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Sample records for accord lipid study

  1. Dyslipidemias and Cardiovascular Prevention: Tailoring Treatment According to Lipid Phenotype.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanin, Veronika; Pfetsch, Vanessa; Koenig, Wolfgang

    2017-07-01

    This study aimed to present the current information on the genetic background of dyslipidemias and provide insights into the complex pathophysiological role of several plasma lipids/lipoproteins in the pathogenesis of atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease. Furthermore, we aim to summarize established therapies and describe the scientific rationale for the development of novel therapeutic strategies. Evidence from genetic studies suggests that besides lowering low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, pharmacological reduction of triglyceride-rich lipoproteins, or lipoprotein(a) will reduce risk for coronary heart disease. Dyslipidemia, in particular hypercholesterolemia, is a common clinical condition and represents an important determinant of atherosclerotic vascular disease. Treatment decisions are currently guided by the causative lipid phenotype and the presence of other risk factors suggesting a very high cardiovascular risk. Therefore, the identification of lipid disorders and the optimal combination of therapeutic strategies provide an outstanding opportunity for reducing the onset and burden of cardiovascular disease.

  2. The PCOS Patients differ in Lipid Profile According to their Phenotypes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spałkowska, Magdalena; Mrozińska, Sandra; Gałuszka-Bednarczyk, Anna; Gosztyła, Katarzyna; Przywara, Agnieszka; Guzik, Justyna; Janeczko, Marek; Milewicz, Tomasz; Wojas-Pelc, Anna

    2018-01-31

    Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) affects 4-18% of women of reproductive age. The number of reports exploring the lipid profiles among PCOS patients and number of studied patients are limited. The aim of our study was to assess the lipid profile separately in lean and non-lean women with polycystic ovary syndrome divided according to hyperandrogenemia, defined as free androgen index (FAI)≥5. The second aim was to compare the lipid profiles among lean and non-lean PCOS patients with respect to hyperandrogenemia and regularity of menstruation cycles. We evaluated 232 patients from Department of Endocrinological Gynecology, Jagiellonian University Medical College in Krakow diagnosed with PCOS. The population consisted of 166 lean and 66 non-lean women. We observed higher levels of total cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) in lean patients with FAIlean patients with FAI≥5. There were no differences in lipid profile between non-lean patients with FAI≥5 and non-lean patients with FAIlean patients higher total cholesterol levels were observed in those with irregular menstruation cycles and FAIlean PCOS patients. The results of our study showed differences in lipid profile between lean PCOS patients according to their phenotype based on androgens' level. This effect was abandoned by fat tissue mass in non-lean ones. Further studies should be conducted to explore these associations. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  3. Common and rare genetic markers of lipid variation in subjects with type 2 diabetes from the ACCORD clinical trial

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    Skylar W. Marvel

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Background Individuals with type 2 diabetes are at an increased risk of cardiovascular disease. Alterations in circulating lipid levels, total cholesterol (TC, low-density lipoprotein (LDL, high-density lipoprotein (HDL, and triglycerides (TG are heritable risk factors for cardiovascular disease. Here we conduct a genome-wide association study (GWAS of common and rare variants to investigate associations with baseline lipid levels in 7,844 individuals with type 2 diabetes from the ACCORD clinical trial. Methods DNA extracted from stored blood samples from ACCORD participants were genotyped using the Affymetrix Axiom Biobank 1 Genotyping Array. After quality control and genotype imputation, association of common genetic variants (CV, defined as minor allele frequency (MAF ≥ 3%, with baseline levels of TC, LDL, HDL, and TG was tested using a linear model. Rare variant (RV associations (MAF < 3% were conducted using a suite of methods that collapse multiple RV within individual genes. Results Many statistically significant CV (p < 1 × 10−8 replicate findings in large meta-analyses in non-diabetic subjects. RV analyses also confirmed findings in other studies, whereas significant RV associations with CNOT2, HPN-AS1, and SIRPD appear to be novel (q < 0.1. Discussion Here we present findings for the largest GWAS of lipid levels in people with type 2 diabetes to date. We identified 17 statistically significant (p < 1 × 10−8 associations of CV with lipid levels in 11 genes or chromosomal regions, all of which were previously identified in meta-analyses of mostly non-diabetic cohorts. We also identified 13 associations in 11 genes based on RV, several of which represent novel findings.

  4. Classification of metabolic syndrome according to lipid alterations: analysis from the Mexican National Health and Nutrition Survey 2006.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedroza-Tobias, Andrea; Trejo-Valdivia, Belem; Sanchez-Romero, Luz M; Barquera, Simon

    2014-10-09

    There are 16 possible Metabolic Syndrome (MS) combinations out of 5 conditions (glucose intolerance, low levels of high-density lipoprotein Cholesterol (HDL-C), high triglycerides, high blood pressure and abdominal obesity), when selecting those with at least three. Studies suggest that some combinations have different cardiovascular risk. However evaluation of all 16 combinations is complex and difficult to interpret. The purpose of this study is to describe and explore a classification of MS groups according to their lipid alterations. This is a cross-sectional study with data from the Mexican National Health and Nutrition Survey 2006. Subjects (n = 5,306) were evaluated for the presence of MS; four mutually-exclusive MS groups were considered: mixed dyslipidemia (altered triglycerides and HDL-C), hypoalphalipoproteinemia: (normal triglycerides but low HDL-C), hypertriglyceridemia (elevated triglycerides and normal HDL-C) and without dyslipidemia (normal triglycerides and HDL-C). A multinomial logistic regression model was fitted in order to identify characteristics that were associated with the groups. The most frequent MS group was hypoalphalipoproteinemia in females (51.3%) and mixed dyslipidemia in males (43.5%). The most prevalent combination of MS for both genders was low HDL-C + hypertension + abdominal obesity (20.4% females, 19.4% males). The hypoalphalipoproteinemia group was characteristic of women and less developed areas of the country. The group without dyslipidemia was more frequent in the highest socioeconomic level and less prevalent in the south of the country. The mixed dyslipidemia group was characteristic of men, and the Mexico City region. A simple system to classify MS based on lipid alterations was useful to evaluate prevalences by diverse biologic and sociodemographic characteristics. This system may allow prevention and early detection strategies with emphasis on population-specific components and may serve as a guide for

  5. A novel method to produce solid lipid nanoparticles using n-butanol as an additional co-surfactant according to the o/w microemulsion quenching technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mojahedian, Mohammad M; Daneshamouz, Saeid; Samani, Soliman Mohammadi; Zargaran, Arman

    2013-09-01

    Solid Lipid Nanoparticles (SLN) and Nanostructured Lipid Carriers (NLC) are novel medicinal carriers for controlled drug release and drug targeting in different roots of administration such as parenteral, oral, ophthalmic and topical. These carriers have some benefits such as increased drug stability, high drug payload, the incorporation of lipophilic and hydrophilic drugs, and no biotoxicity. Therefore, due to the cost-efficient, proportionally increasable, and reproducible preparation of SLN/NLC and the avoidance of organic solvents used, the warm microemulsion quenching method was selected from among several preparation methods for development in this research. To prepare the warm O/W microemulsion, lipids (distearin, stearic acid, beeswax, triolein alone or in combination with others) were melted at a temperature of 65°C. After that, different ratios of Tween60 (10-22.5%) and glyceryl monostearate (surfactant and co-surfactant) and water were added, and the combination was stirred. Then, 1-butanol (co-surfactant) was added dropwise until a clear microemulsion was formed and titration continued to achieve cloudiness (to obtain the microemulsion zone). The warm o/w microemulsions were added dropwise into 4°C water (1:5 volume ratio) while being stirred at 400 or 600 rpm. Lipid nanosuspensions were created upon the addition of the warm o/w microemulsion to the cold water. The SLN were obtained over a range of concentrations of co-surfactants and lipids and observed for microemulsion stability (clearness). For selected preparations, characterization involved also determination of mean particle size, polydispersity and shape. According to the aim of this study, the optimum formulations requiring the minimum amounts of 1-butanol (1.2%) and lower temperatures for creation were selected. Mono-disperse lipid nanoparticles were prepared in the size range 77 ± 1 nm to 124 ± 21 nm according to a laser diffraction particle size analyzer and transmission electron

  6. Does feed restriction and re-alimentation differently affect lipid content and metabolism according to muscle type in pigs (Sus scrofa)?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gondret, Florence; Lebret, Bénédicte

    2007-06-01

    This study aimed to investigate whether feed restriction and re-alimentation differently affect lipid content and activities of lipogenic or catabolic enzymes according to muscle types in pigs. At around 28 kg body mass (BW), sixty pigs (n=30 per group) were allocated to either ad libitum (AL) or restricted/re-feeding (RA) regimens. After feed restriction (80 kg BW), lipid content was reduced (P<0.01) in the oxidative rhomboideus (RH) as in the glycolytic biceps femoris (BF) muscles of RA pigs compared with AL pigs. Lower activities (P<0.05) of the lipogenic enzymes fatty acid synthase (FAS) and malic enzyme (ME) were observed in the RH but not in the BF of RA vs. AL pigs. After re-feeding (110 kg BW), lipid content was restored in the RH, but was still 12% lower (P<0.05) in the BF of RA compared with AL pigs. In the RH, the trend for an enhanced FAS activity and for a smaller weight-related decrease of ME activity in RA pigs than AL pigs during re-feeding, may have contributed to the muscle fat recovery observed in the RA pigs. In the BF, higher oxidative enzyme activities (P<0.10) in RA pigs compared to AL pigs might explain the incomplete lipid recovery observed after re-feeding in the former animals. In conclusion, metabolic activities in response to restriction and re-feeding differed according to muscle metabolic type.

  7. A STUDY OF LIPID PROFILE IN PREDIABETES

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    Manoj

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Lipid abnormalities are common in diabetes mellitus and play an important role in acceleration of atherosclerosis leading to increased cardiovascular diseases. Due to increasing burden of diabetes, it is becoming important to identify dyslipidaemia in high-risk state for diabetes especially prediabetes so that early intervention can reduce cardiovascular risk. AIM To study lipid profile in prediabetes individuals. METHODS This study was a cross-sectional case control study which included 107 prediabetes and 101 healthy controls. Lipid profile of prediabetes and controls were measured and statistically analysed. RESULT Total cholesterol, LDL, triglycerides, VLDL, TG/HDL ratio, and LDL/HDL ratio were significantly high whereas HDL was significantly low in prediabetes subjects as compared to controls. CONCLUSION This study showed significant lipid abnormalities in prediabetes subjects. Because of these they are at high risk of developing atherosclerotic cardiovascular diseases. Therefore, proper screening and appropriate therapy of these conditions becomes important.

  8. Rhodopsin-lipid interactions studied by NMR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soubias, Olivier; Gawrisch, Klaus

    2013-01-01

    The biophysical properties of the lipid matrix are known to influence function of integral membrane proteins. We report on a sample preparation method for reconstitution of membrane proteins which uses porous anodic aluminum oxide (AAO) filters with 200-nm-wide pores of high density. The substrate permits formation of tubular, single membranes that line the inner surface of pores. One square centimeter of filter with a thickness of 60μm yields on the order of 500cm(2) of solid-supported single bilayer surface, sufficient for NMR studies. The tubular bilayers are free of detergent, fully hydrated, and accessible for ligands from one side of the membrane. The use of AAO filters greatly improves reproducibility of the reconstitution process such that the influence of protein on lipid order parameters can be studied with high resolution. As an example, results for the G protein-coupled receptor of class A, bovine rhodopsin, are shown. By (2)H NMR order parameter measurements, it is detected that rhodopsin insertion elastically deforms membranes near the protein. Furthermore, by (1)H saturation-transfer NMR under conditions of magic angle spinning, we demonstrate detection of preferences in interactions of rhodopsin with particular lipid species. It is assumed that function of integral membrane proteins depends on both protein-induced elastic deformations of the lipid matrix and preferences for interaction of the protein with particular lipid species in the first layer of lipids surrounding the protein. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Heterogeneous behavior of lipids according to HbA1c levels undermines the plausibility of metabolic syndrome in type 1 diabetes: data from a nationwide multicenter survey

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    Giuffrida Fernando MA

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cardiovascular risk factors (CVRF may cluster in type 1 diabetes, analogously to the metabolic syndrome described in type 2 diabetes. The threshold of HbA1c above which lipid variables start changing behavior is unclear. This study aims to 1 assess the behavior of dyslipidemia according to HbA1c values; 2 detect a threshold of HbA1c beyond which lipids start to change and 3 compare the clustering of lipids and other non-lipid CVRF among strata of HbA1c individuals with type 1 diabetes. Methods Effects of HbA1c quintiles (1st: ≤7.4%; 2nd: 7.5-8.5%; 3rd: 8.6-9.6%; 4th: 9.7-11.3%; and 5th: >11.5% and covariates (gender, BMI, blood pressure, insulin daily dose, lipids, statin use, diabetes duration on dyslipidemia were studied in 1275 individuals from the Brazilian multi-centre type 1 diabetes study and 171 normal controls. Results Body size and blood pressure were not correlated to lipids and glycemic control. OR (99% CI for high-LDL were 2.07 (1.21-3.54 and 2.51 (1.46-4.31, in the 4th and 5th HbA1c quintiles, respectively. Hypertriglyceridemia increased in the 5th quintile of HbA1c, OR 2.76 (1.20-6.37. OR of low-HDL-cholesterol were 0.48 (0.24-0.98 and 0.41 (0.19-0.85 in the 3rd and 4th HbA1c quintiles, respectively. HDL-cholesterol correlated positively (0.437 with HbA1c in the 3rd quintile. HDL-cholesterol and insulin dose correlated inversely in all levels of glycemic control. Conclusions Correlation of serum lipids with HbA1c is heterogeneous across the spectrum of glycemic control in type 1 diabetes individuals. LDL-cholesterol and triglycerides worsened alongside HbA1c with distinct thresholds. Association of lower HDL-cholesterol with higher daily insulin dose is consistent and it points out to a role of exogenous hyperinsulinemia in the pathophysiology of the CVRF clustering. These data suggest diverse pathophysiological processes depending on HbA1c, refuting a unified explanation for cardiovascular risk in type 1

  10. Molecular Transport Studies Through Unsupported Lipid Membranes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rock, William; Parekh, Sapun; Bonn, Mischa

    2014-03-01

    Dendrimers, spherical polymeric nanoparticles made from branched monomers around a central core, show great promise as drug delivery vehicles. Dendrimer size, core contents, and surface functionality can be synthetically tuned, providing unprecedented versatility. Polyamidoamine (PAMAM) dendrimers have been shown to enter cells; however, questions remain about their biophysical interactions with the cell membrane, specifically about the presence and size of transient pores. We monitor dendrimer-lipid bilayer interactions using unsupported black lipid membranes (BLMs) as model cell membranes. Custom bilayer slides contain two vertically stacked aqueous chambers separated by a 25 μm Teflon sheet with a 120 μm aperture where the bilayer is formed. We vary the composition of model membranes (cholesterol content and lipid phase) to create biomimetic systems and study the interaction of PAMAM G6 and G3 dendrimers with these bilayers. Dendrimers, dextran cargo, and bilayers are monitored and quantified using time-lapse fluorescence imaging. Electrical capacitance measurements are simultaneously recorded to determine if the membrane is porous, and the pore size is deduced by monitoring transport of fluorescent dextrans of increasing molecular weight. These experiments shed light on the importance of cholesterol content and lipid phase on the interaction of dendrimer nanoparticles with membranes.

  11. Study of inhibition on lipid oxidation of irradiated pork

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ha Yiming

    2006-03-01

    It was studied that the effect factors of irradiation dose, preservation temperature, oxygen content and antioxidant on lipid oxidation of irradiated pork. A mechanism was explained on lipid oxidation of irradiated pork. The results showed that irradiation might aggravate lipid oxidation of pork and that decreased preservation temperature and oxygen content of the packaging, added antioxidant also could effectively inhibit lipid oxidation of irradiated pork. (authors)

  12. A comparative study of lipids in Sphagnum species

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sinninghe Damsté, J.S.; Baas, M.; Pancost, R.D.; Geel, B. van

    2000-01-01

    The free lipid compositions of twelve species of Sphagnum were determined by capillary gas chromatography/mass spectrometry as part of a study to identify characteristic lipids for Sphagnum in peat bogs. Complex mixtures of lipids, comprised of C28 C29 sterols, C30 triterpenoids, C16 C30 fatty

  13. Study of serum lipids in leprosy

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    Gupta Anju

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Fifty fresh and untreated patients of leprosy constituted the study group. Fifty, age and sex matched healthy individuals formed the controls. Ridly and Jopling system of classification was used in the study. Majority i.e 21 cases were of BT group, 12 of BB, 7 of BL, 9 of LL and one case was of TT leprosy. The serum triglyceride level was lower than normal in TT, showed no alteration in BT or BB and was insignificantly increased in bL and LL patients. The total cholesterol was lowerthan normal in TT, showed no alteration in BT or BB and was insignificantly increased in Bland LL patients. The total cholesterol was lower than normal in TT, whereas in BT, BB, BL and LL groups the levels were statistically decreased. The HDL cholesterol was within normal range in TT, significantly decreased in BT and LL patients, showed no significant alteration in BB and was insignificantly decreased in BL group. The LDL cholesterol in TT was low but was not so low statistically when compared with the controls, whereas in BT, BB, BL and LL groups the levels were statistically decreased. The VLDL cholesterol was within normal range in TT and BT, was raised insignificantly in 3 of 12 cases of BB, was within normal range in BL and in LL leprosy it was raised in one out of 9 cases. In the absence of any derangement of liver function tests, it can be concluded that leprosy per se leads to alterations in lipid metabolism. However, no correlation could be established between the group/type of leprosy, bacterial indices and levels of different lipid fractions in the present study.

  14. A comparative study: the impact of different lipid extraction methods on current microalgal lipid research

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Microalgae cells have the potential to rapidly accumulate lipids, such as triacylglycerides that contain fatty acids important for high value fatty acids (e.g., EPA and DHA) and/or biodiesel production. However, lipid extraction methods for microalgae cells are not well established, and there is currently no standard extraction method for the determination of the fatty acid content of microalgae. This has caused a few problems in microlagal biofuel research due to the bias derived from different extraction methods. Therefore, this study used several extraction methods for fatty acid analysis on marine microalga Tetraselmis sp. M8, aiming to assess the potential impact of different extractions on current microalgal lipid research. These methods included classical Bligh & Dyer lipid extraction, two other chemical extractions using different solvents and sonication, direct saponification and supercritical CO2 extraction. Soxhlet-based extraction was used to weigh out the importance of solvent polarity in the algal oil extraction. Coupled with GC/MS, a Thermogravimetric Analyser was used to improve the quantification of microalgal lipid extractions. Among these extractions, significant differences were observed in both, extract yield and fatty acid composition. The supercritical extraction technique stood out most for effective extraction of microalgal lipids, especially for long chain unsaturated fatty acids. The results highlight the necessity for comparative analyses of microalgae fatty acids and careful choice and validation of analytical methodology in microalgal lipid research. PMID:24456581

  15. Zebrafish yolk lipid processing: a tractable tool for the study of vertebrate lipid transport and metabolism

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    Rosa L. Miyares

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Dyslipidemias are a major cause of morbidity and mortality in the world, particularly in developed nations. Investigating lipid and lipoprotein metabolism in experimentally tractable animal models is a crucial step towards understanding and treating human dyslipidemias. The zebrafish, a well-established embryological model, is emerging as a notable system for studies of lipid metabolism. Here, we describe the value of the lecithotrophic, or yolk-metabolizing, stages of the zebrafish as a model for studying lipid metabolism and lipoprotein transport. We demonstrate methods to assay yolk lipid metabolism in embryonic and larval zebrafish. Injection of labeled fatty acids into the zebrafish yolk promotes efficient uptake into the circulation and rapid metabolism. Using a genetic model for abetalipoproteinemia, we show that the uptake of labeled fatty acids into the circulation is dependent on lipoprotein production. Furthermore, we examine the metabolic fate of exogenously delivered fatty acids by assaying their incorporation into complex lipids. Moreover, we demonstrate that this technique is amenable to genetic and pharmacologic studies.

  16. Thermococcus kodakarensis modulates its polar membrane lipids and elemental composition according to growth stage and phosphate availability

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    Travis B. Meador

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We observed significant changes in the elemental and intact polar lipid (IPL composition of the archaeon Thermococcus kodakarensis (KOD1 in response to growth stage and phosphorus supply. Reducing the amount of organic supplements and phosphate in growth media resulted in significant decreases in cell size and cellular quotas of carbon (C, nitrogen (N, and phosphorus (P, which coincided with significant increases in cellular IPL quota and IPLs comprising multiple P atoms and hexose moieties. Relatively more cellular P was stored as IPLs in P-limited cells (2-8% compared to control cells (< 0.8%. We also identified a specific IPL biomarker containing a phosphatidyl-N-acetylhexoseamine headgroup that was relatively enriched during rapid cell division. These observations serve as empirical evidence of IPL adaptations in Archaea that will help to interpret the distribution of these biomarkers in natural systems. The reported cell quotas of C, N, and P represent the first such data for a specific archaeon and suggest that thermophiles are C-rich compared to the cell carbon-to-volume relationship reported for planktonic bacteria.

  17. Study on the influence of lipid peak to the results of MR spectroscopy in the central gland of prostate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dong Yanjun; Wang Xiaoying; Li Feiyu; Jiang Xuexiang

    2007-01-01

    Objective: To study the influence of lipid peak to MRS in central gland of prostate gland. Methods: Seventeen patients performed transurethral resection of prostate (TURP) for benign prostate hyperplasia (BPH) were enrolled in this study. Three groups were divided according to the pathological findings: glandular-BPH (GBPH) (7 cases), stromal-BPH (SBPH) (6 cases), and incidentally detected prostate carcinoma (IDPC) (4 cases). The voxel with lipid peak in the field of volume was counted. Compared with pathology, the following studies were performed: (1) The location of the voxels that more frequently presented lipid peak in the central gland. (2) Whether the appearance of the lipid peak would obscure the identification of the peaks of the endogenous metabolites. Results: The ratio of voxels with lipid peak in central gland was about 22.8% (834/3567). There were 1477 (397 voxels with lipid peak), 1434(396 voxels with lipid peak), and 656(41 voxels with lipid peak) voxels in CBPH, SBPH, and IDPC groups, respectively. The percentage in GBPH, SBPH, and IDPC groups was 23.6%, 27.2%, and 6.4%, respectively. The percentage of voxels with lipid peak at the edge of the central gland (79.6%, 68.6% and 72.4%, respectively) was higher than that in other regions. The lipid peak in most of the voxels didn't influence the identification of the citrate and choline peak (82.8%, 98.0%, and 96.4%, respectively). Conclusion: The lipid peak in the central gland may result from the lipid tissues near the gland, and most lipid peak had no influence on the identification of endogenous metabolites. (authors)

  18. Effects of postmenopausal hormone therapy every day and every other day on lipid levels according to difference in body mass index.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yasui, Toshiyuki; Umino, Yuka; Takikawa, Masaya; Uemura, Hirokazu; Kuwahara, Akira; Matsuzaki, Toshiya; Maegawa, Masahiko; Furumoto, Hiroyuki; Miura, Masakazu; Irahara, Minoru

    2005-03-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the effects of postmenopausal estrogen and progestogen therapy (EPT) every day and every other day on lipid levels, particularly triglyceride (TG) levels, according to difference in body mass index (BMI). Ninety-nine postmenopausal women (mean age, 53.9 +/- 5.6 years; mean BMI, 22.8 +/- 2.8 kg/m) were randomly treated with EPT every other day or every day for 1 year. Fifty women received oral administration of 0.625 mg of conjugated equine estrogen (CEE) and 2.5 mg of medroxyprogesterone acetate (MPA) every other day, and 49 women received oral administration of 0.625 mg of CEE and 2.5 mg of MPA every day. Blood samples were collected at baseline and after 1 year of therapy for measurement of fasting TG, total cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (HDL-C), and apolipoproteins. Data from 88 of the 99 postmenopausal women were used for analysis. In women whose BMI was 25 kg/m or higher, TG levels during EPT every day increased by 26.8%, while TG levels during EPT every other day decreased by 12.3%. There was a significant (P every day and every other day. In women whose BMI was less than 25 kg/m, TG levels during EPT every day increased by 21.7%, while during EPT every other day TG levels did not change. The mean levels of estradiol during EPT every day in women whose BMI was less than 25 kg/m and in women whose BMI was 25 kg/m or higher were 28.5 and 38.7 pg/mL, respectively, the difference between these levels was significant (P every other day in these two BMI groups. Triglyceride levels during EPT every day with conventional doses of CEE and MPA increased more in overweight and obese postmenopausal women in association with increased estrogen levels.

  19. Lipid nanotechnologies for structural studies of membrane-associated proteins.

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    Stoilova-McPhie, Svetla; Grushin, Kirill; Dalm, Daniela; Miller, Jaimy

    2014-11-01

    We present a methodology of lipid nanotubes (LNT) and nanodisks technologies optimized in our laboratory for structural studies of membrane-associated proteins at close to physiological conditions. The application of these lipid nanotechnologies for structure determination by cryo-electron microscopy (cryo-EM) is fundamental for understanding and modulating their function. The LNTs in our studies are single bilayer galactosylceramide based nanotubes of ∼20 nm inner diameter and a few microns in length, that self-assemble in aqueous solutions. The lipid nanodisks (NDs) are self-assembled discoid lipid bilayers of ∼10 nm diameter, which are stabilized in aqueous solutions by a belt of amphipathic helical scaffold proteins. By combining LNT and ND technologies, we can examine structurally how the membrane curvature and lipid composition modulates the function of the membrane-associated proteins. As proof of principle, we have engineered these lipid nanotechnologies to mimic the activated platelet's phosphtaidylserine rich membrane and have successfully assembled functional membrane-bound coagulation factor VIII in vitro for structure determination by cryo-EM. The macromolecular organization of the proteins bound to ND and LNT are further defined by fitting the known atomic structures within the calculated three-dimensional maps. The combination of LNT and ND technologies offers a means to control the design and assembly of a wide range of functional membrane-associated proteins and complexes for structural studies by cryo-EM. The presented results confirm the suitability of the developed methodology for studying the functional structure of membrane-associated proteins, such as the coagulation factors, at a close to physiological environment. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. Preliminary study of coach verbal behaviour according to game actions

    OpenAIRE

    Guzmán Luján, José Francisco; Calpe Gómez, Vicente

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to analyse the interaction between game actions in high-level handball and verbal behaviour performed by the coach. For this purpose, a match of the 1st National Division of male Spanish handball was analysed. The type of behaviour and the content of the message reported by the coach were recorded using a modified version of Coaching Behaviour Assessment System (CBAS) and Coach Analysis and Intervention System (CAIS). About game actions, they were grouped into positi...

  1. Feasibility Study on Nuclear Propulsion Ship according to Economic Evaluation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gil, Youngmi; Yoo, Seongjin; Oh, June; Byun, Yoonchul; Woo, Ilguk [Daewoo Shipbuilding and Marine Engineering Co., Ltd, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Jiho; Choi, Suhn [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-05-15

    The use of nuclear ships has been extending to the icebreaker, the deep-water exploration ship, and the floating nuclear power plant. Prior to developing the new ship, the relevant regulations need to be considered. In this study, we reviewed the nuclear ship-related regulations. In addition, economic value is one of the most important factors which should be considered in the pre-design phase. To evaluate the economics of the nuclear ship, we calculated Capital Expenditure (abbreviated as CAPEX) and Operation Expenditure (abbreviated as OPEX) for various types of ships. We reviewed the nuclear ship-related regulations and evaluated the economics of the nuclear ship compared to the diesel ship. The calculation result shows that economic feasibility of the nuclear ship depends on the oil price as well as the cost of the nuclear reactor.

  2. Comparative studies of the lipid characteristics and industrial ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Characterization of oil from African walnut seed and Indian almond seeds was studied by analysing the lipid extracted from the seeds for their saponification value, iodine value, free fatty acid and acid value. The result of the analysis shows that the saponification value, free fatty acid value, acid value and iodine value of ...

  3. Planning According to New Urbanism: the Ostadsara Neighborhood Case Study

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    Nader Zali

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The modern urbanism activities have led to rupture of previous spatial structure of neighborhoods and destruction of their identity. The New Urbanism Movement, as one of the successful models in urbanization field attempts to revive this lost national-social identity through the project of returning to traditional structure of neighborhoods by applying modern urbanization models and methods. The current paper aims at evaluation and analysis of “the Ostadsara neighborhood's organization based on new urbanism principles” and representation of solutions for planning a successful neighborhood center considering these principles. In this regard, various methods including library method, observation, photography, questionnaire and interview with users of the environment were utilized. The results from identification and assessment of weaknesses and strengths and specification and analysis of potential threats and opportunities shows the possibility of applying walkability, connectivity and integration, improvement of public transportation, improvement of architecture quality and urban design, maintenance and improvement of public and green open spaces, maintenance and strengthening the structure of traditional neighborhood units and using cooperation of Ostadsara neighborhood's inhabitants. Finally, the current study will represent appropriate strategies for changing the mentioned neighborhood into a desirable and prosperous one.

  4. Spin trapping studies of essential oils in lipid systems

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    Makarova Katerina

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available In the present work, we report the results of a spin trapping ESR study of four essential oils widely used for skin care products such as creams and bath salts. The studied essential oils are Rosmarini aetheroleum (rosemary, Menthae piperitae aetheroleum (mint, Lavandulae aetheroleum (lavender, and Thymi aetheroleum (thyme. Fenton reaction in the presence of ethanol was used to generate free radicals. The N-tert-butyl-α-phenylnitrone (PBN was used as a spin trap. In the Fenton reaction, the rosemary oil had the lowest effect on radical adduct formation as compared to the reference Fenton system. Since essential oils are known to be lipid soluble, we also conducted studies of essential oils in Fenton reaction in the presence of lipids. Two model lipids were used, namely 1,2-dioleoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (DOPC and 1,2-dipalmitoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (DPPC. The obtained results suggested that in the presence of DOPC lipids, the •OH and PBN/•CHCH3(OH radicals are formed in both phases, that is, water and lipids, and all the studied essential oils affected the Fenton reaction in a similar way. Whereas, in the DPPC system, the additional type of PBN/X (aN = 16.1 G, aH = 2.9 G radical adduct was generated. DFT calculations of hyperfine splittings were performed at B3LYP/6-311+G(d,p/EPR-II level of theory for the set of c-centered PBN adducts in order to identify PBN/X radical.

  5. MOLECULAR DYNAMICS STUDY OF CYTOCHROME C – LIPID COMPLEXES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Trusova

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The interactions between a mitochondrial hemoprotein cytochrome c (cyt c and the model lipid membranes composed of zwitterionic lipid phosphatidylcholine (PC and anionic lipids phosphatidylglycerol (PG, phosphatidylserine (PS or cardiolipin (CL were studied using the method of molecular dynamics. It was found that cyt c structure remains virtually unchanged in the protein complexes with PC/PG or PC/PS bilayers. In turn, protein binding to PC/CL bilayer is followed by the rise in cyt c radius of gyration and root-mean-square fluctuations. The magnitude of these changes was demonstrated to increase with the anionic lipid content. The revealed effect was interpreted in terms of the partial unfolding of polypeptide chain in the region Ala15-Leu32, widening of the heme crevice and enhancement of the conformational fluctuations in the region Pro76-Asp93 upon increasing the CL molar fraction from 5 to 25%. The results obtained seem to be of utmost importance in the context of amyloidogenic propensity of cyt c.

  6. Pulse radiolysis studies in model lipid systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Patterson, L.K.; Hasegawa, K.

    1978-01-01

    The kinetic and spectral behavior of radicals formed by hydroxyl radical attack on linoleate anions has been studied by pulse radiolysis. Reactivity of OH toward this surfactant is an order of magnitude greater in monomeric form (kOH + linoleate = 8.0 x 10 9 M -1 sec -1 ) than in mecellar form (kOH + lin(micelle) = 1.0 x 10 9 M -1 sec -1 ). Abstraction of a hydrogen atom from the doubly allylic position gives rise to an intense absorption in the UV region (lambda max = 282-286 nm, epsilon approximately 3 x 10 4 M -1 cm -1 ) which may be used as a probe of radical activity at that site. This abstraction may occur, to a small extent, directly via OH attack. However, greater than 90% of initial attack occurs at other sites. Subsequent secondary abstraction of doubly allylic H atoms appears to occur predominantly by: (1) intramolecular processes in monomers, (2) intermolecular processes in micelles. Disappearance of radicals by secondary processes is slower in the micellar pseudo phase than in monomeric solution. (orig.) 891 HK 892 KR [de

  7. Quantitative studies of antimicrobial peptide-lipid membrane interactions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Kasper

    antimicrobial peptides interact with phospholipid membranes. Motivated by that fact, the scope of this thesis is to study these antimicrobial peptide-lipid membrane interactions. In particular, we attempt to study these interactions with a quantitative approach. For that purpose, we consider the three...... a significant problem for quantitative studies of antimicrobial peptide-lipid membrane interactions; namely that antimicrobial peptides adsorb to surfaces of glass and plastic. Specifically, we demonstrate that under standard experimental conditions, this effect is significant for mastoparan X, melittin...... lead to inaccurate conclusions, or even completely wrong conclusions, when interpreting the FCS data. We show that, if all of the pitfalls are avoided, then FCS is a technique with a large potential for quantitative studies of antimicrobial peptide-induced leakage of fluorescent markers from large...

  8. Effect of pistachio diet on lipid parameters, endothelial function, inflammation, and oxidative status: a prospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sari, Ibrahim; Baltaci, Yasemin; Bagci, Cahit; Davutoglu, Vedat; Erel, Ozcan; Celik, Hakim; Ozer, Orhan; Aksoy, Nur; Aksoy, Mehmet

    2010-04-01

    Recent studies have suggested that nuts have favorable effects beyond lipid lowering. We aimed to investigate effect of the Antep pistachio (Pistacia vera L.) on blood glucose, lipid parameters, endothelial function, inflammation, and oxidation in healthy young men living in a controlled environment. A Mediterranean diet was administered to normolipidemic 32 healthy young men (mean age 22 y, range 21-24) for 4 wk. After 4 wk, participants continued to receive the Mediterranean diet but pistachio was added for 4 wk by replacing the monounsaturated fat content constituting approximately 20% of daily caloric intake. Fasting blood samples and brachial endothelial function measurements were performed at baseline and after each diet. Compared with the Mediterranean diet, the pistachio diet decreased glucose (Ppistachio diet significantly improved endothelium-dependent vasodilation (P=0.002, 30% relative increase), decreased serum interleukin-6, total oxidant status, lipid hydroperoxide, and malondialdehyde and increased superoxide dismutase (Ppistachio diet improved blood glucose level, endothelial function, and some indices of inflammation and oxidative status in healthy young men. These findings are in accordance with the idea that nuts, in particular pistachio nuts, have favorable effects beyond lipid lowering that deserve to be evaluated with prospective follow-up studies. Copyright 2010. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  9. A Molecular Dynamics Study of the Structural and Dynamical Properties of Putative Arsenic Substituted Lipid Bilayers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ratna Juwita

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Cell membranes are composed mainly of phospholipids which are in turn, composed of five major chemical elements: carbon, hydrogen, nitrogen, oxygen, and phosphorus. Recent studies have suggested the possibility of sustaining life if the phosphorus is substituted by arsenic. Although this issue is still controversial, it is of interest to investigate the properties of arsenated-lipid bilayers to evaluate this possibility. In this study, we simulated arsenated-lipid, 1-palmitoyl-2-oleoyl-sn-glycero-3-arsenocholine (POAC, lipid bilayers using all-atom molecular dynamics to understand basic structural and dynamical properties, in particular, the differences from analogous 1-palmitoyl-2-oleoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine, (POPC lipid bilayers. Our simulations showed that POAC lipid bilayers have distinct structural and dynamical properties from those of native POPC lipid bilayers. Relative to POPC lipid bilayers, POAC lipid bilayers have a more compact structure with smaller lateral areas and greater order. The compact structure of POAC lipid bilayers is due to the fact that more inter-lipid salt bridges are formed with arsenate-choline compared to the phosphate-choline of POPC lipid bilayers. These inter-lipid salt bridges bind POAC lipids together and also slow down the head group rotation and lateral diffusion of POAC lipids. Thus, it would be anticipated that POAC and POPC lipid bilayers would have different biological implications.

  10. SERUM LIPID PROFILE AS AN ETIOLOGY OF VERTIGO : A STUDY

    OpenAIRE

    Sami; Satveer Singh

    2015-01-01

    A prospective study of lipid profile was done in 60 patients of vertigo at E.L.M.C. Lucknow from 2011 to 2014. All components of serum cholesterol were analyzed. Serum cholesterol and hyperlipidemia as an etiology of the atherosclerosis of all blood vessel s also have a role in vestibulo - cochlear vessels. It was found that there were 34 females and 26 males and maximum number of patients (63.33%) in the age group of 31 - 50y...

  11. SERUM LIPID PROFILE AS AN ETIOLOGY OF VERTIGO : A STUDY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sami

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available A prospective study of lipid profile was done in 60 patients of vertigo at E.L.M.C. Lucknow from 2011 to 2014. All components of serum cholesterol were analyzed. Serum cholesterol and hyperlipidemia as an etiology of the atherosclerosis of all blood vessel s also have a role in vestibulo - cochlear vessels. It was found that there were 34 females and 26 males and maximum number of patients (63.33% in the age group of 31 - 50years. Appreciable difference (p<0.05 in the mean value of total lipid, total cholester ol, triglycerides and phospholipids in the control and study group was found but difference was not significant in the mean value of HDL, LDL and VLDL cholesterol level. Four cases of diabetes and ten cases of hypertension of 60 vertigo cases were having m arked vertigo of longer duration. These findings were similar to Mehra Y.N. Thus we find that serum lipid studies are important in the patients of vertigo for the diagnosis and management

  12. [The mass-spectrometry studies of the interaction of polyhexamethyleneguanidine with lipids].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lysytsia, A V; Rebriiev, A V

    2014-01-01

    In this work the integral components of the cytoplasmic membrane, lecithin and cholesterol were used for mass spectrometry analysis carried out on polyhexamethyleneguanidine (PHMG) mixtures with lipids. The study was performed by mass-spectrometry methods of the MALDI-TOF MS. Our results showed that despite the common use of PHGM polymer derivatives as disinfectants the persistent intermolecular complexes of PHMG oligomers with lipids were not formed. The binding of polycation PHMG with the membrane has been explained by the model proposed. According to this model PHGM can adhere to negatively charged plasma membrane of bacterial cell due to electrostatic interaction and the formation of loop-like structures. Similar stereochemistry mechanism makes the adsorption of the investigated polycation to membrane robust. The mechanism described together with additional destructive factors provides a reasonable explanation for the PHMG induced damage of bacterial cell plasma membrane and the biocide action of disinfectants prepared on the basis of the PHMG salts.

  13. Atomistic study of lipid membranes containing chloroform: looking for a lipid-mediated mechanism of anesthesia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramon Reigada

    Full Text Available The molecular mechanism of general anesthesia is still a controversial issue. Direct effect by linking of anesthetics to proteins and indirect action on the lipid membrane properties are the two hypotheses in conflict. Atomistic simulations of different lipid membranes subjected to the effect of small volatile organohalogen compounds are used to explore plausible lipid-mediated mechanisms. Simulations of homogeneous membranes reveal that electrostatic potential and lateral pressure transversal profiles are affected differently by chloroform (anesthetic and carbon tetrachloride (non-anesthetic. Simulations of structured membranes that combine ordered and disordered regions show that chloroform molecules accumulate preferentially in highly disordered lipid domains, suggesting that the combination of both lateral and transversal partitioning of chloroform in the cell membrane could be responsible of its anesthetic action.

  14. Study of association between beverage consumption pattern and lipid profile in shift workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mashhadi, Nafiseh Shokri; Saadat, Saeed; Afsharmanesh, Mohammad Reza; Shirali, Saeed

    The circadian system influences on health and metabolic function that can cause raising some risk factor of metabolic syndrome. Few studies have examined data that incorporate the full complexity of daily beverage intake pattern on lipid profiles. The purpose of this study was to investigate relation between daily water and beverage intake of adults working in day or shift work and lipid profile. Total beverages intake was estimated in shift and administrative staff of Ahvaz International Airport, Iran. Forty five male, aged 25-55 years, attending this institute were invited to participate in this study. They completed a three-day food records and all participants were measured plasma lipid profiles. Forty one of participants completed all aspects of the study. Two clusters were emerged, labeled descriptively as Conventional including "high Sugar-sweetened drinkers" and "low sugar drinkers". The highest intake of water was in cluster 1 (1170.9ml/day) even this amount is much less than the daily recommended amounts. There were significant differences in triglyceride levels among day and night shift workers. According to the results, there is inadequacy of water and high sugar beverage intake among the shift workers which it is a potential risk of some related chronic diseases such as metabolic syndrome with high triglyceride level in the future. Copyright © 2016 Diabetes India. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Reconstitution of a Kv channel into lipid membranes for structural and functional studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Sungsoo; Zheng, Hui; Shi, Liang; Jiang, Qiu-Xing

    2013-07-13

    To study the lipid-protein interaction in a reductionistic fashion, it is necessary to incorporate the membrane proteins into membranes of well-defined lipid composition. We are studying the lipid-dependent gating effects in a prototype voltage-gated potassium (Kv) channel, and have worked out detailed procedures to reconstitute the channels into different membrane systems. Our reconstitution procedures take consideration of both detergent-induced fusion of vesicles and the fusion of protein/detergent micelles with the lipid/detergent mixed micelles as well as the importance of reaching an equilibrium distribution of lipids among the protein/detergent/lipid and the detergent/lipid mixed micelles. Our data suggested that the insertion of the channels in the lipid vesicles is relatively random in orientations, and the reconstitution efficiency is so high that no detectable protein aggregates were seen in fractionation experiments. We have utilized the reconstituted channels to determine the conformational states of the channels in different lipids, record electrical activities of a small number of channels incorporated in planar lipid bilayers, screen for conformation-specific ligands from a phage-displayed peptide library, and support the growth of 2D crystals of the channels in membranes. The reconstitution procedures described here may be adapted for studying other membrane proteins in lipid bilayers, especially for the investigation of the lipid effects on the eukaryotic voltage-gated ion channels.

  16. Progesterone lipid nanoparticles: Scaling up and in vivo human study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esposito, Elisabetta; Sguizzato, Maddalena; Drechsler, Markus; Mariani, Paolo; Carducci, Federica; Nastruzzi, Claudio; Cortesi, Rita

    2017-10-01

    This investigation describes a scaling up study aimed at producing progesterone containing nanoparticles in a pilot scale. Particularly hot homogenization techniques based on ultrasound homogenization or high pressure homogenization have been employed to produce lipid nanoparticles constituted of tristearin or tristearin in association with caprylic-capric triglyceride. It was found that the high pressure homogenization method enabled to obtain nanoparticles without agglomerates and smaller mean diameters with respect to ultrasound homogenization method. X-ray characterization suggested a lamellar structural organization of both type of nanoparticles. Progesterone encapsulation efficiency was almost 100% in the case of high pressure homogenization method. Shelf life study indicated a double fold stability of progesterone when encapsulated in nanoparticles produced by the high pressure homogenization method. Dialysis and Franz cell methods were performed to mimic subcutaneous and skin administration. Nanoparticles constituted of tristearin in mixture with caprylic/capric triglyceride display a slower release of progesterone with respect to nanoparticles constituted of pure tristearin. Franz cell evidenced a higher progesterone skin uptake in the case of pure tristearin nanoparticles. A human in vivo study, based on tape stripping, was conducted to investigate the performance of nanoparticles as progesterone skin delivery systems. Tape stripping results indicated a decrease of progesterone concentration in stratum corneum within six hours, suggesting an interaction between nanoparticle material and skin lipids. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Studies on lipid peroxidation and anti-LPO chemicals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Chongdao; Qiang Yizhong; Lao Qinhua

    1995-02-01

    The contents of lipid peroxides (LPO) in sera and tissues were determined by the modified spectrophotometry of TBA, and the effects of three chemicals on lipid peroxidation induced by radiation were observed. The items studied included: (1) the normal values of LPO of sera in rats and adults: (2) the normal values in some tissues of rats; (3) the changes of LPO levels of sera in patients with some mental diseases and patients with malignant tumours before and after local gamma irradiation exposure; (4) the changes of LPO contents of some tissues in rats after whole-body gamma irradiation exposure; (5) the changes of LPO contents of some tissues in mice after internal exposure by Th(NO 3 ) 4 solution; (6) the effects of chinonin, tannic acid and squalene on lipid peroxidation induced by irradiation. The results were as follows: (1) the LPO contents in patients with some mental diseases dramatically increased; (2) there was marked difference between the LPO levels before and after local gamma irradiation exposure in patients with malignant tumours; (3) the LPO contents in some tissues of rats remarkably increased after whole-body gamma irradiation exposure; (4) the LPO contents in some tissues of mice dramatically increased and their protein contents markedly reduced after internal exposure, showing a negative correlation between them; (5) a gradual increase in LPO contents in some tissues of mice appeared with increasing dosage of whole-body gamma irradiation exposure at dose range from 0 to 4 Gy. A linear relationship between the dose and the LPO contents was observed; (6) all three chemicals could reduce the LPO levels in liver, spleen and kidney of the irradiated mice. The efficacy of chinonin was better than that of tannic acid and squalene. (5 tabs., 1 fig.)

  18. STUDY OF THE CHANGES IN SERUM LIPIDS FOLLOWING MERCURY INTOXIFICATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M TAHER

    2000-12-01

    Full Text Available Background. The toxicity of mercury which is used as mercury chloride in different parts of living world has been reported in literature. In our knowledge, however, these reports are on the effects of mercury on serum blood parameters. As lipids have important role in cell metabolism, we decided to study the effects of mercury on blood parameters which are related to lipid metabolism as well as its effect on hepatocyte triglycerides. Methods. Each group of 5 rats were treated with daily IP injections of either 10 mg/kg (Body Weight for 5 and 10 days or 5 mg/kg B.W. for 30 and 60 days, before determination of serum levels of triglycerides, cholesterol and lipoprotein fractions. Results. The results obtained are as follows. Daily intraperitoneal injection of 10 mg/kg B.W of mercury for 5 and 10 days elevated serum triglycerides by (10.9, 19.3 LDLc (16.5, 22.5 VLDLc (10.9, ,19.3 and hepatocytes containing triglycerides (105.1, 136.3 percent respectively. HDLc was decreased by (13.4, 17.3 percent. Daily intraperitoneal injection of 5 mg/kg body weight of mercury for 30 and 60 days elevated serum triglycerides by (34.7, 47.4. LDLc (28.9, 33.3, VLDLc (34.7, 47.4 and hepatocytes containing triglycerides (177.3, 213.4 percent respectively. HDLc was lowered by (22.9, 27.7 percent. Discussion. The results showed that mercury could affect lipid metabloism in a dose and time dependent manner. This effect might be considered as a possilbe cause of hyperlipidemia in those who are intoxified with this element.

  19. Study of Alterations in Lipid Profile After Burn Injury.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dr.Asha Khubchandani

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: After burn injury, changes in lipid profile occur in body. Dyslipidemia after burn injury is one of the important alterations. Objective: To check alterations in lipid profile after burn injury. Materials and Method: It was cross sectional study which was carried out on 250 burns patients of both sex, with an age group of 18-45 years, and varying burns percentage of 20-80% of total body surface area (TBSA. Serum cholesterol, serum LDL, serum HDL and serum triglyceride level were measured on XL-640 fully-auto biochemical analyser. Serum LDL and HDL were measured by Accelerator Selective Detergent Method. Serum cholesterol and triglyceride were measured by Trindor’s method. Results: Results showed decrease in serum cholesterol, serum LDL and serum HDL, while increase in serum triglyceride level in burns patients compared to normal subjects. Conclusion: This study clearly showed the importance of measuring serum cholesterol, TG, LDL and HDL in burn patients and targeting changes that occur in their levels along the burns course, which may have beneficial effect in protection from organ damage, increasing survival rates and improving burn outcome.

  20. Role of Neutral Lipids in Tear Fluid Lipid Layer: Coarse-Grained Simulation Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Telenius, J.; Koivuniemi, A.; Kulovesi, P.

    2012-01-01

    Tear fluid lipid layer (TFLL) residing at the air-water interface of tears has been recognized to play an important role in the development of dry eye syndrome. Yet, the composition, structure, and mechanical properties of TFLL are only partly known. Here, we report results of coarse...

  1. Study on the lipid organization of stratum corneum lipid models by (cryo-) electron diffraction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pilgram, GSK; Pelt, AMEV; Oostergetel, GT; Koerten, HK; Bouwstra, JA

    The barrier function of the skin resides in the stratum corneum (SC), This outermost layer consists of protein-rich corneocytes and lipid-rich intercellular domains. These domains form the rate-limiting step for transepidermal water loss and the penetration of substances from the environment. To

  2. Experimental study of Pinus densiflora Siebold et Zuccarini on Hyperlipidemia and lipid in Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kim, Dae-Hyun

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available In order to study the effects of Pinus densiflora on hyperlipidemia and lipid in rats, we divided the rats into groups(Normal group, Control group and Sample group and perfomed the experimental research. Hyperlipidemia and lipid in rats were induced by high fat diets for 8weeks. The sample group was administerd the extract of Pinus densiflora for 14 days and control group was administerd equal dose of oral. And then we measured the amount of serum triglyceride, Total cholesterol, LDL-cholesterol, HDL-cholesterol, Free Fatty Acid, phospholipid, Insuline, Laptin, Body weight, epididymis fat weight & rate, epididymis fat cell, Cardiac Risk Factor(CRF. The results were as followers : 1. Sample Group showed decreasing effects on Total cholesterol, Trigylceride, LDL-cholesterol, and Phospholipid levels in serum and CRF significantly. 2. Sample Group showed increasing effects on HDL-cholesterol level in serum significantly. 3. Sample Group showed decreasing effects on Insuline in serum significantly. 4. Sample Group showed increasing effects on Laptin in serum significantly. 5. Sample Group showed decreasing effects on Body weight, epididymis fat weight & rate, epididymis fat cell significantly. According to the above results, Pinus densiflora showed significant decreasing effects on hyperlipidemia and lipid in rats, it is considered that it is appropriate to apply for hyperlipidemia, obesity.

  3. An Interlaboratory study of lipid effects on steroid radioimmunoassay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bolelli, G.F.; Franceschetti, F.; Mimmi, P.; Malvano, R.; Pilo, A.; Zucchelli; Rota, G.

    1986-01-01

    The lipid effects on the performances of routine steroid radioimmunoassay (RIA) have been assessed using the scheme of the CNR interlaboratory quality control program. Cortisol, estradiol, progesterone and testosterone assays have been considered. In the study, ca 80 laboratories were supplied with two sets of control plasma samples with different triglyceride contents (pool N, ca 120 mg/dl; pool L, ca 310 mg/dl), each corresponding to three steroid levels (level 0: charcoaldeprived samples; levels 1 and 2: the same added with increasing steroid amounts). A comparison of the neat results obtained by partecipants for both levels 1 and 2 of N and P panels - after subtraction of the concentrations estimated for level 0 - gave a direct information on lipid effects (triglycerides being assumed as an index of lipemia). In no case the abnormality high triglyceride content proved effective in practical terms, though significant differences were observed for testosterone and progesterone (ca 10% underestimation in pool L) and for estradiol (ca 10% overestimation in pool L)

  4. COMPARATIVE STUDY TO EVALUATE LIPID-LOWERING EFFECT OF

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Niteesh Shanbag

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Dyslipidaemia is a widely established risk factor for coronary artery disease. As Asians differ in pattern of various lipid abnormalities than non-Asians, this study was undertaken to compare efficacy of commonly administrated drugs, atorvastatin and fenofibrate. MATERIALS AND METHODS The present study was carried out in 100 diagnosed cases of hypertriglyceridaemia divided into two groups, A and B. The mean, standard deviation, standard error of mean and t value were calculated following 12 weeks of therapy of atorvastatin 10 mg in group A and micronized fenofibrate in group B. RESULTS Our study showed that fenofibrate is more efficacious in reducing the levels of triglycerides and rising level of HDL cholesterol, while atorvastatin is more efficacious in reducing LDL cholesterol. CONCLUSION Micronized fenofibrate has more efficiency in reducing triglycerides and raising HDL. Atorvastatin is more efficacious in reducing LDL levels.

  5. Study on mechanism of decreased lipid peroxide by low dose radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamaoka, Kiyonori; Okazoe, Yoko; Akimaru, Kunihiro; Sato, E.F.; Utsumi, Kozo.

    1991-01-01

    We examined the effect of SOD on lipid peroxidation in biomembrane from V.E-deficient rats, in order to study the mechanism of increased SOD activities and decreased lipid peroxide by low dose irradiation. The following results were obtained. i. Active oxygen (O 2 - ) strongly enhances lipid peroxidations in biomembrane with the Fe 3+ as catalyst. ii. SOD evidently inhibits lipid peroxidations under above conditions. iii. We suggested that the effect of SOD enhanced by low dose irradiation results in inhibition of lipid peroxidation. (author)

  6. Interaction pathways between soft lipid nanodiscs and plasma membranes: A molecular modeling study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Shixin; Luo, Zhen; Xu, Yan; Ren, Hao; Deng, Li; Zhang, Xianren; Huang, Fang; Yue, Tongtao

    2017-10-01

    Lipid nanodisc, a model membrane platform originally synthesized for study of membrane proteins, has recently been used as the carrier to deliver amphiphilic drugs into target tumor cells. However, the central question of how cells interact with such emerging nanomaterials remains unclear and deserves our research for both improving the delivery efficiency and reducing the side effect. In this work, a binary lipid nanodisc is designed as the minimum model to investigate its interactions with plasma membranes by using the dissipative particle dynamics method. Three typical interaction pathways, including the membrane attachment with lipid domain exchange of nanodiscs, the partial membrane wrapping with nanodisc vesiculation, and the receptor-mediated endocytosis, are discovered. For the first pathway, the boundary normal lipids acting as ligands diffuse along the nanodisc rim to gather at the membrane interface, repelling the central bola lipids to reach a stable membrane attachment. If bola lipids are positioned at the periphery and act as ligands, they diffuse to form a large aggregate being wrapped by the membrane, leaving the normal lipids exposed on the membrane exterior by assembling into a vesicle. Finally, by setting both central normal lipids and boundary bola lipids as ligands, the receptor-mediated endocytosis occurs via both deformation and self-rotation of the nanodiscs. All above pathways for soft lipid nanodiscs are quite different from those for rigid nanoparticles, which may provide useful guidelines for design of soft lipid nanodiscs in widespread biomedical applications. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. SAXS Study of Sterically Stabilized Lipid Nanocarriers Functionalized by DNA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angelov, Borislav; Angelova, Angelina; Filippov, Sergey; Karlsson, Göran; Terrill, Nick; Lesieur, Sylviane; Štěpánek, Petr

    2012-03-01

    The structure of novel spontaneously self-assembled plasmid DNA/lipid complexes is investigated by means of synchrotron radiation small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) and Cryo-TEM imaging. Liquid crystalline (LC) hydrated lipid systems are prepared using the non-ionic lipids monoolein and DOPE-PEG2000 and the cationic amphiphile CTAB. The employed plasmid DNA (pDNA) is encoding for the human protein brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF). A coexistence of nanoparticulate objects with different LC inner organizations is established. A transition from bicontinuous membrane sponges, cubosome intermediates and unilamelar liposomes to multilamellar vesicles, functionalized by pDNA, is favoured upon binding and compaction of pBDNF onto the cationic PEGylated lipid nanocarriers. The obtained sterically stabilized multicompartment nanoobjects, with confined supercoiled plasmid DNA (pBDNF), are important in the context of multicompartment lipid nanocarriers of interest for gene therapy of neurodegenerative diseases.

  8. SAXS Study of Sterically Stabilized Lipid Nanocarriers Functionalized by DNA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Angelov, Borislav; Filippov, Sergey; Štepánek, Petr; Angelova, Angelina; Lesieur, Sylviane; Karlsson, Göran; Terrill, Nick

    2012-01-01

    The structure of novel spontaneously self-assembled plasmid DNA/lipid complexes is investigated by means of synchrotron radiation small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) and Cryo-TEM imaging. Liquid crystalline (LC) hydrated lipid systems are prepared using the non-ionic lipids monoolein and DOPE-PEG 2000 and the cationic amphiphile CTAB. The employed plasmid DNA (pDNA) is encoding for the human protein brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF). A coexistence of nanoparticulate objects with different LC inner organizations is established. A transition from bicontinuous membrane sponges, cubosome intermediates and unilamelar liposomes to multilamellar vesicles, functionalized by pDNA, is favoured upon binding and compaction of pBDNF onto the cationic PEGylated lipid nanocarriers. The obtained sterically stabilized multicompartment nanoobjects, with confined supercoiled plasmid DNA (pBDNF), are important in the context of multicompartment lipid nanocarriers of interest for gene therapy of neurodegenerative diseases.

  9. Application of Proteomics and Lipid Studies in Environmental Biotechnology

    OpenAIRE

    Mukhopadhyay, Aindrila

    2008-01-01

    The overview of changes in protein levels or states in response to a growth condition, stress, mutation or metabolic engineering is invaluable in understanding the physiology of a microbial system. The lipid profile of the cell is similarly a valuable diagnostic of the cellular response and health, especially in context of survival in a fluctuating environment. To obtain comprehensive cellular models, post-transcriptional cell wide surveys at the levels of proteins and lipids are required. Bo...

  10. Synthesis, activity, and structure--activity relationship studies of novel cationic lipids for DNA transfer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byk, G; Dubertret, C; Escriou, V; Frederic, M; Jaslin, G; Rangara, R; Pitard, B; Crouzet, J; Wils, P; Schwartz, B; Scherman, D

    1998-01-15

    We have designed and synthesized original cationic lipids for gene delivery. A synthetic method on solid support allowed easy access to unsymmetrically monofunctionalized polyamine building blocks of variable geometries. These polyamine building blocks were introduced into cationic lipids. To optimize the transfection efficiency in the novel series, we have carried out structure-activity relationship studies by introduction of variable-length lipids, of variable-length linkers between lipid and cationic moiety, and of substituted linkers. We introduce the concept of using the linkers within cationic lipids molecules as carriers of side groups harboring various functionalities (side chain entity), as assessed by the introduction of a library composed of cationic entities, additional lipid chains, targeting groups, and finally the molecular probes rhodamine and biotin for cellular traffic studies. The transfection activity of the products was assayed in vitro on Hela carcinoma, on NIH3T3, and on CV1 fibroblasts and in vivo on the Lewis Lung carcinoma model. Products from the series displayed high transfection activities. Results indicated that the introduction of a targeting side chain moiety into the cationic lipid is permitted. A primary physicochemical characterization of the DNA/lipid complexes was demonstrated with this leading compound. Selected products from the series are currently being developed for preclinical studies, and the labeled lipopolyamines can be used to study the intracellular traffic of DNA/cationic lipid complexes.

  11. Lipid drug conjugate nanoparticle as a novel lipid nanocarrier for the oral delivery of decitabine: ex vivo gut permeation studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neupane, Yub Raj; Sabir, M D; Ahmad, Nafees; Ali, Mushir; Kohli, Kanchan

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to develop lipid drug conjugate (LDC) nanoparticles of decitabine (DCB) using stearic acid as a lipid to increase the permeability of the drug along with its protection from chemical degradation. The LDC was prepared by salt formation of DCB with stearic acid and followed by cold homogenization technique to produce the LDC nanoparticles. The role of key independent variables influencing on dependent variables were determined by using a Box–Behnken design. The optimized batch revealed spherical morphology under TEM analysis with particle size of 202.6 ± 1.65 nm and 0.334 ± 0.987 PDI. The zeta potential and %EE were found to be −33.6 ± 0.845 mV and 68.89% ± 0.59 respectively. Lyophilized powder showed the crystalline structure under DSC analysis. In vitro release studies showed the initial burst release followed by a sustained release up to 24 h in PBS pH 7.4 and the data were further studied using release kinetic models which revealed the first-order model as a best-fitting model. Ex vivo gut permeation studies proved that the formulation containing lipid and surfactants has a higher permeability than the plain drug solution with nearly fourfold increase in the apparent permeability coefficients. Finally, LDC nanoparticles prepared by using stearic acid as a lipid and surfactants as Tween 80, Poloxamer 188, and Labrasol in equal ratio possess high potential for the oral delivery of hydrophilic drugs. (paper)

  12. Lipid drug conjugate nanoparticle as a novel lipid nanocarrier for the oral delivery of decitabine: ex vivo gut permeation studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neupane, Yub Raj; Sabir, M. D.; Ahmad, Nafees; Ali, Mushir; Kohli, Kanchan

    2013-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to develop lipid drug conjugate (LDC) nanoparticles of decitabine (DCB) using stearic acid as a lipid to increase the permeability of the drug along with its protection from chemical degradation. The LDC was prepared by salt formation of DCB with stearic acid and followed by cold homogenization technique to produce the LDC nanoparticles. The role of key independent variables influencing on dependent variables were determined by using a Box-Behnken design. The optimized batch revealed spherical morphology under TEM analysis with particle size of 202.6 ± 1.65 nm and 0.334 ± 0.987 PDI. The zeta potential and %EE were found to be -33.6 ± 0.845 mV and 68.89% ± 0.59 respectively. Lyophilized powder showed the crystalline structure under DSC analysis. In vitro release studies showed the initial burst release followed by a sustained release up to 24 h in PBS pH 7.4 and the data were further studied using release kinetic models which revealed the first-order model as a best-fitting model. Ex vivo gut permeation studies proved that the formulation containing lipid and surfactants has a higher permeability than the plain drug solution with nearly fourfold increase in the apparent permeability coefficients. Finally, LDC nanoparticles prepared by using stearic acid as a lipid and surfactants as Tween 80, Poloxamer 188, and Labrasol in equal ratio possess high potential for the oral delivery of hydrophilic drugs.

  13. Transient monocular blindness and the risk of vascular complications according to subtype : a prospective cohort study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Volkers, Eline J; Donders, Richard C J M; Koudstaal, Peter J; van Gijn, Jan; Algra, Ale; Jaap Kappelle, L

    Patients with transient monocular blindness (TMB) can present with many different symptoms, and diagnosis is usually based on the history alone. In this study, we assessed the risk of vascular complications according to different characteristics of TMB. We prospectively studied 341 consecutive

  14. Transient monocular blindness and the risk of vascular complications according to subtype: a prospective cohort study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Volkers, E.J. (Eline J.); R. Donders (Rogier); P.J. Koudstaal (Peter Jan); van Gijn, J. (Jan); A. Algra (Ale); L. Jaap Kappelle

    2016-01-01

    textabstractPatients with transient monocular blindness (TMB) can present with many different symptoms, and diagnosis is usually based on the history alone. In this study, we assessed the risk of vascular complications according to different characteristics of TMB. We prospectively studied 341

  15. Serum lipid profile in alcoholic cirrhosis: A study in a teaching ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    However, there are only a few studies regarding lipid profile in alcoholic cirrhosis that have been undertaken in India. The aim of the study is to assess the degree of alteration of serum lipid profile in alcoholic cirrhotic patients and also to detect its relationship with the age of the patients and the alcohol consumption pattern.

  16. Study on the correlation of serum lipid metabolism and central retinal artery hemodynamics with diabetic retinopathy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ran-Yang Guo

    2016-01-01

    Objective:To explore the correlation of serum lipid metabolism and central retinal artery (CRA) hemodynamics with diabetic retinopathy (DR).Methods:A total of 120 patients with type 2 diabetes who were admitted in our hospital from May, 2015 to May, 2016 were included in the study and divided into NDR group (non-diabetic retinopathy), NPR group (non-proliferative retinopathy), and PR group (proliferative retinopathy) with 40 cases in each group according to DR clinical staging. Moreover, 50 healthy individuals who came for physical examinations were served as the control group. The full automatic biochemical analyzer was used to detect the levels of TG, TC, LDL-C, and HDL-C. The color Doppler flow imaging (CDFI) was used to detect EDV, PSV, RI, and PI of CRA and OA.Results:The levels of TG, TC, and LDL-C in NDG, NPR, and PR groups were gradually increased with the aggravation of retinopathy, HDL-C was reduced, the comparison among the three groups was statistically significant, and the comparison with the control group was statistically significant. EDV, PSV, and PI of CRA and OA in NDG, NPR, and PR groups were gradually increased with the aggravation of retinopathy, RI was reduced, the comparison among the three groups was statistically significant, and the comparison with the control group was statistically significant. Conclusions: The lipid metabolism disorder can promote the occurrence and development of DR. The change of CRA and OA hemodynamics is an important pathological basis for developing DR. Clinical detection of serum lipid level and monitoring of the changes of fundus artery hemocynamic parameters are of great significance in early detecting DR.

  17. Lipid diffusion in the distal and proximal leaflets of supported lipid bilayer membranes studied by single particle tracking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoch, Rafael L.; Barel, Itay; Brown, Frank L. H.; Haran, Gilad

    2018-03-01

    Supported lipid bilayers (SLBs) have been studied extensively as simple but powerful models for cellular membranes. Yet, potential differences in the dynamics of the two leaflets of a SLB remain poorly understood. Here, using single particle tracking, we obtain a detailed picture of bilayer dynamics. We observe two clearly separate diffusing populations, fast and slow, that we associate with motion in the distal and proximal leaflets of the SLB, respectively, based on fluorescence quenching experiments. We estimate diffusion coefficients using standard techniques as well as a new method based on the blur of images due to motion. Fitting the observed diffusion coefficients to a two-leaflet membrane hydrodynamic model allows for the simultaneous determination of the intermonolayer friction coefficient and the substrate-membrane friction coefficient, without any prior assumptions on the strengths of the relevant interactions. Remarkably, our calculations suggest that the viscosity of the interfacial water confined between the membrane and the substrate is elevated by ˜104 as compared to bulk water. Using hidden Markov model analysis, we then obtain insight into the transbilayer movement of lipids. We find that lipid flip-flop dynamics are very fast, with half times in the range of seconds. Importantly, we find little evidence for membrane defect mediated lipid flip-flop for SLBs at temperatures well above the solid-to-liquid transition, though defects seem to be involved when the SLBs are cooled down. Our work thus shows that the combination of single particle tracking and advanced hydrodynamic modeling provides a powerful means to obtain insight into membrane dynamics.

  18. Тhe mass-spectrometry studies of the interaction of polyhexamethyleneguanidine with lipids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. V. Lysytsya

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available In this work the integral components of the cytoplasmic membrane, lecithin and cholesterol were used for mass spectrometry analysis carried out on polyhexamethyleneguanidine (PHMG mixtures with lipids. The study was performed by mass-spectrometry methods of the MALDI-TOF MS. Our results showed that despite the common use of PHGM polymer derivatives as disinfectants the persistent intermolecular complexes of PHMG oligomers with lipids were not formed. The binding of polycation PHMG with the membrane has been explained by the model proposed. According to this model PHGM can adhere to negatively charged plasma membrane of bacterial cell due to electrostatic interaction and the formation of loop-like structures. Similar stereochemistry mechanism makes the adsorption of the investigated polycation to membrane robust. The mechanism described together with additional destructive factors provides a reasonable explanation for the PHMG induced damage of bacterial cell plasma membrane and the biocide action of disinfectants prepared on the basis of the PНMG salts.

  19. Water distribution function across the curved lipid bilayer: SANS study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kiselev, M.A.; Zemlyanaya, E.V.; Ryabova, N.Y.; Hauss, T.; Dante, S.; Lombardo, D.

    2008-01-01

    The neutron scattering length density across the membrane is simulated on the basis of fluctuated model of lipid bilayer. The use of a separated form factors method has been applied for the identification of the structural features of the polydispersed unilamellar DMPC vesicle system. The hydration of vesicle is described by sigmoid distribution function of the water molecules. The application of the model to the obtained SANS spectra allow the determination of the main parameters of the system, such as the average vesicle radius (and its polydispersity), the membrane thickness, the thickness of hydrocarbon chain region, the number of water molecules located per lipid molecule, and the phospholipid surface area. Moreover the approach allow the calculation of some relevant parameters connected with the water distribution function across the bilayer system. The main features of the obtained results furnish an explanation of why lipid membrane is easily penetrated by the water molecules of the solution

  20. A study on characteristic of glass dosimeter according to grade change of tube current

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Son, Jin Hyun; Kim, Seong Ho; Mun, Hyun Jun; Kim, Lyun Kyun; Son, In Hwa; Kim, Young Jun; Min, Jung Whan [Dept. of Radiological Science, Shingu University, Sungnam (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Ki Won [Dept. of Radiology, Samsung Medical Center, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-06-15

    This study was evaluated the linearity and reproducibility according to dose, and reproducibility according to delay time by changing tube current amount (5 mAs, 10 mAs, 16 mAs, 20 mAs, 25 mAs, 32 mAs respectively, which are low energy radiations) using Glass Dosimeter (GD) and piranha semiconductor dosimeter which are used for measuring exposure dose. Measurements of radiation dose were performed using external detector of piranha 657 which is multi-function QA device (RTI Electronic, Sweden). Conditions of measurement were 80 kVp, SSD 100 and exposure region is 10 cm x 10 cm. Glass dosimeter was exposed to radiation. Twenty-four glass dosimeters were divided into six groups (5 mAs, 10 mAs, 16 mAs, 20 mAs, 25 mAs, 32 mAs respectively), then measured. This study was resulted by measuring the linearity and reproducibility according to change of tube current in low energy field. In dose characteristic of GD, this study could be useful as previous study with regard to dose characteristic according to change of tube voltage in low energy field.

  1. Prospective Study of Nut Consumption and Incidence of Metabolic Syndrome: Tehran Lipid and Glucose Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosseinpour-Niazi, Somayeh; Hosseini, Shabnam; Mirmiran, Parvin; Azizi, Fereidoun

    2017-09-23

    This study aimed to assess the association of various types of nut per se, and total nut consumption with the incidence of metabolic syndrome (MetS). A 6.2 ± 0.7-year population-based prospective study was conducted among 1265 adults, aged 19-74 years, participants of the Tehran Lipid and Glucose Study. A 168-item semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire was used to collect information on nut consumption. MetS was defined according to the Joint Interim Statement guidelines and 276 new cases of MetS were identified. Median ± interquartile range of nut consumption was 2.08 (0.88-5.68) servings/week. After adjusting for family history of diabetes, age, gender, smoking, physical activity, fasting serum glucose at baseline, serum high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) at baseline, energy intake, fiber, macronutrients, cholesterol intake, fruit, vegetables, dairy products and body mass index (BMI), a statistically significant decrease was observed in MetS in the third (≥5 servings/week) tertile of nuts (odds ratio: 0.68, 95% CI: 0.44-0.91, p trend: 0.03) compared with the lowest (≤1 serving/week). Walnut consumption showed a significant, inverse association with MetS risk; associations for other nut varieties were not significant. For each additional serving/week of walnuts consumed, incidence of MetS decreased by 3% (ORs: 0.97 CI: 0.93-0.99), after adjusting for confounding factors. Total nut consumption, especially walnuts, reduces the risk of MetS.

  2. Study of serum lipid profile in pregnancy induced hypertension in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    At recent times, there has been a great interest on the role of lipid metabolism in the development of pregnancy induced hypertension and pre-eclampsia ... Results: Mean serum triglyceride was higher in (Group 1) pregnant women with pregnancy induced hypertension than in Groups 2 and 3, this was however not ...

  3. Characterization of lipid rafts in human platelets using nuclear magnetic resonance: A pilot study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joshua F. Ceñido

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Lipid microdomains (‘lipid rafts’ are plasma membrane subregions, enriched in cholesterol and glycosphingolipids, which participate dynamically in cell signaling and molecular trafficking operations. One strategy for the study of the physicochemical properties of lipid rafts in model membrane systems has been the use of nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR, but until now this spectroscopic method has not been considered a clinically relevant tool. We performed a proof-of-concept study to test the feasibility of using NMR to study lipid rafts in human tissues. Platelets were selected as a cost-effective and minimally invasive model system in which lipid rafts have previously been studied using other approaches. Platelets were isolated from plasma of medication-free adult research participants (n=13 and lysed with homogenization and sonication. Lipid-enriched fractions were obtained using a discontinuous sucrose gradient. Association of lipid fractions with GM1 ganglioside was tested using HRP-conjugated cholera toxin B subunit dot blot assays. 1H high resolution magic-angle spinning nuclear magnetic resonance (HRMAS NMR spectra obtained with single-pulse Bloch decay experiments yielded spectral linewidths and intensities as a function of temperature. Rates of lipid lateral diffusion that reported on raft size were measured with a two-dimensional stimulated echo longitudinal encode-decode NMR experiment. We found that lipid fractions at 10–35% sucrose density associated with GM1 ganglioside, a marker for lipid rafts. NMR spectra of the membrane phospholipids featured a prominent ‘centerband’ peak associated with the hydrocarbon chain methylene resonance at 1.3 ppm; the linewidth (full width at half-maximum intensity of this ‘centerband’ peak, together with the ratio of intensities between the centerband and ‘spinning sideband’ peaks, agreed well with values reported previously for lipid rafts in model membranes. Decreasing

  4. Clustering the Consumers According to Their Environmental Concern: A Study In the Turkish Market

    OpenAIRE

    Ahu Ergen; Filiz Bozkurt; Caner Giray

    2014-01-01

    The consumption of natural resources and environmental pollution is still one of our planets most serious problems. Accordingly, the number of consumers who are worried about diminishing natural resources is increasing rapidly. Knowing more about these consumers will give companies the opportunity to define their strategies appropriately. The objective of this study is to profile consumers regarding environmental concern and green buying behavior. Three distinct clusters are identified and th...

  5. Application of Proteomics and Lipid Studies in Environmental Biotechnology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mukhopadhyay, Aindrila

    2008-08-12

    The overview of changes in protein levels or states in response to a growth condition, stress, mutation or metabolic engineering is invaluable in understanding the physiology of a microbial system. The lipid profile of the cell is similarly a valuable diagnostic of the cellular response and health, especially in context of survival in a fluctuating environment. To obtain comprehensive cellular models, post-transcriptional cell wide surveys at the levels of proteins and lipids are required. Both these fields have been greatly bolstered by the development of high throughput methods using mass spectrometry. Multiple strategies now exist for the identification of proteins, and numerous workflows to quantify protein abundance have also been developed. Cellular profiling such as these allows us to assess the potential of a microbial system for environmental applications such as bioremediation and bio-energy.

  6. Thermodynamic and fluorescence studies of the underlying factors in benzyl alcohol-induced lipid interdigitated phase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, C H; Hoye, K; Roth, L G

    1996-09-15

    To further investigate factors contributing to the action of alcohol in the solute-induced lipid interdigitation phase, thermodynamic and fluorescence polarization measurements were carried out to study the interaction of benzyl alcohol with dipalmitoyl phosphatidylcholine bilayer vesicles. The obtained results were compared with those previously reported for ethanol and cyclohexanol (L. G. Roth and C-H. Chen, Arch. Biochem. Biophys. 296, 207, 1992). Similar to ethanol, benzyl alcohol was found to exhibit a biphasic effect on the enthalpy (delta Hm) and the temperature (tm) of the lipid-phase transition and the steady-state fluorescence polarization (P) monitored by 1,6-diphenyl-1,3,5-hexatriene. At a total concentration of benzyl alcohol delta Hm and P, which were correlated with the formation of a lipid interdigitated phase, as evidenced by reported X-ray diffraction data. Combining the results with benzyl alcohol and ethanol suggested that simultaneously large changes in delta Hm and P can be used as an indication of the occurrence of a solute-induced lipid interdigitated phase. The overall interacting force in the formation of this lipid phase, as derived from the interactions of the hydroxyl portion of an alcohol with the lipid phosphate head group and the hydrophobic portion of an alcohol with the lipid hydrocarbon chains, may or may not be dominated by hydrophobic interaction. Although lipid/water partition coefficients and the contribution of hydrophobic interaction to the overall interacting force were comparable between benzyl alcohol and cyclohexanol, benzyl alcohol induced lipid interdigitated phase, but not for cyclohexanol. This was due to the ability of benzyl alcohol to be more effective than cyclohexanol in simultaneously interacting with the phosphate head group and the hydrocarbon chains of lipid.

  7. Simulation studies of protein-induced bilayer deformations, and lipid-induced protein tilting, on a mesoscopic model for lipid bilayers with embedded proteins

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Venturoli, M.; Smit, B.; Sperotto, Maria Maddalena

    2005-01-01

    membranes. Here we present a mesoscopic model for lipid bilayers with embedded proteins, which we have studied with the help of the dissipative particle dynamics simulation technique. Because hydrophobic matching is believed to be one of the main physical mechanisms regulating lipid-protein interactions......-induced protein tilt, with the hydrophobic mismatch ( positive and negative) between the protein hydrophobic length and the pure lipid bilayer hydrophobic thickness. The protein-induced bilayer perturbation was quantified in terms of a coherence length, xi(P), of the lipid bilayer hydrophobic thickness pro. le...... for positive values of mismatch; a dependence on the protein size appears as well. In the case of large model proteins experiencing extreme mismatch conditions, in the region next to the so-called lipid annulus, there appears an undershooting ( or overshooting) region where the bilayer hydrophobic thickness...

  8. Automated Bayesian Segmentation of Microvascular White-Matter Lesions in the ACCORD-MIND Study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Herskovits, E. H.; Bryan, R. N.; Yang, F.

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: Automatic brain-lesion segmentation has the potential to greatly expand the analysis of the relationships between brain function and lesion locations in large-scale epidemiologic studies, such as the ACCORD-MIND study. In this manuscript we describe the design and evaluation of a Bayesian lesion-segmentation method, with the expectation that our approach would segment white-matter brain lesions in MR images without user intervention. Materials and Methods: Each ACCORD-MIND subject has T1-weighted, T2-weighted, spin-density-weighted, and FLAIR sequences. The training portion of our algorithm first registers training images to a standard coordinate space; then, it collects statistics that capture signal-intensity information, and residual spatial variability of normal structures and lesions. The classification portion of our algorithm then uses these statistics to segment lesions in images from new subjects, without the need for user intervention. We evaluated this algorithm using 42 subjects with primarily white-matter lesions from the ACCORD-MIND project. Results: Our experiments demonstrated high classification accuracy, using an expert neuro radiologist as a standard. Conclusions: A Bayesian lesion-segmentation algorithm that collects multi-channel signal-intensity and spatial information from MR images of the brain shows potential for accurately segmenting brain lesions in images obtained from subjects not used in training. (authors)

  9. Dentofacial transverse development in Koreans according to skeletal maturation: A cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, Soonshin; Noh, Yoonjeong; Choi, Yoon Jeong; Chung, Chooryung; Lee, Hye Sun; Kim, Kyung-Ho

    2018-01-01

    The aim of this study was to establish the normative data of dentofacial transverse dimensions according to the skeletal maturation stage in Korean adolescents with good occlusion, assess gender differences and determine correlations between transverse variables. A total of 577 Korean subjects between ages 7 to 19 years and exhibiting skeletal Class I occlusion were categorized by skeletal maturation index (SMI) of Fishman using hand-wrist radiographs. Dentofacial transverse dimensions were assessed using posteroanterior cephalograms. Independent two-sample t -tests were used to analyze differences between genders. Pearson correlation coefficient was used to determine the correlation between transverse measurements. Dentofacial transverse norms relevant to skeletal maturation stages were established. The average maxillomandibular width difference and ratio at growth completion was 22.16 mm and 77.01% for males; 23.70 mm and 74.06% for females, respectively. Males had greater facial, maxillary and mandibular widths compared to females at every SMI stage. The maxillary and mandibular intermolar widths showed the strongest correlation for both sexes (r = 0.826 for males, r = 0.725 for females). Dentofacial transverse norms of Korean adolescents were established according to developmental stage. All dentofacial widths were greater in males at growth completion. Maxillary and mandibular intermolar widths were strongly correlated. This study may serve as a guideline for the assessment of dentofacial transverse growth according to skeletal maturation stage in Korean adolescents with good occlusion.

  10. Reasons of general practitioners for not prescribing lipid-lowering medication to patients with diabetes: a qualitative study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    AB Elisabeth

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Lipid-lowering medication remains underused, even in high-risk populations. The objective of this study was to determine factors underlying general practitioners' decisions not to prescribe such drugs to patients with type 2 diabetes. Methods A qualitative study with semi-structured interviews using real cases was conducted to explore reasons for not prescribing lipid-lowering medication after a guideline was distributed that recommended the use of statins in most patients with type 2 diabetes. Seven interviews were conducted with general practitioners (GPs in The Netherlands, and analysed using an analytic inductive approach. Results Reasons for not-prescribing could be divided into patient and physician-attributed factors. According to the GPs, some patients do not follow-up on agreed medication and others object to taking lipid-lowering medication, partly for legitimate reasons such as expected or perceived side effects. Furthermore, the GPs themselves perceived reservations for prescribing lipid-lowering medication in patients with short life expectancy, expected compliance problems or near goal lipid levels. GPs sometimes postponed the start of treatment because of other priorities. Finally, barriers were seen in the GPs' practice organisation, and at the primary-secondary care interface. Conclusion Some of the barriers mentioned by GPs seem to be valid reasons, showing that guideline non-adherence can be quite rational. On the other hand, treatment quality could improve by addressing issues, such as lack of knowledge or motivation of both the patient and the GP. More structured management in general practice may also lead to better treatment.

  11. Omic studies reveal the pathogenic lipid droplet proteins in non-alcoholic fatty liver disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xuelin Zhang

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD is an epidemic metabolic condition driven by an underlying lipid homeostasis disorder. The lipid droplet (LD, the main organelle involved in neutral lipid storage and hydrolysis, is a potential target for NAFLD therapeutic treatment. In this review, we summarize recent progress elucidating the connections between LD-associated proteins and NAFLD found by genome-wide association studies (GWAS, genomic and proteomic studies. Finally, we discuss a possible mechanism by which the protein 17β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase 13 (17β-HSD13 may promote the development of NAFLD.

  12. Medication competency of nurses according to theoretical and drug calculation online exams: A descriptive correlational study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sneck, Sami; Saarnio, Reetta; Isola, Arja; Boigu, Risto

    2016-01-01

    Medication administration is an important task of registered nurses. According to previous studies, nurses lack theoretical knowledge and drug calculation skills and knowledge-based mistakes do occur in clinical practice. Finnish health care organizations started to develop a systematic verification processes for medication competence at the end of the last decade. No studies have yet been made of nurses' theoretical knowledge and drug calculation skills according to these online exams. The aim of this study was to describe the medication competence of Finnish nurses according to theoretical and drug calculation exams. A descriptive correlation design was adopted. Participants and settings All nurses who participated in the online exam in three Finnish hospitals between 1.1.2009 and 31.05.2014 were selected to the study (n=2479). Quantitative methods like Pearson's chi-squared tests, analysis of variance (ANOVA) with post hoc Tukey tests and Pearson's correlation coefficient were used to test the existence of relationships between dependent and independent variables. The majority of nurses mastered the theoretical knowledge needed in medication administration, but 5% of the nurses struggled with passing the drug calculation exam. Theoretical knowledge and drug calculation skills were better in acute care units than in the other units and younger nurses achieved better results in both exams than their older colleagues. The differences found in this study were statistically significant, but not high. Nevertheless, even the tiniest deficiency in theoretical knowledge and drug calculation skills should be focused on. It is important to identify the nurses who struggle in the exams and to plan targeted educational interventions for supporting them. The next step is to study if verification of medication competence has an effect on patient safety. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. A study on MR signal intensity of calcifications according to calcium concentration and compound

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chang, Sun Ae; Kim, Jae Hyoung; Chung, Sung Hoon

    1996-01-01

    The signal of intracranial calcification on magnetic resonance (MR) imaging has been known to be variable. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the MR signal of calcifications according to calcium concentration and compound. T1-weighted, proton density and T2-weighted images were obtained in phantoms with various conposition of calcium carbonate and calcium phosphate. The signal intensities and T1/T2 relaxation times were measured and analyzed according to calcium concentration and compound. The configurations of calcium particles were evaluated by scanning electron microscopy. The signal intensity of calcium carbonate on T1-weighted images gradually decreased as the concentration increased, while that of calcium phosphate showed a biphasic curve with a peak intensity at 0.2g/ml. The signal intensity of both calcium phosphate decreased up to 0.2g/ml and then remained constant. The T2 relaxation time of both calcium compounds decreased in a similar fashion with increasing concentration, Calcium phosphate showed larger surface area on scanning electron microscope. Calcifications show variable MR signal due to difference of T1 and T2 relaxation times according to calcium concentration and compound. Large surface area of calcium particle might cause shortening of T1 relaxation time leading to high signal on T1-weighted image. Understanding of these findings will help interpretation of MR images more precisely

  14. Electromyographic evaluation of the upper lip according to the breathing mode: a longitudinal study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aldrieli Regina Ambrosio

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The present study aimed at analyzing and comparing longitudinally the EMG (electromyographic activity of the superior orbicularis oris muscle according to the breathing mode. The sample, 38 adolescents with Angle Class II Division 1 malocclusion with predominantly nose (PNB or mouth (PMB breathing, was evaluated at two different periods, with a two-year interval between them. For that purpose, a 16channel electromyography machine was employed, which was properly calibrated in a PC equipped with an analogue-digital converter, with utilization of surface, passive and bipolar electrodes. The RMS data (root mean square were collected at rest and in 12 movements and normalized according to time and amplitude, by the peak value of EMG, in order to allow comparisons between subjects and between periods. Comparison of the muscle function of PNB and PMB subjects at period 1 (P1, period 2 (P2 and the variation between periods (Δ did not reveal statistically significant differences between groups (p < 0.05. However, longitudinal evaluation of the muscle function in PNB and PMB subjects demonstrated different evolutions in the percentage of required EMG for accomplishment of the movements investigated. It was possible to conclude that there are differences in the percentage of electric activity of the upper lip with the growth of the subjects according to the breathing mode.

  15. Structural studies of the lipid membranes at the Siberia-2 synchrotron radiation source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kiselev, M. A.; Ermakova, E. V.; Ryabova, N. Yu.; Nayda, O. V.; Zabelin, A. V.; Pogorely, D. K.; Korneev, V. N.; Balagurov, A. M.

    2010-01-01

    Lipid membranes are a subject of contemporary interdisciplinary studies at the junction of biology, biophysics, pharmacology, and bionanotechnology. The results of the structural studies of several types of lipid membranes by the lamellar and lateral diffraction of X-ray synchrotron radiation are presented. The experiments were performed at the Mediana and DICSI stations of the Siberia-2 synchrotron radiation source at the Russian Research Center Kurchatov Institute. The data obtained are compared with the results of studying lipid membranes at the small-angle scattering beamlines D22 and D24 at LURE (France) and at the A2 beamline at DESY (Germany). The parameters of the DICSI station are shown to meet the basic requirements for the structural study of lipid systems, which are of fundamental and applied interest.

  16. Plasma lipid levels in Alzheimer's disease patients treated by Donepezil hydrochloride: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adunsky, Abraham; Chesnin, Vladimir; Ravona, Ramit; Harats, Dror; Davidson, Michael

    2004-01-01

    Donepezil hydrochloride is a central acetylcholine esterase inhibitor that is widely used in Alzheimer disease (AD). We have recently observed some differences in lipid profile between occasional cases of Donepezil hydrochloride users (DU) and non-users (DNU). This prompted us to study the levels of plasma lipids in these two groups, cross-sectionally. The medical charts of patients with probable AD were screened for current use of Donepezil hydrochloride and lipids profile, along with other clinical and demographic data. A total number of 105 patients were identified and included in the final analysis. Patients were divided into two groups (DU and DNU). Plasma levels of lipids were recorded. Mann-Whitney or t-test for continuous variables and Fisher exact test for categorical variables were used to test for significant differences between the groups. Regression analysis was applied to identify independently the factors associated with lipid levels. Thirty-three patients were DU and 72 DNU. The two groups differed in terms of age, lipid levels and cognitive level. DU had statistically significant higher levels of triglycerides compared with those not using the drug (P=0.036), higher total cholesterol (Phydrochloride. Alternatively, this may indicate that the effect of the medication may involve lipid metabolism, rather than other proposed mechanisms.

  17. Utility of the triglyceride level for predicting incident diabetes mellitus according to the fasting status and body mass index category: the Ibaraki Prefectural Health Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujihara, Kazuya; Sugawara, Ayumi; Heianza, Yoriko; Sairenchi, Toshimi; Irie, Fujiko; Iso, Hiroyasu; Doi, Mikio; Shimano, Hitoshi; Watanabe, Hiroshi; Sone, Hirohito; Ota, Hitoshi

    2014-01-01

    The levels of lipids, especially triglycerides (TG), and obesity are associated with diabetes mellitus (DM). Although typically measured in fasting individuals, non-fasting lipid measurements play an important role in predicting future DM. This study compared the predictive efficacy of lipid variables according to the fasting status and body mass index (BMI) category. Data were collected for 39,196 nondiabetic men and 87,980 nondiabetic women 40-79years of age who underwent health checkups in Ibaraki-Prefecture, Japan in 1993 and were followed through 2007. The hazard ratios (HRs) for DM in relation to sex, the fasting status and BMI were estimated using a Cox proportional hazards model. A total of 8,867 participants, 4,012 men and 4,855 women, developed DM during a mean follow-up of 5.5 years. TG was found to be an independent predictor of incident DM in both fasting and non-fasting men and non-fasting women. The multivariable-adjusted HR for DM according to the TG quartile (Q) 4 vs. Q1 was 1.18 (95% confidence interval (CI): 1.05, 1.34) in the non-fasting men with a normal BMI (18.5-24.9). This trend was also observed in the non-fasting women with a normal BMI. That is, the multivariable-adjusted HRs for DM for TG Q2, Q3 and Q4 compared with Q1 were 1.07 (95% CI: 0.94, 1.23), 1.17 (95%CI: 1.03, 1.34) and 1.48 (95%CI: 1.30, 1.69), respectively. The fasting and non-fasting TG levels in men and non-fasting TG levels in women are predictive of future DM among those with a normal BMI. Clinicians must pay attention to those individuals at high risk for DM.

  18. Physical activity, sedentary behavior time and lipid levels in the Observation of Cardiovascular Risk Factors in Luxembourg study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crichton, Georgina E; Alkerwi, Ala'a

    2015-08-11

    Recently attention has been drawn to the health impacts of time spent engaging in sedentary behaviors. While many studies have investigated general physical activity (PA) in relation to blood lipid levels, the current study aimed to examine the intensity of activity, including sedentary behavior time, and time spent engaging in moderate and intense PA, with concentrations of HDL and LDL-cholesterol, total cholesterol, and triglycerides. Participants comprised 1331 individuals, aged 18 to 70 years, from the Observation of Cardiovascular Risk Factors in Luxembourg (ORISCAV-LUX) study, who underwent objective cardiovascular health assessments and completed the International Physical Activity Questionnaire (IPAQ). Time spent engaging in sedentary behaviors (screen time on a workday and a day off, and total sitting time on a work day), and moderate and intense PA, were related to levels of HDL and LDL-cholesterol, total cholesterol, and triglycerides. Analyses were conducted in the whole sample, and then with stratification according to BMI (normal weight versus overweight/obese). Both lower screen time during days off and higher intense PA time were significantly associated with higher HDL-cholesterol after full adjustment for socio-demographic factors, dietary factors and smoking (both p sedentary behavior time variables were observed (all p sedentary behavior time variable and lipid levels in those overweight or obese. Spending less time in sedentary behaviors, and engaging in medium levels of intense physical activity may be associated with a more favorable blood lipid profile, particularly with regard to levels of HDL and triglycerides.

  19. LDL-cholesterol goal attainment under persistent lipid-lowering therapy in northeast China: Subgroup analysis of the dyslipidemia international study of China (DYSIS-China).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Wen; Zhang, Yu-Jiao; Bu, Xiang-Ting; Guo, Xin-Zhu; Hu, Da-Yi; Li, Zhan-Quan; Sun, Jian

    2017-11-01

    Lipid-lowering therapy with statins reduces the risk of cardiovascular events, but the efficacy of persistent treatment in a real-world setting may vary from regions. Routine lipid-lowering therapy in the region with a high prevalence of cardiovascular disease may lead to more failures of goal attainment. We therefore performed a study to observe different lipid-lowering strategies in northeast (NE) China with respect to low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (LDL-C) reduction and goal attainments.A cross-sectional study (DYSIS-China) was conducted in 2012, involving 25,317 patients from 122 centers across China who were diagnosed with hyperlipidemia and treated with lipid-lowering therapy for at least 3 months. Of these patients, 4559 (18.0%) were assigned to the NE group according to their residential zones.Patients in the NE group tended to be younger, female, overweight, and had more comorbidities and higher blood lipid levels than those in the non-NE group (P 24 kg/m, drinking alcohol, smoking, and being residence in NE China as independent predictors of LDL-C attainment.Despite having received persistent lipid-lowering treatments, the current situation of dyslipidemia patients in NE China is unsatisfactory. The main treatment gap might be related to the choice of statin and effective combination therapy and the control of comorbidities and obesity, especially for high-risk patients.

  20. Тhe mass-spectrometry studies of the interaction of polyhexamethyleneguanidine with lipids

    OpenAIRE

    A. V. Lysytsya; A. V. Rebriev

    2014-01-01

    In this work the integral components of the cytoplasmic membrane, lecithin and cholesterol were used for mass spectrometry analysis carried out on polyhexamethyleneguanidine (PHMG) mixtures with lipids. The study was performed by mass-spectrometry methods of the MALDI-TOF MS. Our results showed that despite the common use of PHGM polymer derivatives as disinfectants the persistent intermolecular complexes of PHMG oligomers with lipids were not formed. The binding of polycation PHMG with the m...

  1. Radiochemical methods for studying lipase-catalyzed interesterification of lipids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schuch, R.; Mukherjee, K.D.

    1987-01-01

    Reactions involving lipase-catalyzed interesterification of lipids, which are of commendable interest in biotechnology, have been monitored and assayed by radiochemical methods using 14 C-labeled substrates. Medium chain (C 12 plus C 14 ) triacylglycerols were reacted in the presence of an immobilized lipase from Mucor miehei and hexane at 45 0 C with methyl [1- 14 C]oleate, [1- 14 C]oleic acid, [carboxyl- 14 C]trioleoylglycerol, [1- 14 C]octadecenyl alcohol, and [U- 14 C]glycerol, each of known specific activity. The reactions were monitored and the rate of interesterification determined by radio thin layer chromatography from the incorporation of radioactivity into acyl moieties of triacylglycerols (from methyl oleate, oleic acid, and trioleoylglycerol), alkyl moieties of wax esters (from octadecenyl alcohol), and into glycerol backbone of monoacylglycerols and diacylglycerols (from glycerol). (orig.)

  2. A study of archaeal enzymes involved in polar lipid synthesis linking amino acid sequence information, genomic contexts and lipid composition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hiromi Daiyasu

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Cellular membrane lipids, of which phospholipids are the major constituents, form one of the characteristic features that distinguish Archaea from other organisms. In this study, we focused on the steps in archaeal phospholipid synthetic pathways that generate polar lipids such as archaetidylserine, archaetidylglycerol, and archaetidylinositol. Only archaetidylserine synthase (ASS, from Methanothermobacter thermautotrophicus, has been experimentally identified. Other enzymes have not been fully examined. Through database searching, we detected many archaeal hypothetical proteins that show sequence similarity to members of the CDP alcohol phosphatidyltransferase family, such as phosphatidylserine synthase (PSS, phosphatidylglycerol synthase (PGS and phosphatidylinositol synthase (PIS derived from Bacteria and Eukarya. The archaeal hypothetical proteins were classified into two groups, based on the sequence similarity. Members of the first group, including ASS from M. thermautotrophicus, were closely related to PSS. The rough agreement between PSS homologue distribution within Archaea and the experimentally identified distribution of archaetidylserine suggested that the hypothetical proteins are ASSs. We found that an open reading frame (ORF tends to be adjacent to that of ASS in the genome, and that the order of the two ORFs is conserved. The sequence similarity of phosphatidylserine decarboxylase to the product of the ORF next to the ASS gene, together with the genomic context conservation, suggests that the ORF encodes archaetidylserine decarboxylase, which may transform archaetidylserine to archaetidylethanolamine. The second group of archaeal hypothetical proteins was related to PGS and PIS. The members of this group were subjected to molecular phylogenetic analysis, together with PGSs and PISs and it was found that they formed two distinct clusters in the molecular phylogenetic tree. The distribution of members of each cluster within Archaea

  3. The Impact of the Basel Accord on Greek Banks: A Stress Test Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Leventides

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we study the impact of extreme events on the loan portfolios of the Greek banking system. These portfolios are grouped into three separate groups based on the size of the bank to which they belong, in particular, large, medium, and small size. A series of extreme scenarios was performed and the increase in capital requirements was calculated for each scenario based on the standardized and internal ratings approach of the Basel II accord. The results obtained show an increase of credit risk during the crisis periods, and the differentiation of risk depending on the size of the banking organization as well as the added capital that will be needed in order to hedge that risk. The execution of the scenarios aims at studying the effects which may be brought about on the capital of the three representative banks by the appearance of adverse events.

  4. A study on changes in body surface temperature and thermal effect according to ultrasound mode

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Sung Hee [Dept. of Radiology, Ilsin Christian Hospital, Busan (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Jin Soo [Dept. of Radiology, University Haeundae Paik Hospital, Busan (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-06-15

    Recently, as the number of high-risk pregnancies increases, the use of new techniques such as Doppler, which have higher acoustic power than in the past, has been increasingly used in prenatal diagnosis and guidelines have been set up by various organizations to prevent excessive exposure. Therefore, in this study, we tried to investigate the temperature change of the body surface for each test mode according to the long time ultrasound examination and to examine the exposure time which is not influenced by the thermal effect. B mode, C mode, and PD mode according to time, and the temperature difference between exposed and unexposed sites were compared. As a result, the B mode showed a significant difference in the temperature change from 10 minutes, 50 minutes after exposed, 20 minutes from the C mode, and 30 minutes from the PD mode (p<0.01). In all three modes, the temperature difference was different(p<0.000), and PD mode was the most sensitive to temperature change. Also, it was found that the temperature rise time was shortened with the increase of the ultrasonic exposure time. Therefore, it is recommended that ultrasonography to observe the embryo or fetus should be used only for diagnostic purposes, avoiding excessive test time.

  5. Macronutrients contribution from beverages according to sex and age: findings from the ANIBES Study in Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz-Moreno, Emma; Rodríguez-Alonso, Paula; Ávila-Torres, José Manuel; Valero-Gaspar, Teresa; Del Pozo de la Calle, Susana; Varela-Moreiras, Gregorio

    2016-07-13

    Methodologies and procedures used in dietary surveys have been widely developed with the aim of evaluating the nutritional status of a population. However, beverages are often either disregarded at national and international assessment of nutrients intake or poorly mentioned. Moreover, there is no standardized questionnaire developed as a research tool for the evaluation of beverages intake in the general population. Moreover, the contribution of different beverages to macronutrients intake is rarely provided. The latter in the context of a continuous expansion and innovation of the beverages market in Spain. Therefore, the main goal of the present study was to evaluate non-alcoholic and alcoholic beverages macronutrients contribution in the ANIBES study in Spain (9-75 years old).As expected, those contributed to dietary macronutrient intake mainly as total carbohydrates and sugar. The contribution to other macronutrients (proteins and lipids) by the beverage groups was of much less importance. For non-alcoholic beverages, contribution to carbohydrates was much higher in younger populations (children: 10.91 ± 9.49%, mean ± SD for boys and 9.46 ± 8.83% for girls; adolescents: 11.97 ± 11.26% for men and 13.77 ± 10.55% in women) than in adults: 9.01 ± 9.84% for men and 7.77 ± 8.73% in women. Finally, a much lower contribution was observed in the elderly: 4.22 ± 6.10% for men and 4.46 ± 6.56% for women. No sex differences, however, across all age groups were found. Results for sugar contribution showed a similar trend: children (23.14 ± 19.00% for boys and 19.77 ± 17.35% for girls); adolescents (28.13 ± 24.17% for men and 29.83 ± 21.82% in women); adults 20.42 ± 20.35% for men and 16.95 ± 17.76% in women, p ≤ 0.01; and elderly: 14.63% ± 9.97 for men and 9.33 ± 12.86% in women. The main contribution corresponded to sugared soft drinks, juices and nectars, more relevant and significant in the younger populations. As for alcoholic beverages, the

  6. Atomic Force Microscopy Study on the Stiffness of Nanosized Liposomes Containing Charged Lipids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takechi-Haraya, Yuki; Goda, Yukihiro; Sakai-Kato, Kumiko

    2018-06-18

    It has recently been recognized that the mechanical properties of lipid nanoparticles play an important role during in vitro and in vivo behaviors such as cellular uptake, blood circulation, and biodistribution. However, there have been no quantitative investigations of the effect of commonly used charged lipids on the stiffness of nanosized liposomes. In this study, by means of atomic force microscopy (AFM), we quantified the stiffness of nanosized liposomes composed of neutrally charged lipids combined with positively or negatively charged lipids while simultaneously imaging the liposomes in aqueous medium. Our results showed that charged lipids, whether negatively or positively charged, have the effect of reducing the stiffness of nanosized liposomes, independently of the saturation degree of the lipid acyl chains; the measured stiffness values of liposomes containing charged lipids are 30-60% lower than those of their neutral counterpart liposomes. In addition, we demonstrated that the Laurdan generalized polarization values, which are related to the hydration degree of the liposomal membrane interface and often used as a qualitative indicator of liposomal membrane stiffness, do not directly correlate with the physical stiffness values of the liposomes prepared in this study. However, our results indicate that direct quantitative AFM measurement is a valuable method to gain molecular-scale information about how the hydration degree of liposomal interfaces reflects (or does not reflect) liposome stiffness as a macroscopic property. Our AFM method will contribute to the quantitative characterization of the nano-bio interaction of nanoparticles and to the optimization of the lipid composition of liposomes for clinical use.

  7. Solid-phase microextraction for bioconcentration studies according to OECD TG 305

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duering, Rolf-Alexander; Boehm, Leonard [Land Use and Nutrition (IFZ) Justus Liebig University Giessen, Institute of Soil Science and Soil Conservation, Research Centre for BioSystems, Giessen (Germany); Schlechtriem, Christian [Fraunhofer Institute for Molecular Biology and Applied Ecology (IME), Schmallenberg (Germany)

    2012-12-15

    An important aim of the European Community Regulation on chemicals and their safe use is the identification of (very) persistent, (very) bioaccumulative, and toxic substances. In other regulatory chemical safety assessments (pharmaceuticals, biocides, pesticides), the identification of such (very) persistent, (very) bioaccumulative, and toxic substances is of increasing importance. Solid-phase microextraction is especially capable of extracting total water concentrations as well as the freely dissolved fraction of analytes in the water phase, which is available for bioconcentration in fish. However, although already well established in environmental analyses to determine and quantify analytes mainly in aqueous matrices, solid-phase microextraction is still a rather unusual method in regulatory ecotoxicological research. Here, the potential benefits and drawbacks of solid-phase microextraction are discussed as an analytical routine approach for aquatic bioconcentration studies according to OECD TG 305, with a special focus on the testing of hydrophobic organic compounds characterized by log K{sub OW}> 5. (orig.)

  8. Changes in Wine Aroma Composition According to Botrytized Berry Percentage: A Preliminary Study on Amarone Wine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruno Fedrizzi

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to evaluate the impact of Botrytis cinerea, a noble rot, on the aroma components of Amarone, a dry red wine produced from withered grapes. A comparative analysis of wines obtained from manually selected healthy and botrytized grapes was done. Aroma analysis revealed that most compounds varied significantly according to the percentage of botrytized berries utilized. Botrytized wines contained less fatty acids and more fruity acetates than healthy wines. A positive correlation between the content of N-(3-methylbutylacetamide, sherry lactone and an unidentified compound and the level of fungal infection was also observed. The results indicate that noble rot can significantly modify important aroma components of Amarone wine.

  9. A comparative study on per capita waste generation according to a waste collecting system in Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, Jung Hwan; Lee, Eui-Jong; Oh, Jeong Ik; Kim, Jong-Oh; Jang, Am

    2016-04-01

    As cities are becoming increasingly aware of problems related to conventional mobile collection systems, automated pipeline-based vacuum collection (AVAC) systems have been introduced in some densely populated urban areas. The reasons are that in addition to cost savings, AVAC systems can be efficient, hygienic, and environmentally friendly. Despite difficulties in making direct comparisons of municipal waste between a conventional mobile collection system and an AVAC system, it is meaningful to measure the quantities in each of these collection methods either in total or on a per capita generation of waste (PCGW, g/(day*capita)) basis. Thus, the aim of this study was to assess the difference in per capita generation of household waste according to the different waste collection methods in Korea. Observations on household waste show that there were considerable differences according to waste collection methods. The value of per capita generation of food waste (PCGF) indicates that a person in a city using AVAC produces 60 % of PCGF (109.58 g/(day*capita)), on average, compared with that of a truck system (173.10 g/(day*capita)) as well as 23 %p less moisture component than that with trucks. The value of per capita generation of general waste (PCGG) in a city with an AVAC system showed 147.73 g/(day*capita), which is 20 % less than that with trucks delivered (185 g/(day*capita)). However, general waste sampled from AVAC showed a 35 %p increased moisture content versus truck delivery.

  10. Acute renal failure according to the RIFLE and AKIN criteria: a multicenter study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salgado, G; Landa, M; Masevicius, D; Gianassi, S; San-Román, J E; Silva, L; Gimenez, M; Tejerina, O; Díaz-Cisneros, P; Ciccioli, F; do Pico, J L

    2014-01-01

    To determine the incidence of acute renal failure (ARF) in critically ill patients using the RIFLE and AKIN criteria. A prospective, multicenter observational study with a duration of one year from February 2010 was carried out. RIFLE and AKIN were employed using the urinary (UC) and creatinine criteria (CC) jointly and separately. Nine polyvalent Critical Care Units (CCUs) in Argentina. A total of 627 critical patients over 18 years of age were admitted to the CCU for more than 48h. inability to quantify diuresis, surgical instrumentation of the urinary tract, and need for renal support therapy (RST). Calculated hourly diuresis (CHD) was used to apply the UC. The incidence of ARF was 69.4% and 51.8% according to RIFLE and AKIN, respectively. UC detected ARF in 59.5% of cases, while CC identified ARF in 34.7% (RIFLE) and 25.3% (AKIN). The mortality rate was 40.9% and 44.6% according to RIFLE and AKIN respectively, was significantly higher than in patients without ARF, and increased with disease severity (Data processing: Excel, SQL and SPSS. Levene test, comparison of means with Student t and chi-squared, with 95% confidence interval). RIFLE identified more cases of ARF. UC proved more effective than CC. The presence of ARF and severity levels were correlated to mortality but not to days of stay in the CCU. Implementation of the unified CHD was useful for implementing UC and achieving comparable results. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier España, S.L. and SEMICYUC. All rights reserved.

  11. Common and Rare Variant Association Study for Plasma Lipids and Coronary Artery Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tada, Hayato; Kawashiri, Masa-aki; Konno, Tetsuo; Yamagishi, Masakazu; Hayashi, Kenshi

    2016-01-01

    Blood lipid levels are highly heritable and modifiable risk factors for coronary artery disease (CAD), and are the leading cause of death worldwide. These facts have motivated human genetic association studies that have the substantial potential to define the risk factors that are causal and to identify pathways and therapeutic targets for lipids and CAD.The success of the HapMap project that provided an extensive catalog of human genetic variations and the development of microarray based genotyping chips (typically containing variations with allele frequencies > 5%) facilitated common variant association study (CVAS; formerly termed genome-wide association study, GWAS) identifying disease-associated variants in a genome-wide manner. To date, 157 loci associated with blood lipids and 46 loci with CAD have been successfully identified, accounting for approximately 12%-14% of heritability for lipids and 10% of heritability for CAD. However, there is yet a major challenge termed "missing heritability problem," namely the observation that loci detected by CVAS explain only a small fraction of the inferred genetic variations. To explain such missing portions, focuses in genetic association studies have shifted from common to rare variants. However, it is challenging to apply rare variant association study (RVAS) in an unbiased manner because such variants typically lack the sufficient number to be identified statistically.In this review, we provide a current understanding of the genetic architecture mostly derived from CVAS, and several updates on the progress and limitations of RVAS for lipids and CAD.

  12. Municipal Solid Waste Characterization according to Different Income Levels: A Case Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huseyin Kurtulus Ozcan

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Solid waste generation and characterization are some of the most important parameters which affect environmental sustainability. Municipal solid waste (MSW characterization depends on social structure and income levels. This study aims to determine the variations in waste components within MSW mass by income levels and seasonal conditions following the analysis conducted on the characterization of solid wastes produced in the Kartal district of the province of Istanbul, which is the research area of this study. To this end, 1.9 tons of solid waste samples were collected to represent four different lifestyles (high, medium, and low income levels, and downtown in the winter and summer periods, and characterization was made on these samples. In order to support waste characterization, humidity content and calorific value analyses were also conducted and various suggestions were brought towards waste management in line with the obtained findings. According to the results obtained in the study, organic waste had the highest rate of waste mass by 57.69%. Additionally, significant differences were found in municipal solid waste components (MSWC based on income level. Average moisture content (MC of solid waste samples was 71.1% in moisture analyses. The average of calorific (heating value (HHV was calculated as 2518.5 kcal·kg−1.

  13. A COMPARATIVE STUDY OF LIPID PROFILE IN SEDENTARY AND ACTIVE ADULT FEMALES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suhasini Sanda

    2018-11-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Lipids and lipoproteins are essential constituents of the body and their activities assist in maintenance of body homeostasis. Sedentary lifestyle has been shown to lead to inactivity, which could lead to lipid disorders. Hyperlipidaemias is one of the major independent risk factor, which affects the cardiovascular system adversely resulting eventually damage to various organs most notably heart, kidneys and brain. The present study is therefore designed to ascertain the effect of sedentary lifestyle on lipid status of sedentary adult females when compared to that of the lipid status of active adult females. MATERIALS AND METHODS The present study comprised of Group I - 50 sedentary adult females and Group II - 50 active adult females aged between 30 to 60 years. The subjects selected in both groups were matched for age and dietary habits. The subjects with hypertension, diabetes, smokers, pregnancy and subjects with Body Mass Index (BMI greater than 30 are excluded. After overnight fasting of 12 to 14 hours, 5 mL of blood is collected from the subjects and fasting Total Serum Cholesterol (TC, Total Serum Triglycerides (TG, HDL cholesterol (HDL-C, LDL cholesterol (LDL-C and total serum cholesterol/HDL-C ratio are measured and data is statistically analysed. RESULTS The evaluation of lipid profile patterns in above subjects showed hypercholesterolaemia, hypertriglyceridaemia, increased LDLC and total serum cholesterol/HDL-C ratio in sedentary adult females and also decreased HDL-C levels in them when compared to the normal healthy lipid profile patterns in active adult females. A statistically significant increased lipid profiles (P-value <0.001 was observed in the sedentary adult females than in active adult females. CONCLUSION This study shows that sedentary lifestyle predisposes to hyperlipidaemias, one of the major risk factor of cardiovascular disease and lack of exercise worsens the situation.

  14. [Comparative study of height and age at menarche according to the socioeconomic level in Venezuela].

    Science.gov (United States)

    López Contreras, M; Tovar Escobar, G; Farid Coupal, N; Landaeta Jiménez, M; Méndez Castellano, H

    1981-12-01

    This is a retrospective study based on growth and development data published in Venezuela by various authors in the period 1936-1978. The data on height for males of the middle and high socioeconomic strata show growth curves which are very similar to the standards for British children. Likewise, the girls of the same socioeconomic condition follow the British standards, but only up to about 10-12 years of age. After that age, the girls studied by the Venezuelan authors, show a pattern of early maturation with a corresponding lower adult height compared with their British counterparts. There were differences in the growth curves according to the socioeconomic strata. These differences were more marked in the girls data. A secular increase for height was discerned, from the published data, in all socioeconomic strata and in both sexes. The data on sexual maturation showed a tendency for progressively early menarche in Venezuelan girls. These changes in growth in height and age of menarche were more notorious and came about at an earlier age in the upper socioeconomic strata. They were less marked, not constant, and came about later in the lower socioeconomic groups. The secular changes in height and sexual maturation apparent from these data, could be explained by an improvement in the environmental conditions, especially nutrition and hygiene of the population, and also be genetic heterosis from European immigration and with improvement in communications.

  15. [Does dark field microscopy according to Enderlein allow for cancer diagnosis? A prospective study].

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Safadi, Samer; Tinneberg, Hans-Rudolf; von Georgi, Richard; Münstedt, Karsten; Brück, Friede

    2005-06-01

    Dark field microscopy according to Enderlin claims to be able to detect forthcoming or beginning cancer at an early stage through minute abnormalities in the blood. In Germany and the USA, this method is used by an increasing number of physicians and health practitioners (non-medically qualified complementary practitioners), because this easy test seems to give important information about patients' health status. Can dark field microscopy reliably detect cancer? In the course of a prospective study on iridology, blood samples were drawn for dark field microscopy in 110 patients. A health practitioner with several years of training in the field carried out the examination without prior information about the patients. Out of 12 patients with present tumor metastasis as confirmed by radiological methods (CT, MRI or ultra-sound) 3 were correctly identified. Analysis of sensitivity (0.25), specificity (0.64), positive (0.09) and negative (0.85) predictive values revealed unsatisfactory results. Dark field micoroscopy does not seem to reliably detect the presence of cancer. Clinical use of the method can therefore not be recommended until future studies are conducted.

  16. Histological and cytological studies on radiosensitivity of cervical carcinoma according to histological types

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watanabe, Wataru; Kudo, Ryuichi

    1983-01-01

    Morphological investigation were made on the radiosensitivity, according to the histological types; 1 keratinizing(K), 2 large cell nonkeratinizing(LNK), and 3 small cell nonkeratinizing(S) type. The result obtained are as follows. 1) Histological and cytological estimation of irradiated effects were examined at the 7th day after 10 Gray test-irradiation: (i) Histological studies were done with the biopsy specimens (76 cases): There were significance differences among 3 histological types (LNK>K>S, P S, K>S, P<0.05). (iii) There was a correlation between the histological and cytological irradiation effects. 2) DNA histogram patterns were also examined spectrophotometrically. It seemed that the patterns after test-irradiation were broad and these peaks were situated rather to high ploidy in histologically and cytologically highly effective cases. 3) Early ultrastructural findings after test-irradiation were as follows: (i) appearance of intra-nuclear ''pseudoinclusion'', (ii) swelling of mitochondria, endoplasmic reticulum, and so on. Although these characteristics presented the same sequence of events without regard to their histological types, they were not synchronized. It seemed that they appeared earlier after test-irradiation in histologically high-sensitivity cases than in low-sensitivity cases. (author)

  17. Gastroesophageal reflux disease management according to contemporary international guidelines: a translational study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pace, Fabio; Riegler, Gabriele; de Leone, Annalisa; Dominici, Patrizia; Grossi, Enzo

    2011-03-07

    To test the Genval recommendations and the usefulness of a short trial of proton pump inhibitor (PPI) in the initial management and maintenance treatment of gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) patients. Five hundred and seventy seven patients with heartburn were recruited. After completing a psychometric tool to assess quality of life (PGWBI) and a previously validated GERD symptom questionnaire (QUID), patients were grouped into those with esophagitis (EE, n = 306) or without mucosal damage (NERD, n = 271) according to endoscopy results. The study started with a 2-wk period of high dose omeprazole (omeprazole test); patients responding to this PPI test entered an acute phase (3 mo) of treatment with any PPI at the standard dose. Finally, those patients with a favorable response to the standard PPI dose were maintained on a half PPI dose for a further 3-mo period. The test was positive in 519 (89.9%) patients, with a greater response in EE patients (96.4%) compared with NERD patients (82.6%) (P = 0.011). Both the percentage of completely asymptomatic patients, at 3 and 6 mo, and the reduction in heartburn intensity were significantly higher in the EE compared with NERD patients (P management of GERD patients. In addition, we observed that the overall response to PPI therapy is lower in NERD compared to EE patients.

  18. Study on the perception of orthodontic treatment according to age: A questionnaire survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Yoonji

    2017-07-01

    This questionnaire study aimed to estimate the overall frequencies of positive perception towards orthodontic treatment among adults categorized according to age, sex, and area of living, and to identify barriers or negative perceptions preventing them from receiving orthodontic treatment. The participants included 598 adults aged over 20 years (230 men and 368 women) who visited the Dental Hospital of Seoul St. Mary's Hospital. The participants' opinions regarding their consideration of receiving orthodontic treatment were recorded using a specially designed questionnaire. The overall rate of positive perception towards orthodontic treatment was 48.5%. Compared to adults in their 20s (63.2%), those in their 40s and 50s had a lower percentage of interest in orthodontic treatment (46.2% and 45.1%, respectively; p orthodontic treatment. The middle-aged had a relatively high percentage of interest (above 45%) in orthodontic treatment. However, demographic characteristics were not significantly associated with the positive interest. These results highlight the need for educating the middle-aged about the limitations and possibilities of orthodontic treatment to increase its acceptance.

  19. Diffusion studies on permeable nitroxyl spin probes through bilayer lipid membranes: A low frequency ESR study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meenakumari, V.; Benial, A. Milton Franklin; Utsumi, Hideo; Ichikawa, Kazuhiro; Yamada, Ken-ichi; Hyodo, Fuminori; Jawahar, A.

    2015-01-01

    Electron spin resonance (ESR) studies were carried out for permeable 2mM 14 N-labeled deutrated 3 Methoxy carbonyl-2,2,5,5-tetramethyl-pyrrolidine-1-oxyl (MC-PROXYL) in pure water and 1mM, 2mM, 3mM, 4mM concentration of 14N-labeled deutrated MC-PROXYL in 400mM concentration of liposomal solution by using a 300 MHz ESR spectrometer. The ESR parameters such as linewidth, hyperfine coupling constant, g-factor, partition parameter and permeability were reported for these samples. The line broadening was observed for the nitroxyl spin probe in the liposomal solution. The line broadening indicates that the high viscous nature of the liposomal solution. The partition parameter and permeability values indicate the maximum diffusion of nitroxyl spin probes in the bilayer lipid membranes at 2 mM concentration of nitroxyl radical. This study illustrates that ESR can be used to differentiate between the intra and extra- membrane water by loading the liposome vesicles with a lipid-permeable nitroxyl spin probe. From the ESR results, the spin probe concentration was optimized as 2mM in liposomal solution for ESR phantom studies/imaging, invivo and invitro experiments

  20. Pelvic floor muscle strength in primiparous women according to the delivery type: cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edilaine de Paula Batista Mendes

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Objectives: to compare the pelvic floor muscle strength in primiparous women after normal birth and cesarean section, related to the socio-demographic characteristics, nutritional status, dyspareunia, urinary incontinence, perineal exercise in pregnancy, perineal condition and weight of the newborn. Methods: this was a cross-sectional study conducted after 50 - 70 postpartum days, with 24 primiparous women who underwent cesarean delivery and 72 who had a normal birth. The 9301 PeritronTM was used for analysis of muscle strength. The mean muscle strength was compared between the groups by two-way analysis of variance. Results: the pelvic floor muscle strength was 24.0 cmH2O (±16.2 and 25.4 cmH2O (±14.7 in postpartum primiparous women after normal birth and cesarean section, respectively, with no significant difference. The muscular strength was greater in postpartum women with ≥ 12 years of study (42.0 ±26.3 versus 14.6 ±7.7 cmH2O; p= 0.036 and in those who performed perineal exercises (42.6±25.4 11.8±4.9 vs. cmH2O; p = 0.010, compared to caesarean. There was no difference in muscle strength according to delivery type regarding nutritional status, dyspareunia, urinary incontinence, perineal condition or newborn weight. Conclusion: pelvic floor muscle strength does not differ between primiparous women based on the type of delivery. Postpartum women with normal births, with higher education who performed perineal exercise during pregnancy showed greater muscle strength.

  1. Prenatal hyperandrogenism and lipid profile during different age stages: an experimental study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heber, María F; Ferreira, Silvana R; Vélez, Leandro M; Motta, Alicia B

    2013-02-01

    The present study investigates the effect of prenatal hyperandrogenization on lipid metabolism and oxidant/antioxidant balance. Experimental study. Research institute. Pregnant Sprague Dawley rats were subcutaneously injected with 2 mg free T between days 16 and 19 of pregnancy, and controls (C) received vehicle (0.1 mL of sesame oil). Prenatally hyperandrogenized female offspring (T2) had a condition that resembles polycystic ovary (PCO). Animals were weighed and killed at 21 and 60 days of age (N = 15 rats/group). Ovarian tissue and truncal blood were obtained from the C and T2 groups. Circulating lipid profile (total cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein [HDL], low-density lipoprotein [LDL] cholesterol, and triglycerides) was quantified by colorimetric-enzymatic methods. Ovarian oxidative stress was evaluated by quantifying lipid peroxidation and glutathione content by spectofotometric assays. Ovarian fat content was evaluated by Red Oil staining and ovarian messenger RNA (mRNA) expression of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPAR-γ) by real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR). At 60 days of age, 100% of group C rats and 20% of group T2 rats ovulated. At 21 days of age the T2 rats displayed lower body weight than C rats; however, at 60 days of age T2 and C rats showed similar body weights. The lipid profile (total cholesterol, LDL cholesterol, HDL cholesterol, and triglycerides) was altered in the anovulatory and ovulatory phenotype of the T2 group, but the levels were higher in the anovulatory phenotype. Lipid peroxidation of rats at 21 and 60 days of age from T2 was similar to C but the antioxidant glutathione level was decreased in 21-day-old rats compared with C rats. The lipid content of ovarian tissue, determined by Red Oil staining, was higher in the T2 than in the C group. The mRNA expression of ovarian PPAR-γ, quantified by real time PCR, decreased in anovulatory rats at 60 days of age from T2 compared to C rats. Our findings reveal

  2. Neutron reflectivity studies of single lipid bilayers supported on planar substrates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krueger, S.; Orts, W.J.; Berk, N.F.; Majkrzak, C.F. [National Inst. of Standards and Technology, Gaithersburg, MD (United States); Koenig, B.W. [National Inst. of Health, Bethesda, MD (United States)

    1994-12-31

    Neutron reflectivity was used to probe the structure of single phosphatidylcholine (PC) lipid bilayers adsorbed onto a planar silicon surface in an aqueous environment. Fluctuations in the neutron scattering length density profiles perpendicular to the silicon/water interface were determined for different lipids as a function of the hydrocarbon chain length. The lipids were studied in both the gel and liquid crystalline phases by monitoring changes in the specularly-reflected neutron intensity as a function of temperature. Contrast variation of the neutron scattering length density was applied to both the lipid and the solvent. Scattering length density profiles were determined using both model-independent and model-dependent fitting methods. During the reflectivity measurements, a novel experimental set-up was implemented to decrease the incoherent background scattering due to the solvent. Thus, the reflectivity was measured to Q {approx} 0.3{Angstrom}{sup -1}, covering up to seven orders of magnitude in reflected intensity, for PC bilayers in D{sub 2}O and silicon-matched (38% D{sub 2}O/62% H{sub 2}O) water. The kinetics of lipid adsorption at the silicon/water interface were also explored by observing changes in the reflectivity at low Q values under silicon-matched water conditions.

  3. Neutron scattering to study membrane systems: from lipid vesicles to living cells.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nickels, Jonathan D. [ORNL; Chatterjee, Sneha [ORNL; Stanley, Christopher B. [ORNL; Qian, Shuo [ORNL; Cheng, Xiaolin [ORNL; Myles, Dean A A [ORNL; Standaert, Robert F. [ORNL; Elkins, James G. [ORNL; Katsaras, John [ORNL

    2017-03-01

    The existence and role of lateral lipid organization in biological membranes has been studied and contested for more than 30 years. Lipid domains, or rafts, are hypothesized as scalable compartments in biological membranes, providing appropriate physical environments to their resident membrane proteins. This implies that lateral lipid organization is associated with a range of biological functions, such as protein co-localization, membrane trafficking, and cell signaling, to name just a few. Neutron scattering techniques have proven to be an excellent tool to investigate these structural features in model lipids, and more recently, in living cells. I will discuss our recent work using neutrons to probe the structure and mechanical properties in model lipid systems and our current efforts in using neutrons to probe the structure and organization of the bilayer in a living cell. These efforts in living cells have used genetic and biochemical strategies to generate a large neutron scattering contrast, making the membrane visible. I will present our results showing in vivo bilayer structure and discuss the outlook for this approach.

  4. Neutron reflectivity studies of single lipid bilayers supported on planar substrates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krueger, S.; Orts, W.J.; Berk, N.F.; Majkrzak, C.F.; Koenig, B.W.

    1994-01-01

    Neutron reflectivity was used to probe the structure of single phosphatidylcholine (PC) lipid bilayers adsorbed onto a planar silicon surface in an aqueous environment. Fluctuations in the neutron scattering length density profiles perpendicular to the silicon/water interface were determined for different lipids as a function of the hydrocarbon chain length. The lipids were studied in both the gel and liquid crystalline phases by monitoring changes in the specularly-reflected neutron intensity as a function of temperature. Contrast variation of the neutron scattering length density was applied to both the lipid and the solvent. Scattering length density profiles were determined using both model-independent and model-dependent fitting methods. During the reflectivity measurements, a novel experimental set-up was implemented to decrease the incoherent background scattering due to the solvent. Thus, the reflectivity was measured to Q ∼ 0.3 Angstrom -1 , covering up to seven orders of magnitude in reflected intensity, for PC bilayers in D 2 O and silicon-matched (38% D 2 O/62% H 2 O) water. The kinetics of lipid adsorption at the silicon/water interface were also explored by observing changes in the reflectivity at low Q values under silicon-matched water conditions

  5. Lipid order, saturation and surface property relationships: a study of human meibum saturation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mudgil, Poonam; Borchman, Douglas; Yappert, Marta C; Duran, Diana; Cox, Gregory W; Smith, Ryan J; Bhola, Rahul; Dennis, Gary R; Whitehall, John S

    2013-11-01

    Tear film stability decreases with age however the cause(s) of the instability are speculative. Perhaps the more saturated meibum from infants may contribute to tear film stability. The meibum lipid phase transition temperature and lipid hydrocarbon chain order at physiological temperature (33 °C) decrease with increasing age. It is reasonable that stronger lipid-lipid interactions could stabilize the tear film since these interactions must be broken for tear break up to occur. In this study, meibum from a pool of adult donors was saturated catalytically. The influence of saturation on meibum hydrocarbon chain order was determined by infrared spectroscopy. Meibum is in an anhydrous state in the meibomian glands and on the surface of the eyelid. The influence of saturation on the surface properties of meibum was determined using Langmuir trough technology. Saturation of native human meibum did not change the minimum or maximum values of hydrocarbon chain order so at temperatures far above or below the phase transition of human meibum, saturation does not play a role in ordering or disordering the lipid hydrocarbon chains. Saturation did increase the phase transition temperature in human meibum by over 20 °C, a relatively high amount. Surface pressure-area studies showing the late take off and higher maximum surface pressure of saturated meibum compared to native meibum suggest that the saturated meibum film is quite molecularly ordered (stiff molecular arrangement) and elastic (molecules are able to rearrange during compression and expansion) compared with native meibum films which are more fluid agreeing with the infrared spectroscopic results of this study. In saturated meibum, the formation of compacted ordered islands of lipids above the surfactant layer would be expected to decrease the rate of evaporation compared to fluid and more loosely packed native meibum. Higher surface pressure observed with films of saturated meibum compared to native meibum

  6. A study of the enhanced sensitizing capacity of a contact allergen in lipid vesicle formulations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Simonsson, Carl; Madsen, Jakob Torp; Graneli, Annette

    2011-01-01

    , an indicator of a compounds sensitizing capacity, increased when RBITC was applied in lipid vesicles as compared to an ethanol:water (Et:W) solution. Micro-scale vesicles showed a slightly higher cell proliferative response compared to nano-scale vesicles. TPM imaging revealed that the vesicle formulations...... improved the skin penetration of RBITC compared to the Et:W solution. A strong fluorescent region in the stratum corneum and upper epidermis implies elevated association of RBITC to these skin layers when formulated in lipid vesicles. In conclusion, the results indicate that there could be an elevated risk...... of sensitization when haptens are delivered in vehicles containing lipid vesicles. Although the size of the vesicles seems to be of minor importance, further studies are needed before a more generalized conclusion can be drawn. It is likely that the enhanced sensitizing capacity is a consequence of the improved...

  7. Clinical studies with oral lipid based formulations of poorly soluble compounds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fatouros, Dimitrios; Karpf, Ditte M; Nielsen, Flemming S

    2007-01-01

    . Several drug products intended for oral administration have been marketed utilizing lipid and surfactant based formulations. Sandimmune((R)) and Sandimmune Neoral((R)) (cyclosporin A, Novartis), Norvir((R)) (ritonavir), and Fortovase((R)) (saquinavir) have been formulated in self-emulsifying drug delivery...... systems (SEDDS). This review summarizes published pharmacokinetic studies of orally administered lipid based formulations of poorly aqueous soluble drugs in human subjects. Special attention has been paid to the physicochemical characteristics of the formulations, when available and the impact...

  8. The interaction of new piroxicam analogues with lipid bilayers--a calorimetric and fluorescence spectroscopic study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maniewska, Jadwiga; Szczęśniak-Sięga, Berenika; Poła, Andrzej; Sroda-Pomianek, Kamila; Malinka, Wiesław; Michalak, Krystyna

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of the present paper was to assess the ability of new piroxicam analogues to interact with the lipid bilayers. The results of calorimetric and fluorescence spectroscopic experiments of two new synthesized analogues of piroxicam, named PR17 and PR18 on the phase behavior of phospholipid bilayers and fluorescence quenching of fluorescent probes (Laurdan and Prodan), which molecular location within membranes is known with certainty, are shown in present work. The presented results revealed that, depending on the details of chemical structure, the studied compounds penetrated the lipid bilayers.

  9. [Study on the dynamic variations and influencing factors of serum lipid levels during pregnancy and postpartum].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, D; Liang, C; Chen, L; Wu, X D; He, J

    2018-04-25

    Objective: To study the variations and influencing factors of serum triglycerides and cholesterol levels during pregnancy and postpartum. Methods: A retrospective study was performed among 5 020 healthy singleton (95.10%, 4 774/5 020) and twin (4.90%, 246/5 020) women who had delivery in Women's Hospital, Zhejiang University School of Medicine from January 2011 to December 2016. Serum triglycerides and cholesterol levels during pregnancy and postpartum of all the cases were collected. Both singleton and twin pregnant women were divided into advanced age and appropriate age groups, and then data of serum sample were assigned to 3 groups according to the gestation weeks, which were second trimester pregnancy (24-28 gestation weeks) , third trimester pregnancy (32-41 gestation weeks) and postpartum (within 72 hours after delivery) . The serum triglycerides and cholesterol levels in each groups were compared. Results: (1) Serum triglycerides and cholesterol levels during the second trimester pregnancy, third trimester pregnancy and postpartum were higher than levels of non-pregnancy in both singleton and twin groups (all Ppregnancy group were higher than those of second trimester pregnancy group in both advanced age and appropriate aged women regardless singleton or twin pregnancy (all Ppregnancy were as follows: in appropriate aged singleton group, the triglycerides levels were 1.07-4.13 and 1.52-7.21 mmol/L, and the cholesterol levels were 2.77-12.11 and 4.44-9.36 mmol/L. In advanced aged singleton group, the triglycerides levels were 1.28-4.61 and 1.70-7.80 mmol/L, and the cholesterol levels were 4.35-8.40 and 4.46-9.35 mmol/L; in appropriate aged twin group, the triglycerides levels were 1.39-7.16 and 1.90-9.29 mmol/L, and the cholesterol levels were 4.99-12.16 and 4.52-10.07 mmol/L; in advanced aged twin group, the triglycerides levels were 1.61-5.32 and 1.94-9.29 mmol/L, and the cholesterol levels were 5.24-8.10 and 4.53-8.86 mmol/L. (3) Serum lipids levels

  10. Time Management Abilities of School Principals According to Gender: A Case Study in Selected Gauteng Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Botha, R. J.

    2013-01-01

    According to the literature on school effectiveness and school improvement and the role of the school principal in this regard, the lack of time management skills and abilities among school principals can be regarded as one of the main factors that lead to principal inefficiency and ineffectiveness in the school context. But, how do male and…

  11. Pain treatment for nursing home residents differs according to cognitive state - a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauer, Ulrike; Pitzer, Stefan; Schreier, Maria Magdalena; Osterbrink, Jürgen; Alzner, Reinhard; Iglseder, Bernhard

    2016-06-17

    Communication skills are known to decrease with advancing cognitive impairment. Analgesic treatment in long-term care may be deficient due to the residents' impaired ability to communicate their pain and needs. Undertreated pain frequently leads to rising BPSD in residents with cognitive impairment, resulting in a treatment with antipsychotics. Aim of this study was the analysis of differences in assessment and pharmacological treatment of pain in nursing home residents relative to their cognitive state and ability to articulate pain. Data stems from the baseline of a non-experimental pre-post-study in 12 Austrian nursing homes. Residents' pain prevalence in relation to pain assessment and cognitive decline was assessed, data on medical diagnoses and prescriptions were retrieved from the nursing homes' documentation (n = 425). Residents were first divided into two groups: Residents with MMSE ≥ 18 were selected into group CUS (cognitively unimpaired/slightly impaired), residents with MMSE ≤ 17 were selected into group CI (cognitively moderately to severely impaired). CI residents were then sub-grouped according to their ability to communicate pain via the Verbal Rating Scale (VRS) (i.e. group CI-V, group CI-NV). Pain behavior of CI residents was assessed with a modified German version of PAINAD. Group differences were tested with ANOVA and H-test, 95 % confidence intervals were calculated and associations were tested with log-binomial regression. Pain prevalence in CI residents irrespective of their ability to communicate pain was 80 % and exceeded the CUS group prevalence significantly by 14 %. CI residents had significantly less analgesic prescriptions. Furthermore, CI residents have a significantly higher risk of getting no analgesics when in pain than CUS residents (CI-V: RR =2.6, CI-NV: RR =3.4). Use of antipsychotics was high in all groups (49 - 65 %) with more prescriptions in the cognitively impaired group. Results point toward an

  12. A study on relationship to risk factors according to menopausal status in breast cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoon, Han Sik [Wonkwang Health Science College, Iksan (Korea, Republic of)

    2000-06-01

    It is important to identify modifiable risk factors for breast cancer, because the breast cancer is one of the major cause of mortality among women. Some reported that obesity is a risk factor for breast cancer, but the results are not constant. Many risk factors are related to the duration of estrogenic stimulation of the breast. In general, early menarche and late menopause are positive risk factors. Human breast cancer has different characteristics according to the status of menopause (premenopause and postmenopause). In premenopausal women, about 60% of circulating estrogen is from the ovaries in the form of estradiol, and the remaining 40% is estrogen formed primarily in the adipose(fat) tissue via aromatization of androstenedion from the adrenal glands. After menopause this adipose cell production of estrone is the maon source of estrogens and the level of estrone is maintained approximately at premenopausal levels. This study was undertaken to determine the role of body size and body mass index by status of menopause in development of breast cancer using retrospective case/control study. From Mach 1991 to February 1997 at the Wonkwang University Hospital, the breast cancer cases(n=3D72) and controls(n=3D86) were selected. By statistical analysis method, regression analysis, paired T-test and multiple logistic regression were done to estimate the influenced factors same as height, weight, BMI, age at menarche and age at menopause. The following results were obtained: 1. In premenopausal women, age at menarche was showed comparatively high correlation coefficients and BMI was described prominently highly in postmenopause. 2. At the results of multiple regression analysis, age at menarch, BMI and weight were showed as significant variables. In this method, critical facor(R{sup 2}) was 0.054. 3. Paired samples T-test was undertaken to test mean difference between two groups of cases and controls. The result of test performance showed a significant difference. 4

  13. A study on relationship to risk factors according to menopausal status in breast cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoon, Han Sik

    2000-01-01

    It is important to identify modifiable risk factors for breast cancer, because the breast cancer is one of the major cause of mortality among women. Some reported that obesity is a risk factor for breast cancer, but the results are not constant. Many risk factors are related to the duration of estrogenic stimulation of the breast. In general, early menarche and late menopause are positive risk factors. Human breast cancer has different characteristics according to the status of menopause (premenopause and postmenopause). In premenopausal women, about 60% of circulating estrogen is from the ovaries in the form of estradiol, and the remaining 40% is estrogen formed primarily in the adipose(fat) tissue via aromatization of androstenedion from the adrenal glands. After menopause this adipose cell production of estrone is the maon source of estrogens and the level of estrone is maintained approximately at premenopausal levels. This study was undertaken to determine the role of body size and body mass index by status of menopause in development of breast cancer using retrospective case/control study. From Mach 1991 to February 1997 at the Wonkwang University Hospital, the breast cancer cases(n=3D72) and controls(n=3D86) were selected. By statistical analysis method, regression analysis, paired T-test and multiple logistic regression were done to estimate the influenced factors same as height, weight, BMI, age at menarche and age at menopause. The following results were obtained: 1. In premenopausal women, age at menarche was showed comparatively high correlation coefficients and BMI was described prominently highly in postmenopause. 2. At the results of multiple regression analysis, age at menarch, BMI and weight were showed as significant variables. In this method, critical facor(R 2 ) was 0.054. 3. Paired samples T-test was undertaken to test mean difference between two groups of cases and controls. The result of test performance showed a significant difference. 4. In

  14. Unravel lipid accumulation mechanism in oleaginous yeast through single cell systems biology study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ding, Shiyou; Xiaoliang, Xie

    2017-12-18

    transcriptional profiles at the single-cell level, as follows: 1) We developed hyperspectral Stimulated Raman Scattering (hsSRS) microscope tailored for fast chemical imaging in complex biological systems. It features high numerical aperture of 1.4 for better spatial resolution and reduced cross-phase modulation. The femtosecond infrared laser was selected for deeper penetration and less photodamage for longer in-situ imaging time. hsSRS was achieved through spectral focusing where two femtosecond laser beams were linearly chirped to create overlapping pulses in time domain. We achieved transformed limited spectral resolution of ~15cm for superior clarity in identifying different types of lipids. A set of sophisticated algorithms based on Multivariate Curve Resolution (MCR) was developed to analyze yeast images and track droplets. 2) Lipid production was carried out on selected oleaginous yeast strains. Lipid accumulation was studied in R. glutinis and Y. lipolytica grown in regular and nitrogen starvation media. hsSRS imaging of lipid droplets showed considerable variation among individual Y. lipolytica cells regarding volume and composition, while the R. glutins lipid droplet showed similar Raman response representing more homogenous lipid production. hsSRS analysis revealed the spatial distribution of two major lipids-TAG and sterol ester (SE)- where TAG formed cores were surrounded by SE shells. Significantly elevated level of SE/TAG was observed at cellular and sub-cellular levels which could be attributed to epigenetic variation in cell development. 3) Yeast growth conditions were studied based on their lipid droplets formation. Optimal condition was found in two-stage grown media where the yeast was grown in regular YEPD and transferred to nitrogen starvation media after maturation. The volume and composition of lipid droplets vary significantly depending on the availability of nitrogen source. Large number of cells have been fast screened and analyzed by custom

  15. Multinuclear NMR studies of single lipid bilayers supported in cylindrical aluminum oxide nanopores.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaede, Holly C; Luckett, Keith M; Polozov, Ivan V; Gawrisch, Klaus

    2004-08-31

    Lipid bilayers were deposited inside the 0.2 microm pores of anodic aluminum oxide (AAO) filters by extrusion of multilamellar liposomes and their properties studied by 2H, 31P, and 1H solid-state NMR. Only the first bilayer adhered strongly to the inner surface of the pores. Additional layers were washed out easily by a flow of water as demonstrated by 1H magic angle spinning NMR experiments with addition of Pr3+ ions to shift accessible lipid headgroup resonances. A 13 mm diameter Anopore filter of 60 microm thickness oriented approximately 2.5 x 10(-7) mol of lipid as a single bilayer, corresponding to a total membrane area of about 500 cm2. The 2H NMR spectra of chain deuterated POPC are consistent with adsorption of wavy, tubular bilayers to the inner pore surface. By NMR diffusion experiments, we determined the average length of those lipid tubules to be approximately 0.4 microm. There is evidence for a thick water layer between lipid tubules and the pore surface. The ends of tubules are well sealed against the pore such that Pr3+ ions cannot penetrate into the water underneath the bilayers. We successfully trapped poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) with a molecular weight of 8000 in this water layer. From the quantity of trapped PEG, we calculated an average water layer thickness of 3 nm. Lipid order parameters and motional properties are unperturbed by the solid support, in agreement with existence of a water layer. Such unperturbed, solid supported membranes are ideal for incorporation of membrane-spanning proteins with large intra- and extracellular domains. The experiments suggest the promise of such porous filters as membrane support in biosensors.

  16. The interaction of M13 coat protein with lipid bilayers : a spectroscopic study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sanders, J.C.

    1992-01-01

    In this thesis a small part of the reproductive cycle of the M13 bacteriophage is studied in more detail, namely the interaction of the major coat protein (MW 5240) with lipid bilayers. During the infection process is the major coat protein of M13 bacteriophage stored in the cytoplasm

  17. Quantitative optical microscopy and micromanipulation studies on the lipid bilayer membranes of giant unilamellar vesicles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bagatolli, Luis; Needham, David

    2014-01-01

    to study composition-structure-property materials relationships of free-standing lipid bilayer membranes. Because their size (~5 to 100 m diameter) that is well above the resolution limit of regular light microscopes, GUVs are suitable membrane models for optical microscopy and micromanipulation...

  18. A study on the effect of resveratrol on lipid metabolism in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The objective of this paper was to study the effect of resveratrol on lipid metabolism in hyperlipidemia mice. Materials andMethods: Through the establishment of an experimental mouse model of hyperlipidemia, the effect of resveratrol on change in total cholesterol (TC), triglyceride (TG), high density lipoprotein cholesterol ...

  19. Evaluation of seven common lipid associated loci in a large Indian sib pair study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rafiq, Sajjad; Venkata, Kranthi Kumar M; Gupta, Vipin; Vinay, D G; Spurgeon, Charles J; Parameshwaran, Smitha; Madana, Sandeep N; Kinra, Sanjay; Bowen, Liza; Timpson, Nicholas J; Smith, George Davey; Dudbridge, Frank; Prabhakaran, Dorairaj; Ben-Shlomo, Yoav; Reddy, K Srinath; Ebrahim, Shah; Chandak, Giriraj R

    2012-11-14

    Genome wide association studies (GWAS), mostly in Europeans have identified several common variants as associated with key lipid traits. Replication of these genetic effects in South Asian populations is important since it would suggest wider relevance for these findings. Given the rising prevalence of metabolic disorders and heart disease in the Indian sub-continent, these studies could be of future clinical relevance. We studied seven common variants associated with a variety of lipid traits in previous GWASs. The study sample comprised of 3178 sib-pairs recruited as participants for the Indian Migration Study (IMS). Associations with various lipid parameters and quantitative traits were analyzed using the Fulker genetic association model. We replicated five of the 7 main effect associations with p-values ranging from 0.03 to 1.97x10(-7). We identified particularly strong association signals at rs662799 in APOA5 (beta=0.18 s.d, p=1.97 x 10(-7)), rs10503669 in LPL (beta =-0.18 s.d, p=1.0 x 10(-4)) and rs780094 in GCKR (beta=0.11 s.d, p=0.001) loci in relation to triglycerides. In addition, the GCKR variant was also associated with total cholesterol (beta=0.11 s.d, p=3.9x10(-4)). We also replicated the association of rs562338 in APOB (p=0.03) and rs4775041 in LIPC (p=0.007) with LDL-cholesterol and HDL-cholesterol respectively. We report associations of five loci with various lipid traits with the effect size consistent with the same reported in Europeans. These results indicate an overlap of genetic effects pertaining to lipid traits across the European and Indian populations.

  20. The effect of lipid emulsion of different concentration on blood flow velocity: an experimental study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Qiang; Wang Maoqiang; Duan Liuxin; Song Peng; Ao Guokun

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the function mechanism of lipid emulsion (LE), used as a carrier, by observing the effect of intra-arterial infusion of LE in different concentration and dosage on blood flow velocity. Methods: According to the concentration and dosage used in arterial infusion, the experiments were divided into four groups:group A (20% LE, 2 ml), group B (20% LE, 20 ml), group C (30% LE, 2 ml) and group D (30% LE, 20 ml). Two healthy hybrid dogs were used for the study. Under DSA guidance, the 4 F catheter was placed in the splenic artery and in the hepatic artery respectively. DSA frames were counted in order to calculate the time that the contrast took from the catheter tip to the selected tertiary branches of the splenic or hepatic artery. Results LE infusion, regardless of its concentration level or its dosage, could reduce the blood velocity. The lasting time and the maximal peak value of the blood velocity reduction were significantly different among groups (P < 0.05). The lasting time was 5 minutes, 5-10 minutes, 20 minutes and 20-30 minutes among group A, B, C and D, respectively. The peak value of the reduction appeared at the 18th frames (1.44 s), 30th frames (2.4 s), 9th frames (0.9 s) and 14th frames (1.12 s) in group A, B, C and D, respectively. Conclusion Intra-arterial infusion of LE can reduce the blood flow velocity. The lasting time of the reduction in 30% LE groups is longer than that in 20% LE groups, while the blood velocity reduction in 30% LE groups is less than that in 20% LE groups. (authors)

  1. Hippocampal lipid differences in Alzheimer's disease: a human brain study using matrix?assisted laser desorption/ionization?imaging mass spectrometry

    OpenAIRE

    Mendis, Lakshini H. S.; Grey, Angus C.; Faull, Richard L. M.; Curtis, Maurice A.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Introduction Alzheimer's disease (AD), the leading cause of dementia, is pathologically characterized by ??amyloid plaques and tau tangles. However, there is also evidence of lipid dyshomeostasis?mediated AD pathology. Given the structural diversity of lipids, mass spectrometry is a useful tool for studying lipid changes in AD. Although there have been a few studies investigating lipid changes in the human hippocampus in particular, there are few reports on how lipids change in each ...

  2. Association between spicy food consumption and lipid profiles in adults: a nationwide population-based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xue, Yong; He, Tingchao; Yu, Kai; Zhao, Ai; Zheng, Wei; Zhang, Yumei; Zhu, Baoli

    2017-07-01

    CVD remains the leading cause of mortality worldwide, with abnormal lipid metabolism as a major risk factor. The aim of this study was to investigate associations between spicy food consumption and serum lipids in Chinese adults. Data were extracted from the 2009 phase of the China Health and Nutrition Survey, consisting of 6774 apparently healthy Chinese adults aged 18-65 years. The frequency of consumption and degree of pungency of spicy food were self-reported, and regular spicy food consumption was assessed using three consecutive 24-h recalls. Total cholesterol, TAG, LDL-cholesterol and HDL-cholesterol in fasting serum were measured. Multilevel mixed-effects models were constructed to estimate associations between spicy food consumption and serum lipid profiles. The results showed that the frequency and the average amount of spicy food intake were both inversely associated with LDL-cholesterol and LDL-cholesterol:HDL-cholesterol ratio (all P for trendfood (≥5 times/week) and who consumed spicy food perceived as moderate in pungency were significantly higher than those who did not (both Pfood intake and the degree of pungency in spicy food were positively associated with TAG (all P for trendfood consumption was inversely associated with serum cholesterol and positively associated with serum TAG, and additional studies are needed to confirm the findings as well as to elucidate the potential roles of spicy food consumption in lipid metabolism.

  3. SFG studies on interactions between antimicrobial peptides and supported lipid bilayers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xiaoyun; Chen, Zhan

    2006-09-01

    The mode of action of antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) in disrupting cell membrane bilayers is of fundamental importance in understanding the efficiency of different AMPs, which is crucial to design antibiotics with improved properties. Recent developments in the field of sum frequency generation (SFG) vibrational spectroscopy have made it a powerful and unique biophysical technique in investigating the interactions between AMPs and a single substrate supported planar lipid bilayer. We will review some of the recent progress in applying SFG to study membrane lipid bilayers and discuss how SFG can provide novel information such as real-time bilayer structure change and AMP orientation during AMP-lipid bilayer interactions in a very biologically relevant manner. Several examples of applying SFG to monitor such interactions between AMPs and a dipalmitoyl phosphatidylglycerol (DPPG) bilayer are presented. Different modes of actions are observed for melittin, tachyplesin I, d-magainin 2, MSI-843, and a synthetic antibacterial oligomer, demonstrating that SFG is very effective in the study of AMPs and AMP-lipid bilayer interactions.

  4. Model studies of lipid flip-flop in membranes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Parisio, Giulia; Ferrarini, Alberta; Sperotto, Maria Maddalena

    2016-01-01

    , and growth heavily depend. Such transverse motion—commonly called flip-flop—has been studied both experimentally and computationally. Experimental investigations face difficulties related to time-scales and probe-induced membrane perturbation issues. Molecular dynamics simulations play an important role...... for the molecular-level understanding of flip-flop. In this review we present a summary of the state of the art of computational studies of spontaneous flip-flop of phospholipids, sterols and fatty acids. Also, we highlight critical issues and strategies that have been developed to solve them, and what remains...

  5. Comparative Study for Efficacy and Safety of Adenoidectomy according to the Surgical Method: A Prospective Multicenter Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeong-Whun Kim

    Full Text Available There have been several operative techniques for adenoidectomy and their efficacy and morbidity are different according to the technique. This prospective multicenter study was aimed to compare the efficacy and morbidity of coblation adenoidectomy (CA with those of power-assisted adenoidectomy.Prospective multi-institutional study.Children who underwent CA, power-assisted adenoidectomy with cauterization (PAA+C or without cauterization (PAA-C due to adenoid hypertrophy were enrolled from 13 hospitals between July 2013 and June 2014. Mean operation time, degree of intraoperative bleeding and postoperative bleeding rate were evaluated.A total of 388 children (mean age ± standard deviation = 6.6 ± 2.5 years; 245 males and 143 females were included. According to the adenoidectomy technique, the children were classified into 3 groups: (1 CA (n = 116; (2 PAA+C (n = 153; and (3 PAA-C (n = 119. Significant differences were not found in age and sex among three groups. In the CA group, mean operation time was significantly shorter (P < 0.001 and degree of intraoperative bleeding was significantly less (P < 0.001 compared to PAA+C or PAA-C group. Delayed postoperative bleeding rate of PAA-C group was significantly higher than that of CA or PAA+C group (P = 0.016.This prospective multicenter study showed that CA was superior to PAA in terms of mean operation time and degree of intraoperative bleeding.

  6. Solution or suspension - Does it matter for lipid based systems? In vivo studies of chase dosing lipid vehicles with aqueous suspensions of a poorly soluble drug.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larsen, A T; Holm, R; Müllertz, A

    2017-08-01

    In this study, the potential of co-administering an aqueous suspension with a placebo lipid vehicle, i.e. chase dosing, was investigated in rats relative to the aqueous suspension alone or a solution of the drug in the lipid vehicle. The lipid investigated in the present study was Labrafil M2125CS and three evaluated poorly soluble model compounds, danazol, cinnarizine and halofantrine. For cinnarizine and danazol the oral bioavailability in rats after chase dosing or dosing the compound dissolved in Labrafil M21515CS was similar and significantly higher than for the aqueous suspension. For halofantrine the chase dosed group had a tendency towards a low bioavailability relative to the Labrafil M2125CS solution, but still a significant higher bioavailability relative to the aqueous suspension. This could be due to factors such as a slower dissolution rate in the intestinal phase of halofantrine or a lower solubility in the colloidal structures formed during digestion, but other mechanisms may also be involved. The study thereby supported the potential of chase dosing as a potential dosing regimen in situations where it is beneficial to have a drug in the solid state, e.g. due to chemical stability issues in the lipid vehicle. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. A comparative study on optimization of machining parameters by turning aerospace materials according to Taguchi method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Altin Abdullah

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The effects of cutting tool coating material and cutting speed on cutting forces and surface roughness were investigated by Taguchi experimental design. Main cutting force, Fz is considered as a criterion. The effects of machining parameters were investigated using Taguchi L18 orthogonal array. Optimal cutting conditions were determined using the signal-to-noise (S/N ratio which is calculated for average surface roughness and cutting force according to the “the smaller is better” approach. Using results of analysis of variance (ANOVA and signal-to-noise (S/N ratio, effects of parameters on both average surface roughness and cutting forces were statistically investigated. It was observed that feed rate and cutting speed had higher effect on cutting force in Hastelloy X, while the feed rate and cutting tool had higher effect on cutting force in Inconel 625. According to average surface roughness the cutting tool and feed rate had higher effect in Hastelloy X and Inconel 625.

  8. COMPARATIVE CONTROLLED STUDY OF ANTIHYPERTENSIVE EFFICACY AND SAFETY OF CARVEDILOL IN PATIENTS WITH HYPERTENSION AND OBESITY OR DIABETES 2 TYPE (BASED ON RESULTS OF MULTICENTER TRIAL ACCORD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu. V. Yu.V. Lukina

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim. To study efficacy and safety of beta-blocker with vasodilating properties carvedilol (Acridilole, Akrihin, Russia as a part of the combined therapy of patients with arterial hypertension (HT and diabetes mellitus 2 type (DM2 and/or obesity.Material and methods. 592 patients: 176 men (29,7% and 416 women (70,3% with HT were examined. 194 patients had D2 and 398 patients had obesity. Patients were randomized for carvedilol therapy (n=291 or control group (n=301. Carvedilol was prescribed additionally to current therapy in dose of 6,25 mg BID, in 2 weeks the dose was increased to 12,5 mg BID if it was necessary. Blood pressure (BP and heart rate, number of angina attacks were registered at visits. ECG, laboratory analysis (plasma lipide profile, serum glucose, glycolised haemoglobin, serum K+ and Na+, evaluation of depression and anxiety status (according to special questionnaires were performed on the first and the last visits.Results. 582 patients completed the study. 7 patients dropped out from carvedilol group and 3 patients - from control group. The levels of systolic BP (SBP and diastolic BP (DBP were decreased during study, more significantly in carvedilol group (р<0,0001. SBP decreased on 24,8 mm Hg in patients of carvedilol group and on 21,4 mm Hg in patients of control group. DBP decreased on 12,5 mm Hg and 11 mm Hg respectively. Angina attacks were registered less often in patients of carvedilol group (р=0,001. Serum glucose and lipid spectrum did not change in both groups. Depression level decreased in patients receiving carvedilol. 17 side effects were registered in carvedilol group and 15 - in control group (р=0,575Conclusion. High antihypertensive efficacy of carvedilol is confirmed in hypertensive patients with DM2 and/or obesity. Good tolerability and metabolic neutrality of carvedilol is also observed.

  9. COMPARATIVE CONTROLLED STUDY OF ANTIHYPERTENSIVE EFFICACY AND SAFETY OF CARVEDILOL IN PATIENTS WITH HYPERTENSION AND OBESITY OR DIABETES 2 TYPE (BASED ON RESULTS OF MULTICENTER TRIAL ACCORD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu. V. Yu.V. Lukina

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim. To study efficacy and safety of beta-blocker with vasodilating properties carvedilol (Acridilole, Akrihin, Russia as a part of the combined therapy of patients with arterial hypertension (HT and diabetes mellitus 2 type (DM2 and/or obesity.Material and methods. 592 patients: 176 men (29,7% and 416 women (70,3% with HT were examined. 194 patients had D2 and 398 patients had obesity. Patients were randomized for carvedilol therapy (n=291 or control group (n=301. Carvedilol was prescribed additionally to current therapy in dose of 6,25 mg BID, in 2 weeks the dose was increased to 12,5 mg BID if it was necessary. Blood pressure (BP and heart rate, number of angina attacks were registered at visits. ECG, laboratory analysis (plasma lipide profile, serum glucose, glycolised haemoglobin, serum K+ and Na+, evaluation of depression and anxiety status (according to special questionnaires were performed on the first and the last visits.Results. 582 patients completed the study. 7 patients dropped out from carvedilol group and 3 patients - from control group. The levels of systolic BP (SBP and diastolic BP (DBP were decreased during study, more significantly in carvedilol group (р<0,0001. SBP decreased on 24,8 mm Hg in patients of carvedilol group and on 21,4 mm Hg in patients of control group. DBP decreased on 12,5 mm Hg and 11 mm Hg respectively. Angina attacks were registered less often in patients of carvedilol group (р=0,001. Serum glucose and lipid spectrum did not change in both groups. Depression level decreased in patients receiving carvedilol. 17 side effects were registered in carvedilol group and 15 - in control group (р=0,575Conclusion. High antihypertensive efficacy of carvedilol is confirmed in hypertensive patients with DM2 and/or obesity. Good tolerability and metabolic neutrality of carvedilol is also observed.

  10. Selective upregulation of lipid metabolism in skeletal muscle of foraging juvenile king penguins: an integrative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teulier, Loic; Dégletagne, Cyril; Rey, Benjamin; Tornos, Jérémy; Keime, Céline; de Dinechin, Marc; Raccurt, Mireille; Rouanet, Jean-Louis; Roussel, Damien; Duchamp, Claude

    2012-06-22

    The passage from shore to marine life of juvenile penguins represents a major energetic challenge to fuel intense and prolonged demands for thermoregulation and locomotion. Some functional changes developed at this crucial step were investigated by comparing pre-fledging king penguins with sea-acclimatized (SA) juveniles (Aptenodytes patagonicus). Transcriptomic analysis of pectoralis muscle biopsies revealed that most genes encoding proteins involved in lipid transport or catabolism were upregulated, while genes involved in carbohydrate metabolism were mostly downregulated in SA birds. Determination of muscle enzymatic activities showed no changes in enzymes involved in the glycolytic pathway, but increased 3-hydroxyacyl-CoA dehydrogenase, an enzyme of the β-oxidation pathway. The respiratory rates of isolated muscle mitochondria were much higher with a substrate arising from lipid metabolism (palmitoyl-L-carnitine) in SA juveniles than in terrestrial controls, while no difference emerged with a substrate arising from carbohydrate metabolism (pyruvate). In vivo, perfusion of a lipid emulsion induced a fourfold larger thermogenic effect in SA than in control juveniles. The present integrative study shows that fuel selection towards lipid oxidation characterizes penguin acclimatization to marine life. Such acclimatization may involve thyroid hormones through their nuclear beta receptor and nuclear coactivators.

  11. Loading of praziquantel in the crystal lattice of solid lipid nanoparticles - studies by DSC and SAXS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Souza, A.L.R.; Cassimiro, D.L.; Almeida, A.E.; Ribeiro, C.A.; Gremiao, M.P.D. [UNESP, Araraquara, SP (Brazil); Sarmento, V.H.V. [Universidade Federal de Sergipe (UFS), Itabaiana, SE (Brazil); Andreani, T.; Silva, A.M.; Souto, E.B. [Universidade de Tras-os-Montes e Alto Douro, Vila Real (Portugal)

    2012-07-01

    Full text: Praziquantel (PZQ) is the drug of choice for oral treatment of schistosomiasis and other fluke infections that affect humans. Its low oral bioavailability demands the development of innovative strategies to overcome the first pass metabolism. In this work, solid lipid nanoparticles loaded with PZQ (PZQ-SLN) were prepared by a modified oil-in-water microemulsion method selecting stearic acid as lipid phase after solubility screening studies. The mean particle size (Z-Ave) and zeta potential (ZP) were 500 nm and -34.0 mV, respectively. Morphology and shape of PZQ-SLN were analysed by scanning electron microscopy revealing the presence of spherical particles with smooth surface. Differential scanning calorimetry suggested that SLN comprised a less ordered arrangement of crystals and the drug was molecularly dispersed in the lipid matrix. No supercooled melts were detected. The entrapment efficiency (EE) and loading capacity of PZQ, determined by high performance liquid chromatography, were 99.0 and 17.5, respectively. Effective incorporation of PZQ into the particles was confirmed by small angle X-ray scattering revealing the presence of a lipid lamellar structure. Stability parameters of PZQ-SLN stored at room temperature (25 deg C) and at 4 deg C were checked by analysing Z-Ave, ZP and the EE for a period of 60 days Results showed a relatively long-term physical stability after storage at 4 deg C, without drug expulsion. (author)

  12. Integrative computational approach for genome-based study of microbial lipid-degrading enzymes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vorapreeda, Tayvich; Thammarongtham, Chinae; Laoteng, Kobkul

    2016-07-01

    Lipid-degrading or lipolytic enzymes have gained enormous attention in academic and industrial sectors. Several efforts are underway to discover new lipase enzymes from a variety of microorganisms with particular catalytic properties to be used for extensive applications. In addition, various tools and strategies have been implemented to unravel the functional relevance of the versatile lipid-degrading enzymes for special purposes. This review highlights the study of microbial lipid-degrading enzymes through an integrative computational approach. The identification of putative lipase genes from microbial genomes and metagenomic libraries using homology-based mining is discussed, with an emphasis on sequence analysis of conserved motifs and enzyme topology. Molecular modelling of three-dimensional structure on the basis of sequence similarity is shown to be a potential approach for exploring the structural and functional relationships of candidate lipase enzymes. The perspectives on a discriminative framework of cutting-edge tools and technologies, including bioinformatics, computational biology, functional genomics and functional proteomics, intended to facilitate rapid progress in understanding lipolysis mechanism and to discover novel lipid-degrading enzymes of microorganisms are discussed.

  13. Loading of praziquantel in the crystal lattice of solid lipid nanoparticles - studies by DSC and SAXS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Souza, A.L.R.; Cassimiro, D.L.; Almeida, A.E.; Ribeiro, C.A.; Gremiao, M.P.D.; Sarmento, V.H.V.; Andreani, T.; Silva, A.M.; Souto, E.B.

    2012-01-01

    Full text: Praziquantel (PZQ) is the drug of choice for oral treatment of schistosomiasis and other fluke infections that affect humans. Its low oral bioavailability demands the development of innovative strategies to overcome the first pass metabolism. In this work, solid lipid nanoparticles loaded with PZQ (PZQ-SLN) were prepared by a modified oil-in-water microemulsion method selecting stearic acid as lipid phase after solubility screening studies. The mean particle size (Z-Ave) and zeta potential (ZP) were 500 nm and -34.0 mV, respectively. Morphology and shape of PZQ-SLN were analysed by scanning electron microscopy revealing the presence of spherical particles with smooth surface. Differential scanning calorimetry suggested that SLN comprised a less ordered arrangement of crystals and the drug was molecularly dispersed in the lipid matrix. No supercooled melts were detected. The entrapment efficiency (EE) and loading capacity of PZQ, determined by high performance liquid chromatography, were 99.0 and 17.5, respectively. Effective incorporation of PZQ into the particles was confirmed by small angle X-ray scattering revealing the presence of a lipid lamellar structure. Stability parameters of PZQ-SLN stored at room temperature (25 deg C) and at 4 deg C were checked by analysing Z-Ave, ZP and the EE for a period of 60 days Results showed a relatively long-term physical stability after storage at 4 deg C, without drug expulsion. (author)

  14. Cholesterol effect on water permeability through DPPC and PSM lipid bilayers: a molecular dynamics study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saito, Hiroaki; Shinoda, Wataru

    2011-12-29

    Water permeability of two different lipid bilayers of dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine (DPPC) and palmitoylsphingomyelin (PSM) in the absence and presence of cholesterol (0-50 mol %) have been studied by molecular dynamics simulations to elucidate the molecular mechanism of the reduction in water leakage across the membranes by the addition of cholesterol. An enhanced free energy barrier was observed in these membranes with increased cholesterol concentration, and this was explained by the reduced cavity density around the cholesterol in the hydrophobic membrane core. There was an increase of trans conformers in the hydrophobic lipid chains adjacent to the cholesterol, which reduced the cavity density. The enhanced free energy barrier was found to be the main reason to reduce the water permeability with increased cholesterol concentration. At low cholesterol concentrations the PSM bilayer exhibited a higher free energy barrier than the DPPC bilayer for water permeation, while at greater than 30 mol % of cholesterol the difference became minor. This tendency for the PSM and DPPC bilayers to resemble each other at higher cholesterol concentrations was similar to commonly observed trends in several structural properties, such as order parameters, cross-sectional area per molecule, and cavity density profiles in the hydrophobic regions of bilayer membranes. These results demonstrate that DPPC and PSM bilayers with high cholesterol contents possess similar physical properties, which suggests that the solubility of cholesterol in these lipid bilayers has importance for an understanding of multicomponent lipid membranes with cholesterol. © 2011 American Chemical Society

  15. Spontaneous charged lipid transfer between lipid vesicles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richens, Joanna L; Tyler, Arwen I I; Barriga, Hanna M G; Bramble, Jonathan P; Law, Robert V; Brooks, Nicholas J; Seddon, John M; Ces, Oscar; O'Shea, Paul

    2017-10-03

    An assay to study the spontaneous charged lipid transfer between lipid vesicles is described. A donor/acceptor vesicle system is employed, where neutrally charged acceptor vesicles are fluorescently labelled with the electrostatic membrane probe Fluoresceinphosphatidylethanolamine (FPE). Upon addition of charged donor vesicles, transfer of negatively charged lipid occurs, resulting in a fluorescently detectable change in the membrane potential of the acceptor vesicles. Using this approach we have studied the transfer properties of a range of lipids, varying both the headgroup and the chain length. At the low vesicle concentrations chosen, the transfer follows a first-order process where lipid monomers are transferred presumably through the aqueous solution phase from donor to acceptor vesicle. The rate of transfer decreases with increasing chain length which is consistent with energy models previously reported for lipid monomer vesicle interactions. Our assay improves on existing methods allowing the study of a range of unmodified lipids, continuous monitoring of transfer and simplified experimental procedures.

  16. Pelvic floor muscle strength in primiparous women according to the delivery type: cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendes, Edilaine de Paula Batista; Oliveira, Sonia Maria Junqueira Vasconcellos de; Caroci, Adriana de Souza; Francisco, Adriana Amorim; Oliveira, Sheyla Guimaraes; Silva, Renata Luana da

    2016-08-15

    to compare the pelvic floor muscle strength in primiparous women after normal birth and cesarean section, related to the socio-demographic characteristics, nutritional status, dyspareunia, urinary incontinence, perineal exercise in pregnancy, perineal condition and weight of the newborn. this was a cross-sectional study conducted after 50 - 70 postpartum days, with 24 primiparous women who underwent cesarean delivery and 72 who had a normal birth. The 9301 PeritronTM was used for analysis of muscle strength. The mean muscle strength was compared between the groups by two-way analysis of variance. the pelvic floor muscle strength was 24.0 cmH2O (±16.2) and 25.4 cmH2O (±14.7) in postpartum primiparous women after normal birth and cesarean section, respectively, with no significant difference. The muscular strength was greater in postpartum women with ≥ 12 years of study (42.0 ±26.3 versus 14.6 ±7.7 cmH2O; p= 0.036) and in those who performed perineal exercises (42.6±25.4 11.8±4.9 vs. cmH2O; p = 0.010), compared to caesarean. There was no difference in muscle strength according to delivery type regarding nutritional status, dyspareunia, urinary incontinence, perineal condition or newborn weight. pelvic floor muscle strength does not differ between primiparous women based on the type of delivery. Postpartum women with normal births, with higher education who performed perineal exercise during pregnancy showed greater muscle strength. comparar a força muscular do assoalho pélvico em primíparas no pós-parto normal e cesariana, relacionando-a às características sociodemográficas, estado nutricional, incontinência urinária, dispareunia, exercício perineal na gestação, condição perineal e peso do recém-nascido. estudo transversal realizado entre 50 e 70 dias de pós-parto, com 24 primíparas submetidas à cesariana e 72 ao parto normal. Utilizou-se PeritronTM 9301 para análise da força muscular. Comparou-se as médias da força muscular entre os

  17. Cannabinoid antagonist in nanostructured lipid carriers (NLCs): design, characterization and in vivo study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Esposito, Elisabetta; Ravani, Laura [Department of Life Sciences and Biotechnology, University of Ferrara, I-44121 Ferrara (Italy); Drechsler, Markus [BIMF/Soft Matter Electron Microscopy, University of Bayreuth (Germany); Mariani, Paolo [Department of Life and Environmental Sciences and CNISM, Università Politecnica delle Marche, I-60100 Ancona (Italy); Contado, Catia [Department of Chemical and Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of Ferrara, I-44121 Ferrara (Italy); Ruokolainen, Janne [Department of Applied Physics, Aalto University, 00076 Aalto (Finland); Ratano, Patrizia; Campolongo, Patrizia [Department of Physiology and Pharmacology, Sapienza University of Rome, 00185 Roma (Italy); Trezza, Viviana [Department of Science, Roma Tre University, 00146 Roma (Italy); Nastruzzi, Claudio, E-mail: nas@unife.it [Department of Life Sciences and Biotechnology, University of Ferrara, I-44121 Ferrara (Italy); Cortesi, Rita [Department of Life Sciences and Biotechnology, University of Ferrara, I-44121 Ferrara (Italy)

    2015-03-01

    This study describes the preparation, characterization, and in vivo evaluation in rats of nanostructured lipid carriers (NLCs) encapsulating rimonabant (RMN) as prototypical cannabinoid antagonist. A study was conducted in order to optimize NLC production by melt and ultrasonication method. NLCs were prepared by alternatively adding the lipid phase into the aqueous one (direct protocol) or the aqueous phase into the lipid one (reverse protocol). RMN-NLCs have been characterized by cryogenic transmission electron microscopy (cryo-TEM), X-ray, photon correlation spectroscopy (PCS) and sedimentation field flow fractionation (SdFFF). Reverse NLCs were treated with polysorbate 80. RMN release kinetics have been determined in vitro by dialysis method. In vivo RMN biodistribution in rats was evaluated after intranasal (i.n.) administration of reverse RMN-NLC. The reverse protocol enabled to prevent the lost of lipid phase and to achieve higher RMN encapsulation efficacy (EE) with respect to the direct protocol (98% w/w versus 67% w/w). The use of different protocols did not affect NLC morphology and dimensional distribution. An in vitro dissolutive release rate of RMN was calculated. The in vivo data indicate that i.n. administration of RMN by reverse NLC treated with polysorbate 80 increased RMN concentration in the brain with respect to the drug in solution. The nanoencapsulation protocol presented here appears as an optimal strategy to improve the low solubility of cannabinoid compounds in an aqueous system suitable for in vivo administration. - Highlights: • Rimonabant (RMN) can be encapsulated in nanostructured lipid carriers (NLCs). • Nanoencapsulation improves RMN solubility in a stable physiologic aqueous formulation. • RMN is released in vitro from NLC by a controlled dissolutive release modality. • I.n. administration leads to higher RMN concentration in the brain with respect to plasma. • NLC increases RMN concentration in the brain with respect to

  18. Physical activity, high density lipoprotein cholesterol and other lipids levels, in men and women from the ATTICA study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Papaioannou Ioanna

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Physical activity has long been associated with reduced risk of coronary heart disease (CHD. In this work we evaluated the effect of physical activity on lipid levels, in a sample of cardiovascular disease free people. Methods The ATTICA study is a population – based cohort that has randomly enrolled 2772 individuals, stratified by age – gender (according to the census 2001, from the greater area of Athens, during 2001–2002. Of them, 1376 were men (45 ± 12 years old, range: 18 – 86 and 1396 women (45 ± 13 years old, range: 18 – 88. We assessed the relationship between physical activity status (measured in kcal/min expended per day and several lipids, after taking into account the effect of several characteristics of the participants. Results 578 (42% men and 584 (40% women were classified as physically active. Compared to sedentary physically active women had significantly lower levels of total serum cholesterol (p Conclusions Substantial independent increases in HDL-cholesterol and apolipoprotein A1 concentrations were observed in women, but not in men, in a Mediterranean cohort.

  19. Study on the effects of consumption of milk containing Lactobacillus acidophilus on serum lipid trends and weight gain of rats fed high lipid diet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H Mirzaei

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Despite the significant progresses made in the reduction of mortality due to cardiovascular diseases, they are still the primary cause of death in many countries and hyperlipidemia is an important causal agent of cardiovascular diseases. Probiotics are food supplements containing live microbes which balance the flora of the digestive system and produce positive effects in the host body. L.acidophilus is a beneficial bacterium used in the production of probiotic products .The aim of this study is to evaluate the effects of consumption of milk containing L.acidophilus on serum lipid trends of rats fed high lipid diet. This is an experimental study in which 30 male albino Wistar rats with a body weight of 200±15 gr. were randomly allocated to two groups of treatment and control each containing 15 rats which were adapted to a high lipid diet (11.74% and water containing 25% milk within a week. Rats in both groups received high lipid diet and water containing 25% milk for 60 days with the exception that rats in the treatment group received water containing L. acidophilus at a level of 109 CFU/rat/day throughout the experiment. Independent t-test revealed that at a level of α= 0.05, mean levels of total cholesterol and LDL-C of rats in the treatment group was significantly lower than the control group (p

  20. Isostatic lines’ study to optimize steel space grid envelope structures for tall buildings according to their solicitations

    OpenAIRE

    Señís López, Roger

    2013-01-01

    Based on the first study completed with wind tunnel tests, the aim of this paper is to define a second methodology for the optimization of steel space grid envelope structures for tall buildings according to their isostatic lines according to their solicitations. It is by means of the comparison NatHaz online database and numerical simulation research of wind flow repercussion in buildings, through Computational Fluid Dynamics (CDF), that we can understand and analyse the grid ...

  1. Dietary fructose and risk of metabolic syndrome in adults: Tehran Lipid and Glucose study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hosseinpanah Farhad

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Studies have shown that the excessive fructose intake may induce adverse metabolic effects. There is no direct evidence from epidemiological studies to clarify the association between usual amounts of fructose intake and the metabolic syndrome. Objective The aim this study was to determine the association of fructose intake and prevalence of metabolic syndrome (MetS and its components in Tehranian adults. Methods This cross-sectional population based study was conducted on 2537 subjects (45% men aged 19-70 y, participants of the Tehran Lipid and Glucose Study (2006-2008. Dietary data were collected using a validated 168 item semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire. Dietary fructose intake was calculated by sum of natural fructose (NF in fruits and vegetables and added fructose (AF in commercial foods. MetS was defined according to the modified NCEP ATP III for Iranian adults. Results The mean ages of men and women were 40.5 ± 13.6 and 38.6 ± 12.8 years, respectively. Mean total dietary fructose intakes were 46.5 ± 24.5 (NF: 19.6 ± 10.7 and AF: 26.9 ± 13.9 and 37.3 ± 24.2 g/d (NF: 18.6 ± 10.5 and AF: 18.7 ± 13.6 in men and women, respectively. Compared with those in the lowest quartile of fructose intakes, men and women in the highest quartile, respectively, had 33% (95% CI, 1.15-1.47 and 20% (95% CI, 1.09-1.27 higher risk of the metabolic syndrome; 39% (CI, 1.16-1.63 and 20% (CI, 1.07-1.27 higher risk of abdominal obesity; 11% (CI, 1.02-1.17 and 9% (CI, 1.02-1.14 higher risk of hypertension; and 9% (CI, 1-1.15 and 9% (1.04-1.12 higher risk of impaired fasting glucose. Conclusion Higher consumption of dietary fructose may have adverse metabolic effects.

  2. Dietary fructose and risk of metabolic syndrome in adults: Tehran Lipid and Glucose study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosseini-Esfahani, Firoozeh; Bahadoran, Zahra; Mirmiran, Parvin; Hosseinpour-Niazi, Somayeh; Hosseinpanah, Farhad; Azizi, Fereidoun

    2011-07-12

    Studies have shown that the excessive fructose intake may induce adverse metabolic effects. There is no direct evidence from epidemiological studies to clarify the association between usual amounts of fructose intake and the metabolic syndrome. The aim this study was to determine the association of fructose intake and prevalence of metabolic syndrome (MetS) and its components in Tehranian adults. This cross-sectional population based study was conducted on 2537 subjects (45% men) aged 19-70 y, participants of the Tehran Lipid and Glucose Study (2006-2008). Dietary data were collected using a validated 168 item semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire. Dietary fructose intake was calculated by sum of natural fructose (NF) in fruits and vegetables and added fructose (AF) in commercial foods. MetS was defined according to the modified NCEP ATP III for Iranian adults. The mean ages of men and women were 40.5 ± 13.6 and 38.6 ± 12.8 years, respectively. Mean total dietary fructose intakes were 46.5 ± 24.5 (NF: 19.6 ± 10.7 and AF: 26.9 ± 13.9) and 37.3 ± 24.2 g/d (NF: 18.6 ± 10.5 and AF: 18.7 ± 13.6) in men and women, respectively. Compared with those in the lowest quartile of fructose intakes, men and women in the highest quartile, respectively, had 33% (95% CI, 1.15-1.47) and 20% (95% CI, 1.09-1.27) higher risk of the metabolic syndrome; 39% (CI, 1.16-1.63) and 20% (CI, 1.07-1.27) higher risk of abdominal obesity; 11% (CI, 1.02-1.17) and 9% (CI, 1.02-1.14) higher risk of hypertension; and 9% (CI, 1-1.15) and 9% (1.04-1.12) higher risk of impaired fasting glucose. Higher consumption of dietary fructose may have adverse metabolic effects.

  3. Qualifications of an Ideal Teacher According to Social Studies Preservice Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gencturk, Ebru; Akbas, Yavuz; Kaymakci, Selahattin

    2012-01-01

    In this study, the question of what kind of qualifications an ideal social studies teacher has tried to be investigated. For this purpose, freshman social studies preservice teachers' perceptions about the concept of "ideal teacher" were explored. This study was designed with document analysis, one of the methods of qualitative approach.…

  4. THE STUDY OF ACTIVITY REGARDING THE PROCESSES QUALITY ACCORDING TO ISO STANDARD 9004-2.1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    OANA Ioan – Pavel

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Among the activities regarding processes quality according to ISO 9004-2.1 there is one refering to planning to keep under control the processes, achieved by: documentation of current activities, development of documented work instructions, establishing checkpoints and quality inspection techniques, assess the potential effectiveness of technological processes. A first step in this direction represents the presentation of the general elements that contribute to insuring the quality of each stage of manufacturing processes, the data being possible to suit for individual cases. It shall be noted that in industrial practice these quality assurance measures are designed interdependent. Preventive control during the technological processes has an important role in improving the technological processes in textiles and also increasing the quality performance of products in order to improve production and creating a recognizable brand in the world market. Quality of products manufactured in textiles has a decisive role in the present, when facing with an excess of production in this domain and a special competition between firms in the world market. A company that wants to continue to exist and develop must regularly check the quality/satisfaction degree obtained for the products manufactured. The application of quality control system implies a reference system compared to what can be measured by which we obtain “the quality level required and expected.” The referential system can be formed in a set of performance indicators so we can say that a company continues to be competitive as far as it established and achieved a series of performance indicators and in addition it controls these indicators every day.

  5. Acute toxicity study of tilmicosin-loaded hydrogenated castor oil-solid lipid nanoparticles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xie Shuyu

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Our previous studies demonstrated that tilmicosin-loaded hydrogenated castor oil solid lipid nanoparticles (Til-HCO-SLN are a promising formulation for enhanced pharmacological activity and therapeutic efficacy in veterinary use. The purpose of this work was to evaluate the acute toxicity of Til-HCO-SLN. Methods Two nanoparticle doses were used for the study in ICR mice. The low dose (766 mg/kg.bw with tilmicosin 7.5 times of the clinic dosage and below the median lethal dose (LD50 was subcutaneously administered twice on the first and 7th day. The single high dose (5 g/kg.bw was the practical upper limit in an acute toxicity study and was administered subcutaneously on the first day. Blank HCO-SLN, native tilmicosin, and saline solution were included as controls. After medication, animals were monitored over 14 days, and then necropsied. Signs of toxicity were evaluated via mortality, symptoms of treatment effect, gross and microscopic pathology, and hematologic and biochemical parameters. Results After administration of native tilmicosin, all mice died within 2 h in the high dose group, in the low dose group 3 died after the first and 2 died after the second injections. The surviving mice in the tilmicosin low dose group showed hypoactivity, accelerated breath, gloomy spirit and lethargy. In contrast, all mice in Til-HCO-SLN and blank HCO-SLN groups survived at both low and high doses. The high nanoparticle dose induced transient clinical symptoms of treatment effect such as transient reversible action retardation, anorexy and gloomy spirit, increased spleen and liver coefficients and decreased heart coefficients, microscopic pathological changes of liver, spleen and heart, and minor changes in hematologic and biochemical parameters, but no adverse effects were observed in the nanoparticle low dose group. Conclusions The results revealed that the LD50 of Til-HCO-SLN and blank HCO-SLN exceeded 5 g/kg.bw and thus the

  6. A study on the potential of insect protein and lipid as a food source

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yi, L.

    2015-01-01

    Propositions

    Propositions belonging to the thesis, entitled:‘A study on the potential of insect protein and lipid as a food source’. Liya Yi

    Wageningen, 9 February 2015.High protein

  7. Lysosome lipid storage disorder in NCTR-BALB/c mice. II. Morphologic and cytochemical studies.

    OpenAIRE

    Shio, H.; Fowler, S.; Bhuvaneswaran, C.; Morris, M. D.

    1982-01-01

    Electron-microscopic and cytochemical studies were carried out on tissues of NCTR-BALB/c mice. These mice are affected with a neurovisceral genetic disorder involving excessive tissue accumulation of lipid. Distinctive polymorphic intracellular inclusions, bounded by a membrane and containing lamellated bodies, were found in many cells of liver, spleen, lung, kidney, intestine, lymph nodes, and brain. The inclusions transformed reticuloendothelial cells into massive foam cells. Acid phosphata...

  8. Studies on the lipid constituents of grape seeds recovered from pomace resulting from white grape processing

    OpenAIRE

    El-Shami, S. M.; El-Mallah, M. H.; Mohamed, S. S.

    1992-01-01

    Studies on the lipid constituents of grape seeds, produced as by-product from white grape processing, were carried out. Gas liquid chromatography was used to determine the composition of fatty acid methyl esters and sterol silyl derivatives of the oil. The oil was found to contain appreciable amount of unsaturated fatty acids, namely, oleic and linoleic acids, however, linolenic acid was not detected. Saturated fatty acids, namely, palmitic and stearic were found to be present in reasonable a...

  9. 77 FR 60441 - Pediatric Studies of Sodium Nitroprusside Conducted in Accordance With Section 409I of the Public...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-03

    ...] Pediatric Studies of Sodium Nitroprusside Conducted in Accordance With Section 409I of the Public Health Service Act; Establishment of Public Docket AGENCY: Food and Drug Administration, HHS. ACTION: Notice... available to the public a report of the pediatric studies of sodium nitroprusside that were conducted in...

  10. A Study for Reappearance According to the Scan Type, the CT Scanning by a Moving Phantom

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, Jae Hyock; Jeong, Do Hyeong; Choi, Gye Suk; Jang, Yo Jong; Kim, Jae Weon; Lee, Hui Seok

    2007-01-01

    CT scan shows that significant tumor movement occurs in lesions located in the proximity of the heart, diaphragm, and lung hilus. There are differences concerning three kinds of type to get images following the Scan type called Axial, Helical, Cine (4D-CT) mode, when the scanning by CT. To know how each protocol describe accurately, this paper is going to give you reappearance using the moving phantom. To reconstruct the movement of superior-inferior and anterior-posterior, the manufactured moving phantom and the motor following breathing were used. To distinguish movement from captured images by CT scanning, a localizer adhered to the marker on the motor. The moving phantom fixed the movement of superior-inferior upon 1.3 cm /1 min. The motor following breathing fixed the movement of anterior-posterior upon 0.2 cm /1 min. After fixing each movement, CT scanning was taken by following the CT protocols. The movement of A localizer and volume-reappearance analyzed by RTP machine. Total volume of a marker was 88.2 cm 3 considering movement of superior-inferior. Total volume was 184.3 cm 3 . Total volume according to each CT scan protocol were 135 cm 3 by axial mode, 164.9 cm 3 by helical mode, 181.7 cm 3 by cine (4D-CT) mode. The most closely describable protocol about moving reappearance was cine mode, the marker attached localizer as well. CT scan should reappear concerning a exact organ-description and target, when the moving organ is being scanned by three kinds of CT protocols. The cine (4D-CT) mode has the advantage of the most highly reconstructible ability of the three protocols in reappearance of the marker using a moving phantom. The marker on the phantom has always regular motion but breathing patients don't move like a phantom. Breathing education and devices setting patients were needed so that images reconstruct breathing as exactly as possible. Users should also consider that an amount of radiation to patients is being bombed.

  11. Lipid droplet organelle distribution in populations of dividing cells studied by simulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dalhaimer, Paul

    2013-01-01

    One of the key questions in cell biology is how organelles are passed from parent to daughter cells. To help address this question, I used Brownian dynamics to simulate lipid droplets as model organelles in populations of dividing cells. Lipid droplets are dynamic bodies that can form both de novo and by fission, they can also be depleted. The quantitative interplay among these three events is unknown but would seem crucial for controlling droplet distribution in populations of dividing cells. Surprisingly, of the three main events studied: biogenesis, fission, and depletion, the third played the key role in maintaining droplet organelle number—and to a lesser extent volume—in populations of dividing cells where formation events would have seemed paramount. In the case of lipid droplets, this provides computational evidence that they must be sustained, most likely through contacts with the endoplasmic reticulum. The findings also agree with video microscopy experiments over much shorter timescales where droplet depletion in fission yeast cells was not observed. In general, this work shows that organelle maintenance is invaluable and lack thereof cannot necessarily be compensated for by organelle formation. This study provides a time-accurate, physical-based template for long-term cell division studies. (paper)

  12. Lipid droplet organelle distribution in populations of dividing cells studied by simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalhaimer, Paul

    2013-06-01

    One of the key questions in cell biology is how organelles are passed from parent to daughter cells. To help address this question, I used Brownian dynamics to simulate lipid droplets as model organelles in populations of dividing cells. Lipid droplets are dynamic bodies that can form both de novo and by fission, they can also be depleted. The quantitative interplay among these three events is unknown but would seem crucial for controlling droplet distribution in populations of dividing cells. Surprisingly, of the three main events studied: biogenesis, fission, and depletion, the third played the key role in maintaining droplet organelle number—and to a lesser extent volume—in populations of dividing cells where formation events would have seemed paramount. In the case of lipid droplets, this provides computational evidence that they must be sustained, most likely through contacts with the endoplasmic reticulum. The findings also agree with video microscopy experiments over much shorter timescales where droplet depletion in fission yeast cells was not observed. In general, this work shows that organelle maintenance is invaluable and lack thereof cannot necessarily be compensated for by organelle formation. This study provides a time-accurate, physical-based template for long-term cell division studies.

  13. Dietary phytochemical index and subsequent changes of lipid profile: A 3-year follow-up in Tehran Lipid and Glucose Study in Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahdieh Golzarand

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: High intakes of phytochemical-rich foods have beneficial effects on lipid profiles and cardiovascular disease (CVD. In this study, we assessed the association between the dietary phytochemical index (PI and changes in lipid profile after 3-year follow-up among Iranian adults. METHODS: This longitudinal study was conducted in 1983 subjects, aged 19-70 years, selected among participants of the Tehran Lipid and Glucose Study. Dietary data were collected by using a validated semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire with 168 food items at baseline. PI was calculated based on daily energy derived from [(phytochemical-rich foods kcal/total daily energy intake kcal × 100]. Lipid profile was measured at baseline and after 3 years and changes in serum lipid profiles were assessed during 3-year follow-up. RESULTS: The mean age of participants was 40.4 ± 13.0 years; participants in the highest PI quartile category were more likely to be older. After 3 years of follow-up, total cholesterol was significantly lower in the highest quartile compared with lower quartile of PI in men (181 ± 3 vs. 189 ± 3, P for trend <0.05. There were significant inverse association between dietary PI and 3 years changes of total cholesterol [β: −5.6, 95% confidence interval (CI = −9.3, −1.8], triglycerides (β = −13.7, 95% CI = −24.6, −2.8, and non-high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C (β = −6.2, 95% CI = −10.8, −1.5, in highest quartile of PI in men. Lipid profiles showed no significant changes over the study period in women. CONCLUSION: Higher dietary PI is associated with 3 years improvement of total cholesterol, triglycerides, and non-HDL-C. Higher consumption of phytochemical-rich foods is recommended to prevent CVD.   Keywords: Phytochemical, Triglyceride, Cholesterol, Fruit and vegetables, Whole Grains 

  14. Sphingosine-1-Phosphate Lyase Deficient Cells as a Tool to Study Protein Lipid Interactions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mathias J Gerl

    Full Text Available Cell membranes contain hundreds to thousands of individual lipid species that are of structural importance but also specifically interact with proteins. Due to their highly controlled synthesis and role in signaling events sphingolipids are an intensely studied class of lipids. In order to investigate their metabolism and to study proteins interacting with sphingolipids, metabolic labeling based on photoactivatable sphingoid bases is the most straightforward approach. In order to monitor protein-lipid-crosslink products, sphingosine derivatives containing a reporter moiety, such as a radiolabel or a clickable group, are used. In normal cells, degradation of sphingoid bases via action of the checkpoint enzyme sphingosine-1-phosphate lyase occurs at position C2-C3 of the sphingoid base and channels the resulting hexadecenal into the glycerolipid biosynthesis pathway. In case the functionalized sphingosine looses the reporter moiety during its degradation, specificity towards sphingolipid labeling is maintained. In case degradation of a sphingosine derivative does not remove either the photoactivatable or reporter group from the resulting hexadecenal, specificity towards sphingolipid labeling can be achieved by blocking sphingosine-1-phosphate lyase activity and thus preventing sphingosine derivatives to be channeled into the sphingolipid-to-glycerolipid metabolic pathway. Here we report an approach using clustered, regularly interspaced, short palindromic repeats (CRISPR-associated nuclease Cas9 to create a sphingosine-1-phosphate lyase (SGPL1 HeLa knockout cell line to disrupt the sphingolipid-to-glycerolipid metabolic pathway. We found that the lipid and protein compositions as well as sphingolipid metabolism of SGPL1 knock-out HeLa cells only show little adaptations, which validates these cells as model systems to study transient protein-sphingolipid interactions.

  15. Comparative study of lipids in mature seeds of six Cordia species (family Boraginaceae) collected in different regions of Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carvalho, Patricía de O; Arrebola, Melissa B; Sawaya, Alexandra C H F; Cunha, Ildenize B S; Bastos, Deborah H M; Eberlin, Marcos N

    2006-08-01

    The oil content, FA, and lipid class composition of the mature seeds of six Cordia species were analyzed. Mature seeds of each species were collected in their natural habitat from 2002 to 2004. The total lipid content varied from 1.9% to 13.2%, there being significant differences between the results found in different years for each species and between the species analyzed. The contents of FFA varied from 2.0% to 7.9% of total lipids. Neutral lipids (NL) were the largest class, making up between 89.6% and 96.4% of the total lipids; the phospholipids (PL) were the second largest class (3.0% to 8.9% of the total lipids), and the glycolipids (GL) were the smallest class (0.6 to 3.4%). The presence of GLA was determined in each class of lipids; it is predominant in the NL. Levels of GLA ranged from 1.2% to 6.8% of total seed FA. This is, to our knowledge the first study of lipid composition in seeds of species of Cordia from Brazil.

  16. The Action to Control Cardiovascular Risk in Diabetes Memory in Diabetes Study (ACCORD-MIND): rationale, design, and methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williamson, Jeff D; Miller, Michael E; Bryan, R Nick; Lazar, Ronald M; Coker, Laura H; Johnson, Janice; Cukierman, Tali; Horowitz, Karen R; Murray, Anne; Launer, Lenore J

    2007-06-18

    Type 2 diabetes mellitus and cognitive impairment are 2 of the most common chronic conditions found in persons aged > or = 60 years. Clinical studies have shown a greater prevalence of global cognitive impairment, incidence of cognitive decline, and incidence of Alzheimer disease in patients with type 2 diabetes. To date, there have been no randomized trials of the effects of long-term glycemic control on cognitive function and structural brain changes in patients with type 2 diabetes. The primary aim of the Action to Control Cardiovascular Risk in Diabetes (ACCORD) Memory in Diabetes Study (ACCORD-MIND) is to test whether there is a difference in the rate of cognitive decline and structural brain change in patients with diabetes treated with standard-care guidelines compared with those treated with intensive-care guidelines. This comparison will be made in a subsample of 2,977 patients with diabetes participating in the ongoing ACCORD trial, a clinical trial sponsored by the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute (NHLBI) with support from the National Institute on Aging (NIA). Data from this ACCORD substudy on the possible beneficial or adverse effects of intensive treatment on cognitive function will be obtained from a 30-minute test battery, administered at baseline and 20-month and 40-month visits. In addition, full-brain magnetic resonance imaging will be performed on 630 participants at baseline and at 40 months to assess the relation between the ACCORD treatments and structural brain changes. The general aim of ACCORD-MIND is to determine whether the intensive treatment of diabetes, a major risk factor for Alzheimer disease and vascular dementia, can reduce the early decline in cognitive function that could later evolve into more cognitively disabling conditions. This report presents the design, rationale, and methods of the ACCORD-MIND substudy.

  17. Vegan diet and blood lipid profiles: a cross-sectional study of pre and postmenopausal women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Yee-Wen; Jian, Zhi-Hong; Chang, Hui-Chin; Nfor, Oswald Ndi; Ko, Pei-Chieh; Lung, Chia-Chi; Lin, Long-Yau; Ho, Chien-Chang; Chiang, Yi-Chen; Liaw, Yung-Po

    2014-04-08

    Vegan diet has been associated with lower risk of cardiovascular diseases and mortality, partly due to its effects on serum lipid profiles. Lipid profiles [high density lipoprotein-cholesterol (HDL-C), low density lipoprotein-cholesterol (LDL-C) and triglycerides (TG)] have not been fully elucidated either in pre and postmenopausal vegans or in ovo-lacto vegetarians. This study aimed to compare lipid profiles among vegans, ovo-lacto vegetarians and omnivores. Demographic data and lipid profiles were obtained from the 2002 Taiwanese Survey on Hypertension, Hyperglycemia and Hyperlipidemia. Multivariate linear regression analysis was used to examine factors significantly and independently associated with different categories of veganism and to estimate the β value of lipid profiles in the dietary types. A total of 2397 premenopausal and 1154 postmenopausal participants who did not receive lipid lowering drugs were enrolled. Premenopausal vegans had significantly lower HDL-C and higher TG, LDL-C/HDL-C, total cholesterol (TC)/HDL-C and TG/HDL-C compared with omnivores. For postmenopausal women, vegans had lower TC while ovo-lacto vegetarians were observed with low HDL-C when compared with omnivores. Multivariate linear regression analyses showed that vegan and ovo-lacto vegetarian diets decreased HDL-C levels in premenopausal women (β = -7.63, p = 0.001 and β = -4.87, p = 0.001, respectively). There were significant associations between lower LDL-C and ovo-lacto vegetarian diets (β = -7.14, p = 0.008) and also between TG and vegan diet (β = 23.37, p = 0.008), compared with omnivorous diet. Post-menopausal women reported to have consumed either a vegan or an ovo-lacto vegetarian diet were at the risk of having low HDL-C unlike those that consumed omnivorous diets (β = -4.88, p = 0.015 and β = -4.48, p = 0.047). There were no significant changes in LDL-C in both pre and postmenopausal vegans. Vegan diet was

  18. Associations between serum lipids and major depressive disorder: results from the Netherlands Study of Depression and Anxiety (NESDA)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Reedt Dortland, A.K.B.; Giltay, E.J.; van Veen, T.; van Pelt, J.; Zitman, F.G.; Penninx, B.W.J.H.

    2010-01-01

    Background: Several studies have suggested an association between lipids or lipoproteins and depression, but findings are contradictory. However, previous studies did not always take into consideration potentially mediating factors or heterogeneity of symptoms, which may clarify contradicting

  19. Associations Between Serum Lipids and Major Depressive Disorder : Results From the Netherlands Study of Depression and Anxiety (NESDA)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dortland, Arianne K. B. van Reedt; Giltay, Erik J.; van Veen, Tineke; van Pelt, Johannes; Zitman, Frans G.; Penninx, Brenda W. J. H.

    Background: Several studies have suggested an association between lipids or lipoproteins and depression, but findings are contradictory. However, previous studies did not always take into consideration potentially mediating factors or heterogeneity of symptoms, which may clarify contradicting

  20. Weaknesses in the reporting of cross-sectional studies according to the STROBE statement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malaga, German; Miranda, Jaime

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: The inadequate reporting of cross-sectional studies, as in the case of the prevalence of metabolic syndrome, could cause problems in the synthesis of new evidence and lead to errors in the formulation of public policies. Objective: To evaluate the reporting quality of the articles regarding metabolic syndrome prevalence in Peruvian adults using the STROBE recommendations. Methods: We conducted a thorough literature search with the terms "Metabolic Syndrome", "Sindrome Metabolico" and "Peru" in MEDLINE/PubMed, LILACS, SciELO, LIPECS and BVS-Peru until December 2014. We selected those who were population-based observational studies with randomized sampling that reported prevalence of metabolic syndrome in adults aged 18 or more of both sexes. Information was analysed through the STROBE score per item and recommendation. Results: Seventeen articles were included in this study. All articles met the recommendations related to the report of the study's rationale, design, and provision of summary measures. The recommendations with the lowest scores were those related to the sensitivity analysis (8%, n= 1/17), participant flowchart (18%, n= 3/17), missing data analysis (24%, n= 4/17), and number of participants in each study phase (24%, n= 4/17). Conclusion: Cross-sectional studies regarding the prevalence of metabolic syndrome in peruvian adults have an inadequate reporting on the methods and results sections. We identified a clear need to improve the quality of such studies. PMID:26848197

  1. Membrane lipids protected from oxidation by red wine tannins: a proton NMR study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furlan, Aurélien L; Jobin, Marie-Lise; Buchoux, Sébastien; Grélard, Axelle; Dufourc, Erick J; Géan, Julie

    2014-12-01

    Dietary polyphenols widespread in vegetables and beverages like red wine and tea have been reported to possess antioxidant properties that could have positive effects on human health. In this study, we propose a new in situ and non-invasive method based on proton liquid-state nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) to determine the antioxidant efficiency of red wine tannins on a twice-unsaturated phospholipid, 1,2-dilinoleoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (DLiPC), embedded in a membrane model. Four tannins were studied: (+)-catechin (C), (-)-epicatechin (EC), (-)-epicatechin gallate (ECG), and (-)-epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG). The lipid degradation kinetics was determined by measuring the loss of the bis-allylic protons during oxidation induced by a radical initiator, 2,2'-Azobis(2-methylpropionamidine) dihydrochloride (AAPH). The antioxidant efficiency, i.e. the ability of tannins to slow down the lipid oxidation rate, was shown to be higher for galloylated tannins, ECG and EGCG. Furthermore, the mixture of four tannins was more efficient than the most effective tannin, EGCG, demonstrating a synergistic effect. To better understand the antioxidant action mechanism of polyphenols on lipid membranes, the tannin location was investigated by NMR and molecular dynamics. A correlation between antioxidant action of tannins and their location at the membrane interface (inserted at the glycerol backbone level) could thus be established. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  2. Molecular dynamics study of lipid bilayers modeling the plasma membranes of mouse hepatocytes and hepatomas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andoh, Yoshimichi; Aoki, Noriyuki; Okazaki, Susumu

    2016-02-28

    Molecular dynamics (MD) calculations of lipid bilayers modeling the plasma membranes of normal mouse hepatocytes and hepatomas in water have been performed under physiological isothermal-isobaric conditions (310.15 K and 1 atm). The changes in the membrane properties induced by hepatic canceration were investigated and were compared with previous MD calculations included in our previous study of the changes in membrane properties induced by murine thymic canceration. The calculated model membranes for normal hepatocytes and hepatomas comprised 23 and 24 kinds of lipids, respectively. These included phosphatidylcholine, phosphatidylethanolamine, phosphatidylserine, phosphatidylinositol, sphingomyelin, lysophospholipids, and cholesterol. We referred to previously published experimental values for the mole fraction of the lipids adopted in the present calculations. The calculated structural and dynamic properties of the membranes such as lateral structure, order parameters, lateral self-diffusion constants, and rotational correlation times all showed that hepatic canceration causes plasma membranes to become more ordered laterally and less fluid. Interestingly, this finding contrasts with the less ordered structure and increased fluidity of plasma membranes induced by thymic canceration observed in our previous MD study.

  3. ATR-IR study of skin components: Lipids, proteins and water. Part I: Temperature effect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olsztyńska-Janus, S.; Pietruszka, A.; Kiełbowicz, Z.; Czarnecki, M. A.

    2018-01-01

    In this work we report the studies of the effect of temperature on skin components, such as lipids, proteins and water. Modifications of lipids structure induced by increasing temperature (from 20 to 90 °C) have been studied using ATR-IR (Attenuated Total Reflectance Infrared) spectroscopy, which is a powerful tool for characterization of the molecular structure and properties of tissues, such as skin. Due to the small depth of penetration (0.6-5.6 μm), ATR-IR spectroscopy probes only the outermost layer of the skin, i.e. the stratum corneum (SC). The assignment of main spectral features of skin components allows for the determination of phase transitions from the temperature dependencies of band intensities [e.g. νas(CH2) and νs(CH2)]. The phase transitions were determined by using two methods: the first one was based on the first derivative of the Boltzmann function and the second one employed tangent lines of sigmoidal, aforementioned dependencies. The phase transitions in lipids were correlated with modifications of the structure of water and proteins.

  4. Lipid biomarkers for bacterial ecosystems: studies of cultured organisms, hydrothermal environments and ancient sediments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Summons, R. E.; Jahnke, L. L.; Simoneit, B. R.

    1996-01-01

    This paper forms part of our long-term goal of using molecular structure and carbon isotopic signals preserved as hydrocarbons in ancient sediments to improve understanding of the early evolution of Earth's surface environment. We are particularly concerned with biomarkers which are informative about aerobiosis. Here, we combine bacterial biochemistry with the organic geochemistry of contemporary and ancient hydrothermal ecosystems to construct models for the nature, behaviour and preservation potential of primitive microbial communities. We use a combined molecular and isotopic approach to characterize lipids produced by cultured bacteria and test a variety of culture conditions which affect their biosynthesis. This information is then compared with lipid mixtures isolated from contemporary hot springs and evaluated for the kinds of chemical change that would accompany burial and incorporation into the sedimentary record. In this study we have shown that growth temperature does not appear to alter isotopic fractionation within the lipid classes produced by a methanotropic bacterium. We also found that cultured cyanobacteria biosynthesize diagnostic methylalkanes and dimethylalkanes with the latter only made when growing under low pCO2. In an examination of a microbial mat sample from Octopus Spring, Yellowstone National Park (USA), we could readily identify chemical structures with 13C contents which were diagnostic for the phototrophic organisms such as cyanobacteria and Chloroflexus. We could not, however, find molecular evidence for operation of a methane cycle in the particular mat samples we studied.

  5. Lipid nanoparticles for transdermal delivery of flurbiprofen: formulation, in vitro, ex vivo and in vivo studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhaskar, Kesavan; Anbu, Jayaraman; Ravichandiran, Velayutham; Venkateswarlu, Vobalaboina; Rao, Yamsani Madhusudan

    2009-01-01

    The aim of the study is to prepare aqueous dispersions of lipid nanoparticles – flurbiprofen solid lipid nanoparticles (FLUSLN) and flurbiprofen nanostructured lipid carriers (FLUNLC) by hot homogenization followed by sonication technique and then incorporated into the freshly prepared hydrogels for transdermal delivery. They are characterized for particle size, for all the formulations, more than 50% of the particles were below 300 nm after 90 days of storage at RT. DSC analyses were performed to characterize the state of drug and lipid modification. Shape and surface morphology were determined by TEM which revealed fairly spherical shape of the formulations. Further they were evaluated for in vitro drug release characteristics, rheological behaviour, pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic studies. The pharmacokinetics of flurbiprofen in rats following application of SLN gel (A1) and NLC gel (B1) for 24 h were evaluated. The Cmax of the B1 formulation was 38.67 ± 2.77 μg/ml, which was significantly higher than the A1 formulation (Cmax = 21.79 ± 2.96 μg/ml). The Cmax and AUC of the B1 formulation were 1.8 and 2.5 times higher than the A1 gel formulation respectively. The bioavailability of flurbiprofen with reference to oral administration was found to increase by 4.4 times when gel formulations were applied. Anti-inflammatory effect in the Carrageenan-induced paw edema in rat was significantly higher for B1 and A1 formulation than the orally administered flurbiprofen. Both the SLN and NLC dispersions and gels enriched with SLN and NLC possessed a sustained drug release over period of 24 h but the sustained effect was more pronounced with the SLN and NLC gel PMID:19243632

  6. The effects of therapeutic concentrations ofamisulpride andrisperidone on human plasma lipid peroxidation – invitro studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Dietrich-Muszalska

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Antipsychotics may in different ways affect the oxidative stress measured by plasma lipid peroxidation. Probably some of them may intensify the oxidative balance disturbances occurring in schizophrenia. The effects of amisulpride and risperidone on redox processes are not known sufficiently yet. Aim of the study: Establishment of the effects of amisulpride and risperidone on human plasma lipid peroxidation measured by determination of the level of thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances (TBARS, in vitro. Material and methods: Blood for the studies was collected from healthy volunteers (aged 24-26 years for ACD solution. Active substances of the examined drugs were dissolved in 0.01% dimethylsulfoxide (DMSO to the final concentrations (of amisulpride 578 ng/ml and risperidone 64 ng/ml and incubated with plasma for 1 and 24 hours at 37ºC. For each experiment the control samples of plasma with DMSO (without the drug were performed. The lipid peroxidation level was measured in plasma by determining the TBARS concentration, using the spectrophotometric method (acc. to Rice-Evans, 1991. The results were analysed using the following statistical methods: the paired Student t-test and ANOVA II variance analysis and NIR test (StatSoft Inc., Statistica v. 6.0. Results: The ANOVA II variance analysis indicated significant differences in the effects of both drugs on TBARS level (F=4.26; df=2, p0.05. Conclusion: Amisulpride and risperidone in concentrations corresponding to doses recommended for treatment of acute episode of schizophrenia do not induce oxidative stress measured by lipid peroxidation. Unlike risperidone, amisulpride exhibits antioxidative effects.

  7. Oral fondaparinux: use of lipid nanocapsules as nanocarriers and in vivo pharmacokinetic study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramadan A

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Alyaa Ramadan1,4, Frederic Lagarce1,3, Anne Tessier-Marteau2, Olivier Thomas1, Pierre Legras5, Laurent Macchi2, Patrick Saulnier1, Jean Pierre Benoit1,31LUNAM Université, Ingénierie de la Vectorisation Particulaire, Inserm U-646, Angers, France; 2Hematology Department, Angers University Hospital, Angers, France; 3Department of Pharmacy, Angers University Hospital, Angers, France; 4Department of Pharmaceutics, Faculty of Pharmacy, Alexandria University, Alexandria, Egypt; 5SCAHU, Animal House, Angers, FranceAbstract: Oral anticoagulant therapy could be advanced using lipid-based nanoparticulate systems. This study examined lipid nanocapsules for their oral absorption potential as the first step in developing oral fondaparinux (Fp novel carriers. Using phase inversion method and cationic surfactants such as hexadecyltrimethyl ammonium bromide (CTAB or stearylamine (SA, cationic lipid nanocapsules (cLNCs, loaded with Fp on their surface, were prepared and characterized (zeta potential, size and Fp association efficiency and content. In vivo studies were conducted after single oral increasing doses of Fp-loaded cLNCs (0.5 to 5 mg/kg of Fp in rats and the concentration of Fp in the plasma was measured by anti-factor Xa activity assay. The monodisperse, (~50 nm, positively charged Fp-cLNCs with high drug loadings demonstrated linear pharmacokinetic profiles of the drug with an increased oral absolute bioavailability (up to ~21% compatible with therapeutic anticoagulant effect (>0.2 µg/mL.Keywords: oral anticoagulant, fondaparinux, lipid nanocapsules, bioavailability, pharmacokinetics, rats

  8. Lipid nanoparticles for transdermal delivery of flurbiprofen: formulation, in vitro, ex vivo and in vivo studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Venkateswarlu Vobalaboina

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The aim of the study is to prepare aqueous dispersions of lipid nanoparticles – flurbiprofen solid lipid nanoparticles (FLUSLN and flurbiprofen nanostructured lipid carriers (FLUNLC by hot homogenization followed by sonication technique and then incorporated into the freshly prepared hydrogels for transdermal delivery. They are characterized for particle size, for all the formulations, more than 50% of the particles were below 300 nm after 90 days of storage at RT. DSC analyses were performed to characterize the state of drug and lipid modification. Shape and surface morphology were determined by TEM which revealed fairly spherical shape of the formulations. Further they were evaluated for in vitro drug release characteristics, rheological behaviour, pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic studies. The pharmacokinetics of flurbiprofen in rats following application of SLN gel (A1 and NLC gel (B1 for 24 h were evaluated. The Cmax of the B1 formulation was 38.67 ± 2.77 μg/ml, which was significantly higher than the A1 formulation (Cmax = 21.79 ± 2.96 μg/ml. The Cmax and AUC of the B1 formulation were 1.8 and 2.5 times higher than the A1 gel formulation respectively. The bioavailability of flurbiprofen with reference to oral administration was found to increase by 4.4 times when gel formulations were applied. Anti-inflammatory effect in the Carrageenan-induced paw edema in rat was significantly higher for B1 and A1 formulation than the orally administered flurbiprofen. Both the SLN and NLC dispersions and gels enriched with SLN and NLC possessed a sustained drug release over period of 24 h but the sustained effect was more pronounced with the SLN and NLC gel

  9. Molecular dynamics study of homo-oligomeric ion channels: Structures of the surrounding lipids and dynamics of water movement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thuy Hien Nguyen

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Molecular dynamics simulations were used to study the structural perturbations of lipids surrounding transmembrane ion channel forming helices/helical bundles and the movement of water within the pores of the ion-channels/bundles. Specifically, helical monomers to hexameric helical bundles embedded in palmitoyl-oleoyl-phosphatidyl-choline (POPC lipid bilayer were studied. Two amphipathic α-helices with the sequence Ac-(LSLLLSL3-NH2 (LS2, and Ac-(LSSLLSL3-NH2 (LS3, which are known to form ion channels, were used. To investigate the surrounding lipid environment, we examined the hydrophobic mismatch, acyl chain order parameter profiles, lipid head-to-tail vector projection on the membrane surface, and the lipid headgroup vector projection. We find that the lipid structure is perturbed within approximately two lipid solvation shells from the protein bundle for each system (~15.0 Å. Beyond two lipid “solvation” shells bulk lipid bilayer properties were observed in all systems. To understand water flow, we enumerated each time a water molecule enters or exited the channel, which allowed us to calculate the number of water crossing events and their rates, and the residence time of water in the channel. We correlate the rate of water crossing with the structural properties of these ion channels and find that the movements of water are predominantly governed by the packing and pore diameter, rather than the topology of each peptide or the pore (hydrophobic or hydrophilic. We show that the crossing events of water fit quantitatively to a stochastic process and that water molecules are traveling diffusively through the pores. These lipid and water findings can be used for understanding the environment within and around ion channels. Furthermore, these findings can benefit various research areas such as rational design of novel therapeutics, in which the drug interacts with membranes and transmembrane proteins to enhance the efficacy or reduce off

  10. Study of Weld Imperfections on Thin Aluminum Tubes According To ISO 10042

    CERN Document Server

    Rizkallah, Rabel

    2014-01-01

    The following report presents the work done as part of my summer student internship at CERN in the EN/MME group, and is divided into two parts. Part I of the report is a continuation of the work started previously by the student Quentin Drouhet, which aims at studying and classifying welding imperfections on various materials of small thicknesses. Drouhet worked on the welding imperfections found on thin Stainless Steel plates of thicknesses of 2 and 6 millimeters, welded using the GTAW (or TIG welding) process. My job was to conduct a similar study on thin Aluminum tubes welded using this same process. Part II of the report will introduce a new method for defect analysis that is still not available at CERN: the micro-tomographic testing

  11. Anatomic and pathologic features of third cranial nerve disorders according to magnetic resonance studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruiz, Y.; Torres, J.; Ramos, M.; Caniego, J.L.; Manzanares, R.; Fresno, L.F.

    1998-01-01

    The objective of this report is to demonstrate the utility of magnetic resonance (MR) in the diagnosis of disorders involving the third cranial nerves. We have selected MR studies corresponding to patients with an anomaly affecting the third cranial nerves, whether alone or in combination with other cranial nerves. In order to better study the pathology of these cranial nerves, we considered four different segments of the nerves: mesencephalic, cisternal, cavernous and orbital. We present the MR features of the anatomy of the third cranial nerves and the most representative lesions affecting the different intracranial segments: infraction, multiple sclerosis, glioma and cavernoma in the mesencephalon; posterior communicating artery aneurysm, neuritis, neurinomas and meningioma in the cisternal segment; aneurysm of the internal carotid artery, cavernous carotid fistula, metastasis and meningioma in the cavernous sinus and Tolosa-Hunt syndrome in the orbital apex. (Author) 11 refs

  12. Effect of auditory feedback differs according to side of hemiparesis: a comparative pilot study

    OpenAIRE

    Robertson, Johanna VG; Hoellinger, Thomas; Lindberg, P?vel; Bensmail, Djamel; Hanneton, Sylvain; Roby-Brami, Agn?s

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Background Following stroke, patients frequently demonstrate loss of motor control and function and altered kinematic parameters of reaching movements. Feedback is an essential component of rehabilitation and auditory feedback of kinematic parameters may be a useful tool for rehabilitation of reaching movements at the impairment level. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of 2 types of auditory feedback on the kinematics of reaching movements in hemiparetic stroke pati...

  13. Electron paramagnetic resonance study of lipid and protein membrane components of erythrocytes oxidized with hydrogen peroxide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mendanha, S.A.; Anjos, J.L.V.; Silva, A.H.M.; Alonso, A. [Instituto de Física, Universidade Federal de Goiás, Goiânia, GO (Brazil)

    2012-04-05

    Electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectroscopy of spin labels was used to monitor membrane dynamic changes in erythrocytes subjected to oxidative stress with hydrogen peroxide (H{sub 2}O{sub 2}). The lipid spin label, 5-doxyl stearic acid, responded to dramatic reductions in membrane fluidity, which was correlated with increases in the protein content of the membrane. Membrane rigidity, associated with the binding of hemoglobin (Hb) to the erythrocyte membrane, was also indicated by a spin-labeled maleimide, 5-MSL, covalently bound to the sulfhydryl groups of membrane proteins. At 2% hematocrit, these alterations in membrane occurred at very low concentrations of H{sub 2}O{sub 2} (50 µM) after only 5 min of incubation at 37°C in azide phosphate buffer, pH 7.4. Lipid peroxidation, suggested by oxidative hemolysis and malondialdehyde formation, started at 300 µM H{sub 2}O{sub 2} (for incubation of 3 h), which is a concentration about six times higher than those detected with the probes. Ascorbic acid and α-tocopherol protected the membrane against lipoperoxidation, but did not prevent the binding of proteins to the erythrocyte membrane. Moreover, the antioxidant (+)-catechin, which also failed to prevent the cross-linking of cytoskeletal proteins with Hb, was very effective in protecting erythrocyte ghosts from lipid peroxidation induced by the Fenton reaction. This study also showed that EPR spectroscopy can be useful to assess the molecular dynamics of red blood cell membranes in both the lipid and protein domains and examine oxidation processes in a system that is so vulnerable to oxidation.

  14. LIPID PROFILE OF CIRRHOTIC PATIENTS AND ITS ASSOCIATION WITH PROGNOSTIC SCORES: a cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lílian BASSANI

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundIn cirrhosis the production of cholesterol and lipoproteins is altered.ObjectiveEvaluate the lipid profile by measuring total cholesterol, very low-density lipoprotein, low-density lipoprotein, high-density lipoprotein and triglyceride levels in patients with cirrhosis caused by alcoholism and/or hepatitis C virus infection and determine its association with Child-Pugh and MELD scores.MethodsCross-sectional retrospective study of patients treated at the outpatient clinic in Porto Alegre, Brazil, from 2006 to 2010.ResultsIn total, 314 records were reviewed, and 153 (48.7% met the inclusion criteria, of which 82 (53.6% had cirrhosis that was due to hepatitis C virus infection, 50 (32.7% were due to alcoholism, and 21 (13.7% were due to alcoholism and hepatitis C virus infection. The total cholesterol levels diminished with a Child-Pugh progression (P20 was associated with lower total cholesterol levels (<100mg/dL; P<0.001, very low-density lipoprotein (<16 mg/dL; P=0.006, and low-density lipoprotein (<70 mg/dL; P=0.003. Inverse and statistically significant correlations were observed between Child-Pugh and all the lipid fractions analyzed (P<0.001. The increase in MELD was inversely correlated with reduced levels intotal cholesterol (P<0.001, high-density lipoprotein (P<0.001, low-density lipoprotein (P<0.001, very low-density lipoprotein (P=0.030 and triglyceride (P=0.003.ConclusionA reduction in the lipid profile in patients with cirrhosis due to hepatitis C virus infection and/or alcoholism was significantly associated with the Child-Pugh and MELD prognostic markers. These results suggest that the lipid profile may be used as a tool to assist in evaluating liver disease.

  15. Differences in the Cardiometabolic Control in Type 2 Diabetes according to Gender and the Presence of Cardiovascular Disease: Results from the eControl Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Josep Franch-Nadal

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this cross-sectional study was to assess differences in the control and treatment of modifiable cardiovascular risk factors (CVRF: HbA1c, blood pressure [BP], LDL-cholesterol, body mass index, and smoking habit according to gender and the presence of cardiovascular disease (CVD in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM in Catalonia, Spain. The study included available data from electronic medical records for a total of 286,791 patients. After controlling for sex, age, diabetes duration, and treatment received, both men and women with prior CVD had worse cardiometabolic control than patients without previous CVD; women with prior CVD had worse overall control of CVRFs than men except for smoking; and women without prior CVD were only better than men at controlling smoking and BP, with no significant differences in glycemic control. Finally, although the proportion of women treated with lipid-lowering medications was similar to (with prior CVD or even higher (without CVD than men, LDL-cholesterol levels were remarkably uncontrolled in both women with and women without CVD. The results stress the need to implement measures to better prevent and treat CVRF in the subgroup of diabetic women, specifically with more intensive statin treatment in those with CVD.

  16. Properties of Turkish Osteoporotic Women According to Risk Factor Assesment: A Multicenter Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Eryavuz

    2002-03-01

    Full Text Available Osteoporosis is a metabolic bone disease characterized by a decreased bone mass and a deterioration in bone microarchitecture which causes an enhanced fragility of the skeleton and creates a greater susceptibility to fractures. With increases in life expectancy and in the number of elderly people bone loss and fractures are becoming more common in the all over the world. The purpose of this study is to determine chracteristics and risk factors of Turkish osteoporotic women and to assess the effect of different geographic areas on risk factors. Nine hundred and five osteoporotic women who have lived 6 different geographic areas were included in this study. The study was completed in 26 different centers and its duration was 6 months. The mean age of patients were 62±9 years. Although sixty percent of those patients belived that they knew consequences of osteoporosis 35% did not know. The most known symptoms of osteoporosis were fractures (33%, kyphosis and low back pain (23%. Most of the physicians who diagnosed opteoporosis for the first time were physiatrists (86%. Being a physiatrist, we have a great deal of responsibilities in osteoporosis. Finally, we suggest that to determine the characteristics of Turkish osteoporotic women which depend on many factors such as differences of geographic factors, only will be possible by evaluation of great number of osteoporotic women.

  17. Dietary patterns according to headache and migraine status: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rist, Pamela M; Buring, Julie E; Kurth, Tobias

    2015-08-01

    Several potential dietary trigger factors for migraine have been proposed. However, few studies have examined the intake pattern of these dietary items compared to adequate control populations and whether intake levels may vary by migraine aura status or attack frequency. We conducted a cross-sectional study among participants in the Women's Health Study. We used logistic regression to evaluate the association between migraine and headache status and low intake of foods commonly reported to affect migraine. A total of 25,755 women reported no history of migraine or headache, 5573 reported non-migraine headache and 7042 reported any migraine. Those with non-migraine headache or any migraine were more likely to have low intake of total alcohol (OR = 1.22, 95% CI:1.14-1.29 and OR = 1.17, 95% CI:1.11-1.24, respectively). Migraineurs with aura were more likely to have low intake of chocolate, ice cream, hot dogs, and processed meats. Those who experience migraine at least once per week were more likely to have low intake of skim/low-fat milk and white and red wine. Intake of most suggested migraine dietary triggers differs by migraine aura status and attack frequency, a pattern not found for non-migraine headache. © International Headache Society 2014.

  18. Open Field Study of Some Zea mays Hybrids, Lipid Compounds and Fumonisins Accumulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giorni, Paola; Dall’Asta, Chiara; Reverberi, Massimo; Scala, Valeria; Ludovici, Matteo; Cirlini, Martina; Galaverna, Gianni; Fanelli, Corrado; Battilani, Paola

    2015-01-01

    Lipid molecules are increasingly recognized as signals exchanged by organisms interacting in pathogenic and/or symbiotic ways. Some classes of lipids actively determine the fate of the interactions. Host cuticle/cell wall/membrane components such as sphingolipids and oxylipins may contribute to determining the fate of host–pathogen interactions. In the present field study, we considered the relationship between specific sphingolipids and oxylipins of different hybrids of Zea mays and fumonisin by F. verticillioides, sampling ears at different growth stages from early dough to fully ripe. The amount of total and free fumonisin differed significantly between hybrids and increased significantly with maize ripening. Oxylipins and phytoceramides changed significantly within the hybrids and decreased with kernel maturation, starting from physiological maturity. Although the correlation between fumonisin accumulation and plant lipid profile is certain, the data collected so far cannot define a cause-effect relationship but open up new perspectives. Therefore, the question—“Does fumonisin alter plant lipidome or does plant lipidome modulate fumonisin accumulation?”—is still open. PMID:26378580

  19. Open Field Study of Some Zea mays Hybrids, Lipid Compounds and Fumonisins Accumulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paola Giorni

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Lipid molecules are increasingly recognized as signals exchanged by organisms interacting in pathogenic and/or symbiotic ways. Some classes of lipids actively determine the fate of the interactions. Host cuticle/cell wall/membrane components such as sphingolipids and oxylipins may contribute to determining the fate of host–pathogen interactions. In the present field study, we considered the relationship between specific sphingolipids and oxylipins of different hybrids of Zea mays and fumonisin by F. verticillioides, sampling ears at different growth stages from early dough to fully ripe. The amount of total and free fumonisin differed significantly between hybrids and increased significantly with maize ripening. Oxylipins and phytoceramides changed significantly within the hybrids and decreased with kernel maturation, starting from physiological maturity. Although the correlation between fumonisin accumulation and plant lipid profile is certain, the data collected so far cannot define a cause-effect relationship but open up new perspectives. Therefore, the question—“Does fumonisin alter plant lipidome or does plant lipidome modulate fumonisin accumulation?”—is still open.

  20. 77 FR 11556 - Pediatric Studies of Meropenem Conducted in Accordance With Section 409I of the Public Health...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-27

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration [Docket No. FDA-2011-N-0918] Pediatric Studies of Meropenem Conducted in Accordance With Section 409I of the Public Health Service Act... of the Public Health Service Act (PHS Act) and submitted to the Director of the National Institutes...

  1. Multimorbidity and Its Patterns according to Immigrant Origin. A Nationwide Register-Based Study in Norway.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esperanza Diaz

    Full Text Available As the flows of immigrant populations increase worldwide, their heterogeneity becomes apparent with respect to the differences in the prevalence of chronic physical and mental disease. Multimorbidity provides a new framework in understanding chronic diseases holistically as the consequence of environmental, social, and personal risks that contribute to increased vulnerability to a wide variety of illnesses. There is a lack of studies on multimorbidity among immigrants compared to native-born populations.This nationwide multi-register study in Norway enabled us i to study the associations between multimorbidity and immigrant origin, accounting for other known risk factors for multimorbidity such as gender, age and socioeconomic levels using logistic regression analyses, and ii to identify patterns of multimorbidity in Norway for immigrants and Norwegian-born by means of exploratory factor analysis technique.Multimorbidity rates were lower for immigrants compared to Norwegian-born individuals, with unadjusted odds ratios (OR and 95% confidence intervals 0.38 (0.37-0.39 for Eastern Europe, 0.58 (0.57-0.59 for Asia, Africa and Latin America, and 0.67 (0.66-0.68 for Western Europe and North America. Results remained significant after adjusting for socioeconomic factors. Similar multimorbidity disease patterns were observed among Norwegian-born and immigrants, in particular between Norwegian-born and those from Western European and North American countries. However, the complexity of patterns that emerged for the other immigrant groups was greater. Despite differences observed in the development of patterns with age, such as ischemic heart disease among immigrant women, we were unable to detect the systematic development of the multimorbidity patterns among immigrants at younger ages.Our study confirms that migrants have lower multimorbidity levels compared to Norwegian-born. The greater complexity of multimorbidity patterns for some immigrant groups

  2. Understanding Adoption by Homosexual Pairs According to the Professionals Acting in These Procedures: An Exploratory Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fábio de Carvalho Mastroianni

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The Brazilian legislation that regularizes stable union and the marriage between homosexuals is recent and matters related to this theme still generate discussions. The aim of this paper was to explore the understanding of psychologists and social workers that act in adoption processes about this new possibility. A qualitative research was developed with these professionals, by means of a semi-structured interview, and the answers were analyzed using the content analysis technique. The sample was formed by 7 (seven individuals, all of the feminine sex, with professional education in their respective areas. The participants, even reporting no direct experience with adoption by homosexual pairs, described situations which they came across with this type of relationship in processes of another nature, different from joint adoption, allowing them to explore their comprehension about the subject. It was verified that adoption itself already involves myths and prejudices, but the professionals feel ready and satisfied in acting in these procedures. The same, however, isn't observed in the adoption by homosexual couples, having recognized their necessity of a greater prepare and reflection to act in these processes. It is an exploratory study which is limited to a small group of individuals of the universe of professionals who act in these procedures. Although this study doesn't allow us to offer more comprehensive considerations about this subject, it intends to present subsidies for an initial discussion.

  3. Pediatric Patients Receiving Specialized Palliative Home Care According to German Law: A Prospective Multicenter Cohort Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silke Nolte-Buchholtz

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available In Germany, every child with a life-limiting condition suffering from symptoms that cannot sufficiently be controlled is eligible by law for specialized pediatric palliative home care (SPPHC. It is the aim of this study to describe the demographic and clinical characteristics of children referred to SPPHC and to compare patients with cancer and non-cancer conditions. The prospective multicenter study includes data on 75 children (median age 7.7 years, 50.7% male. The majority had non-cancer conditions (72%. The most common symptoms were cognitive impairment, somatic pain, impairment in communication or swallowing difficulties. Swallowing difficulties, seizures, and spasticity occurred significantly more often in non-cancer patients (p < 0.01. Cancer patients received antiemetics significantly more often (permanent and on demand than non-cancer patients (p < 0.01. Significantly more non-cancer patients had some type of feeding tube (57.3% or received oxygen (33.3% (p < 0.01. Central venous catheters had been fitted in 20% of the patients, mostly in cancer patients (p < 0.001. Tracheostomy tubes (9.3% or ventilation (14.7% were only used in non-cancer patients. In conclusion, patients referred to SPPHC are a diverse cohort with complex conditions including a large range of neurologically originating symptoms. The care of pediatric palliative care patients with cancer is different to the care of non-cancer patients.

  4. A Monte Carlo Study of dose enhancement according to the enhancement agents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Jung Hoon; Kim, Chang Soo [Dept. of Radiological Science, College of Health Sciences, Catholic University of Pusan, Busan (Korea, Republic of); Hwang, Chul Hwan [Dept. of Radiation Oncology, Pusan National University Hospital, Busan (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-03-15

    Dose enhancement effects at megavoltage (MV) X and γ-ray energies, and the effects of different energy levels on incident energy, dose enhancement agents, and concentrations were analyzed using Monte Carlo simulations. Gold, gadolinium, Iodine, and iron oxide (Fe2O3) were compared as dose enhancement agents. For incident energy, 4, 6, 10 and 15 MV X-ray spectra produced by a linear accelerator and a Co60 γ-ray were used. The dose enhancement factor (DEF) was calculated using an ICRU Slab phantom for concentrations of 7, 18, and 30 mg/g. The DEF was higher at higher concentrations of dose enhancement agents and at lower incident energies. The calculated DEF ranged from 1.035 to 1.079, and dose enhancement effects were highest for iron oxide, followed by iodine, gadolinium, and gold. Thus, this study contributes to improving the therapeutic ratio by delivering larger doses of radiation to tumor volume, and provides data to support further in vivo and in vitro studies.

  5. [Regional pilot study to evaluate the laboratory turnaround time according to the client source].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salinas, M; López-Garrigós, M; Yago, M; Ortuño, M; Díaz, J; Marcaida, G; Chinchilla, V; Carratala, A; Aguado, C; Rodríguez-Borja, E; Laíz, B; Guaita, M; Esteban, A; Lorente, M A; Uris, J

    2011-01-01

    To show turnaround time to client source in eight laboratories covering eight Health Areas (2,014,475 inhabitants) of the Valencian Community (Spain). Internal Laboratory Information System (LIS) registers (test register and verification date and time), and daily LIS registers were used to design the indicators, These indicators showed the percentage of key tests requested (full blood count and serum glucose and thyrotropin) that were validated on the same day the blood was taken (inpatients and Primary Care and/or at 12 a.m. (inpatients). Urgent (stat) tests were also registered as key tests (serum troponin and potassium) and were recorded in minutes. Registers were collected and indicators calculated automatically through a Data Warehouse application and OLAP cube software. Long turnaround time differences were observed at 12 a.m. in inpatients, and in the day of sample extraction in primary care patients. The variability in turnaround of stat tests is related to hospital size, activity and validation by the laboratory physician. The study results show the large turnaround time disparity in eight Health Care Areas of Valencian Community. The various requesting sources covered by the laboratories create the need for continuous mapping processes redesign and benchmarking studies to achieve customer satisfaction. Copyright © 2010 SECA. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  6. A study on the apron shielding ratio according to electromagnetic radiation energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jang, Dong Gun; Lee, Sang Ho; Choi, Hyung Seok; Son, Joo Chul; Yoon, Chang Yong; Ji, Yung Sik; Cho, Yong In; Lee, Hong Je; Yang, Seoung Oh

    2014-01-01

    The medical institution has been used electromagnetic radiation of various energy. But researchers are divided on whether using apron for radiation shielding will be effective or not. The purpose of present study was to analyze electromagnetic radiation shielding effect of apron by using Monte Carlo simulation. 1 MBq electromagnetic radiation was emitted from 10-500 keV at 10 keV increments in Monte Carlo simulation. Then shielded radiation dose difference was confirmed, when 0.25 mmPb shield use for shielding. As a results, shielding ratio was markedly decreased in high energy electromagnetic radiation. The radiation dose was inversely increased with 0.25 mmPb shielding

  7. Classification of patients with sepsis according to blood genomic endotype: a prospective cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scicluna, Brendon P; van Vught, Lonneke A; Zwinderman, Aeilko H; Wiewel, Maryse A; Davenport, Emma E; Burnham, Katie L; Nürnberg, Peter; Schultz, Marcus J; Horn, Janneke; Cremer, Olaf L; Bonten, Marc J; Hinds, Charles J; Wong, Hector R; Knight, Julian C; van der Poll, Tom

    2017-10-01

    Host responses during sepsis are highly heterogeneous, which hampers the identification of patients at high risk of mortality and their selection for targeted therapies. In this study, we aimed to identify biologically relevant molecular endotypes in patients with sepsis. This was a prospective observational cohort study that included consecutive patients admitted for sepsis to two intensive care units (ICUs) in the Netherlands between Jan 1, 2011, and July 20, 2012 (discovery and first validation cohorts) and patients admitted with sepsis due to community-acquired pneumonia to 29 ICUs in the UK (second validation cohort). We generated genome-wide blood gene expression profiles from admission samples and analysed them by unsupervised consensus clustering and machine learning. The primary objective of this study was to establish endotypes for patients with sepsis, and assess the association of these endotypes with clinical traits and survival outcomes. We also established candidate biomarkers for the endotypes to allow identification of patient endotypes in clinical practice. The discovery cohort had 306 patients, the first validation cohort had 216, and the second validation cohort had 265 patients. Four molecular endotypes for sepsis, designated Mars1-4, were identified in the discovery cohort, and were associated with 28-day mortality (log-rank p=0·022). In the discovery cohort, the worst outcome was found for patients classified as having a Mars1 endotype, and at 28 days, 35 (39%) of 90 people with a Mars1 endotype had died (hazard ratio [HR] vs all other endotypes 1·86 [95% CI 1·21-2·86]; p=0·0045), compared with 23 (22%) of 105 people with a Mars2 endotype (HR 0·64 [0·40-1·04]; p=0·061), 16 (23%) of 71 people with a Mars3 endotype (HR 0·71 [0·41-1·22]; p=0·19), and 13 (33%) of 40 patients with a Mars4 endotype (HR 1·13 [0·63-2·04]; p=0·69). Analysis of the net reclassification improvement using a combined clinical and endotype model

  8. A study on the apron shielding ratio according to electromagnetic radiation energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jang, Dong Gun; Lee, Sang Ho; Choi, Hyung Seok; Son, Joo Chul; Yoon, Chang Yong; Ji, Yung Sik; Cho, Yong In; Lee, Hong Je; Yang, Seoung Oh [Dept. of Nuclear Medicine, Dongnam Institute of Radiological and Medical Sciences Cancer Center, Busan (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-12-15

    The medical institution has been used electromagnetic radiation of various energy. But researchers are divided on whether using apron for radiation shielding will be effective or not. The purpose of present study was to analyze electromagnetic radiation shielding effect of apron by using Monte Carlo simulation. 1 MBq electromagnetic radiation was emitted from 10-500 keV at 10 keV increments in Monte Carlo simulation. Then shielded radiation dose difference was confirmed, when 0.25 mmPb shield use for shielding. As a results, shielding ratio was markedly decreased in high energy electromagnetic radiation. The radiation dose was inversely increased with 0.25 mmPb shielding.

  9. Isoflavones in food supplements: chemical profile, label accordance and permeability study in Caco-2 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almeida, I M C; Rodrigues, F; Sarmento, B; Alves, R C; Oliveira, M B P P

    2015-03-01

    Consumers nowadays are playing an active role in their health-care. A special case is the increasing number of women, who are reluctant to use exogenous hormone therapy for the treatment of menopausal symptoms and are looking for complementary therapies. However, food supplements are not clearly regulated in Europe. The EFSA has only recently begun to address the issues of botanical safety and purity regulation, leading to a variability of content, standardization, dosage, and purity of available products. In this study, isoflavones (puerarin, daidzin, genistin, daidzein, glycitein, genistein, formononetin, prunetin, and biochanin A) from food supplements (n = 15) for menopausal symptoms relief are evaluated and compared with the labelled information. Only four supplements complied with the recommendations made by the EC on the tolerable thresholds. The intestinal bioavailability of these compounds was investigated using Caco-2 cells. The apparent permeability coefficients of the selected isoflavonoids across the Caco-2 cells were affected by the isoflavone concentration and product matrix.

  10. Meanings of Falls and Prevention of Falls According to Rehabilitation Nurses: A Qualitative Descriptive Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bok, Amy; Pierce, Linda L; Gies, Cheryl; Steiner, Victoria

    2016-01-01

    Guided by Friedemann's theoretical framework, this survey explored the meaning of a fall of an institutionalized older adult or fall prevention to rehabilitation registered nurses and whether the experience changed the nurse's practice. Qualitative, descriptive survey. A convenience sample of 742 rehabilitation nurses was asked to describe these experiences and the impact on their practice. Themes discovered related to the meaning of a fall include negative feelings (incongruence) and positive feelings (congruence). Themes related to the meaning of preventing a fall include positive feelings (congruence). Practice change themes emerged from both the experience of a fall and fall prevention. Practice change themes were drawn to Friedemann's (1995) process dimensions. Nurses' experiences and meanings of falls uncovered negative and positive feelings about these falls. New findings of this study were the positive feelings expressed by nurses, when there was no injury or when a fall was prevented. © 2015 Association of Rehabilitation Nurses.

  11. Effect of auditory feedback differs according to side of hemiparesis: a comparative pilot study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bensmail Djamel

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Following stroke, patients frequently demonstrate loss of motor control and function and altered kinematic parameters of reaching movements. Feedback is an essential component of rehabilitation and auditory feedback of kinematic parameters may be a useful tool for rehabilitation of reaching movements at the impairment level. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of 2 types of auditory feedback on the kinematics of reaching movements in hemiparetic stroke patients and to compare differences between patients with right (RHD and left hemisphere damage (LHD. Methods 10 healthy controls, 8 stroke patients with LHD and 8 with RHD were included. Patient groups had similar levels of upper limb function. Two types of auditory feedback (spatial and simple were developed and provided online during reaching movements to 9 targets in the workspace. Kinematics of the upper limb were recorded with an electromagnetic system. Kinematics were compared between groups (Mann Whitney test and the effect of auditory feedback on kinematics was tested within each patient group (Friedman test. Results In the patient groups, peak hand velocity was lower, the number of velocity peaks was higher and movements were more curved than in the healthy group. Despite having a similar clinical level, kinematics differed between LHD and RHD groups. Peak velocity was similar but LHD patients had fewer velocity peaks and less curved movements than RHD patients. The addition of auditory feedback improved the curvature index in patients with RHD and deteriorated peak velocity, the number of velocity peaks and curvature index in LHD patients. No difference between types of feedback was found in either patient group. Conclusion In stroke patients, side of lesion should be considered when examining arm reaching kinematics. Further studies are necessary to evaluate differences in responses to auditory feedback between patients with lesions in opposite

  12. Longitudinal study of diet quality and change in asthma symptoms in adults, according to smoking status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhen; Kesse-Guyot, Emmanuelle; Dumas, Orianne; Garcia-Aymerich, Judith; Leynaert, Bénédicte; Pison, Christophe; Le Moual, Nicole; Romieu, Isabelle; Siroux, Valérie; Camargo, Carlos A; Nadif, Rachel; Varraso, Raphaëlle

    2017-02-01

    It has been hypothesised that increased asthma prevalence in westernised countries is associated with changes in lifestyle factors, including a poorer diet. However, little is known regarding the association between diet quality and asthma. In the diet-asthma association, the role of BMI as a potential mediator needs clarification; moreover, potential effect modification by non-diet sources of oxidants, such as smoking, merits investigation. We investigated the association between diet quality and change in asthma symptoms, as well as assessed effect modification by smoking, while accounting for BMI as a potential mediator. Using data from the French prospective Epidemiological study on the Genetics and Environment of Asthma study, we assessed diet quality using the Alternate Healthy Eating Index 2010 (AHEI-2010) at baseline and change in asthma symptoms (stable (reference), worsening, improved; mean follow-up time: 7 years). Mediation analysis was used to disentangle total and direct effects and the indirect effect mediated by BMI. The analyses included 969 adults (mean age 43 years; 49 % men; 42 % ever asthma). We observed a significant interaction between smoking and AHEI-2010 on change in asthma symptoms (P for interaction=0·04). Among never smokers (n 499), we observed a positive total effect (multivariable OR 1·39; 95 % CI 1·07, 1·80) and a positive direct effect (OR 1·41; 95 % CI 1·09, 1·80) of the AHEI-2010 (per ten-point increment) on improved symptoms. No indirect effect mediated through BMI was observed (OR 0·99; 95 % CI 0·91, 1·07). Among former and current smokers, all effects were statistically non-significant. Better diet quality was associated with improved asthma symptoms over time in never smokers, independently of BMI.

  13. Role of Lipids in the Onset, Progression and Treatment of Periodontal Disease. A Systematic Review of Studies in Humans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alfonso Varela-López

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The risk of different oral problems (root caries, tooth mobility, and tooth loss can be increased by the presence of periodontal disease, which has also been associated with a growing list of systemic diseases. The presence of some bacteria is the primary etiology of this disease; a susceptible host is also necessary for disease initiation. In this respect, the progression of periodontal disease and healing of the periodontal tissues can be modulated by nutritional status. To clarify the role of lipids in the establishment, progression, and/or treatment of this pathology, a systematic review was conducted of English-written literature in PubMed until May 2016, which included research on the relationship of these dietary components with the onset and progression of periodontal disease. According to publication type, randomized-controlled trials, cohort, case-control and cross-sectional studies were included. Among all the analyzed components, those that have any effect on oxidative stress and/or inflammation seem to be the most interesting according to current evidence. On one hand, there is quite a lot of information in favor of a positive role of n-3 fatty acids, due to their antioxidant and immunomodulatory effects. On the other hand, saturated fat-rich diets increase oxidative stress as well the as intensity and duration of inflammatory processes, so they must be avoided.

  14. TIME COURSE OF CHANGES IN BLOOD LIPID PARAMETERS IN PATIENTS WITH EARLY RHEUMATOID ARTHRITIS DURING TREAT-TO-TARGET ANTIRHEUMATIC THERAPY: ACCORDING TO 18-MONTH FOLLOW-UP FINDINGS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. V. Udachkina

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The mechanisms for lowering a cardiovascular risk (CVR in patients with early rheumatoid arthritis (RA when implementing the treat-to-target strategy remain inadequately investigated.Objective: to estimate the time course of changes in blood lipid parameters in patients with early RA during Treat-totarget antirheumatic therapy at an 18-month follow-up.Subjects and methods. Seventy-four patients (73% women; median age, 56 years with early RA meeting the respective 2010 American College of Rheumatology/European League Against Rheumatism (ACR/EULAR classification criteria and moderate or high activity (median DAS28-ESR score of 5.4 were examined within the framework of the REMARCA trial. After 6-month treatment, RA activity significantly reduced (p < 0.05. At months 6 to 18, no significant change in RA activity was recorded. After 18 months, remission was observed in 31 (42% patients: in 17 (55% on methotrexate (MTX monotherapy and in 14 (45% on combined therapy with MTX and a biological agent. Blood lipid levels were determined at inclusion in the investigation, 6 and 18 months later. The values of lipid parameters were estimated in terms of the total CVR. 67.6% of the patients were classified as at very high CVR. At 18 months of treatment, 34 (46% patients were treated with statins (median atorvastatin and rosuvastatin doses were 10 mg/day each.Results and discussion. Only 12% of the patients had optimal baseline values of just all lipid parameters. The concentration of total cholesterol (TC, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C, and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C correlated negatively with C-reactive protein (CRP levels, DAS28-ESR, DAS28-CRP, and HAQ (p < 0.05. After 6-month treatment, there were increases in TC by 7%, LDL-C by 12.5%, and HDL-C by 19.7%, and a decrease in the atherogenic index by 16% (p < 0.05. ΔCRP negatively correlated with ΔTC, ΔLDL-C, and ΔHDL-C (r = -0.3; p < 0.05. A correlation of TC and LDL-C with

  15. Elaboration and study of fuel cell according to solid polymer electrolyte technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Novel-Cattin, F

    1990-10-23

    A hydrogen-oxygen fuel cell was built in an attempt to develop a pilot scale fuel cell of a few kW. These fuel cells were based on a polymeric ion exchange membrane commercialized by Dupont de Nemours under the trademark NAFION 117. This work consists in part of the development of different test cells, for electrodes of surface area from 1 to 25 cm{sup 2}. Different types of porous electrodes were also used containing platinum as the electro-catalyst, in the synthesis of composite electrode-membrane electrode ensembles. Different methods of electrode manufacture are detailed in this thesis. These electrodes were characterized by their current potential behaviour under stationary conditions. Different analysis technics, such as the microprobe and electronic microscopy were used. The electrode structure was studied using impedance spectroscopy. A full factorial optimization program was developed in order to optimize the performance of some of these electrodes. The use of the thermoplastic form of the membrane was used as a mean of incorporating the electrodes into the membrane. The transport of water coupled to proton migration across the membrane was also measured. (author). 82 refs., 32 figs., 10 tabs., 11 curves., 14 schemes., 2 appends.

  16. Gestational age and newborn size according to parental social mobility: an intergenerational cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gigante, Denise P; Horta, Bernardo L; Matijasevich, Alicia; Mola, Christian Loret de; Barros, Aluisio J D; Santos, Ina S; Barros, Fernando C; Victora, Cesar G

    2015-10-01

    We examined the associations between socioeconomic trajectories from birth to adulthood and gestational age and birth size in the next generation, using linked data from two population-based birth cohorts carried out in a Brazilian city. By comparing socioeconomic trajectories of mothers and fathers, we attempted to identify-specific effects of maternal and paternal socioeconomic trajectory on offspring birth weight, birth length, head circumference and gestational age at birth. 2 population-based birth cohort studies were carried out in 1982 and 2004 in Pelotas (Brazil); 156 mothers and 110 fathers from the earlier cohort had children in 2004. Gestational age and birth length, weight and head circumference were measured. Analyses were carried out separately for mothers and fathers. Mediation analyses assessed the role of birth weight and adult body mass index (BMI). Among mothers, but not for fathers, childhood poverty was strongly associated with smaller size in the next generation (about 400 g in weight and 1.5 cm in height) and shorter gestations (about 2 weeks). Adult poverty did not play a role. For mothers, the associations with gestational age, birth length and weight-but not with head circumference-persisted after adjusting for maternal birth weight and for the height and weight of the grandmother. Maternal birth weight did not mediate the observed associations, but high maternal BMI in adulthood was partly responsible for the association with gestational age. Strong effects of early poverty on gestational age and birth size in the next generation were observed among mothers, but not among fathers. These findings suggest a specific maternal effect of socioeconomic trajectory, and in particular of early poverty on offspring size and duration of pregnancy. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  17. NORM - Radionuclide transfer studies - A modern approach according Directive 2013/59/EURATOM

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prlic, Ivica; Hajdinjak, Mladen

    2014-01-01

    Regarding NORM, Directive applies in particular to human activities which involve the presence of natural radiation sources that lead to a significant increase in the exposure of workers or members of the public, in particular the processing of materials with naturally-occurring radionuclides (NORM) and the exposure of workers or members of the public to indoor radon, the external exposure from building materials and cases of lasting exposure resulting from the after-effects of an emergency or a past human activity. For areas with long-lasting residual contamination in which the Member State has decided to allow habitation and the resumption of social and economic activities, Member States shall ensure, in consultation with stakeholders, that arrangements are in place, as necessary, for the ongoing control of exposure with the aim of establishing living conditions that can be considered as normal. For building materials which are identified by the Member State as being of concern from a radiation protection point of view, Member State shall ensure that, before such materials are placed on the market the activity concentration index I is determined. The index relates to the gamma radiation dose derived throughout the radionuclide transfer studies, in excess of typical outdoor exposure, in a building constructed from a specified building material. The index applies to the building material, not to its constituents except when those constituents are building materials themselves and are separately assessed as such. The calculation of dose needs to take into account other factors such as density, thickness of the material as well as factors relating to the type of building and the intended use of the material (bulk or superficial). (authors)

  18. The study of scale in Persian music according to notes spectrums

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Nadji

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available   In this paper we have extracted the notes of Iranian scale from the traditional music played by the great musician Shahnazi on the TAR. Then, by analyzing the spectrum of the notes and by using our special averaging we have found the pitch attributed to the components’ frequency and found the interval between the notes. The results are in comple agreement with Pythagorean scale. Pitch is a subjective quantity that attribute auditory sensation in terms of which sounds maybe ordered on a scale extending from low to high. For a pure tone pitch depends mainly on the frequency of the sound stimulus, but for complex tones or musical sounds pitch depends on partials of the complex tone and when the partials of a complex tone are not harmonic however the determination of pitch is more subtle. Indeed the vibrations of string instruments give rise to overtones which are not exactly multiples of fundamental, so the pitch of musical sound that we perceive is a subjective quantity related to frequencies of the overtones. In this paper we study the effect of partials in pitch of musical notes and by averaging between partials we introduce a subjective quantity which represents the pitch of musical note which is in quite agreement with experiments. As we know there are two famous scales for music, Aristoxenuss and Pythagoraean scale. The intervals in Aristoxenuss scale are    and in Pythagorean scale are   Farabi, the well-known philosopher, based Iranian traditional music on Pythagorean scale and our measurements of pitch and intervals of the notes show this scale has remained unchanged for a thousand years.

  19. Study of lipid profile and parieto-temporal lipid peroxidation in AlCl3 mediated neurotoxicity. modulatory effect of fenugreek seeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Belaïd-Nouira Yosra

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Peroxidation of lipid (LPO membrane and cholesterol metabolism have been involved in the physiopathology of many diseases of aging brain. Therefore, this prospective animal study was carried firstly to find out the correlation between LPO in posterior brain and plasmatic cholesterol along with lipoprotein levels after chronic intoxication by aluminium chloride (AlCl3. Chronic aluminum-induced neurotoxicity has been in fact related to enhanced brain lipid peroxidation together with hypercholesterolemia and hypertriglyceridemia, despite its controversial etiological role in neurodegenerative diseases. Secondly an evaluation of the effectiveness of fenugreek seeds in alleviating the engendered toxicity through these biochemical parameters was made. Results Oral administration of AlCl3 to rats during 5 months (500 mg/kg bw i.g for one month then 1600 ppm via the drinking water enhanced the levels of LPO in posterior brain, liver and plasma together with lactate dehydrogenase (LDH activities, total cholesterol (TC, triglycerides (TG and LDL-C (Low Density Lipoproteins levels. All these parameters were decreased following fenugreek seeds supplementation either as fenugreek seed powder (FSP or fenugreek seed extract (FSE. A notable significant correlation was observed between LPObrain and LDL-C on one hand and LDHliver on the other hand. This latter was found to correlate positively with TC, TG and LDL-C. Furthermore, high significant correlations were observed between LDHbrain and TC, TG, LDL-C, LPObrain as well as LDHliver. Conclusion Aluminium-induced LPO in brain could arise from alteration of lipid metabolism particularly altered lipoprotein metabolism rather than a direct effect of cholesterol oxidation. Fenugreek seeds could play an anti-peroxidative role in brain which may be attributed in part to its modulatory effect on plasmatic lipid metabolism.

  20. Antibacterial Efficiency of Benzalkonium Chloride Base Disinfectant According To European Standard 13727, Chemical Analysis and Validation Studies

    OpenAIRE

    Yıldırım, Çinel; Çelenk, Veysel

    2018-01-01

    Antibacterial Efficiency of Benzalkonium Chloride Base Disinfectant According To European Standard 13727, Chemical Analysis and Validation Studies This study was aimed to provide principle of the chemical analyses, antibacterial efficiency test and validation procedures of the most commonly used benzalkonium chloride (BAC) base disinfectant as a biocide. Disinfectant which comprised 20 % BAC concentration was used as a prototype product and active substance was verified with chemical analysis...

  1. Changes in lipid indices and body composition one year after laparoscopic gastrectomy: a prospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Soo Jin; Kim, Ji Young; Ha, Tae Kyung; Choi, Yun Young

    2018-05-11

    The purpose of this prospective study was to investigate changes in lipid indices associated with whole body composition during 1 year of follow-up after laparoscopic gastrectomy. Thirty-seven patients with benign and malignant gastric neoplasm who underwent laparoscopic gastrectomy were prospectively enrolled. None of the patients were treated with adjuvant chemotherapy. Lipid indices and body composition were measured preoperatively and at six and 12 months after laparoscopic gastrectomy. Lipid indices included total cholesterol (TC), triglyceride (TG), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C). Body weight, fat and lean body mass (LBM) were measured by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry and the change in fat and LBM in the trunk, arms and legs was compared. Body weight significantly decreased from 63.0 ± 11.1 kg preoperatively to 56.8 ± 10.6 kg 12 months after laparoscopic gastrectomy, with a mean of 7.1% (4.6 kg) weight loss. Fat and LBM loss contributed 68.4% (3.1 kg) and 30.1% (1.4 kg) of the total weight loss, respectively. In both the non-obese and obese groups, body weight, fat and LBM did not change significantly between 6 months and 12 months after gastrectomy. TC and LDL-C levels significantly decreased during the first six-month period and HDL-C significantly increased until 12 months after gastrectomy in the non-obese group. In the obese group, the degree of reduction in fat mass was significantly higher and the LBM/weight ratio significantly increased compared with the non-obese group. However, there was no significant change in lipid indices in the obese group. The TG level was significantly correlated with fat, especially with trunk fat. Gastrectomy resulted in improved lipid indices and a reduction in body weight, fat and LBM. The HDL-C significantly increased in the non-obese group for 1 year after gastrectomy and the reduction of TG level was positively correlated with fat

  2. Conformational study of the protegrin-1 (PG-1 dimer interaction with lipid bilayers and its effect

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nussinov Ruth

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Protegrin-1 (PG-1 is known as a potent antibiotic peptide; it prevents infection via an attack on the membrane surface of invading microorganisms. In the membrane, the peptide forms a pore/channel through oligomerization of multiple subunits. Recent experimental and computational studies have increasingly unraveled the molecular-level mechanisms underlying the interactions of the PG-1 β-sheet motifs with the membrane. The PG-1 dimer is important for the formation of oligomers, ordered aggregates, and for membrane damaging effects. Yet, experimentally, different dimeric behavior has been observed depending on the environment: antiparallel in the micelle environment, and parallel in the POPC bilayer. The experimental structure of the PG-1 dimer is currently unavailable. Results Although the β-sheet structures of the PG-1 dimer are less stable in the bulk water environment, the dimer interface is retained by two intermolecular hydrogen bonds. The formation of the dimer in the water environment implies that the pathway of the dimer invasion into the membrane can originate from the bulk region. In the initial contact with the membrane, both the antiparallel and parallel β-sheet conformations of the PG-1 dimer are well preserved at the amphipathic interface of the lipid bilayer. These β-sheet structures illustrate the conformations of PG-1 dimer in the early stage of the membrane attack. Here we observed that the activity of PG-1 β-sheets on the bilayer surface is strongly correlated with the dimer conformation. Our long-term goal is to provide a detailed mechanism of the membrane-disrupting effects by PG-1 β-sheets which are able to attack the membrane and eventually assemble into the ordered aggregates. Conclusion In order to understand the dimeric effects leading to membrane damage, extensive molecular dynamics (MD simulations were performed for the β-sheets of the PG-1 dimer in explicit water, salt, and lipid bilayers

  3. [Lipid and metabolic profiles in adolescents are affected more by physical fitness than physical activity (AVENA study)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Artero, Enrique; Ortega, Francisco B; Ruiz, Jonatan R; Mesa, José L; Delgado, Manuel; González-Gross, Marcela; García-Fuentes, Miguel; Vicente-Rodríguez, Germán; Gutiérrez, Angel; Castillo, Manuel J

    2007-06-01

    To determine whether the level of physical activity or physical fitness (i.e., aerobic capacity and muscle strength) in Spanish adolescents influences lipid and metabolic profiles. From a total of 2859 Spanish adolescents (age 13.0-18.5 years) taking part in the AVENA (Alimentación y Valoración del Estado Nutricional en Adolescentes) study, 460 (248 male, 212 female) were randomly selected for blood analysis. Their level of physical activity was determined by questionnaire. Aerobic capacity was assessed using the Course-Navette test. Muscle strength was evaluated using manual dynamometry, the long jump test, and the flexed arm hang test. A lipid-metabolic cardiovascular risk index was derived from the levels of triglycerides, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDLC), high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDLC), and glucose. No relationship was found between the level of physical activity and lipid-metabolic index in either sex. In contrast, there was an inverse relationship between the lipid-metabolic index and aerobic capacity in males (P=.003) after adjustment for physical activity level and muscle strength. In females, a favorable lipid-metabolic index was associated with greater muscle strength (P=.048) after adjustment for aerobic capacity. These results indicate that, in adolescents, physical fitness, and not physical activity, is related to lipid and metabolic cardiovascular risk. Higher aerobic capacity in males and greater muscle strength in females were associated with lower lipid and metabolic risk factors for cardiovascular disease.

  4. Integrative Analysis of Subcellular Quantitative Proteomics Studies Reveals Functional Cytoskeleton Membrane-Lipid Raft Interactions in Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Anup D; Inder, Kerry L; Shah, Alok K; Cristino, Alexandre S; McKie, Arthur B; Gabra, Hani; Davis, Melissa J; Hill, Michelle M

    2016-10-07

    Lipid rafts are dynamic membrane microdomains that orchestrate molecular interactions and are implicated in cancer development. To understand the functions of lipid rafts in cancer, we performed an integrated analysis of quantitative lipid raft proteomics data sets modeling progression in breast cancer, melanoma, and renal cell carcinoma. This analysis revealed that cancer development is associated with increased membrane raft-cytoskeleton interactions, with ∼40% of elevated lipid raft proteins being cytoskeletal components. Previous studies suggest a potential functional role for the raft-cytoskeleton in the action of the putative tumor suppressors PTRF/Cavin-1 and Merlin. To extend the observation, we examined lipid raft proteome modulation by an unrelated tumor suppressor opioid binding protein cell-adhesion molecule (OPCML) in ovarian cancer SKOV3 cells. In agreement with the other model systems, quantitative proteomics revealed that 39% of OPCML-depleted lipid raft proteins are cytoskeletal components, with microfilaments and intermediate filaments specifically down-regulated. Furthermore, protein-protein interaction network and simulation analysis showed significantly higher interactions among cancer raft proteins compared with general human raft proteins. Collectively, these results suggest increased cytoskeleton-mediated stabilization of lipid raft domains with greater molecular interactions as a common, functional, and reversible feature of cancer cells.

  5. Solubilization and localization of weakly polar lipids in unsonicated egg phosphatidylcholine: A 13C MAS NMR study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hamilton, J.A.; Fujito, D.T.; Hammer, C.F.

    1991-01-01

    The weakly polar lipids cholesteryl ester, triacylglycerol, and diacylglycerol incorporate to a limited extent into the lamellar structure of small unilamellar vesicles. The localization of the carbonyl group(s) at the aqueous interface was detected by [ 13 C]carbonyl chemical shift changes relative to the neat unhydrated lipid. This study uses 13 C NMR to investigate the interactions of thes lipids with unsonicated (multilamellar) phosphatidylcholine, a model system for cellular membranes and surfaces of emulsion particles with low curvature. Magic angle spinning reduced the broad lines of the unsonicated dispersions to narrow lines comparable to those from sonicated dispersions. [ 13 C]Carbonyl chemical shifts revealed incorporation of the three lipids into the lamellar structure of the unsonicated phospholipids and a partial hydration of the carbonyl groups similar to that observed in small vesicles. Other properties of interfacial weakly polar lipids in multilayers were similar to those in small unilamellar bilayers. There is thus a general tendency of weakly polar lipids to incorparate at least to a small extent into the lamellar structure of phospholipids and take on interfacial properties that are distinct from their bulk-phase properties. This pool of surface-located lipid is likely to be directly involved in enzymatyic transformations and protein-mediated transport. The 13 C magic angle spinning NMR method may be generally useful for determining the orientation of molecules in model membranes

  6. Study on Characteristic of Self-preservation Effect of CO2 Hydrate according to Temperature, Particle Diameter and Shape

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Yeon-Soo; Kang, Seong-Pil; Park, So-Jin

    2013-01-01

    Gas hydrate studies are attracting attention of many researchers as an innovative, economic and environmentally friendly technology when it is applied to CO 2 capture, transport, and storage. In this study, we investigated whether CO 2 hydrate shows the self-preservation effect or not, that is the key property for developing a novel CO 2 transport/storage method. Especially the degree of self-preservation effect for CO 2 hydrate was studied according to the particle size of CO 2 hydrate samples. We prepared three kinds of CO 2 hydrate samples varying their particle diameter as millimeter, micron and nano size and measured their change of weight at -15 - -30 .deg. C under atmospheric pressure during 3 weeks. According to our experimental result, the lower temperature, larger particle size, and compact structure for higher density are the better conditions for obtaining self-preservation effect

  7. Avanti lipid tools: connecting lipids, technology, and cell biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sims, Kacee H; Tytler, Ewan M; Tipton, John; Hill, Kasey L; Burgess, Stephen W; Shaw, Walter A

    2014-08-01

    Lipid research is challenging owing to the complexity and diversity of the lipidome. Here we review a set of experimental tools developed for the seasoned lipid researcher, as well as, those who are new to the field of lipid research. Novel tools for probing protein-lipid interactions, applications for lipid binding antibodies, enhanced systems for the cellular delivery of lipids, improved visualization of lipid membranes using gold-labeled lipids, and advances in mass spectrometric analysis techniques will be discussed. Because lipid mediators are known to participate in a host of signal transduction and trafficking pathways within the cell, a comprehensive lipid toolbox that aids the science of lipidomics research is essential to better understand the molecular mechanisms of interactions between cellular components. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled Tools to study lipid functions. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  8. A comparative study of soft sensor design for lipid estimation of microalgal photobioreactor system with experimental validation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoo, Sung Jin; Jung, Dong Hwi; Kim, Jung Hun; Lee, Jong Min

    2015-03-01

    This study examines the applicability of various nonlinear estimators for online estimation of the lipid concentration in microalgae cultivation system. Lipid is a useful bio-product that has many applications including biofuels and bioactives. However, the improvement of lipid productivity using real-time monitoring and control with experimental validation is limited because measurement of lipid in microalgae is a difficult and time-consuming task. In this study, estimation of lipid concentration from other measurable sources such as biomass or glucose sensor was studied. Extended Kalman filter (EKF), unscented Kalman filter (UKF), and particle filter (PF) were compared in various cases for their applicability to photobioreactor systems. Furthermore, simulation studies to identify appropriate types of sensors for estimating lipid were also performed. Based on the case studies, the most effective case was validated with experimental data and found that UKF and PF with time-varying system noise covariance is effective for microalgal photobioreactor system. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Shift working and risk of lipid disorders: A cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shoushtarizadeh Payman

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background previous studies have indicated on association between shift work and lipid profile disturbances. Lipid profile disturbances could be due to internal desynchronization. The aim of this study was to analyze whether there is relationship between shift work and serum lipids, fasting blood glucose and hypertension. Results A total of 424 rail road workers between the ages of 21 and 64 years in this study filled out a questionnaire, and total cholesterol, triglyceride and HDL-C concentration were measured after 12-hours fasting. Association between shift work and biochemical variables and blood pressure were measured. The X2 and fisher's exact test was used for comparing the qualitative variables and for quantitative variables with normal distribution we used the parametric tests. Odds ratio (OR with the 95% confidence interval (95% CI was used for comparing the proportions of risk variables. Sub-populations in this study were consisting of 158 (37.3% shift workers and 266 (62.7% day workers. High levels of total cholesterol (> 200 mg/dl and LDL-cholesterol (> 130 mg/dl were significantly more prevalent in nearly all groups of shift workers irrespective of age. But there is no differences in the serum levels of triglyceride, HDL-C, fasting blood glucose and blood pressure between shift workers and day workers. Adjusted Odd's ratio for the effect of shift working on high serum total cholesterol and LDL-C level were 2.11(95%CI: 1.33–3.36 and 1.76(95%CI: 1.09–2.83, respectively. Conclusion This study showed that high serum total cholesterol and LDL-C level were more common in shift workers than in day workers. This finding persisted after adjustment was made for age and food type. But there was no difference in the prevalence of HDL-C, triglyceride, fasting blood glucose and hypertension between shift working and day working. It was concluded that shift work is a risk factor for lipid profile disturbances.

  10. A Moessbauer study on the interaction between biomolecular lipid membranes and ferric ferrous ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karvaly, B.; Badinka, C.; Keszthelyi, L.; Erdei, L.

    1975-01-01

    The results of Moessbauer experiments made on liposome systems of a large specific area are presented. In the study lecithin was used as a membrane-forming material. The measurements were carried out on frozen liposome systems, at various 57 Fe/lipid concentration ratios, pH values and temperatures. Since the presence of liposomes had no noticeable influence on the Moessbauer spectra of Fe 2+ ions, only lecithin Fe 3+ systems were considered. Moessbauer spectra in case of Fe 3+ solutions with lecithin showed marked quadrupole splitting (exhibiting an anomalous temperature dependence) which is not shown in case of pure Fe 3+ solution. (Z.S.)

  11. Understanding Detergent Effects on Lipid Membranes: A Model Study of Lysolipids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henriksen, Jonas Rosager; Andresen, Thomas Lars; Feldborg, Lise Nørkjær

    2010-01-01

    Lysolipids and fatty acids are the natural products formed by the hydrolysis of phospholipids. Lysolipids and fatty acids form micelles in solution and acts as detergents in the presence of lipid membranes. In this study, we investigate the detergent strength of a homologous series of lyso......-chain mismatch between LPC and POPC determines the magnitude of the membrane mechanical perturbation per LPC molecule in the membrane. Finally, the three-stage model describing detergent membrane interaction has been extended by a parameter D-MCI, which governs the membrane curvature stability in the detergent...

  12. Raman probing of lipids, proteins, and mitochondria in skeletal myocytes: a case study on obesity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brazhe, Nadezda A.; Nikelshparg, Evelina I.; Prats, Clara

    2017-01-01

    We propose a novel approach to assess simultaneously lipid composition in lipid droplets, the redox state of cytochromes, and the relative amount of [Fe–S] clusters in the electron transport chain in the mitochondria of skeletal myocytes by means of near-infrared Raman spectroscopy. Mitochondria...... technique allows to estimate qualitatively the relative amount of cholesterol and unsaturated lipids, ordering of lipid phase in lipid droplets, changes in the redox state of c-type and b-type cytochromes, and the relative amount of [Fe–S] clusters in the mitochondria of intact myocytes. The proposed...

  13. Major Electrocardiographic Abnormalities According to the Minnesota Coding System Among Brazilian Adults (from the ELSA-Brasil Cohort Study).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinto-Filho, Marcelo M; Brant, Luisa C C; Foppa, Murilo; Garcia-Silva, Kaiser B; Mendes de Oliveira, Rackel Aguiar; de Jesus Mendes da Fonseca, Maria; Alvim, Sheila; Lotufo, Paulo A; Mill, José G; Barreto, Sandhi M; Macfarlane, Peter W; Ribeiro, Antonio L P

    2017-06-15

    The electrocardiogram is a simple and useful clinical tool; nevertheless, few studies have evaluated the prevalence of electrocardiographic abnormalities in the Latin American population. This study aims to evaluate the major electrocardiographic abnormalities according to the Minnesota coding system in Brazilian adults, stratified by gender, age, race, and cardiovascular risk factors. Data from 14,424 adults (45.8% men, age 35 to 74 years) were obtained at baseline of the Brazilian Longitudinal Study of Adult Health (ELSA-Brasil), according to standardized protocol. The electrocardiogram were obtained with the Burdick Atria 6100 machine, stored on Pyramis System, automatically coded according to the Minnesota coding system by the Glasgow University software and then manually revised. Major abnormalities were more prevalent in men than women (11.3% and 7.9%, p <0.001). These differences were consistent through the different age groups, race, and number of cardiovascular risk factors. Electrocardiographic major abnormalities were more prevalent in black participants for both men (black: 15.1%, mixed: 10.4%, white: 11.1%, p = 0.001) and women (black: 10%, mixed: 7.6%, white: 7.2%, p = 0.004). In conclusion, in this large sample of Brazilian adults, the prevalence of major electrocardiographic abnormalities was higher among men, the elderly, black, and among people with more cardiovascular risk factors. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. In vitro study of (1-14C)-acetate incorporation into lipids of liver slices in experimental diabetes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Greco, A.V.; Mingrone, G.; Peruzzi, E.; Orlando, P.

    1981-01-01

    The effect of insulin deficiency on lipid synthesis in the liver of normal rats, diabetic rats by alloxan and pancreatectomized rats was studied in vitro using (1- 14 C)-acetate as lipid precursor. Insulin deficiency induces an increased incorporation of (1- 14 C)-acetate into triglycerides in rat liver. This is particularly evident in pancreatectomized rats with respect to alloxan diabetic rats. It is concluded that in experimental diabetes an atherogenous metabolic pattern is elaborated by the liver. (author)

  15. In vitro study of (1-/sup 14/C)-acetate incorporation into lipids of liver slices in experimental diabetes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Greco, A V; Mingrone, G; Peruzzi, E [Universita Cattolica S. Cuore, Roma (Italy). Ist. di Patologia Medica; Orlando, P [Universita Cattolica S. Cuore, Roma (Italy). Centre Radioisotopi

    1981-01-01

    The effect of insulin deficiency on lipid synthesis in the liver of normal rats, diabetic rats by alloxan and pancreatectomized rats was studied in vitro using (1-/sup 14/C)-acetate as lipid precursor. Insulin deficiency induces an increased incorporation of (1-/sup 14/C)-acetate into triglycerides in rat liver. This is particularly evident in pancreatectomized rats with respect to alloxan diabetic rats. It is concluded that in experimental diabetes an atherogenous metabolic pattern is elaborated by the liver.

  16. In vivo and in vitro studies of hepatic lipid metabolism in lean and reobese fetal pigs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hausman, G.J.; Trusty, C.D.; Martin, R.J.

    1986-01-01

    Fetuses were removed from pregnant (110 days of gestation) sows and 80 to 120 mg liver slices were prepared for two hour incubations with 14 C-palmitate (1 μCi/ml) or 3 H 2 O (1 mCi/ml). In vivo studies were conducted by injecting a single bolus of 0.5 or 10 ml of Liposyn (a 10% safflower oil emulsion) into fetuses (umbilical vein). One hour post injection (Liposyn) fetuses were removed from the uterus. Subsequently liver lipids were extracted and gas chromatographic analysis for 16:0, 18:0, 18:1, 18:2 and 20:4 were performed. Incorporation of C 14 -palmitate into total lipids was higher in lean livers whereas incorporation into CO 2 was independent of fetal strain. Incorporation of 3 H 2 O into triglyceride fatty acids was similar in lean and obese livers. Fatty acid composition of livers indicated strain differences (obese versus lean for 16:0 = 52 vs 27.8%; 18:0 = 20 vs 16.8%; 18:1 = 16.3 vs 32.6%; 20:4 = 8.8 vs 17.6%). There was a similar Liposyn dose dependent increase in the amount of 18:2 in chromatographs of lean (n = 7) and obese (n = 7) livers. Administration of Liposyn caused a significant increase in the amount of 18:1 and 20:4 in lean livers (least squares means +/- SEM, 0 vs 0.5 ml for 20:4 = .31 +/- .03 vs .48 +/- .04) but no increase in preobese livers. These studies illustrate significant alterations in hepatic lipid metabolism in the preobese state

  17. A study of the enhanced sensitizing capacity of a contact allergen in lipid vesicle formulations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simonsson, Carl; Madsen, Jakob Torp; Graneli, Annette; Andersen, Klaus E.; Karlberg, Ann-Therese; Jonsson, Charlotte A.; Ericson, Marica B.

    2011-01-01

    The growing focus on nanotechnology and the increased use of nano-sized structures, e.g. vesicles, in topical formulations has led to safety concerns. We have investigated the sensitizing capacity and penetration properties of a fluorescent model compound, rhodamine B isothiocyanate (RBITC), when administered in micro- and nano-scale vesicle formulations. The sensitizing capacity of RBITC was studied using the murine local lymph node assay (LLNA) and the skin penetration properties were compared using diffusion cells in combination with two-photon microscopy (TPM). The lymph node cell proliferation, an indicator of a compounds sensitizing capacity, increased when RBITC was applied in lipid vesicles as compared to an ethanol:water (Et:W) solution. Micro-scale vesicles showed a slightly higher cell proliferative response compared to nano-scale vesicles. TPM imaging revealed that the vesicle formulations improved the skin penetration of RBITC compared to the Et:W solution. A strong fluorescent region in the stratum corneum and upper epidermis implies elevated association of RBITC to these skin layers when formulated in lipid vesicles. In conclusion, the results indicate that there could be an elevated risk of sensitization when haptens are delivered in vehicles containing lipid vesicles. Although the size of the vesicles seems to be of minor importance, further studies are needed before a more generalized conclusion can be drawn. It is likely that the enhanced sensitizing capacity is a consequence of the improved penetration and increased formation of hapten-protein complexes in epidermis when RBITC is delivered in ethosomal formulations. - Graphical Abstract: Display Omitted

  18. The Knowledge of Eye Physicians on Local Anesthetic Toxicity and Intravenous Lipid Treatment: Questionnaire Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aykut Urfalıoğlu

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: To evaluate the knowledge of ophthalmologists regarding local anesthesia toxicity syndrome (LATS and intravenous lipid emulsion used in treatment, and to raise awareness of this issue. Materials and Methods: A questionnaire comprising 14 questions about demographics, local anesthesia (LA use, toxicity, and treatment methods was administered to ophthalmologists at different hospitals. Results: The study included 104 ophthalmologists (25% residents, 67.3% specialists, 7.7% faculty members with a mean age of 35.71±6.53 years. The highest number of participants was from state hospitals (65.4%, and 34.6% of the physicians had been working in ophthalmology for more than 10 years. Seventy-six percent of the participants reported using LA every day or more than twice a week, but 56.7% had received no specific training on this subject. No statistically significant difference was observed between different education levels and the rates of training (p=0.419. Bupivacaine was the most preferred LA and the majority of respondents (97.1% did not use a test dose. Allergy (76% and hypotension (68.3% were the most common responses for early findings of LATS, while cardiac arrest (57.4% and hepatotoxicity (56.4% were given for late findings. The most common responses concerning the prevention of LATS included monitorization (72.4% and use of appropriate doses (58.2%. Symptomatic treatment was selected by 72.4% of respondents and cardiopulmonary resuscitation and antihistamine treatment by 58.8%. Of the ophthalmologists in the study, 62.5% had never encountered LATS. The use of 20% intravenous lipid emulsion therapy for toxicity was known by 65% of the physicians, but only 1 participant stated having used it previously. Conclusion: The importance of using 20% lipid emulsion in LATS treatment and having it available where LA is administered must be emphasized, and there should be compulsory training programs for ophthalmologists on this subject.

  19. Consumption of seafood and its estimated heavy metals are associated with lipid profile and oxidative lipid damage on healthy adults from a Spanish Mediterranean area: A cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aranda, N; Valls, R M; Romeu, M; Sánchez-Martos, V; Albaladejo, R; Fernández-Castillejo, S; Nogués, R; Catalán, Ú; Pedret, A; Espinel, A; Delgado, M A; Arija, V; Sola, R; Giralt, M

    2017-07-01

    The association between the consumption of seafood and its benefits on cardiovascular (CVD) risk can be challenged by its heavy metal (HM) content. This study aimed to explore the association of seafood consumption and its estimated HM contents with the lipid profile and lipid oxidation biomarkers in adults from a Spanish Mediterranean area who do not present risk factors for CVD. In this cross-sectional study, the clinical history, three-day dietary record, lipid profile (LDLc, HDLc, APOB/A, and triglyceride levels), plasma oxidised LDL (oxLDL) and 8-isoprostane levels of 81 adults without risk factors for CVD [43% men, with a mean age of 43.6 years (95%CI: 40.1-47.1)] were assessed. The HM [arsenic (As), cadmium (Cd), mercury (Hg), and lead (Pb)] contents of seafood were estimated according to data from analyses of marine species in the same Mediterranean area. Moderate adherence to the Mediterranean diet (score: 4.6 of 9) with a mean seafood consumption of 74.9g/day (95%CI: 59.9-89.9), including 22.7g of shellfish per day (95%CI: 13.5-31.9), was observed. The estimated HM contents were lower than the provisional tolerable weekly intakes (PTWIs): 21.12µg/kg/week As, 0.57µg/kg/week InAs, 0.15µg/kg/week Cd, 1.11µg/kg/week Hg and 0.28µg/kg/week Pb. After adjusting by confounder variables, an increase in shellfish consumption was associated with increases in the levels of LDLc (P=0.013), non-HDLc (P=0.015), APOB/A (P=0.02) and plasma oxLDL (P=0.002). Moreover, an increase in the estimated As and Hg levels in shellfish was associated with an increase in LDLc (P=0.015 and P=0.018, respectively), non-HDLc (Pconsumption, even by a moderate amount, could favour a pro-atherogenic lipid profile and a higher level of oxidised LDL. These associations are likely influenced by the estimated exposure to As and Hg from shellfish despite these values are lower than the PTWIs. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. District nurses' experiences of caring for leg ulcers in accordance with clinical guidelines: a grounded theory study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lagerin, Annica; Hylander, Ingrid; Törnkvist, Lena

    2017-12-01

    This qualitative study used the grounded theory method to investigate district nurses' experiences of caring for leg ulcers in accordance with clinical guidelines at seven primary health care centres in Stockholm, Sweden. Group interviews were conducted with 30 nurses. The results describe how district nurses strive to stay on track in order to follow clinical guidelines and remain motivated despite prolonged wound treatment and feelings of hopelessness. Three main obstacles to following the guidelines were found. District nurses used compensating strategies so the obstacles would not lead to negative consequences. If the compensating strategies were insufficient, perceived prolonged wound treatment and feelings of hopelessness could result. District nurses then used motivating strategies to overcome these feelings of hopelessness. Sometimes, despite the motivating strategies, treatment in accordance with guidelines could not be achieved. With some patients, district nurses had to compromise and follow the guidelines as far as possible.

  1. Experimental study of the effects of alternating fields on HTS coils according to the winding insulation conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hwang, Y J; Lee, T S; Lee, W S; Ko, T K; Ahn, M C

    2013-01-01

    This paper examines the effects of alternating fields on high-temperature superconducting (HTS) coils according to the winding insulation condition. Alternating fields can occur in synchronous machines (armature reaction, faults) and other devices. In superconducting synchronous machines, alternating fields affect the operational characteristics of the machine and the superconducting field coil. Therefore, a method of reducing the effects of alternating fields is necessary in superconducting synchronous design. In this study, the effects of alternating fields on the HTS field coil according to the winding insulation condition were experimentally evaluated. The experimental results show that HTS coils made using the no-insulation technique can be a solution for reducing the effects of the alternating field. These results are expected to suggest useful data for applications of HTS field coils in superconducting synchronous machines. (paper)

  2. Diffusion studies on permeable nitroxyl spin probe through lipid bilayer membrane

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benial, A. Milton Franklin; Meenakumari, V.; Ichikawa, Kazuhiro; Yamada, Ken-ichi; Utsumi, Hideo; Hyodo, Fuminori; Jawahar, A.

    2014-01-01

    Electron spin resonance (ESR) studies were carried out for 2mM 14 N labeled deutrated permeable 3- methoxycarbonyl-2,2,5,5-tetramethyl-pyrrolidine-1-oxyl (MC-PROXYL) in pure water, 1 mM, 2 mM, 3 mM and 4 mM concentration of MC-PROXYL in 300 mM concentration of liposomal solution by using a L-band ESR spectrometer. The ESR parameters such as linewidth, hyperfine coupling constant, g-factor, partition parameter and permeability were reported. The partition parameter and permeability values indicate the maximum spin distribution in the lipid phase at 2 mM concentration. This study illustrates that ESR can be used to differentiate between the intra and extra-membrane water by loading the liposome vesicles with a lipid-permeable nitroxyl spin probe. From the ESR results, the radical concentration was optimized as 2 mM in liposomal solution for ESR phantom studies and experiments

  3. Studies on antibacterial activity of ZnO nanoparticles by ROS induced lipid peroxidation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dutta, R K; Nenavathu, Bhavani P; Gangishetty, Mahesh K; Reddy, A V R

    2012-06-01

    Recent studies indicated the role of ROS toward antibacterial activity. In our study we report ROS mediated membrane lipid oxidation of Escherichia coli treated with ZnO nanoparticles (NPs) as supported by detection and spectrophotometric measurement of malondialdehyde (MDA) by TBARS (thiobarbituric acid-reactive species) assay. The antibacterial effects of ZnO NPs were studied by measuring the growth curve of E. coli, which showed concentration dependent bacteriostatic and bacteriocidal effects of ZnO NPs. The antibacterial effects were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Further, antibacterial effect of ZnO NPs was found to decrease by introducing histidine to the culture medium treated with ZnO NPs. The ROS scavenging action of histidine was confirmed by treating histidine to the batch of Escherichia coli+ZnO NPs at the end of the lag phase of the growth curve (Set-I) and during inoculation (Set-II). A moderate bacteriostatic effect (lag in the E. coli growth) was observed in Set-II batch while Set-I showed no bacteriostatic effect. From these evidences we confirmed that the antibacterial effect of bare as well as TG capped ZnO NPs were due to membrane lipid peroxidation caused by the ROS generated during ZnO NPs interaction in culture medium. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Study on Suitable Light Conditions and Efficient Lipid Extraction Technologies for Biodiesel Production Based on Microalgae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yao; Zhang, Qingtao; Sun, Yuan; Yang, Chengjia

    2018-01-01

    As a new generation biodiesel feedstock, microalgae have most potential to replace fossil fuel. However, the limited scale and high cost are two bottleneck problems. Efficient microwave-assisted lipid extraction technologies and suitable light conditions for Chlorella Sorokiniana need further study for lowering the cost. In this study, three photoperiod groups(24L:0D, 12L:12D, 0L:24D), three illumination intensity groups (1800 lux, 3600 lux, 5400 lux)and four light spectrum groups (Red, green, blue, and white) were used to culture Chlorella Sorokiniana to investigate those effects on algae growth rate and biomass accumulation. The suitable microwave treatment was also studied to achieve an optimizing quantum fracturing technology. 400 w, 750 w and 1000 w microwave power were set and 60 °C, 75 °C, 90 °C microwave conditions were investigated. The results showed that Chlorella Sorokiniana under 24L:0D photoperiod with 5400 lux white light can achieve better growth rate. The 90 °C / 1000w microwave treatment was identified as the most simple, easy, and effective way for lipid extraction from Chlorella Sorokiniana. As the raw material of biodiesel production, C18:1, C18:2 and C18:3 have accounted for important components of fatty acid in Chlorella Sorokiniana. Therefore, Chlorella Sorokiniana is a good raw material for the production of good quality biodiesel under suitable and efficient technologies.

  5. Vibrational, calorimetric, and molecular conformational study on calcein interaction with model lipid membrane

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maherani, Behnoush; Arab-Tehrany, Elmira; Rogalska, Ewa; Korchowiec, Beata; Kheirolomoom, Azadeh; Linder, Michel

    2013-01-01

    Nanoliposomes are commonly used as a carrier in controlled release drug delivery systems. Controlled release formulations can be used to reduce the amount of drug necessary to cause the same therapeutic effect in patients. One of the most noticeable factors in release profiles is the strength of the drug-carrier interaction. To adjust the pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic properties of therapeutic agents, it is necessary to optimize the drug-carrier interaction. To get a better understanding of this interaction, large unilamellar liposomes containing calcein were prepared using 1,2-dioleoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine, 1-palmitoyl-2-oleoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine, and 1,2-palmitoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine, and a mixture of them; calcein was chosen as a model polar molecule of biological interest. The thermodynamic changes induced by calcein and its location in lipid bilayers were determined by differential scanning calorimetry and Raman spectroscopy, respectively. The results reveal that calcein has no significant influence on thermotropic properties of the lipid membrane, but causing the abolition of pre-transition. The decreasing of the pre-transition can be ascribed to the presence of calcein near the hydrophilic cooperative zone of the bilayer. The change in intensity of the Raman peaks represents the interaction of calcein with choline head groups. Moreover, the impact of calcein on phosphoglyceride Langmuir layers spread at the air–water interface was studied using surface pressure-area and surface potential-area isotherms, as well as polarization-modulation infrared reflection–absorption spectroscopy and Brewster angle microscopy. The results obtained indicate that calcein introduce no major modification on the systems prepared with pure lipids

  6. Qualified nurses' perceptions of nursing graduates' abilities vary according to specific demographic and clinical characteristics. A descriptive quantitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Missen, Karen; McKenna, Lisa; Beauchamp, Alison; Larkins, Jo-Ann

    2016-10-01

    Evidence from the literature and anecdotally from clinical settings suggests that newly graduated nurses are not fully prepared to be independent practitioners in healthcare settings. The aim of this study was to explore perceptions of qualified nurses in relation to the practice readiness of newly registered nursing graduates and determine whether these views differ according to specific demographic characteristics, clinical settings, and geographical locations. A descriptive quantitative design was used. An online survey tool was used to assess how qualified nurses (n=201) in Victoria, Australia, rated newly graduated nurses' abilities on 51 individual clinical skills/competencies in eight key skill areas. A composite score was calculated for each skill area and a comparative analysis was undertaken on the various cohorts of participants according to their demographic and clinical characteristics using one-way ANOVA and post hoc tests. Newly graduated nurses were found to be lacking competence in two key skill areas and were rated as performing adequately in the remaining six skill areas assessed. Significant differences (p≤0.05) in performance were found according to the age of the nurse, number of years registered, the educational setting in which they undertook their nurse education, their role, and the clinical area in which they worked. There were no significant differences according to whether the nurse worked in the private or public healthcare sector. Few differences were found between nurses working in a metropolitan vs. regional/rural healthcare setting. This is the first study to quantify the scale of this problem. Our findings serve as a reference for both nurse education providers and healthcare settings in better preparing nursing graduates to be competent, safe practitioners in all clinical areas. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Identifying lipidic emulsomes for improved oxcarbazepine brain targeting: In vitro and rat in vivo studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Zaafarany, Ghada M; Soliman, Mahmoud E; Mansour, Samar; Awad, Gehanne A S

    2016-04-30

    Lipid-based nanovectors offer effective carriers for brain delivery by improving drug potency and reducing off-target effects. Emulsomes are nano-triglyceride (TG) carriers formed of lipid cores supported by at least one phospholipid (PC) sheath. Due to their surface active properties, PC forms bilayers at the aqueous interface, thereby enabling encapsulated drug to benefit from better bioavailability and stability. Emulsomes of oxcarbazepine (OX) were prepared, aimed to offer nanocarriers for nasal delivery for brain targeting. Different TG cores (Compritol(®), tripalmitin, tristearin and triolein) and soya phosphatidylcholine in different amounts and ratios were used for emulsomal preparation. Particles were modulated to generate nanocarriers with suitable size, charge, encapsulation efficiency and prolonged release. Cytotoxicity and pharmacokinetic studies were also implemented. Nano-spherical OX-emulsomes with maximal encapsulation of 96.75% were generated. Stability studies showed changes within 30.6% and 11.2% in the size and EE% after 3 months. MTT assay proved a decrease in drug toxicity by its encapsulation in emulsomes. Incorporation of OX into emulsomes resulted in stable nanoformulations. Tailoring emulsomes properties by modulating the surface charge and particle size produced a stable system for the lipophilic drug with a prolonged release profile and mean residence time and proved direct nose-to-brain transport in rats. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Enhanced skin penetration of lidocaine through encapsulation into nanoethosomes and nanostructured lipid carriers: a comparative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babaei, S; Ghanbarzadeh, S; Adib, Z M; Kouhsoltani, M; Davaran, S; Hamishehkar, H

    2016-05-01

    Lipid based nanoparticles have become a major research object in topical drug delivery to enable drugs to pass the stratum corneum and reach the desired skin layer. The present investigation deals with the encapsulation of lidoacine into nanostructured lipid carriers (NLCs) and nanoethosomes for improving its dermal delivery and consequently local anesthetic efficacy. Concurrently these two topical delivery systems were compared. Lidocaine-loaded NLCs and nanoethosomes were characterized by various techniques and used for an in vitro skin penetration study using excised rat skin and Franz diffusion cells. The nanoparticles were tracked in the skin by following the Rhodamine-labled nanocarriers under fluorescent microscopy. Optimized lidocaine-loaded NLCs (size 96 nm, zeta potential -13.7 mV, encapsulation efficiency (EE) % 69.86% and loading capacity (LC) % 10.47%) and nanoethosomes (size 105.4 nm, zeta potential -33.6 mV, EE 40.14% and LC 8.02%) were chosen for a skin drug delivery study. Higher skin drug deposition of NLCs and nanoethosomal formulations compared to lidocaine hydroalcoholic solution represented a better localization of the drug in the skin. NLC formulation showed the lowest entered drug in the receptor phase of Franz diffusion cell in comparison with nanoethosomes and hydroalcoholic solution confirming the highest skin accumulation of drug. Both colloidal systems showed superiority over the drug solution for dermal delivery of lidocaine, however, NLC exhibited more promising characteristics than nanoethosomes regarding drug loading and skin targeted delivery.

  9. Information Security of Children and Adolescents According to Parents and Teachers (Part 2: The Results of an Empirical Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Budykin S.V.

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we present a second part of the study on information security of children and adolescents according to parents and teachers. This part of the study focuses at empirical research results aimed in studying the so-called "naive theories" about information security. 136 people (aged 21 to 62 years attended the study. We based on the following hypotheses : 1 the group of parents and teachers understand similarly the issue of information threat for children and adolescents, yet they have different understandings of the dangerous effects of information on children and adolescents: parents underestimate the seriousness of the effects compared with teachers; 2 according to parents and teachers, the formers are primarily responsible for information security of children; while teachers expect parents to monitor, prohibit, restrict the access to information for children and adolescents. Parents, in turn, expect teachers to train children and teenagers to observe the safety procedures, as well as use Internet safely. Our assumptions are confirmed partly, and study results are discussed in terms of the theory of social representations.

  10. Study of the ion-channel behavior on glassy carbon electrode supported bilayer lipid membranes stimulated by perchlorate anion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Zhiquan; Shi, Jun; Huang, Weimin, E-mail: huangwm@jlu.edu.cn

    2015-10-01

    In this paper, a kind of didodecyldimethylammonium bromide (DDAB) layer membranes was supported on a glassy carbon electrode (GCE). We studied the ion channel behavior of the supported bilayer lipid membrane by scanning electrochemical microscopy (SCEM) in tris(2,2′-bipyridine) ruthenium(II) solution. Perchlorate anion was used as a presence of stimulus and ruthenium(II) complex cations as the probing ions for the measurement of SECM, the lipid membrane channel was opened and exhibited the behavior of distinct SECM positive feedback curve. The channel was in a closed state in the absence of perchlorate anions while reflected the behavior of SECM negative feedback curve. The rates of electron transfer reaction in the lipid membranes surface were detected and it was dependant on the potential of SECM. - Highlights: • The rates of electron transfer reaction in the lipid membranes surface were detected. • Dynamic investigations of ion-channel behavior of supported bilayer lipid membranes by scanning electrochemical microscopy • A novel way to explore the interaction between molecules and supported bilayer lipid membranes.

  11. Studies on cutaneous lipid peroxide with special reference to the influences of ultraviolet irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nomura, Kazuo

    1981-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the participation of lipid peroxide (LP) in some skin damages due to ultraviolet (UV) irradiation. Results obtained were as follows. 1) Long wave UV (UVA) was irradiated to rat skin homogenates. The levels of LP increased linearly with irradiation time. 2) When 8-methoxypsoralen was added to the homogenates prior to UVA irradiation, however, the LP levels showed no increase. 3) Various anti-oxidative agents were added to homogenates and UVA was irradiated. Only Vit. E reduced the LP levels in proportion to its concentrations. 4) Anti-oxidative agents were given to rats which were then exposed to PUVA (8-methoxypsoralen plus UVA) treatment. Among them, administration of Vit. E and pantethine was associated with reduction of serum and cutaneous LP levels with only slight histologic changes in the involved skin. 5) Vit. E deficient rats were treated with PUVA. In these models, cutaneous LP levels raised from 24 hours to 96 hours after PUVA treatment and histologic changes such as vacuolization, blister formation and cell degeneration were remarkable. From the above data, it became evident that lipid peroxidation took place in skin tissue per se and even in the UVA wave length region. After PUVA treatment, cutaneous LP levels relatively well correlated with histologic changes of the involved skin. The results suggested that LP played a certain role in skin damages due to UV. (author)

  12. Serum Lipids and the Risk of Gastrointestinal Malignancies in the Swedish AMORIS Study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wulaningsih, W.; Garmo, H.; Holmberg, L.; Hemelrijck, M. V.

    2012-01-01

    Background. Metabolic syndrome has been linked to an increased cancer risk, but the role of dyslipidaemia in gastrointestinal malignancies is unclear. We aimed to assess the risk of oesophageal, stomach, colon, and rectal cancers using serum levels of lipid components. Methods. From the Swedish Apolipoprotein Mortality Risk (AMORIS) study, we selected 540,309 participants (>20 years old) with baseline measurements of total cholesterol (TC), triglycerides (TG), and glucose of whom 84,774 had baseline LDL cholesterol (LDL), HDL cholesterol (HDL), apolipoprotein B (apoB), and apolipoprotein A-I (apoA-I). Multivariate Cox proportional hazards regression was used to assess glucose and lipid components in relation to oesophageal, stomach, colon, and rectal cancer risk. Results. An increased risk of oesophageal cancer was observed in persons with high TG (e.g. HR: 2.29 (95% CI: 1.42-3.68) for the 4th quartile compared to the 1st) and low LDL, LDL/HDL ratio, TC/HDL ratio, log (TG/HDL), and apoB/apoA-I ratio. High glucose and TG were linked with an increased colon cancer risk, while high TC levels were associated with an increased rectal cancer risk. Conclusion. The persistent link between TC and rectal cancer risk as well as between TG and oesophageal and colon cancer risk in normoglycaemic individuals may imply their substantiality in gastrointestinal carcinogenesis.

  13. Lipids, hemoproteins and carotenoids in alive Rhodotorula mucilaginosa cells under pesticide decomposition - Raman imaging study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pacia, Marta Z; Pukalski, Jan; Turnau, Katarzyna; Baranska, Malgorzata; Kaczor, Agnieszka

    2016-12-01

    Various species of yeasts are gaining attention as producers of nutraceuticals and biofuels and due to their capacity to biodegrade chemical waste. Rhodotorula mucilaginosa is one of the most oleaginous species of yeast, an efficient de novo carotenoid producer and was reported to be capable of decomposing of organic pesticides. In this work we studied the influence of a toxic pesticide, diazinone, on production of storage (lipids) and protective (carotenoids, hemoproteins) compounds by Rh. mucilaginosa alive cells with the help of Raman imaging. It occurred that the yeast in non-oleaginous phase and aerobic environment was rich in carotenoids and their level increased significantly under incubation with diazinone, while anaerobic environment resulted in production of both carotenoids and hemoproteins and the level of the latter decreased under the influence of the pesticide. For yeasts in oleaginous phase, it was concluded that lipid production (via triggering of NAD + accumulation and increase of the NO level) resulted in nitrosative stress leading to flavohemoprotein synthesis and was associated with the increase of the mitochondrial activity. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Interaction of lysozyme with a tear film lipid layer model: A molecular dynamics simulation study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wizert, Alicja; Iskander, D Robert; Cwiklik, Lukasz

    2017-12-01

    The tear film is a thin multilayered structure covering the cornea. Its outermost layer is a lipid film underneath of which resides on an aqueous layer. This tear film lipid layer (TFLL) is itself a complex structure, formed by both polar and nonpolar lipids. It was recently suggested that due to tear film dynamics, TFLL contains inhomogeneities in the form of polar lipid aggregates. The aqueous phase of tear film contains lachrymal-origin proteins, whereby lysozyme is the most abundant. These proteins can alter TFLL properties, mainly by reducing its surface tension. However, a detailed nature of protein-lipid interactions in tear film is not known. We investigate the interactions of lysozyme with TFLL in molecular details by employing coarse-grained molecular dynamics simulations. We demonstrate that lysozyme, due to lateral restructuring of TFLL, is able to penetrate the tear lipid film embedded in inverse micellar aggregates. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Progresses in studies on 2-alkylcyclobutanones in irradiated lipid-containing foods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Haiwei; Ha Yiming; Wang Feng

    2007-01-01

    When foods are irradiated, the free fatty acids and triacylglycerides in the food are decomposed to 2-alkylcyclobutanones (2-ACBs), which have been one of the focuses in food irradiation studies since they were dis- covered in irradiated lipid-containing foods. As specific markers, 2-ACBs could be used to detect irradiated food. The production and stability of 2-ACBs are affected strongly by the irradiation does and temperature and preservation conditions, etc. On the other hand, potential health hazard assessments of 2-ACBs have been studied extensively. Re- cent progresses in 2-ACBs detecting methods from irradiated food, toxicological studies on 2-ACBs, and factors affecting production and stability of 2-ACBs are reviewed in this paper. (authors)

  16. Optimization of cationic lipid mediated gene transfer: structure-function, physico-chemical, and cellular studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrière, Marie; Tranchant, Isabelle; Niore, Pierre-Antoine; Byk, Gerardo; Mignet, Nathalie; Escriou, Virginie; Scherman, Daniel; Herscovici, Jean

    2002-01-01

    The rationale design aimed at the enhancement of cationic lipid mediated gene transfer is discussed. These improvements are based on the straight evaluation of the structure-activity relationship and on the introduction of new structures. Much attention have been given to the supramolecular structures of the lipid/DNA complexes, to the effect of serum on gene transfer and to the intracellular trafficking of the lipoplexes. Finally new avenue using reducible cationic lipids has been discussed.

  17. Hippocampal lipid differences in Alzheimer's disease: a human brain study using matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization-imaging mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendis, Lakshini H S; Grey, Angus C; Faull, Richard L M; Curtis, Maurice A

    2016-10-01

    Alzheimer's disease (AD), the leading cause of dementia, is pathologically characterized by β-amyloid plaques and tau tangles. However, there is also evidence of lipid dyshomeostasis-mediated AD pathology. Given the structural diversity of lipids, mass spectrometry is a useful tool for studying lipid changes in AD. Although there have been a few studies investigating lipid changes in the human hippocampus in particular, there are few reports on how lipids change in each hippocampal subfield (e.g., Cornu Ammonis [CA] 1-4, dentate gyrus [DG] etc.). Since each subfield has its own function, we postulated that there could be lipid changes that are unique to each. We used matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization-imaging mass spectrometry to investigate specific lipid changes in each subfield in AD. Data from the hippocampus region of six age- and gender-matched normal and AD pairs were analyzed with SCiLS lab 2015b software (SCiLS GmbH, Germany; RRID:SCR_014426), using an analysis workflow developed in-house. Hematoxylin, eosin, and luxol fast blue staining were used to precisely delineate each anatomical hippocampal subfield. Putative lipid identities, which were consistent with published data, were assigned using MS/MS. Both positively and negatively charged lipid ion species were abundantly detected in normal and AD tissue. While the distribution pattern of lipids did not change in AD, the abundance of some lipids changed, consistent with trends that have been previously reported. However, our results indicated that the majority of these lipid changes specifically occur in the CA1 region. Additionally, there were many lipid changes that were specific to the DG. Matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization-imaging mass spectrometry and our analysis workflow provide a novel method to investigate specific lipid changes in hippocampal subfields. Future work will focus on elucidating the role that specific lipid differences in each subfield play in AD pathogenesis.

  18. Does the commonly used pH-stat method with back titration really quantify the enzymatic digestibility of lipid drug delivery systems? A case study on solid lipid nanoparticles (SLN).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heider, Martha; Hause, Gerd; Mäder, Karsten

    2016-12-01

    Enzymatic digestion of lipid drug carriers is very important. Commonly, pancreatin induced formation of fatty acids is monitored by the pH-stat method, which provides a fast, but unspecific readout. However, according to the literature, the pKa values of long chain fatty acids are strongly dependent on the local environment and might vary between 4.2 and 10.15. The high pKa values would lead to an incomplete detection of the lipid digestion and false results. In order to investigate these issues in more detail, we produced cetyl palmitate solid lipid nanoparticles (CP-SLN) stabilized with poloxamer 188 or polysorbate 80. The digestion of CP-SLN was investigated by two different and independent readouts. A HPTLC assay was used in addition to the pH-stat method (with or without back titration). An incomplete digestion of CP-SLN was observed with all methods. Partial digestion of polysorbate 80 contributed to the formation of fatty acids. Depending on the investigated system and the experimental conditions (FaSSIF or FeSSIF) the results of both readout methods were comparable or not. For example, in FeSSIF conditions, the values detected by HPTLC were roughly twice as high as the pH-stat results. Our findings on solid lipids agree with data from Helbig et al. on lipid emulsions, where a gas chromatography method detected much higher values than the pH-stat assay (Food Hydrocoll. 28 (2012) 10-19). The results of our pH-stat experiments with back titration at different pH values showed increased values for fatty acids from pH 7.5 to pH 10. The values obtained by back titration at high pH values (pH 9 or higher) did exceed the digestion values measured by HPTLC. Therefore, we conclude that the pH-stat method might give the same results as more specific reference methods, but it might also both under- (without back titration) or overestimate (with back titration) the enzymatic digestion of lipid drug delivery systems. A further outcome of our study was the proof that

  19. Using LMS Method in Smoothing Reference Centile Curves for Lipid Profile of Iranian Children and Adolescents: A CASPIAN Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Hoseini

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available

    Background and Objectives: LMS is a general monitoring method for fitting smooth reference centile curves in medical sciences. They provide the distribution of a measurement as it changes according to some covariates like age or time. This method describes the distribution of changes by three parameters; Mean, Coefficient of variation and Cox-Box power (skewness. Applying maximum penalized likelihood and spline function, the three curves are estimated and fitted and optimum smoothness is expressed by three curves. This study was conducted to provide the percentiles of lipid profile of Iranian children and adolescents by LMS.

     

    Methods: Smoothed reference centile curves of four groups of lipids (triglycerides, total-LDL- and HDL-cholesterol were developed from the data of 4824 Iranian school students, aged 6-18 years, living in six cities (Tabriz, Rasht, Gorgan, Mashad, Yazd and Tehran-Firouzkouh in Iran. Demographic and laboratory data were taken from the national study of the surveillance and prevention of non-communicable diseases from childhood (CASPIAN Study. After data management, data of 4824 students were included in the statistical analysis, which was conducted by the modified LMS method proposed by Cole. The curves were developed with a degree of freedom of four to ten with some tools such as deviance, Q tests, and detrended Q-Q plot were used for monitoring goodness of fit models.

     

    Results: All tools confirmed the model, and the LMS method was used as an appropriate method in smoothing reference centile. This method revealed the distributing features of variables serving as an objective tool to determine their relative importance.

     

    Conclusion: This study showed that the triglycerides level is higher and

  20. Study of water diffusion on single-supported bilayer lipid membranes by quasielastic neutron scattering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bai, M.; Miskowiec, A.; Hansen, F. Y.

    2012-01-01

    High-energy-resolution quasielastic neutron scattering has been used to elucidate the diffusion of water molecules in proximity to single bilayer lipid membranes supported on a silicon substrate. By varying sample temperature, level of hydration, and deuteration, we identify three different types...... of diffusive water motion: bulk-like, confined, and bound. The motion of bulk-like and confined water molecules is fast compared to those bound to the lipid head groups (7-10 H2O molecules per lipid), which move on the same nanosecond time scale as H atoms within the lipid molecules. Copyright (C) EPLA, 2012...

  1. Ultrastructural study on dynamics of lipid bodies and plastids during ripening of chili pepper fruits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Lin

    2013-03-01

    Dynamics of lipid bodies and plastids in chili pepper fruits during ripening were investigated by means of transmission electron microscopy. Mesocarp of chili pepper fruits consists of collenchyma, normal parenchyma, and huge celled parenchyma. In mature green fruits, plastids contain numerous thylakoids that are well organized into grana in collenchyma, a strikingly huge amount of starch and irregularly organized thylakoids in normal parenchyma, and simple tubes rather than thylakoids in huge celled parenchyma. These morphological features suggest that plastids are chloroplasts in collenchyma, chloroamyloplasts in normal parenchyma, proplastids in huge celled parenchyma. As fruits ripen to red, plastids in all cell types convert to chromoplasts and, concomitantly, lipid bodies accumulate in both cytoplasm and chromoplasts. Cytosolic lipid bodies are lined up in a regular layer adjacent to plasma membrane. The cytosolic lipid body consists of a core surrounded by a membrane. The core is comprised of a more electron-dense central part enclosed by a slightly less electron-dense peripheral layer. Plastidial lipid bodies in collenchyma, normal parenchyma, and endodermis initiate as plastoglobuli, which in turn convert to rod-like structures. Therefore, plastidial lipid bodies are more dynamic than cytosolic lipid bodies. Both cytosolic and plastidial lipid bodies contain rich unsaturated lipids. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Effect of homocysteine-lowering nutrients on blood lipids: results from four randomised, placebo-controlled studies in healthy humans.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margreet R Olthof

    2005-05-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Betaine (trimethylglycine lowers plasma homocysteine, a possible risk factor for cardiovascular disease. However, studies in renal patients and in obese individuals who are on a weight-loss diet suggest that betaine supplementation raises blood cholesterol; data in healthy individuals are lacking. Such an effect on cholesterol would counteract any favourable effect on homocysteine. We therefore investigated the effect of betaine, of its precursor choline in the form of phosphatidylcholine, and of the classical homocysteine-lowering vitamin folic acid on blood lipid concentrations in healthy humans. METHODS AND FINDINGS: We measured blood lipids in four placebo-controlled, randomised intervention studies that examined the effect of betaine (three studies, n = 151, folic acid (two studies, n = 75, and phosphatidylcholine (one study, n = 26 on plasma homocysteine concentrations. We combined blood lipid data from the individual studies and calculated a weighted mean change in blood lipid concentrations relative to placebo. Betaine supplementation (6 g/d for 6 wk increased blood LDL cholesterol concentrations by 0.36 mmol/l (95% confidence interval: 0.25-0.46, and triacylglycerol concentrations by 0.14 mmol/l (0.04-0.23 relative to placebo. The ratio of total to HDL cholesterol increased by 0.23 (0.14-0.32. Concentrations of HDL cholesterol were not affected. Doses of betaine lower than 6 g/d also raised LDL cholesterol, but these changes were not statistically significant. Further, the effect of betaine on LDL cholesterol was already evident after 2 wk of intervention. Phosphatidylcholine supplementation (providing approximately 2.6 g/d of choline for 2 wk increased triacylglycerol concentrations by 0.14 mmol/l (0.06-0.21, but did not affect cholesterol concentrations. Folic acid supplementation (0.8 mg/d had no effect on lipid concentrations. CONCLUSIONS: Betaine supplementation increased blood LDL cholesterol and triacylglycerol

  3. Serum Lipids and Breast Cancer Risk: A Meta-Analysis of Prospective Cohort Studies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haibo Ni

    Full Text Available Epidemiologic studies exploring causal associations between serum lipids and breast cancer risk have reported contradictory results. We conducted a meta-analysis of prospective cohort studies to evaluate these associations.Relevant studies were identified by searching PubMed and EMBASE through April 2015. We included prospective cohort studies that reported relative risk (RR estimates with 95% confidence intervals (CIs for the associations of specific lipid components (i.e., total cholesterol [TC], high-density lipoprotein cholesterol [HDL-C], low-density lipoprotein cholesterol [LDL-C], and triglycerides [TG] with breast cancer risk. Either a fixed- or a random-effects model was used to calculate pooled RRs.Fifteen prospective cohort studies involving 1,189,635 participants and 23,369 breast cancer cases were included in the meta-analysis. The pooled RRs of breast cancer for the highest versus lowest categories were 0.96 (95% CI: 0.86-1.07 for TC, 0.92 (95% CI: 0.73-1.16 for HDL-C, 0.90 (95% CI: 0.77-1.06 for LDL-C, and 0.93 (95% CI: 0.86-1.00 for TG. Notably, for HDL-C, a significant reduction of breast cancer risk was observed among postmenopausal women (RR = 0.77, 95% CI: 0.64-0.93 but not among premenopausal women. Similar trends of the associations were observed in the dose-response analysis.Our findings suggest that serum levels of TG but not TC and LDL-C may be inversely associated with breast cancer risk. Serum HDL-C may also protect against breast carcinogenesis among postmenopausal women.

  4. Epidemiology and outcomes of acute respiratory distress syndrome in children according to the Berlin definition: a multicenter prospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barreira, Eliane R; Munoz, Gabriela O C; Cavalheiro, Priscilla O; Suzuki, Adriana S; Degaspare, Natalia V; Shieh, Huei H; Martines, João A D S; Ferreira, Juliana C; Lane, Christianne; Carvalho, Werther B; Gilio, Alfredo E; Precioso, Alexander R

    2015-05-01

    In 2012, a new acute respiratory distress syndrome definition was proposed for adult patients. It was later validated for infants and toddlers. Our objective was to evaluate the prevalence, outcomes, and risk factors associated with acute respiratory distress syndrome in children up to 15 years according to the Berlin definition. A prospective, multicenter observational study from March to September 2013. Seventy-seven PICU beds in eight centers: two private hospitals and six public academic hospitals in Brazil. All children aged 1 month to 15 years admitted to the participating PICUs in the study period. None. All children admitted to the PICUs were daily evaluated for the presence of acute respiratory distress syndrome according to the American-European Consensus Conference and Berlin definitions. Of the 562 patients included, acute respiratory distress syndrome developed in 57 patients (10%) and 58 patients (10.3%) according to the Berlin definition and the American-European Consensus Conference definition, respectively. Among patients with acute respiratory distress syndrome according to the Berlin definition, nine patients (16%) were mild, 21 (37%) were moderate, and 27 (47%) were severe. Compared with patients without acute respiratory distress syndrome, patients with acute respiratory distress syndrome had significantly higher severity scores, longer PICU and hospital length of stay, longer duration of mechanical ventilation, and higher mortality (p < 0.001). The presence of two or more comorbidities and admission for medical reasons were associated with development of acute respiratory distress syndrome. Comparisons across the three the Berlin categories showed significant differences in the number of ventilator-free days (21, 20, and 5 d, p = 0.001) and mortality for severe acute respiratory distress syndrome (41%) in comparison with mild (0) and moderate (15%) acute respiratory distress syndrome(p = 0.02). No differences in PICU or hospital stay were

  5. Work stress related lipid disorders and arterial hypertension in professional drivers: A cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Đinđić Nataša

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aim. Occupational stress is a term used to define ongoing stress that is related to the workplace. The study was conducted to determine association of occupational stress index (OSI and its aspects with arterial hypertension and lipid disorders using data from a cross-sectional survey of male professional drivers. Methods. The cross-sectional study was performed in 439 professional drivers divided into groups (city- and intercity bus drivers, truck and taxi drivers. The OSI and OSI aspects (high demands, strictness, underload, extrinsic time pressure, noxious exposure, avoidance and conflict were calculated using the standardized questionnaire. Determination of serum lipids, blood pressure (BP and cardiovascular risk factors were done. Results. A significant difference in prevalence of diagnosed hypertension and dyslipidemia was found along with a difference in total OSI and OSI aspects among examined subgroups of drivers. A total OSI was highest in city, high in intercity bus drivers, and the lowest one in truck and taxi drivers (82.79 ± 3.5, 81.28 ± 3.7, 73.75 ± 3.5, 71.61 ± 4.4, respectively; p < 0.01. Similar pattern showed triglycerides (TG, total cholesterol (TC and LDL cholesterol and BP, while HDL-cholesterol showed reverse order (p < 0.01. Logistic regression analyses with multiple OSI aspects adjusted for age and years of exposure showed associations of total OSI with arterial hypertension [OR 5.5; 95% CI (2.24-7.95] and dyslipidemia [OR 1.43 95% CI (1.09-2.80]. Underload was the most important OSI aspect associated with the arterial hypertension [OR 1.18; 95% CI (1.04-2.58] and elevated LDL cholesterol [1.26; 95 CI (1.19-2.1]. A total OSI had a significant association with elevated LDL cholesterol [2.64; 95% CI (1.19- 7.7], triglycerides [OR 3.27; 95% CI (1.20-5.1] and low HDL cholesterol [OR 3.29; 95% CI (1.8-5.8] (p < 0.01. Conclusion. The study provides the evidence for the significant association of total OSI and

  6. Autism spectrum disorders according to DSM-IV-TR and comparison with DSM-5 draft criteria: an epidemiological study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mattila, Marja-Leena; Kielinen, Marko; Linna, Sirkka-Liisa; Jussila, Katja; Ebeling, Hanna; Bloigu, Risto; Joseph, Robert M; Moilanen, Irma

    2011-06-01

    The latest definitions of autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) were specified in DSM-IV-TR in 2000. DSM-5 criteria are planned for 2013. Here, we estimated the prevalence of ASDs and autism according to DSM-IV-TR, clarified confusion concerning diagnostic criteria, and evaluated DSM-5 draft criteria for ASD posted by the American Psychiatry Association (APA) in February 2010. This was an epidemiological study of 5,484 eight-year-old children in Finland, 4,422 (81%) of them rated via the Autism Spectrum Screening Questionnaire by parents and/or teachers, and 110 examined by using a structured interview, semi-structured observation, IQ measurement, school-day observation, and patient records. Diagnoses were assigned according to DSM-IV-TR criteria and DSM-5 draft criteria in children with a full-scale IQ (FSIQ) ≥50. Patient records were evaluated in children with an FSIQ autism 4.1 in 1,000 according to DSM-IV-TR. Of the subjects with ASDs and autism, 65% and 61% were high-functioning (FSIQ ≥70), respectively. The prevalence of pervasive developmental disorder not otherwise specified was not estimated because of inconsistency in DSM-IV-TR criteria. DSM-5 draft criteria were shown to be less sensitive in regard to identification of subjects with ASDs, particularly those with Asperger's syndrome and some high-functioning subjects with autism. DSM-IV-TR helps with the definition of ASDs only up to a point. We suggest modifications to five details of DSM-5 draft criteria posted by the APA in February 2010. Completing revision of DSM criteria for ASDs is a challenging task. Copyright © 2011 American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Studies on lipids and fatty acids in rats with streptozotocin-induced insulin deficiency II. Incorporation of 1-(14)C-sodium acetate into lipids and fatty acids of liver slices and whole blood cells

    OpenAIRE

    三宅,寛治

    1988-01-01

    In order to study the lipid and fatty acid metabolism in the insulin deficient state, the in vitro incorporation of 1-(14)C-sodium acetate into major lipid fractions and fatty acids of liver slices and whole blood cells was determined. Rats were studied one week, one month and three months after insulin deficiency was induced by administration of streptozotocin.The net incorporation of (14)C into lipid fractions and total fatty acids of liver slices significantly decreased after one week. On ...

  8. Interaction between lipid monolayers and poloxamer 188: An X-ray reflectivity and diffraction study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wu, G.H.; Majewski, J.; Ege, C.

    2005-01-01

    The mechanism by which poloxamer 188 (P188) seals a damaged cell membrane is examined using the lipid monolayer as a model system. X-ray reflectivity and grazing-incidence x-ray diffraction results show that at low nominal lipid density, P188, by physically occupying the available area and phase ...

  9. [Magnetic resonance semiotics of prostate cancer according to the PI-RADS classification. The clinical diagnostic algorithm of a study].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korobkin, A S; Shariya, M A; Chaban, A S; Voskanvan, G A; Vinarov, A Z

    2015-01-01

    to elaborate the magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) signs of prostate cancer (PC) in accordance with the PI-RADS classification during multiparametric MRI (mpMRI). A total of 89 men aged 20 to 82 years were examined. A control group consisted of 8 (9%) healthy volunteers younger than 30 years of age with no urological history to obtain control images and MRI plots and 20 (22.5%) men aged 26-76 years, whose morphological changes were inflammatory and hyperplastic. The second age-matched group included 61 (68.5%) patients diagnosed with prostate cancer at morphological examination. A set of studies included digital rectal examination, serum prostate-specific antigen, and transrectal ultrasound-guided prostate biopsy. All the patients underwent prostate mpMRI applying a 3.0 T Achieva MRI scanner (Philips, the Netherlands). The patients have been found to have mpMRI signs that were typical of PC; its MRI semiotics according to the PI-RADS classification is presented. Each mpMRI procedure has been determined to be of importance and informative value in detecting PC. The comprehensive mpMRI approach to diagnosing PC improves the quality and diagnostic value of prostate MRI.

  10. VOLATILE CONSTITUENTS OF GINGER OIL PREPARED ACCORDING TO IRANIAN TRADITIONAL MEDICINE AND CONVENTIONAL METHOD: A COMPARATIVE STUDY.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shirooye, Pantea; Mokaberinejad, Roshanak; Ara, Leila; Hamzeloo-Moghadam, Maryam

    2016-01-01

    Herbal medicines formulated as oils were believed to possess more powerful effects than their original plants in Iranian Traditional Medicine (ITM). One of the popular oils suggested for treatment of various indications was ginger oil. In the present study, to suggest a more convenient method of oil preparation (compared to the traditional method), ginger oil has been prepared according to both the traditional and conventional maceration methods and the volatile oil constituents have been compared. Ginger oil was obtained in sesame oil according to both the traditional way and the conventional (maceration) methods. The volatile oil of dried ginger and both oils were obtained by hydro-distillation and analyzed by gas chromatography/mass spectroscopy. Fifty five, fifty nine and fifty one components consisting 94 %, 94 % and 98 % of the total compounds were identified in the volatile oil of ginger, traditional and conventional oils, respectively. The most dominant compounds of the traditional and conventional oils were almost similar; however they were different from ginger essential oil which has also been to possess limited amounts of anti-inflammatory components. It was concluded that ginger oil could be prepared through maceration method and used for indications mentioned in ITM.

  11. A quality analysis of clinical anaesthesia study protocols from the Chinese clinical trials registry according to the SPIRIT statement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Lei; Chen, Shouming; Yang, Di; Li, Jiajin; Wu, Taixiang; Zuo, Yunxia

    2018-05-15

    To learn about the overall quality of clinical anaesthesia study protocols from the Chinese Clinical Trials Registry and to discuss the way to improve study protocol quality. We defined completeness of each sub-item in SPIRIT as N/A (not applicable) or with a score of 0, 1, or 2. For each protocol, we calculated the proportion of adequately reported items (score = 2 and N/A) and unreported items (score = 0). Protocol quality was determined according to the proportion of reported items, with values >50% indicating high quality. Protocol quality was determined according to the proportion of reported items. For each sub-item in SPIRIT, we calculated the adequately reported rate (percentage of all protocols with score 2 and NA on one sub-item) as well as the unreported rate (percentage of all protocols with score 0 on one sub-item). Total 126 study protocols were available for assessment. Among these, 88.1% were assessed as being of low quality. By comparison, the percentage of low-quality protocols was 88.9% after the publication of the SPIRIT statement. Among the 51 SPIRIT sub-items, 18 sub-items had an unreported rate above 90% while 16 had a higher adequately reported rate than an unreported rate. The overall quality of clinical anaesthesia study protocols registered in the ChiCTR was poor. A mandatory protocol upload and self-check based on the SPIRIT statement during the trial registration process may improve protocol quality in the future.

  12. Statistical Study on Respiratory Stability Through RPM Signal Analysis according to Patient Position Under Radiation Therapy and Device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Myung Hwan; Seo, Jeong Min; Choi, Byeong Gi; Shin, Eun Hyeok; Song, Gi Won

    2011-01-01

    This study statistically analyzed the difference of the stability of maintaining a respiratory period shown according to position and use of a device to search the tendency and usefulness of a device. The study obtained respiratory signals which maintained a respiratory period for 20 minutes each supine and prone position for 11 subjects. The study obtained respiratory signals in a state of using a belly board for 7 patients in a bad condition of a respiratory period in a prone position to analyze a change in respiration and the stability before and after the use of a device. The supine part showed 54.5%, better than the prone part of 36.4% in a case that the stability for maintaining a respiratory period was in a good condition as a fixed respiratory period was well maintained according to the position. 6 patients (85%) showed a maintenance pattern of a respiratory period significantly different before the use and 4 patients showed a significantly good change in the stability for maintaining a respiratory period as a result that belly boards were used for 7 patients that the maintenance of a respiratory period was not in a good condition on a prone position. It seemed that this study could contribute to the maintenance of respiratory period and of respiratory stability as the optimal position for maintenance of respiration and the use of a device such as a belly board were decided through statistic analysis of respiratory signals and its application even if patient position and use of device were decided by the beam arrangement a treatment part of a patient, location of a target, and an expected plan.

  13. Antimutagenicity and Antiproliferative Studies of Lipidic Extracts from White Shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolina Moreno-Félix

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available An organic extract from fresh shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei was studied for antimutagenic and antiproliferative properties using Salmonella typhimurium tester strains TA98 and TA100 with metabolic activation (S9 and a cancer cell line (B-cell lymphoma, respectively. Shrimp extract was sequentially fractionated by thin layer chromatography (TLC and each fraction was tested for antimutagenic and antiproliferative activities. Crude organic extracts obtained from shrimp reduced the number of revertants caused by aflatoxina B1, showing a dose-response type of relationship. Sequential TLC fractionation of the active extracts produced several antimutagenic and/or antiproliferative fractions. These results suggested that the lipid fraction of the tested species contained compounds with chemoprotective properties that reduce the mutagenicity of AFB1 and proliferation of a cancer cell line.

  14. Differentiating pheochromocytoma from lipid-poor adrenocortical adenoma by CT texture analysis: feasibility study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Gu-Mu-Yang; Shi, Bing; Sun, Hao; Jin, Zheng-Yu; Xue, Hua-Dan

    2017-09-01

    To investigate the feasibility of using CT texture analysis (CTTA) to differentiate pheochromocytoma from lipid-poor adrenocortical adenoma (lp-ACA). Ninety-eight pheochromocytomas and 66 lp-ACAs were included in this retrospective study. CTTA was performed on unenhanced and enhanced images. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis was performed, and the area under the ROC curve (AUC) was calculated for texture parameters that were significantly different for the objective. Diagnostic accuracies were evaluated using the cutoff values of texture parameters with the highest AUCs. Compared to lp-ACAs, pheochromocytomas had significantly higher mean gray-level intensity (Mean), entropy, and mean of positive pixels (MPP), but lower skewness and kurtosis on unenhanced images (P feasible to use CTTA to differentiate pheochromocytoma from lp-ACA.

  15. Blood lipids among young children in Europe: results from the European IDEFICS study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Henauw, S; Michels, N; Vyncke, K; Hebestreit, A; Russo, P; Intemann, T; Peplies, J; Fraterman, A; Eiben, G; de Lorgeril, M; Tornaritis, M; Molnar, D; Veidebaum, T; Ahrens, W; Moreno, L A

    2014-09-01

    Measurement of cholesterol and triglyceride (TG) fractions in blood has become standard practice in the early detection of atherosclerotic disease pathways. Considerable attention is given nowadays to the presence of these risk factors in children and to start preventive campaigns early in life. In this context, it is imperative to have valid comparative frameworks for interpretation of lipid levels. The aim of this study is to present sex- and age-specific reference values on blood lipid levels in European children aged 2.0-10.9 years. Fasting blood was obtained via either venipuncture or capillary sampling. In 13,579 European non-obese children (50.3% boys), high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), total cholesterol (TC), TG and TC/HDL-C ratio levels were measured with a point-of-care analyser (Cholestech). Sex- and age-specific reference values were computed with the GAMLSS method with the statistical software R. Reference curves and 1st, 3rd, 10th, 25th, 50th, 75th, 90th, 97th and 99th percentile values are presented. HDL-C showed a positive trend with age, from 2 years onwards, but was relatively stable above the age of 7. For LDL-C and TC, linear but small age-related trends were seen. The TC/HDL-C values showed a gradual negative trend from the age of 2 up to 6 and were relatively stable afterwards. For TG, no age trend was found (P=0.285). Boys had higher mean HDL-C values than girls (1.414 vs 1.368 mmol l(-1)), and lower TC, LDL-C, TC/HDL-C and TG values (3.981 vs 4.087 mmol l(-1); 2.297 vs 2.435 mmol l(-1); 2.84 vs 3.01mmol l(-1);  and 0.509 vs 0.542 mmol l(-1), respectively). These new and recent references could serve as a European orientation of blood lipid values in children in the context of standard medical practice and for the purpose of public health screening.

  16. Higher lipid peroxidation in former-smokers vs. never-smokers - study in postmenopausal women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sagan, Dorota; Stępniak, Jan; Gesing, Adam; Lewinski, Andrzej; Karbownik-Lewinska, Malgorzata

    2015-12-01

    One of the most spectacular exogenous prooxidative agents is cigarette smoking, constituting a well documented risk factor for several diseases. In turn it is suggested that hormone replacement therapy (HRT) in postmenopausal women can contribute to oxidative status. The aim of the study was to evaluate the level of oxidative damage to membrane lipids in blood serum collected from never-smokers and former-smokers. The study was performed in postmenopausal women, who were or were not HRT users. Ninety (90) female volunteers, aged from 46 to 67 years, were enrolled. Two major groups were considered, i.e. never-smokers (n=44) and formersmokers (n=46), which were additionally subgrouped to HRT users (HRT+) and HRT non-users (HRT-). Anthropometric parameters related to obesity were also calculated. The main groups were well matched at baseline in terms of age. The level of malondialdehyde+4-hydroxyalkenals (MDA+4-HDA), as the index of LPO, was measured spectrophotometrically. The level of LPO was higher in former-smokers than in never-smokers, regardless of HRT use. The level of LPO did constitute the only independent factor associated with past smoking in the entire examined group, as well as after stratification to HRT users and HRT non-users. LPO level was not associated with HRT treatment. No positive correlations were found between LPO level and anthropometric parameters. Past smoking is independently associated with the increased damage to membrane lipids regardless of the use of HRT in postmenopausal women. Smoking cessation is not always associated with complete reversion of excessive oxidative damage to all biological macromolecules.

  17. Correlation between anthropometric measurement, lipid profile, dietary vitamins, serum antioxidants, lipoprotein (a and lipid peroxides in known cases of 345 elderly hypertensive South Asian aged 56–64 y–A hospital based study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arun Kumar

    2014-05-01

    Conclusions: Based on the observations, our study concludes that hypertension is caused due to interplay of several confounding factors namely anthropometry, lipid profile, depletion of endogenous antioxidants and rise in oxidative stress.

  18. Relationship between Lipid Phenotypes, Overweight, Lipid Lowering Drug Response and KIF6 and HMG-CoA Genotypes in a Subset of the Brisighella Heart Study Population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabrina Angelini

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The existence of genetic traits might explain the susceptibility to develop hypercholesterolemia and the inter-individual differences in statin response. This study was performed to evaluate whether individuals’ polymorphisms in HMG-CoA and KIF6 genes are independently associated with hypercholesterolemia, other lipid-associated traits, and statin response in unselected individuals enrolled in the Brisighella heart study (Survey 2012. A total of 1622 individuals, of which 183 under statin medication, were genotyped for a total of five polymorphisms (KIF6 rs20455, rs9471077, rs9462535; HMG-CoA rs3761740, rs3846662. The relationships between the five loci and clinical characteristics were analyzed. The principal basic parameters calculated on 12 h fasting blood included total cholesterol (TC, High Density Lipoprotein Cholesterol (HDL-C, Low-Density Lipoprotein Cholesterol (LDL-C, and triglycerides (TG. Hypercholesterolemia was defined as a TC >200 mg/dL or use of lipid-lowering medication. 965 individuals were characterized by hypercholesterolemia; these subjects were significantly older (p < 0.001, with body mass index (BMI and waist circumference significantly higher (p < 0.001 compared to the others. HMG-CoA rs3846662 GG genotype was significantly over-represented in the hypercholesterolemic group (p = 0.030. HMG-CoA rs3846662 genotype was associated with the level of TC and LDL-C. Furthermore, in the same subset of untreated subjects, we observed a significant correlation between the KIF6 rs20455 and HDL-C. KIF6 variants were associated with a significantly lower (rs20455 or higher (rs9471077 and rs9462535 risk of obesity, in males only. No association between responsiveness to statins and the polymorphisms under investigation were observed. Our results showed associations between HMG-CoA rs3846662 and KIF6 rs20455 and lipid phenotypes, which may have an influence on dyslipidemia-related events. Moreover, this represents the first study

  19. Lipids, lipid bilayers and vesicles as seen by neutrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seto, Hideki

    2011-01-01

    Lipid molecules self-assemble into bilayers in water with their hydrocarbon chains facing inward due to their amphiphilic nature. The structural and dynamical properties of lipids and lipid bilayers have been studied by neutron scattering intensively. In this article, 3 topics are shown as typical examples. 1) a time-resolved small-angle neutron scattering on uni-lamellar vesicles composed of deuterated and protonated lipids to determine lipid kinetics, 2) small-angle neutron scattering to investigate spontaneous formation of nanopores on uni-lamellar vesicles, and 3) neutron spin echo study to determine bending modulus of lipid bilayers. (author)

  20. An Empirical Study on Human Performance according to the Physical Environment (Potential Human Error Hazard) in Nuclear Power Plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Ar Ryum; Jang, In Seok; Seong, Proong Hyun

    2014-01-01

    The management of the physical environment for safety is more effective than a nuclear industry. Despite the physical environment such as lighting, noise satisfy with management standards, it can be background factors may cause human error and affect human performance. Because the consequence of extremely human error and human performance is high according to the physical environment, requirement standard could be covered with specific criteria. Particularly, in order to avoid human errors caused by an extremely low or rapidly-changing intensity illumination and masking effect such as power disconnection, plans for better visual environment and better function performances should be made as a careful study on efficient ways to manage and continue the better conditions is conducted

  1. Conformational dynamics of dry lamellar crystals of sugar based lipids: an atomistic simulation study.

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    Vijayan ManickamAchari

    Full Text Available The rational design of a glycolipid application (e.g. drug delivery with a tailored property depends on the detailed understanding of its structure and dynamics. Because of the complexity of sugar stereochemistry, we have undertaken a simulation study on the conformational dynamics of a set of synthetic glycosides with different sugar groups and chain design, namely dodecyl β-maltoside, dodecyl β-cellobioside, dodecyl β-isomaltoside and a C12C10 branched β-maltoside under anhydrous conditions. We examined the chain structure in detail, including the chain packing, gauche/trans conformations and chain tilting. In addition, we also investigated the rotational dynamics of the headgroup and alkyl chains. Monoalkylated glycosides possess a small amount of gauche conformers (∼20% in the hydrophobic region of the lamellar crystal (LC phase. In contrast, the branched chain glycolipid in the fluid Lα phase has a high gauche population of up to ∼40%. Rotational diffusion analysis reveals that the carbons closest to the headgroup have the highest correlation times. Furthermore, its value depends on sugar type, where the rotational dynamics of an isomaltose was found to be 11-15% and more restrained near the sugar, possibly due to the chain disorder and partial inter-digitation compared to the other monoalkylated lipids. Intriguingly, the present simulation demonstrates the chain from the branched glycolipid bilayer has the ability to enter into the hydrophilic region. This interesting feature of the anhydrous glycolipid bilayer simulation appears to arise from a combination of lipid crowding and the amphoteric nature of the sugar headgroups.

  2. A calorimetric study of the thermotropic behaviour of mixtures of brain cerebrosides with other brain lipids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnston, D S; Chapman, D

    1988-04-22

    We have used a computer-controlled differential scanning calorimeter to determine the phases present in mixtures of the brain galactocerebrosides with other representative brain lipids. There are two types of brain galactocerebroside, those which possess an alpha-hydroxy substituent on the acyl chain (HFA) and those that do not (NFA). In the liquid crystalline state both cerebrosides were miscible with all the lipids studied, but in the gel state they were immiscible with cholesterol and the brain phosphatidylcholines. However, cholesterol mixtures in which the cholesterol mole fraction exceeded one third formed homogeneous metastable gel states on cooling from above the melting point of the cerebroside. Relaxation to the stable two phase state took place slowly over several hours. The solubilities of the galactocerebrosides in the other main brain sphingolipid, sphingomyelin, were much higher. Only in the case of the NFA galactocerebroside and at low mole fractions of sphingomyelin was immiscibility detected. Ternary mixtures of the two cerebrosides with sphingomyelin/cholesterol and phosphatidylcholine/cholesterol (PC/Chol) showed different miscibility characteristics. On cooling from 80 degrees C all mixtures formed homogeneous gel states. However, on standing the cerebrosides separated into discrete gel phases in all mixtures but one, that in which HFA galactocerebrosides were mixed with sphingomyelin and cholesterol. The cerebroside in the mixture with the composition closest to that of myelin, HFA/PC/Chol, melted at 38 degrees C. On scanning guinea pig CNS myelin which had been equilibrated at 5 degrees C a transition was detected with Tmax 33 degrees C. On the basis of comparison with the HFA/PC/Chol mixture we propose that the transition in myelin at this temperature is due to the melting of a galactocerebroside gel phase.

  3. A comparative study of the effect of icodextrin based peritoneal dialysis and hemodialysis on lipid metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kadiroğlu, A K; Ustündag, S; Kayabaşi, H; Yilmaz, Z; Yildirım, Y; Sen, S; Yilmaz, M E

    2013-09-01

    Dyslipidemia is frequent in patients with end stage renal disease. Excessive peritoneal glucose absorption from high glucose-containing peritoneal dialysis solutions may enhance disturbances on the lipid metabolism of patients on peritoneal dialysis. We compared the effect of icodextrin-based peritoneal dialysis therapy with hemodialysis (HD) therapy on lipid metabolism. A total of 157 non-diabetic patients on dialysis at least for 3 months; 78 patients on Icodextrin-based continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis (CAPD) (44 M, 34 F) and 79 patients in HD group (47M, 32F) were included into the study. After 12 h of fasting and before the dialysis session, serum urea, creatinin, glucose, Sodium, potasium, and albumin, total cholesterol (TC), triglycerides (TG), very low density lipoprotein (VLDL), low density lipoprotein (LDL)-C, high-density lipoprotein (HDL)-C, apolipoprotein A (Apo A), apolipoprotein B, and lipoprotein a were measured. TG (P = 0018) and VLDL (P = 0.022) were lower in CAPD group than HD group, HDL-C (P < 0.001) and Apo A (P = 0.001) were higher in CAPD group than in HD group. A total of 24.4% in CAPD group and 11.4% in HD group (P < 0.034) had normal serum levels of TG, LDL-C, and HDL-C. More patients in CAPD group (47.4%) had high serum Apo A levels than in HD group (21.5%) (P = 0.001). We suggest that patients receiving icodextrin-based CAPD may have better TG, HDL-C, and Apo A levels than patients on HD.

  4. Prevalence and severity of ocular involvement in Graves' disease according to sex and age: A clinical study from Babol, Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gharib, Sara; Moazezi, Zoleika; Bayani, Mohammad Ali

    2018-01-01

    Thyroid-associated eye disease (TED), previously known as Graves' ophthalmopathy is a cosmetically and functionally debilitating disease that is seen worldwide. The aim of this study was to evaluate the prevalence and clinical severity of ocular manifestations of Graves' disease according to sex, age and duration in northern Iran. Between April 2011 and March 2012, 105 patients with Graves' disease, underwent ophthalmic examination, including ocular motility, exophthalmometry, intraocular pressure (IOP), slit lamp and fundoscopy. Patients received scores according to modified Werner's NO SPECS classification. Ocular involvement was found in 70 patients with established Graves's disease. The mean age was 35.0 years, (SD 13.0, range 15 to 69). The most common ocular findings were exophthalmometric proptosis of more than 20 mm (63.8%), lid lag (55.7%), lid retraction (52.8%) and tearing (38.6%). Almost 70% of patients had bilateral involvement. Elevated IOP was seen in 15 (25.4%) patients, and was significantly related to proptosis (P=0.007). More than half of the patients (n=36, 52.2%) had a modified Werner's NO SPECS score of 3.00. Clinical severity as shown by the increasing number of signs and symptoms per patient was correlated to increasing age (r=0.31, P=0.01) but not to gender (P=0.17). Both functional (ocular motility disorders, increased IOP) and cosmetic (proptosis, periorbital edema) sequels are common ocular presentations in patients with Graves' disease. Proptosis was the most common finding in this study and was associated with elevated IOP. Clinical severity was found to correlate to increasing age.

  5. A study on the relationship between carbon budget and ecosystem service in urban areas according to urbanization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, S. J.; Lee, W. K.

    2017-12-01

    The study on the analysis of carbon storage capacity of urban green spaces with increasing urban forest. Modern cities have experienced rapid economic development since Industrial Revolution in the 18th century. The rapid economic growth caused an exponential concentration of population to the cities and decrease of green spaces due to the conversion of forest and agricultural lands to build-up areas with rapid urbanization. As green areas including forests, grasslands, and wetlands provide diverse economic, environmental, and cultural benefits, the decrease of green areas might be a huge loss. Also, the process of urbanization caused pressure on the urban environment more than its natural capacity, which accelerates global climate change. This study tries to see the relations between carbon budget and ecosystem services according to the urbanization. For calculating carbon dynamics, this study used VISIT(Vegetation Integrated Simulator for trace gases) model. And the value that ecosystem provides is explained with the concept of ecosystem service and calculated by InVEST model. Study sites are urban and peri-urban areas in Northeast Asia. From the result of the study, the effect of the urbanization can be understood in regard to carbon storage and ecosystem services.

  6. Reasons of general practitioners for not prescribing lipid-lowering medication to patients with diabetes : a qualitative study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ab, Elisabeth; Denig, Petra; van Vliet, Ton; Dekker, Janny H.

    2009-01-01

    Background: Lipid-lowering medication remains underused, even in high-risk populations. The objective of this study was to determine factors underlying general practitioners' decisions not to prescribe such drugs to patients with type 2 diabetes. Methods: A qualitative study with semi-structured

  7. [STUDY OF LIPIDS SEED'S OIL OF VITEX AGNUS CASTUS GROWING IN GEORGIA].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kikalishvili, B; Zurabashvili, D; Sulakvelidze, Ts; Malania, M; Turabelidze, D

    2016-07-01

    There was established the lipid composition of the seeds of Vitex agnus castus L. by the qualitative and quantitative methods of analyses. There were received neutral lipids from the seeds by extraction with hexane in the yield 10%, counted on dry material. For the divide of neutral lipids there was used silica gel plates LS 5/40 in the systems of solvents: 1. petroleum ether-diethylether-acidum aceticum (85:14:1), 2. hexane-diethylether (1:1). After obtaining neutral lipids from the residual plant shrot pollar lipids was extracted with the mixture of chloroform-methanol (2:1) and was divided on silica gel plates LS 5/40, mobile phase: 1. chloroform-methanol-25% ammonium hydrate 2. chloroform-methanol icy acetic acid-water (170:25:25:6). In the sum of polar lipids qualitatively were established phospholipids: lisophosphatidylcholine, phosphatidylinosit, phospatidylethanolamine and N-acylphosphatidylethanolamine, in neutral lipids, hydrocarbons, triglycerids, free fatty acids and sterines. By the method of high performance liquid chromatography analyses there were identified following free fatty acids: lauric, myristic, palmitic, stearic, linolic, linolenic, arachidic and begenic, unsaturated oleic and polyunsaturated linolic and linolenic acids. obtained oil with unique composition from the seeds of Vitex agnus-castus indicates to its high biological activity and importance for usage in medicine.

  8. Cognitive changes under memantine according to vitamin D status in Alzheimer patients: An exposed/unexposed cohort pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemire, Pauline; Brangier, Antoine; Beaudenon, Melinda; Duval, Guillaume T; Annweiler, Cedric

    2018-01-01

    Memantine is a symptomatic treatment that partially prevents cognitive decline in Alzheimer disease (AD). The neuroprotective effects of memantine and vitamin D may potentiate each other, with benefits for cognition. The objective of this exposed/unexposed pilot study was to determine the cognitive changes among AD patients using memantine according to the presence or absence of vitamin D deficiency (VDD). Fifty-eight AD patients followed in a memory clinic during 6 months between 2009 and 2014 (mean±standard deviation, 82.9±5.0years; 56.9%female) were separated into four groups according to VDD (i.e., serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D≤25nM) at M0 and M6 (i.e., Group 1: no VDD-M0, no VDD-M6; Group 2: VDD-M0, no VDD-M6; Group 3: no VDD-M0, VDD-M6; Group 4: VDD-M0, VDD-M6). The 6-month cognitive change was examined with the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) score in the 4 groups according to the use of memantine. Age, gender, body mass index, IADL score, GDS score, and use of pchychoactive drugs were measured at baseline. We found that participants using memantine had a lower MMSE score at M0 compared to those without memantine (P=0.006). After 6 months of follow-up, there was a memantine-related improvement of the MMSE score only in the participants with VDD-M6. This was significant in Group 3 with no VDD-M0 (P=0.039), but not in Group 4 who already had VDD-M0. Similarly, using memantine was associated with a 6-month improvement of MMSE only in Group 3 in whom VDD appeared during the follow-up (β=8.8, P=0.044). In conclusion, the use of memantine was associated with improved cognitive performance after 6 months of treatment in the presence of VDD at M6. Memantine may prevent the cognitive decline that accompanies the onset of VDD, which prompts to give to AD patients a regimen combining both memantine and vitamin D supplements. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. TEACHING COMPETENCES ACCORDING TO PROFESSIONALS WHO MADE A TRANSITION FROM THE CORPORATE WORLD TO THE ACADEMIA: A LONGITUDINAL STUDY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvino Paulino dos Santos Neto

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available This article aims to continue the study by Kilimnik et al. (2011 - as in previous studies conducted on the subject by Kilimnik, Correa Oliveira (2009a and Kilimnik and Correa (2009b - on professional skills and managers who made a career transition from corporations to the academic field. Using these authors’ original proposal five years after their research, we seek to investigate any changes in their teaching skills as well as to identify didactic and pedagogical strategies used. Adopting the qualitative approach as done previously, this research features a longitudinal cohort study and it involved conducting 25 semi-structured interviews in depth with individuals who participated in the previous empirical survey. The content analysis of interviews was carried out with the help of the QDA Miner software. The results confirm a significant part of the competencies identified in the previous survey. It was also verified that the respondents seek to transfer the experience of the corporate world to the academia using educational techniques such as case studies and dynamics. According to the respondents themselves, work experience, despite being one of the strengths they brought from the corporate world, is not enough if not associated with theory, generating learning.

  10. Mortality due to noncommunicable diseases in Brazil, 1990 to 2015, according to estimates from the Global Burden of Disease study

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    Deborah Carvalho Malta

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT CONTEXT AND OBJECTIVE: Noncommunicable diseases (NCDs are the leading health problem globally and generate high numbers of premature deaths and loss of quality of life. The aim here was to describe the major groups of causes of death due to NCDs and the ranking of the leading causes of premature death between 1990 and 2015, according to the Global Burden of Disease (GBD 2015 study estimates for Brazil. DESIGN AND SETTING: Cross-sectional study covering Brazil and its 27 federal states. METHODS: This was a descriptive study on rates of mortality due to NCDs, with corrections for garbage codes and underreporting of deaths. RESULTS: This study shows the epidemiological transition in Brazil between 1990 and 2015, with increasing proportional mortality due to NCDs, followed by violence, and decreasing mortality due to communicable, maternal and neonatal causes within the global burden of diseases. NCDs had the highest mortality rates over the whole period, but with reductions in cardiovascular diseases, chronic respiratory diseases and cancer. Diabetes increased over this period. NCDs were the leading causes of premature death (30 to 69 years: ischemic heart diseases and cerebrovascular diseases, followed by interpersonal violence, traffic injuries and HIV/AIDS. CONCLUSION: The decline in mortality due to NCDs confirms that improvements in disease control have been achieved in Brazil. Nonetheless, the high mortality due to violence is a warning sign. Through maintaining the current decline in NCDs, Brazil should meet the target of 25% reduction proposed by the World Health Organization by 2025.

  11. Melanoidins-kerogen precursors and geochemical lipid sinks: a study using pyrolysis gas chromatography (PGC)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Larter, S R; Douglas, A G

    1980-12-01

    Melanoidins, acidic polymeric products of amino acid/sugar condensation reactions, are shown to be capable of reacting with and binding functionalized lipid molecules. Pyrolysis gas chromatography is used to monitor the inclusion of lipids (alcohols and acids) into, and to monitor the changes in composition caused by artificial diagenesis of, the melanoidins. Artificial diagenesis of the lipid-containing melanoidins produces a material resembling kerogen. The possible role of melanoidins in the formation of krogen is discussed as are internal transformations within kerogens during diagenesis.

  12. A real world study on the genetic, cognitive and psychopathological differences of obese patients clustered according to eating behaviours.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caroleo, Mariarita; Primerano, Amedeo; Rania, Marianna; Aloi, Matteo; Pugliese, Valentina; Magliocco, Fabio; Fazia, Gilda; Filippo, Andrea; Sinopoli, Flora; Ricchio, Marco; Arturi, Franco; Jimenez-Murcia, Susana; Fernandez-Aranda, Fernando; De Fazio, Pasquale; Segura-Garcia, Cristina

    2018-02-01

    Considering that specific genetic profiles, psychopathological conditions and neurobiological systems underlie human behaviours, the phenotypic differentiation of obese patients according to eating behaviours should be investigated. The aim of this study was to classify obese patients according to their eating behaviours and to compare these clusters in regard to psychopathology, personality traits, neurocognitive patterns and genetic profiles. A total of 201 obese outpatients seeking weight reduction treatment underwent a dietetic visit, psychological and psychiatric assessment and genotyping for SCL6A2 polymorphisms. Eating behaviours were clustered through two-step cluster analysis, and these clusters were subsequently compared. Two groups emerged: cluster 1 contained patients with predominantly prandial hyperphagia, social eating, an increased frequency of the long allele of the 5-HTTLPR and low scores in all tests; and cluster 2 included patients with more emotionally related eating behaviours (emotional eating, grazing, binge eating, night eating, post-dinner eating, craving for carbohydrates), dysfunctional personality traits, neurocognitive impairment, affective disorders and increased frequencies of the short (S) allele and the S/S genotype. Aside from binge eating, dysfunctional eating behaviours were useful symptoms to identify two different phenotypes of obese patients from a comprehensive set of parameters (genetic, clinical, personality and neuropsychology) in this sample. Grazing and emotional eating were the most important predictors for classifying obese patients, followed by binge eating. This clustering overcomes the idea that 'binging' is the predominant altered eating behaviour, and could help physicians other than psychiatrists to identify whether an obese patient has an eating disorder. Finally, recognising different types of obesity may not only allow a more comprehensive understanding of this illness, but also make it possible to tailor

  13. Pilot batch production of specific-structured lipids by lipase-catalyzed interesterification: preliminary study on incorporation and acyl migration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Xu, Xuebing; Balchen, Steen; Høy, Carl-Erik

    1998-01-01

    Effects of water content, reaction time and their relationships in the production of two types of specific-structured lipids (sn-MLM- and sn-LML-types: L-long chain fatty acids; M-medium chain fatty acids) by lipase-catalyzed interesterification in a solvent-free system were studied...... of two totally position-opposed lipids can be observed. Presumably these are caused by the different chain length of the fatty acids. The relationships between reaction time and water content are inverse and give a quantitative prediction of incorporation and acyl migration in selected reaction...

  14. Myocardial lipid content in Fabry disease: a combined 1H-MR spectroscopy and MR imaging study at 3 Tesla.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petritsch, B; Köstler, H; Weng, A M; Horn, M; Gassenmaier, T; Kunz, A S; Weidemann, F; Wanner, C; Bley, T A; Beer, M

    2016-10-28

    Fabry disease is characterized by a progressive deposition of sphingolipids in different organ systems, whereby cardiac involvement leads to death. We hypothesize that lysosomal storage of sphingolipids in the heart as occurring in Fabry disease does not reflect in higher cardiac lipid concentrations detectable by 1 H magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) at 3 Tesla. Myocardial lipid content was quantified in vivo by 1 H-MRS in 30 patients (12 male, 18 female; 18 patients treated with enzyme replacement therapy) with genetically proven Fabry disease and in 30 healthy controls. The study protocol combined 1 H-MRS with cardiac cine imaging and LGE MRI in a single examination. Myocardial lipid content was not significantly elevated in Fabry disease (p = 0.225). Left ventricular (LV) mass was significantly higher in patients suffering from Fabry disease compared to controls (p = 0.019). Comparison of patients without signs of myocardial fibrosis in MRI (LGE negative; n = 12) to patients with signs of fibrosis (LGE positive; n = 18) revealed similar myocardial lipid content in both groups (p > 0.05), while the latter showed a trend towards elevated LV mass (p = 0.076). This study demonstrates the potential of lipid metabolic investigation embedded in a comprehensive examination of cardiac morphology and function in Fabry disease. There was no evidence that lysosomal storage of sphingolipids influences cardiac lipid content as measured by 1 H-MRS. Finally, the authors share the opinion that a comprehensive cardiac examination including three subsections (LGE; 1 H-MRS; T 1 mapping), could hold the highest potential for the final assessment of early and late myocardial changes in Fabry disease.

  15. A STUDY ON RISK FACTORS AND LIPID PROFILE PATTERN IN PATIENTS OF STROKE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jawgam Umbon

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Stroke is usually end result of predisposing conditions that originated years before the ictus. Creating awareness and treatment of its modifiable risk factors will reduce the incidence of stroke. OBJECTIVE To study the risk factors and lipid profile pattern in stroke patients. METHODS Patients with diagnosis of stroke comprising 50 consecutive patients each of ischaemic and haemorrhagic strokes who were admitted in Jorhat Medical College & Hospital, Assam over a period of 1 year (May 2015 - April 2016 included in the study, while patients on lipid lowering therapy were excluded from the study. History of risk factors like hypertension, diabetes mellitus, smoking and alcoholism were taken. To determine the subtype of stroke, clinical examination followed by CT scan/MRI of brain were done. A serum sample after 8 hours of overnight fasting was taken on the next day of admission for both groups of patients. Total serum cholesterol, triglycerides, LDL-cholesterol, VLDL-cholesterol and HDL-cholesterol was determined, using enzymatic colorimetric method. RESULTS A total of 100 patients were studied, of whom 66 were males and 34 were females. The mean age for the ischaemic group was 62±12 years and for the haemorrhagic group were 55±14 years. In this study, dyslipidaemia was present in 58 (58% patients. Patients with high total cholesterol - 33 (18 ischaemic, 15 haemorrhagic, high LDL-cholesterol was found in 38 (22 ischaemic, 16 haemorrhagic, high triglycerides in 31 (14 ischaemic, 17 haemorrhagic and low HDL-cholesterol in 47 (29 ischaemic, 18 haemorrhagic. Among 100 patients, 66 had hypertension, 20 had diabetes mellitus, 18 had both diabetes and hypertension, 43 were smokers, 36 consumed alcohol and >2 risk factor were found in 44. CONCLUSION Dyslipidaemia was found in 58% of patients and most striating features were low HDL-cholesterol and elevated triglycerides level, indicating they are independent risk factors for stroke. No

  16. Intravenous Lipid Emulsion as an Antidote for the Treatment of Acute Poisoning: A Bibliometric Analysis of Human and Animal Studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zyoud, Sa'ed H; Waring, W Stephen; Al-Jabi, Samah W; Sweileh, Waleed M; Rahhal, Belal; Awang, Rahmat

    2016-11-01

    In recent years, there has been increasing interest in the role of intravenous lipid formulations as potential antidotes in patients with severe cardiotoxicity caused by drug toxicity. The aim of this study was to conduct a comprehensive bibliometric analysis of all human and animal studies featuring lipid emulsion as an antidote for the treatment of acute poisoning. The Scopus database search was performed on 5 February 2016 to analyse the research output related to intravenous lipid emulsion as an antidote for the treatment of acute poisoning. Research indicators used for analysis included total number of articles, date (year) of publication, total citations, value of the h-index, document types, countries of publication, journal names, collaboration patterns and institutions. A total of 594 articles were retrieved from Scopus database for the period of 1955-2015. The percentage share of global intravenous lipid emulsion research output showed that research output was 85.86% in 2006-2015 with yearly average growth in this field of 51 articles per year. The USA, United Kingdom (UK), France, Canada, New Zealand, Germany, Australia, China, Turkey and Japan accounted for 449 (75.6%) of all the publications. The total number of citations for all documents was 9,333, with an average of 15.7 citations per document. The h-index of the retrieved documents for lipid emulsion research as antidote for the treatment of acute poisoning was 49. The USA and the UK achieved the highest h-indices, 34 and 14, respectively. New Zealand produced the greatest number of documents with international collaboration (51.9%) followed by Australia (50%) and Canada (41.4%) out of the total number of publications for each country. In summary, we found an increase in the number of publications in the field of lipid emulsion after 2006. The results of this study demonstrate that the majority of publications in the field of lipid emulsion were published by high-income countries. Researchers from

  17. Acceptability and characteristics of 124 human bioequivalence studies with active substances classified according to the Biopharmaceutic Classification System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramirez, Elena; Laosa, Olga; Guerra, Pedro; Duque, Blanca; Mosquera, Beatriz; Borobia, Alberto M; Lei, Suhua H; Carcas, Antonio J; Frias, Jesus

    2010-01-01

    AIM The aim of this study was to evaluate the acceptability of 124 bioequivalence (BE) studies with 80 active substances categorized according to the Biopharmaceutics Classification System (BCS) in order to establish if there were different probabilities of proving BE between the different BCS classes. METHODS We evaluated the differences between pharmaceutical products with active substances from different BCS classes in terms of acceptability, number of subjects in the study (n), the point estimates, and intra- and inter-subject coefficients of variation data from BE studies with generic products. RESULTS Out of 124 BE studies 89 (71.77%) were performed with pharmaceutical products containing active substances classified by the BCS. In all BCS classes there were non-bioequivalent pharmaceutical products: 4 out of 26 (15.38%) in class 1, 14 out of 28 (50%) in class 2, 3 out of 22 (13.63%) in class 3 and 1 out of 13 (7.69%) in class 4. When we removed those pharmaceutical products in which intra-subject variability was higher than predicted (2 in class 1 active substances, 9 in class 2 and 2 in class 3) there were still non-BE pharmaceutical products in classes 1, 2 and 3. CONCLUSIONS Comparisons between pharmaceutical products with active substances from the four BCS classes have not allowed us to define differential characteristics of each class in terms of n, inter and intra-subject variability for Cmax or AUC. Despite the usually employed test dissolution methodology proposed as quality control, pharmaceutical products with active substances from the four classes of BCS showed non-BE studies. PMID:21039763

  18. Study on the Effect of Heavy metals toxicity according to changing Hardness concentration using D.magna

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chun Sang, H.

    2016-12-01

    n order to determine and prevent the number of ecological effects of heavy metals in the materials, we have to accurately measure the heavy metals present in the water-based protection ecosystems and may determine the effects to humans. Heavy metals occurred in the industrial effluent which is a state in which the monitor, based on the emission standards are made by the Ministry of Environment and managed and waste water contained Copper, Zinc, lead, etc. These heavy metals are able to express the toxic effects only when present in the free-ions in the aqueous condition, which appears differently affected by the degree to hardness change in accordance with the season, precipitation. Generally changing hardness concentration can not precisely evaluate toxic effects of heavy metals in the water system. Anderson announced a study on bioassay for heavy metals from industrial waste water using Daphnia magna(Anderson, 1944, 1948). Breukelman published study the resitivity difference for the mercury Chloride(HgCl2). Braudouin(1974) compared the zooplankton(Daphnia sp.) acute toxicity of the different heavy metals and confirmed the sensitivity. Shcherban(1979) presented for toxicity evaluation results for the heavy metal of the Daphnia magna according to different temperature conditions. In the United States Environmental Protection Agency(EPA) established a standard test method for water fleas, managed and supervised water ecosystems, and announced the adoption of a bioassay standard method. This study was performed to evaluate acute inhibition using the Daphnia magna for the biological effect of heavy metal ions in water-based toxicity in the hardness change. Evaluation methods were conducted in EPA Water Quality process test criteria. TU(Toxic Unit), NOEC (No Observable Effect Concentration), LOEC (Lowest Observable Effect Concentration), EC50 (Median Effective Concentration) was calculated by Toxcalc 5.0 Program. Keywords : D. magna, Hardness, Toxic Unit, Heavy metal

  19. Lipid Metabolic Versatility in Malassezia spp. Yeasts Studied through Metabolic Modeling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Triana, Sergio; de Cock, Hans; Ohm, Robin A; Danies, Giovanna; Wösten, Han A B; Restrepo, Silvia; González Barrios, Andrés F; Celis Ramirez, Adriana

    2017-01-01

    Malassezia species are lipophilic and lipid-dependent yeasts belonging to the human and animal microbiota. Typically, they are isolated from regions rich in sebaceous glands. They have been associated with dermatological diseases such as seborrheic dermatitis, pityriasis versicolor, atopic

  20. Adverse lipid profile elevates risk for subarachnoid hemorrhage: A prospective population-based cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindbohm, Joni; Korja, Miikka; Jousilahti, Pekka; Salomaa, Veikko; Kaprio, Jaakko

    2018-05-05

    Studies report that both high and low total cholesterol (TC) elevates SAH risk. There are few prospective studies on high-density lipoproteins (HDL-C) and low-density lipoproteins (LDL-C), and apparently none concerns apolipoproteins A and B. We aimed to clarify the association between lipid profile and SAH risk. The National FINRISK study provided risk-factor data recorded at enrolment between 1972 and 2007. During 1.52 million person-years of follow-up until 2014, 543 individuals suffered from incident hospitalized SAH or outside-hospital-fatal SAH. Cox proportional hazards model was used to calculate the hazard ratios and multiple imputation predicted ApoA1, ApoB, and LDL-C values for cohorts from a time before apolipoprotein-measurement methods were available. One SD elevation (1.28 mmol/l) in TC elevated SAH risk in men (hazard ratio (HR) 1.15 (95% CIs 1.00-1.32)). Low HDL-C levels increased SAH risk, as each SD decrease (0.37 mmol/l) in HDL-C raised the risk in women (HR 1.29 (95% CIs 1.07-1.55)) and men (HR 1.20 (95% CIs 1.14-1.27)). Each SD increase (0.29 g/l) in ApoA1 decreased SAH risk in women (HR 0.85 (95% CIs 0.74-0.97)) and men (HR 0.88 (95% CIs 0.76-1.02)). LDL-C (SD 1.07 mmol/l) and ApoB (SD 0.28 g/l) elevated SAH risk in men with HR 1.15 (95% CIs 1.01-1.31) and HR 1.26 (95% CIs 1.10-1.44) per one SD increase. Age did not change these findings. An adverse lipid profile seems to elevate SAH risk similar to its effect in other cardiovascular diseases, especially in men. Whether SAH incidence diminishes with increasing statin use remains to be studied. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Lipid somersaults

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Günther-Pomorski, Thomas; Menon, Anant K.

    2016-01-01

    Membrane lipids diffuse rapidly in the plane of the membrane but their ability to flip spontaneously across a membrane bilayer is hampered by a significant energy barrier. Thus spontaneous flip-flop of polar lipids across membranes is very slow, even though it must occur rapidly to support diverse...... aspects of cellular life. Here we discuss the mechanisms by which rapid flip-flop occurs, and what role lipid flipping plays in membrane homeostasis and cell growth. We focus on conceptual aspects, highlighting mechanistic insights from biochemical and in silico experiments, and the recent, ground......-breaking identification of a number of lipid scramblases....

  2. Effect of ewe's (semi-skimmed and whole) and cow's milk yogurt consumption on the lipid profile of control subjects: a crossover study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olmedilla-Alonso, Begoña; Nova-Rebato, Esther; García-González, Natalia; Martín-Diana, Ana-Belén; Fontecha, Javier; Delgado, David; Gredilla, Ana-Elisa; Bueno, Francisco; Asensio-Vegas, Carmen

    2017-01-01

    Yogurt is the most widely consumed fermented milk product worldwide. Studies have mainly used milk and dairy products from cow, which have a lower fat content than those from ewe and a different lipid profile. This study investigated the effect on the lipid profile of control subjects of three different set yogurts: (a) semi-skimmed ewe´s milk yogurt (2.8% milk fat); (b) whole ewe´s milk yogurt (5.8 % milk fat); (c) cow´s milk yogurt (3 % milk fat). A randomized crossover study included 30 healthy adults (16 women) to consume 250 g/yogurt/day during three consecutive 5-weeks periods separated by 4-week washouts. Blood samples were collected at the start and end of each period for the analysis of serum cholesterol (total, HDL-, LDL-) and triglycerides. We found no differences in the serum concentrations of lipid and lipoprotein fractions of the volunteers after the intake of any of the three types of yogurts. When the volunteers were grouped into two risk groups of risk according to their total cholesterol/HDL cholesterol ratio, the same differences between the groups in terms of the cholesterol (HDL-, LDL-) and triglyceride responses at baseline and after yogurt intake were found, with no effects due to the different types of yogurts. Moreover, we performed compositional analysis of the yogurts including determination of protein, fat, minerals and fatty acids (FA). Contents in protein, calcium, magnesium, non-protein nitrogen and some FA (mainly short-chain-FA) were higher for ewe's than for cow's milk yogurt. n6-n3 ratio was lower in the ewe's milk yogurt. In conclusion, yogurt intake, from ewe's and cow's milk, at levels of consumption compatible with a varied diet, neither decreases nor increases plasma lipoprotein cholesterol levels in apparently healthy individuals. As ewe's milk yogurt has a high content of macro- and micronutrients, certain target populations could benefit from its consumption.

  3. Mental skills comparison between elite sprint and endurance track and field runners according to their genetic polymorphism: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Znazen, Hela; Slimani, Maamer; Miarka, Bianca; Butovskaya, Marina; Siala, Hajer; Messaoud, Taieb; Chamari, Karim; Souissi, Nizar

    2017-09-01

    Achieving excellence in track and field athletes requires specific mental skills. The aim of the present study was to compare the mental skills between elite sprint and endurance athletes. Forty elite athletes (age 20.55±2.22 years, body mass 74.8±7.9 kg, height 1.70±0.1 m) participated in the present study. The athletes were classified into two groups according to their genetic polymorphism to physical activity: Endurance group (allele I, N.=20) and power group (allele D, N.=20). The mental skills were assessed by means of Ottawa Mental Skill Assessment Tool-3 inventory (OMSAT-3: based in foundation mental skills, psychosomatic skills, and cognitive skills subscales) before the competition period. Furthermore, genetic data were also collected. Sprint and endurance runners were participating in Tunisian National championship. The results showed a significant difference between elite sprint and endurance runners in the foundation mental and psychosomatic skills subscales (all, Pstudy revealed that goal setting, commitment, stress reactions, fear control, imagery, competition planning and mental practice were significantly higher among the elite sprint runners compared to the endurance runners (all, Pstudy could confirm the widely acclaimed research assumption that mental skills, such as goal setting, commitment and mental practice, are the predictor variables of power performances, while endurance performances are associated with different mental skills components. Finally, the results may inform applied practitioners regarding the differences in mental skill demands between power and endurance athletes and the genetic predisposition of practitioners.

  4. Studies on the effects of ionizing radiation and chemotherapeutic agents on hematopoiesis according to the stem-cell kinetics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hirashima, Kunitake

    1975-01-01

    The fundamental problem of the effects of ionizing radiation and antineoplastic drugs on hematopoiesis can be explained by the kinetic study on the hematopoietic stem-cell population. Quantitative comparison of a single x-irradiation and a single administration of several antineoplastic drugs on the stem-cell population was performed by the splenic colony-forming method. The repopulation pattern of stem-cells in mice after a single 150 rad irradiation was compared with that after the administration of corresponding dose of cyclophosphamide. It was demonstrated that the additional administration of cyclophosphamide immediately after the x-irradiation significantly accelerated repopulation of the stem-cell compartment. The mechanism of repopulation of the stem-cell compartment after partial irradiation was also studied according to the immigration theory of stem-cells. An in vitro colony-forming technique for the human bone marrow cells was introduced and compared with other assay methods for stem-cells. From the hematological observations of accidentally irradiated patients, it was determined that the thromboelastogram values were regarded as one of the most useful indicators for detecting the earliest recovery sign of the hematopoietic stem-cells. (Evans, J.)

  5. Expression of cell cycle proteins according to HPV status in oral squamous cell carcinoma affecting young patients: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miranda Galvis, Marisol; Freitas Jardim, Juscelino; Kaminagakura, Estela; Santos-Silva, Alan Roger; Paiva Fonseca, Felipe; Paes Almeida, Oslei; Ajudarte Lopes, Marcio; Lópes Pinto, Clóvis; Kowalski, Luiz Paulo

    2018-04-01

    Tobacco and alcohol consumption are considered the main risk factors for oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC); however, the role of these factors in patients younger than 40 years is controversial, so it has been suggested that genomic instability and high-risk human papillomavirus (HR-HPV) infection may be contributing factors to oral carcinogenesis at a young age. Therefore, the aim of this study was to evaluate the immunoexpression of cell cycle proteins according HPV status in OSCC affecting young patients. A tissue microarray construction based on 34 OSCC samples from young patients (factor receptor, p53, and p16 antibodies. The clinicopathologic features and the immunoexpression of all tested proteins were similar in both groups. Patients with HPV-related OSSC tended to have better cancer-specific survival (CSS; 39% vs 60% 5-y CSS), and overall survival (OS; 29.2% vs 60% 5-year OS). However, this difference was not statistically significant. No significant difference exists in the expression of cell cycle proteins studied between HR-HPV DNA-positive and HR-HPV DNA-negative OSCC affecting young patients. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Do children's health resources differ according to preschool physical activity programmes and parental behaviour? A mixed methods study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sterdt, Elena; Pape, Natalie; Kramer, Silke; Liersch, Sebastian; Urban, Michael; Werning, Rolf; Walter, Ulla

    2014-02-26

    Preschool can have positive effects on the development of a healthy lifestyle. The present study analysed to what extent different conditions, structures and behavioural models in preschool and family-children's central social microsystems-can lead to differences in children's health resources. Using a cross-sectional mixed methods approach, contrast analyses of "preschools with systematic physical activity programmes" versus "preschools without physical activity programmes" were conducted to assess the extent to which children's physical activity, quality of life and social behaviour differ between preschools with systematic and preschools without physical activity programmes. Differences in children's physical activity according to parental behaviour were likewise assessed. Data on child-related outcomes and parent-related factors were collected via parent questionnaires and child interviews. A qualitative focused ethnographic study was performed to obtain deeper insight into the quantitative survey data. Two hundred and twenty seven (227) children were interviewed at 21 preschools with systematic physical activity programmes, and 190 at 25 preschools without physical activity programmes. There was no significant difference in children's physical activity levels between the two preschool types (p = 0.709). However, the qualitative data showed differences in the design and quality of programmes to promote children's physical activity. Data triangulation revealed a strong influence of parental behaviour. The triangulation of methods provided comprehensive insight into the nature and extent of physical activity programmes in preschools and made it possible to capture the associations between systematic physical activity promotion and children's health resources in a differential manner.

  7. Multiple linear stepwise regression of liver lipid levels: proton MR spectroscopy study in vivo at 3.0 T

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu Li; Liang Changhong; Xiao Yuanqiu; Zhang Zhonglin

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To analyze the correlations between liver lipid level determined by liver 3.0 T 1 H-MRS in vivo and influencing factors using multiple linear stepwise regression. Methods: The prospective study of liver 1 H-MRS was performed with 3.0 T system and eight-channel torso phased-array coils using PRESS sequence. Forty-four volunteers were enrolled in this study. Liver spectra were collected with a TR of 1500 ms, TE of 30 ms, volume of interest of 2 cm×2 cm×2 cm, NSA of 64 times. The acquired raw proton MRS data were processed by using a software program SAGE. For each MRS measurement, using water as the internal reference, the amplitude of the lipid signal was normalized to the sum of the signal from lipid and water to obtain percentage lipid within the liver. The statistical description of height, weight, age and BMI, Line width and water suppression were recorded, and Pearson analysis was applied to test their relationships. Multiple linear stepwise regression was used to set the statistical model for the prediction of Liver lipid content. Results: Age (39.1±12.6) years, body weight (64.4±10.4) kg, BMI (23.3±3.1) kg/m 2 , linewidth (18.9±4.4) and the water suppression (90.7±6.5)% had significant correlation with liver lipid content (0.00 to 0.96%, median 0.02%), r were 0.11, 0.44, 0.40, 0.52, -0.73 respectively (P<0.05). But only age, BMI, line width, and the water suppression entered into the multiple linear regression equation. Liver lipid content prediction equation was as follows: Y= 1.395 - (0.021×water suppression) + (0.022×BMI) + (0.014×line width) - (0.004×age), and the coefficient of determination was 0. 613, corrected coefficient of determination was 0.59. Conclusion: The regression model fitted well, since the variables of age, BMI, width, and water suppression can explain about 60% of liver lipid content changes. (authors)

  8. Evaluation of intra-cellular lipid of skeletal muscle by 1H-MR spectroscopy: in vivo and phantom study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ma Ling; Gao Zhenhua; Meng Quanfei; Lin Erjian; Zhang Xiaoling; Deng Demao

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To elucidate the spectrum of lipid peaks in 1 H-MRS of skeletal muscle and it's interpretation, to investigate the utility of 1 H-MRS in evaluating intramyocellular lipid (IMCL). Methods: 1 H-MRS was acquired in vivo on tibialis anterior muscle (TA) and soleus muscle (S) on 5 healthy volunteers. The spectrum of the lipid peak between 0.80 and 1.80 ppm was observed with different angle between the long axis of the calf and B 0 . Ex vivo phantom was an cluster of capillary tubers filled with soybean oil and fat emulsion, simulating the extramyocellular lipid (EMCL) and IMCL, respectively. The spectra of the lipid peaks were compared using different angles between the phantom and Bo field. Results: The lipid spectrum split to 3 to 4 peaks between 0.80 and 1.80 ppm on calf muscles, with 0.20 to 0.30 ppm interval between each neighbouring peak. The methylene peak of EMCL shifted to the right when the angle between long axis of the calf and B 0 increased. The phantom could simulate the spectrum of 1 H-MRS of the muscle, presenting two peaks with 0.20 to 0.30 ppm chemical shift difference between 0.80 and 1.80 ppm. They are methyl triglyceride and methylene, representing IMCL and EMCL, respectively. The peak splitting could be attributed to the high ordered muscle fibers and their chemical shift difference between inta-and extra-cellular distribution. The interval of IMCL and EMCL peaks attenuated when the angle between the muscle fiber and B 0 increased from 0 to the magic angle (54.7 degree). Conclusion: On 1 H- MRS spectrum, the peak of the EMCL and IMCL splits. This indicated that 1 H-MRS is an applicable method to detect IMCL noninvasively. TA is an optimizing muscle for 1 H-MRS study. (authors)

  9. Electroporation of Skin Stratum Corneum Lipid Bilayer and Molecular Mechanism of Drug Transport: A Molecular Dynamics Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Rakesh; Rai, Beena

    2018-04-30

    Skin electroporation has been used significantly to increase the drug permeation. However, molecular mechanism, which resulted in enhancement of flux through skin, is still not known. In this study, extensive atomistic molecular dynamics simulation of skin lipids (made up of ceramide (CER), cholesterol (CHOL) and free fatty acid (FFA)) have been performed at various external electric field. We show for the first time the pore formation in the skin lipid bilayer during the electroporation. We show the effect of applied external electrical field on the pore formation dynamics in lipid bilayer of different size and composition. The pore formation and resealing kinetics were different and was found to be highly dependent on the composition of skin lipid bilayer. The pore formation time decreased with increase in the bilayer size. The pore sustaining electric field was found to be in the range of 0.20-0.25 V/nm for equimolar CER, CHOL and FFA lipid bilayer. The skin lipid bilayer (1:1:1), sealed itself within 20 ns after the removal of external electric field. We also present the molecular mechanism of enhancement of drug permeation in the presence of external field as compared to the passive diffusion. The molecular level understanding obtained here could help in optimizing/designing the electroporation experiments for effective drug delivery. For a given skin composition and size of drug molecule, the combination of pore formation time and pore growth model can be used to know aproiri the desired electric field and time for application of electric field.

  10. Study of lipids and fatty acids of phospholipids in the repair tissu of cutaneous burns of irradiated mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Drouet, J.; Pellat, B.; Dubos, M.; Goyffon, M.

    The influence of whole-body irradiation on the biochemical changes in skin after thermal burns in mice was studied. A decrease of total lipids and cholesterol biosynthesis was observed together with an intensification of the desaturation of fatty acids [fr

  11. Socioeconomic inequalities in lipid and glucose metabolism in early childhood in a population-based cohort: the ABCD-Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Berg, G.; van Eijsden, M.; Vrijkotte, T.G.M.; Gemke, R.J.B.J.

    2012-01-01

    Background: Socioeconomic inequalities in cardiovascular disease are pervasive, yet much remains to be understood about how they originate. The objective of this study was to explore the relations of socioeconomic status to lipid and glucose metabolism as indicators of cardiovascular health in

  12. Lipid Dynamics Studied by Calculation of 31P Solid-State NMR Spectra Using Ensembles from Molecular Dynamics Simulations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Sara Krogh; Vestergaard, Mikkel; Thøgersen, Lea

    2014-01-01

    , for example, order parameters. Therefore, valuable insight into the dynamics of biomolecules may be achieved by the present method. We have applied this method to study the dynamics of lipid bilayers containing the antimicrobial peptide alamethicin, and we show that the calculated 31P spectra obtained...

  13. Solid lipid nanoparticles as promising tool for intraocular tobramycin delivery: Pharmacokinetic studies on rabbits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chetoni, Patrizia; Burgalassi, Susi; Monti, Daniela; Tampucci, Silvia; Tullio, Vivian; Cuffini, Anna Maria; Muntoni, Elisabetta; Spagnolo, Rita; Zara, Gian Paolo; Cavalli, Roberta

    2016-12-01

    Eye drops are widely accepted as formulations for targeting the anterior segment notwithstanding their limitations in terms of bioavailability. The unique structure of the eye requires specially-designed formulations able to favor the pharmacokinetic profile of administered drugs, mainly minimizing the influence of ocular barriers. Nanotechnology-based delivery systems lead to significant technological and therapeutical advantages in ophthalmic therapy. The aim of the present study was to determine whether tobramycin as ion-pair incorporated in mucoadhesive Solid Lipid Nanoparticles (SLN) reaches the inner parts of the eye favoring drug activity. After technological characterization of the tobramycin entrapped SLN formulation (Tobra-SLN), a pharmacokinetic study in rabbits after topical instillation and intravenous administration of the formulation has been carried out. In addition, the intracellular activity of Tobra-SLN formulation against phagocytosed Pseudomonas aeruginosa was investigated. The SLN were spherical in shape, and showed a hydrodynamic diameter of about 80nm, a negative zeta potential (-25.7mV) with a polydispersity index of 0.15, representative of a colloidal dispersion with high quality, characterized by an unimodal relatively narrow size distribution. As demonstrated by FTIR and DSC, tobramycin ion-pair could be concentrated into lipid inner core of SLN, without interaction with the stearic acid, thus promoting a slow and constant drug release profile in the dissolution medium. Surprisingly, the drug concentration was significantly higher in all ocular tissues after ocular and intravenous administration of Tobra-SLN formulation with respect to reference formulations and only Tobra-SLN allowed the penetration of drug into retina. Furthermore, the use of Tobra-SLN resulted in both higher intraphagocytic antibiotic concentrations in polymorphonuclear granulocytes and greater bactericidal activity against intracellular Pseudomonas aeruginosa

  14. Comparison of menarche age between two generations (tehran lipid and glucose study)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ainy, E.; Aziz, F.

    2007-01-01

    Menarcheal age is considered to be an indicator of puberty. There is a lack of information on menarcheal age in Tehranian girls, in comparison to that of their mothers. This cross-sectional study was aimed at comparing the age of menarches between two generations. The subjects were 812 (406 daughters and 406 mothers) chosen from among 15005 participants of the longitudinal Tehran Lipid and Glucose Study. Demographic information and the age of menarche were recorded in a questionnaire. We have considered a minimal of 25 years duration to be one generation. Distribution of the menarcheal age and linear regression were performed. The mean age of menarche in daughters and their mothers were 13.2+-1.4 and 13.6+-1.5 years, respectively. There was significant correlation between the mother and daughter menarcheal age (r=0.25, P<0.002). 25th, 50th and 75th percentiles for menarcheal ages in daughters and their mothers were 12.2, 13.1, 14.1 and 12.7, 13.5, 14.5 years respectively. Minimum and maximum ages of menarche were the same (10 and 18 years) in the two groups. We found a decrease in the average menarcheal age during 25 years (one generation) similar to the results of other studies. (author)

  15. Neutral lipid storage disease with myopathy: A whole-body nuclear MRI and metabolic study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laforet, Pascal; Stojkovic, Tanya; Wahbi, Karim; Eymard, Bruno; Bassez, Guillaume; Carlier, Pierre G.; Clement, Karine; Petit, Francois M.; Carlier, Robert-Yves

    2013-01-01

    Neutral lipid storage disease with myopathy (NLSDM) is caused by a mutation in the gene encoding adipose triglyceride lipase (ATGL), and is characterized by the presence of numerous triglyceride-containing cytoplasmic droplets in type I muscle fibers. Major clinical manifestations concern the heart and skeletal muscle, and some patients also present diabetes mellitus. We report the clinical, metabolic, and whole-body nuclear magnetic resonance imaging findings of three patients with NLSDM. Muscle MRI study was consistent with previous descriptions, and allowed to show a common pattern of fatty replacement. Muscle changes predominated in the paravertebral muscles, both compartments of legs, and posterior compartment of the thighs. A more variable distribution of muscle involvement was observed on upper limbs, with marked asymmetry in one patient, and alterations predominating on supra and infra spinatus, biceps brachialis and anterior compartment of arms. Cardiac NMR studies revealed anomalies despite normal echocardiography in two patients. Endocrine studies showed low leptin and adiponectine levels, a moderate increase in insulin levels at fasting state, and even greater increase after oral glucose tolerance test in one patient. Two patients had elevated triglycerides and low cholesterol-HDL. Based on these analyses, regular control of cardio-metabolic risks appear mandatory in the clinical follow-up of these subjects. (authors)

  16. Neutral lipid storage disease with myopathy: A whole-body nuclear MRI and metabolic study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laforet, Pascal; Stojkovic, Tanya; Wahbi, Karim; Eymard, Bruno [AP-HP, Centre de Reference de pathologie neuromusculaire Paris-Est, Groupe Hospitalier Pitie-Salpetriere, Assistance Publique-Hopitaux de Paris, Paris, (France); Bassez, Guillaume [AP-HP, Centre de Reference de Pathologie Neuromusculaire Paris-Ouest, CHU Henri Mondor, Creteil, (France); Carlier, Pierre G. [CEA, I2BM, MIRCen, IdM NMR Laboratory, T-75651 Paris, (France); Clement, Karine [AP-HP, Institute of Cardiometabolism and Nutrition, ICAN, Pitie-Salpetriere Hospital, University Pierre et Marie-Curie Paris6, Paris, INSERM, U872 team 7, Paris, (France); Petit, Francois M. [AP-HP, Molecular Genetics and Metabolic Diseases Laboratory, Antoine Beclere Hospital, Clamart, (France); Carlier, Robert-Yves [AP-HP, Departement d' imagerie Medicale et Centre d' innovation Technologique, CHU Raymond-Poincare, Garches, (France)

    2013-07-01

    Neutral lipid storage disease with myopathy (NLSDM) is caused by a mutation in the gene encoding adipose triglyceride lipase (ATGL), and is characterized by the presence of numerous triglyceride-containing cytoplasmic droplets in type I muscle fibers. Major clinical manifestations concern the heart and skeletal muscle, and some patients also present diabetes mellitus. We report the clinical, metabolic, and whole-body nuclear magnetic resonance imaging findings of three patients with NLSDM. Muscle MRI study was consistent with previous descriptions, and allowed to show a common pattern of fatty replacement. Muscle changes predominated in the paravertebral muscles, both compartments of legs, and posterior compartment of the thighs. A more variable distribution of muscle involvement was observed on upper limbs, with marked asymmetry in one patient, and alterations predominating on supra and infra spinatus, biceps brachialis and anterior compartment of arms. Cardiac NMR studies revealed anomalies despite normal echocardiography in two patients. Endocrine studies showed low leptin and adiponectine levels, a moderate increase in insulin levels at fasting state, and even greater increase after oral glucose tolerance test in one patient. Two patients had elevated triglycerides and low cholesterol-HDL. Based on these analyses, regular control of cardio-metabolic risks appear mandatory in the clinical follow-up of these subjects. (authors)

  17. Seasonal changes in hepatocytic lipid droplets, glycogen deposits, and rough endoplasmic reticulum along the natural breeding cycle of female ohrid trout (Salmo letnica Kar.)-A semiquantitative ultrastructural study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jordanova, Maja; Rebok, Katerina; Malhão, Fernanda; Rocha, Maria J; Rocha, Eduardo

    2016-08-01

    This study on wild female Ohrid trout was primarily designed to provide a general overview of the breeding cycle influence upon selected aspects of hepatocytes. According with a semiquantitatively evaluation, some of these cell's structural compartments change during the breeding cycle. Structural modifications were disclosed in the relative occurrence of lipid, glycogen, and RER content during breeding cycle. The relative amount of lipid deposits in the hepatocytes was much greater in previtellogenesis, and decreased postspawning. So, while the seasonal changes in RER were positively related with the ovary maturation status, those of the lipid droplets followed an opposite trend. The hepatocytic glycogen occurred rarely, mainly in late-vitellogenesis and spawning, suggesting that in this species such kind of energy storage is comparatively unimportant. Lipid accumulation and later usage is, probably, the relevant biochemical pathway for Ohrid trout in the wild. While glycogen and RER contents were positively correlated with the gonadosomatic index, lipids were negatively correlated. Additionally, glycogen inclusions were positively correlated with the plasma estradiol levels. When comparing seasonal patterns from wild Ohrid trout with those from well-studied rainbow and brown trout (specimens studied were from aquaculture), there are contradicting results as to lipid and glycogen reserves, and also as to RER loads. The differences among the mentioned trout can result from intrinsic interspecies differences or may be associated with natural feeding conditions versus feeding with commercially prepared diets, or other factors. This study offers new data useful as standard to access liver pathology in wild and aquacultured Ohrid trout. Microsc. Res. Tech. 79:700-706, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. Lipid Structure in Triolein Lipid Droplets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chaban, Vitaly V; Khandelia, Himanshu

    2014-01-01

    of a mass of hydrophobic lipid esters coved by phospholipid monolayer. The small size and unique architecture of LDs makes it complicated to study LD structure by modern experimental methods. We discuss coarse-grained molecular dynamics (MD) simulations of LD formation in systems containing 1-palmitoyl-2...... to coarse-grained simulations, the presence of PE lipids at the interface has a little impact on distribution of components and on the overall LD structure. (4) The thickness of the lipid monolayer at the surface of the droplet is similar to the thickness of one leaflet of a bilayer. Computer simulations......Lipid droplets (LDs) are primary repositories of esterified fatty acids and sterols in animal cells. These organelles originate on the lumenal or cytoplasmic side of endoplasmic reticulum (ER) membrane and are released to the cytosol. In contrast to other intracellular organelles, LDs are composed...

  19. Variability of nutrients intake, lipid profile and cardiovascular mortality among geographical areas in Spain: The DRECE study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez de la Cámara, Agustín; De Andrés Esteban, Eva; Urrútia Cuchí, Gerard; Calderón Sandubete, Enrique; Rubio Herrera, Miguel Ángel; Menéndez Orenga, Miguel; Lora Pablos, David

    2017-11-07

    It has often been suggested that cardiovascular mortality and their geographical heterogeneity are associated with nutrients intake patterns and also lipid profile. The large Spanish study Dieta y Riesgo de Enfermedades Cardiovasculares en España (DRECE) investigated this theory from 1991 to 2010. Out of the 4,783 Spanish individuals making up the DRECE cohort, 220 subjects (148 men and 72 women) died (4.62%) during the course of the study. The mean age of patients who died from cardiovascular causes (32 in all) was 61.08 years 95% CI (57.47-64.69) and 70.91% of them were males. The consumption of nutrients and the lipid profile by geographical area, studied by geospatial models, showed that the east and southern area of the country had the highest fat intake coupled to a high rate of unhealthy lipid profile. It was concluded that the spatial geographical analysis showed a relationship between high fat intake, unhealthy lipid profile and cardiovascular mortality in the different geographical areas, with a high variability within the country.

  20. A study of full width at half maximum (FWHM) according to the filter's cut off level in SPECT camera

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Soung Ock; Kwon, Soo Il

    2003-01-01

    Filtering is necessary to reduce statistical noise and to increase image quality in SPECT images. Noises controlled by low-pass filter designed to suppress high spatial frequency in SPECT image. Most SPECT filter function control the degree of high frequency suppression by choosing a cut off frequency. The location of cut off frequency determines the affect image noise and spatial resolution. If select the low cut off frequency, its provide good noise suppression but insufficient image quantity and high cut off frequencies increase the image resolution but insufficient noise suppression. The purpose of this study was to determines the optimum cut off level with comparison of FWHM according to cut off level in each filters-Band-limited, Sheep-logan, Sheep-logan Hanning, Generalized Hamming, Low pass cosine, Parazen and Butterworth filter in SPECT camera. We recorded image along the X, Y, Z-axis with 99m TcO 4 point source and measured FWHM by use profile curve. We find averaged length is 9.16 mm ∼ 18.14 mm of FWHM in X, Y, and Z-axis, and Band-limited and Generalized Hamming filters measures 9.16 mm at 0.7 cycle/pixel cut off frequency

  1. Seafood Consumption Attributes and Buying Behaviours According to the Generations: A Study on Millennial Generation in Turkish Market

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Osman İnanç Güney

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper focus on the seafood consumption attitudes and behaviours of the millennials (Generation Y and non-millennials (Generation X, Baby Boomers and Silent Generation comparatively. The data was collected from a face to face survey which was applied to randomly select 407 individuals in the city of Adana, Turkey in November 2016. As a result of factor analysis applied in the study, it was found that Millennials was significantly and inversely correlated with consumption of wild fish and freshwater fish. Non-millennial generation was inversely correlated with consumption of marine fish, freshwater fish and mussels and the correlation is insignificant. According to the results of the chi square test, it was determined that Millennials mostly preferred to consume fresh (unprocessed fish. Mann-Whitney test results show that they value health and nutrition factors for consumption and there is a significant difference between these two factors. Besides, factors mainly effecting their purchase behaviour of seafood are directed to freshness, seasonality, place of purchase and wild-aquaculture product classification and there are significant differences between these factors. The fact that the Millennial’s average response to consumption and purchasing is higher indicates that they are more cautious.

  2. Describing Peripancreatic Collections According to the Revised Atlanta Classification of Acute Pancreatitis: An International Interobserver Agreement Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouwense, Stefan A; van Brunschot, Sandra; van Santvoort, Hjalmar C; Besselink, Marc G; Bollen, Thomas L; Bakker, Olaf J; Banks, Peter A; Boermeester, Marja A; Cappendijk, Vincent C; Carter, Ross; Charnley, Richard; van Eijck, Casper H; Freeny, Patrick C; Hermans, John J; Hough, David M; Johnson, Colin D; Laméris, Johan S; Lerch, Markus M; Mayerle, Julia; Mortele, Koenraad J; Sarr, Michael G; Stedman, Brian; Vege, Santhi Swaroop; Werner, Jens; Dijkgraaf, Marcel G; Gooszen, Hein G; Horvath, Karen D

    2017-08-01

    Severe acute pancreatitis is associated with peripancreatic morphologic changes as seen on imaging. Uniform communication regarding these morphologic findings is crucial for accurate diagnosis and treatment. For the original 1992 Atlanta classification, interobserver agreement is poor. We hypothesized that for the revised Atlanta classification, interobserver agreement will be better. An international, interobserver agreement study was performed among expert and nonexpert radiologists (n = 14), surgeons (n = 15), and gastroenterologists (n = 8). Representative computed tomographies of all stages of acute pancreatitis were selected from 55 patients and were assessed according to the revised Atlanta classification. The interobserver agreement was calculated among all reviewers and subgroups, that is, expert and nonexpert reviewers; interobserver agreement was defined as poor (≤0.20), fair (0.21-0.40), moderate (0.41-0.60), good (0.61-0.80), or very good (0.81-1.00). Interobserver agreement among all reviewers was good (0.75 [standard deviation, 0.21]) for describing the type of acute pancreatitis and good (0.62 [standard deviation, 0.19]) for the type of peripancreatic collection. Expert radiologists showed the best and nonexpert clinicians the lowest interobserver agreement. Interobserver agreement was good for the revised Atlanta classification, supporting the importance for widespread adaption of this revised classification for clinical and research communications.

  3. A prospective study on symptom generation according to spicy food intake and TRPV1 genotypes in functional dyspepsia patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, S-Y; Masaoka, T; Han, H S; Matsuzaki, J; Hong, M J; Fukuhara, S; Choi, H S; Suzuki, H

    2016-09-01

    Capsaicin is an ingredient of red peppers that binds to transient receptor potential vanilloid subtype 1 (TRPV1), and Koreans eat more capsaicin-rich food than do Japanese. This study aimed to compare symptom generation according to TRPV1 genotypes and the intake of spicy foods. Consecutive functional dyspepsia (FD) patients who were evaluated at Konkuk University Medical Centre (Korea) and Keio University Hospital (Japan) were included. Questionnaires on spicy food intake, patient assessment of gastrointestinal symptoms (PAGI-SYM), patient assessment of quality of life, and hospital anxiety and depression scale were provided. Blood was sampled for the detection of TRPV1 polymorphisms, and upper gastrointestinal endoscopy was performed with biopsies. Of 121 included subjects, 35 and 28 carried the TRPV1 CC and GG genotypes, respectively, with the prevalence rates not differing between Japan and Korea. The prevalence of FD subtypes did not differ with the spicy food intake, TRPV1 genotypes, or Helicobacter pylori infection. Neither TRPV1 polymorphisms nor H. pylori infections were related to scores on the PAGI-SYM questionnaires, but spicy food intake was positively correlated with the scores for stomach fullness (p = 0.001) and retching (p = 0.001). Using the linear regression analysis, stomach fullness was associated with spicy food intake (p = 0.007), whereas retching was related to younger age (p foods, younger age and female gender, regardless of TRPV1 genotypes and the H. pylori infection status. Capsaicin-rich foods may induce stomach fullness. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  4. Longitudinal study of relative growth rates of the maxilla and the mandible according to quantitative cervical vertebral maturation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Lili; Liu, Jiarong; Xu, Tianmin; Lin, Jiuxiang

    2010-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the relative growth rates (RGR) of the maxilla and the mandible according to quantitative cervical vertebral maturation (QCVM) of adolescents with normal occlusion. Mixed longitudinal data were used. The sample included 87 adolescents (32 boys, 55 girls) from 8 to 18 years of age with normal occlusion, selected from 901 candidates. Sequential lateral cephalograms and hand-wrist films were taken once a year for 6 consecutive years. The growth magnitude (GM) and RGR of the maxilla and the mandible were measured and analyzed. GM and RGR were not always consistent, because subjects had different periods of time between the QCVM stages. GM was not as reliable as RGR. RGR had no significant sex differences in the maxilla and the mandible, in spite of different decelerating curves. However, statistically significant sex differences were found in the GM of mandibular measurements. The greatest growth potentials were not synchronized between the maxilla and the mandible. For both sexes, the greatest RGR of maxillary length and height was in QCVM stage I; then, deceleration occurred. The greatest RGR of mandibular length and height was in QCVM stage II, and the next largest was in QCVM stage I. Understanding the RGR can provide references for orthodontic treatment and orthognathic surgery. 2010 American Association of Orthodontists. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Acute Toxicity Study of Zerumbone-Loaded Nanostructured Lipid Carrier on BALB/c Mice Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heshu Sulaiman Rahman

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Zerumbone- (ZER- loaded nanostructure lipid carrier (NLC (ZER-NLC prepared for its antileukemia effect in vitro was evaluated for its toxicological effects by observing changes in the liver, kidney, spleen, lung, heart, and brain tissues, serum biochemical parameters, total haemogram, and bone marrow stem cells. The acute toxicity study for ZER-NLC was conducted by orally treating BALB/c mice with a single dose with either water, olive oil, ZER, NLC, or ZER-NLC for 14 days. The animals were observed for clinical and behavioral abnormalities, toxicological symptoms, feed consumption, and gross appearance. The liver, kidney, heart, lung, spleen, and brain tissues were assessed histologically. Total haemogram was counted by hemocytometry and microhematocrit reader. Bone marrow examination in terms of cellular morphology was done by Wright staining with bone marrow smear. Furthermore, serum biochemical parameters were determined spectrophotometrically. Grossly all treated mice, their investigated tissues, serum biochemical parameters, total haemogram, and bone marrow were normal. At oral doses of 100 and 200 mg/kg ZER-NLC there was no sign of toxicity or mortality in BALB/c mice. This study suggests that the 50% lethal dose (LD50 of ZER-NLC is higher than 200 mg/kg, thus, safe by oral administration.

  6. Comparative study of sustained-release lipid microparticles and solid dispersions containing ibuprofen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hugo Almeida

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Ibuprofen is one of the most important non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs used in the treatment of inflammatory diseases. In its pure state, ibuprofen presents poor physical and mechanical characteristics and its use in solid dosage forms needs the addition of excipients that improve these properties. The selection of the best excipients and the most suitable pharmaceutical dosage form to carry ibuprofen is very important for the industrial success of this drug. Given these factors, lipid microparticles and solid dispersions of ibuprofen with cetyl alcohol, stearic acid, and hydrogenated castor oil were prepared. These formulations were intended to improve the physical and mechanical characteristics and to sustain the release of this drug. Physical mixtures were also prepared with the same ingredients in similar proportions. The solid dispersions of ibuprofen/stearic acid and ibuprofen/hydrogenated castor oil showed the best flow characteristics compared with pure ibuprofen. Further, gelatin capsules filled with lipid microparticles and solid dispersions were submitted to dissolution tests in order to study the influence of the prepared systems in the release profiles of ibuprofen. Prolonged release of ibuprofen was achieved with the lipid microparticles and solid dispersions prepared with the different types of excipients.O ibuprofeno é um dos antiinflamatórios não esteróides mais utilizados no tratamento de patologias associadas a processos inflamatórios. Este fármaco, quando no seu estado puro, apresenta características físicas e mecânicas pouco satisfatórias e a sua utilização em formas sólidas só é possível se forem adicionados excipientes que permitam melhorar estas propriedades. A seleção dos excipientes ideais e da forma farmacêutica mais adequada para veicular o ibuprofeno é fundamental para o sucesso industrial deste fármaco. Tendo em conta estes fatores, prepararam-se micropartículas lipídicas e dispersões s

  7. Study on the relationship between the levels of serum cholylglycine (CG) and blood lipids in pregnant women

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    You Jianfei; Lv Shiming; Wang Qiong; Zhu Yuning

    2005-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the prevalence of intrahepatic cholestasis during pregnancy and the relationship between levels of serum CG and blood lipids. Methods: Serum CG, blood lipid and liver function profile were examined in 2040 women with pregnancy during the second or third trimester. Among these pregnant women, 57 were diagnosed as with intrahepatic cholestasis. Blood lipids (TG, cholesterol, HDL, LDL) and ALP levels in 50 of the 57 pregnant women were studied and compared with those in 50 otherwise normal pregnant women as controls. Results: Serum CG levels were above normal range in 372 of the 2040 pregnant women (18.5%). Fifty seven of these 372 pregnant women were confirmed to be with intrahepatic cholestasis (2.8% of the 2040 pregnancies). The TG, cholesterol, LDL contents and ALP levels in the pregnant women with intrahepatic cholestasis were significantly higher (P 0.05) than those in controls. Conclusion: Intrahepatic cholestasis developed in a substantial proportion of pregnant women (2.8% in this study) and should be carefully monitored due to possible damage to the fetus. Serum CG was shown to be an early and sensitive marker for the diagnosis of intrahepatic cholestasis. Changes of blood lipid and ALP levels were related to disease status. (authors)

  8. Lipid ratio as a suitable tool to identify individuals with MetS risk: A case- control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbasian, Maryam; Delvarianzadeh, Mehri; Ebrahimi, Hossein; Khosravi, Farideh

    2017-11-01

    This study aimed to compare the serum lipids ratio in staff with and without metabolic syndrome (MetS) who were working in Shahroud University of Medical Sciences. This case-control study was conducted in 2015 on 499 personnel aged 30-60 years old. ATP III criteria were used to diagnose patients with MetS. The data were analyzed by using logistic regression and ROC curve. Mean lipid ratio was higher in individuals having the MetS in both sexes compared with those without. In addition, the mean levels of lipid ratios significantly increased with increasing number of MetS components in both sexes. Also it could be concluded that TG/HDL-C ratio is the best marker for the diagnosis of MetS in men and women. Moreover, the cut-off point for the TG/HDL-C was 2.86 in women and 4.03 in men. It was found that for any unit of increases in the TG/HDL-C, the risk of developing the MetS will increase by 2.12 times. TG/HDL-C ratio is found to be the best clinical marker for the diagnosis of MetS compare with other lipid ratios, therefore it is recommended to be used as a feasible tool to identify individuals with MetS risk. Copyright © 2016 Diabetes India. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Do Children’s Health Resources Differ According to Preschool Physical Activity Programmes and Parental Behaviour? A Mixed Methods Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Sterdt

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Preschool can have positive effects on the development of a healthy lifestyle. The present study analysed to what extent different conditions, structures and behavioural models in preschool and family—children’s central social microsystems—can lead to differences in children’s health resources. Using a cross-sectional mixed methods approach, contrast analyses of “preschools with systematic physical activity programmes” versus “preschools without physical activity programmes” were conducted to assess the extent to which children’s physical activity, quality of life and social behaviour differ between preschools with systematic and preschools without physical activity programmes. Differences in children’s physical activity according to parental behaviour were likewise assessed. Data on child-related outcomes and parent-related factors were collected via parent questionnaires and child interviews. A qualitative focused ethnographic study was performed to obtain deeper insight into the quantitative survey data. Two hundred and twenty seven (227 children were interviewed at 21 preschools with systematic physical activity programmes, and 190 at 25 preschools without physical activity programmes. There was no significant difference in children’s physical activity levels between the two preschool types (p = 0.709. However, the qualitative data showed differences in the design and quality of programmes to promote children’s physical activity. Data triangulation revealed a strong influence of parental behaviour. The triangulation of methods provided comprehensive insight into the nature and extent of physical activity programmes in preschools and made it possible to capture the associations between systematic physical activity promotion and children’s health resources in a differential manner.

  10. A laboratory validation study of comfort and limit temperatures of four sleeping bags defined according to EN 13537 (2002).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Li-Yen; Wang, Faming; Kuklane, Kalev; Gao, Chuansi; Holmér, Ingvar; Zhao, Mengmeng

    2013-03-01

    In this study, we validated comfort and limit temperatures of four sleeping bags with different levels of insulation defined according to EN 13537. Six male subjects and four female subjects underwent totally 20 two-hour exposures in four sleeping bags at four intended testing temperatures: 11.2, 3.8, 2.1 and -9.0 °C. The subjective perceptions and physiological responses of these subjects were reported and analyzed. It was found that the EN 13537 defined comfort temperature and limit temperature were underestimated for sleeping bags MA3, HAG and MAM. The predictions are so conservative that further revision may be required to meet the requirements of both manufacturers and consumers. In contrast, for the sleeping bag MA0 with a low level of insulation, the limit temperature defined by EN 13537 was slightly overestimated. In addition, two individual case studies (-28.0 and -32.0 °C) demonstrated that low toe temperatures were widely observed among the male and female subjects, although the mean skin temperatures were almost within the thermoneutrality range (32.0-34.0 °C). It seems that the IREQ model (ISO 11079) overestimated both the comfort and limit temperatures of the sleeping bags. Finally, traditional sleeping bags may be required to be re-designed to provide consumers both whole body comfort as well as local thermal comfort at feet/toes or users need to be made aware of the higher need for their insulation. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd and The Ergonomics Society. All rights reserved.

  11. Postural balance and functional independence of elderly people according to gender and age: cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helen Benincasa Nakagawa

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT CONTEXT AND OBJECTIVE: Aging causes changes in men and women. Studies have shown that women have worse postural balance and greater functional dependence than men, but there is no consensus regarding this. The aim of this study was to compare the balance and functional independence of elderly people according to sex and age, and to evaluate the association between postural balance and the number of drugs taken. DESIGN AND SETTING: Cross-sectional at a state university. METHODS: 202 elderly people were evaluated regarding balance (Berg Scale, independence (Barthel Index, age, sex, number of medications and physical activity. RESULTS: The subjects comprised 117 women (70.2 ± 5.6 years old and 85 men (71.1 ± 6.9 years old. For balance, there was no significant difference regarding sex, but there was a difference regarding age (P < 0.0001. For functional independence, there was a difference regarding sex (P = 0.003, but not regarding age. The variables of age, medications and physical activity were significant for predicting the Berg score. For the Barthel index, only age and sex were significant. Elderly people who took three or more medications/day showed higher risk of falling than those who took up two drugs/day (odds ratio = 5.53, P < 0.0001, 95% confidence interval, 2.3-13.0. CONCLUSIONS: There was no sexual difference in relation to postural balance. However, people who were more elderly presented a high risk of falling. Functional dependence was worse among females. There was an association between the number of medication drugs and risk of falling.

  12. Experimental studies on anti-oxidants reducing lipid peroxidation of irradiated mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Du Zeji; Liu Keliang; Su Liaoyuan

    1993-08-01

    The free radical plays an important role in the irradiation damage. The irradiation damage would be reduced if anti-oxidants is used, because anti-oxidants can scavenge free radicals and suppress lipid peroxidation. In the study, a fluoro-spectrophotometer was used to determine the changes of MDA levels in mice tissues and serum after irradiation and the protective effect of anti-oxidants of Vit E and DMSO on damage caused by free radicals. The results are as follows: (1) The highest MDA level was at 12 to 24 hours after irradiation dose of 3.0 Gy. (2) The MDA level is increasing with the increasing of irradiation dose. It means the MDA level can indicate the extent of irradiation damage. (3) Both Vit E and DMSO had a powerful effect on reducing MDA level, but the effect of DMSO was stronger than Vit E. The optimum doses of them were 0.25 mg/g body weight and 10 mg/g body weight respectively. (4) The best effect obtained was to use Vit E and DMSO simultaneously

  13. Development of lycopene-loaded lipid-core nanocapsules: physicochemical characterization and stability study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santos, Priscilla Pereira dos [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul (UFRGS), Instituto de Ciência e Tecnologia de Alimentos (Brazil); Paese, Karina; Guterres, Silvia Stanisçuaski [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul, Programa de Pós-Graduação em Ciências Farmacêuticas, Faculdade de Farmácia (Brazil); Pohlmann, Adriana Raffin [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul (UFRGS), Departamento de Química Orgânica, Instituto de Química (Brazil); Costa, Tania Hass [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul (UFRGS), Departamento de Química, Instituto de Química (Brazil); Jablonski, André [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul (UFRGS), Departamento de Engenharia de Minas (Brazil); Flôres, Simone Hickmann; Rios, Alessandro de Oliveira, E-mail: alessandro.rios@ufrgs.br [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul (UFRGS), Instituto de Ciência e Tecnologia de Alimentos (Brazil)

    2015-02-15

    The objective of this study was to develop lycopene-loaded lipid-core nanocapsules (Lyc-LNCs) by the interfacial deposition of preformed poly(ε-caprolactone) (PCL). Lyc extract (93.9 %) was obtained from tomatoes, and the organic phase was prepared with polymer (PCL), caprylic/capric triglycerides, sorbitan monostearate, and Lyc in a mixture of acetone and ethanol under magnetic stirring at 40 °C. The organic phase was injected into an aqueous phase containing polysorbate 80, and the suspension was concentrated under reduced pressure. The formulation with a Lyc concentration of 85 µg/mL was characterized in terms of size distribution, zeta potential, encapsulation efficiency, pH, viscosity, and color. The Lyc-LNC formulation presented stable values for the z-average (193 ± 4.7 nm) and zeta potential (−11.5 ± 0.40 mV). Despite the lower pH, Lyc content, and color change of the suspension, the nanocapsules showed satisfactory stability, presenting around 50 % Lyc content after 14 days of storage at room temperature (25 °C)

  14. Preliminary study on health-related lipid components of bakery products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cercaci, Luisito; Conchillo, Ana; Rodriguez-Estrada, Maria Teresa; Ansorena, Diana; Astiasarán, Iciar; Lercker, Giovanni

    2006-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the presence of health-related lipid components, in particular trans fatty acids and sterol oxidation products, in four bakery products. Both types of components are known for their adverse biological effects, especially the increase of atherogenic risk, and therefore it is advisable to monitor their presence in food products. Trans fatty acids were determined by silver-ion thin-layer chromatography-gas chromatography, whereas sterol oxidation was assessed by gas chromatography and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry determination of 7-keto derivatives (tracers of sterol oxidation). The amount of trans fatty acids (0.02 to 3.13 g/100 g of product), sterols (34.9 to 128.3 mg/100 g of product), and 7-keto derivatives of sterols (1.88 to 3.14 mg/kg of product) varied considerably among samples. The supply of phytosterols (22.5 to 64.0 mg/100 g of product) was not significant, and the extent of oxidation of most phytosterols to its corresponding 7-keto derivative was low (0.29 to 0.84%), except for that of brassicasterol (2.01 to 3.11%). The quality of ingredients and raw materials seems to have greatly influenced the fatty acid profile, stability, safety, and quality of the final product; these ingredients should be chosen with extreme care to decrease their potential negative health effects and to increase safety of these products.

  15. Bevacizumab loaded solid lipid nanoparticles prepared by the coacervation technique: preliminary in vitro studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Battaglia, Luigi; Gallarate, Marina; Peira, Elena; Chirio, Daniela; Solazzi, Ilaria; Giordano, Susanna Marzia Adele; Gigliotti, Casimiro Luca; Riganti, Chiara; Dianzani, Chiara

    2015-06-01

    Glioblastoma, the most common primary brain tumor in adults, has an inauspicious prognosis, given that overcoming the blood-brain barrier is the major obstacle to the pharmacological treatment of brain tumors. As neoangiogenesis plays a key role in glioblastoma growth, the US Food and Drug Administration approved bevacizumab (BVZ), an antivascular endothelial growth factor antibody for the treatment of recurrent glioblastoma in patients whose the initial therapy has failed. In this experimental work, BVZ was entrapped in solid lipid nanoparticles (SLNs) prepared by the fatty-acid coacervation technique, thanks to the formation of a hydrophobic ion pair. BVZ activity, which was evaluated by means of four different in vitro tests on HUVEC cells, increased by 100- to 200-fold when delivered in SLNs. Moreover, SLNs can enhance the permeation of fluorescently labelled BVZ through an hCMEC/D3 cell monolayer—an in vitro model of the blood brain barrier. These results are promising, even if further in vivo studies are required to evaluate the effective potential of BVZ-loaded SLNs in glioblastoma treatment.

  16. Development of lycopene-loaded lipid-core nanocapsules: physicochemical characterization and stability study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santos, Priscilla Pereira dos; Paese, Karina; Guterres, Silvia Stanisçuaski; Pohlmann, Adriana Raffin; Costa, Tania Hass; Jablonski, André; Flôres, Simone Hickmann; Rios, Alessandro de Oliveira

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study was to develop lycopene-loaded lipid-core nanocapsules (Lyc-LNCs) by the interfacial deposition of preformed poly(ε-caprolactone) (PCL). Lyc extract (93.9 %) was obtained from tomatoes, and the organic phase was prepared with polymer (PCL), caprylic/capric triglycerides, sorbitan monostearate, and Lyc in a mixture of acetone and ethanol under magnetic stirring at 40 °C. The organic phase was injected into an aqueous phase containing polysorbate 80, and the suspension was concentrated under reduced pressure. The formulation with a Lyc concentration of 85 µg/mL was characterized in terms of size distribution, zeta potential, encapsulation efficiency, pH, viscosity, and color. The Lyc-LNC formulation presented stable values for the z-average (193 ± 4.7 nm) and zeta potential (−11.5 ± 0.40 mV). Despite the lower pH, Lyc content, and color change of the suspension, the nanocapsules showed satisfactory stability, presenting around 50 % Lyc content after 14 days of storage at room temperature (25 °C)

  17. Development of lycopene-loaded lipid-core nanocapsules: physicochemical characterization and stability study

    Science.gov (United States)

    dos Santos, Priscilla Pereira; Paese, Karina; Guterres, Silvia Stanisçuaski; Pohlmann, Adriana Raffin; Costa, Tania Hass; Jablonski, André; Flôres, Simone Hickmann; Rios, Alessandro de Oliveira

    2015-02-01

    The objective of this study was to develop lycopene-loaded lipid-core nanocapsules (Lyc-LNCs) by the interfacial deposition of preformed poly(ɛ-caprolactone) (PCL). Lyc extract (93.9 %) was obtained from tomatoes, and the organic phase was prepared with polymer (PCL), caprylic/capric triglycerides, sorbitan monostearate, and Lyc in a mixture of acetone and ethanol under magnetic stirring at 40 °C. The organic phase was injected into an aqueous phase containing polysorbate 80, and the suspension was concentrated under reduced pressure. The formulation with a Lyc concentration of 85 µg/mL was characterized in terms of size distribution, zeta potential, encapsulation efficiency, pH, viscosity, and color. The Lyc-LNC formulation presented stable values for the z-average (193 ± 4.7 nm) and zeta potential (-11.5 ± 0.40 mV). Despite the lower pH, Lyc content, and color change of the suspension, the nanocapsules showed satisfactory stability, presenting around 50 % Lyc content after 14 days of storage at room temperature (25 °C).

  18. Fluorescence and computational studies of thymidine phosphorylase affinity toward lipidated 5-FU derivatives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lettieri, R.; D'Abramo, M.; Stella, L.; La Bella, A.; Leonelli, F.; Giansanti, L.; Venanzi, M.; Gatto, E.

    2018-04-01

    Thymidine phosphorylase (TP) is an enzyme that is up-regulated in a wide variety of solid tumors, including breast and colorectal cancers. It is involved in tumor growth and metastasis, for this reason it is one of the key enzyme to be inhibited, in an attempt to prevent tumor proliferation. However, it also plays an active role in cancer treatment, through its contribution in the conversion of the anti-cancer drug 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) to an irreversible inhibitor of thymidylate synthase (TS), responsible of the inhibition of the DNA synthesis. In this work, the intrinsic TP fluorescence has been investigated for the first time and exploited to study TP binding affinity for the unsubstituted 5-FU and for two 5-FU derivatives, designed to expose this molecule on liposomal membranes. These molecules were obtained by functionalizing the nitrogen atom with a chain consisting of six (1) or seven (2) units of glycol, linked to an alkyl moiety of 12 carbon atoms. Derivatives (1) and (2) exhibited an affinity for TP in the micromolar range, 10 times higher than the parent compound, irrespective of the length of the polyoxyethylenic spacer. This high affinity was maintained also when the compounds were anchored in liposomal membranes. Experimental results were supported by molecular dynamics simulations and docking calculations, supporting a feasible application of the designed supramolecular lipid structure in selective targeting of TP, to be potentially used as a drug delivery system or sensor device.

  19. Radiolabelling studies on the lipid metabolism in the marine brown alga Dictyopteris membranacea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hofmann, M.; Eichenberger, W.

    1998-01-01

    The lipid metabolism of the marine brown alga D. membranacea was investigated using [2- 14 C]acetate, [1- 14 C]myristate, [1- 14 C]oleate and [1- 14 C]arachidonate as precursors. On incubation with [2- 14 C]acetate, 18:1 and 16:0 were the main products formed by de novo synthesis and incorporated into polar lipids. With all the exogenous substrates used, DGTA was strongly labelled and the subsequent rapid turnover of radioactivity suggested a key role for this lipid in the redistribution of acyl chains and most likely also in the biosynthesis of the eukaryotic galactolipids produced in the absence of PC. In the glycolipids a continuous accumulation of radioactivity was observed with all the substrates used. The labelling kinetics of molecular species of MGDG suggested the desaturation of 18:1 to 18:4 and of 20:4 (n-6) to 20:5 (n-3) acids on this lipid. Both PG and PE were primary acceptors of de novo synthesized fatty acids and exogenous [1- 14 C]oleate, but no evidence exists for a further processing of acyl chains on these lipids. TAG, although strongly labelled with all exogenous [1- 14 C]acids, was not labelled when [2- 14 C]acetate was used as a precursor indicating the flux of endogenous fatty acids to be different of that of exogenously supplied fatty acids. (author)

  20. Inhibition of rat liver microsomal lipid peroxidation by N-acyldehydroalanines: An in vitro comparative study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buc-Calderon, P.; Roberfroid, M. (Universite Catholique de Louvain, Brussels (Belgium))

    1989-09-01

    Captodative substituted olefins are radical scavengers which react with free radicals to form stabilized radical adducts. One of those compounds, N-(paramethoxyphenylacetyl)dehydroalanine (AD-5), may react and scavenge both superoxide anion (O-2) and alk-oxyl radicals (RO.), and in this way prevent the appearance of their mediated biological effects. Nitrofurantoin and tert-butyl hydroperoxide were used as model compounds to stimulate free radical production and their mediated lipid peroxidation in rat liver microsomes. In addition, lipid peroxidation was also initiated by exposure of rat liver microsomal suspensions to ionizing radiation (gamma rays). The microsomal lipid peroxidation induced by these chemicals and physical agents was inhibited by the addition of AD-5. These effects were dose-dependent in a millimolar range of concentration. In addition, AD-5 has no effect on microsomal electron transport, showing that NADPH-cytochrome P450 reductase activity was not modified. These data, together with the comparisons of the effects of AD-5 and some antioxidant molecules such as superoxide dismutase, uric acid, and mannitol, support the conclusion that inhibition of lipid peroxidation by AD-5 is the result of its free radical scavenger activity. In addition, the inhibitory effect of AD-5 on microsomal lipid peroxidation was dependent of the nature of the free radical species involved in the initiation of the process, suggesting that O-2 is scavenged more efficiently than RO.

  1. Incidence and course of child malnutrition according to clinical or anthropometrical assessment: a longitudinal study from rural DR Congo

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background Longitudinal studies describing incidence and natural course of malnutrition are scarce. Studies defining malnutrition clinically [moderate clinical malnutrition (McM) marasmus, kwashiorkor] rather than anthropometrically are rare. Our aim was to address incidence and course of malnutrition among pre-schoolers and to compare patterns and course of clinically and anthropometrically defined malnutrition. Methods Using a historical, longitudinal study from Bwamanda, DR Congo, we studied incidence of clinical versus anthropometrical malnutrition in 5 657 preschool children followed 3-monthly during 15 months. Results Incidence rates were highest in the rainy season for all indices except McM. Incidence rates of McM and marasmus tended to be higher for boys than for girls in the dry season. Malnutrition rates increased from the 0–5 to the 6 – 11 months age category. McM and marasmus had in general a higher incidence at all ages than their anthropometrical counterparts, moderate and severe wasting. Shifts back to normal nutritional status within 3 months were more frequent for clinical than for anthropometrical malnutrition (62.2-80.3% compared to 3.4-66.4.5%). Only a minority of moderately stunted (30.9%) and severely stunted children (3.4%) shifted back to normal status. Alteration from severe to mild malnutrition was more characteristic for anthropometrically than for clinically defined malnutrition. Conclusions Our data on age distribution of incidence and course of malnutrition underline the importance of early life intervention to ward off malnutrition. In principle, looking at incidence may yield different findings from those obtained by looking at prevalence, since incidence and prevalence differ approximately differ by a factor “duration”. Our findings show the occurrence dynamics of general malnutrition, demonstrating that patterns can differ according to nutritional assessment method. They suggest the importance of applying a mix of clinical

  2. Incidence and course of child malnutrition according to clinical or anthropometrical assessment: a longitudinal study from rural DR Congo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kismul, Hallgeir; Schwinger, Catherine; Chhagan, Meera; Mapatano, Mala; Van den Broeck, Jan

    2014-01-28

    Longitudinal studies describing incidence and natural course of malnutrition are scarce. Studies defining malnutrition clinically [moderate clinical malnutrition (McM) marasmus, kwashiorkor] rather than anthropometrically are rare. Our aim was to address incidence and course of malnutrition among pre-schoolers and to compare patterns and course of clinically and anthropometrically defined malnutrition. Using a historical, longitudinal study from Bwamanda, DR Congo, we studied incidence of clinical versus anthropometrical malnutrition in 5,657 preschool children followed 3-monthly during 15 months. Incidence rates were highest in the rainy season for all indices except McM. Incidence rates of McM and marasmus tended to be higher for boys than for girls in the dry season. Malnutrition rates increased from the 0-5 to the 6 - 11 months age category. McM and marasmus had in general a higher incidence at all ages than their anthropometrical counterparts, moderate and severe wasting. Shifts back to normal nutritional status within 3 months were more frequent for clinical than for anthropometrical malnutrition (62.2-80.3% compared to 3.4-66.4.5%). Only a minority of moderately stunted (30.9%) and severely stunted children (3.4%) shifted back to normal status. Alteration from severe to mild malnutrition was more characteristic for anthropometrically than for clinically defined malnutrition. Our data on age distribution of incidence and course of malnutrition underline the importance of early life intervention to ward off malnutrition. In principle, looking at incidence may yield different findings from those obtained by looking at prevalence, since incidence and prevalence differ approximately differ by a factor "duration". Our findings show the occurrence dynamics of general malnutrition, demonstrating that patterns can differ according to nutritional assessment method. They suggest the importance of applying a mix of clinical and anthropometric methods for assessing

  3. Astaxanthin degradation and lipid oxidation of Pacific white shrimp oil: kinetics study and stability as affected by storage conditions

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    Sirima Takeungwongtrakul

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The kinetics of astaxanthin degradation and lipid oxidation in shrimp oil from hepatopancreas of Pacific white shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei as affected by storage temperature were studied. When shrimp oil was incubated at different temperatures (4, 30, 45 and 60 °C for 16 h, the rate constants (k of astaxanthin degradation and lipid oxidation in shrimp oil increased with increasing temperatures (p < 0.05. Thus, astaxanthin degradation and lipid oxidation in shrimp oil were augmented at high temperature. When shrimp oils with different storage conditions (illumination, oxygen availability and temperature were stored for up to 40 days, astaxanthin contents in all samples decreased throughout storage (p < 0.05. All factors were able to enhance astaxanthin degradation during 40 days of storage. With increasing storage time, the progressive formation of primary and secondary oxidation products were found in all samples as evidenced by the increases in both peroxide values (PV and thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS (p < 0.05. Light, air and temperatures therefore had the marked effect on astaxanthin degradation and lipid oxidation in shrimp oils during the extended storage.

  4. Structure of lamellar lipid domains and corneocyte envelopes of murine stratum corneum. An X-ray diffraction study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    White, S.H.; Mirejovsky, D.; King, G.I.

    1988-01-01

    The lipid of the outermost layer of the skin is confined largely to the extracellular spaces surrounding the corneocytes of the stratum corneum where it forms a multilamellar adhesive matrix to act as the major permeability barrier of the skin. Knowledge of the molecular architecture of these intercellular domains is important for understanding various skin pathologies and their treatment, percutaneous drug delivery, and the cosmetic maintenance of the skin. The authors have surveyed by X-ray diffraction the structure of the intercellular domains and the extracted lipids of murine stratum corneum (SC) at 25, 45, and 70 0 C which are temperatures in the vicinity of known thermal phase transitions. The intercellular domains produce lamellar diffraction patterns with a Bragg spacing of 131 +/- 2 A. Lipid extracted from the SC and dispersed in excess water does not produce a simple lamellar diffraction pattern at any temperature studied, however. This and other facts suggest that another component, probably a protein, must be present to control the architecture of the intercellular lipid domains. They have also obtained diffraction patterns attributable to the protein envelopes of the corneocytes. The patterns suggest a β-pleated sheet organizational scheme. No diffraction patterns were observed that could be attributed to keratin

  5. Morphological characteristics of the posterior malleolar fragment according to ankle fracture patterns: a computed tomography-based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yi, Young; Chun, Dong-Il; Won, Sung Hun; Park, Suyeon; Lee, Sanghyeon; Cho, Jaeho

    2018-02-13

    The posterior malleolar fragment (PMF) of an ankle fracture can have various shapes depending on the injury mechanism. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the morphological characteristics of the PMF according to the ankle fracture pattern described in the Lauge-Hansen classification by using computed tomography (CT) images. We retrospectively analyzed CT data of 107 patients (107 ankles) who underwent surgery for trimalleolar fracture from January 2012 to December 2014. The patients were divided into two groups: 76 ankles in the supination-external rotation (SER) stage IV group and 31 ankles in the pronation-external rotation (PER) stage IV group. The PMF type of the two groups was assessed using the Haraguchi and Jan Bartonicek classification. The cross angle (α), fragment length ratio (FLR), fragment area ratio (FAR), sagittal angle (θ), and fragment height (FH) were measured to assess the morphological characteristics of the PMF. The PMF in the SER group mainly had a posterolateral shape, whereas that in the PER group mainly had a posteromedial two-part shape or a large posterolateral triangular shape (P = 0.02). The average cross angle was not significantly different between the two groups (SER group = 19.4°, PER group = 17.6°). The mean FLR and FH were significantly larger in the PER group than in the SER group (P = 0.024, P = 0.006). The mean fragment sagittal angle in the PER group was significantly smaller than that in the SER group (P = 0.017). With regard to the articular involvement, volume, and vertical nature, the SER-type fracture tends to have a smaller fragment due to the rotational force, whereas the PER-type fracture tends to have a larger fragment due to the combination of rotational and axial forces.

  6. Epidemiology of the functional gastrointestinal disorders diagnosed according to Rome II criteria: an Australian population-based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyce, P M; Talley, N J; Burke, C; Koloski, N A

    2006-01-01

    Population-based studies of the prevalence of all functional gastrointestinal disorders (FGID) using the Rome II criteria are lacking. It is also not certain whether subjects who meet the Rome II criteria for an FGID are different in terms of demographic and psychological characteristics from those subjects meeting exclusively the more restrictive Rome I criteria. To determine whether using the more restrictive Rome I criteria would result in a more biologically determined group of FGID than when the Rome II is applied. Subjects included individuals aged 18 years and older (n = 1,225) from the Penrith population who were initially surveyed with the Penrith District Health Survey in 1997. Subjects were sent a self-report questionnaire that contained items on gastrointestinal symptoms applying the Rome II criteria. Subjects were also assessed on psychological and personality factors and on physical and mental functioning. A total of 36.1% (n = 275) of respondents was diagnosed with an FGID according to Rome II criteria. The five most prevalent FGID were functional heartburn (10.4%), irritable bowel syndrome (8.9%), functional incontinence (7.6%), proctalgia fugax (6.5%) and functional chest pain (5.1%). Subjects meeting Rome II only criteria for FGID scored significantly higher on measures of psychological caseness and emotionality than Rome I only subjects, and these were independently associated with meeting Rome I only versus Rome II only criteria for FGID. The Rome II criteria FGID are common and do not appear to identify a vastly different group of FGID sufferers compared with the earlier Rome I criteria.

  7. Cancelation and its simulation using Matlab according to active noise control case study of automotive noise silencer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alfisyahrin; Isranuri, I.

    2018-02-01

    Active Noise Control is a technique to overcome noisy with noise or sound countered with sound in scientific terminology i.e signal countered with signals. This technique can be used to dampen relevant noise in accordance with the wishes of the engineering task and reducing automotive muffler noise to a minimum. Objective of this study is to develop a Active Noise Control which should cancel the noise of automotive Exhaust (Silencer) through Signal Processing Simulation methods. Noise generator of Active Noise Control is to make the opponent signal amplitude and frequency of the automotive noise. The steps are: Firstly, the noise of automotive silencer was measured to characterize the automotive noise that its amplitude and frequency which intended to be expressed. The opposed sound which having similar character with the signal source should be generated by signal function. A comparison between the data which has been completed with simulation calculations Fourier transform field data is data that has been captured on the muffler (noise silencer) Toyota Kijang Capsule assembly 2009. MATLAB is used to simulate how the signal processing noise generated by exhaust (silencer) using FFT. This opponent is inverted phase signal from the signal source 180° conducted by Instruments of Signal Noise Generators. The process of noise cancelation examined through simulation using computer software simulation. The result is obtained that attenuation of sound (noise cancellation) has a difference of 33.7%. This value is obtained from the comparison of the value of the signal source and the signal value of the opponent. So it can be concluded that the noisy signal can be attenuated by 33.7%.

  8. EFFECT OF VARIOUS VEGETABLE OILS ON THE LIPID PROFILE AND ANTIOXIDANT STATUS IN HYPERCHOLESTEROLAEMIC WISTAR RATS- A COMPARATIVE STUDY

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    Prasad Ravindra Manjeshwar

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Various vegetable oils are used for cooking foods in India. Controversies have been created that consumption of certain vegetable oils cause atherogenesis. A little is known about the effect of vegetable oils in hypercholesterolaemic conditions. Hypercholesterolaemia, mainly the increased plasma Low-Density Lipoprotein (LDL cholesterol levels and Reactive Oxygen Species (ROS has been implicated in the early development and progression of atherosclerosis and Coronary Heart Diseases (CHD. Current study is designed to assess the effect of various vegetable oils such as coconut, sunflower, palm, olive oil and vanaspati on lipid profile and oxidative stress parameters in rats fed on a high-cholesterol diet. MATERIALS AND METHODS Hypercholesterolaemia is induced by supplementing cholesterol with the basal diet. Reference dose of various vegetable oils were administered once daily for 90 days. After the treatment period of 90 days, triacylglycerol, total cholesterol, HDL cholesterol, LDL cholesterol, VLDL cholesterol and oxidative stress parameters are estimated and analysed. RESULTS In the present study, we observed the lipid-lowering effect of various vegetable oils in rats fed with high-cholesterol diet. Administration of cholesterol showed increased level of lipid profile. Concurrent administration of various vegetable oils with high-cholesterol diet caused a significant decrease in serum total cholesterol, LDL and VLDL cholesterol. This conclusion is made based on the observation that the vegetable oils were able to restore, at least partially, the lipid profile of hypercholesterolaemic rats. A decline of antioxidant status associated with an increase in lipid peroxidation was observed in all the vegetable oil treated groups. Among the oils, coconut oil showed a mild increase in High-Density Lipoprotein (HDL and least increase in lipid peroxidation compared to other vegetable oils treated groups. CONCLUSION Results suggest that the

  9. SANS study of the unilamellar DMPC vesicles. The fluctuation model of lipid bilayer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kiselev, M.A.; Zemlyanaya, E.V.; Vinod, A.

    2003-01-01

    On the basis of the separated form-factors model, parameters of the polydispersed unilamellar DMPC vesicle population are analyzed. The neutron scattering length density across the membrane is simulated on the basis of fluctuated model of lipid bilayer. The hydration of vesicle is described by sigmoid distribution function of the water molecules. The results of fitting of the experimental data obtained at the small angle spectrometer SANS-I, PSI (Switzerland) are: average vesicle radius 272±0.4 Armstrong, polydispersity of the radius 27 %, membrane thickness 50.6± Armstrong, thickness of hydrocarbon chain region 21.4±2.8 Armstrong, number of water molecules located per lipid molecule 13±1, and DMPC surface area 59±2 Armstrong 2 . The calculated water distribution function across the bilayer directly explains why lipid membrane is easy penetrated by water molecules

  10. Tris(2-aminoethyl)amine-based α-branched fatty acid amides - Synthesis of lipids and comparative study of transfection efficiency of their lipid formulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erdmann, Nicole; Wölk, Christian; Schulze, Ingo; Janich, Christopher; Folz, Manuela; Drescher, Simon; Dittrich, Matthias; Meister, Annette; Vogel, Jürgen; Groth, Thomas; Dobner, Bodo; Langner, Andreas

    2015-10-01

    The synthesis of a new class of cationic lipids, tris(2-aminoethyl)amine-based α-branched fatty acid amides, is described resulting in a series of lipids with specific variations in the lipophilic as well as the hydrophilic part of the lipids. In-vitro structure/transfection relationships were established by application of complexes of these lipids with plasmid DNA (pDNA) to different cell lines. The α-branched fatty acid amide bearing two tetradecyl chains and two lysine molecules (T14diLys) in mixture with the co-lipid 1,2-di-[(9Z)-octadec-9-enoyl]-sn-glycero-3-phosphoethanolamine (DOPE) (1/2, n/n) exhibits effective pDNA transfer in three different cell lines, namely Hep-G2, A549, and COS-7. The presence of 10% serum during lipoplex incubation of the cells did not affect the transfection efficiency. Based on that, detailed investigations of the complexation of pDNA with the lipid formulation T14diLys/DOPE 1/2 (n/n) were carried out with respect to particle size and charge using dynamic light scattering (DLS), ζ-potential measurements, and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Additionally, the lipoplex uptake was investigated by confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM). Overall, lipoplexes prepared from T14diLys/DOPE 1/2 (n/n) offer large potential as lipid-based polynucleotide carriers and further justify advanced examinations. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Physical Activity and Lipid Profile in the ELSA-Brasil Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Silva, Raquel Caroline; Diniz, Maria de Fátima Haueisen Sander; Alvim, Sheila; Vidigal, Pedro Guatimosim; Fedeli, Ligia Maria Giongo; Barreto, Sandhi Maria

    2016-01-01

    Background Regular physical activity (PA) induces desirable changes in plasma levels of high- and low-density lipoproteins (HDL and LDL, respectively) and triglycerides (TG), important risk factors for cardiometabolic diseases. However, doubts whether intensity and duration have equivalent benefits remain. Objective To assess the association of PA intensity and duration with HDL, LDL and TG levels. Methods Cross-sectional study with 12,688 participants from the Brazilian Longitudinal Study of Adult Health (ELSA-Brasil) baseline, who were not on lipid-lowering medication. After adjustment for important covariates, multiple linear regression was used to assess the association of PA intensity and duration with HDL, LDL and TG (natural logarithm) levels. Results Both moderate and vigorous PA and PA practice ≥ 150 min/week were significantly associated with higher HDL and lower TG levels. Vigorous PA was associated with lower LDL only on univariate analysis. After adjustments, moderate and vigorous PA increased mean HDL level by 0.89 mg/dL and 1.71 mg/dL, respectively, and reduced TG geometric mean by 0.98 mg/dL and 0.93 mg/dL, respectively. PA practice ≥ 150 min/week increased mean HDL level by 1.05 mg/dL, and decreased TG geometric mean by 0.98 mg/dL. Conclusion Our findings reinforce the benefits of both PA parameters studied on HDL and TG levels, with a slight advantage for vigorous PA as compared to the recommendation based only on PA duration. PMID:27355470

  12. Miltefosine Lipid Nanocapsules for Single Dose Oral Treatment of Schistosomiasis Mansoni: A Preclinical Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maha M Eissa

    Full Text Available Miltefosine (MFS is an alkylphosphocholine used for the local treatment of cutaneous metastases of breast cancer and oral therapy of visceral leishmaniasis. Recently, the drug was reported in in vitro and preclinical studies to exert significant activity against different developmental stages of schistosomiasis mansoni, a widespread chronic neglected tropical disease (NTD. This justified MFS repurposing as a potential antischistosomal drug. However, five consecutive daily 20 mg/kg doses were needed for the treatment of schistosomiasis mansoni in mice. The present study aims at enhancing MFS efficacy to allow for a single 20mg/kg oral dose therapy using a nanotechnological approach based on lipid nanocapsules (LNCs as oral nanovectors. MFS was incorporated in LNCs both as membrane-active structural alkylphospholipid component and active antischistosomal agent. MFS-LNC formulations showed high entrapment efficiency (EE%, good colloidal properties, sustained release pattern and physical stability. Further, LNCs generally decreased MFS-induced erythrocyte hemolytic activity used as surrogate indicator of membrane activity. While MFS-free LNCs exerted no antischistosomal effect, statistically significant enhancement was observed with all MFS-LNC formulations. A maximum effect was achieved with MFS-LNCs incorporating CTAB as positive charge imparting agent or oleic acid as membrane permeabilizer. Reduction of worm load, ameliorated liver pathology and extensive damage of the worm tegument provided evidence for formulation-related efficacy enhancement. Non-compartmental analysis of pharmacokinetic data obtained in rats indicated independence of antischistosomal activity on systemic drug exposure, suggesting possible gut uptake of the stable LNCs and targeting of the fluke tegument which was verified by SEM. The study findings put forward MFS-LNCs as unique oral nanovectors combining the bioactivity of MFS and biopharmaceutical advantages of LNCs

  13. Leisure Time Physical Activity and Its Determinants among Adults in Tehran: Tehran Lipid and Glucose Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Momenan, Amir Abbas; Delshad, Maryam; Mirmiran, Parvin; Ghanbarian, Arash; Azizi, Fereidoun

    2011-10-01

    The aim of this study was to assess leisure time physical activity and its determinants among adults in Tehran. This cross-sectional study comprised adults (n = 7285), aged 20 years and older. The subjects were participants of the Tehran Lipid and Glucose Study between 2002 and 2004. Information on the number of days spent on different activities during a week and the time devoted to each activity on a typical day was recorded. In addition, each activity, weighted by its relative intensity, was referred to as a metabolic equivalent. The prevalence of inactivity was 69.8% (95% CI: 68.7-70.8) in the whole population and 30.2% (95% CI: 27.2-33.1%) of men and 30.3% (95% CI: 27.7-32.8%) of women were considered as active. Leisure time physical activity less than 30 min/week was scored in 1590 (50.6%) men and 1803 (43.5%) women. The most frequent leisure time physical activity performed by men (96.1%) and women (95.2%) was walking. A negative association was observed in men between leisure time physical activity and increased work hours, older age, more cigarette smoking and higher body mass index (69.8% were overweight and 75.3% were obese; P women. The prevalence of physical inactivity among adults in Tehran was high. Leisure time physical inactivity was more likely to be associated with older age, more cigarette smoking, more working hours, and higher body mass index. Public health efforts are needed to improve people's participation in physical activities in Iran.

  14. Autism Spectrum Disorders According to "DSM-IV-TR" and Comparison with "DSM-5" Draft Criteria: An Epidemiological Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mattila, Marja-Leena; Kielinen, Marko; Linna, Sirkka-Liisa; Jussila, Katja; Ebeling, Hanna; Bloigu, Risto; Joseph, Robert M.; Moilanen, Irma

    2011-01-01

    Objective: The latest definitions of autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) were specified in "DSM-IV-TR" in 2000. "DSM-5" criteria are planned for 2013. Here, we estimated the prevalence of ASDs and autism according to "DSM-IV-TR," clarified confusion concerning diagnostic criteria, and evaluated "DSM-5" draft…

  15. 161: BRIDGING BETWEEN PATIENTS PREFERENCE AND EVIDENCE BASED PRACTICE ACCORDING TO GUIDELINES IN OSTEOARTHRITIS MANAGEMENT: A QUALITATIVE STUDY

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behshid, Mozhgan; Zamanzadeh, Vahid; Ahmadi, Fazlollah; Irajpoor, Alireza

    2017-01-01

    Background and aims Osteoarthritis is the major cause of disability worldwide that causes significant problems in activities of daily living and deeply affects the quality of life. Osteoarthritis is predicted to become one of the major causes of disability in future that necessitates comprehensive global plans for resolving this health issue in accordance with patients' local culture, beliefs and attitudes. This study was a part of PhD dissertation that was conducted to carry out an in-depth examination of the experiences of patients with OA about their use of strategies for the OA self-management and compare them with scientific evidences. Methods The present qualitative study was conducted using a conventional content analysis approach on 33participantincluding patients with OA, their family members and healthcare personnel who were selected by purposive sampling. Data were collected through unstructured and semi-structured interviews and continued until data saturation occurred. Data analysis was carried out simultaneously. Guba and Lincoln's standards of rigor and trustworthiness were respected including the credibility, transferability, dependability and conformability of the data. A narrative systematic review was conducted on osteoarthritis care guidelines and algorithms in order to compare patients' preference with scientific evidences. Results The analysis of the data revealed four main categories, including: Conservative approach in selecting treatment modalities, trend toward traditional treatment, Preferring complementary and alternative medicine, and concerns and barriers treatment modalities. The review of literature demonstrated little attention by professionals to the patients' values or priorities. Comparing of the modalities that were preferred by patients with scientific guidelines indicated some inconsistencies. Conclusion Patient's perceptions, preference, and adherence to treatment, play an essential role in relieving nagging symptoms and

  16. Interaction of polycationic antibiotics with Pseudomonas aeruginosa lipopolysaccharide and lipid A studied by using dansyl-polymyxin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, R A; Bates, N C; Hancock, R E

    1986-01-01

    A fluorescent derivative of polymyxin B (dansyl-polymyxin) was used to study the interaction of polycations with lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and lipid A from Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Dansyl-polymyxin became bound to LPS and lipid A sites, including Mg2+-binding sites, resulting in a 20-fold enhancement of fluorescence. A Hill plot of the binding data showed that the binding of dansyl-polymyxin to LPS was cooperative (n = 1.98) and of high affinity (S0.5 = 0.38 microM). The maximal binding capacity of LPS was approximately four molecules of dansyl-polymyxin per mol of LPS. The dansyl-polymyxin interaction with lipid A displayed similar kinetics (n = 2.26; S0.5 = 0.38 microM), and the maximal binding capacity was approximately 2 mol of dansyl-polymyxin per mol of lipid A. A variety of polycationic compounds, including gentamicin, streptomycin, and polymyxin B, as well as Mg2+, were able to displace dansyl-polymyxin bound to LPS or to lipid A. Marked differences both in terms of the degree of displacement and in terms of the amount of competing polycation required to displace a given amount of dansyl-polymyxin were observed. Addition of excess polymyxin B resulted in displacement of all of the dansyl-polymyxin, demonstrating that only polymyxin-binding sites were being probed. Our data demonstrate that polymyxin B binds to multiple sites on LPS, including sites which bind aminoglycoside antibiotics and other polycationic compounds. PMID:3013085

  17. Analytical study of narrative structure on Sohrab’s poetry (Passenger According to the theory of morphology

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    Reza Ghanbari Abdolmaleki

    2016-12-01

    events are the components of the plot. These components make up the superstructure that have gathered around deep structure. The structure of poetry is separable into two parts: The first part of the poem, from beginning to end of paragraph seven. The second part of paragraph eight to thirty-four. The first part consists of a display position that is two scenes of dialogue. The second part consists of a long monologue and a display position. In this study, the structure of the poem according to Propp's method is studied. Vladimir Propp, studied Russian fairy tales. In that study, he applied morphological method. Propp's method is very effective in discovering the structure of the tales. This poem has twenty functions (Khishkari. The first function is absence and the last one is wedding. Some functions in this poem, arranged by group. Thus, absence and departure and evil, are a group that are moving story. The sequence of functions on this narrative is different from the Prop pattern. Hero and villain in this poem, have an important role in advancing the narrative. Much of this poem dedicated to the dialogue between the Hero (Passenger and Helpful (Host. Due to the move, the poem has a movement. So it must be said that this poem has a simple plot.

  18. Survey Study of Lipid Effect on Nisin Nanoliposome Formation and Application in Pasteurized Milk as a Food Model

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    Say-yed Hesameddin Tafreshi

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The use of bacteriocins, mainly nisin, is one of the most significant preservation technologies in food industries. Nisin encapsulation can improve stability and homogenous distribution in food matrices. In this study, liposomes of four various lipids (lipoid S 100, lipoid S PC-3, lipoid S PC and lipoid PC (DPPC were prepared by dehydration-rehydration method, compared for entrapment efficiency and lipid with the highest entrapment efficiency (DPPC was characterized. Inhibitory effects of encapsulated (DPPC nanoliposomes and free nisin on spoilage of pasteurized milk were also studied. Entrapment efficiency ranged from 14% (lipoid S 100 to 49% (DPPC. DPPC nanoliposomes were large unilamellar vesicles (LUV and had an asymmetric oval shape (elliptical with a mean diameter of 136 nm. Our study revealed that pasteurized milk spoilage was delayed by both of free and encapsulated nisin, but free nisin (with 38 days was significantly more efficient in comparison with encapsulated nisin (14 days.

  19. Identification and distribution of COPD phenotypes in clinical practice according to Spanish COPD Guidelines: the FENEPOC study

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    Calle Rubio M

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Myriam Calle Rubio,1,2 Ricard Casamor,3 Marc Miravitlles4 On behalf of the FENEPOC study group1Pulmonary Department, Hospital Clínico San Carlos, 2Department of Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, University Complutense of Madrid, Research Institute of Hospital Clínico San Carlos (IdISSC, Madrid, 3Medical Department, Novartis Farmaceutica, Barcelona, 4Pneumology Department, University Hospital Vall d’Hebron, CIBER de Enfermedades Respiratorias (CIBERES, Barcelona, SpainBackground: The Spanish Guidelines for COPD (GesEPOC describe four clinical phenotypes: non-exacerbator (NE, asthma-COPD overlap syndrome (ACO, frequent exacerbator with emphysema (EE, and exacerbator with chronic bronchitis (ECB. The objective of this study was to determine the frequency of COPD phenotypes, their clinical characteristics, and the availability of diagnostic tools to classify COPD phenotypes in clinical practice.Materials and methods: This study was an epidemiological, cross-sectional, and multicentered study. Patients ≥40 years old with a post-bronchodilator forced expiratory volume in 1 s (FEV1/forced vital capacity ratio of <0.7 and who were smokers or former smokers (with at least 10 pack-years were included. The availability of diagnostic tools to classify COPD phenotypes was assessed by an ad hoc questionnaire.Results: A total of 647 patients (294 primary care [PC], 353 pulmonology centers were included. Most patients were male (80.8%, with a mean age (SD of 68.2 (9.2 years, mean post-bronchodilator FEV1 was 53.2% (18.9% and they suffered a mean of 2.2 (2.1 exacerbations in the last year. NE was the most frequent phenotype (47.5% found, followed by ECB (29.1%, EE (17.0%, and ACO (6.5%. Significant differences between the four phenotypes were found regarding age; sex; body mass index; FEV1; body mass index, airflow obstruction, dyspnea, and exercise capacity (BODE/body mass index, airflow obstruction, dyspnea and exacerbations (BODEx index; modified Medical

  20. Single-molecule study of full-length NaChBac by planar lipid bilayer recording.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew Jo

    Full Text Available Planar lipid bilayer device, alternatively known as BLM, is a powerful tool to study functional properties of conducting membrane proteins such as ion channels and porins. In this work, we used BLM to study the prokaryotic voltage-gated sodium channel (Nav NaChBac in a well-defined membrane environment. Navs are an essential component for the generation and propagation of electric signals in excitable cells. The successes in the biochemical, biophysical and crystallographic studies on prokaryotic Navs in recent years has greatly promoted the understanding of the molecular mechanism that underlies these proteins and their eukaryotic counterparts. In this work, we investigated the single-molecule conductance and ionic selectivity behavior of NaChBac. Purified NaChBac protein was first reconstituted into lipid vesicles, which is subsequently incorporated into planar lipid bilayer by fusion. At single-molecule level, we were able to observe three distinct long-lived conductance sub-states of NaChBac. Change in the membrane potential switches on the channel mainly by increasing its opening probability. In addition, we found that individual NaChBac has similar permeability for Na+, K+, and Ca2+. The single-molecule behavior of the full-length protein is essentially highly stochastic. Our results show that planar lipid bilayer device can be used to study purified ion channels at single-molecule level in an artificial environment, and such studies can reveal new protein properties that are otherwise not observable in in vivo ensemble studies.

  1. Phase behavior of supported lipid bilayers: A systematic study by coarse-grained molecular dynamics simulations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poursoroush, Asma; Sperotto, Maria Maddalena; Laradji, Mohamed

    2017-01-01

    Solid-supported lipid bilayers are utilized by experimental scientists as models for biological membranes because of their stability. However, compared to free standing bilayers, their close proximity to the substrate may affect their phase behavior. As this is still poorly understood, and few co...

  2. Structural Studies of Lipid A from a Lipopolysaccharide of the Coxiella burnetii isolate RSA 514 (Crazy)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Vadovič, P.; Fuleová, A.; Ihnatko, R.; Škultéty, L.; Halada, Petr; Toman, R.

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 15, č. 2 (2009), s. 198-199 ISSN 1198-743X Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50200510 Keywords : lipid * lipopolysaccharide * crazy Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology Impact factor: 4.014, year: 2009

  3. To Study Correlation of Body Fat and Blood Lipids with Autonomic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Results: There was a significant difference in BMI, W/H ratio, lipid profile, autonomic function tests between the two groups. Aging and menopausal duration (MD) were positively correlated with pulse rate, systolic blood pressure, total cholesterol (TC), low‑density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol, orthostatic tolerance test (OTT), ...

  4. Exome-wide association study of plasma lipids in >300,000 individuals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Dajiang J; Peloso, Gina M; Yu, Haojie

    2017-01-01

    -density-lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), and/or triglycerides (TG). At two loci (JAK2 and A1CF), experimental analysis in mice showed lipid changes consistent with the human data. We also found that: (i) beta-thalassemia trait carriers displayed lower TC and were protected from coronary artery disease (CAD); (ii) excluding...

  5. Gastric emptying and intragastric distribution of lipids in man. A new scintigraphic method of study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jian, R.; Vigneron, N.; Najean, Y.; Bernier, J.J.

    1982-01-01

    We measured gastric emptying of fat and water from a solid-liquid meal in healthy volunteers using a tubeless scintigraphic method. 75 Se glycerol triether, incorporated in butter, was the lipid-phase marker, and /sup 99m/Tcm, ingested with 250 ml water, the non-lipid phase marker. In seven of these subjects we also measured the gastric emptying of solids and liquids with /sup 99m/Tc bound to cooked egg whites as the solid-phase marker and 111 In ingested with 250 ml water as the marker of the solid and aqueous phases. Emptying and intragastric repartition of each marker were measured by detection of radioactivity changes over the abdominal area using a gamma-camera. The stability and the specificity of the labeling was checked for each marker. Mean gastric emptying rate (expressed as percentage ingested marker emptied per hr) of lipids (17.4 +/- 2.4) was much lower than that of the rest of the meal (34.2 +/- 1.8) and slightly, but significantly, lower than that of solids (22.8 +/- 1.8). An intragastric layering of fat above nonlipids was observed only after the first postprandial hour and remained moderate. Thus, lipids are emptied more slowly than any other component of an ordinary meal, and this is not due only to layering of fat above water

  6. Gastric emptying and intragastric distribution of lipids in man. A new scintigraphic method of study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jian, R.; Vigneron, N.; Najean, Y.; Bernier, J.J.

    1982-08-01

    We measured gastric emptying of fat and water from a solid-liquid meal in healthy volunteers using a tubeless scintigraphic method. /sup 75/Se glycerol triether, incorporated in butter, was the lipid-phase marker, and /sup 99m/Tcm, ingested with 250 ml water, the non-lipid phase marker. In seven of these subjects we also measured the gastric emptying of solids and liquids with /sup 99m/Tc bound to cooked egg whites as the solid-phase marker and /sup 111/In ingested with 250 ml water as the marker of the solid and aqueous phases. Emptying and intragastric repartition of each marker were measured by detection of radioactivity changes over the abdominal area using a gamma-camera. The stability and the specificity of the labeling was checked for each marker. Mean gastric emptying rate (expressed as percentage ingested marker emptied per hr) of lipids (17.4 +/- 2.4) was much lower than that of the rest of the meal (34.2 +/- 1.8) and slightly, but significantly, lower than that of solids (22.8 +/- 1.8). An intragastric layering of fat above nonlipids was observed only after the first postprandial hour and remained moderate. Thus, lipids are emptied more slowly than any other component of an ordinary meal, and this is not due only to layering of fat above water.

  7. Profiling and study of interfacial tension laden with crude lipid extract ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Crude lipid extract plant based namely SPLIP and PULIP are being introduced in this research as a potential surfactant with phospholipid and glycolipid components which playing an important role at the oil/water interface. Since the interaction between the components give a significant impact on the interfaces, the aim of ...

  8. Lipid control and use of lipid-regulating drugs for prevention of cardiovascular events in Chinese type 2 diabetic patients: a prospective cohort study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tong Peter CY

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Dyslipidaemia is an important but modifiable risk factor of cardiovascular disease (CVD in type 2 diabetes. Yet, the effectiveness of lipid regulating drugs in Asians is lacking. We examined the effects of lipid control and treatment with lipid regulating drugs on new onset of CVD in Chinese type 2 diabetic patients. Methods In this prospective cohort consisting of 4521 type 2 diabetic patients without history of CVD and naïve for lipid regulating treatment recruited consecutively from 1996 to 2005, 371 developed CVD after a median follow-up of 4.9 years. We used Cox proportional hazard regression to obtain the hazard ratios (HR of lipids and use of lipid regulating drugs for risk of CVD. Results The multivariate-adjusted HR (95% confidence interval of CVD in patients with high LDL-cholesterol (≥ 3.0 mmol/L was 1.36 (1.08 - 1.71, compared with lower values. Using the whole range value of HDL-cholesterol, the risk of CVD was reduced by 41% with every 1 mmol/L increase in HDL-cholesterol. Plasma triglyceride did not predict CVD. Statins use was associated with lower CVD risk [HR = 0.66 (0.50 - 0.88]. In sub-cohort analysis, statins use was associated with a HR of 0.60 (0.44 - 0.82 in patients with high LDL-cholesterol (≥ 3.0 mmol/L and 0.49 (0.28 - 0.88 in patients with low HDL-cholesterol. In patients with LDL-cholesterol Conclusions In Chinese type 2 diabetic patients, high LDL-cholesterol and low HDL-cholesterol predicted incident CVD. Overall, patients treated with statins had 40-50% risk reduction in CVD compared to non-users.

  9. Effects of colchicine on the intestinal transport of endogenous lipid. Ultrastructural, biochemical, and radiochemical studies in fasting rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pavelka, M.; Gangl, A.

    1983-01-01

    The involvement of microtubules in the transepithelial transport of exogenous lipid in intestinal absorptive cells has been suggested. Using electronmicroscopic, biochemical, and radiochemical methods, researchers have studied the effects of the antimicrotubular agent colchicine on the intestinal mucosa and on the intestinal transport of endogenous lipid of rats in the fasting state. After colchicine treatment, the concentration of triglycerides in intestinal mucosa of rats fasted for 24 h doubled, and electron microscopic studies showed a striking accumulation of lipid particles in absorptive epithelial cells of the tips of jejunal villi. These findings suggest that colchicine interferes with the intestinal transepithelial transport of endogenous lipoproteins. Additional studies, using an intraduodenal pulse injection of [ 14 C]linoleic acid, showed that colchicine does not affect the uptake of fatty acids by intestinal mucosa. However, it had divergent effects on fatty acid esterification, enhancing their incorporation into triglycerides relative to phospholipids, and caused a significant accumulation of endogenous diglycerides, triglycerides, and cholesterol esters within the absorptive intestinal epithelium. Detailed ultrastructural and morphometric studies revealed a decrease of visible microtubules, and a displacement of the smooth and rough endoplasmic reticulum and Golgi apparatus. Furthermore, it is shown that after colchicine treatment, microvilli appear at the lateral plasma membrane of intestinal absorptive cells, a change not previously reported to our knowledge. Thus, our study shows that colchicine causes significant changes in enterocyte ultrastructure and colchicine perturbs the reesterification of absorbed endogenous fatty acids and their secretion in the form of triglyceride-rich lipoproteins from the enterocyte

  10. In vitro study of interaction of synaptic vesicles with lipid membranes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ghosh, S K; Castorph, S; Salditt, T [Institute for X-ray Physics, University of Goettingen, 37077 Goettingen (Germany); Konovalov, O [European Synchrotron Radiation Facility, 38043 Grenoble Cedex (France); Jahn, R; Holt, M, E-mail: sghosh1@gwdg.d, E-mail: mholt@gwdg.d, E-mail: tsaldit@gwdg.d [Department of Neurobiology, Max Planck Institute for Biophysical Chemistry, 37077 Goettingen (Germany)

    2010-10-15

    The fusion of synaptic vesicles (SVs) with the plasma membrane in neurons is a crucial step in the release of neurotransmitters, which are responsible for carrying signals between nerve cells. While many of the molecular players involved in this fusion process have been identified, a precise molecular description of their roles in the process is still lacking. A case in point is the plasma membrane lipid phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate (PIP{sub 2}). Although PIP{sub 2} is known to be essential for vesicle fusion, its precise role in the process remains unclear. We have re-investigated the role of this lipid in membrane structure and function using the complementary experimental techniques of x-ray reflectivity, both on lipid monolayers at an air-water interface and bilayers on a solid support, and grazing incidence x-ray diffraction on lipid monolayers. These techniques provide unprecedented access to structural information at the molecular level, and detail the profound structural changes that occur in a membrane following PIP{sub 2} incorporation. Further, we also confirm and extend previous findings that the association of SVs with membranes is enhanced by PIP{sub 2} incorporation, and reveal the structural changes that underpin this phenomenon. Further, the association is further intensified by a physiologically relevant amount of Ca{sup 2+} ions in the subphase of the monolayer, as revealed by the increase in interfacial pressure seen with the lipid monolayer system. Finally, a theoretical calculation concerning the products arising from the fusion of these SVs with proteoliposomes is presented, with which we aim to illustrate the potential future uses of this system.

  11. In vitro study of interaction of synaptic vesicles with lipid membranes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ghosh, S K; Castorph, S; Salditt, T; Konovalov, O; Jahn, R; Holt, M

    2010-01-01

    The fusion of synaptic vesicles (SVs) with the plasma membrane in neurons is a crucial step in the release of neurotransmitters, which are responsible for carrying signals between nerve cells. While many of the molecular players involved in this fusion process have been identified, a precise molecular description of their roles in the process is still lacking. A case in point is the plasma membrane lipid phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate (PIP 2 ). Although PIP 2 is known to be essential for vesicle fusion, its precise role in the process remains unclear. We have re-investigated the role of this lipid in membrane structure and function using the complementary experimental techniques of x-ray reflectivity, both on lipid monolayers at an air-water interface and bilayers on a solid support, and grazing incidence x-ray diffraction on lipid monolayers. These techniques provide unprecedented access to structural information at the molecular level, and detail the profound structural changes that occur in a membrane following PIP 2 incorporation. Further, we also confirm and extend previous findings that the association of SVs with membranes is enhanced by PIP 2 incorporation, and reveal the structural changes that underpin this phenomenon. Further, the association is further intensified by a physiologically relevant amount of Ca 2+ ions in the subphase of the monolayer, as revealed by the increase in interfacial pressure seen with the lipid monolayer system. Finally, a theoretical calculation concerning the products arising from the fusion of these SVs with proteoliposomes is presented, with which we aim to illustrate the potential future uses of this system.

  12. Ameliorating effects of genestein: Study on mice liver glutathione and lipid peroxidation after irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gaur, A.

    2010-01-01

    Genistein is a soya isoflavone, which is found naturally in legumes. such as soybeans and chickpeas. Radiation-induced free radicals in turn impair the antioxidative defense mechanism, leading to an increased membrane lipid peroxidation that results in damage of the membrane bound enzyme and may lead to damage or death of cell. Hence, the lipid peroxidation is a good biomarker of damage occurs due to radiation and the inhibition of lipid peroxidation is suggestive of radioprotective action. Glutathione has been shown to protect cells against oxidative stress by reacting with peroxides and hydroperoxides and determines the inherent radiosensitivity of cells. Materials and Methods: For experimentation, healthy Swiss Albino male mice of 6-8 weeks old were selected from inbred colony. Genistein was dissolved in dimethyl sulfoxide and then prepared different concentration solutions so that the volume administered intraperitoneally was 0.5 ml. Lipid peroxidation was estimated by the method of Ohkawa and GSH was estimated by the method of Moron. Results: The intraperitoneal administration of optimum dose (200 mg/kg body weight) of Genistein before 24 hours and 15 minutes of irradiation (8 Gy at a dose rate of 1.02 Gy/min)reverted the increase in lipid peroxidation (by 18.01% ± 3.05) and decrease of Glutathione (by 62.05%±21.58) caused by irradiation in liver of Swiss albino mice. Statistically analyzed survival data produced a dose reduction factor = 1.24. Conclusion: The results indicate that Genistein against radiation effect may pave way to the formulation of medicine in radiotherapy for normal tissue and possible against radiomimetic drug induced toxicity.

  13. Metabolomic study of lipids in serum for biomarker discovery in Alzheimer's disease using direct infusion mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Domínguez, R; García-Barrera, T; Gómez-Ariza, J L

    2014-09-01

    In this study, we demonstrated the potential of direct infusion mass spectrometry for the lipidomic characterization of Alzheimer's disease. Serum samples were extracted for lipids recovery, and directly analyzed using an electrospray source. Metabolomic fingerprints were subjected to multivariate analysis in order to discriminate between groups of patients and healthy controls, and then some key-compounds were identified as possible markers of Alzheimer's disease. Major differences were found in lipids, although some low molecular weight metabolites also showed significant changes. Thus, important metabolic pathways involved in neurodegeneration could be studied on the basis of these perturbations, such as membrane breakdown (phospholipids and diacylglycerols), oxidative stress (prostaglandins, imidazole and histidine), alterations in neurotransmission systems (oleamide and putrescine) and hyperammonaemia (guanidine and arginine). Moreover, it is noteworthy that some of these potential biomarkers have not been previously described for Alzheimer's disease. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. The human hepatocyte cell lines IHH and HepaRG: models to study glucose, lipid and lipoprotein metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samanez, Carolina Huaman; Caron, Sandrine; Briand, Olivier; Dehondt, Hélène; Duplan, Isabelle; Kuipers, Folkert; Hennuyer, Nathalie; Clavey, Véronique; Staels, Bart

    2012-07-01

    Metabolic diseases reach epidemic proportions. A better knowledge of the associated alterations in the metabolic pathways in the liver is necessary. These studies need in vitro human cell models. Several human hepatoma models are used, but the response of many metabolic pathways to physiological stimuli is often lost. Here, we characterize two human hepatocyte cell lines, IHH and HepaRG, by analysing the expression and regulation of genes involved in glucose and lipid metabolism. Our results show that the glycolysis pathway is activated by glucose and insulin in both lines. Gluconeogenesis gene expression is induced by forskolin in IHH cells and inhibited by insulin in both cell lines. The lipogenic pathway is regulated by insulin in IHH cells. Finally, both cell lines secrete apolipoprotein B-containing lipoproteins, an effect promoted by increasing glucose concentrations. These two human cell lines are thus interesting models to study the regulation of glucose and lipid metabolism.

  15. [Epidemiologic study of tear film lipid layer thickness measurement in the population of Taishitun Community in Beijing].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Q F; Du, X H; Su, Y D; Wang, N L; Wei, Z J; Labbé, Antoine

    2017-07-11

    Objective: To investigate the distribution of tear film lipid layer thickness (LLT) and the relationship between symptoms and signs of dry eye and tear film LLT in the population of Taishitun Community in Beijing. Methods: A cross-sectional study. From May 2016 to August 2016, three streets of Taishitun Community were randomly selected as survey districts and 540 persons were taken as investigation subjects. Every participant completed 6 items of dry eye examinations as follows: questionnaire (Ocular Surface Disease Index, OSDI), measurement of tear film LLT, tear film break-up time (TBUT), corneal and conjunctival staining, SchirmerⅠtest and the infrared meibomian photography. According to their age, all participants were divided into four groups: junior group (analysis and multivariate Logistic regression analysis, distribution of the variables of LLT and the relationship between dry eye symptoms and LLT were studied. Results: A total of 473 residents finally participated in this study, and the response ratio was 87.6%. The values of LLT were normally distributed. The average LLT was (59.87±18.50) nm [(60.16±19.15) nm in males and (59.67±18.57) nm in females], and the comparison of LLT with different genders was not statistically significant ( t= 0.198, P= 0.843). The tear film LLT of four different age groups had statistical significance ( F= 15.092, P0.05. F= 0.538, P >0.05). In the OSDI symptom questionnaire, only blurred vision and decreased visual acuity were related to the tear film LLT ( Pfilm LLT ( P> 0.05). Conclusions: In Taishitun Community of Beijing, the values of tear film LLT had a normal distribution. The LLT was positively correlated with age, but inversely correlated with the severity of the symptoms of dry eye. There was no significant correlation between the LLT and the TBUT, SchirmerⅠtest result and meibomian gland loss rate. (Chin J Ophthalmol, 2017, 53: 495-501) .

  16. Genome-wide association of lipid-lowering response to statins in combined study populations.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mathew J Barber

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Statins effectively lower total and plasma LDL-cholesterol, but the magnitude of decrease varies among individuals. To identify single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs contributing to this variation, we performed a combined analysis of genome-wide association (GWA results from three trials of statin efficacy.Bayesian and standard frequentist association analyses were performed on untreated and statin-mediated changes in LDL-cholesterol, total cholesterol, HDL-cholesterol, and triglyceride on a total of 3932 subjects using data from three studies: Cholesterol and Pharmacogenetics (40 mg/day simvastatin, 6 weeks, Pravastatin/Inflammation CRP Evaluation (40 mg/day pravastatin, 24 weeks, and Treating to New Targets (10 mg/day atorvastatin, 8 weeks. Genotype imputation was used to maximize genomic coverage and to combine information across studies. Phenotypes were normalized within each study to account for systematic differences among studies, and fixed-effects combined analysis of the combined sample were performed to detect consistent effects across studies. Two SNP associations were assessed as having posterior probability greater than 50%, indicating that they were more likely than not to be genuinely associated with statin-mediated lipid response. SNP rs8014194, located within the CLMN gene on chromosome 14, was strongly associated with statin-mediated change in total cholesterol with an 84% probability by Bayesian analysis, and a p-value exceeding conventional levels of genome-wide significance by frequentist analysis (P = 1.8 x 10(-8. This SNP was less significantly associated with change in LDL-cholesterol (posterior probability = 0.16, P = 4.0 x 10(-6. Bayesian analysis also assigned a 51% probability that rs4420638, located in APOC1 and near APOE, was associated with change in LDL-cholesterol.Using combined GWA analysis from three clinical trials involving nearly 4,000 individuals treated with simvastatin, pravastatin, or atorvastatin, we

  17. Lipids of Dietzia sp. A14101. Part I: A study of the production dynamics of surface-active compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hvidsten, Ina; Mjøs, Svein Are; Holmelid, Bjarte; Bødtker, Gunhild; Barth, Tanja

    2017-11-01

    Dietzia sp. A14101 belonging to the genus Dietzia (Gram-positive bacteria, Actinomycetes, high G+C content of DNA) was isolated from an oil reservoir model column inoculated with oil-field bacteria (Bødtker et al., 2009). Low interfacial tension (IFT) values were obtained by studying intact strain cells grown on water-immiscible hydrocarbons (HC) (Kowalewski et al. (2004), Kowalewski et al. (2005). Further investigations showed that the adaptation mechanism of Dietzia sp. A14101 to toxic water-immiscible HC involved changes both on the level of fatty acids content and in the physical properties of the cellular surface (development of the negative cellular surface charge and an increased in hydrophobicity) (Hvidsten et al., 2015b). However, these changes could not explain the low IFT values observed in earlier studies of this strain. Generally, low IFT imply a production of surface active compounds of low MW that are lipids by structure (Rosenberg and Ron, 1999). In this paper, it is shown that Dietzia sp. A14101 produces a range of glycolipids on all substrates. The amount of trehalose-containing lipids increases when the strain is grown on hydrocarbons. The production peak seems to coincide with the exponential growth phase, and such increased glycolipid synthesis continues throughout the stationary phase. The results indicate that only low amounts of the hydrocarbon substrate is incorporated directly into the glycolipids produced. Most of the hydrocarbon substrate seems to be employed for the biosynthesis of the neutral lipids and higher amounts of biomass were generated on HC substrates compared to incubations on non-HC substrates. The lipid content of the cell was determined as the total lipid extract (TLE), and was further fractionated (SPE). The hydrophobic and hydrophilic moieties of the isolated surface active compounds were determined (GC-MS, TLC, DART, LC-MS). The changes in the lipid content during the culture development were monitored by 1D and 2D TLC

  18. Lipid nanoparticles for topical and transdermal application for alopecia treatment: development, physicochemical characterization, and in vitro release and penetration studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gomes MJ

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Maria João Gomes,1 Susana Martins,2,3 Domingos Ferreira,2 Marcela A Segundo,1 Salette Reis1 1REQUIMTE, Laboratory of Applied Chemistry, Department of Chemical Sciences, Faculty of Pharmacy, 2Laboratory of Pharmaceutical Technology, Department of Drug Sciences, Faculty of Pharmacy, University of Porto, Porto, Portugal; 3Department of Physics, Chemistry and Pharmacy, University of Southern Denmark, Odense, Denmark Abstract: Alopecia is a dermatological disorder, commonly known as hair loss, which affects up to half of the Caucasian male population by middle age, and almost all (95% Caucasian men by old age. Considering that alopecia affects so many people and that there is currently no scientifically proven treatment with few side effects, new drug-delivery systems able to improve alopecia therapy are urgently required. With this purpose in mind, the present study aimed to develop lipid nanoparticles (nanostructured lipid carriers with the ability to incorporate and deliver anti-alopecia active compounds (minoxidil and finasteride into the dermis and hair follicles. Lipid nanoparticles, prepared by ultrasonication method, showed mean particle sizes around 200 nm, which is sufficient for reaching the dermis and hair follicles, and zeta potential values around -30 mV, which indicates good physical stability. Over 28 days of storage, no significant variations in these parameters were observed, which indicates that all nanoformulations are stable in storage over that period. Cryo-scanning electron microscope measurements showed that all the lipid nanoparticles exhibited a spherical shape and a smooth surface regardless of their composition. Differential scanning calorimetry studies allowed the determination of phase transition temperatures and confirmed the recrystallization of the lipid nanoparticles (recrystallization index between 11% and 86%. A high loading efficiency was achieved for finasteride (between 70% and 90%, while less than 30% was

  19. Effects of Dimethyl Sulfoxide in Cholesterol-Containing Lipid Membranes: A Comparative Study of Experiments In Silico and with Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Ménorval, Marie-Amélie; Mir, Lluis M.; Fernández, M. Laura; Reigada, Ramon

    2012-01-01

    Dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) has been known to enhance cell membrane permeability of drugs or DNA. Molecular dynamics (MD) simulations with single-component lipid bilayers predicted the existence of three regimes of action of DMSO: membrane loosening, pore formation and bilayer collapse. We show here that these modes of action are also reproduced in the presence of cholesterol in the bilayer, and we provide a description at the atomic detail of the DMSO-mediated process of pore formation in cholesterol-containing lipid membranes. We also successfully explore the applicability of DMSO to promote plasma membrane permeability to water, calcium ions (Ca2+) and Yo-Pro-1 iodide (Yo-Pro-1) in living cell membranes. The experimental results on cells in culture can be easily explained according to the three expected regimes: in the presence of low doses of DMSO, the membrane of the cells exhibits undulations but no permeability increase can be detected, while at intermediate DMSO concentrations cells are permeabilized to water and calcium but not to larger molecules as Yo-Pro-1. These two behaviors can be associated to the MD-predicted consequences of the effects of the DMSO at low and intermediate DMSO concentrations. At larger DMSO concentrations, permeabilization is larger, as even Yo-Pro-1 can enter the cells as predicted by the DMSO-induced membrane-destructuring effects described in the MD simulations. PMID:22848583

  20. Synthesis of Lipidated Proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mejuch, Tom; Waldmann, Herbert

    2016-08-17

    Protein lipidation is one of the major post-translational modifications (PTM) of proteins. The attachment of the lipid moiety frequently determines the localization and the function of the lipoproteins. Lipidated proteins participate in many essential biological processes in eukaryotic cells, including vesicular trafficking, signal transduction, and regulation of the immune response. Malfunction of these cellular processes usually leads to various diseases such as cancer. Understanding the mechanism of cellular signaling and identifying the protein-protein and protein-lipid interactions in which the lipoproteins are involved is a crucial task. To achieve these goals, fully functional lipidated proteins are required. However, access to lipoproteins by means of standard expression is often rather limited. Therefore, semisynthetic methods, involving the synthesis of lipidated peptides and their subsequent chemoselective ligation to yield full-length lipoproteins, were developed. In this Review we summarize the commonly used methods for lipoprotein synthesis and the development of the corresponding chemoselective ligation techniques. Several key studies involving full-length semisynthetic lipidated Ras, Rheb, and LC3 proteins are presented.

  1. Study of the Effect of Garlic on Serum Lipids and Blood Glucose Levels in Type 2 Diabetic Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Afkhami - Ardekani

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Hyperlipidemia and diabetes are common risk factors for ischemic heart disease, which is the main cause of mortality in diabetic patients. Strict control of blood glucose and other risk factors in diabetics has led to prevention of complications. Garlic has received particular attention for control of blood glucose and decrease in blood lipid levels. At present, several studies have been carried out in order to prove advantages of garlic. Methods: In this study, effects of garsin (a derivative of garlic present in our country on serum lipids and blood glucose levels in diabetes mellitus type 2 patients was observed. Forty-five type 2 diabetics who had hyperlipidemia were selected. These patients were kept on treatment with 3 tablets of Garsin / day for 4 weeks. Serum lipids and blood glucose levels were measured prior to and at the end of treatment. Results: Relationship between sex and response to treatment in this study was meaningful, such that Gsarsin led to decrease in LDL-C and increase in HDL in females. Conclusion: Therefore, Garsin can be used as an adjunct to treatment in diabetes type 2 patients with hyperlipidemia.

  2. A COMPARATIVE STUDY OF EFFECTS OF SMOKING ON LIPID PROFILE AMONG HEALTHY SMOKERS AND NON-SMOKERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Girish I

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Coronary artery disease forms a major non-communicable disease in both developed and developing countries. In western countries, older age groups are affected whereas in our country India, it is common among younger age group. Many risk factors have been evaluated. Cigarette smoking contributes for major risk factor for coronary artery disease, atherosclerosis and peripheral vascular disorders. Mechanism of causing coronary artery disease is multifactorial, it has major adverse effects on lipid profile and homocysteine levels which are again risk factors for coronary artery disease. Hence, this study was undertaken to compare the effects of smoking cigarettes/beedis on lipid profile among smokers and non-smokers. MATERIALS AND METHODS It was a case - control study carried out on 50 healthy smokers and 50 healthy age and weight matched non-smokers attending the medicine OPD of Basaveshwara Medical College, Chitradurga from January to April 2017. Subjects in both groups were in the age range of 25-35 yrs., with no history of alcohol abuse, diabetes mellitus, hypertension, hepatic impairment, renal disease or history of drug intake which alter the lipid profile. RESULTS The mean serum total cholesterol, serum triglycerides, serum LDL- cholesterol & serum VLDL-cholesterol were significantly higher while antiatherogenic serum HDL cholesterol were significantly lower in smokers when compared with non-smokers and it was statistically significant (p<0.001. CONCLUSION Present study shows a statistically significant relationship between cigarette smoking and increased lipid profile. Thus, chronic smokers are at the significant risk of developing Coronary Heart Disease. So, smokers should be counselled and encouraged to quit smoking and adopt a healthier life style.

  3. Human Plasma Metabolomics Study across All Stages of Age-Related Macular Degeneration Identifies Potential Lipid Biomarkers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laíns, Inês; Kelly, Rachel S; Miller, John B; Silva, Rufino; Vavvas, Demetrios G; Kim, Ivana K; Murta, Joaquim N; Lasky-Su, Jessica; Miller, Joan W; Husain, Deeba

    2018-02-01

    To characterize the plasma metabolomic profile of patients with age-related macular degeneration (AMD) using mass spectrometry (MS). Cross-sectional observational study. We prospectively recruited participants with a diagnosis of AMD and a control group (>50 years of age) without any vitreoretinal disease. All participants underwent color fundus photography, used for AMD diagnosis and staging, according to the Age-Related Eye Disease Study classification scheme. Fasting blood samples were collected and plasma was analyzed by Metabolon, Inc. (Durham, NC), using ultrahigh-performance liquid chromatography (UPLC) and high-resolution MS. Metabolon's hardware and software were used to identify peaks and control quality. Principal component analysis and multivariate regression were performed to assess differences in the metabolomic profiles of AMD patients versus controls, while controlling for potential confounders. For biological interpretation, pathway enrichment analysis of significant metabolites was performed using MetaboAnalyst. The primary outcome measures were levels of plasma metabolites in participants with AMD compared with controls and among different AMD severity stages. We included 90 participants with AMD (30 with early AMD, 30 with intermediate AMD, and 30 with late AMD) and 30 controls. Using UPLC and MS, 878 biochemicals were identified. Multivariate logistic regression identified 87 metabolites with levels that differed significantly between AMD patients and controls. Most of these metabolites (82.8%; n = 72), including the most significant metabolites, belonged to the lipid pathways. Analysis of variance revealed that of the 87 metabolites, 48 (55.2%) also were significantly different across the different stages of AMD. A significant enrichment of the glycerophospholipids pathway was identified (P = 4.7 × 10 -9 ) among these metabolites. Participants with AMD have altered plasma metabolomic profiles compared with controls. Our data suggest

  4. Analysis of epidermal lipids in normal and atopic dogs, before and after administration of an oral omega-6/omega-3 fatty acid feed supplement. A pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popa, Iuliana; Pin, Didier; Remoué, Noëlle; Remoué, Nathalie; Osta, Bilal; Callejon, Sylvie; Videmont, Emilie; Gatto, Hugues; Portoukalian, Jacques; Haftek, Marek

    2011-12-01

    Alterations of the lipid expression in the skin of human and canine atopic subjects may be one of the key factors in the disease development. We have analyzed the ultrastructure of the clinically uninvolved skin of atopic dogs and compared it with the lipid composition of their tape-stripped stratum corneum (SC). The effect of a 2 month treatment of atopic dogs by food supplementation with a mixture of essential fatty acids was evaluated on skin samples taken before and after the treatment period. Electron microscopy revealed that the non-lesional skin of atopic dogs exhibited an abnormal and largely incomplete structure of the lamellar lipids with little cohesion between the corneocyte strata. The SC of atopic dogs was characterized by a significant decrease in the lipid content when compared to the healthy controls. Following oral supplementation with the mixture of essential fatty acids, the overall lipid content of the SC markedly increased. This feature was observed both with the free and, most importantly, with the protein-bound lipids (cholesterol, fatty acids and ceramides), the latter constituting the corneocyte-bound scaffold for ordinate organisation of the extracellular lipid bi-layers. Indeed, the semi-quantitative electron microscopy study revealed that the treatment resulted in a significantly improved organization of the lamellar lipids in the lower SC, comparable to that of the healthy dogs. Our results indicate the potential interest of long-term alimentary supplementation with omega-6 and omega-3 essential fatty acids in canine atopic dermatitis.

  5. Effects of obesity and body fat distribution on lipids and lipoproteins in nondiabetic American Indians: The Strong Heart Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, D; Hannah, J; Gray, R S; Jablonski, K A; Henderson, J A; Robbins, D C; Lee, E T; Welty, T K; Howard, B V

    2000-09-01

    To examine the relationship between obesity and lipoprotein profiles and compare the effects of total obesity and central adiposity on lipids/lipoproteins in American Indians. Participants were 773 nondiabetic American Indian women and 739 men aged 45 to 74 years participating in the Strong Heart Study. Total obesity was estimated using body mass index (BMI). Central obesity was measured as waist circumference. Lipoprotein measures included triglycerides, high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol, apolipoprotein AI (apoAI), and apolipoprotein B (apoB). Partial and canonical correlation analyses were used to examine the associations between obesity and lipids/ lipoproteins. Women were more obese than men in Arizona (median BMI 32.1 vs. 29.2 kg/m2) and South Dakota and North Dakota (28.3 vs. 28.0 kg/m2), but there was no sex difference in waist circumference. Men had higher apoB and lower apoAI levels than did women. In women, when adjusted for center, gender, and age, BMI was significantly related to HDL cholesterol (r = -0.24, p HDL cholesterol (r = -0.23, p correlated with triglycerides (r = 0.30, p correlated with HDL cholesterol (r = -0.35, p HDL cholesterol decreased with waist circumference (r = -0.36, p correlation analysis, waist circumference received a greater weight (0.86) than did BMI (0.17) in women. However, the canonical weights were similar for waist (0.46) and BMI (0.56) in men. Only HDL cholesterol (-1.02) carried greater weight in women, whereas in men, triglycerides (0.50), and HDL cholesterol (-0.64) carried a large amount of weight. All the correlation coefficients between BMI, waist circumference, and the first canonical variable of lipids/lipoproteins or between the individual lipid/lipoprotein variables and the first canonical variable of obesity were smaller in women than in men. Triglycerides and HDL cholesterol showed clinically meaningful changes with BMI and waist circumference in men. All

  6. Lipid nanoparticles for topical and transdermal application for alopecia treatment: development, physicochemical characterization, and in vitro release and penetration studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gomes, M. J.; Martins, S.; Ferreira, D.

    2014-01-01

    with few side effects, new drug-delivery systems able to improve alopecia therapy are urgently required. With this purpose in mind, the present study aimed to develop lipid nanoparticles (nanostructured lipid carriers) with the ability to incorporate and deliver anti-alopecia active compounds (minoxidil...... less than 30% was achieved for minoxidil nanoparticles, over 28 days. Controlled release assays in physiological conditions demonstrated that nanoparticles loaded with minoxidil yielded a prolonged release, as desired. Penetration assays through pig ear skin demonstrated that nanoparticles loaded...... with minoxidil and finasteride had low levels of penetration. These results suggest that the proposed novel formulation presents several good characteristics indicating their suitability for dermal delivery of anti-alopecia active compounds....

  7. [Lipid control in patients with coronary artery disease in a healthcare area in Cáceres (Spain): LIPICERES study].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez-Barrado, José J; Ortiz, Carolina; Gómez-Turégano, Marta; Gómez-Turégano, Paula; Garcipérez-de-Vargas, Francisco J; Sánchez-Calderón, Pablo

    Current guidelines recommend a low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDLc) target of 75 years. About 68.2% of men had an HDLc>40mg/dl, and 54.8% of women had an HDLc>50mg/dl. Overall, 79.4% of patients had a TG<150mg/dl, with no gender differences, and 59.8% had a non-HDLc<100mg/dl. Approximately one half of patients with coronary disease do not achieve their target lipid levels as defined in the European guidelines, and this rate is less than reported in previous studies. There are no gender differences in achieving lipid goals, and age is a predictor of adherence. Copyright © 2016 Sociedad Española de Arteriosclerosis. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  8. DSC studies of retrogradation and amylose-lipid transition taking place in gamma-irradiated wheat starch

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ciesla, K.; Gluszewski, W.; Eliasson, A.C.

    2006-01-01

    It has been already shown that degradation resulting from gamma irradiation induces a decrease in order of starch granules and influences gelatinisation taking place during heating of starch and flour suspensions. In presented paper, DSC (differential scanning calorimetry) studies were carried out for wheat starch, non-irradiated and irradiated using doses in the range from 5 to 30 kGy. The influence of the conditions applied during DSC measurements on the possibility to observe differences between the amylose-lipid complex transition and retrogradation taking place in the non-irradiated and particularly irradiated starch samples was checked. The better differentiation between the amylose-lipid complex transition taking place in particular samples accompanied by the better reproducity were obtained in the case of dense suspensions as compared to the watery suspensions as well as during the first analysis performed for the recrystallised gels

  9. Consumption of ultra-processed food products and its effects on children's lipid profiles: a longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rauber, F; Campagnolo, P D B; Hoffman, D J; Vitolo, M R

    2015-01-01

    Cardiovascular disease development is related to known risk factors (such as diet and blood lipids) that begin in childhood. Among dietary factors, the consumption of ultra-processing products has received attention. This study investigated whether children's consumption of processed and ultra-processing products at preschool age predicted an increase in lipid concentrations from preschool to school age. Cohort study conducted with 345 children of low socioeconomic status from São Leopoldo, Brazil, aged 3-4 years and 7-8 years. Blood tests were done to measure lipid profile. Dietary data were collected through 24-h recalls and the children's processed and ultra-processing product intake was assessed. Linear regression analysis was used to assess the relationship between processed and ultra-processed product intake at 3-4 years on changes in lipid concentrations from preschool to school age. The percentage of daily energy provided by processed and ultra-processed products was 42.6 ± 8.5 at preschool age and 49.2 ± 9.5 at school age, on average. In terms of energy intake, the main products consumed were breads, savoury snacks, cookies, candy and other sweets in both age groups. Ultra-processed product consumption at preschool age was a predictor of a higher increase in total cholesterol (β = 0.430; P = 0.046) and LDL cholesterol (β = 0.369; P = 0.047) from preschool to school age. Our data suggest that early ultra-processed product consumption played a role in altering lipoprotein profiles in children from a low-income community in Brazil. These results are important to understanding the role of food processing and the early dietary determinants of cardiovascular disease. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Studies for improved understanding of lipid distributions in human skin by combining stimulated and spontaneous Raman microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klossek, A; Thierbach, S; Rancan, F; Vogt, A; Blume-Peytavi, U; Rühl, E

    2017-07-01

    Advanced Raman techniques, such as stimulated Raman spectroscopy (SRS), have become a valuable tool for investigations of distributions of substances in biological samples. However, these techniques lack spectral information and are therefore highly affected by cross-sensitivities, which are due to blended Raman bands. One typical example is the symmetric CH 2 stretching vibration of lipids, which is blended with the more intense Raman band of proteins. We report in this work an approach to reduce such cross-sensitivities by a factor of 8 in human skin samples. This is accomplished by careful spectral deconvolutions revealing the neat spectra of skin lipids. Extensive Raman studies combining the complementary advantages of fast mapping and scanning, i.e. SRS, as well as spectral information provided by spontaneous Raman spectroscopy, were performed on the same skin regions. In addition, an approach for correcting artifacts is reported, which are due to transmission and reflection geometries in Raman microscopy as well as scattering of radiation from rough and highly structured skin samples. As a result, these developments offer improved results obtained from label-free spectromicroscopy provided by Raman techniques. These yield substance specific information from spectral regimes in which blended bands dominate. This improvement is illustrated by studies on the asymmetric CH 2 stretching vibration of lipids, which was previously difficult to identify due to the strong background signal from proteins. The advantage of the correction procedures is demonstrated by higher spatial resolution permitting to perform more detailed investigations on lipids and their composition in skin. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Colors of fruits and vegetables and 3-year changes of cardiometabolic risk factors in adults: Tehran lipid and glucose study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirmiran, P; Bahadoran, Z; Moslehi, N; Bastan, S; Azizi, F

    2015-11-01

    We aimed to investigate the associations of colors of fruit and vegetable (FV) subgroups, with 3-year changes of cardiometabolic risk factors. This longitudinal study was conducted in the framework of Tehran Lipid and Glucose Study, between 2006-2008 and 2009-2011, on 1272 adults. Total intake of FV and their subgroups have been assessed by a validated semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire at baseline (2006-2008) and again at the second examination (2009-2011). Demographics, anthropometrics and biochemical measures were evaluated at baseline and 3 years later. The associations of anthropometric and lipid profile changes with FV subgroups were estimated. The mean age of men and women at baseline was 39.8±12.7 and 37.3±12.1 years, respectively. Mean total intake of FV, red/purple, yellow, green, orange and white FV was 706±337, 185±95, 141±91, 152±77, 141±87 and 22±18 g/day, respectively. In men, 3-year changes of weight (β=-0.13, P=0.01) and waist circumference (β=-0.14, P=0.01) were related to intake of red/purple FV; the yellow group was inversely associated with 3-year changes of total cholesterol (β=-0.09, P=0.03) and High-density lipoprotein cholesterol (β=-0.11, P=0.03). Consumption of green and white FV was inversely related to abdominal fat gain, and atherogenic lipid parameters in men (Pfasting serum glucose and total cholesterol (P<0.05); yellow FV was also related to 3-year weight gain (β=-0.11, P=0.01). Various colors of FV subgroups had different effects on cardiometabolic risk factors; higher intake of red/purple FV may be related to lower weight and abdominal fat gain, and yellow, green and white FV may be related to lipid parameters.

  12. Diffusion mediated coagulation and fragmentation based study of domain formation in lipid bilayer membrane

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rao, Laxminarsimha V., E-mail: laxman@iitk.ac.in [Mechanics and Applied Mathematics Group, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology Kanpur, Kanpur 208016 (India); Roy, Subhradeep [Department of Biomedical Engineering and Mechanics (MC 0219), Virginia Tech, 495 Old Turner Street, Blacksburg, VA 24061 (United States); Das, Sovan Lal [Mechanics and Applied Mathematics Group, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology Kanpur, Kanpur 208016 (India)

    2017-01-15

    We estimate the equilibrium size distribution of cholesterol rich micro-domains on a lipid bilayer by solving Smoluchowski equation for coagulation and fragmentation. Towards this aim, we first derive the coagulation kernels based on the diffusion behaviour of domains moving in a two dimensional membrane sheet, as this represents the reality better. We incorporate three different diffusion scenarios of domain diffusion into our coagulation kernel. Subsequently, we investigate the influence of the parameters in our model on the coagulation and fragmentation behaviour. The observed behaviours of the coagulation and fragmentation kernels are also manifested in the equilibrium domain size distribution and its first moment. Finally, considering the liquid domains diffusing in a supported lipid bilayer, we fit the equilibrium domain size distribution to a benchmark solution.

  13. Aldehyde-sequestering drugs: tools for studying protein damage by lipid peroxidation products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burcham, Philip C; Kaminskas, Lisa M; Fontaine, Frank R; Petersen, Dennis R; Pyke, Simon M

    2002-12-27

    Elevated levels of reactive alpha,beta-unsaturated aldehydes (e.g. malondialdehyde, 4-hydroxynonenal and acrolein) in the affected tissues of various degenerative conditions suggest these substances are active propagators of the disease process. One experimental approach to attenuating damage by these intermediates employs 'aldehyde-sequestering drugs' as sacrificial nucleophiles, thereby sparing cell macromolecules and perhaps slowing disease progression. Drugs with demonstrated trapping activity toward lipid-derived aldehydes include various amine compounds such as aminoguanidine, carnosine and pyridoxamine. We have focused on identifying scavengers of acrolein, perhaps the most toxic aldehyde formed during lipid peroxidation cascades. Various phthalazine compounds (hydralazine and dihydralazine) were found to trap acrolein readily, forming hydrazone derivatives in a rapid Schiff-type reaction. These compounds strongly protect against acrolein-mediated toxicity in isolated hepatocytes.

  14. Further studies of the influence of apolipoprotein B alleles on glucose and lipid metabolism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bentzen, J.; Poulsen, P.; Vaag, A.

    2003-01-01

    The effect of five genetic polymorphisms in the apolipoprotein B gene on parameters of lipid and glucose metabolism was assessed in 564 Danish mono- and dizygotic twins. Genotypes in apolipoprotein B T71I (ApaLI RFLP), A591V (AluI RFLP), L2712P (MvaI RFLP), R3611Q (MspI RFLP), and E4154K (Eco...... on the insulin-to-glucose ratio (p = 0.04), and E4154K (EcoRI RFLP) influenced HOMAbeta (p = 0.04). Significant interactions were observed between genotype in T71I (ApaLI RFLP), A591V (AluI RFLP), R3611Q (MspI RFLP), and E4154K (EcoRI RFLP) and glucose tolerance on lipid-related parameters (0.03

  15. Production and characterization of nanostructured lipid carriers and solid lipid nanoparticles containing lycopene for food fortification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akhoond Zardini, Ali; Mohebbi, Mohebbat; Farhoosh, Reza; Bolurian, Shadi

    2018-01-01

    In this study, lycopene, was loaded on nanostructured lipid carrier and solid lipid nanoparticles using combination of high shear homogenization and ultrasonication method. Effect of applied lipids types, nanocarrier's type and lycopene loading on physicochemical properties of developed nanocarriers were studied. Particle sizes of developed nanocarriers were between 74.93 and 183.40 nm. Encapsulation efficiency of nanostructured lipid carrier was significantly higher than solid lipid nanoparticles. Morphological study of developed nanocarriers using scanning electron microscopy showed spherical nanoparticles with smooth surface. Lycopene was entrapped in nanocarriers without any chemical interaction with coating material according to Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy spectrum and differential scanning calorimetry thermogram. Glycerol monostearate containing nanoparticles showed phase separation after 30 days in 6 and 25 °C, whereas this event was not observed in nanosuspensions that produced by glycerol distearate. Lycopene release in gastrointestinal condition was studied by the dialysis bag method. To evaluate nanocarrier's potential for food fortification, developed lycopene-loaded nanocarriers were added to orange drink. Results of sensory analysis indicated that nanoencapsulation could obviate the poor solubility and tomato after taste of lycopene. Fortified sample with lycopene nanocarriers didn't show significant difference with blank orange drink sample except in orange odor.

  16. Evaluation of percutaneous absorption of the repellent diethyltoluamide and the sunscreen ethylhexyl p-methoxycinnamate-loaded solid lipid nanoparticles: an in-vitro study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puglia, Carmelo; Bonina, Francesco; Castelli, Francesco; Micieli, Dorotea; Sarpietro, Maria Grazia

    2009-08-01

    Diethyltoluamide and ethylhexyl p-methoxycinnamate (OMC) are two active ingredients in insect repellent and sunscreen products, respectively. The concurrent application of these two substances often increases their systemic absorption, compromising the safety and efficiency of the cosmetic product. In this study, diethyltoluamide and OMC were incorporated into solid lipid nanoparticles, a colloidal drug delivery system, to reduce percutaneous absorption and avoid toxic effects and also maintain the efficacy of the two active compounds on the skin surface for a long duration. Solid lipid nanoparticles were prepared based on an ultrasonication technique and characterized by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) analyses. In-vitro studies determined the percutaneous absorption of diethyltoluamide and OMC. DSC data carried out on unloaded and diethyltoluamide- and/or OMC-loaded solid lipid nanoparticles highlighted that diethyltoluamide and OMC modified the temperature and the enthalpy change associated to the calorimetric peak of solid lipid nanoparticles. The concurrent presence of the two compounds in the solid lipid nanoparticles caused a synergic effect, indicating that the lipid matrix of nanoparticles guaranteed a high encapsulation of both diethyltoluamide and OMC. Results from the in-vitro study demonstrated that the particles were able to reduce the skin permeation of the two cosmetic ingredients in comparison with an oil-in-water emulsion. This study has provided supplementary evidence as to the potential of lipid nanoparticles as carriers for topical administration of cosmetic active compounds.

  17. New Zealand’s Relationship Accord: A case study in the politics of cross-sector rapprochement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John R. Butcher

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available In New Zealand the Clark Labour government (1999-2008 advocated entering into a compact with the country’s community and voluntary sector. However, owing in part to the reticence of New Zealand’s national umbrella organisations, a bilateral framework agreement between government and the sector was never formalised. It was not until May 2011 that a framework document – Kia Tūtahi Standing Together: The Relationship Accord between the Communities of Aotearoa New Zealand and the Government of New Zealand – was ratified by the National Party government led by Prime Minister, John Key, thus marking the culmination of a decade-long national discussion. This paper charts that policy journey and highlights the importance of key political events and the ways in which key policy actors exploited the windows of policy opportunity associated with those events.

  18. Comparative Study About 4 and 5 Star Hotels in Antalya and Barcelona According to Tourist Ratings at Holidaycheck Web Site

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ozan GÜNGÖR

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Because the intangibilty of tourism product, reviews and ratings at online review web sites where real consumers share their experiences, become the most important information sources. In this research, according to ratings at Holidaycheck web site which is used mainly by German speaking tourists, it is aimed to compare 4 and 5 star hotels in Barcelona and Antalya. Documents analysis was used to collect data, collected data were uploaded to SPSS 20.0 and non paramectric methods were used to test the hypotheses. The findings showed that tourists were more satisfied with staff service at hotels in Barcelona than hotels in Antalya. Plus, they were more satisfied with sports and entertaintment facilities at hotels in Antalya than hotels in Barcelona.

  19. Comparative effect of olmesartan and candesartan on lipid metabolism and renal function in patients with hypertension: a retrospective observational study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nakayama Tomohiro

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Angiotensin II receptor blockers (ARBs, including olmesartan and candesartan, are widely used antihypertensive agents. Many clinical studies have demonstrated that ARBs have organ-protecting effects, e.g., cardioprotection, vasculoprotection and renoprotection. However, the effect of prolonged olmesartan monotherapy on lipid metabolism in patients with hypertension is less well studied. We performed a retrospective observational study to compare the effects of olmesartan with those of candesartan, focusing on lipid metabolism and renal function. Methods We used data from the Clinical Data Warehouse of Nihon University School of Medicine obtained between Nov 1, 2004 and Feb 28, 2011, to identify cohorts of new olmesartan users (n = 168 and candesartan users (n = 266. We used propensity-score weighting to adjust for differences in all covariates (age, sex, comorbid diseases, previous drugs between olmesartan and candesartan users, and compared serum chemical data including serum triglyceride (TG, LDL-cholesterol (LDL-C, total cholesterol (TC, potassium, creatinine and urea nitrogen. The mean exposure of olmesartan and candesartan users was 126.1 and 122.8 days, respectively. Results After adjustment, there were no statistically significant differences in all covariates between olmesartan and candesartan users. The mean age was 60.7 and 61.0 years, and 33.4% and 33.7% of olmesartan and candesartan users were women, respectively. There were no statistically significant differences in mean values for all laboratory tests between baseline and during the exposure period in both olmesartan and candesartan users. In olmesartan users, the reduction of serum TG level was significant in comparison with that in candesartan users. Other parameters of lipid profile and renal function showed no statistically significant difference in the change from baseline to during the exposure period between olmesartan and candesartan users. Conclusions

  20. The diet of diabetic patients in Spain in 2008-2010: accordance with the main dietary recommendations--a cross-sectional study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maritza Muñoz-Pareja

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: No previous study has assessed the diet of the diabetic patients in the general population of an entire country in Europe. This study evaluates accordance of the diet of diabetic adults in Spain with nutritional recommendations of the European Association for the Study of Diabetes (EASD, American Diabetes Association (ADA, and the Mediterranean diet (MD. METHODS AND FINDINGS: Cross-sectional study conducted in 2008-2010 among 12,948 persons representative of the population aged ≥18 years in Spain. Usual food consumption was assessed with a dietary history. EASD accordance was defined as ≥6 points on a score of 12 nutritional goals, ADA accordance as ≥3 points on a score of 6 goals, and MD accordance as ≥7 points on the Mediterranean Diet Adherence Screener. In the 609 diagnosed diabetic individuals, the diet was rich in saturated fat (11.2% of total energy, but trans fat intake was relatively low (1.1% energy and monounsaturated fat intake was high (16.1% energy. Carbohydrate intake was relatively low (41.1% energy, but sugar intake was high (16.9% energy. Intake of cholesterol (322 mg/day and sodium (3.1 g/day was also high, while fiber intake was insufficient (23.8 g/day. EASD accordance was observed in 48.7% diabetic patients, ADA accordance in 46.3%, and MD accordance in 57.4%. The frequency of EASD, ADA and MD accordance was not statistically different between diagnosed and undiagnosed diabetic individuals. CONCLUSIONS: Only about half of diabetic patients in Spain have a diet that is consistent with the major dietary recommendations. The lack of dietary differences between diagnosed and undiagnosed diabetic individuals reflects deficiencies in diabetes management.

  1. Studies on the lipid constituents of grape seeds recovered from pomace resulting from white grape processing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    El-Shami, S. M.

    1992-06-01

    Full Text Available Studies on the lipid constituents of grape seeds, produced as by-product from white grape processing, were carried out. Gas liquid chromatography was used to determine the composition of fatty acid methyl esters and sterol silyl derivatives of the oil. The oil was found to contain appreciable amount of unsaturated fatty acids, namely, oleic and linoleic acids, however, linolenic acid was not detected. Saturated fatty acids, namely, palmitic and stearic were found to be present in reasonable amounts. Myristic, palmitoleic, eicosanoic and eicosadienoic acids were detected as minor components. Isofucosterol was found among the other sterol constituents namely, campesterol, stigmasterol and beta-sitosterol. HPLC analysis of the oil for determination of tocopherols, showed the presence of alpha-and gamma-tocotrienols, and alpha-and gamma-tocopherols to the extent of 53.2, 28.6, 16,4 and 1,8% respectively. The total tocopherols content of the oil was 470 ppm. The defatted meal of grape seeds was found to contain 24,6% protein which contained large proportions of all the essential amino acids as determined by amino acid analyzer.

    Se han realizado estudios sobre los constituyentes lipidiaos de semillas de uva producidas como subproducto del procesado de uva blanca. La cromatografía gas-líquido se usó para determinar la composición de esteres metílicos de ácidos grasos y silil derivados esteroles del aceite. Se observó que el aceite contenía cantidades apreciables de ácidos grasos insaturados, principalmente ácidos oleico y linoleico, no siendo sin embargo detectado el ácido linolénico. Se encontraron en cantidades razonables ácidos grasos saturados, principalmente, palmítico y esteárico. Como componentes minoritarios se detectaron los ácidos mirístico, palmitoleico, eicosanoico y eicosadienoico. El isofucosterol apareció junto a otros esteroles, principalmente, campesterol, estigmasterol y beta-sitosterol. El análisis por HPLC

  2. Lipid Emulsion Enriched in Omega-3 PUFA Accelerates Wound Healing: A Placebo-Controlled Animal Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Yi-Chi; Yang, Fwu-Lin; Subeq, Yi-Maun; Tien, Chin-Chieh; Chao, Yann-Fen C; Lee, Ru-Ping

    2018-06-01

    The Omega-3 (ω-3) polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) generate bioactive lipid mediators that reduce inflammation. The present study evaluated the effect of SMOFlipid containing ω-3 PUFAs on wound healing. Rats were divided into a SMOFlipid (SMOF) group and a 0.9% saline (placebo) group, with eight rats in each group. Wound excision was performed on the dorsal surface of each rat. In the SMOF group, 1 gm/kg SMOFlipid was dissolved in 3 mL saline as a treatment; in the placebo group, 3 mL saline was prepared as a treatment. The treatments were administered intravenously at an initial rate of 0.2 mL/kg body weight/h immediately after wounding, for 72 h. Blood samples were collected for white blood cell, tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, interleukin (IL)-6, and IL-10 measurements at the baseline and at 1, 6, 12, 24, 48, and 72 h after intervention. Wound areas were measured over a 2-week period after excision, and a histological examination was performed. Compared with the placebo group, SMOFlipid supplementation engendered significant decreases in the wound area on day 3 (78.28 ± 5.25 vs. 105.86 ± 8.89%), day 5 (72.20 ± 4.31 vs. 96.39 ± 4.72%), day 10 (20.78 ± 1.28 vs. 39.80 ± 10.38%), and day 14 (7.56 ± 0.61 vs. 15.10 ± 2.42%). The placebo group had a higher TNF-α level than the SMOF group at 72 h. The IL-10 level was higher in the SMOF group than in the placebo group at 48 h. Histological analysis revealed a higher rate of fibroblast distribution and collagen fiber organization in the SMOF group (P = 0.01). SMOFlipid enriched in ω-3 PUFA accelerates wound healing.

  3. Lipid profile, cardiovascular disease and mortality in a Mediterranean high-risk population: The ESCARVAL-RISK study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orozco-Beltran, Domingo; Gil-Guillen, Vicente F; Redon, Josep; Martin-Moreno, Jose M; Pallares-Carratala, Vicente; Navarro-Perez, Jorge; Valls-Roca, Francisco; Sanchis-Domenech, Carlos; Fernandez-Gimenez, Antonio; Perez-Navarro, Ana; Bertomeu-Martinez, Vicente; Bertomeu-Gonzalez, Vicente; Cordero, Alberto; Pascual de la Torre, Manuel; Trillo, Jose L; Carratala-Munuera, Concepcion; Pita-Fernandez, Salvador; Uso, Ruth; Durazo-Arvizu, Ramon; Cooper, Richard; Sanz, Gines; Castellano, Jose M; Ascaso, Juan F; Carmena, Rafael; Tellez-Plaza, Maria

    2017-01-01

    The potential impact of targeting different components of an adverse lipid profile in populations with multiple cardiovascular risk factors is not completely clear. This study aims to assess the association between different components of the standard lipid profile with all-cause mortality and hospitalization due to cardiovascular events in a high-risk population. This prospective registry included high risk adults over 30 years old free of cardiovascular disease (2008-2012). Diagnosis of hypertension, dyslipidemia or diabetes mellitus was inclusion criterion. Lipid biomarkers were evaluated. Primary endpoints were all-cause mortality and hospital admission due to coronary heart disease or stroke. We estimated adjusted rate ratios (aRR), absolute risk differences and population attributable risk associated with adverse lipid profiles. 51,462 subjects were included with a mean age of 62.6 years (47.6% men). During an average follow-up of 3.2 years, 919 deaths, 1666 hospitalizations for coronary heart disease and 1510 hospitalizations for stroke were recorded. The parameters that showed an increased rate for total mortality, coronary heart disease and stroke hospitalization were, respectively, low HDL-Cholesterol: aRR 1.25, 1.29 and 1.23; high Total/HDL-Cholesterol: aRR 1.22, 1.38 and 1.25; and high Triglycerides/HDL-Cholesterol: aRR 1.21, 1.30, 1.09. The parameters that showed highest population attributable risk (%) were, respectively, low HDL-Cholesterol: 7.70, 11.42, 8.40; high Total/HDL-Cholesterol: 6.55, 12.47, 8.73; and high Triglycerides/HDL-Cholesterol: 8.94, 15.09, 6.92. In a population with cardiovascular risk factors, HDL-cholesterol, Total/HDL-cholesterol and triglycerides/HDL-cholesterol ratios were associated with a higher population attributable risk for cardiovascular disease compared to other common biomarkers.

  4. Prostate Cancer Associated Lipid Signatures in Serum Studied by ESI-Tandem Mass Spectrometryas Potential New Biomarkers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duscharla, Divya; Bhumireddy, Sudarshana Reddy; Lakshetti, Sridhar; Pospisil, Heike; Murthy, P V L N; Walther, Reinhard; Sripadi, Prabhakar; Ummanni, Ramesh

    2016-01-01

    Prostate cancer (PCa) is one amongst the most common cancersin western men. Incidence rate ofPCa is on the rise worldwide. The present study deals with theserum lipidome profiling of patients diagnosed with PCa to identify potential new biomarkers. We employed ESI-MS/MS and GC-MS for identification of significantly altered lipids in cancer patient's serum compared to controls. Lipidomic data revealed 24 lipids are significantly altered in cancer patinet's serum (n = 18) compared to normal (n = 18) with no history of PCa. By using hierarchical clustering and principal component analysis (PCA) we could clearly separate cancer patients from control group. Correlation and partition analysis along with Formal Concept Analysis (FCA) have identified that PC (39:6) and FA (22:3) could classify samples with higher certainty. Both the lipids, PC (39:6) and FA (22:3) could influence the cataloging of patients with 100% sensitivity (all 18 control samples are classified correctly) and 77.7% specificity (of 18 tumor samples 4 samples are misclassified) with p-value of 1.612×10-6 in Fischer's exact test. Further, we performed GC-MS to denote fatty acids altered in PCa patients and found that alpha-linolenic acid (ALA) levels are altered in PCa. We also performed an in vitro proliferation assay to determine the effect of ALA in survival of classical human PCa cell lines LNCaP and PC3. We hereby report that the altered lipids PC (39:6) and FA (22:3) offer a new set of biomarkers in addition to the existing diagnostic tests that could significantly improve sensitivity and specificity in PCa diagnosis.

  5. Effect of Guava in Blood Glucose and Lipid Profile in Healthy Human Subjects: A Randomized Controlled Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rakavi, R; Mangaraj, Manaswini

    2016-01-01

    Introduction The fruit of Psidium guajava (P.guajava) is known to contain free sugars yet the fruit juice showed hypoglycaemic effect. Hypoglycaemic activity of guava leaves has been well documented but not for guava fruit. Aim So we aimed to evaluate the effect of ripe guava (with peel and without peel) fruit supplementation on blood glucose and lipid profile in healthy human subjects. Materials and Methods Randomized Controlled study undertaken in: 1) Baseline; 2) 6 weeks supplementation phase. Forty five healthy MBBS students were included and randomly enrolled into Group A, Group B and Group C. In Baseline phase: Fasting Plasma Glucose (FPG) and serum lipid profile was done in all 3 groups. Group A were supplemented with 400g of ripe guava with peel and group B without peel, for 6 weeks. Rest 15 treated as control i.e., Group C. Result Supplementation of ripe guava fruit with peel reduced BMI as well as blood pressure (pguava pulp supplementation was not significant. Serum Total cholesterol, Triglycerides and Low Density Lipoprotein Cholesterol (LDLc) levels decreased significantly (pguava pulp without peel may have a favourable effect on lipid levels and blood sugar as well. Conclusion Guava fruit without peel is more effective in lowering blood sugar as well as serum total cholesterol, triglycerides and LDLc. It increases HDLc levels also. PMID:27790420

  6. A study of serum lipid profile and serum apolipoproteins A1 and B in Indian male violent criminal offenders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chakrabarti, Nandini; Sinha, V K

    2006-01-01

    High cholesterol has been advanced as the most important factor in the development of coronary artery disease. Most panels have recommended population-wide dietary restrictions, yet a body of evolving data yields evidence of the hazards of low cholesterol, including links to aggression and hostility. The aim of this study was to compare the serum lipid profile and serum apolipoproteins A1 and B of men with a violent criminal record and men with no criminal history. Fasting blood samples were collected from 30 men with a known history of violent crime and 30 men with no criminal record. Serum lipid profile and serum apolipoproteins A1 and B were measured in each sample, and compared between the two groups. The group with the violent criminal record showed significantly lower total cholesterol, lower LDL cholesterol, higher apolipoprotein A1 and lower apolipoprotein B compared with the control group. Lower total cholesterol, lower LDL cholesterol, higher apolipoprotein A1 and lower apolipoprotein B could predispose to violence. Future research might explore the possibility that diets offered in prison could affect relevant pathways in lipid metabolism. Copyright (c) 2006 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  7. Relationship between the burden of major periodontal bacteria and serum lipid profile in a cross-sectional Japanese study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Youn-Hee; Kosaka, Takayuki; Ojima, Miki; Sekine, Shinichi; Kokubo, Yoshihiro; Watanabe, Makoto; Miyamoto, Yoshihiro; Ono, Takahiro; Amano, Atsuo

    2018-05-04

    The association of periodontal bacteria with lipid profile alteration remains largely unknown, although it has been suggested that chronic periodontitis increases the atherosclerotic risk. This cross-sectional study investigated the relationship between the prevalence and total burden of periodontal bacteria and serum lipid profile. Saliva from enrolled participants was collected to detect 4 major periodontal bacteria (Porphyromonas gingivalis, Treponema denticola, Tannerella forsythia, and Prevotella intermedia) using Polymerase Chain Reaction method. High-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol, triglycerides (TG), and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol were assessed using blood samples. We compared the averages of each lipid in association with the prevalence of each bacterial species, their burden (low, moderate, and high), and the combination of bacterial burden and periodontal status, defined as periodontitis, using the Community Periodontal Index, after adjustment for other potential confounding factors, by employing general linear models with least square means. A total of 385 Japanese individuals (176 men, 209 women; mean age 69.2 years) were enrolled. The number of bacterial species and their co-existence with periodontitis were significantly related to a decrease in HDL (p for trend Periodontal bacterial burden is suggested to be independently involved in lowering serum HDL level. Our findings suggest that bacterial tests in a clinical setting could be a useful approach for predicting the risk of HDL metabolism dysregulation.

  8. Beneficial effect of ghee consumption over mustard oil on lipid profile: A study in North Indian adult population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Hanjabam Barun; Vyas, Soniya; Kumar, Jayant; Manna, Soumen

    2018-01-24

    Background Ghee (G) is attributed with numerous health benefits in Ayurveda. However, due to the high saturated fat content, it has been predicted to increase the cardiovascular disease risk. Hence, the current study was performed to evaluate the effect of G consumption as compared to mustard oil (MO) on lipid profile. Methods Two hundred (100 males) apparently healthy adults (≥40 years) were randomly selected out of the total individuals interviewed in a house-to-house survey. They were divided into three groups based on G and MO consumption: (A) MO >1 L/month, G1.25 kg/month. Serum lipid parameters were compared among the groups. Results Group C had the significantly lowest triglyceride (TG), total cholesterol (TC), low-density lipoprotein (LDL), very low-density lipoprotein (VLDL), TC/HDL and LDL/HDL and highest high-density lipoprotein (HDL). A similar finding was found when analysis was done separetely for male and female. Conclusions A favorable lipid profile might suggest a possible beneficial effect of predominantly G consumption over MO.

  9. Micro-Raman spectroscopy studies of changes in lipid composition in breast and prostate cancer cells treated with MPA and R1881 hormones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potcoava, Mariana C.; Futia, Gregory L.; Aughenbaugh, Jessica; Schlaepfer, Isabel; Gibson, Emily A.

    2014-03-01

    Increasing interest in the role of lipids in cancer cell proliferation or resistance to drug therapies has motivated the need to develop better tools for cellular lipid analysis. Quantification of lipids in cells is typically done by destructive chromatography protocols that do not provide spatial information on lipid distribution and prevent dynamic live cell studies. Methods that allow the analysis of lipid content in live cells is therefore of great importance for research. Using Raman micro-spectroscopy we investigated whether the female hormone medroxyprogesterone acetate (MPA) and the synthetic androgen R1881 affect the lipid expression in breast (T47D) and prostate (LNCaP) cancer cells. Differences were noted in the spectral regions at 830-1800 cm-1 and 2800-3000 cm-1 when comparing different drug treatments. Significant changes were noticed for saturated (1063 - 1125 cm-1, 1295 cm-1 and 1439 cm-1), unsaturated (1262 cm-1 and 1656 cm-1, and 1720 - 1748 cm-1) chemical bonds, suggesting that the composition of the lipid droplets was changed by the hormone treatments. Also, significant differences were observed in the high frequency regions of lipids and proteins at 2851 cm-1 and around 2890 cm-1. Principal component analysis with Linear Discriminant Analysis (PCA-LDA) of the Raman spectra was able to differentiate between cancer cells that were treated with MPA, R1881 or vehicle (P < 0.05). Future work includes analysis to determine exact lipid composition and concentrations as well as development of clinical techniques to characterize differences in patient tumor lipid profiles to determine response to drug treatment and prognosis.

  10. Defining Lipid Transport Pathways in Animal Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pagano, Richard E.; Sleight, Richard G.

    1985-09-01

    A new technique for studying the metabolism and intracellular transport of lipid molecules in living cells based on the use of fluorescent lipid analogs is described. The cellular processing of various intermediates (phosphatidic acid and ceramide) and end products (phosphatidylcholine and phosphatidylethanolamine) in lipid biosynthesis is reviewed and a working model for compartmentalization during lipid biosynthesis is presented.

  11. The relationship between migraine and lipid sub-fractions among individuals without cardiovascular disease: A cross-sectional evaluation in the Brazilian Longitudinal Study of Adult Health (ELSA-Brasil).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goulart, Alessandra C; Lotufo, Paulo A; Santos, Itamar S; Bittencourt, Márcio S; Santos, Raul D; Blaha, Michael J; Jones, Steven; Toth, Peter P; Kulkarni, Krishnaji; Benseñor, Isabela M

    2018-03-01

    Introduction Recent studies have explored the relationship between dyslipidemia and migraine in a cardiovascular context. Thus, we aimed to evaluate the possible association between lipids, lipoprotein subfractions and migraine according to aura symptoms in the Brazilian Longitudinal Study of Adult Health (ELSA-Brasil). Methods 1,560 women and 1,595 men, without CVD or lipid disorders requiring medication, underwent a baseline clinical assessment. Total-cholesterol and its sub-fractions (LDL, VLDL and HDL subclass cholesterol); triglycerides and triglyceride-rich lipoprotein cholesterol [TRL-C (VLDL 1+2 -C VLDL 3 -C + IDL-C)] were determined by vertical auto profile (VAP). We also calculated logarithmic LDL density ratio [LLDR = ln ((LDL 3 -C + LDL 4 -C)/(LDL 1 -C + LDL 2 -C))], T-Chol/HDL-C and triglycerides/HDL-C ratios. Odds ratios (OR) with 95% confidence intervals (CI) were obtained to evaluate the relationship between lipids tertiles and migraine for both sexes. Results Main findings revealed positive associations between migraine without aura (MO) and the highest tertiles of VLDL-C (OR, 1.61; 95%CI, 1.07-2.40) and TRL-C (OR, 1.55; 95% CI, 1.03-2.34) in women. In men, the highest tertile of VLDL 3 -C (OR, 3.87; 95%CI, 1.23-12.19) was positively associated with MO, as well. Conclusions In middle-aged participants without CVD or lipid disorders requiring medication, the worst lipid profile was determined by the highest levels of TRL-C and their cholesterol-rich remnants in migraineurs without aura for both sexes.

  12. Lipid Nanotechnology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gijsje Koenderink

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Nanotechnology is a multidisciplinary field that covers a vast and diverse array of devices and machines derived from engineering, physics, materials science, chemistry and biology. These devices have found applications in biomedical sciences, such as targeted drug delivery, bio-imaging, sensing and diagnosis of pathologies at early stages. In these applications, nano-devices typically interface with the plasma membrane of cells. On the other hand, naturally occurring nanostructures in biology have been a source of inspiration for new nanotechnological designs and hybrid nanostructures made of biological and non-biological, organic and inorganic building blocks. Lipids, with their amphiphilicity, diversity of head and tail chemistry, and antifouling properties that block nonspecific binding to lipid-coated surfaces, provide a powerful toolbox for nanotechnology. This review discusses the progress in the emerging field of lipid nanotechnology.

  13. Influences on Intentions to Place Long-Acting Reversible Contraceptives: A Pilot Study Comparing According to Provider Specialty in Ohio.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Charee M; Broecker, Jane; Dade, Maggie; Nottingham, Kelly

    2018-03-23

    According to the American Academy of Pediatrics, pediatricians are to counsel and provide long-acting reversible contraceptives (LARCs) as first line of defense contraceptives because they are the most effective. We wanted to explore positive influences on LARC placement for pediatricians, particularly compared with providers in other specialties who care for women. Survey methods with data analyzed using analyses of variance and general linear models in statistical software SPSS version 24.0 (IBM Corp). Online survey. Participants were 224 providers across the state of Ohio who specialize in family medicine (51.8%), obstetrics/gynecology (17.9%), pediatrics (16.5%), and internal medicine (13.8%). Most of the sample was female (50.9%) and Caucasian (74.6%). The most frequent provider types were Doctors of Osteopathic Medicine (42.0%), followed by Doctors of Medicine (37.9%), and Certified Nurse Practitioners (8.5%). None. Attitudes about LARCs, perceived norms about placing LARCs, perceived behavioral control over placing LARCs, intentions to place LARCs. Means for all of the variables (attitudes, perceived norms, perceived behavioral control, and intentions to place) differed according to provider specialty. A pattern emerged across these variables in which internal medicine and pediatric practitioners reported lower attitudes, perceived norms, perceived behavioral control, and intentions to place LARCs than family medicine and obstetrics/gynecology practitioners, in that order. To increase positive attitudes and perceived norms about LARCs, professional organizations should increase communication to providers about the importance and expectations to place, counsel about, and facilitate placement of LARCs, and medical schooling can improve LARC counseling and procedural training to medical students, interns, and residents. Because perceived behavioral control is linked to intentions to place LARCs, perhaps providers would feel more confident to place them if they

  14. Perceived Needs and Attitudes in Pediatric Hospital Attention to Immigrants According to the Professional Opinion: Qualitative Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Fernández-Castillo

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available In recent years the increasing of immigrant population attended in hospital pediatric units has been evident, according to the growing number of resident immigrant population in our country. At the moment there is no many investigations centred in problems and concrete difficulties that the attention to this population could present. The objective of our investigation is focused on knowing variables that can impact the quality and satisfaction with this kind of hospital attention, based on the opinion of professionals. For the accomplishment of our investigation objectives, the option has been a qualitative methodology of phenomenology type. To be concrete, interviews to key-informers procedure have been used. The participants were workers of pediatrics services in hospitals in the autonomous region of Andalusia, Spain. The circumstances more related to difficulties in the pediatric hospital attention, in opinion of the professionals, include aspects of idiomatic barriers. This aspect is followed by social and cultural or personality and psychological aspects, during the hospitalization process. The results obtained help us to understand difficulties observed during the attention to this population in pediatric hospitalization circumstances. This is also of great interest trying to improve hospital practice and satisfaction.

  15. Effect of ewe’s (semi-skimmed and whole) and cow’s milk yogurt consumption on the lipid profile of control subjects: a crossover study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olmedilla-Alonso, Begoña; Nova-Rebato, Esther; García-González, Natalia; Martín-Diana, Ana-Belén; Fontecha, Javier; Delgado, David; Gredilla, Ana-Elisa; Bueno, Francisco; Asensio-Vegas, Carmen

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Yogurt is the most widely consumed fermented milk product worldwide. Studies have mainly used milk and dairy products from cow, which have a lower fat content than those from ewe and a different lipid profile. This study investigated the effect on the lipid profile of control subjects of three different set yogurts: (a) semi-skimmed ewe´s milk yogurt (2.8% milk fat); (b) whole ewe´s milk yogurt (5.8 % milk fat); (c) cow´s milk yogurt (3 % milk fat). A randomized crossover study included 30 healthy adults (16 women) to consume 250 g/yogurt/day during three consecutive 5-weeks periods separated by 4-week washouts. Blood samples were collected at the start and end of each period for the analysis of serum cholesterol (total, HDL-, LDL-) and triglycerides. We found no differences in the serum concentrations of lipid and lipoprotein fractions of the volunteers after the intake of any of the three types of yogurts. When the volunteers were grouped into two risk groups of risk according to their total cholesterol/HDL cholesterol ratio, the same differences between the groups in terms of the cholesterol (HDL-, LDL-) and triglyceride responses at baseline and after yogurt intake were found, with no effects due to the different types of yogurts. Moreover, we performed compositional analysis of the yogurts including determination of protein, fat, minerals and fatty acids (FA). Contents in protein, calcium, magnesium, non-protein nitrogen and some FA (mainly short-chain-FA) were higher for ewe’s than for cow’s milk yogurt. n6-n3 ratio was lower in the ewe’s milk yogurt. In conclusion, yogurt intake, from ewe’s and cow’s milk, at levels of consumption compatible with a varied diet, neither decreases nor increases plasma lipoprotein cholesterol levels in apparently healthy individuals. As ewe’s milk yogurt has a high content of macro- and micronutrients, certain target populations could benefit from its consumption. PMID:29151833

  16. Formation of Bimolecular Membranes from Lipid Monolayers and a Study of Their Electrical Properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montal, M.; Mueller, P.

    1972-01-01

    Bimolecular membranes are formed from two lipid monolayers at an air-water interface by the apposition of their hydrocarbon chains when an aperture in a Teflon partition separating two aqueous phases is lowered through the interface. Formation of the membrane is monitored by an increase of the electrical capacity, as measured with a voltage clamp. Electrical resistance of the unmodified membrane is analogous to that of conventional planar bilayers (black lipid membranes) prepared in the presence of a hydrocarbon solvent, i.e., 106-108 ohm cm2; the resistance can be lowered to values of 103 ohm cm2 by gramicidin, an antibiotic that modifies the conductance only when the membranes are of biomolecular thickness. In contrast to the resistance, there is a significant difference between the capacity of bilayers made from mono-layers and that of hydrocarbon-containing bilayers made by phase transition; the average values are 0.9 and 0.45 μF cm-2, respectively. The value of 0.9 μF cm-2 approximates that of biological membranes. Assuming a dielectric constant of 2.1 for the hydrocarbon region, the dielectric thickness, as calculated from a capacity of 0.9 μF cm-2, is 22 Å. This value is 6-10 Å smaller than the actual thickness of the hydrocarbon region of bilayers and cell membranes, as determined by x-ray diffraction. The difference may be due to a limited penetration of water into the hydrocarbon region near the ester groups that would lower the electrical resistance of this region and reduce the dielectric thickness. Asymmetric membranes have been formed by adjoining two lipid monolayers of different chemical composition. Images PMID:4509315

  17. A study on the test of efficiency of the diagnostic X-ray equipment according to their rectifications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seon, Jong Ryul

    1997-01-01

    For the efficient management of the diagnostic x-ray equipment, a nation-wide inspection of hospitals was performed by an inspection institute in Taejon in the first half of 1997. Among those hospitals inspected, 28 equipments(machines) which were over 500 mA were randomly selected according to their characteristics : 7 condenser type x-ray equipments, 7 three control phase of full wave rectification of type remote control x-ray equipments, 7 single phase of full wave rectification type for general radiography equipments, and 7 single phase of full wave rectification type of R/F equipments. We obtained the following results by conducting the experiment based on the efficiency of the equipments mentioned above. 1) When te equipments are analyzed, 2 out of 7 single phase of full wave rectification type of general radiography equipments(28.6%), 3 out of 7 single phase of full wave rectification type of R/F equipments(42.9%), 5 out of 7 three phase of full wave rectification type remote of control x-ray equipments(71.4%), and 4 out of 7 condenser type of x-ray equipments(57.1%) showed suitability. It proves the superiority of the three phase of full wave rectification type of remote control x-ray equipments. 2) From the overall analysis, only about 50% of the equipments(suitability of 14 out of 28) maintain the efficient management. Therefore, maintenance management of equipments is more necessary. If the efficiency of the x-ray equipment is uniformly maintained and managed to prevent the breakdown(trouble) beforehand especially through the continuous inspection of tube voltage, tube current, exposure time, and collimator, the financial loss and exposure dose to the patient, as well as the workers engaged in radiation, can be reduced for better medical service

  18. Effect of acetone accumulation on structure and dynamics of lipid membranes studied by molecular dynamics simulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Posokhov, Yevgen O; Kyrychenko, Alexander

    2013-10-01

    The modulation of the properties and function of cell membranes by small volatile substances is important for many biomedical applications. Despite available experimental results, molecular mechanisms of action of inhalants and organic solvents, such as acetone, on lipid membranes remain not well understood. To gain a better understanding of how acetone interacts with membranes, we have performed a series of molecular dynamics (MD) simulations of a POPC bilayer in aqueous solution in the presence of acetone, whose concentration was varied from 2.8 to 11.2 mol%. The MD simulations of passive distribution of acetone between a bulk water phase and a lipid bilayer show that acetone favors partitioning into the water-free region of the bilayer, located near the carbonyl groups of the phospholipids and at the beginning of the hydrocarbon core of the lipid membrane. Using MD umbrella sampling, we found that the permeability barrier of ~0.5 kcal/mol exists for acetone partitioning into the membrane. In addition, a Gibbs free energy profile of the acetone penetration across a bilayer demonstrates a favorable potential energy well of -3.6 kcal/mol, located at 15-16Å from the bilayer center. The analysis of the structural and dynamics properties of the model membrane revealed that the POPC bilayer can tolerate the presence of acetone in the concentration range of 2.8-5.6 mol%. The accumulation of the higher acetone concentration of 11.2 mol% results, however, in drastic disordering of phospholipid packing and the increase in the membrane fluidity. The acetone molecules push the lipid heads apart and, hence, act as spacers in the headgroup region. This effect leads to the increase in the average headgroup area per molecule. In addition, the acyl tail region of the membrane also becomes less dense. We suggest, therefore, that the molecular mechanism of acetone action on the phospholipid bilayer has many common features with the effects of short chain alcohols, DMSO, and

  19. The solubilisation of boar sperm membranes by different detergents - a microscopic, MALDI-TOF MS, 31P NMR and PAGE study on membrane lysis, extraction efficiency, lipid and protein composition

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    Müller Karin

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Detergents are often used to isolate proteins, lipids as well as "detergent-resistant membrane domains" (DRMs from cells. Different detergents affect different membrane structures according to their physico-chemical properties. However, the effects of different detergents on membrane lysis of boar spermatozoa and the lipid composition of DRMs prepared from the affected sperm membranes have not been investigated so far. Results Spermatozoa were treated with the selected detergents Pluronic F-127, sodium cholate, CHAPS, Tween 20, Triton X-100 and Brij 96V. Different patterns of membrane disintegration were observed by light and electron microscopy. In accordance with microscopic data, different amounts of lipids and proteins were released from the cells by the different detergents. The biochemical methods to assay the phosphorus and cholesterol contents as well as 31P NMR to determine the phospholipids were not influenced by the presence of detergents since comparable amounts of lipids were detected in the organic extracts from whole cell suspensions after exposure to each detergent. However, matrix-assisted laser desorption and ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry applied to identify phospholipids was essentially disturbed by the presence of detergents which exerted particular suppression effects on signal intensities. After separation of the membrane fractions released by detergents on a sucrose gradient only Triton X-100 and sodium cholate produced sharp turbid DRM bands. Only membrane solubilisation by Triton X-100 leads to an enrichment of cholesterol, sphingomyelin, phosphatidylinositol and phosphatidylethanolamine in a visible DRM band accompanied by a selective accumulation of proteins. Conclusion The boar sperm membranes are solubilised to a different extent by the used detergents. Particularly, the very unique DRMs isolated after Triton X-100 exposure are interesting candidates for further studies regarding the

  20. Genetic determinants of lipid traits in diverse populations from the population architecture using genomics and epidemiology (PAGE study.

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    Logan Dumitrescu

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available For the past five years, genome-wide association studies (GWAS have identified hundreds of common variants associated with human diseases and traits, including high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C, and triglyceride (TG levels. Approximately 95 loci associated with lipid levels have been identified primarily among populations of European ancestry. The Population Architecture using Genomics and Epidemiology (PAGE study was established in 2008 to characterize GWAS-identified variants in diverse population-based studies. We genotyped 49 GWAS-identified SNPs associated with one or more lipid traits in at least two PAGE studies and across six racial/ethnic groups. We performed a meta-analysis testing for SNP associations with fasting HDL-C, LDL-C, and ln(TG levels in self-identified European American (~20,000, African American (~9,000, American Indian (~6,000, Mexican American/Hispanic (~2,500, Japanese/East Asian (~690, and Pacific Islander/Native Hawaiian (~175 adults, regardless of lipid-lowering medication use. We replicated 55 of 60 (92% SNP associations tested in European Americans at p<0.05. Despite sufficient power, we were unable to replicate ABCA1 rs4149268 and rs1883025, CETP rs1864163, and TTC39B rs471364 previously associated with HDL-C and MAFB rs6102059 previously associated with LDL-C. Based on significance (p<0.05 and consistent direction of effect, a majority of replicated genotype-phentoype associations for HDL-C, LDL-C, and ln(TG in European Americans generalized to African Americans (48%, 61%, and 57%, American Indians (45%, 64%, and 77%, and Mexican Americans/Hispanics (57%, 56%, and 86%. Overall, 16 associations generalized across all three populations. For the associations that did not generalize, differences in effect sizes, allele frequencies, and linkage disequilibrium offer clues to the next generation of association studies for these traits.

  1. Lipid Panel

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... A routine cardiac risk assessment typically includes a fasting lipid panel. Beyond that, research continues into the usefulness of other non-traditional markers of cardiac risk, such as Lp-PLA 2 . A health practitioner may choose to evaluate one or more ...

  2. LipidPedia: a comprehensive lipid knowledgebase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuo, Tien-Chueh; Tseng, Yufeng Jane

    2018-04-10

    Lipids are divided into fatty acyls, glycerolipids, glycerophospholipids, sphingolipids, saccharolipids, sterols, prenol lipids and polyketides. Fatty acyls and glycerolipids are commonly used as energy storage, whereas glycerophospholipids, sphingolipids, sterols and saccharolipids are common used as components of cell membranes. Lipids in fatty acyls, glycerophospholipids, sphingolipids and sterols classes play important roles in signaling. Although more than 36 million lipids can be identified or computationally generated, no single lipid database provides comprehensive information on lipids. Furthermore, the complex systematic or common names of lipids make the discovery of related information challenging. Here, we present LipidPedia, a comprehensive lipid knowledgebase. The content of this database is derived from integrating annotation data with full-text mining of 3,923 lipids and more than 400,000 annotations of associated diseases, pathways, functions, and locations that are essential for interpreting lipid functions and mechanisms from over 1,400,000 scientific publications. Each lipid in LipidPedia also has its own entry containing a text summary curated from the most frequently cited diseases, pathways, genes, locations, functions, lipids and experimental models in the biomedical literature. LipidPedia aims to provide an overall synopsis of lipids to summarize lipid annotations and provide a detailed listing of references for understanding complex lipid functions and mechanisms. LipidPedia is available at http://lipidpedia.cmdm.tw. yjtseng@csie.ntu.edu.tw. Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online.

  3. Study on the relationship between red blood cell immunity and lipid peroxidation in patients with endometriosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang Jingxiu; Shi Shaohong; Wang Yuping; Xie Xueqin; Qin Jibao

    2005-01-01

    Objective: To assess the relationship between red blood cell immunity and lipid peroxidation (LPO) in patients with endometriosis. Methods: The percentage of positive red blood cell c3b receptor rosette (RBC c3b -RR) and red blood cell immune complex rosette (RBC-ICR) were examined in 54 patients with endometriosis and 30 controls. Serum levels of malondialdehyde (MDA), superoxidase (SOD) and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-PX) were measured by chemocolorimetry in these subjects. Results: Percentage of positive RBC-ICR and MDA levels were significantly higher in patients with endometriosis than those in controls (P c3b RR, SOD, GSH-PX, SOD/MDA ratio were significantly lower in patients with endometriosis than those in controls (P c3b -RR was negatively correlated with MDA levels (r= -0. 4428, P < 0.05) and RBC-ICRR was positively correlated with MDA(r=0.5488, P0.05). Conclusion: The lower red cell immune adhesion function was closely associated with the disturbance of metabolism of lipid peroxidation in patients with endometriosis. (authors)

  4. Insulin versus Lipid Emulsion in a Rabbit Model of Severe Propranolol Toxicity: A Pilot Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martyn Harvey

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and objective. Beta-blocker overdose may result in intractable cardiovascular collapse despite conventional antidotal treatments. High dose insulin/glucose (ING, and more recently intravenous lipid emulsion (ILE, have been proposed as potentially beneficial therapies in beta blocker intoxication. We compare efficacy of the novel antidotes ING, with ILE, in a rabbit model of combined enteric/intravenous propranolol toxicity. Methods. Sedated, mechanically ventilated and invasively monitored New Zealand White rabbits underwent mini-laparotomy and enterostomy formation with 40 mg/kg propranolol instilled into the proximal small bowel. At 30 minutes propranolol infusion was commenced at 4 mg/kg/hr and continued to a target mean arterial pressure (MAP of 50% baseline MAP. Animals were resuscitated with insulin at 3 U/kg plus 0.5 g/kg glucose (ING group, or 10 mL/kg 20% Intralipid (ILE group. Results. Rate pressure product (RPP; RPP = heart rate × mean arterial pressure was greatest in the ING group at 60 minutes (P<.05. A trend toward greater heart rate was observed in the ING group (P=.06. No difference was observed in survival between groups (4/5 ING versus 2/5 ILE; P=.524. Conclusions. High dose insulin resulted in greater rate pressure product compared with lipid emulsion in this rabbit model of severe enteric/intravenous propranolol toxicity.

  5. Characteristics and outcomes of Italian patients from the observational, multicentre, hypopituitary control and complications study (HypoCCS) according to tertiles of growth hormone peak concentration following stimulation testing at study entry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Losa, Marco; Beck-Peccoz, Paolo; Aimaretti, Gianluca; Di Somma, Carolina; Ambrosio, Maria Rosaria; Ferone, Diego; Giampietro, Antonella; Corsello, Salvatore M; Poggi, Maurizio; Scaroni, Carla; Jia, Nan; Mossetto, Gilberto; Cannavò, Salvatore; Rochira, Vincenzo

    2015-10-01

    To determine whether characteristics and outcomes of Italian patients in the observational global Hypopituitary Control and Complication Study (HypoCCS) differed according to the degree of GH deficiency (GHD). Patients were grouped by tertiles of stimulated GH peak concentration at baseline (Group A lowest tertile, n = 342; Group B middle tertile, n = 345; Group C highest tertile, n = 338). Baseline demographics, lipid levels, body mass index categories and mean Framingham cardiovascular risk indexes were similar in the three groups and remained substantially unchanged over time, with no subsequent significant between-group differences (except mean levels of triglycerides increased in the highest tertile group). GHD was adult-onset for >75% of patients in all groups. The percentage of patients with multiple pituitary deficiencies was higher in Group A than in the other groups; isolated GHD was reported with highest frequency in Group C. Patients in Group A received the lowest mean starting dose of GH. Hyperlipidaemia at baseline was reported in 35·1%, 31·1% and 24·7% of patients in groups A, B and C, respectively (P = 0·029). Mean duration of GH treatment was 7·21, 5·45 and 4·96 years, respectively. The proportion of patients with adverse events did not differ significantly between groups, with a low prevalence over time of diabetes and cancer. In Italian patients from HypoCCS, the level of GH deficit did not influence changes over time in metabolic parameters or adverse event profile, despite differences in GHD severity at baseline and in the starting GH dose. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  6. Membrane docking geometry of GRP1 PH domain bound to a target lipid bilayer: an EPR site-directed spin-labeling and relaxation study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huai-Chun Chen

    Full Text Available The second messenger lipid PIP(3 (phosphatidylinositol-3,4,5-trisphosphate is generated by the lipid kinase PI3K (phosphoinositide-3-kinase in the inner leaflet of the plasma membrane, where it regulates a broad array of cell processes by recruiting multiple signaling proteins containing PIP(3-specific pleckstrin homology (PH domains to the membrane surface. Despite the broad importance of PIP(3-specific PH domains, the membrane docking geometry of a PH domain bound to its target PIP(3 lipid on a bilayer surface has not yet been experimentally determined. The present study employs EPR site-directed spin labeling and relaxation methods to elucidate the membrane docking geometry of GRP1 PH domain bound to bilayer-embedded PIP(3. The model target bilayer contains the neutral background lipid PC and both essential targeting lipids: (i PIP(3 target lipid that provides specificity and affinity, and (ii PS facilitator lipid that enhances the PIP(3 on-rate via an electrostatic search mechanism. The EPR approach measures membrane depth parameters for 18 function-retaining spin labels coupled to the PH domain, and for calibration spin labels coupled to phospholipids. The resulting depth parameters, together with the known high resolution structure of the co-complex between GRP1 PH domain and the PIP(3 headgroup, provide sufficient constraints to define an optimized, self-consistent membrane docking geometry. In this optimized geometry the PH domain engulfs the PIP(3 headgroup with minimal bilayer penetration, yielding the shallowest membrane position yet described for a lipid binding domain. This binding interaction displaces the PIP(3 headgroup from its lowest energy position and orientation in the bilayer, but the headgroup remains within its energetically accessible depth and angular ranges. Finally, the optimized docking geometry explains previous biophysical findings including mutations observed to disrupt membrane binding, and the rapid lateral

  7. The RecordAF study: design, baseline data, and profile of patients according to chosen treatment strategy for atrial fibrillation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Le Heuzey, Jean-Yves; Breithardt, Günter; Camm, John

    2010-01-01

    The REgistry on Cardiac rhythm disORDers assessing the control of Atrial Fibrillation (RecordAF) is the first worldwide, 1-year observational, longitudinal study of the management of paroxysmal/persistent atrial fibrillation (AF) in recently diagnosed patients. The study was conducted at 532 sites...

  8. The structure and peculiarities of lung involvement in children and teenagers with lupus erythematosus according to radiological studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Churilyin, R.Yu.

    2004-01-01

    The state of the lungs, pleura, diaphragm and heart in children (36 patients) with lupus erythematosus using radiological studies was defined. The study allowed to work out the scheme of main morphofunctional, x-ray, and ultrasound changes in the respiratory and cardiovascular systems

  9. An Examination of Coach and Player Relationships According to the Adapted LMX 7 Scale: A Validity and Reliability Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caliskan, Gokhan

    2015-01-01

    The current study aims to test the reliability and validity of the Leader-Member Exchange (LMX 7) scale with regard to coach--player relationships in sports settings. A total of 330 professional soccer players from the Turkish Super League as well as from the First and Second Leagues participated in this study. Factor analyses were performed to…

  10. Flow-through lipid nanotube arrays for structure-function studies of membrane proteins by solid-state NMR spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chekmenev, Eduard Y; Gor'kov, Peter L; Cross, Timothy A; Alaouie, Ali M; Smirnov, Alex I

    2006-10-15

    A novel method for studying membrane proteins in a native lipid bilayer environment by solid-state NMR spectroscopy is described and tested. Anodic aluminum oxide (AAO) substrates with flow-through 175 nm wide and 60-mum-long nanopores were employed to form macroscopically aligned peptide-containing lipid bilayers that are fluid and highly hydrated. We demonstrate that the surfaces of both leaflets of such bilayers are fully accessible to aqueous solutes. Thus, high hydration levels as well as pH and desirable ion and/or drug concentrations could be easily maintained and modified as desired in a series of experiments with the same sample. The method allows for membrane protein NMR experiments in a broad pH range that could be extended to as low as 1 and as high as 12 units for a period of up to a few hours and temperatures as high as 70 degrees C without losing the lipid alignment or bilayers from the nanopores. We demonstrate the utility of this method by a solid-state 19.6 T (17)O NMR study of reversible binding effects of mono- and divalent ions on the chemical shift properties of the Leu(10) carbonyl oxygen of transmembrane pore-forming peptide gramicidin A (gA). We further compare the (17)O shifts induced by binding metal ions to the binding of protons in the pH range from 1 to 12 and find a significant difference. This unexpected result points to a difference in mechanisms for ion and proton conduction by the gA pore. We believe that a large number of solid-state NMR-based studies, including structure-function, drug screening, proton exchange, pH, and other titration experiments, will benefit significantly from the method described here.

  11. Prevalence of plasma lipid abnormalities and its association with glucose metabolism in Spain: the di@bet.es study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez-Hervas, Sergio; Carmena, Rafael; Ascaso, Juan F; Real, Jose T; Masana, Luis; Catalá, Miguel; Vendrell, Joan; Vázquez, José Antonio; Valdés, Sergio; Urrutia, Inés; Soriguer, Federico; Serrano-Rios, Manuel; Rojo-Martínez, Gemma; Pascual-Manich, Gemma; Ortega, Emilio; Mora-Peces, Inmaculada; Menéndez, Edelmiro; Martínez-Larrad, Maria T; López-Alba, Alfonso; Gomis, Ramón; Goday, Albert; Girbés, Juan; Gaztambide, Sonia; Franch, Josep; Delgado, Elías; Castell, Conxa; Castaño, Luis; Casamitjana, Roser; Calle-Pascual, Alfonso; Bordiú, Elena

    2014-01-01

    Dyslipidemia is a significant contributor to the elevated CVD risk observed in type 2 diabetes mellitus. We assessed the prevalence of dyslipidemia and its association with glucose metabolism status in a representative sample of the adult population in Spain and the percentage of subjects at guideline-recommended LDL-C goals. The di@bet.es study is a national, cross-sectional population-based survey of 5728 adults. A total of 4776 subjects were studied. Dyslipidemia was diagnosed in 56.8% of subjects; only 13.2% of subjects were treated with lipid lowering drugs. Lipid abnormalities were found in 56.8% of Spanish adults: 23.3% with high LDL-C, 21.5% high TG, 35.8% high non-HDL-C, and 17.2% low HDL-C. Most normal subjects showed an LDL-C ≤ 3.36 mmol/l. Pre-diabetics presented similar proportion when considering a goal of 3.36 mmol/l, but only 35% of them reached an LDL-C goal ≤ 2.6 mmol/l. Finally, 45.3% of diabetics had an LDL-C ≤ 2.6 mmol/l, and only 11.3% achieved an LDL-C ≤ 1.8 mmol/l. Our study demonstrates a high prevalence of dyslipidemia in the adult Spanish population, and a low use of lipid-lowering drugs. Moreover, the number of subjects achieving their corresponding LDL-C goal is small, particularly in subjects at high cardiovascular risk, such as diabetics. Copyright © 2013 Sociedad Española de Arteriosclerosis. Published by Elsevier España. All rights reserved.

  12. Critical temperatures and a critical chain length in saturated diacylphosphatidylcholines: calorimetric, ultrasonic and Monte Carlo simulation study of chain-melting/ordering in aqueous lipid dispersions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kharakoz, Dmitry P; Panchelyuga, Maria S; Tiktopulo, Elizaveta I; Shlyapnikova, Elena A

    2007-12-01

    Chain-ordering/melting transition in a series of saturated diacylphosphatidylcholines (PCs) in aqueous dispersions have been studied experimentally (calorimetric and ultrasonic techniques) and theoretically (an Ising-like lattice model). The shape of the calorimetric curves was compared with the theoretical data and interpreted in terms of the lateral interactions and critical temperatures determined for each lipid studied. A critical chain length has been found (between 16 and 17 C-atoms per chain) which subdivides PCs into two classes with different phase behavior. In shorter lipids, the transition takes place above their critical temperatures meaning that this is an intrinsically continuous transition. In longer lipids, the transition occurs below the critical temperatures of the lipids, meaning that the transition is intrinsically discontinuous (first-order). This conclusion was supported independently by the ultrasonic relaxation sensitive to density fluctuations. Interestingly, it is this length that is the most abundant among the saturated chains in biological membranes.

  13. Neural responses to visual food cues according to weight status: a systematic review of functional magnetic resonance imaging studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pursey, Kirrilly M; Stanwell, Peter; Callister, Robert J; Brain, Katherine; Collins, Clare E; Burrows, Tracy L

    2014-01-01

    Emerging evidence from recent neuroimaging studies suggests that specific food-related behaviors contribute to the development of obesity. The aim of this review was to report the neural responses to visual food cues, as assessed by functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), in humans of differing weight status. Published studies to 2014 were retrieved and included if they used visual food cues, studied humans >18 years old, reported weight status, and included fMRI outcomes. Sixty studies were identified that investigated the neural responses of healthy weight participants (n = 26), healthy weight compared to obese participants (n = 17), and weight-loss interventions (n = 12). High-calorie food images were used in the majority of studies (n = 36), however, image selection justification was only provided in 19 studies. Obese individuals had increased activation of reward-related brain areas including the insula and orbitofrontal cortex in response to visual food cues compared to healthy weight individuals, and this was particularly evident in response to energy dense cues. Additionally, obese individuals were more responsive to food images when satiated. Meta-analysis of changes in neural activation post-weight loss revealed small areas of convergence across studies in brain areas related to emotion, memory, and learning, including the cingulate gyrus, lentiform nucleus, and precuneus. Differential activation patterns to visual food cues were observed between obese, healthy weight, and weight-loss populations. Future studies require standardization of nutrition variables and fMRI outcomes to enable more direct comparisons between studies.

  14. Participant profiles according to recruitment source in a large Web-based prospective study: experience from the Nutrinet-Santé study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kesse-Guyot, Emmanuelle; Andreeva, Valentina; Castetbon, Katia; Vernay, Michel; Touvier, Mathilde; Méjean, Caroline; Julia, Chantal; Galan, Pilar; Hercberg, Serge

    2013-09-13

    Interest in Internet-based epidemiologic research is growing given the logistic and cost advantages. Cohort recruitment to maximally diversify the sociodemographic profiles of participants, however, remains a contentious issue. The aim of the study was to characterize the sociodemographic profiles according to the recruitment mode of adult volunteers enrolled in a Web-based cohort. The French NutriNet-Santé Web-based cohort was launched in 2009. Recruitment is ongoing and largely relies on recurrent multimedia campaigns. One month after enrollment, participants are asked how they learned about the study (eg, general newscast or a health program on television, radio newscast, newspaper articles, Internet, personal advice, leaflet/flyers) The sociodemographic profiles of participants recruited through operative communication channels (radio, print media, Internet, advice) were compared with the profiles of those informed through television by using polytomous logistic regression. Among the 88,238 participants enrolled through the end of 2011, 30,401 (34.45%), 16,751 (18.98%), and 14,309 (16.22%) learned about the study from television, Internet, and radio newscasts, respectively. Sociodemographic profiles were various, with 14,541 (16.5%) aged ≥60 years, 20,166 (22.9%) aged income income €3700/month. Compared to employed individuals, unemployed and retired participants were less likely to be informed about the study through other sources than through television (adjusted ORs 0.56-0.83, Pbased studies regarding the development of promising targeted or general population recruitment strategies.

  15. According to Handball Coaches, What Are The Psychological Factors That Affect The Performance of Athletes? A Qualitative Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nevzat ERDOĞAN

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to measure the factors that affect psychogical aspects of athletes’ performance accordi ng to the handball coaches. In this study, the case study design within qualitative research methods was used. As a sampling method, the convenient sampling method from the purposive sampling methods was used. As a data collection tool, semi - structured interview form which is developed by the researcher himself was used. The descriptive analysis and the content analysis were used in the analysis of the findings. In this study, the performance of athletes by handball coaches as factors affecting the psych ological aspect determined as, training place, coaches, training methods and equipment, socio - economic status, body language, arousal level, competitors, spectators, family, friends, education, referees, concentration, personality, communication, motivatio n, time - out, psychological training.

  16. Classroom management: Teachers’ skills and differentiation according to posts held at school – A research study with primary school teachers

    OpenAIRE

    Valente, Sónia; Veiga, Feliciano

    2016-01-01

    Conceptual framework: The concept of classroom management emerges as a relevant and contemporary study area, since due to a shortage of empirical studies, there is a clear need for deeper explanatory theoretical models. Teachers use strategies for classroom management but still encounter barriers when defining conditions which may enhance the teaching and learning process. Objective: the present research intended to answer the following research questions: «How are teachers ...

  17. Greater adherence to a Mediterranean dietary pattern is associated with improved plasma lipid profile: the Aragon Health Workers Study cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peñalvo, José L; Oliva, Belén; Sotos-Prieto, Mercedes; Uzhova, Irina; Moreno-Franco, Belén; León-Latre, Montserrat; Ordovás, José María

    2015-04-01

    There is wide recognition of the importance of healthy eating in cardiovascular health promotion. The purpose of this study was to identify the main dietary patterns among a Spanish population, and to determine their relationship with plasma lipid profiles. A cross-sectional analysis was conducted of data from 1290 participants of the Aragon Workers Health Study cohort. Standardized protocols were used to collect clinical and biochemistry data. Diet was assessed through a food frequency questionnaire, quantifying habitual intake over the past 12 months. The main dietary patterns were identified by factor analysis. The association between adherence to dietary patterns and plasma lipid levels was assessed by linear and logistic regression. Two dietary patterns were identified: a Mediterranean dietary pattern, high in vegetables, fruits, fish, white meat, nuts, and olive oil, and a Western dietary pattern, high in red meat, fast food, dairy, and cereals. Compared with the participants in the lowest quintile of adherence to the Western dietary pattern, those in the highest quintile had 4.6 mg/dL lower high-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels (P dietary pattern had 3.3mg/dL higher high-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels (P dietary pattern is associated with improved lipid profile compared with a Western dietary pattern, which was associated with a lower odds of optimal high-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels in this population. Copyright © 2014 Sociedad Española de Cardiología. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  18. The effect ofquercetine on lipid peroxidation induced by ziprasidone in human plasma – invitro studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Justyna Kopka

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Niektóre leki przeciwpsychotyczne, w  tym zyprazydon (ZYP, przyczyniają się do zaburzeń równowagi proi antyoksydacyjnej u chorych na schizofrenię. Poszukiwanie skutecznej antyoksydacyjnej suplementacji zmniejszającej działanie prooksydacyjne leków przeciwpsychotycznych ma zatem duże znaczenie kliniczne. Celem badania było ustalenie wpływu ZYP na peroksydację lipidów ludzkiego osocza – przez oznaczenie stężenia związków reagujących z kwasem tiobarbiturowym (TBARS, w modelu in vitro. Materiał i metody: Krew do badań pobrano od zdrowych ochotników płci męskiej – na roztwór ACD. Substancję aktywną, czyli ZYP, rozpuszczono w 0,01% dimetylosulfotlenku do stężeń końcowych (40 ng/ml, 139 ng/ml i inkubowano z osoczem (1 i 24 godziny, 37°C. Osocze inkubowano również z kwercetyną (7,5 µg/ml, 15 µg/ml oraz z kwercetyną i ZYP, w różnych kombinacjach badanych stężeń. Do każdego doświadczenia wykonano próby kontrolne (bez leku. Oznaczenia stężenia TBARS przeprowadzono metodą spektrofotometryczną Rice’a-Evansa (modyfikacja: Wachowicz i Kustroń. Wyniki: ZYP w stężeniach 40 ng/ml i 139 ng/ml po 24 godzinach inkubacji z osoczem powoduje wzrost stężenia TBARS (p odpowiednio <0,01 i <0,002. Kwercetyna (7,5 µg/ml, 15 µg/ml inkubowana 24 godziny w osoczu wraz z ZYP zmniejsza peroksydację lipidów średnio o 38% (dla ZYP 40 ng/ml p odpowiednio <0,0003 i <0,0001, dla ZYP 139 ng/ml p odpowiednio <0,002 i <0,004. Wniosek: Kwercetyna istotnie obniża peroksydację lipidów wywoływaną przez zyprazydon.

  19. Novel formulation and evaluation of a Q10-loaded solid lipid nanoparticle cream: in vitro and in vivo studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farboud ES

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Effat Sadat Farboud, Saman Ahmad Nasrollahi, Zahra TabbakhiDepartment of Pharmaceutics, School of Pharmacy, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, IranAbstract: Solid lipid nanoparticles (SLNs of coenzyme Q10 (CoQ10 were formulated by a high-pressure homogenization method. The best formulation of SLN dispersion consisted of 13% lipid (cetyl palmitate or stearic acid, 8% surfactant (Tween 80 or Tego Care 450, and water. Stability tests, particle size analysis, differential scanning calorimetry, transmission electron microscopy, and release study were conducted to find the best formulation. A simple cream of CoQ10 and a cream containing CoQ10-loaded SLNs were prepared and compared on volunteers aged 20–30 years. SLNs with particle size between 50 nm and100 nm exhibited the most suitable stability. In vitro release profiles of CoQ10 from simple cream, SLN alone, and CoQ10-loaded SLN cream showed prolonged release for SLNs compared with the simple cream, whereas there was no significant difference between SLN alone and SLN in cream. In vitro release studies also demonstrated that CoQ10-loaded SLN and SLN cream possessed a biphasic release pattern in comparison with simple cream. In vivo skin hydration and elasticity studies on 25 volunteers suggested good dermal penetration and useful activity of Q10 on skin as a hydratant and antiwrinkle cream.Keywords: coenzyme Q10, SLN, release study 

  20. Metabolic distress in lipid & one carbon metabolic pathway through low vitamin B-12: a population based study from North India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saraswathy, Kallur Nava; Joshi, Shipra; Yadav, Suniti; Garg, Priyanka Rani

    2018-04-25

    Dyslipidemia and hyper-homocysteinemia are the major independent risk factors of cardio vascular disease. Deficiency of folate and vitamin B-12 are associated with both hyper-homocysteinemia and dyslipidemia. The aim of the study is to evaluate the relationship of homocysteine and its associated dietary determinant levels (Folate and Vitamin B-12) with lipids and obesity parameters (WC, BMI, WHR) in North Indian population. The participants were recruited under a major government funded project through household survey covering 15 villages of Haryana, India. Participants were both males and females, between age group 30-65 years, from a north Indian community. Initially 1634 individuals were recruited, of which 1374 were considered for analysis as they were not found to be on any kind of medication for high blood pressure, CAD, diabetes or any other disorder, and had no missing data. 5 mL of intravenous blood sample was collected after obtaining written informed consent from the participants. Homocysteine, folate and vitamin B12 levels were estimated through Immulite 1000 by chemi-luminescence technique. Triglyceride, total cholesterol and HDL-C were estimated by spectrophotometry technique using commercial kits. The values for LDL and VLDL were calculated using Friedwald's equation. Height, weight, waist circumference (WC), hip circumference (HC) was measured over light clothing. Statistical analysis for data was performed using SPSS 16.0 version. All the lipid indices, except HDL, showed a trend of negative correlation with homocysteine after controlling for confounders, though not significant. No association was found between obesity (WC, BMI, WHR) and homocysteine in the present study. Vitamin B-12 deficiency was significantly associated with both hyper-homocysteinemia and low HDL. Folate was found to have significantly reduced risk for high TC & LDL. The "hcy-lipid" hypothesis does not seem to be complementing in the present studied population. The

  1. Genome-Wide Association Study Reveals Four Loci for Lipid Ratios in the Korean Population and the Constitutional Subgroup.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Taehyeung; Park, Ah Yeon; Baek, Younghwa; Cha, Seongwon

    2017-01-01

    Circulating lipid ratios are considered predictors of cardiovascular risks and metabolic syndrome, which cause coronary heart diseases. One constitutional type of Korean medicine prone to weight accumulation, the Tae-Eum type, predisposes the consumers to metabolic syndrome, hypertension, diabetes mellitus, etc. Here, we aimed to identify genetic variants for lipid ratios using a genome-wide association study (GWAS) and followed replication analysis in Koreans and constitutional subgroups. GWASs in 5,292 individuals of the Korean Genome and Epidemiology Study and replication analyses in 2,567 subjects of the Korea medicine Data Center were performed to identify genetic variants associated with triglyceride (TG) to HDL cholesterol (HDLC), LDL cholesterol (LDLC) to HDLC, and non-HDLC to HDLC ratios. For subgroup analysis, a computer-based constitution analysis tool was used to categorize the constitutional types of the subjects. In the discovery stage, seven variants in four loci, three variants in three loci, and two variants in one locus were associated with the ratios of log-transformed TG:HDLC (log[TG]:HDLC), LDLC:HDLC, and non-HDLC:HDLC, respectively. The associations of the GWAS variants with lipid ratios were replicated in the validation stage: for the log[TG]:HDLC ratio, rs6589566 near APOA5 and rs4244457 and rs6586891 near LPL; for the LDLC:HDLC ratio, rs4420638 near APOC1 and rs17445774 near C2orf47; and for the non-HDLC:HDLC ratio, rs6589566 near APOA5. Five of these six variants are known to be associated with TG, LDLC, and/or HDLC, but rs17445774 was newly identified to be involved in lipid level changes in this study. Constitutional subgroup analysis revealed effects of variants associated with log[TG]:HDLC and non-HDLC:HDLC ratios in both the Tae-Eum and non-Tae-Eum types, whereas the effect of the LDLC:HDLC ratio-associated variants remained only in the Tae-Eum type. In conclusion, we identified three log[TG]:HDLC ratio-associated variants, two LDLC

  2. Genome-Wide Association Study Reveals Four Loci for Lipid Ratios in the Korean Population and the Constitutional Subgroup.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taehyeung Kim

    Full Text Available Circulating lipid ratios are considered predictors of cardiovascular risks and metabolic syndrome, which cause coronary heart diseases. One constitutional type of Korean medicine prone to weight accumulation, the Tae-Eum type, predisposes the consumers to metabolic syndrome, hypertension, diabetes mellitus, etc. Here, we aimed to identify genetic variants for lipid ratios using a genome-wide association study (GWAS and followed replication analysis in Koreans and constitutional subgroups. GWASs in 5,292 individuals of the Korean Genome and Epidemiology Study and replication analyses in 2,567 subjects of the Korea medicine Data Center were performed to identify genetic variants associated with triglyceride (TG to HDL cholesterol (HDLC, LDL cholesterol (LDLC to HDLC, and non-HDLC to HDLC ratios. For subgroup analysis, a computer-based constitution analysis tool was used to categorize the constitutional types of the subjects. In the discovery stage, seven variants in four loci, three variants in three loci, and two variants in one locus were associated with the ratios of log-transformed TG:HDLC (log[TG]:HDLC, LDLC:HDLC, and non-HDLC:HDLC, respectively. The associations of the GWAS variants with lipid ratios were replicated in the validation stage: for the log[TG]:HDLC ratio, rs6589566 near APOA5 and rs4244457 and rs6586891 near LPL; for the LDLC:HDLC ratio, rs4420638 near APOC1 and rs17445774 near C2orf47; and for the non-HDLC:HDLC ratio, rs6589566 near APOA5. Five of these six variants are known to be associated with TG, LDLC, and/or HDLC, but rs17445774 was newly identified to be involved in lipid level changes in this study. Constitutional subgroup analysis revealed effects of variants associated with log[TG]:HDLC and non-HDLC:HDLC ratios in both the Tae-Eum and non-Tae-Eum types, whereas the effect of the LDLC:HDLC ratio-associated variants remained only in the Tae-Eum type. In conclusion, we identified three log[TG]:HDLC ratio

  3. Psychological Study on the Origin of Life, Death and Life after Death: Differences between Beliefs According to Age and Schooling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva Bautista, Jesús; Herrera Escobar, Venazir; Corona Miranda, Rodolfo

    2018-01-01

    The present work proposes a psychological study via beliefs, about the origin of life, death, and life after death. Beliefs have played a decisive role in the development of humanity, from the primitive man who gave to the unknown divine forces, the judgments of the Holy Inquisition in the Medieval Age, the impact provoked by the conviction that…

  4. SC lipid model membranes designed for studying impact of ceramide species on drug diffusion and permeation--part II: diffusion and permeation of model drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ochalek, M; Podhaisky, H; Ruettinger, H-H; Wohlrab, J; Neubert, R H H

    2012-10-01

    The barrier function of two quaternary stratum corneum (SC) lipid model membranes, which were previously characterized with regard to the lipid organization, was investigated based on diffusion studies of model drugs with varying lipophilicities. Diffusion experiments of a hydrophilic drug, urea, and more lipophilic drugs than urea (i.e. caffeine, diclofenac sodium) were conducted using Franz-type diffusion cells. The amount of permeated drug was analyzed using either HPLC or CE technique. The subjects of interest in the present study were the investigation of the influence of physicochemical properties of model drugs on their diffusion and permeation through SC lipid model membranes, as well as the study of the impact of the constituents of these artificial systems (particularly ceramide species) on their barrier properties. The diffusion through both SC lipid model membranes and the human SC of the most hydrophilic model drug, urea, was faster than the permeation of the more lipophilic drugs. The slowest rate of permeation through SC lipid systems occurred in the case of caffeine. The composition of SC lipid model membranes has a significant impact on their barrier function. Model drugs diffused and permeated faster through Membrane II (presence of Cer [EOS]). In terms of the barrier properties, Membrane II is much more similar to the human SC than Membrane I. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Solid Lipid Nanoparticles Carrying Temozolomide for Melanoma Treatment. Preliminary In Vitro and In Vivo Studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nausicaa Clemente

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: To develop an innovative delivery system for temozolomide (TMZ in solid lipid nanoparticles (SLN, which has been preliminarily investigated for the treatment of melanoma. Materials and Methods: SLN-TMZ was obtained through fatty acid coacervation. Its pharmacological effects were assessed and compared with free TMZ in in vitro and in vivo models of melanoma and glioblastoma. Results: Compared to the standard free TMZ, SLN-TMZ exerted larger effects, when cell proliferation of melanoma cells, and neoangiogeneis were evaluated. SLN-TMZ also inhibited growth and vascularization of B16-F10 melanoma in C57/BL6 mice, without apparent toxic effects. Conclusion: SLN could be a promising strategy for the delivery of TMZ, allowing an increased stability of the drug and thereby its employment in the treatment of aggressive malignacies.

  6. Oxidative stability of the lipid fraction in cookies – the EPR study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zawada Katarzyna

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Cookies are a group of convenient food products that are popular among consumers. They may contain high amounts of fats, which can be prone to oxidation. To retard the oxidative deterioration, synthetic and natural antioxidants may be added. Herb and spice extracts can be sources of natural biologically active substances with antioxidant activity. In this work, electron paramagnetic resonance spectroscopy was used to monitor the lipid oxidation in cookies with rosemary and thyme extracts subjected to the storage in elevated temperature. It was shown that thyme extract can be used as a natural antioxidant source for the preparation of bakery products, while the rosemary extract should be used with care in fat-rich products exposed to high temperatures.

  7. Solid Lipid Nanoparticles Carrying Temozolomide for Melanoma Treatment. Preliminary In Vitro and In Vivo Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrara, Benedetta; Biasibetti, Elena; Schiffer, Davide; Mellai, Marta; Annovazzi, Laura; Cangemi, Luigi; Muntoni, Elisabetta; Dianzani, Umberto

    2018-01-01

    Aim: To develop an innovative delivery system for temozolomide (TMZ) in solid lipid nanoparticles (SLN), which has been preliminarily investigated for the treatment of melanoma. Materials and Methods: SLN-TMZ was obtained through fatty acid coacervation. Its pharmacological effects were assessed and compared with free TMZ in in vitro and in vivo models of melanoma and glioblastoma. Results: Compared to the standard free TMZ, SLN-TMZ exerted larger effects, when cell proliferation of melanoma cells, and neoangiogeneis were evaluated. SLN-TMZ also inhibited growth and vascularization of B16-F10 melanoma in C57/BL6 mice, without apparent toxic effects. Conclusion: SLN could be a promising strategy for the delivery of TMZ, allowing an increased stability of the drug and thereby its employment in the treatment of aggressive malignacies. PMID:29364157

  8. A study on the boundary condition for analysis of bio-heat equation according to light irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ko, Dong Guk; Bae, Sung Woo; Im, Ik Tae [Chunbuk Natinal University, Junju (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-11-15

    In this study, the temperature change in an imitational biological tissue, when its surface is irradiated with bio-light, was measured by experiments. Using the experimental data, an equation for temperature as a function of time was developed in order to use it as a boundary condition in numerical studies for the model. The temperature profile was measured along the depth for several wavelengths and distances of the light source from the tissue. It was found that the temperature of the tissue increased with increasing wavelength and irradiation time; however, the difference in the temperatures with red light and near infrared light was not large. The numerical analysis results obtained by using the developed equation as boundary condition show good agreement with the measured temperatures.

  9. EFFECTIVENESS AND SAFETY OF VELAGLUCERASE ALFA IN TREATMENT OF GAUCHER DISEASE TYPE 1 (ACCORDING TO INTERNATIONAL STUDIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. S. Gundobina

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The article is dedicated to modern approaches to treatment of Gaucher’s disease. The authors list the primary aspects of the disease and present data on the origin and introduction of pathogenetic enzyme replacement therapy to clinical practice. Review of international clinical studies demonstrates high effectiveness and safety of long-term enzyme replacement therapy with velaglucerase alfa in patients with confirmed type I Gaucher’s disease. 

  10. Seafood Consumption Attributes and Buying Behaviours According to the Generations: A Study on Millennial Generation in Turkish Market

    OpenAIRE

    Osman İnanç Güney; Levent Sangün

    2017-01-01

    This paper focus on the seafood consumption attitudes and behaviours of the millennials (Generation Y) and non-millennials (Generation X, Baby Boomers and Silent Generation) comparatively. The data was collected from a face to face survey which was applied to randomly select 407 individuals in the city of Adana, Turkey in November 2016. As a result of factor analysis applied in the study, it was found that Millennials was significantly and inversely correlated with consumption of wild fish an...

  11. The Role of Feedback in the Bologna Process, According to Goal Setting Theory: An Exploratory Study of Students' Perceptions

    OpenAIRE

    Puig Terrón, Miriam; Balagué i Canadell, Jordi; Solé Pla, Joan

    2016-01-01

    This study has been carried out while The Bologna Process was implemented in the European Higher Education Area (EHEA). One of the main features of TBP is Lifelong Learning (LLL), introduced to improve student learning, by emphasizing the role of feedback. The Goal Setting Theory of Motivation (GST) considers feedback as a mechanism to enhance performance. Starting from this theoretical framework, our objective is to analyse whether, for those students with specific and challenging goals, fee...

  12. Can Parenting Practices Explain the Differences in Beverage Intake According to Socio-Economic Status: The Toybox-Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinket, An-Sofie; De Craemer, Marieke; De Bourdeaudhuij, Ilse; Deforche, Benedicte; Cardon, Greet; Androutsos, Odysseas; Koletzko, Berthold; Moreno, Luis A.; Socha, Piotr; Iotova, Violeta; Manios, Yannis; Van Lippevelde, Wendy

    2016-01-01

    Previous research indicated that preschoolers of lower socioeconomic status (SES) consume less healthy beverages than high SES preschoolers. The purpose of this study is to investigate the mediating role of parenting practices in the relationship between SES and plain water, soft drink and prepacked fruit juice (FJ) consumption in European preschoolers. Parents/caregivers of 3.5 to 5.5 years old (n = 6776) recruited through kindergartens in six European countries within the ToyBox-study completed questionnaires on socio-demographics, parenting practices and a food frequency questionnaire. Availability of sugared beverages and plain water, permissiveness towards sugared beverages and lack of self-efficacy showed a mediating effect on SES-differences in all three beverages. Rewarding with sugared beverages significantly mediated SES-differences for both plain water and prepacked FJ. Encouragement to drink plain water and awareness significantly mediated SES-differences for, respectively, plain water and prepacked FJ consumption. Avoiding negative modelling did not mediate any associations. Overall, lower SES preschoolers were more likely to be confronted with lower levels of favourable and higher levels of unfavourable parenting practices, which may lead to higher sugared beverage and lower plain water consumption. The current study highlights the importance of parenting practices in explaining the relation between SES and both healthy and unhealthy beverage consumption. PMID:27669290

  13. Can Parenting Practices Explain the Differences in Beverage Intake According to Socio-Economic Status: The Toybox-Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    An-Sofie Pinket

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Previous research indicated that preschoolers of lower socioeconomic status (SES consume less healthy beverages than high SES preschoolers. The purpose of this study is to investigate the mediating role of parenting practices in the relationship between SES and plain water, soft drink and prepacked fruit juice (FJ consumption in European preschoolers. Parents/caregivers of 3.5 to 5.5 years old (n = 6776 recruited through kindergartens in six European countries within the ToyBox-study completed questionnaires on socio-demographics, parenting practices and a food frequency questionnaire. Availability of sugared beverages and plain water, permissiveness towards sugared beverages and lack of self-efficacy showed a mediating effect on SES-differences in all three beverages. Rewarding with sugared beverages significantly mediated SES-differences for both plain water and prepacked FJ. Encouragement to drink plain water and awareness significantly mediated SES-differences for, respectively, plain water and prepacked FJ consumption. Avoiding negative modelling did not mediate any associations. Overall, lower SES preschoolers were more likely to be confronted with lower levels of favourable and higher levels of unfavourable parenting practices, which may lead to higher sugared beverage and lower plain water consumption. The current study highlights the importance of parenting practices in explaining the relation between SES and both healthy and unhealthy beverage consumption.

  14. [Clinical and social vulnerabilities in crack users according to housing status: a multicenter study in six Brazilian state capitals].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halpern, Silvia Chwartzmann; Scherer, Juliana Nichterwitz; Roglio, Vinicius; Faller, Sibele; Sordi, Anne; Ornell, Felipe; Dalbosco, Carla; Pechansky, Flavio; Kessler, Félix; Diemen, Lísia von

    2017-07-03

    The study had the goal to evaluate psychoactive substance use severity, violence, physical and emotional health of crack users who seeks specialized treatment in Psychosocial Care Centers for Alcohol and Drugs (CAPSad) concerning housing status. This is a multicenter cross-sectional study in six Brazilian capitals with 564 crack users categorized into two groups (1) users who have been homeless sometime in life (n = 266) and (2) individuals who have never lived on streets (n = 298). To assess the substance use severity and the characteristics of the individuals, the Addiction Severity Index, 6th version (ASI-6) was used. Group 1 users showed worse indicators regarding alcohol, medical and psychiatric problems, employment and family support subscales, as well as greater involvement with legal problems, violence, sexual abuse, suicide risk and health related problems such as HIV/AIDS, hepatitis and tuberculosis. In addition they have lower income to pay for basic needs. After analysis and control for possible confounders, not having enough income to pay for basic needs, showing depression symptoms, and having been arrested for theft remained statistically significant. This study evaluated more deeply drug use severity and housing status of crack users. Interventions developed in outpatient treatment should be designed and tailored to specific profiles and demands of drug users, especially homeless individuals.

  15. Modelling the Frequency of Operational Risk Losses under the Basel II Capital Accord: A Comparative study of Poisson and Negative Binomial Distributions

    OpenAIRE

    Silver, Toni O.

    2013-01-01

    2013 dissertation for MSc in Finance and Risk Management. Selected by academic staff as a good example of a masters level dissertation. \\ud \\ud This study investigated the two major methods of modelling the frequency of\\ud operational losses under the BCBS Accord of 1998 known as Basel II Capital\\ud Accord. It compared the Poisson method of modelling the frequency of\\ud losses to that of the Negative Binomial. The frequency of operational losses\\ud was investigated using a cross section of se...

  16. Fish oil feeding is associated with an increased accumulation of dietary lipids in enterocytes: Results from an in vivo study in rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, L.F.; Marckmann, P.; Hansen, A.K.

    2003-01-01

    Background: Chronic fish oil consumption is associated with reduced postprandial lipaemia, but the mechanism behind this effect is not fully understood. We studied whether lipid absorption might be altered in rats fed fish oil. Methods: Male Wistar rats were fed fish oil enriched chow (n = 6...... contents of enterocytes were determined by liquid scintillation counting. Two other groups of rats (2 x 6) fed the experimental diets were given an oral fat load and fasting and postprandial blood samples were taken. Results: The accumulation of H-3-lipids in enterocytes was higher in rats fed fish oil...... than in controls (area under the H-3-lipid time curve: 1041.3 versus 670.3 nmol oleic acid x min/mug DNA, P fish oil. The amount of non-absorbed H-3-lipid tended to be higher in the fish...

  17. Study of the Combined Effect of Ibuprofen and Cholesterol on the Microviscosity and Ordering of Model Lipid Membranes by Timeresolved Measurement of Fluorescence Anisotropy Decay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yefimova, S. L.; Tkacheva, T. N.; Kasian, N. A.

    2017-05-01

    The timeresolved fluorescence anisotropy decay of perylene incorporated into the lipid Ladipalmitoylphosphatidylch oline (DPPC) membrane has been studied to evaluate the membranotropic action of the nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drug, ibuprofen, and the combined effect of ibuprofen and cholesterol. The rotation correlation times (φ) and limiting anisotropy (r∞ ) permit an independent estimation of the effects of these additives on the microviscosity and ordering of model lipid membranes in different phase states. Ibuprofen was shown to cause a significant decrease in the DPPC membrane microviscosity in the gel phase with hardly any effect on the liquidcrystal phase. However, in both phases, ibuprofen diminishes the ordering of the lipid hydrophobic chains. A marked additive effect is noted when ibuprofen is embedded in the liquid membrane enriched with cholesterol, which manifests itself in substantial fluidization and disordering or the liquid membrane by the action of the components on the lipid membrane. Ibuprofen in the liquidcrystal phase causes leveling of the fluidizing and ordering effects of cholesterol.

  18. Chemical and structural investigation of lipid nanoparticles: drug-lipid interaction and molecular distribution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anantachaisilp, Suranan; Smith, Siwaporn Meejoo [Department of Chemistry and Center of Excellence for Innovation in Chemistry, Faculty of Science, Mahidol University, Rama VI Road, Bangkok 10400 (Thailand); Treetong, Alongkot; Ruktanonchai, Uracha Rungsardthong [National Nanotechnology Center, National Science and Technology Development Agency, 111 Thailand Science Park, Paholyothin Road, Klong 1, Klong Luang, Pathumthani 12120 (Thailand); Pratontep, Sirapat [College of KMITL Nanotechnology, King Mongkut' s Institute of Technology Ladkrabang, Bangkok (Thailand); Puttipipatkhachorn, Satit, E-mail: uracha@nanotec.or.th [Department of Manufacturing Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Mahidol University, Bangkok 10400 (Thailand)

    2010-03-26

    Lipid nanoparticles are a promising alternative to existing carriers in chemical or drug delivery systems. A key challenge is to determine how chemicals are incorporated and distributed inside nanoparticles, which assists in controlling chemical retention and release characteristics. This study reports the chemical and structural investigation of {gamma}-oryzanol loading inside a model lipid nanoparticle drug delivery system composed of cetyl palmitate as solid lipid and Miglyol 812 as liquid lipid. The lipid nanoparticles were prepared by high pressure homogenization at varying liquid lipid content, in comparison with the {gamma}-oryzanol free systems. The size of the lipid nanoparticles, as measured by the photon correlation spectroscopy, was found to decrease with increased liquid lipid content from 200 to 160 nm. High-resolution proton nuclear magnetic resonance ({sup 1}H-NMR) measurements of the medium chain triglyceride of the liquid lipid has confirmed successful incorporation of the liquid lipid in the lipid nanoparticles. Differential scanning calorimetric and powder x-ray diffraction measurements provide complementary results to the {sup 1}H-NMR, whereby the crystallinity of the lipid nanoparticles diminishes with an increase in the liquid lipid content. For the distribution of {gamma}-oryzanol inside the lipid nanoparticles, the {sup 1}H-NMR revealed that the chemical shifts of the liquid lipid in {gamma}-oryzanol loaded systems were found at rather higher field than those in {gamma}-oryzanol free systems, suggesting incorporation of {gamma}-oryzanol in the liquid lipid. In addition, the phase-separated structure was observed by atomic force microscopy for lipid nanoparticles with 0% liquid lipid, but not for lipid nanoparticles with 5 and 10% liquid lipid. Raman spectroscopic and mapping measurements further revealed preferential incorporation of {gamma}-oryzanol in the liquid part rather than the solid part of in the lipid nanoparticles. Simple models

  19. Chemical and structural investigation of lipid nanoparticles: drug-lipid interaction and molecular distribution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anantachaisilp, Suranan; Meejoo Smith, Siwaporn; Treetong, Alongkot; Pratontep, Sirapat; Puttipipatkhachorn, Satit; Rungsardthong Ruktanonchai, Uracha

    2010-03-01

    Lipid nanoparticles are a promising alternative to existing carriers in chemical or drug delivery systems. A key challenge is to determine how chemicals are incorporated and distributed inside nanoparticles, which assists in controlling chemical retention and release characteristics. This study reports the chemical and structural investigation of γ-oryzanol loading inside a model lipid nanoparticle drug delivery system composed of cetyl palmitate as solid lipid and Miglyol 812® as liquid lipid. The lipid nanoparticles were prepared by high pressure homogenization at varying liquid lipid content, in comparison with the γ-oryzanol free systems. The size of the lipid nanoparticles, as measured by the photon correlation spectroscopy, was found to decrease with increased liquid lipid content from 200 to 160 nm. High-resolution proton nuclear magnetic resonance (1H-NMR) measurements of the medium chain triglyceride of the liquid lipid has confirmed successful incorporation of the liquid lipid in the lipid nanoparticles. Differential scanning calorimetric and powder x-ray diffraction measurements provide complementary results to the 1H-NMR, whereby the crystallinity of the lipid nanoparticles diminishes with an increase in the liquid lipid content. For the distribution of γ-oryzanol inside the lipid nanoparticles, the 1H-NMR revealed that the chemical shifts of the liquid lipid in γ-oryzanol loaded systems were found at rather higher field than those in γ-oryzanol free systems, suggesting incorporation of γ-oryzanol in the liquid lipid. In addition, the phase-separated structure was observed by atomic force microscopy for lipid nanoparticles with 0% liquid lipid, but not for lipid nanoparticles with 5 and 10% liquid lipid. Raman spectroscopic and mapping measurements further revealed preferential incorporation of γ-oryzanol in the liquid part rather than the solid part of in the lipid nanoparticles. Simple models representing the distribution of γ-oryzanol and

  20. Chemical and structural investigation of lipid nanoparticles: drug-lipid interaction and molecular distribution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anantachaisilp, Suranan; Smith, Siwaporn Meejoo; Treetong, Alongkot; Ruktanonchai, Uracha Rungsardthong; Pratontep, Sirapat; Puttipipatkhachorn, Satit

    2010-01-01

    Lipid nanoparticles are a promising alternative to existing carriers in chemical or drug delivery systems. A key challenge is to determine how chemicals are incorporated and distributed inside nanoparticles, which assists in controlling chemical retention and release characteristics. This study reports the chemical and structural investigation of γ-oryzanol loading inside a model lipid nanoparticle drug delivery system composed of cetyl palmitate as solid lipid and Miglyol 812 as liquid lipid. The lipid nanoparticles were prepared by high pressure homogenization at varying liquid lipid content, in comparison with the γ-oryzanol free systems. The size of the lipid nanoparticles, as measured by the photon correlation spectroscopy, was found to decrease with increased liquid lipid content from 200 to 160 nm. High-resolution proton nuclear magnetic resonance ( 1 H-NMR) measurements of the medium chain triglyceride of the liquid lipid has confirmed successful incorporation of the liquid lipid in the lipid nanoparticles. Differential scanning calorimetric and powder x-ray diffraction measurements provide complementary results to the 1 H-NMR, whereby the crystallinity of the lipid nanoparticles diminishes with an increase in the liquid lipid content. For the distribution of γ-oryzanol inside the lipid nanoparticles, the 1 H-NMR revealed that the chemical shifts of the liquid lipid in γ-oryzanol loaded systems were found at rather higher field than those in γ-oryzanol free systems, suggesting incorporation of γ-oryzanol in the liquid lipid. In addition, the phase-separated structure was observed by atomic force microscopy for lipid nanoparticles with 0% liquid lipid, but not for lipid nanoparticles with 5 and 10% liquid lipid. Raman spectroscopic and mapping measurements further revealed preferential incorporation of γ-oryzanol in the liquid part rather than the solid part of in the lipid nanoparticles. Simple models representing the distribution of γ-oryzanol and

  1. In vitro synthesis of a lipid-linked trisaccharide involved in synthesis of enterobacterial common antigen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barr, K.; Nunes-Edwards, P.; Rick, P.D.

    1989-01-01

    The heteropolysaccharide chains of enterobacterial common antigen (ECA) are made up of linear trisaccharide repeat units with the structure----3)-alpha-D-Fuc4NAc-(1----4)- beta-D-ManNAcA-(1----4)-alpha-D-GlcNAc-(1----, where Fuc4NAc is 4-acetamido-4,6-dideoxy-D-galactose, ManNAcA is N-acetyl-D-mannosaminuronic acid, and GlcNAc is N-acetyl-D-glucosamine. The assembly of these chains involves lipid-linked intermediates, and both GlcNAc-pyrophosphorylundecaprenol (lipid I) and ManNAcA-GlcNAc-pyrophosphorylundecaprenol (lipid II) are intermediates in ECA biosynthesis. In this study we demonstrated that lipid II serves as the acceptor of Fuc4NAc residues in the assembly of the trisaccharide repeat unit of ECA chains. Incubation of Escherichia coli membranes with UDP-GlcNAc, UDP-[14C]ManNAcA, and TDP-[3H]Fuc4NAc resulted in the synthesis of a radioactive glycolipid (lipid III) that contained both [14C]ManNAcA and [3H]Fuc4NAc. The oligosaccharide moiety of lipid III was identified as a trisaccharide by gel-permeation chromatography, and the in vitro synthesis of lipid III was dependent on prior synthesis of lipids I and II. Accordingly, the incorporation of [3H]Fuc4NAc into lipid III from the donor TDP-[3H]Fuc4NAc was dependent on the presence of both UDP-GlcNAc and UDP-ManNAcA in the reaction mixtures. In addition, the in vitro synthesis of lipid III was abolished by tunicamycin. Direct conversion of lipid II to lipid III was demonstrated in two-stage reactions in which membranes were initially incubated with UDP-GlcNAc and UDP-[14C]ManNAcA to allow the synthesis of radioactive lipid II

  2. Increased mean aliphatic lipid chain length in left ventricular hypertrophy secondary to arterial hypertension: A cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evaristi, Maria Francesca; Caubère, Céline; Harmancey, Romain; Desmoulin, Franck; Peacock, William Frank; Berry, Matthieu; Turkieh, Annie; Barutaut, Manon; Galinier, Michel; Dambrin, Camille; Polidori, Carlo; Miceli, Cristina; Chamontin, Bernard; Koukoui, François; Roncalli, Jerôme; Massabuau, Pierre; Smih, Fatima; Rouet, Philippe

    2016-11-01

    About 77.9 million (1 in 4) American adults have high blood pressure. High blood pressure is the primary cause of left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH), which represents a strong predictor of future heart failure and cardiovascular mortality. Previous studies have shown an altered metabolic profile in hypertensive patients with LVH. The goal of this study was to identify blood metabolomic LVH biomarkers by H NMR to provide novel diagnostic tools for rapid LVH detection in populations of hypertensive individuals. This cross-sectional study included 48 hypertensive patients with LVH matched with 48 hypertensive patients with normal LV size, and 24 healthy controls. Two-dimensional targeted M-mode echocardiography was performed to measure left ventricular mass index. Partial least squares discriminant analysis was used for the multivariate analysis of the H NMR spectral data. From the H NMR-based metabolomic profiling, signals coming from methylene (-CH2-) and methyl (-CH3) moieties of aliphatic chains from plasma lipids were identified as discriminant variables. The -CH2-/-CH3 ratio, an indicator of the mean length of the aliphatic lipid chains, was significantly higher (P hypertensive group without LVH and controls. Receiver operating characteristic curve showed that a cutoff of 2.34 provided a 52.08% sensitivity and 85.42% specificity for discriminating LVH (AUC = 0.703, P-value hypertension.

  3. Prevalence of restless legs symptoms according to depressive symptoms and depression type: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Auvinen, Piritta; Mäntyselkä, Pekka; Koponen, Hannu; Kautiainen, Hannu; Korniloff, Katariina; Ahonen, Tiina; Vanhala, Mauno

    2018-01-01

    Restless legs syndrome is a sensorimotor disorder and it is associated with several other diseases especially mental illnesses. To analyze the relationship between the symptoms of restless legs syndrome and the severity of depressive symptoms and the prevalence of restless legs symptoms in depression subtypes. A cross-sectional study of primary care patients in the Central Finland Hospital District. The prevalence of restless legs symptoms was studied in 706 patients with increased depressive symptoms and 426 controls without a psychiatric diagnosis by using a structured questionnaire. The depressive symptoms were evaluated with the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) and the psychiatric diagnosis was confirmed by means of a diagnostic interview (Mini-International Neuropsychiatric Interview). The subjects with increased depressive symptoms were divided into three groups (subjects with depressive symptoms without a depression diagnosis, melancholic depression and non-melancholic depression). In the whole study population, the prevalence of restless legs symptoms increased with the severity of depressive symptoms. The prevalence of restless legs symptoms was highest in the melancholic and non-melancholic depressive patients (52 and 46%, respectively) and then in subjects with depressive symptoms without a depression diagnosis (43.4%), but the prevalence was also substantial (24.6%) in subjects without a psychiatric diagnosis. Restless legs symptoms are very common in primary care among subjects with depression, regardless of the depression type. The prevalence of restless legs symptoms increased with increasing severity of depressive symptoms, regardless of the diagnosis. These findings should be considered in clinical evaluation and treatment of patients visiting their physician due to restless legs or depressive symptoms.

  4. ANALYSIS OF PHYSICAL INACTIVITY AMONG THE WORKING POPULATION OF RYAZAN REGION (ACCORDING TO THE STUDY MERIDIAN-RO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Е. V. Filippov

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: to study the levels of PA and its relationship with other risk factors among the working population of the Ryazan Region. Material and methods. The MERIDIAN­RO study was conducted as a prospective cohort with cross­sectional and retrospective study in­ cluded a sample of biochemical, ECG and a survey using a standardized questionnaire. The level of physical activity was assessed by ques­ tionnaire CINDI and then was revised by questionnaire IPAQ. In a study from 2011 it included 1,622 people (in 1220 – a city, 402 – village aged 25–64 years (mean age – 43,4 ± 11,4 years, of which 42.6 % were male, 53.8 % – female. Results. The level of low PA in the Ryazan Region, measured by questionnaire IPAQ was 22.9 % (24.3 % in urban and 18.4 % in rural areas, p = 0.014. With multinomial logistic regression were established association between the PA and the low presence of higher education (OR 3.63; 95 % CI 2,26–5,85, p = 0.0001, Wald 28.172, smoking (OR 1.32, 95 % CI 1,01–1,72, p = 0.045, Wald 4,031 and elevated levels of Lp (a more than 30 mg/dl (OR 1.38, 95 % CI 1,04–1,83, p = 0.024, Wald 5.119. It was also revealed a high demand for advice on improving the PA (74.5 %. Conclusion. The low level of PA in the Ryazan Region, as measured by the IPAQ questionnaire was 22.9 % (24.3 % in urban and 18.4 % in rural areas, p = 0.014, which is lower than Russian average. High demand for advice on improving the FA and created conditions for in­ creasing its level in the region indicate the need to intensify work among the population in this area. 

  5. Causal Role of Alcohol Consumption in an Improved Lipid Profile: The Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities (ARIC) Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vu, Khanh N; Ballantyne, Christie M; Hoogeveen, Ron C; Nambi, Vijay; Volcik, Kelly A; Boerwinkle, Eric; Morrison, Alanna C

    2016-01-01

    Health benefits of low-to-moderate alcohol consumption may operate through an improved lipid profile. A Mendelian randomization (MR) approach was used to examine whether alcohol consumption causally affects lipid levels. This analysis involved 10,893 European Americans (EA) from the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities (ARIC) study. Common and rare variants in alcohol dehydrogenase and acetaldehyde dehydrogenase genes were evaluated for MR assumptions. Five variants, residing in the ADH1B, ADH1C, and ADH4 genes, were selected as genetic instruments and were combined into an unweighted genetic score. Triglycerides (TG), total cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-c) and its subfractions (HDL2-c and HDL3-c), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-c), small dense LDL-c (sdLDL-c), apolipoprotein B (apoB), and lipoprotein (a) (Lp(a)) levels were analyzed. Alcohol consumption significantly increased HDL2-c and reduced TG, total cholesterol, LDL-c, sdLDL-c, and apoB levels. For each of these lipids a non-linear trend was observed. Compared to the first quartile of alcohol consumption, the third quartile had a 12.3% lower level of TG (p consumption in increasing HDL2-c, reducing TG, total cholesterol, and LDL-c, and provides evidence for the novel finding that low-to-moderate consumption of alcohol reduces apoB and sdLDL-c levels among EA. However, given the nonlinearity of the effect of alcohol consumption, even within the range of low-to-moderate drinking, increased consumption does not always result in a larger benefit.

  6. Fetal and life course origins of serum lipids in mid-adulthood: results from a prospective cohort study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gustafsson Per E

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background During the past two decades, the hypothesis of fetal origins of adult disease has received considerable attention. However, critique has also been raised regarding the failure to take the explanatory role of accumulation of other exposures into consideration, despite the wealth of evidence that social circumstances during the life course impact on health in adulthood. The aim of the present prospective cohort study was to examine the contributions of birth weight and life course exposures (cumulative socioeconomic disadvantage and adversity to dyslipidemia and serum lipids in mid-adulthood. Methods A cohort (effective n = 824, 77% was prospectively examined with respect to self-reported socioeconomic status as well as stressors (e.g., financial strain, low decision latitude, separation, death or illness of a close one, unemployment at the ages of 16, 21, 30 and 43 years; summarized in cumulative socioeconomic disadvantage and cumulative adversity. Information on birth weight was collected from birth records. Participants were assessed for serum lipids (total cholesterol, low- and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol and triglycerides, apolipoproteins (A1 and B and height and weight (for the calculation of body mass index, BMI at age 43. Current health behavior (alcohol consumption, smoking and snuff use was reported at age 43. Results Cumulative life course exposures were related to several outcomes; mainly explained by cumulative socioeconomic disadvantage in the total sample (independently of current health behaviors but attenuated by current BMI and also by cumulative adversity in women (partly explained by current health behavior but not by BMI. Birth weight was related only to triglycerides in women, independently of life course exposures, health behaviors and BMI. No significant association of either exposure was observed in men. Conclusions Social circumstances during the life course seem to be of greater importance

  7. Management of lipid-lowering therapy in patients with cardiovascular events in the UK: a retrospective cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danese, Mark D; Gleeson, Michelle; Kutikova, Lucie; Griffiths, Robert I; Khunti, Kamlesh; Seshasai, Sreenivasa Rao Kondapally; Ray, Kausik K

    2017-05-10

    To describe low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol management and lipid-lowering treatment patterns in patients with a cardiovascular (CV) event. Retrospective cohort study using Clinical Practice Research Datalink records linked with Hospital Episode Statistics data. Routine clinical practice in the UK from 2006 to 2012. Individuals ≥18 years were selected at their first CV-related hospitalisation (first event cohort) if they had received ≥2 lipid-lowering therapy prescriptions within 180 days beforehand. Patients were stratified into four mutually exclusive subgroups based on the presence or absence of vascular disease and of diabetes. Those with a second CV hospitalisation within 36 months were included in a separate cohort (second event cohort). LDL levels in the year prior to the CV event and 12 months later as well as measures of adherence to lipid-lowering therapy during the 12 months after the CV hospitalisation. There were 24 093 patients in the first event cohort, of whom 5274 were included in the second event cohort. Most received moderate intensity statins at baseline and 12 months. Among the four first event cohort subgroups at baseline, the proportions with an LDL of event cohort (31%). An incremental 5% to 9% had an LDL below 1.8 mmol/L at 12 months, suggesting intensification of therapy. The proportion of adherent patients (medication possession ratio of≥0.8) was highest for statins, ranging from 68% to 72%. For ezetimibe, the range was 65% to 70%, and for fibrates, it was 48% to 62%. Despite the existence of effective therapies for lowering cholesterol, patients do not reach achievable LDL targets. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  8. A Study on the learning Styles of Nursing and Midwifery Students in Yasuj According to the VARK Model (2013

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Behnam Moghadam

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Background & aim: learning style(s is one of the factors effective learning. Information about students learning styles can aid the presentation of teaching appropriate to their individual style. The purpose of this study was to determine the learning styles of Yasuj nursing and midwifery students based on the VARK model in 2013. Methods: The present research was a descriptive- analytical study which was conducted on 140 students from nursing and midwifery faculty of Yasuj university of Medical Sciences in the academic year of 2013. Sampling was done using census method, and data were collected using demographic information questionnaire followed by questionnaire of learning styles. The data were analyzed using SPSS software version 18, and descriptive- inferential statistics. Results: The mean age of the students was 20.68±1.34. Of the total of 140 students, 98 (70% just selected only one type of the learning styles, whereas, 42 students preferred combination of different styles. Reading-writing style was the prevailing style among single learning style which selected by 43 students but the most frequent style among multi style was double style which was selected only by 15% of the participants. Conclusion: Most of the students had an individual learning style. Identifying the dominant learning style(s of the students and adjusting them to the teaching methods of lecturers and also developing lesson plans based on learning styles could improve educational objectives.

  9. Validation of the Subjective Vitality Scale and study of the vitality of elderly people according to their physical activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nuno Couto

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The main aim of the study was to validate the Portuguese version of the Subjective Vitality Scale - SVS for the Portuguese elderly population through of confirmatory factorial analysis. The existence of differences in the perception of subjective vitality among sufficiently active and insufficiently active older adults was also analyzed. A total of 309 Portuguese elderly (242 females, 67 males aged 60-90 years (M = 68.59, SD = 6.60 participated in this study. Of the total sample, 256 are sufficiently active, while 53 are insufficiently active. The results show that the model was adjusted to data in a satisfactory way (χ² = 28.95; df = 9; CFI = .97; TLI = .94; SRMR = .04; RMSEA = .08; RMSEA 90% CI = .05 - .12, and show a concurrent validity with the Portuguese version of the Satisfaction with Life Scale. The data obtained allow us concluding that the Portuguese version of the Subjective Vitality Scale can be used as a measure of subjective vitality in the Portuguese elderly population. It was also verified that the subjective perception of vitality is greater among individuals sufficiently active compared with their peers that do not reach the amount of practice of recommended physical activity.

  10. Formative evaluation of Hospital Information System According to ISO 9241-10: A case study from Iran

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    Narjes Mirabootalebi1

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Today, different information systems are operated in hospitals in Iran to manage the admission,discharge, radiology, pharmacy, accounting and other procedures. Inappropriate HIS system causes wasting of time,consumption of more energy and increasing the costs.Methodology: This study was conducted in Dr. Ali Shariati Hospital in Iran. We employed Isometric FormativeEvaluation questionnaire to analyze the hospital information system. Also, interviewing method was applied tocomplete information from departments' officials.Results: From 101 people under investigation in this study, it was agreed on 27 people (26.7% suitability for taskcriteria, 46 people (45.5% by controllability criteria, 27 people (26.7% to suitability for individualization criteria,69 people (68.3% to suitability for learning criteria, 41 people (40.6% by error tolerant criteria, 46 people (45.5%by self description criteria, 53 people (52.5% by conformity whit user expectation of Hospital Information Systemin Dr. Ali Shariati Hospital.Conclusion: Findings indicate Hospital Information System criteria are not efficient. It is necessary either to usenationally applicable software in information system of Medical Sciences Universities across the country ordifferent software having international standards of medical information should be used.

  11. Sanogenetic effects of exercise on a stationary bike in adolescents with primary arterial hypertension, according to the longitudinal study

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    Ye. V. Nedelskaya

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The article is devoted to the non-drug treatment of adolescents with arterial hypertension (AH. The aim of our work was to study the effect of exercise on a stationary bike during the training process in teenagers - students of initial courses of ZaporozhyeStateMedicalUniversity. Methods and results. The study was organized on the longitudinal principle using randomized groups of comparison with duration up to 5 years. 82 adolescents (boys - 44, girls - 38 with primary hypertension were selected without target organ affection who has not been systematically involved in sports. This article describes a program of rehabilitation and its impact on the course of hypertension. Positive changes in the blood pressure persist for at least 7 months after ending the exercise course. Thus, we have proved the usefulness of the exercise on a stationary bike in institution. Conclusions. This program has a positive impact on blood pressure directly during the course. Therefore, training courses should continue for a long time

  12. Silicon supported lipid-DNA thin film structures at varying temperature studied by energy dispersive X-ray diffraction and neutron reflectivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domenici, F; Castellano, C; Dell'Unto, F; Albinati, A; Congiu, A

    2011-11-01

    Non-viral gene transfection by means of lipid-based nanosystems, such as solid supported lipid assemblies, is often limited due to their lack of stability and the consequent loss of efficiency. Therefore not only a detailed thermo-lyotropic study of these DNA-lipid complexes is necessary to understand their interaction mechanisms, but it can also be considered as a first step in conceiving and developing new transfection biosystems. The aim of our study is a structural characterization of 1,2-dioleoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphatidylcholine (DOPC)-dimethyl-dioctadecyl-ammonium bromide (DDAB)-DNA complex at varying temperature using the energy dispersive X-ray diffraction (EDXD) and neutron reflectivity (NR) techniques. We have shown the formation of a novel thermo-lyotropic structure of DOPC/DDAB thin film self-organized in multi-lamellar planes on (100)-oriented silicon support by spin coating, thus enlightening its ability to include DNA strands. Our NR measurements indicate that the DOPC/DDAB/DNA complex forms temperature-dependent structures. At 65°C and relative humidity of 100% DNA fragments are buried between single lamellar leaflets constituting the hydrocarbon core of the lipid bilayers. This finding supports the consistency of the hydrophobic interaction model, which implies that the coupling between lipid tails and hypo-hydrated DNA single strands could be the driving force of DNA-lipid complexation. Upon cooling to 25°C, EDXD analysis points out that full-hydrated DOPC-DDAB-DNA can switch in a different metastable complex supposed to be driven by lipid heads-DNA electrostatic interaction. Thermotropic response analysis also clarifies that DOPC has a pivotal role in promoting the formation of our observed thermophylic silicon supported lipids-DNA assembly. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Texture of lipid bilayer domains

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Uffe Bernchou; Brewer, Jonathan R.; Midtiby, Henrik Skov

    2009-01-01

    We investigate the texture of gel (g) domains in binary lipid membranes composed of the phospholipids DPPC and DOPC. Lateral organization of lipid bilayer membranes is a topic of fundamental and biological importance. Whereas questions related to size and composition of fluid membrane domain...... are well studied, the possibility of texture in gel domains has so far not been examined. When using polarized light for two-photon excitation of the fluorescent lipid probe Laurdan, the emission intensity is highly sensitive to the angle between the polarization and the tilt orientation of lipid acyl...... chains. By imaging the intensity variations as a function of the polarization angle, we map the lateral variations of the lipid tilt within domains. Results reveal that gel domains are composed of subdomains with different lipid tilt directions. We have applied a Fourier decomposition method...

  14. Inter-observer agreement according to three methods of evaluating mammographic density and parenchymal pattern in a case control study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Winkel, Rikke Rass; von Euler-Chelpin, My Catarina; Nielsen, Mads

    2015-01-01

    , Tabár's PIV and PV and the upper two quartiles (within density range) of PMD. The relative risk of breast cancer was estimated using logistic regression to calculate odds ratios (ORs) adjusted for age, which were compared between the two readers. RESULTS: Substantial inter-observer agreement was seen......, respectively. Inter-reader variability showed different impact on the relative risk of breast cancer estimated by the two readers on a multiple-category scale, however, not on a high/low-risk scale. Tabár's pattern IV demonstrated the highest ORs of all density patterns investigated. CONCLUSIONS: Our study......BACKGROUND: Mammographic breast density and parenchymal patterns are well-established risk factors for breast cancer. We aimed to report inter-observer agreement on three different subjective ways of assessing mammographic density and parenchymal pattern, and secondarily to examine what potential...

  15. Nutritional Deficiencies in Children of the First 3 Years of Life, According to a Multicenter Study in Ukraine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.L. Nyankovsky

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Taking into account the fact that in Ukraine today there is not enough researches that summarize the data on the nutritional status of young children, the prevalence of eating disorders and lack of basic macro- and micronutrients in children, the multicenter study on nutrition of children from 9 months to 3 years of life has been carried out. It was found that the present dietary intake of infants is unbalanced, contains excess energy and proteins, lack of zinc, iron, calcium, and vitamins A, D, E, B6, B12, B1. Due to unbalanced diet, the use of special infant formula instead of unmodified bovine milk in feeding young child can increase consumption of important nutrients (calcium, iron, iodine, vitamin E, D and folates.

  16. Nutritional Deficiencies in Children of the First 3 Years of Life, According to a Multicenter Study in Ukraine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.L. Nyankovsky

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Taking into account the fact that in Ukraine today there is not enough researches that summarize the data on the nutritional status of young children, the prevalence of eating disorders and lack of basic macro- and micronutrients in children, the multicenter study on nutrition of children from 9 months to 3 years of life has been carried out. It was found that the present dietary intake of infants is unbalanced, contains excess energy and proteins, lack of zinc, iron, calcium, and vitamins A, D, E, B6, B12, B1. Due to unbalanced diet, the use of special infant formula instead of unmodified bovine milk in feeding young child can increase consumption of important nutrients (calcium, iron, iodine, vitamin E, D and folates.

  17. Mental disorders in motherhood according to prepregnancy BMI and pregnancy-related weight changes-A Danish cohort study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bliddal, Mette; Potteg