end of the AGN phase and remain in galactic nuclei. Our proposed mechanisms should be more efficient at growing IMBH in AGN discs than the standard model of IMBH growth in stellar clusters. Dynamical heating of disc NCOs by cusp stars is transferred to the gas in an AGN disc helping to maintain the outer disc against gravitational instability. Model predictions, observational constraints and implications are discussed in a companion paper (Paper II).

  12. Theory of wind accretion

    OpenAIRE

    Shakura N.I.; Postnov K.A.; Kochetkova A.Yu.; Hjalmarsdotter L.

    2013-01-01

    A review of wind accretion in high-mass X-ray binaries is presented. We focus attention to different regimes of quasi-spherical accretion onto the neutron star: the supersonic (Bondi) accretion, which takes place when the captured matter cools down rapidly and falls supersonically toward NS magnetospghere, and subsonic (settling) accretion which occurs when plasma remains hot until it meets the magnetospheric boundary. Two regimes of accretion are separated by an X-ray luminosity of about $4\\...

  13. Numerical models of rotating accretion flows around black holes

    CERN Document Server

    Igumenshchev, I V

    1999-01-01

    Numerical, two-dimensional, time-dependent hydrodynamical models of geometrically thick accretion discs around black holes are presented. Accretion flows with non-effective radiation cooling (ADAFs) can be both convectively stable or unstable depending on the value of the viscosity parameter \\alpha. The high viscosity flows (\\alpha~1) are stable and have a strong equatorial inflow and bipolar outflows. The low viscosity flows (\\alpha<0.1) are convectively unstable and this induces quasi-periodic variability.

  14. The accretion flow to the intermittent accreting ms pulsar, HETE J1900.1-2455, as observed by XMM-Newton and RXTE

    OpenAIRE

    Papitto, A.; D'Aì, A.; T. Di Salvo; Egron, E.; Bozzo, E.; Burderi, L.; Iaria, R.; Riggio, A.; Menna, M. T.

    2012-01-01

    We present a study of the accretion flow to the intermittent accreting millisecond pulsar, HETE J1900.1-2455, based on observations performed simultaneously by XMM-Newton and RXTE. The 0.33-50 keV spectrum is described by the sum of a hard Comptonized component originated in an optically thin {\\tau}~1 corona, a soft kTin~0.2 keV component interpreted as accretion disc emission, and of disc reflection of the hard component. Two emission features are detected at energies of 0.98(1) and 6.58(7) ...

  15. Star-disc interactions in a galactic centre and oblateness of the inner stellar cluster

    CERN Document Server

    Subr, L; Huré, J M

    2004-01-01

    Structure of a quasi-stationary stellar cluster is modelled assuming that it is embedded in the gravitational field of a super-massive black hole. Gradual orbital decay of stellar trajectories is caused by the dissipative interaction with an accretion disc. Gravitational field of the disc is constructed and its effect on the cluster structure is taken into account as an axially symmetric perturbation. Attention is focused on a circumnuclear region (r<10^4 gravitational radii) where the effects of the central black hole and the disc dominate over the influence of an outer galaxy. It is shown how the stellar system becomes gradually flattened towards the disc plane. For certain combinations of the model parameters, a toroidal structure is formed by a fraction of stars. Growing anisotropy of stellar velocities as well as their segregation occur. The mass function of the inner cluster is modified and it progressively departs from the asymptotic form assumed in the outer cluster. A new stationary distribution c...

  16. Connection between accretion disk and superluminal radio jets and the role of radio plateau state in GRS 1915+105

    CERN Document Server

    Yadav, J S

    2006-01-01

    We investigate the association between the accretion disk during radio plateau state and the following superluminal relativistic radio jets with peak intensity varies from 200 mJy to 1000 mJy observed over a period of five years and present the evidences of direct accretion disc-jet connection in microquasar GRS 1915+105. We have analysed RXTE PCA/HEXTE X-ray data and have found that the accretion rate, $\\dot{m}_{accr}$, as inferred from the X-ray flux, is very high during the radio plateaux. We suggest that the accretion disk during the radio plateaux always associated with radiation-driven wind which is manifested in the form of enhanced absorption column density for X-ray and the depleted IR emission. We find that the wind density increases with the accretion disk luminosity during the radio plateaux. The wind density is similar to the density of the warm absorber proposed in extragalactic AGNs and Quasars. We suggest a simple model for the origin of superluminal relativistic jets. Finally, We discuss the ...

  17. Herniated lumbar disc

    OpenAIRE

    Jordon, Jo; Konstantinou, Kika; O'Dowd, John

    2011-01-01

    Herniated lumbar disc is a displacement of disc material (nucleus pulposus or annulus fibrosis) beyond the intervertebral disc space. The highest prevalence is among people aged 30 to 50 years, with a male to female ratio of 2:1.

  18. Herniated Lumbar Disc

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herniated Lumbar Disc What is a herniated disc? Nonsurgical treatment Medication and pain management Surgery What can I expect after ... at and just below the waist. A herniated lumbar disc can press on the nerves in the spine ...

  19. Snow-lines as probes of turbulent diffusion in protoplanetary discs

    CERN Document Server

    Owen, James E

    2014-01-01

    Sharp chemical discontinuities can occur in protoplanetary discs, particularly at `snow-lines' where a gas-phase species freezes out to form ice grains. Such sharp discontinuities will diffuse out due to the turbulence suspected to drive angular momentum transport in accretion discs. We demonstrate that the concentration gradient - in the vicinity of the snow-line - of a species present outside a snow-line but destroyed inside is strongly sensitive to the level of turbulent diffusion (provided the chemical and transport time-scales are decoupled) and provides a direct measurement of the radial `Schmidt number' (the ratio of the angular momentum transport to radial turbulent diffusion). Taking as an example the tracer species N$_2$H$^+$, which is expected to be destroyed inside the CO snow-line (as recently observed in TW Hya) we show that ALMA observations possess significant angular resolution to constrain the Schmidt number. Since different turbulent driving mechanisms predict different Schmidt numbers, a d...

  20. MHD Simulations of Magnetized Stars in the Propeller Regime of Accretion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lii Patrick

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Accreting magnetized stars may be in the propeller regime of disc accretion in which the angular velocity of the stellar magnetosphere exceeds that of the inner disc. In these systems, the stellar magnetosphere acts as a centrifugal barrier and inhibits matter accretion onto the rapidly rotating star. Instead, the matter accreting through the disc accumulates at the disc-magnetosphere interface where it picks up angular momentum and is ejected from the system as a wide-angled outflow which gradually collimates at larger distances from the star. If the ejection rate is lower than the accretion rate, the matter will accumulate at the boundary faster than it can be ejected; in this case, accretion onto the star proceeds through an episodic accretion instability in which the episodes of matter accumulation are followed by a brief episode of simultaneous ejection and accretion of matter onto the star. In addition to the matter dominated wind component, the propeller outflow also exhibits a well-collimated, magnetically-dominated Poynting jet which transports energy and angular momentum away from the star. The propeller mechanism may explain some of the weakly-collimated jets and winds observed around some T Tauri stars as well as the episodic variability present in their light curves. It may also explain some of the quasi-periodic variability observed in cataclysmic variables, millisecond pulsars and other magnetized stars.

  1. Accretion, winds and outflows in young stars

    CERN Document Server

    Günther, Hans Moritz

    2012-01-01

    Young stars and planetary systems form in molecular clouds. For classical T Tauri stars (CTTS, F-K type precursors) the accretion disk does not reach down to the central star, but it is truncated near the co-rotation radius. The inner edge of the disk is ionized by the stellar radiation, so that the accretion stream is funneled along the magnetic field lines. On the stellar surface an accretion shock develops, which is observed over a wide wavelength range as X-ray emission, UV excess, optical veiling and optical and IR emission lines. Some of the accretion tracers, e.g. H\\alpha, can be calibrated to measure the accretion rate. This accretion process is variable on time scales of hours to years due to changing accretion rates, stellar rotation and reconfiguration of the magnetic field. Furthermore, many accreting systems also drive strong outflows which are ultimately powered by accretion. Several components could contribute to the outflows: slow, wide-angle disk winds, X-winds launched close to the inner dis...

  2. Origin of the X-ray disc-reflection steep radial emissivity

    OpenAIRE

    Svoboda, Jiří; Dovčiak, Michal; Goosmann, René W.; Jethwa, Prashin; Karas, Vladimír; Miniutti, Giovanni; Guainazzi, Matteo

    2012-01-01

    X-ray reflection off the accretion disc surrounding a black hole, together with the associated broad iron K$\\alpha$ line, has been widely used to constrain the innermost accretion-flow geometry and black hole spin. Some recent measurements have revealed steep reflection emissivity profiles in a number of active galactic nuclei and X-ray binaries. We explore the physically motivated conditions that give rise to the observed steep disc-reflection emissivity profiles. We perform a set of simulat...

  3. Debris disc formation induced by planetary growth

    OpenAIRE

    Kobayashi, Hiroshi; Loehne, Torsten

    2014-01-01

    Several hundred stars older than 10 million years have been observed to have infrared excesses. These observations are explained by dust grains formed by the collisional fragmentation of hidden planetesimals. Such dusty planetesimal discs are known as debris discs. In a dynamically cold planetesimal disc, collisional coagulation of planetesimals produces planetary embryos which then stir the surrounding leftover planetesimals. Thus, the collisional fragmentation of planetesimals that results ...

  4. Sizes of protoplanetary discs after star-disc encounters

    CERN Document Server

    Breslau, Andreas; Vincke, Kirsten; Pfalzner, Susanne

    2014-01-01

    Most stars do not form in isolation, but as part of a star cluster or association. These young stars are initially surrounded by protoplanetary discs. In these cluster environments tidal interactions with other cluster members can alter the disc properties. Besides the disc frequency, its mass, angular momentum, and energy, in particular the disc's size is prone to being changed by a passing star. So far the change in disc size was only investigated for a small number of very specific encounters. Several studies investigated the effect of the cluster environment on the sizes of planetary systems, like our own solar system, based on a generalisation of information from this limited sample. We performed numerical simulations covering the wide parameter space typical for young star clusters, to test the validity of this approach. Here the sizes of discs after encounters are presented, based on a size definition which is comparable to that one used in observational studies. We find that, except for encounters bet...

  5. The origin and evolution of transition discs: successes, problems and open questions

    CERN Document Server

    Owen, James E

    2015-01-01

    Transition discs are protoplanetary discs that show evidence for large holes or wide gaps (with widths comparable to their radii) in their dust component. These discs could be giving us clues about the disc destruction mechanism or hints about the location and time-scales for the formation of planets. However, at the moment there remain key gaps in our theoretical understanding. The vast majority of transition discs are accreting onto their central stars, indicating that - at least close to the star - dust has been depleted from the gas by a very large amount. In this review, we discuss evidence for two distinct populations of transition discs: mm-faint - those with low mm-fluxes, small holes ($\\lesssim$10AU) and low accretion rates (~1e-10-1e-9 Msun/yr) and mm-bright - discs with large mm-fluxes, large holes ($\\gtrsim$20 AU) and high accretion rates ~1e-8 Msun/yr. MM-faint transition discs are consistent with what would naively be expected from a disc undergoing dispersal; however, mm-bright discs are not, a...

  6. Phase partitioning and volatility of secondary organic aerosol components formed from α-pinene ozonolysis and OH oxidation: the importance of accretion products and other low volatility compounds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. D. Lopez-Hilfiker

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available We measured a large suite of gas and particle phase multi-functional organic compounds with a Filter Inlet for Gases and AEROsols (FIGAERO coupled to a high-resolution time-of-flight chemical ionization mass spectrometer (HR-ToF-CIMS developed at the University of Washington. The instrument was deployed on environmental simulation chambers to study monoterpene oxidation as a secondary organic aerosol (SOA source. We focus here on results from experiments utilizing an ionization method most selective towards acids (acetate negative ion proton transfer, but our conclusions are based on more general physical and chemical properties of the SOA. Hundreds of compounds were observed in both gas and particle phases, the latter being detected upon temperature programmed thermal desorption of collected particles. Particulate organic compounds detected by the FIGAERO HR-ToF-CIMS are highly correlated with, and explain at least 25–50% of, the organic aerosol mass measured by an Aerodyne Aerosol Mass Spectrometer (AMS. Reproducible multi-modal structures in the thermograms for individual compounds of a given elemental composition reveal a significant SOA mass contribution from large molecular weight organics and/or oligomers (i.e. multi-phase accretion reaction products. Approximately 50% of the HR-ToF-CIMS particle phase mass is associated with compounds having effective vapor pressures 4 or more orders of magnitude lower than commonly measured monoterpene oxidation products. The relative importance of these accretion-type and other extremely low volatility products appears to vary with photochemical conditions. We present a desorption temperature based framework for apportionment of thermogram signals into volatility bins. The volatility-based apportionment greatly improves agreement between measured and modeled gas–particle partitioning for select major and minor components of the SOA, consistent with thermal decomposition during desorption causing

  7. Stationary Axisymmetric Configuration of the Resistive Thick Accretion Tori around a Schwarzschild Black Hole

    CERN Document Server

    Shaghaghian, M

    2016-01-01

    We examine a thick accretion disc in the presence of external gravity and intrinsic dipolar magnetic field due to a non-rotating central object. In this paper, we generalize the Newtonian theory of stationary axisymmetric resistive tori of Tripathy, Prasanna $\\&$ Das (1990) by including the fully general relativistic features. If we are to obtain the steady state configuration, we have to take into account the finite resistivity for the magnetofluid in order to avoid the piling up of the field lines anywhere in the accretion discs. The efficient value of conductivity must be much smaller than the classical conductivity to be astrophysically interesting. The accreting plasma in the presence of an external dipole magnetic field gives rise to a current in the azimuthal direction. The azimuthal current produced due to the motion of the magnetofluid modifies the magnetic field structure inside the disc and generates a poloidal magnetic field for the disc. The solutions we have found show that the radial inflow...

  8. On the energy dissipation rate at the inner edge of circumbinary discs

    CERN Document Server

    Terquem, Caroline

    2016-01-01

    We study, by means of numerical simulations and analysis, the details of the accretion process from a disc onto a binary system. We show that energy is dissipated at the edge of a circumbinary disc and this is associated with the tidal torque that maintains the cavity: angular momentum is transferred from the binary to the disc through the action of compressional shocks and viscous friction. These shocks can be viewed as being produced by fluid elements which drift into the cavity and, before being accreted, are accelerated onto trajectories that send them back to impact the disc. The rate of energy dissipation is approximately equal to the product of potential energy per unit mass at the disc's inner edge and the accretion rate, estimated from the disc parameters just beyond the cavity edge, that would occur without the binary. For very thin discs, the actual accretion rate onto the binary may be significantly less. We calculate the energy emitted by a circumbinary disc taking into account energy dissipation...

  9. On the energy dissipation rate at the inner edge of circumbinary discs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terquem, Caroline; Papaloizou, John C. B.

    2016-10-01

    We study, by means of numerical simulations and analysis, the details of the accretion process from a disc onto a binary system. We show that energy is dissipated at the edge of a circumbinary disc and this is associated with the tidal torque that maintains the cavity: angular momentum is transferred from the binary to the disc through the action of compressional shocks and viscous friction. These shocks can be viewed as being produced by fluid elements which drift into the cavity and, before being accreted, are accelerated onto trajectories that send them back to impact the disc. The rate of energy dissipation is approximately equal to the product of potential energy per unit mass at the disc's inner edge and the accretion rate, estimated from the disc parameters just beyond the cavity edge, that would occur without the binary. For very thin discs, the actual accretion rate onto the binary may be significantly less. We calculate the energy emitted by a circumbinary disc taking into account energy dissipation at the inner edge and also irradiation arising there from reprocessing of light from the stars. We find that, for tight PMS binaries, the SED is dominated by emission from the inner edge at wavelengths between 1-4 and 10 μm. This may apply to systems like CoRoT 223992193 and V1481 Ori.

  10. Observations vs theory: from metallicity correlations of exoplanets and debris discs to HL Tau

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nayakshin, Sergei V.

    2015-12-01

    Boley et al (2010) and Nayakshin (2010) proposed Tidal Downsizing (TD), a new hypothesis for forming all types of planets. Gas fragments born by gravitational disc instability at ~ 100 AU migrate inwards rapidly, with some becoming hot Jupiters. Grain sedimentation inside the fragments makes rocky cores. These cores are future Earths and Super Earths, leaved behind when most of the migrating fragments are tidally disrupted.TD can now be tested against data in detail thanks to a numerical population synthesis model (Nayakshin and Fletcher 2015). TD scenario is fundamentally different from Core Accretion (CA), with sub-Saturn planets and debris discs born in gas fragment disruptions, and not vice versa. I therefore find robust observational differences between CA and TD despite uncertainties inherent in any population synthesis. Here I use metallicity correlations of all sorts to test the model. In TD, the only population that correlates with metallicity (Z) of the host strongly is that of moderately massive gas giants interior to a few AU from the host. Super-Earths and debris discs correlate in mass but not in numbers with Z; very massive gas giants, brown dwarfs and directly imaged gas giants are neutral to Z. Fragment self-destruction by core feedback explains simultaneously the core mass function roll-over at ~20 Earth masses, the rapid formation of suspected planets in HL Tau, and the paucity of directly imaged gas giants. Debris discs and gas giants do not correlate in TD, as observed.I argue that TD does a better job in accounting for many of the observed properties of exoplanets and planetary debris than CA. I finish with observational predictions that can distinguish TD from Core Accretion in the near future.

  11. Chemodynamical analysis of bulge stars for simulated disc galaxies

    OpenAIRE

    A. Rahimi; Kawata, D.; Brook, Chris B.; Gibson, Brad K.

    2009-01-01

    We analyse the kinematics and chemistry of the bulge stars of two simulated disc galaxies using our chemodynamical galaxy evolution code GCD+. First we compare stars that are born inside the galaxy with those that are born outside the galaxy and are accreted into the centre of the galaxy. Stars that originate outside of the bulge are accreted into it early in its formation within 3 Gyrs so that these stars have high [alpha/Fe] as well as having a high total energy reflecting their accretion t...

  12. Appearance of Keplerian discs orbiting Kerr superspinars

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stuchlik, Zdenek; Schee, Jan, E-mail: zdenek.stuchlik@fpf.slu.c, E-mail: jan.schee@fpf.slu.c [Institute of Physics, Faculty of Philosophy and Science, Silesian University in Opava, Bezrucovo nam. 13, Opava (Czech Republic)

    2010-11-07

    We study optical phenomena related to the appearance of Keplerian accretion discs orbiting Kerr superspinars predicted by string theory. The superspinar exterior is described by standard Kerr naked singularity geometry breaking the black hole limit on the internal angular momentum (spin). We construct local photon escape cones for a variety of orbiting sources that enable us to determine the superspinars silhouette in the case of distant observers. We show that the superspinar silhouette depends strongly on the assumed edge where the external Kerr spacetime is joined to the internal spacetime governed by string theory and significantly differs from the black hole silhouette. The appearance of the accretion disc is strongly dependent on the value of the superspinar spin in both their shape and frequency shift profile. Apparent extension of the disc grows significantly with the growing spin, while the frequency shift grows with the descending spin. This behaviour differs substantially from the appearance of discs orbiting black holes enabling thus, at least in principle, to distinguish clearly the Kerr superspinars and black holes. In vicinity of a Kerr superspinar the non-escaped photons have to be separated to those captured by the superspinar and those being trapped in its strong gravitational field leading to self-illumination of the disc that could even influence its structure and cause self-reflection effect of radiation of the disc. The amount of trapped photons grows with descending superspinar spin. We thus can expect significant self-illumination effects in the field of Kerr superspinars with near-extreme spin a {approx} 1.

  13. Appearance of Keplerian discs orbiting Kerr superspinars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stuchlík, Zdeněk; Schee, Jan

    2010-11-01

    We study optical phenomena related to the appearance of Keplerian accretion discs orbiting Kerr superspinars predicted by string theory. The superspinar exterior is described by standard Kerr naked singularity geometry breaking the black hole limit on the internal angular momentum (spin). We construct local photon escape cones for a variety of orbiting sources that enable us to determine the superspinars silhouette in the case of distant observers. We show that the superspinar silhouette depends strongly on the assumed edge where the external Kerr spacetime is joined to the internal spacetime governed by string theory and significantly differs from the black hole silhouette. The appearance of the accretion disc is strongly dependent on the value of the superspinar spin in both their shape and frequency shift profile. Apparent extension of the disc grows significantly with the growing spin, while the frequency shift grows with the descending spin. This behaviour differs substantially from the appearance of discs orbiting black holes enabling thus, at least in principle, to distinguish clearly the Kerr superspinars and black holes. In vicinity of a Kerr superspinar the non-escaped photons have to be separated to those captured by the superspinar and those being trapped in its strong gravitational field leading to self-illumination of the disc that could even influence its structure and cause self-reflection effect of radiation of the disc. The amount of trapped photons grows with descending superspinar spin. We thus can expect significant self-illumination effects in the field of Kerr superspinars with near-extreme spin a ~ 1.

  14. Binary accretion rates: dependence on temperature and mass-ratio

    CERN Document Server

    Young, Matthew D

    2015-01-01

    We perform a series of 2D smoothed particle hydrodynamics (SPH) simulations of gas accretion onto binaries via a circumbinary disc, for a range of gas temperatures and binary mass ratios ($q$). We show that increasing the gas temperature increases the accretion rate onto the primary for all values of the binary mass ratio: for example, for $q=0.1$ and a fixed binary separation, an increase of normalised sound speed by a factor of $5$ (from our "cold" to "hot" simulations) changes the fraction of the accreted gas that flows on to the primary from $ 10\\%$ to $\\sim40\\%$. We present a simple parametrisation for the average accretion rate of each binary component accurate to within a few percent and argue that this parametrisation (rather than those in the literature based on warmer simulations) is relevant to supermassive black hole accretion and all but the widest stellar binaries. We present trajectories for the growth of $q$ during circumbinary disc accretion and argue that the period distribution of stellar "...

  15. On the dynamics of planetesimals embedded in turbulent protoplanetary discs

    CERN Document Server

    Nelson, Richard P

    2010-01-01

    (abridged) Angular momentum transport and accretion in protoplanetary discs are generally believed to be driven by MHD turbulence via the magneto-rotational instability (MRI). The dynamics of solid bodies embedded in such discs (dust grains, boulders, planetesimals and planets) may be strongly affected by the turbulence, such that the formation pathways for planetary systems are determined in part by the strength and spatial distribution of the turbulent flow. We examine the dynamics of planetesimals, with radii between 1m – 10 km, embedded in turbulent protoplanetary discs, using three dimensional MHD simulations. The planetesimals experience gas drag and stochastic gravitational forces due to the turbulent disc. We use, and compare the results from, local shearing box simulations and global models in this study. The main aims of this work are to examine: the growth, and possible saturation, of the velocity dispersion of embedded planetesimals as a function of their size and disc parameters; the rate of...

  16. Overlapping inflows as catalysts of AGN activity - II: Relative importance of turbulence and inflow-disc interaction

    CERN Document Server

    Carmona-Loaiza, Juan Manuel; Dotti, Massimo; Valdarnini, Riccardo

    2015-01-01

    The main challenge for understanding the fuelling of supermassive black holes in active galactic nuclei is not to account for the source of fuel, but rather to explain its delivery from the boundaries of the black hole sphere of influence (10-100 pc) down to sub-parsec scales. In this work, we report on a series of numerical experiments aimed at exploring in further depth our model of "overlapping inflow events" as catalysts for rapid accretion, seeding a turbulent field in the infalling gas. We initially set a gaseous shell in non-equilibrium rotation around a supermassive black hole. After infall, the shell stalls in a disc-like structure. A second shell is then set in either co-rotation or counter-rotation with respect to the first and is let to impinge on the previously-formed disc. We find that combined turbulence and overlap significantly enhance accretion in counter-rotating inflows, while turbulence dominates for co-rotating inflows. The leftovers of overlapping inflows are warped nuclear discs, whose...

  17. Viscous and resistive accretion flows with radially self-similar and outflows

    CERN Document Server

    Faghei, Kazem

    2012-01-01

    The existence of outflow in accretion flows is confirmed by observations and magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) simulations. In this paper, we study outflows of accretion flows in the presence of resistivity and toroidal magnetic field. The mechanism of energy dissipation in the flow is assumed to be the viscosity and the magnetic diffusivity due to turbulence in the accretion flow. It is also assumed that the magnetic diffusivity and the kinematic viscosity are not constant and vary by position and $\\alpha$-prescription is used for them. The influence of outflow emanating from accretion disc is considered as a sink for mass, angular momentum and energy. The self-similar method is used to solve the integrated equations that govern the behavior of the accretion flow in the presence of outflow. The solutions represent the disc which rotates faster and becomes cooler for stronger outflows. Moreover, by adding the magnetic diffusivity, the surface density and rotational velocity decrease, while the radial velocity and te...

  18. Perturbation growth in accreting filaments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clarke, S. D.; Whitworth, A. P.; Hubber, D. A.

    2016-05-01

    We use smoothed particle hydrodynamic simulations to investigate the growth of perturbations in infinitely long filaments as they form and grow by accretion. The growth of these perturbations leads to filament fragmentation and the formation of cores. Most previous work on this subject has been confined to the growth and fragmentation of equilibrium filaments and has found that there exists a preferential fragmentation length-scale which is roughly four times the filament's diameter. Our results show a more complicated dispersion relation with a series of peaks linking perturbation wavelength and growth rate. These are due to gravo-acoustic oscillations along the longitudinal axis during the sub-critical phase of growth. The positions of the peaks in growth rate have a strong dependence on both the mass accretion rate onto the filament and the temperature of the gas. When seeded with a multiwavelength density power spectrum, there exists a clear preferred core separation equal to the largest peak in the dispersion relation. Our results allow one to estimate a minimum age for a filament which is breaking up into regularly spaced fragments, as well as an average accretion rate. We apply the model to observations of filaments in Taurus by Tafalla & Hacar and find accretion rates consistent with those estimated by Palmeirim et al.

  19. Bulk Comptonization by Turbulence in Accretion Disks

    CERN Document Server

    Kaufman, J

    2016-01-01

    Radiation pressure dominated accretion discs around compact objects may have turbulent velocities that greatly exceed the electron thermal velocities within the disc. Bulk Comptonization by the turbulence may therefore dominate over thermal Comptonization in determining the emergent spectrum. Bulk Comptonization by divergenceless turbulence is due to radiation viscous dissipation only. It can be treated as thermal Comptonization by solving the Kompaneets equation with an equivalent "wave" temperature, which is a weighted sum over the power present at each scale in the turbulent cascade. Bulk Comptonization by turbulence with non-zero divergence is due to both pressure work and radiation viscous dissipation. Pressure work has negligible effect on photon spectra in the limit of optically thin turbulence, and in this limit radiation viscous dissipation alone can be treated as thermal Comptonization with a temperature equivalent to the full turbulent power. In the limit of extremely optically thick turbulence, ra...

  20. The quiescent phase of galactic disc growth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aumer, Michael; Binney, James; Schönrich, Ralph

    2016-07-01

    We perform a series of controlled N-body simulations of growing disc galaxies within non-growing, live dark matter haloes of varying mass and concentration. Our initial conditions include either a low-mass disc or a compact bulge. New stellar particles are continuously added on near-circular orbits to the existing disc, so spiral structure is continuously excited. To study the effect of combined spiral and giant molecular cloud (GMC) heating on the discs, we introduce massive, short-lived particles that sample a GMC mass function. An isothermal gas component is introduced for a subset of the models. We perform a resolution study and vary parameters governing the GMC population, the histories of star formation and radial scale growth. Models with GMCs and standard values for the disc mass and halo density provide the right level of self-gravity to explain the age-velocity dispersion relation of the solar neighbourhood (Snhd). GMC heating generates remarkably exponential vertical profiles with scaleheights that are radially constant and agree with observations of galactic thin discs. GMCs are also capable of significantly delaying bar formation. The amount of spiral-induced radial migration agrees with what is required for the metallicity distribution of the Snhd. However, in our standard models, the outward-migrating populations are not hot enough vertically to create thick discs. Thick discs can form in models with high baryon fractions, but the corresponding bars are too long, the young stellar populations too hot and the discs flare considerably.

  1. Spectral mapping of the accretion flow of UU Aquarii

    CERN Document Server

    Baptista, R; Steiner, J E; Horne, K

    1999-01-01

    Time-resolved spectroscopy of the novalike variable UU Aquarii is analyzed with eclipse mapping techniques to produce spatially resolved spectra of its accretion disc and gas stream as a function of distance from disc centre in the range 3600-7000 Å. The spectrum of inner disc shows a blue continuum filled with deep, narrow absorption lines which transition to emission with clear P Cygni profiles at intermediate and large radii. The spectrum of the uneclipsed component has strong HI and HeI emission lines and Balmer jump in emission and is explained as optically thin emission from a vertically extended disc wind. Most of the line emission probably arises from the wind. The spatially-resolved spectra also suggest the existence of gas stream penetration in UU Aqr, which can be seen down to $R \\simeq 0.2 R_{L1}$.

  2. Multi-Wavelength Variability. Accretion and Ejection at the Fastest Timescales

    CERN Document Server

    Uttley, Phil

    2015-01-01

    Multiwavelength variability data, combined with spectral-timing analysis techniques, provides information about the causal relationship between different physical components in accreting black holes. Using fast-timing data and long-term monitoring, we can probe the behaviour of the same components across the black hole mass scale. In this chapter we review the observational status of multiwavelength variability in accreting black holes, from black hole X-ray binaries to AGN, and consider the implications for models of accretion and ejection, primarily considering the evidence for accretion disc and jet variability in these systems. We end with a consideration of future prospects in this quickly-developing field.

  3. Laser engineering of spine discs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sobol, E.; Zakharkina, O.; Baskov, A.; Shekhter, A.; Borschenko, I.; Guller, A.; Baskov, V.; Omelchenko, A.; Sviridov, A.

    2009-04-01

    The laser engineering of intervertebral discs is one of the branch of medical physics aimed at the development of minimally invasive laser medical techniques based on the effect of the controlled (time- and space-modulated) laser radiation on the structure and the field of mechanical stress of biological tissues. A new method for the laser engineering of the intervertebral discs and the differences of this approach from the existing physical methods of medical treatment are considered. The newly formed tissues of animals and humans are hystologically studied. Possible regeneration processes are discussed. A control system that provides for the treatment efficiency and safety is developed. The new laser medical equipment that is designed for the laser engineering of intervertebral discs is described, and the corresponding results of the clinical application are presented.

  4. Hydrodynamics and Thermodynamics of Ice Particle Accretion

    OpenAIRE

    Kintea, Daniel Martin

    2016-01-01

    Icing in warm environments, e.g. in aircraft engines or heated measurement probes, occurs if airplanes fly through areas with high amounts of atmospheric ice crystals. Ingested into the warm engine, they start to melt, resulting in an airflow laden with mixed-phase particles consisting of water and ice. Liquid water deposits on component surfaces, which enables ice particles to adhere to them, forming ice accretion of considerable thickness. Such an accretion reduces reliability, power and ef...

  5. Inner Disc Obscuration in GRS 1915+105 Based on Relativistic Slim Disc Model

    CERN Document Server

    Vierdayanti, K; Mineshige, S; Bursa, M

    2013-01-01

    We study the observational signatures of the relativistic slim disc of 10 M_sun black hole, in a wide range of mass accretion rate, mdot, dimensionless spin parameter, a_ast, and viewing angle, i. In general, the innermost temperature, T_in increases with the increase of i for a fixed value of mdot and a_ast, due to the Doppler effect. However, for i > 50 and mdot > mdot_turn, T_in starts to decrease with the increase of mdot. This is a result of self-obscuration -- the radiation from the innermost hot part of the disc is blocked by the surrounding cooler part. The value of mdot_turn and the corresponding luminosities depend on a_ast and i. Such obscuration effects cause an interesting behavior on the disc luminosity (L_disc) -- T_in plane for high inclinations. In addition to the standard-disc branch which appears below mdot_turn and which obeys L_disc propto T_in^4 -relation, another branch above mdot_turn, which is nearly horizontal, may be observed at luminosities close to the Eddington luminosity. We sho...

  6. Dynamics of continental accretion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moresi, L; Betts, P G; Miller, M S; Cayley, R A

    2014-04-10

    Subduction zones become congested when they try to consume buoyant, exotic crust. The accretionary mountain belts (orogens) that form at these convergent plate margins have been the principal sites of lateral continental growth through Earth's history. Modern examples of accretionary margins are the North American Cordilleras and southwest Pacific subduction zones. The geologic record contains abundant accretionary orogens, such as the Tasmanides, along the eastern margin of the supercontinent Gondwana, and the Altaïdes, which formed on the southern margin of Laurasia. In modern and ancient examples of long-lived accretionary orogens, the overriding plate is subjected to episodes of crustal extension and back-arc basin development, often related to subduction rollback and transient episodes of orogenesis and crustal shortening, coincident with accretion of exotic crust. Here we present three-dimensional dynamic models that show how accretionary margins evolve from the initial collision, through a period of plate margin instability, to re-establishment of a stable convergent margin. The models illustrate how significant curvature of the orogenic system develops, as well as the mechanism for tectonic escape of the back-arc region. The complexity of the morphology and the evolution of the system are caused by lateral rollback of a tightly arcuate trench migrating parallel to the plate boundary and orthogonally to the convergence direction. We find geological and geophysical evidence for this process in the Tasmanides of eastern Australia, and infer that this is a recurrent and global phenomenon. PMID:24670638

  7. Daughter Fragmentation is Unlikely To Occur in Self-Gravitating Circumstellar Discs

    CERN Document Server

    Forgan, Duncan

    2016-01-01

    Circumstellar discs are thought to be self-gravitating at very early times. If the disc is relatively cool, extended and accreting sufficiently rapidly, it can fragment into bound objects of order a few Jupiter masses and upwards. Given that the fragment's initial angular momentum is non-zero, and it will continue to accrete angular momentum from the surrounding circumstellar disc, we should expect that the fragment will also possess a relatively massive disc at early times. Therefore, we can ask: is disc fragmentation a hierarchical process? Or, can a disc fragment go on to produce its own self-gravitating circumfragmentary disc that produces daughter fragments? We investigate this using a set of nested 1D self-gravitating disc models. We calculate the radial structure of a marginally stable, self-gravitating circumstellar disc, and compute its propensity to fragmentation. We use this data to construct the local fragment properties at this radius. For each circumstellar disc model that results in fragmentati...

  8. Be discs in binary systems I. Coplanar orbits

    CERN Document Server

    Panoglou, Despina; Vieira, Rodrigo G; Cyr, Isabelle H; Jones, Carol E; Okazaki, Atsuo T; Rivinius, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    Be stars are surrounded by outflowing circumstellar matter structured in the form of decretion discs. They are often members of binary systems, where it is expected that the decretion disc interacts both radiatively and gravitationally with the companion. In this work we study how various orbital (period, mass ratio, eccentricity) and disc (viscosity) parameters affect the disc structure in coplanar systems. We simulate such binaries with the use of a smoothed particle hydrodynamics code. The main effects of the secondary on the disc are its truncation and the accumulation of material inwards of truncation. In circular or nearly circular prograde orbits, the disc maintains a rotating, constant in shape, configuration, which is locked to the orbital phase. The disc is smaller in size, more elongated and more massive for low viscosity parameter, small orbital separation and/or high mass ratio. Highly eccentric orbits are more complex, with the disc structure and total mass strongly dependent on the orbital phas...

  9. Search for substellar-mass companions and asymmetries in their parent discs

    CERN Document Server

    Willson, M; Kluska, J; Monnier, J D; Ireland, M; Aarnio, A; Sitko, M L; Calvet, N; Espaillat, C; Wilner, D J

    2016-01-01

    Transitional discs are a class of circumstellar discs around young stars with extensive clearing of dusty material within their inner regions on 10s of au scales. One of the primary candidates for this kind of clearing is the formation of planet(s) within the disc that then accrete or clear their immediate area as they migrate through the disc. Our sample included eight transitional discs. Using the Keck/NIRC2 instrument we utilised the Sparse Aperture Masking (SAM) interferometry technique to search for asymmetries indicative of ongoing planet formation. We searched for close-in companions using both model fitting and interferometric image reconstruction techniques. Using simulated data, we derived diagnostics that helped us to distinguish between point sources and extended asymmetric disc emission. In addition, we investigated the degeneracy between the contrast and separation that appear for marginally resolved companions. We found FP Tau to contain a previously unseen disc wall, and DM Tau, LkHa 330, and ...

  10. The subcritical baroclinic instability in local accretion disc models

    CERN Document Server

    Lesur, G

    2009-01-01

    (abridged) Aims: We present new results exhibiting a subcritical baroclinic instability (SBI) in local shearing box models. We describe the 2D and 3D behaviour of this instability using numerical simulations and we present a simple analytical model describing the underlying physical process. Results: A subcritical baroclinic instability is observed in flows stable for the Solberg-Hoiland criterion using local simulations. This instability is found to be a nonlinear (or subcritical) instability, which cannot be described by ordinary linear approaches. It requires a radial entropy gradient weakly unstable for the Schwartzchild criterion and a strong thermal diffusivity (or equivalently a short cooling time). In compressible simulations, the instability produces density waves which transport angular momentum outward with typically alpha<3e-3, the exact value depending on the background temperature profile. Finally, the instability survives in 3D, vortex cores becoming turbulent due to parametric instabilities...

  11. Gravitational Radiation from Accreting Millisecond Pulsars

    CERN Document Server

    Vigelius, Matthias; Melatos, Andrew

    2008-01-01

    It is widely assumed that the observed reduction of the magnetic field of millisecond pulsars can be connected to the accretion phase during which the pulsar is spun up by mass accretion from a companion. A wide variety of reduction mechanisms have been proposed, including the burial of the field by a magnetic mountain, formed when the accreted matter is confined to the poles by the tension of the stellar magnetic field. A magnetic mountain effectively screens the magnetic dipole moment. On the other hand, observational data suggests that accreting neutron stars are sources of gravitational waves, and magnetic mountains are a natural source of a time-dependent quadrupole moment. We show that the emission is sufficiently strong to be detectable by current and next generation long-baseline interferometers. Preliminary results from fully three-dimensional magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) simulations are presented. We find that the initial axisymmetric state relaxes into a nearly axisymmetric configuration via toroidal ...

  12. Core-assisted gas capture instability: a new mode of giant planet formation by gravitationally unstable discs

    CERN Document Server

    Nayakshin, Sergei; Boley, Aaron C

    2014-01-01

    Giant planet formation in the core accretion (CA) paradigm is predicated by the formation of a core, assembled by the coagulation of grains and later by planetesimals within a protoplanetary disc. In contrast, in the disc instability paradigm, giant planet formation is believed to be independent of core formation: massive self-gravitating gas fragments cool radiatively and collapse as a whole. We show that giant planet formation in the disc instability model may be also enhanced by core formation for reasons physically very similar to the CA paradigm. In the model explored here, efficient grain sedimentation within an initial fragment (rather than the disc) leads to the formation of a core composed of heavy elements. We find that massive atmospheres form around cores and undergo collapse as a critical core mass is exceeded, analogous to CA theory. The critical mass of the core to initiate such a collapse depends on the fragment mass and metallicity, as well as core luminosity, but ranges from less than 1 to a...

  13. Wind accretion in binary stars - I. Mass accretion ratio

    CERN Document Server

    Nagae, T; Matsuda, T; Fujiwara, H; Hachisu, I; Boffin, H M J

    2004-01-01

    Three-dimensional hydrodynamic calculations are performed in order to investigate mass transfer in a close binary system, in which one component undergoes mass loss through a wind. The mass ratio is assumed to be unity. The radius of the mass-losing star is taken to be about a quarter of the separation between the two stars. Calculations are performed for gases with a ratio of specific heats gamma=1.01 and 5/3. Mass loss is assumed to be thermally driven so that the other parameter is the sound speed of the gas on the mass-losing star. Here, we focus our attention on two features: flow patterns and mass accretion ratio, which we define as the ratio of the mass accretion rate onto the companion to the mass loss rate from the mass-losing primary star. We characterize the flow by the mean normal velocity of wind on the critical Roche surface of the mass-losing star, Vr. When Vr0.7 A Omega we observe wind accretion. We find very complex flow patterns in between these two extreme cases. We derive an empirical form...

  14. Evidence for Three Accreting Black Holes in a Galaxy at z~1.35: A Snapshot of Recently Formed Black Hole Seeds?

    OpenAIRE

    Schawinski, Kevin; Urry, Meg; Treister, Ezequiel; Simmons, Brooke; Natarajan, Priyamvada,; Glikman, Eilat

    2011-01-01

    One of the key open questions in cosmology today pertains to understanding when, where and how super massive black holes form, while it is clear that mergers likely play a significant role in the growth cycles of black holes, how supermassive black holes form, and how galaxies grow around them. Here, we present Hubble Space Telescope WFC3/IR grism observations of a clumpy galaxy at z=1.35, with evidence for 10^6 - 10^7 Msun rapidly growing black holes in separate sub-components of the host ga...

  15. Simulations of the magnetospheres of accreting millisecond pulsars

    CERN Document Server

    Parfrey, Kyle; Beloborodov, Andrei M

    2016-01-01

    Accreting pulsars power relativistic jets, and display a complex spin phenomenology. These behaviours may be closely related to the large-scale configuration of the star's magnetic field. The total torque experienced by the pulsar comprises spin-up and spin-down contributions from different bundles of magnetic field lines; the spin-down `braking' torque is applied both by closed stellar field lines which enter the disc beyond the corotation radius, and those which are open and not loaded with disc material. The rates of energy and angular momentum extraction on these open field lines have lower bounds in the relativistic, magnetically dominated limit, due to the effective inertia of the electromagnetic field itself. Here we present the first relativistic simulations of the interaction of a pulsar magnetosphere with an accretion flow. Our axisymmetric simulations, with the pseudospectral PHAEDRA code, treat the magnetospheric, or coronal, regions using a resistive extension of force-free electrodynamics. The m...

  16. Accretion, winds and outflows in young stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Günther, H. M.

    2013-02-01

    Young stars and planetary systems form in molecular clouds. After the initial radial infall an accretion disk develops. For classical T Tauri stars (CTTS, F-K type precursors) the accretion disk does not reach down to the central star, but it is truncated near the co-rotation radius by the stellar magnetic field. The inner edge of the disk is ionized by the stellar radiation, so that the accretion stream is funneled along the magnetic field lines. On the stellar surface an accretion shock develops, which is observed over a wide wavelength range as X-ray emission, UV excess, optical veiling and optical and IR emission lines. Some of the accretion tracers, e.g. Hα, can be calibrated to measure the accretion rate. This accretion process is variable on time scales of hours to years due to changing accretion rates, stellar rotation and reconfiguration of the magnetic field. Furthermore, many (if not all) accreting systems also drive strong outflows which are ultimately powered by accretion. However, the exact driving mechanism is still unclear. Several components could contribute to the outflows: slow, wide-angle disk winds, X-winds launched close to the inner disk rim, and thermally driven stellar winds. In any case, the outflows contain material of very different temperatures and speeds. The disk wind is cool and can have a molecular component with just a few tens of km s-1, while the central component of the outflow can reach a few 100 km s-1. In some cases the inner part of the outflow is collimated to a small-angle jet. These jets have an onion-like structure, where the inner components are consecutively hotter and faster. The jets can contain working surfaces, which show up as Herbig-Haro knots. Accretion and outflows in the CTTS phase do not only determine stellar parameters like the rotation rate on the main-sequence, they also can have a profound impact on the environment of young stars. This review concentrates on CTTS in near-by star forming regions where

  17. Self-gravitational collapse of polytropic mass-losing gaseous discs: effects of outer boundary condition dictated by parent cloud

    CERN Document Server

    Nourbakhsh, Erfan; Abbassi, Shahram

    2012-01-01

    Given the fact that accretion discs are associated with their parent molecular cloud, we studied its effects as a constraint on the outer boundary of the viscous-resistive polytropic self-gravitating accretion flows subject to the mass and angular momentum loss.

  18. Understanding discs in binary YSOs - detailed modelling of VV CrA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scicluna, P.; Wolf, S.; Ratzka, T.; Costigan, G.; Launhardt, R.; Leinert, C.; Ober, F.; Manara, C. F.; Testi, L.

    2016-05-01

    Given that a majority of stars form in multiple systems, in order to fully understand the star- and planet-formation processes we must seek to understand them in multiple stellar systems. With this in mind, we present an analysis of the enigmatic binary T-Tauri system VV Corona Australis, in which both components host discs, but only one is visible at optical wavelengths. We seek to understand the peculiarities of this system by searching for a model for the binary which explains all the available continuum observations of the system. We present new mid-infrared interferometry and near-infrared (NIR) spectroscopy along with archival millimetre-wave observations, which resolve the binary at 1.3 mm for the first time. We compute a grid of pre-main-sequence radiative transfer models and calculate their posterior probabilities given the observed spectral energy distributions and mid-infrared interferometric visibilities of the binary components, beginning with the assumption that the only differences between the two components are their inclination and position angles. Our best-fitting solution corresponds to a relatively low-luminosity T-tauri binary, with each component's disc having a large scaleheight and viewed at moderate inclination (˜50°), with the infrared companion inclined by ˜5° more than the primary. Comparing the results of our model to evolutionary models suggests stellar masses ˜1.7 M⊙ and an age for the system of 3.5 Myr, towards the upper end of previous estimates. Combining these results with accretion indicators from NIR spectroscopy, we determine an accretion rate of 4.0 × 10-8 M⊙ yr-1 for the primary. We suggest that future observations of VV Corona Australis and similar systems should prioritize high angular resolution sub-mm and NIR imaging of the discs and high-resolution optical/NIR spectroscopy of the central stars.

  19. Numerical test of the method for revealing traces of deterministic chaos in the accreting black holes

    CERN Document Server

    Suková, Petra

    2016-01-01

    The high energy radiation emitted by black hole X-ray binaries originates in an accretion disk, hence the variability of the lightcurves mirrors the dynamics of the disc. We study the time evolution of the emitted flux in order to find evidences, that low dimensional non-linear equations govern the accretion flow. Here we test the capabilities of our novel method to find chaotic behaviour on the two numerical time series describing the motion of a test particle around a black hole surrounded by a thin massive disc, one being regular and the other one chaotic.

  20. Magnetically controlled accretion onto a black hole

    CERN Document Server

    Ikhsanov, N R; Beskrovnaya, N G; 10.1088/1742-6596/372/1/012062

    2012-01-01

    An accretion scenario in which the material captured by a black hole from its environment is assumed to be magnetized (\\beta ~ 1) is discussed. We show that the accretion picture in this case is strongly affected by the magnetic field of the flow itself. The accretion power within this Magnetically Controlled Accretion (MCA) scenario is converted predominantly into the magnetic energy of the accretion flow. The rapidly amplified field prevents the accretion flow from forming a homogeneous Keplerian disk. Instead, the flow is decelerated by its own magnetic field at a large distance (Shvartsman radius) from the black hole and switches into a non-Keplerian dense magnetized slab. The material in the slab is confined by the magnetic field and moves towards the black hole on the time scale of the magnetic field annihilation. The basic parameters of the slab are evaluated. Interchange instabilities in the slab may lead to a formation of Z-pinch type configuration of the magnetic field over the slab in which the acc...

  1. Massive Star Formation: Accreting from Companion

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    X. Chen; J. S. Zhang

    2014-09-01

    We report the possible accretion from companion in the massive star forming region (G350.69–0.49). This region seems to be a binary system composed of a diffuse object (possible nebulae or UC HII region) and a Massive Young Stellar Object (MYSO) seen in Spitzer IRAC image. The diffuse object and MYSO are connected by the shock-excited 4.5 m emission, suggesting that the massive star may form through accreting material from the companion in this system.

  2. Black hole mergers: do gas discs lead to spin alignment?

    CERN Document Server

    Lodato, Giuseppe

    2012-01-01

    In this Letter we revisit arguments suggesting that the Bardeen-Petterson effect can coalign the spins of a central supermassive black hole binary accreting from a circumbinary (or circumnuclear) gas disc. We improve on previous estimates by adding the dependence on system parameters, and noting that the nonlinear nature of warp propagation in a thin viscous disc affects alignment. This reduces the disc's ability to communicate the warp, and can severely reduce the effectiveness of disc-assisted spin alignment. We test our predictions with a Monte Carlo realization of random misalignments and accretion rates and we find that the outcome depends strongly on the spin magnitude. We estimate a generous upper limit to the probability of alignment by making assumptions which favour it throughout. Even with these assumptions, about 40% of black holes with $a \\gtrsim 0.5$ do not have time to align with the disc. If the residual misalignment is not small and it is maintained down to the final coalescence phase this ca...

  3. Black hole mergers: do gas discs lead to spin alignment?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lodato, Giuseppe; Gerosa, Davide

    2013-02-01

    In this Letter, we revisit arguments suggesting that the Bardeen-Petterson effect can coalign the spins of a central supermassive black hole binary accreting from a circumbinary (or circumnuclear) gas disc. We improve on previous estimates by adding the dependence on system parameters and noting that the non-linear nature of warp propagation in a thin viscous disc affects alignment. This reduces the disc's ability to communicate the warp, and can severely reduce the effectiveness of disc-assisted spin alignment. We test our predictions with a Monte Carlo realization of random misalignments and accretion rates, and we find that the outcome depends strongly on the spin magnitude. We estimate a generous upper limit to the probability of alignment by making assumptions which favour it throughout. Even with these assumptions, about 40 per cent of black holes with a ≳ 0.5 do not have time to align with the disc. If the residual misalignment is not small and it is maintained down to the final coalescence phase, this can give a powerful recoil velocity to the merged hole. Highly spinning black holes are thus more likely being subject to strong recoils, the occurrence of which is currently debated.

  4. Star Formation and Gas Accretion in Nearby Galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Yim, Kijeong

    2016-01-01

    In order to quantify the relationship between gas accretion and star formation, we analyse a sample of 29 nearby galaxies from the WHISP survey which contains galaxies with and without evidence for recent gas accretion. We compare combined radial profiles of FUV (GALEX) and IR 24 {\\mu}m (Spitzer) characterizing distributions of recent star formation with radial profiles of CO (IRAM, BIMA, or CARMA) and HI (WSRT) tracing molecular and atomic gas contents to examine star formation efficiencies in symmetric (quiescent), asymmetric (accreting), and interacting (tidally disturbed) galaxies. In addition, we investigate the relationship between star formation rate and HI in the outer discs for the three groups of galaxies. We confirm the general relationship between gas surface density and star formation surface density, but do not find a significant difference between the three groups of galaxies.

  5. Accretion Disks and Dynamos: Toward a Unified Mean Field Theory

    CERN Document Server

    Blackman, Eric G

    2012-01-01

    Conversion of gravitational energy into radiation near stars and compact objects in accretion disks the origin of large scale magnetic fields in astrophysical rotators have long been distinct topics of active research in astrophysics. In semi-analytic work on both problems it has been useful to presume large scale symmetries, which necessarily results in mean field theories; magnetohydrodynamic turbulence makes the underlying systems locally asymmetric and highly nonlinear. Synergy between theory and simulations should aim for the development of practical, semi-analytic mean field models that capture the essential physics and can be used for observational modeling. Mean field dynamo (MFD) theory and alpha-viscosity accretion disc theory have exemplified such distinct pursuits. Both are presently incomplete, but 21st century MFD theory has nonlinear predictive power compared to 20th century MFD. in contrast, alpha-viscosity accretion theory is still in a 20th century state. In fact, insights from MFD theory ar...

  6. Subhalo Accretion through Filaments

    Science.gov (United States)

    González, Roberto E.; Padilla, Nelson D.

    2016-09-01

    We track subhalo orbits of galaxy- and group-sized halos in cosmological simulations. We identify filamentary structures around halos and use these to define a sample of subhalos accreted from filaments, as well as a control sample of subhalos accreted from other directions. We use these samples to study differences in satellite orbits produced by filamentary accretion. Our results depend on host halo mass. We find that for low masses, subhalos accreted from filaments show ∼10% shorter lifetimes compared to the control sample, show a tendency toward more radial orbits, reach halo central regions earlier, and are more likely to merge with the host. For higher-mass halos this lifetime difference dissipates and even reverses for cluster-sized halos. This behavior appears to be connected to the fact that more massive hosts are connected to stronger filaments with higher velocity coherence and density, with slightly more radial subhalo orbits. Because subhalos tend to follow the coherent flow of the filament, it is possible that such thick filaments are enough to shield the subhalo from the effect of dynamical friction at least during their first infall. We also identify subhalo pairs/clumps that merge with one another after accretion. They survive as a clump for only a very short time, which is even shorter for higher subhalo masses, suggesting that the Magellanic Clouds and other Local group satellite associations may have entered the Milky Way virial radius very recently and probably are in their first infall.

  7. Hoag's Object: Evidence for Cold Accretion onto an Elliptical Galaxy

    CERN Document Server

    Finkelman, Ido; Brosch, Noah; Katkov, Ivan

    2011-01-01

    (Abridged) We present new photometric and spectroscopic observations of the famous Hoag's Object, a peculiar ring galaxy with a central roundish core. The nature of Hoag's Object is still under controversial discussion. Previous studies demonstrated that a major accretion event that took place at least 2-3 Gyr ago can account for the observational evidence. However, the role of internal nonlinear mechanisms in forming the outer ring was not yet completely ruled out. These new data, together with HI and optical information from the literature, are used to demonstrate that Hoag's Object is a relatively isolated system surrounded by a luminous quasi-spiral pattern and a massive, low-density HI disc. The main stellar body is an old, mildly triaxial elliptical galaxy with very high angular momentum. We review previous formation scenarios of Hoag's Object in light of the new data and conclude that the peculiar morphology could not represent a late phase in barred early-type galaxies evolution. In addition, no obser...

  8. Double rupture disc experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Result of these observations, comparisons and evaluations can be summarized in the following list of concerns regarding the use of double rupture discs coupled to the liquid space of a steam generator that is subjected to a large leak sodium water reaction event. Single rupture disc show delayed collapse characteristics in LLTR Series I and double disc assemblies are presumed to be more complex with additional delay before opening to give pressure relief. Delayed failure increases pressures in the IHTS and must be adequately covered by design requirements. With CRBR design, the first disc may fail only partially reducing the loading on the second disc with the result that relief performance may not meet requirements

  9. Efficiency of thin magnetically arrested discs around black holes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avara, Mark J.; McKinney, Jonathan C.; Reynolds, Christopher S.

    2016-10-01

    The radiative and jet efficiencies of thin magnetized accretion discs around black holes (BHs) are affected by BH spin and the presence of a magnetic field that, when strong, could lead to large deviations from Novikov-Thorne (NT) thin disc theory. To seek the maximum deviations, we perform general relativistic magnetohydrodynamic simulations of radiatively efficient thin (half-height H to radius R of H/R ≈ 0.10) discs around moderately rotating BHs with a/M = 0.5. First, our simulations, each evolved for more than 70 000 rg/c (gravitational radius rg and speed of light c), show that large-scale magnetic field readily accretes inward even through our thin disc and builds-up to the magnetically arrested disc (MAD) state. Secondly, our simulations of thin MADs show the disc achieves a radiative efficiency of ηr ≈ 15 per cent (after estimating photon capture), which is about twice the NT value of ηr ˜ 8 per cent for a/M = 0.5 and gives the same luminosity as an NT disc with a/M ≈ 0.9. Compared to prior simulations with ≲10 per cent deviations, our result of an ≈80 per cent deviation sets a new benchmark. Building on prior work, we are now able to complete an important scaling law which suggests that observed jet quenching in the high-soft state in BH X-ray binaries is consistent with an ever-present MAD state with a weak yet sustained jet.

  10. Particle dynamics in discs with turbulence generated by the vertical shear instability

    CERN Document Server

    Stoll, Moritz H R

    2016-01-01

    Among the candidates for generating turbulence in accretion discs in situations with low intrinsic ionization the vertical shear instability (VSI) has become an interesting candidate, as it relies purely on a vertical gradient in the angular velocity. Existing simulations have shown that $\\alpha$-values a few times $10^{-4}$ can be generated. The particle growth in the early planet formation phase is determined by the dynamics of dust particles. Here, we address in particular the efficiency of VSI-turbulence in concentrating particles in order to generate overdensities and low collision velocities. We perform 3D numerical hydrodynamical simulations of accretion discs around young stars that include radiative transport and irradiation from the central star. The motion of particles within a size range of a fraction of mm up to several m is followed using standard drag formula. We confirm that under realistic conditions the VSI is able to generate turbulence in full 3D protoplanetary discs. The irradiated disc s...

  11. Optical effects related to Keplerian discs orbiting Kehagias-Sfetsos naked singularities

    CERN Document Server

    Stuchlik, Zdenek

    2014-01-01

    We demonstrate possible optical signatures of the Kehagias-Sfetsos naked singularity spacetimes representing spherically symmetric vacuum solution of the modified Ho\\v{r}ava gravity. In such spacetimes, accretion structures significantly different from those present in the standard black hole spacetimes occur due to the "antigravity" effect causing existence of an internal static sphere surrounded by Keplerian discs. We focus our attention on the optical effects related to the Keplerian accretion discs, constructing the optical appearance of the Keplerian discs, the spectral continuum due to their thermal radiation, and spectral profiled lines generated in the innermost parts of such discs. The KS naked singularity signature is strongly encoded in the characteristics of predicted optical effects, especially in the case of the spectral continuum and spectral lines profiled by the strong gravity of the spacetimes, due to the region of the vanishing of the angular velocity gradient influencing the effectivity of...

  12. Constraining black-hole spin using disc tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Middleton, Matthew

    2013-10-01

    The emission from the inner accretion disc of low mass, high mass accretion rate AGN extends into the soft X-ray bandpass. Where orbiting material covers or reveals each side of the disc in turn, we can study the region of strong gravity and determine the spin and inclination directly. RX J1301.9+2747, shows flares as a long-lived feature of its lightcurve which are most likely due to gaps in an obscuring shroud. By comparing to the predictions from ray-tracing codes, the data imply the spin and inclination to be low. We propose a 210 ks observation (including overheads and background flaring) to more robustly test our new technique and tightly constrain the spin and inclination, or otherwise provide a unique view of the mechanism responsible for the soft excess in this source.

  13. SUPERNOVA LIGHT CURVES POWERED BY FALLBACK ACCRETION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dexter, Jason; Kasen, Daniel, E-mail: jdexter@berkeley.edu [Departments of Physics and Astronomy, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States)

    2013-07-20

    Some fraction of the material ejected in a core collapse supernova explosion may remain bound to the compact remnant, and eventually turn around and fall back. We show that the late time ({approx}>days) power potentially associated with the accretion of this 'fallback' material could significantly affect the optical light curve, in some cases producing super-luminous or otherwise peculiar supernovae. We use spherically symmetric hydrodynamical models to estimate the accretion rate at late times for a range of progenitor masses and radii and explosion energies. The accretion rate onto the proto-neutron star or black hole decreases as M-dot {proportional_to}t{sup -5/3} at late times, but its normalization can be significantly enhanced at low explosion energies, in very massive stars, or if a strong reverse shock wave forms at the helium/hydrogen interface in the progenitor. If the resulting super-Eddington accretion drives an outflow which thermalizes in the outgoing ejecta, the supernova debris will be re-energized at a time when photons can diffuse out efficiently. The resulting light curves are different and more diverse than previous fallback supernova models which ignored the input of accretion power and produced short-lived, dim transients. The possible outcomes when fallback accretion power is significant include super-luminous ({approx}> 10{sup 44} erg s{sup -1}) Type II events of both short and long durations, as well as luminous Type I events from compact stars that may have experienced significant mass loss. Accretion power may unbind the remaining infalling material, causing a sudden decrease in the brightness of some long duration Type II events. This scenario may be relevant for explaining some of the recently discovered classes of peculiar and rare supernovae.

  14. Supernova Light Curves Powered by Fallback Accretion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dexter, Jason; Kasen, Daniel

    2013-07-01

    Some fraction of the material ejected in a core collapse supernova explosion may remain bound to the compact remnant, and eventually turn around and fall back. We show that the late time (gsimdays) power potentially associated with the accretion of this "fallback" material could significantly affect the optical light curve, in some cases producing super-luminous or otherwise peculiar supernovae. We use spherically symmetric hydrodynamical models to estimate the accretion rate at late times for a range of progenitor masses and radii and explosion energies. The accretion rate onto the proto-neutron star or black hole decreases as \\dot{M} \\propto t^{-5/3} at late times, but its normalization can be significantly enhanced at low explosion energies, in very massive stars, or if a strong reverse shock wave forms at the helium/hydrogen interface in the progenitor. If the resulting super-Eddington accretion drives an outflow which thermalizes in the outgoing ejecta, the supernova debris will be re-energized at a time when photons can diffuse out efficiently. The resulting light curves are different and more diverse than previous fallback supernova models which ignored the input of accretion power and produced short-lived, dim transients. The possible outcomes when fallback accretion power is significant include super-luminous (gsim 1044 erg s-1) Type II events of both short and long durations, as well as luminous Type I events from compact stars that may have experienced significant mass loss. Accretion power may unbind the remaining infalling material, causing a sudden decrease in the brightness of some long duration Type II events. This scenario may be relevant for explaining some of the recently discovered classes of peculiar and rare supernovae.

  15. Disc colours in field and cluster spiral galaxies at 0.5 ≲z ≲ 0.8

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cantale, Nicolas; Jablonka, Pascale; Courbin, Frédéric; Rudnick, Gregory; Zaritsky, Dennis; Meylan, Georges; Desai, Vandana; De Lucia, Gabriella; Aragón-Salamanca, Alfonso; Poggianti, Bianca M.; Finn, Rose; Simard, Luc

    2016-05-01

    We present a detailed study of the colours of late-type galaxy discs for ten of the EDisCS galaxy clusters with 0.5 ≲ z ≲ 0.8. Our cluster sample contains 172 spiral galaxies, and our control sample is composed of 96 field disc galaxies. We deconvolved their ground-based V and I images obtained with FORS2 at the VLT with initial spatial resolutions between 0.4 and 0.8 arcsec to achieve a final resolution of 0.1 arcsec with 0.05 arcsec pixels, which is close to the resolution of the ACS at the HST. After removing the central region of each galaxy to avoid pollution by the bulges, we measured the V-I colours of the discs. We find that 50% of cluster spiral galaxies have disc V-I colours redder by more than 1σ of the mean colours of their field counterparts. This is well above the 16% expected for a normal distribution centred on the field disc properties. The prominence of galaxies with red discs depends neither on the mass of their parent cluster nor on the distance of the galaxies to the cluster cores. Passive spiral galaxies constitute 20% of our sample. These systems are not abnormally dusty. They are are made of old stars and are located on the cluster red sequences. Another 24% of our sample is composed of galaxies that are still active and star forming, but less so than galaxies with similar morphologies in the field. These galaxies are naturally located in the blue sequence of their parent cluster colour-magnitude diagrams. The reddest of the discs in clusters must have stopped forming stars more than ~5 Gyr ago. Some of them are found among infalling galaxies, suggesting preprocessing. Our results confirm that galaxies are able to continue forming stars for some significant period of time after being accreted into clusters, and suggest that star formation can decline on seemingly long (1 to 5 Gyr) timescales.

  16. A Global Study of the Behaviour of Black Hole X-ray Binary Discs

    CERN Document Server

    Dunn, Robert; Koerding, Elmar; Belloni, Tomaso; Merloni, Andrea

    2010-01-01

    We investigate the behaviour of the accretion discs in the outbursts of the low-mass black-hole X-ray binaries (BHXRB), an overview of which we have presented previously. Almost all of the systems in which there are sufficient observations in the most disc dominated states show a variation of the disc luminosity with temperature close to L ~\\propto T^4. This in turn implies that in these states, the disc radius, R_in, and the colour correction factor, f_col, are almost constant. Deviations away from the T^4 law are observed at the beginning and end of the most disc dominated states, during the intermediate states. Although these could be explained by an inward motion of the accretion disc, they are more likely to be the result of an increase in the value of f_col as the disc fraction decreases. By comparing the expected and observed disc luminosities, we place approximate limits on the allowed distances and masses of the BHXRB system. In a number of cases, the measured distances and masses of the BHXRB system...

  17. The long-term evolution of photoevaporating transition discs with giant planets

    CERN Document Server

    Rosotti, Giovanni P; Owen, James E

    2015-01-01

    Photo-evaporation and planet formation have both been proposed as mechanisms responsible for the creation of a transition disc. We have studied their combined effect through a suite of 2d simulations of protoplanetary discs undergoing X-ray photoevaporation with an embedded giant planet. In a previous work we explored how the formation of a giant planet triggers the dispersal of the inner disc by photo-evaporation at earlier times than what would have happened otherwise. This is particularly relevant for the observed transition discs with large holes and high mass accretion rates that cannot be explained by photo-evaporation alone. In this work we significantly expand the parameter space investigated by previous simulations. In addition, the updated model includes thermal sweeping, needed for studying the complete dispersal of the disc. After the removal of the inner disc the disc is a non accreting transition disc, an object that is rarely seen in observations. We assess the relative length of this phase, to...

  18. Accretion of Chaplygin gas upon black holes: formation of faster outflowing winds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We study the accretion of modified Chaplygin gas upon different types of black holes. Modified Chaplygin gas is one of the best candidates for a combined model of dark matter and dark energy. In addition, from a field theoretical point of view the modified Chaplygin gas model is equivalent to that of a scalar field having a self-interacting potential. We formulate the equations related to both spherical accretion and disc accretion, and respective winds. The corresponding numerical solutions of the flow, particularly of velocity, are presented and analysed. We show that the accretion-wind system of modified Chaplygin gas dramatically alters the wind solutions, producing faster winds, upon changes in physical parameters, while accretion solutions qualitatively remain unaffected. This implies that modified Chaplygin gas is more prone to produce outflow which is the natural consequence of the dark energy into the system.

  19. Giant planet formation via pebble accretion

    CERN Document Server

    Guilera, O M

    2015-01-01

    In the standard model of core accretion, the formation of giant planets occurs by two main processes: first, a massive core is formed by the accretion of solid material; then, when this core exceeds a critical value (typically greater than 10 Earth masses) a gaseous runaway growth is triggered and the planet accretes big quantities of gas in a short period of time until the planet achieves its final mass. Thus, the formation of a massive core has to occur when the nebular gas is still available in the disk. This phenomenon imposes a strong time-scale constraint in giant planet formation due to the fact that the lifetimes of the observed protoplanetary disks are in general lower than 10 Myr. The formation of massive cores before 10 Myr by accretion of big planetesimals (with radii > 10 km) in the oligarchic growth regime is only possible in massive disks. However, planetesimal accretion rates significantly increase for small bodies, especially for pebbles, particles of sizes between mm and cm, which are strong...

  20. Three-dimensional MHD Simulations of Radiatively Inefficient Accretion Flows

    CERN Document Server

    Igumenshchev, I V; Abramowicz, M A; Igumenshchev, Igor V.; Narayan, Ramesh; Abramowicz, Marek A.

    2003-01-01

    We present three-dimensional MHD simulations of rotating radiatively inefficient accretion flows onto black holes. In the simulations, we continuously inject magnetized matter into the computational domain near the outer boundary, and we run the calculations long enough for the resulting accretion flow to reach a quasi-steady state. We have studied two limiting cases for the geometry of the injected magnetic field: pure toroidal field and pure poloidal field. In the case of toroidal field injection, the accreting matter forms a nearly axisymmetric, geometrically-thick, turbulent accretion disk. The disk resembles in many respects the convection-dominated accretion flows found in previous numerical and analytical investigations of viscous hydrodynamic flows. Models with poloidal field injection evolve through two distinct phases. In an initial transient phase, the flow forms a relatively flattened, quasi-Keplerian disk with a hot corona and a bipolar outflow. However, when the flow later achieves steady state,...

  1. Magnetic fields and accretion flows on the classical T Tauri star V2129 Oph

    CERN Document Server

    Donati, JF; Gregory, SG; Petit, P; Bouvier, J; Dougados, C; Ménard, F; Cameron, AC; Harries, TJ; Jeffers, SV; Paletou, F

    2007-01-01

    From observations collected with the ESPaDOnS spectropolarimeter, we report the discovery of magnetic fields at the surface of the mildly accreting classical T Tauri star V2129 Oph. Zeeman signatures are detected, both in photospheric lines and in the emission lines formed at the base of the accretion funnels linking the disc to the protostar, and monitored over the whole rotation cycle of V2129 Oph. We observe that rotational modulation dominates the temporal variations of both unpolarized and circularly polarized line profiles. We reconstruct the large-scale magnetic topology at the surface of V2129 Oph from both sets of Zeeman signatures simultaneously. We find it to be rather complex, with a dominant octupolar component and a weak dipole of strengths 1.2 and 0.35 kG, respectively, both slightly tilted with respect to the rotation axis. The large-scale field is anchored in a pair of 2-kG unipolar radial field spots located at high latitudes and coinciding with cool dark polar spots at photospheric level. T...

  2. Disc instability models for X-ray transients evidence for evaporation and low $\\alpha$-viscosity?

    CERN Document Server

    Menou, K; Lasota, J P; Narayan, R; Menou, Kristen; Hameury, Jean-Marie; Lasota, Jean-Pierre; Narayan, Ramesh

    2000-01-01

    We construct time-dependent models of accretion discs around black holes and neutron stars. We investigate the effect of evaporating the disc inner regions during quiescence on the predictions of the Disc Instability Model (DIM) for these systems. We do not include irradiation of the disc in the models. Removing the inner, most unstable parts of the accretion disc increases the predicted recurrence times. However, DIMs with values of the viscosity parameter alpha_hot ~ 0.1 and alpha_cold ~ 0.02 (typical of applications of the DIM to standard dwarf nova outbursts) fail to reproduce the long recurrence times of SXTs (unless we resort to fine-tuning of the parameters) independent of the evaporation strength. We show that models with evaporation and a smaller value of alpha_cold (~ 0.005) do reproduce the long recurrence times and the accretion rates at the level of the Eddington rate observed in outburst. The large difference between the values of alpha_hot and alpha_cold, if confirmed when disc irradiation is i...

  3. Optic disc oedema

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Marianne Kromann; Hamann, Steffen

    2014-01-01

    Optic disc oedema describes the nonspecific, localized swelling of the optic nerve head regardless of aetiology. Therefore, differentiating among the various aetiologies depends on a thorough history and knowledge of the clinical characteristics of the underlying conditions. Papilloedema strictly...... refers to optic disc oedema as a consequence of elevated intracranial pressure. It is usually a bilateral condition and visual function is preserved until late. Optic disc oedema caused by an anterior optic neuropathy is usually unilateral and accompanied by the loss of visual function....

  4. Physical Parameter Eclipse Mapping of the quiescent disc in V2051 Ophiuchi

    CERN Document Server

    Vrielmann, S; Offutt, W; Stiening, Rae F.; Offutt, Warren

    2002-01-01

    We analyse simultaneous UBVR quiescent light curves of the cataclysmic variable V2051 Oph using the Physical Parameter Eclipse Mapping method in order to map the gas temperature and surface density of the disc for the first time. The disc appears optically thick in the central regions and gradually becomes optically thin towards the disc edge or shows a more and more dominating temperature inversion in the disc chromosphere. The gas temperatures in the disc range from about 13500 K near the white dwarf to about 6000 K at the disc edge. The intermediate part of the disc has temperatures of 9000 K to 6500 K. The quiescent disc (chromosphere) shows a prominent bright region with temperatures of 10500 K around the impact region of the stream from the secondary with an extension towards smaller azimuths. The disc has a size of 0.53 +- 0.03 R_L1 and a mass accretion rate of between dM/dt = 10^15 g/s to 10^17g/s. The light curves must include an uneclipsed component, a hot chromosphere and/or a disc wind. The PPEM m...

  5. Wind accretion: Theory and Observations

    OpenAIRE

    Shakura, N. I.; Postnov, K. A.; Kochetkova, A. Yu.; Hjalmarsdotter, L.; Sidoli, L.; Paizis, A.

    2014-01-01

    A review of wind accretion in HMXB is presented. We focus on different regimes of quasi-spherical accretion onto a NS: supersonic (Bondi) accretion, which takes place when the captured matter cools down rapidly and falls supersonically towards the NS magnetosphere, and subsonic (settling) accretion which occurs when the plasma remains hot until it meets the magnetospheric boundary. The two regimes are separated by a limit in X-ray luminosity at about 4 10^{36} erg/s. In subsonic accretion, wh...

  6. Be discs in binary systems - I. Coplanar orbits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panoglou, Despina; Carciofi, Alex C.; Vieira, Rodrigo G.; Cyr, Isabelle H.; Jones, Carol E.; Okazaki, Atsuo T.; Rivinius, Thomas

    2016-09-01

    Be stars are surrounded by outflowing circumstellar matter structured in the form of decretion discs. They are often members of binary systems, where it is expected that the decretion disc interacts both radiatively and gravitationally with the companion. In this work we study how various orbital (period, mass ratio and eccentricity) and disc (viscosity) parameters affect the disc structure in coplanar binaries. The main effects of the secondary on the disc are its truncation and the accumulation of material inwards of truncation. We find two limiting cases with respect to the effects of eccentricity: in circular or nearly circular prograde orbits, the disc maintains a rotating, constant in shape, configuration, which is locked to the orbital phase. The disc structure appears smaller in size, more elongated and more massive for small viscosity parameter, small orbital separation and/or high mass ratio. In highly eccentric orbits, the effects are more complex, with the disc structure strongly dependent on the orbital phase. We also studied the effects of binarity in the disc continuum emission. Since the infrared and radio SED are sensitive to the disc size and density slope, the truncation and matter accumulation result in considerable modifications in the emergent spectrum. We conclude that binarity can serve as an explanation for the variability exhibited in observations of Be stars, and that our model can be used to detect invisible companions.

  7. Line-driven ablation of circumstellar discs - I. Optically thin decretion discs of classical Oe/Be stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kee, Nathaniel Dylan; Owocki, Stanley; Sundqvist, J. O.

    2016-05-01

    discussion of future extensions to study line-driven ablation of denser, optically thick, accretion discs of pre-main-sequence massive stars.

  8. Quantification of stochastic fragmentation of self-gravitating discs

    CERN Document Server

    Young, Matthew D

    2015-01-01

    Using 2D smoothed particle hydrodynamics, we investigate the distribution of wait times between strong shocks in a turbulent, self-gravitating accretion disc. We show the resulting distributions do not depend strongly on the cooling time or resolution of the disc and that they are consistent with the predictions of earlier work (Young & Clarke 2015; Cossins et al. 2009, 2010). We use the distribution of wait times between shocks to estimate the likelihood of stochastic fragmentation by gradual contraction of shear-resistant clumps on the cooling time scale. We conclude that the stochastic fragmentation mechanism (Paardekooper 2012) cannot change the radius at which fragmentation is possible by more than ~20%, restricting direct gravitational collapse as a mechanism for giant planet formation to the outer regions of protoplanetary discs.

  9. Magnetospheric accretion in EX Lupi

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abraham, Peter; Kospal, Agnes; Bouvier, Jerome

    2016-08-01

    We propose to observe EX Lup, the prototype of the EXor class of young eruptive stars, in order to understand how the accretion process works in the quiescent system. Here, we request 2.6 hours of telescope time on Spitzer, to carry out a mid-infrared photometric monitoring, which we will supplement with simultaneous ground-based optical and near-infrared data. The multi-wavelength light curves will allow us to reliably separate the effects of fluctuating accretion rate from the rotation of the star. By analyzing the variations of the accretion rate we will determine whether EX Lup accretes through a few stable accretion columns or several short-lived random accretion streams. With this campaign, EX Lup will become one of the T Tauri systems where the accretion process is best understood.

  10. Doppler disc tomography applied to low-mass AGN spin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Middleton, Matthew J.; Ingram, Adam R.

    2015-01-01

    Doppler tomography can provide a powerful means of determining black hole spin when our view to the central regions are revealed and obscured by optically thick orbiting material, and can provide an independent estimate that does not suffer as many degeneracies as traditional methods. For low-mass active galactic nuclei (AGN), time-dependent obscuration is expected to leave a signature in the changing spectrum of the disc emission which extends into the soft X-ray bandpass. We create a spectral model incorporating Doppler tomography and apply it to the case of the low-mass (8 × 105 M⊙) AGN, RX J1301.9+2747 which shows unusual timing properties in the form of short-lived flares that we argue are best explained by the orbit of a window through an optically thick wind. Modelling the phase-resolved spectrum over the course of the highest data quality flare indicates a very low spin even when we relax our constraints. This is the lowest mass AGN for which a spin has been measured and the first via this technique. We note that, as the mass and spin are very low, this appears to favour supermassive black hole (SMBH) growth by chaotic rather than constant accretion.

  11. Accretion disk electrodynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coroniti, F. V.

    1985-01-01

    Accretion disk electrodynamic phenomena are separable into two classes: (1) disks and coronas with turbulent magnetic fields; (2) disks and black holes which are connected to a large-scale external magnetic field. Turbulent fields may originate in an alpha-omega dynamo, provide anomalous viscous transport, and sustain an active corona by magnetic buoyancy. The large-scale field can extract energy and angular momentum from the disk and black hole, and be dynamically configured into a collimated relativistic jet.

  12. Advances in Susceptibility Genetics of Intervertebral Degenerative Disc Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yin'gang Zhang, Zhengming Sun, Jiangtao Liu, Xiong Guo

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The traditional view that the etiology of lumbar disc herniation is primarily due to age, gender, occupation, smoking and exposure to vehicular vibration dominated much of the last century. Recent research indicates that heredity may be largely responsible for the degeneration as well as herniation of intervertebral discs. Since 1998, genetic influences have been confirmed by the identification of several genes forms associated with disc degeneration. These researches are paving the way for a better understanding of the biologic mechanisms. Now, many researchers unanimously agree that lumbar disc herniation appears to be similar to other complex diseases, whose etiology has both environmental and hereditary influence, each with a part of contribution and relative risk. Then addressing the etiological of lumbar disc herniation, it is important to integrate heredity with the environment factors. For the purpose of this review, we have limited our discussion to several susceptibility genes associated with disc degeneration.

  13. Radially truncated galactic discs

    CERN Document Server

    De Grijs, R; Wesson, K H; Grijs, Richard de; Kregel, Michiel; Wesson, Karen H.

    2000-01-01

    We present the first results of a systematic analysis of radially truncatedexponential discs for four galaxies of a sample of disc-dominated edge-onspiral galaxies. Edge-on galaxies are very useful for the study of truncatedgalactic discs, since we can follow their light distributions out to largerradii than in less highly inclined galaxies. The origin of these truncationsand their asymmetry and sharpness are helpful to better constrain theories ofgalaxy formation. In general, the discs of our sample galaxies are truncated at similar radiion either side of their centres. With the exception of the disc of ESO 416-G25,it appears that our sample galaxies are closely symmetric, in terms of both thesharpness of their disc truncations and the truncation length. However, thetruncations occur over a larger region and not as abruptly as found by van derKruit & Searle (KS1-4). We show that the truncated luminosity distributions of our sample galaxies,if also present in the mass distributions, comfortably meet the r...

  14. The accretion flow to the intermittent accreting ms pulsar, HETE J1900.1-2455, as observed by XMM-Newton and RXTE

    CERN Document Server

    Papitto, A; Di Salvo, T; Egron, E; Bozzo, E; Burderi, L; Iaria, R; Riggio, A; Menna, M T

    2012-01-01

    We present a study of the accretion flow to the intermittent accreting millisecond pulsar, HETE J1900.1-2455, based on observations performed simultaneously by XMM-Newton and RXTE. The 0.33-50 keV spectrum is described by the sum of a hard Comptonized component originated in an optically thin {\\tau}~1 corona, a soft kTin~0.2 keV component interpreted as accretion disc emission, and of disc reflection of the hard component. Two emission features are detected at energies of 0.98(1) and 6.58(7) keV, respectively. The latter is identified as K{\\alpha} transition of Fe XXIII-XXV. A simultaneous detection in EPIC-pn, EPIC-MOS2, and RGS spectra favours an astrophysical origin also for the former, which has an energy compatible with Fe-L{\\alpha} and helium-like Ne-K{\\alpha} transitions. Broadness of the two features suggests a common origin, resulting from reflection in an accretion disc with inclination of (30+4{\\deg}), and extending down to Rin=25(+16,-11) gravitational radii from the compact object. However, the s...

  15. The age of Taurus - environmental effects on disc lifetimes

    CERN Document Server

    Rees, Jon M; Bell, C P M; Jeffries, R D; Naylor, Tim

    2015-01-01

    Using semi-empirical isochrones, we find the age of the Taurus star-forming region to be 3-4 Myr. Comparing the disc fraction in Taurus to young massive clusters suggests discs survive longer in this low density environment. We also present a method of photometrically de-reddening young stars using $iZJH$ data.

  16. Discovery of disc precession in the M31 dipping X-ray binary Bo 158

    CERN Document Server

    Barnard, R; Haswell, C A; Kolb, U; Osborne, J P; Murray, J R

    2006-01-01

    We present results from three XMM-Newton observations of the M31 low mass X-ray binary XMMU J004314.4+410726.3 (Bo 158), spaced over 3 days in 2004, July. Bo 158 was the first dipping LMXB to be discovered in M31. Periodic intensity dips were previously seen to occur on a 2.78-hr period, due to absorption in material that is raised out of the plane of the accretion disc. The report of these observations stated that the dip depth was anti-correlated with source intensity. However, our new observations do not favour a strict intensity dependance, but rather suggest that the dip variation is due to precession of the accretion disc. This is to be expected in LMXBs with a mass ratio <~ 0.3 (period <~ 4 hr), as the disc reaches the 3:1 resonance with the binary companion, causing elongation and precession of the disc. A 3D smoothed particle hydrodynamics simulation of the disc in this system shows retrograde rotation of a disc warp on a period of ~11 P_orb, and prograde disc precession on a period of ~29 P_or...

  17. Spectral hardening as a viable alternative to disc truncation in black hole state transitions

    CERN Document Server

    Salvesen, Greg; Reis, Rubens C; Begelman, Mitchell C

    2013-01-01

    Constraining the accretion flow geometry of black hole binaries in outburst is complicated by the inability of simplified multi-colour disc models to distinguish between changes in the inner disc radius and alterations to the emergent spectrum, parameterised by the phenomenological colour correction factor, f_col. We analyse Rossi X-ray Timing Explorer observations of the low mass Galactic black hole X-ray binary, GX 339-4, taken over seven epochs when the source was experiencing a state transition. The accretion disc component is isolated using a pipeline resulting in robust detections for disc luminosities, 0.001 < L_disc / L_Edd < 0.5. Assuming that the inner disc remains situated at the innermost stable circular orbit over the course of a state transition, we measure the relative degree of change in f_col required to explain the spectral evolution of the disc component. A variable f_col that increases by a factor of ~ 2.0 - 3.5 as the source transitions from the high/soft state to the low/hard state...

  18. Crystallization of Self-Propelled Hard Discs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Briand, G.; Dauchot, O.

    2016-08-01

    We experimentally study the crystallization of a monolayer of vibrated discs with a built-in polar asymmetry, a model system of active liquids, and contrast it with that of vibrated isotropic discs. Increasing the packing fraction ϕ , the quasicontinuous crystallization reported for isotropic discs is replaced by a transition, or a crossover, towards a "self-melting" crystal. Starting from the liquid phase and increasing the packing fraction, clusters of dense hexagonal-ordered packed discs spontaneously form, melt, split, and merge, leading to a highly intermittent and heterogeneous dynamics. For a packing fraction larger than ϕ*, a few large clusters span the system size. The cluster size distribution is monotonically decreasing for ϕ ϕ*, and is a power law at the transition. The system is, however, never dynamically arrested. The clusters permanently melt from place to place, forming droplets of an active liquid which rapidly propagate across the system. This self-melting crystalline state subsists up to the highest possible packing fraction, questioning the stability of the crystal for active discs unless it is at ordered close packing.

  19. Crystallization of Self-Propelled Hard Discs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Briand, G; Dauchot, O

    2016-08-26

    We experimentally study the crystallization of a monolayer of vibrated discs with a built-in polar asymmetry, a model system of active liquids, and contrast it with that of vibrated isotropic discs. Increasing the packing fraction ϕ, the quasicontinuous crystallization reported for isotropic discs is replaced by a transition, or a crossover, towards a "self-melting" crystal. Starting from the liquid phase and increasing the packing fraction, clusters of dense hexagonal-ordered packed discs spontaneously form, melt, split, and merge, leading to a highly intermittent and heterogeneous dynamics. For a packing fraction larger than ϕ^{*}, a few large clusters span the system size. The cluster size distribution is monotonically decreasing for ϕϕ^{*}, and is a power law at the transition. The system is, however, never dynamically arrested. The clusters permanently melt from place to place, forming droplets of an active liquid which rapidly propagate across the system. This self-melting crystalline state subsists up to the highest possible packing fraction, questioning the stability of the crystal for active discs unless it is at ordered close packing. PMID:27610889

  20. The Role of Disc Self-Gravity in Circumbinary Planet Systems: I. Disc Structure and Evolution

    CERN Document Server

    Mutter, Matthew M; Nelson, Richard P

    2016-01-01

    We present the results of 2-dimensional hydrodynamic simulations of self-gravitating circumbinary discs around binaries whose parameters match those of the circumbinary planet-hosting systems Kepler-16, -34 and -35. Previous work has shown that non-self-gravitating discs in these systems form an eccentric precessing inner cavity due to tidal truncation by the binary, and planets which form at large radii migrate until stalling at this cavity. While this scenario appears to provide a natural explanation for the observed orbital locations of the circumbinary planets, previous simulations have failed to match the observed planet orbital parameters. The aim of this work is to examine the role of self-gravity in modifying circumbinary disc structure as a function of disc mass, prior to considering the evolution of embedded circumbinary planets. In agreement with previous work, we find that for disc masses between 1--5 times the minimum mass solar nebula (MMSN), disc self-gravity affects modest changes in the struc...

  1. Pseudoenhancement of intervertebral disc herniation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Araki, Y.; Ootani, M.; Furukawa, T.; Tsukaguchi, I. (Dept. of Radiology, Osaka Rosai Hospital (Japan)); Mitomo, M. (Dept. of Radiology, Osaka Univ. Medical School (Japan))

    1992-08-01

    Two patients with intervertebral disc herniation appeared to demonstrate abnormally diffuse and intense enhancement of the disc after intravenous administration of gadolinium-DTPA for MRI. Surgery disclosed a dilated epidural venous plexus in one and vascular granulation tissue in the other, associated with the herniated disc material. The mechanism of this 'pseudoenhancement' of the disc appears to be a partial volume effect of disc material and the adjacent veins or granulation tissue. Pseudoenhancement of a herniated disc should be included in the differential diagnosis of a diffusely enhancing epidural mass. (orig.).

  2. The vibration of rolling discs

    OpenAIRE

    Ferguson, Neil Stuart

    1988-01-01

    The study presented is a fundamental investigation into the vibration of a rolling disc and an analysis of the sound which is then produced by the disc response. In order to characterise the disc's behaviour the free and forced vibration of a thin disc is analysed with the additional conditions which occur in rolling. These conditions include the geometric boundary conditions, the effect of the in-plane load, the change due to rotation of the disc and the effect of contact on the disc which i...

  3. Study of the reflection spectrum of the accreting neutron star GX 3+1 using XMM-Newton and INTEGRAL

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pintore, F.; Di Salvo, T.; Bozzo, E.; Sanna, A.; Burderi, L.; D'Aì, A.; Riggio, A.; Scarano, F.; Iaria, R.

    2015-06-01

    Broad emission features of abundant chemical elements, such as iron, are commonly seen in the X-ray spectra of accreting compact objects and their studies can provide useful information about the geometry of the accretion processes. In this work, we focus our attention on GX 3+1, a bright, persistent accreting low-mass X-ray binary, classified as an atoll source. Its spectrum is well described by an accretion disc plus a stable Comptonizing, optically thick corona which dominates the X-ray emission in the 0.3-20 keV energy band. In addition, four broad emission lines are found and we associate them with reflection of hard photons from the inner regions of the accretion disc, where Doppler and relativistic effects are important. We used self-consistent reflection models to fit the spectra of the 2010 XMM-Newton observation and the stacking of the whole data sets of 2010 INTEGRAL observations. We conclude that the spectra are consistent with reflection produced at ˜10 gravitational radii by an accretion disc with an ionization parameter of ξ ˜ 600 erg cm s-1 and viewed under an inclination angle of the system of ˜35°. Furthermore, we detected for the first time for GX 3+1, the presence of a power-law component dominant at energies higher than 20 keV, possibly associated with an optically thin component of non-thermal electrons.

  4. Regulation of black-hole accretion by a disk wind during a violent outburst of V404 Cygni

    CERN Document Server

    Muñoz-Darias, T; Sánchez, D Mata; Fender, R P; Padilla, M Armas; Linares, M; Ponti, G; Charles, P A; Mooley, K P; Rodriguez, J

    2016-01-01

    Accretion of matter onto black holes is universally associated with strong radiative feedback and powerful outflows. In particular, black hole transients show outflows whose properties are strongly coupled to those of the accretion flow. This includes X-ray winds of ionized material, expelled from the accretion disc encircling the black hole, and collimated radio jets. Very recently, a distinct optical variability pattern has been reported in the transient black hole transient V404 Cyg, and interpreted as disrupted mass flow into the inner regions of its large accretion disc. Here, we report on the discovery of a sustained outer accretion disc wind in V404 Cyg, which is unlike any seen previously. We find that the outflowing wind is neutral, has a large covering factor, expands at 1% of the speed of light and triggers a nebular phase once accretion sharply drops and the ejecta become optically thin. The large expelled mass (> 10^-8 Msun) indicates that the outburst was prematurely ended when a sizeable fracti...

  5. Study of the reflection spectrum of the accreting neutron star GX 3+1 using XMM-Newton and INTEGRAL

    CERN Document Server

    Pintore, Fabio; Bozzo, Enrico; Sanna, Andrea; Burderi, Luciano; D'Aì, Antonino; Riggio, Alessandro; Scarano, Fabiana; Iaria, Rosario

    2015-01-01

    Broad emission features of abundant chemical elements, such as Iron, are commonly seen in the X-ray spectra of accreting compact objects and their studies can provide useful information about the geometry of the accretion processes. In this work, we focus our attention on GX 3+1, a bright, persistent accreting low mass X-ray binary, classified as an atoll source. Its spectrum is well described by an accretion disc plus a stable comptonizing, optically thick corona which dominates the X-ray emission in the 0.3-20 keV energy band. In addition, four broad emission lines are found and we associate them with reflection of hard photons from the inner regions of the accretion disc where doppler and relativistic effects are important. We used self-consistent reflection models to fit the spectra of the 2010 XMM-Newton observation and the stacking of the whole datasets of 2010 INTEGRAL observations. We conclude that the spectra are consistent with reflection produced at ~10 gravitational radii by an accretion disc with...

  6. Edge modes in self-gravitating disc-planet interactions

    CERN Document Server

    Lin, Min-Kai

    2011-01-01

    We study the stability of gaps opened by a giant planet in a self-gravitating protoplanetary disc. We find a linear instability associated with both the self-gravity of the disc and local vortensity maxima which coincide with gap edges. For our models, these edge modes develop and extend to twice the orbital radius of a Saturn mass planet in discs with disc-to-star mass ratio >0.06, corresponding to a Toomre Q < 1.5 at the outer disc boundary. Unlike the local vortex-forming instabilities associated with gap edges in weakly or non-self-gravitating low viscosity discs, the edge modes are global and exist only in sufficiently massive discs, but for the typical viscosity values adopted for protoplanetary discs. Analytic modelling and linear calculations show edge modes may be interpreted as a localised disturbance associated with a gap edge inducing activity in the extended disc, through the launching of density waves excited at Lindblad resonances. Nonlinear hydrodynamic simulations are performed to investig...

  7. Supernova Light Curves Powered by Fallback Accretion

    CERN Document Server

    Dexter, Jason

    2012-01-01

    Some fraction of the material ejected in a core collapse supernova explosion may remain bound to the compact remnant, and eventually turn around and fall back. We show that the late time (> days) power associated with the accretion of this "fallback" material may significantly affect the optical light curve, in some cases producing super-luminous or otherwise peculiar supernovae. We use spherically symmetric hydrodynamical models to estimate the accretion rate at late times for a range of progenitor masses and radii and explosion energies. The accretion rate onto the proto-neutron star or black hole decreases as Mdot ~ t^-5/3 at late times, but its normalization can be significantly enhanced at low explosion energies, in very massive stars, or if a strong reverse shock wave forms at the helium/hydrogen interface in the progenitor. If the resulting super-Eddington accretion drives an outflow which thermalizes in the outgoing ejecta, the supernova debris will be re-energized at a time when photons can diffuse o...

  8. Discovery and modelling of disc precession in the M31 X-ray binary Bo 158?

    CERN Document Server

    Barnard, R; Haswell, C A; Kolb, U; Murray, J R

    2005-01-01

    The low mass X-ray binary (LMXB) associated with the M31 globular cluster Bo 158 is known to exhibit intensity dips on a ~2.78 hr period. This is due to obscuration of the X-ray source on the orbital period by material on the outer edge of the accretion disc. However, the depth of dipping varied from <10% to \\~83% in three archival XMM-Newton observations of Bo 158. Previous work suggested that the dip depth was anticorrelated with the X-ray luminosity. However, we present results from three new XMM-Newton observations that suggest that the evolution of dipping is instead due to precession of the accretion disc. Such precession is expected in neutron star LMXBs with mass ratios <0.3 (i.e. with orbital periods <4 hr), such as the Galactic dipping LMXB 4U 1916-053. We simulated the accretion disc of Bo 158 using cutting-edge 3D smoothed particle hydrodynamics (SPH), and using the observed parameters. Our results show disc variability on two time-scales. The disc precesses in a prograde direction on a p...

  9. Active states and structure transformations in accreting white dwarfs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boneva, Daniela; Kaygorodov, Pavel

    2016-07-01

    Active states in white dwarfs are usually associated with light curve's effects that concern to the bursts, flickering or flare-up occurrences. It is common that a gas-dynamics source exists for each of these processes there. We consider the white dwarf binary stars with accretion disc around the primary. We suggest a flow transformation modeling of the mechanisms that are responsible for ability to cause some flow instability and bring the white dwarfs system to the outburst's development. The processes that cause the accretion rate to sufficiently increase are discussed. Then the transition from a quiescent to an active state is realized. We analyze a quasi-periodic variability in the luminosity of white dwarf binary stars systems. The results are supported with an observational data.

  10. MRI-driven Accretion onto Magnetized stars: Axisymmetric MHD Simulations

    CERN Document Server

    Romanova, Marina M; Koldoba, Alexander V; Lovelace, Richard V E

    2011-01-01

    We present the first results of a global axisymmetric simulation of accretion onto rotating magnetized stars from a turbulent, MRI-driven disk. The angular momentum is transported outward by the magnetic stress of the turbulent flow with a rate corresponding to a Shakura-Sunyaev viscosity parameter alpha\\approx 0.01-0.04. The result of the disk-magnetosphere interaction depends on the orientation of the poloidal field in the disk relative to that of the star at the disk-magnetosphere boundary. If fields have the same polarity, then the magnetic flux is accumulated at the boundary and blocks the accretion which leads to the accumulation of matter at the boundary. Subsequently, this matter accretes to the star in outburst before accumulating again. Hence, the cycling, `bursty' accretion is observed. If the disc and stellar fields have opposite polarity, then the field reconnection enhances the penetration of the disk matter towards the deeper field lines of the magnetosphere. However, the magnetic stress at the...

  11. Academician Zeldovich and the foundations of disk accretion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The author draws on his memories to review the decisive contributions of Ya B Zeldovich to the formation and development of the theory of disc accretion onto black holes and neutron stars in binaries. A theory developed by N I Shakura and R A Sunyaev in the early 1970s under the guidance of Ya B Zeldovich predicted these objects to be the brightest X-ray sources in the sky and defined the prospects for research in X-ray astronomy and high-energy astrophysics for decades ahead. (from the history of physics)

  12. A toy model for magnetized neutrino-dominated accretion flows

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    In this paper,we present a simplified model for a magnetized neutrino-dominated accretion flow(NDAF) in which the effect of black hole(BH) spin is taken into account by adopting a set of relativistic correction factors,and the magnetic field is parameterized as β,the ratio of the magnetic pressure to the total pressure.It is found that the disc properties are sensitive to the values of the BH spin and β,and more energy can be extracted from NDAFs by using a faster spin and lower β.

  13. Bryan total disc arthroplasty: a replacement disc for cervical disc disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Markus Wenger

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Markus Wenger1, Thomas-Marc Markwalder21Neurosurgery, Klinik Beau-Site and Salem-Spital, Berne, Switzerland; 2Attending Neurosurgeon FMH, Private Practice Spine Surgery, Berne-Muri, SwitzerlandAbstract: Total disc arthroplasty is a new option in the treatment of cervical degenerative disc disease. Several types of cervical disc prostheses currently challenge the gold-standard discectomy and fusion procedures. This review describes the Bryan Cervical Disc System and presents the Bryan prosthesis, its indications, surgical technique, complications, and outcomes, as given in the literature.Keywords: cervical spine, degenerative disc disease, disc herniation, myelopathy, spine surgery, bryan prosthesis, complication, outcome

  14. Composition of Airy disc

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Guoquan Zhou; Xiuxiang Chu; Jun Zheng

    2008-01-01

    The description of a plane wave diffracted by a circular aperture is directly started from the Maxwell's equations. Based on the vector angular spectrum representation of Maxwell's equations, the diffracted plane wave is decomposed into the TE and TM terms. The analytical TE and TM terms in the far field are presented by stationary phase. As the TE and TM terms are orthogonal to each other in the far field, their sum constitutes the so-called Airy disc pattern. Therefore, this research reveals the composition of Airy disc, which is beneficial to deepen and enhance the recognition of the classical diffraction problem.

  15. Innervation of ''painful'' lumbar discs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Coppes, MH; Marani, E; Thomeer, RTWM; Groen, GJ

    1997-01-01

    Study Design. The authors investigated the innervation of discographically confirmed degenerated and ''painful'' human intervertebral discs. Objective. To determine the type and distribution patterns of nerve fibers present in degenerated human intervertebral discs. Summary of Background Data. The i

  16. Global Time Dependent Solutions of Stochastically Driven Standard Accretion Disks: Development of Hydrodynamical Code

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wani, Naveel; Maqbool, Bari; Iqbal, Naseer; Misra, Ranjeev

    2016-07-01

    X-ray binaries and AGNs are powered by accretion discs around compact objects, where the x-rays are emitted from the inner regions and uv emission arise from the relatively cooler outer parts. There has been an increasing evidence that the variability of the x-rays in different timescales is caused by stochastic fluctuations in the accretion disc at different radii. These fluctuations although arise in the outer parts of the disc but propagate inwards to give rise to x-ray variability and hence provides a natural connection between the x-ray and uv variability. There are analytical expressions to qualitatively understand the effect of these stochastic variabilities, but quantitative predictions are only possible by a detailed hydrodynamical study of the global time dependent solution of standard accretion disc. We have developed numerical efficient code (to incorporate all these effects), which considers gas pressure dominated solutions and stochastic fluctuations with the inclusion of boundary effect of the last stable orbit.

  17. Dynamical structure of magnetized dissipative accretion flow around black holes

    CERN Document Server

    Sarkar, Biplob

    2016-01-01

    We study the global structure of optically thin, advection dominated, magnetized accretion flow around black holes. We consider the magnetic field to be turbulent in nature and dominated by the toroidal component. With this, we obtain the complete set of accretion solutions for dissipative flows where bremsstrahlung process is regarded as the dominant cooling mechanism. We show that rotating magnetized accretion flow experiences virtual barrier around black hole due to centrifugal repulsion that can trigger the discontinuous transition of the flow variables in the form of shock waves. We examine the properties of the shock waves and find that the dynamics of the post-shock corona (PSC) is controlled by the flow parameters, namely viscosity, cooling rate and strength of the magnetic field, respectively. We separate the effective region of the parameter space for standing shock and observe that shock can form for wide range of flow parameters. We obtain the critical viscosity parameter that allows global accret...

  18. Structure Formation in Gas-Rich Galactic Discs with Finite Thickness: From Discs to Rings

    CERN Document Server

    Behrendt, Manuel; Schartmann, Marc

    2014-01-01

    Gravitational instabilities play an important role in structure formation of gas-rich high-redshift disc galaxies. In this paper, we revisit the axisymmetric perturbation theory and the resulting growth of structure, by taking the realistic thickness of the disc into account. In the unstable regime, which corresponds for thick discs to a Toomre parameter below the critical value Q=0.696, we find a fastest growing perturbation wavelength that is always a factor 1.93 times larger than in the classical razor-thin disc approximation. This result is independent of the adopted disc scale height and by this independent of temperature and surface density. In order to test the analytical theory, we compare it with a high resolution hydrodynamical simulation of an isothermal gravitationally unstable gas disc with the typical vertical sech density profile and study its break-up into rings that subsequently fragment into dense clumps. In the first phase rings form, that organise themselves discretely, with distances corr...

  19. The geochemical constraints on Earth's accretion and core formation (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rudge, J. F.; Kleine, T.; Bourdon, B.

    2010-12-01

    There are now a wide range of geochemical observations that can be used to place constraints on Earth's first hundred million years. During this time the Earth accreted through collisions between numerous planetary embryos, and these collisions are thought to have caused significant melting and segregation of metal, forming the Earth's core. Information on the pressure, temperature, and oxygen fugacity conditions of core formation can be obtained from the abundances of siderophile elements in Earth's mantle and high pressure partitioning experiments. Timing information can be obtained from isotopic measurements, notably Hf-W and U-Pb. Here we present a simple geochemical box model that can be used to provide constraints on Earth's accretion and core formation. A key parameter in the model is the degree of equilibration during metal-silicate segregation. Existing models have shown that the siderophile element abundances are consistent with full equilibration in a deep magma ocean, with an increase in oxygen fugacity during accretion. Here we show that the siderophile element abundances are equally consistent with scenarios involving partial equilibration. The Hf-W isotopic observations constrain the degree of equilibration to be at least 36%. The timing constraints depend strongly on the degree of equilibration, but nevertheless bounds can be placed on the timing of Earth's accretion. With full equilibration, the Hf-W observations imply a rapid early accretion stage (at least 80% of Earth accreting within 35 Myr), but with partial equilibration accretion may be much more protracted. If Pb partitions into Earth’s core, the U-Pb observations can be used to constrain the late stages of accretion, and are consistent with the final 10% of Earth’s accretion occurring during the Moon-forming giant impact at ~4.45Ga.

  20. Spontaneously disappearing lumbar disc protrusion

    OpenAIRE

    Ushewokunze, Shungu; Abbas, Naeem; Dardis, Ronan; Killeen, Ian

    2008-01-01

    Spontaneous disappearance of a herniated lumbar disc is known to occur. This case study describes a 45-year-old patient whose symptoms of lumbar radiculopathy resolved and follow-up imaging showed complete disappearance of the disc prolapse. This phenomenon strengthens the role of conservative treatment in the management of lumbar disc protrusions.

  1. Protostellar accretion traced with chemistry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frimann, Søren; Jørgensen, Jes K.; Padoan, Paolo;

    2016-01-01

    Context. Understanding how protostars accrete their mass is a centralquestion of star formation. One aspect of this is trying to understandwhether the time evolution of accretion rates in deeply embedded objectsis best characterised by a smooth decline from early to late stages orby intermittent ...

  2. Warps and waves in fully cosmological models of galactic discs

    CERN Document Server

    Gómez, Facundo A; Grand, Robert J J; Marinacci, Federico; Springel, Volker; Pakmor, Rüdiger

    2016-01-01

    Recent studies have revealed an oscillating asymmetry in the vertical structure of the Milky Way's disc. Here we analyze 16 high-resolution, fully cosmological simulations of the evolution of individual Milky Way-sized galaxies, carried out with the MHD code AREPO. At redshift zero, about $70\\%$ of our galactic discs show strong vertical patterns, with amplitudes that can exceed 2 kpc. Half of these are typical `integral sign' warps. The rest are oscillations similar to those observed in the Milky Way. Such structures are thus expected to be common. The associated mean vertical motions can be as large as 30 km/s. Cold disc gas typically follows the vertical patterns seen in the stars. These perturbations have a variety of causes: close encounters with satellites, distant flybys of massive objects, accretion of misaligned cold gas from halo infall or from mergers. Tidally induced vertical patterns can be identified in both young and old stellar populations, whereas those originating from cold gas accretion are...

  3. Radiative feedback from protoplanets in self-gravitating protoplanetary discs

    CERN Document Server

    Nayakshin, Sergei

    2013-01-01

    It is well known that massive protoplanetary disc are gravitationally unstable beyond tens of AU from their parent star. The eventual fate of the self-gravitating gas clumps born in the disc is currently not understood, although the range of uncertainty is well known. If clumps migrate inward rapidly, they are tidally disrupted, which may leave behind giant or terrestrial like planets. On the other hand, if clumps migrate less rapidly, they tend to accrete gas, becoming proto brown dwarfs or low mass companions to the parent star. Here we argue that radiative feedback of contracting clumps (protoplanets) on their discs is an important effect that has been overlooked in previous calculations. We show analytically that temperature in clump's vicinity may be high enough to support a quasi-static atmosphere if the clump mass is below a critical value, $M_{\\rm cr} \\sim 6$ Jupiter masses ($M_J$). This may arrest further gas accretion onto the clump and thus promote formation of planets rather than low mass companio...

  4. Bryan total disc arthroplasty: a replacement disc for cervical disc disease

    OpenAIRE

    Markus Wenger; Thomas-Marc Markwalder

    2010-01-01

    Markus Wenger1, Thomas-Marc Markwalder21Neurosurgery, Klinik Beau-Site and Salem-Spital, Berne, Switzerland; 2Attending Neurosurgeon FMH, Private Practice Spine Surgery, Berne-Muri, SwitzerlandAbstract: Total disc arthroplasty is a new option in the treatment of cervical degenerative disc disease. Several types of cervical disc prostheses currently challenge the gold-standard discectomy and fusion procedures. This review describes the Bryan Cervical Disc System and presents the Bryan prosthes...

  5. Thin accretion disks in stationary axisymmetric wormhole spacetimes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this paper, we study the physical properties and the equilibrium thermal radiation emission characteristics of matter forming thin accretion disks in stationary axially symmetric wormhole spacetimes. The thin disk models are constructed by taking different values of the wormhole's angular velocity, and the time averaged energy flux, the disk temperature, and the emission spectra of the accretion disks are obtained. Comparing the mass accretion in a rotating wormhole geometry with the one of a Kerr black hole, we verify that the intensity of the flux emerging from the disk surface is greater for wormholes than for rotating black holes with the same geometrical mass and accretion rate. We also present the conversion efficiency of the accreting mass into radiation, and show that the rotating wormholes provide a much more efficient engine for the transformation of the accreting mass into radiation than the Kerr black holes. Therefore specific signatures appear in the electromagnetic spectrum of thin disks around rotating wormholes, thus leading to the possibility of distinguishing wormhole geometries by using astrophysical observations of the emission spectra from accretion disks.

  6. Formation of primordial supermassive stars by burst accretion

    CERN Document Server

    Sakurai, Y; Yoshida, N; Yorke, H W

    2015-01-01

    A promising formation channel of SMBHs at redshift 6 is the so-called DC model, which posits that a massive seed BH forms through gravitational collapse of a $\\sim 10^5~M_\\odot$ SMS. We study the evolution of such a SMS growing by rapid mass accretion. In particular, we examine the impact of time-dependent mass accretion of repeating burst and quiescent phases that are expected to occur with a self-gravitating circumstellar disk. We show that the stellar evolution with such episodic accretion differs qualitatively from that expected with a constant accretion rate, even if the mean accretion rate is the same. Unlike the case of constant mass accretion, whereby the star expands roughly following $R_* \\simeq 2.6 \\times 10^3 R_\\odot (M_*/100~M_\\odot)^{1/2}$, the protostar can substantially contract during the quiescent phases between accretion bursts. The stellar effective temperature and ionizing photon emissivity increase accordingly as the star contracts, which can cause strong ionizing feedback and halt the m...

  7. MHD Disc Winds and Linewidth Distributions

    CERN Document Server

    Chajet, Laura S

    2013-01-01

    We study AGN emission line profiles combining an improved version of the accretion disc-wind model of Murray & Chiang with the magneto-hydrodynamic model of Emmering et al. We show how the shape, broadening and shift of the C IV line depend not only on the viewing angle to the object but also on the wind launching angle, especially for small launching angles. We have compared the dispersions in our model C IV linewidth distributions to observational upper limit on that dispersion, considering both smooth and clumpy torus models. As the torus half-opening angle (measured from the polar axis) increases above about 18? degrees, increasingly larger wind launching angles are required to match the observational constraints. Above a half-opening angle of about 47? degrees, no wind launch angle (within the maximum allowed by the MHD solutions) can match the observations. Considering a model that replaces the torus by a warped disc yields the same constraints obtained with the two other models.

  8. Disk Instability vs. Core Accretion: Observable Discriminants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jang-Condell, H.

    2007-06-01

    I will discuss ways to distinguish between disk instability and core accretion, the two competing paradigms for giant planet formation. Disk instability happens when a massive disk fragments into planet-sized self-gravitating clumps. Scattered light from these disks will illuminate high altitude density variations that result from stirring of the disk by the forming planet. These variations will evolve quickly, within several years, but do not correlate with the position of the planet itself. Alternatively, core accretion happens when solid particles collide and coagulate into larger and larger bodies until a body large enough to accrete a gaseous envelope forms -- around 10-20 Earth masses. This process is thought to be more quiescent than gravitational instability, so the disk should appear smooth. Although a 10-20 Earth mass core is insufficiently massive to fully clear an annular gap in the disk, it does perturb the disk material immediately in its vicinity, creating shadows and brightenings at the protoplanet's location. The planet may also begin to clear a partial gap. Shadowing and illumination on this partial gap can alter the thermal structure at the upper layers of the disk on a sufficiently large scale to be observable. Observing the signatures of either disk instability or core accretion requires milliarcsecond resolution and high contrast imaging. Advances in coronography, adaptive optics, and interferometry are bringing us ever closer to begin able to make these detections. Observational confirmation of either process taking place in a young circumstellar disk will help resolve the long-standing debate over how giant planets form.

  9. Observations on the Formation of Massive Stars by Accretion

    CERN Document Server

    Keto, E; Keto, Eric; Wood, Kenneth

    2006-01-01

    Observations of the H66a recombination line from the ionized gas in the cluster of newly formed massive stars, G10.6-0.4, show that most of the continuum emission derives from the dense gas in an ionized accretion flow that forms an ionized disk or torus around a group of stars in the center of the cluster. The inward motion observed in the accretion flow suggests that despite the equivalent luminosity and ionizing radiation of several O stars, neither radiation pressure nor thermal pressure has reversed the accretion flow. The observations indicate why the radiation pressure of the stars and the thermal pressure of the HII region are not effective in reversing the accretion flow. The observed rate of the accretion flow, 0.001 solar masses/yr, is sufficient to form massive stars within the time scale imposed by their short main sequence lifetimes. A simple model of disk accretion relates quenched HII regions, trapped hypercompact HII regions, and photo-evaporating disks in an evolutionary sequence.

  10. Magnetospheric accretion and spin-down of the prototypical classical T Tauri star AATau

    CERN Document Server

    Donati, JF; Bouvier, J; Gregory, SG; Grankin, KN; Jardine, MM; Hussain, GAJ; Menard, F; Dougados, C; Unruh, Y; Mohanty, S; Auriere, M; Morin, J; Fares, R

    2010-01-01

    From observations collected with the ESPaDOnS & NARVAL spectropolarimeters at CFHT and TBL, we report the detection of Zeeman signatures on the prototypical classical TTauri star AATau, both in photospheric lines and accretion-powered emission lines. Using time series of unpolarized and circularly polarized spectra, we reconstruct at two epochs maps of the magnetic field, surface brightness and accretion-powered emission of AATau. We find that AATau hosts a 2-3kG magnetic dipole tilted at ~20deg to the rotation axis, and of presumably dynamo origin. We also show that the magnetic poles of AATau host large cool spots at photospheric level and accretion regions at chromospheric level. The logarithmic accretion rate at the surface of AATau at the time of our observations is strongly variable, ranging from -9.6 to -8.5 and equal to -9.2 in average (in Msun/yr); this is an order of magnitude smaller than the disc accretion rate at which the magnetic truncation radius (below which the disc is disrupted by the s...

  11. Bimodal gas accretion in the MareNostrum galaxy formation simulation

    CERN Document Server

    Ocvirk, P; Teyssier, R

    2008-01-01

    The physics of diffuse gas accretion and the properties of the cold and hot modes of accretion onto proto-galaxies between z=2 and z=5.4 are investigated using the large cosmological simulation performed with the RAMSES code on the MareNostrum supercomputing facility. Galactic winds, chemical enrichment, UV background heating and radiative cooling are taken into account in this very high resolution simulation. Using {\\it accretion--weighted temperature histograms}, we have perfomed two different measurements of the thermal state of the gas accreted towards the central galaxy. The first measurement, performed using accretion--weighted histograms on a spherical surface of radius $0.2 \\Rv$ centred on {the densest gas structure in the vicinity of the halo centre of mass}, is a good indicator of the presence of an accretion shock in the vicinity of the galactic disc. We define the hot shock mass, $\\Msh$, as the typical halo mass separating cold dominated from hot dominated accretion in the vicinity of the galaxy. ...

  12. Influence of the water content in protoplanetary discs on planet migration and formation

    CERN Document Server

    Bitsch, Bertram

    2016-01-01

    The temperature and density profiles of protoplanetary discs depend crucially on the mass fraction of micrometre-sized dust grains and on their chemical composition. A larger abundance of micrometre-sized grains leads to an overall heating of the disc, so that the water ice line moves further away from the star. An increase in the water fraction inside the disc, maintaining a fixed dust abundance, increases the temperature in the icy regions of the disc and lowers the temperature in the inner regions. Discs with a larger silicate fraction have the opposite effect. Here we explore the consequence of the dust composition and abundance for the formation and migration of planets. We find that discs with low water content can only sustain outwards migration for planets up to 4 Earth masses, while outwards migration in discs with a larger water content persists up to 8 Earth masses in the late stages of the disc evolution. Icy planetary cores that do not reach run-away gas accretion can thus migrate to orbits close...

  13. Vibration analysis of atomising discs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deng, H; Ouyang, H, E-mail: H.Ouyang@liverpool.ac.u [Department of Engineering, University of Liverpool, Liverpool L69 3GH (United Kingdom)

    2009-08-01

    The centrifugal atomisation of metallic melts using a spinning disc is an important process for powder production and spray deposition. In the manufacturing process the high-temperature melt flows down to the surface of the atomising disc spinning at very high speed. It is observed that there is a hydraulic jump of the melt flow prior to atomisation. In this paper, the dynamic model of the atomising disc as a spinning Kirchhoff plate with this hydraulic jump is established. The flowing melt is modelled as moving mass and weight force in the radial direction. Using a Galerkin method, it is found that the vibration properties of the atomising disc vary with the disc clamping ratio. The amplitude of the vibration is largely raised when the clamping ratio is smaller than the critical jump radius ratio. It is also found that the disc vibration is non-stationary before becoming steady and the amplitude decreases with increasing disc speed.

  14. Discs in misaligned binary systems

    CERN Document Server

    Rawiraswattana, Krisada; Goodwin, Simon P

    2016-01-01

    We perform SPH simulations to study precession and changes in alignment between the circumprimary disc and the binary orbit in misaligned binary systems. We find that the precession process can be described by the rigid-disc approximation, where the disc is considered as a rigid body interacting with the binary companion only gravitationally. Precession also causes change in alignment between the rotational axis of the disc and the spin axis of the primary star. This type of alignment is of great important for explaining the origin of spin-orbit misaligned planetary systems. However, we find that the rigid-disc approximation fails to describe changes in alignment between the disc and the binary orbit. This is because the alignment process is a consequence of interactions that involve the fluidity of the disc, such as the tidal interaction and the encounter interaction. Furthermore, simulation results show that there are not only alignment processes, which bring the components towards alignment, but also anti-...

  15. The comparative analysis of rocks' resistance to forward-slanting disc cutters and traditionally installed disc cutters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhao-Huang; Fei, Sun; Liang, Meng

    2016-08-01

    At present, disc cutters of a full face rock tunnel boring machine are mostly mounted in the traditional way. Practical use in engineering projects reveals that this installation method not only heavily affects the operation life of disc cutters, but also increases the energy consumption of a full face rock tunnel boring machine. To straighten out this issue, therefore, a rock-breaking model is developed for disc cutters' movement after the research on the rock breaking of forward-slanting disc cutters. Equations of its displacement are established based on the analysis of velocity vector of a disc cutter's rock-breaking point. The functional relations then are brought forward between the displacement parameters of a rock-breaking point and its coordinate through the analysis of micro displacement of a rock-breaking point. Thus, the geometric equations of rock deformation are derived for the forward-slanting installation of disc cutters. With a linear relationship remaining between the acting force and its deformation either before or after the leap breaking, the constitutive relation of rock deformation can be expressed in the form of generalized Hooke law, hence the comparative analysis of the variation in the resistance of rock to the disc cutters mounted in the forward-slanting way with that in the traditional way. It is discovered that with the same penetration, strain of the rock in contact with forward-slanting disc cutters is apparently on the decline, in other words, the resistance of rock to disc cutters is reduced. Thus wear of disc cutters resulted from friction is lowered and energy consumption is correspondingly decreased. It will be useful for the development of installation and design theory of disc cutters, and significant for the breakthrough in the design of full face rock tunnel boring machine.

  16. Variable protostellar accretion with episodic bursts

    CERN Document Server

    Vorobyov, Eduard I

    2015-01-01

    We present the latest development of the disk gravitational instability and fragmentation model, originally introduced by us to explain episodic accretion bursts in the early stages of star formation. Using our numerical hydrodynamics model with improved disk thermal balance and star-disk interaction, we computed the evolution of protostellar disks formed from the gravitational collapse of prestellar cores. In agreement with our previous studies, we find that cores of higher initial mass and angular momentum produce disks that are more favorable to gravitational instability and fragmentation, while a higher background irradiation and magnetic fields moderate the disk tendency to fragment. The protostellar accretion in our models is time-variable, thanks to the nonlinear interaction between different spiral modes in the gravitationally unstable disk, and can undergo episodic bursts when fragments migrate onto the star owing to the gravitational interaction with other fragments or spiral arms. Most bursts occur...

  17. The Evolution of Protoplanetary Discs in the Arches Cluster

    CERN Document Server

    Olczak, C; Harfst, S; Pfalzner, S; Zwart, S Portegies

    2012-01-01

    Most stars form in a cluster environment. These stars are initially surrounded by discs from which potentially planetary systems form. Of all cluster environments starburst clusters are probably the most hostile for planetary systems in our Galaxy. The intense stellar radiation and extreme density favour rapid destruction of circumstellar discs via photoevaporation and stellar encounters. Evolving a virialized model of the Arches cluster in the Galactic tidal field we investigate the effect of stellar encounters on circumstellar discs in a prototypical starburst cluster. Despite its proximity to the deep gravitational potential of the Galactic centre only a moderate fraction of members escapes to form an extended pair of tidal tails. Our simulations show that encounters destroy one third of the circumstellar discs in the cluster core within the first 2.5 Myr of evolution, preferentially affecting the least and most massive stars. A small fraction of these events causes rapid ejection and the formation of a we...

  18. The effect of radiative feedback on disc fragmentation

    CERN Document Server

    Mercer, Anthony

    2016-01-01

    Protostellar discs may become massive enough to fragment producing secondary low-mass objects: planets, brown dwarfs and low-mass stars. We study the effect of radiative feedback from such newly-formed secondary objects using radiative hydrodynamic simulations. We compare the results of simulations without any radiative feedback from secondary objects with those where two types of radiative feedback are considered: (i) continuous, and (ii) episodic. We find that: (i) continuous radiative feedback stabilizes the disc and suppresses further fragmentation, reducing the number secondary objects formed; (ii) episodic feedback from secondary objects heats and stabilises the disc when the outburst occurs, but shortly after the outburst stops, the disc becomes unstable and fragments again. However, fewer secondary objects are formed compared to the the case without radiative feedback. We also find that the mass growth of secondary objects is mildly suppressed due to the effect of their radiative feedback. However, th...

  19. Impact-induced melting during accretion of the Earth

    CERN Document Server

    de Vries, Jellie; Melosh, H Jay; Jacobson, Seth A; Morbidelli, Alessandro; Rubie, David C

    2016-01-01

    Because of the high energies involved, giant impacts that occur during planetary accretion cause large degrees of melting. The depth of melting in the target body after each collision determines the pressure and temperature conditions of metal-silicate equilibration and thus geochemical fractionation that results from core-mantle differentiation. The accretional collisions involved in forming the terrestrial planets of the inner Solar System have been calculated by previous studies using N-body accretion simulations. Here we use the output from such simulations to determine the volumes of melt produced and thus the pressure and temperature conditions of metal-silicate equilibration, after each impact, as Earth-like planets accrete. For these calculations a parametrised melting model is used that takes impact velocity, impact angle and the respective masses of the impacting bodies into account. The evolution of metal-silicate equilibration pressures (as defined by evolving magma ocean depths) during Earth's ac...

  20. The presence and absence of lymphatic vessels in the adult human intervertebral disc: relation to disc pathology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kliskey, Karolina; Williams, Kelly; Yu, J.; Urban, Jill; Athanasou, Nick [University of Oxford, Nuffield Department of Orthopaedic, Rheumatology and Musculoskeletal Science, Oxford (United Kingdom); Jackson, David [Weatherall Institute of Molecular Medicine, Human Immunology Unit, Oxford (United Kingdom)

    2009-12-15

    Although the normal adult human intervertebral disc is considered to be avascular, vascularised cellular fibrous tissue can be found in pathological conditions involving the disc such as disc herniation. Whether lymphatics vessels form a component of this reparative tissue is not known as the presence or absence of lymphatics in herniated and normal disc tissue is not known. We examined spinal tissues and discectomy specimens for the presence of lymphatics. The examination used immunohistochemistry to identify the specific lymphatic endothelial cell markers, podoplanin and LYVE1. Lymphatic vessels were not found in the nucleus pulposus or annulus fibrosus of intact, non-herniated lumbar and thoracic discs but were present in the surrounding ligaments. Ingrowth of fibrous tissue was seen in 73% of herniated disc specimens of which 36% contained LYVE1+/podoplanin + lymphatic vessels. Lymphatic vessels were not seen in the sacrum and coccyx or biopsies of four sacrococcygeal chordomas, but they were noted in surrounding extra-osseous fat and fibrous tissue at the edge of the infiltrating tumour. Our findings indicate that lymphatic vessels are not present in the normal adult intervertebral disc but that, when there is extrusion of disc material into surrounding soft tissue, there is ingrowth of reparative fibrous tissue containing lymphatic vessels. Our findings also indicate that chordoma, a tumour of notochordal origin, spreads to regional lymph nodes via lymphatics in para-spinal soft tissues. (orig.)

  1. Cervical Total Disc Arthroplasty

    OpenAIRE

    Basho, Rahul; Hood, Kenneth A.

    2012-01-01

    Symptomatic adjacent segment degeneration of the cervical spine remains problematic for patients and surgeons alike. Despite advances in surgical techniques and instrumentation, the solution remains elusive. Spurred by the success of total joint arthroplasty in hips and knees, surgeons and industry have turned to motion preservation devices in the cervical spine. By preserving motion at the diseased level, the hope is that adjacent segment degeneration can be prevented. Multiple cervical disc...

  2. He-Accreting WDs: accretion regimes and final outcomes

    CERN Document Server

    Piersanti, L; Yungelson, L R

    2014-01-01

    The behaviour of carbon-oxygen white dwarfs (WDs) subject to direct helium accretion is extensively studied. We aim to analyze the thermal response of the accreting WD to mass deposition at different time scales. The analysis has been performed for initial WDs masses and accretion rates in the range (0.60 - 1.02) Msun and 1.e-9 - 1.e-5 Msun/yr, respectively. Thermal regimes in the parameters space M_{WD} - dot{M}_{He}, leading to formation of red-giant-like structure, steady burning of He, mild, strong and dynamical flashes have been identified and the transition between those regimes has been studied in detail. In particular, the physical properties of WDs experiencing the He-flash accretion regime have been investigated in order to determine the mass retention efficiency as a function of the accretor total mass and accretion rate. We also discuss to what extent the building-up of a He-rich layer via H-burning could be described according to the behaviour of models accreting He-rich matter directly. Polynomi...

  3. Total disc replacement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vital, J-M; Boissière, L

    2014-02-01

    Total disc replacement (TDR) (partial disc replacement will not be described) has been used in the lumbar spine since the 1980s, and more recently in the cervical spine. Although the biomechanical concepts are the same and both are inserted through an anterior approach, lumbar TDR is conventionally indicated for chronic low back pain, whereas cervical TDR is used for soft discal hernia resulting in cervicobrachial neuralgia. The insertion technique must be rigorous, with precise centering in the disc space, taking account of vascular anatomy, which is more complex in the lumbar region, particularly proximally to L5-S1. All of the numerous studies, including prospective randomized comparative trials, have demonstrated non-inferiority to fusion, or even short-term superiority regarding speed of improvement. The main implant-related complication is bridging heterotopic ossification with resulting loss of range of motion and increased rates of adjacent segment degeneration, although with an incidence lower than after arthrodesis. A sufficiently long follow-up, which has not yet been reached, will be necessary to establish definitively an advantage for TDR, particularly in the cervical spine. PMID:24412045

  4. The formation of brown dwarfs in discs: Physics, numerics, and observations

    CERN Document Server

    Stamatellos, Dimitris

    2010-01-01

    A large fraction of brown dwarfs and low-mass stars may form by gravitational fragmentation of relatively massive (a few 0.1 Msun), extended (a few hundred AU) discs around Sun-like stars. We present an ensemble of radiative hydrodynamic simulations that examine the conditions for disc fragmentation. We demonstrate that this model can explain the low-mass IMF, the brown dwarf desert, and the binary properties of low-mass stars and brown dwarfs. Observing discs that are undergoing fragmentation is possible but very improbable, as the process of disc fragmentation is short lived (discs fragment within a few thousand years).

  5. Agitating mass transfer with a warped disc's shadow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cambier, H.

    2015-10-01

    For compact objects fed by Roche lobe overflow, accretion-generated X-rays irradiating the donor star can alter gas flow towards the Lagrange point thus varying mass transfer. The latest work specific to this topic consists of simple yet insightful two-dimensional hydrodynamics simulations stressing the role of global flow. To explore how a time-varying disc shadow affects mass transfer, I generalize the geometry, employ a robust hydrodynamics solver, and use phase space analysis near the nozzle to include coriolis lift there. Without even exposing the nozzle, a warped disc's shadow can drive mass transfer cycles by shifting the equatorial edges of the irradiation patches in turns: drawing in denser ambient gas before sweeping it into the nozzle. Other important effects remain missing in two-dimensional models, which I discuss along with prospects for more detailed yet efficient models.

  6. Evolution of binary black holes in self gravitating discs: dissecting the torques

    CERN Document Server

    Roedig, Constanze; Dotti, Massimo; Cuadra, Jorge; Amaro-Seoane, Pau; Haardt, Francesco

    2012-01-01

    We analyse 3D SPH simulations of the evolution of initially quasi-circular massive black hole binaries (BHBs) residing in the central hollow (cavity) of self-gravitating circumbinary discs. We perform a set of simulations adopting different thermodynamics for the gas within the cavity and for the 'numerical size' of the black holes. We study the interplay between gas accretion and gravity torques in changing the binary elements (semi-major axis and eccentricity) and its total angular momentum budget. We pay special attention to the gravity torques, by analysing their physical origin and location. We show that (i) the BHB eccentricity grows due to gravity torques from the inner edge of the disc, independently of the accretion and the adopted thermodynamics; (ii) the semi-major axis decay depends not only on the gravity torques but also on their subtle interplay with the disc-binary angular momentum transfer due to accretion; (iii) the spectral structure of the gravity torques is predominately caused by disc ed...

  7. Disc-planet interactions in sub-keplerian discs

    OpenAIRE

    Paardekooper, S.-J.

    2009-01-01

    One class of protoplanetary disc models, the X-wind model, predicts strongly subkeplerian orbital gas velocities, a configuration that can be sustained by magnetic tension. We investigate disc-planet interactions in these subkeplerian discs, focusing on orbital migration for low-mass planets and gap formation for high-mass planets. We use linear calculations and nonlinear hydrodynamical simulations to measure the torque and look at gap formation. In both cases, the subkeplerian nature of the ...

  8. Single neutron star systems evolving with fallback discs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ertan, Unal; Caliskan, Sirin; Alpar, Mehmet Ali; Benli, Onur; Trümper, Joachim E.

    2016-07-01

    We have investigated the long-term evolution of the young neutron star systems, namely anomalous X-ray pulsars (AXPs), soft gamma repeaters (SGRs), dim isolated neutron stars (XDINs), and the so-called "high-B radio pulsars" in the frame of the fallback disk disc model. We have shown that the X-ray luminosities and the rotational properties of individual sources in these different populations can be achieved by neutron stars evolving with fallback disks and with conventional dipole magnetic fields of young neutron stars. Presence of small-scale magnetar fields in the higher multi-poles which are likely to be responsible for soft gamma bursts observed from these systems is compatible with the fallback disk model, since the rotational evolution of the star is governed by the interaction between the large-scale dipole field and the disc. The results of our model is self-consistent in that (1) the X-ray luminosity, period and period derivative of individual sources are produced simultaneously, and (2) these results are obtained with very similar set of main disk parameters for all these systems with rather different properties. Our results indicate that all known AXPs, except two sources, are in the accretion phase at present. The 6 XDINs with confirmed period and period derivatives reached their long periods in the accretion epochs in the past. At present, XDINs are evolving in the propeller phase without accretion, but they are still slowing down under effect of the disk torques. For the "high-B radio pulsars", the source properties are obtained in the phases when accretion is not allowed, which is consistent with the radio pulsar property of these sources.

  9. Gas Modelling in the Disc of HD 163296

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tilling, I.; Woitke, P.; Meeus, G.; Mora, A.; Montesinos, B.; Riviere-Marichalar, P.; Eiroa, C.; Thi, W. -F.; Isella, A.; Roberge, A.; Martin-Zaidi, C.; Kamp, I.; Pinte, C.; Sandell, G.; Vacca, W. D.; Menard, F.; Mendigutia, I.; Duchene, G.; Dent, W. R. F.; Aresu, G.; Meijerink, R.; Spaans, M.

    2011-01-01

    We present detailed model fits to observations of the disc around the Herbig Ae star HD 163296. This well-studied object has an age of approx. 4Myr, with evidence of a circumstellar disc extending out to approx. 540AU. We use the radiation thermo-chemical disc code ProDiMo to model the gas and dust in the circumstellar disc of HD 163296, and attempt to determine the disc properties by fitting to observational line and continuum data. These include new Herschel/PACS observations obtained as part of the open-time key program GASPS (Gas in Protoplanetary Systems), consisting of a detection of the [Oi] 63 m line and upper limits for several other far infrared lines. We complement this with continuum data and ground-based observations of the CO-12 3-2, 2-1 and CO-13 J=1-0 line transitions, as well as the H2 S(1) transition. We explore the effects of stellar ultraviolet variability and dust settling on the line emission, and on the derived disc properties. Our fitting efforts lead to derived gas/dust ratios in the range 9-100, depending on the assumptions made. We note that the line fluxes are sensitive in general to the degree of dust settling in the disc, with an increase in line flux for settled models. This is most pronounced in lines which are formed in the warm gas in the inner disc, but the low excitation molecular lines are also affected. This has serious implications for attempts to derive the disc gas mass from line observations. We derive fractional PAH abundances between 0.007 and 0.04 relative to ISM levels. Using a stellar and UV excess input spectrum based on a detailed analysis of observations, we find that the all observations are consistent with the previously assumed disc geometry

  10. Disc surface modifications for enhanced performance against friction noise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, D. W.; Mo, J. L.; Ge, X. H.; Ouyang, H.; Zhou, Z. R.

    2016-09-01

    Surface modifications of metal discs in the form of parallel and radial grooves are investigated for acquiring enhanced performance against friction-induced noise. Experimental and numerical studies indicate that grooved surfaces are capable of reducing squeal noise, and the groove width significantly affects the squeal noise level. Moreover, a disc sample with parallel grooves distributed on only half of surface well verifies the ability of grooves in reducing squeal noise generation. Numerical analysis is further performed to give an explanation on how the grooves can reduce squeal noise and why the disc samples with different groove widths exhibit different performance in reducing squeal noise.

  11. Terrane accretion: Insights from numerical modelling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vogt, Katharina; Gerya, Taras

    2016-04-01

    The oceanic crust is not homogenous, but contains significantly thicker crust than norm, i.e. extinct arcs, spreading ridges, detached continental fragments, volcanic piles or oceanic swells. These (crustal) fragments may collide with continental crust and form accretionary complexes, contributing to its growth. We analyse this process using a thermo-mechanical computer model (i2vis) of an ocean-continent subduction zone. In this model the oceanic plate can bend spontaneously under the control of visco-plastic rheologies. It moreover incorporates effects such as mineralogical phase changes, fluid release and consumption, partial melting and melt extraction. Based on our 2-D experiments we suggest that the lithospheric buoyancy of the downgoing slab and the rheological strength of crustal material may result in a variety of accretionary processes. In addition to terrane subduction, we are able to identify three distinct modes of terrane accretion: frontal accretion, basal accretion and underplating plateaus. We show that crustal fragments may dock onto continental crust and cease subduction, be scrapped off the downgoing plate, or subduct to greater depth prior to slab break off and subsequent exhumation. Direct consequences of these processes include slab break off, subduction zone transference, structural reworking, formation of high-pressure terranes, partial melting and crustal growth.

  12. Cold Accretion from the Cosmic Web

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohler, Susanna

    2016-06-01

    The cosmic web is a vast, foam-like network of filaments and voids stretching throughout the universe. How did the first galaxies form within the cosmic web, at the intersections of filaments? New observations of a protodisk a galaxy in the early stages of formation may provide a clue.Models for Galaxy FormationNarrowband image of the candidate protodisk (marked with a white ellipse) and filaments (outlined in white). [Adapted from Martin et al. 2016]The standard model for galaxy formation, known as the hot accretion model, argues that galaxies form out of collapsing, virialized gas that forms a hot halo and then slowly cools, fueling star and galaxy formation at its center.But what if galaxies are actually formed from cool gas? In this contrasting picture, the cold accretion model, cool (temperature of ~104 K) unshocked gas from cosmic web filaments flows directly onto galactic disks forming at the filamentary intersections. The narrow streams of cold gas deliver fuel for star formation.A signature of the cold accretion model is that the streams of cold gas form a disk as the gas spirals inward, sinking toward the central protogalaxy. Detecting these cold-flow disks could be strong evidence in support of this model and last year, a team of authors reported just such a detection! This year theyre back again with a second object that may provide confirmation of cold accretion from the cosmic web.A Candidate ProtodiskThe team, led by Christopher Martin (California Institute of Technology), made the discovery using the Palomar Cosmic Web Imager, an instrument designed to observe faint emission from the intergalactic medium. Martin and collaborators found a large (R 100 kpc, more than six times the radius of the Milky Way), rotating structure of hydrogen gas, illuminated by the nearby quasi-stellar object QSO HS1549+1919. The system is located at a redshift of z~2.8.The authors testthree potential kinematic models of the candidate protodisk and filaments. In (a) two

  13. Low back pain and degenerative disc disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jandrić Slavica

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Various clinical conditions can cause low back pain, and in most cases it is of a degenerative origin. Degenerative disc disease is a common condition which affects young to middle-aged men and women equally. Changes in the mechanical properties of the disc lead to degenerative arthritis in the intervertebral joints, osteophytes, and narrowing the intervertebral foramen or the spinal canal. Pathophysiology. Degenerative cascade, described by Kirkaldy-Willis, is the widely accepted pathophysiologic model describing the degenerative process as it affects the lumbar spine in 3 phases. Diagnosis. There are two forms of low back pain secondary to degenerative disc disease: a lumbalgia and b lumbar radiculopathy. Limitation of movement, problems with balance, pain, loss of reflexes in the extremities, muscle weakness, loss of sensation or other signs of neurological damage can be found on physical examination. For accurate diagnosis, it is often necessary to combine clinical examination and sophisticated technology. Treatment. Coservative treatment consists of rest, physical therapy, pharmacological therapy and injection therapy. Physical rehabilitation with active patient participation is a key approach to treatment of patients with discogenic pain. Physical therapy, occupational therapy and kinesitherapy are important for improving muscle strength, endurance, and flexibility. Disc surgery is performed if surgical intervention is required. .

  14. Heat distribution in disc brake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klimenda, Frantisek; Soukup, Josef; Kampo, Jan

    2016-06-01

    This article is deals by the thermal analysis of the disc brake with floating caliper. The issue is solved by numerically. The half 2D model is used for solution in program ADINA 8.8. Two brake discs without the ventilation are solved. One disc is made from cast iron and the second is made from stainless steel. Both materials are an isotropic. By acting the pressure force on the brake pads will be pressing the pads to the brake disc. Speed will be reduced (slowing down). On the contact surface generates the heat, which the disc and pads heats. In the next part of article is comparison the maximum temperature at the time of braking. The temperatures of both materials for brake disc (gray cast iron, stainless steel) are compares. The heat flux during braking for the both materials is shown.

  15. Edge-on thick discs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasparova, A.; Katkov, I.; Chilingarian, I.; Silchenko, O.; Moiseev, A.; Borisov, S.

    2016-06-01

    Although thick stellar discs are detected in nearly all edge-on disc galaxies, their formation scenarios still remain a matter of debate. Due to observational difficulties, there is a lack of information about their stellar populations. Using the Russian 6-m telescope BTA we collected deep spectra of thick discs in three edge-on early-type disc galaxies located in different environments: NGC4111 in a dense group, NGC4710 in the Virgo cluster, and NGC5422 in a sparse group. We see intermediate age (4 ‑ 5 Gyr) metal rich ([Fe/H] ~ ‑0.2 ‑ 0.0 dex) stellar populations in NGC4111 and NGC4710. On the other hand, NGC5422 does not harbour young stars, its only disc is thick and old (10 Gyr) and its α-element abundance suggests a long formation epoch implying its formation at high redshift. Our results prove the diversity of thick disc formation scenarios.

  16. Motivation and challenge to capture both large scale and local transport in next generation accretion theory

    OpenAIRE

    Blackman, Eric G.; Nauman, Farrukh

    2015-01-01

    Accretion disc theory is less developed than stellar evolution theory although a similarly mature phenomenological picture is ultimately desired. While the interplay of theory and numerical simulations has amplified community awareness of the role of magnetic fields in angular momentum transport, there remains a long term challenge to incorporate insight gained from simulations back into improving practical models for comparison with observations. Here we emphasize the need to incorporate the...

  17. Limit-Cycle Behaviour of Thermally-Unstable Accretion Flows onto Black Holes

    OpenAIRE

    Szuszkiewicz, Ewa; Miller, John C.

    1998-01-01

    Nonlinear time-dependent calculations are being carried out in order to study the evolution of vertically-integrated models of non-selfgravitating, transonic accretion discs around black holes. In this paper we present results from a new calculation for a high-alpha model similar to one studied previously by Honma, Matsumoto and Kato who found evidence for limit-cycle behaviour connected with thermal instability. Our results are in substantial agreement with theirs but, in our calculation, th...

  18. Revealing accretion onto black holes through X-ray reflection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plant, D.; Fender, R.; Ponti, G.; Munoz-Darias, T.; Coriat, M.

    2014-07-01

    Understanding the dynamics behind black hole state transitions and the changes they reflect in outbursts has become long-standing problem. The X-ray reflection spectrum describes the interaction between the hard X-ray source (the power-law continuum) and the cool accretion disc it illuminates, and thus permits an indirect view of how the two evolve. We present a systematic analysis of the reflection spectrum throughout three outbursts (500+ RXTE observations) of the black hole binary GX 339-4, representing the largest study applying a self-consistent treatment of reflection to date. Particular attention is payed to the coincident evolution of the power-law and reflection, which can be used to determine the accretion geometry. The hard state is found to be distinctly reflection weak, however the ratio of reflection to power-law gradually increases as the source luminosity rises. In contrast the reflection is found dominate the power-law throughout most of the soft state, with increasing supremacy as the source decays. Using results from archival and AO-12 observations of GX 339-4 with XMM-Newton we reveal the dynamics driving this evolution and the nature of accretion onto black holes in outburst.

  19. Pathophysiology of Degenerative Disc Disease

    OpenAIRE

    Choi, Yong-Soo

    2009-01-01

    The intervertebral disc is characterized by a tension-resisting annulus fibrosus and a compression-resisting nucleus pulposus composed largely of proteoglycan. The most important function of the annulus and nucleus is to provide mechanical stability to the disc. Degenerative disc disease in the lumbar spine is a serious health problem. Although the three joint complex model of the degenerative process is widely accepted, the etiological basis of this degeneration is poorly understood. With th...

  20. Shadow of a Large Disc Casts New Light on the Formation of High Mass Stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-05-01

    Massive Star Observed that Forms through a Rotating Accretion Disc Summary Based on a large observational effort with different telescopes and instruments, mostly from the European Southern Observatory (ESO), a team of European astronomers [1] has shown that in the M 17 nebula a high mass star [2] forms via accretion through a circumstellar disc, i.e. through the same channel as low-mass stars. To reach this conclusion, the astronomers used very sensitive infrared instruments to penetrate the south-western molecular cloud of M 17 so that faint emission from gas heated up by a cluster of massive stars, partly located behind the molecular cloud, could be detected through the dust. Against the background of this hot region a large opaque silhouette, which resembles a flared disc seen nearly edge-on, is found to be associated with an hour-glass shaped reflection nebula. This system complies perfectly with a newly forming high-mass star surrounded by a huge accretion disc and accompanied by an energetic bipolar mass outflow. The new observations corroborate recent theoretical calculations which claim that stars up to 40 times more massive than the Sun can be formed by the same processes that are active during the formation of stars of smaller masses. PR Photo 15a/04: Stellar cluster and star-forming region M 17 (also available without text inside photo) PR Photo 15b/04: Silhouette disc seen in M 17 PR Photo 15c/04: Rotation of the disc in M 17. PR Photo 15d/04: Bipolar reflection nebula and silhouette disc of a young, massive star in M 17 PR Photo 15e/04: Optical spectrum of the bipolar nebula. PR Video 03/04: Zooming in onto the disc. The M 17 region ESO PR Photo 15a/04 ESO PR Photo 15a/04 [Preview - JPEG: 400 x 497 pix - 271k] [Normal - JPEG: 800 x 958 pix - 604k] ESO PR Photo 15a1/04 ESO PR Photo 15a/04 (without text within photo) [Preview - JPEG: 400 x 480 pix - 275k] [Normal - JPEG: 800 x 959 pix - 634k] [High-Res - JPEG: 3000 x 3597 pix - 3.8M] [Full-Res - JPEG

  1. Close stars and accretion in Low Luminosity Active Galactic Nuclei

    CERN Document Server

    Nayakshin, S

    2004-01-01

    Quasar accretion disks are believed to form stars by self-gravity. Low Luminosity Active Galactic Nuclei (LLAGN) are much dimmer galactic centers, and are often believed to be quasars that ran out of gaseous fuel. LLAGN accretion disks should thus co-exist with thousands to millions of stars or proto-stars left from the previous stronger accretion activity. In principle, these stars may produce several important effects: (i) contribute to the optical/UV spectra of some LLAGN; (ii) reprocessing of the stellar radiation in the dusty disks could dominate the LLAGN infra-red spectra; (iii) deplete the (accretion) gas disk much faster than it can accrete onto the supper-massive black hole (SMBH); (iv) stars, individually or in groups, may slow down and modulate the accretion flow significantly due to their inertia. In this way they may produce the LLAGN cut-off disks; (v) alternatively, frequent enough stellar collisions and resulting stellar disruptions could keep the inner disk empty. Here we explore these ideas...

  2. Settling accretion onto slowly rotating X-ray pulsars

    CERN Document Server

    Shakura, N I; Kochetkova, A Yu; Hjalmarsdotter, L

    2013-01-01

    Quasi-spherical subsonic accretion onto slowly rotating magnetized NS is considered, when the accreting matter settles down subsonically onto the rotating magnetosphere, forming an extended quasi-static shell. The shell mediates the angular momentum transfer to/from the rotating NS magnetosphere by large-scale convective motions, which lead to an almost iso-angular-momentum rotation law inside the shell. The accretion rate through the shell is determined by the ability of the plasma to enter the magnetosphere due to Rayleigh-Taylor instability while taking cooling into account. The settling regime of accretion is possible for moderate X-ray luminosities L <4 10^36 erg/s. At higher luminosities a free-fall gap above the NS magnetosphere appears due to rapid Compton cooling, and accretion becomes highly non-stationary. From observations of spin-up/spin-down rates of wind accreting equilibrium XPSRs with known orbital periods (GX 301-2, Vela X-1), the main dimensionless parameters of the model and be determin...

  3. Rapidly Accreting Supergiant Protostars: Embryos of Supermassive Black Holes?

    CERN Document Server

    Hosokawa, Takashi; Yorke, Harold W

    2012-01-01

    Direct collapse of supermassive stars (SMSs) is a possible pathway for generating supermassive black holes in the early universe. It is expected that an SMS could form via very rapid mass accretion with Mdot ~ 0.1 - 1 Msun/yr during the gravitational collapse of an atomic-cooling primordial gas cloud. In this paper we study how stars would evolve under such extreme rapid mass accretion, focusing on the early evolution until the stellar mass reaches 1000 Msun. To this end we numerically calculate the detailed interior structure of accreting stars with primordial element abundances. Our results show that for accretion rates higher than 0.01 Msun/yr, stellar evolution is qualitatively different from that expected at lower rates. While accreting at these high rates the star always has a radius exceeding 100 Rsun, which increases monotonically with the stellar mass. The mass-radius relation for stellar masses exceeding ~ 100 Msun follows the same track with R_* \\propto M_*^0.5 in all cases with accretion rates > 0...

  4. X-Shooter study of accretion in Chamaeleon I

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manara, C. F.; Fedele, D.; Herczeg, G. J.; Teixeira, P. S.

    2016-01-01

    We present the analysis of 34 new VLT/X-Shooter spectra of young stellar objects in the Chamaeleon I star-forming region, together with four more spectra of stars in Taurus and two in Chamaeleon II. The broad wavelength coverage and accurate flux calibration of our spectra allow us to estimate stellar and accretion parameters for our targets by fitting the photospheric and accretion continuum emission from the Balmer continuum down to ~700 nm. The dependence of accretion on stellar properties for this sample is consistent with previous results from the literature. The accretion rates for transitional disks are consistent with those of full disks in the same region. The spread of mass accretion rates at any given stellar mass is found to be smaller than in many studies, but is larger than that derived in the Lupus clouds using similar data and techniques. Differences in the stellar mass range and in the environmental conditions between our sample and that of Lupus may account for the discrepancy in scatter between Chamaeleon I and Lupus. Complete samples in Chamaeleon I and Lupus are needed to determine whether the difference in scatter of accretion rates and the lack of evolutionary trends are not influenced by sample selection. This work is based on observations made with ESO Telescopes at the Paranal Observatory under programme ID 084.C-1095 and 094.C-0913.

  5. Evolution of Accretion Disks in Tidal Disruption Events

    CERN Document Server

    Shen, Rong-Feng

    2013-01-01

    In a stellar tidal disruption event (TDE), an accretion disk forms as the stellar debris returns and circularizes. Rather than being confined within the circularizing radius, the disk can spread to larger radii to conserve angular momentum. An outer spreading disk is a source of matter for re-accretion at rates which can exceed the later stellar fall-back rate, although a disk wind can suppress its contribution to the central black hole accretion rate. A spreading disk is detectible through a break in the central accretion rate history, or, at longer wavelengths, by its own emission. Moreover, as an angular momentum reservoir, it can broadcast its existence by affecting the disk precession rate. Because these features depend on the disk's internal viscosity and the nature of wind produced in its early, advection-dominated phase, they are useful probes of transient disk physics. To model the evolution of TDE disk size and accretion rate, we account for the possibility of thermal instability for accretion rates...

  6. Azimuthal Stress and Heat Flux In Radiatively Inefficient Accretion Flows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devlen, Ebru

    2016-07-01

    Radiatively Inefficient Accretion Flows (RIAFs) have low radiative efficiencies and/or low accretion rates. The accreting gas may retain most of its binding energy in the form of heat. This lost energy for hot RIAFs is one of the problems heavily worked on in the literature. RIAF observations on the accretion to super massive black holes (e.g., Sagittarius A* in the center of our Galaxy) have shown that the observational data are not consistent with either advection-dominated accretion flow (ADAF) or Bondi models. For this reason, it is very important to theoretically comprehend the physical properties of RIAFs derived from observations with a new disk/flow model. One of the most probable candidates for definition of mass accretion and the source of excess heat energy in RIAFs is the gyroviscous modified magnetorotational instability (GvMRI). Dispersion relation is derived by using MHD equations containing heat flux term based on viscosity in the energy equation. Numerical solutions of the disk equations are done and the growth rates of the instability are calculated. This additional heat flux plays an important role in dissipation of energy. The rates of the angular momentum and heat flux which are obtained from numerical calculations of the turbulence brought about by the GVMRI are also discussed.

  7. Numbered nasal discs for waterfowl

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartonek, J.C.; Dane, C.W.

    1964-01-01

    Numbered nasal discs were successfully used in studies requiring large numbers of individually marked waterfowl. The procedure for constructing these discs is outlined. Blue-winged teal (Anas discors) with 5/8-inch discs, and canvasback (Aythya valisineria) and redhead (A. americana) with 3/4-inch discs can be individually identified up to 50 and 80 yards, respectively, with a gunstock-mounted, 20-power spotting scope. The particular value of these markers is their durability, the number of combinations possible, and the apparent absence of behavioral or mortality influence among such species as the blue-winged teal.

  8. No Correlation Between Disc Scale-Height and Jet Power in GRMHD Simulations

    CERN Document Server

    Fragile, P Chris; Rodriguez, Marco

    2012-01-01

    It is now well established that changes in the X-ray spectral state of black hole low-mass X-ray binaries are correlated with changes in the radio properties of those systems. Assuming radio power is a proxy for jet power, we can say that the jet is continuously present in the hard state and undetectable (and therefore weaker) in the soft state. Since the different accretion states are also generally assumed to be associated with different disc geometries -- the hard state with a hot, thick flow, and the soft state with a cold, thin disc -- we investigate the possibility that these two phenomena are linked; i.e., that the difference in disc geometry is the cause of the difference in observed jet power. We do this by comparing various measures of jet power in numerical simulations of accretion discs of differing temperatures and thicknesses. We perform these simulations using the general relativistic magnetohydrodynamic code Cosmos++ and a newly added cooling function, which allows us to regulate the disc scal...

  9. Hadronic models of blazars require a change of the accretion paradigm

    CERN Document Server

    Zdziarski, Andrzej A

    2015-01-01

    We study hadronic models of broad-band emission of jets in radio-loud active galactic nuclei, and their implications for the accretion in those sources. We show that the models that account for broad-band spectra of blazars emitting in the GeV range in the sample of Boettcher et al. have highly super-Eddington jet powers. Furthermore, the ratio of the jet power to the radiative luminosity of the accretion disc is ~3000 on average and can be as high as ~10^5. We then show that the measurements of the radio core shift for the sample imply low magnetic fluxes threading the black hole, which rules out the Blandford-Znajek mechanism to produce powerful jets. These results require that the accretion rate necessary to power the modelled jets is extremely high, and the average radiative accretion efficiency is ~4 10^-5. Thus, if the hadronic model is correct, the currently prevailing picture of accretion in AGNs needs to be significantly revised. Also, the obtained accretion mode cannot be dominant during the lifetim...

  10. Identification of twenty-three accreting binaries in the Galactic Bulge Survey

    CERN Document Server

    Torres, M A P; Britt, C T; Johnson, C B; Hynes, R I; Greiss, S; Steeghs, D; Maccarone, T J; Ozel, F; Bassa, C; Nelemans, G

    2013-01-01

    (Abridged:) We present the identification of optical counterparts to 23 Galactic Bulge Survey X-ray sources. We report their accurate coordinates and optical spectra acquired at the VLT and Magellan. All sources are classified as accreting binaries according to their emission line characteristics. To distinguish accreting binaries from chromospherically active objects we develop and explain criteria based on Halpha and HeI 5786,6678 emission line properties available in the literature. The spectroscopic properties and photometric variability of all the objects are discussed and a classification of the source is given where possible. Among the 23 systems, at least 9 of them show an accretion-dominated optical spectrum (CX28, CX63, CX70, CX128, CX142, CX207, CX522, CX794, CX1011) and another 6 show photospheric lines from a late-type donor star in addition to accretion disc emission (CX44, CX93, CX137, CX154, CX377 and CX1004) indicating that they are probably accreting binaries in quiescence or in a low accret...

  11. Novel structural components of the ventral disc and lateral crest in Giardia intestinalis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kari D Hagen

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Giardia intestinalis is a ubiquitous parasitic protist that is the causative agent of giardiasis, one of the most common protozoan diarrheal diseases in the world. Giardia trophozoites attach to the intestinal epithelium using a specialized and elaborate microtubule structure, the ventral disc. Surrounding the ventral disc is a less characterized putatively contractile structure, the lateral crest, which forms a continuous perimeter seal with the substrate. A better understanding of ventral disc and lateral crest structure, conformational dynamics, and biogenesis is critical for understanding the mechanism of giardial attachment to the host. To determine the components comprising the ventral disc and lateral crest, we used shotgun proteomics to identify proteins in a preparation of isolated ventral discs. Candidate disc-associated proteins, or DAPs, were GFP-tagged using a ligation-independent high-throughput cloning method. Based on disc localization, we identified eighteen novel DAPs, which more than doubles the number of known disc-associated proteins. Ten of the novel DAPs are associated with the lateral crest or outer edge of the disc, and are the first confirmed components of this structure. Using Fluorescence Recovery After Photobleaching (FRAP with representative novel DAP::GFP strains we found that the newly identified DAPs tested did not recover after photobleaching and are therefore structural components of the ventral disc or lateral crest. Functional analyses of the novel DAPs will be central toward understanding the mechanism of ventral disc-mediated attachment and the mechanism of disc biogenesis during cell division. Since attachment of Giardia to the intestine via the ventral disc is essential for pathogenesis, it is possible that some proteins comprising the disc could be potential drug targets if their loss or disruption interfered with disc biogenesis or function, preventing attachment.

  12. Study of Frequency of Low Back Pain and Lumbar Disc Herniation in Patients of Hamadan MRI Center in 2002

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Jabbari

    2004-07-01

    Full Text Available Low back pain is one of the prevalent diseases of the world. In this research, with helping of MRI the incidence of disc herniation in patients of low back pain in our living area was studied. Survey of the specifications of disc herniation was carried out and data was compared with some performed studies in other parts of the world. In this study, for 600 patients referred to HAMEDAN MRI CENTER, who had complaint of low back pain, MRI study was performed. Then, MRI Images of the patients who had disc hernition, studied for number, form, severity and anatomic position of the herniated disc and family history of low back pain. 83.7% of the studied cases was pathologic and 16.3% was normal. Among the pathologic cases, 70.12% had disc herniation. The most common age group in both sex for disc herniotion was 30-50 years. Disc herniation in men was more common than women. The most common anatomic position of the herniated disc was L4- L5 disc, mostly was one herniated disc and centrolateral form. There was not any meaningful relation between family history of the low back pain and lumbar disc herniation. This study showed that lumbar disc herniation is one of the common causes of the low back pain in our living area and MRI is the choice imaging modality for diagnosis and survey of low back pain and disc herniation.

  13. Jets from magnetized accretion disks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsumoto, Ryoji

    When an accretion disk is threaded by large scale poloidal magnetic fields, the injection of magnetic helicity from the accretion disk drives bipolar outflows. We present the results of global magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) simulations of jet formation from a torus initially threaded by vertical magnetic fields. After the torsional Alfvén waves generated by the injected magnetic twists propagate along the large-scale magnetic field lines, magnetically driven jets emanate from the surface of the torus. Due to the magnetic pinch effect, the jets are collimated along the rotation axis. Since the jet formation process extracts angular momentum from the disk, it enhances the accretion rate of the disk material. Through three-dimensional (3D) global MHD simulations, we confirmed previous 2D results that the magnetically braked surface of the disk accretes like an avalanche. Owing to the growth of non-axisymmetric perturbations, the avalanche flow breaks up into spiral channels. Helical structure also appears inside the jet. When magnetic helicity is injected into closed magnetic loops connecting the central object and the accretion disk, it drives recurrent magnetic reconnection and outflows.

  14. Preheated Advection Dominated Accretion Flow

    CERN Document Server

    Park, M G; Park, Myeong-Gu; Ostriker, Jeremiah P.

    2001-01-01

    All high temperature accretion solutions including ADAF are physically thick, so outgoing radiation interacts with the incoming flow, sharing as much or more resemblance with classical spherical accretion flows as with disk flows. We examine this interaction for the popular ADAF case. We find that without allowance for Compton preheating, a very restricted domain of ADAF solution is permitted and with Compton preheating included a new high temperature PADAF branch appears in the solution space. In the absence of preheating, high temperature flows do not exist when the mass accretion rate mdot == Mdot c^2 / L_E >~ 10^-1.5. Below this mass accretion rate, a roughly conical region around the hole cannot sustain high temperature ions and electrons for all flows having mdot >~ 10^-4, which may lead to a funnel possibly filled with a tenuous hot outgoing wind. If the flow starts at large radii with the usual equilibrium temperature ~10^4 K, the critical mass accretion rate is much lower, mdot exist. However, above ...

  15. Self consistent modeling of accretion columns in accretion powered pulsars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falkner, Sebastian; Schwarm, Fritz-Walter; Wolff, Michael Thomas; Becker, Peter A.; Wilms, Joern

    2016-04-01

    We combine three physical models to self-consistently derive the observed flux and pulse profiles of neutron stars' accretion columns. From the thermal and bulk Comptonization model by Becker & Wolff (2006) we obtain seed photon continua produced in the dense inner regions of the accretion column. In a thin outer layer these seed continua are imprinted with cyclotron resonant scattering features calculated using Monte Carlo simulations. The observed phase and energy dependent flux corresponding to these emission profiles is then calculated, taking relativistic light bending into account. We present simulated pulse profiles and the predicted dependency of the observable X-ray spectrum as a function of pulse phase.

  16. A Solution to the Protostellar Accretion Problem

    CERN Document Server

    Padoan, P; Norman, M L; Nordlund, A; Padoan, Paolo; Kritsuk, Alexei; Norman, Michael L.; Nordlund, Ake

    2005-01-01

    Accretion rates of order 10^-8 M_\\odot/yr are observed in young protostars of approximately a solar mass with evidence of circumstellar disks. The accretion rate is significantly lower for protostars of smaller mass, approximately proportional to the second power of the stellar mass, \\dot{M}_accr\\propto M^2. The traditional view is that the observed accretion is the consequence of the angular momentum transport in isolated protostellar disks, controlled by disk turbulence or self--gravity. However, these processes are not well understood and the observed protostellar accretion, a fundamental aspect of star formation, remains an unsolved problem. In this letter we propose the protostellar accretion rate is controlled by accretion from the large scale gas distribution in the parent cloud, not by the isolated disk evolution. Describing this process as Bondi--Hoyle accretion, we obtain accretion rates comparable to the observed ones. We also reproduce the observed dependence of the accretion rate on the protostel...

  17. Core Forensics: Earth's Accretion and Differentiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badro, J.; Brodholt, J. P.; Siebert, J.; Piet, H.; Ryerson, F. J.

    2013-12-01

    Earth's accretion and its primitive differentiation are intimately interlinked processes. One way to constrain accretionary processes is by looking at the major differentiation event that took place during accretion: core formation. Understanding core formation and core composition can certainly shed a new light on early and late accretionary processes. On the other hand, testing certain accretionary models and hypothesis (fluxes, chemistries, timing) allows -short of validating them- at the very least to unambiguously refute them, through the 'filter'' of core formation and composition. Earth's core formed during accretion as a result of melting, phase-separation, and segregation of accretionary building blocks (from meteorites to planetesimals). The bulk composition of the core and mantle depends on the evolution (pressure, temperature, composition) of core extraction during accretion. The entire process left a compositional imprint on both reservoirs: (1) in the silicate Earth, in terms of siderophile trace-element (Ni, Co, V, Cr, among others) concentrations and isotopic fractionation (Si, Cu, among others), a record that is observed in present-day mantle rocks; and (2) on the core, in terms of major element composition and light elements dissolved in the metal, a record that is observed by seismology through the core density-deficit. This imprint constitutes actually a fairly impressive set of evidence (siderophile element concentration and fractionation, volatile and siderophile element isotopic fractionation), can be used today to trace back the primordial processes that occurred 4.5 billion years ago. We are seeking to provide an overhaul of the standard core formation/composition models, by using a new rationale that bridges geophysics and geochemistry. The new ingredients are (1) new laser-heated diamond anvil cell partitioning data, dramatically extending the previous P-T conditions for experimental work, (2) ab initio molecular dynamics calculations to

  18. Accretion to Magnetized Stars through the Rayleigh-Taylor Instability: Global Three-Dimensional Simulations

    CERN Document Server

    Kulkarni, Akshay K

    2008-01-01

    We present results of 3D simulations of MHD instabilities at the accretion disk-magnetosphere boundary. The instability is Rayleigh-Taylor, and develops for a fairly broad range of accretion rates and stellar rotation rates and magnetic fields. It manifests itself in the form of tall, thin tongues of plasma that penetrate the magnetosphere in the equatorial plane. The shape and number of the tongues changes with time on the inner-disk dynamical timescale. In contrast with funnel flows, which deposit matter mainly in the polar region, the tongues deposit matter much closer to the stellar equator. The instability appears for relatively small misalignment angles, $\\Theta\\lesssim30^\\circ$, between the star's rotation and magnetic axes, and is associated with higher accretion rates. The hot spots and light curves during accretion through instability are generally much more chaotic than during stable accretion. The unstable state of accretion has possible implications for quasi-periodic oscillations and intermitten...

  19. Chemonucleolysis of lumbar disc herniation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chemonucleolysis is an advantageous alternative to surgical treatment of lumbar disc herniation. To achieve the best results the indications must be strictly observed and the procedure itself must be technically perfect. In these circumstances a rapid, non-invasive and less expensive treatment of lumbar disc herniation is possible. (orig.)

  20. 载荷形式对盘式制动器温度场分布的影响%Effects of load form on distribution of thermal ifeld on disc brake

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王治军; 林尚飞; 陈淑琴

    2014-01-01

    分析了盘式制动器的产热机理及热量分配,利用ANSYS建立三维有限元模型,仿真得到恒定、渐变、正弦三种载荷形式下的制动盘温度场。结果表明,制动盘摩擦区域内节点温度呈锯齿状波动上升,沿制动盘轴向,距摩擦表面越远,温度越低,波动幅度越小;沿制动盘径向,不同半径处的节点温度不同,摩擦区域中间位置温度最高,存在较大的径向温度梯度;沿制动盘周向,随着制动时间的增加,温度分布趋于均匀;恒定载荷下,制动盘表面的温升最大,正弦载荷下的温升最小。%Thermogenesis mechanism and heat distribution of disc brake were analyzed, the 3-D finite element model was built with ANSYS and the thermal field of brake disc under constant load, graded load and sine load was got through simulation. The results show that temperature of node in friction region rise hackly, along axial of brake disc, the temperature and fluctuation range decrease with the increase of distance between node and friction surface;the temperature of nodes at different radius are distinguishing and it is highlighted at the middle of friction region ,so this causes radial temperature gradient; the temperature distribution along circumference is becoming uniform with time increase;temperature of brake disc surface under the constant load is the highest and which under the sine load is the lowest.