WorldWideScience

Sample records for accountable priority setting

  1. Improving district level health planning and priority setting in Tanzania through implementing accountability for reasonableness framework

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Maluka, Stephen; Kamuzora, Peter; Sebastián, Miguel San;

    2010-01-01

    In 2006, researchers and decision-makers launched a five-year project - Response to Accountable Priority Setting for Trust in Health Systems (REACT) - to improve planning and priority-setting through implementing the Accountability for Reasonableness framework in Mbarali District, Tanzania....... The objective of this paper is to explore the acceptability of Accountability for Reasonableness from the perspectives of the Council Health Management Team, local government officials, health workforce and members of user boards and committees....

  2. The accountability for reasonableness approach to guide priority setting in health systems within limited resources

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Byskov, Jens; Marchal, Bruno; Maluka, Stephen;

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Priority-setting decisions are based on an important, but not sufficient set of values and thus lead to disagreement on priorities. Accountability for Reasonableness (AFR) is an ethics-based approach to a legitimate and fair priority-setting process that builds upon four conditions...... of the potential of AFR in supporting priority-setting and other decision-making processes in health systems to achieve better agreed and more sustainable health improvements linked to a mutual democratic learning with potential wider implications....

  3. Decentralized health care priority-setting in Tanzania: evaluating against the accountability for reasonableness framework.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maluka, Stephen; Kamuzora, Peter; San Sebastiån, Miguel; Byskov, Jens; Olsen, Øystein E; Shayo, Elizabeth; Ndawi, Benedict; Hurtig, Anna-Karin

    2010-08-01

    Priority-setting has become one of the biggest challenges faced by health decision-makers worldwide. Fairness is a key goal of priority-setting and Accountability for Reasonableness has emerged as a guiding framework for fair priority-setting. This paper describes the processes of setting health care priorities in Mbarali district, Tanzania, and evaluates the descriptions against Accountability for Reasonableness. Key informant interviews were conducted with district health managers, local government officials and other stakeholders using a semi-structured interview guide. Relevant documents were also gathered and group priority-setting in the district was observed. The results indicate that, while Tanzania has a decentralized public health care system, the reality of the district level priority-setting process was that it was not nearly as participatory as the official guidelines suggest it should have been. Priority-setting usually occurred in the context of budget cycles and the process was driven by historical allocation. Stakeholders' involvement in the process was minimal. Decisions (but not the reasoning behind them) were publicized through circulars and notice boards, but there were no formal mechanisms in place to ensure that this information reached the public. There were neither formal mechanisms for challenging decisions nor an adequate enforcement mechanism to ensure that decisions were made in a fair and equitable manner. Therefore, priority-setting in Mbarali district did not satisfy all four conditions of Accountability for Reasonableness; namely relevance, publicity, appeals and revision, and enforcement. This paper aims to make two important contributions to this problematic situation. First, it provides empirical analysis of priority-setting at the district level in the contexts of low-income countries. Second, it provides guidance to decision-makers on how to improve fairness, legitimacy, and sustainability of the priority-setting process. PMID

  4. Strengthening fairness, transparency and accountability in health care priority setting at district level in Tanzania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen Maluka

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Health care systems are faced with the challenge of resource scarcity and have insufficient resources to respond to all health problems and target groups simultaneously. Hence, priority setting is an inevitable aspect of every health system. However, priority setting is complex and difficult because the process is frequently influenced by political, institutional and managerial factors that are not considered by conventional priority-setting tools. In a five-year EU-supported project, which started in 2006, ways of strengthening fairness and accountability in priority setting in district health management were studied. This review is based on a PhD thesis that aimed to analyse health care organisation and management systems, and explore the potential and challenges of implementing Accountability for Reasonableness (A4R approach to priority setting in Tanzania. A qualitative case study in Mbarali district formed the basis of exploring the sociopolitical and institutional contexts within which health care decision making takes place. The study also explores how the A4R intervention was shaped, enabled and constrained by the contexts. Key informant interviews were conducted. Relevant documents were also gathered and group priority-setting processes in the district were observed. The study revealed that, despite the obvious national rhetoric on decentralisation, actual practice in the district involved little community participation. The assumption that devolution to local government promotes transparency, accountability and community participation, is far from reality. The study also found that while the A4R approach was perceived to be helpful in strengthening transparency, accountability and stakeholder engagement, integrating the innovation into the district health system was challenging. This study underscores the idea that greater involvement and accountability among local actors may increase the legitimacy and fairness of priority-setting

  5. What do District Health Planners in Tanzania think about improving priority setting using 'Accountability for Reasonableness'?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olsen Oystein

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Priority setting in every health system is complex and difficult. In less wealthy countries the dominant approach to priority setting has been Burden of Disease (BOD and cost-effectiveness analysis (CEA, which is helpful, but insufficient because it focuses on a narrow range of values – need and efficiency – and not the full range of relevant values, including legitimacy and fairness. 'Accountability for reasonableness' is a conceptual framework for legitimate and fair priority setting and is empirically based and ethically justified. It connects priority setting to broader, more fundamental, democratic deliberative processes that have an impact on social justice and equity. Can 'accountability for reasonableness' be helpful for improving priority setting in less wealthy countries? Methods In 2005, Tanzanian scholars from the Primary Health Care Institute (PHCI conducted 6 capacity building workshops with senior health staff, district planners and managers, and representatives of the Tanzanian Ministry of Health to discussion improving priority setting in Tanzania using 'accountability for reasonableness'. The purpose of this paper is to describe this initiative and the participants' views about the approach. Results The approach to improving priority setting using 'accountability for reasonableness' was viewed by district decision makers with enthusiastic favour because it was the first framework that directly addressed their priority setting concerns. High level Ministry of Health participants were also very supportive of the approach. Conclusion Both Tanzanian district and governmental health planners viewed the 'accountability for reasonableness' approach with enthusiastic favour because it was the first framework that directly addressed their concerns.

  6. Improving district level health planning and priority setting in Tanzania through implementing accountability for reasonableness framework: Perceptions of stakeholders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Byskov Jens

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In 2006, researchers and decision-makers launched a five-year project - Response to Accountable Priority Setting for Trust in Health Systems (REACT - to improve planning and priority-setting through implementing the Accountability for Reasonableness framework in Mbarali District, Tanzania. The objective of this paper is to explore the acceptability of Accountability for Reasonableness from the perspectives of the Council Health Management Team, local government officials, health workforce and members of user boards and committees. Methods Individual interviews were carried out with different categories of actors and stakeholders in the district. The interview guide consisted of a series of questions, asking respondents to describe their perceptions regarding each condition of the Accountability for Reasonableness framework in terms of priority setting. Interviews were analysed using thematic framework analysis. Documentary data were used to support, verify and highlight the key issues that emerged. Results Almost all stakeholders viewed Accountability for Reasonableness as an important and feasible approach for improving priority-setting and health service delivery in their context. However, a few aspects of Accountability for Reasonableness were seen as too difficult to implement given the socio-political conditions and traditions in Tanzania. Respondents mentioned: budget ceilings and guidelines, low level of public awareness, unreliable and untimely funding, as well as the limited capacity of the district to generate local resources as the major contextual factors that hampered the full implementation of the framework in their context. Conclusion This study was one of the first assessments of the applicability of Accountability for Reasonableness in health care priority-setting in Tanzania. The analysis, overall, suggests that the Accountability for Reasonableness framework could be an important tool for improving priority-setting

  7. Accountable priority setting for trust in health systems - the need for research into a new approach for strengthening sustainable health action in developing countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olsen Øystein E

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Despite multiple efforts to strengthen health systems in low and middle income countries, intended sustainable improvements in health outcomes have not been shown. To date most priority setting initiatives in health systems have mainly focused on technical approaches involving information derived from burden of disease statistics, cost effectiveness analysis, and published clinical trials. However, priority setting involves value-laden choices and these technical approaches do not equip decision-makers to address a broader range of relevant values - such as trust, equity, accountability and fairness - that are of concern to other partners and, not least, the populations concerned. A new focus for priority setting is needed. Accountability for Reasonableness (AFR is an explicit ethical framework for legitimate and fair priority setting that provides guidance for decision-makers who must identify and consider the full range of relevant values. AFR consists of four conditions: i relevance to the local setting, decided by agreed criteria; ii publicizing priority-setting decisions and the reasons behind them; iii the establishment of revisions/appeal mechanisms for challenging and revising decisions; iv the provision of leadership to ensure that the first three conditions are met. REACT - "REsponse to ACcountable priority setting for Trust in health systems" is an EU-funded five-year intervention study started in 2006, which is testing the application and effects of the AFR approach in one district each in Kenya, Tanzania and Zambia. The objectives of REACT are to describe and evaluate district-level priority setting, to develop and implement improvement strategies guided by AFR and to measure their effect on quality, equity and trust indicators. Effects are monitored within selected disease and programme interventions and services and within human resources and health systems management. Qualitative and quantitative methods are being

  8. Healthcare priority setting in Kenya

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bukachi, Salome A.; Onyango-Ouma, Washington; Siso, Jared Maaka;

    2014-01-01

    improves the priority setting decisions. This paper describes the healthcare priority setting processes in Malindi district, Kenya, prior to the implementation of A4R in 2008 and evaluates the process for its conformance with the conditions for A4R. In-depth interviews and focus group discussions with key...... players in the Malindi district health system and a review of key policy documents and national guidelines show that the priority setting process in the district relies heavily on guidelines from the national level, making it more of a vertical, top-down orientation. Multilateral and donor agencies......, national government, budgetary requirements, traditions and local culture influence the process. The four conditions of A4R are present within the priority setting process, albeit to varying degrees and referred to by different terms. There exists an opportunity for A4R to provide a guiding approach within...

  9. Accountable priority setting for trust in health systems--the need for research into a new approach for strengthening sustainable health action in developing countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Byskov, Jens; Bloch, Paul; Blystad, Astrid;

    2009-01-01

    Despite multiple efforts to strengthen health systems in low and middle income countries, intended sustainable improvements in health outcomes have not been shown. To date most priority setting initiatives in health systems have mainly focused on technical approaches involving information derived...

  10. Setting Priorities Personal Values, Organizational Results

    CERN Document Server

    (CCL), Center for Creative Leadership

    2011-01-01

    To be a successful leader, you need to get results. To get results, you need to set priorities. This book can help you do a better job of setting priorities, recognizing the personal values that motivate your decision making, the probable trade-offs and consequences of your decisions, and the importance of aligning your priorities with your organization's expectations. In this way you can successfully meet organizational objectives and consistently produce results.

  11. Decentralized health care priority-setting in Tanzania

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Maluka, Stephen; Kamuzora, Peter; Sebastiån, Miguel San;

    2010-01-01

    care priorities in Mbarali district, Tanzania, and evaluates the descriptions against Accountability for Reasonableness. Key informant interviews were conducted with district health managers, local government officials and other stakeholders using a semi-structured interview guide. Relevant documents...... were also gathered and group priority-setting in the district was observed. The results indicate that, while Tanzania has a decentralized public health care system, the reality of the district level priority-setting process was that it was not nearly as participatory as the official guidelines suggest...... not satisfy all four conditions of Accountability for Reasonableness; namely relevance, publicity, appeals and revision, and enforcement. This paper aims to make two important contributions to this problematic situation. First, it provides empirical analysis of priority-setting at the district level...

  12. Six common mistakes in conservation priority setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Game, Edward T; Kareiva, Peter; Possingham, Hugh P

    2013-06-01

    A vast number of prioritization schemes have been developed to help conservation navigate tough decisions about the allocation of finite resources. However, the application of quantitative approaches to setting priorities in conservation frequently includes mistakes that can undermine their authors' intention to be more rigorous and scientific in the way priorities are established and resources allocated. Drawing on well-established principles of decision science, we highlight 6 mistakes commonly associated with setting priorities for conservation: not acknowledging conservation plans are prioritizations; trying to solve an ill-defined problem; not prioritizing actions; arbitrariness; hidden value judgments; and not acknowledging risk of failure. We explain these mistakes and offer a path to help conservation planners avoid making the same mistakes in future prioritizations.

  13. Overcoming barriers to priority setting using interdisciplinary methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peacock, Stuart; Mitton, Craig; Bate, Angela; McCoy, Bonnie; Donaldson, Cam

    2009-10-01

    Ten years ago, Holm's highly influential paper "Goodbye to the simple solutions: the second phase of priority setting" was published [Holm S. Goodbye to the simple solutions: the second phase of priority setting in health care. British Medical Journal 1998;317:1000-7]. Whilst attending the 2nd International Conference on Priorities in Health Care in London, Holm argued that the search for a rational set of decision-making rules was no longer adequate. Instead, the priority setting process itself was now thought to be more complex. Ten years later, the Conference returns to the UK for the first time, and it is timely to describe some new tools intended to assist both researchers and decision-makers seeking to develop both rational and fair and legitimate priority setting processes. In this paper we argue that to do so, researchers and decision-makers need to adopt an interdisciplinary and collaborative approach to priority setting. We focus on program budgeting and marginal analysis (PBMA) and bring together three hitherto separate interdisciplinary strands of the PBMA literature. Our aim is to assist researchers and decision-makers seeking to effectively develop and implement PBMA in practice. Specifically, we focus on the use of multi-criteria decision analysis, participatory action research, and accountability for reasonableness, drawn from the disciplines of decision analysis, sociology, and ethics respectively. PMID:19346024

  14. Community Priority Index: utility, applicability and validation for priority setting in community-based participatory research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamisu M. Salihu

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Background. Providing practitioners with an intuitive measure for priority setting that can be combined with diverse data collection methods is a necessary step to foster accountability of the decision-making process in community settings. Yet, there is a lack of easy-to-use, but methodologically robust measures, that can be feasibly implemented for reliable decision-making in community settings. To address this important gap in community based participatory research (CBPR, the purpose of this study was to demonstrate the utility, applicability, and validation of a community priority index in a community-based participatory research setting. Design and Methods. Mixed-method study that combined focus groups findings, nominal group technique with six key informants, and the generation of a Community Priority Index (CPI that integrated community importance, changeability, and target populations. Bootstrapping and simulation were performed for validation. Results. For pregnant mothers, the top three highly important and highly changeable priorities were: stress (CPI=0.85; 95%CI: 0.70, 1.00, lack of affection (CPI=0.87; 95%CI: 0.69, 1.00, and nutritional issues (CPI=0.78; 95%CI: 0.48, 1.00. For non-pregnant women, top priorities were: low health literacy (CPI=0.87; 95%CI: 0.69, 1.00, low educational attainment (CPI=0.78; 95%CI: 0.48, 1.00, and lack of self-esteem (CPI=0.72; 95%CI: 0.44, 1.00. For children and adolescents, the top three priorities were: obesity (CPI=0.88; 95%CI: 0.69, 1.00, low self-esteem (CPI=0.81; 95%CI: 0.69, 0.94, and negative attitudes toward education (CPI=0.75; 95%CI: 0.50, 0.94. Conclusions. This study demonstrates the applicability of the CPI as a simple and intuitive measure for priority setting in CBPR.

  15. Priority-setting in Finnish healthcare.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rissanen, P; Häkkinen, U

    1999-12-01

    The characteristics which affect priority setting in the Finnish healthcare system include strong municipal (local) administration, no clear separation between producers and purchasers, a duality in funding, and the potential for physicians in public hospitals to practice in the private sector. This system has its strengths, such as the possibility to effectively co-ordinate social and healthcare services, and a strong incentive to take care of local needs, because of municipal responsibility to finance these services largely through local taxes. However, the municipalities are typically too small to take advantage of these potentials, their knowledge is scarce especially of secondary care and their negotiating power with respect to hospitals is low. Local politicians also have a dual role: they represent the needs of the local population but simultaneously they are decision-makers in hospitals. Full-time physicians are allowed to act in a dual role as well; they can run a private practice, which is paid for on a fee-for-service basis, while the hospital pays (mostly) a fixed monthly salary. The share of financing which flows from the National Sickness Insurance system to healthcare users may have adverse effects on the local use of resources. The broad national consensus statement on patient-level priorities did not reach any general rules on priorities. Strong support was given to citizens' equal right to access all healthcare services. In healthcare practice, this general rule has some exemptions. First, the reimbursement schemes for prescribed drugs vary depending on the severity and chronic nature of the disease. Secondly, the tax-financed dental services for the young are clearly prioritised over those of older citizens. In the consensus statement, emphasis was put on improving the efficiency of producing health services in order to avoid having to impose patient-level priorities. PMID:10827305

  16. Six Common Mistakes in Conservation Priority Setting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Game, Edward T; Kareiva, Peter; Possingham, Hugh P

    2013-01-01

    Abstract A vast number of prioritization schemes have been developed to help conservation navigate tough decisions about the allocation of finite resources. However, the application of quantitative approaches to setting priorities in conservation frequently includes mistakes that can undermine their authors’ intention to be more rigorous and scientific in the way priorities are established and resources allocated. Drawing on well-established principles of decision science, we highlight 6 mistakes commonly associated with setting priorities for conservation: not acknowledging conservation plans are prioritizations; trying to solve an ill-defined problem; not prioritizing actions; arbitrariness; hidden value judgments; and not acknowledging risk of failure. We explain these mistakes and offer a path to help conservation planners avoid making the same mistakes in future prioritizations. Seis Errores Comunes en la Definición de Prioridades de Conservación Resumen Se ha desarrollado un vasto número de esquemas de priorización para ayudar a que la conservación navegue entre decisiones difíciles en cuanto a la asignación de recursos finitos. Sin embargo, la aplicación de métodos cuantitativos para la definición de prioridades en la conservación frecuentemente incluye errores que pueden socavar la intención de sus autores de ser más rigurosos y científicos en la manera en que se establecen las prioridades y se asignan los recursos. Con base en los bien establecidos principios de la ciencia de la decisión, resaltamos seis errores comúnmente asociados con la definición de prioridades para la conservación: no reconocer que los planes de conservación son priorizaciones; tratar de resolver un problema mal definido; no priorizar acciones; arbitrariedad; juicios de valor ocultos y no reconocer el riesgo de fracasar. Explicamos estos errores y ofrecemos un camino para que planificadores de la conservación no cometan los mismos errores en priorizaciones

  17. Setting Priorities: Personal Values, Organizational Results. Ideas into Action Guidebooks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cartwright, Talula

    2007-01-01

    Successful leaders get results. To get results, you need to set priorities. This book can help you do a better job of setting priorities, recognizing the personal values that motivate your decision making, the probable trade-offs and consequences of your decisions, and the importance of aligning your priorities with your organization's…

  18. Priority setting for existing chemicals : automated data selection routine

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haelst, A.G. van; Hansen, B.G.

    2000-01-01

    One of the four steps within Council Regulation 793/93/EEC on the evaluation and control of existing chemicals is the priority setting step. The priority setting step is concerned with selecting high-priority substances from a large number of substances, initially starting with 2,474 high-production

  19. Formal priority setting in health care: the Swedish experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garpenby, Peter; Bäckman, Karin

    2016-09-19

    Purpose From the late 1980s and onwards health care in Sweden has come under increasing financial pressure, forcing policy makers to consider restrictions. The purpose of this paper is to review experiences and to establish lessons of formal priority setting in four Swedish regional health authorities during the period 2003-2012. Design/methodology/approach This paper draws on a variety of sources, and evidence is organised according to three broad aspects: design and implementation of models and processes, application of evidence and decision analysis tools and decision making and implementation of decisions. Findings The processes accounted for here have resulted in useful experiences concerning technical arrangements as well as political and public strategies. All four sites used a particular model for priority setting that combined top-down- and bottom-up-driven elements. Although the process was authorised from the top it was clearly bottom-up driven and the template followed a professional rationale. New meeting grounds were introduced between politicians and clinical leaders. Overall a limited group of stakeholders were involved. By defusing political conflicts the likelihood that clinical leaders would regard this undertaking as important increased. Originality/value One tendency today is to unburden regional authorities of the hard decisions by introducing arrangements at national level. This study suggests that regional health authorities, in spite of being politically governed organisations, have the potential to execute a formal priority-setting process. Still, to make priority-setting processes more robust to internal as well as external threat remains a challenge. PMID:27681023

  20. Promoting community participation in priority setting in district health systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kamuzora, Peter; Maluka, Stephen; Ndawi, Benedict;

    2013-01-01

    Community participation in priority setting in health systems has gained importance all over the world, particularly in resource-poor settings where governments have often failed to provide adequate public-sector services for their citizens. Incorporation of public views into priority setting...

  1. Priority setting and health policy and systems research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bennett Sara C

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Health policy and systems research (HPSR has been identified as critical to scaling-up interventions to achieve the millennium development goals, but research priority setting exercises often do not address HPSR well. This paper aims to (i assess current priority setting methods and the extent to which they adequately include HPSR and (ii draw lessons regarding how HPSR priority setting can be enhanced to promote relevant HPSR, and to strengthen developing country leadership of research agendas. Priority setting processes can be distinguished by the level at which they occur, their degree of comprehensiveness in terms of the topic addressed, the balance between technical versus interpretive approaches and the stakeholders involved. When HPSR is considered through technical, disease-driven priority setting processes it is systematically under-valued. More successful approaches for considering HPSR are typically nationally-driven, interpretive and engage a range of stakeholders. There is still a need however for better defined approaches to enable research funders to determine the relative weight to assign to disease specific research versus HPSR and other forms of cross-cutting health research. While country-level research priority setting is key, there is likely to be a continued need for the identification of global research priorities for HPSR. The paper argues that such global priorities can and should be driven by country level priorities.

  2. Setting healthcare priorities in hospitals: a review of empirical studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barasa, Edwine W; Molyneux, Sassy; English, Mike; Cleary, Susan

    2015-04-01

    Priority setting research has focused on the macro (national) and micro (bedside) level, leaving the meso (institutional, hospital) level relatively neglected. This is surprising given the key role that hospitals play in the delivery of healthcare services and the large proportion of health systems resources that they absorb. To explore the factors that impact upon priority setting at the hospital level, we conducted a thematic review of empirical studies. A systematic search of PubMed, EBSCOHOST, Econlit databases and Google scholar was supplemented by a search of key websites and a manual search of relevant papers' reference lists. A total of 24 papers were identified from developed and developing countries. We applied a policy analysis framework to examine and synthesize the findings of the selected papers. Findings suggest that priority setting practice in hospitals was influenced by (1) contextual factors such as decision space, resource availability, financing arrangements, availability and use of information, organizational culture and leadership, (2) priority setting processes that depend on the type of priority setting activity, (3) content factors such as priority setting criteria and (4) actors, their interests and power relations. We observe that there is need for studies to examine these issues and the interplay between them in greater depth and propose a conceptual framework that might be useful in examining priority setting practices in hospitals. PMID:24604831

  3. Priority-setting for achieving universal health coverage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chalkidou, Kalipso; Glassman, Amanda; Marten, Robert; Vega, Jeanette; Teerawattananon, Yot; Tritasavit, Nattha; Gyansa-Lutterodt, Martha; Seiter, Andreas; Kieny, Marie Paule; Hofman, Karen; Culyer, Anthony J

    2016-06-01

    Governments in low- and middle-income countries are legitimizing the implementation of universal health coverage (UHC), following a United Nation's resolution on UHC in 2012 and its reinforcement in the sustainable development goals set in 2015. UHC will differ in each country depending on country contexts and needs, as well as demand and supply in health care. Therefore, fundamental issues such as objectives, users and cost-effectiveness of UHC have been raised by policy-makers and stakeholders. While priority-setting is done on a daily basis by health authorities - implicitly or explicitly - it has not been made clear how priority-setting for UHC should be conducted. We provide justification for explicit health priority-setting and guidance to countries on how to set priorities for UHC. PMID:27274598

  4. Setting priorities for space research: An experiment in methodology

    Science.gov (United States)

    1995-01-01

    In 1989, the Space Studies Board created the Task Group on Priorities in Space Research to determine whether scientists should take a role in recommending priorities for long-term space research initiatives and, if so, to analyze the priority-setting problem in this context and develop a method by which such priorities could be established. After answering the first question in the affirmative in a previous report, the task group set out to accomplish the second task. The basic assumption in developing a priority-setting process is that a reasoned and structured approach for ordering competing initiatives will yield better results than other ways of proceeding. The task group proceeded from the principle that the central criterion for evaluating a research initiative must be its scientific merit -- the value of the initiative to the proposing discipline and to science generally. The group developed a two-stage methodology for priority setting and constructed a procedure and format to support the methodology. The first of two instruments developed was a standard format for structuring proposals for space research initiatives. The second instrument was a formal, semiquantitative appraisal procedure for evaluating competing proposals. This report makes available complete templates for the methodology, including the advocacy statement and evaluation forms, as well as an 11-step schema for a priority-setting process. From the beginning of its work, the task group was mindful that the issue of priority setting increasingly pervades all of federally supported science and that its work would have implications extending beyond space research. Thus, although the present report makes no recommendations for action by NASA or other government agencies, it provides the results of the task group's work for the use of others who may study priority-setting procedures or take up the challenge of implementing them in the future.

  5. Setting healthcare priorities in hospitals: a review of empirical studies

    OpenAIRE

    Barasa, Edwine W.; Molyneux, Sassy; English, Mike; Cleary, Susan

    2014-01-01

    Priority setting research has focused on the macro (national) and micro (bedside) level, leaving the meso (institutional, hospital) level relatively neglected. This is surprising given the key role that hospitals play in the delivery of healthcare services and the large proportion of health systems resources that they absorb. To explore the factors that impact upon priority setting at the hospital level, we conducted a thematic review of empirical studies. A systematic search of PubMed, EBSCO...

  6. Setting priorities and selecting topics for clinical practice guidelines.

    OpenAIRE

    Battista, R N; Hodge, M J

    1995-01-01

    Setting priorities and selecting topics are important steps in guidelines development, but they have received relatively little attention to date. Responses from a survey of guidelines stakeholders in Canada suggest that the health burden of a clinical condition on the population is an important factor in priority setting. Economic considerations, cast as either costs of treatment to the health care system or the economic burden of illness to society, are given varying importance by different...

  7. The state of health care priority setting and public participation

    OpenAIRE

    Konrad Obermann; Keith Tolley

    1997-01-01

    A structured questionnaire survey of all 131 health authorities in England, Wales and Scotland was carried out between September 1995 and January 1996. The priority setting questionnaire was sent to chairpersons or chief executives of each health authority, although respondents had a variety of job titles. The objectives of the survey was to assess (i) To assess the extent to which health authorities in England, Wales and Scotland perceive themselves as involved in setting priorities for heal...

  8. Tensions in setting health care priorities for South Africa's children.

    OpenAIRE

    Landman, W A; Henley, L D

    1998-01-01

    The new South African constitution commits the government to guarantee "basic health services" for every child under 18. Primary health care for pregnant women and children under six and elements of essential primary health care have received priority. At present, there is little analysis of the moral considerations involved in making choices about more advanced or costly health care which may, arguably, also be "basic". This paper illustrates some of the tensions in setting priorities for a ...

  9. SARS and hospital priority setting: a qualitative case study and evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Upshur Ross EG

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Priority setting is one of the most difficult issues facing hospitals because of funding restrictions and changing patient need. A deadly communicable disease outbreak, such as the Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome (SARS in Toronto in 2003, amplifies the difficulties of hospital priority setting. The purpose of this study is to describe and evaluate priority setting in a hospital in response to SARS using the ethical framework 'accountability for reasonableness'. Methods This study was conducted at a large tertiary hospital in Toronto, Canada. There were two data sources: 1 over 200 key documents (e.g. emails, bulletins, and 2 35 interviews with key informants. Analysis used a modified thematic technique in three phases: open coding, axial coding, and evaluation. Results Participants described the types of priority setting decisions, the decision making process and the reasoning used. Although the hospital leadership made an effort to meet the conditions of 'accountability for reasonableness', they acknowledged that the decision making was not ideal. We described good practices and opportunities for improvement. Conclusions 'Accountability for reasonableness' is a framework that can be used to guide fair priority setting in health care organizations, such as hospitals. In the midst of a crisis such as SARS where guidance is incomplete, consequences uncertain, and information constantly changing, where hour-by-hour decisions involve life and death, fairness is more important rather than less.

  10. Communitarian claims and community capabilities: furthering priority setting?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mooney, Gavin

    2005-01-01

    Priority setting in health care is generally not done well. This paper draws on ideas from Amartya Sen and Martha Nussbaum and adds some communitarian underpinnings to provide a way of improving on current uses of program budgeting and marginal analysis (PBMA) in priority setting. The paper suggests that shifting to a communitarian base for priority setting alters the distribution of property rights over health service decision making and increases the probability that recommendations from PBMA exercises will be implemented. The approach is built on a paradigm which departs from three tenets of welfarism as it is normally conceived: (i) individuals qua individuals seek to maximise their individual utility/well-being; (ii) individuals want to do this; and (iii) it is the values of individuals qua individuals that count. Some of the problems of PBMA, as it has been applied to date, are highlighted. It is argued that these are due largely to a lack of 'credible commitment'. Bringing in the community and communitarian values to PBMA priority setting exercises can help to overcome some of the barriers to getting PBMA recommendations implemented. The approach has the merit of reflecting Sen's concept of capabilities (but extending that to a community level). It avoids the often consequentialist base of a conventional welfarist framework, and it allows community values as opposed to individual values to come to the fore. How to elicit communitarian values is explored.

  11. Health care priority setting in Norway a multicriteria decision analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Defechereux, T.; Paolucci, F.; Mirelman, A.; Youngkong, S.; Botten, G.; Hagen, T.P.; Niessen, L.W.

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Priority setting in population health is increasingly based on explicitly formulated values. The Patients Rights Act of the Norwegian tax-based health service guaranties all citizens health care in case of a severe illness, a proven health benefit, and proportionality between need and tr

  12. Priority Setting for Improvement of Cervical Cancer Prevention in Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azam Majidi

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Background Cervical cancer is the fourth most common cancer among women worldwide. Organized cervical screening and vaccination against human papilloma virus (HPV have been successful interventions for prevention of invasive cervical cancer (ICC. Because of cultural and religious considerations, ICC has low incidence in Iran and many other Muslim countries. There is no organized cervical screening in these countries. Therefore, ICC is usually diagnosed in advanced stages with poor prognosis in these countries. We performed a priority setting exercise and suggested priorities for prevention of ICC in this setting. Methods We invited experts and researchers to a workshop and asked them to list important suggestions for ICC prevention in Iran. After merging similar items and removing the duplicates, we asked the experts to rank the list of suggested items. We used a strategy grid and Go-zone analysis to determine final list of priorities for ICC prevention in Iran. Results From 26 final items suggested as priorities for prevention of ICC, the most important priorities were developing national guidelines for cervical screening and quality control protocol for patient follow-up and management of precancerous lesions. In addition, we emphasized considering insurance coverage for cervical screening, public awareness, and research priorities, and establishment of a cervical screening registry. Conclusion A comprehensive approach and implementation of organized cervical screening program is necessary for prevention of ICC in Iran and other low incidence Muslim countries. Because of high cost for vaccination and low incidence of cervical cancer, we do not recommend HPV vaccination for the time being in Iran.

  13. Health care priority setting: principles, practice and challenges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Donaldson Cam

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Health organizations the world over are required to set priorities and allocate resources within the constraint of limited funding. However, decision makers may not be well equipped to make explicit rationing decisions and as such often rely on historical or political resource allocation processes. One economic approach to priority setting which has gained momentum in practice over the last three decades is program budgeting and marginal analysis (PBMA. Methods This paper presents a detailed step by step guide for carrying out a priority setting process based on the PBMA framework. This guide is based on the authors' experience in using this approach primarily in the UK and Canada, but as well draws on a growing literature of PBMA studies in various countries. Results At the core of the PBMA approach is an advisory panel charged with making recommendations for resource re-allocation. The process can be supported by a range of 'hard' and 'soft' evidence, and requires that decision making criteria are defined and weighted in an explicit manner. Evaluating the process of PBMA using an ethical framework, and noting important challenges to such activity including that of organizational behavior, are shown to be important aspects of developing a comprehensive approach to priority setting in health care. Conclusion Although not without challenges, international experience with PBMA over the last three decades would indicate that this approach has the potential to make substantial improvement on commonly relied upon historical and political decision making processes. In setting out a step by step guide for PBMA, as is done in this paper, implementation by decision makers should be facilitated.

  14. Setting priorities for exploration of uncertain water security outcomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jakeman, A. J.; Guillaume, J. H.; Kelly, R. A.

    2013-12-01

    Water security and over-allocation of surface and groundwater are key policy issues worldwide. The management of these issues can be approached through evaluation of the system-wide outcomes of water supply and demand scenarios. Integrated modelling can support this evaluation. This presentation makes use of a model developed for the Namoi catchment, part of the Murray-Darling Basin, Australia. The model identifies social, economic and environmental trade-offs under various water policy decisions and climate variations. The integrated model is composed of a hydrological model, a social model of likely behaviours of farmers, an ecological model of hydrological suitability, a farm decision (economic) model and a crop production model. Each of these components and their inputs are uncertain, which potentially leads to uncertainty in predicted outcomes. These uncertain outcomes can be explored by varying the model's assumptions about the system and exogeneous variables. This presentation presents and illustrates a simple risk-based process for setting initial priorities on what variations of models should be explored first. Firstly, identify the conclusions that the user is interested in drawing and the consequences if the wrong conclusions are drawn. Secondly, create a modular view of the model to understand which parts can be changed to account for uncertainty. Thirdly, elicit from the user, the modeller and other stakeholders the combinations of changes to the model that they believe are most likely to change the conclusion. The modeller may draw on both their expert opinion and computational techniques. The variations of models that should be explored first are those that carry the greatest risk, i.e. that are most likely to change a conclusion and which have the greatest consequences if that conclusion is changed. This exploration should be approached iteratively, as initial steps may help identify other conclusions of greater importance, gaps in the modular view

  15. The implications of fundamental cause theory for priority setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldberg, Daniel S

    2014-10-01

    Application of fundamental cause theory to Powers and Faden's model of social justice highlights the ethical superiority of upstream public health interventions. In this article, I assess the ramifications of fundamental cause theory specifically in context of public health priority setting. Ethically optimal public health policy simultaneously maximizes overall population health and compresses health inequalities. The fundamental cause theory is an important framework in helping to identify which categories of public health interventions are most likely to advance these twin goals.

  16. Setting practical conservation priorities for birds in the Western Andes of Colombia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ocampo-Peñuela, Natalia; Pimm, Stuart L

    2014-10-01

    We aspired to set conservation priorities in ways that lead to direct conservation actions. Very large-scale strategic mapping leads to familiar conservation priorities exemplified by biodiversity hotspots. In contrast, tactical conservation actions unfold on much smaller geographical extents and they need to reflect the habitat loss and fragmentation that have sharply restricted where species now live. Our aspirations for direct, practical actions were demanding. First, we identified the global, strategic conservation priorities and then downscaled to practical local actions within the selected priorities. In doing this, we recognized the limitations of incomplete information. We started such a process in Colombia and used the results presented here to implement reforestation of degraded land to prevent the isolation of a large area of cloud forest. We used existing range maps of 171 bird species to identify priority conservation areas that would conserve the greatest number of species at risk in Colombia. By at risk species, we mean those that are endemic and have small ranges. The Western Andes had the highest concentrations of such species-100 in total-but the lowest densities of national parks. We then adjusted the priorities for this region by refining these species ranges by selecting only areas of suitable elevation and remaining habitat. The estimated ranges of these species shrank by 18-100% after accounting for habitat and suitable elevation. Setting conservation priorities on the basis of currently available range maps excluded priority areas in the Western Andes and, by extension, likely elsewhere and for other taxa. By incorporating detailed maps of remaining natural habitats, we made practical recommendations for conservation actions. One recommendation was to restore forest connections to a patch of cloud forest about to become isolated from the main Andes.

  17. Setting priorities for development of emerging interventions against childhood diarrhoea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zulfiqar A. Bhutta

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available An expert panel exercise was conducted to assess feasibility and potential effectiveness of 10 emerging health interventions against childhood diarrhoea. Twelve international experts were invited to take part in a CHNRI priority setting process. This group used 12 different criteria relevant to successful development and implementation of the emerging interventions, nine of which were retained in the final analysis. They showed most collective optimism towards developing household or community-level water treatment, followed by sustainable, affordable latrine options; those two emerging interventions were followed by antibiotic therapy of Cryptosporidium diarrhoea, and oral or transcutaneous enteric vaccine development.

  18. A review of selected research priority setting processes at national level in low and middle income countries: towards fair and legitimate priority setting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hoosain Naeema

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background It is estimated that more than $130 billion is invested globally into health research each year. Increasingly, there is a need to set priorities in health research investments in a fair and legitimate way, using a sound and transparent methodology. In this paper we review selected priority setting processes at national level in low and middle income countries. We outline a set of criteria to assess the process of research priority setting and use these to describe and evaluate priority setting exercises that have taken place at country level. Based on these insights, recommendations are made regarding the constituents of a good priority setting process. Methods Data were gathered from presentations at a meeting held at the World Health Organization (WHO in 2008 and a web-based search. Based on this literature review a number of criteria were developed to evaluate the priority setting processes. Results Across the countries surveyed there was a relative lack of genuine stakeholder engagement; countries varied markedly in the extent to which the priority setting processes were documented; none of the countries surveyed had a systematic or operational appeals process for outlined priorities; and in all countries (except South Africa the priorities that were outlined described broad disease categories rather than specific research questions. Conclusions Country level priority setting processes differed significantly in terms of the methods used. We argue that priority setting processes must have in-built mechanisms for publicizing results, effective procedures to enforce decisions as well as processes to ensure that the revision of priorities happens in practice.

  19. Health care priority setting in Norway a multicriteria decision analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Defechereux Thierry

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Priority setting in population health is increasingly based on explicitly formulated values. The Patients Rights Act of the Norwegian tax-based health service guaranties all citizens health care in case of a severe illness, a proven health benefit, and proportionality between need and treatment. This study compares the values of the country's health policy makers with these three official principles. Methods In total 34 policy makers participated in a discrete choice experiment, weighting the relative value of six policy criteria. We used multi-variate logistic regression with selection as dependent valuable to derive odds ratios for each criterion. Next, we constructed a composite league table - based on the sum score for the probability of selection - to rank potential interventions in five major disease areas. Results The group considered cost effectiveness, large individual benefits and severity of disease as the most important criteria in decision making. Priority interventions are those related to cardiovascular diseases and respiratory diseases. Less attractive interventions rank those related to mental health. Conclusions Norwegian policy makers' values are in agreement with principles formulated in national health laws. Multi-criteria decision approaches may provide a tool to support explicit allocation decisions.

  20. Participatory health system priority setting: Evidence from a budget experiment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa-Font, Joan; Forns, Joan Rovira; Sato, Azusa

    2015-12-01

    Budget experiments can provide additional guidance to health system reform requiring the identification of a subset of programs and services that accrue the highest social value to 'communities'. Such experiments simulate a realistic budget resource allocation assessment among competitive programs, and position citizens as decision makers responsible for making 'collective sacrifices'. This paper explores the use of a participatory budget experiment (with 88 participants clustered in social groups) to model public health care reform, drawing from a set of realistic scenarios for potential health care users. We measure preferences by employing a contingent ranking alongside a budget allocation exercise (termed 'willingness to assign') before and after program cost information is revealed. Evidence suggests that the budget experiment method tested is cognitively feasible and incentive compatible. The main downside is the existence of ex-ante "cost estimation" bias. Additionally, we find that participants appeared to underestimate the net social gain of redistributive programs. Relative social value estimates can serve as a guide to aid priority setting at a health system level. PMID:26517295

  1. Fit for purpose? Introducing a rational priority setting approach into a community care setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cornelissen, Evelyn; Mitton, Craig; Davidson, Alan; Reid, Colin; Hole, Rachelle; Visockas, Anne-Marie; Smith, Neale

    2016-06-20

    Purpose - Program budgeting and marginal analysis (PBMA) is a priority setting approach that assists decision makers with allocating resources. Previous PBMA work establishes its efficacy and indicates that contextual factors complicate priority setting, which can hamper PBMA effectiveness. The purpose of this paper is to gain qualitative insight into PBMA effectiveness. Design/methodology/approach - A Canadian case study of PBMA implementation. Data consist of decision-maker interviews pre (n=20), post year-1 (n=12) and post year-2 (n=9) of PBMA to examine perceptions of baseline priority setting practice vis-à-vis desired practice, and perceptions of PBMA usability and acceptability. Findings - Fit emerged as a key theme in determining PBMA effectiveness. Fit herein refers to being of suitable quality and form to meet the intended purposes and needs of the end-users, and includes desirability, acceptability, and usability dimensions. Results confirm decision-maker desire for rational approaches like PBMA. However, most participants indicated that the timing of the exercise and the form in which PBMA was applied were not well-suited for this case study. Participant acceptance of and buy-in to PBMA changed during the study: a leadership change, limited organizational commitment, and concerns with organizational capacity were key barriers to PBMA adoption and thereby effectiveness. Practical implications - These findings suggest that a potential way-forward includes adding a contextual readiness/capacity assessment stage to PBMA, recognizing organizational complexity, and considering incremental adoption of PBMA's approach. Originality/value - These insights help us to better understand and work with priority setting conditions to advance evidence-informed decision making. PMID:27296887

  2. Fit for purpose? Introducing a rational priority setting approach into a community care setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cornelissen, Evelyn; Mitton, Craig; Davidson, Alan; Reid, Colin; Hole, Rachelle; Visockas, Anne-Marie; Smith, Neale

    2016-06-20

    Purpose - Program budgeting and marginal analysis (PBMA) is a priority setting approach that assists decision makers with allocating resources. Previous PBMA work establishes its efficacy and indicates that contextual factors complicate priority setting, which can hamper PBMA effectiveness. The purpose of this paper is to gain qualitative insight into PBMA effectiveness. Design/methodology/approach - A Canadian case study of PBMA implementation. Data consist of decision-maker interviews pre (n=20), post year-1 (n=12) and post year-2 (n=9) of PBMA to examine perceptions of baseline priority setting practice vis-à-vis desired practice, and perceptions of PBMA usability and acceptability. Findings - Fit emerged as a key theme in determining PBMA effectiveness. Fit herein refers to being of suitable quality and form to meet the intended purposes and needs of the end-users, and includes desirability, acceptability, and usability dimensions. Results confirm decision-maker desire for rational approaches like PBMA. However, most participants indicated that the timing of the exercise and the form in which PBMA was applied were not well-suited for this case study. Participant acceptance of and buy-in to PBMA changed during the study: a leadership change, limited organizational commitment, and concerns with organizational capacity were key barriers to PBMA adoption and thereby effectiveness. Practical implications - These findings suggest that a potential way-forward includes adding a contextual readiness/capacity assessment stage to PBMA, recognizing organizational complexity, and considering incremental adoption of PBMA's approach. Originality/value - These insights help us to better understand and work with priority setting conditions to advance evidence-informed decision making.

  3. Public involvement in health priority setting: future challenges for policy, research and society.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunter, David James; Kieslich, Katharina; Littlejohns, Peter; Staniszewska, Sophie; Tumilty, Emma; Weale, Albert; Williams, Iestyn

    2016-08-15

    Purpose - The purpose of this paper is to reflect on the findings of this special issue and discusses the future challenges for policy, research and society. The findings suggest that challenges emerge as a result of legitimacy deficits of both consensus and contestatory modes of public involvement in health priority setting. Design/methodology/approach - The paper draws on the discussions and findings presented in this special issue. It seeks to bring the country experiences and case studies together to draw conclusions for policy, research and society. Findings - At least two recurring themes emerge. An underlying theme is the importance, but also the challenge, of establishing legitimacy in health priority setting. The country experiences suggest that we understand very little about the conditions under which representative, or authentic, participation generates legitimacy and under which it will be regarded as insufficient. A second observation is that public participation takes a variety of forms that depend on the opportunity structures in a given national context. Given this variety the conceptualization of public participation needs to be expanded to account for the many forms of public participation. Originality/value - The paper concludes that the challenges of public involvement are closely linked to the question of how legitimate processes and decisions can be generated in priority setting. This suggests that future research must focus more narrowly on conditions under which legitimacy are generated in order to expand the understanding of public involvement in health prioritization. PMID:27468775

  4. The Employers' Priorities. Vocational Skills and Capabilities for Management Accountants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassall, Trevor; Joyce, John; Montano, Jose Luis Arquero; Anes, Jose Antonio Donoso

    2001-01-01

    Responses from 214 of 950 British employers of management accountants were analyzed with a weighted importance indicator. Communication and time management skills were most important. Employers thought that entry workers had good information technology skills but oral and written communication was "just acceptable." Also needing development was…

  5. Setting Priorities for Space Research: Opportunities and Imperatives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dutton, John A.; Abelson, Philip H.; Beckwith, Steven V. W.; Bishop, William P.; Byerly, Radford, Jr.; Crowe, Lawson; Dews, Peter; Garriott, Owen K.; Lunine, Jonathan; Macauley, Molly K.

    1992-01-01

    This report represents the first phase of a study by a task group convened by the Space Studies Board to ascertain whether it should attempt to develop a methodology for recommending priorities among the various initiatives in space research (that is, scientific activities concerned with phenomena in space or utilizing observations from space). The report argues that such priority statements by the space research community are both necessary and desirable and would contribute to the formulation and implementation of public policy. The report advocates the establishment of priorities to enhance effective management of the nation's scientific research program in space. It argues that scientific objectives and purposes should determine how and under what circumstances scientific research should be done. The report does not take a position on the controversy between advocates of manned space exploration and those who favor the exclusive use of unmanned space vehicles. Nor does the report address questions about the value or appropriateness of Space Station Freedom or proposals to establish a permanent manned Moon base or to undertake a manned mission to Mars. These issues lie beyond the charge to the task group.

  6. Cystic Fibrosis James Lind Alliance Priority Setting Partnership PROTOCOL [updated 13 July 2016

    OpenAIRE

    Smyth, Alan R; Rowbotham, Nicola J.; McPhee, Margaret; Smith, Sherie

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this protocol is to set out the aims, objectives and commitments of the Cystic Fibrosis Priority Setting Partnership (PSP) and the basic roles and responsibilities of the partners therein.

  7. Cystic Fibrosis James Lind Alliance Priority Setting Partnership PROTOCOL [5 February 2016

    OpenAIRE

    Smyth, Alan R; Rowbotham, Nicola J.; McPhee, Margaret; Smith, Sherie

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this protocol is to set out the aims, objectives and commitments of the Cystic Fibrosis Priority Setting Partnership (PSP) and the basic roles and responsibilities of the partners therein.

  8. Mapping of Florida's Coastal and Marine Resources: Setting Priorities Workshop

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robbins, Lisa; Wolfe, Steven; Raabe, Ellen

    2008-01-01

    The importance of mapping habitats and bioregions as a means to improve resource management has become increasingly clear. Large areas of the waters surrounding Florida are unmapped or incompletely mapped, possibly hindering proper management and good decisionmaking. Mapping of these ecosystems is among the top priorities identified by the Florida Oceans and Coastal Council in their Annual Science Research Plan. However, lack of prioritization among the coastal and marine areas and lack of coordination of agency efforts impede efficient, cost-effective mapping. A workshop on Mapping of Florida's Coastal and Marine Resources was sponsored by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), Florida Department of Environmental Protection (FDEP), and Southeastern Regional Partnership for Planning and Sustainability (SERPPAS). The workshop was held at the USGS Florida Integrated Science Center (FISC) in St. Petersburg, FL, on February 7-8, 2007. The workshop was designed to provide State, Federal, university, and non-governmental organizations (NGOs) the opportunity to discuss their existing data coverage and create a prioritization of areas for new mapping data in Florida. Specific goals of the workshop were multifold, including to: * provide information to agencies on state-of-the-art technology for collecting data; * inform participants of the ongoing mapping programs in waters off Florida; * present the mapping needs and priorities of the State and Federal agencies and entities operating in Florida; * work with State of Florida agencies to establish an overall priority for areas needing mapping; * initiate discussion of a unified classification of habitat and bioregions; * discuss and examine the need to standardize terminology and data collection/storage so that data, in particular habitat data, can be shared; 9 identify opportunities for partnering and leveraging mapping efforts among agencies and entities; * identify impediments and organizational gaps that hinder collection

  9. Health research priority setting in selected high income countries: a narrative review of methods used and recommendations for future practice

    OpenAIRE

    Bryant, Jamie; Sanson-Fisher, Rob; Walsh, Justin; Stewart, Jessica

    2014-01-01

    Research priority setting aims to gain consensus about areas where research effort will have wide benefits to society. While general principles for setting health research priorities have been suggested, there has been no critical review of the different approaches used. This review aims to: (i) examine methods, models and frameworks used to set health research priorities; (ii) identify barriers and facilitators to priority setting processes; and (iii) determine the outcomes of priority setti...

  10. A checklist for health research priority setting: nine common themes of good practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Terry Robert F

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Health research priority setting processes assist researchers and policymakers in effectively targeting research that has the greatest potential public health benefit. Many different approaches to health research prioritization exist, but there is no agreement on what might constitute best practice. Moreover, because of the many different contexts for which priorities can be set, attempting to produce one best practice is in fact not appropriate, as the optimal approach varies per exercise. Therefore, following a literature review and an analysis of health research priority setting exercises that were organized or coordinated by the World Health Organization since 2005, we propose a checklist for health research priority setting that allows for informed choices on different approaches and outlines nine common themes of good practice. It is intended to provide generic assistance for planning health research prioritization processes. The checklist explains what needs to be clarified in order to establish the context for which priorities are set; it reviews available approaches to health research priority setting; it offers discussions on stakeholder participation and information gathering; it sets out options for use of criteria and different methods for deciding upon priorities; and it emphasizes the importance of well-planned implementation, evaluation and transparency.

  11. Improving the use of research evidence in guideline development: 2. Priority setting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fretheim Atle

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The World Health Organization (WHO, like many other organisations around the world, has recognised the need to use more rigorous processes to ensure that health care recommendations are informed by the best available research evidence. This is the second of a series of 16 reviews that have been prepared as background for advice from the WHO Advisory Committee on Health Research to WHO on how to achieve this. Objectives We reviewed the literature on priority setting for health care guidelines, recommendations and technology assessments. Methods We searched PubMed and three databases of methodological studies for existing systematic reviews and relevant methodological research. We did not conduct systematic reviews ourselves. Our conclusions are based on the available evidence, consideration of what WHO and other organisations are doing and logical arguments. Key questions and answers There is little empirical evidence to guide the choice of criteria and processes for establishing priorities, but there are broad similarities in the criteria that are used by various organisations and practical arguments for setting priorities explicitly rather than implicitly, What criteria should be used to establish priorities? • WHO has limited resources and capacity to develop recommendations. It should use these resources where it has the greatest chance of improving health, equity, and efficient use of healthcare resources. • We suggest the following criteria for establishing priorities for developing recommendations based on WHO's aims and strategic advantages: • Problems associated with a high burden of illness in low and middle-income countries, or new and emerging diseases. • No existing recommendations of good quality. • The feasibility of developing recommendations that will improve health outcomes, reduce inequities or reduce unnecessary costs if they are implemented. • Implementation is feasible, will not exhaustively

  12. Priority setting in the provincial health services authority: survey of key decision makers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mitton Craig

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In recent years, decision makers in Canada and elsewhere have expressed a desire for more explicit, evidence-based approaches to priority setting. To achieve this aim within health care organizations, knowledge of both the organizational context and stakeholder attitudes towards priority setting are required. The current work adds to a limited yet growing body of international literature describing priority setting practices in health organizations. Methods A qualitative study was conducted using in-depth, face-to-face interviews with 25 key decision makers of the Provincial Health Services Authority (PHSA of British Columbia. Major themes and sub-themes were identified through content analysis. Results Priorities were described by decision makers as being set in an ad hoc manner, with resources generally allocated along historical lines. Participants identified the Strategic Plan and a strong research base as strengths of the organization. The main areas for improvement were a desire to have a more transparent process for priority setting, a need to develop a culture which supports explicit priority setting, and a focus on fairness in decision making. Barriers to an explicit allocation process included the challenge of providing specialized services for disparate patient groups, and a lack of formal training in priority setting amongst decision makers. Conclusion This study identified factors important to understanding organizational context and informed next steps for explicit priority setting for a provincial health authority. While the PHSA is unique in its organizational structure in Canada, lessons about priority setting should be transferable to other contexts.

  13. Setting priorities for regional conservation planning in the Mediterranean Sea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Micheli, Fiorenza; Levin, Noam; Giakoumi, Sylvaine; Katsanevakis, Stelios; Abdulla, Ameer; Coll, Marta; Fraschetti, Simonetta; Kark, Salit; Koutsoubas, Drosos; Mackelworth, Peter; Maiorano, Luigi; Possingham, Hugh P

    2013-01-01

    Spatial prioritization in conservation is required to direct limited resources to where actions are most urgently needed and most likely to produce effective conservation outcomes. In an effort to advance the protection of a highly threatened hotspot of marine biodiversity, the Mediterranean Sea, multiple spatial conservation plans have been developed in recent years. Here, we review and integrate these different plans with the goal of identifying priority conservation areas that represent the current consensus among the different initiatives. A review of six existing and twelve proposed conservation initiatives highlights gaps in conservation and management planning, particularly within the southern and eastern regions of the Mediterranean and for offshore and deep sea habitats. The eighteen initiatives vary substantially in their extent (covering 0.1-58.5% of the Mediterranean Sea) and in the location of additional proposed conservation and management areas. Differences in the criteria, approaches and data used explain such variation. Despite the diversity among proposals, our analyses identified ten areas, encompassing 10% of the Mediterranean Sea, that are consistently identified among the existing proposals, with an additional 10% selected by at least five proposals. These areas represent top priorities for immediate conservation action. Despite the plethora of initiatives, major challenges face Mediterranean biodiversity and conservation. These include the need for spatial prioritization within a comprehensive framework for regional conservation planning, the acquisition of additional information from data-poor areas, species or habitats, and addressing the challenges of establishing transboundary governance and collaboration in socially, culturally and politically complex conditions. Collective prioritised action, not new conservation plans, is needed for the north, western, and high seas of the Mediterranean, while developing initial information-based plans

  14. Priority setting in family change and clinical practice: the Family FIRO Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doherty, W J; Colangelo, N; Hovander, D

    1991-06-01

    We update a theoretical framework for understanding priority setting for the management of family change, with special emphasis on developmental change. We propose that three core dimensions of family interaction--inclusion, control, and intimacy--constitute an optimal priority sequence for managing major family change stemming from life-cycle transitions and other stressful experiences. In the next section of the article, we compare the Family FIRO Model and other models of family change. Finally, we suggest that therapists can benefit from an explicit, clinical decision-making model for setting priorities in treatment: issues of inclusion take precedence over issues of control, which in turn take precedence over issues of intimacy.

  15. Identifying acne treatment uncertainties via a James Lind Alliance Priority Setting Partnership

    OpenAIRE

    Layton, Alison; Eady, E. Anne; Peat, Maggie; Whitehouse, Heather; Levell, Nick; Ridd, Matthew; Cowdell, Fiona; Patel, Mahendra; Andrews, Stephen; Oxnard, Christine; Fenton, Mark; Firkins, Lester

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: The Acne Priority Setting Partnership (PSP) was set up to identify and rank treatment uncertainties by bringing together people with acne, and professionals providing care within and beyond the National Health Service (NHS). Setting: The UK with international participation. Participants: Teenagers and adults with acne, parents, partners, nurses, clinicians, pharmacists, private practitioners. Methods: Treatment uncertainties were collected via separat...

  16. Ethical priority setting for universal health coverage: challenges in deciding upon fair distribution of health services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norheim, Ole F

    2016-01-01

    Priority setting is inevitable on the path towards universal health coverage. All countries experience a gap between their population's health needs and what is economically feasible for governments to provide. Can priority setting ever be fair and ethically acceptable? Fairness requires that unmet health needs be addressed, but in a fair order. Three criteria for priority setting are widely accepted among ethicists: cost-effectiveness, priority to the worse-off, and financial risk protection. Thus, a fair health system will expand coverage for cost-effective services and give extra priority to those benefiting the worse-off, whilst at the same time providing high financial risk protection. It is considered unacceptable to treat people differently according to their gender, race, ethnicity, religion, sexual orientation, social status, or place of residence. Inequalities in health outcomes associated with such personal characteristics are therefore unfair and should be minimized. This commentary also discusses a third group of contested criteria, including rare diseases, small health benefits, age, and personal responsibility for health, subsequently rejecting them. In conclusion, countries need to agree on criteria and establish transparent and fair priority setting processes. PMID:27170046

  17. Towards deep inclusion for equity-oriented health research priority-setting: A working model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pratt, Bridget; Merritt, Maria; Hyder, Adnan A

    2016-02-01

    Growing consensus that health research funders should align their investments with national research priorities presupposes that such national priorities exist and are just. Arguably, justice requires national health research priority-setting to promote health equity. Such a position is consistent with recommendations made by the World Health Organization and at global ministerial summits that health research should serve to reduce health inequalities between and within countries. Thus far, no specific requirements for equity-oriented research priority-setting have been described to guide policymakers. As a step towards the explication and defence of such requirements, we propose that deep inclusion is a key procedural component of equity-oriented research priority-setting. We offer a model of deep inclusion that was developed by applying concepts from work on deliberative democracy and development ethics. This model consists of three dimensions--breadth, qualitative equality, and high-quality non-elite participation. Deep inclusion is captured not only by who is invited to join a decision-making process but also by how they are involved and by when non-elite stakeholders are involved. To clarify and illustrate the proposed dimensions, we use the sustained example of health systems research. We conclude by reviewing practical challenges to achieving deep inclusion. Despite the existence of barriers to implementation, our model can help policymakers and other stakeholders design more inclusive national health research priority-setting processes and assess these processes' depth of inclusion. PMID:26812416

  18. Development of a Method for Priority Setting in Forestry Research Projects in Turkey

    OpenAIRE

    DAŞDEMİR, İsmet

    2005-01-01

    This paper deals with the priority-setting problem in public research projects in the Turkish forestry sector. For this aim, a combined method has been developed, that is scientific, objective, dynamic, consistent, multidimensional, easily applicable and understandable. The theoretical framework, peculiarities and criteria of the method and weighting of the criteria are explained. Assuring hierarchical multidimensional consistency between the purposes and priorities in the national and sector...

  19. Setting health research priorities using the CHNRI method: III. Involving stakeholders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sachiyo Yoshida

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Setting health research priorities is a complex and value–driven process. The introduction of the Child Health and Nutrition Research Initiative (CHNRI method has made the process of setting research priorities more transparent and inclusive, but much of the process remains in the hands of funders and researchers, as described in the previous two papers in this series. However, the value systems of numerous other important stakeholders, particularly those on the receiving end of health research products, are very rarely addressed in any process of priority setting. Inclusion of a larger and more diverse group of stakeholders in the process would result in a better reflection of the system of values of the broader community, resulting in recommendations that are more legitimate and acceptable.

  20. Setting research priorities to improve global newborn health and prevent stillbirths by 2025

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Martines

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available In 2013, an estimated 2.8 million newborns died and 2.7 million were stillborn. A much greater number suffer from long term impairment associated with preterm birth, intrauterine growth restriction, congenital anomalies, and perinatal or infectious causes. With the approaching deadline for the achievement of the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs in 2015, there was a need to set the new research priorities on newborns and stillbirth with a focus not only on survival but also on health, growth and development. We therefore carried out a systematic exercise to set newborn health research priorities for 2013–2025.

  1. The knowledge, attitude, priority of usage, and benefits associated with management accounting practices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Steen; Melander, Preben; Jakobsen, Morten

    2009-01-01

    There have been several studies of the diffusion of new management accounting practices. This study adds a new dimension: in order to indicate the number of practices associated with the respondents, their interrelationships, the respondents, were asked to answer questions in a questionnaire...... management accounting practices. Our results reveal that companies in general experience a high level of benefit from the practices. However, significance differences between low priority of usage and high number of practices associated with the company are very likely to contribute to a more modest level...... of benefits. About 20 percent of the companies associate themselves with four to six  projects on new accounting practices in their organization, which might lead to poor performance and high failure rates. Comments from the respondents also show that companies have mixed feelings concerning the practices...

  2. Variational Online Budgeting Taking into Account the Priorities of Expense Items

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. V. Ilyin

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The paper describes the methodology of variational interval budgeting in a system with hierarchical structure of expense items. The priorities of expense items can be specified at any level of hierarchy. To account for the actually existing information incompleteness, the methodology provides the ability to input data and receive the results as numeric segments. The ability to clarify the budget plan in the course of its implementation is also provided. The article presents main characteristics of the working online service “Cost Planning” and example of the farm budget planning.

  3. Political strategies in difficult times - The "backstage" experience of Swedish politicians on formal priority setting in healthcare.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garpenby, Peter; Nedlund, Ann-Charlotte

    2016-08-01

    This paper contributes to the knowledge on the governing of healthcare in a democratic context in times of austerity. Resource allocation in healthcare is a highly political issue but the political nature of healthcare is not always made clear and the role of politicians is often obscure. The absence of politicians in rationing/disinvestment arrangements is usually explained with blame-shifting arguments; they prefer to delegate "the burden of responsibility" to administrative agencies or professionals. Drawing on a case where Swedish regional politicians involved themselves in setting priorities at a more detailed level than previously, the findings suggest that the subject of "blame avoidance" is more complicated than usually assumed. A qualitative case study was designed, involving semi-structured interviews with 14 regionally elected politicians in one Swedish health authority, conducted in June 2011. The interviews were analysed through a thematic analysis in accordance with the "framework approach" by Ritchie and Lewis. Findings show that an overarching strategy among the politicians was to appear united and to suppress conflict, which served to underpin the vital strategy of bringing the medical profession into the process. A key finding is the importance that politicians, when appearing "backstage", attach to the prevention of blame from the medical profession. This case illustrates that one has to take into account that priority settings requires various types of skills and knowledges - not only technical but also political and social. Another important lesson points toward the need to broaden the political leadership repertoire, as leadership in the case of priority setting is not about politicians being all in or all out. The results suggest that in a priority-setting process it is of importance to have politics on-board at an early stage to secure loyalty to the process, although not necessarily being involved in all details. PMID:27404909

  4. Consensus and contention in the priority setting process: examining the health sector in Uganda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colenbrander, Sarah; Birungi, Charles; Mbonye, Anthony K

    2015-06-01

    Health priority setting is a critical and contentious issue in low-income countries because of the high burden of disease relative to the limited resource envelope. Many sophisticated quantitative tools and policy frameworks have been developed to promote transparent priority setting processes and allocative efficiency. However, low-income countries frequently lack effective governance systems or implementation capacity, so high-level priorities are not determined through evidence-based decision-making processes. This study uses qualitative research methods to explore how key actors' priorities differ in low-income countries, using Uganda as a case study. Human resources for health, disease prevention and family planning emerge as the common priorities among actors in the health sector (although the last of these is particularly emphasized by international agencies) because of their contribution to the long-term sustainability of health-care provision. Financing health-care services is the most disputed issue. Participants from the Ugandan Ministry of Health preferentially sought to increase net health expenditure and government ownership of the health sector, while non-state actors prioritized improving the efficiency of resource use. Ultimately it is apparent that the power to influence national health outcomes lies with only a handful of decision-makers within key institutions in the health sector, such as the Ministries of Health, the largest bilateral donors and the multilateral development agencies. These power relations reinforce the need for ongoing research into the paradigms and strategic interests of these actors.

  5. 75 FR 75469 - Priority Setting for the Children's Health Insurance Program Reauthorization Act (CHIPRA...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-03

    ... (as a structure, process, or health outcome of healthcare delivery) and another element of the healthcare delivery system (e.g., structure and process; process and outcome). Commenters may wish to use as... HUMAN SERVICES Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality Priority Setting for the Children's...

  6. From the trenches: views from decision-makers on health services priority setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patten, San; Mitton, Craig; Donaldson, Cam

    2005-05-01

    Due to resource scarcity, health organizations worldwide must decide what services to fund and, conversely, what services not to fund. One approach to priority setting, which has been widely used in Britain, Australia, New Zealand and Canada, is programme budgeting and marginal analysis (PBMA). To date, such activity has primarily been based at a micro level, within programmes of care. In order to institute and refine the PBMA framework at a macro level across major service areas within a single health authority, researchers and decision-makers in Alberta embarked on a participatory action research project together. This paper identifies key issues of importance to decision-makers in a real-world priority-setting context. Themes discussed include making comparisons across disparate patient groups, dealing with political factors, using relevant forms of evidence, recognizing innovations and involving the public. The in-depth insight gained through this qualitative analysis will enable future refinement of PBMA at a macro level in the health authority under study, and should also serve to inform priority-setting activity in regionalized contexts elsewhere. In identifying aspects of priority setting that are important to decision-makers, researchers can also be better informed with respect to real-world processes. PMID:15901420

  7. Cost-effectiveness analysis for priority setting in health: penny-wise but pound-foolish.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Baltussen, R.M.P.M.; Brouwer, W.; Niessen, L.

    2005-01-01

    Cost-effectiveness analysis has much conceptual attractiveness in priority setting but is not used to its full potential to assist policy-makers on making choices in health in developed or in developing countries. We call for a shift away from present economic evaluation activities-that tend to prod

  8. Towards a multi-criteria approach for priority setting: an application to Ghana.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Baltussen, R.M.P.M.; Stolk, E.; Chisholm, D.; Aikins, M.

    2006-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Many criteria have been proposed to guide priority setting in health, but their relative importance has not yet been determined in a way that allows a rank ordering of interventions. METHODS: In an explorative study, a discrete choice experiment was carried out to determine the relative

  9. Setting health research priorities using the CHNRI method: I. Involving funders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Igor Rudan

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available In 2007 and 2008, the World Health Organization's Department for Child and Adolescent Health and Development commissioned five large research priority setting exercises using the CHNRI (Child Health and Nutrition Research Initiative method. The aim was to define research priorities related to the five major causes of child deaths for the period up to the year 2015. The selected causes were childhood pneumonia, diarrhoea, birth asphyxia, neonatal infections and preterm birth/low birth weight. The criteria used for prioritization in all five exercises were the “standard” CHNRI criteria: answerability, effectiveness, deliverability, potential for mortality burden reduction and the effect on equity. Having completed the exercises, the WHO officers were left with another question: how “fundable” were the identified priorities, i.e. how attractive were they to research funders?

  10. Environmental reporting and accounting in Australia: Progress, prospects and research priorities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dijk, Albert van, E-mail: albert.vandijk@anu.edu.au [Australian National University, Canberra, ACT (Australia); Mount, Richard [Bureau of Meteorology, Hobart, Tasmania (Australia); University of Tasmania, Hobart, Tasmania (Australia); Gibbons, Philip [Australian National University, Canberra, ACT (Australia); Vardon, Michael [Australian Bureau of Statistics, Belconnen, ACT (Australia); Canadell, Pep [CSIRO Marine and Atmospheric Research, Canberra, ACT (Australia)

    2014-03-01

    Despite strong demand for information to support the sustainable use of Australia's natural resources and conserve environmental values and despite considerable effort and investment, nation-wide environmental data collection and analysis remains a substantially unmet challenge. We review progress in producing national environmental reports and accounts, identify challenges and opportunities, and analyse the potential role of research in addressing these. Australia's low and concentrated population density and the short history since European settlement contribute to the lack of environmental data. There are additional factors: highly diverse data requirements and standards, disagreement on information priorities, poorly measurable management objectives, lack of coordination, over-reliance on researchers and businesses for data collection, lack of business engagement, and short-term, project-based activities. New opportunities have arisen to overcome some of these challenges: enhanced monitoring networks, standardisation, data management and modelling, greater commitment to share and integrate data, community monitoring, increasing acceptance of environmental and sustainability indicators, and progress in environmental accounting practices. Successes in generating climate, water and greenhouse gas information appear to be attributable to an unambiguous data requirement, considerable investment, and legislative instruments that enhance data sharing and create a clearly defined role for operational agencies. Based on the analysis presented, we suggest six priorities for research: (1) common definitions and standards for information that address management objectives, (2) ecological measures that are scalable from local to national level, (3) promotion of long-term data collection and reporting by researchers, (4) efficient satellite and sensor network technologies and data analysis methods, (5) environmental modelling approaches that can reconcile multiple

  11. Environmental reporting and accounting in Australia: Progress, prospects and research priorities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Despite strong demand for information to support the sustainable use of Australia's natural resources and conserve environmental values and despite considerable effort and investment, nation-wide environmental data collection and analysis remains a substantially unmet challenge. We review progress in producing national environmental reports and accounts, identify challenges and opportunities, and analyse the potential role of research in addressing these. Australia's low and concentrated population density and the short history since European settlement contribute to the lack of environmental data. There are additional factors: highly diverse data requirements and standards, disagreement on information priorities, poorly measurable management objectives, lack of coordination, over-reliance on researchers and businesses for data collection, lack of business engagement, and short-term, project-based activities. New opportunities have arisen to overcome some of these challenges: enhanced monitoring networks, standardisation, data management and modelling, greater commitment to share and integrate data, community monitoring, increasing acceptance of environmental and sustainability indicators, and progress in environmental accounting practices. Successes in generating climate, water and greenhouse gas information appear to be attributable to an unambiguous data requirement, considerable investment, and legislative instruments that enhance data sharing and create a clearly defined role for operational agencies. Based on the analysis presented, we suggest six priorities for research: (1) common definitions and standards for information that address management objectives, (2) ecological measures that are scalable from local to national level, (3) promotion of long-term data collection and reporting by researchers, (4) efficient satellite and sensor network technologies and data analysis methods, (5) environmental modelling approaches that can reconcile multiple data

  12. Priority setting for horizon scanning of new health technologies in Denmark:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Douw, Karla; Vondeling, Hindrik; Oortwijn, Wija

    2006-01-01

    on health policy; such as the educational needs and organisational changes associated with the new technology. The proposed changes are regarded as an intermediate step in the process of producing a fully adapted instrument that can serve as a formal support for priority setting of new health technologies...... was to investigate if the instrument needed adaptation for priority setting in the context of a Danish HSS and, if so, how the instrument should be changed. A literature study served to enhance interpretation of the findings of the surveys and to formulate changes in the instrument that synthesize or bridge any...... differing views between the two groups. The results show that the instrument should apply a health care perspective, and that technologies should be prioritised on the basis of the criteria: marginal benefits, marginal costs, budget impact, impact on access to care, and additional criteria with an impact...

  13. Beyond matrices and black-box algorithms : setting marketing priorities with marketing strategy conferences

    OpenAIRE

    Martin S. Schilling; Schulze-Cleven, Paul J.

    2010-01-01

    With this paper, we introduce the Marketing Strategy Conference approach to set strategic marketing priorities effectively and allocate marketing-related resources accordingly. The system is based on managerial preference modelling with a decision model (analytical side) and communication-enhancing strategy conferencing (interactive side). After a review of alternative resource allocation frameworks, as rule-of-thumb approaches, matrix-based analyses, statistical analyses and management scien...

  14. Setting health research priorities using the CHNRI method: VI. Quantitative properties of human collective opinion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sachiyo Yoshida

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Crowdsourcing has become an increasingly important tool to address many problems – from government elections in democracies, stock market prices, to modern online tools such as TripAdvisor or Internet Movie Database (IMDB. The CHNRI method (the acronym for the Child Health and Nutrition Research Initiative for setting health research priorities has crowdsourcing as the major component, which it uses to generate, assess and prioritize between many competing health research ideas.

  15. Lifetime QALY prioritarianism in priority setting: quantification of the inherent trade-off

    OpenAIRE

    Ottersen, Trygve; Mæstad, Ottar; Norheim, Ole Frithjof

    2014-01-01

    Background: Multiple principles are relevant in priority setting, two of which are often considered particularly important. According to the greater benefit principle, resources should be directed toward the intervention with the greater health benefit. This principle is intimately linked to the goal of health maximization and standard cost-effectiveness analysis (CEA). According to the worse off principle, resources should be directed toward the intervention benefiting those initially worse ...

  16. Setting health research priorities using the CHNRI method: VI. Quantitative properties of human collective opinion

    OpenAIRE

    Sachiyo Yoshida; Igor Rudan; Simon Cousens 3

    2016-01-01

    Crowdsourcing has become an increasingly important tool to address many problems – from government elections in democracies, stock market prices, to modern online tools such as TripAdvisor or Internet Movie Database (IMDB). The CHNRI method (the acronym for the Child Health and Nutrition Research Initiative) for setting health research priorities has crowdsourcing as the major component, which it uses to generate, assess and prioritize between many competing health research ideas.

  17. Setting health research priorities using the CHNRI method: IV. Key conceptual advances

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Igor Rudan

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Child Health and Nutrition Research Initiative (CHNRI started as an initiative of the Global Forum for Health Research in Geneva, Switzerland. Its aim was to develop a method that could assist priority setting in health research investments. The first version of the CHNRI method was published in 2007–2008. The aim of this paper was to summarize the history of the development of the CHNRI method and its key conceptual advances.

  18. Mapping of multiple criteria for priority setting of health interventions: an aid for decision makers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tromp Noor

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In rationing decisions in health, many criteria like costs, effectiveness, equity and feasibility concerns play a role. These criteria stem from different disciplines that all aim to inform health care rationing decisions, but a single underlying concept that incorporates all criteria does not yet exist. Therefore, we aim to develop a conceptual mapping of criteria, based on the World Health Organization’s Health Systems Performance and Health Systems Building Blocks frameworks. This map can be an aid to decision makers to identify the relevant criteria for priority setting in their specific context. Methods We made an inventory of all possible criteria for priority setting on the basis of literature review. We categorized the criteria according to both health system frameworks that spell out a country’s health system goals and input. We reason that the criteria that decision makers use in priority setting exercises are a direct manifestation of this. Results Our map includes thirty-one criteria that are distributed among five categories that reflect the goals of a health system (i.e. to improve level of health, fair distribution of health, responsiveness, social & financial risk protection and efficiency and leadership/governance one category that reflects feasibiliy based on the health system building blocks (i.e. service delivery, health care workforce , information, medical products, vaccines & technologies, financing and. Conclusions This conceptual mapping of criteria, based on well-established health system frameworks, will further develop the field of priority setting by assisting decision makers in the identification of multiple criteria for selection of health interventions.

  19. The EU’s Response to the Refugee Crisis: Taking Stock and Setting Policy Priorities

    OpenAIRE

    Carrera, S.; Blockmans, S.; Gros, D.; Guild, E.

    2015-01-01

    What have been the most important EU policy and legal responses to the 2015 refugee crisis? Is Europe acting in compliance with its founding principles? This Essay takes stock of the main results and policy outputs from the EU’s interventions in the refugee crisis. It critically highlights the outstanding policy dilemmas confronting the adopted instruments and puts forwards a set of policy priorities to guide the next phases of the European Agenda on Migration.

  20. Norwegian Priority Setting in Practice – an Analysis of Waiting Time Patterns Across Medical Disciplines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jurgita Januleviciute Gangstøe

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Different strategies for addressing the challenge of prioritizing elective patients efficiently and fairly have been introduced in Norway. In the time period studied, there were three possible outcomes for elective patients that had been through the process of priority setting: (i high priority with assigned individual maximum waiting time; (ii low priority without a maximum waiting time; and (iii refusal (not in need for specialized services. We study variation in priority status and waiting time of the first two groups across different medical disciplines. Methods: Data was extracted from the Norwegian Patient Register (NPR and contains information on elective referrals to 41 hospitals in the Western Norway Regional Health Authority in 2010. The hospital practice across different specialties was measured by patient priority status and waiting times. The distributions of assigned maximum waiting times and the actual ones were analyzed using standard Kernel density estimation. The perspective of the planning process was studied by measuring the time interval between the actual start of healthcare and the maximum waiting time. Results: Considerable variation was found across medical specialties concerning proportion of priority patients and their maximum waiting times. The degree of differentiation in terms of maximum waiting times also varied by medical discipline. We found that the actual waiting time was very close to the assigned maximum waiting time. Furthermore, there was no clear correspondence between the actual waiting time for patients and their priority status. Conclusion: Variations across medical disciplines are often interpreted as differences in clinical judgment and capacity. Alternatively they primarily reflect differences in patient characteristics, patient case-mix, as well as capacity. One hypothesis for further research is that the introduction of maximum waiting times may have contributed to push the actual

  1. Priority setting in health authorities: a novel approach to a historical activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitton, Craig; Patten, San; Waldner, Howard; Donaldson, Cam

    2003-11-01

    As resources in health care are scarce, health authorities and other health organizations are charged with determining how best to spend limited resources. While a number of formal approaches to priority setting within health authorities have been used internationally, there has been limited success with such activity, particularly across major service portfolios. This participatory action research project instituted a novel priority setting framework, coined macro-marginal analysis (MMA), in a fully integrated urban health region in Alberta, Canada. The focus of MMA is on identifying areas for service growth and areas for resource release, then determining, based on pre-defined, locally generated criteria, if actual shifts or re-allocation of resources should occur. For fiscal year 2002/03, the Calgary Health Region identified over 40 M dollars in resource releases (approximately 3% of the total budget), which were made available for servicing the deficit, and more importantly for our purposes, re-investing in service growth areas. The MMA framework is pragmatic in nature and has the ability to incorporate relevant evidence directly into the decision-making process. This work constitutes a significant advancement in health economics, and responds where previous priority setting approaches have failed in that it allows decision-makers to achieve genuine re-allocation of resources with the aim of improving population health or better meeting other important criteria. PMID:12948574

  2. Identifying acne treatment uncertainties via a James Lind Alliance Priority Setting Partnership

    Science.gov (United States)

    Layton, Alison; Eady, E Anne; Peat, Maggie; Whitehouse, Heather; Levell, Nick; Ridd, Matthew; Cowdell, Fiona; Patel, Mahenda; Andrews, Stephen; Oxnard, Christine; Fenton, Mark; Firkins, Lester

    2015-01-01

    Objectives The Acne Priority Setting Partnership (PSP) was set up to identify and rank treatment uncertainties by bringing together people with acne, and professionals providing care within and beyond the National Health Service (NHS). Setting The UK with international participation. Participants Teenagers and adults with acne, parents, partners, nurses, clinicians, pharmacists, private practitioners. Methods Treatment uncertainties were collected via separate online harvesting surveys, embedded within the PSP website, for patients and professionals. A wide variety of approaches were used to promote the surveys to stakeholder groups with a particular emphasis on teenagers and young adults. Survey submissions were collated using keywords and verified as uncertainties by appraising existing evidence. The 30 most popular themes were ranked via weighted scores from an online vote. At a priority setting workshop, patients and professionals discussed the 18 highest-scoring questions from the vote, and reached consensus on the top 10. Results In the harvesting survey, 2310 people, including 652 professionals and 1456 patients (58% aged 24 y or younger), made submissions containing at least one research question. After checking for relevance and rephrasing, a total of 6255 questions were collated into themes. Valid votes ranking the 30 most common themes were obtained from 2807 participants. The top 10 uncertainties prioritised at the workshop were largely focused on management strategies, optimum use of common prescription medications and the role of non-drug based interventions. More female than male patients took part in the harvesting surveys and vote. A wider range of uncertainties were provided by patients compared to professionals. Conclusions Engaging teenagers and young adults in priority setting is achievable using a variety of promotional methods. The top 10 uncertainties reveal an extensive knowledge gap about widely used interventions and the relative merits

  3. Congestion Control in WMSNs by Reducing Congestion and Free Resources to Set Accurate Rates and Priority

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akbar Majidi

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The main intention of this paper is focus on mechanism for reducing congestion in the network by free resources to set accurate rates and priority data needs. If two nodes send their packets in the shortest path to the parent node in a crowded place, a source node must prioritize the data and uses data that have lower priorities of a suitable detour nodes consisting of low or non- active consciously. The proposed algorithm is applied to the nodes near the base station (which convey more traffic after the congestion detection mechanism detected the congestion. Obtained results from simulation test done by NS-2 simulator demonstrate the innovation and validity of proposed method with better performance in comparison with CCF, PCCP and DCCP protocols.

  4. An approach for setting evidence-based and stakeholder-informed research priorities in low- and middle-income countries

    OpenAIRE

    Rehfuess, Eva A; Durão, Solange; Kyamanywa, Patrick; Joerg J Meerpohl; Young, Taryn; Rohwer, Anke; ,

    2015-01-01

    Abstract To derive evidence-based and stakeholder-informed research priorities for implementation in African settings, the international research consortium Collaboration for Evidence-Based Healthcare and Public Health in Africa (CEBHA+) developed and applied a pragmatic approach. First, an online survey and face-to-face consultation between CEBHA+ partners and policy-makers generated priority research areas. Second, evidence maps for these priority research areas identified gaps and related ...

  5. Priority-setting tools for rheumatology disease referrals: a review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Coster, Carolyn; Fitzgerald, Avril; Cepoiu, Monica

    2008-11-01

    As part of a larger body of work to develop a rheumatology priority referral score, a literature review was conducted. The objective of the literature review was to identify preexisting priority-setting, triage, and referral tools/scales developed to guide referrals from primary care to specialist care/consultation usually provided by a rheumatologist. Using a combination of database, citation, Internet, and hand-searching, 20 papers were identified that related to referral prioritization in three areas: rheumatoid arthritis (RA; 5), musculoskeletal (MSK) diseases other than RA (3), and MSK diseases in general (12). No single set of priority-setting criteria was identified for rheumatologic disorders across the spectrum of patients who may be referred from primary care providers (PCPs) to rheumatologists. There appears to be more congruence on conditions at either end of the urgency spectrum with conditions such as suspected cranial arteritis or systemic vasculitis deemed to be emergency referrals and fibromyalgia and other soft-tissue syndromes deemed to be more routine referrals. Between these two extremes, there is a divergence of opinion about urgency and few papers on the issue. The exception to this is referral for early RA for which several criteria have been established. Despite the inherent complexities in developing a tool to prioritize patients referred by PCPs to rheumatologists, there are compelling reasons to proceed. With the aging of the population, the number of patients being referred to rheumatologists is expected to increase. With pharmaceutical advances, there are demonstrable benefits in early referral for some conditions. These trends have led to increased pressure on scarce rheumatological human resources. A tool to prioritize referrals is a critical component of improving access and the referral process.

  6. Introduction: priority setting, equitable access and public involvement in health care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weale, Albert; Kieslich, Katharina; Littlejohns, Peter; Tugendhaft, Aviva; Tumilty, Emma; Weerasuriya, Krisantha; Whitty, Jennifer A

    2016-08-15

    Purpose - The purpose of this paper is to introduce the special issue on improving equitable access to health care through increased public and patient involvement (PPI) in prioritization decisions by discussing the conceptualization, scope and rationales of PPI in priority setting that inform the special issue. Design/methodology/approach - The paper employs a mixed-methods approach in that it provides a literature review and a conceptual discussion of the common themes emerging in the field of PPI and health priority setting. Findings - The special issue focuses on public participation that is collective in character, in the sense that the participation relates to a social, not personal, decision and is relevant to whole groups of people and not single individuals. It is aimed at influencing a decision on public policy or legal rules. The rationales for public participation can be found in democratic theory, especially as they relate to the social and political values of legitimacy and representation. Originality/value - The paper builds on previous definitions of public participation by underlining its collective character. In doing so, it develops the work by Parry, Moyser and Day by arguing that, in light of the empirical evidence presented in this issue, public participatory activities such as protests and demonstrations should no longer be labelled unconventional, but should instead be labelled as "contestatory participation". This is to better reflect a situation in which these modes of participation have become more conventional in many parts of the world. PMID:27468772

  7. Introduction: priority setting, equitable access and public involvement in health care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weale, Albert; Kieslich, Katharina; Littlejohns, Peter; Tugendhaft, Aviva; Tumilty, Emma; Weerasuriya, Krisantha; Whitty, Jennifer A

    2016-08-15

    Purpose - The purpose of this paper is to introduce the special issue on improving equitable access to health care through increased public and patient involvement (PPI) in prioritization decisions by discussing the conceptualization, scope and rationales of PPI in priority setting that inform the special issue. Design/methodology/approach - The paper employs a mixed-methods approach in that it provides a literature review and a conceptual discussion of the common themes emerging in the field of PPI and health priority setting. Findings - The special issue focuses on public participation that is collective in character, in the sense that the participation relates to a social, not personal, decision and is relevant to whole groups of people and not single individuals. It is aimed at influencing a decision on public policy or legal rules. The rationales for public participation can be found in democratic theory, especially as they relate to the social and political values of legitimacy and representation. Originality/value - The paper builds on previous definitions of public participation by underlining its collective character. In doing so, it develops the work by Parry, Moyser and Day by arguing that, in light of the empirical evidence presented in this issue, public participatory activities such as protests and demonstrations should no longer be labelled unconventional, but should instead be labelled as "contestatory participation". This is to better reflect a situation in which these modes of participation have become more conventional in many parts of the world.

  8. MODEL OF DISTRIBUTION OF THE BUDGET OF THE PORTFOLIO OF IT PROJECTS TAKING IN-TO ACCOUNT THEIR PRIORITY

    OpenAIRE

    Sotnikova, A

    2015-01-01

    Article is devoted to a problem of effective distribution of the general budget of a portfolio between the IT projects which are its part taking into ac-count their priority. The designated problem is actual in view of low results of activity of the consulting companies in the sphere of information technologies. For determination of priority of IT projects the method of analytical networks developed by T. Saati is used. For the purpose of application of this method the system of criteria (ind...

  9. Setting Priorities for Monitoring and Managing Non-native Plants: Toward a Practical Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koch, Christiane; Jeschke, Jonathan M; Overbeck, Gerhard E; Kollmann, Johannes

    2016-09-01

    Land managers face the challenge to set priorities in monitoring and managing non-native plant species, as resources are limited and not all non-natives become invasive. Existing frameworks that have been proposed to rank non-native species require extensive information on their distribution, abundance, and impact. This information is difficult to obtain and often not available for many species and regions. National watch or priority lists are helpful, but it is questionable whether they provide sufficient information for environmental management on a regional scale. We therefore propose a decision tree that ranks species based on more simple albeit robust information, but still provides reliable management recommendations. To test the decision tree, we collected and evaluated distribution data from non-native plants in highland grasslands of Southern Brazil. We compared the results with a national list from the Brazilian Invasive Species Database for the state to discuss advantages and disadvantages of the different approaches on a regional scale. Out of 38 non-native species found, only four were also present on the national list. If management would solely rely on this list, many species that were identified as spreading based on the decision tree would go unnoticed. With the suggested scheme, it is possible to assign species to active management, to monitoring, or further evaluation. While national lists are certainly important, management on a regional scale should employ additional tools that adequately consider the actual risk of non-natives to become invasive. PMID:27272017

  10. Setting Priorities for Monitoring and Managing Non-native Plants: Toward a Practical Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koch, Christiane; Jeschke, Jonathan M.; Overbeck, Gerhard E.; Kollmann, Johannes

    2016-09-01

    Land managers face the challenge to set priorities in monitoring and managing non-native plant species, as resources are limited and not all non-natives become invasive. Existing frameworks that have been proposed to rank non-native species require extensive information on their distribution, abundance, and impact. This information is difficult to obtain and often not available for many species and regions. National watch or priority lists are helpful, but it is questionable whether they provide sufficient information for environmental management on a regional scale. We therefore propose a decision tree that ranks species based on more simple albeit robust information, but still provides reliable management recommendations. To test the decision tree, we collected and evaluated distribution data from non-native plants in highland grasslands of Southern Brazil. We compared the results with a national list from the Brazilian Invasive Species Database for the state to discuss advantages and disadvantages of the different approaches on a regional scale. Out of 38 non-native species found, only four were also present on the national list. If management would solely rely on this list, many species that were identified as spreading based on the decision tree would go unnoticed. With the suggested scheme, it is possible to assign species to active management, to monitoring, or further evaluation. While national lists are certainly important, management on a regional scale should employ additional tools that adequately consider the actual risk of non-natives to become invasive.

  11. National Priority Setting of Clinical Practice Guidelines Development for Chronic Disease Management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jo, Heui-Sug; Kim, Dong Ik; Oh, Moo-Kyung

    2015-12-01

    By November 2013, a total of 125 clinical practice guidelines (CPGs) have been developed in Korea. However, despite the high burden of diseases and the clinical importance of CPGs, most chronic diseases do not have available CPGs. Merely 83 CPGs are related to chronic diseases, and only 40 guidelines had been developed in the last 5 yr. Considering the rate of the production of new evidence in medicine and the worsening burden from chronic diseases, the need for developing CPGs for more chronic diseases is becoming increasingly pressing. Since 2011, the Korean Academy of Medical Sciences and the Korea Centers for Disease Control and Prevention have been jointly developing CPGs for chronic diseases. However, priorities have to be set and resources need to be allocated within the constraint of a limited funding. This study identifies the chronic diseases that should be prioritized for the development of CPGs in Korea. Through an objective assessment by using the analytic hierarchy process and a subjective assessment with a survey of expert opinion, high priorities were placed on ischemic heart disease, cerebrovascular diseases, Alzheimer's disease and other dementias, osteoarthritis, neck pain, chronic kidney disease, and cirrhosis of the liver.

  12. Using multicriteria decision analysis to support research priority setting in biomedical translational research projects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Graaf, Gimon; Postmus, Douwe; Buskens, Erik

    2015-01-01

    Translational research is conducted to achieve a predefined set of economic or societal goals. As a result, investment decisions on where available resources have the highest potential in achieving these goals have to be made. In this paper, we first describe how multicriteria decision analysis can assist in defining the decision context and in ensuring that all relevant aspects of the decision problem are incorporated in the decision making process. We then present the results of a case study to support priority setting in a translational research consortium aimed at reducing the burden of disease of type 2 diabetes. During problem structuring, we identified four research alternatives (primary, secondary, tertiary microvascular, and tertiary macrovascular prevention) and a set of six decision criteria. Scoring of these alternatives against the criteria was done using a combination of expert judgement and previously published data. Lastly, decision analysis was performed using stochastic multicriteria acceptability analysis, which allows for the combined use of numerical and ordinal data. We found that the development of novel techniques applied in secondary prevention would be a poor investment of research funds. The ranking of the remaining alternatives was however strongly dependent on the decision maker's preferences for certain criteria. PMID:26495288

  13. The conservation and management of tunas and their relatives: setting life history research priorities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juan-Jordá, Maria José; Mosqueira, Iago; Freire, Juan; Dulvy, Nicholas K

    2013-01-01

    Scombrids (tunas, bonitos, Spanish mackerels and mackerels) support important fisheries in tropical, subtropical and temperate waters around the world, being one of the most economically- and socially-important marine species globally. Their sustainable exploitation, management and conservation depend on accurate life history information for the development of quantitative fisheries stock assessments, and in the fishery data-poor situations for the identification of vulnerable species. Here, we assemble life history traits (maximum size, growth, longevity, maturity, fecundity, spawning duration and spawning interval) for the 51 species of scombrids globally. We identify major biological gaps in knowledge and prioritize life history research needs in scombrids based on their biological gaps in knowledge, the importance of their fisheries and their current conservation status according to the International Union for Conservation of Nature Red List. We find that the growth and reproductive biology of tunas and mackerel species have been more extensively studied than for Spanish mackerels and bonitos, although there are notable exceptions in all groups. We also reveal that reproductive biology of species, particular fecundity, is the least studied biological aspect in scombrids. We identify two priority groups, including 32 species of scombrids, and several populations of principal market tunas, for which life history research should be prioritized following the species-specific life history gaps identified in this study in the coming decades. By highlighting the important gaps in biological knowledge and providing a priority setting for life history research in scombrid species this study provides guidance for management and conservation and serves as a guide for biologists and resource managers interested in the biology, ecology, and management of scombrid species. PMID:23950930

  14. The conservation and management of tunas and their relatives: setting life history research priorities.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria José Juan-Jordá

    Full Text Available Scombrids (tunas, bonitos, Spanish mackerels and mackerels support important fisheries in tropical, subtropical and temperate waters around the world, being one of the most economically- and socially-important marine species globally. Their sustainable exploitation, management and conservation depend on accurate life history information for the development of quantitative fisheries stock assessments, and in the fishery data-poor situations for the identification of vulnerable species. Here, we assemble life history traits (maximum size, growth, longevity, maturity, fecundity, spawning duration and spawning interval for the 51 species of scombrids globally. We identify major biological gaps in knowledge and prioritize life history research needs in scombrids based on their biological gaps in knowledge, the importance of their fisheries and their current conservation status according to the International Union for Conservation of Nature Red List. We find that the growth and reproductive biology of tunas and mackerel species have been more extensively studied than for Spanish mackerels and bonitos, although there are notable exceptions in all groups. We also reveal that reproductive biology of species, particular fecundity, is the least studied biological aspect in scombrids. We identify two priority groups, including 32 species of scombrids, and several populations of principal market tunas, for which life history research should be prioritized following the species-specific life history gaps identified in this study in the coming decades. By highlighting the important gaps in biological knowledge and providing a priority setting for life history research in scombrid species this study provides guidance for management and conservation and serves as a guide for biologists and resource managers interested in the biology, ecology, and management of scombrid species.

  15. Setting priorities for the adoption of health technologies on a national level -- the Israeli experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shani, S; Siebzehner, M I; Luxenburg, O; Shemer, J

    2000-12-01

    The rapid development of new and expensive health technologies together with the limited resources available for the health care system, makes priority setting or rationing inevitable. The Israeli Health Insurance Law, enacted in 1995, determined a basic list of health services to be provided to all residents by public funding. Although the Israeli health care system has reached a high standard of medical care as expressed by parameters such as long life expectancy and low infant mortality, the social and professional demand for new and expensive health technologies is increasing. Towards the fiscal year of 1999, the Medical Technologies Administration of the Ministry of Health recommended a list of new technologies to be added to the list of health services. The Ministry of Finance allocated that year US dollars 35 million for this purpose, while a rough assessment found that there are new important technologies to be added at a cost of more than US dollars 350 million. The Medical Technologies Administration took a systematic approach of health technology assessment - ad-hoc teams were established for evaluating clinical safety, efficacy and effectiveness, conducting needs assessment and cost-effectiveness descriptions. Assessment of the data was based on evidence-based medicine. A set of criteria was determined in order to enable the prioritizing of the assessed new technologies. This procedure led to a list of technologies suggested for inclusion. The Minister of Health appointed a public committee whose purpose was to decide the technologies to be added to the list of health services. The committee, made up of representatives from the government, the sick-funds and the public, had to evaluate each technology, based on the analysis submitted to the committee, taking into consideration clinical, economic, social, ethical and legal aspects according to predefined criteria. The thorough work of the Medical Technologies Administration enabled the committee to adopt

  16. Center for risk management sponsors conference on setting national environmental priorities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    On November 15, 16, and 17, 1992, the Center for Risk Management at Resources for the Future sponsored a conference on alternative ways to set environmental priorities for the United States. During the conference, held in Annapolis, Maryland, nearly 100 representatives from state and federal governments, academia, industry, and environmental organizations debated a plan of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) to focus its attention on those risks to human health and natural ecosystems that scientific evidence suggests can be reduced. Participants tackled the question of what weight government should give to risk assessment information, public opinion, economic and equity considerations, and the potential for technological solutions to environmental problems in setting the nation's environmental agenda. Among those who presented papers on these and related topics were Alice Rivlin, recently appointed deputy director of the Office of Management and Budget by the Clinton administration; F. Henry Habicht, outgoing IPA deputy administrator; and Barry Commoner, director of the Center for the Biology of Natural Systems at Queens College in Flushing, New York

  17. Proceduralism and its role in economic evaluation and priority setting in health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jan, Stephen

    2014-05-01

    This paper provides a critical overview of Gavin Mooney's proceduralist approach to economic evaluation and priority setting in health. Proceduralism is the notion that the social value attached to alternative courses of action should be determined not only by outcomes, but also processes. Mooney's brand of proceduralism was unique and couched within a broader critique of 'neo-liberal' economics. It operated on a number of levels. At the micro level of the individual program, he pioneered the notion that 'process utility' could be valued and measured within economic evaluation. At a macro level, he developed a framework in which the social objective of equity was defined by procedural justice in which communitarian values were used as the basis for judging how resources should be allocated across the health system. Finally, he applied the notion of procedural justice to further our understanding of the political economy of resource allocation; highlighting how fairness in decision making processes can overcome the sometimes intractable zero-sum resource allocation problem. In summary, his contributions to this field have set the stage for innovative programs of research to help in developing health policies and programs that are both in alignment with community values and implementable. PMID:24647102

  18. Disease management index of potential years of life lost as a tool for setting priorities in national disease control using OECD health data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jang, Sung-In; Nam, Jung-Mo; Choi, Jongwon; Park, Eun-Cheol

    2014-03-01

    Limited healthcare resources make it necessary to maximize efficiency in disease management at the country level by priority-setting according to disease burden. To make the best priority settings, it is necessary to measure health status and have standards for its judgment, as well as consider disease management trends among nations. We used 17 International Classification of Diseases (ICD) categories of potential years of life lost (YPLL) from Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) health data for 2012, 37 disease diagnoses YPLL from OECD health data for 2009 across 22 countries and disability-adjusted life years (DALY) from the World Health Organization (WHO). We set a range of 1-1 for each YPLL per disease in a nation (position value for relative comparison, PARC). Changes over 5 years were also accounted for in this disease management index (disease management index, DMI). In terms of ICD categories, the DMI indicated specific areas for priority setting for different countries with regard to managing disease treatment and diagnosis. Our study suggests that DMI is a realistic index that reflects trend changes over the past 5 years to the present state, and PARC is an easy index for identifying relative status. Moreover, unlike existing indices, DMI and PARC make it easy to conduct multiple comparisons among countries and diseases. DMI and PARC are therefore useful tools for policy implications and for future studies incorporating them and other existing indexes.

  19. Pharmacological interactions between rifampicin and antiretroviral drugs: challenges and research priorities for resource-limited settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Semvua, Hadija H; Kibiki, Gibson S; Kisanga, Elton R; Boeree, Martin J; Burger, David M; Aarnoutse, Rob

    2015-02-01

    Coadministration of antituberculosis and antiretroviral therapy is often inevitable in high-burden countries where tuberculosis (TB) is the most common opportunistic infection associated with HIV/AIDS. Concurrent use of rifampicin and many antiretroviral drugs is complicated by pharmacokinetic drug-drug interactions. Rifampicin is a very potent enzyme inducer, which can result in subtherapeutic antiretroviral drug concentrations. In addition, TB drugs and antiretroviral drugs have additive (pharmacodynamic) interactions as reflected in overlapping adverse effect profiles. This review provides an overview of the pharmacological interactions between rifampicin-based TB treatment and antiretroviral drugs in adults living in resource-limited settings. Major progress has been made to evaluate the interactions between TB drugs and antiretroviral therapy; however, burning questions remain concerning nevirapine and efavirenz effectiveness during rifampicin-based TB treatment, treatment options for TB-HIV-coinfected patients with nonnucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor resistance or intolerance, and exact treatment or dosing schedules for vulnerable patients including children and pregnant women. The current research priorities can be addressed by maximizing the use of already existing data, creating new data by conducting clinical trials and prospective observational studies and to engage a lobby to make currently unavailable drugs available to those most in need. PMID:24943062

  20. Setting priorities for action plans at Los Alamos National Laboratory. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, A.C.

    1992-09-30

    This report summarizes work done by Applied Decision Analysis (ADA) for Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) under Subcontract Number 9-XQ2-Y3837-1 with the University of California. The purpose of this work was to develop a method of setting priorities for environmental, safety, and health (ES&H) deficiencies at Los Alamos. The deficiencies were identified by a DOE Tiger Team that visited LANL in the fall of 1991, and by self assessments done by the Laboratory. ADA did the work described here between October 1991 and the end of September 1992. The ADA staff working on this project became part of a Risk Management Team in the Laboratory`s Integration and Coordination Office (ICO). During the project, the Risk Management Team produced a variety of documents describing aspects of the action-plan prioritization system. Some of those documents are attached to this report. Rather than attempt to duplicate their contents, this report provides a guide to those documents, and references them whenever appropriate.

  1. The regulatory framework of accounting and accounting standard-setting bodies in the European Union member states

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivana Mamić-Sačer

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available One of the principal features of accounting in the 21st century is harmonisation and stanardisation. Regulation of the European Parliament and European Council No. 1606/2002 harmonizes financial reporting for certain companies in the EU. However, national accounting principles are of great importance for financial reporting. The main purpose of this research was to investigate the application of generally accepted accounting principles, the regulatory accounting framework and the standard-setting bodies of EU member states. The analysis of these accounting issues was conducted with respect to all 28 EU member states. The results indicate that EU member states regulate their principal accounting issues through separate accounting acts or implement those issues in companies acts. Some EU member states do not have national accounting standards, the national accounting principles being incorporated in companies acts and accounting acts. Nevertheless, national accounting standard-setting bodies are governmental organisations in almost half the member states.

  2. The Benefits of Improved Environmental Accounting: An Economic Framework to Identify Priorities

    OpenAIRE

    Boyd, James

    1998-01-01

    Improved environmental accounting is increasingly seen by corporate managers and environmental advocates alike as a necessary complement to improved environmental decision-making within the private sector. This paper develops an economic approach to the evaluation of environmental accounting's benefits and derives the value, and determinants, of improved accounting information in several production and capital budgeting contexts. Using concepts from managerial economics, finance, and organiza...

  3. Priority setting of ICU resources in an influenza pandemic: a qualitative study of the Canadian public's perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silva Diego S

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Pandemic influenza may exacerbate existing scarcity of life-saving medical resources. As a result, decision-makers may be faced with making tough choices about who will receive care and who will have to wait or go without. Although previous studies have explored ethical issues in priority setting from the perspective of clinicians and policymakers, there has been little investigation into how the public views priority setting during a pandemic influenza, in particular related to intensive care resources. Methods To bridge this gap, we conducted three public town hall meetings across Canada to explore Canadian's perspectives on this ethical challenge. Town hall discussions group discussions were digitally recorded, transcribed, and analyzed using thematic analysis. Results Six interrelated themes emerged from the town hall discussions related to: ethical and empirical starting points for deliberation; criteria for setting priorities; pre-crisis planning; in-crisis decision-making; the need for public deliberation and input; and participants' deliberative struggle with the ethical issues. Conclusions Our findings underscore the importance of public consultation in pandemic planning for sustaining public trust in a public health emergency. Participants appreciated the empirical and ethical uncertainty of decision-making in an influenza pandemic and demonstrated nuanced ethical reasoning about priority setting of intensive care resources in an influenza pandemic. Policymakers may benefit from a better understanding the public's empirical and ethical 'starting points' in developing effective pandemic plans.

  4. Disseminating evidence-based treatments for PTSD in organizational settings: A high priority focus area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruzek, Josef I; Rosen, Raymond C

    2009-11-01

    Dissemination of evidence-based treatments for PTSD has become an important focus of activity in the aftermath of recent terrorist attacks (e.g., London underground and U.S. 9/11 attacks), natural disasters (e.g., Indian Ocean tsunami and Hurricane Katrina), and wars (e.g., in Iraq and Afghanistan). This has become a high priority need for all mental health training and service delivery organizations. Researchers and educators have begun to examine clinician and client perceptions and preferences regarding PTSD treatment processes, and health care systems are organizing more comprehensive efforts at training and system change. As this evolution of services moves forward, effective dissemination should be a major focus of health policy research for the next decade or more. This review critically evaluates the PTSD-related research and emerging theory related to four major sets of variables that affect dissemination: (1) Practitioner factors, (2) Training methods, (3) The practice innovation(s) being disseminated; and (4) Organization or system factors. We evaluate findings from recent studies in light of emerging models of dissemination, and in the final section of the paper, we consider five broad topics with particular implications for dissemination of PTSD-specific treatments. They are: (1) The content of dissemination (i.e., which treatment protocols or intervention methods should be prioritized); (2) Strict adherence versus flexibility in the use of treatment manuals and the role of fidelity assessment; (3) The need for collaboration with user audiences; (4) The potential role of web-based technologies in increasing the effectiveness and efficiency of dissemination; and (5) Development of dissemination infrastructures within organizations. PMID:19632668

  5. Setting and meeting priorities in Indigenous health research in Australia and its application in the Cooperative Research Centre for Aboriginal Health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anderson Ian PS

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Priority setting is about making decisions. Key issues faced during priority setting processes include identifying who makes these decisions, who sets the criteria, and who benefits. The paper reviews the literature and history around priority setting in research, particularly in Aboriginal health research. We explore these issues through a case study of the Cooperative Research Centre for Aboriginal Health (CRCAH's experience in setting and meeting priorities. Historically, researchers have made decisions about what research gets done. Pressures of growing competition for research funds and an increased public interest in research have led to demands that appropriate consultation with stakeholders is conducted and that research is of benefit to the wider society. Within Australian Aboriginal communities, these demands extend to Aboriginal control of research to ensure that Aboriginal priorities are met. In response to these demands, research priorities are usually agreed in consultation with stakeholders at an institutional level and researchers are asked to develop relevant proposals at a project level. The CRCAH's experience in funding rounds was that scientific merit was given more weight than stakeholders' priorities and did not necessarily result in research that met these priorities. After reviewing these processes in 2004, the CRCAH identified a new facilitated development approach. In this revised approach, the setting of institutional priorities is integrated with the development of projects in a way that ensures the research reflects stakeholder priorities. This process puts emphasis on identifying projects that reflect priorities prior to developing the quality of the research, rather than assessing the relevance to priorities and quality concurrently. Part of the CRCAH approach is the employment of Program Managers who ensure that stakeholder priorities are met in the development of research projects. This has enabled

  6. The regulatory framework of accounting and accounting standard-setting bodies in the European Union member states

    OpenAIRE

    Ivana Mamić-Sačer

    2015-01-01

    One of the principal features of accounting in the 21st century is harmonisation and stanardisation. Regulation of the European Parliament and European Council No. 1606/2002 harmonizes financial reporting for certain companies in the EU. However, national accounting principles are of great importance for financial reporting. The main purpose of this research was to investigate the application of generally accepted accounting principles, the regulatory accounting framework and the standard-set...

  7. An approach for setting evidence-based and stakeholder-informed research priorities in low- and middle-income countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rehfuess, Eva A; Durão, Solange; Kyamanywa, Patrick; Meerpohl, Joerg J; Young, Taryn; Rohwer, Anke

    2016-04-01

    To derive evidence-based and stakeholder-informed research priorities for implementation in African settings, the international research consortium Collaboration for Evidence-Based Healthcare and Public Health in Africa (CEBHA+) developed and applied a pragmatic approach. First, an online survey and face-to-face consultation between CEBHA+ partners and policy-makers generated priority research areas. Second, evidence maps for these priority research areas identified gaps and related priority research questions. Finally, study protocols were developed for inclusion within a grant proposal. Policy and practice representatives were involved throughout the process. Tuberculosis, diabetes, hypertension and road traffic injuries were selected as priority research areas. Evidence maps covered screening and models of care for diabetes and hypertension, population-level prevention of diabetes and hypertension and their risk factors, and prevention and management of road traffic injuries. Analysis of these maps yielded three priority research questions on hypertension and diabetes and one on road traffic injuries. The four resulting study protocols employ a broad range of primary and secondary research methods; a fifth promotes an integrated methodological approach across all research activities. The CEBHA+ approach, in particular evidence mapping, helped to formulate research questions and study protocols that would be owned by African partners, fill gaps in the evidence base, address policy and practice needs and be feasible given the existing research infrastructure and expertise. The consortium believes that the continuous involvement of decision-makers throughout the research process is an important means of ensuring that studies are relevant to the African context and that findings are rapidly implemented. PMID:27034523

  8. Guidance on priority setting in health care (GPS-Health): the inclusion of equity criteria not captured by cost-effectiveness analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Norheim, O.F.; Baltussen, R.M.; Johri, M.; Chisholm, D.; Nord, E.; Brock, D.; Carlsson, P.; Cookson, R.; Daniels, N.; Danis, M.; Fleurbaey, M.; Johansson, K.A.; Kapiriri, L.; Littlejohns, P.; Mbeeli, T.; Rao, K.D.; Edejer, T.T.; Wikler, D.

    2014-01-01

    This Guidance for Priority Setting in Health Care (GPS-Health), initiated by the World Health Organization, offers a comprehensive map of equity criteria that are relevant to health care priority setting and should be considered in addition to cost-effectiveness analysis. The guidance, in the form o

  9. Setting priorities for environmental sanitation interventions based on epidemiological criteria: a Brazilian study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heller, Léo; Colosimo, Enrico A; Antunes, Carlos M F

    2005-09-01

    The present study addresses the use of analytical epidemiologic approaches to subsidize the establishment of priorities in environmental sanitation interventions. An epidemiological investigation was carried out in 1993 in the urban area of Betim, a southeast Brazilian City of 160,000 inhabitants. The case-control 'inclusive' (or case-cohort) design, with a sample of 997 cases and 999 controls, was employed. Cases were defined as children of less than five years of age presenting diarrhoea episodes, while controls were randomly selected among children of the same age, living in the study area. After logistic regression adjustment, 11 of several exposure variables analysed were significantly associated with diarrhoea. Four different criteria, using as risk measures the relative risk, the attributable risk, the standardized coefficient of the logistic regression and the cost standardized coefficient, were used in order to define intervention priorities. PMID:16209031

  10. Priority in Process Algebras

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cleaveland, Rance; Luettgen, Gerald; Natarajan, V.

    1999-01-01

    This paper surveys the semantic ramifications of extending traditional process algebras with notions of priority that allow for some transitions to be given precedence over others. These enriched formalisms allow one to model system features such as interrupts, prioritized choice, or real-time behavior. Approaches to priority in process algebras can be classified according to whether the induced notion of preemption on transitions is global or local and whether priorities are static or dynamic. Early work in the area concentrated on global pre-emption and static priorities and led to formalisms for modeling interrupts and aspects of real-time, such as maximal progress, in centralized computing environments. More recent research has investigated localized notions of pre-emption in which the distribution of systems is taken into account, as well as dynamic priority approaches, i.e., those where priority values may change as systems evolve. The latter allows one to model behavioral phenomena such as scheduling algorithms and also enables the efficient encoding of real-time semantics. Technically, this paper studies the different models of priorities by presenting extensions of Milner's Calculus of Communicating Systems (CCS) with static and dynamic priority as well as with notions of global and local pre- emption. In each case the operational semantics of CCS is modified appropriately, behavioral theories based on strong and weak bisimulation are given, and related approaches for different process-algebraic settings are discussed.

  11. Can wide consultation help with setting priorities for large-scale biodiversity monitoring programs?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frédéric Boivin

    Full Text Available Climate and other global change phenomena affecting biodiversity require monitoring to track ecosystem changes and guide policy and management actions. Designing a biodiversity monitoring program is a difficult task that requires making decisions that often lack consensus due to budgetary constrains. As monitoring programs require long-term investment, they also require strong and continuing support from all interested parties. As such, stakeholder consultation is key to identify priorities and make sound design decisions that have as much support as possible. Here, we present the results of a consultation conducted to serve as an aid for designing a large-scale biodiversity monitoring program for the province of Québec (Canada. The consultation took the form of a survey with 13 discrete choices involving tradeoffs in respect to design priorities and 10 demographic questions (e.g., age, profession. The survey was sent to thousands of individuals having expected interests and knowledge about biodiversity and was completed by 621 participants. Overall, consensuses were few and it appeared difficult to create a design fulfilling the priorities of the majority. Most participants wanted 1 a monitoring design covering the entire territory and focusing on natural habitats; 2 a focus on species related to ecosystem services, on threatened and on invasive species. The only demographic characteristic that was related to the type of prioritization was the declared level of knowledge in biodiversity (null to high, but even then the influence was quite small.

  12. Is cost-effectiveness analysis preferred to severity of disease as the main guiding principle in priority setting in resource poor settings? The case of Uganda

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Norheim Ole

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Several studies carried out to establish the relative preference of cost-effectiveness of interventions and severity of disease as criteria for priority setting in health have shown a strong preference for severity of disease. These preferences may differ in contexts of resource scarcity, as in developing countries, yet information is limited on such preferences in this context. Objective This study was carried out to identify the key players in priority setting in health and explore their relative preference regarding cost-effectiveness of interventions and severity of disease as criteria for setting priorities in Uganda. Design 610 self-administered questionnaires were sent to respondents at national, district, health sub-district and facility levels. Respondents included mainly health workers. We used three different simulations, assuming same patient characteristics and same treatment outcome but with varying either severity of disease or cost-effectiveness of treatment, to explore respondents' preferences regarding cost-effectiveness and severity. Results Actual main actors were identified to be health workers, development partners or donors and politicians. This was different from what respondents perceived as ideal. Above 90% of the respondents recognised the importance of both severity of disease and cost-effectiveness of intervention. In the three scenarios where they were made to choose between the two, a majority of the survey respondents assigned highest weight to treating the most severely ill patient with a less cost-effective intervention compared to the one with a more cost-effective intervention for a less severely ill patient. However, international development partners in in-depth interviews preferred the consideration of cost-effectiveness of intervention. Conclusions In a survey among health workers and other actors in priority setting in Uganda, we found that donors are considered to have more say than

  13. Use of Cost-Effectiveness Data in Priority Setting Decisions: Experiences from the National Guidelines for Heart Diseases in Sweden

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nathalie Eckard

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Background The inclusion of cost-effectiveness data, as a basis for priority setting rankings, is a distinguishing feature in the formulation of the Swedish national guidelines. Guidelines are generated with the direct intent to influence health policy and support decisions about the efficient allocation of scarce healthcare resources. Certain medical conditions may be given higher priority rankings i.e. given more resources than others, depending on how serious the medical condition is. This study investigated how a decision-making group, the Priority Setting Group (PSG, used cost-effectiveness data in ranking priority setting decisions in the national guidelines for heart diseases. Methods A qualitative case study methodology was used to explore the use of such data in ranking priority setting healthcare decisions. The study addressed availability of cost-effectiveness data, evidence understanding, interpretation difficulties, and the reliance on evidence. We were also interested in the explicit use of data in ranking decisions, especially in situations where economic arguments impacted the reasoning behind the decisions. Results This study showed that cost-effectiveness data was an important and integrated part of the decision-making process. Involvement of a health economist and reliance on the data facilitated the use of cost-effectiveness data. Economic arguments were used both as a fine-tuning instrument and a counterweight for dichotomization. Cost-effectiveness data were used when the overall evidence base was weak and the decision-makers had trouble making decisions due to lack of clinical evidence and in times of uncertainty. Cost-effectiveness data were also used for decisions on the introduction of new expensive medical technologies. Conclusion Cost-effectiveness data matters in decision-making processes and the results of this study could be applicable to other jurisdictions where health economics is implemented in decision

  14. Health sector priority setting at meso-level in lower and middle income countries: lessons learned, available options and suggested steps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hipgrave, David B; Alderman, Katarzyna Bolsewicz; Anderson, Ian; Soto, Eliana Jimenez

    2014-02-01

    Setting priority for health programming and budget allocation is an important issue, but there is little consensus on related processes. It is particularly relevant in low resource settings and at province- and district- or "meso-level", where contextual influences may be greater, information scarce and capacity lower. Although recent changes in disease epidemiology and health financing suggest even greater need to allocate resources effectively, the literature is relatively silent on evidence-based priority-setting in low and middle income countries (LMICs). We conducted a comprehensive review of the peer-reviewed and grey literature on health resource priority-setting in LMICs, focussing on meso-level and the evidence-based priority-setting processes (PSPs) piloted or suggested there. Our objective was to assess PSPs according to whether they have influenced resource allocation and impacted the outcome indicators prioritised. An exhaustive search of the peer-reviewed and grey literature published in the last decade yielded 57 background articles and 75 reports related to priority-setting at meso-level in LMICs. Although proponents of certain PSPs still advocate their use, other experts instead suggest broader elements to guide priority-setting. We conclude that currently no process can be confidently recommended for such settings. We also assessed the common reasons for failure at all levels of priority-setting and concluded further that local authorities should additionally consider contextual and systems limitations likely to prevent a satisfactory process and outcomes, particularly at meso-level. Recent literature proposes a list of related attributes and warning signs, and facilitated our preparation of a simple decision-tree or roadmap to help determine whether or not health systems issues should be improved in parallel to support for needed priority-setting; what elements of the PSP need improving; monitoring, and evaluation. Health priority-setting at

  15. Setting Priorities: Functional and Substantive Dimensions of Irregular Immigration and Data Protection Under Co-decision

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ariadna Ripoll Servent

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available During the months leading to the end of the transitional period (January 2005, most academics and actors involved in the Area of Freedom, Security and Justice (ASFJ expected the introduction of co-decision as the normal decision-making procedure in this area to change the balance between security and liberty. The involvement of the European Parliament as a co-legislator was thought to be a positive aspect, since this institution had persistently adopted a pro-civil liberties stance. Since then, this question has not been systematically tackled in the literature and consequently the impact of co-decision on the AFSJ remains unclear. However, in 2007, Maurer and Parkes looked at the securitised policy-image governing European asylum policy in order to understand why the European Parliament had been unable to redress the balance and establish civil liberties as a priority. Following their line of reasoning, this paper develops the functional and substantive dimensions introduced by these scholars, in order to explain why the European Parliament, and especially the LIBE committee, has been equally unable to change priorities in the fields of irregular immigration and data protection. I argue that the persistent weakness of the European Parliament in the functional dimension, i.e. the need to legitimise its presence in negotiations dealt with under co-decision, has made changes in the substantive dimension difficult to attain. In those areas were the substantive dimension is weak, as was the case in the Returns directive, the need to legitimise the presence of the EP creates more polarisation among the members of the LIBE committee. In those cases where there is a strong substantive alternative in the LIBE committee, as was the case in the Data retention directive, change is hindered by the Plenary, which establishes the strengthening of the functional dimension as a priority for the institution. In both cases the introduction of co-decision led to

  16. Who Shall Not Be Treated: Public Attitudes on Setting Health Care Priorities by Person-Based Criteria in 28 Nations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogge, Jana; Kittel, Bernhard

    2016-01-01

    The principle of distributing health care according to medical need is being challenged by increasing costs. As a result, many countries have initiated a debate on the introduction of explicit priority regulations based on medical, economic and person-based criteria, or have already established such regulations. Previous research on individual attitudes towards setting health care priorities based on medical and economic criteria has revealed consistent results, whereas studies on the use of person-based criteria have generated controversial findings. This paper examines citizens' attitudes towards three person-based priority criteria, patients' smoking habits, age and being the parent of a young child. Using data from the ISSP Health Module (2011) in 28 countries, logistic regression analysis demonstrates that self-interest as well as socio-demographic predictors significantly influence respondents' attitudes towards the use of person-based criteria for health care prioritization. This study contributes to resolving the controversial findings on person-based criteria by using a larger country sample and by controlling for country-level differences with fixed effects models.

  17. Priorities determination using novel analytic hierarchy process and median ranked sample set, case study of landfill siting criteria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Younes, Mohammad K.; Nopiah, Z. M.; Basri, N. E. Ahmad; Basri, H.

    2015-02-01

    Integrating environmental, social, political, and economical attributes enhances the decision making process. Multi criteria decision making (MCDM) involves ambiguity and uncertainty due to various preferences. This study presents a model to minimize the uncertainty and ambiguity of human judgments by means of integrating the counter stakeholders with median ranked sample set (MRSS) and Analytic hierarchy process (AHP). The model uses landfill site selection as a MCDM problem. Sixteen experts belong to four clusters that are government, private, institution, and non-governmental organisations participated and their preferences were ranked in four by four matrix. Then the MRSS and the AHP were used to obtain the priorities of landfill siting criteria. Environmental criteria have the highest priority that equals to 48.1% and the distance from surface water, and the faults zones are the most important factors with priorities equal to 18% and 13.7% respectively. In conclusion, the hybrid approach that integrates counter stakeholders MRSS, and AHP is capable of being applied to complex decision making process and its outputs are justified.

  18. Who Shall Not Be Treated: Public Attitudes on Setting Health Care Priorities by Person-Based Criteria in 28 Nations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogge, Jana; Kittel, Bernhard

    2016-01-01

    The principle of distributing health care according to medical need is being challenged by increasing costs. As a result, many countries have initiated a debate on the introduction of explicit priority regulations based on medical, economic and person-based criteria, or have already established such regulations. Previous research on individual attitudes towards setting health care priorities based on medical and economic criteria has revealed consistent results, whereas studies on the use of person-based criteria have generated controversial findings. This paper examines citizens’ attitudes towards three person-based priority criteria, patients’ smoking habits, age and being the parent of a young child. Using data from the ISSP Health Module (2011) in 28 countries, logistic regression analysis demonstrates that self-interest as well as socio-demographic predictors significantly influence respondents’ attitudes towards the use of person-based criteria for health care prioritization. This study contributes to resolving the controversial findings on person-based criteria by using a larger country sample and by controlling for country-level differences with fixed effects models. PMID:27280775

  19. Allocating limited resources in a time of fiscal constraints: a priority setting case study from Dalhousie University Faculty of Medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitton, Craig; Levy, Adrian; Gorsky, Diane; MacNeil, Christina; Dionne, Francois; Marrie, Tom

    2013-07-01

    Facing a projected $1.4M deficit on a $35M operating budget for fiscal year 2011/2012, members of the Dalhousie University Faculty of Medicine developed and implemented an explicit, transparent, criteria-based priority setting process for resource reallocation. A task group that included representatives from across the Faculty of Medicine used a program budgeting and marginal analysis (PBMA) framework, which provided an alternative to the typical public-sector approaches to addressing a budget deficit of across-the-board spending cuts and political negotiation. Key steps to the PBMA process included training staff members and department heads on priority setting and resource reallocation, establishing process guidelines to meet immediate and longer-term fiscal needs, developing a reporting structure and forming key working groups, creating assessment criteria to guide resource reallocation decisions, assessing disinvestment proposals from all departments, and providing proposal implementation recommendations to the dean. All departments were required to submit proposals for consideration. The task group approved 27 service reduction proposals and 28 efficiency gains proposals, totaling approximately $2.7M in savings across two years. During this process, the task group faced a number of challenges, including a tight timeline for development and implementation (January to April 2011), a culture that historically supported decentralized planning, at times competing interests (e.g., research versus teaching objectives), and reductions in overall health care and postsecondary education government funding. Overall, faculty and staff preferred the PBMA approach to previous practices. Other institutions should use this example to set priorities in times of fiscal constraints. PMID:23702521

  20. Allocating limited resources in a time of fiscal constraints: a priority setting case study from Dalhousie University Faculty of Medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitton, Craig; Levy, Adrian; Gorsky, Diane; MacNeil, Christina; Dionne, Francois; Marrie, Tom

    2013-07-01

    Facing a projected $1.4M deficit on a $35M operating budget for fiscal year 2011/2012, members of the Dalhousie University Faculty of Medicine developed and implemented an explicit, transparent, criteria-based priority setting process for resource reallocation. A task group that included representatives from across the Faculty of Medicine used a program budgeting and marginal analysis (PBMA) framework, which provided an alternative to the typical public-sector approaches to addressing a budget deficit of across-the-board spending cuts and political negotiation. Key steps to the PBMA process included training staff members and department heads on priority setting and resource reallocation, establishing process guidelines to meet immediate and longer-term fiscal needs, developing a reporting structure and forming key working groups, creating assessment criteria to guide resource reallocation decisions, assessing disinvestment proposals from all departments, and providing proposal implementation recommendations to the dean. All departments were required to submit proposals for consideration. The task group approved 27 service reduction proposals and 28 efficiency gains proposals, totaling approximately $2.7M in savings across two years. During this process, the task group faced a number of challenges, including a tight timeline for development and implementation (January to April 2011), a culture that historically supported decentralized planning, at times competing interests (e.g., research versus teaching objectives), and reductions in overall health care and postsecondary education government funding. Overall, faculty and staff preferred the PBMA approach to previous practices. Other institutions should use this example to set priorities in times of fiscal constraints.

  1. The moral relevance of personal characteristics in setting health care priorities

    OpenAIRE

    Olsen, Jan Abel; Ricardson, Jeff; Dolan, Paul; Mentzel, Paul

    2009-01-01

    This paper discusses the moral relevance of accounting for various personal characteristics when prioritising between groups of patients. After a review of the results from empirical studies, we discuss the ethical reasons which might explain – and justify – the views expressed in these studies. The paper develops a general framework based upon the causes of ill health and the consequences of treatment. It then turns to the question of the extent to which a personal characteristic – and the e...

  2. Setting research priorities to reduce almost one million deaths from birth asphyxia by 2015.

    OpenAIRE

    Lawn, Joy E.; Rajiv Bahl; Staffan Bergstrom; Bhutta, Zulfiqar A; Darmstadt, Gary L; Matthew Ellis; Mike English; Kurinczuk, Jennifer J.; Anne C C Lee; Mario Merialdi; Mohamed Mohamed; David Osrin; Robert Pattinson; Vinod Paul; Siddarth Ramji

    2011-01-01

    Intrapartum-related neonatal deaths (previously called “birth asphyxia”) are the fifth most common cause of deaths among children under 5 years of age, accounting for an estimated 814,000 deaths each year, and also associated with significant morbidity, resulting in a burden of 42 million disability adjusted life years (DALYs). This paper uses a systematic process developed by the Child Health Nutrition Research Initiative (CHNRI) to define and rank research options to reduce mortality...

  3. The Impact of Sika Deer on Vegetation in Japan: Setting Management Priorities on a National Scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohashi, Haruka; Yoshikawa, Masato; Oono, Keiichi; Tanaka, Norihisa; Hatase, Yoriko; Murakami, Yuhide

    2014-09-01

    Irreversible shifts in ecosystems caused by large herbivores are becoming widespread around the world. We analyzed data derived from the 2009-2010 Sika Deer Impact Survey, which assessed the geographical distribution of deer impacts on vegetation through a questionnaire, on a scale of 5-km grid-cells. Our aim was to identify areas facing irreversible ecosystem shifts caused by deer overpopulation and in need of management prioritization. Our results demonstrated that the areas with heavy impacts on vegetation were widely distributed across Japan from north to south and from the coastal to the alpine areas. Grid-cells with heavy impacts are especially expanding in the southwestern part of the Pacific side of Japan. The intensity of deer impacts was explained by four factors: (1) the number of 5-km grid-cells with sika deer in neighboring 5 km-grid-cells in 1978 and 2003, (2) the year sika deer were first recorded in a grid-cell, (3) the number of months in which maximum snow depth exceeded 50 cm, and (4) the proportion of urban areas in a particular grid-cell. Based on our model, areas with long-persistent deer populations, short snow periods, and fewer urban areas were predicted to be the most vulnerable to deer impact. Although many areas matching these criteria already have heavy deer impact, there are some areas that remain only slightly impacted. These areas may need to be designated as having high management priority because of the possibility of a rapid intensification of deer impact.

  4. Defining Long Term Goals and Setting Priorities for Education and Outreach, 2003 to 2013 - Panel Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grier, J. A.; Atkinson, D. H.; Barlow, N.; Griffin, I.; Hoffman, J.; Kelly-Serrato, B.; Kesthelyi, L.; Klein, M.; Klug, S.; Kolvoord, B.; Lanagan, P.; Lebofsky, L. A.; Lindstrom, M.; Lopes, R.; Lowes, L.; Manifold, J.; Mastrapa, R.; Milazzo, M.; Miner, E.; Morris, P.; Runyon, C.; Sohus, A.; Urquhart, M.; Warasila, R. L.; Withers, P.; Wood, Chuck

    2001-11-01

    Education and Public Outreach (E/PO) activities are an integral part of NASA's mandated mission and detailed in its Strategic Plan. The Office of Space Science Solar System Exploration (OSS SSE) E/PO program has made great strides in defining priorities and achieving its goals in the last five years. The Education and Public Outreach panel for NASA's Decadal Survey has generated a list of key issues to be addressed for the years 2003-2013 to assist the OSS SSE in future prioritization and planning. Key issues under discussion include: improving the involvement of planetary science professionals in E/PO activities; combating scientific elitism; examining the association between E/PO programs and public relations; re-examining funding E/PO activities from an audience perspective as opposed to a mission-centered perspective; improving access to resources for scientists, educators, students and partner organizations; promoting communication between educational programs at NASA; and reaching traditionally underrepresented groups, women, minorities and the disabled with science education programs. The panel is developing a list of specific recommendations to be implemented to improve OSS SSE E/PO activities in the next decade. These recommendations deal with topics such as: the production of evaluated resource web sites for scientists and educators; the development of a policy of long-term funding for the maintenance of web sites and other tools after they are created; methods for reaching those who do not have computer access through television and public programs; and the development of a reward system to recognize and encourage scientist involvement in E/PO activities. Such key issues and recommendations will be presented, along with materials from current programs and initiatives for E/PO in the OSS SSE.

  5. Setting quality and safety priorities in a target-rich environment: an academic medical center's challenge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mort, Elizabeth A; Demehin, Akinluwa A; Marple, Keith B; McCullough, Kathryn Y; Meyer, Gregg S

    2013-08-01

    Hospitals are continually challenged to provide safer and higher-quality patient care despite resource constraints. With an ever-increasing range of quality and safety targets at the national, state, and local levels, prioritization is crucial in effective institutional quality goal setting and resource allocation.Organizational goal-setting theory is a performance improvement methodology with strong results across many industries. The authors describe a structured goal-setting process they have established at Massachusetts General Hospital for setting annual institutional quality and safety goals. Begun in 2008, this process has been conducted on an annual basis. Quality and safety data are gathered from many sources, both internal and external to the hospital. These data are collated and classified, and multiple approaches are used to identify the most pressing quality issues facing the institution. The conclusions are subject to stringent internal review, and then the top quality goals of the institution are chosen. Specific tactical initiatives and executive owners are assigned to each goal, and metrics are selected to track performance. A reporting tool based on these tactics and metrics is used to deliver progress updates to senior hospital leadership.The hospital has experienced excellent results and strong organizational buy-in using this effective, low-cost, and replicable goal-setting process. It has led to improvements in structural, process, and outcomes aspects of quality.

  6. Lonely at the Top and Stuck in the Middle? The Ongoing Challenge of Using Cost-Effectiveness Information in Priority Setting; Comment on “Use of Cost-Effectiveness Data in Priority Setting Decisions: Experiences from the National Guidelines for Heart Diseases in Sweden”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iestyn Williams

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The topic of how cost-effectiveness information informs priority setting in healthcare remains important to both policy and practice. This commentary considers the study carried out by Eckard and colleagues in Sweden. In it we distinguish between the conditions at national and local levels and put forward some recommendations for research into local priority setting in particular

  7. Priority setting of public spending in developing countries: do not try to do everything for everybody.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Baltussen, R.M.P.M.

    2006-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Public spending on health care in many developing countries falls short to provide a comprehensive set of essential health services, which indicates the need to target and prioritize resources. However, governments often attempt to provide free services to the whole population, and often

  8. The ICF as a common language for rehabilitation goal-setting: comparing client and professional priorities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    van der Merwe Aletia

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Joint rehabilitation goals are an important component for effective teamwork in the rehabilitation field. The activities and participation domain of the ICF provides a common language for professionals when setting these goals. Involving clients in the formulation of rehabilitation goals is gaining momentum as part of a person-centred approach to rehabilitation. However, this is particularly difficult when clients have an acquired communication disability. The expressive communication difficulties negatively affect the consensus building process. As a result, obtaining information regarding rehabilitation goals from professionals and their clients warrants further investigation for this particular population. Methods This comparative study investigated clients and their assigned rehabilitation professionals' perception of the importance of ICF activities and participation domains for inclusion in their rehabilitation program. Twelve clients in an acute rehabilitation centre and twenty of their corresponding rehabilitation professionals participated in an activity using the Talking Mats™ visual framework for goal setting. Each participant rated the importance of the nine activities and participation domains of the ICF for inclusion in their current rehabilitation program. Results The ICF domains which consistently appear as very important across these groups are mobility, self-care and communication. Domains which consistently appear in the lower third of the rankings include spare time, learning and thinking and domestic life. Results indicate however that no statistical significant differences exist in terms of the individual domains across each of the participant groups. Within group differences however indicated that amongst the speech-language therapists and physiotherapists there was a statistical significant difference between spare time activities and communication and mobility. Conclusions Findings indicate that

  9. Priority Setting and Policy Advocacy for Community Environmental Health by Nursing Associations: A Conceptual Framework to Guide Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JO-ANNE MACDONALD

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Nursing associations' choices to engage in community environmental health transpires in a complex decisionmaking context in which a number of issues compete for their attention and a number of factors influence their choices. Given the complexity of this decision environment, theoretically informed research can lead to understanding about the dynamics, supports, and constraints shaping nursing associations' decisions. We propose a conceptual framework to guide research to understand whether and how nursing associations' take action for community environmental health. The framework depicts nursing associations' priority setting and policy advocacy for community environmental health embedded in a policy decision-making context in which internal association factors and external factors at all system levels (local to global influence the organizational choices and actions taken.

  10. Setting global research priorities for integrated community case management (iCCM): Results from a CHNRI (Child Health and Nutrition Research Initiative) exercise

    OpenAIRE

    Kerri Wazny; Salim Sadruddin; Alvin Zipursky; Davidson H Hamer; Troy Jacobs; Karin Kallander; Franco Pagnoni; Stefan Peterson; Shamim Qazi; Serge Raharison; Kerry Ross; Mark Young; Marsh, David R

    2014-01-01

    AIMS: To systematically identify global research gaps and resource priorities for integrated community case management (iCCM). METHODS: An iCCM Child Health and Nutrition Research Initiative (CHNRI) Advisory Group, in collaboration with the Community Case Management Operational Research Group (CCM ORG) identified experts to participate in a CHNRI research priority setting exercise. These experts generated and systematically ranked research questions for iCCM. Research questions were ranked us...

  11. Evaluating the impact of fair value accounting on financial institutions: implications for accounting standards setting and bank supervision

    OpenAIRE

    Sanders Shaffer

    2012-01-01

    Recent standard-setting activity related to fair value accounting has injected new life into questions of whether fair value provides information useful for decision-making, and whether there might be unintended consequences on financial stability. This discussion paper provides insight into these questions by performing a holistic evaluation of fair value accounting’s usefulness, the potential impacts it may have on financial institutions and any broader macroeconomic effects. Materials revi...

  12. Key performance indicators (KPIs) and priority setting in using the multi-attribute approach for assessing sustainable intelligent buildings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    ALwaer, H. [The University of Dundee, School of Architecture, Matthew Building, 13 Perth Road, Dundee DD1 4HT (United Kingdom); Clements-Croome, D.J. [School of Construction Management and Engineering, The University of Reading, Whiteknights, PO Box 219, Reading RG6 6AW (United Kingdom)

    2010-04-15

    The main objectives of this paper are to: firstly, identify key issues related to sustainable intelligent buildings (environmental, social, economic and technological factors); develop a conceptual model for the selection of the appropriate KPIs; secondly, test critically stakeholder's perceptions and values of selected KPIs intelligent buildings; and thirdly develop a new model for measuring the level of sustainability for sustainable intelligent buildings. This paper uses a consensus-based model (Sustainable Built Environment Tool- SuBETool), which is analysed using the analytical hierarchical process (AHP) for multi-criteria decision-making. The use of the multi-attribute model for priority setting in the sustainability assessment of intelligent buildings is introduced. The paper commences by reviewing the literature on sustainable intelligent buildings research and presents a pilot-study investigating the problems of complexity and subjectivity. This study is based upon a survey perceptions held by selected stakeholders and the value they attribute to selected KPIs. It is argued that the benefit of the new proposed model (SuBETool) is a 'tool' for 'comparative' rather than an absolute measurement. It has the potential to provide useful lessons from current sustainability assessment methods for strategic future of sustainable intelligent buildings in order to improve a building's performance and to deliver objective outcomes. Findings of this survey enrich the field of intelligent buildings in two ways. Firstly, it gives a detailed insight into the selection of sustainable building indicators, as well as their degree of importance. Secondly, it tesst critically stakeholder's perceptions and values of selected KPIs intelligent buildings. It is concluded that the priority levels for selected criteria is largely dependent on the integrated design team, which includes the client, architects, engineers and facilities managers

  13. Goal Statements and Goal-Directed Behavior: A Relational Frame Account of Goal Setting in Organizations

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Hora, Denis; Maglieri, Kristen A.

    2006-01-01

    Goal setting has consistently been shown to increase performance under specific conditions. These goal setting effects have previously been explored from both a cognitive perspective and in terms of traditional behavioral concepts. We highlight limitations of these approaches and propose a novel account based on Relational Frame Theory. This…

  14. The influence of spatial grain size on the suitability of the higher-taxon approach in continental priority-setting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Frank Wugt; Rahbek, Carsten

    2005-01-01

    The higher-taxon approach may provide a pragmatic surrogate for the rapid identification of priority areas for conservation. To date, no continent-wide study has examined the use of higher-taxon data to identify complementarity-based networks of priority areas, nor has the influence of spatial gr...

  15. Analysis of Constraints to Agricultural Production in the Sudano Savanna Zone of Cameroon and Implication for Research Priority Setting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M'biandoum, M.

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available A participatory rural appraisal (PRA survey approach was used to identify the major constraints to agricultural production and to describe the major production systems in the sudano savanna and sudano sahelian zone of northern Cameroon. Relative emphasis was placed on the household level characterization to have a better understanding of the land use system, farmers' constraints to production and opportunities, so as to better target agricultural technologies and interventions in this vast agro-ecological zone. It was noted that, large variations exist in agriculture management practices between agro-ecological zones, among villages and households in terms of access to resources, such as labour, fertilizers, livestock, farm equipment, and land. Intensive and extensive farming practices might co-exist within the same village and households. The mains sources of vulnerability were identified. Results are used to set research priorities which will be directed towards the need of the majority of area's population; the improvement of sustainable food and feed crop production.

  16. Cost accounting models used for price-setting of health services: an international review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raulinajtys-Grzybek, Monika

    2014-12-01

    The aim of the article was to present and compare cost accounting models which are used in the area of healthcare for pricing purposes in different countries. Cost information generated by hospitals is further used by regulatory bodies for setting or updating prices of public health services. The article presents a set of examples from different countries of the European Union, Australia and the United States and concentrates on DRG-based payment systems as they primarily use cost information for pricing. Differences between countries concern the methodology used, as well as the data collection process and the scope of the regulations on cost accounting. The article indicates that the accuracy of the calculation is only one of the factors that determine the choice of the cost accounting methodology. Important aspects are also the selection of the reference hospitals, precise and detailed regulations and the existence of complex healthcare information systems in hospitals.

  17. Risk perception and priority setting for intervention among hepatitis C virus and environmental risks: a cross-sectional survey in the Cairo community

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dewedar Sahar

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Hepatitis C virus (HCV recently emerged as a major public health hazard in Egypt. However, dramatic healthcare budget constraints limit access to the costly treatment. We assessed risk perception and priority setting for intervention among HCV, unsafe water, and outdoor air pollution in Cairo city. Methods A survey was conducted in the homes of a representative sample of household heads in Cairo city. Risk perception was assessed using the "psychometric paradigm" where health hazards are evaluated according to several attributes and then summarized by principal component analysis. Priority setting was assessed by individual ranking of interventions reducing health hazards by 50% over five years. The Condorcet method was used to aggregate individual rankings of the three interventions (main study or two of three interventions (validation study. Explanatory factors of priority setting were explored in multivariate generalized logistic models. Results HCV was perceived as having the most severe consequences in terms of illness and out-of-pocket costs, while outdoor air pollution was perceived as the most uncontrollable risk. In the main study (n = 2,603, improved water supply received higher priority than both improved outdoor air quality (60.1%, P P Conclusions The Cairo community prefers to further improving water supply as compared to improved outdoor air quality and screening and treatment of chronic hepatitis C.

  18. Setting priorities for mental health research in Brazil Agenda de prioridades de pesquisa para saúde mental no Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guilherme Gregório

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The main aim of this study is to review the agenda for research priorities of mental health in Brazil. METHODOLOGY: The first step was to gather 28 experts (22 researchers, five policy makers, and the coordinator representing all mental health fields from different geographical areas of the country. Participants were asked to list what they considered to be the most relevant mental health research questions for the country to address in the next 10 years. Seventeen participants answered this question; after redundancies were excluded, a total of 110 responses were collected. As the second step, participants were asked to rank which questions were the 35 most significant. The final step was to score 15 items for each of the 35 selected questions to determine whether it would be a answerable, b effective, c deliverable, d equitable, and e effective at reducing the burden of mental health. The ten highest ranked questions were then selected. RESULTS: There were four questions addressing primary care with respect to a the effectiveness of interventions, b "matrix support", c comparisons of different models of stepped care, and d interventions to enhance identification and treatment of common mental disorders at the Family Health Program. The other questions were related to the evaluation of mental health services for adults and children/adolescents to clarify barriers to treatment in primary care, drug addiction, and severe mental disorders; to investigate the cost-benefit relationship of anti-psychotics; to design interventions to decrease alcohol consumption; and to apply new technologies (telemedicine for education and supervision of non-specialists. CONCLUSION: This priority-setting research exercise highlighted a need for implementing investments at the primary-care level, particularly in the family health program; the urgent need to evaluate services; and policies to improve equity by increasing accessibility to services and

  19. Using programme budgeting and marginal analysis (PBMA) to set priorities: reflections from a qualitative assessment in an English Primary Care Trust.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodwin, Elizabeth; Frew, Emma J

    2013-12-01

    In England from 2002 to 2013, Primary Care Trusts (PCTs) were responsible for commissioning healthcare for their local populations. The NHS has recently undergone rapid organisational change whereby clinicians have assumed responsibility for local commissioning decisions. This change in commissioning arrangements alongside the current financial pressures facing the NHS provides an impetus for considering the use of technical prioritisation methods to enable the identification of savings without having a detrimental effect on the health of the population. This paper reports on the design and implementation of a technical prioritisation method termed PBMA applied within NHS Plymouth, an English PCT responsible for commissioning services for a population of approximately 270,000. We evaluated the effectiveness of the process, the extent to which it was appropriate for local healthcare commissioning and whether it identified budget savings. Using qualitative research methodology, we found the process produced clear strategic and operational priorities for 2010/11, providing staff with focus and structure, and delivered a substantial planned reduction in hospital activity levels. Participants expressed satisfaction with the process. NHS Plymouth adhered to the PBMA process, although concerns were raised about the evidence for some priorities, decibel rationing, and a lack of robust challenge at priority-setting meetings. Further work is required to enhance participants' understanding of marginal analysis. Participants highlighted several external benefits, particularly in terms of cultural change, and felt the process should encompass the whole local health and social care community. This evaluation indicates that the prioritisation method was effective in producing priorities for NHS Plymouth, and that PBMA provides an appropriate method for allocating resources at a local level. In order for PBMA to identify savings, cultural and structural barriers to disinvestment

  20. Setting priorities for the health care sector in Zimbabwe using cost-effectiveness analysis and estimates of the burden of disease

    OpenAIRE

    Hansen Kristian; Chapman Glyn

    2008-01-01

    Abstract Background This study aimed at providing information for priority setting in the health care sector of Zimbabwe as well as assessing the efficiency of resource use. A general approach proposed by the World Bank involving the estimation of the burden of disease measured in Disability-Adjusted Life Years (DALYs) and calculation of cost-effectiveness ratios for a large number of health interventions was followed. Methods Costs per DALY for a total of 65 health interventions were estimat...

  1. Setting the global health agenda: The influence of advocates and ideas on political priority for maternal and newborn survival.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Stephanie L; Shiffman, Jeremy

    2016-10-01

    This study investigates a puzzle concerning global health priorities-why do comparable issues receive differential levels of attention and resources? It considers maternal and neonatal mortality, two high-burden issues that pertain to groups at risk at birth and whose lives could be saved with effective intrapartum care. Why did maternal survival gain status as a global health priority earlier and to a greater degree than newborn survival? Higher mortality and morbidity burdens among newborns and the cost-effectiveness of interventions would seem to predict that issue's earlier and higher prioritization. Yet maternal survival emerged as a priority two decades earlier and had attracted considerably more attention and resources by the close of the Millennium Development Goals era. This study uses replicative process-tracing case studies to examine the emergence and growth of political priority for these two issues, probing reasons for unexpected variance. The study finds that maternal survival's grounding as a social justice issue spurred growth of a strong and diverse advocacy network and aligned the issue with powerful international norms (e.g. expectations to advance women's rights and the Millennium Development Goals), drawing attention and resources to the issue over three decades. Newborn survival's disadvantage stems from its long status as an issue falling under the umbrellas of maternal and child survival but not fully adopted by these networks, and with limited appeal as a public health issue advanced by a small and technically focused network; network expansion and alignment with child survival norms have improved the issue's status in the past few years. PMID:27543685

  2. ACCOUNTING STANDARD SETTING IN THE INTERNATIONAL ARENA: UPDATE ON THE CONVERGENCE PROJECT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bonaci Carmen Giorgiana

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Our paper contributes to the literature on international accounting by focusing on the standard setting process. As documented by research literature, accounting regulation can enhance corporate governance (Melis and Carta, 2010, corporate reporting being expected to reduce information asymmetry. Based on accounting research and trade literature we first synthesize recent evolutions in the international accounting arena. We therefore position our study within current realities significantly marked by uncertainty in relation to the world wide globalization process. The objective of our paper is to perform an analysis that would help assess further developments of the convergence project. This is done by looking at the current status of the projects being developed under the IASB –FASB collaboration, as well as by developing a comparison between IFRS and US GAAP. The employed research methodology relies on analyzing data provided through the IASB and the FASB’s websites, as well as other official documents being issued by the two Boards. The assessment of the projects was done by reviewing exposure documents and monitoring the Boards’ deliberations, while the developed comparison requires accounting regulations content analysis. Concluding upon the Boards’ ongoing projects, we might identify areas in which convergence seems to be quite close (such as revenue recognition and leasing, but also areas in which convergence becomes even more challenging (such as financial instruments or the particular case of offsetting. Similar to other studies being developed within accounting research and trade literature (SEC 2011: 8 we may conclude that, generally, US GAAP present more detailed, specific requirements than IFRS.

  3. Share your story, shape your care: engaging the diverse and disperse population of Northwestern Ontario in healthcare priority setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shields, Kristin; DuBois-Wing, Gwen; Westwood, Ellis

    2010-01-01

    In 2009, the North West Local Health Integration Network hosted Share Your Story, Shape Your Care, an innovative community engagement initiative. Over 800 residents and health service providers in Northwestern Ontario participated and identified healthcare priorities, reacted to proposed strategies and shared ideas and stories. Primarily web-based (with a Choicebook, message board, blog and YouTube video), paper copies and conversation guides supported informed and reflective participation. This project enabled community-level participation in healthcare, supporting local planning and decision-making, and was awarded the inaugural Innovation Using Technology Award by the International Association for Public Participation. PMID:20523159

  4. Graduate and Employer Attitudes on the Skill Set Requirements for Professional Accountants: Should Emotional Intelligence be Developed in University Accounting Programs?

    OpenAIRE

    Coady, Peggy Ann

    2014-01-01

    This Doctorate of Business Administration (DBA) thesis investigated graduate and employer attitudes on the skill set requirements for professional accountants and specifically whether university accounting programs provide the emotional intelligence (EI) skills an accounting graduate needs. Emotional intelligence is the effective awareness, control and management of one's own emotions, and those of other people. Theories of emotional intelligence assert that EI is more important t...

  5. Constituents' formal participation in the due process of international accounting standard setting: A longitudinal analysis of stakeholder and geographical diversity.

    OpenAIRE

    Jorissen, Ann; Lybaert, Nadine; ORENS, Raf; Van der Tas, Leo

    2011-01-01

    Since IOSCO’s decision (May, 2000) to accept IASs for cross-border listing and since governments started to hand over accounting standard setting authority to the International Accounting Standards Board (IASB) (EU Regulation EC N° 1606/2002, Australia FRC July 2002), the IASB is well under way to become the global accounting standard setter. For the IASB, being a private organization, widespread constituents’ participation in its due process of standard setting is a key element to reinforce ...

  6. Set-based Tasks within the Singularity-robust Multiple Task-priority Inverse Kinematics Framework: General Formulation, Stability Analysis and Experimental Results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Signe eMoe

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Inverse kinematics algorithms are commonly used in robotic systems to transform tasks to joint references, and several methods exist to ensure the achievement of several tasks simultaneously. The multiple task-priority inverse kinematicsframework allows tasks to be considered in a prioritized order by projecting task velocities through the nullspaces of higherpriority tasks. This paper extends this framework to handle setbased tasks, i.e. tasks with a range of valid values, in addition to equality tasks, which have a specific desired value. Examples of set-based tasks are joint limit and obstacle avoidance. The proposed method is proven to ensure asymptotic convergence of the equality task errors and the satisfaction of all high-priority set-based tasks. The practical implementation of the proposed algorithm is discussed, and experimental results are presented where a number of both set-based and equality tasks have been implemented on a 6 degree of freedom UR5 which is an industrial robotic arm from Universal Robots. The experiments validate thetheoretical results and confirm the effectiveness of the proposed approach.

  7. Priority interventions to reduce HIV transmission in sex work settings in sub-Saharan Africa and delivery of these services

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M. Chersich (Matthew); S. Luchters (Stanley); I. Ntaganira (Innocent); A. Gerbase (Antonio); Y-R. Lo (Ying-Ru); F. Scorgie (Fiona); R. Steen (Richard)

    2012-01-01

    textabstractIntroduction: Virtually no African country provides HIV prevention services in sex work settings with an adequate scale and intensity. Uncertainty remains about the optimal set of interventions and mode of delivery. Methods: We systematically reviewed studies reporting interventions for

  8. Blended Learning versus Traditional Classroom Settings: Assessing Effectiveness and Student Perceptions in an MBA Accounting Course.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clement C. Chen

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available A survey was conducted of Master of Business Administration (MBA students in an accounting class at a university in the Northern United States to compare students’ assessments of course effectiveness and overall satisfaction with the course. One group of students were enrolled in a traditional in-class section, and another group in a “blended-learning” section in which the primary course delivery method was online, but in which students met in class on a limited number of occasions. Overall perceptions of the course, instructor and learning outcomes were positive for both groups. Students also felt strongly that they would use the material in their careers. The majority of students in the blended learning section indicated that they would take another accounting course using that approach if it were offered. However, some interesting differences were noted. Specifically, students in the traditional setting were more satisfied with the clarity of instruction. On the other hand, students in the blended-learning section felt more strongly that they gained an appreciation of the concepts in the field. Blended-learning students also indicated more strongly that their analytical skills improved as a result of the course. The results suggest that the two delivery methods were similar in terms of final learning outcomes, but that both may be improved by incorporating aspects of the other. The Journal of Educators Online, Volume 4, Number 1, January 2007 1

  9. Priority interventions to reduce HIV transmission in sex work settings in sub-Saharan Africa and delivery of these services

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew F Chersich

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Virtually no African country provides HIV prevention services in sex work settings with an adequate scale and intensity. Uncertainty remains about the optimal set of interventions and mode of delivery. Methods: We systematically reviewed studies reporting interventions for reducing HIV transmission among female sex workers in sub-Saharan Africa between January 2000 and July 2011. Medline (PubMed and non-indexed journals were searched for studies with quantitative study outcomes. Results: We located 26 studies, including seven randomized trials. Evidence supports implementation of the following interventions to reduce unprotected sex among female sex workers: peer-mediated condom promotion, risk-reduction counselling and skills-building for safer sex. One study found that interventions to counter hazardous alcohol-use lowered unprotected sex. Data also show effectiveness of screening for sexually transmitted infections (STIs and syndromic STI treatment, but experience with periodic presumptive treatment is limited. HIV testing and counselling is essential for facilitating sex workers’ access to care and antiretroviral treatment (ART, but testing models for sex workers and indeed for ART access are little studied, as are structural interventions, which create conditions conducive for risk reduction. With the exception of Senegal, persistent criminalization of sex work across Africa reduces sex workers’ control over working conditions and impedes their access to health services. It also obstructs health-service provision and legal protection. Conclusions: There is sufficient evidence of effectiveness of targeted interventions with female sex workers in Africa to inform delivery of services for this population. With improved planning and political will, services – including peer interventions, condom promotion and STI screening – would act at multiple levels to reduce HIV exposure and transmission efficiency among sex workers

  10. The Role of Management as a User of Accounting Information: Implications for Standard Setting

    OpenAIRE

    Eierle, Brigitte; Wolfgang SCHULTZE

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to analyze the question of whether the sole focus of standard setters developing accounting standards that are useful to external users for making decisions about providing resources to the entity result in useful accounting information. To answer this question, we analyzed the relationship between the stewardship function of financial accounting and the demand for information useful in making economic decisions on resource allocation (decision-making demand; decision...

  11. Setting global research priorities for integrated community case management (iCCM: Results from a CHNRI (Child Health and Nutrition Research Initiative exercise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kerri Wazny

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Aims: to systematically identify global research gaps and resource priorities for integrated community case management (iCCM. Methods: an iCCM Child Health and Nutrition Research Initiative (CHNRI Advisory Group, in collaboration with the Community Case Management Operational Research Group (CCM ORG identified experts to participate in a CHNRI research priority setting exercise. These experts generated and systematically ranked research questions for iCCM. Research questions were ranked using a “Research Priority Score” (RPS and the “Average Expert Agreement” (AEA was calculated for every question. Our groups of experts were comprised of both individuals working in Ministries of Health or Non Governmental Organizations (NGOs in low– and middle–income countries (LMICs and individuals working in high–income countries (HICs in academia or NGO headquarters. A Spearman's Rho was calculated to determine the correlation between the two groups' research questions' ranks. Results: The overall RPS ranged from 64.58 to 89.31, with a median score of 81.43. AEA scores ranged from 0.54 to 0.86. Research questions involving increasing the uptake of iCCM services, research questions concerning the motivation, retention, training and supervision of Community Health Workers (CHWs and concerning adding additional responsibilities including counselling for infant and young child feeding (IYCF and treatment of severe acute malnutrition (SAM ranked highly. There was weak to moderate, statistically significant, correlation between scores by representatives of high–income countries and those working in–country or regionally (Spearman's ρ = 0.35034, P < 0.01. Conclusions: Operational research to determine optimal training, supervision and modes of motivation and retention for the CHW is vital for improving iCCM, globally, as is research to motivate caregivers to take advantage of iCCM services. Experts working in–country or regionally in

  12. MISUNDERSTANDING OF ROLE AND POSITION OF ACCOUNTING STANDARD SETTING AUTHORITIES TO REDUCE INFORMATION ASYMMETRY: EMPIRICAL EVIDENCE OF IRAN

    OpenAIRE

    Hamidreza VAKILIFARD; Hashem NIKOOMARAM; Rostami, Vahab; Mahdi SALEHI; Daniela MITRAN

    2010-01-01

    Purpose - Critical role of accounting and financial reporting is providing useful information for different and entitled users to help them in making economical decisions. While repeatedly it is stressed that the quality of financial information is a function of both the quality of accounting standards and the regulatory enforcement, it is vital that standard setting authorities bodies to have independence and suitable enforcement power to guarantee their issued standards implementation with ...

  13. Abundance of red-listed species in infrastructure habitats – ”responsibility species” as a priority-setting tool for transportation agencies´ conservation action

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan-Olof Helldin

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Road and railroad verges may contribute to nature conservation by providing habitat for many species, but due to limited resources, there is a need to select the most important road and railroad stretches for adapted management. We explore the responsibility species concept as a tool for the Swedish Transport Administration to make this selection. We propose lists of candidate responsibility species based on relative abundance of conservation priority species in the vicinity of roads and railroads, respectively. Abundance data were derived from crowd-sourced species observations. Species with ≥20% of observations in infrastructure habitats were included as candidate responsibility species. For roads 32 species were included in the list, for railroads seven species, with an overlap of three species between the lists. We analyzed habitat and management requirements of the listed species to try identifying functional groups. Most of the species require open or semi-open habitats, mainly dry grassland or heathland on sandy or limy soil, un-sprayed crop fields, or solitary trees. Host plants or substrates include broom (genus Genista, patches of bare soil, and sun exposed wood. Conservation actions prescribed for the species include, e.g., late or irregular mowing, removal of the field layer, planting of host species, protecting and providing particular substrates, and special protection of certain sites. We argue that road and railroad managers are particularly well suited to conduct most of these actions. We consider the responsibility species concept to be a useful tool for transportation agencies to set priorities for adapted verge management, and the current method to be effective in identifying a first list of candidate species. We discuss the possibility of also identifying responsibility habitats or general management measures based on the results.

  14. The control gap : the role of budgets, accounting information and (non-) decisions in hospital settings

    OpenAIRE

    2004-01-01

    This paper investigates the link between budgets, accounting information and the decisionmaking processes at both strategic and operational levels in a large Norwegian hospital, as this hospital now is facing the New Public Management reforms which are introduced in Norway. The study has examined the use of budget and accounting information in the management control process. The empirical data are based on interviews with key actors in the decision-making process at all management levels in t...

  15. Combining RP and SP data while accounting for large choice sets and travel mode

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abildtrup, Jens; Olsen, Søren Bøye; Stenger, Anne

    2015-01-01

    set used for site selection modelling when the actual choice set considered is potentially large and unknown to the analyst. Easy access to forests also implies that around half of the visitors walk or bike to the forest. We apply an error-component mixed-logit model to simultaneously model the travel...

  16. The Cultural Influence in Accounting Standard Setting: A Comparative Analysis of the United States, Canada, and England.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bloom, Robert; And Others

    A study of the processes for establishing the principles and policies of measurement and disclosure in preparing financial reports examines differences in these processes in the United States, Canada, and England. Information was drawn from international accounting literature on standard setting. The differences and similarities in the…

  17. Distributed Priority Synthesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harald Ruess

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Given a set of interacting components with non-deterministic variable update and given safety requirements, the goal of priority synthesis is to restrict, by means of priorities, the set of possible interactions in such a way as to guarantee the given safety conditions for all possible runs. In distributed priority synthesis we are interested in obtaining local sets of priorities, which are deployed in terms of local component controllers sharing intended next moves between components in local neighborhoods only. These possible communication paths between local controllers are specified by means of a communication architecture. We formally define the problem of distributed priority synthesis in terms of a multi-player safety game between players for (angelically selecting the next transition of the components and an environment for (demonically updating uncontrollable variables. We analyze the complexity of the problem, and propose several optimizations including a solution-space exploration based on a diagnosis method using a nested extension of the usual attractor computation in games together with a reduction to corresponding SAT problems. When diagnosis fails, the method proposes potential candidates to guide the exploration. These optimized algorithms for solving distributed priority synthesis problems have been integrated into the VissBIP framework. An experimental validation of this implementation is performed using a range of case studies including scheduling in multicore processors and modular robotics.

  18. Districts Weigh Benefits and Drawbacks of Setting Up Student E-Mail Accounts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ash, Katie

    2008-01-01

    Some school districts hoping to improve communication and student engagement in learning are taking a step many educators still view warily: providing students with their own e-mail accounts. However, making e-mail a regular part of students' school lives raises a host of concerns about inappropriate use. In addition, many teachers doubt that the…

  19. Diplomatic Priorities

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    China-Russia relations Our relationship with Russia is one of the priorities of China’s diplomacy. The two countries have enjoyed mutual support on issues that concern each other’s core interests. We have

  20. Accounting for PMD Temporal Correlation During Lightpath Set Up in Transparent Optical Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sambo, Nicola; Secondini, Marco; Andriolli, Nicola;

    2010-01-01

    In transparent optical networks, the signal transmission is degraded by optical layer physical impairments. Therefore, lightpaths may be blocked due to unacceptable quality of transmission (QoT). Among physical impairments, polarization mode dispersion (PMD) is a detrimental effect which has...... stochastic characteristics. Moreover, PMD depends on time-variant factors, such as the temperature and the fiber stress. When implementing a dynamic GMPLS-controlled transparent optical network, the GMPLS protocol suite must take into account physical impairment information in order to establish lightpaths...... that the instantaneous DGD is not detrimental. Additionally, given PMD temporal correlation properties, once that the instantaneous DGD is not detrimental, it continues to be not detrimental within considerable time ranges. Therefore, more accurate models can be implemented in the GMPLS control plane to account for PMD...

  1. Vaccination priorities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steffen, Robert; Baños, Ana; deBernardis, Chiara

    2003-02-01

    priorities need to be set correctly.

  2. Constructing Isosurfaces from 3D Data Sets Taking Account of Depth Sorting of Polyhedra

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周勇; 唐泽圣

    1994-01-01

    Creating and rendering intermediate geometric primitives is one of the approaches to visualisze data sets in 3D space.Some algorithms have been developed to construct isosurface from uniformly distributed 3D data sets.These algorithms assume that the function value varies linearly along edges of each cell.But to irregular 3D data sets,this assumption is inapplicable.Moreover,the detth sorting of cells is more complicated for irregular data sets,which is indispensable for generating isosurface images or semitransparent isosurface images,if Z-buffer method is not adopted.In this paper,isosurface models based on the assumption that the function value has nonlinear distribution within a tetrahedron are proposed.The depth sorting algorithm and data structures are developed for the irregular data sets in which cells may be subdivided into tetrahedra.The implementation issues of this algorithm are discussed and experimental results are shown to illustrate potentials of this technique.

  3. RANKED SET SAMPLING FOR ECOLOGICAL RESEARCH: ACCOUNTING FOR THE TOTAL COSTS OF SAMPLING

    Science.gov (United States)

    Researchers aim to design environmental studies that optimize precision and allow for generalization of results, while keeping the costs of associated field and laboratory work at a reasonable level. Ranked set sampling is one method to potentially increase precision and reduce ...

  4. Accounting for baryonic effects in cosmic shear tomography: Determining a minimal set of nuisance parameters using PCA

    CERN Document Server

    Eifler, Tim; Dodelson, Scott; Zentner, Andrew; Hearin, Andrew; Gnedin, Nickolay

    2014-01-01

    Systematic uncertainties that have been subdominant in past large-scale structure (LSS) surveys are likely to exceed statistical uncertainties of current and future LSS data sets, potentially limiting the extraction of cosmological information. Here we present a general framework (PCA marginalization) to consistently incorporate systematic effects into a likelihood analysis. This technique naturally accounts for degeneracies between nuisance parameters and can substantially reduce the dimension of the parameter space that needs to be sampled. As a practical application, we apply PCA marginalization to account for baryonic physics as an uncertainty in cosmic shear tomography. Specifically, we use CosmoLike to run simulated likelihood analyses on three independent sets of numerical simulations, each covering a wide range of baryonic scenarios differing in cooling, star formation, and feedback mechanisms. We simulate a Stage III (Dark Energy Survey) and Stage IV (Large Synoptic Survey Telescope/Euclid) survey an...

  5. Roles of accounting practice in a public setting: the case of the Parisian Great Exhibitions (1855-1900)

    OpenAIRE

    Michaïlesco, Céline; Fabre, Karine

    2008-01-01

    The five Universal Exhibitions held in Paris between 1855 and 1900 share the particularity of having been, unlike their British counterparts, financed first wholly, then in part, by the Government. Public financing led to public finance principles (budgetary and public accounting) being applied to the organisation of the Exhibitions. Along with these, the organisation in charge of running these events imported a set of well-formatted techniques. However, these techniques (budgeting and accoun...

  6. High performance in healthcare priority setting and resource allocation: A literature- and case study-based framework in the Canadian context.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Neale; Mitton, Craig; Hall, William; Bryan, Stirling; Donaldson, Cam; Peacock, Stuart; Gibson, Jennifer L; Urquhart, Bonnie

    2016-08-01

    Priority setting and resource allocation, or PSRA, are key functions of executive teams in healthcare organizations. Yet decision-makers often base their choices on historical patterns of resource distribution or political pressures. Our aim was to provide leaders with guidance on how to improve PSRA practice, by creating organizational contexts which enable high performance. We carried out in-depth case studies of six Canadian healthcare organizations to obtain from healthcare leaders their understanding of the concept of high performance in PSRA and the factors which contribute to its achievement. Individual and group interviews were carried out (n = 62) with senior managers, middle managers and Board members. Site observations and document review were used to assist researchers in interpreting the interview data. Qualitative data were analyzed iteratively with the literature on empirical examples of PSRA practice, in order to develop a framework of high performance in PSRA. The framework consists of four domains - structures, processes, attitudes and behaviours, and outcomes - within which are 19 specific elements. The emergent themes derive from case studies in different kinds of health organizations (urban/rural, small/large) across Canada. The elements can serve as a checklist for 'high performance' in PSRA. This framework provides a means by which decision-makers in healthcare might assess their practice and identify key areas for improvement. The findings are likely generalizable, certainly within Canada but also across countries. This work constitutes, to our knowledge, the first attempt to present a full package of elements comprising high performance in health care PSRA. PMID:27367899

  7. High performance in healthcare priority setting and resource allocation: A literature- and case study-based framework in the Canadian context.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Neale; Mitton, Craig; Hall, William; Bryan, Stirling; Donaldson, Cam; Peacock, Stuart; Gibson, Jennifer L; Urquhart, Bonnie

    2016-08-01

    Priority setting and resource allocation, or PSRA, are key functions of executive teams in healthcare organizations. Yet decision-makers often base their choices on historical patterns of resource distribution or political pressures. Our aim was to provide leaders with guidance on how to improve PSRA practice, by creating organizational contexts which enable high performance. We carried out in-depth case studies of six Canadian healthcare organizations to obtain from healthcare leaders their understanding of the concept of high performance in PSRA and the factors which contribute to its achievement. Individual and group interviews were carried out (n = 62) with senior managers, middle managers and Board members. Site observations and document review were used to assist researchers in interpreting the interview data. Qualitative data were analyzed iteratively with the literature on empirical examples of PSRA practice, in order to develop a framework of high performance in PSRA. The framework consists of four domains - structures, processes, attitudes and behaviours, and outcomes - within which are 19 specific elements. The emergent themes derive from case studies in different kinds of health organizations (urban/rural, small/large) across Canada. The elements can serve as a checklist for 'high performance' in PSRA. This framework provides a means by which decision-makers in healthcare might assess their practice and identify key areas for improvement. The findings are likely generalizable, certainly within Canada but also across countries. This work constitutes, to our knowledge, the first attempt to present a full package of elements comprising high performance in health care PSRA.

  8. Diplomatic Priorities

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    @@ China-Russia relations Our relationship with Russia is one of the priorities of China's diplomacy.The two countries have enjoyed mutual support on issues that concern each other's core interests.We have the same or similar views on many major international and regional issues.And we coordinate and communicate closely.

  9. Accounting for baryonic effects in cosmic shear tomography: Determining a minimal set of nuisance parameters using PCA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eifler, Tim; Krause, Elisabeth; Dodelson, Scott; Zentner, Andrew; Hearin, Andrew; Gnedin, Nickolay

    2014-05-28

    Systematic uncertainties that have been subdominant in past large-scale structure (LSS) surveys are likely to exceed statistical uncertainties of current and future LSS data sets, potentially limiting the extraction of cosmological information. Here we present a general framework (PCA marginalization) to consistently incorporate systematic effects into a likelihood analysis. This technique naturally accounts for degeneracies between nuisance parameters and can substantially reduce the dimension of the parameter space that needs to be sampled. As a practical application, we apply PCA marginalization to account for baryonic physics as an uncertainty in cosmic shear tomography. Specifically, we use CosmoLike to run simulated likelihood analyses on three independent sets of numerical simulations, each covering a wide range of baryonic scenarios differing in cooling, star formation, and feedback mechanisms. We simulate a Stage III (Dark Energy Survey) and Stage IV (Large Synoptic Survey Telescope/Euclid) survey and find a substantial bias in cosmological constraints if baryonic physics is not accounted for. We then show that PCA marginalization (employing at most 3 to 4 nuisance parameters) removes this bias. Our study demonstrates that it is possible to obtain robust, precise constraints on the dark energy equation of state even in the presence of large levels of systematic uncertainty in astrophysical processes. We conclude that the PCA marginalization technique is a powerful, general tool for addressing many of the challenges facing the precision cosmology program.

  10. Defining priorities

    CERN Multimedia

    2013-01-01

    Last week the European Strategy Group met in Erice (Italy) to distil reams of input and months of discussion into a concise document outlining an updated Strategy for European Particle Physics. The result is a document that will be presented to the Council for feedback next month, before final approval by the Council at a special meeting in Brussels on 29 May. The Strategy process was important when it began in 2005, and is even more so today with important discoveries behind us and a changing global landscape for particle physics ahead.   The draft update, it’s fair to say, contains few surprises, but there are nevertheless some weighty issues for the Council to deliberate. The top priority is, of course, the full exploitation of the LHC, but the Strategy goes further, stating unambiguously that Europe’s top priority should be the high-luminosity upgrade of the machine. Other high-priority items are accelerator R&D to ensure the long-term global future of the field. O...

  11. Membrane Automata with Priorities

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Luděk Cienciala; Lucie Ciencialová

    2004-01-01

    In this paper the one-way P automata with priorities are introduced. Such automata are P systemshere the membranes are only allowed to consume objects from parent membranes, under the given conditions. The result of computation of these systems is the set of multiset sequences consumed by skin membrane intc the system. The rules associated in some order with each membrane cannot modify any objects, they can only move them through membrane. We show that P automata with priorities and two membranes can accept every recursively enumerated language.

  12. How to do (or not to do) … translation of national health accounts data to evidence for policy making in a low resourced setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Price, Jennifer A; Guinness, Lorna; Irava, Wayne; Khan, Idrish; Asante, Augustine; Wiseman, Virginia

    2016-05-01

    For more than a decade, the Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD), the World Health Organization (WHO) and the World Bank have promoted the international standardization of National Health Accounts (NHA) for reporting global statistics on public, private and donor health expenditure and improve the quality of evidence-based decision-making at country level. A 2010-2012 World Bank review of NHA activity in 50 countries found structural and technical constraints (rather than cost) were key impediments to institutionalizing NHA in many low- and middle-income countries (LMICs). Pilot projects focused resources on data production, neglecting longer-term capacity building for analysing the data, developing ownership among local stakeholders and establishing routine production, utilization and dissemination of NHA data. Hence, genuine institutionalization of NHA in most LMICs has been slow to materialize. International manuals focus on the production of NHA data and do not include practical, incremental and low-cost strategies to guide countries in translating the data into evidence for policy-making. The main aim of this article is to recommend strategies for bridging this divide between production and utilization of NHA data in low-resource settings. The article begins by discussing the origins and purpose of NHA, including factors currently undermining their uptake. The focus then turns to the development and application of strategies to assist LMICs in 'unlocking' the hidden value of their NHA. The article draws on the example of Fiji, a country currently attempting to integrate their NHA data into policy formulation, despite minimal resources, training and familiarity with economic analysis of health systems. Simple, low cost recommendations such as embedding health finance indicators in planning documents, a user-friendly NHA guide for evaluating local health priorities, and sharing NHA data for collaborative research have helped translate

  13. How to do (or not to do) … translation of national health accounts data to evidence for policy making in a low resourced setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Price, Jennifer A; Guinness, Lorna; Irava, Wayne; Khan, Idrish; Asante, Augustine; Wiseman, Virginia

    2016-05-01

    For more than a decade, the Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD), the World Health Organization (WHO) and the World Bank have promoted the international standardization of National Health Accounts (NHA) for reporting global statistics on public, private and donor health expenditure and improve the quality of evidence-based decision-making at country level. A 2010-2012 World Bank review of NHA activity in 50 countries found structural and technical constraints (rather than cost) were key impediments to institutionalizing NHA in many low- and middle-income countries (LMICs). Pilot projects focused resources on data production, neglecting longer-term capacity building for analysing the data, developing ownership among local stakeholders and establishing routine production, utilization and dissemination of NHA data. Hence, genuine institutionalization of NHA in most LMICs has been slow to materialize. International manuals focus on the production of NHA data and do not include practical, incremental and low-cost strategies to guide countries in translating the data into evidence for policy-making. The main aim of this article is to recommend strategies for bridging this divide between production and utilization of NHA data in low-resource settings. The article begins by discussing the origins and purpose of NHA, including factors currently undermining their uptake. The focus then turns to the development and application of strategies to assist LMICs in 'unlocking' the hidden value of their NHA. The article draws on the example of Fiji, a country currently attempting to integrate their NHA data into policy formulation, despite minimal resources, training and familiarity with economic analysis of health systems. Simple, low cost recommendations such as embedding health finance indicators in planning documents, a user-friendly NHA guide for evaluating local health priorities, and sharing NHA data for collaborative research have helped translate

  14. Setting Priorities for Urban Forest Planning. A Comprehensive Response to Ecological and Social Needs for the Metropolitan Area of Rome (Italy)

    OpenAIRE

    Giulia Capotorti; Barbara Mollo; Laura Zavattero; Ilaria Anzellotti; Laura Celesti-Grapow

    2015-01-01

    Urban forests represent key elements of green infrastructure and provide essential ecosystem services in both the ecological and social spheres. Therefore, forestation planning plays a decisive role in the sustainable development strategies of metropolitan areas and addresses the challenge of maintaining biodiversity while improving human health and well-being. The aim of this work is to present a methodological approach that can be used to identify priorities in urban forest planning and can...

  15. Accounting for the Multiple Natures of Missing Values in Label-Free Quantitative Proteomics Data Sets to Compare Imputation Strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lazar, Cosmin; Gatto, Laurent; Ferro, Myriam; Bruley, Christophe; Burger, Thomas

    2016-04-01

    Missing values are a genuine issue in label-free quantitative proteomics. Recent works have surveyed the different statistical methods to conduct imputation and have compared them on real or simulated data sets and recommended a list of missing value imputation methods for proteomics application. Although insightful, these comparisons do not account for two important facts: (i) depending on the proteomics data set, the missingness mechanism may be of different natures and (ii) each imputation method is devoted to a specific type of missingness mechanism. As a result, we believe that the question at stake is not to find the most accurate imputation method in general but instead the most appropriate one. We describe a series of comparisons that support our views: For instance, we show that a supposedly "under-performing" method (i.e., giving baseline average results), if applied at the "appropriate" time in the data-processing pipeline (before or after peptide aggregation) on a data set with the "appropriate" nature of missing values, can outperform a blindly applied, supposedly "better-performing" method (i.e., the reference method from the state-of-the-art). This leads us to formulate few practical guidelines regarding the choice and the application of an imputation method in a proteomics context. PMID:26906401

  16. Accounting for the Multiple Natures of Missing Values in Label-Free Quantitative Proteomics Data Sets to Compare Imputation Strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lazar, Cosmin; Gatto, Laurent; Ferro, Myriam; Bruley, Christophe; Burger, Thomas

    2016-04-01

    Missing values are a genuine issue in label-free quantitative proteomics. Recent works have surveyed the different statistical methods to conduct imputation and have compared them on real or simulated data sets and recommended a list of missing value imputation methods for proteomics application. Although insightful, these comparisons do not account for two important facts: (i) depending on the proteomics data set, the missingness mechanism may be of different natures and (ii) each imputation method is devoted to a specific type of missingness mechanism. As a result, we believe that the question at stake is not to find the most accurate imputation method in general but instead the most appropriate one. We describe a series of comparisons that support our views: For instance, we show that a supposedly "under-performing" method (i.e., giving baseline average results), if applied at the "appropriate" time in the data-processing pipeline (before or after peptide aggregation) on a data set with the "appropriate" nature of missing values, can outperform a blindly applied, supposedly "better-performing" method (i.e., the reference method from the state-of-the-art). This leads us to formulate few practical guidelines regarding the choice and the application of an imputation method in a proteomics context.

  17. Pros and cons of using the informed basis set to account for hemodynamic response variability with developmental data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabien Cignetti

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Conventional analysis of functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI data using the general linear model (GLM employs a neural model convolved with a canonical hemodynamic response function (HRF peaking 5s after stimulation. Incorporation of a further basis function, namely the canonical HRF temporal derivative, accounts for delays in the hemodynamic response to neural activity. A population that may benefit from this flexible approach is children whose hemodynamic response is not yet mature. Here, we examined the effects of using the set based on the canonical HRF plus its temporal derivative on both first- and second-level GLM analyses, through simulations and using developmental data (an fMRI dataset on proprioceptive mapping in children and adults. Simulations of delayed fMRI first-level data emphasized the benefit of carrying forward to the second-level a derivative boost that combines derivative and nonderivative beta estimates. In the experimental data, second-level analysis using a paired t-test showed increased mean amplitude estimate (i.e., increased group contrast mean in several brain regions related to proprioceptive processing when using the derivative boost compared to using only the nonderivative term. This was true especially in children. However, carrying forward to the second-level the individual derivative boosts had adverse consequences on random-effects analysis that implemented one-sample t-test, yielding increased between-subject variance, thus affecting group-level statistic. Boosted data also presented a lower level of smoothness that had implication for the detection of group average activation. Imposing soft constraints on the derivative boost by limiting the time-to-peak range of the modelled response within a specified range (i.e., 4-6s mitigated these issues. These findings support the notion that there are pros and cons to using the informed basis set with developmental data.

  18. Pros and Cons of Using the Informed Basis Set to Account for Hemodynamic Response Variability with Developmental Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cignetti, Fabien; Salvia, Emilie; Anton, Jean-Luc; Grosbras, Marie-Hélène; Assaiante, Christine

    2016-01-01

    Conventional analysis of functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) data using the general linear model (GLM) employs a neural model convolved with a canonical hemodynamic response function (HRF) peaking 5 s after stimulation. Incorporation of a further basis function, namely the canonical HRF temporal derivative, accounts for delays in the hemodynamic response to neural activity. A population that may benefit from this flexible approach is children whose hemodynamic response is not yet mature. Here, we examined the effects of using the set based on the canonical HRF plus its temporal derivative on both first- and second-level GLM analyses, through simulations and using developmental data (an fMRI dataset on proprioceptive mapping in children and adults). Simulations of delayed fMRI first-level data emphasized the benefit of carrying forward to the second-level a derivative boost that combines derivative and nonderivative beta estimates. In the experimental data, second-level analysis using a paired t-test showed increased mean amplitude estimate (i.e., increased group contrast mean) in several brain regions related to proprioceptive processing when using the derivative boost compared to using only the nonderivative term. This was true especially in children. However, carrying forward to the second-level the individual derivative boosts had adverse consequences on random-effects analysis that implemented one-sample t-test, yielding increased between-subject variance, thus affecting group-level statistic. Boosted data also presented a lower level of smoothness that had implication for the detection of group average activation. Imposing soft constraints on the derivative boost by limiting the time-to-peak range of the modeled response within a specified range (i.e., 4–6 s) mitigated these issues. These findings support the notion that there are pros and cons to using the informed basis set with developmental data. PMID:27471441

  19. Change priorities!

    CERN Multimedia

    Association du personnel

    2006-01-01

    Throughout the current five-yearly review, the Staff Association has made every effort to devise and propose numerous alternative solutions which take into account the data collected. Once more, at the last SCC meeting, the Management refused to accept the slightest compromise on salary levels. It is standing its ground and, even though it is its duty, does not put forward any concrete proposal to provide a way out of a crisis situation which is getting yet worse and worse.

  20. Antecedents to agenda setting and framing in health news: an examination of priority, angle, source, and resource usage from a national survey of U.S. health reporters and editors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallington, Sherrie Flynt; Blake, Kelly; Taylor-Clark, Kalahn; Viswanath, K

    2010-01-01

    The influence of news media on audience cognitions, attitudes, and behaviors in the realm of politics, race relations, science, and health has been extensively documented.Agenda setting and framing studies show that news media influence how people develop schema and place priorities on issues, with media stories serving as a major source of issue frames. Although news media are an important intermediary in the translation of scientific knowledge to different publics, little has been documented about the production of health news and factors that may predict media agenda setting and framing in health journalism. We used data from a 2005 national survey of U.S. health reporters and editors to examine predictors of source, resource, story angle, and frame usage among reporters and editors by variables such as organizational structure, individual characteristics of respondents (such as education and years working as a journalist),and perceptions of occupational autonomy. Multivariable logistic regression models revealed several differences among U.S. health reports and editors in the likelihood of using a variety of news sources, resources, priorities, and angles in reporting. Media agenda setting and framing theories suggest that practitioners familiar with media processes can work with journalists to frame messages, thereby increasing the probability of accurate and effective reporting. Results from this study may help to inform interactions between public health and medical practitioners and the press [corrected]. PMID:20390978

  1. Research priorities for Indian psychiatry.

    OpenAIRE

    Patel, Vikram

    2010-01-01

    This article summarises the findings of recent priority setting exercises for psychiatric research and of a mapping of research capacity and resources in south Asia. The priorities for research in the region, as in other developing countries, are related to ‘implementation’ science, i.e. the field of inquiry investigating acceptable and affordable methods of delivering effective treatments for mental disorders, which aims to help close the large treatment gap. “Discovery” research which aims ...

  2. Preservation Priority

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    China ratified the UNESCO Convention Concerning the Protection of World Cultural and Natural Heritage in 1985. This set the tone for a course of action aimed at protecting the common heritage of mankind in tandem with the international community. Recently, Chao Huashan, a renowned expert on world heritage studies in China, spoke to Beijing Review reporter Zan Jifang, sharing his understanding about the value of the World Heritage Convention and his suggestions for China’s future work on preserving its heritage. Excerpts follow:

  3. Modern going near setting of medical physical culture taking into account etiology, type, form, degree and clinical displays of scoliotic illness for children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olga Peshkova

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Authors in the article are consider the basic going near setting of medical physical culture at scoliostic illness of І–ІІ degree for children taking into account a type, form, etiology, degree and clinical displays. Purpose: to describe the modern going near setting of medical physical culture taking into account etiology, type, form, degree and clinical displays of scoliostic illness for children. Material and Methods: analysis of the modern special literature on issue of physical rehabilitation of children at scoliostic illness; analysis of medical cards. Results: description of scoliosis is given on an etiologic sign, form, type, degrees and clinical displays. The features of methods of medical physical culture are presented taking into account the afore-named signs of scoliotic illness. Conclusions: setting of facilities and forms of medical physical culture at scoliotic illness depends on etiology, form and type of scoliosis, degree and clinical displays of disease

  4. Definición de prioridades para las intervenciones de salud en el Sistema de Protección Social en Salud de México Priority setting for health interventions in Mexico's System of Social Protection in Health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo González-Pier

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available La definición explícita de prioridades en intervenciones de salud representa una oportunidad para México de equilibrar la presión y la complejidad de una transición epidemiológica avanzada, con políticas basadas en evidencias generadas por la inquietud de cómo optimizar el uso de los recursos escasos para mejorar la salud de la población. La experiencia mexicana en la definición de prioridades describe cómo los enfoques analíticos estandarizados en la toma de decisiones, principalmente los de análisis de la carga de la enfermedad y de costo-efectividad, se combinan con otros criterios -tales como dar respuesta a las expectativas legítimas no médicas de los pacientes y asegurar un financiamiento justo para los hogares-, para diseñar e implementar un grupo de tres paquetes diferenciados de intervenciones de salud. Éste es un proceso clave dentro de un conjunto más amplio de elementos de reforma dirigidos a extender el aseguramiento en salud, especialmente a los pobres. Las implicaciones más relevantes en el ámbito de políticas públicas incluyen lecciones sobre el uso de las herramientas analíticas disponibles y probadas para definir prioridades nacionales de salud; la utilidad de resultados que definan prioridades para guiar el desarrollo de capacidades a largo plazo; la importancia de favorecer un enfoque para institucionalizar el análisis ex-ante de costo-efectividad; y la necesidad del fortalecimiento de la capacidad técnica local como un elemento esencial para equilibrar los argumentos sobre maximización de la salud con criterios no relacionados con la salud en el marco de un ejercicio sistemático y transparente.Explicit priority setting presents Mexico with the opportunity to match the pressure and complexity of an advancing epidemiological transition with evidence-based policies driven by a fundamental concern for how to make the best use of scarce resources to improve population health. The Mexican priority-setting

  5. ClimateQUAL® and Thinklets: Using ClimateQUAL® with Group Support Systems to Facilitate Discussion and Set Priorities for Organizational Change at Criss Library

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nora Hillyer

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective – This article discusses a series of actions taken by the Criss Library at the University of Nebraska at Omaha to implement organizational change, using the ClimateQUAL® survey and facilitated discussions with ThinkTank™ group decision software. The library had experienced significant changes over a five-year period, with a renovation of the facility and three reorganizations resulting in a 50% staff turnover. Recognizing the strain that years of construction and personnel changes had placed on the organization, there was a desire to uncover the mood of the employees and reveal the issues behind low morale, uneasiness, and fear.Methods – In November 2009, the library conducted a ClimateQUAL® survey to develop a baseline to assess the effectiveness of any changes. After the results were distributed to library faculty and staff, a series of two-hour facilitated discussions was held to gather opinions and ideas for solutions using thinkLets, a pattern language for reasoning toward a goal. The group support system ThinkTank™ software was loaded onto computers, and employees were able to add their ideas anonymously during the sessions. Finally, 12 employees (29% completed a four-question survey on their perceptions of the facilitated discussions.Results – The facilitated discussions returned 76 sub-themes in 12 categories: staffing and scheduling issues, staff unity/teamwork, communication, goodwill/morale, accountability, decision-making, policy issues, skills and training, leadership, ergonomics/physical work environment, respect, and bullying. An advisory team culled the 76 sub-themes into 40 improvement strategies. Five were implemented immediately, and the remaining 35 were scheduled to be presented to the faculty and staff via an online survey. Participants’ perceptions of the facilitated discussions were mixed. Eighty-three percent of respondents reported that they did not feel safe speaking out about issues, most

  6. The Accounts Setting of the New University’s Accounting System%新高校会计制度实行中会计科目的处理

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    林加祝

    2014-01-01

    2013年12月30日财政部颁布了《高等学校会计制度》,并于2014年1月1日正式执行。本文立足实际工作,针对新高校会计制度中会计科目的设置及衔接中存在的问题进行分析,并提出建议,以保证新高校会计制度的顺利过渡实施。%On December 30, 2013, the Ministry of Finance issued “High School Accounting System” and formally implemented it on January 1, 2014. Based on the practice, this paper analyzes the problems of the settings and cohesion from the new university's accounting system, then makes recommendations to ensure a smooth transition for the new accounting system implementation at universities.

  7. Democracy and Teacher Education: Setting Priorities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodman, Jesse H.

    2009-01-01

    As John Dewey noted in his last book, each generation, in its turn, must assume responsibility as caretaker of democracy. He noted that one should never take democracy for granted. Everyone lives in an imperfect democracy, and teacher educators should play their part in protecting, nurturing, and advancing democratic ideals, rituals, values, and…

  8. Priority-setting in health systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Byskov, Jens

    2013-01-01

    and constraints. This effectively leaves policy-makers.without scientifically sound ideas of what they can and should actually strengthen within ever limited resources. Within such unmapped and misunderstood systems, interventions – even the very simplest – often fail to achieve their goals and no recommeded......DBL - under core funding from Danish International Development Agency (Danida) 2013 WHY HAVE HEALTH SYSTEMS WHEN EFFECTIVE INTERVENTIONS ARE KNOWN? Case: A teenage mother lives in a poor sub-Saharan village next to a big lake. The area is known to have malaria transmission all year around...... tried herbal remedies for both of them for a week but without effect. The family permits her to travel with her child quite some distance to a fairly run down health centre ---- (Cont. with her meeting services, but going home unserved) WHAT ARE HEALTH SYSTEMS AND HEALTH SYSTEMS RESEARCH? Health systems...

  9. Accounting for both local aquatic community composition and bioavailability in setting site-specific quality standards for zinc.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peters, Adam; Simpson, Peter; Moccia, Alessandra

    2014-01-01

    Recent years have seen considerable improvement in water quality standards (QS) for metals by taking account of the effect of local water chemistry conditions on their bioavailability. We describe preliminary efforts to further refine water quality standards, by taking account of the composition of the local ecological community (the ultimate protection objective) in addition to bioavailability. Relevance of QS to the local ecological community is critical as it is important to minimise instances where quality classification using QS does not reconcile with a quality classification based on an assessment of the composition of the local ecology (e.g. using benthic macroinvertebrate quality assessment metrics such as River InVertebrate Prediction and Classification System (RIVPACS)), particularly where ecology is assessed to be at good or better status, whilst chemical quality is determined to be failing relevant standards. The alternative approach outlined here describes a method to derive a site-specific species sensitivity distribution (SSD) based on the ecological community which is expected to be present at the site in the absence of anthropogenic pressures (reference conditions). The method combines a conventional laboratory ecotoxicity dataset normalised for bioavailability with field measurements of the response of benthic macroinvertebrate abundance to chemical exposure. Site-specific QSref are then derived from the 5%ile of this SSD. Using this method, site QSref have been derived for zinc in an area impacted by historic mining activities. Application of QSref can result in greater agreement between chemical and ecological metrics of environmental quality compared with the use of either conventional (QScon) or bioavailability-based QS (QSbio). In addition to zinc, the approach is likely to be applicable to other metals and possibly other types of chemical stressors (e.g. pesticides). However, the methodology for deriving site-specific targets requires

  10. Determining a Consistent Set of Accounting and Financial Reporting Standards : A Research Note Based on the IASB-FASB Conceptual Framework Revision Project

    OpenAIRE

    Le Manh-Béna, Anne; Ramond, Olivier

    2011-01-01

    Following the debate on the Conceptual Framework revision undertaken by the IASB and the FASB, this paper discusses three major concerns about the way financial reporting standards should be determined: (1) What is the role a Conceptual Framework?; (2) For whom and for which needs are accounting and financial reporting standards made?; and (3) What information set should financial reporting provide? We show that the perceived need of a Framework has resulted in practice in weak usefulness We ...

  11. Priority arbitration mechanism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garmire, Derrick L.; Herring, Jay R.; Stunkel, Craig B.

    2007-03-06

    A method is provided for selecting a data source for transmission on one of several logical (virtual) lanes embodied in a single physical connection. Lanes are assigned to either a high priority class or to a low priority class. One of six conditions is employed to determine when re-arbitration of lane priorities is desired. When this occurs a next source for transmission is selected based on a the specification of the maximum number of high priority packets that can be sent after a lower priority transmission has been interrupted. Alternatively, a next source for transmission is selected based on a the specification of the maximum number of high priority packets that can be sent while a lower priority packet is waiting. If initialized correctly, the arbiter keeps all of the packets of a high priority packet contiguous, while allowing lower priority packets to be interrupted by the higher priority packets, but not to the point of starvation of the lower priority packets.

  12. 内分泌干扰物层级筛选中的定量构效关系%Quantitative Structure-Activity Relationships (QSARs) for Priority Setting of Endocrine Disrupting compounds (EDCs)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    童伟达

    2014-01-01

    大量的科学研究、监管和大众媒体一直关注于内分泌干扰物,它们主要是能够模仿天然激素功能的合成化学物质。法律要求开发一种程序,用以筛选和测试水和食品添加剂中是否含有潜在内分泌干扰物。根据法规,大量的化学品将会接受各种体外和体内的实验用以测试其潜在荷尔蒙的活性,例如雌激素活性。因此,需要对这些化学物质进行分层筛选,以降低测试成本及加快筛选和测试的速度。在已经开发的内分泌干扰物知识数据库(EDKB)项目中,将实验和建模进行了整合,以便于更加高效地进行优先级的设置。%Considerable scientific, regulatory and popular press attention has been devoted to the Endocrine Disrupting Chemicals (EDCs) which are predominantly synthetic chemicals with an ability of mimicking the functions of natural hormones. The legislation requires development of a screening and testing program for potential EDCs in drinking water and food additives. Under the legislation, a large number of chemicals will undergo various in vitro and in vivo assays for their potential hormonal activities such as estrogenicity. There is a crucial need to set priority for these chemicals to reduce the cost and speed the screening and testing process. We have developed an Endocrine Disruptor Knowledge Base (EDKB) project where experimentation and modeling were integrated to assist the priority setting process.

  13. Identification of sources of priority substances set out in Article 16 of the Water Framework Directive and estimation of their discharges into the German aquatic environment; Ermittlung der Quellen fuer die prioritaeren Stoffe nach Artikel 16 der Wasserrahmenrichtlinie und Abschaetzung ihrer Eintragsmengen in die Gewaesser in Deutschland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boehm, E.; Hillenbrand, T.; Marscheider-Weidemann, F.; Mueller, B.; Wiederhold, J.; Herrchen, M.; Klein, M.

    2002-12-01

    The Water Framework Directive (2000/60/EC) is a new instrument, that inter alia has replaced, harmonized and further developed the control and reduction of point and diffuse discharges of dangerous substances according to Council Directive 76/464/EEC. Article 16 of the Water Framework Directive set out a 'Strategy against pollution of water' which demands specific measures against pollution of water by individual pollutants or groups of pollutants presenting a significant risk to or via the aquatic environment (e.g. by drinking water consumed). For these priority substances community-wide water quality standards and emission controls have to be established. On the basis of Article 16 of Directive 2000/60/EC a list of 33 priority substances has been adopted by the decision of the European Parliament and of the Council of November 2001. This list identifies 11 priority hazardous substances, 14 substances subject to a review for identification as possible priority hazardous substance and 8 priority substances. The Commission will make a proposal for the final classification of the 'substances subject to a review' (priority hazardous or priority substances) not later than 12 months after adoption of this list. The planned measures aim at the cessation or phasing out of discharges, emissions and losses to the aquatic environment within 20 years for the priority hazardous substances and at the progressive reduction for the priority substances. In this project the available data for these 33 substances resp. groups of substances for the Federal Republic of Germany were put forward and described in a standardized pattern. This pattern includes the following items: nomenclature and properties of the substances, monitoring data, production and fields of application of these substances, existing regulations in Germany, releases to environment and possibilities to reduce discharges to the aquatic environment. The basis of the data is the year 2000 as far as

  14. Implementing accountability for reasonableness framework at district level in Tanzania

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Maluka, Stephen; Kamuzora, Peter; SanSebastián, Miguel;

    2011-01-01

    Despite the growing importance of the Accountability for Reasonableness (A4R) framework in priority setting worldwide, there is still an inadequate understanding of the processes and mechanisms underlying its influence on legitimacy and fairness, as conceived and reflected in service management p...

  15. Global Conservation Priorities for Marine Turtles

    OpenAIRE

    Bryan P Wallace; Dimatteo, Andrew D.; Alan B Bolten; Chaloupka, Milani Y.; Hutchinson, Brian J.; F Alberto Abreu-Grobois; Jeanne A Mortimer; Seminoff, Jeffrey A.; Diego Amorocho; Bjorndal, Karen A; Jérôme Bourjea; Bowen, Brian W; Raquel Briseño Dueñas; Paolo Casale; Choudhury, B. C.

    2011-01-01

    Where conservation resources are limited and conservation targets are diverse, robust yet flexible priority-setting frameworks are vital. Priority-setting is especially important for geographically widespread species with distinct populations subject to multiple threats that operate on different spatial and temporal scales. Marine turtles are widely distributed and exhibit intra-specific variations in population sizes and trends, as well as reproduction and morphology. However, current global...

  16. "Back then" and "nowadays": social transition narratives in accounts of injecting drug use in an East European setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhodes, Tim; Bivol, Stela

    2012-02-01

    Whereas most research investigating drug use transitions narrows its analyses around the individual and their decision-making, we explore how personal narratives of drug transition interplay with broader narratives of social and economic change in a 'transition society' of post-Soviet Europe. Informed by narrative theory, we draw upon analyses of 42 audio-recorded qualitative interviews conducted in the city of Balti, Moldova, in late 2009, with people with current and recent experience of injecting drug use. Accounts of drug transition connect with stories of shifting socio-economic conditions, drug markets, drug law enforcement practices, and social relationships across generations. Participants cast themselves as the 'transition generation', juxtaposing 'their' time of drug initiation "back then" with "nowadays". We find that personal stories of drug initiation, transition and career are told in relation to a meta-narrative of social transition. Whereas 'back then', drug use was depicted as 'natural', 'home-produced', embedded in social relations, and symbolically valuable, in the post-transition narrative of 'now', this culture of drug use has become disrupted, through the internationalisation of drug markets, the individualisation of social relations, the weakening of social ties and trust relations, flux in moral boundaries, and shifting social values of drug use. The meta-narrative of social transition serves to bridge biographical adaptation as collective experience. This helps to moderate the social harms linked to the 'becoming other' constituted by drug injecting, and bridge the effects of rationed expectation that can characterise post-Soviet transitions. We suggest that the narrative of transition offers a cultural script that says "transition is to blame".

  17. "Back then" and "nowadays": social transition narratives in accounts of injecting drug use in an East European setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhodes, Tim; Bivol, Stela

    2012-02-01

    Whereas most research investigating drug use transitions narrows its analyses around the individual and their decision-making, we explore how personal narratives of drug transition interplay with broader narratives of social and economic change in a 'transition society' of post-Soviet Europe. Informed by narrative theory, we draw upon analyses of 42 audio-recorded qualitative interviews conducted in the city of Balti, Moldova, in late 2009, with people with current and recent experience of injecting drug use. Accounts of drug transition connect with stories of shifting socio-economic conditions, drug markets, drug law enforcement practices, and social relationships across generations. Participants cast themselves as the 'transition generation', juxtaposing 'their' time of drug initiation "back then" with "nowadays". We find that personal stories of drug initiation, transition and career are told in relation to a meta-narrative of social transition. Whereas 'back then', drug use was depicted as 'natural', 'home-produced', embedded in social relations, and symbolically valuable, in the post-transition narrative of 'now', this culture of drug use has become disrupted, through the internationalisation of drug markets, the individualisation of social relations, the weakening of social ties and trust relations, flux in moral boundaries, and shifting social values of drug use. The meta-narrative of social transition serves to bridge biographical adaptation as collective experience. This helps to moderate the social harms linked to the 'becoming other' constituted by drug injecting, and bridge the effects of rationed expectation that can characterise post-Soviet transitions. We suggest that the narrative of transition offers a cultural script that says "transition is to blame". PMID:22209593

  18. Priority Setting and Influential Factors on Acceptance of Pharmaceutical Recommendations in Collaborative Medication Reviews in an Ambulatory Care Setting – Analysis of a Cluster Randomized Controlled Trial (WestGem-Study)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rose, Olaf; Mennemann, Hugo; John, Carina; Lautenschläger, Marcus; Mertens-Keller, Damaris; Richling, Katharina; Waltering, Isabel; Hamacher, Stefanie; Felsch, Moritz; Herich, Lena; Czarnecki, Kathrin; Schaffert, Corinna; Jaehde, Ulrich; Köberlein-Neu, Juliane

    2016-01-01

    Background Medication reviews are recognized services to increase quality of therapy and reduce medication risks. The selection of eligible patients with potential to receive a major benefit is based on assumptions rather than on factual data. Acceptance of interprofessional collaboration is crucial to increase the quality of medication therapy. Objective The research question was to identify and prioritize eligible patients for a medication review and to provide evidence-based criteria for patient selection. Acceptance of the prescribing general practitioner to implement pharmaceutical recommendations was measured and factors influencing physicians’ acceptance were explored to obtain an impression on the extent of collaboration in medication review in an ambulatory care setting. Methods Based on data of a cluster-randomized controlled study (WestGem-study), the correlation between patient parameters and the individual performance in a medication review was calculated in a multiple logistic regression model. Physician’s acceptance of the suggested intervention was assessed using feedback forms. Influential factors were analyzed. Results The number of drugs in use (p = 0.001), discrepancies between prescribed and used medicines (p = 0.014), the baseline Medication Appropriateness Index score (p0.05) and a low kidney function (p>0.05) do not predetermine the outcome. Longitudinal patient care with repeated reviews showed higher interprofessional acceptance and superior patient benefit. A total of 54.9% of the recommendations in a medication review on drug therapy were accepted for implementation. Conclusions The number of drugs in use and medication reconciliation could be a first rational step in patient selection for a medication review. Most elderly, multimorbid patients with polymedication experience a similar chance of receiving a benefit from a medication review. Longitudinal patient care should be preferred over confined medication reviews. The acceptance

  19. Rail corrugation growth accounting for the flexibility and rotation of the wheel set and the non-Hertzian and non-steady-state effects at contact patch

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vila, Paloma; Baeza, Luis; Martínez-Casas, José; Carballeira, Javier

    2014-05-01

    In this work, a simulation tool is developed to analyse the growth of rail corrugation consisting of several models connected in a feedback loop in order to account for both the short-term dynamic vehicle-track interaction and the long-term damage. The time-domain vehicle-track interaction model comprises a flexible rotating wheel set model, a cyclic track model based on a substructuring technique and a non-Hertzian and non-steady-state three-dimensional wheel-rail contact model, based on the variational theory by Kalker. Wear calculation is performed with Archard's wear model by using the contact parameters obtained with the non-Hertzian and non-steady-state three-dimensional contact model. The aim of this paper is to analyse the influence of the excitation of two coinciding resonances of the flexible rotating wheel set on the rail corrugation growth in the frequency range from 20 to 1500 Hz, when contact conditions similar to those that can arise while a wheel set is negotiating a gentle curve are simulated. Numerical results show that rail corrugation grows only on the low rail for two cases in which two different modes of the rotating wheel set coincide in frequency. In the first case, identified by using the Campbell diagram, the excitation of both the backward wheel mode and the forward third bending mode of the wheel set model (B-F modes) promotes the growth of rail corrugation with a wavelength of 110 mm for a vehicle velocity of 142 km/h. In the second case, the excitation of both the backward wheel mode and the backward third bending mode (B-B modes) gives rise to rail corrugation growth at a wavelength of 156 mm when the vehicle velocity is 198 km/h.

  20. Global conservation priorities for marine turtles.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bryan P Wallace

    Full Text Available Where conservation resources are limited and conservation targets are diverse, robust yet flexible priority-setting frameworks are vital. Priority-setting is especially important for geographically widespread species with distinct populations subject to multiple threats that operate on different spatial and temporal scales. Marine turtles are widely distributed and exhibit intra-specific variations in population sizes and trends, as well as reproduction and morphology. However, current global extinction risk assessment frameworks do not assess conservation status of spatially and biologically distinct marine turtle Regional Management Units (RMUs, and thus do not capture variations in population trends, impacts of threats, or necessary conservation actions across individual populations. To address this issue, we developed a new assessment framework that allowed us to evaluate, compare and organize marine turtle RMUs according to status and threats criteria. Because conservation priorities can vary widely (i.e. from avoiding imminent extinction to maintaining long-term monitoring efforts we developed a "conservation priorities portfolio" system using categories of paired risk and threats scores for all RMUs (n = 58. We performed these assessments and rankings globally, by species, by ocean basin, and by recognized geopolitical bodies to identify patterns in risk, threats, and data gaps at different scales. This process resulted in characterization of risk and threats to all marine turtle RMUs, including identification of the world's 11 most endangered marine turtle RMUs based on highest risk and threats scores. This system also highlighted important gaps in available information that is crucial for accurate conservation assessments. Overall, this priority-setting framework can provide guidance for research and conservation priorities at multiple relevant scales, and should serve as a model for conservation status assessments and priority-setting

  1. Global Conservation Priorities for Marine Turtles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallace, Bryan P.; DiMatteo, Andrew D.; Bolten, Alan B.; Chaloupka, Milani Y.; Hutchinson, Brian J.; Abreu-Grobois, F. Alberto; Mortimer, Jeanne A.; Seminoff, Jeffrey A.; Amorocho, Diego; Bjorndal, Karen A.; Bourjea, Jérôme; Bowen, Brian W.; Briseño Dueñas, Raquel; Casale, Paolo; Choudhury, B. C.; Costa, Alice; Dutton, Peter H.; Fallabrino, Alejandro; Finkbeiner, Elena M.; Girard, Alexandre; Girondot, Marc; Hamann, Mark; Hurley, Brendan J.; López-Mendilaharsu, Milagros; Marcovaldi, Maria Angela; Musick, John A.; Nel, Ronel; Pilcher, Nicolas J.; Troëng, Sebastian; Witherington, Blair; Mast, Roderic B.

    2011-01-01

    Where conservation resources are limited and conservation targets are diverse, robust yet flexible priority-setting frameworks are vital. Priority-setting is especially important for geographically widespread species with distinct populations subject to multiple threats that operate on different spatial and temporal scales. Marine turtles are widely distributed and exhibit intra-specific variations in population sizes and trends, as well as reproduction and morphology. However, current global extinction risk assessment frameworks do not assess conservation status of spatially and biologically distinct marine turtle Regional Management Units (RMUs), and thus do not capture variations in population trends, impacts of threats, or necessary conservation actions across individual populations. To address this issue, we developed a new assessment framework that allowed us to evaluate, compare and organize marine turtle RMUs according to status and threats criteria. Because conservation priorities can vary widely (i.e. from avoiding imminent extinction to maintaining long-term monitoring efforts) we developed a “conservation priorities portfolio” system using categories of paired risk and threats scores for all RMUs (n = 58). We performed these assessments and rankings globally, by species, by ocean basin, and by recognized geopolitical bodies to identify patterns in risk, threats, and data gaps at different scales. This process resulted in characterization of risk and threats to all marine turtle RMUs, including identification of the world's 11 most endangered marine turtle RMUs based on highest risk and threats scores. This system also highlighted important gaps in available information that is crucial for accurate conservation assessments. Overall, this priority-setting framework can provide guidance for research and conservation priorities at multiple relevant scales, and should serve as a model for conservation status assessments and priority-setting for

  2. Global conservation priorities for marine turtles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallace, Bryan P; DiMatteo, Andrew D; Bolten, Alan B; Chaloupka, Milani Y; Hutchinson, Brian J; Abreu-Grobois, F Alberto; Mortimer, Jeanne A; Seminoff, Jeffrey A; Amorocho, Diego; Bjorndal, Karen A; Bourjea, Jérôme; Bowen, Brian W; Briseño Dueñas, Raquel; Casale, Paolo; Choudhury, B C; Costa, Alice; Dutton, Peter H; Fallabrino, Alejandro; Finkbeiner, Elena M; Girard, Alexandre; Girondot, Marc; Hamann, Mark; Hurley, Brendan J; López-Mendilaharsu, Milagros; Marcovaldi, Maria Angela; Musick, John A; Nel, Ronel; Pilcher, Nicolas J; Troëng, Sebastian; Witherington, Blair; Mast, Roderic B

    2011-01-01

    Where conservation resources are limited and conservation targets are diverse, robust yet flexible priority-setting frameworks are vital. Priority-setting is especially important for geographically widespread species with distinct populations subject to multiple threats that operate on different spatial and temporal scales. Marine turtles are widely distributed and exhibit intra-specific variations in population sizes and trends, as well as reproduction and morphology. However, current global extinction risk assessment frameworks do not assess conservation status of spatially and biologically distinct marine turtle Regional Management Units (RMUs), and thus do not capture variations in population trends, impacts of threats, or necessary conservation actions across individual populations. To address this issue, we developed a new assessment framework that allowed us to evaluate, compare and organize marine turtle RMUs according to status and threats criteria. Because conservation priorities can vary widely (i.e. from avoiding imminent extinction to maintaining long-term monitoring efforts) we developed a "conservation priorities portfolio" system using categories of paired risk and threats scores for all RMUs (n = 58). We performed these assessments and rankings globally, by species, by ocean basin, and by recognized geopolitical bodies to identify patterns in risk, threats, and data gaps at different scales. This process resulted in characterization of risk and threats to all marine turtle RMUs, including identification of the world's 11 most endangered marine turtle RMUs based on highest risk and threats scores. This system also highlighted important gaps in available information that is crucial for accurate conservation assessments. Overall, this priority-setting framework can provide guidance for research and conservation priorities at multiple relevant scales, and should serve as a model for conservation status assessments and priority-setting for

  3. Priorities of statutory claimants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The statutory rights that unpaid creditors have when an oil or gas operator is placed in bankruptcy, were evaluated. Those statutory rights may give priority to their claims against the operator. Fifteen topics dealing with statutory priorities were examined, focusing on the change in priorities which would occur if the insolvent operator were placed in bankruptcy. The topics were: (1) Summary of statutory federal and provincial priorities, (2) Revenue Canada - source deductions/deemed trust, (3) Revenue Canada - source deductions/enhanced requirement to pay, (4) Revenue Canada - goods and service tax (GST)/deemed trust, (5) Revenue Canada - GST/enhanced requirement to pay, (6) Federal income taxes, (7) Validity of provincially legislated priority provisions in bankruptcy, (8) Provincially authorized municipal taxes - real property, (9) Provincial workers' compensation board, (10) Provincially legislated wages, overtime pay and holiday pay, (11) Provincially legislated severance/termination pay, (12) Provincially legislated successor employer obligations, (13) Provincially legislated private employment pension plans, (14) Provincial health care insurance premiums, and (15) Provincial freehold mineral rights tax

  4. Benefits of integrating complementarity into priority threat management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chadés, Iadine; Nicol, Sam; van Leeuwen, Stephen; Walters, Belinda; Firn, Jennifer; Reeson, Andrew; Martin, Tara G; Carwardine, Josie

    2015-04-01

    Conservation decision tools based on cost-effectiveness analysis are used to assess threat management strategies for improving species persistence. These approaches rank alternative strategies by their benefit to cost ratio but may fail to identify the optimal sets of strategies to implement under limited budgets because they do not account for redundancies. We devised a multiobjective optimization approach in which the complementarity principle is applied to identify the sets of threat management strategies that protect the most species for any budget. We used our approach to prioritize threat management strategies for 53 species of conservation concern in the Pilbara, Australia. We followed a structured elicitation approach to collect information on the benefits and costs of implementing 17 different conservation strategies during a 3-day workshop with 49 stakeholders and experts in the biodiversity, conservation, and management of the Pilbara. We compared the performance of our complementarity priority threat management approach with a current cost-effectiveness ranking approach. A complementary set of 3 strategies: domestic herbivore management, fire management and research, and sanctuaries provided all species with >50% chance of persistence for $4.7 million/year over 20 years. Achieving the same result cost almost twice as much ($9.71 million/year) when strategies were selected by their cost-effectiveness ranks alone. Our results show that complementarity of management benefits has the potential to double the impact of priority threat management approaches.

  5. Fast meldable priority queues

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brodal, Gerth Stølting

    1995-01-01

    We present priority queues that support the operations Find-Min, Insert, MakeQueue and Meld in worst case time O(1) and Delete and DeleteMin in worst case time O(log n). They can be implemented on the pointer machine and require linear space. The time bounds are optimal for all implementations wh...... where Meld takes worst case time o(n). To our knowledge this is the first priority queue implementation that supports Meld in worst case constant time and DeleteMin in logarithmic time....

  6. Solid Earth: The priorities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paquet, P.

    1991-10-01

    The European Space Agency's strategy concerning the solid Earth program is reviewed. Improvement of current knowledge of the global geopotential fields, both gravity and magnetic, was stressed as the highest priority. It was agreed that the objectives and goals of the planned Aristoteles mission correspond to this priority, and the need to realize this part of the program was stated. The interdisciplinary links of the program were identified, and it was decided that this program could make substantial contributions to research of oceans, climate and global change, atmosphere, ice and land surfaces.

  7. Research Priorities for Endometriosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rogers, Peter A W; Adamson, G David; Al-Jefout, Moamar;

    2016-01-01

    The 3rd International Consensus Workshop on Research Priorities in Endometriosis was held in São Paulo on May 4, 2014, following the 12th World Congress on Endometriosis. The workshop was attended by 60 participants from 19 countries and was divided into 5 main sessions covering pathogenesis/path...

  8. Are there priority competencies for preparation of accountants?: A study about Brazilian accountants ¿Existen competencias que deben ser prioridad en el desarrollo del contador?: Un estudio sobre los contadores Existem competências a serem priorizadas no desenvolvimento do contador?: Um estudo sobre os contadores brasileiros

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Lopes Cardoso

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available This study sought to determine the need for priority of competencies in preparation of accountants as well as variations between men and women. This question is motivated by Hardern (1995, Morgan (1997, Moramed and Lashine (2003and IFAC (2003 with a theoretical foundation of competencies related to McClelland (1973, 1998 and Boyatzis (1982. Professional references are Hardern (1995, AICPA (1999 and IFAC (2003. It was based on 18 competencies that were collected from 24 articles for questions submitted to 159 accountants and the data collection instrument showed a 0.8774 Cronbach alpha. Replies were submitted to the Kruskal-Wallis test which showed a significance level of El objetivo principal de este estudio es verificar si existen competencias que deben ser prioridad en el desarrollo del contador, como también analizar si esa prioridad se altera entre hombres y mujeres. Ese cuestionamiento tiene como motivación las observaciones de Hardern (1995, Morgan (1997 y IFAC (2003. El fundamento teórico sobre competencias está relacionado al estudio de McClelland (1973,1998, Boyatzis (1982 y Spencer y Spencer (1993. Los estudios relacionados a las competencias del contador no están basados en fundamentos de la Psicología y de Recursos Humanos, y ni siquiera en el análisis de estructuras genéricas de competencias o en la determinación de prioridades en el desarrollo de competencias de los contadores, esta última es el objetivo de este trabajo. La investigación está basada en el estudio de 18 competencias del contador y fue submetida a 159 contadores. El instrumento de recolección de los datos presentó un Alfa de Cronbach de 0,8774. A partir de las respuestas se realizó el test de Kruskal-Wallis, que demostró un nivel de significancia O objetivo principal deste estudo é verificar se existem competências a serem priorizadas no desenvolvimento do contador, bem como analisar se essa prioridade se altera entre homens e mulheres. Esse

  9. A Mathematical Analysis of Air Traffic Priority Rules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakawicz, Anthony J.; Munoz, Cesar A.; Maddalon, Jeffrey M.

    2012-01-01

    This paper analyzes priority rules, such as those in Part 91.113 of the Federal Aviation Regulations. Such rules determine which of two aircraft should maneuver in a given conflict scenario. While the rules in 91.113 are well accepted, other concepts of operation for NextGen, such as self separation, may allow for different priority rules. A mathematical framework is presented that can be used to analyze a general set of priority rules and enables proofs of important properties. Specific properties considered in this paper include safety, effectiveness, and stability. A set of rules is said to be safe if it ensures that it is never the case that both aircraft have priority. They are effective if exactly one aircraft has priority in every situation. Finally, a set of rules is called stable if it produces compatible results even under small changes to input data.

  10. Micronutrient bioavailability research priorities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casgrain, Amélie; Collings, Rachel; Harvey, Linda J; Boza, Julio J; Fairweather-Tait, Susan J

    2010-05-01

    A micronutrient bioavailability workshop, which involved international experts and members of the scientific community and the food industry, with interactive breakout sessions based on synectics principles, was organized by the International Life Sciences Institute Europe Addition of Nutrients to Food Task Force and the European Commission Network of Excellence European Micronutrient Recommendations Aligned. After presentations by experts, a series of "challenge statements" was discussed. The aim was to address topical issues, in particular those that linked bioavailability with the derivation of micronutrient requirements and dietary recommendations, to identify gaps in knowledge and to consider research priorities. Several generic research priorities were identified, including improving the quality of dietary surveys/food composition tables, the need for more metabolic studies that use stable isotopes and high-quality longer-term interventions, and the development of multifactorial mathematical models. Among the common recurrent factors identified as important were polymorphisms/genotype, consideration of the whole diet, chemical form of the micronutrient, and the determination of physiologic requirements. The involvement of all participants in the structured discussions ensured a broad overview of current knowledge, state-of-the-art research, and consideration of priorities for future research. PMID:20200267

  11. Final priority; National Institute on Disability and Rehabilitation Research--Rehabilitation Engineering Research Centers. Final priority.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-06-01

    The Assistant Secretary for Special Education and Rehabilitative Services announces a priority for the Disability and Rehabilitation Research Projects and Centers Program administered by the National Institute on Disability and Rehabilitation Research (NIDRR). Specifically, we announce a priority for a Rehabilitation Engineering Research Center (RERC) on Technologies to Enhance Independence in Daily Living for Adults with Cognitive Impairments. The Assistant Secretary may use this priority for competitions in fiscal year (FY) 2014 and later years. We take this action to focus research attention on an area of national need. We intend the priority to contribute to improved outcomes related to independence in daily activities in the home, community, or workplace setting for adults with cognitive impairments. PMID:24908686

  12. Representing biodiversity: data and procedures for identifying priority areas for conservation

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    C R Margules; R L Pressey; P H Williams

    2002-07-01

    Biodiversity priority areas together should represent the biodiversity of the region they are situated in. To achieve this, biodiversity has to be measured, biodiversity goals have to be set and methods for implementing those goals have to be applied. Each of these steps is discussed. Because it is impossible to measure all of biodiversity, biodiversity surrogates have to be used. Examples are taxa sub-sets, species assemblages and environmental domains. Each of these has different strengths and weaknesses, which are described and evaluated. In real-world priority setting, some combination of these is usually employed. While a desirable goal might be to sample all of biodiversity from genotypes to ecosystems, an achievable goal is to represent, at some agreed level, each of the biodiversity features chosen as surrogates. Explicit systematic procedures for implementing such a goal are described. These procedures use complementarity, a measure of the contribution each area in a region makes to the conservation goal, to estimate irreplaceability and flexibility, measures of the extent to which areas can be substituted for one another in order to take competing land uses into account. Persistence and vulnerability, which also play an important role in the priority setting process, are discussed briefly.

  13. A Survey on Priority Queues

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brodal, Gerth Stølting

    2013-01-01

    Back in 1964 Williams introduced the binary heap as a basic priority queue data structure supporting the operations Insert and ExtractMin in logarithmic time. Since then numerous papers have been published on priority queues. This paper tries to list some of the directions research on priority...

  14. Social accountability mechanisms and access to public service delivery in rural Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Friis-Hansen, Esbern; Cold-Ravnkilde, Signe Marie

    2013-01-01

    This study rationale is to fill a knowledge gap about the performance of social accountability initiatives in rural Africa South of Sahara supported by foreign aid in the context of decentralization. Based on a review of available literature the study focuses on the experience of social accountability initiatives, namely public expenditure tracking surveys (PETS), participatory budgeting, community-based monitoring, participatory planning and priority setting and demand drive service provisio...

  15. 15 CFR 700.11 - Priority ratings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... OF INDUSTRY AND SECURITY, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE NATIONAL SECURITY INDUSTRIAL BASE REGULATIONS DEFENSE PRIORITIES AND ALLOCATIONS SYSTEM Industrial Priorities § 700.11 Priority ratings. (a) Levels...

  16. Implementing accountability for reasonableness--the case of pharmaceutical reimbursement in Sweden.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jansson, Sandra

    2007-04-01

    This paper aims to describe the priority-setting procedure for new original pharmaceuticals practiced by the Swedish Pharmaceutical Benefits Board (LFN), to analyse the outcome of the procedure in terms of decisions and the relative importance of ethical principles, and to examine the reactions of stakeholders. All the 'principally important' decisions made by the LFN during its first 33 months of operation were analysed. The study is theoretically anchored in the theory of fair and legitimate priority-setting procedures by Daniels and Sabin, and is based on public documents, media articles, and semi-structured interviews. Only nine cases resulted in a rejection of a subsidy by the LFN and 15 in a limited or conditional subsidy. Total rejections rather than limitations gave rise to actions by stakeholders. Primarily, the principle of cost-effectiveness was used when limiting/conditioning or totally rejecting a subsidy. This study suggests that implementing a priority-setting process that fulfils the conditions of accountability for reasonableness can result in a priority-setting process which is generally perceived as fair and legitimate by the major stakeholders and may increase social learning in terms of accepting the necessity of priority setting in health care. The principle of cost-effectiveness increased in importance when the demand for openness and transparency increased. PMID:18634660

  17. "I Am a Normal Man": A Narrative Analysis of the Accounts of Older People with Down's Syndrome Who Lived in Institutionalised Settings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Jennifer; Dodd, Karen; Vetere, Arlene

    2010-01-01

    This paper is a narrative analysis of the accounts of six older people with Down's syndrome who spent part of their childhood in institutional environments. The study aimed to find out how the participants talked about themselves. Different types of narrative analysis were used, including those of Murray ("Qualitative psychology: a practical guide…

  18. Students' Accounts of School-Performance Stress: A Qualitative Analysis of a High-Achieving Setting in Stockholm, Sweden

    Science.gov (United States)

    Låftman, Sara Brolin; Almquist, Ylva B.; Östberg, Viveca

    2013-01-01

    The aim of the study is to examine students' experiences of school performance as a stressor. Accounts of school-performance stress at both the individual level and in relation to group mechanisms are studied through qualitative interviews with eighth-grade students in a high-performing school in Stockholm, Sweden (n = 49). Using qualitative…

  19. Political priorities (NEXTGEN VOICES)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ren, Jingzheng

    2016-01-01

    …THE POLITICAL LEADERS of the local government of Chongqing, China, vigorously promote a low-carbon economy and sustainable development to mitigate environmental pollution. Accordingly, research grants focused on this issue were supported by the government, and our group obtained a grant for a pr...... for a project about industrial park planning and design.…In my view, political priorities based on correct decision-making and market requirements are beneficial for researchers.......…THE POLITICAL LEADERS of the local government of Chongqing, China, vigorously promote a low-carbon economy and sustainable development to mitigate environmental pollution. Accordingly, research grants focused on this issue were supported by the government, and our group obtained a grant...

  20. Social Priorities as Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grubert, E.

    2015-12-01

    Decision makers' responses to local risks and expected changes to a community from circumstances like natural hazards, human developments, and demographic changes can greatly affect social and environmental outcomes in a community. Translating physical data based in disciplines like engineering and geosciences into positive outcomes for communities can be challenging and often results in conflict that appears to pit "science" against "the public." Scientists can be reluctant to offer recommendations for action based on their work, often (and often correctly) noting that their role is not to make value judgments for a community - particularly for a community that is not their own. Conversely, decision makers can be frustrated by the lack of guidance they receive to help translate data into effective and acceptable action. The solution posed by this submission, given the goal of co-production of knowledge by scientists and decision makers to foster better community outcomes, is to involve the community directly by integrating social scientific methods that address decision making and community engagement to the scientist-decision maker interaction. Specifically, the missing dataset in many scientist-decision maker interactions is the nature of community priorities. Using scientifically valid methods to rigorously collect and characterize community priorities to help recommend tradeoffs between different outcomes indicated by the work of physical and natural scientists can bridge the gap between science and action by involving the community in the process. This submission presents early work on US preferences for different types of social and environmental outcomes designed to integrate directly with engineering and physical science frameworks like Life Cycle Assessment and Environmental Impact Statements. Cardinal preference data are based on surveys of US adults using tools like the Analytical Hierarchy Process, budget allocation, and ranking.

  1. Priority nutrition messages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-01-01

    The Philippine Food and Nutrition Program deliver priority short, simple, clear, and action filled nutrition messages in different languages and dialects to different audiences. Its 1st priority task is to promote breast feeding. It informs mothers that breast milk is the most nutritious food for infants and that it protects them from infectious diseases. The program also encourages breast feeding as long as possible. If mothers cannot breast feed, they should talk to an infant nutrition expert to help them choose the best formula and learn about proper preparation. A 4-6 month infant needs to begin eating small amounts of semisolid nutritious foods. Moreover these foods must include body building foods, such as meat and eggs, and energy providing foods, such as corn and rice. Mothers must 1st attend to food needs of infants and preschoolers since they are more likely to suffer malnutrition than older children and adults. This is especially important when they suffer from an infection. Specifically, the very young need a variety of foods each day including the vitamin and mineral rich vegetables and fruits. In fact, families should grow their own fruits and vegetables to ensure an adequate supply. Hands must be cleaned with soap and water after defecation and before preparing foods. Mothers should add fats and oils when preparing foods because they provide concentrated energy, fatty acids, and fat soluble vitamins. Pregnant mothers must consume increased amounts of fish, beans, and other body building foods as well as regulating foods (vegetables and fruits). Mothers must also space births. They should weigh children each month to monitor nutritional levels. Moreover they must pay attention to signs indicating inadequate and insufficient food intake e.g., underweight and night blindness.

  2. AMERICAN ACCOUNTING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mihaela Onica

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The international Accounting Standards already contribute to the generation of better and more easily comparable financial information on an international level, supporting thus a more effective allocationof the investments resources in the world. Under the circumstances, there occurs the necessity of a consistent application of the standards on a global level. The financial statements are part of thefinancial reporting process. A set of complete financial statements usually includes a balance sheet,a profit and loss account, a report of the financial item change (which can be presented in various ways, for example as a status of the treasury flows and of the funds flows and those notes, as well as those explanatory situations and materials which are part of the financial statements.

  3. Management Priorities of College Presidents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patrick, Cathleen; Caruthers, J. Kent

    1980-01-01

    Based on 900 returns from a survey of all U.S. college and university presidents, priorities were found to reflect needs to deal with retrenchment. Priorities included: communicating institutional strengths to students, parents, public, and state legislatures; integrating program review results; resource allocation; faculty vitality and renewal;…

  4. Our top priority

    CERN Multimedia

    2012-01-01

    After three years of LHC running, we are still at the beginning of a long research programme with our flagship facility, and hopefully 4 July 2012 will go down in history as the date of one of many landmark discoveries spanning several years. CERN’s top priority for the next decade and more is the full exploitation of the LHC. With speculation about potential future facilities mounting in the light of the discovery of a new Higgs-like particle, it’s important to state that most clearly. Of course, this will rely on continued global collaboration, and it’s important that CERN engage constructively with other regions.   It is important to plan ahead, particularly since the lead times for new projects in particle physics are long, and our field is increasingly global in nature. That’s why the European particle physics community is currently engaged in updating its long-term strategy. Planning ahead allowed us to be ready technologically to build the LHC whe...

  5. Process Accounting

    OpenAIRE

    Gilbertson, Keith

    2002-01-01

    Standard utilities can help you collect and interpret your Linux system's process accounting data. Describes the uses of process accounting, standard process accounting commands, and example code that makes use of process accounting utilities.

  6. La oferta de la prueba rápida del VIH en la calle dentro del ámbito universitario: ¿una estrategia prioritaria? Street outreach rapid HIV testing in university settings: a priority strategy?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Hoyos

    2012-04-01

    analyzing the prevalence of infection, risk behaviors and history of sexually transmitted infections and by performing HIV tests. Methods: During October-November of 2008 and November-December of 2009, 1668 persons received rapid HIV testing in a mobile unit located in university campuses in the cities of Madrid, Málaga and Salamanca (Spain. While waiting for the test results, participants completed a brief questionnaire. Results: A total of 15.7% were men who had sex with men (MSM, 28.6% were exclusively heterosexual men (HTX, and 55.7% were women. Nearly three-quarters (73.3% were under 25 years of age, 8.5% were born abroad and only 4% had no secondary education. Fifty-one percent of HTX, 42% of women and 6.3% of MSM had casual sexual partners in the past 12 months without always using a condom. This behavior was also reported by 41.5% of MSM with same sex partners. A sexually transmitted infection had previously been diagnosed in 24.7% of MSMs, 14.7% of women and 5.6% of HTX. Four positive results were found, all in MSM who had been tested in the previous 2 years. The prevalence was 1.6% (95% CI: 0.43-3.95 within this group, and 0.2% overall (95% CI: 0.07-0.62. Conclusions: Despite the high frequency of risk behaviors, the low prevalence of HIV infection and the history of HIV testing suggest that university campuses are not a priority location to develop these programs, which would achieve greater impact and efficiency in more vulnerable populations.

  7. Priority pricing in electricity supply. An application for Israel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beenstock, Michael; Goldin, Ephraim [Hebrew University of Jerusalem, Department of Economics, Mount Scopus, Jerusalem (Israel)

    1997-06-01

    It is well known that in the event of a shortage in generation capacity, it is inefficient if the electricity utility cuts off customers randomly. It is preferable to set up a market in service priority in which customers who have a greater need pay more for the right not to be cut off. We use an econometric model of outage costs in Israel to calculate the menu of priority rates by season and time of day. Top priority rates range from zero, when the loss-of-load probability (LOLP) is zero, to 8 cents (US) per kWh when the LOLP is greatest

  8. Priority of areas for agricultural radiovulnerability mapping

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rochedo, Elaine R.R.; Igreja, Eduardo, E-mail: elainerochedo@gmail.com, E-mail: eduigreja@gmail.com [Instituto Militar de Engenharia (IME), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Programa de Engenharia Nuclear; Wasserman, Maria Angelica V., E-mail: mwasserman@ien.gov.br [Instituto de Engenharia Nuclear (IEN/CNEN-RJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Perez, Daniel V., E-mail: chpd@cnps.embrapa.br [Empresa Brasileira de Pesquisa Agropecuaria (EMBRAPA), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Centro Nacional de Pesquisa de Solos; Rochedo, Pedro R.R., E-mail: rochedopedro@gmail.com [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), RJ (Brazil). Programa de Planejamento Energetico; Silva, Diogo N.G., E-mail: diogongs@gmail.com [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), RJ (Brazil). Instituto de Biofisica Carlos Chagas Filho

    2013-07-01

    The methodology for classifying areas according to soil properties for the vulnerability to a {sup 137}Cs contamination is of high importance to the preparedness related to nuclear and/or radiological accidents that lead to release of radionuclides to the environment with the consequent contamination of agricultural areas. The priority of research for agricultural areas should then focus on the surrounding areas of nuclear power plant that have higher probability of public exposure through the ingestion pathway. The objective of this work was to create a rank order for priority of areas to be mapped based on EMBRAPA database on soil properties. The 16 municipalities previously selected to define parameters for dose assessment simulations related to the Brazilian Nuclear Power Plants, located in the district of Angra dos Reis, Rio de Janeiro, have been investigated in order to create this rank order to direct the research on radio vulnerability mapping, considering their relevance to public exposure based on their agricultural productivity. The two aspects selected in this study account for the maximum loss of income and to the collective doses that can be averted due to the banning of agricultural products. These quantities are inputs to optimization analysis. The priority defined shall then guide research on both the adequate values for the transfer factors and on the agricultural countermeasures suitable to each area according to the cause(s) of their vulnerability and their typical agricultural crops. (author)

  9. Monitoring and modelling the occurrence of priority substances in wastewater

    OpenAIRE

    Jones, Lisa; Regan, Fiona

    2011-01-01

    In 2000 the Water Framework Directive (WFD), 2000/60/EC, was introduced and a group of 66 chemicals, including pesticides, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, and metals were listed as chosen priority pollutants. The levels of these priority pollutants in the environment are regulated by set environmental quality standards (EQSs) and are affected by a number of emission factors including anthropogenic activities, population equivalents, and weather. In order for these EQSs to be enforced, regul...

  10. PRIORITIES OF REGIONAL ENVIRONMENTAL POLICY: THE ISSUES OF DIAGNOSTICS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. I. Kudryavtseva

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Methods of eliciting priority ecological problems are analyzed in the article. The problem of air pollution is considered to be the foreground issue for both the Ural Federal District and Russia; that was due substantiated. An extended technique of setting priorities for air pollutants and techniques for integral ecological and social assessment of air pollution acuteness extent in the region have been offered; calculations for the Ural Federal District have been made according to the techniques mentioned.

  11. The badness of death and priorities in health

    OpenAIRE

    Solberg, Carl T; Gamlund, Espen

    2016-01-01

    Background The state of the world is one with scarce medical resources where longevity is not equally distributed. Given such facts, setting priorities in health entails making difficult yet unavoidable decisions about which lives to save. The business of saving lives works on the assumption that longevity is valuable and that an early death is worse than a late death. There is a vast literature on health priorities and badness of death, separately. Surprisingly, there has been little cross-f...

  12. Exclusion in a priority queue

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We introduce the prioritising exclusion process, a stochastic scheduling mechanism for a priority queueing system in which high priority customers gain advantage by overtaking low priority customers. The model is analogous to a totally asymmetric exclusion process with a dynamically varying lattice length. We calculate exact local density profiles for an unbounded queue by deriving domain wall dynamics from the microscopic transition rules. The structure of the unbounded queue carries over to bounded queues where, although no longer exact, we find the domain wall theory is in very good agreement with simulation results. Within this approximation we calculate average waiting times for queueing customers. (paper)

  13. Conclusions on severe accident research priorities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Estimation of research priorities related to severe accident phenomena. • Consideration of new topics, partly linked to the severe accidents at Fukushima. • Consideration of results of recent projects, e.g. SARNET, ASAMPSA2, OECD projects. - Abstract: The objectives of the SARNET network of excellence are to define and work on common research programs in the field of severe accidents in Gen. II–III nuclear power plants and to further develop common tools and methodologies for safety assessment in this area. In order to ensure that the research conducted on severe accidents is efficient and well-focused, it is necessary to periodically evaluate and rank the priorities of research. This was done at the end of 2008 by the Severe Accident Research Priority (SARP) group at the end of the SARNET project of the 6th Framework Programme of European Commission (FP6). This group has updated this work in the FP7 SARNET2 project by accounting for the recent experimental results, the remaining safety issues as e.g. highlighted by Level 2 PSA national studies and the results of the recent ASAMPSA2 FP7 project. These evaluation activities were conducted in close relation with the work performed under the auspices of international organizations like OECD or IAEA. The Fukushima-Daiichi severe accidents, which occurred while SARNET2 was running, had some effects on the prioritization and definition of new research topics. Although significant progress has been gained and simulation models (e.g. the ASTEC integral code, jointly developed by IRSN and GRS) were improved, leading to an increased confidence in the predictive capabilities for assessing the success potential of countermeasures and/or mitigation measures, most of the selected research topics in 2008 are still of high priority. But the Fukushima-Daiichi accidents underlined that research efforts had to focus still more to improve severe accident management efficiency

  14. TALENT MANAGEMENT - A STRATEGIC PRIORITY

    OpenAIRE

    Matei Mirabela-Constanta; Abrudan Maria-Madela

    2009-01-01

    Companies facing the new economic world, dominated by demographic, macroeconomic, and technological changes need to see talent management as a business priority in order to survive. At the same time, the world economic crisis ads pressure over managers, f

  15. High priority tank sampling and analysis report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, T.M.

    1998-03-05

    In July 1993, the Defense Nuclear Facilities Safety Board (DNFSB) transmitted Recommendation 93-5 (Conway 1993) to the US Department of Energy (DOE). Recommendation 93-5 noted that there was insufficient tank waste technical information and the pace to obtain it was too slow to ensure that Hanford Site wastes could be safely stored, that associated operations could be conducted safely, and that future disposal data requirements could be met. In May 1996, the DOE issued Revision 1 of the Recommendation 93-5 Implementation Plan (DOE-RL 1996). The Implementation Plan revision presented a modified approach to achieve the original plan`s objectives. The approach concentrated on actions necessary to ensure that wastes can be safely stored, that operations can be safely conducted, and that timely characterization information for the tank waste Disposal Program could be obtained. The Implementation Plan proposed 28 High Priority tanks, which, if sampled and analyzed, were expected to provide information to answer questions regarding safety and disposal issues. The High Priority tank list was originally developed in Section 9.0 of the Tank Waste Characterization Basis (Brown et al. 1995) by integrating the needs of the various safety and disposal programs. The High Priority tank list represents a set of tanks that were expected to provide the highest information return for characterization resources expended. The High Priority tanks were selected for near-term core sampling and were not expected to be the only tanks that would provide meaningful information. Sampling and analysis of non-High Priority tanks also could be used to provide scientific and technical data to confirm assumptions, calibrate models, and measure safety related phenomenological characteristics of the waste. When the sampling and analysis results of the High Priority and other tanks were reviewed, it was expected that a series of questions should be answered allowing key decisions to be made. The first

  16. High priority tank sampling and analysis report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In July 1993, the Defense Nuclear Facilities Safety Board (DNFSB) transmitted Recommendation 93-5 (Conway 1993) to the US Department of Energy (DOE). Recommendation 93-5 noted that there was insufficient tank waste technical information and the pace to obtain it was too slow to ensure that Hanford Site wastes could be safely stored, that associated operations could be conducted safely, and that future disposal data requirements could be met. In May 1996, the DOE issued Revision 1 of the Recommendation 93-5 Implementation Plan (DOE-RL 1996). The Implementation Plan revision presented a modified approach to achieve the original plan's objectives. The approach concentrated on actions necessary to ensure that wastes can be safely stored, that operations can be safely conducted, and that timely characterization information for the tank waste Disposal Program could be obtained. The Implementation Plan proposed 28 High Priority tanks, which, if sampled and analyzed, were expected to provide information to answer questions regarding safety and disposal issues. The High Priority tank list was originally developed in Section 9.0 of the Tank Waste Characterization Basis (Brown et al. 1995) by integrating the needs of the various safety and disposal programs. The High Priority tank list represents a set of tanks that were expected to provide the highest information return for characterization resources expended. The High Priority tanks were selected for near-term core sampling and were not expected to be the only tanks that would provide meaningful information. Sampling and analysis of non-High Priority tanks also could be used to provide scientific and technical data to confirm assumptions, calibrate models, and measure safety related phenomenological characteristics of the waste. When the sampling and analysis results of the High Priority and other tanks were reviewed, it was expected that a series of questions should be answered allowing key decisions to be made. The first

  17. The emergence of global disease control priorities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiffman, Jeremy; Beer, Tanya; Wu, Yonghong

    2002-09-01

    How do global disease control priorities emerge? This paper examines the post-World War II histories of efforts to control three diseases--polio, malaria and tuberculosis--to investigate this issue. The paper draws from the policy studies literature to evaluate three models of the priority generation process. A rational model suggests logical selection based on global burden and the availability of cost-effective interventions. An incremental model suggests a drawn out process in which health priorities emerge gradually and interventions reach affected populations through slow diffusion. A punctuated equilibrium model suggests a more complex pattern: long periods of stability during which interventions are available only to select populations, punctuated by bursts of attention as these interventions spread across the globe in concentrated periods of time. The paper finds that the punctuated equilibrium model corresponds most closely to efforts to control these three diseases. Bursts are associated with the convergence of three conditions: the widespread acceptance of the disease as a threat; a perception that human interventions can control disease transmission; and the formation of a transnational coalition of health actors concerned with fighting the disease. The generation of each condition requires considerable groundwork, the reason for long periods of stability. Initiatives take off rapidly when the conditions couple, the reason for bursts. The paper aims to spark additional research on the subject of global disease control agenda setting, a neglected issue in the health policy literature. PMID:12135988

  18. Global climate change adaptation priorities for biodiversity and food security.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hannah, Lee; Ikegami, Makihiko; Hole, David G; Seo, Changwan; Butchart, Stuart H M; Peterson, A Townsend; Roehrdanz, Patrick R

    2013-01-01

    International policy is placing increasing emphasis on adaptation to climate change, including the allocation of new funds to assist adaptation efforts. Climate change adaptation funding may be most effective where it meets integrated goals, but global geographic priorities based on multiple development and ecological criteria are not well characterized. Here we show that human and natural adaptation needs related to maintaining agricultural productivity and ecosystem integrity intersect in ten major areas globally, providing a coherent set of international priorities for adaptation funding. An additional seven regional areas are identified as worthy of additional study. The priority areas are locations where changes in crop suitability affecting impoverished farmers intersect with changes in ranges of restricted-range species. Agreement among multiple climate models and emissions scenarios suggests that these priorities are robust. Adaptation funding directed to these areas could simultaneously address multiple international policy goals, including poverty reduction, protecting agricultural production and safeguarding ecosystem services.

  19. Global climate change adaptation priorities for biodiversity and food security.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lee Hannah

    Full Text Available International policy is placing increasing emphasis on adaptation to climate change, including the allocation of new funds to assist adaptation efforts. Climate change adaptation funding may be most effective where it meets integrated goals, but global geographic priorities based on multiple development and ecological criteria are not well characterized. Here we show that human and natural adaptation needs related to maintaining agricultural productivity and ecosystem integrity intersect in ten major areas globally, providing a coherent set of international priorities for adaptation funding. An additional seven regional areas are identified as worthy of additional study. The priority areas are locations where changes in crop suitability affecting impoverished farmers intersect with changes in ranges of restricted-range species. Agreement among multiple climate models and emissions scenarios suggests that these priorities are robust. Adaptation funding directed to these areas could simultaneously address multiple international policy goals, including poverty reduction, protecting agricultural production and safeguarding ecosystem services.

  20. Internet Accounting

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pras, Aiko; Beijnum, van Bert-Jan; Sprenkels, Ron; Párhonyi, Robert

    2001-01-01

    This article provides an introduction to Internet accounting and discusses the status of related work within the IETF and IRTF, as well as certain research projects. Internet accounting is different from accounting in POTS. To understand Internet accounting, it is important to answer questions like

  1. Risk analysis and priority setting for environmental policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    There is a growing realization that the demand for funding to correct our nation's environmental problems will soon outstrip available resources. In the hazardous waste area alone, the estimated cost of remediating Superfund sites ranges from $32 billion to $80 billion. Numerous other areas of competing for these same financial resources. These include ozone depletion, global warming, the protection of endangered species and wetlands, toxic air pollution, carcinogenic pesticides, and urban smog. In response to this imbalance in the supply and demand for national funds, several political constituencies are calling for the use of risk assessment as a tool in the prioritization of research and budget needs. Comparative risk analysis offers a logical framework in which to organize information about complex environmental problems. Risk analysis allows policy analysts to make resource allocation decisions on the basis of scientific judgement rather than political expediency

  2. Increased fairness in priority setting processes within the health sector

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zulu, Joseph M.; Michelo, Charles; Msoni, Carol;

    2014-01-01

    level in Kapiri-Mposhi District in Zambia. METHODS: Data was collected using in depth interviews (IDIs), focus group discussions (FGDs) and review of documents from national to district level. The study population for this paper consisted of health related stakeholders employed in the district...... devolution of PS and decision making procedures. However, important gaps were identified in terms of experiences of stakeholder involvement and fairness in PS processes in practice. The evaluation study revealed that a transformation of the views and methods regarding fairness in PS processes was ongoing...

  3. Internet Accounting

    OpenAIRE

    Pras, Aiko; Beijnum, van, B.J.; Sprenkels, Ron; Párhonyi, Robert

    2001-01-01

    This article provides an introduction to Internet accounting and discusses the status of related work within the IETF and IRTF, as well as certain research projects. Internet accounting is different from accounting in POTS. To understand Internet accounting, it is important to answer questions like ¿what is being paid for¿ and ¿who is being paid¿. With respect to the question ¿what is being paid for¿ a distinction can be made between transport accounting and content accounting. Transport acco...

  4. Does accountability for reasonableness work? A protocol for a mixed methods study using an audit tool to evaluate the decision-making of clinical commissioning groups in England

    OpenAIRE

    Kieslich, Katharina; Littlejohns, Peter

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Clinical commissioning groups (CCGs) in England are tasked with making difficult decisions on which healthcare services to provide against the background of limited budgets. The question is how to ensure that these decisions are fair and legitimate. Accounts of what constitutes fair and legitimate priority setting in healthcare include Daniels’ and Sabin's accountability for reasonableness (A4R) and Clark's and Weale's framework for the identification of social values. This study...

  5. A priority problem in queuing theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. K. Jaiwal

    1959-04-01

    Full Text Available A new type of priority is defined in which the priority unit has a right of interrupting the service of a nonpriority unit but only after the completion of the particular phase in progress, it being assumed that a unit demands a particular number of phases according to some probability distribution. The effect of such priority has been investigated. A particular case of this sort of priority corresponds to the head-of-line priority assignment discussed by Cobham.

  6. Educational Accountability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pincoffs, Edmund L.

    1973-01-01

    Discusses educational accountability as the paradigm of performance contracting, presents some arguments for and against accountability, and discusses the goals of education and the responsibility of the teacher. (Author/PG)

  7. Management Accounting

    OpenAIRE

    John Burns; Martin Quinn; Liz Warren; João Oliveira

    2013-01-01

    Overview of the BookThe textbook comprises six sections which together represent a comprehensive insight into management accounting its technical attributes, changeable wider context, and the multiple roles of management accountants. The sections cover: (1) an introduction to management accounting, (2) how organizations account for their costs, (3) the importance of tools and techniques which assist organizational planning and control, (4) the various dimensions of making business decisions,...

  8. Accounting standards

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    B. Stellinga

    2014-01-01

    The European and global regulation of accounting standards have witnessed remarkable changes over the past twenty years. In the early 1990s, EU accounting practices were fragmented along national lines and US accounting standards were the de facto global standards. Since 2005, all EU listed companie

  9. TALENT MANAGEMENT - A STRATEGIC PRIORITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matei Mirabela-Constanta

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Companies facing the new economic world, dominated by demographic, macroeconomic, and technological changes need to see talent management as a business priority in order to survive. At the same time, the world economic crisis ads pressure over managers, f

  10. Whole of Government Accounts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pontoppidan, Caroline Aggestam; Chow, Danny; Day, Ronald;

    of financial reporting (GAAP)-based reforms when compared with budget-centric systems of accounting, which dominate government decision-making. At a trans-national level, there is a need to examine the embedded or implicit contests or ‘trials of strength’ between nations and/or institutions jockeying......In our comparative study, we surveyed an emerging literature on the use of consolidation in government accounting and develop a research agenda. We find heterogeneous approaches to the development of consolidation models across the five countries (Australia, New Zealand, UK, Canada and Sweden......) are influenced by constitutional or jurisdictional notions of consolidation boundaries. The localization of globalized or generic concepts of consolidation is driven largely by government priorities or preoccupations rather than necessarily user demand. We propose that we need to better understand the relevance...

  11. MODEL OF MANAGEMENT ACCOUNTING FOR MERCHANDISES SECTOR COMPANIES

    OpenAIRE

    Glăvan Elena Mariana; Dumitrana Mihaela

    2013-01-01

    Changes in Romanian accounting system have been articulated with priority to financial accounting, without leaving aside management accounting. Changes in management accounting covered a few general indicative directions giving to managers enhanced skills regarding the organisation and function of this branch of the accounting system. Roumanian regulations offered solutions[16] regarding the accounts and records in managerial accounting, but all these elements are recommendations. In the Roum...

  12. Priorities of Higher Education Quality Improvement: Student and Teacher Attitude

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savickiene, Izabela

    2006-01-01

    Higher education quality improvement is a constant and continuous university activity and its implementation should be given a priority. This article analyses the most important tasks set at three Lithuanian universities seeking to improve higher education quality: the improvement of higher education quality assurance system, teacher professional…

  13. State S&T Plan Consultation Tops CASAD Priorities

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    @@ The Executive Committee of the CAS Presidium sets the consultative work on the State long-and medium-term S&T development plan the top priority for the CAS Academic Divisions (CASAD)in the coming two years. This was announced at the second session of the fourth CAS presidium executive committee convened on June 10 in Beijing.

  14. THE PROBLEM OF MANAGEMENT ACCOUNTING IDENTIFICATION AND CONTROL

    OpenAIRE

    Shashkova, Irina; Borycheva, Natalya

    2009-01-01

    The article is concerned with the interconnection between management accounting and control and their comparative characteristics. The notion management information is defined and the functions of management accounting are described. The feasibility of using the data of management accounting in the system of controlling, for example in SVPanalysis, SWOTanalysis and budgeting is considered and the associated priority tasks of management accounting are pointed out.

  15. ACCOUNTING AND CONTROL AS SCIENCES AND ACADEMIC SUBJECTS IN ACCOUNTING AND ANALYTICAL EDUCATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Shvets

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The knowledge of accounting and control, analysis and audit as the main instruments of cognition and management functions is an integral part of economic education, science and practice and requires improving the training of the accounting personnel in accordance with the requirements of public administration and development of global information systems of business. Real European integration processes require high qualifications and competence of the teaching staff, the development of scientific schools, intellectualization of preparation of masters and PhDs based on the traditions of patriotism, democracy and self-sufficiency. We must form a new set of modern disciplines and economic specialties and optimize the network for universities on the basis of convergent-integrative structures (clusters in education on principles of transparency and openness. The priority should be the principle of continuity of professional and analytical accounting education for business managers and civil servants. Practical implementation of the Law of Ukraine "On Higher Education" and the principles of the Bologna Declaration while training specialists in accounting and auditing will somehow harmonize national education, improve and keep elements of own competitive advantages and enrich them by the best achievements of the world practice.

  16. Workshop discusses priorities in veterinary helminthology for South Africa : information

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R.C. Krecek

    1999-07-01

    Full Text Available A workshop was held at Onderstepoort to set priorities in veterinary helminthology for South Africa. Representatives from 19 organisations attended. The workshop achieved 2 of the 3 aims set, namely to identify the problems within the field and to develop strategies to address these challenges. The 7 strategies proposed are: motivation, education, therapeutic, worm resistance, animal tolerance, biological control and diagnostic strategies. A follow-up session is being planned to formulate action plans for each sphere.

  17. Do private conservation activities match science-based conservation priorities?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonathan R B Fisher

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Private land conservation is an essential strategy for biodiversity protection in the USA, where half of the federally listed species have at least 80% of their habitat on private lands. We investigated the alignment between private land protection conducted by the world's largest land trust (The Nature Conservancy and the science driven identification of priority areas for conservation. This represents the first quantitative assessment of the influence of defining priority areas on the land acquisitions of a conservation non-governmental organization (NGO. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: The lands acquired by The Nature Conservancy (TNC were analyzed using GIS to determine to what extent they were in areas defined as priorities for conservation. The spatial analysis of TNC lands was broken up into land known to be acquired in the last five years, five to ten years ago, prior to ten years ago, and anytime during the last sixty years (including previous sets of data plus acquisitions lacking a date. For the entire history of TNC the proportion of TNC lands within the priority areas was 74%. Prior to 10 years ago it was 80%, 5-10 years ago it was 76%, and in the last five years it was 81%. Conservation easements were found to have lower alignment with priority areas (64% than outright fee simple acquisitions (86%. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Overall the location of lands acquired was found to be well aligned with the priority areas. Since there was comparable alignment in lands acquired before and after formalized conservation planning had been implemented as a standard operating procedure, this analysis did not find evidence that defining priority areas has influenced land acquisition decisions.

  18. Exploring Citizen Infrastructure and Environmental Priorities in Mumbai, India

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sperling, Joshua; Romero-Lankao, Patricia; Beig, Gufran

    2016-06-01

    Many cities worldwide seek to understand local policy priorities among their general populations. This study explores how differences in local conditions and among citizens within and across Mumbai, India shape local infrastructure (e.g. energy, water, transport) and environmental (e.g. managing pollution, climate-related extreme weather events) policy priorities for change that may or may not be aligned with local government action or global environmental sustainability concerns such as low-carbon development. In this rapidly urbanizing city, multiple issues compete for prominence, ranging from improved management of pollution and extreme weather to energy and other infrastructure services. To inform a broader perspective of policy priorities for urban development and risk mitigation, a survey was conducted among over 1200 citizens. The survey explored the state of local conditions, the challenges citizens face, and the ways in which differences in local conditions (socio-institutional, infrastructure, and health-related) demonstrate inequities and influence how citizens perceive risks and rank priorities for the future design and implementation of local planning, policy, and community-based efforts. With growing discussion and tensions surrounding the new urban sustainable development goal, announced by the UN in late September 2015, and a new global urban agenda document to be agreed upon at 'Habitat III', issues on whether sustainable urbanization priorities should be set at the international, national or local level remain controversial. As such, this study aims to first understand determinants of and variations in local priorities across one city, with implications discussed for local-to-global urban sustainability. Findings from survey results indicate the determinants and variation in conditions such as age, assets, levels of participation in residential action groups, the health outcome of chronic asthma, and the infrastructure service of piped

  19. 77 FR 65912 - Priority Mail Contract

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-31

    ... Priority Mail Contract AGENCY: Postal Regulatory Commission. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Commission is noticing a recent Postal Service filing concerning an amendment to Priority Mail Contract 19. This notice... existing Priority Mail Contract 19 subject to this docket.\\1\\ The Postal Service includes one attachment...

  20. PRIORITY RIGHTS IN THE RUSSIAN CIVIL LAW

    OpenAIRE

    Shaidurov I. V.

    2014-01-01

    In this article we consider the category of priority rights in the Russian civil law. The author gives a brief historical analysis of this important institution of civil law, consistently considering priority rights in different legal situations and formulates the concept of priority rights

  1. Research priorities for public mental health in Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Forsman, Anna K; Wahlbeck, Kristian; Aarø, Leif Edvard;

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The ROAdmap for MEntal health Research in Europe project aimed to create an integrated European roadmap for mental health research. Leading mental health research experts across Europe have formulated consensus-based recommendations for future research within the public mental health...... experts were involved in the priority setting process. RESULTS: Twenty priorities for public mental health research were identified through the consensus process. The research priorities were divided into summary principles-encompassing overall recommendations for future public mental health research...... the implementation of effective public mental health interventions and to reduce disparities in mental health. CONCLUSIONS: The importance of strengthening research on the implementation and dissemination of promotion, prevention and service delivery interventions in the mental health field needs to be emphasized...

  2. 40 CFR 35.2015 - State priority system and project priority list.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... contained in the State priority system. (2) The list shall include an estimate of the eligible cost of each... priority list. 35.2015 Section 35.2015 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY GRANTS AND... State priority system and project priority list. (a) General. The Regional Administrator will...

  3. 15 CFR 700.15 - Extension of priority ratings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ...) BUREAU OF INDUSTRY AND SECURITY, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE NATIONAL SECURITY INDUSTRIAL BASE REGULATIONS DEFENSE PRIORITIES AND ALLOCATIONS SYSTEM Industrial Priorities § 700.15 Extension of priority ratings....

  4. Accounting: Continuity and Transition

    OpenAIRE

    Shyam NMI Sunder

    2001-01-01

    This study considers accounting in the new information economy. The basic framework of accounting for firms reflects a set of contracts and it helps define, implement and enforce these contracts. This framework is stable, and unlikely to change soon. However, the new information technology has been transforming the markets in which firms operate, and opening up new markets. We use a taxonomy identified with Hatfield (1924) and based on markets for managerial talent, investment capital and pro...

  5. CONVERGENCE OF ACCOUNTING STANDARDS IFRS, RAS AND US GAAP IN RESPECT OF ACCOUNTING OF EXCHANGE DIFFERENCES

    OpenAIRE

    SHEVELEV ANATOLIJ EVGEN'EVICH; KUDRYASHOVA KARINA DMITRIEVNA

    2015-01-01

    The International Accounting Standards Board (IASB) is putting a high priority on convergence of IFRS and Russian Accounting Principles (RAP) differences are still continue to take places today between both types of reporting standards. Exchange rate differences matters are not an exception.

  6. Accountability and primary healthcare.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukhi, Shaheena; Barnsley, Jan; Deber, Raisa B

    2014-09-01

    This paper examines the accountability structures within primary healthcare (PHC) in Ontario; in particular, who is accountable for what and to whom, and the policy tools being used. Ontario has implemented a series of incremental reforms, using expenditure policy instruments, enforced through contractual agreements to provide a defined set of publicly financed services that are privately delivered, most often by family physicians. The findings indicate that reporting, funding, evaluation and governance accountability requirements vary across service provider models. Accountability to the funder and patients is most common. Agreements, incentives and compensation tools have been used but may be insufficient to ensure parties are being held responsible for their activities related to stated goals. Clear definitions of various governance structures, a cohesive approach to monitoring critical performance indicators and associated improvement strategies are important elements in operationalizing accountability and determining whether goals are being met. PMID:25305392

  7. Research Priorities in CKD: Report of a National Workshop Conducted in Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tong, Allison; Crowe, Sally; Chando, Shingisai; Cass, Alan; Chadban, Steve J; Chapman, Jeremy R; Gallagher, Martin; Hawley, Carmel M; Hill, Sophie; Howard, Kirsten; Johnson, David W; Kerr, Peter G; McKenzie, Anne; Parker, David; Perkovic, Vlado; Polkinghorne, Kevan R; Pollock, Carol; Strippoli, Giovanni F M; Tugwell, Peter; Walker, Rowan G; Webster, Angela C; Wong, Germaine; Craig, Jonathan C

    2015-08-01

    Research aims to improve health outcomes for patients. However, the setting of research priorities is usually performed by clinicians, academics, and funders, with little involvement of patients or caregivers and using processes that lack transparency. A national workshop was convened in Australia to generate and prioritize research questions in chronic kidney disease (CKD) among diverse stakeholder groups. Patients with CKD (n=23), nephrologists/surgeons (n=16), nurses (n=8), caregivers (n=7), and allied health professionals and researchers (n=4) generated and voted on intervention questions across 4 treatment categories: CKD stages 1 to 5 (non-dialysis dependent), peritoneal dialysis, hemodialysis, and kidney transplantation. The 5 highest ranking questions (in descending order) were as follows: How effective are lifestyle programs for preventing deteriorating kidney function in early CKD? What strategies will improve family consent for deceased donor kidney donation, taking different cultural groups into account? What interventions can improve long-term post-transplant outcomes? What are effective interventions for post hemodialysis fatigue? How can we improve and individualize drug therapy to control post-transplant side effects? Priority questions were focused on prevention, lifestyle, quality of life, and long-term impact. These prioritized research questions can inform funding agencies, patient/consumer organizations, policy makers, and researchers in developing a CKD research agenda that is relevant to key stakeholders. PMID:25943716

  8. Research Priorities in CKD: Report of a National Workshop Conducted in Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tong, Allison; Crowe, Sally; Chando, Shingisai; Cass, Alan; Chadban, Steve J; Chapman, Jeremy R; Gallagher, Martin; Hawley, Carmel M; Hill, Sophie; Howard, Kirsten; Johnson, David W; Kerr, Peter G; McKenzie, Anne; Parker, David; Perkovic, Vlado; Polkinghorne, Kevan R; Pollock, Carol; Strippoli, Giovanni F M; Tugwell, Peter; Walker, Rowan G; Webster, Angela C; Wong, Germaine; Craig, Jonathan C

    2015-08-01

    Research aims to improve health outcomes for patients. However, the setting of research priorities is usually performed by clinicians, academics, and funders, with little involvement of patients or caregivers and using processes that lack transparency. A national workshop was convened in Australia to generate and prioritize research questions in chronic kidney disease (CKD) among diverse stakeholder groups. Patients with CKD (n=23), nephrologists/surgeons (n=16), nurses (n=8), caregivers (n=7), and allied health professionals and researchers (n=4) generated and voted on intervention questions across 4 treatment categories: CKD stages 1 to 5 (non-dialysis dependent), peritoneal dialysis, hemodialysis, and kidney transplantation. The 5 highest ranking questions (in descending order) were as follows: How effective are lifestyle programs for preventing deteriorating kidney function in early CKD? What strategies will improve family consent for deceased donor kidney donation, taking different cultural groups into account? What interventions can improve long-term post-transplant outcomes? What are effective interventions for post hemodialysis fatigue? How can we improve and individualize drug therapy to control post-transplant side effects? Priority questions were focused on prevention, lifestyle, quality of life, and long-term impact. These prioritized research questions can inform funding agencies, patient/consumer organizations, policy makers, and researchers in developing a CKD research agenda that is relevant to key stakeholders.

  9. Development and evaluation of light rail transit signal priority strategies. Research report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taylor, B.; Mechemehl, R.

    1998-08-01

    Light rail transit (LRT) signal priority strategies are often considered LRT vehicle delay reduction tools. The purpose of this research is to develop and evaluate LRT signal priority strategies to determine which strategies are most likely to produce significant delay reductions. A simulated median running LRT route in Austin, Texas is used for this case study. Both active and passive priority strategies are simulated using CORSIM with a Run-Time Extension (RTE). The RTE is used to provide the active priority signal timing changes associated with a green signal extension for the LRT phase. The results indicate that passive priority strategies are more effective in reducing delay. Among the passive methods, prohibition of left turns across the LRT tracks and one-way progression segmented to account for stops at LRT stations yield the best results.

  10. 30 CFR 217.51 - Lease account reconciliation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Lease account reconciliation. 217.51 Section... MANAGEMENT AUDITS AND INSPECTIONS Oil and Gas, General § 217.51 Lease account reconciliation. Specific lease account reconciliations shall be performed with priority being given to reconciling those lease...

  11. 30 CFR 217.301 - Lease account reconciliations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Lease account reconciliations. 217.301 Section... MANAGEMENT AUDITS AND INSPECTIONS Geothermal Resources § 217.301 Lease account reconciliations. Specific lease account reconciliations will be performed with priority being given to reconciling those...

  12. Biodiversity, Urban Areas, and Agriculture: Locating Priority Ecoregions for Conservation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marc Imhoff

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available Urbanization and agriculture are two of the most important threats to biodiversity worldwide. The intensities of these land-use phenomena, however, as well as levels of biodiversity itself, differ widely among regions. Thus, there is a need to develop a quick but rigorous method of identifying where high levels of human threats and biodiversity coincide. These areas are clear priorities for biodiversity conservation. In this study, we combine distribution data for eight major plant and animal taxa (comprising over 20,000 species with remotely sensed measures of urban and agricultural land use to assess conservation priorities among 76 terrestrial ecoregions in North America. We combine the species data into overall indices of richness and endemism. We then plot each of these indices against the percent cover of urban and agricultural land in each ecoregion, resulting in four separate comparisons. For each comparison, ecoregions that fall above the 66th quantile on both axes are identified as priorities for conservation. These analyses yield four “priority sets” of 6–16 ecoregions (8–21% of the total number where high levels of biodiversity and human land use coincide. These ecoregions tend to be concentrated in the southeastern United States, California, and, to a lesser extent, the Atlantic coast, southern Texas, and the U.S. Midwest. Importantly, several ecoregions are members of more than one priority set and two ecoregions are members of all four sets. Across all 76 ecoregions, urban cover is positively correlated with both species richness and endemism. Conservation efforts in densely populated areas therefore may be equally important (if not more so as preserving remote parks in relatively pristine regions.

  13. Best Practices and Processes for Choosing Research Priorities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Briscoe, M. G.

    2015-12-01

    Individuals, teams, departments, organizations, funding agencies, committees, and others all need to select desirable research priorities from many possible alternatives. One cannot do everything, one cannot afford everything, so what to select? Essays and reports since Weinberg (1963) have suggested criteria for choosing science topics. Popper et al (2000) reviewed and summarized all that had gone before in the subject of setting priorities; their main conclusions were that the underlying principles were the promotion of excellence and relevance. Sea Change (2015) from the NRC/OSB focused on four criteria. From most important to least important, they were transformative science, societal impacts, readiness, and partnership potential; these four criteria embodied the essence of the suggestions from Weinberg on, framed with the pragmatism of ORPISS (2007). Getting to the final set of priorities from many candidates involves a sequence of formal or informal processes, only the last of which is the application of the selected, weighted criteria. As developed by professional prioritization experts, the best-practice steps and processes are: Collection of input candidates from the community. Clustering and parsing/rephrasing of the input to eliminate redundancy and repetition and develop statements at a useful level of specificity. (NOTE:there is no counting of input to see how many times a particular topic was mentioned. The goal is diversity in the input, not a popularity contest.) Development of the selection criteria, and weighting the chosen criteria. Application of the selection criteria to the clustered/adjusted candidates. Finally, two more best practices: Do continuing sanity checks, to avoid losing sight of the goals of the effort. Resist the temptation to just sit around a table and talk about it to arrive at the priorities, which depends too much on who the specific members of the prioritization team are, and provides no transparency or explanation of why

  14. Assessment of cold-climate environmental research priorities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    States, J.B.

    1983-04-01

    The Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has consistently recognized that cold regions pose unique environmental problems. This report sets forth the conceptual framework and research plans for several high priority research areas. It provides the fundamental basis for implementation of the EPA Cold-Climate Environmental Research Program. This three- to five-year program encompasses both short- and long-term research of high relevance to the EPA and to the cold regions that it serves.

  15. Payroll accounting

    OpenAIRE

    Andrýsková, Adéla

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Main topic of my thesis is the Payroll Accounting. The work summarizes most of the areas that are related to this topic and the knowledge necessary in calculating the final determination of wages. Beginning the thesis mentions specific chapters from the Labor code which explain the facts about the start, changes and the termination of the employment contract then more detailed description of the arrangements performed outside of the employment contract and then working hours and mini...

  16. Modelling Priorities of Financial Provision of the Social Sphere

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mamonova Hanna V.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The article studies the modern state of the social sphere and conducts modelling of priorities of financial provision of the social sphere at the state level. Social sphere should be considered as the basis of development of the national economy. The goal of this article is the study of the modern state and modelling priorities of financial provision of the social sphere at the state level. The subject of the study is modelling priority directions of financial provision of components of the social sphere. Taking into account fast changes in the social sphere of the country and regular increase of social standards, the article identifies a necessity of changing priorities of the social policy, first of all, problems of financing the social sphere and formation of priority directions on improvement of this system. The article shows that the main problems of financial provision of the social sphere are: insufficient volumes of budget funds for financing the social sphere, financing practically all items of social expenditures in a smaller volume than it is required for the existing social support of the population and absence of mechanisms of ensuring quality of social services. The article offers to use the hierarchy analysis method for identifying immediate and priority directions of financing components of the social sphere. On the basis of the built directed communication graph the article presents a binary matrix of dependence of components of the social sphere and builds a hierarchy model of these components. As a result it is seen that the highest level of hierarchy is taken by science, then healthcare and social sphere are at the same level, then education, sports and at the lowest level are culture and art. The obtained results could be used when improving financing of the social sphere. In order to ensure efficiency of functioning of the social sphere it is necessary to improve the system of financing of its components on the basis of use

  17. Journal-order form of accounting

    OpenAIRE

    Сук, Петро Леонідович; Мохаммад Аль-Іббіні, Омран Ахмад

    2015-01-01

    Form of accounting is a set of interconnected registers in which information is organized, summarized, accumulated, stored and provided to users for decision making.Forms of accounting have been developed in accordance with economic conditions.Journal-order form of accounting can be used in modern conditions, in automation of accounting, is a source of information for users of financial and management accounting

  18. Ranking of severe accident research priorities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schwinges, B. [Gesell Anlagen and Reaktorsicherheit GRS mbH, D-50667 Cologne (Germany); Journeau, C. [CEA Cadarache, DEN STRI LMA, F-13115 St Paul Les Durance (France); Haste, T. [Paul Scherrer Inst, NES LTH, OVGA 312, CH-5232 Villigen (Switzerland); Meyer, L.; Tromm, W. [Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe, D-76021 Karlsruhe (Germany); Trambauer, K. [GRS mbH, Forschungsgelande, D-85748 Garching (Germany)

    2010-07-01

    The objectives of the SARNET network are to define common research programmes in the field of severe accidents and to develop common computer tools and methodologies for safety assessment in this field. To reach these objectives, one of the work packages, named 'Severe Accident Research Priorities' (SARP), aimed at reviewing and reassessing the priorities of research issues as a basis to harmonize and to re-orient research programmes, to define new ones, and to close - if possible - resolved issues on a common basis. The work was performed in close collaboration with 8 participating institutions, led by GRS, representing technical safety organisations, industry and utilities (IRSN, CEA, EDF, FZK, GRS, KTH, TUS, VTT). This action made use notably of (1) the outcomes of the EURSAFE project in the 5. Framework Programme, i. e. the Phenomena Identification and Ranking Tables (PIRT) on severe accidents, (2) the results of the validation and benchmarking activities on ASTEC, (3) the results of reactor calculations carried out in the other SARNET tasks, and (4) the outcome of the research performed in the three thematic sub-domains of SARNET (corium, containment and source term). The main outcome of EURSAFE was a list of 21 topics which included recommendations for experimental programmes and code developments. This list formed the basis of the work in SARP. Also the methodology applied in EURSAFE to consider both the risk potential and the severe accident issues where large uncertainties still subsist was adopted. The analyses of the progress of research and development activities considered whether (1) any research issue was resolved due to reduction of uncertainties or gain of scientific insights, (2) any new issue had to be added to the list of needed research, (3) any new process or phenomenon had to be included in the general PIRT list taking into account the safety relevance and the lack of knowledge, and (4) any new accident management program has to be

  19. Infrastrukturel Accountability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ubbesen, Morten Bonde

    Hvordan redegør man troværdigt for noget så diffust som en hel nations udledning af drivhusgasser? Det undersøger denne afhandling i et etnografisk studie af hvordan Danmarks drivhusgasregnskab udarbejdes, rapporteres og kontrolleres. Studiet trækker på begreber og forståelser fra 'Science...... & Technology Studies', og bidrager med begrebet 'infrastrukturel accountability' til nye måder at forstå og tænke om det arbejde, hvormed højt specialiserede praksisser dokumenterer og redegør for kvaliteten af deres arbejde....

  20. 76 FR 54244 - Telecommunications Service Priority System

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-31

    ... currently approved collection: 1670-0005, Telecommunications Service Priority (TSP) System. DHS previously published this information collection request (ICR) in the Federal Register, 76 FR 2011-13953 (June 7, 2011... SECURITY Telecommunications Service Priority System AGENCY: National Protection and Programs...

  1. Reframing Recreation as a Public Policy Priority

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lovell, Phillip

    2011-01-01

    Issues pertaining to children often struggle to become public policy priorities. A clear demonstration of this phenomenon is the degree to which children are supported in the federal budget in comparison to other priorities. If issues pertaining to children struggle for the policy spotlight, subissues pertaining to them face an even greater…

  2. Research priorities: women in Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okeyo, A P

    1979-01-01

    In December 1979, an Expert Meeting on Research and Data Collection on Women and Development was convened in Nairobi for the purpose of defining research priorities and methodological approaches for studying the role of African women in development. After reviewing current literature relevant to the subject matter, the participants developed a number of hypotheses regarding the impact of development activities on the role and status of women, and recommended that these hypotheses be tested in future reserach. In general, agrarian reform, mechanization of agriculture, the introduction of cash cropping, and modernization were hypothesized as having a negative impact on the role, status, productive activities, and nutritional standards of women. Other hypotheses stated that development programs and agricultural extension services tended to neglect women. Recommended research methodologies include: 1) efforts to involve the community members in the development and implementation of research projects undertaken in their communities; 2) increased use of local experts and community members in data collection; and 3) interdisciplinary collaboration. The participants also recommended that each country compile a statistical profile on the women in their countries. The profiles should include comparable information on: 1) fertility; 2) educational levels, employment status, and income levels for women; 3) household composition; and 4) types of services available to women. PMID:538796

  3. The 50 Constellation Priority Sites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noble, S.; Joosten, K.; Eppler, D.; Gruener, J.; Mendell, W.; French, R.; Plescia, J.; Spudis, P.; Wargo, M.; Robinson, M.; Lucey, P.

    2009-01-01

    The Constellation program (CxP) has developed a list of 50 sites of interest on the Moon which will be targeted by the LRO narrow angle camera. The list has also been provided to the M team to supplement their targeting list. This list does not represent a "site selection" process; rather the goal was to find "representative" sites and terrains to understand the range of possible surface conditions for human lunar exploration to aid engineering design and operational planning. The list compilers leveraged heavily on past site selection work (e.g. Geoscience and a Lunar Base Workshop - 1988, Site Selection Strategy for a Lunar Outpost - 1990, Exploration Systems Architecture Study (ESAS) - 2005). Considerations included scientific, resource utilization, and operational merits, and a desire to span lunar terrain types. The targets have been organized into two "tiers" of 25 sites each to provide a relative priority ranking in the event of mutual interference. A LEAG SAT (special action team) was established to validate and recommend modifications to the list. This SAT was chaired by Dr. Paul Lucey. They provided their final results to CxP in May. Dr. Wendell Mendell will organize an on-going analysis of the data as they come down to ensure data quality and determine if and when a site has sufficient data to be retired from the list. The list was compiled using the best available data, however, it is understood that with the flood of new lunar data, minor modifications or adjustments may be required.

  4. Proximal Priority Laser Therapy: PPLT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohshiro, Toshio

    2004-09-01

    The author has, in the past, classified treatment methods for pain geometrically as point, line, two-dimensional, three-dimensional treatment and has used these over the years. However as a practitioner of western medicine, the author originally treated pain only directed at the painful site, and encountered cases where local treatment did not suffice. The author proved with SPECT and the Rand Phantom that treating the neck which is the midpoint of the brain, the center of the nervous system and the heart, the center of circulation, increased cerebral blood flow and also that laser emitted to neck will reach the spinal chord no matter from where on the neck the laser is emitted. From such research and 25 years of clinical experience, the author has created an anatomy based, systemic treatment method called the Proximal Priority Laser Therapy (PPLT) where not only the cerebral cortex, spinal chord and peripheral nerves are treated but also the tracts of blood vessels and lymph ducts are treated as well. Treatment method and cases are presented herein.

  5. Distributed Priority Synthesis and its Applications

    CERN Document Server

    Cheng, Chih-Hong; Yan, Rongjie; Ruess, Harald

    2011-01-01

    We present an extension of the tool VissBIP, including a new algorithm which first references the communication architecture in component-based systems then synthesizes deployable priorities to ensure that the system is safe and deadlock-free. As the synthesized priorities are guaranteed to be deployable, our work reduces related efforts in finding strategies to execute priorities distributively. When the normal method of distributed priority synthesis fails, the tool proceeds by three refinement methods. The first is to equip static knowledge on selected components and resynthesize. The second method is to allow transmitting state information in the communication process. To reduce the amount of information transfer, we extract information from the unsatisfiable core (during the fix process) and successively increase the amount of additional information when required. The last method is to allow transitivity of priorities to only hold when the architecture is supported. To support complex updates, we explici...

  6. [Classification of Priority Area for Soil Environmental Protection Around Water Sources: Method Proposed and Case Demonstration].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Lei; Wang, Tie-yu; Wang, Xiaojun; Xiao, Rong-bo; Li, Qi-feng; Peng, Chi; Han, Cun-liang

    2016-04-15

    Based on comprehensive consideration of soil environmental quality, pollution status of river, environmental vulnerability and the stress of pollution sources, a technical method was established for classification of priority area of soil environmental protection around the river-style water sources. Shunde channel as an important drinking water sources of Foshan City, Guangdong province, was studied as a case, of which the classification evaluation system was set up. In detail, several evaluation factors were selected according to the local conditions of nature, society and economy, including the pollution degree of heavy metals in soil and sediment, soil characteristics, groundwater sensitivity, vegetation coverage, the type and location of pollution sources. Data information was mainly obtained by means of field survey, sampling analysis, and remote sensing interpretation. Afterwards, Analytical Hierarchy Process (AHP) was adopted to decide the weight of each factor. The basic spatial data layers were set up respectively and overlaid based on the weighted summation assessment model in Geographical Information System (GIS), resulting in a classification map of soil environmental protection level in priority area of Shunde channel. Accordingly, the area was classified to three levels named as polluted zone, risky zone and safe zone, which respectively accounted for 6.37%, 60.90% and 32.73% of the whole study area. Polluted zone and risky zone were mainly distributed in Lecong, Longjiang and Leliu towns, with pollutants mainly resulted from the long-term development of aquaculture and the industries containing furniture, plastic constructional materials and textile and clothing. In accordance with the main pollution sources of soil, targeted and differentiated strategies were put forward. The newly established evaluation method could be referenced for the protection and sustainable utilization of soil environment around the water sources. PMID:27548986

  7. [Classification of Priority Area for Soil Environmental Protection Around Water Sources: Method Proposed and Case Demonstration].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Lei; Wang, Tie-yu; Wang, Xiaojun; Xiao, Rong-bo; Li, Qi-feng; Peng, Chi; Han, Cun-liang

    2016-04-15

    Based on comprehensive consideration of soil environmental quality, pollution status of river, environmental vulnerability and the stress of pollution sources, a technical method was established for classification of priority area of soil environmental protection around the river-style water sources. Shunde channel as an important drinking water sources of Foshan City, Guangdong province, was studied as a case, of which the classification evaluation system was set up. In detail, several evaluation factors were selected according to the local conditions of nature, society and economy, including the pollution degree of heavy metals in soil and sediment, soil characteristics, groundwater sensitivity, vegetation coverage, the type and location of pollution sources. Data information was mainly obtained by means of field survey, sampling analysis, and remote sensing interpretation. Afterwards, Analytical Hierarchy Process (AHP) was adopted to decide the weight of each factor. The basic spatial data layers were set up respectively and overlaid based on the weighted summation assessment model in Geographical Information System (GIS), resulting in a classification map of soil environmental protection level in priority area of Shunde channel. Accordingly, the area was classified to three levels named as polluted zone, risky zone and safe zone, which respectively accounted for 6.37%, 60.90% and 32.73% of the whole study area. Polluted zone and risky zone were mainly distributed in Lecong, Longjiang and Leliu towns, with pollutants mainly resulted from the long-term development of aquaculture and the industries containing furniture, plastic constructional materials and textile and clothing. In accordance with the main pollution sources of soil, targeted and differentiated strategies were put forward. The newly established evaluation method could be referenced for the protection and sustainable utilization of soil environment around the water sources.

  8. Reducing violent injuries: priorities for pediatrician advocacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dolins, J C; Christoffel, K K

    1994-10-01

    A basic framework for developing an advocacy plan must systematically break down the large task of policy development implementation into manageable components. The basic framework described in detail in this paper includes three steps: Setting policy objectives by narrowing the scope of policy, by reviewing policy options, and by examining options against selected criteria. Developing strategies for educating the public and for approaching legislative/regulatory bodies. Evaluating the effectiveness of the advocacy action plan as a process and as an agent for change. To illustrate the variety of ways in which pediatricians can be involved in the policy process to reduce violent injuries among children and adolescents, we apply this systematic approach to three priority areas. Prohibiting the use of corporal punishment in schools is intended to curb the institutionalized legitimacy of violence that has been associated with future use of violence. Efforts to remove handguns from the environments of children and adolescents are aimed at reducing the numbers of firearm injuries inflicted upon and by minors. Comprehensive treatment of adolescent victims of assault is intended to decrease the reoccurrence of violent injuries.

  9. Pain as a global public health priority

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    McGee Summer J

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Pain is an enormous problem globally. Estimates suggest that 20% of adults suffer from pain globally and 10% are newly diagnosed with chronic pain each year. Nevertheless, the problem of pain has primarily been regarded as a medical problem, and has been little addressed by the field of public health. Discussion Despite the ubiquity of pain, whether acute, chronic or intermittent, public health scholars and practitioners have not addressed this issue as a public health problem. The importance of viewing pain through a public health lens allows one to understand pain as a multifaceted, interdisciplinary problem for which many of the causes are the social determinants of health. Addressing pain as a global public health issue will also aid in priority setting and formulating public health policy to address this problem, which, like most other chronic non-communicable diseases, is growing both in absolute numbers and in its inequitable distribution across the globe. Summary The prevalence, incidence, and vast social and health consequences of global pain requires that the public health community give due attention to this issue. Doing so will mean that health care providers and public health professionals will have a more comprehensive understanding of pain and the appropriate public health and social policy responses to this problem.

  10. Implementing accountability for reasonableness framework at district level in Tanzania: a realist evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ndawi Benedict

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Despite the growing importance of the Accountability for Reasonableness (A4R framework in priority setting worldwide, there is still an inadequate understanding of the processes and mechanisms underlying its influence on legitimacy and fairness, as conceived and reflected in service management processes and outcomes. As a result, the ability to draw scientifically sound lessons for the application of the framework to services and interventions is limited. This paper evaluates the experiences of implementing the A4R approach in Mbarali District, Tanzania, in order to find out how the innovation was shaped, enabled, and constrained by the interaction between contexts, mechanisms and outcomes. Methods This study draws on the principles of realist evaluation -- a largely qualitative approach, chiefly concerned with testing and refining programme theories by exploring the complex interactions of contexts, mechanisms, and outcomes. Mixed methods were used in data collection, including individual interviews, non-participant observation, and document reviews. A thematic framework approach was adopted for the data analysis. Results The study found that while the A4R approach to priority setting was helpful in strengthening transparency, accountability, stakeholder engagement, and fairness, the efforts at integrating it into the current district health system were challenging. Participatory structures under the decentralisation framework, central government's call for partnership in district-level planning and priority setting, perceived needs of stakeholders, as well as active engagement between researchers and decision makers all facilitated the adoption and implementation of the innovation. In contrast, however, limited local autonomy, low level of public awareness, unreliable and untimely funding, inadequate accountability mechanisms, and limited local resources were the major contextual factors that hampered the full

  11. Priorities for CMV vaccine development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krause, Philip R; Bialek, Stephanie R; Boppana, Suresh B; Griffiths, Paul D; Laughlin, Catherine A; Ljungman, Per; Mocarski, Edward S; Pass, Robert F; Read, Jennifer S; Schleiss, Mark R; Plotkin, Stanley A

    2013-12-17

    A multidisciplinary meeting addressed priorities related to development of vaccines against cytomegalovirus (CMV), the cause of congenital CMV (cCMV) disease and of serious disease in the immunocompromised. Participants discussed optimal uses of a CMV vaccine, aspects of clinical study design, and the value of additional research. A universal childhood CMV vaccine could potentially rapidly reduce cCMV disease, as infected children are sources of viral transmission to seronegative and seropositive mothers. A vaccine administered to adolescents or adult women could also reduce cCMV disease by making them immune prior to pregnancy. Clinical trials of CMV vaccines in women should evaluate protection against cCMV infection, an essential precursor of cCMV disease, which is a more practical and acceptable endpoint for assessing vaccine effects on maternal-fetal transmission. Clinical trials of vaccines to evaluate prevention of CMV disease in stem cell transplant recipients could use CMV viremia at a level triggering pre-emptive antiviral therapy as an endpoint, because widespread use of pre-emptive and prophylactic antivirals has rendered CMV-induced disease too rare to be a practical endpoint for clinical trials. In solid organ transplant patients, CMV-associated disease is sufficiently common for use as a primary endpoint. Additional research to advance CMV vaccine development should include identifying factors that predict fetal loss due to CMV, determining age-specific incidence and transmission rates, defining the mechanism and relative contributions of maternal reactivation and re-infection to cCMV disease, developing assays that can distinguish between reactivation and re-infection in seropositive vaccinees, further defining predictors of sequelae from cCMV infection, and identifying clinically relevant immune response parameters to CMV (including developing validated assays that could assess CMV antibody avidity) that could lead to the establishment of immune

  12. Adapting Technological Interventions to Meet the Needs of Priority Populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linke, Sarah E; Larsen, Britta A; Marquez, Becky; Mendoza-Vasconez, Andrea; Marcus, Bess H

    2016-01-01

    Cardiovascular diseases (CVD) comprise the leading cause of mortality worldwide, accounting for 3 in 10 deaths. Individuals with certain risk factors, including tobacco use, obesity, low levels of physical activity, type 2 diabetes mellitus, racial/ethnic minority status and low socioeconomic status, experience higher rates of CVD and are, therefore, considered priority populations. Technological devices such as computers and smartphones are now routinely utilized in research studies aiming to prevent CVD and its risk factors, and they are also rampant in the public and private health sectors. Traditional health behavior interventions targeting these risk factors have been adapted for technology-based approaches. This review provides an overview of technology-based interventions conducted in these priority populations as well as the challenges and gaps to be addressed in future research. Researchers currently possess tremendous opportunities to engage in technology-based implementation and dissemination science to help spread evidence-based programs focusing on CVD risk factors in these and other priority populations. PMID:26957186

  13. Data fusion of priority information using a dempster combination rule

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    As a case study, a multiple criteria decision-making problem, a ranking of radionuclide release scenarios in a low and intermediate radioactive waste repository is taken into account. The ranking in terms of a relative degree of priority of scenario alternatives enables us to incorporate more effective safety measure in a design stage of the repository. To illustrate a proposed methodology for updating ranking priority of release scenarios, priority information from three individual methods as well as the combined Dempster method is compared. Three types of methods to be combined are as follows: 1) the weighted arithmetic mean (WAM) method, a linear aggregation of a preference score matrix and a weighting vector is based on the no-interaction among criteria. The weighting vector is viewed as additive probability measures. The WAM method is bound to be equivalent to an AHP model; 2) the belief-based Choquet integral (BCI) method represents the pessimistic attitude towards aggregation using the synergistic interaction among criteria; 3) the plausibility-based Choquet integral (PCI) method leads to the optimistic assessment along with the inhibitory interaction among criteria. The finite frame of discernment, all the possible states of the problem under consideration, is ={WAM, BCI, PCI}. The framework of the Dempster combination rule is depicted in Figure 1 for three sources of evidence such as the WAM model {WAM}, the belief model {BCI}, and the plausibility model {PCI}

  14. Priority regions for research on dryland cereals and legumes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyman, Glenn; Barona, Elizabeth; Biradar, Chandrashekhar; Guevara, Edward; Dixon, John; Beebe, Steve; Castano, Silvia Elena; Alabi, Tunrayo; Gumma, Murali Krishna; Sivasankar, Shoba; Rivera, Ovidio; Espinosa, Herlin; Cardona, Jorge

    2016-01-01

    Dryland cereals and legumes  are important crops in farming systems across the world.  Yet they are frequently neglected among the priorities for international agricultural research and development, often due to lack of information on their magnitude and extent. Given what we know about the global distribution of dryland cereals and legumes, what regions should be high priority for research and development to improve livelihoods and food security? This research evaluated the geographic dimensions of these crops and the farming systems where they are found worldwide. The study employed geographic information science and data to assess the key farming systems and regions for these crops. Dryland cereal and legume crops should be given high priority in 18 farming systems worldwide, where their cultivated area comprises more than 160 million ha. These regions include the dryer areas of South Asia, West and East Africa, the Middle East and North Africa, Central America and other parts of Asia. These regions are prone to drought and heat stress, have limiting soil constraints, make up half of the global population and account for 60 percent of the global poor and malnourished. The dryland cereal and legume crops and farming systems merit more research and development attention to improve productivity and address development problems. This project developed an open access dataset and information resource that provides the basis for future analysis of the geographic dimensions of dryland cereals and legumes. PMID:27303632

  15. Determination of priority substances in wastewater using SPE, LCMS and GCMS

    OpenAIRE

    Jones, Lisa; Lawlor, Antoin; Regan, Fiona

    2011-01-01

    In 2000 the Water Framework Directive (WFD), 2000/60/EC, was introduced and a group of 66 chemicals, including pesticides, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, and metals were listed as chosen priority pollutants. The levels of these priority pollutants in the environment are regulated by set environmental quality standards (EQSs) and are affected by a number of emission factors including anthropogenic activities, population equivalents, and weather. In order for these EQSs to be enforced, regul...

  16. Patient safety priorities in mental healthcare in Switzerland: a modified Delphi study.

    OpenAIRE

    Mascherek, Anna C; Schwappach, David L. B.

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVE Identifying patient safety priorities in mental healthcare is an emerging issue. A variety of aspects of patient safety in medical care apply for patient safety in mental care as well. However, specific aspects may be different as a consequence of special characteristics of patients, setting and treatment. The aim of the present study was to combine knowledge from the field and research and bundle existing initiatives and projects to define patient safety priorities in mental he...

  17. Demand Priority Protocol Simulation and Evaluation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHAN Yongzhao; SONG Shunlin; XIE Li

    1999-01-01

    A new network protocol (DemandPriority Protocol) environment can provide more satisfying service fordifferent urgent transmission requests. In this paper, in order toprovide guidance for the selection of environment of multimedia datatransmission in Computer Supported Cooperative Work better, anobject-oriented protocol specification language based on C++ is used todesign a virtual environment of multiworkstation of computer cooperativework and to simulate exe-cution of demand priority network protocoland then the performances of various transmission requests are analyzed.Finally, an evaluation of the demand priority LAN is given.

  18. Optimal purely functional priority queues

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brodal, Gerth Stølting; Okasaki, Chris

    1996-01-01

    Brodal's data structure to a purely functional setting. In doing so, we both simplify the data structure and clarify its relationship to the binomial queues of Vuillemin, which support all four operations in O(log n) time. Specifically, we derive our implementation from binomial queues in three steps...

  19. Microfinance: accountability from the grassroots

    OpenAIRE

    Dixon, Rob; Ritchie, John; Siwale, Juliana

    2006-01-01

    Purpose – The purpose of this research is to use an accountability framework to explain the emerging tensions in accountability and how an intended bottom-up approach became progressively supplanted. This paper is set within an emerging Zambian microfinance organisation moving into crisis. Design/methodology/approach – A series of semi-structured interviews were conducted with key local microfinance specialists, managers and accountants, clients and past and current loan officers. Liv...

  20. Accounting Experiences in Collaborative Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edmond, Tracie; Tiggeman, Theresa

    2009-01-01

    This paper discusses incorporating collaborative learning into accounting classes as a response to the Accounting Education Change Commission's call to install a more active student learner in the classroom. Collaborative learning requires the students to interact with each other and with the material within the classroom setting. It is a…

  1. 76 FR 32980 - Telecommunications Service Priority (TSP) System

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-07

    ... SECURITY Telecommunications Service Priority (TSP) System AGENCY: National Protection and Programs... telecommunications vendors to provide priority provisioning and restoration of telecommunications services supporting..., National Communications System. Title: Telecommunications Service Priority System. OMB Number:...

  2. Funnel Heap - A Cache Oblivious Priority Queue

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brodal, Gerth Stølting; Fagerberg, Rolf

    2002-01-01

    model. Arge et al. recently presented the first optimal cache oblivious priority queue, and demonstrated the importance of this result by providing the first cache oblivious algorithms for graph problems. Their structure uses cache oblivious sorting and selection as subroutines. In this paper, we devise...... an alternative optimal cache oblivious priority queue based only on binary merging. We also show that our structure can be made adaptive to different usage profiles....

  3. Nuclear material accounting handbook

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The handbook documents existing best practices and methods used to account for nuclear material and to prepare the required nuclear material accounting reports for submission to the IAEA. It provides a description of the processes and steps necessary for the establishment, implementation and maintenance of nuclear material accounting and control at the material balance area, facility and State levels, and defines the relevant terms. This handbook serves the needs of State personnel at various levels, including State authorities, facility operators and participants in training programmes. It can assist in developing and maintaining accounting systems which will support a State's ability to account for its nuclear material such that the IAEA can verify State declarations, and at the same time support the State's ability to ensure its nuclear security. In addition, the handbook is useful for IAEA staff, who is closely involved with nuclear material accounting. The handbook includes the steps and procedures a State needs to set up and maintain to provide assurance that it can account for its nuclear material and submit the prescribed nuclear material accounting reports defined in Section 1 and described in Sections 3 and 4 in terms of the relevant agreement(s), thereby enabling the IAEA to discharge its verification function as defined in Section 1 and described in Sections 3 and 4. The contents of the handbook are based on the model safeguards agreement and, where applicable, there will also be reference to the model additional protocol. As a State using The handbook consists of five sections. In Section 1, definitions or descriptions of terms used are provided in relation to where the IAEA applies safeguards or, for that matter, accounting for and control of nuclear material in a State. The IAEA's approach in applying safeguards in a State is also defined and briefly described, with special emphasis on verification. In Section 2, the obligations of the State

  4. 46 CFR Section 1 - Books of account.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... (46 CFR part 282) and recordings in the accounts shall be in accordance with the descriptions thereof... 46 Shipping 8 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Books of account. Section 1 Section 1 Shipping MARITIME... TRANSACTIONS UNDER AGENCY AGREEMENTS Accounts Section 1 Books of account. A separate set of books of...

  5. The new environmental accounting: A status report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This article discusses the incorporation of environmental externalities into the cost of generating electricity. The topics include traditional environmental accounting, new environmental accounting, the impetus for environmental accounting, the public willingness to pay, internalizing is not setting new environmental standards, comparing externality values, non-monetized environmental preferences, environmental accounting for planning, acquisition, operation and pricing, and the international perspective

  6. A fundamentalist perspective on accounting and implications for accounting research

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Guohua; Jiang; Stephen; Penman

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents a framework for addressing normative accounting issues for reporting to shareholders. The framework is an alternative to the emerging Conceptual Framework of the International Accounting Standards Board and the Financial Accounting Standards Board. The framework can be broadly characterized as a utilitarian approach to accounting standard setting. It has two main features. First, accounting is linked to valuation models under which shareholders use accounting information to values their stakes. Second, the desirable characteristics of accounting information are inferred from the demand of investors and analysts who use the information in practice. This stands in contrast to the "qualitative characteristics" in the Boards’ Framework which are embraced largely on the basis of their aesthetic appeal. These features lead to a set of broad accounting principles that resolve "recognition"and "measurement" issues at the core of the Boards’ Conceptual Framework and also the central issue of a balance sheet approach versus an income statement approach. The framework in the paper also frames the research questions for researchers interested in accounting policy.

  7. 78 FR 5035 - Final Priorities; Gaining Early Awareness and Readiness for Undergraduate Programs (GEAR UP...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-23

    ... of proposed priorities (NPP) for this program in the Federal Register on June 1, 2012 (77 FR 32612... trustee, and costs for managing and administering the project ] over the course of the project period (and... effects that indicate the importance of providing such accounts to every student, as opposed to a...

  8. Make Rural Schools a Priority: Considerations for Reauthorizing the Elementary and Secondary Education Act

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayers, Jeremy

    2011-01-01

    The public usually thinks of large urban schools when it considers reforms to the American education system. But rural students account for a large and growing segment of the school-age population, and their needs have too often been overlooked in school improvement efforts. Policymakers and the public must make rural education a priority if the…

  9. The institutional priorities of improving regional mechanism for management of investment attitudes

    OpenAIRE

    Morozov Vladislav Vasilevich

    2014-01-01

    In this article was formulate the basic principles and defines the priorities of improving the institutional mechanism for investment activities in regional economic systems. There is developed the basic guidelines for improving regional infrastructure, forms and methods of managing for investment relations of territories with the accounting cluster approach and innovative orientation.

  10. Seven year changes in health status and priorities for improvement of health in patients with rheumatoid arthritis

    OpenAIRE

    Heiberg, T; Finset, A; Uhlig, T; Kvien, T

    2005-01-01

    Objectives: To examine possible changes in priorities for improvement in health and health status from 1994 to 2001 within the setting of the Oslo Rheumatoid Arthritis (RA) Register, which provides representative data for the entire RA population in the county.

  11. Suicide Prevention: An Emerging Priority For Health Care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hogan, Michael F; Grumet, Julie Goldstein

    2016-06-01

    Suicide is a significant public health problem. It is the tenth leading cause of death in the United States, and the rate has risen in recent years. Many suicide deaths are among people recently seen or currently under care in clinical settings, but suicide prevention has not been a core priority in health care. In recent years, new treatment and management strategies have been developed, tested, and implemented in some organizations, but they are not yet widely used. This article examines the feasibility of improving suicide prevention in health care settings. In particular, we consider Zero Suicide, a model for better identification and treatment of patients at risk for suicide. The approach incorporates new tools for screening, treatment, and support; it has been deployed with promising results in behavioral health programs and primary care settings. Broader adoption of improved suicide prevention care may be an effective strategy for reducing deaths by suicide. PMID:27269026

  12. Regional Priorities of Green Economy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergey Nikolayevich Bobylev

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The article is dedicated to transforming the economy of Russian regions to a green economy, which is an essential factor for the sustainable development. This is important not only for Russia but the whole world because our country has the great natural capital and provides important environmental services that support the planet biosphere. Based on the analysis of economic, social and ecological statistical data and Human Development Index (HDI we have shown that the development of Russian Federal Districts is very unbalanced and each Russian region has its own way to new economic model. For instance, it is necessary to increase the well-being in the North Caucasus Federal District, it is important to reach higher life expectancy at birth in the Siberian and the Far Eastern Districts. It is necessary to move from the «brown» economy to a green one by using the human capital (building a knowledge economy, by applying Best Available Technologies (Techniques, by investing in efficiency of use of natural resources and by increasing energy efficiency. The transition to a green economy will help to achieve social equity and the development of human potential; it helps to move from the exploitation of non-renewable natural capital to renewable human capital. All these socio-economic measures should give decoupling effect, make risks lower, reduce the exploitation of natural capital, stop the environmental degradation and prevent the ecological crisis. Transition to the green economic model has to be accompanied by new economic development indicators, which take into account social and environmental factors.

  13. Accounting in the field of governance

    OpenAIRE

    Du Rietz, Sabina

    2013-01-01

    Corporate governance phenomena have traditionally been, and are still, studied foremost as relationships between principals and agents. Studies of how accounting plays out in corporate governance settings rather share the interest in hierarchical influence than challenge it. The present thesis argues that when studying accounting in corporate governance settings we must, in addition to studying hierarchical influence, take into account the ‘field of governance’ in which accounting is situated...

  14. PRIORITIES OF THE CONCEPT OF ENVIRONMENTAL SECURITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Glushko O. A.

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The article examines the approaches to the legal definition of "priority" in the concept of environmental security, as well as the kinds of priorities the concept of ecological security. The given provisions give us the chance to formulate the concept of "priority of the concept of ecological safety" as a prime activity (situation of subjects of an administrative legal regime of ecological safety on ensuring normal functioning of ecological system of the country, i.e. all objects of live and inanimate nature, the developed ecological state and the happening changes of an ecological state. We have highlighted the problem of the legal regulation of the concept of environmental security. The extensive studied system of political and legal program acts allows considering all the variety of approaches to the problem of priorities of the Russian concept of ensuring ecological safety. The system of priorities of the concept of ensuring ecological safety given in article most fully reflects prime activities of subjects of an administrative legal regime of ensuring ecological safety

  15. Sludge management paradigms: impact of priority substances and priority hazardous substances

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eriksson, Eva; Lundy, L.; Donner, E.;

    2011-01-01

    metals in sludge applied to agricultural land, the potential impact of many EU Water Framework Directive priority and priority hazardous substances (PS/PHS) on human or environmental health has yet to be fully addressed. Research presented here shows that treated sludge from five urban WWTPs experiencing...

  16. The Eco-Behavioral Approach to Surveys and Social Accounts for Rural Communities: Exploratory Analyses and Interpretations of Roger G. Barker's Microdata from the Behavior Setting Survey of Midwest, Kansas in 1963-64.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fox, Karl A.

    The concept of behavior settings--the environments shaping individual behavior--was originated by Roger Barker in 1950 in connection with his community surveys in a small Kansas town, code-named Midwest. This book seeks to provide rural social scientists with an understanding of Barker's eco-behavioral approach and proposed adaptations of it to…

  17. Design of Modified HRRN Scheduling Algorithm for priority systems Using Hybrid Priority scheme

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Surendra Varma

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The basic aim of this paper is to design a scheduling algorithm which is suitable for priority systems and it should not suffer with starvation or indefinite postponement. Highest Response Ratio Next (HRRN scheduling is a non-preemptive discipline, in which the priority of each job is dependent on its estimated run time, and also the amount of time it has spent waiting. Jobs gain higher priority the longer they wait, which prevents indefinite postponement (process starvation. In fact, the jobs that have spent a long time waiting compete against those estimated to have short run times. HRRN prevents indefinite postponements but does not suitable for priority systems. So, modifying HRRN in such a way that it will be suitable for priority based systems.

  18. Priority probability deceleration deadline-aware TCP

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jin Ye; Jing Lin; Jiawei Huang

    2015-01-01

    In modern data centers, because of the deadline-agnostic congestion control in transmission control protocol (TCP), many deadline-sensitive flows can not finish before their deadlines. Therefore, providing a higher deadline meeting ratio becomes a critical chal enge in the typical online data intensive (OLDI) ap-plications of data center networks (DCNs). However, a problem named as priority synchronization is found in this paper, which de-creases the deadline meeting ratio badly. To solve this problem, we propose a priority probability deceleration (P2D) deadline-aware TCP. By using the novel probabilistic deceleration, P2D prevents the priority synchronization problem. Simulation results show that P2 D increases the deadline meeting ratio by 20%compared with D2TCP.

  19. Priority of discovery in the life sciences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vale, Ronald D; Hyman, Anthony A

    2016-01-01

    The job of a scientist is to make a discovery and then communicate this new knowledge to others. For a scientist to be successful, he or she needs to be able to claim credit or priority for discoveries throughout their career. However, despite being fundamental to the reward system of science, the principles for establishing the "priority of discovery" are rarely discussed. Here we break down priority into two steps: disclosure, in which the discovery is released to the world-wide community; and validation, in which other scientists assess the accuracy, quality and importance of the work. Currently, in biology, disclosure and an initial validation are combined in a journal publication. Here, we discuss the advantages of separating these steps into disclosure via a preprint, and validation via a combination of peer review at a journal and additional evaluation by the wider scientific community. PMID:27310529

  20. Measuring and Evaluation on Priority Lanes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shan Jiang

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Along with economic development, cities are increasingly congested in China. In order to eliminate peak-hour congestion, many cities establish priority lanes, commonly bus lanes. Although priority lanes could help Local Authorities gain its short-term management objectives, at the same time, it would greatly infringe on the legitimate rights of other vehicles and waste the scarce road resources, which is rigorously proved by mathematical models in this paper. In the long run, priority lanes would make social conflicts more intensified, and therefore highly undesirable. On the contrary, the social system engineering, combined with High Occupancy Vehicle (HOV lanes and High Occupancy Toll (HOT lanes, is the right way to alleviate overcrowding and build a Low-Carbon harmonious society.

  1. Computerized management of time, tasks, and priorities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, P.E. (ed.)

    1988-01-01

    Even before Egyptian times, fiber and paper-based methods were used to manage time, tasks, and priorities. Papyrus and paper were effective in their time, but now is the time for the even more effective computer-based methods of time management. This study compares paper and computer methods of the management of time, tasks, and priorities. Discussed are recommended strengths of off-the-shelf software for time management. Integrated software is recommended. A case study of the use of idea processing software to manage publication tasks and priorities is examined. Illustrated--for classroom-style training--are uses of a computer to enhance the quality and increase the efficiency of the coordination of publications from conception and research to printing and issuance. 3 refs., 43 figs.

  2. Scientists’ perspectives on global ocean research priorities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Murray Alan Rudd

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Diverse natural and social science research is needed to support policies to recover and sustain healthy oceans. While a wide variety of expert-led prioritization initiatives have identified research themes and priorities at national and regional scale, over the past several years there has also been a surge in the number of scanning exercises that have identified important environmental research questions and issues ‘from the bottom-up’. From those questions, winnowed from thousands of contributions by scientists and policy-makers around the world who participated in terrestrial, aquatic and domain-specific horizon scanning and big question exercises, I identified 657 research questions potentially important for informing decisions regarding ocean governance and sustainability. These were distilled to a short list of 67 distinctive research questions that, in an internet survey, were ranked by 2179 scientists from 94 countries. Five of the top 10 research priorities were shared by respondents globally. Despite significant differences between physical and ecological scientists’ priorities regarding specific research questions, they shared seven common priorities among their top 10. Social scientists’ priorities were, however, much different, highlighting their research focus on managerial solutions to ocean challenges and questions regarding the role of human behavior and values in attaining ocean sustainability. The results from this survey provide a comprehensive and timely assessment of current ocean research priorities among research-active scientists but highlight potential challenges in stimulating crossdisciplinary research. As ocean and coastal research necessarily becomes more transdisciplinary to address complex ocean challenges, it will be critical for scientists and research funders to understand how scientists from different disciplines and regions might collaborate and strengthen the overall evidence base for ocean

  3. ACCOUNTING SKILLS HOTEL ENTERPRISES NEED TODAY

    OpenAIRE

    Kavčič, Slavka; Mihelčič, Eva

    2006-01-01

    The article presents a view of current happenings in the business and economic environment that are significantly influencing the knowledge requirements of modern accountants both worldwide and locally. First, we define the specific skills accountants are required to have apart from an in-depth expert knowledge of accounting. These skills have set the final boundary between accounting and ookkeeping. Later, the perspectives of certified accountants in Great Britain and Slovenia, as well as ac...

  4. Priority Union and Generalization in Discourse Grammars

    CERN Document Server

    Grover, C; Manandhar, S; Moens, M; Grover, Claire; Brew, Chris; Manandhar, Suresh; Moens, Marc

    1994-01-01

    We describe an implementation in Carpenter's typed feature formalism, ALE, of a discourse grammar of the kind proposed by Scha, Polanyi, et al. We examine their method for resolving parallelism-dependent anaphora and show that there is a coherent feature-structural rendition of this type of grammar which uses the operations of priority union and generalization. We describe an augmentation of the ALE system to encompass these operations and we show that an appropriate choice of definition for priority union gives the desired multiple output for examples of VP-ellipsis which exhibit a strict/sloppy ambiguity.

  5. Integrating economic costs and biological traits into global conservation priorities for carnivores.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael Dias Loyola

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Prioritization schemes usually highlight species-rich areas, where many species are at imminent risk of extinction. To be ecologically relevant these schemes should also include species biological traits into area-setting methods. Furthermore, in a world of limited funds for conservation, conservation action is constrained by land acquisition costs. Hence, including economic costs into conservation priorities can substantially improve their conservation cost-effectiveness. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We examined four global conservation scenarios for carnivores based on the joint mapping of economic costs and species biological traits. These scenarios identify the most cost-effective priority sets of ecoregions, indicating best investment opportunities for safeguarding every carnivore species, and also establish priority sets that can maximize species representation in areas harboring highly vulnerable species. We compared these results with a scenario that minimizes the total number of ecoregions required for conserving all species, irrespective of other factors. We found that cost-effective conservation investments should focus on 41 ecoregions highlighted in the scenario that consider simultaneously both ecoregion vulnerability and economic costs of land acquisition. Ecoregions included in priority sets under these criteria should yield best returns of investments since they harbor species with high extinction risk and have lower mean land cost. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Our study highlights ecoregions of particular importance for the conservation of the world's carnivores defining global conservation priorities in analyses that encompass socioeconomic and life-history factors. We consider the identification of a comprehensive priority-set of areas as a first step towards an in-situ biodiversity maintenance strategy.

  6. Quality Control of Accounting Information Provided by Annual Financial Statements

    OpenAIRE

    Bulgariu Catalin; Costuleanu Carmen Luiza; Calistru Roxana Angela

    2010-01-01

    Continuous improvement of business environment is a key priority of governments to strengthen the functioning of market economy. In this context, the general framework of accounting and financial auditing accounting improves continuously its information quality by applying the accounting rules in accordance with EU Directives (the Fourth and Seventh-). For analyzing a company's overall efficiency is particularly important the quantity and quality of existing information of financial-accountin...

  7. Action Accounting 'Untying the Accountancy Knot

    OpenAIRE

    Luby, Alice

    2011-01-01

    Action Accounting ‘ Untying the Accountancy Know’ is an innovative cross-faculty collaboration to develop e-learning activities to enhance and improve the learning experiences of students. The cross-faculty Action Accounting project team was established in 2008 and includes accountancy lecturers from the College of Business and the College of Arts and Tourism as well as members of the Learning Support Services and the Learning Teaching & Technology Centre. Accounting lecturers had observed...

  8. Challenges of Environmental Management Accounting ?- Current Accounting Practices

    OpenAIRE

    Prof. Ph.D. Gheorghe Popescu; Prof. Ph.D. Adriana Popescu; Univ. Junior Assistant, PhD Attendant Cristina Raluca Popescu

    2008-01-01

    The goal of our paper is to reduce some of the international confusion generated on such an important topic by providing a general framework and set of definitions for Environmental Management Accounting (EMA). Environmental Management Accounting is a relatively new tool in environmental management defined as the identification, collection, estimation, analysis, internal reporting, and use of materials and energy flow information, environmental cost information, and other cost information for...

  9. Democracy and environment: Rethinking our educational priorities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodlad, Stephen John

    Two groups of scholars have recently pined prominence. Both are concerned about what is taught in America's schools and how it is taught. One group is focused on the need to strengthen a democracy they see as weakening and under attack. A second is concerned about an impending ecological catastrophe. These two concerns are often regarded as separate, unrelated, even conflicting. This paper argues that democracy and environmental issues actually have much in common; that both are fundamentally concerned with relationships and both are threatened in similar ways, for similar reasons. Moreover, if fully and property understood, these two crises can be recognized as mere symptoms of a much deeper crisis of modern, industrialized cultures, which are defined as vast, paradigmatic "super-cultures" that share enough in common that they can be seen as unique in their own right. To address this cultural crisis will require deliberate, widespread intervention. This intervention should begin in our public schools: first, because a major purpose of public education is enculturation. Second, educators have moral and ethical obligations that suggest that such intervention is justified, perhaps even imperative. If public education is to play a proactive role in our cultural evolution, sweeping curricular and pedagogical reforms will be necessary. Cultural issues cannot be separated from other aspects of a curriculum, or set aside as a separate discipline. Therefore fundamental curricular and pedagogical changes will need to be made throughout the entire educational system. Democracy (how we interact with one another) and environment (how we interact with the world around us) ought to form the foundational priorities on which all such reforms rest. An undertaking of this magnitude will encounter a great many obstacles. Some of the most prominent of those obstacles are assessed and serve as broad indicators of certain key areas in which reform efforts might be initiated. Finally

  10. Consistency endangered by FASB-GASB (Financial Accounting Standards Board, Government Accounting Standards Board ) dispute.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garner, M; Grossman, W

    1991-02-01

    The Financial Accounting Foundation's (FAF's) November 1989 decision to uphold the 1984 jurisdictional arrangement between the Financial Accounting Standards Board (FASB) and the Government Accounting Standards Board (GASB) leaves little doubt that the healthcare industry will now be subject to two sets of accounting standards. The FAF's decision created a distinction between the accounting practices of government-owned hospitals and non-hospital governmental entities and their adherence to standards set by FASB, GASB, and the American Institute of Certified Public Accountants. A governmental healthcare organization should carefully determine which accounting rules it follows and remain attentive to further GASB developments. PMID:10145384

  11. Homology Priority Task Scheduling in μC/OS-Ⅱ Real-Time Kernel

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Xibo; ZHOU Benhai; YU Ge; LI Qian

    2007-01-01

    μC/OS- Ⅱ is an open source real-time kernel adopting priority preemptive schedule strategy. Aiming at the problem of μC/OS-Ⅱ failing to support homology priority tasks scheduling,an approach for solution is proposed. The basic idea is adding round-robin scheduling strategy in its original scheduler in order to schedule homology priority tasks through time slice roundrobin. Implementation approach is given in detail. Firstly, the Task Control Block (TCB) is extended. And then, a new priority index table is created, in which each index pointer points to a set of homology priority tasks. Eventually, on the basis of reconstructing μC/OS-Ⅱ real-time kernel, task scheduling module is rewritten.Otherwise, schedulability of homology task supported by modified kernel had been analyzed, and deadline formula of created homology tasks is given. By theoretical analysis and experiment verification, the modified kernel can support homology priority tasks scheduling, meanwhile, it also remains preemptive property of original μC/OS- Ⅱ.

  12. Organization of Financial Accounting

    OpenAIRE

    Шпак, Валентин Аркадійович

    2016-01-01

    Organization of financial accounting that is grounded on principles of financial reporting has been considered. The relation between accounting objects and accounts has been researched. Approaches towards solving problems of organization of financial accounting have been described.

  13. 78 FR 29785 - Priority Mail Pricing

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-21

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office POSTAL REGULATORY COMMISSION Priority Mail Pricing AGENCY: Postal Regulatory Commission. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Commission is....452 percent. Id. at 5. The Postal Service indicates that after the price change, the unused...

  14. U.S. Foreign Policy Priorities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pell, Claiborne

    1983-01-01

    The three highest priorities for American foreign policy are avoiding nuclear war by working with the Soviet leadership to alter our present collision course, demonstrating our commitment to human rights throughout the world, and ensuring American economic prosperity by strengthening exports and ensuring the stability of the international monetary…

  15. 10 CFR 580.03 - Curtailment priorities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... ESSENTIAL AGRICULTURAL USES § 580.03 Curtailment priorities. (a) Notwithstanding any provision of law other... curtailment of deliveries of natural gas for any essential agricultural use, unless: (1) Such curtailment does... practicable and that the fuel is reasonably available as an alternative for such essential agricultural...

  16. 25 CFR 286.8 - Priority criteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Priority criteria. 286.8 Section 286.8 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR ECONOMIC ENTERPRISES INDIAN BUSINESS DEVELOPMENT PROGRAM § 286... that will: (1) Utilize Indian resources, both natural and human. (2) Create the highest ratio of...

  17. Priority environmental investment programme: Development and implementation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Njegovan Zoran M.

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper is created to serve as a methodological base and possible work plan for Assistance in Priority Environmental Investment Programme Development and Implementation in the Republic of Serbia. It will contribute to improved mechanisms for selection of priority environmental investments. Also, the paper should outline a scope of work for technical assistance for Republic of Serbia in developing mechanisms for identifying and selecting priority environmental investments. The main feature of the long-term environmental policy in the Republic of Serbia is absence of integrated approach, which goes hand by hand with the international environmental standards, and lack of efficient economic instruments and regulations. It causes an inadequate technology policy and location of the polluters. Besides that there has been a lack of appropriate environmental monitoring system good enough to provide efficient ex-ante and ex-post protection. It has caused a lot of environmental damages so that a completely new approach in the field of environment is expected to be created out of which the Priority Environmental Investment Programme (PEIP should be a main tool for experience of good environmental governance in the Republic of Serbia as well as in the region of SEE.

  18. Packet models revisited: tandem and priority systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mandjes, M.R.H.

    2004-01-01

    We examine two extensions of traditional single-node packet-scale queueing models: tandem networks and (strict) priority systems. Two generic input processes are considered: periodic and Poisson arrivals. For the two-node tandem, an exact expression is derived for the joint distribution of the total

  19. Packet models revisited: tandem and priority systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.R.H. Mandjes

    2004-01-01

    Abstract : We examine two extensions of traditional single-node packet-scale queueing models: tandem networks and (strict) priority systems. Two generic input processes are considered: periodic and Poisson arrivals. For the two-node tandem, an exact expression is derived for the joint distribution o

  20. Public Opinion Poll on Community Priorities: Sacramento

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sierra Health Foundation, 2009

    2009-01-01

    The primary goal of this study was to measure public perceptions, opinions and priorities as they pertain to youth issues in Sacramento for the purposes of further developing public and private youth programming and public policy in the Sacramento region. By presenting a "statistically reliable" profile of public opinion on youth issues, the…

  1. Priorities in the allocation of scarce resources.

    OpenAIRE

    Boyd, K M; Potter, B T

    1986-01-01

    The authors report and comment on student reactions to a clinical example of moral choice in the microallocation of scarce resources. Four patients require dialysis simultaneously, but only one kidney machine is available. What moral, as opposed to clinical, criteria are available to determine who should have priority?

  2. 48 CFR 8.603 - Purchase priorities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Purchase priorities. 8.603 Section 8.603 Federal Acquisition Regulations System FEDERAL ACQUISITION REGULATION ACQUISITION PLANNING REQUIRED SOURCES OF SUPPLIES AND SERVICES Acquisition From Federal Prison Industries, Inc. 8.603...

  3. 48 CFR 8.704 - Purchase priorities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Purchase priorities. 8.704 Section 8.704 Federal Acquisition Regulations System FEDERAL ACQUISITION REGULATION ACQUISITION PLANNING... Prison Industries, Inc., ordering offices shall purchase supplies and services in the...

  4. 48 CFR 808.603 - Purchase priorities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Purchase priorities. 808.603 Section 808.603 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS COMPETITION AND ACQUISITION PLANNING REQUIRED SOURCES OF SUPPLIES AND SERVICES Acquisition From Federal...

  5. Research Priority of Clinical Linguistics in Iran

    OpenAIRE

    Ahadi

    2016-01-01

    Background Study in clinical linguistics can reflect and requirements of this area, and can contribute to effective and useful changes in this area. Objectives Since there have been a few studies in the field of clinical linguistics in Iran, this research can pave the way to find research priorities of clinical linguistics in our country. Materials and Methods Studies related to l...

  6. Mitigation assessment results and priorities in China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu Zongxin; Wei Zhihong [Tsinghua Univ., Beijing (China)

    1996-12-31

    In this paper energy related CO2 emission projections of China by 2030 are given. CO2 mitigation potential and technology options in main fields of energy conservation and energy substitution are analyzed. CO2 reduction costs of main mitigation technologies are estimated and the AHP approach is used for helping assessment of priority technologies.

  7. Global priorities for marine biodiversity conservation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selig, Elizabeth R; Turner, Will R; Troëng, Sebastian; Wallace, Bryan P; Halpern, Benjamin S; Kaschner, Kristin; Lascelles, Ben G; Carpenter, Kent E; Mittermeier, Russell A

    2014-01-01

    In recent decades, many marine populations have experienced major declines in abundance, but we still know little about where management interventions may help protect the highest levels of marine biodiversity. We used modeled spatial distribution data for nearly 12,500 species to quantify global patterns of species richness and two measures of endemism. By combining these data with spatial information on cumulative human impacts, we identified priority areas where marine biodiversity is most and least impacted by human activities, both within Exclusive Economic Zones (EEZs) and Areas Beyond National Jurisdiction (ABNJ). Our analyses highlighted places that are both accepted priorities for marine conservation like the Coral Triangle, as well as less well-known locations in the southwest Indian Ocean, western Pacific Ocean, Arctic and Antarctic Oceans, and within semi-enclosed seas like the Mediterranean and Baltic Seas. Within highly impacted priority areas, climate and fishing were the biggest stressors. Although new priorities may arise as we continue to improve marine species range datasets, results from this work are an essential first step in guiding limited resources to regions where investment could best sustain marine biodiversity.

  8. Infant Mortality: Priority for Social Work.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Combs-Orme, Terri

    1987-01-01

    Bemoans the failure of the social work profession to claim infant mortality as a professional priority in spite of evidence of the appropriateness of social work interventions. Stresses social work's role in the reduction of preventable infant deaths. (Author/KS)

  9. Current Priorities of Soviet School Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soviet Education, 1981

    1981-01-01

    Six articles discuss top priorities of Soviet education policy. Topics discussed include labor training, revision of the curriculum for the 10-year general education program, quantitative v qualitative demands on the educational system, and extended-day programs for the children of working mothers. (DB)

  10. ENVIRONMENT ACCOUNTING FOR SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT

    OpenAIRE

    Florin Boghean

    2007-01-01

    Economic sustainability or intergenerational equity entails maintaining social well being by decisions about investments in different types of asset. Under certain conditions, consumption can be sustained by depleting resources, or various kinds of natural capital, while building up other kinds of capital. Theoretically, the choices involve the use of a set of accounting prices. The question becomes one of finding and implementing accounting prices that express the roles of the various capita...

  11. Key Nuclear Verification Priorities - Safeguards and Beyond

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In addressing nuclear verification priorities, we should look beyond the current safeguards system. Non-proliferation, which the safeguards system underpins, is not an end in itself, but an essential condition for achieving and maintaining nuclear disarmament. Effective safeguards are essential for advancing disarmament, and safeguards issues, approaches and techniques are directly relevant to the development of future verification missions. The extent to which safeguards challenges are successfully addressed - or otherwise - will impact not only on confidence in the safeguards system, but on the effectiveness of, and confidence in, disarmament verification. To identify the key nuclear verification priorities, we need to consider the objectives of verification, and the challenges to achieving these. The strategic objective of IAEA safeguards might be expressed as: To support the global nuclear non-proliferation regime by: - Providing credible assurance that states are honouring their safeguards commitments - thereby removing a potential motivation to proliferate; and - Early detection of misuse of nuclear material and technology - thereby deterring proliferation by the risk of early detection, enabling timely intervention by the international community. Or to summarise - confidence-building, detection capability, and deterrence. These will also be essential objectives for future verification missions. The challenges to achieving these involve a mix of political, technical and institutional dimensions. Confidence is largely a political matter, reflecting the qualitative judgment of governments. Clearly assessments of detection capability and deterrence have a major impact on confidence. Detection capability is largely thought of as 'technical', but also involves issues of legal authority, as well as institutional issues. Deterrence has both political and institutional aspects - including judgments on risk of detection and risk of enforcement action being taken. The

  12. Social Responsibility of Accounting

    OpenAIRE

    JINNAI, Yoshiaki

    2011-01-01

    Historical and theoretical inquiries into the function of accounting have provided fruitful insights into social responsibility of accounting, which is, and should be, based on accounts kept through everyday accounting activities. However, at the current stage of capitalist accounting, keeping accounts is often regarded as merely a preparatory process for creating financial statements at the end of an accounting period. Thus, discussions on the social responsibility of accounting tend to conc...

  13. Final priority; Rehabilitation Services Administration--Assistive Technology Alternative Financing Program. Final priority.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-08-14

    The Assistant Secretary for Special Education and Rehabilitative Services announces a priority under the Assistive Technology Alternative Financing Program administered by the Rehabilitation Services Administration (RSA). The Assistant Secretary may use this priority for competitions in fiscal year (FY) 2014 and later years. This priority is designed to ensure that the Department funds high-quality assistive technology (AT) alternative financing programs (AFPs) that meet rigorous standards in order to enable individuals with disabilities to access and acquire assistive technology devices and services necessary to achieve education, community living, and employment goals.

  14. Identifying spatial priorities for protecting ecosystem services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luck, Gary W; Chan, Kai Ma; Klien, Carissa J

    2012-01-01

    Priorities for protecting ecosystem services must be identified to ensure future human well-being. Approaches to broad-scale spatial prioritization of ecosystem services are becoming increasingly popular and are a vital precursor to identifying locations where further detailed analyses of the management of ecosystem services is required (e.g., examining trade-offs among management actions). Prioritization approaches often examine the spatial congruence between priorities for protecting ecosystem services and priorities for protecting biodiversity; therefore, the spatial prioritization method used is crucial because it will influence the alignment of service protection and conservation goals. While spatial prioritization of ecosystem services and prioritization for conservation share similarities, such as the need to document threats and costs, the former differs substantially from the latter owing to the requirement to measure the following components: supply of services; availability of human-derived alternatives to service provision; capacity to meet beneficiary demand; and site dependency in and scale of service delivery. We review studies that identify broad-scale spatial priorities for managing ecosystem services and demonstrate that researchers have used different approaches and included various measures for identifying priorities, and most studies do not consider all of the components listed above. We describe a conceptual framework for integrating each of these components into spatial prioritization of ecosystem services and illustrate our approach using a worked example for water provision. A fuller characterization of the biophysical and social context for ecosystem services that we call for should improve future prioritization and the identification of locations where ecosystem-service management is especially important or cost effective. PMID:24555017

  15. Vaccinations for Neuroinfectious Disease: A Global Health Priority.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leibovitch, Emily C; Jacobson, Steven

    2016-07-01

    Vaccines for neuroinfectious diseases are becoming an ever-increasing global health priority, as neurologic manifestations and sequelae from existing and emerging central nervous system infections account for significant worldwide morbidity and mortality. The prevention of neurotropic infections can be achieved through globally coordinated vaccination campaigns, which have successfully eradicated nonzoonotic agents such as the variola viruses and, hopefully soon, poliovirus. This review discusses vaccines that are currently available or under development for zoonotic flaviviruses and alphaviruses, including Japanese and tick-borne encephalitis, yellow fever, West Nile, dengue, Zika, encephalitic equine viruses, and chikungunya. Also discussed are nonzoonotic agents, including measles and human herpesviruses, as well as select bacterial, fungal, and protozoal pathogens. While therapeutic vaccines will be required to treat a multitude of ongoing infections of the nervous system, the ideal vaccination strategy is pre-exposure vaccination, with the ultimate goals of minimizing disease associated with zoonotic viruses and the total eradication of nonzoonotic agents. PMID:27365085

  16. What should be done about policy on alcohol pricing and promotions? Australian experts’ views of policy priorities: a qualitative interview study

    OpenAIRE

    Fogarty, Andrea S.; Chapman, Simon

    2013-01-01

    Background Alcohol policy priorities in Australia have been set by the National Preventative Health Task Force, yet significant reform has not occurred. News media coverage of these priorities has not reported public health experts as in agreement and Government has not acted upon the legislative recommendations made. We investigate policy experts’ views on alcohol policy priorities with a view to establishing levels of accord and providing suggestions for future advocates. Methods We conduct...

  17. IMPACT OF THE PRINCIPLES OF FINANCIAL ACCOUNTING ON THE MANAGEMENT ACCOUNTING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela CREŢU

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The paper studied the impact of the financial accounting principles on the management accounting. There are similarities and differences between the financial accounting and management accounting. The differences are numerous, but in the present paper we are more interested in similarities that are very deep. Not accidentally, in other accounting systems, two types of accounting information form one functional, integrated circuit (accounting monism in U.S.A. or accounting systems of compromise between the accounting monism and dualism. Since there is not only one accounting system, but a set of accounting systems, the accounting principles are not absolute, but relative. This relativity is given by the assumed objectives of the accounting.

  18. Tree sets

    OpenAIRE

    Diestel, Reinhard

    2015-01-01

    We study an abstract notion of tree structure which generalizes tree-decompositions of graphs and matroids. Unlike tree-decompositions, which are too closely linked to graph-theoretical trees, these `tree sets' can provide a suitable formalization of tree structure also for infinite graphs, matroids, or set partitions, as well as for other discrete structures, such as order trees. In this first of two papers we introduce tree sets, establish their relation to graph and order trees, and show h...

  19. A traffic priority language for collision-free navigation of autonomous mobile robots in dynamic environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bourbakis, N G

    1997-01-01

    This paper presents a generic traffic priority language, called KYKLOFORTA, used by autonomous robots for collision-free navigation in a dynamic unknown or known navigation space. In a previous work by X. Grossmman (1988), a set of traffic control rules was developed for the navigation of the robots on the lines of a two-dimensional (2-D) grid and a control center coordinated and synchronized their movements. In this work, the robots are considered autonomous: they are moving anywhere and in any direction inside the free space, and there is no need of a central control to coordinate and synchronize them. The requirements for each robot are i) visual perception, ii) range sensors, and iii) the ability of each robot to detect other moving objects in the same free navigation space, define the other objects perceived size, their velocity and their directions. Based on these assumptions, a traffic priority language is needed for each robot, making it able to decide during the navigation and avoid possible collision with other moving objects. The traffic priority language proposed here is based on a set of primitive traffic priority alphabet and rules which compose pattern of corridors for the application of the traffic priority rules.

  20. ACCOUNTING TREATMENTS USED FOR ACCOUNTING SERVICES PROVIDERS

    OpenAIRE

    ŢOGOE GRETI DANIELA; AVRAM MARIOARA; AVRAM COSTIN DANIEL

    2014-01-01

    The theme of our research is the ways of keeping accounting entities that are the object of the provision of services in the accounting profession. This paper aims to achieve a parallel between the ways of organizing financial records - accounting provided by freelancers and companies with activity in the financial - accounting. The first step in our scientific research is to establish objectives chosen area of scientific knowledge. Our scientific approach seeks to explain thr...

  1. Final priority; National Institute on Disability and Rehabilitation Research--Rehabilitation Engineering Research Centers. Final priority.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-07-01

    The Assistant Secretary for Special Education and Rehabilitative Services announces a priority under the Disability and Rehabilitation Research Projects and Centers Program administered by the National Institute on Disability and Rehabilitation Research (NIDRR). Specifically, we announce a priority for a Rehabilitation Engineering Research Center (RERC) on Improving the Accessibility, Usability, and Performance of Technology for Individuals who are Deaf or Hard of Hearing. The Assistant Secretary may use this priority for competitions in fiscal year (FY) 2014 and later years. We take this action to focus research attention on an area of national need. We intend the priority to contribute to improving the accessibility, usability, and performance of technology for individuals who are deaf or hard of hearing. PMID:25016623

  2. Modified Policy-Delphi study for exploring obesity prevention priorities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haynes, Emily; Palermo, Claire; Reidlinger, Dianne P

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Until now, industry and government stakeholders have dominated public discourse about policy options for obesity. While consumer involvement in health service delivery and research has been embraced, methods which engage consumers in health policy development are lacking. Conflicting priorities have generated ethical concern around obesity policy. The concept of ‘intrusiveness’ has been applied to policy decisions in the UK, whereby ethical implications are considered through level of intrusiveness to choice; however, the concept has also been used to avert government regulation to address obesity. The concept of intrusiveness has not been explored from a stakeholder's perspective. The aim is to investigate the relevance of intrusiveness and autonomy to health policy development, and to explore consensus on obesity policy priorities of under-represented stakeholders. Methods and analysis The Policy-Delphi technique will be modified using the James Lind Alliance approach to collaborative priority setting. A total of 60 participants will be recruited to represent three stakeholder groups in the Australian context: consumers, public health practitioners and policymakers. A three-round online Policy-Delphi survey will be undertaken. Participants will prioritise options informed by submissions to the 2009 Australian Government Inquiry into Obesity, and rate the intrusiveness of those proposed. An additional round will use qualitative methods in a face-to-face discussion group to explore stakeholder perceptions of the intrusiveness of options. The novelty of this methodology will redress the balance by bringing the consumer voice forward to identify ethically acceptable obesity policy options. Ethics and dissemination Ethical approval was granted by the Bond University Health Research Ethics Committee. The findings will inform development of a conceptual framework for analysing and prioritising obesity policy options, which will be relevant

  3. Developing a Framework and Priorities to Promote Mobility among Older Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Lynda A.; Slonim, Amy; Yen, Irene H.; Jones, Dina L.; Allen, Peg; Hunter, Rebecca H.; Goins, R. Turner; Leith, Katherine H.; Rosenberg, Dori; Satariano, William A.; McPhillips-Tangum, Carol

    2014-01-01

    Mobility, broadly defined as movement in all of its forms from ambulation to transportation, is critical to supporting optimal aging. This article describes two projects to develop a framework and a set of priority actions designed to promote mobility among community-dwelling older adults. Project 1 involved a concept-mapping process to solicit…

  4. High priority tank sampling and analysis report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In July 1993, the Defense Nuclear Facilities Board issued Recommendation 93-5 (Conway 1993) which noted that there was insufficient tank waste technical information and the pace to obtain it was too slow to ensure that Hanford Site wastes could be safely stored, that associated operations could be conducted safely, and that future disposal data requirements could be met. In response, the US Department of Energy, in May 1996, issued Revision 1 of the Recommendation 93-5 Implementation Plan (DOE-RL 1996). The Implementation Plan presented a modified approach to achieve the original plan's objectives, concentrating on actions necessary to ensure that wastes can be safely stored, that operations can be safely conducted, and that timely characterization information for the tank waste Disposal Program could be obtained. The Implementation Plan proposed 28 High Priority tanks for near term core sampling and analysis, which along with sampling and analysis of other non-High Priority tanks, could provide the scientific and technical data to confirm assumptions, calibrate models, and.measure safety related phenomenology of the waste. When the analysis results of the High Priority and other-tank sampling were reviewed, it was expected that a series of 12 questions, 9 related to safety issues and 3 related to planning for the disposal process, should be answered allowing key decisions to be made. This report discusses the execution of the Implementation Plan and the results achieved in addressing the questions. Through sampling and analysis, all nine safety related questions have been answered and extensive data for the three disposal planning related questions have been collected, allowing for key decision making. Many more tanks than the original 28 High Priority tanks identified in the Implementation Plan were sampled and analyzed. Twenty-one High Priority tanks and 85 other tanks were core sampled and used to address the questions. Thirty-eight additional tanks were auger

  5. The nuclear safety account and the Chernobyl nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In 1993, the G-7 officially proposed that the European Bank for Reconstruction and Development set up the Nuclear Safety Account (NSA) and act as the Account's secretariat. The Bank's Board of Directors approved this proposal and the Rules of the NSA on 22 March 1993 and the NSA became effective on 14 April 1993. The NSA finances, through grants, operational and near-term technical safety improvements for Soviet-designed nuclear reactors in the countries of the former Soviet Union, central and eastern Europe. Priority is given to those reactors which present the highest level of risk that can be significantly reduced by short-term and cost-effective safety improvements, and which are necessary to ensure the continuing electricity supply in the region. Efforts are therefore focused on WWER 440/230 and RBMK types of reactors and on the purchase of equipment as opposed to studies, which a number of donors already fund. Finance from the NSA is not used to extend the operating lifetime of unsafe reactors

  6. Results of the staff survey: your priorities

    CERN Multimedia

    Staff Association

    2014-01-01

    This is the first in a series of articles which will give some details about the results of the Staff Association staff survey To know your priorities and the evolution of your concerns over the last decade we study how, in each of our latest three surveys, you chose from a list of 15 items the five most important and classified them by assigning them a priority, from the most important to the fifth most important. The list of fifteen items, and a short description, follows. Career evolution (classification, level of recruitment, advancement, promotion) Salary level Family policy (recognition of partners, allowances, school fees, kindergarten, nursery, crèche, parental leave) Health insurance Non-residence and international indemnity Annual salary adjustment (cost variation index) Contract policy (duration, recruitment, award of IC, conditions of the beginning and ending of the contract) Motivation at work (interest, team, supervision, mobility, reward scheme) Pensions (retirement, disability, o...

  7. Priority patient safety issues identified by perioperative nurses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steelman, Victoria M; Graling, Paula R; Perkhounkova, Yelena

    2013-04-01

    Much of the work done by perioperative nurses focuses on patient safety. Perioperative nurses are aware that unreported near misses occur every day, and they use that knowledge to prioritize activities to protect the patient. The purpose of this study was to identify the highest priority patient safety issues reported by perioperative RNs. We sent a link to an anonymous electronic survey to all AORN members who had e-mail addresses in AORN's member database. The survey asked respondents to identify top perioperative patient safety issues. We received 3,137 usable responses and identified the 10 highest priority safety issues, including wrong site/procedure/patient surgery, retained surgical items, medication errors, failures in instrument reprocessing, pressure injuries, specimen management errors, surgical fires, perioperative hypothermia, burns from energy devices, and difficult intubation/airway emergencies. Differences were found among practice settings. The information from this study can be used to inform the development of educational programs and the allocation of resources to enhance safe perioperative patient care. PMID:23531307

  8. QOS by Priority Routing in Internet of Things

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Vithya

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to present a system which uses a new layered network architecture approach for IOT. Sudden and unpredictable large-scale changes are commonly prevalent in Internet of Things (IoT. The images or video data captured from the remote places have to be routed without delay. This is a tumultuous task in large scale. By using an Agents in various wireless networks and the packets are routed depends on the priority. The scope of this study is to avoid delay, interference during transfer of data from various wireless networks. This study deals with (i congestion free data transfer under many cramped networks (ii low processing overhead (iii handling realistic failure scenarios, prioritized traffic in a flexible manner (iv robust to both topology failures and traffic variations. This study presents a QoS routing method, by setting a priority to the networks to differentiate eclectic sensing vicinities in the smart space between sender and receiver.

  9. PRIORITIES FOR EXECUTIVE DEVELOPMENT IN PORTUGAL

    OpenAIRE

    Barañano, Ana Maria

    2002-01-01

    Based on a survey of 206 Portuguese managers enrolled in training courses in the lnstituto Superior de Gestao during the 1999-2000 academic year, this article aims at establishing priorities for executive development in this country by detecting the lacks of knowledge of those managers. The article explores the importance given by the managers to four areas of a manager's role (strategic vision, management tools, managerial skills and emotional capacities) and to several factors used to im...

  10. Space Policy Strategies and Priorities in Russia

    OpenAIRE

    Anastasia Edelkina; Oleg Karasev; Natalia Velikanova

    2015-01-01

    This article explores new innovation policy measures aimed at ongoing transformation of the space industry in Russia. The current implementation of a wide range of state programs and presidential decrees helps to maintain the leading position of Russia in the space industry and expanding international cooperation. The main objective of the paper is to present the principal directions of space policy development in Russia, including its priorities and the tasks to be solved in the short and mi...

  11. Multi-scenario based robust intensity-modulated proton therapy (IMPT) plans can account for set-up errors more effectively in terms of normal tissue sparing than planning target volume (PTV) based intensity-modulated photon plans in the head and neck region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In a previous report, we compared the conformity of robust intensity-modulated proton therapy (IMPT) plans with that of helical tomotherapy plans for re-irradiations of head and neck carcinomas using a fixed set-up error of 2 mm. Here, we varied the maximum set-up errors between 0 and 5 mm and compared the robust IMPT-plans with planning target volume (PTV) based intensity-modulated photon therapy (IMRT). Seven patients were treated with a PTV-based tomotherapy plan. Set-up margins of 0, 2, and 5 mm were subtracted from the PTV to generate target volumes (TV) TV0mm, TV2mm, and TV5mm, for which robust IMPT-plans were created assuming range uncertainties of ±3.5% and using worst case optimization assuming set-up errors of 0, 2, and 5 mm, respectively. Robust optimization makes use of the feature that set-up errors in beam direction alone do not affect the distal and proximal margin for that beam. With increasing set-up errors, the body volumes that were exposed to a selected minimum dose level between 20% and 95% of the prescribed dose decreased. In IMPT-plans with 0 mm set-up error, the exposed body volumes were on average 6.2% ± 0.9% larger than for IMPT-plans with 2 mm set-up error, independent of the considered dose level (p < 0.0001, F-test). In IMPT-plans accounting for 5 mm set-up error, the exposed body volumes were by 11.9% ± 0.8% smaller than for IMPT-plans with 2 mm set-up error at a fixed minimum dose (p < 0.0001, F-test). This set-up error dependence of the normal tissue exposure around the TV in robust IMPT-plans corresponding to the same IMRT-plan led to a decrease in the mean dose to the temporal lobes and the cerebellum, and in the D2% of the brain stem or spinal cord with increasing set-up errors considered during robust IMPT-planning. For recurrent head and neck cancer, robust IMPT-plan optimization led to a decrease in normal tissue exposure with increasing set-up error for target volumes corresponding to the same PTV

  12. Challenges of Environmental Management Accounting –- Current Accounting Practices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prof. Ph.D. Gheorghe Popescu

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The goal of our paper is to reduce some of the international confusion generated on such animportant topic by providing a general framework and set of definitions for Environmental ManagementAccounting (EMA.Environmental Management Accounting is a relatively new tool in environmental management definedas the identification, collection, estimation, analysis, internal reporting, and use of materials and energyflow information, environmental cost information, and other cost information for both conventionaland environmental decision-making within an organization.Due to their special role, accountants, since they are the ones with access to the important monetarydata and information systems needed for management accounting activities, must to improve both theirability to verify the quality of such information and the skills to use that information for decision making.

  13. Information Priority Based Multicast Routing in MANETs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajashekhar

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available The routing efficiency in Mobile Ad Hoc Networks (MANETs suffers from frequent batterydrains, mobility and large variation of received signal strength. Thus, nodes and links in MANETsbecome more vulnerable and unstable. Multicast routing in MANETs for group communication requiresestablishment of reliable links between neighbouring nodes called as reliability pair beginning from thesource and extending such reliability pairs enroute to the destination. If there are multiple paths fromsource to every multicast destination, the reliability of source information may be enhanced by sendinghigher priority information on higher priority path.In this paper, we propose a scheme of Information Priority based Multicast Routing in MANETsusing multiple paths (IPMRM. IPMRM operates in following phases. (1 Reliability pair factorcomputation based on node power level, received differential signal strength between the nodes andmobility. (2 Pruning neighbor nodes that have reliability pair factor lesser than a threshold. (3 Findingmulticast mesh routes with multiple paths to a destination using request and reply packets. (4 Priorityassignment to multiple paths based on minimum value of reliability pair factor of a path and informationtransfer from source to multicast destination. (4 Route maintenance against link failures. The simulationresults for packet delivery ratio and control overhead demonstrate better performance of IPMRM overOn Demand Multicast Routing Protocol (ODMRP and Enhanced ODMRP (EODMRP.

  14. Priority image transmission in wireless sensor networks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The emerging technology during the last years allowed the development of new sensors equipped with wireless communication which can be organized into a cooperative autonomous network. Some application areas for wireless sensor networks (WSNs) are home automations, health care services, military domain, and environment monitoring. The required constraints are limited capacity of processing, limited storage capability, and especially these nodes are limited in energy. In addition, such networks are tiny battery powered which their lifetime is very limited. During image processing and transmission to the destination, the lifetime of sensor network is decreased quickly due to battery and processing power constraints. Therefore, digital image transmissions are a significant challenge for image sensor based Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs). Based on a wavelet image compression, we propose a novel, robust and energy-efficient scheme, called Priority Image Transmission (PIT) in WSN by providing various priority levels during image transmissions. Different priorities in the compressed image are considered. The information for the significant wavelet coeffcients are transmitted with higher quality assurance, whereas relatively less important coefficients are transmitted with lower overhead. Simulation results show that the proposed scheme prolongs the system lifetime and achieves higher energy efficiency in WSN with an acceptable compromise on the image quality.

  15. Eliciting health care priorities in developing countries: experimental evidence from Guatemala

    OpenAIRE

    Costa-Font, Joan; Rovira Forns, Joan; Sato, Azusa

    2016-01-01

    While some methods for eliciting preferences to assist participatory priority setting in health care in developed countries are available, the same is not true for poor communities in developing countries whose preferences are neglected in health policy making. Existing methods grounded on self-interested, monetary valuations that may be inappropriate for developing country settings where community care is provided through ‘social allocation’ mechanisms. This paper proposes and examines an...

  16. The Views of Accounting – Management Relation

    OpenAIRE

    Budacia Lucian Constantin Gabriel

    2010-01-01

    The management’s task is to make decisions, which ensure continued viability of the organization and control the implementation of those decisions. Where accounting (management) enters? It is part of the total information, available to management. It is important to recognize the partial role of accounting. Accounting is only a part of the complex set of information and organizational structures. The role of accounting is to provide relevant financial information within those structures. Rare...

  17. ACCOUNTING TREATMENTS USED FOR ACCOUNTING SERVICES PROVIDERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ŢOGOE GRETI DANIELA

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The theme of our research is the ways of keeping accounting entities that are the object of the provision of services in the accounting profession. This paper aims to achieve a parallel between the ways of organizing financial records - accounting provided by freelancers and companies with activity in the financial - accounting. The first step in our scientific research is to establish objectives chosen area of scientific knowledge. Our scientific approach seeks to explain through a thorough and detailed approach as different sides (conceptual and practical looking projections of accounting issues related to regulatory developments and practices in the field. This paper addresses various concepts, accounting treatments, and books and accounting documents used both freelancers in providing accounting services and legal persons authorized accounting profession. In terms of methodology and research perspective, the whole scientific approach combined with quantitative and qualitative research theoretical perspective (descriptive-conceptual with practice perspective (empirical analyzing the main contributions of various authors (Romanian and foreign to knowledge in the field. Following the survey believe that the amendments to the national legislation will support entities providing accounting services, by cutting red tape on Administrative Burdens, and consequently will increase profitability and increase service quality.

  18. 15 CFR 700.20 - Use of priority ratings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ...) BUREAU OF INDUSTRY AND SECURITY, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE NATIONAL SECURITY INDUSTRIAL BASE REGULATIONS DEFENSE PRIORITIES AND ALLOCATIONS SYSTEM Industrial Priorities for Energy Programs § 700.20 Use of... maintenance of energy facilities....

  19. 15 CFR 700.21 - Application for priority rating authority.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Trade (Continued) BUREAU OF INDUSTRY AND SECURITY, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE NATIONAL SECURITY INDUSTRIAL BASE REGULATIONS DEFENSE PRIORITIES AND ALLOCATIONS SYSTEM Industrial Priorities for Energy Programs... published in 10 CFR part 216....

  20. A Comparison of Tram Priority at Signalized Intersections

    CERN Document Server

    Zhang, Lele

    2013-01-01

    We study tram priority at signalized intersections using a stochastic cellular automaton model for multimodal traffic flow. We simulate realistic traffic signal systems, which include signal linking and adaptive cycle lengths and split plans, with different levels of tram priority. We find that tram priority can improve service performance in terms of both average travel time and travel time variability. We consider two main types of tram priority, which we refer to as full and partial priority. Full tram priority is able to guarantee service quality even when traffic is saturated, however, it results in significant costs to other road users. Partial tram priority significantly reduces tram delays while having limited impact on other traffic, and therefore achieves a better result in terms of the overall network performance. We also study variations in which the tram priority is only enforced when trams are running behind schedule, and we find that those variations retain almost all of the benefit for tram op...

  1. New Federal Cost Accounting Regulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolff, George J.; Handzo, Joseph J.

    1973-01-01

    Discusses a new set of indirect cost accounting procedures which must be followed by school districts wishing to recover any indirect costs of administering federal grants and contracts. Also discusses the amount of indirect costs that may be recovered, computing indirect costs, classifying project costs, and restricted grants. (Author/DN)

  2. Career Expectations of Accounting Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elam, Dennis; Mendez, Francis

    2010-01-01

    The demographic make-up of accounting students is dramatically changing. This study sets out to measure how well the profession is ready to accommodate what may be very different needs and expectations of this new generation of students. Non-traditional students are becoming more and more of a tradition in the current college classroom.…

  3. ABACC's nuclear accounting area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The functions and activities of the Brazilian-Argentine Agency for the Accounting and Control of Nuclear Materials (ABACC) accounting area is outlined together with a detailed description of the nuclear accounting system used by the bilateral organization

  4. Research Priorities on Vulnerability, Impacts and Adaptation: Responding to the Climate Change Challenge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenzweig, C.; Horton, R. M.

    2013-12-01

    A major challenge of the research community is to provide relevant information to policymakers on vulnerability, impacts and adaptation (VIA) in the context of a changing climate, and to do so in a coherent and coordinated way. The Programme of Research on Climate Change Vulnerability, Impacts and Adaptation (PROVIA) aims to respond to this challenge by harmonizing, mobilizing, and communicating the growing knowledgebase on VIA to relevant audiences. PROVIA, in consultation with experts and policymakers, has developed a set of Research Priorities for the global VIA research community, whose activities are primarily carried out by individual researchers and research institutions. The Research Priorities include new and emerging topics as well as topics that have long been recognized as important but for which research is still required. To develop the Research Priorities, input was gathered from expert and policymaker communities through separate solicitation pathways. The expert prioritization of research topics began with a gap analysis based on existing literature. The members of the PROVIA Scientific Steering Committee (SSC) then participated in a two-day Foresight Panel that focused on determining selection criteria for inclusion in the Research Priorities, grouping the research topics into themes, and identifying additional topics. A newly framed list of 54 priority research topics was generated by compiling the SSC selections and updated findings from new literature. This list was distributed as an electronic survey to a broad group of experts in the VIA community. Respondents were asked to score each topic, provide suggestions for additional topics, and offer comments. A research prioritization process with policymakers was developed in parallel with the expert community process described above and included representatives from both developed and developing countries. The rankings of the expert and policymaker processes were then combined, along with an

  5. Broadcast Scheduling Strategy Based on the Priority of Real.Time Data in a Mobile Environment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YangJin-cait; LiuYun-sheng

    2003-01-01

    Data broadcast is an important data dissemination approach in mobile environment. On broadcast channel,scalability and efficiency of data transmission are satisfied. In a mobile environment, there exists a kind of real-time database application in which both the transactions and data can have their timing constraints and priorities of different levels.In order to meet the requirement of real-time data disseminaring and retrieving, a broadcast scheduling strategy HPF-ED F (Highest Priority First with Earlier Deadline and Frequency) is proposed under the BoD (Broadcast on Demand) model. Using the strategy, data items are scheduled according to their priority the transaction imposed on them or system set for them. The strategy also considers other characteristics of data items such as deadline and popularity of data. The extensive simulation experiments have been conducted to evaluate the performance of the proposed algorithm. Results show that it can achieve excellent performance compared with existing strategies.

  6. Priority-rotating DBA with adaptive load balance for reconfigurable WDM/TDM PON

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Weidong; Gan, Chaoqin; Xie, Weilun; Ni, Cuiping

    2015-12-01

    To the wavelength-division multiplexing/time-division multiplexing passive optical network (WDM/TDM PON) architecture that implements wavelength sharing and traffic redirection, a priority-rotating dynamic bandwidth allocation (DBA) algorithm is proposed in this paper. The priority of each ONU is set and rotated to meet the bandwidth demand and guarantee the fairness among optical network units (ONUs). The bandwidth allocation for priority queues is employed to avoid bandwidth monopolization and over-allocation. The bandwidth allocation for high-loaded situation and redirected traffic are discussed to achieve adaptive load balance over wavelengths and among ONUs. The simulation results show a good performance of the proposed algorithm in throughput rate and average packet delay.

  7. System of Strategic Priorities and Indicators of Ecologically Sustainable Subsoil Use

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lebedev Yuriy

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The system of strategic priorities and indicators of ecologically sustainable subsoil use is based on a fundamental basis - biotic regulation and it has a systematic character defined by conceptual, ideological, political and economic levels of management. It also possesses strict priorities and is based on interrelated ecological, economic and social factors, it reflects space-time dynamics of development and subsoil use. The indicators of ecologically sustainable subsoil use are indicators that characterize the change of natural, social and economic environment at different times; they provide qualitative and quantitative characteristic of subsoil use problem. The majority of existing sets of indicators of sustainable subsoil use doesn’t give a complete picture, is weakly connected with each other and no priorities are distinguished among them.

  8. Delphi Accounts Receivable Module

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Transportation — Delphi accounts receivable module contains the following data elements, but are not limited to customer information, cash receipts, line of accounting details, bill...

  9. Priority mitigation measures in non-energy sector in Kazakstan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mizina, S.V.; Pilifosova, O.V.; Gossen, E.F.

    1996-12-31

    Fulfilling the Commitments on UN FCCC through the U.S. Country Studies Program, Kazakstan has developed the national GHG Inventory, vulnerability and adaptation assessment and estimated the possibility of mitigation measures in certain sectors. Next step is developing National Climate Change Action Plan. That process includes such major steps as setting priorities in mitigation measures and technologies, their comprehensive evaluation, preparation implementation strategies, developing the procedure of incorporation of the National Action Plan into other development plans and programs. This paper presents programs and measures that can reduce GHG emissions in non-energy sector. Measures in land-use change and forestry, agriculture and coal mining are considered. Current situation in non-energy sector of Kazakstan is discussed. The amount of GHG emissions reduction and cost analysis presented in this paper was developed with the use of IPCC recommendations.

  10. The recent priorities of radiation protection in the Czech Republic

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Petrova, K.; Drabova, D. [State Office for Nuclear Safety, Prague (Czech Republic)

    2006-07-01

    The radiation protection in Czech Republic is after ten years of the intensive development in the stage when the system is in reliable routine operation guaranteed by the highly developed infrastructure and legislation. Nevertheless the concerns and problems with the different level of the importance could be always identify. The priorities are set up and stepwise handled. Some of them need further discussions also on the international level where the national particular experiences should be reflected and best expressed in the form of the recommendations or guidance. It is obvious that the current challenges of radiation protection will merge more and more into the area of the management and searching of the processes of the effective control under the conditions given by the actual situation and needs. The possibilities of the society and interest of different stakeholders will play important role. (authors)

  11. Towards ecosystem accounting: a comprehensive approach to modelling multiple hydrological ecosystem services

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Duku

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Ecosystem accounting is an emerging field that aims to provide a consistent approach to analysing environment-economy interactions. In spite of the progress made in mapping and quantifying hydrological ecosystem services, several key issues must be addressed if ecohydrological modelling approaches are to be aligned with ecosystem accounting. They include modelling hydrological ecosystem services with adequate spatiotemporal detail and accuracy at aggregated scales to support ecosystem accounting, distinguishing between service capacity and service flow, and linking ecohydrological processes to the supply of dependent hydrological ecosystem services. We present a spatially explicit approach, which is consistent with ecosystem accounting, for mapping and quantifying service capacity and service flow of multiple hydrological ecosystem services. A grid-based setup of a modified Soil Water and Assessment Tool (SWAT, SWAT Landscape, is first used to simulate the watershed ecohydrology. Model outputs are then post-processed to map and quantify hydrological ecosystem services and to set up biophysical ecosystem accounts. Trend analysis statistical tests are conducted on service capacity accounts to track changes in the potential to provide service flows. Ecohydrological modelling to support ecosystem accounting requires appropriate decisions regarding model process inclusion, physical and mathematical representation, spatial heterogeneity, temporal resolution, and model accuracy. We demonstrate this approach in the Upper Ouémé watershed in Benin. Our analyses show that integrating hydrological ecosystem services in an ecosystem accounting framework provides relevant information on ecosystems and hydrological ecosystem services at appropriate scales suitable for decision-making. Our analyses further identify priority areas important for maintaining hydrological ecosystem services as well as trends in hydrological ecosystem services supply over time.

  12. A decision-making tool for exchange transfusions in infants with severe hyperbilirubinemia in resource-limited settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olusanya, B O; Iskander, I F; Slusher, T M; Wennberg, R P

    2016-05-01

    Late presentation and ineffective phototherapy account for excessive rates of avoidable exchange transfusions (ETs) in many low- and middle-income countries. Several system-based constraints sometimes limit the ability to provide timely ETs for all infants at risk of kernicterus, thus necessitating a treatment triage to optimize available resources. This article proposes a practical priority-setting model for term and near-term infants requiring ET after the first 48 h of life. The proposed model combines plasma/serum bilirubin estimation, clinical signs of acute bilirubin encephalopathy and neurotoxicity risk factors for predicting the risk of kernicterus based on available evidence in the literature. PMID:26938921

  13. [Priority pollutants ranking and screening of coke industry based on USEtox model].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hao, Tian; Du, Peng-Fei; Du, Bin; Zeng, Si-Yu

    2014-01-01

    Thesis aims at evaluating and setting priority to human toxicity and ecotoxicity of coking pollutants. A field research and sampling project are conducted in coke plant in Shanxi so as to complete the coke emission inventory. The USEtox model representing recommended practice in LCIA characterization is applied to the emission inventory to quantify the potential impacts on human toxicity and ecotoxicity of emerging pollutants. Priority pollutants, production procedures and effects of changing plant site on the toxicity are analyzed. As conclusions, benzo(a) pyrene, benzene, Zn and As are identified as the priority pollutants in human toxicity, while pyrene and anthracene in ecotoxicity. Coal charging is the dominant procedure for organic toxicity and priority pollutants include benzo (a) pyrene, benzene, naphthalene, etc. While coke drenching is the dominant procedure for metal toxicity and priority pollutants include Zn, As, Ti, Hg etc. Emission to rural environment can reduce the organic toxicity significantly compared to the emission to urban environment. However, the site changing has no effect on metal toxicity and might increase the risk of the metal pollution to rural water and soil. PMID:24720220

  14. Just care: should doctors give priority to patients of low socioeconomic status?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hurst, S A

    2009-01-01

    Growing data on the socioeconomic determinants of health pose a challenge to analysis and application of fairness in health. In Just health: meeting health needs fairly, Norman Daniels argues for a change in the population end of our thinking about just health. What about clinical care? Given our knowledge of the importance of wealth, education or social status to health, is fairness in medicine served better by continuing to avoid considering our patients' social status in setting clinical priorities, or by attempting to equalise existing health inequalities by giving priority to the socioeconomically disadvantaged at the point of care? In this article, I argue that doctors should not attempt the latter. Granted, giving priority to low status would go some way towards compensating unjust health inequalities and the impression of being left aside in other social spaces. It would represent reverse discrimination, but could still be justified inasmuch as disadvantaged groups could be identifiable, and as long as the intent was compensation rather than retribution. However, under current circumstances such priority would risk being attributed arbitrarily, would represent a form of medical proselytising, risk leaving the worst-off with less by alienating the powerful, and require teaching doctors to act in strongly counter-cultural ways--possibly at great cost. Crucially, however, we protect both equal health and equal regard by treating all alike: priority to low status would promote the first somewhat, but at the expense of sacrificing the second. PMID:19103935

  15. Managing Asthma in the Early Childhood Setting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graville, Iris

    2011-01-01

    Asthma, one of the most common chronic disorders in childhood, affects more than seven million children in the United States, and is the third leading cause of hospitalization for children. Statistics like these make planning and preparing for asthma in the early childhood setting a high priority. With the high rates of asthma in the U.S. today,…

  16. Sundhedsfremmende settings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Magne, Jeanette

    2012-01-01

    Dette kapitel giver en indføring i settingsperspektivet i sundhedsfremme og et indblik i anvendelsen af begrebet ’settings for sundhedsfremme’ i en sundhedspædagogisk sammenhæng. Kapitlet viser, hvordan elementer i de miljøer og kontekster, som mennesker tager del i i dagligdagen, har betydning for...... sundhed. Disse miljøer, også kaldet settings, kan være skoler, hospitaler, arbejdspladser, uddannelsesinstitutioner og lokalområder eller andre steder, hvor mennesker lever deres hverdagsliv. På grundlag af kapitlet kan læseren: • få indsigt i sundhedens forskellige determinanter og dermed mulighed for...... kritisk at vurdere grundlaget for sundhedspædagogisk intervention • reflektere settingsperspektivet i sundhedsfremme som et teoretisk skifte fra at se sundhed som bundet til individuel risikoadfærd til at anskue settings som komplekse fænomener med afgørende betydning for medlemmernes sundhed – uanset...

  17. Social accounting and social audit in the UK

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Spear, Roger

    2010-01-01

    There are many different types of evaluation. But evaluative frameworks are becoming increasingly elaborated: accountancy frameworks to include social/environmental accounting; public sector priorities now objectified and measurable with advent of NPM. Thus social economy organisations...... are increasingly required to play this game. But the way they need to play it is conditioned by the sector they operate within and the governance systems that operate therein; and taking a resource dependency view, by the resources that they are most concerned with acquiring....

  18. Supporting phosphorus management in Austria: Potential, priorities and limitations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zoboli, Ottavia; Zessner, Matthias; Rechberger, Helmut

    2016-09-15

    Protecting water bodies from eutrophication, ensuring long-term food security and shifting to a circular economy represent compelling objectives to phosphorus management strategies. This study determines how and to which extent the management of phosphorus in Austria can be optimized. A detailed national model, obtained for the year 2013 through Material Flow Analysis, represents the reference situation. Applicability and limitations are discussed for a range of actions aimed at reducing consumption, increasing recycling, and lowering emissions. The potential contribution of each field of action is quantified and compared using three indicators: Import dependency, Consumption of fossil-P fertilizers and Emissions to water bodies. Further, the uncertainty of this assessment is characterized and priorities for the upgrade of data collection are identified. Moreover, all the potential gains discussed in the article are applied to the reference situation to generate an ideal target model. The results show that in Austria a large scope for phosphorus stewardship exists. Strategies based exclusively either on recycling or on the decline of P consumption hold a similar potential to reduce import dependency by 50% each. An enhanced P recycling from meat and bone meal, sewage sludge and compost could replace the current use of fossil-P fertilizers by 70%. The target model, i.e. the maximum that could be achieved taking into account trade-offs between different actions, is characterized by an extremely low import dependency of 0.23kgPcap(-1)y(-1) (2.2kgPcap(-1)y(-1) in 2013), by a 28% decline of emissions to water bodies and by null consumption of fossil-P fertilizers. This case study shows the added value of using Material Flow Analysis as a basis to design sound management strategies. The systemic approach inherent to it allows performing a proper comparative assessment of different actions, identifying priorities, and visualizing a target model. PMID:27177138

  19. Range-wide network of priority areas for greater sage-grouse - a design for conserving connected distributions or isolating individual zoos?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crist, Michele R.; Knick, Steven T.; Hanser, Steven E.

    2015-09-08

    The network of areas delineated in 11 Western States for prioritizing management of greater sage-grouse (Centrocercus urophasianus) represents a grand experiment in conservation biology and reserve design. We used centrality metrics from social network theory to gain insights into how this priority area network might function. The network was highly centralized. Twenty of 188 priority areas accounted for 80 percent of the total centrality scores. These priority areas, characterized by large size and a central location in the range-wide distribution, are strongholds for greater sage-grouse populations and also might function as sources. Mid-ranking priority areas may serve as stepping stones because of their location between large central and smaller peripheral priority areas. The current network design and conservation strategy has risks. The contribution of almost one-half (n = 93) of the priority areas combined for less than 1 percent of the cumulative centrality scores for the network. These priority areas individually are likely too small to support viable sage-grouse populations within their boundary. Without habitat corridors to connect small priority areas either to larger priority areas or as a clustered group within the network, their isolation could lead to loss of sage-grouse within these regions of the network. 

  20. Forecaster priorities for improving probabilistic flood forecasts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wetterhall, Fredrik; Pappenberger, Florian; Alfieri, Lorenzo; Cloke, Hannah; Thielen, Jutta

    2014-05-01

    Hydrological ensemble prediction systems (HEPS) have in recent years been increasingly used for the operational forecasting of floods by European hydrometeorological agencies. The most obvious advantage of HEPS is that more of the uncertainty in the modelling system can be assessed. In addition, ensemble prediction systems generally have better skill than deterministic systems both in the terms of the mean forecast performance and the potential forecasting of extreme events. Research efforts have so far mostly been devoted to the improvement of the physical and technical aspects of the model systems, such as increased resolution in time and space and better description of physical processes. Developments like these are certainly needed; however, in this paper we argue that there are other areas of HEPS that need urgent attention. This was also the result from a group exercise and a survey conducted to operational forecasters within the European Flood Awareness System (EFAS) to identify the top priorities of improvement regarding their own system. They turned out to span a range of areas, the most popular being to include verification of an assessment of past forecast performance, a multi-model approach for hydrological modelling, to increase the forecast skill on the medium range (>3 days) and more focus on education and training on the interpretation of forecasts. In light of limited resources, we suggest a simple model to classify the identified priorities in terms of their cost and complexity to decide in which order to tackle them. This model is then used to create an action plan of short-, medium- and long-term research priorities with the ultimate goal of an optimal improvement of EFAS in particular and to spur the development of operational HEPS in general.

  1. Spatial access priority mapping (SAPM with fishers: a quantitative GIS method for participatory planning.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katherine L Yates

    Full Text Available Spatial management tools, such as marine spatial planning and marine protected areas, are playing an increasingly important role in attempts to improve marine management and accommodate conflicting needs. Robust data are needed to inform decisions among different planning options, and early inclusion of stakeholder involvement is widely regarded as vital for success. One of the biggest stakeholder groups, and the most likely to be adversely impacted by spatial restrictions, is the fishing community. In order to take their priorities into account, planners need to understand spatial variation in their perceived value of the sea. Here a readily accessible, novel method for quantitatively mapping fishers' spatial access priorities is presented. Spatial access priority mapping, or SAPM, uses only basic functions of standard spreadsheet and GIS software. Unlike the use of remote-sensing data, SAPM actively engages fishers in participatory mapping, documenting rather than inferring their priorities. By so doing, SAPM also facilitates the gathering of other useful data, such as local ecological knowledge. The method was tested and validated in Northern Ireland, where over 100 fishers participated in a semi-structured questionnaire and mapping exercise. The response rate was excellent, 97%, demonstrating fishers' willingness to be involved. The resultant maps are easily accessible and instantly informative, providing a very clear visual indication of which areas are most important for the fishers. The maps also provide quantitative data, which can be used to analyse the relative impact of different management options on the fishing industry and can be incorporated into planning software, such as MARXAN, to ensure that conservation goals can be met at minimum negative impact to the industry. This research shows how spatial access priority mapping can facilitate the early engagement of fishers and the ready incorporation of their priorities into the

  2. Spatial access priority mapping (SAPM) with fishers: a quantitative GIS method for participatory planning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yates, Katherine L; Schoeman, David S

    2013-01-01

    Spatial management tools, such as marine spatial planning and marine protected areas, are playing an increasingly important role in attempts to improve marine management and accommodate conflicting needs. Robust data are needed to inform decisions among different planning options, and early inclusion of stakeholder involvement is widely regarded as vital for success. One of the biggest stakeholder groups, and the most likely to be adversely impacted by spatial restrictions, is the fishing community. In order to take their priorities into account, planners need to understand spatial variation in their perceived value of the sea. Here a readily accessible, novel method for quantitatively mapping fishers' spatial access priorities is presented. Spatial access priority mapping, or SAPM, uses only basic functions of standard spreadsheet and GIS software. Unlike the use of remote-sensing data, SAPM actively engages fishers in participatory mapping, documenting rather than inferring their priorities. By so doing, SAPM also facilitates the gathering of other useful data, such as local ecological knowledge. The method was tested and validated in Northern Ireland, where over 100 fishers participated in a semi-structured questionnaire and mapping exercise. The response rate was excellent, 97%, demonstrating fishers' willingness to be involved. The resultant maps are easily accessible and instantly informative, providing a very clear visual indication of which areas are most important for the fishers. The maps also provide quantitative data, which can be used to analyse the relative impact of different management options on the fishing industry and can be incorporated into planning software, such as MARXAN, to ensure that conservation goals can be met at minimum negative impact to the industry. This research shows how spatial access priority mapping can facilitate the early engagement of fishers and the ready incorporation of their priorities into the decision-making process

  3. Absolute Priority for a Vehicle in VANET

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shirani, Rostam; Hendessi, Faramarz; Montazeri, Mohammad Ali; Sheikh Zefreh, Mohammad

    In today's world, traffic jams waste hundreds of hours of our life. This causes many researchers try to resolve the problem with the idea of Intelligent Transportation System. For some applications like a travelling ambulance, it is important to reduce delay even for a second. In this paper, we propose a completely infrastructure-less approach for finding shortest path and controlling traffic light to provide absolute priority for an emergency vehicle. We use the idea of vehicular ad-hoc networking to reduce the imposed travelling time. Then, we simulate our proposed protocol and compare it with a centrally controlled traffic light system.

  4. Kenya : Accounting and Auditing

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank

    2001-01-01

    This report assesses accounting and auditing practices in Kenya in relation to the requirements of the International Accounting Standards (IASs) issued by the International Accounting Standards Board (IASB), and the International Standards on Auditing (ISAs) issued by the International Federation of Accountants (IFAC). The report addresses the institutional capacity needed to ensure compli...

  5. National accounting and capital

    OpenAIRE

    John M. Hartwick

    2012-01-01

    National Accounting and Capital presents definitive solutions to current problems in national accounting practice. Professor Hartwick deals expertly with problems in accounting natural capital, financial capital and skills capital and communicates his solutions in specially designed national accounting tables or matrices.

  6. Setting Objectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elkins, Aaron J.

    1977-01-01

    The author questions the extent to which educators have relied on "relevance" and learner participation in objective-setting in the past decade. He describes a useful approach to learner-oriented evaluation in which content relevance was not judged by participants until after they had been exposed to it. (MF)

  7. Final Priority. Rehabilitation Training: Vocational Rehabilitation Workforce Innovation Technical Assistance Center. Final priority.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-08-13

    The Assistant Secretary for Special Education and Rehabilitative Services announces a priority under the Rehabilitation Training program. The Assistant Secretary may use this priority for competitions in fiscal year 2015 and later years. We take this action to provide training and technical assistance to State vocational rehabilitation agencies to improve services under the State Vocational Rehabilitation Services program and State Supported Employment Services program for individuals with disabilities, including those with the most significant disabilities, and to implement changes to the Rehabilitation Act of 1973, as amended by the Workforce Innovation and Opportunity Act (WIOA), signed into law on July 22, 2014. PMID:26292366

  8. THE INFLUENCE OF ACCOUNTANCY ERRORS ON FINANCIAL AND TAX REPORTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariana GURĂU

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available To make mistakes is human. An accountant may do mistakes, too. Accountancy errors are defined and classsified by accounting regulations. These set what is the accountant treatment for correcting accountancy errors. However, even though one of the objectives in accounting normalization is made by the disconnection between accountancy and taxation, the accountancy errors influence especially tax reports. We will further point the impact of accountancy errors on financial and tax reports. We will also approach the accountancy principles that impose the rules described for correcting the errors.

  9. ACCOUNTING SERVICES MANAGEMENT

    OpenAIRE

    Elena Ioniță

    2012-01-01

    Accounting services are mainly used by small or medium-sized companies that do not have their own accounting departments, records being performed by specialized firms which cater to several customers. The role of accounting is to provide a series of information necessary to back up significant decisions. Thus, the information provided by the accounting service are the basis of the decision making process both inside and outside the company. Accounting has to be understood as an information sy...

  10. Assessing in financial account

    OpenAIRE

    VACKOVÁ, Lenka

    2008-01-01

    The aim of this thesis is to define possibilities of valuation and their impacts on the function of accounting. Furthermore the comparison of valuation methods within the czech accounting standards with international standards (IAS/IFRS). Valuation is metodical element which has huge influence on use value of information provided by accounting system. It affects the predicative capability of accounting information, mainly the items in accounting document. Monetary expression of company assets...

  11. Fraudulent activities in accounting

    OpenAIRE

    Fábriová, Kristína

    2014-01-01

    This thesis is focused on fraudulent activities in accounting. The aim of this thesis is to analyze current cases of accounting fraud and examine motives for committing accounting fraud, identify methods used by companies to commit accounting fraud and reasons why these fraud cases were not revealed sooner. The thesis is divided into two parts -- theoretical and practical. First part provides theoretical introduction to the topic of fraudulent activities in accounting and describes various me...

  12. Accounting Regulation in Ukraine

    OpenAIRE

    Hora, Michal; Chyzevska, Ludmila

    2013-01-01

    The aim of the paper is to evaluate the regulation and organization of accounting in Ukraine under the changes in the national economic system development and impact of IFRS implementation. The system of legal regulation of accounting in Ukraine is presented by five levels, each comprised of a number of corresponding subjects of regulation and documents. Typical Chart of Accounts is evidence of the continental accounting model in Ukraine. The accounting standards provide freedom of choice as ...

  13. Analysis of Critical Earth Observation Priorities for Societal Benefit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zell, E. R.; Huff, A. K.; Carpenter, A. T.; Friedl, L.

    2011-12-01

    To ensure that appropriate near real-time (NRT) and historical Earth observation data are available to benefit society and meet end-user needs, the Group on Earth Observations (GEO) sponsored a multi-disciplinary study to identify a set of critical and common Earth observations associated with 9 Societal Benefit Areas (SBAs): Agriculture, Biodiversity, Climate, Disasters, Ecosystems, Energy, Health, Water, and Weather. GEO is an intergovernmental organization working to improve the availability, access, and use of Earth observations to benefit society through a Global Earth Observation System of Systems (GEOSS). The study, overseen by the GEO User Interface Committee, focused on the "demand" side of Earth observation needs: which users need what types of data, and when? The methodology for the study was a meta-analysis of over 1,700 publicly available documents addressing Earth observation user priorities, under the guidance of expert advisors from around the world. The result was a ranking of 146 Earth observation parameters that are critical and common to multiple SBAs, based on an ensemble of 4 statistically robust methods. Within the results, key details emerged on NRT observations needed to serve a broad community of users. The NRT observation priorities include meteorological parameters, vegetation indices, land cover and soil property observations, water body and snow cover properties, and atmospheric composition. The results of the study and examples of NRT applications will be presented. The applications are as diverse as the list of priority parameters. For example, NRT meteorological and soil moisture information can support monitoring and forecasting for more than 25 infectious diseases, including epidemic diseases, such as malaria, and diseases of major concern in the U.S., such as Lyme disease. Quickly evolving events that impact forests, such as fires and insect outbreaks, can be monitored and forecasted with a combination of vegetation indices, fuel

  14. Adjusting the accounting policies content at engineering repair facilities in respect of their income account

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alla A. Balan

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available At the present stage of economic development income represents one of the most important indicators of an enterprise’s activity, that indicator being of interest both for external and internal users. The study of income accounting arrangement is a priority task. Its goal consists in synthesis and analysis of theoretical methodological principles of income accounting with elaboration of proposals for its improvement at repair service facilities. Such study scientific significance relates to identifying a united development strategy as to the repair facilities revenues accounting system meanwhile its practical significance referring to the elaboration of measures to improve the enterprise’s income accounting system. This study methodological basis departs from Accounting Regulatory standard Art. 15 “Revenue”, its methodological principles, IAS 18 “Revenue” and Internal Revenue Code of Ukraine. The research key issue targets onto adjusting the content of revenues accounting policies at repair service facilities with introduction of additional analytical accounts for subaccount 703 “Revenue from goods and services sales”. The obtained results can be used to improve repair facilities income accounting system and improve the efficiency of activity accounting.

  15. Community accountability at peripheral health facilities: a review of the empirical literature and development of a conceptual framework.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molyneux, Sassy; Atela, Martin; Angwenyi, Vibian; Goodman, Catherine

    2012-10-01

    Public accountability has re-emerged as a top priority for health systems all over the world, and particularly in developing countries where governments have often failed to provide adequate public sector services for their citizens. One approach to strengthening public accountability is through direct involvement of clients, users or the general public in health delivery, here termed 'community accountability'. The potential benefits of community accountability, both as an end in itself and as a means of improving health services, have led to significant resources being invested by governments and non-governmental organizations. Data are now needed on the implementation and impact of these initiatives on the ground. A search of PubMed using a systematic approach, supplemented by a hand search of key websites, identified 21 papers from low- or middle-income countries describing at least one measure to enhance community accountability that was linked with peripheral facilities. Mechanisms covered included committees and groups (n = 19), public report cards (n = 1) and patients' rights charters (n = 1). In this paper we summarize the data presented in these papers, including impact, and factors influencing impact, and conclude by commenting on the methods used, and the issues they raise. We highlight that the international interest in community accountability mechanisms linked to peripheral facilities has not been matched by empirical data, and present a conceptual framework and a set of ideas that might contribute to future studies. PMID:22279082

  16. Constructive Sets in Computable Sets

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    傅育熙

    1997-01-01

    The original interpretation of the constructive set theory CZF in Martin-Loef's type theory uses the‘extensional identity types’.It is generally believed that these‘types’do not belong to type theory.In this paper it will be shown that the interpretation goes through without identity types.This paper will also show that the interpretation can be given in an intensional type theory.This reflects the computational nature of the interpretation.This computational aspect is reinforced by an ω-Set moel of CZF.

  17. Conservation priorities of Iberoamerican pig breeds and their ancestors based on microsatellite information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cortés, O; Martinez, A M; Cañon, J; Sevane, N; Gama, L T; Ginja, C; Landi, V; Zaragoza, P; Carolino, N; Vicente, A; Sponenberg, P; Delgado, J V

    2016-07-01

    Criollo pig breeds are descendants from pigs brought to the American continent starting with Columbus second trip in 1493. Pigs currently play a key role in social economy and community cultural identity in Latin America. The aim of this study was to establish conservation priorities among a comprehensive group of Criollo pig breeds based on a set of 24 microsatellite markers and using different criteria. Spain and Portugal pig breeds, wild boar populations of different European geographic origins and commercial pig breeds were included in the analysis as potential genetic influences in the development of Criollo pig breeds. Different methods, differing in the weight given to within- and between-breed genetic variability, were used in order to estimate the contribution of each breed to global genetic diversity. As expected, the partial contribution to total heterozygosity gave high priority to Criollo pig breeds, whereas Weitzman procedures prioritized Iberian Peninsula breeds. With the combined within- and between-breed approaches, different conservation priorities were achieved. The Core Set methodologies highly prioritized Criollo pig breeds (Cr. Boliviano, Cr. Pacifico, Cr. Cubano and Cr. Guadalupe). However, weighing the between- and within-breed components with FST and 1-FST, respectively, resulted in higher contributions of Iberian breeds. In spite of the different conservation priorities according to the methodology used, other factors in addition to genetic information also need to be considered in conservation programmes, such as the economic, cultural or historical value of the breeds involved. PMID:27025169

  18. Priority of areas for agricultural countermeasure assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Within the overall preparedness related to nuclear and/or radiological accidents that lead to the release of radionuclides to the environment with the consequent contamination of agricultural areas, the priority of research for agricultural areas should then focus on the surrounding areas of nuclear power plants that have higher probability of public exposure through the ingestion pathway. The objective of this work was to create a rank order of priority of agricultural products to be considered in assessing the effects of countermeasures, based on both economic value and doses to the public. Additionally, the study describes relevant needs of radioecological studies to improve short and long-terms dose assessments. . Sixteen municipalities surrounding the Brazilian Nuclear Power Central were analyzed for a contamination with 137Cs, considering seasonal aspects related to agricultural practices in the Southeastern Brazil. Rank order provided by considering economical aspects shows that there is a need for radioecological research for some high value products, such as palmetto and sugar cane, and the need to include in the current model more detailed description for some food items, such as eggs. Combined rank criteria shows that main product within the considered area is milk. As so, the study of countermeasures for the ingestion of milk should be prioritized. (authors)

  19. Implementation of outline software for priority management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, P.E.

    1989-01-01

    No matter what your profession, most busy days require that you juggle priorities -- especially when an unexpected occurrence changes your plans. In spite of such priority juggling, relatively few people use computers to help them to decide on which job to do next. Such lack of this computer application is of no surprise. Consider that the human brain has a 100 billion-cell capacity. Each neuron of the brain is capable of receiving 100,000 or more signals. It is easy to understand, then, why such a powerful organizing and memory system is so apt with notebook, yellow stickies, or pad and pencil. But if you are responsible for the status or progress of as many as 25 to 200 or more jobs on a given day, then a computer with outliner software could be one of your most useful tools. Some trees in the work-jungle change overnight. Outliner software can help you to keep track of such changes that beget changes, seemingly without end. 14 figs.

  20. Future priorities for a successful dental school.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ranney, R R

    1999-01-01

    Priorities for success for a dental school of the future are considered. University relations, demographic changes, digital information technology and functional genetic technology are emphasised as important environmental pressures that will influence the priorities. The goal advocated for university relations is creating a culture in which the dental school is viewed as integral and necessary to the University's mission. Financial stability, quality research and scholarship and provision of health care for employees may be important ingredients. Keeping an eye on demographic changes and taking the school's business where the customers are is another key to success in the future. Ethnic diversity, changing approaches with changing disease patterns, flexibility in schedule and collaborations in areas of need are strategies to be considered. The emerging field of functional genetics typifies a new biology with which currency will be needed in a health-sciences field. Necessity for faculty development, adoption of molecular diagnostic technologies, emphasis on risk assessment and preventive counselling, and a shift to a wellness model are likely consequences. Digital information technology will result in increased distance-learning opportunity. Dental schools will also need to make accommodating changes in curriculum structure available. Conversion to electronic imaging and totally electronic patient records are likely to become standard. PMID:10865371

  1. The Commercial Market For Priority Review Vouchers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ridley, David B; Régnier, Stephane A

    2016-05-01

    In 2007 the US Congress created the priority review voucher program to encourage the development of drugs for neglected diseases. Under the program, the developer of a drug that treats a neglected disease receives both a faster review of the drug by the Food and Drug Administration and a voucher for a faster review of a different drug. The developer can sell the voucher. We estimated the commercial value of the voucher using US sales of new treatments approved in the period 2007-09. A third of the commercial value of a voucher comes from capturing market share from competitors, nearly half from the value of earlier sales because of the expedited review, and less than a quarter from lengthening the time between approval and the launch of a generic competitor. We estimate that if only one priority review voucher is available in a year, it will be worth more than $200 million, but if four vouchers are available, the value could fall below $100 million. Congress should be cautious about expanding the voucher program, because increasing the number of vouchers sharply decreases the expected price. Lower voucher prices could undermine the incentive to develop new medicines for neglected diseases. PMID:27140982

  2. The Commercial Market For Priority Review Vouchers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ridley, David B; Régnier, Stephane A

    2016-05-01

    In 2007 the US Congress created the priority review voucher program to encourage the development of drugs for neglected diseases. Under the program, the developer of a drug that treats a neglected disease receives both a faster review of the drug by the Food and Drug Administration and a voucher for a faster review of a different drug. The developer can sell the voucher. We estimated the commercial value of the voucher using US sales of new treatments approved in the period 2007-09. A third of the commercial value of a voucher comes from capturing market share from competitors, nearly half from the value of earlier sales because of the expedited review, and less than a quarter from lengthening the time between approval and the launch of a generic competitor. We estimate that if only one priority review voucher is available in a year, it will be worth more than $200 million, but if four vouchers are available, the value could fall below $100 million. Congress should be cautious about expanding the voucher program, because increasing the number of vouchers sharply decreases the expected price. Lower voucher prices could undermine the incentive to develop new medicines for neglected diseases.

  3. TB and HIV Therapeutics: Pharmacology Research Priorities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kelly E. Dooley

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available An unprecedented number of investigational drugs are in the development pipeline for the treatment of tuberculosis. Among patients with tuberculosis, co-infection with HIV is common, and concurrent treatment of tuberculosis and HIV is now the standard of care. To ensure that combinations of anti-tuberculosis drugs and antiretrovirals are safe and are tested at doses most likely to be effective, selected pharmacokinetic studies based on knowledge of their metabolic pathways and their capacity to induce or inhibit metabolizing enzymes of companion drugs must be conducted. Drug interaction studies should be followed up by evaluations in larger populations to evaluate safety and pharmacodynamics more fully. Involving patients with HIV in trials of TB drugs early in development enhances the knowledge gained from the trials and will ensure that promising new tuberculosis treatments are available to patients with HIV as early as possible. In this review, we summarize current and planned pharmacokinetic and drug interaction studies involving investigational and licensed tuberculosis drugs and antiretrovirals and suggest priorities for tuberculosis-HIV pharmacokinetic, pharmacodynamic, and drug-drug interaction studies for the future. Priority studies for children and pregnant women with HIV and tuberculosis co-infection are briefly discussed.

  4. Public Health Challenges and Priorities for Kazakhstan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Altyn Aringazina

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The Republic of Kazakhstan is one of the largest and fastest growing post-Soviet economies in Central Asia. Despite recent improvements in health care in response to Kazakhstan 2030 and other state-mandated policy reforms, Kazakhstan still lags behind other members of the Commonwealth of Independent States of the European Region on key indicators of health and economic development. Although cardiovascular diseases are the leading cause of mortality among adults, HIV/AIDS, tuberculosis, and blood-borne infectious diseases are of increasing public health concern. Recent data suggest that while Kazakhstan has improved on some measures of population health status, many environmental and public health challenges remain. These include the need to improve public health infrastructure, address the social determinants of health, and implement better health impact assessments to inform health policies and public health practice. In addition, more than three decades after the Declaration of Alma-Ata, which was adopted at the International Conference on Primary Health Care convened in Kazakhstan in 1978, facilitating population-wide lifestyle and behavioral change to reduce risk factors for chronic and communicable diseases, as well as injuries, remains a high priority for emerging health care reforms and the new public health. This paper reviews the current public health challenges in Kazakhstan and describes five priorities for building public health capacity that are now being developed and undertaken at the Kazakhstan School of Public Health to strengthen population health in the country and the Central Asian Region.

  5. INNOVATION IN ACCOUNTING BIOLOGIC ASSETS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stolуarova M. A.

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The article describes the innovations in the classification and measurement of biological assets according to IFRS (IAS 41 "Agriculture". The difficulties faced by agricultural producers using standard, set out in article. The classification based on the adopted amendments, according to which the fruit-bearing plants, previously accounted for as biological assets are measured at fair value are included in the category of fixed assets. The structure of biological assets and main means has been studied in trials. Changes made to the IFRS (IAS 41 "Agriculture", make similar national and international accounting rules. In this way, the fruit-bearing plants are carried at cost, taking into account accumulated depreciation. This approach is similar in both accounting systems. The method of accounting of fruit-bearing assets, which after maturation are not significant biotransformation in the value, has been simplifying accounting. According to the fruit-bearing assets, active market was absent; therefore, the estimation of fair value for them is not correct. The model of using fruit-bearing assets is similar to the use of industrial equipment. Historical cost is more appropriate and meets economic substance of the objects. Assessment of performance of fruit-bearing assets and indicators of their use is represented on an example of perennial crops

  6. Report and accounts 1991-92

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the second full year of operation, Nuclear Electric has improved its competitive position and increased operating profits are recorded. The long-term aim is to be profitable without the fossil-fuel levy. The operating record of Nuclear Electric's Magnox and AGR power stations, progress on Sizewell-B and the decommissioning of Berkeley Station are recorded. The year 1991/92 is reviewed; the commercial, production and fuel operations are reported. Health and Safety - a main priority of Nuclear Electric is considered and Nuclear Electric's environmental policy is stated. Human resources, public relations and international affairs are covered. A statistical summary including the accounts is included. (UK)

  7. Bankruptcy Prediction with Rough Sets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.C. Bioch (Cor); V. Popova (Viara)

    2001-01-01

    textabstractThe bankruptcy prediction problem can be considered an or dinal classification problem. The classical theory of Rough Sets describes objects by discrete attributes, and does not take into account the order- ing of the attributes values. This paper proposes a modification of the Rough Set

  8. Improvement Priority Handoff Scheme for Multi-Service Wireless Mobile Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ChengGang Liu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, a new handoff strategy to improve the performance of wireless mobile networks is presented. It has been found form this study that the dropping probability of handoff calls is drastically reduced compared to the existing method of channel reservation strategy of handoff calls and the performance of new calls can be improved. The strategy is that the new call should be delayed then it can use the last idle channel. The time that all the channels are holding has been shortened. Opportunities of the new call and handoff call occupancy channel are increased; the scheme also takes into account the priority of different data types, and only when the high-priority data packets queue is empty, the data packets in low-priority data queue can be transmitted. Simulation results show that, to let the new voice call delay in the allowable range, can effectively reduce the dropping probability of handoff call and the blocking probability of high-priority data while improving the probability of new call to enter into the systems

  9. Improvement in the Priority Handoff Scheme for Multi-Service Wireless Mobile Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cheng-Gang Liu

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available In this study, a new handoff strategy to improve the performance of wireless mobile networks is presented. It has been found form this study that the dropping probability of handoff calls is drastically reduced compared to the existing method of channel reservation strategy of handoff calls and the performance of new calls can be improved. The strategy is that the new call should be delayed then it can use the last idle channel. The time that all the channels are holding has been shortened. Opportunities of the new call and handoff call occupancy channel are increased; the scheme also takes into account the priority of different data types and only when the high-priority data packets queue is empty, the data packets in low-priority data queue can be transmitted. Simulation results show that, to let the new voice call delay in the allowable range, can effectively reduce the dropping probability of handoff call and the blocking probability of high-priority data while improving the probability of new call to enter into the systems.

  10. An international eDelphi study identifying the research and education priorities in wound management and tissue repair.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    2012-02-01

    Aim. To incorporate an international and multidisciplinary consensus in the determination of the research and education priorities for wound healing and tissue repair. Background. A compelling reason for the study is the lack of an agreed list of priorities for wound care research and education. Furthermore, there is a growth in the prevalence of chronic wounds, a growth in wound care products and marketing, and an increase in clinician attendance at conferences and education programmes. Design. The study used a survey method. Methods. A four-round eDelphi technique was used to collect responses from an international population of health professionals across 24 countries. Results. Responses were obtained from 360 professionals representing many health care settings. The top education priorities related to the standardisation of all foundation education programmes in wound care, the inclusion of wound care in all professional undergraduate and postgraduate education programmes, selecting dressings and the prevention of pressure ulcers. The top research priorities related to the dressing selection, pressure ulcer prevention and wound infection. Conclusion. Professionals from different backgrounds and countries who are engaged in wound management share a common set of priorities for research and education. Most notably, the priorities identified relate to long-established clinical challenges in wound care and underpin the principles of good patient care practices. The priorities are closely allied to an ageing population and identify many challenges ahead for practitioners engaged in wound management services. Relevance to clinical practice. The provision of wound care is a major investment of health service resources and remains a clinical challenge today. Research is essential to building evidence-based practice and fundamental to development of quality in standards of practice; education is central to achieving competence to deliver effective care. The

  11. Research Priorities on the Relationship between Wasting and Stunting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khara, Tanya; Dolan, Carmel; Berkley, James A.

    2016-01-01

    Background Wasting and stunting are global public health problems that frequently co-exist. However, they are usually separated in terms of policy, guidance, programming and financing. Though both wasting and stunting are manifestations of undernutrition caused by disease and poor diet, there are critical gaps in our understanding of the physiological relationship between them, and how interventions for one may affect the other. The aim of this exercise was to establish research priorities in the relationships between wasting and stunting to guide future research investments. Methods and Findings We used the CHNRI (Child Health and Nutrition Research Initiative) methodology for setting research priorities in health. We utilised a group of experts in nutrition, growth and child health to prioritise 30 research questions against three criteria (answerability, usefulness and impact) using an online survey. Eighteen of 25 (72%) experts took part and prioritised research directly related to programming, particularly at the public health level. The highest-rated questions were: “Can interventions outside of the 1000 days, e.g. pre-school, school age and adolescence, lead to catch-up in height and in other developmental markers?”; “What timely interventions work to mitigate seasonal peaks in both wasting and stunting?”; and “What is the optimal formulation of ready-to-use foods to promote optimal ponderal growth and also support linear growth during and after recovery from severe acute malnutrition?” There was a high level of agreement between experts, particularly for the highest ranking questions. Conclusions Increased commitment to rigorous evaluations of treatment and prevention interventions at the public health level, addressing questions of the timing of intervention, and the extent to which impacts for both wasting and stunting can be achieved, is needed to inform global efforts to tackle undernutrition and its consequences. PMID:27159235

  12. Research Priorities on the Relationship between Wasting and Stunting.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chloe Angood

    Full Text Available Wasting and stunting are global public health problems that frequently co-exist. However, they are usually separated in terms of policy, guidance, programming and financing. Though both wasting and stunting are manifestations of undernutrition caused by disease and poor diet, there are critical gaps in our understanding of the physiological relationship between them, and how interventions for one may affect the other. The aim of this exercise was to establish research priorities in the relationships between wasting and stunting to guide future research investments.We used the CHNRI (Child Health and Nutrition Research Initiative methodology for setting research priorities in health. We utilised a group of experts in nutrition, growth and child health to prioritise 30 research questions against three criteria (answerability, usefulness and impact using an online survey. Eighteen of 25 (72% experts took part and prioritised research directly related to programming, particularly at the public health level. The highest-rated questions were: "Can interventions outside of the 1000 days, e.g. pre-school, school age and adolescence, lead to catch-up in height and in other developmental markers?"; "What timely interventions work to mitigate seasonal peaks in both wasting and stunting?"; and "What is the optimal formulation of ready-to-use foods to promote optimal ponderal growth and also support linear growth during and after recovery from severe acute malnutrition?" There was a high level of agreement between experts, particularly for the highest ranking questions.Increased commitment to rigorous evaluations of treatment and prevention interventions at the public health level, addressing questions of the timing of intervention, and the extent to which impacts for both wasting and stunting can be achieved, is needed to inform global efforts to tackle undernutrition and its consequences.

  13. Priority plant communities for conservation in Northwest Yunnan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanni Zhang

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Because of limited resources, it is very important for biodiversity conservation to make accurate assessments of biodiversity prior to setting out measures for protecting regions and communities. To moreeffectively manage and protect forest resources in Northwest Yunnan, we evaluated the priority plant community types for conservation by mainly considering the function of plant communities in maintaining habitat and biodiversity. Recognizing the principles of good science, hierarchy and practicability, we established an evaluation indicator system consisting of six indicators: species diversity, number of rare and endangered plant species, protection level of plant species, number of endemic plant species, and rarity and endemism of community type. We selected 61 formations belonging to 13 vegetation subtypes in Northwest Yunnan for analysis. Assessment criteria followed a general ranking assignment methodology, and weights assigned to individual indicators were determined using an Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP and expert consultation. GIS technology was used as an aid to integrate evaluation. The results yielded conservation values of communities as follows: (1 at the association level: 4 associations were at first category, 31 second category, 23 third category, and three general category; (2 at the vegetation subtype level: one was at first category, six second category, six third category. The distribution of priority vegetation subtypes for conservation were: (1 first category: a small area distributed in Gaoligong Mountains; (2 second category: mainly distributed in high altitude mountains in the northwest, and also in some alpine areas in the southeast of the study area; (3 third category: distributed at low altitude in the southeast of the study area and in valleys of the Dulong River, Nu River, Lancang River and Jinsha River.

  14. Stakeholder Engagement to Identify Priorities for Improving the Quality and Value of Critical Care.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henry T Stelfox

    Full Text Available Large amounts of scientific evidence are generated, but not implemented into patient care (the 'knowledge-to-care' gap. We identified and prioritized knowledge-to-care gaps in critical care as opportunities to improve the quality and value of healthcare.We used a multi-method community-based participatory research approach to engage a Network of all adult (n = 14 and pediatric (n = 2 medical-surgical intensive care units (ICUs in a fully integrated geographically defined healthcare system serving 4 million residents. Participants included Network oversight committee members (n = 38 and frontline providers (n = 1,790. Network committee members used a modified RAND/University of California Appropriateness Methodology, to serially propose, rate (validated 9 point scale and revise potential knowledge-to-care gaps as priorities for improvement. The priorities were sent to frontline providers for evaluation. Results were relayed back to all frontline providers for feedback.Initially, 68 knowledge-to-care gaps were proposed, rated and revised by the committee (n = 32 participants over 3 rounds of review and resulted in 13 proposed priorities for improvement. Then, 1,103 providers (62% response rate evaluated the priorities, and rated 9 as 'necessary' (median score 7-9. Several factors were associated with rating priorities as necessary in multivariable logistic regression, related to the provider (experience, teaching status of ICU and topic (strength of supporting evidence, potential to benefit the patient, potential to improve patient/family experience, potential to decrease costs.A community-based participatory research approach engaged a diverse group of stakeholders to identify 9 priorities for improving the quality and value of critical care. The approach was time and cost efficient and could serve as a model to prioritize areas for research quality improvement across other settings.

  15. Optimized spatial priorities for biodiversity conservation in China: a systematic conservation planning perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Ruidong; Long, Yongcheng; Malanson, George P; Garber, Paul A; Zhang, Shuang; Li, Diqiang; Zhao, Peng; Wang, Longzhu; Duo, Hairui

    2014-01-01

    By addressing several key features overlooked in previous studies, i.e. human disturbance, integration of ecosystem- and species-level conservation features, and principles of complementarity and representativeness, we present the first national-scale systematic conservation planning for China to determine the optimized spatial priorities for biodiversity conservation. We compiled a spatial database on the distributions of ecosystem- and species-level conservation features, and modeled a human disturbance index (HDI) by aggregating information using several socioeconomic proxies. We ran Marxan with two scenarios (HDI-ignored and HDI-considered) to investigate the effects of human disturbance, and explored the geographic patterns of the optimized spatial conservation priorities. Compared to when HDI was ignored, the HDI-considered scenario resulted in (1) a marked reduction (∼9%) in the total HDI score and a slight increase (∼7%) in the total area of the portfolio of priority units, (2) a significant increase (∼43%) in the total irreplaceable area and (3) more irreplaceable units being identified in almost all environmental zones and highly-disturbed provinces. Thus the inclusion of human disturbance is essential for cost-effective priority-setting. Attention should be targeted to the areas that are characterized as moderately-disturbed, biodiversity, but those isolated priority units in disturbed regions are in more urgent need of conservation actions so as to prevent immediate and severe biodiversity loss. This study presents a spatially optimized national-scale portfolio of conservation priorities--effectively representing the overall biodiversity of China while minimizing conflicts with economic development. Our results offer critical insights for current conservation and strategic land-use planning in China. The approach is transferable and easy to implement by end-users, and applicable for national- and local-scale systematic conservation prioritization

  16. 5 CFR 10.2 - Accountability systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... the Office of Personnel Management may require an agency to establish and maintain a system of accountability for merit system principles that (1) Sets standards for applying the merit system principles,...

  17. Keeping Books of Account

    OpenAIRE

    2009-01-01

    Books of account are a record of a company’s income and spending. These records may be kept in paper or electronic form. The books of account contain the information for preparing the company’s annual financial statements.

  18. Priorities for Future Research on Planetary Dunes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Titus, Timothy N.; Lancaster, Nick; Hayward, Rose; Fenton, Lori; Bourke, Mary

    2008-11-01

    Planetary Dunes Workshop: A Record of Climate Change; Alamogordo, New Mexico, 28 April to 2 May 2008; Landforms and deposits created by the dynamic interactions between granular material and airflow (eolian processes) occur on several planetary bodies, including Earth, Mars, Titan, and Venus. To address many of the outstanding questions within planetary dune research, a workshop was organized by the U.S. Geological Survey, the Planetary Science Institute, the Desert Research Institute, and the Search for Extraterrestrial Intelligence Institute and was sponsored by the Lunar and Planetary Institute and the Jet Propulsion Laboratory. The workshop brought together researchers from diverse backgrounds, ranging from image analysis and modeling to terrestrial analog studies. The group of approximately 45 international researchers had intense discussions in an attempt to identify the most promising approaches to understanding planetary dune systems. On the basis of these discussions, the group identified the following 10 priorities for future planetary dune research.

  19. Trends and priorities in internal audit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victoria STANCIU

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The status of the internal audit as an important pillar for corporate governance is recognized unanimously; however, this status is gained through a continuous and joined effort of all internal auditors and by a clear and solid vision of the internal audit function’s development, designed by the chief of internal audit. This status recognizes the internal audit’s support for the achievement of company objectives and the improvement of risk management and it also requires continuous quantitative accumulations in the work of internal auditors. From this perspective, the author’s attention focused on the main risks and priorities that the internal audit is facing as they are reflected by international studies and surveys. The conclusions emphasized by the author’s research may be considered important milestones for the improvement of the internal audit function in Romania and for its solid connection to the realities and problems the companies are confronting with.

  20. [Qualitative research: which priority for scientific journals?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodella, Stefania

    2016-04-01

    Quantitative and qualitative approaches in scientific research should not be looked at as separate or even opposed fields of thinking and action, but could rather offer complementary perspectives in order to build appropriate answers to increasingly complex research questions. An open letter recently published by the BMJ and signed by 76 senior academics from 11 countries invite the editors to reconsider their policy of rejecting qualitative research on the grounds of low priority and challenge the journal to develop a proactive, scholarly and pluralistic approach to research that aligns with its stated mission. The contents of the letter, the many voices raised by almost fifty rapid responses and the severe but not closed responses of the editors outline a stimulating debate and hopefully prelude some "change in emphasis", ensuring that all types of research relevant to the mission of the BMJ (as well as other core journals) are considered for publication and providing an evolving landmark for scientific and educational purposes. PMID:27093324

  1. Priorities and standards in pharmacogenetic research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Need, Anna C; Motulsky, Arno G; Goldstein, David B

    2005-07-01

    The current enthusiasm for pharmacogenetics draws much of its inspiration from the relatively few examples of polymorphisms that have marked and seemingly clinically relevant effects on drug response. In this regard, pharmacogenetic research has paralleled the study of human disease, which has enjoyed success in identifying mutations underlying mendelian conditions. Progress in deciphering the genetics of complex diseases, involving the interaction of multiple genes with each other and with the environment has been considerably less successful. In most instances, drug responses will probably also prove to be complex, influenced by both the environment and multiple genetic factors. For pharmacogenetics to deliver on its potential, this complexity will need to be recognized and accommodated, both in basic research and in clinical application of pharmacogenetics. As the attention of researchers begins to shift toward more systematic pharmacogenetic investigations, we suggest some priorities and standards for pharmacogenetic research.

  2. Making Collaborative Innovation Accountable

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Eva

    The public sector is increasingly expected to be innovative, but the prize for a more innovative public sector might be that it becomes difficult to hold public authorities to account for their actions. The article explores the tensions between innovative and accountable governance, describes...... the foundation for these tensions in different accountability models, and suggest directions to take in analyzing the accountability of collaborative innovation processes....

  3. Accounting Qualities in Practice

    OpenAIRE

    Lennon, Niels Joseph Jerne

    2013-01-01

    There is a tendency in accounting theory, both external reporting and management accounting, to express a representational ideal. This to be understood in the sense that accounting information, independent on whether it is reported externally or used for control purposes internally, ought to represent something underlying, whether this is revenue, costs, performance or other things inscribed in the accounting information. In some cases the underlying is not an object, but a ...

  4. Goals and Psychological Accounting

    OpenAIRE

    Koch, Alexander K.; Nafziger, Julia

    2011-01-01

    We model how people formulate and evaluate goals to overcome self-control problems. People often attempt to regulate their behavior by evaluating goal-related outcomes separately (in narrow psychological accounts) rather than jointly (in a broad account). To explain this evidence, our theory of endogenous narrow or broad psychological accounts combines insights from the literatures on goals and mental accounting with models of expectations-based reference-dependent preferences. By formulating...

  5. The Accountability Bind

    OpenAIRE

    Katrina Bulkley

    2001-01-01

    Charter schools involve a trading of autonomy for accountability. This accountability comes through two forces—markets through the choices of parents and students, and accountability to government through the writing of contracts that must be renewed for schools to continue to operate. Charter schools are supposed to be more accountable for educational performance than traditional public schools because authorizers have the ability to revoke charter contracts. Here, I focus on one central com...

  6. Making Collaborative Innovation Accountable

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Eva

    The public sector is increasingly expected to be innovative, but the prize for a more innovative public sector might be that it becomes difficult to hold public authorities to account for their actions. The article explores the tensions between innovative and accountable governance, describes the...... foundation for these tensions in different accountability models, and suggest directions to take in analyzing the accountability of collaborative innovation processes....

  7. TIME MANAGEMENT FOR ACCOUNTANTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina Elena BIGIOI

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Time is money. Every accountant knows that. In our country, the taxes are changing frequently. The accountants have to update their fiscal knowledge. The purpose of the article is to find how the accountants manage their time, taking into consideration the number of fiscal declarations and the fiscal changes. In this article we present some ways to improve time management for accountants.

  8. Ethics in management accounting

    OpenAIRE

    Marian TAICU

    2010-01-01

    In the knowledge based economy, accounting information in general, and cost information in particular acquire increased importance. The quality of accounting information can be affected by the non-compliance with professional ethical requirements. In relation to the management accounting, the law provides a higher degree of freedom for the organization and presentation of the information, as compared to the financial accounting. Due to the importance of the information supplied, management ac...

  9. FINANCIAL ACCOUNTING QUALITY AND ITS DEFINING CHARACTERISTICS

    OpenAIRE

    Andra M. ACHIM; Anca O. CHIŞ

    2014-01-01

    The importance ofhigh-quality financial statements is highlighted by the main standard-setting institutions activating in the field of accounting and reporting. These have issued Conceptual Frameworks which state and describe the qualitative characteristics of accounting information. In this qualitative study, the research methodology consists of reviewing the literature related to the definition of accounting quality and striving for understanding how it can be explained. The main objective ...

  10. International Accounting: Development, Issues, and Future Directions

    OpenAIRE

    Hanns-Martin W Schoenfeld

    1981-01-01

    This article is designed as a survey of international accounting for accountants and others, describing its development and scope, problems, and current attempts at international standardization. Because standardization has not progressed very far, discrepancies cause financial and managerial accounting problems for multinational enterprise – such as, the need to keep several sets of records. Selected issues – such as, translation, inflationary adjustments, and segment reporting – are examine...

  11. Managerial Accounting. Study Guide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plachta, Leonard E.

    This self-instructional study guide is part of the materials for a college-level programmed course in managerial accounting. The study guide is intended for use by students in conjuction with a separate textbook, Horngren's "Accounting for Management Control: An Introduction," and a workbook, Curry's "Student Guide to Accounting for Management…

  12. Lithuania : Accounting and Auditing

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank

    2002-01-01

    This assessment of accounting and auditing standards and practices in Lithuania was focuses on the strengths and weaknesses of the institutional arrangements needed to observe International Accounting Standards (IAS) and International Standards on Auditing (ISA). Financial reporting and accounting by Lithuanian enterprises are currently governed by laws and other regulations issued in 1992...

  13. Cambodia : Accounting and Auditing

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank

    2007-01-01

    This report provides an assessment of accounting and auditing practices within the corporate sector in Cambodia with reference to the International Financial Reporting Standards (IFRS) issued by the International Accounting Standards Board (IASB), and the International Standards on Auditing (ISA) issued by the International Federation of Accountants (IFAC). This assessment is positioned wi...

  14. Poland : Accounting and Auditing

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank

    2002-01-01

    This report provides an assessment of accounting and auditing practices in Poland using international standards as a benchmark, while focusing on the institutional framework and application of given standards. In the recent past, Poland has taken steps in reducing the gap between Polish Accounting Regulations and International Accounting Standards. This is demonstrated in the provisions of...

  15. Colombia : Accounting and Auditing

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank

    2003-01-01

    This report is based on the findings of a review of accounting and auditing standards and practices in Colombia. The review exercise focused mainly on the strengths and weaknesses of the institutional framework that supports a corporate financial reporting system in the country. The current legal and regulatory requirements on accounting have led to issuance of conflicting accounting stand...

  16. Accounting Education in Crisis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, Karen F.; Reed, Ronald O.; Greiman, Janel

    2011-01-01

    Almost on a daily basis new accounting rules and laws are put into use, creating information that must be known and learned by the accounting faculty and then introduced to and understood by the accounting student. Even with the 150 hours of education now required for CPA licensure, it is impossible to teach and learn all there is to learn. Over…

  17. Accountability in Health Care

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vrangbæk, Karsten; Byrkjeflot, Haldor

    2016-01-01

    adjustment of such frameworks. In this article we present a framework for analyzing accountability within health care. The paper makes use of the concept of "accountability regime" to signify the combination of different accountability forms, directions and functions at any given point in time. We show...

  18. Incomplete contracting theory in empirical accounting research

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Lent, L.A.G.M.

    1999-01-01

    In three essays, the implications of the costly contracting approach in accounting are investigated. First, the consequences of changing the set of acceptable accounting techniques in the banking and insurance industry are examined. The regulations imposed by a government agency alter the contractin

  19. Cost Accounting, Business Education: 7709.41.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carino, Mariano G.

    Cost accounting principles and procedures provide students with sufficient background to apply cost accounting factors to service and manufacturing businesses. Overhead, materials, goods in process, and finished goods are emphasized. Students complete a practice set in the course, which has guidelines, performance objectives, learning activities…

  20. Harnessing the Potential to Quantify Public Preferences for Healthcare Priorities through Citizens’ Juries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer A. Whitty

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Despite progress towards greater public engagement, questions about the optimal approach to access public preferences remain unanswered. We review two increasingly popular methods for engaging the public in healthcare priority-setting and determining their preferences; the Citizens’ Jury (CJ and Discrete Choice Experiment (DCE. We discuss the theoretical framework from which each method is derived, its application in healthcare, and critique the information it can provide for decision-makers. We conclude that combining deliberation of an informed public via CJs and quantification of preferences using DCE methods, whilst it remains to be tested as an approach to engaging the public in priority-setting, could potentially achieve much richer information than the application of either method in isolation.

  1. Analysis of an algorithm for distributed recognition and accountability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ko, C.; Frincke, D.A.; Goan, T. Jr.; Heberlein, L.T.; Levitt, K.; Mukherjee, B.; Wee, C. [California Univ., Davis, CA (United States). Dept. of Computer Science

    1993-08-01

    Computer and network systems are available to attacks. Abandoning the existing huge infrastructure of possibly-insecure computer and network systems is impossible, and replacing them by totally secure systems may not be feasible or cost effective. A common element in many attacks is that a single user will often attempt to intrude upon multiple resources throughout a network. Detecting the attack can become significantly easier by compiling and integrating evidence of such intrusion attempts across the network rather than attempting to assess the situation from the vantage point of only a single host. To solve this problem, we suggest an approach for distributed recognition and accountability (DRA), which consists of algorithms which ``process,`` at a central location, distributed and asynchronous ``reports`` generated by computers (or a subset thereof) throughout the network. Our highest-priority objectives are to observe ways by which an individual moves around in a network of computers, including changing user names to possibly hide his/her true identity, and to associate all activities of multiple instance of the same individual to the same network-wide user. We present the DRA algorithm and a sketch of its proof under an initial set of simplifying albeit realistic assumptions. Later, we relax these assumptions to accommodate pragmatic aspects such as missing or delayed ``reports,`` clock slew, tampered ``reports,`` etc. We believe that such algorithms will have widespread applications in the future, particularly in intrusion-detection system.

  2. Multiprocessor Priority Ceiling Emulation for Safety-Critical Java

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Strøm, Torur Biskopstø; Schoeberl, Martin

    2015-01-01

    Priority ceiling emulation has preferable properties on uniprocessor systems, such as avoiding priority inversion and being deadlock free. This has made it a popular locking protocol. According to the safety-critical Java specication, priority ceiling emulation is a requirement for implementations....... However, implementing the protocol for multiprocessor systemsis more complex so implementations might perform worse than non-preemptive implementations. In this paper we compare two multiprocessor lock implementations with hardware support for the Java optimized processor: non-preemptive locking...

  3. Possibilities to Improve the Quality of Accounting Information

    OpenAIRE

    Lector univ.dr. Tinta Alice; Prof.univ.dr. Munteanu Victor; Lector univ.dr. Zuca Marilena

    2010-01-01

    Quality requirements of accounting information can be derived implicitly from the fundamental principles of accounting practices stipulated under the Law of accounting. Based on such legal frame, according to which the accounting should give an accurate picture of economic reality, we can conclude that quality accounting information is information obtained by the rules on property valuation and other accounting rules and principles. Quality is defined by a set of attributes that determines th...

  4. The Responsibilities of Accountants

    OpenAIRE

    Ronald F Duska

    2005-01-01

    An accountant is a good accountant if in practicing his craft he is superb in handling the numbers. But a good accountant in handling the numbers can use that skill to misstate earnings to cover a multitude of problems with a company's books while staying within the law. So, the notion of a moral or ethical accountant is not the same as the notion of a good accountant. Our general principle would be that to be ethical a person has a responsibility to fulfil one's role or roles, as long as tha...

  5. Nuclear fuel lease accounting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The subject of nuclear fuel lease accounting is a controversial one that has received much attention over the years. This has occurred during a period when increasing numbers of utilities, seeking alternatives to traditional financing methods, have turned to leasing their nuclear fuel inventories. The purpose of this paper is to examine the current accounting treatment of nuclear fuel leases as prescribed by the Financial Accounting Standards Board (FASB) and the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission's (FERC's) Uniform System of Accounts. Cost accounting for leased nuclear fuel during the fuel cycle is also discussed

  6. Computer - Assisted Accounting

    OpenAIRE

    SORIN-CIPRIAN TEIUŞAN

    2009-01-01

    What is computer-assisted accounting? Where is the place and what is the role of the computer in the financial-accounting activity? What is the position and importance of the computer in the accountant’s activity? All these are questions that require scientific research in order to find the answers. The paper approaches the issue of the support granted to the accountant to organize and manage the accounting activity by the computer. Starting from the notions of accounting and computer, the co...

  7. Priority-Based Routing Resource Assignment Considering Crosstalk

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yi-Ci Cai; Bin Liu; Yan Xiong; Qiang Zhou; Xian-Long Hong

    2006-01-01

    Crosstalk has become one of the most critical concerns in very deep sub-micron era. This paper deals with the problem of crosstalk mitigation at both methodological and algorithmic levels. Noting that intermediate operations between global routing and detailed routing are very effective in crosstalk estimation and reduction, the authors propose to incorporate several intermediate steps that are separated in traditional design flow into an integrated routing resource assignment stage,so that the operations could easily cooperate to fully exert their power on crosstalk reduction. An efficient priority-based heuristic algorithm is developed, which works slice by slice. Crosstalk avoidance, and many other aspects that are critical in routing practice including congestion, vias, layer preference, etc., are taken into account. A track reservation strategy is adopted in the algorithm framework to compensate the undesired effects caused by sequential routing. Experimental results on a series of ISPD98 and industrial benchmarks show that the proposed approach is able to reduce capacitive crosstalk by about 70% on average without compromising completion ratio compared with a previously reported graph based algorithm,demonstrating the advantages of the approach.

  8. Advancing cervical cancer prevention in India: implementation science priorities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krishnan, Suneeta; Madsen, Emily; Porterfield, Deborah; Varghese, Beena

    2013-01-01

    Cervical cancer is the leading cause of cancer mortality in India, accounting for 17% of all cancer deaths among women aged 30 to 69 years. At current incidence rates, the annual burden of new cases in India is projected to increase to 225,000 by 2025, but there are few large-scale, organized cervical cancer prevention programs in the country. We conducted a review of the cervical cancer prevention research literature and programmatic experiences in India to summarize the current state of knowledge and practices and recommend research priorities to address the gap in services. We found that research and programs in India have demonstrated the feasibility and acceptability of cervical cancer prevention efforts and that screening strategies requiring minimal additional human resources and laboratory infrastructure can reduce morbidity and mortality. However, additional evidence generated through implementation science research is needed to ensure that cervical cancer prevention efforts have the desired impact and are cost-effective. Specifically, implementation science research is needed to understand individual- and community-level barriers to screening and diagnostic and treatment services; to improve health care worker performance; to strengthen links among screening, diagnosis, and treatment; and to determine optimal program design, outcomes, and costs. With a quarter of the global burden of cervical cancer in India, there is no better time than now to translate research findings to practice. Implementation science can help ensure that investments in cervical cancer prevention and control result in the greatest impact.

  9. Global child health priorities: what role for paediatric oncologists?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kellie, Stewart J; Howard, Scott C

    2008-11-01

    Despite increasing globalisation, international mobility and economic interdependence, 9.7 million children aged less than 5 years in low income countries will die this year, almost all from preventable or treatable diseases. Diarrhoea, pneumonia and malaria account for 5 million of these deaths each year, compared to about 150,000 deaths from childhood cancer in low- and middle-income countries. In high-income countries, 80% of the 50,000 children diagnosed with cancer each year survive, yet cancer remains the leading disease-related cause of childhood death. In low- and middle-income countries, where 80% of children live, the 200,000 children diagnosed with cancer each year have limited access to curative treatment, and only about 25% survive. Some might argue that death from paediatric cancer in poor countries is insignificant compared to death from other causes, and that scarce health resources may be better used in other areas of public health. Is there a role for the treatment of children with cancer in these regions? Do international partnerships or 'twinning' programmes enhance local health care or detract from other public health priorities? What is ethical and what is possible? This review examines the health challenges faced by infants and children in low-income countries, and assesses the role and impact of international paediatric oncology collaboration to improve childhood cancer care worldwide. PMID:18799306

  10. Breaking Bankruptcy Priority: How Rent-Seeking Upends the Creditors' Bargain

    OpenAIRE

    Roe, Mark J.; Tung, Frederick

    2013-01-01

    “Bankruptcy reallocates value in a faltering firm. The bankruptcy apparatus eliminates some claims and alters others, leaving a reduced set of claims to match the firm’s diminished capacity to pay. This restructuring is done according to statutory and agreed-to contractual priorities, so that lower-ranking claims are eliminated first and higher-ranking ones are preserved to the extent possible. Bankruptcy scholarship has long conceptualized this reallocation as a hypothetical bargain among cr...

  11. Canadian STARS-Rated Campus Sustainability Plans: Priorities, Plan Creation and Design

    OpenAIRE

    Lauri Lidstone; Tarah Wright; Kate Sherren

    2015-01-01

    The use of integrated sustainability plans is an emerging trend in higher education institutions (HEIs) to set sustainability priorities and to create a work plan for action. This paper analyses the sustainability plans of 21 Canadian HEIs that have used the Sustainability Tracking, Assessment and Rating System (STARS) from the Association for the Advancement of Sustainability in Higher Education (AASHE). The plans were coded thematically with a focus on the sustainability goals, process of p...

  12. MANAGING NEW PRIORITIES: THE CSR OF COMPANIES IN THE FOOD INDUSTRY

    OpenAIRE

    Cetateanu, Andreea; Georgiana CIOANA

    2011-01-01

    The present article intends to evaluate the importance of implementing CSR (Corporate Social Responsibility) as one of the top strategic priorities of a company, with specific examples from the food industry, within a European context. Starting with the Lisbon summit in 2000, CSR in Europe has become a main concern, as a result of the set goals: maintenance of a sustainable economic growth, greater social cohesion and a more competitive knowledge-based economy overall. Since the private secto...

  13. A pilot study of palliative care provider self-competence and priorities for education in Kenya

    OpenAIRE

    Sedillo, R; Openshaw, MM; Cataldo, J; Donesky, D; McGowan Boit, J; Tarus, A; Thompson, LM

    2015-01-01

    © 2015, Lippincott Williams and Wilkins. All rights reserved. This study explored palliative care provider self-competence and priorities for future education in an inpatient hospice setting in Kenya. Self-competence scores for clinical skills and patient and family communication skills were hypothesized to differ according to provider type. A descriptive, cross-sectional study design was piloted at Kimbilio Hospice, a 26-bed rural, inpatient facility in Kenya. A quantitative survey instrumen...

  14. Establishing Long Term Data Management Research Priorities via a Data Decadal Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, A.; Uhlir, P.; Meyer, C. B.; Robinson, E.

    2013-12-01

    competition with other priorities of the research enterprise. This presentation will introduce the Data Decadal Survey, an initial concept created in collaboration between the Federation of Earth Science Information Partners (ESIP) and of the National Research Council's Board on Research Data and Information (BRDI). Consistent with Executive open data policies, the Survey will provide a coordinating platform to address overarching issues and identify research needs and funding priorities in scientific data management and stewardship for the long term. The Survey would address at the broadest level gaps in data management knowledge and practices that hold back scientific progress, and recommend a strategy to address them. The goal is to provide a long term strategic vision that will increase the meaningful availability of higher quality data, create or improve tools, processes, and practices that support accreditation, accountability, traceability, and reproducibility, redirect resources previously required by scientists for data discovery, acquisition, and reformatting to performing actual science, thereby ultimately enhancing scientific knowledge.

  15. The image of accountants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baldvinsdottir, Gudrun; Burns, John; Nørreklit, Hanne;

    2009-01-01

    Purpose - The aim of this paper is to investigate the extent to which a profound change in the image of accountants can be seen in the discourse used in accounting software adverts that have appeared in the professional publications of the Chartered Institute of Management Accountants over the last...... four decades. Design/methodology/approach - Methodologically, the paper draws from Barthes' work on the rhetoric of images and Giddens' work on modernity. By looking at accounting software adverts, an attempt is made to investigate the image of the accountant produced by the discourse of the adverts......, and whether the image produced reflects a wide social change in society. Findings - It was found that in the 1970s and the 1980s the accountant was constructed as a responsible and rational person. In the 1990s, the accountant was presented as an instructed action man. However, in a recent advert...

  16. FINANCIAL ACCOUNTING QUALITY AND ITS DEFINING CHARACTERISTICS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andra M. ACHIM

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The importance ofhigh-quality financial statements is highlighted by the main standard-setting institutions activating in the field of accounting and reporting. These have issued Conceptual Frameworks which state and describe the qualitative characteristics of accounting information. In this qualitative study, the research methodology consists of reviewing the literature related to the definition of accounting quality and striving for understanding how it can be explained. The main objective of the study is to identify the characteristics information should possess in order to be of high quality. These characteristics also contribute to the way of defining financial accounting quality. The main conclusions that arise from this research are represented by the facts that indeed financial accounting quality cannot be uniquely defined and that financial information is of good quality when it enhances the characteristics incorporated in the conceptual frameworks issued by both International Accounting Standards Board and Financial Accounting Standards Board.

  17. NEW MULTIANUAL FINANCIAL FRAMEWORK: PRIORITIES FOR THE EUROPEAN UNION, PRIORITIES FOR ROMANIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ROXANA-DANIELA PĂUN

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available This article proposes a brief foray into the situation of the European economy, but especially of the banking system of the Member States affected differently by the current world economic crisis, or recession, but especially for a detailed analysis of the New Multiannual Financial Framework for the period 2014-2020, with the priorities which appear to be distinct for the EU and for Romania. After a comparative analysis of European regulations on the agreements of the previous financial negotiated for the period 2014-2020, and Delors I (1988-1992, Delors II (1993-1999, the Agenda 2000 (2000-2006 and multiannual financial framework (2007- 2013 and ultimately the provisions of the Treaty of Lisbon (which convert multiannual financial framework in an essential act from a legal point of view; express personal opinions on Romania’s priorities and on the challenges and perspectives in the actual European and global context.

  18. Diversity as a common research priority for Nordic and Southern African Universities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Karen Bjerg

    This paper sets out to consider concepts of diversity as means to discuss and address the increasing diversity of modern societies and to reflect the development of research priorities for universities in Nordic and Southern African countries. Based on reconceptualisations of theoretical concepts...... countries like e.g. Denmark have responded differently to diversification during the past decades. Based on this, challenges in deal-ing with diversity as a common research priority for Nordic and African universities will be shortly addressed.......This paper sets out to consider concepts of diversity as means to discuss and address the increasing diversity of modern societies and to reflect the development of research priorities for universities in Nordic and Southern African countries. Based on reconceptualisations of theoretical concepts...... like culture, multiculturalism and national identity the presentation will address and reflect upon how modern societies in South and North are becoming increasingly diverse with respect to demographic and ethno cultural composition of the population. The paper sets out to discuss how various European...

  19. Final priority; Rehabilitation Training: Rehabilitation Long-Term Training program--rehabilitation specialty areas. Final priority.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-07-23

    The Assistant Secretary for Special Education and Rehabilitative Services announces a priority under the Rehabilitation Training: Rehabilitation Long-Term Training program. The Assistant Secretary may use this priority for competitions in fiscal year (FY) 2014 and later years in order to fund any of the rehabilitation specialty areas listed in this notice. The specific rehabilitation specialty areas to be funded in a given year will be listed in a notice inviting applications. This priority is designed to ensure that the Department funds high-quality rehabilitation programs in the following nine rehabilitation specialty areas of national need: Rehabilitation Administration (84.129C); Rehabilitation Technology (84.129E); Vocational Evaluation and Work Adjustment (84.129F); Rehabilitation of Individuals Who Are Mentally Ill (84.129H); Rehabilitation Psychology (84.129J); Rehabilitation of Individuals Who are Blind or Have Vision Impairments (84.129P); Rehabilitation of Individuals Who are Deaf or Hard of Hearing (84.129Q); Job Development and Job Placement Services (84.129R); and Comprehensive System of Personnel Development (84.129W). These programs must meet rigorous standards in order to provide rehabilitation professionals the training and qualifications necessary to meet the current challenges facing State vocational rehabilitation (VR) agencies and related agencies and assist individuals with disabilities in achieving high-quality employment outcomes.

  20. Selection of priority areas for payment of environmental services: an analysis at the watershed level

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Salles Rosa

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available In this study, we selected priority areas for conservation of water resources to support programs for environmental services (PSA payment. The proposal will be used for the implementation of the PSA pilot project in the watershed of the Murundu, Ibiúna-SP, to support PSA public policy to foster sustainability. To do so, land use information layers, vegetative cover and slope were organized in a GIS environment in order to allow through cross tabulation the selection of priorities to generate a thematic map. From this map, we performed qualitative and a quantitative analysis, as well as priority setting ranges. The tools used have shown to be useful in supporting decision-making and research and public policy in PSA, focusing on increasing the governance of water resources. It is clear that remuneration for “standing forest" definitely represents the major prospect in the watershed of the river’s Murundu, as well as the possibility of converting monetary values of the payment into other forms of support to providers of the service according to their priorities.

  1. Priority-Based Inter-Vehicle Communication for Highway Safety Messaging Using IEEE 802.11e

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chakkaphong Suthaputchakun

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available We propose to use IEEE 802.11e in conjunction with retransmission mechanisms for priority-based Intervehicle Communication (IVC for highway safety messaging in both vehicular infrastructure and ad hoc networks. Each IVC message, which is assigned a priority based on the safety event urgency, requires different quality of service in terms of communication reliability and average delay. To increase the communication reliability in a broadcast-based IVC, we apply retransmission mechanisms that can provide proportional reliability differentiation for each prioritized message. We evaluate the performance of our proposed protocol using OPNET Modeler, in terms of percentage of successful transmissions and average delay. The protocol performance is evaluated for (1 different system parameters such as the packet size, number of vehicles, and percentage of priority 1 vehicles, and (2 priority-based protocol parameters, such as contention window, interframe spacing and retransmission parameters. The results show that proper protocol parameter settings per priority message result in an efficient solution for priority based broadcast IVC. Moreover, the proposed protocol is fully compatible with both IEEE 802.11 and IEEE 802.11e standards.

  2. Final priority; National Institute on Disability and Rehabilitation Research--Disability and Rehabilitation Research Projects and Centers Program. Final priority.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-07-25

    The Assistant Secretary for Special Education and Rehabilitative Services announces a priority under the Disability and Rehabilitation Research Projects and Centers Program administered by the National Institute on Disability and Rehabilitation Research (NIDRR). Specifically, we announce a priority for a Disability and Rehabilitation Research Project (DRRP) on Improving Methods of Evaluating Return on Investment (ROI) for the State Vocational Rehabilitation Services Program (VR Program). The Assistant Secretary may use this priority for competitions in fiscal year (FY) 2014 and later years. We take this action to focus research attention on an area of national need. We intend for the priority to contribute to improved employment outcomes for individuals with disabilities.

  3. Give first priority to publicity and education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-12-01

    Commentary is provided on the implementation of China's Three Priorities in strengthening family planning (FP) for population control. The Three Priorities issued by the Party Central Committee of China and the State Council refers to the emphasis on 1) "publicity and education rather than economic disincentives," 2) contraception rather than induced abortion," and 3) "day to day management work rather than irregular campaigns." The expectations are that leaders at all levels should be active, steadfast, patient, and down to earth. Improvements in management lead to more constant, scientific, and systematic FP. Family planning should be voluntary. The achievement is not just population control but better relations with the Party and cadres, which leads to social stability and unity. The directives have been well thought out and are to be resolutely carried out. It was stressed in April 1991 by the General-Secretary and the Premier that coercion would not be tolerated in FP work. The confidence of the masses must be relied upon. The success of FP is guaranteed with the practice of these directives. Constancy of education and publicity is the key work. There should be a strong population awareness and the awareness of available resources/capita, and also an understanding and firm command of the principles and methods of better implementation. FP has an effect both on the fundamental interests of the country and immediate personal interests. The task is expected to be difficult because traditional ideas are still strong. The country is just at the beginning stages of socialism. A social security system is not a reality and farmer's educational attainment is not high. Productivity in the rural areas is underdeveloped. There is a contradiction between childbearing intentions of some farmers and the government requirements of FP. In order for the people to understand government FP policy, painstaking and meticulous education must be carried out to explain why FP is

  4. 13 CFR 120.463 - Regulatory accounting-What are SBA's regulatory accounting requirements for SBA Supervised Lenders?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... basis in accordance with Generally Accepted Accounting Principles (GAAP) as promulgated by the Financial... set forth in FASB Statement of Financial Accounting Standards No. 15, Accounting by Debtors and... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Regulatory accounting-What are...

  5. Goals and Psychological Accounting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Koch, Alexander Karl; Nafziger, Julia

    We model how people formulate and evaluate goals to overcome self-control problems. People often attempt to regulate their behavior by evaluating goal-related outcomes separately (in narrow psychological accounts) rather than jointly (in a broad account). To explain this evidence, our theory...... of endogenous narrow or broad psychological accounts combines insights from the literatures on goals and mental accounting with models of expectations-based reference-dependent preferences. By formulating goals the individual creates expectations that induce reference points for task outcomes. These goal......-induced reference points make substandard performance psychologically painful and motivate the individual to stick to his goals. How strong the commitment to goals is depends on the type of psychological account. We provide conditions when it is optimal to evaluate goals in narrow accounts. The key intuition...

  6. Setting priorities to avoid deforestation in Amazon protected areas: are we choosing the right indicators?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cost-effective protected area networks require that decision makers have sufficient information to allocate investments in ways that generate the greatest positive impacts. With applications in more than 50 countries, the Rapid Assessment and Prioritization of Protected Area Management (RAPPAM) method is arguably the tool used most widely to assist such prioritization. The extent to which its indicators provide useful measures of a protected area’s capacity to achieve its conservation objectives, however, has seldom been subject to empirical scrutiny. We use a rich spatial dataset and time series data from 66 forest protected areas in the Brazilian Amazon to examine whether RAPPAM scores are associated with success in avoiding deforestation. We find no statistically significant association between avoided deforestation and indicators that reflect preferential targets of conservation investments, including budget, staff, equipment, management plans and stakeholder collaboration. Instead, we find that the absence of unsettled land tenure conflicts is consistently associated strongly with success in reducing deforestation pressures. Our results underscore the importance of tracking and resolving land tenure in protected area management, and lead us to call for more rigorous assessments of existing strategies for assessing and prioritizing management interventions in protected areas. (letter)

  7. Comparing environmental risks: a consultative approach to setting priorities at the community level.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guidotti, T L

    1994-01-01

    Environmental risk management is facing a crisis. The number of recognized environmental hazards has clearly outstripped the resources available to do detailed studies on each or to establish effective control measures for each on an individual basis. Some method of prioritizing environmental hazards is required that does not involve detailed and individualized quantitative risk assessment. An alternative approach that has gained favour in recent years has been "risk comparison", as sponsored by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency and as applied in several American states and local communities. Risk comparison is an approach that involves expert panels and the interested public in a consultative and iterative process leading to widespread agreement, if not consensus, on the relative rankings of often disparate environmental hazards. An outline of steps in the process formulated by the Northeast Center for Comparative Risk at the Vermont Law School is presented with commentary regarding its applicability to the Canadian scene. Implicit tradeoffs in risk comparison are also explored, including emphasis on categorical hazards v. media quality, magnitude of hazard v. population affected, ecological integrity v. human health, social concern v. scientific assessment, and novel v. familiar hazards. In practice, risk comparison is a process-oriented and often tedious approach, but it represents one way out of the current conundrum in dealing with environmental hazards. PMID:7708943

  8. Implementing Writing Support Circles with Adult Learners in a Nonformal Education Setting: Priority, Practice, and Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plakhotnik, Maria S.; Rocco, Tonette S.

    2012-01-01

    Most students come to their graduate programs with academic writing skills insufficient to excel in their studies. A lack of academic writing skills among graduate students has been a problem in a college of education at a large southeastern public research university where the project described in this article was implemented. To address this…

  9. A Procedure for scheduling and setting processing priority of MC requests

    CERN Document Server

    Balcar, Stepan

    2013-01-01

    My project contains designing and programming a base of an open system, which should help with the scheduling Monte Carlo production requests needed by the CMS physicists for data analysis within the CMS collaboration. A primary requirement was to create web interface that would be portable and independent of the control logic of the system. Another point of the project was to make a scheduler for the Monte Carlo production planning and to design and program interfaces between the various logical blocks of the system. Introduction Many research groups in CERN which specialize in different areas of particle physics works with CMS. They are mostly scientists working at universities or research institutes in their countries. Their research consists in constructing models of elementary particles and subsequent experimental verification of the behavior of these models. All these groups of people create MC production requests which are to be executed using computing resources located at CERN and other institutes. T...

  10. Cost-effectiveness analysis for sector-wide priority setting in health

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R.C.W. Hutubessy (Raymond)

    2003-01-01

    textabstractCost-effectiveness analysis (CEA) provides one means by which decision-makers may assess and potentially improve the performance of health systems. The process can help to ensure that resources devoted to health systems are achieving the maximum possible benefit in terms of outcomes that

  11. Two methods for engaging with the community in setting priorities for child health research: who engages?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wavne Rikkers

    Full Text Available The aims of this study were to assess participatory methods for obtaining community views on child health research.Community participation in research is recognised as an important part of the research process; however, there has been inconsistency in its implementation and application in Australia. The Western Australian Telethon Kids Institute Participation Program employs a range of methods for fostering active involvement of community members in its research. These include public discussion forums, called Community Conversations. While participation levels are good, the attendees represent only a sub-section of the Western Australian population. Therefore, we conducted a telephone survey of randomly selected households to evaluate its effectiveness in eliciting views from a broader cross-section of the community about our research agenda and community participation in research, and whether the participants would be representative of the general population. We also conducted two Conversations, comparing the survey as a recruitment tool and normal methods using the Participation Program.While the telephone survey was a good method for eliciting community views about research, there were marked differences in the profile of study participants compared to the general population (e.g. 78% vs 50% females. With a 26% response rate, the telephone survey was also more expensive than a Community Conversation. The cold calling approach proved an unsuccessful recruitment method, with only two out of a possible 816 telephone respondents attending a Conversation.While the results showed that both of the methods produced useful input for our research program, we could not conclude that either method gained input that was representative of the entire community. The Conversations were relatively low-cost and provided more in-depth information about one subject, whereas the telephone survey provided information across a greater range of subjects, and allowed more quantitative analysis.

  12. Mapping of multiple criteria for priority setting of health interventions: an aid for decision makers

    OpenAIRE

    Tromp Noor; Baltussen Rob

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background In rationing decisions in health, many criteria like costs, effectiveness, equity and feasibility concerns play a role. These criteria stem from different disciplines that all aim to inform health care rationing decisions, but a single underlying concept that incorporates all criteria does not yet exist. Therefore, we aim to develop a conceptual mapping of criteria, based on the World Health Organization’s Health Systems Performance and Health Systems Building Blocks frame...

  13. Setting research priorities to improve global newborn health and prevent stillbirths by 2025

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yoshida, Sachiyo; Martines, José; Lawn, Joy E;

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: In 2013, an estimated 2.8 million newborns died and 2.7 million were stillborn. A much greater number suffer from long term impairment associated with preterm birth, intrauterine growth restriction, congenital anomalies, and perinatal or infectious causes. With the approaching deadlin...

  14. Pharmacological interactions between rifampicin and antiretroviral drugs: challenges and research priorities for resource-limited settings

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Semvua, H.H.; Kibiki, G.S.; Kisanga, E.R.; Boeree, M.J.; Burger, D.M.; Aarnoutse, R.

    2015-01-01

    Coadministration of antituberculosis and antiretroviral therapy is often inevitable in high-burden countries where tuberculosis (TB) is the most common opportunistic infection associated with HIV/AIDS. Concurrent use of rifampicin and many antiretroviral drugs is complicated by pharmacokinetic drug-

  15. The EU’s Response to the Refugee Crisis: Taking Stock and Setting Policy Priorities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S. Carrera; S. Blockmans; D. Gros; E. Guild

    2015-01-01

    What have been the most important EU policy and legal responses to the 2015 refugee crisis? Is Europe acting in compliance with its founding principles? This Essay takes stock of the main results and policy outputs from the EU’s interventions in the refugee crisis. It critically highlights the outst

  16. The Cause for Action? Decision Making and Priority Setting in Integrated Care. A Multidisciplinary Approach.

    OpenAIRE

    2010-01-01

    The expectations of patients have dramatically changed since the introduction of the first public health services more than a decade ago, as have the surrounding conditions a health system has to tackle. The grown health systems of the industrialised countries counter the challenges of an ageing society, technological advancement and chronic disease by a state of constant reform, which has been present for the last few years, without the abolition of the basic principles of affordability, acc...

  17. Mental Health Priorities: Stigma Elimination and Community Advocacy in College Settings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michaels, Patrick J.; Corrigan, Patrick W.; Kanodia, Nupur; Buchholz, Blythe; Abelson, Sara

    2015-01-01

    Low rates of psychological help-seeking among college students have been attributed to a lack of awareness about on-campus resources and to mental illness stigma. One mental health advocacy organization, Active Minds, collaborates with its university-recognized student-run on-campus chapters to promote service use and psychological healthy…

  18. Of Experts, Politicians and Beasts: Setting Priorities in Farm Animal Conservation Choices

    OpenAIRE

    Fadlaoui, Aziz; Roosen, Jutta; Baret, Philippe V.

    2005-01-01

    We consider the choice of farm animal breeds for conservation programmes. Based on an analysis of past decisions in EU member countries to enter breeds into the conservation programmes of rural development plans and based on the results of an expert survey among breed societies and scientists, we find an inconsistency in the valuation of breed characteristics. Policy makers seem to be less concerned about considering true extinction risk and diversity and more about cultural values and about ...

  19. Priority setting of foodborne pathogens: disease burden and costs of selected enteric pathogens

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kemmeren JM; Mangen MJJ; van Duynhoven YTHP; Havelaar AH; MGB

    2006-01-01

    Toxoplasmose veroorzaakt van zeven onderzochte voedseloverdraagbare micro-organismen de hoogste ziektelast. Dit is een voorlopige conclusie in een groot onderzoek naar ziektelast van door voedseloverdraagbare micro-organismen en de daaraan gerelateerde kosten. De andere onderzochte micro-organisme

  20. The China puzzle: Opportunities for accounting research

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Suresh; Radhakrishnan

    2014-01-01

    How can China achieve phenomenal economic growth despite what is considered as "weak" institutions in market-based economies? Xu(2011) provides a framework to understand this puzzle. Specifically, he suggests that China’s institutional framework of Regionally Decentralized Authoritarian regime was likely responsible for the phenomenal economic growth despite what is considered "weak" institutions for market-based economies. While recent accounting research provides insights into the relationship between agency issues, and accounting and control systems in the China context, accounting researchers can use the institutional feature of RDAs to provide insights into the role of accounting and control systems in non-market-based settings.