Sample records for accommodation ocular

  1. Age-related changes in ocular aberrations with accommodation.

    Radhakrishnan, Hema; Charman, W Neil


    This study investigates the changes in aberrations with monocular accommodation as a function of age. Second-order and higher order wavefront aberrations and pupil size were measured as a function of accommodation demand over the range of 0-4 D in the right eyes of 47 normal subjects with ages between 17 and 56 years. Higher order ocular Zernike aberrations were analyzed for the natural pupil size in terms of their equivalent defocus and were also determined for fixed pupil diameters of 4.5 mm in the unaccommodated eyes and 2.5 mm in the accommodating eyes. With relaxed accommodation (0 D accommodation stimulus), the major change with age was in the value of C4(0), which increased in positive value over the age range studied, although the total higher order RMS wavefront aberration did not increase. When the data were analyzed for natural pupils, spherical aberration was again found to change systematically in the positive direction with age. The equivalent defocus of total higher order RMS error for natural pupils showed no significant correlation with age (p > .05). With active accommodation, spherical aberration was found to decrease and become negative as the accommodative response increased in the younger subjects (40 years), the spherical aberration showed only small changes, some of which were positive, within the limited amplitude of accommodation available. Other higher order aberrations and the RMS of higher order aberrations did not appear to change systematically with accommodation, except in the oldest subjects. The change with age in the relationship between aberration and accommodation is interpreted in terms of the changing gradients of refractive index and surface curvatures of the crystalline lens.

  2. A slide rule for calculating the ocular accommodation of an ametrope corrected with a spectacle lens.

    Wang, Guang-Ji


    A slide rule has been designed to calculate the ocular accommodation of an ametrope corrected with a spectacle lens. The slide rule makes the calculation itself easier to perform than with traditional methods and is easily applicable in a clinical setting. In the slide rule, there are 3 scales indicating the power of the spectacle lens, the viewing distance, and the ocular accommodation. The most accurate accommodative unit was used to design the slide rule. The ocular accommodation is the product of the accommodative unit and the dioptric viewing distance. The calculating results are accurate from +21 diopters to all minus powers of the spectacle lens. In a clinical setting, the patients can be advised how much accommodation they exert before and after the refractive surgeries.

  3. Relationship of ocular accommodation and motor skills performance in developmental coordination disorder.

    Rafique, Sara A; Northway, Nadia


    Ocular accommodation provides a well-focussed image, feedback for accurate eye movement control, and cues for depth perception. To accurately perform visually guided motor tasks, integration of ocular motor systems is essential. Children with motor coordination impairment are established to be at higher risk of accommodation anomalies. The aim of the present study was to examine the relationship between ocular accommodation and motor tasks, which are often overlooked, in order to better understand the problems experienced by children with motor coordination impairment. Visual function, gross and fine motor skills were assessed in children with developmental coordination disorder (DCD) and typically developing control children. Children with DCD had significantly poorer accommodation facility and amplitude dynamics compared to controls. Results indicate a relationship between impaired accommodation and motor skills. Specifically, accommodation anomalies correlated with visual motor, upper limb and fine dexterity task performance. Consequently, we argue accommodation anomalies influence the ineffective coordination of action and perception in DCD. Furthermore, reading disabilities were related to poorer motor performance. We postulate the role of the fastigial nucleus as a common pathway for accommodation and motor deficits. Implications of the findings and recommended visual screening protocols are discussed.

  4. Development of an accommodating intra-ocular lens - In vitro prevention of re-growth of pig and rabbit lens capsule epithelial cells

    van Kooten, Theo G.; Koopmans, Steven; Terwee, Thom; Norrby, Sverker; Hooymans, J. M. M.; Busscher, Henk J.


    Cataract surgery is routinely performed to replace the clouded lens by a rigid polymeric intra-ocular lens unable to accommodate. By implanting a silicone gel into an intact capsular bag the accommodating properties of the natural lens can be maintained or enhanced. The implantation success of accom

  5. Ocular accommodation and cognitive demand: An additional indicator besides pupil size and cardiovascular measures?

    Jaschinski Wolfgang


    Full Text Available Abstract Background The aim of the present study was to assess accommodation as a possible indicator of changes in the autonomic balance caused by altered cognitive demand. Accounting for accommodative responses from a human factors perspective may be motivated by the interest of designing virtual image displays or by establishing an autonomic indicator that allows for remote measurement at the human eye. Heart period, pulse transit time, and the pupillary response were considered as reference for possible closed-loop accommodative effects. Cognitive demand was varied by presenting monocularly numbers at a viewing distance of 5 D (20 cm which had to be read, added or multiplied; further, letters were presented in a "n-back" task. Results Cardiovascular parameters and pupil size indicated a change in autonomic balance, while error rates and reaction time confirmed the increased cognitive demand during task processing. An observed decrease in accommodation could not be attributed to the cognitive demand itself for two reasons: (1 the cognitive demand induced a shift in gaze direction which, for methodological reasons, accounted for a substantial part of the observed accommodative changes. (2 Remaining effects disappeared when the correctness of task processing was taken into account. Conclusion Although the expectation of accommodation as possible autonomic indicator of cognitive demand was not confirmed, the present results are informative for the field of applied psychophysiology noting that it seems not to be worthwhile to include closed-loop accommodation in future studies. From a human factors perspective, expected changes of accommodation due to cognitive demand are of minor importance for design specifications – of, for example, complex visual displays.


    Ebrahim Jafarzadehpur


    Full Text Available A table tennis player should fixate at different distances; track the objects with different speed, and in different visual environment. Their visual skills must be well developed for these capabilities. Therefore, visual acuity in reduced lumination and facility of ocular accommodation those are two criteria for visual skills have been compared in table tennis players and normal non-players. Twenty-nine young table tennis champions and 29 normal matched non-players (did not take part in any racket sports game were evaluated. Basic visual and eye examinations were done for both of them. Normal results in basic examination were fundamental requirement for all the subjects. +/-2.00 sphere lenses for accommodation facility are used. An electrical current regulator changed the output light intensity of a conventional chart projector (Topcon. Light intensity decreased to 10 cd·m-2 and visual acuity tested. In comparison of visual acuity in reduced lumination and facility of ocular accommodation in table tennis champions and non-players there are significant differences (p < 0.001. In the preliminary visual tests there was not any significant different in the two groups but the results in the top level table tennis player was very uniform and in every test and the standard deviation was lesser in tennis player group than non-players. These results show that motor and sensorial functions of expert players are well developed. That is consistent with other researchers. This result was interpreted as reflecting a better perceptual system of experts to the constraints encountered during table tennis and its use in practical settings for evaluating athletes or detecting sport talents. However some visual and perceptual training that usually used in orthoptics can be used for novice table tennis player to improve their abilities

  7. Evaluation of Ocular Accommodation, Convergence and Fusional Vergence Changes during Ramadan

    Seyed Hosein Hoseini-Yazdi


    Full Text Available Purpose: There are a few researches regarding the effects of Islamic fasting on visual system. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of Ramadan fasting on the amplitude of accommodation (AA, near point of convergence (NPC, positive and negative fusional vergences (PFV and NFV, respectively in visually healthy fasters. Methods: AA, NPC, PFV and NFV at far (6m and near (40cm were measured in 30 male students. Nutritional habits in a week before each examination visit were assessed with the Food Frequency Questionnaire (FFQ. Results: Mean age and fasting average experience were 23.9 and 10 years, respectively. AA and NPC showed significant changes (p<0.05 during Ramadan; but there was no significant difference before and after Ramadan in these parameters. NFV blur, break and recovery points at far significantly reduced in Ramadan than before (p=0.003, p=0.005, p=0.003, respectively with insignificant compensation after Ramadan. Results showed that there was no significant correlation between changes in diet pattern and AA, NPC and distant NFV variations (p<0.05. Conclusion: Some visual problems may be reported at far and near visual tasks during Ramadan; but most of the problems may be resolved after it. Some visual preparations may be needed for more effective visual activities during Ramadan; essentially for students with intensive visual tasks. Vision therapy may be suggested along with nutrient pattern improvement during Ramadan.

  8. Ocular Hypertension

    ... Español Eye Health / Eye Health A-Z Ocular Hypertension Sections What Is Ocular Hypertension? Ocular Hypertension Causes ... Hypertension Diagnosis Ocular Hypertension Treatment What Is Ocular Hypertension? Written By: Kierstan Boyd Reviewed By: J Kevin ...

  9. 模拟生理调节状态下人眼高阶像差的波动%The dynamic characteristics of ocular wavefront aberrations with the physiological accommodation in human eyes

    熊瑛; 万修华; 余翔; 薛丽霞; 李靖; 李树宁; 卿国平; 凌宁; 王宁利


    Objective To investigate the dynamic characteristics of ocular wavefront aberrations and discuss the relationship between aberrations and pupil size, as well as the relationships between aberrations and accommodation under simulated physiological conditions. Design Prospective comperative study. Participants Normal eyes (21 cases) and the simulated eye. Methods The condition of ocular accommodation was controlled by the moving visual target when the value of the wavefront aberrations was collected by Hart-mann-Shark aberrometry. The simulated eye was used as the control. Main Outcome Measures The root mean square of total wave- front aberration (t-RMS) and high-order aberration (h-RMS) from normal eyes and the simulated eye and their coefficient of variance. Results In normal eye, the mean t-RMS was 0.46±0.18μm; the mean h-RMS was 0.27±0.14μm, the coefficient of variance was 40.37% and 36.34%, respectively. As a control, the mean t-RMS and coefficient of variance of the simulated eye' s was 0.39±0.00μm and 0.47% respectively. The h-RMS of normal eyes was correlated with pupil sizes and accommodation. The regression equation could be expressed as: h-RMS= 0.111 x pupil diameter (mm) -0.015 x dioptre (D) - 0.313(P<0.001 ,R2=0.458). Conclusion The ocular wavefront aberrations could change significantly under physiological conditions. The pupil size is the main factor.%目的 模拟生理调节状态下随着眼调节和瞳孔直径的变化人眼高阶像差的波动特点.设计 前瞻性比较性研究.研究对象 21例正常人眼与模拟眼.方法 通过控制视路上移动视标的位置诱发人眼调节,在调节过程中,不人为控制瞳孔直径,使其处于自然收缩舒张状态,实时用哈特曼波前传感器(Hartman-Shark)采集人眼波前像差.模拟眼作为对照.主要指标 人眼与模拟眼的总波前像差的均方根(t-RMS)和高阶像差的均方根(h-RMS)及其变异系数.结果 生理调节状态下,人眼的t-RMS为(0.46±0

  10. Ocular Melanoma

    ... Español Eye Health / Eye Health A-Z Ocular Melanoma Sections What is Ocular Melanoma? Ocular Melanoma Causes ... Melanoma Diagnosis Ocular Melanoma Treatment What is Ocular Melanoma? Leer en Español: ¿Qué Es el Melanoma Ocular? ...

  11. Uniformity of accommodation across the visual field.

    Liu, Tao; Sreenivasan, Vidhyapriya; Thibos, Larry N


    We asked the question: Does accommodation change the eye's focusing power equally over the central visual field in emmetropic and myopic adult eyes? To answer this question we modified our laboratory scanning wavefront aberrometer to rapidly measure ocular refractive state over the central 30° diameter of visual field as a function of foveal accommodative demand. On average, ocular refractive state changed uniformly over the central visual field as the eye accommodated up to 6 D. Visual field maps of accommodative error (relative to a spherical target surface of constant vergence) reveal subtle patterns of deviation on the order of ± 0.5 D that are unique to the individual and relatively invariant to changes in accommodative state. Population mean maps for accommodative error are remarkably uniform across the central visual field, indicating the retina of the hypothetical "average eye" is conjugate to a sphere of constant target vergence for all states of accommodation, even though individual eyes might deviate from the mean due to random variations. No systematic difference between emmetropic and myopic eyes was evident. Since accuracy of accommodation across the central visual field is similar to that measured in the fovea, loss of image quality due to accommodative errors, which potentially drives myopia and may affect many aspects of visual function, will be similar across the central retina.

  12. Qualidade de vida de pacientes pseudofácicos submetidos à cirurgia de catarata com implante de lente intra-ocular acomodativa Quality of life of pseudophakic patients with accommodative intraocular lens implant

    Filipe de Oliveira


    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Avaliar a função visual e satisfação dos pacientes submetidos à cirurgia de catarata com implante de lente intra-ocular acomodativa e o impacto na sua qualidade de vida. MÉTODOS: Retrospectivamente, foram avaliados questionários aplicados após um ano da cirurgia de 22 pacientes que foram incluídos num estudo clínico para avaliar segurança e eficácia de uma lente intra-ocular de silicone de câmara posterior designada para corrigir visão para longe e perto. RESULTADOS: Do total dos pacientes operados, 16 (73% eram bilaterais e 6 (27% unilaterais, com idade média de 70,2 anos. Dos pacientes com implante unilateral, 5 (83,3% declararam melhora acentuada da visão e 1 (16,7% referiu máxima melhora. Quanto ao nível de satisfação, 5 (83,3% ficaram satisfeitos e 1 (16,7% muito satisfeito com o resultado cirúrgico. A visão noturna foi declarada como sem dificuldade por 3 (50,0%, pouca dificuldade por 2 (33,3% e dificuldade moderada por 1 (16,7%. No grupo bilateral, 7 (43,8% consideraram excelente a qualidade da visão para perto, 7 (43,8% muito boa, 1 (6,2% adequada e 1 (6,2% ruim. A visão intermediária foi classificada como excelente por 6 (37,5%, muito boa por 9 (56,3% e adequada por 1 (6,2%. A qualidade da visão para longe foi considerada excelente por 9 (56,3%, muito boa por 3 (43,8%, adequada por 2 (12,5% e não muito boa por 2 (12,5%. Em relação à visão noturna 9 (56,3% declararam não ter dificuldade alguma, 5 (31,2% pouca dificuldade e 2 (12,5% dificuldade moderada. CONCLUSÕES: Considerando a propriedade óptica da LIO, a maioria dos pacientes apresentou uma melhora considerável da função visual, sem a necessidade de correção óptica, e, portanto, com impacto positivo na qualidade de vida.PURPOSE: To evaluate the visual function and satisfaction of patients who underwent cataract surgery and were implanted with an accommodative intraocular lens and the impact in their quality of life. METHODS

  13. Reduced accommodation in children with cerebral palsy.

    Leat, S J


    Accommodation in 43 subjects with cerebral palsy was measured objectively using a dynamic retinoscopy technique, which has already been shown to be reliable and repeatable. The subject's ages ranged from 3 to 35 years. Of these, 42% were found to have an accommodative response pattern which was different from the normal control group for his/her age. Nearly 29% had an estimated amplitude of accommodation of 4 D or less. The presence of reduced accommodation was found to be associated with reduced visual acuity, but was not associated with cognitive or communication ability, refractive error or age. The prevalence of other ocular disorders in this group is also high. These findings have developmental and educational implications.

  14. Ocular Sarcoidosis

    Pasadhika, Sirichai; Rosenbaum, James T


    Sarcoidosis is one of the leading causes of inflammatory eye disease. Ocular sarcoidosis can involve any part of the eye and its adnexal tissues, and may cause uveitis, episcleritis/scleritis, eyelid abnormalities, conjunctival granuloma, optic neuropathy, lacrimal gland enlargement and orbital inflammation. Glaucoma and cataract can be complications from inflammation itself or adverse effects from therapy. Ophthalmic manifestations can be isolated, or associated with other organ involvement. Patients with ocular sarcoidosis can present with a wide range of clinical presentations and severity. Multi-disciplinary approaches are required to achieve the best treatment outcomes for both ocular and systemic manifestations. PMID:26593141

  15. Traumatismos oculares Ocular traumas

    Gelen Welch Ruiz


    Full Text Available Se realizó un estudio descriptivo de tipo retrospectivo longitudinal cuyo universo estuvo constituido por 72 ojos de 72 pacientes con traumatismos oculares mecánicos que fueron hospitalizados en el Hospital Militar Central “Dr. Carlos J. Finlay” desde enero de 1999 hasta enero de 2005. Para el análisis estadístico de la información se utilizó el programa automatizado SPSS versión 11.5 en el cual también se conformó la base de datos y se realizaron los cálculos de acuerdo con el tipo de variable analizada. Se utilizaron medidas de resumen, tendencia central y asociación estadística con un nivel de significación de p A retrospective longitudinal and descriptive study was carried out in 72 eyes from 72 patients with mechanical occular traumas, who had been hospitalized in “Dr. Carlos J. Finlay” Military Hospital from December 1999 to January 2005. For the statistical data analysis, an automated program (SPSS 11.5 version was used to create the database and estimations were made according to the variable types. Summary measures, central tendency measures and statistical association with significance level equal to p < 0.05 were employed. Males prevailed (95.8%, the average age was 30.26 years with a minimum rate of 17 years and maximum rate of 82 years. The most frequent mechanisms of trauma were aggressions (23. 6% and injures from secondary projectiles (13.9%. The anterior segment traumas were more frequent (61, 1% than posterior segment traumas (6.94%. Both segments of the eyeball were affected in 39, 1% of eyes which evinced the worst visual acuity. The most common associated injures were hyphema (54, 2% and vitreous hemorrhage (16.6%. Closed trauma (contusions were more common and most of the eyes had better final visual acuity (45, 2% with vision range of 0.6-1.0 and 26.2% with vision range of 0.59-0.1. On the other hand, eyes affected by open trauma (simple wound, contusion-wound, wound with intraocular foreign body and

  16. Ocular rosacea

    Đaković Zorana


    Full Text Available Five cases of ocular rosacea (one male and four females are reported in this paper. Two of the patients were with keratoconjunctivitis sicca, one with conjunctivitis chronica and blepharitis, one with conjunctivitis chronica and meibomitis, and one with reccurent corneal erosions with meibomitis and chordeloum. In four patients ocular symptoms preceded the occurence of skin lesions. The treatment with oral tetracyclines significantly improved the state of ocular rosacea in four patients, while in one case the changes of the anterior eye segment progressed in more severe state of ulcerative keratitis. It is considered that in almost 20% of the patients with rosacea ocular lesions may precede the skin changes, representing a diagnostic problem. Thus, in those cases multidisciplinary approach is suggested. Such approach is particularly important because of the decrease of morbidity and the prevention of the onset of the eye complications such as drastic worsening of visual acuity, i.e., the blindness.

  17. Ocular toxocariasis.

    Arevalo, J Fernando; Espinoza, Juan V; Arevalo, Fernando A


    Ocular toxocariasis is an uncommon worldwide parasitic infection that affects mostly children and is found in both rural and metropolitan areas. In many parts of the world, parasitic infections of the eye are a major cause of blindness. The diagnosis of toxocariasis is essentially clinical, based on the lesion morphology and supportive laboratory data such as serum enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) titers and ELISA Toxocara titers on aqueous humor; other diagnostic methods are imaging studies including optical coherence tomography, fluorescein angiography, computed tomography, and ocular ultrasound. Treatment is directed at complications arising from intraocular inflammation and vitreous membrane traction. Early vitrectomy may be of value both diagnostically and therapeutically.

  18. Ocular dirofilariasis

    Nath Reema


    Full Text Available Dirofilaria is a parasite of domestic and wild animals that can infect humans accidentally. It is being reported in increasing numbers from Mediterranean countries like Italy. In India this infection is occasionally being reported. We report three cases of ocular dirofilariasis from the state of Assam presenting as periorbital and subconjunctival cysts. The parasites were identified as Dirofilaria repens. The purpose of this article is to take note of this emerging zoonosis in Assam; also to review literature in the cases reported.

  19. Cisticercosis ocular

    Danaides Arencibia González

    Full Text Available La cisticercosis establece un grupo de enfermedades zoonóticas parasitarias; cuando se aloja en el ojo y sus anexos producen una cisticercosis ocular y periocular. Constituye una de las causas de uveítis ocular y pérdida importante de la visión. El diagnóstico clínico se realiza mediante la observación directa del parásito, cuando existen opacidades de los medios, el ultrasonido se emplea como medio diagnóstico útil. Los anti helmintos asociados a esteroides forman parte de su terapéutica, sumado al tratamiento definitivo de la extracción del parásito, en este tipo de afección mediante vitrectomía vía pars plana. Se presenta un caso portador de esta condición, se describen las características más importantes del cuadro clínico, diagnóstico, manejo y curso evolutivo-terapéutico.

  20. Accommodating Translational Research

    Giles, Howard


    This is an article in a series illustrating the way scholars in communication have pursued translating their research into practice. The translational nature of communication accommodation theory and examples of its application are the focus of this contribution.

  1. Ocular biomechanics study: current state and perspectives

    S. Yu. Petrov


    Full Text Available Despite the fact that the eye represents a challenge for biomechanical research due to its size, over the last two decades, much data on ocular biomechanics were accumulated. Scleral and lamina cribrosa biomechanics contribute to our understanding of myopia and open-angle glaucoma; iris and trabecular meshwork biomechanics to that of angle-closure glaucoma; vitreous biomechanics to that of retinal detachment and ocular drug delivery; corneal biomechanics to that of keratoconus; and lens capsule biomechanics to that of cataract. This paper offers a general overview of recent advances in corneal, scleral, crystalline lens, and lamina cribrosa biomechanics and summarizes the results of experimental and clinical studies. Ocular biomechanics abnormalities affect etiology of many eye diseases. Ocular biomechanics plays an important role in the development of novel diagnostic methods, therapeutic and surgical procedures. Corneal biomechanics impacts etiology and pathogenesis of keratoconus as well as tonometry accuracy and explains corneal refractive surgery effect. Scleral biomechanics is associated with IOP and progressive myopia. Accommodative apparatus (ciliary body and crystalline lens is an important anatomic physiological structure. Recent studies uncovered the causes of agerelated loss of accommodation as a result of lens involution. Optic nerve head abnormalities due to IOP fluctuations are the key factor of glaucomatous neuropathy. They are directly associated with ocular biomechanics as well.

  2. Ocular biomechanics study: current state and perspectives

    S. Yu. Petrov


    Full Text Available Despite the fact that the eye represents a challenge for biomechanical research due to its size, over the last two decades, much data on ocular biomechanics were accumulated. Scleral and lamina cribrosa biomechanics contribute to our understanding of myopia and open-angle glaucoma; iris and trabecular meshwork biomechanics to that of angle-closure glaucoma; vitreous biomechanics to that of retinal detachment and ocular drug delivery; corneal biomechanics to that of keratoconus; and lens capsule biomechanics to that of cataract. This paper offers a general overview of recent advances in corneal, scleral, crystalline lens, and lamina cribrosa biomechanics and summarizes the results of experimental and clinical studies. Ocular biomechanics abnormalities affect etiology of many eye diseases. Ocular biomechanics plays an important role in the development of novel diagnostic methods, therapeutic and surgical procedures. Corneal biomechanics impacts etiology and pathogenesis of keratoconus as well as tonometry accuracy and explains corneal refractive surgery effect. Scleral biomechanics is associated with IOP and progressive myopia. Accommodative apparatus (ciliary body and crystalline lens is an important anatomic physiological structure. Recent studies uncovered the causes of agerelated loss of accommodation as a result of lens involution. Optic nerve head abnormalities due to IOP fluctuations are the key factor of glaucomatous neuropathy. They are directly associated with ocular biomechanics as well.

  3. Reasonable Accommodation Information Tracking System

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The Reasonable Accommodation Information Tracking System (RAITS) is a case management system that allows the National Reasonable Accommodation Coordinator (NRAC) and...

  4. Accommodating Picky Palates

    Lum, Lydia


    Healthy gourmet offerings are fast becoming the norm at college dining halls around the country. At a time when the children of Baby Boomers are hitting higher education in record numbers, college officials have scrambled to accommodate their picky palates and their insistence for healthier meals than were served to past generations. At the same…

  5. Accommodating Different Learning Styles

    Ovesen, Nis


    Design engineering educations often struggle to accommodate a highly diverse group of students as it combines an equally diverse range of topics in one education. This paper investigates how a specific course, Mathematics and Form, integrates two distinct areas into one course with the aim of fac...

  6. Technology needs for the development of the accommodative intraocular lens

    Nishi, Okihiro


    Refilling the lens capsule while preserving capsular integrity offers the potential to restore ocular accommodation. There are two persisting problems in capsular bag refilling for possible clinical application: Leakage of the injectable material through the capsular opening and capsular opacification. Numerous attempts for solving these cardinal problems have not been proven to be clinically applicable. Recently, we developed a novel capsular bag refilling procedure using a novel accommodative intraocular lens that serves as an optic as well as a plug for sealing the capsular opening. The procedure and the results of monkey experiments will be presented.

  7. Ocular manifestations of candidemia

    Oude Lashof, A.M.L.; Rothova, A.; Sobel, J.D.; Ruhnke, M.; Pappas, P.G.; Viscoli, C.; Schlamm, H.T.; Oborska, I.T.; Rex, J.H.; Kullberg, B.J.


    BACKGROUND: Ocular candidiasis is a major complication of candidemia. The incidence, risk factors, and outcome of eye involvement during candidemia are largely unknown. We prospectively studied the ocular manifestations of candidemia in a large, worldwide, randomized multicenter trial that compared

  8. Bridging as Coercive Accommodation

    Bos, J W; Mineur, A M; Bos, Johan; Buitelaar, Paul; Mineur, Anne-Marie


    In this paper we discuss the notion of "bridging" in Discourse Representation Theory as a tool to account for discourse referents that have only been established implicitly, through the lexical semantics of other referents. In doing so, we use ideas from Generative Lexicon theory, to introduce antecedents for anaphoric expressions that cannot be "linked" to a proper antecedent, but that do not need to be "accommodated" because they have some connection to the network of discourse referents that is already established.

  9. Accommodation and Catering


    In the first five months, retail sales of the accommodation and catering sector reached 412.77 billion yuan, contributing 13.6 percent to total retail sales of consumer goods, said the Ministry of Commerce. Their year-on-year growth of 15 percent, or 53.78 billion yuan, was 1.78 percentage points higher than the overall increase of retail sales of consumer goods.

  10. Charles F. Prentice award lecture 2008: surgical correction of presbyopia with intraocular lenses designed to accommodate.

    Schor, Clifton M


    Surgical restoration of accommodation with accommodating intra-ocular lenses (A-IOLs) presents a complex set of problems involving the design of the prosthetic mechanism. A variety of designs are currently employed that either translate the A-IOL toward the cornea along the sagittal axis, shear two lens components laterally, or deform lens shape to change dioptric power of the eye during attempts to accommodate. Effective biomechanical properties (elasticity and viscosity) of these lenses depend on both material properties and structural design of the A-IOL. Inevitable mismatches between the neuromuscular control of accommodation and the effective biomechanical properties of the prosthetic lens could lead to either unstable oscillations or sluggishness of dynamic accommodation; however, optimal dynamic responses may possibly be restored by neural recalibration. A model of dynamic accommodation is used to predict the consequences of these mismatches on dynamic accommodation, and reverse engineering is used to test the feasibility of neuromuscular recalibration. Empirical measures verify that neuromuscular adaptation of dynamic accommodation is possible in response to optically simulated increases and decreases of ocular-lens stiffness. Other design issues for A-IOLs include stability of optical properties, aberrations and image quality, and interactions of restored accommodation with binocular eye alignment (the near response).

  11. [Spasm of accommodation].

    Lindberg, Laura


    Spasm of accommodation refers to prolonged contraction of the ciliary muscle, most commonly causing pseudomyopia to varying degrees in both eyes by keeping the lens in a state of short sightedness. It may also be manifested as inability to allow the adaptation spasticity prevailing in the ciliary muscle relax without measurable myopia. As a rule, this is a functional ailment triggered by prolonged near work and stress. The most common symptoms include blurring of distance vision, varying visual acuity as well as pains in the orbital region and the head, progressing into a chronic state. Cycloplegic eye drops are used as the treatment.

  12. Temporal accommodation response measured by photorefractive accommodation measurement device

    Song, Byoungsub; Leportier, Thibault; Park, Min-Chul


    Although accommodation response plays an important role in the human vision system for perception of distance, some three-dimensional (3D) displays offer depth stimuli regardless of the accommodation response. The consequence is that most observers watching 3D displays have complained about visual fatigue. The measurement of the accommodation response is therefore necessary to develop human-friendly 3D displays. However, only few studies about accommodation measurement have been reported. Most of the investigations have been focused on the measurement and analysis of monocular accommodation responses only because the accommodation response works individually in each eye. Moreover, a main eye perceives dominantly the object distance. However, the binocular accommodation response should be examined because both eyes are used to watch the 3D display in natural conditions. The ophthalmic instrument that we developed enabled to measure changes in the accommodation response of the two eyes simultaneously. Two cameras acquired separately the infrared images reflected from each eyes after the reflected beams passed through a cylindrical lens. The changes in the accommodation response could then be estimated from the changes in the astigmatism ratio of the infrared images that were acquired in real time. In this paper, we compared the accommodation responses of main eye between the monocular and the binocular conditions. The two eyes were measured one by one, with only one eye opened, during measurement for monocular condition. Then the two eyes were examined simultaneously for binocular condition. The results showed similar tendencies for main eye accommodation response in both cases.

  13. Effect of Illumination on Ocular Status Modifications Induced by Short-Term 3D TV Viewing

    Chen, Yuanyuan; Xu, Aiqin; Jiang, Jian


    Objectives. This study aimed to compare changes in ocular status after 3D TV viewing under three modes of illumination and thereby identify optimal illumination for 3D TV viewing. Methods. The following measures of ocular status were assessed: the accommodative response, accommodative microfluctuation, accommodative facility, relative accommodation, gradient accommodative convergence/accommodation (AC/A) ratio, phoria, and fusional vergence. The observers watched 3D television for 90 minutes through 3D shutter glasses under three illumination modes: A, complete darkness; B, back illumination (50 lx); and C, front illumination (130 lx). The ocular status of the observers was assessed both before and after the viewing. Results. After 3D TV viewing, the accommodative response and accommodative microfluctuation were significantly changed under illumination Modes A and B. The near positive fusional vergence decreased significantly after the 90-minute 3D viewing session under each illumination mode, and this effect was not significantly different among the three modes. Conclusions. Short-term 3D viewing modified the ocular status of adults. The least amount of such change occurred with front illumination, suggesting that this type of illumination is an appropriate mode for 3D shutter TV viewing.

  14. Thermography in ocular inflammation

    Kawali, Ankush A


    Background and Objectives: The purpose of this study was to evaluate ocular inflammatory and non-inflammatory conditions using commercially available thermal camera. Materials and Methods: A non-contact thermographic camera (FLIR P 620) was used to take thermal pictures of seven cases of ocular inflammation, two cases of non-inflammatory ocular pathology, and one healthy subject with mild refractive error only. Ocular inflammatory cases included five cases of scleritis, one case of postoperative anterior uveitis, and a case of meibomian gland dysfunction with keratitis (MGD-keratitis). Non-inflammatory conditions included a case of conjunctival benign reactive lymphoid hyperplasia (BRLH) and a case of central serous chorio-retinopathy. Thermal and non-thermal photographs were taken, and using analyzing software, the ocular surface temperature was calculated. Results: Patient with fresh episode of scleritis revealed high temperature. Eyes with MGD-keratitis depicted lower temperature in clinically more affected eye. Conjunctival BRLH showed a cold lesion on thermography at the site of involvement, in contrast to cases of scleritis with similar clinical presentation. Conclusion: Ocular thermal imaging is an underutilized diagnostic tool which can be used to distinguish inflammatory ocular conditions from non-inflammatory conditions. It can also be utilized in the evaluation of tear film in dry eye syndrome. Its applications should be further explored in uveitis and other ocular disorders. Dedicated “ocular thermographic” camera is today's need of the hour. PMID:24347863

  15. Thermography in ocular inflammation

    Ankush A Kawali


    Full Text Available Background and Objectives: The purpose of this study was to evaluate ocular inflammatory and non-inflammatory conditions using commercially available thermal camera. Materials and Methods: A non-contact thermographic camera (FLIR P 620 was used to take thermal pictures of seven cases of ocular inflammation, two cases of non-inflammatory ocular pathology, and one healthy subject with mild refractive error only. Ocular inflammatory cases included five cases of scleritis, one case of postoperative anterior uveitis, and a case of meibomian gland dysfunction with keratitis (MGD-keratitis. Non-inflammatory conditions included a case of conjunctival benign reactive lymphoid hyperplasia (BRLH and a case of central serous chorio-retinopathy. Thermal and non-thermal photographs were taken, and using analyzing software, the ocular surface temperature was calculated. Results: Patient with fresh episode of scleritis revealed high temperature. Eyes with MGD-keratitis depicted lower temperature in clinically more affected eye. Conjunctival BRLH showed a cold lesion on thermography at the site of involvement, in contrast to cases of scleritis with similar clinical presentation. Conclusion: Ocular thermal imaging is an underutilized diagnostic tool which can be used to distinguish inflammatory ocular conditions from non-inflammatory conditions. It can also be utilized in the evaluation of tear film in dry eye syndrome. Its applications should be further explored in uveitis and other ocular disorders. Dedicated "ocular thermographic" camera is today′s need of the hour.

  16. Cluster bomb ocular injuries

    Ahmad M Mansour


    Full Text Available Purpose: To present the visual outcomes and ocular sequelae of victims of cluster bombs. Materials and Methods: This retrospective, multicenter case series of ocular injury due to cluster bombs was conducted for 3 years after the war in South Lebanon (July 2006. Data were gathered from the reports to the Information Management System for Mine Action. Results: There were 308 victims of clusters bombs; 36 individuals were killed, of which 2 received ocular lacerations and; 272 individuals were injured with 18 receiving ocular injury. These 18 surviving individuals were assessed by the authors. Ocular injury occurred in 6.5% (20/308 of cluster bomb victims. Trauma to multiple organs occurred in 12 of 18 cases (67% with ocular injury. Ocular findings included corneal or scleral lacerations (16 eyes, corneal foreign bodies (9 eyes, corneal decompensation (2 eyes, ruptured cataract (6 eyes, and intravitreal foreign bodies (10 eyes. The corneas of one patient had extreme attenuation of the endothelium. Conclusions: Ocular injury occurred in 6.5% of cluster bomb victims and 67% of the patients with ocular injury sustained trauma to multiple organs. Visual morbidity in civilians is an additional reason for a global ban on the use of cluster bombs.

  17. Dynamic performance of accommodating intraocular lenses in a negative feedback control system: a simulation-based study.

    Schor, Clifton M; Bharadwaj, Shrikant R; Burns, Christopher D


    A dynamic model of ocular accommodation is used to simulate the stability and dynamic performance of accommodating intraocular lenses (A-IOLs) that replace the hardened natural ocular lens that is unable to change focus. Accommodation simulations of an older eye with A-IOL materials having biomechanical properties of a younger eye illustrate overshoots and oscillations resulting from decreased visco-elasticity of the A-IOL. Stable dynamics of an A-IOL are restored by adaptation of phasic and tonic neural-control properties of accommodation. Simulations indicate that neural control must be recalibrated to avoid unstable dynamic accommodation with A-IOLs. An interactive web-model of A-IOL illustrating these properties is available at

  18. Comparison of tests of accommodation for computer users.

    Kolker, David; Hutchinson, Robert; Nilsen, Erik


    With the increased use of computers in the workplace and at home, optometrists are finding more patients presenting with symptoms of Computer Vision Syndrome. Among these symptomatic individuals, research supports that accommodative disorders are the most common vision finding. A prepresbyopic group (N= 30) and a presbyopic group (N = 30) were selected from a private practice. Assignment to a group was determined by age, accommodative amplitude, and near visual acuity with their distance prescription. Each subject was given a thorough vision and ocular health examination, then administered several nearpoint tests of accommodation at a computer working distance. All the tests produced similar results in the presbyopic group. For the prepresbyopic group, the tests yielded very different results. To effectively treat symptomatic VDT users, optometrists must assess the accommodative system along with the binocular and refractive status. For presbyopic patients, all nearpoint tests studied will yield virtually the same result. However, the method of testing accommodation, as well as the test stimulus presented, will yield significantly different responses for prepresbyopic patients. Previous research indicates that a majority of patients prefer the higher plus prescription yielded by the Gaussian image test.

  19. Miopatia ocular descendente Descending ocular myopathy

    Nunjo Finkel


    Full Text Available São relatados 4 casos de miopatia ocular descendente (MOD com história familial levantada em três gerações. Biópsia musculares e eletromiografia em um caso confirmaram o caráter miogênico da doença. A MOD nada mais seria do que uma forma clínica especial de distrofia muscular, de início tardio.Four cases of the so-called descending ocular myopathy with a family history in three generations are reported. In the first case muscular biopsy and electromyographic studies proved the myogenic nature of the process. Descending ocular myopathy seems to be just a clinical form of muscular distrophy of late onset.

  20. Epidemiology of Ocular Toxoplasmosis

    Petersen, E.; Kijlstra, A.; Stanford, M.


    Retinal infection with Toxoplasma gondii is the most important cause of posterior uveitis, whereby prevalence and incidence of ocular symptoms after infection depend on socio-economic factors and the circulating parasite genotypes. Ocular toxoplasmosis is more common in South America, Central Americ

  1. Epidemiology of Ocular Toxoplasmosis

    Petersen, E.; Kijlstra, A.; Stanford, M.


    Retinal infection with Toxoplasma gondii is the most important cause of posterior uveitis, whereby prevalence and incidence of ocular symptoms after infection depend on socio-economic factors and the circulating parasite genotypes. Ocular toxoplasmosis is more common in South America, Central Americ

  2. Anthropometric accommodation in USAF cockpits

    Zehner, Gregory F.


    Over the past three years, a new set of methodologies has been developed to specify and evaluate anthropometric accommodation in USAF crewstation designs. These techniques are used to improve the ability of the pilot to reach controls, to safely escape the aircraft, to achieve adequate mobility and comfort, and to assure full access to the visual field both inside and outside the aircraft. This paper summarized commonly encountered aircraft accommodation problems, explains the failure of the traditional 'percentile man' design concept to resolve these difficulties, and suggests an alternative approach for improving cockpit design to better accommodate today's more heterogeneous flying population.

  3. Congenital Ocular Motor Apraxia

    J Gordon Millichap


    Full Text Available The clinical and neuroradiological findings, and long-term intellectual prognosis in 10 patients (4 boys and 6 girls with congenital ocular motor apraxia (COMA are reviewed by researchers at Tottori University, Yonago, Japan.

  4. Ocular rosacea: a review

    Ana Carolina Cabreira Vieira


    Full Text Available Rosacea is a prevalent chronic cutaneous disorder with variable presentation and severity. Although considered a skin disease, rosacea may evolve the eyes in 58-72% of the patients, causing eyelid and ocular surface inflammation. About one third of the patients develop potentially sight-threatening corneal involvement. Untreated rosacea may cause varying degrees of ocular morbidity. The importance of early diagnosis and adequate treatment cannot be overemphasized. There is not yet a diagnostic test for rosacea. The diagnosis of ocular rosacea relies on observation of clinical features, which can be challenging in up to 90% of patients in whom accompanying roseatic skin changes may be subtle or inexistent. In this review, we describe the pathophysiologic mechanisms proposed in the literature, clinical features, diagnosis and management of ocular rosacea, as well as discuss the need for a diagnostic test for the disease.

  5. Ultrasonography in ocular trauma.

    Dastevska-Djosevska, Emilija


    Ultrasonography is a non-invasive, simple and effective diagnostic method which enables visualization and evaluation of intraocular injury degree in cloudy eye media. The basic aim of this investigation was to find out the frequency of various types of ocular injuries using ultrasonography and to make an analysis of their frequency in relation to gender and age. This retrospective study included 182 patients hospitalized at the Clinic of Ophthalmology in Skopje due to mechanical eye trauma. The patients underwent ultrasonography on the Alcon Ultrascan Imagining System apparatus and Sonomed EZ Scan AB 5500+. B scan technique was used primarily, while the A scan had a positive and correlative role. Ocular trauma was more present in males (85.2%) compared to females (14.8%). 49.5% of the patients had open, and 50.5% had closed globe injuries. The most represented age group in ocular injuries was the age ranged from 51 to 60 years. There was no significant difference between the type of mechanical injury and the age (Chi-Squares=5.52 p=0.47895025). Ultrasonography showed that the most frequent pathologic result, both in open and closed globe injuries, was vitreous hemorrhage. Ultrasonography has an irreplaceable role in the clinical evaluation and management of ocular trauma. It showed that the most frequent finding in ocular trauma was vitreous haemorrhage, and the male gender was more frequently exposed to ocular trauma.

  6. Fluid transport phenomena in ocular epithelia.

    Candia, Oscar A; Alvarez, Lawrence J


    This article discusses three largely unrecognized aspects related to fluid movement in ocular tissues; namely, (a) the dynamic changes in water permeability observed in corneal and conjunctival epithelia under anisotonic conditions, (b) the indications that the fluid transport rate exhibited by the ciliary epithelium is insufficient to explain aqueous humor production, and (c) the evidence for fluid movement into and out of the lens during accommodation. We have studied each of these subjects in recent years and present an evaluation of our data within the context of the results of others who have also worked on electrolyte and fluid transport in ocular tissues. We propose that (1) the corneal and conjunctival epithelia, with apical aspects naturally exposed to variable tonicities, are capable of regulating their water permeabilities as part of the cell-volume regulatory process, (2) fluid may directly enter the anterior chamber of the eye across the anterior surface of the iris, thereby representing an additional entry pathway for aqueous humor production, and (3) changes in lens volume occur during accommodation, and such changes are best explained by a net influx and efflux of fluid.

  7. Developments in Accommodating Intraocular Lenses

    Zeki Tunç


    Full Text Available Technical progress in cataract surgery has decreased the incidence of severe complications in this type of surgery. The introduction of micro incision cataract surgery (MICS (sub- 2.0 mm incision allow the surgeon to achieve better postoperative control of astigmatism and higherorder aberration (HOAs with minimum induction of both. It is believed that multifocal lenses provide very successful results, however, there are limitations to these. Implantation of accommodating intraocular lenses (IOLs is an option to treat presbyopia. The IOLs work by using the continued functionality of the ciliary muscle after cataract removal. Accommodating IOLs were designed to avoid the optical side effects of multifocal IOLs. Two main design concepts exist. First, axial shift concepts rely on anterior axial movement of one or two optics creating accommodative ability. Second, curvature change designs are designed to provide significant amplitudes of accommodation with little physical displacement. Accommodative IOLs to correct astigmatism and HOAs in the future are needed. (Turk J Ophthalmol 2012; 42: 288-93

  8. [Accommodation and presbyopia : part 2: surgical procedures for the correction of presbyopia].

    Baumeister, M; Kohnen, T


    There are two basic approaches for the surgical correction of presbyopia: increasing depth of focus (e.g. by means of multifocal laser abrasion of the cornea), Or restoring accommodation in the sense of a dynamic change in ocular refraction (accommodative intraocular lenses, scleral expansion). Pseudoaccommodative procedures are able to achieve satisfactory near vision, albeit at the price of lower performance in the intermediate range and decreased image quality. The restoration of accommodation remains problematic, partly because the mechanism of accommodation and the development of presbyopia are still not fully understood. Some surgical procedures are based on concepts, the validity of which is not confirmed or which even contradict experimental evidence. Thus, it is necessary to assess the results and presumed mechanisms critically and objectively.

  9. Artefactos en ultrasonido ocular

    Mariana Mayorquín Ruiz


    Full Text Available El ultrasonido ocular es un estudio dependiente del operador. Un buen estudio ecográfico debe tener como base el conocimiento de la anatomía y fisiología normales y de los cambios producidos en diferentes enfermedades, así como los cambios tras una cirugía ocular o trauma. El conocimiento de los fenómenos físicos producidos por el ultrasonido es la base para entender y reconocer la presencia de artefactos en el ultrasonido ocular. Esta revisión tiene como objetivo hacer un recuento de los artefactos que pueden ocasionar confusión al interpretar una imagen ecográfica, así como explicar la base física en la que se basan, reduciendo de esta manera los errores de interpretación y diagnósticos.

  10. Ocular complications of boxing.

    Bianco, M; Vaiano, A S; Colella, F; Coccimiglio, F; Moscetti, M; Palmieri, V; Focosi, F; Zeppilli, P; Vinger, P F


    To investigate the prevalence of ocular injuries in a large population of boxers over a period of 16 years, in particular, the most severe lesions that may be vision threatening. Clinical records of the medical archive of the Italian Boxing Federation were analysed. A total of 1032 boxers were examined from February 1982 to October 1998. A complete ophthalmological history was available for 956, who formed the study population (a total of 10 697 examinations). The following data were collected: age when started boxing; duration of competitive boxing career (from the date of the first bout); weight category; a thorough ocular history. The following investigations were carried out: measurement of visual acuity and visual fields, anterior segment inspection, applanation tonometry, gonioscopy, and examination of ocular fundus. Eighty age matched healthy subjects, who had never boxed, formed the control group. Of the 956 boxers examined, 428 were amateur (44.8%) and 528 professional (55.2%). The median age at first examination was 23.1 (4.3) years (range 15-36). The prevalence of conjunctival, corneal, lenticular, vitreal, ocular papilla, and retinal alterations in the study population was 40.9% compared with 3.1% in the control group (p< or =0.0001). The prevalence of serious ocular findings (angle, lens, macula, and peripheral retina alterations) was 5.6% in boxers and 3.1% in controls (NS). Boxing does not result in a higher prevalence of severe ocular lesions than in the general population. However, the prevalence of milder lesions (in particular with regard to the conjunctiva and cornea) is noteworthy, justifying the need for adequate ophthalmological surveillance.

  11. Ocular complications of boxing

    Bianco, M; Vaiano, A; Colella, F; Coccimiglio, F; Moscetti, M; Palmieri, V; Focosi, F; Zeppilli, P; Vinger, P


    Objectives: To investigate the prevalence of ocular injuries in a large population of boxers over a period of 16 years, in particular, the most severe lesions that may be vision threatening. Methods: Clinical records of the medical archive of the Italian Boxing Federation were analysed. A total of 1032 boxers were examined from February 1982 to October 1998. A complete ophthalmological history was available for 956, who formed the study population (a total of 10 697 examinations). The following data were collected: age when started boxing; duration of competitive boxing career (from the date of the first bout); weight category; a thorough ocular history. The following investigations were carried out: measurement of visual acuity and visual fields, anterior segment inspection, applanation tonometry, gonioscopy, and examination of ocular fundus. Eighty age matched healthy subjects, who had never boxed, formed the control group. Results: Of the 956 boxers examined, 428 were amateur (44.8%) and 528 professional (55.2%). The median age at first examination was 23.1 (4.3) years (range 15–36). The prevalence of conjunctival, corneal, lenticular, vitreal, ocular papilla, and retinal alterations in the study population was 40.9% compared with 3.1% in the control group (p⩽0.0001). The prevalence of serious ocular findings (angle, lens, macula, and peripheral retina alterations) was 5.6% in boxers and 3.1% in controls (NS). Conclusions: Boxing does not result in a higher prevalence of severe ocular lesions than in the general population. However, the prevalence of milder lesions (in particular with regard to the conjunctiva and cornea) is noteworthy, justifying the need for adequate ophthalmological surveillance. PMID:15665199

  12. Ocular Surface Reconstruction: Recent Innovations

    Madhavan HN


    The ocular surface is exceptionally rich in complexity and functionality. Severe ocular surface disorders/conditions, such as chemical or thermal injuries, Stevens-Johnson syndrome (SJS), ocular cicatricial pemphigoid, neurotrophic keratopathy, chronic limbitis, and severe microbial keratitis cause significant morbidities and even corneal blindness. Hypofunction may be caused by Aniridia, Neurotrophy, Endocrine, Pterygium and Chronic limbitis Approximately 6000 patients are seen in Ocular Sur...

  13. Immunogenetics of ocular inflammatory disease.

    Levinson, R D


    Ocular inflammatory disease comprises of a diverse group of clinical entities that may result from autoimmune processes, infections, or both. While many individual ocular inflammatory diseases are quite rare, ocular inflammation is one of the more common causes of visual disability, including blindness, in the developed world. Better understanding of ocular inflammatory disease is an important step in designing more sophisticated therapies that may help prevent loss of visual function for these patients.

  14. Ocular involvement of brucellosis.

    Bazzazi, Nooshin; Yavarikia, Alireza; Keramat, Fariba


    A 29-year-old male diagnosed with brucellosis a week earlier was referred to the ophthalmology clinic with visual complaints. On examination, visual acuity was 20/25, he had conjunctival injection on slit lamp examination. There was also bilateral optic disk swelling plus retinal hyperemia (optic disc hyperemia and vascular tortuosity) and intraretinal hemorrhage on funduscopy. The patient was admitted and treated with cotrimoxazole, rifampin, doxycycline and prednisolone for 2 months. Ocular manifestations subsided gradually within 6 months after treatment. Brucellosis can affect the eye and lead to serious ocular complications. Early diagnosis and prompt treatment should be considered in endemic areas.

  15. Correction of ocular dystopia.

    Janecka, I P


    The purpose of this study was to examine results with elective surgical correction of enophthalmos. The study was a retrospective assessment in a university-based referral practice. A consecutive sample of 10 patients who developed ocular dystopia following orbital trauma was examined. The main outcome measures were a subjective evaluation by patients and objective measurements of patients' eye position. The intervention was three-dimensional orbital reconstruction with titanium plates. It is concluded that satisfactory correction of enophthalmos and ocular dystopia can be achieved with elective surgery using titanium plates. In addition, intraoperative measurements of eye position in three planes increases the precision of surgery.

  16. Bedside ocular ultrasound.

    Roque, Pedro J; Hatch, Nicholas; Barr, Laurel; Wu, Teresa S


    Many ocular emergencies are difficult to diagnose in the emergency setting with conventional physical examination tools. Additionally, persistent efforts to re-examine the eye may be deleterious to a patient's overall condition. Ultrasound is an important tool because it affords physicians a rapid, portable, accurate, and dynamic tool for evaluation of a variety of ocular and orbital diseases. The importance of understanding orbital anatomy, with attention to the firm attachment points of the various layers of the eye, cannot be understated. This article describes the relevant eye anatomy, delves into the ultrasound technique, and illustrates a variety of orbital pathologies detectable by bedside ultrasound.

  17. A centre for accommodative vergence motor control

    Wilson, D.


    Latencies in accommodation, accommodative-vergence, and pupil-diameter responses to changing accommodation stimuli, as well as latencies in pupil response to light-intensity changes were measured. From the information obtained, a block diagram has been derived that uses the least number of blocks for representing the accommodation, accommodative-vergence, and pupil systems. The signal transmission delays over the various circuits of the model have been determined and compared to known experimental physiological-delay data. The results suggest the existence of a motor center that controls the accommodative vergence and is completely independent of the accommodation system.

  18. Reasonable Accommodation in Training Safety.

    Sandoz, Jeff

    A pictograph and icon-driven training program has been specifically designed for educators who are responsible for teaching the developmentally disabled regarding the safe use of hazardous chemicals. In alignment with the Americans with Disabilities Act, it offers "reasonable accommodation" by those who educate and train this special…

  19. Ocular rosacea: a dermatologic perspective.

    Webster, Guy; Schaller, Martin


    As many as 50% of patients given the diagnosis of cutaneous rosacea also have ocular rosacea. Conservative figures indicate that approximately 10 million patients are affected by ocular rosacea in the United States alone. Despite this prevalence, ocular symptoms of rosacea are often improperly diagnosed, particularly when they occur in the absence of skin involvement.

  20. Ocular manifestations of leptospirosis

    Rathinam S


    Full Text Available Leptospiral uveitis is a common entity in tropical countries. Ocular manifestations are noted in the second phase of illness, but these remain under-diagnosed mainly because of the prolonged symptom-free period that separates the systemic manifestations from detection of ocular manifestations.Varying ophthalmic presentations and the intrinsic nature of different types of uveitis to mimic one another also challenge the accuracy of the diagnosis. Of the individual ocular signs, the combination of acute, non-granulomatous, panuveitis, hypopyon, vasculitis, optic disc edema, membranous vitreous opacities and absence of choroiditis or retinitis have high predictive value for the clinical diagnosis of leptospiral uveitis. Geographic location of the patient, occupation, socio-economic status, risk factors related to exposure, past history of fever or jaundice also aid in diagnosis.Steroids are the mainstay of treatment for leptospiral uveitis. Depending upon the severity and anatomical location of inflammatory lesion, topical, peri-ocular and/or systemic steroids are given. The prognosis is generally good, even when the inflammation is severe.

  1. Treatment of Partly Accommodative Esotropia With a High Accommodative Convergence-Accommodation Ratio

    H.J. Simonsz (Huib)


    textabstractIn the June 1987 issue of the Archives, the results were published of a study by Kushner et al1 on the treatment of accommodative convergence excess, with bilateral medial rectus recessions or recessions with 14-mm posterior fixation sutures. Posterior fixation surgery was considered an

  2. Prediction of accommodative optical response in prepresbyopic patients using ultrasound biomicroscopy

    Ramasubramanian, Viswanathan; Glasser, Adrian


    PURPOSE To determine whether relatively low-resolution ultrasound biomicroscopy (UBM) can predict the accommodative optical response in prepresbyopic eyes as well as in a previous study of young phakic subjects, despite lower accommodative amplitudes. SETTING College of Optometry, University of Houston, Houston, USA. DESIGN Observational cross-sectional study. METHODS Static accommodative optical response was measured with infrared photorefraction and an autorefractor (WR-5100K) in subjects aged 36 to 46 years. A 35 MHz UBM device (Vumax, Sonomed Escalon) was used to image the left eye, while the right eye viewed accommodative stimuli. Custom-developed Matlab image-analysis software was used to perform automated analysis of UBM images to measure the ocular biometry parameters. The accommodative optical response was predicted from biometry parameters using linear regression, 95% confidence intervals (CIs), and 95% prediction intervals. RESULTS The study evaluated 25 subjects. Per-diopter (D) accommodative changes in anterior chamber depth (ACD), lens thickness, anterior and posterior lens radii of curvature, and anterior segment length were similar to previous values from young subjects. The standard deviations (SDs) of accommodative optical response predicted from linear regressions for UBM-measured biometry parameters were ACD, 0.15 D; lens thickness, 0.25 D; anterior lens radii of curvature, 0.09 D; posterior lens radii of curvature, 0.37 D; and anterior segment length, 0.42 D. CONCLUSIONS Ultrasound biomicroscopy parameters can, on average, predict accommodative optical response with SDs of less than 0.55 D using linear regressions and 95% CIs. Ultrasound biomicroscopy can be used to visualize and quantify accommodative biometric changes and predict accommodative optical response in prepresbyopic eyes. PMID:26049831

  3. Prediction of accommodative optical response in prepresbyopic subjects using ultrasound biomicroscopy.

    Ramasubramanian, Viswanathan; Glasser, Adrian


    To determine whether relatively low-resolution ultrasound biomicroscopy (UBM) can be used to predict the accommodative optical response in prepresbyopic eyes as well as in a previous study of young phakic subjects, despite lower accommodative amplitudes. College of Optometry, University of Houston, Houston, USA. Observational cross-sectional study. Static accommodative optical response was measured with infrared photorefraction and an autorefractor (WR-5100K) in subjects aged 36 to 46 years. A 35 MHz UBM device (Vumax, Sonomed Escalon) was used to image the left eye, while the right eye viewed accommodative stimuli. Custom-developed Matlab image-analysis software was used to perform automated analysis of UBM images to measure the ocular biometry parameters. The accommodative optical response was predicted from biometry parameters using linear regression, 95% confidence intervals (CIs), and 95% prediction intervals. The study evaluated 25 subjects. Per-diopter (D) accommodative changes in anterior chamber depth (ACD), lens thickness, anterior and posterior lens radii of curvature, and anterior segment length were similar to previous values from young subjects. The standard deviations (SDs) of accommodative optical response predicted from linear regressions for UBM-measured biometry parameters were ACD, 0.15 D; lens thickness, 0.25 D; anterior lens radii of curvature, 0.09 D; posterior lens radii of curvature, 0.37 D; and anterior segment length, 0.42 D. Ultrasound biomicroscopy parameters can, on average, predict accommodative optical responses with SDs of less than 0.55 D using linear regressions and 95% CIs. Ultrasound biomicroscopy can be used to visualize and quantify accommodative biometric changes and predict accommodative optical response in prepresbyopic eyes. Copyright © 2015 ASCRS and ESCRS. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Ocular allergy and keratoconus

    Namrata Sharma


    Full Text Available Keratoconus is the most common corneal ectatic disorder, the cause of which is largely unknown. Many factors have been implicated, and the ocular allergy is being one of them. The commonly proposed pathogenesis includes the release of inflammatory mediators due to eye rubbing which may alter the corneal collagen and lead to corneal ectasias. The onset of keratoconus is often early in cases associated with allergy and routine corneal topography may detect subtle forms of keratoconus. These cases may require early keratoplasty and are at an increased risk of having acute corneal hydrops. Surgical outcomes are similar to primary keratoconus cases. However, post-operative epithelial breakdown may be a problem in these cases. Control of allergy and eye rubbing is the best measure to prevent corneal ectasias in cases of ocular allergy.

  5. Miopatia ocular descendente

    Nunjo Finkel


    Full Text Available São relatados 4 casos de miopatia ocular descendente (MOD com história familial levantada em três gerações. Biópsia musculares e eletromiografia em um caso confirmaram o caráter miogênico da doença. A MOD nada mais seria do que uma forma clínica especial de distrofia muscular, de início tardio.

  6. Ocular sparganosis from Assam

    Nath, Reema; Gogoi, Rajendra Nath


    Sparganosis is caused by plerocercoid larvae of the Pseudophyllidea tapeworms of the genus Spirometra. Though prevalent in East Asian and south east Asian countries like China, Japan, Korea, Taiwan, Vietnam, Thailand; yet very few cases are reported from India. We report a case of migrating sub-conjunctival ocular sparganosis mimicking scleritis which later on developed into orbital cellulitis from Dibrugarh, Assam, North-eastern part of India. This case is reported for its rarity. PMID:25709957

  7. Adaptability: how to accommodate changing user preferences

    Remoy, H.T.; Van der Voordt, D.J.M.


    Purpose: When current accommodation is unsatisfactorily, office organisations consider relocating to new accommodation that optimally facilitate their main processes, supporting image and financial yield. However, due to high vacancy levels, public opinion and governmental awareness oppose new

  8. Ocular injury in hurling.

    Flynn, T H


    OBJECTIVES: To describe the clinical characteristics of ocular injuries sustained in hurling in the south of Ireland and to investigate reasons for non-use of protective headgear and eye wear. METHODS: Retrospective review of the case notes of 310 patients who attended Cork University Hospital or Waterford Regional Hospital between 1 January 1994 and 31 December 2002 with ocular injuries sustained during a hurling match. A confidential questionnaire on reasons for non-use of protective headgear and eye wear was completed by 130 players. RESULTS: Hurling related eye injuries occurred most commonly in young men. Fifty two patients (17%) required hospital admission, with hyphaema accounting for 71% of admissions. Ten injuries required intraocular surgical INTERVENTION: retinal detachment repair (5); macular hole surgery (1); repair of partial thickness corneal laceration (1); repair of globe perforation (1); enucleation (1); trabeculectomy for post-traumatic glaucoma (1). Fourteen eyes (4.5%) had a final best corrected visual acuity (BCVA) of <6\\/12 and six (2%) had BCVA <3\\/60. In the survey, 63 players (48.5%) reported wearing no protective facemask while playing hurling. Impairment of vision was the most common reason cited for non-use. CONCLUSIONS: Hurling related injury is a significant, and preventable, cause of ocular morbidity in young men in Ireland. The routine use of appropriate protective headgear and faceguards would result in a dramatic reduction in the incidence and severity of these injuries, and should be mandatory.

  9. Accommodative spasm in siblings: A unique finding

    Rutstein Robert


    Full Text Available Accommodative spasm is a rare condition occurring in children, adolescents, and young adults. A familial tendency for this binocular vision disorder has not been reported. I describe accommodative spasm occurring in a brother and sister. Both children presented on the same day with complaints of headaches and blurred vision. Treatment included cycloplegia drops and bifocals. Siblings of patients having accommodative spasm should receive a detailed eye exam with emphasis on recognition of accommodative spasm.

  10. Intraocular lens with accommodation capacity

    Dorronsoro, Carlos; Alejandre, Nicolás; Bekesi, Nandor; Marcos, Susana


    Intraocular lens with accommodation capacity comprising a first optical member (1) having a dynamic optical power, to which a second optical member (2) with a fixed optical power is affixed, in such a manner that at least a central part of each of one of one of the curved surfaces (2a, 2b) of the second optical member (2) and of at least one of the surfaces (1a, 1b) of the first optical member (1) are in contact with each other, the second optical member (2) and the first optical member (1) p...

  11. 46 CFR 108.143 - Accommodation space.


    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Accommodation space. 108.143 Section 108.143 Shipping... EQUIPMENT Construction and Arrangement Structural Fire Protection § 108.143 Accommodation space. (a) Each corridor bulkhead in an accommodation space must be an A class or B class bulkhead except if an A...




    Full Text Available AIM: To identify the proportion of cases affected in a family with ocular colobamata . MATERIAL: Ocular colobomata present in a family METHOD: Visual acuity, Slit lamp examination, Ophthalmoscopy, Fundus Photography, B - Scan, Family members were examined. RESULTS: Family showed poor visual acuity, Iris and Choridal Coloboma without optic disc involvement and normal corneal diameter. CONCLUSION: Ocular coloboma occurring in patients of my study is family and genetically determined.

  13. Ocular neuropathy in peripheral neuropathies.

    Evliyaoglu, Ferhat; Karadag, Remzi; Burakgazi, Ahmet Z


    Ocular movements and coordination require complex and integrated functions of somatic and autonomic nervous systems. Neurological disorders affecting these nervous systems may cause ocular dysfunction involving extraocular muscles and pupils. In this article, the prevalence, clinical presentations, and management of ocular neuropathy related to certain peripheral neuropathies, including diabetic neuropathy, Guillain-Barré syndrome (GBS), chronic inflammatory neuropathies, human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-associated neuropathy, and hereditary neuropathies, are examined in detail. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. Ocular defects in cerebral palsy

    Katoch Sabita


    Full Text Available There is a high prevalence of ocular defects in children with developmental disabilities. This study evaluated visual disability in a group of 200 cerebral palsy (CP patients and found that 68% of the children had significant visual morbidity. These findings emphasize the need for an early ocular examination in patients with CP.

  15. Fetal ocular measurements by MRI.

    Li, Xiao Bing; Kasprian, Gregor; Hodge, Jacqueline C; Jiang, Xiao Li; Bettelheim, Dieter; Brugger, Peter C; Prayer, Daniela


    To present fetal magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) ocular measurement ranges by gestational age (GA) in normal and growth-restricted fetuses. A total of 298 pregnant women from the 18th to the 39th week of gestation were imaged using MRI. Ocular measurements including binocular distance (BOD), interocular distance (IOD), transverse ocular diameter (OD) and anterior-posterior (AP) OD were measured. The curve estimation analyses for linear, logarithmic and quadratic models were performed. The ocular measurements of the fetuses with intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) were compared with that of the normal fetuses. The fetal eye resembles an ellipsoid with significantly longer OD and shorter AP (t = - 22.07, p < 0.001). The quadratic model was the best model in predicting growth of the fetal BOD, IOD, OD and AP. The ocular measurements of the fetuses with IUGR were significantly different from that of the normal fetuses (BOD: t = 3.58, p < 0.001; IOD: t = 5.73, p < 0.001; OD: t = 3.52, p < 0.001; AP: t = 2.19, p < 0.05). Fetal ocular growth can be readily assessed by fetal MRI. Using the normative data provided in this study, fetal ocular anomalies may be detected. Ocular size is frequently reduced in the condition of IUGR, with potential pathologic impact on postnatal vision.

  16. Effects of pirenzepine on pupil size and accommodation in rhesus monkeys.

    Ostrin, Lisa A; Frishman, Laura J; Glasser, Adrian


    Pirenzepine is suggested to be a relatively selective muscarinic (M(1)) antagonist and is currently under investigation for the treatment of myopia. Atropine, a nonselective M-type antagonist, is used in the treatment of myopia, but has undesired ocular and systemic side effects. An M(1)-specific antagonist may decrease side effects and remain effective at reducing the progression of myopia. In the current study, the effects of pirenzepine on pupil diameter, resting refraction, and accommodation were studied in rhesus monkeys. The time course and extent of mydriasis from subconjunctival injection of 2% pirenzepine were determined in five normal rhesus monkeys, and the effects on static and dynamic accommodation were determined in four rhesus monkeys with permanent indwelling electrodes in the Edinger-Westphal (EW) nucleus of the midbrain. Subconjunctival injections of 0.0002% to 0.2% pirenzepine in log unit dilutions were tested in three monkeys to determine the effects on static EW-stimulated accommodation. At 40 to 50 minutes after pirenzepine injection, accommodation was stimulated pharmacologically in both eyes, and the response was measured for 30 minutes. After 2% pirenzepine injection, pupil size increased 2.02 +/- 0.41 mm, there was a hyperopic shift in resting refraction of 1.07 +/- 0.23 D, and nearly complete cycloplegia occurred. Maximum EW-stimulated accommodation was significantly decreased 20 to 40 minutes after 0.02% or greater pirenzepine. Carbachol-stimulated accommodation was significantly decreased after 0.2% or greater pirenzepine. Subconjunctival injections of 0.02% or greater pirenzepine result in a significant decrease in accommodation and are probably acting through nonselective muscarinic antagonism. Subconjunctival injections of 0.002% or less pirenzepine do not decrease EW-stimulated accommodation.

  17. Evaluating relative accommodations in general binocular dysfunctions

    García Muñoz, Ángel; Cacho Martínez, Pilar; Lara Lacarcel, Francisco


    Purpose. To examine the relationship between relative accommodation and general binocular disorders and to establish their importance in the diagnosis of these anomalies. Methods. We analyzed data of negative relative accommodation (NRA) and positive relative accommodation (PRA) in 69 patients with nonstrabismic binocular anomalies. Results. Statistical analysis showed that low values of NRA and PRA were not associated with any particular disorder. High values of PRA (>3.50 D) were related to...

  18. Ocular involvement in pemphigus vulgaris.

    Akhyani, Maryam; Keshtkar-Jafari, Alireza; Chams-Davatchi, Cheyda; Lajevardi, Vahide; Beigi, Sara; Aghazadeh, Nessa; Rayati Damavandi, Maede; Arami, Shabnam


    Pemphigus vulgaris (PV) is an autoimmune disorder affecting the skin and mucous membranes. Ocular involvement in PV has been reported but its prevalence and clinical characteristics are not well defined. This prospective cross-sectional study of 103 PV patients was designed to determine the prevalence, clinical types and epidemiological trends of ocular involvement in a population of Iranian patients with PV. Ocular involvement was present in 17 (16.5%) patients. Conjunctivitis was the most prevalent type of ocular involvement (9/17, 52.9%), followed by erosion of the palpebral conjunctiva (7/17, 41.2%). Erosion of the bulbar conjunctiva was noted in only one patient (5.9%). The most commonly reported symptoms were eye irritation (76.5%) and redness (76.5%). No significant relation was found between ocular involvement and disease activity (partial remission or relapse). Mucoid discharge was significantly more common in patients with conjunctival erosions as compared to patients with conjunctivitis (P = 0.038). We conclude that ocular involvement is not rare in PV; 16.5% of PV patients develop ocular disease independent of the disease activity and extension. Conjunctivitis is the most common type of involvement, however, palpebral conjunctival erosion is more frequent than previously realized.

  19. Sports related ocular injuries.

    Mishra, Avinash; Verma, Ashok K


    Every year > 600,000 sports and recreation related eye injuries occur, out of which roughly 13,500 of these result in permanent loss of sight. Up to 90% of these sports related eye injuries are preventable by using adequate eye protection equipment. Protective eyewear is made of polycarbonate, a highly impact-resistant plastic which is now easily available as prescription and non-prescription eyewear and all players should be encouraged to use them. The medical officers by educating their patients regarding the risks of eye injuries in various sports and the confirmed benefits of using protective equipment have the potential to prevent injury to over thousands of eyes every year. The medical fraternity can also play a very important role in educating the coaches, parents, and children and thus put an end to unnecessary blindness and vision loss from sports related ocular injuries, therefore ensuring a lifetime of healthy vision.

  20. Ocular histoplasmosis syndrome.

    Diaz, Rocio I; Sigler, Eric J; Rafieetary, Mohammad R; Calzada, Jorge I


    Ocular histoplasmosis syndrome (OHS) is a chorioretinal disorder with a distinct fundus appearance that is commonly found in regions endemic for Histoplasma capsulatum. Choroidal neovascularization (CNV) secondary to OHS is considered one of the principal causes of central vision loss among young adults in endemic areas. Although there is no consensus regarding its pathogenesis, evidence points to Histoplasma capsulatum as the most probable etiology. Once considered an intractable hemorrhagic maculopathy, CNVs are now treatable. Extrafoveal CNVs are successfully treated with laser photocoagulation. Subfoveal and juxtafoveal CNVs are managed with anti-vascular endothelial growth factor therapy, photodynamic therapy, or a combination of both. Modern imaging technologies such as spectral-domain optical coherence tomography have improved our diagnostic abilities, making it easier to monitor disease activity and CNV regression. We review the epidemiology, pathogenesis, clinical manifestations, differential diagnosis, and current treatment of this disease.

  1. Simultaneous refraction measurement and OCT axial biometry of the eye during accommodation (Conference Presentation)

    De Freitas, Carolina; Hernandez, Victor M.; Ruggeri, Marco; Durkee, Heather A.; Williams, Siobhan; Gregori, Giovanni; Ho, Arthur; Manns, Fabrice; Parel, Jean-Marie


    The purpose of this project is to design and evaluate a system that will enable objective assessment of the optical accommodative response in real-time while acquiring axial biometric information. The system combines three sub-systems which were integrated and mounted on a joystick x-y-z adjustable modified slit-lamp base to facilitate alignment and data acquisition: (1) a Shack-Hartmann wavefront sensor for dynamic refraction measurement, provided software calculates sphere, cylinder and axis values, (2) an extended-depth Optical Coherence Tomography (OCT) system using an optical switch records high-resolution cross-sectional images across the length of the eye, from which, dynamic axial biometry (corneal thickness, anterior chamber depth, crystalline lens thickness and vitreous depth) can be extracted, and (3) a modified dual-channel accommodation stimulus unit based on the Badal optometer for providing a step change in accommodative stimulus. The prototypal system is capable of taking simultaneous measurements of both the optical and the mechanical response of lens accommodation. These measurements can provide insight into correlating changes in lens shape with changes in lens power and ocular refraction and ultimately provide a more comprehensive understanding of accommodation, presbyopia and an objective assessment of presbyopia correction techniques.

  2. Ocular tuberculosis: current perspectives

    Shakarchi FI


    Full Text Available Faiz I Shakarchi1,21Ibn Al-Haetham Teaching Eye Hospital, 2Department of Opthalmology, Medical College, Al-Mustansiriya University, Baghdad, IraqAbstract: The World Health Organization currently estimates that nearly two billion people, or one-third of the world’s population, are infected by tuberculosis, and that roughly 10% of the infected people are symptomatic. Tuberculosis affects the lungs in 80% of patients, while in the remaining 20% the disease may affect other organs, including the eye. Uveitis can be seen concurrently with tuberculosis, but a direct association is difficult to prove. Ocular tuberculosis is usually not associated with clinical evidence of pulmonary tuberculosis, as up to 60% of extrapulmonary tuberculosis patients may not have pulmonary disease. The diagnosis of tuberculous uveitis is often problematic and in nearly all reported cases, the diagnosis was only presumptive. Tuberculous uveitis is a great mimicker of various uveitis entities and it can be considered in the differential diagnosis of any type of intraocular inflammation. It is still unknown if ocular manifestations result from a direct mycobacterium infection or hypersensitivity reaction and this is reflected on the management of tuberculous uveitis. Prevalence of tuberculosis as an etiology of uveitis may reach up to 10% in endemic areas. Tuberculous uveitis is a vision-threatening disease that inevitably leads to blindness if not properly diagnosed and treated. The aim of this review is to illustrate the various clinical features and management of presumed tuberculous uveitis. The current review focuses on the diagnostic criteria, significance of tuberculin skin test, and use of systemic corticosteroids in the management of tuberculous uveitis as recommended in recent publications.Keywords: tuberculosis, uveitis, choroiditis, tuberculin skin test

  3. Ocular manifestations of feline herpesvirus.

    Andrew, S E


    Feline herpesvirus-1 (FHV-1) infection is ubiquitous in the domestic cat population worldwide. The most common clinical ocular manifestations of infection with FHV-1 are conjunctivitis and keratitis. This paper reviews the pathogenesis of feline herpesvirus-1 and discusses the various clinical ocular manifestations, diagnostic techniques and treatment of FHV-1-induced diseases. Ocular manifestations include: conjunctivitis, keratitis, stromal keratitis, keratoconjunctivitis sicca, ophthalmia neonatorium, symblepharon, corneal sequestrum, eosinophilic keratitis and anterior uveitis. Diagnostic techniques discussed include: virus isolation, fluorescent antibody testing, serum neutralising titers, ELISA and polymerase chain reaction. Various therapies are also discussed.

  4. Ocular myasthenia gravis: A review

    Akshay Gopinathan Nair


    Full Text Available Myasthenia gravis (MG is a disease that affects the neuro-muscular junction resulting in classical symptoms of variable muscle weakness and fatigability. It is called the great masquerader owing to its varied clinical presentations. Very often, a patient of MG may present to the ophthalmologist given that a large proportion of patients with systemic myasthenia have ocular involvement either at presentation or during the later course of the disease. The treatment of ocular MG involves both the neurologist and ophthalmologist. Thus, the aim of this review was to highlight the current diagnosis, investigations, and treatment of ocular MG.

  5. Ocular neuromyotonia after radiation therapy

    Lessell, S.; Lessell, I.M.; Rizzo, J.F. III


    Ocular neuromyotonia is a paroxysmal monocular deviation that results from spasm of eye muscles secondary to spontaneous discharges from third, fourth, or sixth nerve axons. We observed this rare disorder in four patients who had been treated with radiation for tumors in the region of the sella turcica and cavernous sinus. Based on these cases and four others identified in the literature it would appear that radiation predisposes to a cranial neuropathy in which ocular neuromyotonia may be the major manifestation. Radiation appears to be the most common cause of ocular neuromyotonia.

  6. Ocular Blood Flow Autoregulation Mechanisms and Methods

    Xue Luo


    Full Text Available The main function of ocular blood flow is to supply sufficient oxygen and nutrients to the eye. Local blood vessels resistance regulates overall blood distribution to the eye and can vary rapidly over time depending on ocular need. Under normal conditions, the relation between blood flow and perfusion pressure in the eye is autoregulated. Basically, autoregulation is a capacity to maintain a relatively constant level of blood flow in the presence of changes in ocular perfusion pressure and varied metabolic demand. In addition, ocular blood flow dysregulation has been demonstrated as an independent risk factor to many ocular diseases. For instance, ocular perfusion pressure plays key role in the progression of retinopathy such as glaucoma and diabetic retinopathy. In this review, different direct and indirect techniques to measure ocular blood flow and the effect of myogenic and neurogenic mechanisms on ocular blood flow are discussed. Moreover, ocular blood flow regulation in ocular disease will be described.

  7. Functionalised polysiloxanes as injectable, in situ curable accommodating intraocular lenses.

    Hao, Xiaojuan; Jeffery, Justine L; Wilkie, John S; Meijs, Gordon F; Clayton, Anthony B; Watling, Jason D; Ho, Arthur; Fernandez, Viviana; Acosta, Carolina; Yamamoto, Hideo; Aly, Mohamed G M; Parel, Jean-Marie; Hughes, Timothy C


    The aged eye's ability to change focus (accommodation) may be restored by replacing the hardened natural lens with a soft gel. Functionalised polysiloxane macromonomers, designed for application as an injectable, in situ curable accommodating intraocular lens (A-IOL), were prepared via a two-step synthesis. Prepolymers were synthesised via ring opening polymerisation (ROP) of octamethylcyclotetrasiloxane (D(4)) and 2,4,6,8-tetramethylcyclotetrasiloxane (D(4)(H)) in toluene using trifluoromethanesulfonic acid (TfOH) as catalyst. Hexaethyldisiloxane (HEDS) was used as the end group to control the molecular weight of the prepolymers, which were then converted to macromonomers by hydrosilylation of the SiH groups with allyl methacrylate (AM) to introduce polymerisable groups. The resulting macromonomers had an injectable consistency and thus, were able to be injected into and refill the empty lens capsular bag. The macromonomers also contained a low ratio of polymerisable groups so that they may be cured on demand, in situ, under irradiation of blue light, in the presence of a photo-initiator, to form a soft polysiloxane gel (an intraocular lens) in the eye. The pre-cure viscosity and post-cure modulus of the polysiloxanes, which are crucial factors for an injectable, in situ curable A-IOL application, were controlled by adjusting the end group and D(4)(H) concentrations, respectively, in the ROP. The macromonomers were fully cured within 5 min under light irradiation, as shown by the rapid change in modulus monitored by photo-rheology. Ex vivo primate lens stretching experiments on an Ex Vivo Accommodation Simulator (EVAS) showed that the polysiloxane gel refilled lenses achieved over 60% of the accommodation amplitude of the natural lens. An in vivo biocompatibility study in rabbits using the lens refilling (Phaco-Ersatz) procedure demonstrated that the soft gels had good biocompatibility with the ocular tissue. The polysiloxane macromonomers meet the targeted

  8. Impact of Microbiome on Ocular Health

    Kugadas, Abirami; Gadjeva, Mihaela


    The ocular surface is continuously exposed to the environment and, therefore, it is surprising that it harbors only few commensals with low degree of diversity. This unique aspect of the ocular surface physiology prompts the question whether there are core ocular commensal communities and how they affect ocular immunity. The purpose of this review is to provide an overview of what is known about the ocular surface commensals in health and disease and what we would like to learn in the near fu...

  9. Bearing-Mounting Concept Accommodates Thermal Expansion

    Nespodzany, Robert; Davis, Toren S.


    Pins or splines allow radial expansion without slippage. Design concept for mounting rotary bearing accommodates differential thermal expansion between bearing and any structure(s) to which bearing connected. Prevents buildup of thermal stresses by allowing thermal expansion to occur freely but accommodating expansion in such way not to introduce looseness. Pin-in-slot configuration also maintains concentricity.

  10. Accommodation Outcomes and the ICF Framework

    Schreuer, Naomi


    Accommodation of the environment and technology is one of the key mediators of adjustment to disability and participation in community. In this article, accommodations are tested empirically as facilitators of return to work and participation, as defined by the "International Classification of Disability, Function, and Health" (ICF) and…

  11. Real and Pseudoaccommodation in Accommodative Lenses

    Ioannis G. Pallikaris


    Full Text Available In the attempt to manage presbyopia, different intraocular lens designs have been proposed such as monofocal IOLs with monovision or multifocal IOLs. Even though the lenses mentioned offer satisfactory visual results, contemporary ophthalmology has not completely answered the presbyopic dilemma by simulating the accommodative properties of the crystalline lens itself. Accommodative IOLs were designed to fill this gap and provide satisfactory vision for all distances by restoring some degree of “pseudoaccommodation.” Pseudo accommodative capability can be linked to monofocal IOL’s as well but the results are not satisfactory enough to fully support unaided near vision. Pseudoaccommodation is a complex phenomenon that can be attributed to several static (i.e., pupil size, against-the-rule cylindrical refractive error, multifocality of the cornea and dynamic (i.e., anterior movement of the implant itself factors. Objective measurement of the accommodative capability offered by the accommodative IOLs is extremely difficult to obtain, and different methods such as autorefractometers, retinoscopy, and ultrasound imaging during accommodative effort, ray tracing, or pharmacological stimulation have been developed but the results are sometimes inconsistent. Despite the difficulties in measuring accommodation, accommodative IOLs represent the future in the attempt to successfully “cure” presbyopia.


    Melissa Li Sa Liow


    Full Text Available This paper starts by clarifying the role of branding orientation (BO among academic studies. It shortly introduces the development of the BO concepts. The empirical part consists of a search for and analysing of academic articles using a meta-analysis that consider BO in the accommodation industry. According to the results, significant appraisal of the branding building activities among higher star rating and luxury accommodation businesses are taking place due to the increasingly demanding guests. Thus, there is an upward pressure on small and medium accommodation businesses to survive or perform well. This paper recommends that scholars study the owners-managers, employees, and customer perspectives altogether, to better comprehend how large accommodation businesses displaying BO can generate superior performance. For the small and medium accommodation businesses, the emphasis is the owners-managers perceptions since they are the main decision-makers, and due to infancy of the small and medium enterprise (SME branding application.

  13. Ocular perfusion pressure in glaucoma.

    Costa, Vital P; Harris, Alon; Anderson, Douglas; Stodtmeister, Richard; Cremasco, Fernanda; Kergoat, Helene; Lovasik, John; Stalmans, Ingborg; Zeitz, Oliver; Lanzl, Ines; Gugleta, Konstantin; Schmetterer, Leopold


    This review article discusses the relationship between ocular perfusion pressure and glaucoma, including its definition, factors that influence its calculation and epidemiological studies investigating the influence of ocular perfusion pressure on the prevalence, incidence and progression of glaucoma. We also list the possible mechanisms behind this association, and discuss whether it is secondary to changes in intraocular pressure, blood pressure or both. Finally, we describe the circadian variation of ocular perfusion pressure and the effects of systemic and topical medications on it. We believe that the balance between IOP and BP, influenced by the autoregulatory capacity of the eye, is part of what determines whether an individual will develop optic nerve damage. However, prospective, longitudinal studies are needed to better define the role of ocular perfusion pressure in the development and progression of glaucoma.


    SHEN Xi; XU Ge-zhi; JIAO Qin; LI Xia; SHI Ruo-fei


    Objective To describe the ocular complications of 62 patients with active atopic dermatitis( AD) during the period of 2003 2006. Methods Routine ophthalmic examinations, including slit-lamp microscope, indirect ophthalmoscope or Goldmann three-mirror lens, A-scan and B-scan ultrasound, ultrasound biomicroscope (UBM) and corneal topography, as well as tear film break-up time (BUT) and Schirmer tests were carried out. Results Cataract (28 eyes), keratoconjunctivitis (42 eyes), superficial punctate keratopathy (45 eyes) and tear function abnormality ( 76 eyes) were major ocular complications in AD patients. Retinal detachment (6 eyes) was the most severe ocular complication in the AD patients. Conclusion Ocular complications are common in AD patients and a very careful examination of eyes is essential in treating AD patients. If the eyes can be examed carefully and in time, some operations and severe complications can be avoidable, especially for the patients with retinal breaks or retinal detachment.

  15. Ocular complications of malaria treatment


    Oct 8, 2011 ... parenteral quinine are employed with consequent untoward effects. This article reports two cases of severe ocular toxicity, including mimicry of ... 2003 at the Ebony Eye Specialist Clinic Onitsha with a week history of double ...

  16. Ocular toxocariasis. A case presentation

    Mariela Julia Curbelo Gómez


    Full Text Available A clinical case on ocular toxocariasis is presented. The clinical manifestations were pain and red eye in a four year-old child. A prior acute uveitis in the LE was found in the physical ocular exam. Vitrea band that was out of the superior edge of papila and a marginal granuloma were found in the eyes fundus. The patient was admitted and treated with oral corticoids and oral antihelmintics

  17. Air bags and ocular injuries.

    Stein, J.D.; Jaeger, E A; Jeffers, J B


    PURPOSE: This investigation retrospectively examined ocular injuries associated with air bag deployment to gain a better appreciation of potential risk factors in motor vehicle accidents. National statistics regarding the efficacy of air bags were reviewed. METHODS: Review of the literature from 1991 to 1998 identified 44 articles describing 97 patients with air-bag-induced ocular injuries. Variables extracted from each case were age, sex, height, position in the car, eye wear, vehicle impact...

  18. [Ocular metastasis heralding gastric adenocarcinoma].

    Chekrine, T; Tawfiq, N; Bouchbika, Z; Benchakroun, N; Jouhadi, H; Sahraoui, S; Benider, A


    Ocular metastasis is a rare presenting feature of gastric adenocarcinoma. We report a 48-year-old woman who presented with a decrease in visual acuity of the right eye leading to the discovery of an ocular metastasis. Diagnostic work-up identified a gastric adenocarcinoma with pulmonary metastases. She received four cycles of chemotherapy combining epirubicin, cisplatin and fluorouracil. The patient died 6 months after the diagnosis of respiratory failure.

  19. Cicatricial changes in ocular pemphigus

    Chirinos-Saldaña, P; Zuñiga-Gonzalez, I; Hernandez-Camarena, J C; Navas, A; Ramirez-Luquin, T; Robles-Contreras, A; Jimenez-Martinez, M C; Ramirez-Miranda, A; Bautista-de Lucio, V M; Graue-Hernandez, E O


    Purpose To describe the clinical characteristics of ocular involvement in patients with pemphigus at an ophthalmological referral center. Methods A retrospective review was conducted on patients with the immunopathological diagnosis of pemphigus examined between 1 January 2000 and 1 April 2010. Uncorrected distance visual acuity (UDVA), best corrected distance visual acuity (BCVA), ocular symptoms, and ocular surface inflammatory and scarring changes were assessed. Results A total of 15 patients were identified, with a mean age of 68.27±14.35 years, and 80% (n=12) were female. Extraocular involvement was reported in one patient. All of the eyes showed cicatricial changes in the conjunctiva. In all, 6 eyes (20%) were classified as stage I; 12 eyes (40%) as stage II; 10 eyes (33%) as stage III; and 2 eyes (7%) as stage IV. A statistically significant association was found between BCVA and the severity of ocular involvement. The mean BCVA logMAR was 1.66 (20/914), with a range from logMAR 0 (20/20) to logMAR 4 (NLP). Other ocular diseases were found in 8 (53.3%), systemic diseases in 10 (66.7%), and the use of pemphigus-inducing drugs in 10 patients (66.7%). Conclusions The present report represents the largest series of ocular involvement in pemphigus confirmed by immunopathology. The clinical manifestations varied from conjunctival hyperemia to corneal scarring and perforation. There was a strong association between scarring changes and low BCVA. Ocular and systemic diseases as well as the use of pemphigus-inducing drugs may predispose to ocular cicatricial changes observed in this series. PMID:24480839

  20. Trauma ocular y politrauma Ocular trauma and multitrauma

    Dunia Cruz Izquierdo


    Full Text Available Se realizó una revisión sobre el trauma ocular y su manejo en pacientes politraumatizados. Entre las causas más frecuentes de trauma ocular se encuentran los accidentes domésticos, laborales, juegos, actividades recreativas y deportivas. Involucran en un alto por ciento a niños y jóvenes, y predomina el sexo masculino en casi todos los trabajos revisados. No solo en Cuba sino en el mundo, el trauma ocular es fuente importante de ceguera unilateral o bilateral. Se presenta un breve compendio de los términos y definiciones actuales que son utilizados para el manejo del trauma ocular, su clasificación y la ventaja que ofrece aplicar el Puntaje del Trauma Ocular, OTS (Ocular Trauma Score, para el pronóstico de la agudeza visual final de acuerdo a los hallazgos clínicos encontrados en la evaluación inicial. Se hace referencia a los pacientes con politrauma y los aspectos a tener en cuenta por el oftalmólogo para tomar conducta cuando estos presentan heridas penetrantes o perforantes y tienen compromiso vital. En estos casos se hace necesaria la colaboración urgente de múltiples especialistas para primero mantener al paciente con vida y luego disminuir las complicaciones que repercuten en su pronóstico visual.A review was made on the ocular trauma and its management in multitrauma patients. The most common causes comprise domestic and occupational accidents, games, recreational and sport activities. It involves more frequently a high percentage of young people, with male prevalence in almost all the reviewed papers. Ocular trauma is an important source of unilateral or bilateral blindness not only in Cuba but worldwide as well. A brief summary of the current terms and definitions used to manage ocular trauma, their classification and the advantage of the Ocular Trauma Score (OTS to know the possible final visual acuity, according to the clinical findings at the emergency room, were presented. Reference was also made to the multitrauma

  1. Ocular allergy latin american consensus

    Myrna Serapião dos Santos


    Full Text Available PURPOSE: To establish current definition, classification and staging, and to develop diagnosis and treatment recommendations for ocular allergy, by using Delphi approach. METHODS: Ten Latin American experts on ocular allergy participated in a 4-round Delphi panel approach. Four surveys were constructed and answered by panelists. A two-thirds majority was defined as consensus. Definition, classification, staging and diagnosis and treatment recommendations were the main outcomes. RESULTS: "Ocular allergy" was proposed as the general term to describe ocular allergic diseases. Consensus regarding classification was not reached. Signs and symptoms were considered extremely important for the diagnosis. It was consensus that a staging system should be proposed based on the disease severity. Environmental control, avoidance of allergens and the use of artificial tears were recommended as first line treatment. The secondary treatment should include topical anti-histamines, mast cell stabilizers and multi actions drugs. Topical non-steroidal anti-inflammatory and vasoconstrictors were not recommended. Topical corticosteroids were recommended as third line of treatment for the most severe keratoconjunctivitis. Consensus was not reached regarding the use of systemic corticosteroids or immunosuppressant. Surgical approach and unconventional treatments were not recommended as routine. CONCLUSION: The task of creating guidelines for ocular allergies showed to be very complex. Many controversial topics remain unsolved. A larger consensus including experts from different groups around the world may be needed to further improve the current recommendations for several aspects of ocular allergy.

  2. Ocular toxicity of targeted therapies.

    Renouf, Daniel J; Velazquez-Martin, Juan P; Simpson, Rand; Siu, Lillian L; Bedard, Philippe L


    Molecularly targeted agents are commonly used in oncology practice, and many new targeted agents are currently being tested in clinical trials. Although these agents are thought to be more specific and less toxic then traditional cytotoxic chemotherapy, they are associated with a variety of toxicities, including ocular toxicity. Many of the molecules targeted by anticancer agents are also expressed in ocular tissues. We reviewed the literature for described ocular toxicities associated with both approved and investigational molecularly targeted agents. Ocular toxicity has been described with numerous approved targeted agents and also seems to be associated with several classes of agents currently being tested in early-phase clinical trials. We discuss the proposed pathogenesis, monitoring guidelines, and management recommendations. It is important for oncologists to be aware of the potential for ocular toxicity, with prompt recognition of symptoms that require referral to an ophthalmologist. Ongoing collaboration between oncologists and ocular disease specialists is critical as the use of molecularly targeted agents continues to expand and novel targeted drug combinations are developed.

  3. Ocular Effects of Sulfur Mustard

    Yunes Panahi


    Full Text Available Purpose: To review current knowledge about ocular effects of sulfur mustard (SM and the associated histopathologic findings and clinical manifestationsMethods: Literature review of medical articles (human and animal studies was accomplished using PubMed, Scopus and ISI databases. A total of 274 relevant articles in English were retrieved and reviewed thoroughly.Results: Eyes are the most sensitive organs to local toxic effects of mustard gas. Ocular injuries are mediated through different toxic mechanisms including: biochemical damages, biomolecular and gene expression modification, induction of immunologic and inflammatory reactions, disturbing ultrastructural architecture of the cornea, and long-lasting corneal denervation. The resulting ocular injuries can roughly be categorized into acute or chronic complications. Most of the patients recover from acute injuries, but a minority of victims will suffer from chronic ocular complications. Mustard gas keratopathy (MGK is a devastating late complication of SM intoxication that proceeds from limbal stem cell deficiency (LSCD.Conclusion: SM induces several different damaging changes in case of ocular exposure; hence leading to a broad spectrum of ocular manifestations in terms of severity, timing and form. Unfortunately, no effective strategy has been introduced yet to inhibit or restore these damaging changes.

  4. Nonverbal accommodation in health care communication.

    D'Agostino, Thomas A; Bylund, Carma L


    This exploratory study examined patterns of nonverbal accommodation within health care interactions and investigated the impact of communication skills training and gender concordance on nonverbal accommodation behavior. The Nonverbal Accommodation Analysis System (NAAS) was used to code the nonverbal behavior of physicians and patients within 45 oncology consultations. Cases were then placed in one of seven categories based on patterns of accommodation observed across the interaction. Results indicated that across all NAAS behavior categories, physician-patient interactions were most frequently categorized as joint convergence, followed closely by asymmetrical-patient convergence. Among paraverbal behaviors, talk time, interruption, and pausing were most frequently characterized by joint convergence. Among nonverbal behaviors, eye contact, laughing, and gesturing were most frequently categorized as asymmetrical-physician convergence. Differences were predominantly nonsignificant in terms of accommodation behavior between pre- and post-communication skills training interactions. Only gesturing proved significant, with post-communication skills training interactions more likely to be categorized as joint convergence or asymmetrical-physician convergence. No differences in accommodation were noted between gender-concordant and nonconcordant interactions. The importance of accommodation behavior in health care communication is considered from a patient-centered care perspective.

  5. [Techniques for measuring phakic and pseudophakic accommodation. Methodology for distinguishing between neurological and mechanical accommodative insufficiency].

    Roche, O; Roumes, C; Parsa, C


    The methods available for studying accommodation are evaluated: Donder's "push-up" method, dynamic retinoscopy, infrared optometry using the Scheiner principle, and wavefront analysis are each discussed with their inherent advantages and limitations. Based on the methodology described, one can also distinguish between causes of accommodative insufficiency. Dioptric insufficiency (accommodative lag) that remains equal at various testing distances from the subject indicates a sensory/neurologic (afferent), defect, whereas accommodative insufficiency changing with distance indicates a mechanical/restrictive (efferent) defect, such as in presbyopia. Determining accommodative insufficiency and the cause can be particularly useful when examining patients with a variety of diseases associated with reduced accommodative ability (e.g., Down syndrome and cerebral palsy) as well as in evaluating the effectiveness of various potentially accommodating intraocular lens designs.

  6. Accommodative performance of children with unilateral amblyopia.

    Manh, Vivian; Chen, Angela M; Tarczy-Hornoch, Kristina; Cotter, Susan A; Candy, T Rowan


    The purpose of this study was to compare the accommodative performance of the amblyopic eye of children with unilateral amblyopia to that of their nonamblyopic eye, and also to that of children without amblyopia, during both monocular and binocular viewing. Modified Nott retinoscopy was used to measure accommodative performance of 38 subjects with unilateral amblyopia and 25 subjects with typical vision from 3 to 13 years of age during monocular and binocular viewing at target distances of 50, 33, and 25 cm. The relationship between accommodative demand and interocular difference (IOD) in accommodative error was assessed in each group. The mean IOD in monocular accommodative error for amblyopic subjects across all three viewing distances was 0.49 diopters (D) (95% confidence interval [CI], ±1.12 D) in the 180° meridian and 0.54 D (95% CI, ±1.27 D) in the 90° meridian, with the amblyopic eye exhibiting greater accommodative errors on average. Interocular difference in monocular accommodative error increased significantly with increasing accommodative demand; 5%, 47%, and 58% of amblyopic subjects had monocular errors in the amblyopic eye that fell outside the upper 95% confidence limit for the better eye of control subjects at viewing distances of 50, 33, and 25 cm, respectively. When viewing monocularly, children with unilateral amblyopia had greater mean accommodative errors in their amblyopic eyes than in their nonamblyopic eyes, and when compared with control subjects. This could lead to unintended retinal image defocus during patching therapy for amblyopia. Copyright 2015 The Association for Research in Vision and Ophthalmology, Inc.

  7. Neuromuscular plasticity and rehabilitation of the ocular near response.

    Schor, Clifton M


    The near response is composed of cross-coupled interactions between convergence and other distance-related oculomotor responses including accommodation, vertical vergence, and cyclovergence. The cross-coupling interactions are analogous to the body postural reflexes that maintain balance. Near-response couplings guide involuntary motor responses during voluntary shifts of distance and direction of gaze without feedback from defocus or retinal-image disparity. They optimize the disparity stimulus for stereoscopic depth perception and can be modified by optically induced sensory demands placed on binocular vision. In natural viewing conditions, the near response is determined by passive orbital mechanics and active-adaptable tonic components. For example, the normal coupling of vertical vergence with convergence in tertiary gaze is partly a byproduct of passive orbital mechanics. Both, adapted changes of vertical vergence in response to anisophoria, produced by unequal ocular magnification (aniseikonia), and adapted changes in the orientation of Listing's plane in response to torsional disparities can be achieved by a combination of passive orbital mechanics and neural adjustments for the control of the vertical vergence and cyclovergence. Adaptive adjustments are coupled with gaze direction, convergence angle, and head tilt. Several adaptation studies suggest that it is possible to achieve non-linear changes in the coupling of both vertical vergence and cyclovergence with gaze direction. This coupling can be achieved with changes in neural control signals of ocular elevator muscles that are cross-coupled with both convergence and direction of tertiary gaze. These linear and non-linear coupling interactions can be adapted to compensate for (1) anisophoria induced by spectacle corrections for anisometropia, (2) accommodative esotropia, (3) convergence excess and insufficiency, and (4) non-concomitant deviations with ocular torticollis associated with trochlear palsy

  8. Accommodation and Compliance Series: Employees with Arthritis

    ... Resources Home | Accommodation and Compliance Series: Employees with Arthritis By Beth Loy, Ph.D. Preface Introduction Information ... SOAR) at . Information about Arthritis How prevalent is arthritis? An estimated 50 million ...

  9. Accommodation of workers with chronic neurologic disorders.

    Bleecker, Margit L; Barnes, Sheryl K


    The ability to work is important to those with chronic neurologic disorders (CND) and to the aging workforce. Many signs and symptoms are similar in those with CND and normal aging, but may interfere with the ability to work if not appropriately accommodated. This requires the healthcare provider to recognize the specific features of the CND that interferes with work and how it can be accommodated. Review of the American with Disabilities Act and the subsequent amendment informs the healthcare provider as to what is covered under the law and how the disability can be accommodated. Overall employers want to retain qualified employees and therefore accommodating workers is beneficial to both the employee with CND and the employer.

  10. Purinergic Receptors in Ocular Inflammation

    Ana Guzman-Aranguez


    Full Text Available Inflammation is a complex process that implies the interaction between cells and molecular mediators, which, when not properly “tuned,” can lead to disease. When inflammation affects the eye, it can produce severe disorders affecting the superficial and internal parts of the visual organ. The nucleoside adenosine and nucleotides including adenine mononucleotides like ADP and ATP and dinucleotides such as P1,P4-diadenosine tetraphosphate (Ap4A, and P1,P5-diadenosine pentaphosphate (Ap5A are present in different ocular locations and therefore they may contribute/modulate inflammatory processes. Adenosine receptors, in particular A2A adenosine receptors, present anti-inflammatory action in acute and chronic retinal inflammation. Regarding the A3 receptor, selective agonists like N6-(3-iodobenzyl-5′-N-methylcarboxamidoadenosine (CF101 have been used for the treatment of inflammatory ophthalmic diseases such as dry eye and uveoretinitis. Sideways, diverse stimuli (sensory stimulation, large intraocular pressure increases can produce a release of ATP from ocular sensory innervation or after injury to ocular tissues. Then, ATP will activate purinergic P2 receptors present in sensory nerve endings, the iris, the ciliary body, or other tissues surrounding the anterior chamber of the eye to produce uveitis/endophthalmitis. In summary, adenosine and nucleotides can activate receptors in ocular structures susceptible to suffer from inflammatory processes. This involvement suggests the possible use of purinergic agonists and antagonists as therapeutic targets for ocular inflammation.

  11. Commensal ocular bacteria degrade mucins.

    Berry, M; Harris, A; Lumb, R; Powell, K


    Antimicrobial activity in tears prevents infection while maintaining a commensal bacterial population. The relation between mucin and commensal bacteria was assessed to determine whether commensals possess mucinolytic activity, how degradation depends on mucin integrity, and whether mucins affect bacterial replication. Bacteria were sampled from healthy eyes and contact lenses from asymptomatic wearers. Intracellular mucins were extracted and purified from cadaver conjunctivas, and surface mucins from extended wear contact lenses. After exposure to bacteria, changes in mucin hydrodynamic volume (proteolytic cleavage) and subunit charge (oligosaccharide degradation) were assayed by size exclusion and ion exchange chromatography. The effect of mucin on bacterial replication was followed for up to 24 hours from the end of incubation with purified ocular mucins. Ocular bacteria decreased the hydrodynamic volume of intracellular and contact lens adherent mucins, irrespective of glycosylation density. A decrease in mucin sialylation was observed after exposure to commensal bacteria. Subunit charge distributions were generally shifted to lesser negative charge, consistent with loss of charged epitopes. Subunits with high negative charge, observed after digesting lightly adhering contact lens mucins with bacteria, suggest preferential cleavage sites in the mucin molecule. The presence of purified ocular mucin in the medium inhibited bacterial growth. Bacteria in the healthy ocular surface possess mucinolytic activity on both intact and surface processed mucins, targeted to discrete sites in the mucin molecule. Inhibition of bacterial growth by ocular mucins can be seen as part of the mucosal control of microbiota.

  12. Toxoplasmosis and its Ocular Manifestations

    Koev Kr.


    Full Text Available The present review provides general information about the parasitic infection of toxoplasmosis and describes the ways of its transmission. It outlines the importance of the consequences of toxoplasmosis infection and the methods of its prevention. The review traces the harmful effects of the disease on human and animal organisms, the causes and stages of development of the disease. The review specifically focuses on the ocular manifestations of toxoplasmosis which can cause ocular lesions, inflammation and scarring. Herein are described the ways toxoplasmosis can damage the eyes causing chorioretinitis, nystagmus, microphthalmia, etc. Furthermore, the review addresses the problem of how congenital and acquired toxoplasmosis affects eyes. The ocular symptoms of toxoplasmosis include weakened or blurred vision, eyeballs pain, ocular sensitivity to light, etc. The harmful effects of toxoplasmosis to pregnant women and immunocompromised patients have been delineated. Some of the disease manifestations include jaundice, rash, asphyxia, etc. The review traces the diagnostic work-up and comments on common tests for toxoplasmosis, such as taking of blood serum samples. The review ends with the treatment of the disease and of its ocular manifestations in particular, for example application of intravitreous injection. The prevention of the infection is extremely important for pregnant women, immunocompromised patients and patients with AIDS.

  13. Accommodative insufficiency as cause of asthenopia in computer-using students

    Husnun Amalia


    Full Text Available To date the use of computers is widely distributed throughout the world and the associated ocular complaints are found in 75-90% of the population of computer users. Symptoms frequently reported by computer users were eyestrain, tired eyes, irritation, redness, blurred vision, diplopia, burning of the eyes, and asthenopia (visual fatigue of the eyes. A cross-sectional study was conducted to determine the etiology of asthenopia in computer-using students. A questionnaire consisting of 15 items was used to assess symptoms experienced by the computer users. The ophthalmological examination comprised visual acuity, the Hirschberg test, near point accommodation, amplitude accommodation, near point convergence, the cover test, and the alternate cover test. A total of 99 computer science students, of whom 69.7% had asthenopia, participated in the study. The symptoms that were significantly associated with asthenopia were visual fatigue (p=0.031, heaviness in the eye (p=0.002, blurred vision (p=0.001, and headache at the temples or the back of the head (p=0.000. Refractive asthenopia was found in 95.7% of all asthenopia patients with accommodative insufficiency (AI, constituting the most frequent cause at 50.7%. The duration of computer use per day was not significantly associated with the prevalence of asthenopia (p=0.700. There was a high prevalence of asthenopia among computer science students, mostly caused by refractive asthenopia. Accommodation measurements should be performed more routinely and regularly, maybe as screening, especially in computer users

  14. Comparison between carbachol iontophoresis and intravenous pilocarpine stimulated accommodation in anesthetized rhesus monkeys.

    Wendt, Mark; He, Lin; Glasser, Adrian


    latency after i.v. pilocarpine was 0.31 ± 0.03; 0.25-0.34 min with a time constant of 0.19 ± 0.07; 0.11-0.31 s. During i.v. pilocarpine stimulated accommodation in five monkeys, lens diameters decreased by 0.54 ± 0.09; 0.42-0.64 mm with a rate of change of 0.052 ± 0.002; 0.050-0.055 mm/D. Accommodative responses with i.v. pilocarpine were more rapid, consistent and stable than those with carbachol iontophoresis. The accommodative decrease in lens diameter with i.v. pilocarpine as a function of age was consistent with previous results using constant topical pilocarpine. Intravenous pilocarpine stimulated accommodation is safe, more consistent and more rapid than carbachol iontophoresis and it requires no contact with or obstruction of the eye thus allowing continuous and uninterrupted refraction and ocular biometry measurements.

  15. Gene therapy in ocular diseases

    Singh Vijay


    Full Text Available Gene therapy is a novel form of drug delivery that enlists the synthetic machinery of the patient′s cells to produce a therapeutic agent. Genes may be delivered into cells in vitro or in vivo utilising viral or non-viral vectors. Recent technical advances have led to the demonstration of the molecular basis of various ocular diseases. Ocular disorders with the greatest potential for benefit of gene therapy include hereditary diseases such as retinitis pigmentosa, tumours such as retinoblastoma or melanoma, and acquired proliferative and neovascular retinal disorders. Gene transfer into ocular tissues has been demonstrated with growing functional success and may develop into a new therapeutic tool for clinical ophthalmology in future.

  16. Cerebellum and Ocular Motor Control

    Amir eKheradmand


    Full Text Available An intact cerebellum is a prerequisite for optimal ocular motor performance. The cerebellum fine-tunes each of the subtypes of eye movements so they work together to bring and maintain images of objects of interest on the fovea. Here we review the major aspects of the contribution of the cerebellum to ocular motor control. The approach will be based on structural-functional correlation, combining the effects of lesions and the results from physiologic studies, with the emphasis on the cerebellar regions known to be most closely related to ocular motor function: 1 the flocculus/paraflocculus for high-frequency (brief vestibular responses, sustained pursuit eye movements and gaze-holding, 2 the nodulus/ventral uvula for low-frequency (sustained vestibular responses, and 3 the dorsal oculomotor vermis and its target in the posterior portion of the fastigial nucleus (the fastigial oculomotor region for saccades and pursuit initiation.

  17. Ivermectin treatment of ocular onchocerciasis.

    Taylor, H R


    Ivermectin, a recently developed macrocyclic lactone with broad antiparasitic activity, has been shown by a series of clinical trials to be safe and effective in the treatment of human infection with Onchocerca volvulus. Although it is rapidly microfilaricidal, it does not cause a severe reaction as is seen with diethylcarbamazine treatment. In patients with onchocerciasis, a single oral dose of ivermectin (150 micrograms/Kg) repeated once a year leads to a marked reduction in skin microfilaria counts and ocular involvement, although ivermectin has no known long-lasting effects on the adult worms. With treatment there is no significant exacerbation of either anterior or posterior segment eye disease even in those with severe ocular disease. Treatment leads to a marked and prolonged improvement in ocular status. Because of its safety and efficacy, ivermectin can be used on a mass scale and promises to revolutionize the treatment of onchocerciasis.

  18. The Ocular Surface Chemical Burns

    Medi Eslani


    Full Text Available Ocular chemical burns are common and serious ocular emergencies that require immediate and intensive evaluation and care. The victims of such incidents are usually young, and therefore loss of vision and disfigurement could dramatically affect their lives. The clinical course can be divided into immediate, acute, early, and late reparative phases. The degree of limbal, corneal, and conjunctival involvement at the time of injury is critically associated with prognosis. The treatment starts with simple but vision saving steps and is continued with complicated surgical procedures later in the course of the disease. The goal of treatment is to restore the normal ocular surface anatomy and function. Limbal stem cell transplantation, amniotic membrane transplantation, and ultimately keratoprosthesis may be indicated depending on the patients’ needs.

  19. Clinical Study on Ocular Trauma in Children

    Zicai Huang; Hongni Li; Yixia Huang; Zhongxia Zhou


    Purpose: To investigate the clinical characteristics of ocular trauma in children and put forward the major treatment and prevention of ocular trauma in children.Methods: To analyze the clinical data by 77 eyes in 77 cases of ocular trauma in children from April 1999 to February 2002. Results: The male and female were in the ratio of 2.21: 1. Right eye ocular traumas were more than left ones. Ocular penetrating trauma was 83.12% and blunt trauma 12.99%. 41 cases (53.25%) were injured by themselves while 33 cases by others. 90.91% patients came from the countryside.Conclusion: The rate of blindness of children with ocular trauma could be reduced by prompt treatment. The study indicated that ocular trauma preventive publicity should be faced in the countryside in order to improve the understanding of the severity of ocular trauma and treat it as a social problem.


    ... with ocular abnormalities which often impact on their development and education. ... Age appropriate visual acuities were checked, ocular examination was done ... Cortical Visual Impairment (CVI) in 28(75.7%) subjects CVI, refractive errors ...

  1. Air bags and ocular injuries.

    Stein, J D; Jaeger, E A; Jeffers, J B


    This investigation retrospectively examined ocular injuries associated with air bag deployment to gain a better appreciation of potential risk factors in motor vehicle accidents. National statistics regarding the efficacy of air bags were reviewed. Review of the literature from 1991 to 1998 identified 44 articles describing 97 patients with air-bag-induced ocular injuries. Variables extracted from each case were age, sex, height, position in the car, eye wear, vehicle impact speed, visual acuity, and specific ocular injuries. Corneal abrasions occurred in 49% of occupants, hyphemas in 43%, vitreous or retinal hemorrhages in 25%, and retinal tears or detachments in 15%. The globe was ruptured in 10 patients. Patients involved in higher-speed accidents (over 30 mph) sustained a greater percentage of vitreous or retinal hemorrhages and traumatic cataracts, while those at slower speeds were more prone to retinal tears or detachments. In a subset of 14 patients with serious ocular injuries, the impact speed of 11 patients was recorded at 30 mph or less. Slower speed may be a risk factor for some ocular injuries. Occupant height was not a significant factor. National statistics confirm that air bags reduce fatalities in motor vehicle accidents. However, children sitting in the front seat without a seat belt and infants in passenger-side rear-facing car seats are at risk for fatal injury. Air bags combined with seat belts are an effective means of reducing injury and death in adults during motor vehicle accidents. However, this study has documented a wide variety of ocular injuries associated with air bag deployment. It is hoped that researchers can develop modifications that continue to save lives while minimizing additional harm.

  2. Ocular rigidity, ocular pulse amplitude, and pulsatile ocular blood flow: the effect of intraocular pressure.

    Dastiridou, Anna I; Ginis, Harilaos S; De Brouwere, Dirk; Tsilimbaris, Miltiadis K; Pallikaris, Ioannis G


    The purpose of this study was to characterize the pressure-volume relation in the living human eye, measure the ocular pulse amplitude (OPA), and calculate the corresponding pulsatile ocular blood flow (POBF) in a range of clinically relevant IOP levels. Fifty patients with cataract (50 eyes) were enrolled in the study. After cannulation of the anterior chamber, a computer-controlled device for the intraoperative measurement and control of IOP was used to artificially increase the IOP in a stepping procedure from 15 to 40 mm Hg. The IOP was continuously recorded for 2 seconds after each infusion step. The pressure-volume relation was approximated with an exponential fit, and the ocular rigidity coefficient was computed. OPA, pulse volume (PV), and POBF were measured from the continuous IOP recordings. The average rigidity coefficient was 0.0224 microL(-1) (SD 0.0049). OPA increased by 91% and PV and POBF decreased by 29% and 30%, respectively, when increasing the IOP from 15 to 40 mm Hg. The OPA is positively correlated with the coefficient of ocular rigidity (r = 0.65, P < 0.01). The present results suggest a nonlinear pressure-volume relation in the living human eye characterized by an increase in rigidity at higher IOP levels. The increased OPA and decreased pulse volume relate to the decreased POBF and the increased mechanical resistance of the ocular wall at high IOP levels.

  3. [Adverse ocular effects of vaccinations].

    Ness, T; Hengel, H


    Vaccinations are very effective measures for prevention of infections but are also associated with a long list of possible side effects. Adverse ocular effects following vaccination have been rarely reported or considered to be related to vaccinations. Conjunctivitis is a frequent sequel of various vaccinations. Oculorespiratory syndrome and serum sickness syndrome are considered to be related to influenza vaccinations. The risk of reactivation or initiation of autoimmune diseases (e. g. uveitis) cannot be excluded but has not yet been proven. Overall the benefit of vaccination outweighs the possible but very low risk of ocular side effects.

  4. Iris mammillations in ocular melanocytosis.

    Swann, Peter G


    Hyperpigmentation of the ocular tissues and of the skin around the eye is uncommon. In ocular melanosis, the episclera, uveal tract and the angle of the anterior chamber may be involved. Heterochromia iridis may be present, if the iris is affected. In oculodermal melanocytosis or the naevus of Ota, hyperpigmentation of the skin follows the distribution of the first and second divisions of the fifth cranial nerve. This report documents a patient with episcleral pigment, heterochromia iridis and numerous tiny pigmented nodules on the iris (mammillations). The possible significance of these findings is discussed.

  5. Ocular complications of orbital venography.

    Safer, J N; Guibor, P


    Three ocular complications directly related to orbital venography are described, one resulting in permanent loss of vision,. The patient had lymphangioma of the orbit which evidently had bled secondary to increased venous pressure and injection of contrast bolus. Both of the 2 patients with transient visual disturbances had diabetic retinopathy. The common factor is felt to be an imparied vascular bed which cannot meet the stress of increased venous pressure and contrast medium injection. Conditions which predispose to ocular-orbital stasis and/or hemorrhage are discussed.

  6. Ocular complications of diabetes mellitus

    Nihat Sayin; Necip Kara; Gokhan Pekel


    Diabetes mellitus (DM) is a important health problemthat induces ernestful complications and it causessignificant morbidity owing to specific microvascularcomplications such as, retinopathy, nephropathy andneuropathy, and macrovascular complications such as,ischaemic heart disease, and peripheral vasculopathy.It can affect children, young people and adults and isbecoming more common. Ocular complications associatedwith DM are progressive and rapidly becoming theworld's most significant cause of morbidity and arepreventable with early detection and timely treatment.This review provides an overview of five main ocularcomplications associated with DM, diabetic retinopathyand papillopathy, cataract, glaucoma, and ocular surfacediseases.

  7. Exploring the Relationship Between Students Needing Accommodations and Instructor Self-Efficacy in Complying With Accommodations

    Anna M Wright; Kevin R Meyer


    .... Specifically, the authors' explored the relationship between student selfdisclosure of a disability and instructor empathy, flexibility, and self-efficacy in meeting student accommodation needs...

  8. Multiple Constructs and Effects of Accommodations on Accommodated Test Scores for Students with Disabilities

    Stephanie W. Cawthon


    Full Text Available Students with disabilities frequently use accommodations to participate in large-scale, standardized assessments. Accommodations can include changes to the administration of the test, such as extended time, changes to the test items, such as read aloud, or changes to the student's response, such as the use of a scribe. Some accommodations or modifications risk changing the difficulty of the test items or decreasing the validity of how test scores are interpreted. Questions regarding the validity of accommodated tests are heightened when scores are used in high-stakes decisions such as grade promotion, graduation, teacher merit pay, or other accountability initiatives. The purpose of this article is to review existing literature on multiple constructs that affect validity of interpretations of accommodated assessment scores. Research on assessment accommodations continues to grow but offers few conclusive findings on whether they facilitate fair and accurate measurement of student knowledge and skill. The validity of an accommodated score appears to vary depending on several factors such as student characteristics, test characteristics, and the accommodations themselves. A multiple construct approach may facilitate more accurate evaluations of the effects of accommodated test scores

  9. Tumor ocular metastásico Metastatic ocular tumor

    Martha G Domínguez Expósito


    Full Text Available El carcinoma metastásico del ojo es considerado la neoplasia maligna que más frecuente se encuentra de forma intraocular. Solo cerca del 10 % de las personas que tienen una o más lesiones metastásicas intraoculares son detectadas clínicamente antes de la muerte. A menudo, el carcinoma metastásico ocular es diagnosticado por el oftalmólogo ante la presencia de síntomas oculares. Las lesiones están localizadas con preferencia en coroides. Nos motivo a realizar la presentación de este caso la presencia de lesiones intraoculares múltiples tumorales metastásicos en un paciente cuyo síntoma de presentación fue la disminución de la agudeza visualThe eye metastatic carcinoma is considered the most frequently found intraocular malignant neoplasia. Only 10 % of the persons with one or more metastatic intraocular injuries are clinically detected before death. The metastatic ocular carcinoma is often diagnosed by the ophthalmologist in the presence of ocular symptoms. The injuries are preferably located in the choroid. The appearance of multiple metastatic intraaocular tumoral injuries in a patient whose chief complaint was the reduction of visual acuity motivated us to presente this case

  10. Follicular lymphoma of the ocular adnexal region

    Rasmussen, Peter Kristian; Ralfkiaer, E.; Prause, J.U.


    with ocular adnexal follicular lymphoma were identified. Fourteen (58%) of the patients were females. The median age was 63 years (range: 42–96 years). Eleven (46%) of the patients had primary ocular adnexal lymphoma, seven (29%) had an ocular adnexal lesion in conjunction with a concurrent systemic lymphoma...

  11. Ocular rigidity, ocular pulse amplitude, and pulsatile ocular blood flow: the effect of axial length.

    Dastiridou, Anna I; Ginis, Harilaos; Tsilimbaris, Miltiadis; Karyotakis, Nikos; Detorakis, Efstathios; Siganos, Charalambos; Cholevas, Pierros; Tsironi, Evangelia E; Pallikaris, Ioannis G


    Previous studies have shown a negative correlation between axial length (AL) and pulsatile ocular blood flow (POBF). This relation has been questioned because of the possible confounding effect of ocular volume on ocular rigidity (OR). The purpose of this study was to investigate the relation between AL, as a surrogate parameter for ocular volume, and OR, ocular pulse amplitude (OPA), and POBF. Eighty-eight cataract patients were enrolled in this study. A computer-controlled device comprising a microdosimetric pump and a pressure sensor was used intraoperatively. The system was connected to the anterior chamber and used to raise the intraocular pressure (IOP) from 15 to 40 mm Hg, by infusing the eye with a saline solution. After each infusion step, the IOP was continuously recorded for 2 seconds. Blood pressure and pulse rate were measured during the procedure. The OR coefficient was calculated from the pressure volume data. OPA and POBF were measured from pressure recordings. Median AL was 23.69 (interquartile range 3.53) mm. OR coefficient was 0.0218 (0.0053) μL(-1). A negative correlation between the OR coefficient and AL (ρ = -0.641, P < 0.001) was documented. Increasing AL was associated with decreased OPA (ρ = -0.637, P < 0.001 and ρ = -0.690, P < 0.001) and POBF (ρ = -0.207, P = 0.053 and ρ = -0.238, P = 0.028) at baseline and elevated IOP, respectively. Based on manometric data, increasing AL is associated with decreased OR, OPA, and POBF. These results suggest decreased pulsatility in high myopia and may have implications on ocular pulse studies and the pathophysiology of myopia.

  12. Complex treatment of accommodation disturbances in students

    O. G. Pozdeeva


    Full Text Available Purpose: Assessment of the effectiveness of different methods of treatment accommodation disturbances in patients 18‑23 years old.Methods: Determination of refraction and the size of the absolute accommodation and reserves of the relative accommodationbefore and after the treatment with Midrimax and Irifrin 2.5 % in combination with the course of electrostimulation.Results: The clinical effect was obtained in all patients. The maximum improvement of visual functions with a lower degree of myopia (1.0‑3.0 D, increase of absolute accommodation (by 2.5‑3,.D and reserves of the relative accommodation (up to age norms were observed in the younger age group of patients, wich had received the treatment with Midrimax, especially when combined with electrostimulation.Conclusion: Instillation of Midrimax in the treatment of violations of accommodation contribute to the effective reduction in the degree of myopia and improve of accomodation in patients 18‑23 years old. The combination of this therapy with functional methods of treatment increase its effectiveness.

  13. Complex treatment of accommodation disturbances in students

    O. G. Pozdeeva


    Full Text Available Purpose: Assessment of the effectiveness of different methods of treatment accommodation disturbances in patients 18‑23 years old.Methods: Determination of refraction and the size of the absolute accommodation and reserves of the relative accommodationbefore and after the treatment with Midrimax and Irifrin 2.5 % in combination with the course of electrostimulation.Results: The clinical effect was obtained in all patients. The maximum improvement of visual functions with a lower degree of myopia (1.0‑3.0 D, increase of absolute accommodation (by 2.5‑3,.D and reserves of the relative accommodation (up to age norms were observed in the younger age group of patients, wich had received the treatment with Midrimax, especially when combined with electrostimulation.Conclusion: Instillation of Midrimax in the treatment of violations of accommodation contribute to the effective reduction in the degree of myopia and improve of accomodation in patients 18‑23 years old. The combination of this therapy with functional methods of treatment increase its effectiveness.

  14. Ocular Toxoplasmosis: Lessons from Brazil

    • A new attention to post-natally acquired infections. Previously, most attention was focused on infection during pregnancy, and the risk of congenital disease, with the feeling that infection in older individuals was benign, without a substantial risk of disease morbidity, such as ocular involvemen...

  15. Ocular toxoplasmosis associated with scleritis

    Yogish S Kamath


    Full Text Available We report an atypical presentation of Toxoplasma retinochoroiditis with associated scleritis in a young and immunocompetent patient. The diagnosis was done on the basis of Polymerase chain reaction of vitreous sample, and the clinical response to specific treatment. This case highlights the unusual presentation of ocular toxoplasmosis as scleritis.

  16. Imaging the ocular motor nerves.

    Ferreira, T.; Verbist, B.M.; Buchem, M. van; Osch, T. van; Webb, A.


    The ocular motor nerves (OMNs) comprise the oculomotor, trochlear and the abducens nerves. According to their course, they are divided into four or five anatomic segments: intra-axial, cisternal, cavernous and intra-orbital and, for the abducens nerve, an additional interdural segment. Magnetic reso

  17. Ocular Vestibular Evoked Myogenic Potentials

    Felipe, Lilian


    Full Text Available Introduction Diagnostic testing of the vestibular system is an essential component of treating patients with balance dysfunction. Until recently, testing methods primarily evaluated the integrity of the horizontal semicircular canal, which is only a portion of the vestibular system. Recent advances in technology have afforded clinicians the ability to assess otolith function through vestibular evoked myogenic potential (VEMP testing. VEMP testing from the inferior extraocular muscles of the eye has been the subject of interest of recent research. Objective To summarize recent developments in ocular VEMP testing. Results Recent studies suggest that the ocular VEMP is produced by otolith afferents in the superior division of the vestibular nerve. The ocular VEMP is a short latency potential, composed of extraocular myogenic responses activated by sound stimulation and registered by surface electromyography via ipsilateral otolithic and contralateral extraocular muscle activation. The inferior oblique muscle is the most superficial of the six extraocular muscles responsible for eye movement. Therefore, measurement of ocular VEMPs can be performed easily by using surface electrodes on the skin below the eyes contralateral to the stimulated side. Conclusion This new variation of the VEMP procedure may supplement conventional testing in difficult to test populations. It may also be possible to use this technique to evaluate previously inaccessible information on the vestibular system.

  18. Chlorpromazine induced ocular myasthenia gravis

    Nitya S


    Full Text Available Drug induced bilateral ptosis is a very rare adverse drug reaction. Here we report a case of ten year old male child with chlorpromazine induced bilateral ptosis due to ocular myasthenia. [Int J Basic Clin Pharmacol 2013; 2(5.000: 653-654

  19. Therapeutical Management for Ocular Rosacea

    Gloria López-Valverde


    Full Text Available Purpose: The purpose of this study is to describe a case of ocular rosacea with a very complex evolution. Rosacea is a chronic dermatological disease that may affect the ocular structures up to 6-72% of all cases. This form is often misdiagnosed, which may lead to long inflammatory processes with important visual consequences for affected patients. Therefore, an early diagnosis and an adequate treatment are important. Methods: We report the case of a 43-year-old patient who had several relapses of what seemed an episode of acute bacterial conjunctivitis. Two weeks later, he developed a corneal ulcer with a torpid evolution including abundant intrastromal infiltrators and calcium deposits. He was diagnosed with ocular rosacea and treated with systemic doxycycline and topical protopic. Results: A coating with amniotic membrane was placed in order to heal the ulcer, but a deep anterior lamellar keratoplasty to restore the patient’s vision because of the corneal transparency loss was necessary. Conclusions: Ocular rosacea includes multiple ophthalmic manifestations ranging from inflammation of the eyelid margin and blepharitis to serious corneal affectations. A delayed diagnosis can result in chronic inflammatory conditions including keratinization and loss of corneal transparency, which lead to important visual sequelae for affected patients.

  20. Prediction of anthropometric accommodation in aircraft cockpits

    Zehner, Gregory Franklin

    Designing aircraft cockpits to accommodate the wide range of body sizes existing in the U.S. population has always been a difficult problem for Crewstation Engineers. The approach taken in the design of military aircraft has been to restrict the range of body sizes allowed into flight training, and then to develop standards and specifications to ensure that the majority of the pilots are accommodated. Accommodation in this instance is defined as the ability to: (1) Adequately see, reach, and actuate controls; (2) Have external visual fields so that the pilot can see to land, clear for other aircraft, and perform a wide variety of missions (ground support/attack or air to air combat); and (3) Finally, if problems arise, the pilot has to be able to escape safely. Each of these areas is directly affected by the body size of the pilot. Unfortunately, accommodation problems persist and may get worse. Currently the USAF is considering relaxing body size entrance requirements so that smaller and larger people could become pilots. This will make existing accommodation problems much worse. This dissertation describes a methodology for correcting this problem and demonstrates the method by predicting pilot fit and performance in the USAF T-38A aircraft based on anthropometric data. The methods described can be applied to a variety of design applications where fitting the human operator into a system is a major concern. A systematic approach is described which includes: defining the user population, setting functional requirements that operators must be able to perform, testing the ability of the user population to perform the functional requirements, and developing predictive equations for selecting future users of the system. Also described is a process for the development of new anthropometric design criteria and cockpit design methods that assure body size accommodation is improved in the future.

  1. Topical ocular delivery of fluoroquinolones.

    Pawar, Pravin; Katara, Rajesh; Mishra, Sushil; Majumdar, Dipak K


    Topical fluoroquinolones are used in ophthalmology to treat ocular infections. They are bactericidal and inhibit bacterial DNA replication by inhibiting DNA gyrase and topoisomerase. Fluoroquinolones possess two ionizable groups: a carboxylic group (pKa1 = 5.5 - 6.34) and a heterocyclic group (pKa2 = 7.6 - 9.3), in the nucleus, which acquire charge at pH above and below the isoelectric point (pI = 6.75 - 7.78). At isoelectric point, fluoroquinolones remain unionized and show enhanced corneal penetration but exhibit reduced aqueous solubility and the drug may precipitate from aqueous solution. Aqueous ophthalmic solutions of fluoroquinolones are obtained by using hydrochloride or mesylate salt which is acidic and irritating to the eyes. Hence, pH of the solution is kept between 5 and 7 to ensure aqueous solubility and minimum ocular irritation. This review gives an overview of various physicochemical and formulation factors affecting the ocular delivery of fluoroquinolones and strategies for getting higher ocular bioavailability for ocular delivery of fluoroquinolones. These strategies could be employed to improve efficacy of fluoroquinolones in eye preparation. Broad-spectrum antibacterials, such as the ophthalmic fluoroquinolones, are powerful weapons for treating and preventing potentially sight-threatening infections. The fourth-generation fluoroquinolones have quickly assumed an outstanding place in the ophthalmic applications. Especially valuable for their broad-spectrum coverage against Gram-positive and Gram-negative organisms, these agents have become the anti-infective of preference for many ophthalmologists. Moxifloxacin seems to be a promising powerful molecule among all fluoroquinolones for treatment of bacterial infections.

  2. Aerobrake assembly with minimum Space Station accommodation

    Katzberg, Steven J.; Butler, David H.; Doggett, William R.; Russell, James W.; Hurban, Theresa


    The minimum Space Station Freedom accommodations required for initial assembly, repair, and refurbishment of the Lunar aerobrake were investigated. Baseline Space Station Freedom support services were assumed, as well as reasonable earth-to-orbit possibilities. A set of three aerobrake configurations representative of the major themes in aerobraking were developed. Structural assembly concepts, along with on-orbit assembly and refurbishment scenarios were created. The scenarios were exercised to identify required Space Station Freedom accommodations. Finally, important areas for follow-on study were also identified.

  3. Toxicidad ocular medicamentosa Ocular toxicity induced by medication

    A. Garralda


    Full Text Available En el presente trabajo se analiza la toxicidad ocular inducida por cuatro grupos de fármacos sistémicos: tamoxifeno, cloroquina y derivados, anticolinérgicos y tamsulosina. El objetivo principal es dar unas normas prácticas que sirvan para el manejo diario de los pacientes sometidos a estos tratamientos, más que profundizar en los mecanismos de acción de cada uno de ellos.This paper analyses ocular toxicity induced by four groups of systemic medicines: tamoxifen, chloroquine and derivatives, anticholinergics and tamsulosin. Our main aim is to provide some practical rules that will be of use in the everyday management of patients receiving these treatments, rather than to examine the mechanisms by which each of these medicines act.

  4. 22 CFR 142.12 - Reasonable accommodation.


    ..., acquisition or modification of equipment or devices, the provision of readers or interpreters, and other... facilities, and size of budget; (2) Job restructuring, part-time or modified work schedules, acquisition and... sign language, when appropriate. (3) The nature and cost of the accommodation needed. (d) A...

  5. 34 CFR 104.12 - Reasonable accommodation.


    ... 34 Education 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Reasonable accommodation. 104.12 Section 104.12 Education Regulations of the Offices of the Department of Education OFFICE FOR CIVIL RIGHTS, DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION NONDISCRIMINATION ON THE BASIS OF HANDICAP IN PROGRAMS OR ACTIVITIES RECEIVING FEDERAL...

  6. Robot response behaviors to accommodate hearing problems

    Vroon, Jered; Kim, Jaebok; Koster, Raphaël


    One requirement that arises for a social (semi-autonomous telepresence) robot aimed at conversations with the elderly, is to accommodate hearing problems. In this paper we compare two approaches to this requirement; (1) moving closer, mimicking the leaning behavior commonly observed in elderly with

  7. Anthropometric Accommodation in Space Suit Design

    Rajulu, Sudhakar; Thaxton, Sherry


    Design requirements for next generation hardware are in process at NASA. Anthropometry requirements are given in terms of minimum and maximum sizes for critical dimensions that hardware must accommodate. These dimensions drive vehicle design and suit design, and implicitly have an effect on crew selection and participation. At this stage in the process, stakeholders such as cockpit and suit designers were asked to provide lists of dimensions that will be critical for their design. In addition, they were asked to provide technically feasible minimum and maximum ranges for these dimensions. Using an adjusted 1988 Anthropometric Survey of U.S. Army (ANSUR) database to represent a future astronaut population, the accommodation ranges provided by the suit critical dimensions were calculated. This project involved participation from the Anthropometry and Biomechanics facility (ABF) as well as suit designers, with suit designers providing expertise about feasible hardware dimensions and the ABF providing accommodation analysis. The initial analysis provided the suit design team with the accommodation levels associated with the critical dimensions provided early in the study. Additional outcomes will include a comparison of principal components analysis as an alternate method for anthropometric analysis.

  8. Water Accommodation on Bare and Coated Ice

    Kong, Xiangrui


    A good understanding of water accommodation on ice surfaces is essential for quantitatively predicting the evolution of clouds, and therefore influences the effectiveness of climate models. However, the accommodation coefficient is poorly constrained within the literature where reported values vary by up to three orders of magnitude. In addition, the complexity of the chemical composition of the atmosphere plays an important role in ice phase behavior and dynamics. We employ an environmental molecular beam (EMB) technique to investigate molecular water interactions with bare and impurity coated ice at temperatures from 170 K to 200 K. In this work, we summarize results of water accommodation experiments on bare ice (Kong et al., 2014) and on ice coated by methanol (Thomson et al., 2013), butanol (Thomson et al., 2013) and acetic acid (Papagiannakopoulos et al., 2014), and compare those results with analogous experiments using hexanol and nitric acid coatings. Hexanol is chosen as a complementary chain alcohol to methanol and butanol, while nitric acid is a common inorganic compound in the atmosphere. The results show a strong negative temperature dependence of water accommodation on bare ice, which can be quantitatively described by a precursor model. Acidic adlayers tend to enhance water uptake indicating that the system kinetics are thoroughly changed compared to bare ice. Adsorbed alcohols influence the temperature dependence of the accommodation coefficient and water molecules generally spend less time on the surfaces before desorbing, although the measured accommodation coefficients remain high and comparable to bare ice for the investigated systems. We conclude that impurities can either enhance or restrict water uptake in ways that are influenced by several factors including temperature and type of adsorbant, with potential implications for the description of ice particle growth in the atmosphere. This work was supported by the Swedish Research Council and

  9. Use of atropine to predict the accommodative component in esotropia with hypermetropia

    Mihir Kothari


    Full Text Available This cohort study included children with esotropia and hypermetropia of ≥ +2.0 diopters (D. The deviation was measured at presentation, under atropine cycloplegia and 3 months after full refractive correction. Of 44 children with a mean age of 5.2 ± 2.4 years, 25 were males. Eighteen (41% had fully refractive accommodative esotropia (RAE, 10 (23% had partial accommodative esotropia (PAE, and 5 (11% had nonaccommodative esotropia (NAE. Eleven (25% had convergence excess (CE. Under cycloplegia, all with RAE and RAE with CE had orthotropia. There was no significant change in the deviation in the patients with NAE. The deviation under cycloplegia and that with full refractive correction in PAE and PAE with CE (with +3.0 D addition were not different. The intraclass correlation coefficient for deviation under cycloplegia and after full refractive correction (+3.0 D addition for CE was 0.89. It was concluded that ocular deviation under cycloplegia can help to predict the accommodative component in esotropia with hypermetropia.

  10. [Ocular toxocariasis--case report].

    Moraru, Andreea; Panfil, Madălina; Totolici, Geanina; Brănişteanu, Daniel; Costin, Dănut; Schmitzer, Speranţa


    Ocular Toxocariasis is a parasitosis caused by Toxocara catis/canis larvae localized in the eye. The most frequent clinical manifestations are the central retinal granuloma, peripheral retinal granuloma and chronic endophthalmitis. Secondary complications due to the presence of parasite in the posterior segment of the eye may have significant consequences on visual function. We present the case of a 23 years old patient, admitted for progressive decrease of the right eye BCVA during the last 6 months. After performing clinical examination and serological tests we established the diagnosis of ocular Toxocariasis. The patient presented a particular form of the disease consisting in the presence of both a central retinal granuloma and a peripheral one. We performed 23G pars plana vitrectomy and membrane peeling. VA improved as soon as the first month after surgery.

  11. Ocular Surface Reconstruction: Recent Innovations

    Madhavan HN


    Full Text Available The ocular surface is exceptionally rich in complexity and functionality. Severe ocular surface disorders/conditions, such as chemical or thermal injuries, Stevens-Johnson syndrome (SJS, ocular cicatricial pemphigoid, neurotrophic keratopathy, chronic limbitis, and severe microbial keratitis cause significant morbidities and even corneal blindness. Hypofunction may be caused by Aniridia, Neurotrophy, Endocrine, Pterygium and Chronic limbitis Approximately 6000 patients are seen in Ocular Surface Clinic every year; almost 80% have some form of dry eyes. About 125 new patients of Stevens Johnson Syndrome are seen in a year of which approximately 25% may benefit from Cultured Epithelial Transplant and 75 new patients of thermal/chemical injury in a year of which almost 80% will benefit from Stem Cell Transplantation. Of the 128 severe vernal keratoconjunctivitis which were seen in the ocular surface clinic, 10% require stem cell transplantation. Nearly 30 new cases of Ocular cicatrical pemphigoid every year are seen and they may need stem cell transplantation. In addition, several patients with persistent epithelial defects may benefit from limbal stem cell transplantation to alleviate, maintain conjunctivalization regression and corneal avascularity limbal deficiency, and restore vision. Even if granted that this statistics is for a single large ophthalmic hospital, for a large country as India with 1.1 billion populations, the number of patients requiring corneal stem cell transplantation is enormous. Stem cells in the palisades of Vogt participate in regeneration and preservation of corneal transparency and avascularity. The diminished regenerative capacity seen in LSCD is characterized by persistent epithelial defects, erosion and ulceration, conjunctivalization and neovascularization, and chronic inflammation. Standard corneal transplantation for restoration of corneal clarity and avascularity is a contraindication in the surgical management

  12. Tuberculose ocular: relato de casos

    Costa Daniella Socci da


    Full Text Available Os autores relatam dois casos de tuberculose ocular presumida com comprometimento coroidiano. No primeiro caso, um paciente de 43 anos, HIV positivo, com tuberculose pulmonar miliar e tuberculoma cerebral, apresenta um granuloma coroidiano único na região macular do olho esquerdo. No segundo caso, uma paciente de 12 anos, HIV negativa, com tuberculose pulmonar apresenta coroidite multifocal e comprometimento do segmento anterior do olho esquerdo. Ambos os pacientes evoluíram favoravelmente com o tratamento específico, apresentando completa resolução das lesões. As lesões oculares da tuberculose são diversas e devemos continuar atentos a esta enfermidade.

  13. Ocular effects of radiofrequency energy.

    Elder, J A


    Radiofrequency (RF) energy has been reported to cause a variety of ocular effects, primarily cataracts but also effects on the retina, cornea, and other ocular systems. Cataracts have been observed in experimental animals when one eye was exposed to a localized, very high RF field and the other eye was the unexposed control. The results show that 2450 MHz exposures for >or=30 min at power densities causing extremely high dose rates (>or=150 W/kg) and temperatures (>or=41 degrees C) in or near the lens caused cataracts in the rabbit eye. However, cataracts were not observed in the monkey eye exposed to similar exposure conditions, reflecting the different patterns of energy absorption (SAR, specific absorption rate) distribution, due to their different facial structure. Since the monkey head is similar in structure to the human head, the nonhuman primate study showed that the incident power density levels causing cataracts in rabbits and other laboratory animals cannot be directly extrapolated to primates, including human beings. It is reasonable to assume that an SAR that would induce temperatures >or=41 degrees C in or near the lens in the human eye would produce cataracts by the same mechanism (heating) that caused cataracts in the rabbit lens; however, such an exposure would greatly exceed the currently allowable limits for human exposure and would be expected to cause unacceptable effects in other parts of the eye and face. Other ocular effects including corneal lesions, retinal effects, and changes in vascular permeability, have been observed after localized exposure of the eye of laboratory animals to both continuous wave (CW) and pulsed wave (PW) exposures, but the inconsistencies in these results, the failure to independently confirm corneal lesions after CW exposure, the failure to independently confirm retinal effects after PW exposure, and the absence of functional changes in vision are reasons why these ocular effects are not useful in defining an

  14. Topical ocular delivery of NSAIDs.

    Ahuja, Munish; Dhake, Avinash S; Sharma, Surendra K; Majumdar, Dipak K


    In ocular tissue, arachidonic acid is metabolized by cyclooxygenase to prostaglandins which are the most important lipid derived mediators of inflammation. Presently nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) which are cyclooxygenase (COX) inhibitors are being used for the treatment of inflammatory disorders. NSAIDs used in ophthalmology, topically, are salicylic-, indole acetic-, aryl acetic-, aryl propionic- and enolic acid derivatives. NSAIDs are weak acids with pKa mostly between 3.5 and 4.5, and are poorly soluble in water. Aqueous ophthalmic solutions of NSAIDs have been made using sodium, potassium, tromethamine and lysine salts or complexing with cyclodextrins/solubilizer. Ocular penetration of NSAID demands an acidic ophthalmic solution where cyclodextrin could prevent precipitation of drug and minimize its ocular irritation potential. The incompatibility of NSAID with benzalkonium chloride is avoided by using polysorbate 80, cyclodextrins or tromethamine. Lysine salts and alpha-tocopheryl polyethylene glycol succinate disrupt corneal integrity, and their use requires caution. Thus a nonirritating ophthalmic solution of NSAID could be formulated by dissolving an appropriate water-soluble salt, in the presence of cyclodextrin or tromethamine (if needed) in mildly acidified purified water (if stability permits) with or without benzalkonium chloride and polyvinyl alcohol. Amide prodrugs met with mixed success due to incomplete intraocular hydrolysis. Suspension and ocular inserts appear irritating to the inflamed eye. Oil drop may be a suitable option for insoluble drugs and ointment may be used for sustained effect. Recent studies showed that the use of colloidal nanoparticle formulations and the potent COX 2 inhibitor bromfenac may enhance NSAID efficacy in eye preparations.

  15. Topical Ocular Delivery of NSAIDs

    Ahuja, Munish; Avinash S Dhake; Sharma, Surendra K; Dipak K Majumdar


    In ocular tissue, arachidonic acid is metabolized by cyclooxygenase to prostaglandins which are the most important lipid derived mediators of inflammation. Presently nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) which are cyclooxygenase (COX) inhibitors are being used for the treatment of inflammatory disorders. NSAIDs used in ophthalmology, topically, are salicylic-, indole acetic-, aryl acetic-, aryl propionic- and enolic acid derivatives. NSAIDs are weak acids with pKa mostly between 3.5 a...

  16. Ocular dirofilariasis in Dubai, UAE.

    Mittal, Mamta; Sathish, K R; Bhatia, Prashant G; Chidamber, B S


    A rare occurrence of ocular subconjunctival dirofilariasis in a 53-year-old healthy Indian male working in Dubai, UAE presenting with an acute red eye is reported. Surgical excision under topical anesthesia was carried out uneventfully in the outpatient clinic. The live worm removed from the subconjunctival space was identified as Dirofilaria repens on the basis of microscopic examination and histopathology. Surgical excision of subconjunctival dirofilariasis is safe in an outpatient setting and curative precluding the need for further systemic antihelminthics.

  17. Opportunistic ocular infections in AIDS

    Shikha Baisakhiya DOMS; FGO


    As the number of HIV infected patients is multiplying exponentially day by day so are the associated ocular complications.The increasing longevity of individuals with HIV disease has resulted in greater numbers of pa-tients with ocular opportunistic infection.By the means of this article we describe various opportunistic ocular infections in AIDS and their clinical manifestations,discussed under four headings;1 )adnexal manifestation;2)anterior segment manifestation;3)posterior segment manifestation;4)neuro ophthalmic manifestation . Herpes zoster ophthalmicus,molluscum contagiosum and Kaposi sarcoma are common adnexal manifestations. Molluscum contagiosum being the commonest.Varicella Zoster Virus (VZV)and herpes simplex virus (HSV) most commonly cause infectious keratitis in HIV-positive patients .As compared to the immunocompetent indi-viduals the frequency of bacterial and fungal keratitis is not more in HIV patients,but it tends to be more se-vere.Posterior segment structures involved in HIV-positive patients include the retina,choroid,and optic nerve head.The herpesvirus family is implicated most commonly in infections of the retina and choroid in HIV positive patients.CMV is the most common cause of retinitis and the commonest intraocular infection in AIDS. Atypical presentations resistance to conventional treatment and higher rate of recurrence make the diagnosis and therapeutic intervention more difficult and challenging.In addition,in one eye,several infections may occur at the same time,rendering the situation more difficult.

  18. Transplant related ocular surface disorders: Advanced techniques for ocular surface rehabilitation after ocular complications secondary to hematopoietic stem cell transplantation.

    Stahl, Erin D; Mahomed, Faheem; Hans, Amneet K; Dalal, Jignesh D


    HSCT has been linked to the development of an assortment of ocular surface complications with the potential to lead to permanent visual impairment if left untreated or if not treated early in the course of disease. Strategies for therapy include maintenance of lubrication and tear preservation, prevention of evaporation, decreasing inflammation, and providing epithelial support. The ultimate aim of treatment is to prevent permanent ocular sequelae through prompt ophthalmology consultation and the use of advanced techniques for ocular surface rehabilitation. We describe several rehabilitation options of ocular surface complications occurring secondarily during the post-HSCT course.

  19. Impact of Microbiome on Ocular Health.

    Kugadas, Abirami; Gadjeva, Mihaela


    The ocular surface is continuously exposed to the environment and, therefore, it is surprising that it harbors only few commensals with low degree of diversity. This unique aspect of the ocular surface physiology prompts the question whether there are core ocular commensal communities and how they affect ocular immunity. The purpose of this review is to provide an overview of what is known about the ocular surface commensals in health and disease and what we would like to learn in the near future. In addition, we discuss how microbiota at sites other than the eye may influence ocular immune responses. The information discussed in the review has been gathered using PubMed searches for literature published from January 1982 to December 2015. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.


    Mulla Summaiya A; Khokhar Neeta D; Revdiwala Sangita B


    Background: Isolation of common pathogens involved in ocular infection and their in-vitro susceptibility to commonly used ocular antibiotics, as well as the trends in antibiotic resistance developed by these pathogens were investigated. Material/Methods: All patients with suspected bacterial ocular infections presenting between march 2010 and feb 2011 were examined under slit lamp microscope and samples were collected by using aseptic techniques. All samples were processed for direct microsco...

  1. Ocular Blood Flow Autoregulation Mechanisms and Methods

    Xue Luo; Yu-meng Shen; Meng-nan Jiang; Xiang-feng Lou; Yin Shen


    The main function of ocular blood flow is to supply sufficient oxygen and nutrients to the eye. Local blood vessels resistance regulates overall blood distribution to the eye and can vary rapidly over time depending on ocular need. Under normal conditions, the relation between blood flow and perfusion pressure in the eye is autoregulated. Basically, autoregulation is a capacity to maintain a relatively constant level of blood flow in the presence of changes in ocular perfusion pressure and va...

  2. Innate immunity of the ocular surface.

    Ueta, Mayumi; Kinoshita, Shigeru


    The ocular surface epithelium serves a critical function as the defensive front line of the innate immune system. While the detection of microbes is arguably its most important task, an exaggerated host defense reaction to endogenous bacterial flora may initiate and perpetuate inflammatory mucosal responses. The ability of cells to recognize pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs) mainly depends on the expression of a family of Toll-like receptors (TLRs). A healthy ocular surface is not inflammatory, even though ocular surface epithelium is in constant contact with bacteria and bacterial products. In this study, we show that human ocular surface epithelial cells, both corneal and conjuctival epithelial cells, respond to viral double-stranded RNA mimic polyI:C to produce pro-inflammatory cytokines through TLR3, while they fail to respond functionally to lipopolysaccharide, a TLR4 ligand. Moreover, human ocular surface epithelium responds to flagellins from ocular pathogenic, but not ocular non-pathogenic bacteria, to produce pro-inflammatory cytokines through TLR5. Thus, ocular surface epithelial cells selectively respond to microbial components and induce limited inflammation; immune-competent cells can recognize microbial components through TLRs and induce the inflammation. The unique innate immune response of the ocular surface epithelium may contribute to its coexistence with commensal bacteria. Inflammatory bowel disease is thought to result from an abnormal response to the gut microbiota. Thus, we also considered the possibility of an association between ocular surface inflammation and a disordered innate immune response. IkappaBzeta is important for TLR signaling, in mice, its knock-out produced severe, spontaneous ocular surface inflammation, the eventual loss of goblet cells, and spontaneous perioral inflammation, suggesting that dysfunction/abnormality of innate immunity can lead to ocular surface inflammation. Copyright 2009 Elsevier Inc. All

  3. Force and Accommodation in World Politics


    two weeks later . Finally, on 22 September two Soviet newspaper editors approached Kennedy’s press secretary, Pierre Salinger , in New York and asked if...the president had received the message . When Salinger indicated he was unaware of it, the Soviet diplomats gave him the essence of Khrushchev’ the 235 FORCE AND ACCOMMODATION United Nations in New York. After reviewing Khrushchev’s letter with Salinger and Dean Rusk, Kennedy delivered a

  4. Ocular involvement in patients with spondyloarthritis.

    Bacchiega, Ana Beatriz Santos; Balbi, Gustavo Guimarães Moreira; Ochtrop, Manuella Lima Gomes; de Andrade, Francisco Assis; Levy, Roger Abramino; Baraliakos, Xenofon


    Ocular inflammatory diseases can present as isolated conditions but also as part of systemic inflammatory diseases. Anterior uveitis is closely related to SpA and shares the common genetic background of HLA-B27. Other ocular manifestations, such as episcleritis and scleritis, may also occur, although less frequently. Therefore, ocular involvement has been included as one of the important clinical features of SpA in the recently published classification criteria for axial and peripheral disease. However, there are a wide variety of aetiologies for ocular diseases and this must be considered in assessment of SpA.

  5. Moving beyond misperceptions: the provision of workplace accommodations.

    Hernandez, Brigida; McDonald, Katherine; Lepera, Nicole; Shahna, Monna; Wang, T Arthur; Levy, Joel M


    This mixed-methods study examined the provision of workplace accommodations in the health care, hospitality, and retail sectors. First, focus groups with administrators from each sector revealed that accommodations costs were viewed as minimal (although frontline managers were perceived as having misperceptions). Second, the provision of accommodations as documented through human resources records for health care and hospitality indicated that accommodations were infrequent, not costly, and provided to employees with disabilities. Finally, retail employees (irrespective of disability status) reported many more accommodations than health care and hospitality workers. To dispel misperceptions related to accommodations, education is critical and social workers are well-positioned for this role.

  6. Miasis ocular por Oestrus ovis

    María Beltrán F


    Full Text Available Se presentan tres casos de miasis ocular (dos adultos y un niñoprocedentes de zonas ganaderas de la provincia de Huaura,departamento de Lima,que acudieron al Hospital Regional de Huacho por presentar el ojo rojo,fotofobia, edema palpebral y sensación de cuerpo extraño;se extrajeron larvas adheridas al canto interno del ojo,las cuales se recibieron en el Instituto Nacional de Salud y fueron identificadas como Oestrus ovis .

  7. Interferometry for ocular microtremor measurement.

    Boyle, G; Coakley, D; Malone, J F


    The eyes of all normal subjects undergo a continuous, low-amplitude, high-frequency tremor called ocular microtremor (OMT). A number of potential clinical applications of OMT have been identified, including the prediction of outcome in coma. To date, OMT has been investigated primarily with an eye-contacting piezoelectric probe. We describe a laser-based, noncontacting, interferometric technique for the measurement of OMT. The technique employs an in-plane-sensitive, phase-modulating speckle interferometer to detect the movement of the sclera, or white of the eye.

  8. [Ocular changes in Down's syndrome].

    Koraszewska-Matuszewska, B; Pieczara, E; Samochowiec-Donocik, E; Nawrocka, L


    The authors analyzed the kind of ocular changes and methods of therapy in 34 children, aged 5 months to 14 years, treated in the clinic in the years 1982-1992. The most frequent change was congenital cataract. The other signs observed were: Brushfield's spots, alternate esotropia, nystagmus, partial optic atrophy, retinal detachment, congenital glaucoma, ectropion and keratoconus. Occurrence of several anomalies were frequent. The adequate surgical treatment was applied depending on the kind of changes. Cataract extraction was made by aspiration method. Visual acuity improved in 58.8% of eyes.

  9. Ocular abnormality in myotonic dystrophy.

    Ginsberg, J; Hamblet, J; Menefee, M


    A 61-year-old white woman with terminal myotonic dystrophy exhibited advanced peripheral and central retinopathy. Retinal lesions were characterized by hyperpigmentation, common, though nonspecific, in myotonic dystrophy. They resemble both heredo (tapetoretinal) and idiopathic involutional degenerations but rarely cause severe visual impairment. Neither the type nor degree of retinopathy appears to correlate with other ocular features or with the stage of the underlying disease. Our histologic observations confirm and extend those previously described. Electron microscopy suggests a primary disorder of mitochondria which may also affect smooth muscle and the myocardium.

  10. Ocular dirofilariasis in Dubai, UAE

    Mittal Mamta


    Full Text Available A rare occurrence of ocular subconjunctival dirofilariasis in a 53-year-old healthy Indian male working in Dubai, UAE presenting with an acute red eye is reported. Surgical excision under topical anesthesia was carried out uneventfully in the outpatient clinic. The live worm removed from the subconjunctival space was identified as Dirofilaria repens on the basis of microscopic examination and histopathology. Surgical excision of subconjunctival dirofilariasis is safe in an outpatient setting and curative precluding the need for further systemic antihelminthics.

  11. Raman Spectroscopy of Ocular Tissue

    Ermakov, Igor V.; Sharifzadeh, Mohsen; Gellermann, Warner

    The optically transparent nature of the human eye has motivated numerous Raman studies aimed at the non-invasive optical probing of ocular tissue components critical to healthy vision. Investigations include the qualitative and quantitative detection of tissue-specific molecular constituents, compositional changes occurring with development of ocular pathology, and the detection and tracking of ocular drugs and nutritional supplements. Motivated by a better understanding of the molecular mechanisms leading to cataract formation in the aging human lens, a great deal of work has centered on the Raman detection of proteins and water content in the lens. Several protein groups and the hydroxyl response are readily detectable. Changes of protein compositions can be studied in excised noncataractous tissue versus aged tissue preparations as well as in tissue samples with artificially induced cataracts. Most of these studies are carried out in vitro using suitable animal models and conventional Raman techniques. Tissue water content plays an important role in optimum light transmission of the outermost transparent ocular structure, the cornea. Using confocal Raman spectroscopy techniques, it has been possible to non-invasively measure the water to protein ratio as a measure of hydration status and to track drug-induced changes of the hydration levels in the rabbit cornea at various depths. The aqueous humor, normally supplying nutrients to cornea and lens, has an advantageous anterior location for Raman studies. Increasing efforts are pursued to non-invasively detect the presence of glucose and therapeutic concentrations of antibiotic drugs in this medium. In retinal tissue, Raman spectroscopy proves to be an important tool for research into the causes of macular degeneration, the leading cause of irreversible vision disorders and blindness in the elderly. It has been possible to detect the spectral features of advanced glycation and advanced lipooxydation end products in

  12. Cyclosporine for Ocular Inflammatory Diseases

    Kaçmaz, R. Oktay; Kempen, John H.; Newcomb, Craig; Daniel, Ebenezer; Gangaputra, Sapna; Nussenblatt, Robert B.; Rosenbaum, James T.; Suhler, Eric B.; Thorne, Jennifer E.; Jabs, Douglas A.; Levy-Clarke, Grace A.; Foster, C. Stephen


    Purpose To evaluate the clinical outcomes of cyclosporine treatment for non-infectious ocular inflammation Design Retrospective cohort study Participants Three hundred seventy-three patients with non-infectious ocular inflammation managed at four tertiary ocular inflammation clinics in the United States observed to use cyclosporine as a single non-corticosteroid immunosuppressive agent to their treatment regimen, between 1979-2007 inclusive. Methods Participants were identified from the Systemic Immunosuppressive Therapy for Eye Diseases Cohort Study. Demographic and clinical characteristics, including dosage of cyclosporine and main outcome measures were obtained for every eye of every patient at every visit via medical record review by trained expert reviewers. Main Outcome Measures: Control of inflammation, sustained control after reducing corticosteroid dosages, and discontinuation of therapy because of toxicity. Results Of the 373 patients (681 eyes) initiating cyclosporine monotherapy, 33.4% by six months and 51.9% by one year gained sustained, complete control of inflammation over at least two visits spanning at least 28 days. Approximately 25% more improved to a level of slight inflammatory activity by each of these time points. Corticosteroid-sparing success (completely controlled inflammation for at least 28 days with prednisone 10 mg/day or less) was achieved by 22.1% by six months and 36.1% within one year. Toxicity led to discontinuation of therapy within one year by 10.7% of the population. Patients over 55 years of age were over 3-fold more likely to discontinue therapy because of toxicity than patients ages 18-39 years. Doses of 151-250 mg/day tended to be more successful than lower doses, and were not associated with a higher discontinuation for toxicity rate; higher doses did not appear to offer a therapeutic advantage. Conclusion Cyclosporine, with corticosteroid therapy as indicated, was modestly effective for controlling ocular inflammation


    Portolan, Ana


    The private tourism accommodation concept has not been largely represented in the scientific research. It started appearing on the margins of the actual research in the past ten years, namely with a hotel as the most analyzed form of tourism accommodation. In the structure of tourism accommodation in Croatia in 2011 private accommodation participated with 465 000 beds which represents 49,8 percent of the total capacity and therefore demands more attention. Using the main marketing postulate w...

  14. Fungal keratitis associated with ocular rosacea.

    Jain, Vandana; Shome, Debraj; Sajnani, Manoj; Natarajan, Sundaram


    In order to report fungal keratitis in patients of ocular rosacea, a retrospective review of all cases of fungal keratitis was undertaken. Cases in which ocular rosacea coexisted were identified and included in the study. The clinical course of patients thus identified was studied from the medical records and outcomes were evaluated. A total of three cases of fungal keratitis with coexisting ocular rosacea were identified. All three patients were known cases of acne rosacea with an intermittent, irregular treatment for the same. Previous history of contact lens use, ocular surgery or trauma was not present in any of the cases. Microbiological evaluation revealed Aspergillus flavus as the causative organism in two patients and an unidentified hyaline fungus in the third. Patients received simultaneous therapy for fungal keratitis and ocular rosacea. The ocular surface completely stabilized and the infiltrate resolved in all three cases. The chronic ocular surface changes and induced inflammation in ocular rosacea, along with the instillation of topical steroids for therapy, may create an environmental milieu favorable for fungal keratitis. Microbiological evaluation should be considered, even in cases of suspected sterile keratitis, prior to treatment with topical steroids, so as to prevent the possible worsening of an associated infective corneal condition.

  15. Optimal Disturbance Accommodation with Limited Model Information

    Farokhi, F; Johansson, K H


    The design of optimal dynamic disturbance-accommodation controller with limited model information is considered. We adapt the family of limited model information control design strategies, defined earlier by the authors, to handle dynamic-controllers. This family of limited model information design strategies construct subcontrollers distributively by accessing only local plant model information. The closed-loop performance of the dynamic-controllers that they can produce are studied using a performance metric called the competitive ratio which is the worst case ratio of the cost a control design strategy to the cost of the optimal control design with full model information.

  16. Reminder : Reimbursement of education fees / accommodation fees


    Your attention is drawn to the 20 km distance limit set in Article R A 8.01 of the Staff Regulations, namely, that only accommodation fees of students attending an educational establishment which is more than 20 km from the place of residence and the duty station of the member of the personnel are reimbursed by the Organization, subject to the percentage rate and maximum amounts set out in this article and in Administrative Circular N° 12. Human Resources Division Tel : 72862 / 74474

  17. Reimbursement of education fees / accommodation fees


    Your attention is drawn to the 20 km distance limit set in Article R A 8.01 of the Staff Regulations, namely, that only accommodation fees of students attending an educational establishment which is more than 20 km from the place of residence and the duty station of the member of the personnel are reimbursed by the Organization, subject to the percentage rate and maximum amounts set out in this article and in Administrative Circular N° 12. Human Resources Division Tel: 72862 / 74474

  18. 46 CFR 108.197 - Construction of accommodation spaces.


    ... accommodation spaces. (a) Each sleeping, mess, recreational, or hospital space that is adjacent to or... deckheads of each accommodation space must be a light color. (e) Each accommodation space in which water may... readily enter any sleeping, mess, recreational, or hospital space....

  19. Ocular diseases: immunological and molecular mechanisms

    Jing Song


    Full Text Available Many factors, such as environmental, microbial and endogenous stress, antigen localization, can trigger the immunological events that affect the ending of the diverse spectrum of ocular disorders. Significant advances in understanding of immunological and molecular mechanisms have been researched to improve the diagnosis and therapy for patients with ocular inflammatory diseases. Some kinds of ocular diseases are inadequately responsive to current medications; therefore, immunotherapy may be a potential choice as an alternative or adjunctive treatment, even in the prophylactic setting. This article first provides an overview of the immunological and molecular mechanisms concerning several typical and common ocular diseases; second, the functions of immunological roles in some of systemic autoimmunity will be discussed; third, we will provide a summary of the mechanisms that dictate immune cell trafficking to ocular local microenvironment in response to inflammation.

  20. Adult Ocular Toxocariasis Mimicking Ciliary Body Malignancy

    Ahmad M. Mansour


    Full Text Available Purpose. To discuss an unusual presentation of ocular toxocariasis. Methods. Case report. Results. A 40-year-old woman presented with decreased vision in the left eye with a long history of recurrent red eye from uveitis. Eosinophilia and positive ELISA titers for Toxocara canis favored the diagnosis of ocular toxocariasis. Over 3 months, an anterior scleral mass had a rapid growth raising the possibility of medulloepithelioma, which rarely can mimic uveitic syndromes. Surgical plan changed from local excision to enucleation. Histopathology demonstrated a large homogeneous mass of chronic inflammatory cells with inflammation of the overlying thinned out sclera, medial rectus insertion, and limbal cornea. The triad of peripheral granuloma, eosinophilia, and positive blood serology established the diagnosis of ocular toxocariasis. Conclusions. Ocular toxocariasis can mimic ocular malignancy such as medulloepithelioma in adults and rarely presents as an anterior scleral mass.

  1. Clinical and immunological responses in ocular demodecosis.

    Kim, Jae Hoon; Chun, Yeoun Sook; Kim, Jae Chan


    The purpose of this study was to investigate clinical and immunological responses to Demodex on the ocular surface. Thirteen eyes in 10 patients with Demodex blepharitis and chronic ocular surface disorders were included in this study and treated by lid scrubbing with tea tree oil for the eradication of Demodex. We evaluated ocular surface manifestations and Demodex counts, and analyzed IL-1β, IL-5, IL-7, IL-12, IL-13, IL-17, granulocyte colony-stimulating factor, and macrophage inflammatory protein-1β in tear samples before and after the treatment. All patients exhibited ocular surface manifestations including corneal nodular opacity, peripheral corneal vascularization, refractory corneal erosion and infiltration, or chronic conjunctival inflammatory signs before treatment. After treatment, Demodex was nearly eradicated, tear concentrations of IL-1β and IL-17 were significantly reduced and substantial clinical improvement was observed in all patients. In conclusion, we believe that Demodex plays an aggravating role in inflammatory ocular surface disorders.

  2. Custom ocular prosthesis: A palliative approach

    Prachi Thakkar


    Full Text Available The goal of palliative care is the achievement of the best quality of life for patients and their families. Eyes are generally the first features of the face to be noticed. Loss of an eye is a traumatic event which has a crippling effect on the psychology of the patient. Several ocular and orbital disorders require surgical intervention that may result in ocular defects. An ocular prosthesis is fabricated to restore the structure, function, and cosmetics of the defects created by such conditions. Although an implant eye prosthesis has a superior outcome, due to economic factors it may not be a feasible option for all patients. Therefore, a custom-made ocular prosthesis is a good alternative. This case report presents a palliative treatment for a patient with an enucleated eye by fabricating a custom ocular prosthesis which improved his psychological, physical, social, functional, emotional and spiritual needs.

  3. Anterior Segment Imaging in Combat Ocular Trauma

    Denise S. Ryan


    Full Text Available Purpose. To evaluate the use of ocular imaging to enhance management and diagnosis of war-related anterior segment ocular injuries. Methods. This study was a prospective observational case series from an ongoing IRB-approved combat ocular trauma tracking study. Subjects with anterior segment ocular injury were imaged, when possible, using anterior segment optical coherence tomography (AS-OCT, confocal microscopy (CM, and slit lamp biomicroscopy. Results. Images captured from participants with combat ocular trauma on different systems provided comprehensive and alternate views of anterior segment injury to investigators. Conclusion. In combat-related trauma of the anterior segment, adjunct image acquisition enhances slit lamp examination and enables real time In vivo observation of the cornea facilitating injury characterization, progression, and management.

  4. Ocular microtremor in oculomotor palsy.

    Bolger, C; Bojanic, S; Sheahan, N F; Coakley, D; Malone, J F


    Ocular microtremor (OMT) is a high frequency tremor of the eyes present in all individuals. Recent reports suggest that OMT may be a useful indicator of brainstem function. However, the actual origin of ocular microtremor remains controversial. This study aims to provide evidence that OMT has a neurogenic origin. The OMT activity of five subjects with unilateral oculomotor nerve palsy and one subject with complete unilateral internal and external ophthalmoplegia were recorded from both eyes of each subject using the piezoelectric strain gauge technique, with the normal eye acting as a control. Five parameters of OMT activity were studied in each subject: the peak count, the power of the high frequency peak, the percentage power between 60 and 100 Hz, the percentage power between 70 and 80 Hz, and the 10 dB cut-off point. In the five subjects with oculomotor nerve palsy, the mean peak count in the normal eye was 88.4 Hz (SD+/-16.9) and in the affected eye was 59 Hz (SD+/-8.6), P < 0.0096. There was also a fall in the peak power, the power between 60 and 100 Hz, and the power between 70 and 80 Hz. In subject six, who had complete opthalmoplegia, there was no evidence of OMT activity in the denervated eye. These results suggest that innervation of the extraocular muscles is necessary for normal OMT activity, and OMT therefore has a neurogenic origin.

  5. Ocular manifestations of Hansen's disease.

    Sekhar, G C; Vance, G; Otton, S; Kumar, S V; Stanley, J N; Rao, G N


    A detailed ophthalmic evaluation including slitlamp biomicroscopy, measurement of corneal sensitivity using Cochet and Bonnet aesthesiometer, Schirmer's test and Goldmann applanation tonometry was carried out in 89 patients of Hansen's disease attending the leprosy clinic with or without ocular symptoms and willing to undergo eye evaluation. Thirty-one patients had lepromatous leprosy (8 with erythema nodosum leprosum), 56 patients had borderline disease (13 with reversal reactions) and 2 had tuberculoid disease. In addition to the well documented changes of lagophthalmos (6.7%), uveitis (7.3%) and cataracts (19%), we noted prominent corneal nerves in 133 eyes (74.7%), beaded corneal nerves in 19 eyes (10.7%), corneal scarring in 10 eyes (5.6%), corneal hypoaesthesia in 51 eyes (28%) and dry eye in 18 eyes (13%). Beaded corneal nerves and/or stomal infiltrates occurred mainly in the lepromatous group (75%). Ocular hypotony (IOP less than 12 mm Hg) was not seen more frequently in Hansen's as compared to age and sex matched controls with refractive errors or cataracts (33.7%, vs. 37.8%, p = 0.33). Our study highlights the primary corneal involvement with corneal neuropathy as the predominant feature of Hansen's disease.

  6. Imaging the ocular motor nerves

    Ferreira, Teresa [Department of Radiology, Leiden University Medical Center (Netherlands)], E-mail:; Verbist, Berit [Department of Radiology, Leiden University Medical Center (Netherlands)], E-mail:; Buchem, Mark van [Department of Radiology, Leiden University Medical Center (Netherlands)], E-mail:; Osch, Thijs van [C.J. Gorter for High-Field MRI, Department of Radiology, Leiden University Medical Center (Netherlands)], E-mail:; Webb, Andrew [C.J. Gorter for High-Field MRI, Department of Radiology, Leiden University Medical Center (Netherlands)], E-mail:


    The ocular motor nerves (OMNs) comprise the oculomotor, trochlear and the abducens nerves. According to their course, they are divided into four or five anatomic segments: intra-axial, cisternal, cavernous and intra-orbital and, for the abducens nerve, an additional interdural segment. Magnetic resonance imaging is the imaging method of choice in the evaluation of the normal and pathologic ocular motor nerves. CT still plays a limited but important role in the evaluation of the intraosseous portions at the skull base and bony foramina. We describe for each segment of these cranial nerves, the normal anatomy, the most appropriate image sequences and planes, their imaging appearance and pathologic conditions. Magnetic resonance imaging with high magnetic fields is a developing and promising technique. We describe our initial experience with a Phillips 7.0 T MRI scanner in the evaluation of the brainstem segments of the OMNs. As imaging becomes more refined, an understanding of the detailed anatomy is increasingly necessary, as the demand on radiology to diagnose smaller lesions also increases.

  7. Imaging the ocular motor nerves.

    Ferreira, Teresa; Verbist, Berit; van Buchem, Mark; van Osch, Thijs; Webb, Andrew


    The ocular motor nerves (OMNs) comprise the oculomotor, trochlear and the abducens nerves. According to their course, they are divided into four or five anatomic segments: intra-axial, cisternal, cavernous and intra-orbital and, for the abducens nerve, an additional interdural segment. Magnetic resonance imaging is the imaging method of choice in the evaluation of the normal and pathologic ocular motor nerves. CT still plays a limited but important role in the evaluation of the intraosseous portions at the skull base and bony foramina. We describe for each segment of these cranial nerves, the normal anatomy, the most appropriate image sequences and planes, their imaging appearance and pathologic conditions. Magnetic resonance imaging with high magnetic fields is a developing and promising technique. We describe our initial experience with a Phillips 7.0T MRI scanner in the evaluation of the brainstem segments of the OMNs. As imaging becomes more refined, an understanding of the detailed anatomy is increasingly necessary, as the demand on radiology to diagnose smaller lesions also increases.

  8. Ocular biomarkers of Alzheimer's disease.

    Heaton, George R; Davis, Benjamin M; Turner, Lisa A; Cordeiro, Maria F


    Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a devastating neurodegenerative disease characterised clinically by a progressive decline in executive functions, memory and cognition. Classic neuropathological hallmarks of AD include intracellular hyper-phosphorylated tau protein which forms neurofibrillary tangles (NFT), and extracellular deposits of amyloid β (Aβ) protein, the primary constituent of senile plaques (SP). The gradual process of pathogenic amyloid accumulation is thought to occur 10-20 years prior to symptomatic manifestation. Advance detection of these deposits therefore offers a highly promising avenue for prodromal AD diagnosis. Currently, the most sophisticated method of 'probable AD' diagnosis is via neuroimaging or cerebral spinal fluid (CSF) biomarker analysis. Whilst these methods have reported a high degree of diagnostic specificity and accuracy, they fall significantly short in terms of practicality; they are often highly invasive, expensive or unsuitable for large-scale population screening. In recent years, ocular screening has received substantial attention from the scientific community due to its potential for non-invasive and inexpensive central nervous system (CNS) imaging. In this appraisal we build upon our previous reviews detailing ocular structural and functional changes in AD (Retinal manifestations of Alzheimer's disease, Alzheimer's disease and Retinal Neurodegeneration) and consider their use as biomarkers. In addition, we present an overview of current advances in the use of fluorescent reporters to detect AD pathology through non-invasive retinal imaging.

  9. Accommodation-Amplitudes following an Accommodative Lens Refilling Procedure — an in vivo Update

    Nishi, Okihiro; Nishi, Yutaro; Chang, S.; Nishi, Kayo


    Purpose To investigate whether a newly developed lens refilling procedure can provide some accommodation in monkey eyes and to evaluate the difference in accommodation with different degrees of capsular bag refilling. Setting Jinshikai Medical Foundation, Nishi Eye Hospital, Osaka, Japan. Design Experimental monkey study. Methods Following a central 3–4 mm continuous curvilinear capsulorhexis, phacoemulsification was performed in the usual manner. A novel accommodative membrane intraocular lens for sealing capsular opening was implanted into the capsular bag. Silicone polymers were injected beneath the intraocular lens into the capsular bag through the delivery hole. In three study groups, each with six monkey eyes, the lens capsule was refilled with 0.08 ml corresponding to 65% bag volume, 0.1 ml corresponding to 80% bag volume, and 0.125 ml of silicone polymers corresponding to 100% bag volume, respectively. To calculate the accommodation-amplitudes achieved, automated refractometry was performed before and 1 hour after the topical 4% pilocarpine application before and four weeks after surgery. Results The refilling technique was successful in all monkeys without polymer leakage. Accommodation-amplitudes attained were 2.56 ± 0.74 dioptries (D), 2.42 ± 1.00D, and 2.71 ± 0.63D, respectively, 4 weeks after surgery in the three study groups. Conclusions Using the technique, some accommodation could be obtained in the young monkey eyes. Leakage of the injectable silicone polymer and anterior capsular opacification at least in the visual axis could be avoided. The results suggest that this lens refilling procedure warrants further studies for a possible clinical application. PMID:24461501

  10. [Dissociated near reflex and accommodative convergence excess].

    Gräf, M; Becker, R; Kloss, S


    We report on an 8-year-old boy whose near reflex could be elicited exclusively when the left eye was fixing (LF) but not when the right eye was fixing (RF). With RE +1.25/-1.25/169 degrees and LE +1.0/-0.75/24 degrees, the visual acuity was 1.0 OU at 5 m and RE 0.5, LE 1.0 at 0.3 m improving to 1.0 OU by a near addition of 3.0 D. Stereopsis was 100 degrees (Titmus test). The prism and cover test revealed an esophoria of 4 degrees at 5 m. At 3 m there was an esophoria of 6 degrees (RF) and an esotropia of 28 degrees (LF), compensating to an esophoria of 3 degrees (RF/LF) with a near addition of 3.0 D. Accommodation and the pupillary near reaction (OU) were hardly elicitable during RF. During LF, retinoscopy revealed an accommodation of 8 D (OU) and the pupils constricted normally. Correction by bifocal glasses yielded orthotropia with random dot stereopsis at near.

  11. Componentes oculares em anisometropia The ocular components in anisometropia

    David Tayah


    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Comparar as correlações dos componentes oculares (comprimento axial, comprimento do segmento anterior, poder médio da córnea, profundidade da câmara vítrea e poder refrativo equivalente com o erro refrativo total do olho portador da menor e da maior ametropia em anisométropes. MÉTODOS: Foi realizado um "survey" analítico conduzido em população de 68 anisométropes de duas ou mais dioptrias atendida no Ambulatório da Clinica Oftalmológica do Hospital das Clínicas da Faculdade de Medicina da Universidade de São Paulo Os anisométropes foram submetidos à refração estática objetiva e subjetiva, ceratometria e biometria ultra-sônica. RESULTADOS: Não houve diferença significativa entre os valores dos componentes oculares medidos dos olhos portadores da menor e da maior ametropia. Os olhos portadores da menor ametropia apresentaram as mesmas correlações significantes observadas em olhos emétropes, ou seja, correlação da refração com comprimento do segmento anterior e comprimento axial, e correlação do comprimento axial com poder corneano e profundidade da câmara vítrea. Os olhos portadores da maior ametropia apresentaram correlação significante da refração com o comprimento axial e do comprimento axial com a profundidade da câmara vítrea. Ainda em ambos os olhos observou-se correlação significante do poder do cristalino com a profundidade da câmara anterior. CONCLUSÃO: Os olhos portadores da menor ametropia desenvolveram as correlações mais freqüentemente observadas nos olhos emétropes. Os olhos portadores da maior ametropia não desenvolveram as mesmas correlações dos emétropes.PURPOSE: To asses the correlation between ocular components (axial length, anterior segment length, corneal power, vitreous length and equivalent power of the eye and refractive error in eyes with higher and lower ametropia of subjects with anisometropia. METHODS: An analytical survey was carried out in 68 patients


    Muhammad Kamran Khalid


    Full Text Available Objective: Silicone oil (SO is an invaluable tool in the management of complex retinal detachments (RDs. Injection of silicone oil is associated with a variety of ocular complications specially when it is kept for a long time and its removal is endangering retinal re-detachment. The objective of this study was to determine the frequencies of different ocular complications associated with silicone oil injection in our setup. Study Design: Case series. Place and Duration of Study: This study was conducted at Vitreo-retina division of Al-Shifa Trust Eye Hospital, Rawalpindi from January 2014 to June 2014. Material and Methods: A total of 30 patients were included in the study who underwent pars-planavitrectomy (PPV with silicone oil injection for complex retinal detachments. The patients who had reached between 3 months & 6 months of their postoperative period and were presenting with some complications related to silicone oil injection were included in the study. Their records were reviewed and pre-operative data were collected regarding state of the eye preoperatively. Then the post-operative complications were noted. The descriptive and analytical statistics of different variables were measured using SPSS-17.0 software. Results: Out of thirty patients included in our study 23 (76.7% were male and 7 (23.3% were female. The mean age was 21.53 ± 16.004 years and range was 66 years. The mean pre-operative intra-ocular pressure ( IOP was 14.0 ± 2.150 mmHg and range 8 mmHg and the mean post-operative IOP was 24.93 ± 13.889 mmHg and range 45 mmHg (p=0.001. The pre-operative PVR grade-C was absent in 12 (40% patients and was present in 18 (60% patients and post-operative PVR grade-C was absent in 24 (80% patients and was present in 6 (20% patients (p=0.004; McNemar test. Band keratopathy was seen in 8 (26.7% and corneal decompensation in 2 (6.7% patients. Emulsification of silicone oil was seen in 14 (46.7% patients. Rubeosisiridis was present in 2

  13. The child sexual abuse accommodation syndrome.

    Summit, R C


    Child victims of sexual abuse face secondary trauma in the crisis of discovery. Their attempts to reconcile their private experiences with the realities of the outer world are assaulted by the disbelief, blame and rejection they experience from adults. The normal coping behavior of the child contradicts the entrenched beliefs and expectations typically held by adults, stigmatizing the child with charges of lying, manipulating or imagining from parents, courts and clinicians. Such abandonment by the very adults most crucial to the child's protection and recovery drives the child deeper into self-blame, self-hate, alienation and revictimization. In contrast, the advocacy of an empathic clinician within a supportive treatment network can provide vital credibility and endorsement for the child. Evaluation of the responses of normal children to sexual assault provides clear evidence that societal definitions of "normal" victim behavior are inappropriate and procrustean, serving adults as mythic insulators against the child's pain. Within this climate of prejudice, the sequential survival options available to the victim further alienate the child from any hope of outside credibility or acceptance. Ironically, the child's inevitable choice of the "wrong" options reinforces and perpetuates the prejudicial myths. The most typical reactions of children are classified in this paper as the child sexual abuse accommodation syndrome. The syndrome is composed of five categories, of which two define basic childhood vulnerability and three are sequentially contingent on sexual assault: (1) secrecy, (2) helplessness, (3) entrapment and accommodation, (4) delayed, unconvincing disclosure, and (5) retraction. The accommodation syndrome is proposed as a simple and logical model for use by clinicians to improve understanding and acceptance of the child's position in the complex and controversial dynamics of sexual victimization. Application of the syndrome tends to challenge entrenched

  14. Racket sports. An ocular hazard.

    Vinger, P F; Tolpin, D W


    Eighty-two injuries secondary to the racket sports were studied during a 15-month period. Ordinary glasses provided considerable protection in the play of tennis and badminton, but not in the play of squash and racquet ball. Plastic safety lenses (USA Standard Practice for Occupational and Educational Eye ,nd Face Protection, approved Sept 18, 1968 by the USA Standards Institute [ANSI Z87.1-1968]) mounted in a sturdy frame (industrial or athletic) or an eye protector are necessary for squash and racquet ball. Contact lenses provide no ocular protection. Males suffered more serious injuries than females, but injuries were not related to the age or experience of the players. Eye protection is recommended for the racket sports.

  15. Human ocular Thelaziasis in Karnataka

    Prabhakar S Krishnachary


    Full Text Available Thelaziasis is an Arthropod-born disease of the eye and adnexa caused by Thelazia callipaeda, a nematode parasite transmitted by drosophilid flies to carnivores and humans. Because of its distribution mainly confined to South Asian countries and Russia, it is commonly known as Oriental Eye worm. It is often under-reported and not been given its due clinical importance. We report first case of human Thelaziasis from Hassan District, Karnataka. Five creamy-white, translucent worms were removed from the conjunctival sac of a 74-year-old male patient. Based on morphological characters, the worms were identified as nematodes belonging to the genus Thelazia and speciation was confirmed by CDC, Atlanta as callipaeda. Rarity of the disease and its ability to cause both extra and intraocular manifestations leading to ocular morbidity is the reason for presenting this case. From the available data, this is the first case report from Karnataka, India.

  16. Neurosurgical applications of ocular pneumoplethysmography.

    Bingham, W F


    Ocular pneumoplethysmography (OPG), a semiautomated form of suction ophthalmodynamometry, was used to evaluate and follow 15 patients who underwent carotid endarterectomy and two patients in whom gradual carotid artery occlusion was performed for inoperable intracranial aneurysm. Postoperative corrected ophthalmic arterial pressures (COAP's) on the operated side in the carotid endarterectomy patients averaged 12.5 mm Hg higher than before surgery, the standard deviation being 4.9 mm Hg for clinically stable patients. There was no significant change in COAP on the contralateral side. Several problems were encountered in closing down carotid clamps, the most potentially serious being a precipitous fall in COAP with the final adjustment. The current uses of OPG and similar techniques are reviewed, and potential neurosurgical applications are discussed.

  17. Ocular allergy in the Asia Pacific region.

    Katelaris, Constance H


    Allergic conjunctivitis (AC) represents a spectrum of disorders, comprising seasonal allergic conjunctivitis (SAC), perennial allergic conjunctivitis (PAC), atopic keratoconjunctivitis (AKC), vernal keratoconjunctivitis (VKC) and giant papillary conjunctivitis. Of these ocular allergy types, SAC and PAC are the most common.The most striking difference within this group of ocular diseases is that SAC and PAC remain self-limited without ocular surface damage, while AKC and VKC can compromise the cornea, causing ulcers and scarring and can ultimately lead to vision loss. Data on AC in the Asia Pacific is scarce however some understanding of prevalence of the condition has been obtained from the International Study of Asthma and Allergies in Childhood (ISAAC) studies and more recently from the Allergies in Asia Pacific study as well as some information from individual country surveys. Unfortunately none of this data has been collected using validated survey instruments specifically designed for AC. Surveys such as ISAAC have been predominantly concerned with respiratory allergic symptoms with questions added that incorporate some ocular symptoms. These questionnaires do not detect individuals who may have AC in the absence of allergic rhinitis. Using hospital ophthalmology outpatient populations for prevalence studies of ocular allergy immediately introduces a bias towards the more severe, complex forms of the condition as patients with the milder forms of SAR and PAR will rarely present to a hospital outpatient clinic. There is a real need for the development of validated questionnaires specifically addressing ocular allergy. There are no widely accessible studies examining prevalence of the complex forms of ocular allergy (AKC, VKC) in Asia Pacific region. This review will provide an overview of ocular allergy, its classification, clinical presentation and differential diagnosis, and will also discuss what is known about the epidemiology of ocular allergy in the

  18. Ocular Dominance and Handedness in Golf Putting.

    Dalton, Kristine; Guillon, Michel; Naroo, Shehzad A


    In golf, the impact of eye-hand dominance on putting performance has long been debated. Eye-hand dominance is thought to impact how golfers judge the alignment of the ball with the target and the club with the ball, as well as how golfers visualize the line of the putt when making decisions about the force needed to hit the ball. Previous studies have all measured ocular dominance in primary gaze only, despite golfers spending a significant amount of their time in a putting stance (bent at the hips, head tilted down). Thus, the purpose of this study was to assess ocular dominance in both primary gaze (aligning the ball with the target) and putting gaze (addressing the ball and aligning the club). This study investigated measuring pointing ocular dominance in both primary and putting gaze positions on 31 golfers (14 amateur, 7 club professionals, and 10 top professionals). All players were right-handed golfers, although one reported having no hand dominance and one reported being strongly left hand dominant. The results showed that (1) primary and putting gaze ocular dominances are not equal, nor are they predictive of each other; (2) the magnitude of putting ocular dominance is significantly less than the magnitude of primary gaze ocular dominance; (3) ocular dominance is not correlated with handedness in either primary or putting gaze; and (4) eye-hand dominance is not associated with increased putting skill, although ocular dominance may be associated with increased putting success. It is important that coaches assess golfers' ocular dominance in both primary and putting gaze positions to ensure they have the most accurate information upon which to base their vision strategy decisions.

  19. Toxocariosis Ocular en Menores de Edad

    Norma Ocampo


    Full Text Available La toxocariosis es una geohelmintiosis producida por la ingestión de
    huevos de Toxocara canis y T. catis, cuyos hospederos definitivos son el perro y el gato. En el humano las larvas producen el Síndrome de Migración Larvaria Visceral y Ocular; en este último produce una enfermedad grave que puede semejar un retinoblastoma (1,2. Los niños son más susceptibles a adquirir esta infección (3. Nuestro objetivo es determinar la frecuencia de toxocariosis ocular en menores de edad con sintomatología ocular.

  20. Unusual ocular manifestations of silent sinus syndrome

    Fabricio Lopes da Fonseca


    Full Text Available Silent sinus syndrome is an acquired condition in which there is a gradual collapse of the orbital floor and inward retraction of the maxillary sinus (atelectasis of the maxillary sinus. This in turn may cause associated ocular occurrences of enophthalmos and hypotropia. This is a report of an 8 year-old boy with silent sinus syndrome and associated ocular motility disorders. The association between silent sinus syndrome and ocular motility disturbance has been recently described in the literature. However, this is an infrequent association, mainly in childhood.

  1. [Penetrating ocular trauma with intraocular foreign body].

    Musat, O; Ochinciuc, Uliana; Gutu, Tatiana; Cristescu, T R; Coman, Corina


    We present the case of a 65 years old pacient which was admitted for the sudden decrease of visual acuity in the left eye, accompanied by ocular pain and conjunctival hiperemia, simptoms appeared after an ocular trauma. After the clinical and paraclinical examination we determined the diagnosis of OS: Penetrating ocular trauma with retention of a foreign body; posttraumatic cataract. Surgical treatement was warrented and we performed OS : Facoemulsification + PFK implant in sulcus + 23 Ga posterior vitrectomy + peeling of the posterior hyaloid membrane + extraction of the foreign body + LASER endofotocoagulation + transscleral cryotherapy + SF6 gas injection. The post-operatory evolution was favorable.


    ROMAO, Elen A.; BOLELLA, Valdes R.; NARDIN, Maria Estela P.; HABIB-SIMAO, Maria Lucia; FURTADO, João Marcelo; MOYSES-NETO, Miguel


    We present a case of ocular syphilis after a renal transplantation involving progressive vision loss without clinically identifiable ocular disease. Electroretinography showed signs of ischemia, especially in the internal retina. A serological test was positive for syphilis. Lumbar puncture revealed lymphocytic meningitis and a positive serologic test for syphilis in the cerebrospinal fluid. The patient was treated with penicillin, and had a quick vision improvement. In the case of transplant recipients, clinicians should always consider the diagnosis of ocular syphilis in cases with unexplained visual acuity decrement, as this condition may cause serious complications if not treated. PMID:27253748

  3. Main Ocular Manifestations in Rheumatoid Arthritis

    Sandra Saray Quignon Santana


    Full Text Available Rheumatoid arthritis is considered an autoimmune disease in which articular and extra articular manifestations are produced and contribute to alter the functional capacity of the individual. This study consists on performing a bibliographical review showing the main ocular manifestations in patients with rheumatoid arthritis. It is our purpose to give you our experiences to the students as well as the internal medicine, ophthalmology and rheumatologist residents about this topic. The ophthalmological consultation of sick patients contributes to the prevention of ocular illnesses which are characteristic of the base disease and improve the ocular health.

  4. FDI and Accommodation Using NN Based Techniques

    Garcia, Ramon Ferreiro; de Miguel Catoira, Alberto; Sanz, Beatriz Ferreiro

    Massive application of dynamic backpropagation neural networks is used on closed loop control FDI (fault detection and isolation) tasks. The process dynamics is mapped by means of a trained backpropagation NN to be applied on residual generation. Process supervision is then applied to discriminate faults on process sensors, and process plant parameters. A rule based expert system is used to implement the decision making task and the corresponding solution in terms of faults accommodation and/or reconfiguration. Results show an efficient and robust FDI system which could be used as the core of an SCADA or alternatively as a complement supervision tool operating in parallel with the SCADA when applied on a heat exchanger.

  5. Workplace accommodations for people with mental illness: a scoping review.

    McDowell, Caitlin; Fossey, Ellie


    Disability discrimination legislation means that employees with a disability or mental illness are legally entitled to reasonable workplace accommodations that enable them to work effectively and safely. This scoping review aims to investigate the types of workplace accommodations provided for people with mental illness, and their costs and benefits. A literature search was conducted using five electronic databases. Peer reviewed research articles published between 1993 and June 2013 were included in this scoping review and their quality was assessed. Opinion papers, reports, and case descriptions were excluded. Nine studies explored workplace accommodations for people with mental illness. The most commonly reported work-related accommodations were flexible scheduling/reduced hours, modified training and supervision, and modified job duties/descriptions. The least common type of accommodation was physical modification to the workplace. For employees with persistent mental illness who were accessing a supported employment agency, the majority of accommodations related to support from the job coach or employment specialist, such as facilitating communication with the employer during hiring or on the job. The quality of the studies varied considerably and the benefits of the accommodations are not yet well documented. There is limited evidence that a larger number of workplace accommodations are associated with longer job tenure. Workplace accommodations appear to be important to support employees with mental illness, but more accessible information about how disability discrimination legislation applies to this population is needed. Future research should address the implementation and effectiveness of mental health-related workplace accommodations.

  6. Ocular Complications of Inflammatory Bowel Disease

    Rana Mady


    the usual intestinal manifestations, leading to an earlier diagnosis. Thus, it is important to understand the clinical presentation of possible ocular manifestations in order to initiate appropriate treatment and to help prevent significant visual morbidity.

  7. The origin of ocular microtremor in man.

    Spauschus, A; Marsden, J; Halliday, D M; Rosenberg, J R; Brown, P


    A novel technique for the study of human eye movements was used to investigate the frequency components of ocular drift and microtremor in both eyes simultaneously. The tangential components of horizontal eye accelerations were recorded in seven healthy subjects using light-weight accelerometers mounted on scleral contact lenses during smooth pursuit movements, vestibulo-ocular reflexes and eccentric gaze with and without fixation. Spectral peaks were observed at low (up to 25 Hz) and high (60-90 Hz) frequencies. A multivariate analysis based on partial coherence analysis was used to correct for head movement. After correction, the signals were found to be coherent between the eyes over both low- and high-frequency ranges, irrespective of task, convergence or fixation. It is concluded that the frequency content of ocular drift and microtremor reflects the patterning of low-level drives to the extra-ocular muscle motor units.

  8. Update on ocular toxicity of ethambutol

    Priscilla Makunyane


    Full Text Available The purpose of this review is to update clinicians on available literature on the ocular toxicity of ethambutol and the type of eye care to be provided to patients treated with these medications. Ethambutol is a commonly used first-line anti-tuberculosis drug. Since its first use in the 1960s, ocular toxicity is described as related to dose and duration, and it is reversible on therapy discontinuation. However, the reversibility of the toxic optic neuropathy remains controversial. The mechanism of ocular toxicity owing to ethambutol is still under investigation. Other than discontinuing the drug, no specific treatment is available for the optic neuropathy caused by ethambutol. Doctors prescribing ethambutol should be aware of the ocular toxicity, and the drug should be used with proper patient education and ophthalmic monitoring.

  9. Ocular manifestations in systemic lupus erythematosus.

    Silpa-archa, Sukhum; Lee, Joan J; Foster, C Stephen


    Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) can involve many parts of the eye, including the eyelid, ocular adnexa, sclera, cornea, uvea, retina and optic nerve. Ocular manifestations of SLE are common and may lead to permanent blindness from the underlying disease or therapeutic side effects. Keratoconjunctivitis sicca is the most common manifestation. However, vision loss may result from involvement of the retina, choroid and optic nerve. Ocular symptoms are correlated to systemic disease activity and can present as an initial manifestation of SLE. The established treatment includes prompt systemic corticosteroids, steroid-sparing immunosuppressive drugs and biological agents. Local ocular therapies are options with promising efficacy. The early recognition of disease and treatment provides reduction of visual morbidity and mortality.

  10. [Ocular hypertension after surgery for retinal detachment].

    Muşat, O; Cristescu, R; Coman, Corina; Asandi, R


    This papers presents a case of a patient with retinal detachement, 3 days ago operated (posterior vitrectomy internal tamponament with silicon oil 1000) who develop increased ocular pressure following silicon oil output in the anterior chamber.

  11. Ocular morbidity in leprosy patients with lagophthalmos.

    Khandpur, S; Robertson, S J; Rao, P S S


    Lagophthalmos is a well known complication in leprosy due to the involvement of seventh cranial nerve resulting in incomplete closure of the eyelids. The real magnitude of ocular morbidity as a consequence of lagophthalmos is unknown, as several ocular complications can occur independently due to involvement of the fifth (trigeminal) nerve or due to secondary infection. Therefore, a study was designed to carefully examine the eyes of 100 consecutive leprosy patients with lagophthalmos seeking treatment at a leprosy referral centre in Delhi. Among the eyes examined, 145 had lagophthalmos. The symptomatology and anterior-posterior chamber morbidity in eyes with lagophthalmos were significantly higher as compared to unaffected eyes. Significantly, higher morbidity was seen regardless of sex or type of leprosy or deformity. Capacity building of the health professionals regarding ocular morbidity and increased emphasis on the importance of self care among patients can significantly reduce ocular morbidity.

  12. Ocular lesions in free-living raptors.

    Murphy, C J; Kern, T J; McKeever, K; McKeever, L; MacCoy, D


    In a retrospective study, records of 931 raptors admitted to the Avian Clinic at the New York State College of Veterinary Medicine and to the Owl Rehabilitation Research Foundation were evaluated to determine the prevalence, cause, and distribution of ocular lesions. Some form of ocular lesion was identified in 135 (14.5%) birds. Of these, 90% were the result of physical injury. Collisions accounted for 33% of ocular lesions; gunshot wounds accounted for 11%. Unilateral lesions were more common than bilateral lesions, with the anterior segment being most frequently involved. Hyphema was the most common clinical finding. In a prospective study involving raptors admitted to the Avian Clinic from 1980-1982, it was found that 17 of 61 birds (28%) had some form of ocular lesion. The higher prevalence in this study was attributed to a lower proportion of juvenile cases and to increased detection of subtle lesions, especially those involving the posterior segment.

  13. Cisticercosis ocular Ocular cysticercosis: presentation of one case

    David Botero


    Full Text Available

    Se presenta el caso de un paciente con un cisticerco retiniano, tratado sin éxito con praziquantel, quien a los cinco meses del tratamiento presentó fibrosis y desprendimiento de la retina. Se realizó intervención quirúrgica y se encontró el cisticerco vivo. Desde antes de la operación el paciente había perdido la visión por el ojo afectado. Se hace una revisión sobre oftalmocisticercosis y se recomienda tratamiento quirúrgico oportuno y no usar los antihelmínticos con efecto sobre los cisticercos, como son praziquantel y albendazol.

    One case of ocular cysticercosis with retinal involvement, in which praziquantel treatment was ineffective, is presented. Five months after the medical treatment the patient presented with retinal detachment and fibrosis, loss of vision through the affected eye and at that time the parasite was observed alive. Surgical intervention was performed and the recovered cysticercus showed viability. A review on ophtalmocysticercosis is presented and recommendations are made to treat these cases by early surgery without prior administration of anticysticercus drugs such as praziquantel or albendazole.

  14. Prosthetic management of an ocular defect

    Siddesh Kumar Chintal


    Full Text Available The disfigurement associated with the loss of an eye can cause significant physical and emotional problems. Various treatment modalities are available, one of which is implants. Although implant has a superior outcome, it may not be advisable in all patients due to economic factors. The present article describes the prosthetic management of an ocular defect with a custom-made ocular prosthesis.

  15. A case report of ocular toxocariasis

    Azira NMS; Zeehaida M


    Ocular toxocariasis is prevalent among children. The symptoms and signs may mimic other ocular pathologies such as malignancies and other infectious diseases (such as toxoplasmosis and syphilis). We presented a case of progressive blurring of vision in a single eye of a9-year-old boy. The presence of anti-toxocara antibody in serum samples helps to confirmation the diagnosis in our patient. Despite of treatment, the boy had lost his vision on the affected eye.

  16. A case report of ocular toxocariasis

    NMS Azira


    Full Text Available Ocular toxocariasis is prevalent among children. The symptoms and signs may mimic other ocular pathologies such as malignancies and other infectious diseases (such as toxoplasmosis and syphilis. We presented a case of progressive blurring of vision in a single eye of a 9-year-old boy. The presence of anti-toxocara antibody in serum samples helps to confirmation the diagnosis in our patient. Despite of treatment, the boy had lost his vision on the affected eye.

  17. Study of Ocular Changes in Pregnancy

    O K Radhakrishnan; Debapriya Datta; Jyoti Yadav; Priti Kumari; Vasundhara Phillips; Nimrita Nagdev


    Introduction: In pregnancy, women undergo a tremendous number of systemic and ocular changes. Physiological changes occur in the cardiovascular, hormonal, metabolic, hematologic and immunologic systems. Hormonal changes are among the most prominent systemic changes in pregnant women with the placenta, maternal endocrine glands and the fetal adrenal glands combining their productivity to make a high-powered hormone factory. Aims: To evaluate the various ocular changes taking place in pregnancy...

  18. Study of Ocular Changes in Pregnancy

    O K Radhakrishnan; Debapriya Datta; Jyoti Yadav; Priti Kumari; Vasundhara Phillips; Nimrita Nagdev


    Introduction: In pregnancy, women undergo a tremendous number of systemic and ocular changes. Physiological changes occur in the cardiovascular, hormonal, metabolic, hematologic and immunologic systems. Hormonal changes are among the most prominent systemic changes in pregnant women with the placenta, maternal endocrine glands and the fetal adrenal glands combining their productivity to make a high-powered hormone factory. Aims: To evaluate the various ocular changes taking place in pregnancy...

  19. Ocular teratogens: old acquaintances and new dangers.

    Tandon, A; Mulvihill, A


    Recent research into animal studies has contributed significantly to understanding the pathophysiology of some well-known teratogens, such as alcohol. Techniques, such as positron emission tomography (PET) and retinal synaptogenesis studies, have helped determine the specific areas in the developing brain and ocular structures, which are targeted by various teratogens. In this article, we also highlight a few newer agents, such as benzodiazepines, with potential for ocular malformation and morbidity in the developing foetus.

  20. Antibiotic resistance in ocular bacterial pathogens

    S Sharma


    Full Text Available Bacterial infections of the eye are common and ophthalmologists are spoilt for choice with a variety of antibiotics available in the market. Antibiotics can be administered in the eye by a number of routes; topical, subconjunctival, subtenon and intraocular. Apart from a gamut of eye drops available, ophthalmologists also have the option of preparing fortified eye drops from parenteral formulations, thereby, achieving high concentrations; often much above the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC, of antibiotics in ocular tissues during therapy. Antibiotic resistance among ocular pathogens is increasing in parallel with the increase seen over the years in bacteria associated with systemic infections. Although it is believed that the rise in resistant ocular bacterial isolates is linked to the rise in resistant systemic pathogens, recent evidence has correlated the emergence of resistant bacteria in the eye to prior topical antibiotic therapy. One would like to believe that either of these contributes to the emergence of resistance to antibiotics among ocular pathogens. Until recently, ocular pathogens resistant to fluoroquinolones have been minimal but the pattern is currently alarming. The new 8-fluoroquinolone on the scene-besifloxacin, is developed exclusively for ophthalmic use and it is hoped that it will escape the selective pressure for resistance because of lack of systemic use. In addition to development of new antibacterial agents, the strategies to halt or control further development of resistant ocular pathogens should always include judicious use of antibiotics in the treatment of human, animal or plant diseases.

  1. Privately Provided Accommodation Service Quality and Customer Satisfaction

    Joshua Mugambwa; George William Mugerwa; Wilson Williams Mutumba; Claire Muganzi; Bridget Namubiru; Yusuf Waswa; Isaac Newton Kayongo


    .... This research took a case study of Nsamizi Training Institute of Social Development (NTISD) to determine the relationship between privately provided accommodation service quality and customer satisfaction...

  2. Can Partial Structures Accommodate Inconsistent Science?

    Peter Vickers


    Full Text Available The semantic approach to scientific representation is now long established as a favourite amongst philosophers of science. One of the foremost strains of this approach—the model-theoretic approach (MTA—is to represent scientific theories as families of models, all of which satisfy or ‘make true’ a given set of constraints. However some authors (Brown 2002, Frisch 2005 have criticised the approach on the grounds that certain scientific theories are logically inconsistent, and there can be no models of an inconsistent set of constraints. Thus it would seem that the MTA fails to represent inconsistent scientific theories at all, and this raises concerns about the way it represents in general. In a series of papers (1990, 1993, 1995 and a recent book (2003 da Costa and French have developed a variant of the MTA approach which they call ‘partial structures’, and which they claim can accommodate inconsistent theories. I assess this claim, looking to two theories which have been called ‘inconsistent’: Bohr’s theory of the atom and classical electrodynamics.

  3. Ocular biometric changes after trabeculectomy

    Azam Alvani


    Full Text Available This review article aimed to evaluate ocular biometric changes after trabeculectomy. The PubMed database was searched using the keywords “axial length” (AL, “anterior chamber depth” (ACD, “corneal astigmatism,” “corneal topography” and “trabeculectomy.” The extracted studies were categorized based on the evaluated parameters and the biometry method (contact and non-contact. Comparable studies with respect to their sample size were combined for statistical analysis. Twenty-five studies including 690 individuals which met the inclusion criteria were selected. After trabeculectomy, a significant and persistent AL reduction, with a range of 0.1-0.19 and 0.1-0.9 mm measured with contact and non-contact methods, respectively, was observed. With respect to topographic changes, 0.38-1.4 diopters (D with-the-rule (WTR astigmatism was induced postoperatively. All studies revealed ACD reduction immediately after surgery, which gradually deepened and approximated its preoperative levels on day 14. ACD reduction was not significant after that period in the majority of cases. In conclusion, changes in ACD is of small amount and of short period, thus it can be ignored; however, reported changes in AL and keratometry are of sufficient magnitude and can affect the refractive prediction of combined cataract surgery and trabeculectomy.

  4. Ocular manifestations of pigmentary disorders.

    Park, S; Albert, D M; Bolognia, J L


    Disorders of pigmentation can result from either an abnormal number of melanocytes, as in nevus of Ota and vitiligo, or an abnormal amount of melanin production, as in albinism. Melanin-producing cells are found in the skin, mucous membranes, uveal tract, and retinal pigment epithelium of the eye and the stria vascularis of the inner ear. Thus, many of the hereditary or congenital pigmentary disorders of the skin are associated with similar pigmentary abnormalities in the eye, such as iris heterochromia or changes in pigmentation of the fundus; however, more commonly, the associated eye finding is a defect in ocular motility, i.e., strabismus and nystagmus, suggesting a concomitant defect in neurologic development. In albinos, the observed neurologic abnormality in the visual pathway and foveal hypoplasia are hypothesized to be related directly to the lack of melanin in the pigment epithelium during development. In acquired disorders of pigmentation, in particular, vitiligo, Vogt-Koyanagi-Harada syndrome, and onchocerciasis, there is a frequent association with uveitis, suggesting an inflammatory cause for the cutaneous pigmentary changes.

  5. Ocular microtremor laser speckle metrology

    Al-Kalbani, M.; Mihaylova, E.; Collins, N.; Toal, V.; Coakley, D.; Boyle, G.


    Ocular Microtremor (OMT) is a continual, high frequency physiological tremor of the eye present in all subjects even when the eye is apparently at rest. OMT causes a peak to peak displacement of around 150nm-2500nm with a broadband frequency spectrum between 30Hz to 120Hz; with a peak at about 83Hz. OMT carries useful clinical information on depth of consciousness and on some neurological disorders. Nearly all quantitative clinical investigations have been based on OMT measurements using an eye contacting piezoelectric probe which has low clinical acceptability. Laser speckle metrology is a candidate for a high resolution, non-contacting, compact, portable OMT measurement technique. However, tear flow and biospeckle might be expected to interfere with the displacement information carried by the speckle. The paper investigates the properties of the scattered speckle of laser light (λ = 632.8nm) from the eye sclera to assess the feasibility of using speckle techniques to measure OMT such as the speckle correlation. The investigation is carried using a high speed CMOS video camera adequate to capture the high frequency of the tremor. The investigation is supported by studies using an eye movement simulator (a bovine sclera driven by piezoelectric bimorphs). The speckle contrast and the frame to frame spatiotemporal variations are analyzed to determine if the OMT characteristics are detectable within speckle changes induced by the biospeckle or other movements.

  6. Categorical evaluation of the ocular irritancy of cosmetic and consumer products by human ocular instillation procedures.

    Gao, Yang; Kanengiser, Bruce E


    The assessment of ocular irritation potential is an important part of safety testing for cosmetic and consumer products. The purpose of this investigation was to examine ocular irritancy levels elicited in humans by various categories of a specific class of cosmetic and consumer products that have a potential to enter the eye inadvertently during use. Test materials assessed belonged to one of seven categories, which included liquid makeup, shampoo, baby wash, mascara, eye makeup remover, powder eye shadow, and facial cleanser. These test materials were evaluated by human ocular instillation, followed by examinations, for which subjective perceptions of irritation were recorded, and component areas of ocular tissues were individually examined for inflammation and for the area and density of fluorescein staining patterns at 30 seconds and at 5, 15, 60, and 120 minutes post-instillation. Subjective and objective ocular irritation scores of 410 eyes were analyzed by product classification. Average score levels were determined for subjective responses, inflammation, and fluorescein staining patterns. This investigation determined that irritation levels of the evaluated test materials varied markedly with respect to product category, type of ocular irritation, and ocular tissue, demonstrating that these factors are important considerations for the prediction of the ocular irritancy of a test material.

  7. Estudio sobre traumatismos oculares Study on ocular traumas

    Ileana Miguel Pérez


    Full Text Available Se realizó estudio retrospectivo longitudinal de pacientes con traumatismos oculares mecánicos hospitalizados en el Instituto Superior de Medicina Militar "Dr. Luis Díaz Soto", desde 1988 hasta el 2002, con una casuística de 508 ojos de 479 pacientes. El procesamiento estadístico fue realizado con el mismo programa automatizado con el que se conformó la base de datos (Acces y se utilizaron de acuerdo con las características de las variables ß analizadas métodos estadísticos paramétricos y no paramétricos con una confiabilidad de un 95 % (a =0,05. Se obtiene una relación de 4:1 de predominio del sexo masculino, con una edad promedio de 27,4 años con valor mínimo de 2 años y máximo de 78 años. Los mecanismos más frecuentes de producción del accidente resultaron ser: las armas de fuego (22,7 % y la acción de martillar (21,4 %, teniendo en cuenta que el 38,2 % de los pacientes fueron militares. Las lesiones asociadas a los traumatismos más frecuentes resultaron ser el hipema y el hemovítreo, y se demostró que a medida que eran mayores disminuía considerablemente la agudeza visual final. Los traumatismos cerrados (41,3 % fueron más frecuentes y tuvieron mejores resultados visuales finales (66,7 % con visión mayor de 0.1 que el resto de los grupos de traumatismos abiertos (herida simple, contusión-herida, herida con CEIO y contusión-herida con CEIO. Las contusiones-heridas con CEIO fueron provocados en su mayoría por las armas de fuego y tuvieron los peores resultados visuales (60,5 % con visión menor de 0.1. La afectación del segmento posterior resultó ser un elemento que influyó de forma importante en los resultados visuales. Las complicaciones más frecuentes para los traumatismos cerrados fueron la hipertensión secundaria la catarata y el desprendimiento de retina. Para las heridas simples la catarata y para el resto de los traumatismos el desprendimiento de retina y la ptisis bulbi. Aproximadamente el 15 % de

  8. Effect of Vision Therapy on Accommodation in Myopic Chinese Children

    Martin Ming-Leung Ma


    Full Text Available Introduction. We evaluated the effectiveness of office-based accommodative/vergence therapy (OBAVT with home reinforcement to improve accommodative function in myopic children with poor accommodative response. Methods. This was a prospective unmasked pilot study. 14 Chinese myopic children aged 8 to 12 years with at least 1 D of lag of accommodation were enrolled. All subjects received 12 weeks of 60-minute office-based accommodative/vergence therapy (OBAVT with home reinforcement. Primary outcome measure was the change in monocular lag of accommodation from baseline visit to 12-week visit measured by Shinnipon open-field autorefractor. Secondary outcome measures were the changes in accommodative amplitude and monocular accommodative facility. Results. All participants completed the study. The lag of accommodation at baseline visit was 1.29 ± 0.21 D and it was reduced to 0.84 ± 0.19 D at 12-week visit. This difference (−0.46 ± 0.22 D; 95% confidence interval: −0.33 to −0.58 D is statistically significant (p<0.0001. OBAVT also increased the amplitude and facility by 3.66 ± 3.36 D (p=0.0013; 95% confidence interval: 1.72 to 5.60 D and 10.9 ± 4.8 cpm (p<0.0001; 95% confidence interval: 8.1 to 13.6 cpm, respectively. Conclusion. Standardized 12 weeks of OBAVT with home reinforcement is able to significantly reduce monocular lag of accommodation and increase monocular accommodative amplitude and facility. A randomized clinical trial designed to investigate the effect of vision therapy on myopia progression is warranted.

  9. Study of Ocular Changes in Pregnancy

    O K Radhakrishnan


    Full Text Available Introduction: In pregnancy, women undergo a tremendous number of systemic and ocular changes. Physiological changes occur in the cardiovascular, hormonal, metabolic, hematologic and immunologic systems. Hormonal changes are among the most prominent systemic changes in pregnant women with the placenta, maternal endocrine glands and the fetal adrenal glands combining their productivity to make a high-powered hormone factory. Aims: To evaluate the various ocular changes taking place in pregnancy in women with no other co-morbid ocular or systemic diseases and to compare ocular changes in three trimesters of pregnancy with controls of non pregnant women. Materials and Methods: The ocular changes occuring in varying stages of pregnancy in 225 pregnant women were studied and compared with 75 healthy non pregnant women. Results: Age was similar in the pregnant and non pregnant women studied. Headache was significantly more common among pregnant women when compared to non pregnant women. Diplopia was not significantly different between pregnant and non pregnant women. Intraocular pressure was significantly less among the pregnant women as compared to non pregnant women. Occurrence of conjunctival pigmentation was significantly more in pregnant women when compared to non pregnant women. There was no difference in corneal thickness when pregnant and non pregnant women were compared. Krukenberg's spindles were seen more commonly among pregnant women when compared to non pregnant women. Conclusion: Various ocular changes occur during a normal pregnancy. Knowledge of these changes can help to differentiate the physiological changes occurring in a normal pregnancy from ocular manifestation of systemic diseases. [Natl J Med Res 2016; 6(1.000: 1-4

  10. Ocular Neuromyotonia Associated with Chronic Inflammatory Demyelinating Polyneuropathy.

    Kung, Nathan H; Bucelli, Robert C; McClelland, Collin M; Van Stavern, Gregory P


    Ocular neuromyotonia (ONM) is a neuro-ophthalmic disorder characterized by episodic diplopia caused by contraction of one or more ocular muscles due to spontaneous excitation of the respective ocular motor nerve. We report a patient whose ocular neuromyotonia arose in the setting of a subacute demyelinating polyneuropathy consistent with chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy (CIDP) and subsequently resolved following the initiation of intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIg) for her neuropathy. Our patient provides additional evidence towards the role of demyelination and ephaptic neurotransmission in ocular neuromyotonia and also represents the first reported case of ocular neuromyotonia associated with a systemic neurological condition.

  11. ATHENA: system studies and optics accommodation

    Ayre, M.; Bavdaz, M.; Ferreira, I.; Wille, E.; Fransen, S.; Stefanescu, A.; Linder, M.


    ATHENA is currently in Phase A, with a view to adoption upon a successful Mission Adoption Review in 2019/2020. After a brief presentation of the reference spacecraft (SC) design, this paper will focus on the functional and environmental requirements, the thermo-mechanical design and the Assembly, Integration, Verification & Test (AIVT) considerations related to housing the Silicon Pore Optics (SPO) Mirror Modules (MM) in the very large Mirror Assembly Module (MAM). Initially functional requirements on the MM accommodation are presented, with the Effective Area and Half Energy Width (HEW) requirements leading to a MAM comprising (depending on final mirror size selected) between 700-1000 MMs, co-aligned with exquisite accuracy to provide a common focus. A preliminary HEW budget allocated across the main error-contributors is presented, and this is then used as a reference to derive subsequent requirements and engineering considerations, including: The procedures and technologies for MM-integration into the Mirror Structure (MS) to achieve the required alignment accuracies in a timely manner; stiffness requirements and handling scheme required to constrain deformation under gravity during x-ray testing; temperature control to constrain thermo-elastic deformation during flight; and the role of the Instrument Switching Mechanism (ISM) in constraining HEW and Effective Area errors. Next, we present the key environmental requirements of the MMs, and the need to minimise shock-loading of the MMs is stressed. Methods to achieve this Ø are presented, including: Selection of a large clamp-band launch vehicle interface (LV I/F); lengthening of the shock-path from the LV I/F to the MAM I/F; modal-tuning of the MAM to act as a low-pass filter during launch shock events; use of low-shock HDRMs for the MAM; and the possibility to deploy a passive vibration solution at the LV I/F to reduce loads.

  12. Severe symptoms of short tear break-up time dry eye are associated with accommodative microfluctuations

    Kaido M


    Full Text Available Minako Kaido,1,2 Motoko Kawashima,1 Reiko Ishida,1,3 Kazuo Tsubota1 1Department of Ophthalmology, Keio University School of Medicine, Tokyo, 2Wada Eye Clinic, Chiba, 3Ishida Eye Clinic, Shizuoka, Japan Aim: Validating the hypothesis that accommodative microfluctuations (AMFs may be associated with severe symptoms in short tear break-up time (BUT dry eye (DE. Methods: This study included 12 subjects with short BUT DE (age: 49.6±18.3 years. Diagnoses were performed based on the presence of DE symptoms, BUT ≤5 s, Schirmer score >5 mm, and negative keratoconjunctival epithelial damage. Tear evaluation, AMF, and functional visual acuity (VA examinations were conducted before and after DE treatment. The AMF parameters evaluated were: total high-frequency component (HFC, HFC with low accommodation for the task of staring into the distance (HFC1, HFC with high accommodation for deskwork (HFC2. A subjective questionnaire of DE symptoms was also performed. Results: Mean BUT increased from 1.9±2.0 to 6.4±2.5 s after treatment (P<0.05. The mean logarithm of the minimum angle of resolution functional VA significantly improved (from 0.19±0.19 to 0.12±0.17; P<0.05. Mean power spectrum values for total HFC and HFC1 decreased (from 61.3±5.7 to 53.8±6.6 dB and from 62.9±10.5 to 52.4±6.2 dB, respectively; P<0.05, while the mean HFC2 power spectrum values did not differ before and after treatment (P>0.05. Subjective DE symptoms were reduced in nine patients. Conclusion: Along with the improvement of BUT after treatment, DE symptoms diminished and HFC1 and functional VA improved, suggesting that tear film instability is associated with deterioration of functional VA, AMF, and DE symptoms. Keywords: accommodative microfluctuation, ciliary muscle spasm, dry eye, ocular fatigue, tear break-up time, functional visual acuity 

  13. Accommodating World Englishes in Developing EFL Learners' Oral Communication

    Mukminatien, Nur


    This article aims to discuss issues of World Englishes (WEs) and the implications in ELT. It explores the extent to which WEs are taken into account as emerging English varieties different from inner circle varieties, how WEs should be accommodated by English teachers, and which standard to adopt to accommodate learner's linguistic needs for…

  14. Making Accommodations: The Legal World of Students with Disabilities.

    Grossman, Paul D.


    Describes the legal requirements with which institutions of higher education must comply regarding students with disabilities. Addresses the topics of equal access, degree of deference toward institutions' accommodations decisions, documentation, types of accommodation, and benefits to the academic community from inclusion of people with…

  15. Evaluating Computer-Based Test Accommodations for English Learners

    Roohr, Katrina Crotts; Sireci, Stephen G.


    Test accommodations for English learners (ELs) are intended to reduce the language barrier and level the playing field, allowing ELs to better demonstrate their true proficiencies. Computer-based accommodations for ELs show promising results for leveling that field while also providing us with additional data to more closely investigate the…

  16. School Boarding Accommodation. A Design Guide. Building Bulletin 84.

    Wilson, Jeremy; Lloyd-Jones, Liz; Carden, Tom; Daniels, Richard; Fitzgerald, Brian; Maddick, Jenny

    This bulletin contains on-statutory guidance describing good practice and its implications for boarding accommodation to assist those responsible for briefing and designing boarding accommodations across all school sectors. It offers practical advice and illustrates examples that reflect changes in provision which are thought to be acceptable and…

  17. The Evolution of the Number of Tourists accommodated in Arad

    Sergiu Rusu


    Full Text Available The paper analyses the evolution of the number of tourists accommodated in Arad between January 2006 and September 2009. For this purpose we have used the statistics data from the official sites. As variables we chose: X – independent variable - Total tourist arrival and accommodated in Arad, Y - dependent variable - Tourists staying in hotels.

  18. Privately Provided Accommodation Service Quality and Customer Satisfaction

    Joshua Mugambwa


    Full Text Available Privately provided accommodation is a growing service in Uganda’s higher education sector due to education liberalization and demand for education. This research took a case study of Nsamizi Training Institute of Social Development (NTISD to determine the relationship between privately provided accommodation service quality and customer satisfaction. Specifically, the objectives of the study were (a to find out the relationship between security and NTISD students’ satisfaction with privately provided accommodation, and (b to find out the hierarchical level of importance of NTISD student satisfaction of the three service quality dimensions (reliability, security, and tangibles with privately provided accommodation. Using quantitative and qualitative modes of data analysis and a sample of 300 students from 20 private hostels, this study established a strong positive significant relationship between security and satisfaction regarding privately provided accommodation. This implies that accommodation service providers should increase the quality of security so as to increase the satisfaction of students regarding privately provided accommodation. The study established the hierarchical order of importance from the most important service quality dimension, respectively, as follows: reliability, security, and tangibles. Therefore, private accommodation service managers should pay extra attention to the dimensions in the same order.

  19. Regional Sign Language Varieties in Contact: Investigating Patterns of Accommodation

    Stamp, Rose; Schembri, Adam; Evans, Bronwen G.; Cormier, Kearsy


    Short-term linguistic accommodation has been observed in a number of spoken language studies. The first of its kind in sign language research, this study aims to investigate the effects of regional varieties in contact and lexical accommodation in British Sign Language (BSL). Twenty-five participants were recruited from Belfast, Glasgow,…

  20. Ocular changes in primary hypothyroidism

    Pekel Hamiyet


    Full Text Available Abstract Background To determine the ocular changes related to hypothyrodism in newly diagnosed patients without orbitopathy. Findings Thirty-three patients diagnosed to have primary overt hypothyroidism were enrolled in the study. All subjects were assigned to underwent central corneal thickness (CCT, anterior chamber volume, depth and angle measurements with the Scheimpflug camera (Pentacam, Oculus and cup to disc ratio (C/D, mean retinal thickness and mean retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL thickness measurements with optical coherence tomography (OCT in addition to ophthalmological examination preceeding the replacement therapy and at the 1st, 3rd and 6th months of treatment. The mean age of the patients included in the study were 40.58 ± 1.32 years. The thyroid hormone levels return to normal levels in all patients during the follow-up period, however the mean intraocular pressure (IOP revealed no significant change. The mean CCT was 538.05 ± 3.85 μ initially and demonstrated no statistically significant change as the anterior chamber volume, depth and angle measurements did. The mean C/D ratio was 0.29 ± 0.03 and the mean retinal thickness was 255.83 ± 19.49 μ initially and the treatment did not give rise to any significant change. The mean RNFL thickness was also stable during the control visits, so no statistically significant change was encountered. Conclusions Neither hypothyroidism, nor its replacement therapy gave rise to any change of IOP, CCT, anterior chamber parameters, RNFL, retinal thickness and C/D ratio.

  1. Ocular lesions and experimental choline deficiency Lesiones oculares y deficiencia experimental de colina

    Georgina P. Ossani


    Full Text Available Previous studies have shown ocular haemorrhages in choline-deficient rats. The aim of this paper is to study further the relationship between ocular and renal lesions and biochemical alterations in rats fed a choline-deficient diet. Fifty one weanling male Wistar rats, were divided into two groups. Thirty one of them were fed a choline-deficient diet and the rest was fed a choline-supplemented diet ad libitum. Animals from both groups were killed between the fifth and the eighth day. Urea, creatinine and homocysteine concentrations in blood were determined. Eyes were used for light microscopy study; high resolution light microscopy and the study of the retina as "rétine a plat". Kidneys were studied by light microscopy. Choline-supplemented rats did not show ocular or renal lesion. Choline-deficient rats that showed renal lesions, tubular or cortical necrosis, did not always have ocular changes. There were no ocular changes in the only choline-deficient rat without renal lesion. The ocular changes consisted mainly in haemorrhage in both cameras and ciliary and vitreous bodies. Correlations between ocular and renal lesion (r=0.72, pEstudios previos han demostrado hemorragia ocular en ratas deficientes en colina. El objetivo de este trabajo es profundizar en la relación entre las alteraciones oculares, renales y bioquímicas en ratas deficientes en colina. Cincuenta y una ratas Wistar macho recién destetadas fueron divididas en dos grupos: treinta y una fueron alimentadas con una dieta colino deficiente y el resto con colina suplementada ad-libitum. Los animales de ambos grupos fueron sacrificados entre el quinto y el octavo día. Se midió la concentración de urea, creatinina y homocisteína en sangre. Los ojos fueron estudiados por microscopía de luz, microscopía óptica de alta resolución y para el estudio de la retina como retina plana. Los riñones fueron estudiados por microscopía de luz. Las ratas suplementadas con colina no

  2. Ocular syphilis presenting as unilateral chorioretinitis

    Anand Pai


    Full Text Available Syphilis is a multi systemic infection caused by Treponema pallidum. Ocular manifestations of Syphilis have a myriad of presentations and severity. A 31year old male patient was referred from ophthalmology department as a case of chorioretinitis for screening for syphilis. Patient had diminished vision and redness of right eye for 2 months duration. History of premarital exposure and extramarital contact was present. Ocular examination revealed - Rt eye: conjunctival congestion and Argyll Robertson pupil; Lt eye: normal. Fundoscopy of right eye showed yellowish white retinal lesions, macular edema and hyperaemia and left eye was normal .No genital lesion, scars or cutaneous lesion was present.VDRL was reactive in 1 dilution,TPHA was positive ; HIV test was negative ; CSF revealed VDRL - Negative and TPHA -Negative.Patient was treated with Injection procaine penicillin 1.2 Million units intramuscularly daily for 21 days. The patient responded well to treatment and there was improvement in his vision. Ocular Syphilis can occur at any stage of Syphilis and may be the only presenting sign. Syphilis serology was positive confirming the disease.This case highlights the importance of syphilis with ocular manifestation - there by proving that diagnosis of syphilis based on ocular finding is clinically challenging.

  3. [Ocular ischemic syndrome--a case report].

    Zemba, M; Avram, Corina Ioana; Ochinciuc, Uliana; Stamate, Alina Cristina; Camburu, Raluca Lăcrămioara


    Ocular ischemic syndrome, also known as hypoperfusion/ hypotensive retinopathy or as ischemic oculopathy is a rare ocular disease determined by chronic arterial hypoperfusion through central retinal artery, posterior and anterior ciliary arteries. It is bilateral in 20% of the cases. Most often it appears due to severe occlusion of the carotid arteries (ICA, MCA>ECA), described in 1963 by Kearns and Hollenhorst. Occasionally it can be determined by the obstruction of ophtalmic artery or some arterities (Takayasu, giant cell arteritis). The risk factors are: age between 50-80 years, males (M:F = 2:1), arterial hypertension, diabetes, coronary diseases (5% of the cases develop ocular ischemic syndrome), vascular stroke, hemodialysis. The case we present is of an 63 years old man known with primary arterial hypertension, hypercholesterolemia, diabetes type 2 non insulin dependent and diagnosticated with ischemic cerebral stroke and bilateral obstruction of internal carotid arteries in march 2010, who is presenting for visual impairment in both eyes. The imaging investigations show important carotid occlusion and at the ophthalmologic evaluation there are ocular hypertension and rubeosis iridis at the right eye, optic atrophy at both eyes (complete in the right eye and partial in the left eye), with superior altitudinal visual field defect in left eye. The following diagnosis was established: Chronic ocular ischemic syndrome in both eyes with Neovascular glaucoma at the right eye, Anterior ischemic optic neuropathy at the left eye and laser panphotocoagulation at the right eye was started.

  4. Ocular manifestations of inflammatory bowel disease.

    Thomas, Akshay S; Lin, Phoebe


    Extraintestinal manifestations (EIMs) of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) are numerous and can often involve the eye. This review highlights the ocular complications associated with IBD including the critical role the ophthalmologist can play in the diagnosis of IBD, the pathogenesis of IBD, its ocular complications, and the treatment of ocular inflammation associated with IBD. Polygenic and environmental influences, as well as gut microbial dysbiosis, have been implicated in the pathogenesis of IBD. IBD and its EIMs appear to respond well to TNFα-targeted biologics. IBD is thought to be caused by polygenic and environmental influences, including a dysbiotic gut microbiota. It is a systemic immune-mediated disease with varying types of ocular manifestations that can precede, occur simultaneously, or follow intestinal involvement. The diagnosis of IBD can be confused with other seronegative spondyloarthropathies as well as Behçet's disease. Treatment of IBD-associated ocular inflammation can range from corticosteroids to steroid-sparing immunosuppression such as azathioprine or methotrexate. Refractory disease can respond well to TNFα inhibitors.

  5. Ocular pharmacokinetics of thiamphenicol in rabbits.

    Aldana, I; Fos, D; Gonzalez Peñas, E; Gazzaniga, A; Gianesello, V; Ceppi Monti, N; Figini, P G; Zato, M A; Bruseghini, L; Esteras, A


    The ocular pharmacokinetics of thiamphenicol (TAP, CAS 15318-45-3) was studied in rabbits by means of the assessment of its ocular and systemic absorption, and urinary excretion after instillation of 0.5% TAP eye drops. TAP concentrations in aqueous humor, plasma and urine were evaluated by a coupled LC/GC method (detection limit = 0.1 ng/ml), because the necessity to have a technique much more sensitive than the traditional chromatographic ones available in order to quantify the very low drug concentrations in biological fluids produced by the ocular treatment, and generally by a topical administration. The intravenous route was chosen as reference and allowed the absolute bioavailability to be estimated. TAP proved to be well absorbed through the cornea with the peak aqueous humor concentration of 110 ng/ml at 45 min following the instillation. The good ocular absorption of TAP was confirmed by the plasma concentrations observed after instillation of 0.5% eye drops. In any case, these concentrations were more than 1000 times lower than those observed after the intravenous treatment at the dose normally used for infectious diseases, allowing to exclude any systemic toxicity of TAP eye drops. The absolute ocular bioavailability was 16.2% when estimated from the AUC values and 34.0% from the cumulative urinary excretion values.

  6. Impacts of Nanomedicines in Ocular Pharmacotherapy

    Jaleh Barar


    Full Text Available Introduction: The integrity of the cells/tissues in anterior and/or posterior segments of the eye plays a crucial role in biofunctions of the vision. To maintain ocular homeostasis, selective restrictiveness of the ophthalmic membranes and barriers control must act on shuttling of biomolecules. Thus, not all attempts to apply de novo nanotechnology approaches for ocular pharmacotherapy have met with the same successes as those cited here in this review, and sometimes these novel technologies tools provoke a great deal of challenges and hurdles mainly because of functional presence of these barriers. Methods: Recent published articles related to application of ocular nanomedicines were reviewed and highlighted in this review article. Results: It seems the emergence of nanomedicines have arisen great hopes for ophthalmic pharmacotherapy, in which nanostructured medicines are expected to be able to cross the restrictive barriers of the eye. Although such fast inauguration of ocular nanomedicines will literally convey new challenges in the regulatory and translational processes, it will also grant a prolific platform from which many exciting, and yet unimagined, applications of biomedical nanotechnology will emerge for pharmacotherapy of the eye. Conclusion: This review provide recent advancements on ocular nanomedicines.

  7. Ocular dermoid in Pai Syndrome: A review.

    Tormey, Peter; Bilic Cace, Iva; Boyle, Michael A


    Pai Syndrome is a rare congenital malformation syndrome of unknown cause with hypertelorism, midline cleft lip, nasal and facial polyps, ocular anomalies and the presence of distinctive lipomas adjacent to the corpus callosum. Herein, we present an infant girl with Pai Syndrome diagnosed in the first week of life with typical facial findings and associated pericallosal lipoma identified on cranial ultrasound and brain MRI. These typical features identified included median cleft of the upper lip (in her case as a forme fruste) with a cleft alveolus and a mid-anterior alveolar process congenital polyp. In addition to these findings there was mild hypertelorism and an ocular abnormality on the right eye. An ophthalmology assessment on day 5 identified the ocular lesion as a limbal dermoid. Several ocular anomalies have been reported in association with Pai Syndrome, however, dermoids have not been frequently described in this Syndrome and not before in a limbal location. Increasing identification of previously unreported ocular abnormalities in Pai Syndrome may improve diagnosis and may prove useful in future work attempting to elucidate the aetiology of this rare syndrome.

  8. Treatment options for ocular adnexal lymphoma (OAL

    Victoria Mary Lendrum Cohen


    Full Text Available Victoria Mary Lendrum CohenSt. Bartholomew’s and Moorfields Eye Hospital, London UKAbstract: Most lymphomas that involve the ocular adnexal structure are low grade, B cell, non-Hodgkin’s lymphomas. The treatment depends upon the grade and stage of the disease. High grade lymhoma requires treatment with systemic chemotherapy whereas the localized low grade (extranodal marginal zone lymphoma can be successfully managed with local radiotherapy. Chlamydia psittaci infection is associated with low grade ocular lymphoma; however there is wide geographic variation in the strength of this association. Blanket antibiotic therapy is not advised unless there is proof of an infective agent. The monoclonal antibody, rituximab, may be successful for CD20 positive lymphoma, although it is likely that rituximab will have better long-term results when used in combination with systemic chemotherapy.Keywords: ocular adnexal lymphoma, mucosa associated lymphoid tissue, extranodal marginal zone lymphoma, Chlamydia psittaci, rituximab, radiotherapy, chemotherapy

  9. Ocular immunopathologic findings of experimental onchocerciasis.

    Donnelly, J J; Rockey, J H; Bianco, A E; Soulsby, E J


    Ocular immunopathologic responses of inbred guinea pigs infected with Onchocerca microfilariae from domesticated animals were studied as a laboratory model of human ocular onchocerciasis. A single intracorneal infection of normal guinea pigs with microfilariae produced only minimal ocular lesions. In contrast, intracorneal infection of guinea pigs previously immunized by systemic infection with microfilariae produced intense corneal and uveal inflammation. Transfer of splenic lymphocytes from immunized donors to syngeneic normal recipients substituted effectively for the active immunization. Cell recipients produced marked corneal inflammatory reactions when challenged by a single intracorneal infection. Fresh and cryopreserved microfilariae produced identical reactions. The corneal inflammatory infiltrates were composed primarily of eosinophils, neutrophils, and plasma cells and resembled human onchocercal keratitis. Diethylcarbamazine citrate administration after a challenge intracorneal infection increased the severity of the corneal inflammatory response in immunized animals.

  10. Recent Advances in Ocular Drug Delivery Systems

    Shinobu Fujii


    Full Text Available Transport of drugs applied by traditional dosage forms is restricted to the eye, and therapeutic drug concentrations in the target tissues are not maintained for a long duration since the eyes are protected by a unique anatomy and physiology. For the treatment of the anterior segment of the eye, various droppable products to prolong the retention time on the ocular surface have been introduced in the market. On the other hand, direct intravitreal implants, using biodegradable or non-biodegradable polymer technology, have been widely investigated for the treatment of chronic vitreoretinal diseases. There is urgent need to develop ocular drug delivery systems which provide controlled release for the treatment of chronic diseases, and increase patient’s and doctor’s convenience to reduce the dosing frequency and invasive treatment. In this article, progress of ocular drug delivery systems under clinical trials and in late experimental stage is reviewed.

  11. Lymphocyte transformation in presumed ocular histoplasmosis

    Ganley, J.P.; Nemo, G.J.; Comstock, G.W.; Brody, J.A.


    Lymphocytes from individuals with inactive macular disciform lesions of presumed ocular histoplasmosis challenged with three histoplasmin antigens incorporated tritiated thymidine at a significantly higher rate than histoplasmin-stimulated lymphocytes of matched control and peripheral scar groups. This finding is consistent with the etiologic association of the disciform ocular syndrome and previous systemic infection with Histoplasma capsulatum. The disciform group had a higher mean response than the other two groups to pokeweed mitogen but not to phytohemagglutinin and had higher mean counts per minute to the specific antigens Toxoplasma gondii, Blastomyces dermatitidis, Cryptococcus neoformans, Mycobacterium tuberculosis, M battery, and M gaus, but not to Candida albicans. These data would suggest that individuals with the disciform lesion of presumed ocular histoplasmosis have a hyperreactive cellular immune response; this response may play an important role in the development of the disciform.

  12. Ocular Fundus Photography as an Educational Tool.

    Mackay, Devin D; Garza, Philip S


    The proficiency of nonophthalmologists with direct ophthalmoscopy is poor, which has prompted a search for alternative technologies to examine the ocular fundus. Although ocular fundus photography has existed for decades, its use has been traditionally restricted to ophthalmology clinical care settings and textbooks. Recent research has shown a role for nonmydriatic fundus photography in nonophthalmic settings, encouraging more widespread adoption of fundus photography technology. Recent studies have also affirmed the role of fundus photography as an adjunct or alternative to direct ophthalmoscopy in undergraduate medical education. In this review, the authors examine the use of ocular fundus photography as an educational tool and suggest future applications for this important technology. Novel applications of fundus photography as an educational tool have the potential to resurrect the dying art of funduscopy.

  13. Pediatric ocular trauma--a clinical presentation.

    Dasgupta S


    Full Text Available A year long study of ocular injuries in children below the age of 15 years was conducted in the Ophthalmology Department of a general hospital. Fortyfour cases were studied. Of these 45.45% were in the age group of 6-10 years. The male to female ratio was 5.28 : 1. Pointed objects viz. sticks, wires etc. were found to be the common causative agents; the recent trend being of bow and arrow injuries. Ocular perforation was observed in 28 cases. On follow up of all the cases with ocular trauma, only 12 patients were found to have a visual acuity better than 6/18; perception of light was absent in 7 patients. A need for increased parental awareness and supervision of children is stressed upon.

  14. Pattern of ocular trauma seen in Grarbet Hospital, Butajira, Central ...

    Bernt Lindtjorn

    Objective: To evaluate the epidemiology and outcome of ocular trauma cases presented to Grarbet Hospital in central. Ethiopia .... unknown. Alcohol or drug abuse leading to ocular injury ..... childhood: demography, etiology, and prevention.

  15. [Ocular perfusion pressure and its relevance for glaucoma].

    Schmidl, D; Werkmeister, R; Garhöfer, G; Schmetterer, L


    Ocular perfusion pressure is defined as the difference between arterial and venous pressure in ocular vessels. In practice, mean arterial pressure is used to substitute for arterial pressure in ocular vessels while intraocular pressure gives an estimate for ocular venous pressure. This results in a value that is easy to calculate and which is of importance since several studies have shown that it is correlated to the prevalence, incidence and progression of primary open angle glaucoma. Today, ocular perfusion pressure is used to estimate individual risks. Since no target value for ocular perfusion pressure can be defined, direct therapeutic intervention is difficult. Still, it has to be kept in mind that lowering intraocular pressure automatically leads to an increase in ocular perfusion pressure. The present article also points out problems and limitations in the concept of ocular perfusion pressure and suggests possible solutions for these problems in the future.

  16. Short Term Effect of Exercise on Intraocular Pressure of Ocular ...

    Short Term Effect of Exercise on Intraocular Pressure of Ocular Hypertensive Subjects. ... AFRICAN JOURNALS ONLINE (AJOL) · Journals · Advanced Search ... Keywords: Intraocular pressure; short term exercise; ocular hypertension.


    Mulla Summaiya A


    Full Text Available Background: Isolation of common pathogens involved in ocular infection and their in-vitro susceptibility to commonly used ocular antibiotics, as well as the trends in antibiotic resistance developed by these pathogens were investigated. Material/Methods: All patients with suspected bacterial ocular infections presenting between march 2010 and feb 2011 were examined under slit lamp microscope and samples were collected by using aseptic techniques. All samples were processed for direct microscopy, culture and identification by standard methods. Susceptibility testing was done by Kirby-Bauer method as per CLSI guideline. Results: Out of 116 patients with ocular infections 130 samples were collected, from which 38 different organisms were isolated. Gram-positive cocci 21 (55%, gram-negative cocco-bacilli 5(31% and gram-negative bacilli 12 (32% were isolated. Coagulase negative Staphylococci (37% and Pseudomonas species (21% were the most commonly-isolated. Gatifloxacin has highest efficacy (89% against all isolates. Majority of gram positive cocci were susceptible to vancomycin, gatifloxacin, cefazolin, gram negative cocco-bacilli to amikacin, tobramycin, fluoroquinolone and gram negative bacilli to gatifloxacin. Conclusion: Majority of ocular infection is caused by gram positive organisms which were susceptible to vancomycin followed by gram negative organisms susceptible to amikacin, fluoroquinolone, gram negative cocco-bacilli to amikacin and tobramycin, and gatifloxacin effective against both type of organisms. The information provided in this article help the clinician in formulating rationale-based empirical antibiotic treatment of bacterial ocular infections. [National J of Med Res 2012; 2(1.000: 22-24

  18. Alterações oculares em pacientes com tuberculose Ocular manifestation in patients with tuberculosis

    Simone Ribeiro Araújo de Almeida


    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Analisar os achados clínicos da tuberculose ocular e seus aspectos epidemiológicos. MÉTODOS: Foram revisados prontuários médicos de pacientes que foram atendidos no Departamento de Oftalmologia - setor de Uveíte e AIDS da Unifesp-EPM, São Paulo, Brasil, entre janeiro de 1999 e julho de 2002 e que tiveram diagnóstico de tuberculose ocular. Foram inclusos os pacientes que apresentaram PPD forte reator, epidemiologia positiva para tuberculose e lesão ocular que melhorou com tratamento específico. RESULTADOS: Foram analisados prontuários médicos de 17 pacientes, sendo 12 (70,6% do sexo feminino. A idade média foi de 54 (24-84 anos. O tempo médio entre o início dos sintomas e a primeira consulta foi de 100 dias. Os achados oculares foram inespecíficos nesta ocasião mas prevaleceram as alterações de segmento anterior e 41% dos pacientes apresentavam sinais de tuberculose sistêmica. Alterações como glaucoma, descolamento de retina e hemorragia vítrea foram responsáveis pela redução da acuidade visual. CONCLUSÃO: Embora pouco prevalente, a tuberculose ocular apresenta morbidade elevada. A inespecificidade da apresentação clínica da doença ocular pode atrasar o seu diagnóstico.PURPOSE: To analyze clinical findings of ocular tuberculosis and its epidemiological features. METHODS: Were reviewed clinical files of patients who attended the Ophthalmology - Uveitis and AIDS sector of UNIFESP-EPM, São Paulo, Brazil between January 1999 and July 2002 and had a diagnosis of ocular tuberculosis. Patients who had Mantoux test higher than 10 mm, epidemiological history of tuberculosis and ocular findings that improved after specific treatment were included. RESULTS: Seventeen medical files were analyzed, of those, 12 (70,6% were females. The mean age was 54 (24-84 years. The average time between symptoms and diagnosis was 100 days. Ocular findings at the first interview were multiple but most were at the anterior segment of

  19. Experimental Models of Ocular Infection with Toxoplasma Gondii


    Ocular toxoplasmosis is a vision-threatening disease and the major cause of posterior uveitis worldwide. In spite of the continuing global burden of ocular toxoplasmosis, many critical aspects of disease including the therapeutic approach to ocular toxoplasmosis are still under debate. To assist in addressing many aspects of the disease, numerous experimental models of ocular toxoplasmosis have been established. In this article, we present an overview on in vitro, ex vivo, and in vivo models ...

  20. Ocular toxoplasmosis: an update and review of the literature

    Alessandra G Commodaro


    Full Text Available Ocular toxoplasmosis is the most common cause of posterior uveitis worldwide. The infection can be acquired congenitally or postnatally and ocular lesions may present during or years after the acute infection occur. Current treatment controls ocular infection and inflammation, but does not prevent recurrences. We present a review and update on ocular toxoplasmosis and address misconceptions still found in the current medical literature.

  1. Current Imaging Modalities for assessing Ocular Blood Flow in Glaucoma

    Mohindroo, Chirayu; Ichhpujani, Parul; Kumar, Suresh


    Glaucoma may be caused by an interplay of elevated intraocular pressure (IOP), vascular, genetic, anatomical, brain, and immune factors. The direct assessment of ocular hemodynam-ics offers promise for glaucoma detection, differentiation, and possibly new treatment modalities. All the methods currently in use to measure ocular blood flow have inherent limitations and measure different aspects of ocular blood flow. This review article attempts to provide detailed information on ocular perfu-si...

  2. Toxocariosis Ocular en Menores de Edad

    Norma Ocampo; Liliam Cañas; Marta Hurtado; Jorge Botero; Mónica Lopera


    La toxocariosis es una geohelmintiosis producida por la ingestión de
    huevos de Toxocara canis y T. catis, cuyos hospederos definitivos son el perro y el gato. En el humano las larvas producen el Síndrome de Migración Larvaria Visceral y Ocular; en este último produce una enfermedad grave que puede semejar un retinoblastoma (1,2). Los niños son más susceptibles a adquirir esta infección (3). Nuestro objetivo es determinar la frecuencia de toxocariosis ocular en menores de edad con s...

  3. New Developments in Ocular Surface Squamous Neoplasia

    Ayşe Yağcı


    Full Text Available Ocular surface squamous neoplasia originates from conjunctiva epithelium and covers a broad spectrum of disease ranging from dysplasia to squamous cell carcinoma. Clinical features may vary from case to case. Traditional treatment of excision with no-touch technique combined with adjuvant therapies because of high recurrence rate. Main adjuvant treatments are cryotherapy and chemotherapy. In this review, clinical forms, differential diagnosis, American Joint Committee on Cancer classification and recent approaches to the management of ocular surface squamous dysplasia were described. (Turk J Ophthalmol 2014; 44: Supplement 8-14

  4. Emerging ocular biomarkers of Alzheimer disease.

    van Wijngaarden, Peter; Hadoux, Xavier; Alwan, Mostafa; Keel, Stuart; Dirani, Mohamed


    Interest in reliable biomarkers of Alzheimer disease, the leading cause of dementia, has been fuelled by challenges in diagnosing the disease and monitoring disease progression as well as the response to therapy. A range of ocular manifestations of Alzheimer disease, including retinal and lens amyloid-beta accumulation, retinal nerve fiber layer loss, and retinal vascular changes, have been proposed as potential biomarkers of the disease. Herein, we examine the evidence regarding the potential value of these ocular biomarkers of Alzheimer disease. © 2016 Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Ophthalmologists.


    Tessie Beck Martins


    Esta tese envolveu o estudo de doenças oculares e perioculares de animais domésticos, e incluiu um artigo sobre lesões de patologia cirúrgica e um artigo sobre hifema em cães e gatos submetidos à necropsia. Para o primeiro trabalho, foram examinados 33.075 laudos de exames histopatológicos realizados num laboratório de diagnóstico de patologia veterinária na Região Central do Rio Grande do Sul durante 50 anos. Destes, 540 (1,6%) eram de lesões oculares e perioculares. Por vária...

  6. Psychological aspects in ocular prosthesis users


    OBJETIVO: Avaliar os aspectos psicológicos decorrentes da anoftalmia unilateral adquirida, a luta pela recuperação estética com o uso de prótese ocular, assim como os fatores interpessoais envolvidos e a reintegração psicossocial destes pacientes. MÉTODO: Trinta pacientes portadores de anoftalmia unilateral adquirida, sem outras deformidades órbito-palpebrais e usuários de prótese ocular, sendo 16 do sexo masculino e 14 feminino, com idade variando de 12 a 66 anos, idade média 31,6 anos foram...

  7. Genetics in ocular inflammation--basic principles.

    Wallace, G R; Niemczyk, E


    The ability to identify individuals at risk of ocular disease, or to determine the potential severity of disease or response to therapy is the current focus of much research. These studies are being led by genetic analysis of individuals to determine associations with alterations in gens that may explain manifestations of particular diseases. In this review we consider the basic principles behind genetic studies in general and of ocular disease in particular. We address the methodologies being utilised, and the results derived so far. The potential and pitfalls of such studies are relevant to the concept of personalised medicine and better defined clinical trials.

  8. Study on accommodation by autorefraction and dynamic refraction in children.

    Krishnacharya, Prabhakar Srinivasapur


    Childhood accommodation interferes with accurate diagnosis of the latent refractive errors. Dynamic retinoscopy offers accurate measurements of accommodative response, while an autorefractometer can predict the accommodative system activation in children. A correlation of the accommodative effort with the dynamic refraction has been investigated in emmetropic children, before and after cycloplegia. A prospective clinical study of accommodative effort in 149 emmetropic children, in the age group 3-16 years, has been conducted using TOPCON AR RM-8000B autorefractor. Dynamic refraction was performed by monocular estimation method before and after cycloplegia, using the retinoscope mirror light as target. Retinoscopic reflex produced 'with the motion' was corrected with positive spherical lenses, and that 'against the motion' was corrected with negative spherical lenses, to achieve neutralization. Mean accommodative effort measured for 149 children included in the study was -0.63±0.69D and dynamic refraction was -0.07±0.44D before cycloplegia, while the mean was+0.52D after cycloplegia, irrespective of the method used. Autorefractor measured -0.17D of accommodative effort per unit change in dynamic refraction before cycloplegia and +0.90D after cycloplegia. The performance of TOPCON AR RM-8000B autorefractor was comparable to dynamic retinoscopy. Presence of many children, and in turn, large number of accommodative response data in 11-13 and 14-15 years group is probably linked to prolonged reading/writing. The accuracy and the agreement of the actual accommodative measurements revealed after cycloplegia. Copyright © 2013 Spanish General Council of Optometry. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  9. Can ultrasound biomicroscopy be used to predict accommodation accurately?

    Ramasubramanian, Viswanathan; Glasser, Adrian


    Clinical accommodation testing involves measuring either accommodative optical changes or accommodative biometric changes. Quantifying both optical and biometric changes during accommodation might be helpful in the design and evaluation of accommodation restoration concepts. This study aims to establish the accuracy of ultrasound biomicroscopy (UBM) in predicting the accommodative optical response (AOR) from biometric changes. Static AOR from 0 to 6 diopters (D) stimuli in 1-D steps were measured with infrared photorefraction and a Grand Seiko autorefractor (WR-5100 K; Shigiya Machinery Works Ltd., Hiroshima, Japan) in 26 human subjects aged 21 to 36 years. Objective measurements of accommodative biometric changes to the same stimulus demands were measured from UBM (Vu-MAX; Sonomed Escalon, Lake Success, NY) images in the same group of subjects. AOR was predicted from biometry using linear regressions, 95% confidence intervals, and 95% prediction intervals. Bland-Altman analysis showed 0.52 D greater AOR with photorefraction than with the Grand Seiko autorefractor. Per-diopter changes in accommodative biometry were: anterior chamber depth (ACD): -0.055 mm/D, lens thickness (LT): +0.076 mm/D, anterior lens radii of curvature (ALRC): -0.854 mm/D, posterior lens radii of curvature (PLRC): -0.222 mm/D, and anterior segment length (ASL): +0.030 mm/D. The standard deviation of AOR predicted from linear regressions for various biometry parameters were: ACD: 0.24 D, LT: 0.30 D, ALRC: 0.24 D, PLRC: 0.43 D, ASL: 0.50 D. UBM measured parameters can, on average, predict AOR with a standard deviation of 0.50 D or less using linear regression. UBM is a useful and accurate objective technique for measuring accommodation in young phakic eyes. Copyright 2015, SLACK Incorporated.

  10. Biometry of anterior segment of human eye on both horizontal and vertical meridians during accommodation imaged with extended scan depth optical coherence tomography.

    Lin Leng

    Full Text Available To determine the biometry of anterior segment dimensions of the human eye on both horizontal and vertical meridians with extended scan depth optical coherence tomography (OCT during accommodation.Twenty pre-presbyopic volunteers, aged between 24 and 30, were recruited. The ocular anterior segment of each subject was imaged using an extended scan depth OCT under non- and 3.0 diopters (D of accommodative demands on both horizontal and vertical meridians. All the images were analyzed to yield the following parameters: pupil diameter (PD, anterior chamber depth (ACD, anterior and posterior surface curvatures of the crystalline lens (ASC and PSC and the lens thickness (LT. Two consecutive measurements were performed to assess the repeatability and reproducibility of this OCT. They were evaluated by calculating the within-subject standard deviation (SD, a paired t-test, intra-class correlation coefficients (ICC and the coefficient of repeatability/reproducibility (CoR.There were no significant differences between two consecutive measurements on either horizontal or vertical meridians under both two different accommodative statuses (P>0.05. The ICC for all parameters ranged from 0.775 to 0.998, except for the PSC (0.550 on the horizontal meridian under the non-accommodative status. In addition, the CoR for most of the parameters were excellent (0.004% to 4.89%. In all the parameters, only PD and PSC were found different between the horizontal and vertical meridians under both accommodative statuses (P<0.05. PD, ACD, ASC and PSC under accommodative status were significantly smaller than those under the non-accommodative status, except that the PSC at the vertical meridian did not change. In addition, LT was significantly increased when accommodation.The extended scan depth OCT successfully measured the dimensions of the anterior eye during accommodation with good repeatability and reproducibility on both horizontal and vertical meridians. The asymmetry

  11. Comments on frontonasal dysplasia, ocular hypertelorism and dystopia canthorum.

    Peterson, M Q; Cohen, M M; Sedano, H O; Frerichs, C T


    The mean canthal index values of patients with frontonasal dysplasia are tested for differences in facies A, B, C, and D. A general discussion of ocular hypertelorism and dystopia canthorum is presented. Ocular hypertelorism is considered a sign which may occur in a variety of disorders. Quantitative methods for determining ocular hypertelorism are critically reviewed.

  12. 21 CFR 886.4360 - Ocular surgery irrigation device.


    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Ocular surgery irrigation device. 886.4360 Section... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES OPHTHALMIC DEVICES Surgical Devices § 886.4360 Ocular surgery irrigation device. (a) Identification. An ocular surgery irrigation device is a device intended to be suspended over...

  13. Microgravity Flight: Accommodating Non-Human Primates

    Dalton, Bonnie P.; Searby, Nancy; Ostrach, Louis


    thermoregulation, muscular, and cardiac responses to weightlessness. In contrast, the five completed Cosmos/Bion flights, lacked the metabolic samples and behavioral task monitoring, but did facilitate studies of the neurovestibular system during several of the flights. The RRF accommodated two adult 8-11 kg rhesus monkeys, while the Russian experiments and hardware were configured for a younger animal in the 44 kg range. Both the American and Russian hardware maintained a controlled environmental system, specifically temperature, humidity, a timed lighting cycle, and had means for providing food and fluids to the animal(s). Crew availability during a Shuttle mission was to be an optimal condition for retrieval and refrigeration of the animal urine samples along with a manual calcein injection which could lead to greater understanding of bone calcium incorporation. A special portable bioisolation glove box was under development to support this aspect of the experiment profile along with the capability of any contingency human intervention. As a result of recent U.S./Russian negotiations, funding for Space Station, and a series of other events, the SLS-3 mission was cancelled and applicable Rhesus Project experiments incorporated into the Russian Bion 11 and 12 missions. A presentation of the RRF and COSMOS/Bion rhesus hardware is presented along with current plans for the hardware.

  14. Systematic analysis of ocular trauma by a new proposed ocular trauma classification

    Bhartendu Shukla


    Full Text Available Purpose: The current classification of ocular trauma does not incorporate adnexal trauma, injuries that are attributable to a nonmechanical cause and destructive globe injuries. This study proposes a new classification system of ocular trauma which is broader-based to allow for the classification of a wider range of ocular injuries not covered by the current classification. Methods: A clinic-based cross-sectional study to validate the proposed classification. We analyzed 535 cases of ocular injury from January 1, 2012 to February 28, 2012 over a 4-year period in an eye hospital in central India using our proposed classification system and compared it with conventional classification. Results: The new classification system allowed for classification of all 535 cases of ocular injury. The conventional classification was only able to classify 364 of the 535 trauma cases. Injuries involving the adnexa, nonmechanical injuries and destructive globe injuries could not be classified by the conventional classification, thus missing about 33% of cases. Conclusions: Our classification system shows an improvement over existing ocular trauma classification as it allows for the classification of all type of ocular injuries and will allow for better and specific prognostication. This system has the potential to aid communication between physicians and result in better patient care. It can also provide a more authentic, wide spectrum of ocular injuries in correlation with etiology. By including adnexal injuries and nonmechanical injuries, we have been able to classify all 535 cases of trauma. Otherwise, about 30% of cases would have been excluded from the study.

  15. Ocular Immune Privilege in the Year 2010: Ocular Immune Privilege and Uveitis

    Taylor, Andrew W.; Kaplan, Henry J.


    The phrase “immune privilege” was coined by Peter Medawar to describe the absence of an immune response to allografts placed into the anterior chamber of the eye or brain. We now understand that immune privilege is more than a passive microenvironment with a distinctive anatomical structure that holds back immunity. The ocular microenvironment actively engages the immune system with immunosuppressive biochemical mechanisms. The unique characteristics of ocular immune privilege appear designed...

  16. DNA nanoparticles as ocular drug delivery platform

    de Vries, Jan Willem


    The field of DNA nanotechnology has progressed rapidly in recent years and now offers facile fabrication of a large variety of nanostructures of different shapes and geometries. In this thesis, short nucleic acid sequences are functionalized with hydrophobic units to form the basis of an ocular drug

  17. Pattern of Ocular Injuries in Owo, Nigeria

    Charles Oluwole Omolase


    Full Text Available Purpose: To determine the pattern of ocular injuries in patients presenting to the eye clinic and the accident and emergency department of Federal Medical Center, Owo, Ondo State, Nigeria. Methods: This prospective study was conducted between January and December 2009. Federal Medical Center, Owo is the only tertiary hospital in Ondo State, Nigeria. The eye center located at this medical center was the only eye care facility in the community at the time of this study. All patients were interviewed with the aid of an interviewer-administered questionnaire and underwent a detailed ocular examination. Results: Of 132 patients included in the study, most (84.1% sustained blunt eye injury while (12.1% had penetrating eye injury. A considerable proportion of patients (37.9% presented within 24 hours of injury. Vegetative materials were the most common (42.4% offending agent, a minority of patients (22% was admitted and none of the patients had used eye protection at the time of injury. Conclusion: In the current series, blunt eye injury was the most common type of ocular trauma. The community should be educated and informed about the importance of preventive measures including protective eye devices during high risk activities. Patients should be encouraged to present early following ocular injury.

  18. Ocular malignant lymphoma. A clinical pathological study

    Panda A


    Full Text Available Eleven histologically proved cases of ocular malignant lymphoma diagnosed and managed during the year 1974-81 are reported. The follow-up period ranges from 2-7 years. The difficulties in diagnosis, treatment and prognosis are discussed.

  19. Ocular myasthenia gravis coincident with thyroid ophthalmopathy

    Yaman A


    Full Text Available Graves' disease and myasthenia gravis are both auto-immune diseases and the coexistence of these two diseases is well recognized. Myasthenia gravis is more frequent in patients with thyroid disease. Here we present a case of thyroid ophthalmopathy and ocular myasthenia.

  20. Candidate genes in ocular dominance plasticity

    M.L. Rietman; J.-P. Sommeijer; C.N. Levelt; J.A. Heimel; A.B. Brussaard; J.G.G. Borst; Y. Elgersma; N. Galjart; G.T. van der Horst; C.M. Pennartz; A.B. Smit; B.M. Spruijt; M. Verhage; C.I. de Zeeuw


    Many studies have been devoted to the identification of genes involved in experience-dependent plasticity in the visual cortex. To discover new candidate genes, we have reexamined data from one such study on ocular dominance (OD) plasticity in recombinant inbred BXD mouse strains. We have correlated

  1. Ocular rosacea: common and commonly missed.

    Vieira, Ana Carolina; Mannis, Mark J


    Rosacea is a prevalent disorder that may be disfiguring and cause significant ocular morbidity, if not diagnosed and managed appropriately. Ocular rosacea, in particular, is often left undiagnosed as no specific test is available to confirm the diagnosis. Accurate diagnosis is further complicated because symptoms of ocular rosacea are not always specific to the disorder alone. Other ophthalmic disorders may present with similar findings. Further challenges exist because the severity of ocular symptoms is often not related to the severity of cutaneous findings in rosacea. Isolating a disease marker may facilitate earlier diagnosis and treatment, and could also contribute to better understanding of disease pathogenesis. The glycomics of tear fluid and saliva in patients with rosacea shows promise as an initial step in the search for a biomarker specific to the disease. We have previously found potentially important disease biomarkers in roseatic tear and saliva samples. Further investigation should prove important in the early stages of developing a set of markers for accurate disease identification.

  2. Ocular surface squamous neoplasia in Ibadan, Nigeria

    Oluyemi Fasina


    Conclusion: OSSN occurs in younger individuals, and is strongly associated with HIV infection in our environment. Early diagnosis and intervention can prevent severe ocular morbidity. Wide surgical excision with intra-operative cryotherapy and adjuvant treatment with topical MMC post-operatively seem to give good outcome in our patients.

  3. Ocular findings in the chronic renal failure

    P Dahal


    Full Text Available BACKGROUND The aim of the study was to evaluate the ocular signs in chronic renal failure (CRF in diabetes and hypertensive patients. MATERIALS AND METHODS Two hundred and thirty eight cases were enrolled in the study from the nephrology unit of College Of Medical Science, Bharatpur, Nepal and examined in the department of Ophthalmology. The study duration was carried out over 2 years from January 2011 to December 2012. RESULT The number of cases in each grade of CRF were mild 80 (26.67%, moderate 84 (28%, severe 75 (25%, end stage renal disease 61 (20.33%. In all the groups the commonest cause of CRF were Hypertension (HTN 123 out of 300(41% and diabetes 98(32.67%. The commonest ocular symptoms in CRF was blurring of vision 68%. CONCLUSION Many important ocular findings like vitreous haemorrage, retinal detachment, neovascular glaucoma and cataract are the presentation in chronic renal failure, which can cause marked vision loss. Hence proper awareness should be provided to the people in time to prevent these ocular complications.DOI: Journal of College of Medical Sciences-Nepal, 2014, Vol.10(2; 18-26

  4. Amplitude of Accommodation and its Relation to Refractive Errors

    Abraham Lekha


    Full Text Available Aims: To evaluate the relationship between amplitude of accommodation and refractive errors in the peri-presbyopic age group. Materials and Methods: Three hundred and sixteen right eyes of 316 consecutive patients in the age group 35-50 years who attended our outpatient clinic were studied. Emmetropes, hypermetropes and myopes with best-corrected visual acuity of 6/6 J1 in both eyes were included. The amplitude of accommodation (AA was calculated by measuring the near point of accommodation (NPA. In patients with more than ± 2 diopter sphere correction for distance, the NPA was also measured using appropriate soft contact lenses. Results: There was a statistically significant difference in AA between myopes and hypermetropes ( P P P P P P >0.5. Conclusion: Our study showed higher amplitude of accommodation among myopes between 35 and 44 years compared to emmetropes and hypermetropes


    Edna Mrnjavac; Nadia Pavia; Maria Cerovic


    .... The aim is to display how linking all participants who provide private accommodation services into a logistics network will result in better and higher quality service for the guest and in reduced...


    Iwona Cieślik; Ewa Cieślik; Agnieszka Siembida; Małgorzata Tomczyk


    ... the accommodation facilities, and making a choice of a hotel in the Upper Silesia. The study involved 200 people, taking into account their gender, age, place of residence, education and occupational status...

  7. Opto-mechanical artificial eye with accommodative ability.

    Esteve-Taboada, José J; Del Águila-Carrasco, Antonio J; Marín-Franch, Iván; Bernal-Molina, Paula; Montés-Micó, Robert; López-Gil, Norberto


    The purpose of this study was to describe the design and characterization of a new opto-mechanical artificial eye (OMAE) with accommodative ability. The OMAE design is based on a second-pass configuration where a small source of light is used at the artificial retina plane. A lens whose focal length can be changed electronically was used to add the accommodation capability. The changes in the OMAE's aberrations with the lens focal length, which effectively changes the accommodative state of the OMAE, were measured with a commercial aberrometer. Changes in power and aberrations with room temperature were also measured. The OMAE's higher-order aberrations (HOAs) were similar to the ones of the human eye, including the rate at which fourth-order spherical aberration decreased with accommodation. The OMAE design proposed here is simple, and it can be implemented in an optical system to mimic the optics of the human eye.

  8. On cloud modelling and the mass accommodation coefficient of water

    A. Laaksonen


    Full Text Available The mass accommodation coefficient of water is a quantity for which different experimental techniques have yielded conflicting values in the range 0.04–1. From the viewpoint of cloud modelling, this is an unfortunate situation, since the value of the mass accommodation coefficient affects the model results, e.g. the number concentration of activated cloud droplets. In this paper we argue that a mass accommodation coefficient of unity should be used in cloud modelling, since this value has been obtained in experimental studies of water droplet growth rates, a quantity which is explicitly described in cloud models. In contrast, mass accommodation coefficient values below unity have been derived from experimental results which are analyzed with different theoretical expressions than those included in cloud models.

  9. Occlusal accommodation and mouthguards for prevention of orofacial trauma.

    Geary, Julian Lindsay


    The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of two types of occlusal accommodation on the arch separation in centric and eccentric arch positions and to assess the opposing tooth contacts in professionally made, thermoformed sports mouthguards.

  10. An application of SODA methodology in student accommodation problems

    E. Teimoury; H. Gitinavard; Mousavi, S. M.


    The one of the main problems that students have faced with are the accommodation problems. In this paper, we review problems that may occur in university systems. Also, we use strategic options development and analysis method (SODA) to represent the accommodation problems and to create an agreement between student and staff. This method can help us with achieving goals; because in the same situation, there are different viewpoints for various reasons. By plotting the cognitive maps of involve...

  11. Main Ocular Manifestations in Rheumatoid Arthritis Principales manifestaciones oculares en la artritis reumatoide

    Osbel Alfonso Sánchez


    Full Text Available Rheumatoid arthritis is considered an autoimmune disease in which articular and extra articular manifestations are produced and contribute to alter the functional capacity of the individual. This study consists on performing a bibliographical review showing the main ocular manifestations in patients with rheumatoid arthritis. It is our purpose to give you our experiences to the students as well as the internal medicine, ophthalmology and rheumatologist residents about this topic. The ophthalmological consultation of sick patients contributes to the prevention of ocular illnesses which are characteristic of the base disease and improve the ocular health.La artritis reumatoide se considera una enfermedad autoinmune, la cual produce manifestaciones articulares y extraarticulares que contribuyen a alterar la capacidad funcional del individuo. En esta revisión se muestran las principales manifestaciones oculares en pacientes con diagnóstico de dicha enfermedad. Se describen experiencias válidas para estudiantes y residentes de medicina interna, oftalmología y reumatología y se realiza la valoración de la interconsulta oftalmológica de los pacientes enfermos en la prevención de afecciones oculares propias de la enfermedad de base y su contribución al mejoramiento de su salud ocular.

  12. Diffuse corneal abrasion after ocular exposure to laundry detergent pod.

    Whitney, Rachel E; Baum, Carl R; Aronson, Paul L


    Although ocular injury from alkaline household cleaning products is well described, there is less known about the significance and extent of injury with ocular exposure to detergent pods. We report a 12-month-old with diffuse corneal abrasion caused by ocular contact with a laundry detergent pod. In addition to the known risks with aspiration with detergent pods, the potential for severe ocular injury is important for parents and clinicians to recognize. Children with ocular exposure to detergent pods should seek immediate medical care.

  13. Doenças oculares em neonatos

    Endriss Daniela


    Full Text Available Objetivo: Identificar as principais doenças oculares numa população de neonatos assistidos pelo Sistema Único de Saúde em maternidades de referência no Estado de Pernambuco, orientando o seguimento e tratamento necessário. Métodos: Realizou-se estudo de corte transversal numa população de recém-nascidos em três maternidades públicas, no período de abril a outubro de 2000. Procedeu-se ao exame oftalmológico durante visitas semanais, orientando-se o seguimento e tratamento dos casos com alterações oculares ou fatores de risco. Resultados: Examinaram-se 3280 recém-nascidos: 1403 (42,8% na Maternidade da Encruzilhada (CISAM, 1232 (37,5% na Maternidade do Hospital Barão de Lucena (MHBL e 645 (19,7% na Maternidade do Hospital Agamenon Magalhães (MHAM. 387 eram pré-termo (11,8% dos casos. Encaminharam-se ao serviço especializado 701 neonatos (21,4% do total examinado com alterações oculares ou com fatores de risco. Destes, 46,4% eram pré-têrmo e 37,9% receberam oxigenoterapia, observando-se maior número porcentual na MHBL (45,4%. Observou-se conjuntivite em 3,0% dos olhos, leucocoria em 0,4% e hemorragia subconjuntival em 2,0%. À fundoscopia, encontraram-se hemorragias retinianas em 7,8% dos casos, com acometimento macular em 4,3%. Conclusões: As doenças oculares mais freqüentes foram: hemorragias retinianas e conjuntivites. Os principais fatores de risco observados foram: prematuridade e doenças infecciosas neonatais. Os autores enfatizam que o exame ocular deve ser realizado rotineiramente nos neonatos.


    Janićijević Katarina


    Full Text Available Introduction/Aim: The goal of our study was to analyze the epidemiological`s characteristics of ocular hypertension, as well as the influence of chronic risk factors on glaucoma development (conversion in glaucoma. We tried to make some entries for solving this complex ophthalmological problem. Material /Methods: From 2009 to 2015, a retrospective control study was performed on 121 patient with diagnoses of bilateral ocular hypertension and without disease progression/conversion of glaucoma (by standard protocols of diagnosis and basic procedures on tertiary level at Clinic of Ophthalmology, Clinical Centre of Kragujevac, Serbia.. The authors analyzed epidemiological characteristics: sex, age groups, positive/negative family history and personal history with chronic risk factors (one and/or two of ocular hypertension. The data obtained from this study were statistically analyzed in SPSS program, version 20.00. Results: As for the patients, 69 of them (57.02% were male and 52 female (42.98%. Dominant age group was between 40-49 (42.15% and then group between 50-59 (40.50% years of age. Anamnesis data indicated the absence of family anamnesis 71 (58.68%. Risk factors for ocular hypertension were presented in 103 (85.13% patients, 18 of them (14.87% did not respond. One risk factor - cardiovascular disease was noted in 83 (68.59%, with two risk factors - cardiovascular diseases and diabetes mellitus in 20 patients (16.53% and with PEX syndroma at other respondents. Conclusion: Ocular hypertension is not a common disease, but with risk factors, such as older age, positive family history, and chronic risk factors syndicated, represents a serious clinical and social problem, so the question remains for ophthalmologists - pro or against therapy? Those in favor of therapy would state the safety and protection from conversion/progression of glaucoma; but those  against therapy would only mention adequate monitoring of patients.

  15. Epidemiological aspects of ocular superglue injuries

    Seyed Ali Tabatabaei


    Full Text Available AIM: To report the frequency, associated risk factors and characteristics of cases referred to Farabi Eye Hospital with ocular superglue injuries. METHODS: In a descriptive cross-sectional study conducted between December 2012 and February 2013, patients with ocular superglue injuries were evaluated. Age, sex, educational level, location, time, mechanism, type, site and time of eye injury were gathered through interview using a customized questionnaire. All participants had given consent to undergo thorough eye examination. RESULTS: Over the course of three months, 105 patients with ocular superglue injuries enrolled in the study, including 56(53.3% men and 49(46.7% women with the mean age of 24.7±11.6 (range, 2 to 53y. The right eye, left eye and both eyes were involved in 52%, 42% and 6% of the patients, respectively. Most of injuries had occurred at home (72.4% and at night (55%. More than half of patients (52.4% did not take any primary aids following the ocular injury. Patient carelessness (78.1%, childhood curiosity and lack of parental supervision (11.4%, storing superglue in inappropriate places and inadvertently using superglue as eye drops due to poor vision (2.9%, inadequate awareness of superglue applications [used to stick on artificial nails (3.8%, artificial eyelashes (1.9% and broken tooth (1%] and being assaulted with glue (1% were common risk factors. CONCLUSION: The frequency of ocular superglue injuries in patients referred to Farabi Eye Hospital is relatively high. This finding underlines the importance of public education and awareness about superglue injuries to the eye and taking protective measures and safety strategies in order to prevent these injures.

  16. Congenital Ocular Dystopia from Orbitofrontal Bone Dysplasia.

    Swanson, Jordan W; Bartlett, Scott P


    Several patients with ocular dystopia and craniofacial differences have been found to have orbital dysplasia and a frontal bone defect. This deformity is characteristically different from differential diagnoses of encephalocele, sphenoid dysplasia, craniofacial dysostoses, or atypical clefting. The authors retrospectively reviewed the craniofacial registries of two pediatric centers for patients presenting with ocular dystopia or orbitofrontal anomalies between 2000 and 2014. The features and treatment of these patients were analyzed. Four patients with congenital orbitofrontal bone dysplasia were identified, three with unilateral and one with bilateral frontal bone defects. Clinical signs of hypoglobus and vertical ocular dystopia of an average of 5.0 mm on the affected side were noted shortly after birth. The transversely oriented bony defect had an average surface area of 3.9 cm in unilateral cases and 10.7 cm in bilateral cases. Patients showed a characteristic orbital vertical elongation with an average orbital height-to-width ratio of 1.30-in excess of the average normal 1.14 by 14 percent-and inferior rim displacement. Cranial contour demonstrated frontal bossing and borderline dolichocephaly. Fronto-orbital reconstruction was performed in three patients, using cranial bone grafting to obliterate the orbital roof defect and elevate the orbital floor, which was successful in reducing ocular dystopia and preserving vision in each patient. One patient followed for 11 years postoperatively has a durable result with no surgical revision. Orbitofrontal bone dysplasia has not been previously reported, and includes a frontal bone defect and ocular dystopia. Single-stage fronto-orbital reconstruction appears to adequately correct it. Therapeutic, IV.

  17. Ocular toxicity of authentic lunar dust

    Meyers Valerie E


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Dust exposure is a well-known occupational hazard for terrestrial workers and astronauts alike and will continue to be a concern as humankind pursues exploration and habitation of objects beyond Earth. Humankind’s limited exploration experience with the Apollo Program indicates that exposure to dust will be unavoidable. Therefore, NASA must assess potential toxicity and recommend appropriate mitigation measures to ensure that explorers are adequately protected. Visual acuity is critical during exploration activities and operations aboard spacecraft. Therefore, the present research was performed to ascertain the ocular toxicity of authentic lunar dust. Methods Small (mean particle diameter = 2.9 ± 1.0 μm, reactive lunar dust particles were produced by grinding bulk dust under ultrapure nitrogen conditions. Chemical reactivity and cytotoxicity testing were performed using the commercially available EpiOcularTM assay. Subsequent in vivo Draize testing utilized a larger size fraction of unground lunar dust that is more relevant to ocular exposures (particles Results In vitro testing indicated minimal irritancy potential based on the time required to reduce cell viability by 50% (ET50. Follow-up testing using the Draize standard protocol confirmed that the lunar dust was minimally irritating. Minor irritation of the upper eyelids was noted at the 1-hour observation point, but these effects resolved within 24 hours. In addition, no corneal scratching was observed using fluorescein stain. Conclusions Low-titanium mare lunar dust is minimally irritating to the eyes and is considered a nuisance dust for ocular exposure. No special precautions are recommended to protect against ocular exposures, but fully shielded goggles may be used if dust becomes a nuisance.

  18. Accommodation in pediatric oncology: parental experiences, preferences and unmet needs.

    Daniel, Gunar; Wakefield, Claire E; Ryan, Barbara; Fleming, Catharine Ak; Levett, Nicole; Cohn, Richard J


    For families of children diagnosed with cancer, proximity to the treatment center and staying close to immediate family members are essential for proper patient management. Accommodation services are therefore a key consideration in pediatric oncology. This descriptive study explored the accommodation used, and preferred, by parents of pediatric cancer patients at Sydney Children's Hospital, Randwick (SCH), Australia, and investigated their accommodation and practical needs. Forty-two parents from 25 families participated in individual semi-structured telephone interviews. Interviews were recorded, transcribed verbatim and coded line-by-line. Coding was facilitated by data analysis software QSR NVivo v8 ( Emergent themes were numerically assessed to minimize the potential for researcher bias. Nine families (36%) lived near SCH and were able to stay at their own residence during treatment (mean distance of 15.4 km from SCH). The remaining families were categorized 'local, but requiring accommodation' (n=3 families represented by five parent interviews; mean distance of 82.22 km from SCH),'inner regional' (IR) (n=8 families, 15 parent interviews; mean distance of 396.75 km from SCH) or 'outer regional' (OR) (n=3 families, 5 interviews; mean distance of 547.4 km from SCH) according to the Australian Standard Geographical Classification (ASGC) remoteness ratings. Accommodation provided for families from both IR and OR areas was mixed, with several families using multiple accommodation options during treatment, including Ronald Macdonald House (RMH), private accommodation or a rental property close to the hospital for the duration of the treatment. Six IR and one OR family utilized hotel or motel accommodation as an alternative to RMH due to unavailability of rooms. The majority of parents (37/42) preferred to stay on the hospital campus, near their child. Seven out of 11 IR and OR mothers preferred self-contained accommodation, while three out

  19. Alergia ocular: un reto diagnóstico Ocular allergy: a diagnostic challenge

    Ricardo Cardona Villa


    Full Text Available El ojo es uno de los órganos más sensibles y está permanentemente expuesto a diversos agentes ambientales. Dado que la conjuntiva es un tejido inmunológicamente activo, no es sorprendente que sea un sitio común de respuestas alérgicas. Las alergias oculares son un grupo de enfermedades que afectan la superficie conjuntival y están asociadas usualmente a reacciones de hipersensibilidad tipo 1. Pueden ser divididas en varias categorías: conjuntivitis alérgica estacional, conjuntivitis alérgica perenne, queratoconjuntivitis vernal y queratoconjuntivitis atópica. La inflamación de la superficie ocular produce prurito, lagrimeo, edema conjuntival y fotofobia. Como en otras enfermedades alérgicas, se puede desarrollar una condición crónica, acompañada de remodelación de los tejidos oculares. Las estrategias para el tratamiento de la alergia ocular han aumentado exponencialmente y los clínicos disponen de un inventario cada vez mayor de agentes dirigidos a la protección del ojo contra la inflamación. En este trabajo presentamos una revisión sobre las principales formas de alergia ocular, haciendo énfasis en el cuadro clínico, el diagnóstico y las nuevas opciones terapéuticas disponibles en la actualidad. The eye, one of the most sensitive organs, is permanently exposed to different environmental agents. Since the conjunctiva is an immunologically active tissue, it is not surprising for it to be a common site for allergic responses. Ocular allergies constitute a group of diseases affecting the conjunctival surface; they are usually associated with type 1 hypersensitivity reactions. This disorder can be divided into several categories: seasonal allergic conjunctivitis, perennial allergic conjunctivitis, vernal keratoconjunctivitis and atopic keratoconjunctivitis. Ocular surface inflammation results in itching, tearing, conjunctival edema, and photophobia. As is the case with other allergic diseases, a chronic situation can also

  20. Estimation of ocular rigidity in glaucoma using ocular pulse amplitude and pulsatile choroidal blood flow.

    Wang, Jing; Freeman, Ellen E; Descovich, Denise; Harasymowycz, Paul J; Kamdeu Fansi, Alvine; Li, Gisele; Lesk, Mark R


    Theoretical models and animal studies have suggested that scleral rigidity plays an important role in the pathogenesis of glaucoma. The aim of this study was to present a noninvasive technique for estimating ocular rigidity (E) in vivo, and to compare the estimated rigidity between patients with open-angle glaucoma (OAG); ocular hypertension (OHT); suspect glaucomatous disc (GS); and normal subjects (N). We hypothesized that OHT patients would have higher rigidity. All patients underwent measurements of ocular pulse amplitude (OPA) using dynamic contour tonometry, pulsatile choroidal blood flow (ChBFP) using laser Doppler flowmetry; axial length (AL); and assessment of automated visual field mean deviation (MD). The ratio between OPA and ChBFP was calculated according to the Friedenwald's equation of ocular rigidity. The calculated ratio is denoted as (ER). The average ER values of the four diagnostic groups were compared using nonparametric tests. The relationship between ER and other ocular and systemic factors was examined using correlation and regression analysis. A total of 257 subjects were included in the study (56 N, 108 OAG, 48 GS, and 45 OHT). ER correlated negatively with AL and positively with MD, signifying that a lower rigidity was associated with a longer eye and a worse (more negative) MD. ER was also found to be highest in OHT (0.235 ± 0.16) and lowest in OAG (0.188 ± 0.14; P = 0.01). Estimated coefficient of ocular rigidity by OPA and ChBFP suggested that glaucoma patients had the lowest rigidity and OHT the highest. It supports the idea that a more compliant ocular shell may predispose the optic nerve head to intraocular pressure (IOP)-related damage.

  1. Accommodation and pupil responses to random-dot stereograms.

    Suryakumar, Rajaraman; Allison, Robert


    We investigated the dynamics of accommodative and pupillary responses to random-dot stereograms presented in crossed and uncrossed disparity in six visually normal young adult subjects (mean age=25.8±3.1 years). Accommodation and pupil measures were monitored monocularly with a custom built photorefraction system while subjects fixated at the center of a random-dot stereogram. On each trial, the stereogram initially depicted a flat plane and then changed to depict a sinusoidal corrugation in depth while fixation remained constant. Increase in disparity specified depth resulted in pupil constriction during both crossed and uncrossed disparity presentations. The change in pupil size between crossed and uncrossed disparity conditions was not significantly different (p>0.05). The change in pupil size was also accompanied by a small concomitant increase in accommodation. In addition, the dynamic properties of pupil responses varied as a function of their initial (starting) diameter. The finding that accommodation and pupil responses increased with disparity regardless of the sign of retinal disparity suggests that these responses were driven by apparent depth rather than shifts in mean simulated distance of the stimulus. Presumably the need for the increased depth of focus when viewing stimuli extended in depth results in pupil constriction which also results in a concomitant change in accommodation. Starting position effects in pupil response confirm the non-linearity in the operating range of the pupil.

  2. An overlooked effect of systemic anticholinergics: alteration on accommodation amplitude

    Mehmet Ali Sekeroglu


    Full Text Available AIM: To investigate the effect of oral solifenacin succinate, tolterodine-L-tartarate and oxybutinin hydrochloride (HCl on accommodation amplitude. METHODS: Female overactive bladder syndrome (OAB patients who were planned to use oral anticholinergics, patients that uses solifenacin succinate 5 mg (Group I, n=25, tolterodine-L-tartarate 4 mg (Group II, n=25, and oxybutinin HCl 5 mg b.i.d (Group III, n=25 and age matched healthy female subjects (Group IV, n=25 were recruited and complete ophthalmological examination and accommodation amplitude assessment were done at baseline and 4wk after initiation of treatment. RESULTS: The mean age of 100 consecutive female subjects was 51.6±5.7 (40-60y and there were no statistically significant difference with regard to the mean age (P=0.107 and baseline accommodation amplitude (P=0.148 between study groups. All treatment groups showed a significant decrease in accommodation amplitude following a 4-week course of anticholinergic treatment (P=0.008 in Group I, P=0.002 in Group II, P=0.001 in Group III, but there was no statistically significant difference in Group IV (P=0.065. CONCLUSION: A 4-week course of oral anticholinergic treatment have statistically significant effect on accommodation amplitude. Clinicians should avoid both overestimating this result, as this would unnecessarily restrict therapeutic possibilities, and also underestimating it which may lead to drug intolerance.

  3. Repeatability of OCT lens thickness measures with age and accommodation.

    Doyle, Lesley; Little, Julie-Anne; Saunders, Kathryn J


    To investigate crystalline lens thickness (LT) across a range of ages and accommodative demands and to evaluate the repeatability of LT measurements using the Visante Anterior Segment Optical Coherence Tomographer (AS-OCT) (Zeiss Meditec, Germany) under non-cycloplegic conditions. Participants were 98 visually normal adults aged 18-75 years, stratified into age groups of 18-29, 30-39, 40-49, 50-59, and 60-75 years of age. Images of the crystalline lens were taken using the Visante AS-OCT during stimulation of accommodation at demands of 0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, and 8 D with accommodative response measured in a subgroup of participants. Images were analyzed and LT measured assuming a refractive index of 1.42. Repeat measures were taken from 86 participants for each accommodative demand at a second visit. The mean unaccommodated LT for all participants was 4.07 ± 0.40 mm. An average increase in LT of 20 μm per year was calculated (linear regression, R² = 0.61, F(1,89) = 143.92, p report the repeatability of LT measures using the Visante AS-OCT in the non-cyclopleged eye. It has also demonstrated the ability of the Visante AS-OCT to detect small changes in lens thickness with accommodation.

  4. A model of job activity description for workplace accommodation assessment.

    Sevilla, Joaquin; Sanford, Jon A


    Workplace accommodations to enable employees with disabilities to perform essential job tasks are an important strategy ways for increasing the presence of people with disabilities in the labor market. However, assessments, which are crucial to identifying necessary accommodations, are typically conducted using a variety of methods that lack consistent procedures and comprehensiveness of information. This can lead to the rediscovery of the same solutions over and over, inability to replicate assessments and a failure to effectively meet all of an individual's accommodation needs. To address standardize assessment tools and processes, a taxonomy of demand-producing activity factors is needed to complement the taxonomies of demand-producing person and environment factors already available in the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF). The purpose of this article is to propose a hierarchical model of accommodation assessment based on level of specificity of job activity. While the proposed model is neither a taxonomy nor an assessment process, the seven-level hierarchical model provides a conceptual framework of job activity that is the first step toward such a taxonomy as well as providing a common language that can bridge the many approaches to assessment. The model was designed and refined through testing against various job examples. Different levels of activity are defined to be easily linked to different accommodation strategies. Finally, the levels can be cross-walked to the ICF, which enhances its acceptability, utility and universality.

  5. Relative Importance of Student Accommodation Quality in Higher Education

    Simon Gyasi Nimako


    Full Text Available This study, which was part of a large study, empirically examinesthe importance students attach to different dimensions of Student Accommodation Quality (SAQ delivered by Student Accommodation Providers (SAP in two tertiary (higher education institutions in Ghana. The study involved a cross-sectional survey that used a structured questionnaire administered to 700 tertiary students in residential and non-residential accommodation. The survey yielded a usable 66.6% response rate for analysis. The findings indicate that utility facility quality is the most important SAQ dimension to the students, followed by the overall impression of hostel, security, physical environment, toilet, distance to lecture, bedroom, bath room, accommodation fee, among others. Moreover, it was found that kitchen facility, access to transport and entertainment facility are less important SAQ items while the least important is garage facility. Few differences were found in the priority for SAQ items between COLTEK and K-Poly respondents and between residential and non-residential respondents. Implications for theory and recommendations to management of the two higher education institutions and SAP have been discussed. The study contributes to the body of knowledge in student affairs and managing student accommodation quality in higher education.

  6. Work accommodations and natural supports for maintaining employment.

    Corbière, Marc; Villotti, Patrizia; Lecomte, Tania; Bond, Gary R; Lesage, Alain; Goldner, Elliot M


    Job tenure for people with severe mental disorders, even for those enrolled in supported employment programs, is typically brief. Few studies to date have investigated the relationship between accommodations and natural supports available in the workplace, and job tenure for this population. The main objectives of this study were to develop and to validate a new measure to describe work accommodations and natural supports available in the workplace and to determine which of them are significantly related to job tenure for participants enrolled in supported employment services. In total, 124 people with a severe mental disorder enrolled in supported employment programs and who obtained only one competitive employment at the 9-month follow-up answered the Work Accommodation and Natural Support Scale (WANSS). They also provided information regarding their disclosure (or non-) of mental disorders in the workplace and the length of their job tenure. Confirmatory factor analysis conducted on the WANSS showed 40 items distributed on 6 dimensions (e.g., Schedule flexibility). Correlation results showed that disclosure was significantly related to the number of work accommodations and natural supports available in the workplace. Survival analyses indicated that one WANSS dimension was more salient in predicting job tenure: Supervisor and coworker supports. The WANSS is a valid and useful tool to assess work accommodations and natural supports available in the workplace that employment specialists could use in their practice.

  7. Interaction between Accommodation and Vergence on Distance Perception

    Tomoyuki Daijogo


    Full Text Available Fisher and Ciuffreda (1988 and Mon-Williams and Tresilian (1999 reported that, without vergence cue, diopter change in accommodation induced change in apparent distance. Meanwhile, there is conflicting evidence about the relative roles of accommodation and vergence in distance perception (Richards & Miller, 1969; von Holst, 1973. In the current study, we investigated interaction between accommodation and vergence on distance perception. The perceived distance from integration of vergence evoked by a fixation target and accommodation by a pair of concave or convex lenses in front of eyes is measured with a mirror stereoscope. The stimulus was a white square with a black cross-shaped fixation on a black background. In dark surroundings, subjects were asked to commit the apparent distance of the target to memory, and then without the lenses, re-create the distance by changing distance of another fixation target. The apparent size of the target through lenses were equivalent to the size without lenses. The results showed that not only vergence but accommodation affect the apparent distance, and they were summed linearly.

  8. Short-term induction of assimilation and accommodation.

    Leipold, Bernhard; Bermeitinger, Christina; Greve, Werner; Meyer, Birgit; Arnold, Manuel; Pielniok, Marianna


    The dual-process model of developmental regulation distinguishes two processes of self-regulation (assimilation = tenacious goal pursuit, and accommodation = flexible goal adjustment) that depend on differing conditions, but both contribute to successful development. Four experiments were conducted to investigate whether assimilation and accommodation can be induced or at least shifted by sensorimotor and cognitive manipulations. Experiment 1 investigated the relation between body manipulation and self-regulation. It was shown that assimilation could be triggered when participants were asked to hold on to golf balls as compared to being asked to drop them. Experiment 2 showed that a semantic priming of "let go" or "hold on" via instructions influenced the processes of self-regulation. Experiment 3 and Experiment 4 investigated the role of cognitive sets (divergent thinking) and motivational processes (thinking about one's action resources) in enhancing accommodation or assimilation. As expected, accommodation was triggered by an intervention activating divergent thought, and participants were more assimilative when they thought about their action resources. In sum, the results indicate that assimilation and accommodation can be induced experimentally; they were systematically dependent on physical, cognitive, and motivational states. The implications of the findings were discussed in the light of the dual-process model.

  9. Isolated ocular lichen planus in a child.

    Igras, Estera; Kennedy, Susan; MacDermott, Emma Jane; Murphy, Conor C


    Lichen planus (LP) is an autoimmune inflammatory condition of the skin and mucous membranes, of unknown aetiology, that infrequently involves the eye. Ocular LP has not been described in children. We present the case of an 8-year-old girl with severe, filamentous dry eyes and persistent conjunctival hyperemia with bilateral progressive conjunctival symblepharon. Her conjunctival biopsy showed heavy linear fibrinogen deposits along the basement membrane without IgG, IgA, IgM, or C3 deposition, consistent with LP. No skin or other mucosal lesions were present, suggesting a diagnosis of isolated conjunctival LP. Oral and topical cyclosporine combined with methotrexate and low-dose oral steroids led to sustained disease remission. To our knowledge, this is the first case of isolated ocular LP in a child.

  10. [Ocular hypertension in herpes simplex keratouveitis].

    Burcea, M; Avram, Corina-Ioana; Stamate, Alina-Cristina; Malciolu, R; Oprea, S; Zemba, M


    The herpes simplex virus is one of the most common pathogens in humans, who are seropositive for the virus in 90% of the cases at the adult age. It determines reccurent infections in more than a third of the population and these infections depend on the immune response of the host. Ocular infections of newborns are due to the herpes simplex virus type 2, meanwhile type 1 is found predominantly at adults; almost all ocular structures can be affected. HSV-1 in the most frequent etiologic agent in infectious anterior uveitis (with the varicelo-zosterian virus) and it is responsible for 6-10% of all cases of anterior uveitis. More than half of the keratouveitides due to HSV will develop intraocular hypertension and open-angle secondary glaucoma, during reccurences and most of them will resolve after proper control of inflammation.

  11. [Conjunctival microbiota in patients with ocular allergy].

    Libório, Alexandre Mattoso; Nishiwaki-Dantas, Maria Cristina; Mimica, Lycia Mara Jenne; Dantas, Paulo Elias Correa; Lima, Ana Luísa Höfling de


    To evaluate de presence of conjunctival aerobic microbiota in patients with ocular allergy as compared to a control group. One hundred and thirty-three patients were evaluated from April to June 2001 and divided into 2 groups. Sixty-three patients with allergic conjunctivitis (without medication) were in group A and 70 patients from the general outpatient clinic were in group B (control group). Samples from the conjunctival sac of the right eye were collected and cultured in solid media (blood, chocolate and Sabouraud agar). In group A, 30 cultures (47.7%) were positive and 6 (8.6%) in group B. Seven bacteria were isolated from group A and 4 from group B. Statistical analysis revealed significant association between positive cultures and allergic conjunctivitis. Bacterial microbiota was more frequently found in patients with ocular allergy.

  12. Ocular Surface as Barrier of Innate Immunity

    Bolaños-Jiménez, Rodrigo; Navas, Alejandro; López-Lizárraga, Erika Paulina; de Ribot, Francesc March; Peña, Alexandra; Graue-Hernández, Enrique O; Garfias, Yonathan


    Sight is one of the most important senses that human beings possess. The ocular system is a complex structure equipped with mechanisms that prevent or limit damage caused by physical, chemical, infectious and environmental factors. These mechanisms include a series of anatomical, cellular and humoral factors that have been a matter of study. The cornea is not only the most powerful and important lens of the optical system, but also, it has been involved in many other physiological and pathological processes apart from its refractive nature; the morphological and histological properties of the cornea have been thoroughly studied for the last fifty years; drawing attention in its molecular characteristics of immune response. This paper will review the anatomical and physiological aspects of the cornea, conjunctiva and lacrimal apparatus, as well as the innate immunity at the ocular surface. PMID:26161163

  13. Amniotic membrane transplantation for acute ocular burns.

    Clare, Gerry; Suleman, Hanif; Bunce, Catey; Dua, Harminder


    Ocular surface burns can be caused by chemicals (alkalis and acids) or by direct heat. Amniotic membrane transplantation (AMT) performed in the acute phase (day 0 to day 7) of an ocular surface burn is reported to relieve pain, accelerate healing and reduce scarring and blood vessel formation. The surgery involves applying a patch of amniotic membrane (AM) over the entire ocular surface up to the eyelid margins. To assess the effects of AMT on the eyes of people having suffered acute ocular surface burns. We searched CENTRAL (which contains the Cochrane Eyes and Vision Group Trials Register) (The Cochrane Library 2012, Issue 6), MEDLINE (January 1946 to June 2012), EMBASE (January 1980 to June 2012), Latin American and Caribbean Literature on Health Sciences (LILACS) (January 1982 to June 2012), the metaRegister of Controlled Trials (mRCT) (, ( and the WHO International Clinical Trials Registry Platform (ICTRP) ( We did not use any date or language restrictions in the electronic searches for trials. We last searched the electronic databases on 11 June 2012. We included randomised trials of medical therapy and AMT applied in the first seven days after an ocular surface burn compared to medical therapy alone. Two authors independently assessed the risk of bias of included studies and extracted relevant data. We contacted trial investigators for missing information. We summarised data using risk ratios (RRs) and mean differences (MDs) as appropriate. We included one RCT of 100 participants with ocular burns that were randomised to treatment with AMT and medical therapy or medical therapy alone. A subset of patients (n = 68) who were treated within the first seven days of the injury met the inclusion criteria and were included in the analysis. The remaining 32 eyes were excluded. The included subset consisted of 36 moderate (Dua classification II-III) and 32 severe (Dua

  14. The formulation of drug for ocular administration.

    Aiache, J M; el Meski, S; Beyssac, E; Serpin, G


    The different barriers that slow the penetration of active ingredients administered by the ocular route are described, and some novel dosage forms designed for this route are discussed. Both precorneal and corneal factors considerably restrict ocular penetration. The low bioavailability of classical ophthalmic dosage forms can be improved by several approaches, particularly by increasing the time the active ingredients remain in contact with the eye tissues. The new dosage forms are reviewed according to their type and their drug release mechanisms. The characteristics, advantages, and limitations of each are outlined. The potential of these dosage forms can be expected to enhance development. They offer prolonged effectiveness, reproducibility, fewer unwanted side effects, and improved tolerance.

  15. Partial unilateral lentiginosis with ocular involvement.

    Schaffer, J V; Lazova, R; Bolognia, J L


    Partial unilateral lentiginosis (PUL) is an unusual pigmentary disorder characterized by numerous lentigines grouped within an area of normal skin; the pigmented macules are often in a segmental distribution with a sharp demarcation at the midline. We report the first case of ocular involvement in a patient with this diagnosis. The patient, a 30-year-old Peruvian woman, had multiple brown macules on the left upper face in primarily a V1 and V2 distribution with a sharp demarcation at the midline of the forehead. The lesions first appeared near the hairline when she was 5 years of age, and then began to extend onto the face. She also had a discrete area of brown pigmentation on the left lateral bulbar conjunctiva. Because the patient had been previously diagnosed by several dermatologists as having either a speckled lentiginous nevus or a nevus of Ota, we draw attention to the entity PUL and the possibility of ocular involvement.

  16. Ocular preservatives: associated risks and newer options.

    Kaur, Indu Pal; Lal, Shruti; Rana, Cheena; Kakkar, Shilpa; Singh, Harinder


    Presence of a preservative in an ocular medication has often been considered a culprit in damaging the epithelium. However, the inclusion of a preservative is equally necessary, especially in multiple-dose containers, in order to protect against dangerous organisms accidentally gaining access during instillation. Benzalkonium chloride (BAK), chlorobutanol, chlorhexidine acetate (CHA), and phenylmercuric nitrate or acetate are some commonly used preservatives in eye preparations. New preservatives with a wide range of activity and good safety profiles have been introduced in the market, such as stabilized oxychloro complex (SOC), sofZia, and sodium perborate. In the present review, we discuss various conventional and newly proposed and patented preservative molecules for ocular use. Reasons for discontinuing traditional preservatives and the need for less-toxic molecules are discussed at length, along with newer options coming up in this area.


    E. Yu. Markovа


    Full Text Available In case of viral infections, ophthalmologists, pediatricians and general practitioners should all be aware of ocular manifestations of these diseases. According to our observations, despite the presence of corneal disorders, in 95 percent of children changes were reversible and in 1.5 months visual acuity was high. Only in five percent of cases despite the intensive therapy, patients had bacterial complications, causing a decrease in visual acuity.The combined  efforts of infectious disease specialists and ophthalmologists as well as timely and proper treatment are required to reduce the inflammation symptoms and prevent complications. By adding Ophtalmoferon® medication to the complex therapy of ocular surface diseases we observed its high therapeutic efficacy and a good safety profile. This medication is available in the form of ready-to-use eye drops, unlike other antiviral agents, improving  its compliance in outpatients.

  18. Manifestaciones oculares de las enfermedades sistémicas Ocular manifestations of systemic diseases

    J. Andonegui


    Full Text Available Existe un gran número de enfermedades sistémicas que pueden presentar en algún momento de su evolución manifestaciones oculares. Estas alteraciones pueden provocar sintomatología por sí mismas, pueden ayudar a diagnosticar la enfermedad sistémica que las originó o pueden servir para monitorizar el curso evolutivo de la misma. Se destacan las principales características de una serie de enfermedades sistémicas asociadas a patología ocular que serán estudiadas en detalle a lo largo de esta monografía.A great number of systemic diseases can exhibit ocular manifestations during their evolution. These ocular alterations may cause symptoms by themselves, but can also be useful in diagnosing or monitoring the evolution of the systemic condition. The main characteristics of several systemic diseases exhibiting some kind of ocular sign are highlighted. These diseases will be described in detail in this issue.

  19. [Larva migrans syndrome or ocular toxocariasis].

    Pizzi, D R; Maffrand, R A; De Lisa, I S; Pizzi, H L; Plaza Ontiveros, R G


    Thirteen cases of ocular toxocariasis attended in the Oftalmology Service of the Pediatric Hospital "Niño Jesús", from Córdoba; and in the Parasitology and Micology Cathedra of the Medicine Collegue of the University of Córdoba were studied from July 1993 till July 1995. The authors determine the needs of taking into account this parasitosis; above all in children and with the antecedent of contact with pets.

  20. [Epstein Barr and cytomegaloviruses in ocular pathology].

    Magdei, Corina; Cuşnir, Valeriu; Bârcâ, Ludmila


    Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) and Citomegalovirus (CMV) are Herpesviridae family representative and presents a real danger for human. A very high infect risk of population farther the danger The ocular pathology induced by them can affect all media and tunics of optic analyzer. An etiologic differentiation is necessary for the mentioned viruses induced diseases. The etiologic differentiation has like purpose the enforcement of an effective and optimal antiviral and immunomodulating therapy.

  1. Vitamin D in ocular and systemic health

    Solani D. Mathebula


    Full Text Available Accumulated data supports the argument that vitamin D possesses several biological and molecular actions apart from its role in calcium absorption and facilitation of gene expression. Vitamin D deficiency has been an associated risk factor for cardiovascular disease,metabolic syndrome and ocular complications. The aim of this review is to summarise the most relevant data regarding these associations and to try to clarify whether, and to what extent, oral vitamin D supplementation could be used as a beneficial intervention in such diseases.Vitamin D is produced in skin exposed to sunlight UVB radiation and is then metabolised by the kidney into calciferol, which is an active form. The main function of vitamin D is to promote calcium and phosphorus absorption, and studies have shown that a lack of itplays an important role in ocular conditions, such as age-related macular degeneration and diabetic retinopathy. Recent studies have suggested that vitamin D may protect the diabetic retina; however, other vitamin D-associated conditions (diabetes, hypertension and cardiovascular diseases may result in secondary ocular manifestations and the potential forsight-threatening complications. The purpose of this review is to describe the current literature on the role of vitamin D in ocular and systemic wellness. However, more research is needed to determine if increasing levels of this vitamin can assist in preventing age-related macular degeneration or diabetic retinopathy. Since vitamin D is a circulating steroid hormone, its receptors are found in almost every cell in the human body, and this suggests that vitamin D might have a very broad role for overall health. However, there is still demand for further research to clarify the clinical use of vitamin D in the prevention and treatment of various chronic diseases.

  2. Neuroretinitis in ocular bartonellosis: a case series

    Raihan AR; Zunaina E; Wan-Hazabbah WH; Adil H; Lakana-Kumar T


    Abdul-Rahim Raihan,1 Embong Zunaina,1,2 Wan-Hitam Wan-Hazabbah,1,2 Hussein Adil,1,2 Thavaratnam Lakana-Kumar1 1Department of Ophthalmology, School of Medical Sciences, Universiti Sains Malaysia, Kubang Kerian, Kelantan, Malaysia; 2Hospital Universiti Sains Malaysia, Kubang Kerian, Kelantan, MalaysiaAbstract: We report a case series of neuroretinitis in ocular bartonellosis and describe the serologic verification for Bartonella henselae. This is a retrospective interventional case series of fo...

  3. Computer vision syndrome: a review of ocular causes and potential treatments.

    Rosenfield, Mark


    Computer vision syndrome (CVS) is the combination of eye and vision problems associated with the use of computers. In modern western society the use of computers for both vocational and avocational activities is almost universal. However, CVS may have a significant impact not only on visual comfort but also occupational productivity since between 64% and 90% of computer users experience visual symptoms which may include eyestrain, headaches, ocular discomfort, dry eye, diplopia and blurred vision either at near or when looking into the distance after prolonged computer use. This paper reviews the principal ocular causes for this condition, namely oculomotor anomalies and dry eye. Accommodation and vergence responses to electronic screens appear to be similar to those found when viewing printed materials, whereas the prevalence of dry eye symptoms is greater during computer operation. The latter is probably due to a decrease in blink rate and blink amplitude, as well as increased corneal exposure resulting from the monitor frequently being positioned in primary gaze. However, the efficacy of proposed treatments to reduce symptoms of CVS is unproven. A better understanding of the physiology underlying CVS is critical to allow more accurate diagnosis and treatment. This will enable practitioners to optimize visual comfort and efficiency during computer operation.

  4. Ocular pathology in congenital heart disease.

    Mansour, A M; Bitar, F F; Traboulsi, E I; Kassak, K M; Obeid, M Y; Megarbane, A; Salti, H I


    To describe the ocular findings in subjects with congenital heart disease (CHD). In a prospective study, the same observer examined 240 consecutive patients with CHD admitted to the medical centre. Two independent geneticists performed identification of syndromes. The commonest anatomic cardiac anomalies were ventricular or atrial septal defects (62), tetralogy of Fallot (39), pulmonary stenosis (25), and transposition of the great arteries (24). The heart lesions were divided physiologically into volume overload (90), cyanotic (87), and obstructive (63). In all, 105 syndromic subjects included the velocardiofacial syndrome (18), Down's syndrome (17), CHARGE association (6), DiGeorge syndrome (5), Williams syndrome (3), Edwards syndrome (3), Noonan syndrome (3), VACTERL association (2), and Patau syndrome (trisomy 13) (2). The paediatric team recognized 51 patients as syndromic. Two independent geneticists recognized additional 54 patients as syndromic. Positive eye findings were present in 55% (132) and included retinal vascular tortuosity (46), optic disc hypoplasia (30), trichomegaly (15), congenital ptosis (12), strabismus (11), retinal haemorrhages (8), prominent eyes (7), and congenital cataract (6). There was a strong correlation between the retinal vascular tortuosity and both a low haematocrit (P=0.000) and a low arterial oxygen saturation (P=0.002). Patients with CHD are at a high risk for ocular pathology and need screening for various ocular abnormalities.

  5. Experimental models of autoimmune inflammatory ocular diseases

    Fabio Gasparin


    Full Text Available Ocular inflammation is one of the leading causes of blindness and loss of vision. Human uveitis is a complex and heterogeneous group of diseases characterized by inflammation of intraocular tissues. The eye may be the only organ involved, or uveitis may be part of a systemic disease. A significant number of cases are of unknown etiology and are labeled idiopathic. Animal models have been developed to the study of the physiopathogenesis of autoimmune uveitis due to the difficulty in obtaining human eye inflamed tissues for experiments. Most of those models are induced by injection of specific photoreceptors proteins (e.g., S-antigen, interphotoreceptor retinoid-binding protein, rhodopsin, recoverin, phosducin. Non-retinal antigens, including melanin-associated proteins and myelin basic protein, are also good inducers of uveitis in animals. Understanding the basic mechanisms and pathogenesis of autoimmune ocular diseases are essential for the development of new treatment approaches and therapeutic agents. The present review describes the main experimental models of autoimmune ocular inflammatory diseases.

  6. Ocular Blood Flow and Normal Tension Glaucoma

    Ning Fan


    Full Text Available Normal tension glaucoma (NTG is known as a multifactorial optic neuropathy characterized by progressive retinal ganglion cell death and glaucomatous visual field loss, even though the intraocular pressure (IOP does not exceed the normal range. The pathophysiology of NTG remains largely undetermined. It is hypothesized that the abnormal ocular blood flow is involved in the pathogenesis of this disease. A number of evidences suggested that the vascular factors played a significant role in the development of NTG. In recent years, the new imaging techniques, fluorescein angiography, color Doppler imaging (CDI, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI, and laser speckle flowgraphy (LSFG, have been used to evaluate the ocular blood flow and blood vessels, and the impaired vascular autoregulation was found in patients with NTG. Previous studies showed that NTG was associated with a variety of systemic diseases, including migraine, Alzheimer’s disease, primary vascular dysregulation, and Flammer syndrome. The vascular factors were involved in these diseases. The mechanisms underlying the abnormal ocular blood flow in NTG are still not clear, but the risk factors for glaucomatous optic neuropathy likely included oxidative stress, vasospasm, and endothelial dysfunction.




    Full Text Available Purpose: To evaluate the demography, aetiology, type and outcome of paediatric ocular trauma in tertiary centre in Malaysia. Method: We retrospectively studied 118 eyes from 117 patients over a period of 36 months (January 2006 to December 2008. All ocular injuries in patients aged 12 and below seen in the Ophthalmology Department for the first time were included in thisstudy. Results: Mean age of patients was 6.1±3.0 years. 68 cases (58.2% occurred in pre-school children, whereas 49 (41.9% in school-aged children. Boys accounted for 65.8% of cases. There was no predilection for either right or the left eye. 47% of cases (56 patients occurred in Malay. Most of the injuries took place at home when the children were alone (p<0.05. Sharp objects were the commonest cause (45 cases, 38.1%. The majority of cases (103, 87.3% were considered preventable. The frequency of open and closed globe injury was similar. Hyphema was more common in closed globe injury compared to open globe injury (p<0.05. Other associated injuries such as cataract, vitreous hemorrhage and retinal hemorrhage are similar between the two groups. Visual outcome is generally poor with only 34 eyes (28.8% had no visual impairment. Conclusion: Ocular trauma in children is an important cause of visual loss. Most cases occurred at home and were preventable. Prevention through education is the best approach.


    Bharat Kumar


    Full Text Available AIM This study is designed to enumerate various causes of ocular trauma, clinical spectrum of presentation and to evaluate the visual outcome after appropriate management. MATERIALS AND METHODS A prospective study was conducted on total of 136 patients from the places in and around Kakinada, East Godavari District of Andhra Pradesh, India. A detailed work up of all patients including slit lamp biomicroscopy, direct, indirect ophthalmoscopy and ultra sonography B scan was done. RESULTS Observations from the study were analyzed, discussed and compared with the existing studies in the literature. Mean age group of patients belong to young adults between 20-30 years (57.9%, males (81% affected more than females. Illiterates, Agricultural labourers, Industrial workers affected more. Road Traffic Accidents (25.73%, industrial injuries (22.05% and agricultural hazards (19.11% being the major cause of unilateral eye injury. Closed globe injuries (80.88% more common than Open globe injuries (19.12. CONCLUTIONS Ophthalmic injuries due to innumerable causes results in various types of ocular trauma, leading to untold misery, visual impairment and economic burden to the family, society and country as a whole. Health education regarding use of preventive measures, seeking early treatment and appropriate rehabilitation are very much recommended to reduce the burden of morbidity due to ocular trauma.

  9. Ocular Complications of Leprosy in Yemen

    Salem, Raga A. A.


    Objectives: This study was conducted to identify the main ocular- and vision-threatening complications of leprosy in Yemen. Methods: This is a cross-sectional observational study which took place from February to July 2010. Leprosy patients attending the Skin and Venereal Diseases Hospital in the City of Light in Taiz, Yemen, who consented to participate in the study, were enrolled. Detailed demographic and medical histories were taken and clinical examination findings were recorded. A detailed eye examination, including visual acuity (VA), slit-lamp, and fundus examinations, was conducted on each patient by a qualified ophthalmologist. Results: A total of 192 patients (180 male, 12 female, with a male to female ratio of 15:1) were included in the study. The majority of the patients (157; 81.8%) were over 40 years. Over two-thirds of the patients (129; 67.2%) had had leprosy for more than 20 years. Ocular complications were found in 97% of cases; 150 (39.1%) of the patients’ eyes had at least one pathology. Eyelid involvement was the most common problem observed in 102 (26.5%) patients. Half of the eyes (192; 50%) had a VA of <6/60. The main cause of blindness among these patients was corneal opacity detected in 69 out of 192 patients (35.9%). Conclusion: Ocular complications are frequent among leprosy patients in Yemen. They are true vision-threatening lesions. It is important to prevent these lesions through early diagnosis and adequate treatment. PMID:23275842

  10. Neuroretinitis in ocular bartonellosis: a case series

    Raihan AR


    Full Text Available Abdul-Rahim Raihan,1 Embong Zunaina,1,2 Wan-Hitam Wan-Hazabbah,1,2 Hussein Adil,1,2 Thavaratnam Lakana-Kumar1 1Department of Ophthalmology, School of Medical Sciences, Universiti Sains Malaysia, Kubang Kerian, Kelantan, Malaysia; 2Hospital Universiti Sains Malaysia, Kubang Kerian, Kelantan, MalaysiaAbstract: We report a case series of neuroretinitis in ocular bartonellosis and describe the serologic verification for Bartonella henselae. This is a retrospective interventional case series of four patients who presented in the ophthalmology clinic of Hospital Universiti Sains Malaysia from June 2012 to March 2013. All four patients had a history of contact with cats and had fever prior to ocular symptoms. Each patient presented with neuroretinitis characterized by optic disc swelling with macular star. Serology analysis showed strongly positive for B. henselae in all of the patients. All patients were treated with oral azithromycin (except case 4, who was treated with oral doxycycline, and two patients (case 1 and case 3 had poor vision at initial presentation that warranted the use of oral prednisolone. All patients showed a good visual outcome except case 3. Vision-threatening ocular manifestation of cat scratch disease can be improved with systemic antibiotics and steroids.Keyword: cat scratch disease

  11. Mark My Words! Linguistic Style Accommodation in Social Media

    Danescu-Niculescu-Mizil, Cristian; Dumais, Susan; 10.1145/1963405.1963509


    The psycholinguistic theory of communication accommodation accounts for the general observation that participants in conversations tend to converge to one another's communicative behavior: they coordinate in a variety of dimensions including choice of words, syntax, utterance length, pitch and gestures. In its almost forty years of existence, this theory has been empirically supported exclusively through small-scale or controlled laboratory studies. Here we address this phenomenon in the context of Twitter conversations. Undoubtedly, this setting is unlike any other in which accommodation was observed and, thus, challenging to the theory. Its novelty comes not only from its size, but also from the non real-time nature of conversations, from the 140 character length restriction, from the wide variety of social relation types, and from a design that was initially not geared towards conversation at all. Given such constraints, it is not clear a priori whether accommodation is robust enough to occur given the con...

  12. Accommodative response and cortical activity during sustained attention.

    Poltavski, Dmitri V; Biberdorf, David; Petros, Thomas V


    Greater accommodative lag and vergence deficits have been linked to attentional deficits similar to those observed in Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD). The purpose of the present study was to assess the effect of accommodative-vergence stress on a measure of sustained attention (Conners CPT) used in the diagnosis of ADHD. Twenty-seven normal non-ADHD adults completed the Conners CPT twice: wearing -2.00 D lenses and normally (without the -2.00 D lenses) in a counterbalanced order with at least 24 h between the sessions. Simultaneous recording of participants' dynamic accommodative responses was performed from the right eye using the Grand Seiko WAM-5500 auto-refractor and electroencephalographic activity (EEG) in the left prefrontal region using the Neurosky Mindset headset. The results demonstrated a significantly greater accommodative lag in the -2.00 D stress condition and a significantly poorer performance on the Conners CPT as indexed by slower reaction time, greater standard error of hit reaction time, grater response variability, poorer stimulus detectability and a greater number of perseverations. No differences were observed on measures of EEG in the theta (4-7 Hz), alpha (8-12 Hz), and beta (12-20 Hz) bands. Moreover, when directly juxtaposed with each EEG band in multiple linear regression analyses, greater accommodative lag in the stress condition was significantly associated with a greater probability of clinical classification on the Conners CPT, and was also marginally predictive of the number of omissions recorded in the stress condition. The results demonstrated that sustained attention can be influenced by such factors as accommodative-vergence stress and suggest that bottom-up processes can contribute to and potentially exacerbate attentional problems in individuals with ADHD. The study also showed that cortical dysfunction (while sufficient) may not be a necessary condition for attentional deficits.

  13. Analysis on the accommodation of renewable energy in northeast China

    Liu, Jun; Zhang, Jinfang; Tian, Feng; Mi, Zhe


    The accommodation and curtailment of renewable energy in northeast China have attracted much attention with the rapid growth of wind and solar power generation. Large amount of wind power has been curtailed or abandoned in northeast China due to several reasons, such as, the redundancy of power supplies, inadequate power demands, imperfect power structure with less flexibility and limited cross-regional transmission capacity. In this paper, we use multi-area production simulation to analyse the accommodation of renewable energy in northeast China by 2020. Furthermore, we suggest the measures that could be adopted in generation, grid and load side to reduce curtailment of renewables.

  14. Pupil movements to light and accommodative stimulation - A comparative study.

    Semmlow, J.; Stark, L.


    Isolation and definition of specific response components in pupil reflexes through comparison of the dynamic features of light-induced and accommodation-induced pupil movements. A quantitative analysis of the behavior of the complex nonlinear pupil responses reveals the presence of two independent nonlinear characteristics: a range-dependent gain and a direction dependence or movement asymmetry. These nonlinear properties are attributed to motor processes because they are observable in pupil responses to both light and accommodation stimuli. The possible mechanisms and consequences of these pupil response characteristics are quantitatively defined and discussed.


    Iwona Cieślik


    Full Text Available This paper presents the results of study about impact of accommodation services’ quality, particularly quality of work and qualifications of staff, on the guests’ opinion, and thus promoting the accommodation facilities, and making a choice of a hotel in the Upper Silesia. The study involved 200 people, taking into account their gender, age, place of residence, education and occupational status. The research tool was a survey questionnaire. The results indicate close correlation between the quality of staff services (individual approach, aesthetics, discretion, understanding and the customer is satisfaction. Particular attention was paid to the quality of service by the guests with high professional status, and higher education.

  16. Accommodation of Symptoms in Anorexia Nervosa: A Qualitative Study.

    Fox, John R E; Whittlesea, Anna


    Anorexia nervosa (AN) continues to remain poorly understood within eating disorders. Recent research and theory have moved away from understanding its aetiological causes, addressing instead potential maintaining factors. This study is focused on interpersonal maintenance factors: the response of close others. Relatives of those with AN typically carry the main burden of care, and research has found high levels of carer distress and unmet needs. Recent theories have proposed this emotional impact to contribute to expressed emotion and other unhelpful caregiver interactions which inadvertently maintain AN. One such understudied response is accommodation, described as a 'process' whereby caregivers 'assist or participate' in symptomatic behaviours of the cared for individual. There is a dearth of research relating to accommodation within eating disorders, particularly qualitative accounts. This study utilized a grounded theory methodology to explore caregivers' responses to managing AN, focusing particularly on carers' experience of accommodation. Eight participants with experience of caring for an individual diagnosed with AN were interviewed. Participants were recruited from a national eating disorder charity and regional eating disorder service. A number of themes emerged, including the importance of caregivers' emotional resources in mediating accommodation responses. Low-perceived efficacy over AN contributed to caregiver burnout. Decreased emotional resources influenced a shift in caregiving aims conducive with accommodation. Nevertheless, carers perceived accommodation as counterproductive to recovery and consequently experienced internal conflict (cognitive dissonance). Dissonance was reduced using a number of cognitive and behavioural strategies. The implications of these findings are discussed with reference to existing literature. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Anorexia nervosa (AN) can be difficult to manage. Over time, carers can feel

  17. Dry Eye Management: Targeting the Ocular Surface Microenvironment.

    Zhang, Xiaobo; M, Vimalin Jeyalatha; Qu, Yangluowa; He, Xin; Ou, Shangkun; Bu, Jinghua; Jia, Changkai; Wang, Junqi; Wu, Han; Liu, Zuguo; Li, Wei


    Dry eye can damage the ocular surface and result in mild corneal epithelial defect to blinding corneal pannus formation and squamous metaplasia. Significant progress in the treatment of dry eye has been made in the last two decades; progressing from lubricating and hydrating the ocular surface with artificial tear to stimulating tear secretion; anti-inflammation and immune regulation. With the increase in knowledge regarding the pathophysiology of dry eye, we propose in this review the concept of ocular surface microenvironment. Various components of the microenvironment contribute to the homeostasis of ocular surface. Compromise in one or more components can result in homeostasis disruption of ocular surface leading to dry eye disease. Complete evaluation of the microenvironment component changes in dry eye patients will not only lead to appropriate diagnosis, but also guide in timely and effective clinical management. Successful treatment of dry eye should be aimed to restore the homeostasis of the ocular surface microenvironment.

  18. Laser exposure analysis for a near-infrared ocular interferometer

    Primeau, Brian C.; Goldstein, Goldie L.; Greivenkamp, John E.


    Ocular interferometry has potential value in a variety of ocular measurement applications, including measuring ocular thicknesses, topography of ocular surfaces or the wavefront of the eye. Of particular interest is using interferometry for characterizing corneal shape and irregular corneal features, making this technology attractive due to its inherent accuracy and spatial resolution. A particular challenge of designing an ocular interferometer is determining safe laser exposure levels to the eye, including both the retina and anterior segment. Described here are the laser exposure standards relevant in the interferometer design and the corresponding calculations and results. The results of this work can be used to aid in the design of similar laser-based systems for ocular evaluation.

  19. Dry Eye Management: Targeting the Ocular Surface Microenvironment

    Zhang, Xiaobo; Jeyalatha M, Vimalin; Qu, Yangluowa; He, Xin; Ou, Shangkun; Bu, Jinghua; Jia, Changkai; Wang, Junqi; Wu, Han; Liu, Zuguo


    Dry eye can damage the ocular surface and result in mild corneal epithelial defect to blinding corneal pannus formation and squamous metaplasia. Significant progress in the treatment of dry eye has been made in the last two decades; progressing from lubricating and hydrating the ocular surface with artificial tear to stimulating tear secretion; anti-inflammation and immune regulation. With the increase in knowledge regarding the pathophysiology of dry eye, we propose in this review the concept of ocular surface microenvironment. Various components of the microenvironment contribute to the homeostasis of ocular surface. Compromise in one or more components can result in homeostasis disruption of ocular surface leading to dry eye disease. Complete evaluation of the microenvironment component changes in dry eye patients will not only lead to appropriate diagnosis, but also guide in timely and effective clinical management. Successful treatment of dry eye should be aimed to restore the homeostasis of the ocular surface microenvironment. PMID:28661456

  20. Ivermectin treatment of patients with severe ocular onchocerciasis.

    Taylor, H R; Semba, R D; Newland, H S; Keyvan-Larijani, E; White, A; Dukuly, Z; Greene, B M


    The treatment of onchocerciasis with diethylcarbamazine and suramin is associated with an exacerbation of ocular disease. This occurs more frequently in patients with severe onchocercal ocular disease. We assessed ocular changes following ivermectin treatment in 39 patients with severe ocular onchocerciasis. Patients were treated with 100, 150, or 200 micrograms/kg of ivermectin at either 1 or 2 year intervals and followed for 3 years. There was no evidence for an acute exacerbation of either anterior or posterior segment eye disease, and there was a marked improvement in ocular status in the group as a whole. There was a significant decrease in onchocercal involvement which was maintained for at least 3 years. Annual treatment with ivermectin can be used safely in patients with severe ocular disease and is beneficial over a prolonged period of time.

  1. Study of ocular aberrations with age.

    Athaide, Helaine Vinche Zampar; Campos, Mauro; Costa, Charles


    Aging has various effects on visual system. Vision deteriorate, contrast sensitivity decreases and ocular aberrations apparently make the optical quality worse across the years. To prospective evaluate ocular aberrations along the ages. Three hundred and fifteen patients were examined, 155 were male (39.36%) and 160 were female (60.63%). Ages ranged from 5 to 64 year-old, the study was performed from February to November, 2004. Patients were divided into 4 age-groups according to IBGE (Instituto Brasileiro de Geografia e Estatística) classification: 68 patients from 5 to 14 year-old, 55 patients from 15 to 24 year-old, 116 from 25 to 44 year-old and 76 from 45 to 67 year-old. All patients had the following characteristics: best corrected visual acuity > 20/25, emmetropia or spherical equivalent < 3.50 SD, refractive astigmatism < 1.75 CD on cycloplegic refraction, normal ophthalmologic exam and no previous ocular surgeries. This protocol was approved by Federal University of São Paulo Institutional Review Board. Total optical aberrations were measured by H-S sensor LadarWave Custom Cornea Wavefront System (Alcon Laboratories Inc, Orlando, FLA, USA) and were statistically analysed. Corneal aberrations were calculated using CT-View software Version 6.89 (Sarver and Associates, Celebration, FL, USA). Lens aberrations were calculated by subtraction. High-order (0.32 e 0.48 microm) and ocular spherical aberrations (0.02 e 0.26 microm) increased respectively in child and middle age groups. High order (0.27 microm) and corneal spherical aberrations (0.05 microm) did not show changes with age. Lens showed a statistically significant spherical aberration increase (from -0.02 to 0.22 microm). Vertical (from 0.10 to -0.07 microm) and horizontal coma (from 0.01 to -0.12 microm) presented progressively negative values with aging. High-order and spherical aberrations increased with age due to lens contribution. The cornea did not affect significantly changes observed on ocular

  2. Study of ocular manifestations in children of thalassemia

    Dhara K. Gosai


    Conclusion: Most of the ocular changes of beta thalassemia are attributed to the course and severity of the disease. Reduction in serum iron and serum Ferritin levels by iron- chelating agents and regular ocular examination to look for side-effects of such agents can aid in preventing or delaying ocular complications. [Int J Res Med Sci 2014; 2(2.000: 695-698

  3. Study of ocular manifestations in children of thalassemia

    Dhara K. Gosai; K. M. Mehariya; Jigarkumar B. Gosai


    Background: Purpose of current study was to study the ocular manifestations in beta-thalassemia major patients and assess the ocular side-effects of iron chelating agents. Methods: Cross sectional study included 45 beta Thalassemia major patients from age group of 6months to 12 years were taken. Full medical history, thorough physical examinations were done to all patients groups, and ophthalmological examination to determine the prevalence of ocular manifestations for all patient groups a...

  4. Ocular rosacea: a review Rosácea ocular: revisão

    Ana Carolina Cabreira Vieira


    Full Text Available Rosacea is a prevalent chronic cutaneous disorder with variable presentation and severity. Although considered a skin disease, rosacea may evolve the eyes in 58-72% of the patients, causing eyelid and ocular surface inflammation. About one third of the patients develop potentially sight-threatening corneal involvement. Untreated rosacea may cause varying degrees of ocular morbidity. The importance of early diagnosis and adequate treatment cannot be overemphasized. There is not yet a diagnostic test for rosacea. The diagnosis of ocular rosacea relies on observation of clinical features, which can be challenging in up to 90% of patients in whom accompanying roseatic skin changes may be subtle or inexistent. In this review, we describe the pathophysiologic mechanisms proposed in the literature, clinical features, diagnosis and management of ocular rosacea, as well as discuss the need for a diagnostic test for the disease.A rosácea é uma condição cutânea crônica, que possui apresentações clínicas variáveis. Apesar de considerada uma doença dermatológica, os olhos podem ser acometidos em 58-72% dos casos, causando inflamação palpebral e da superfície ocular. Aproximadamente um terço dos pacientes desenvolve acometimento corneano, podendo causar baixa visual significativa. Diagnóstico precoce e tratamento adequado são de extrema importância, devido à significativa morbidade ocular que a doença pode causar. Não há, até o momento, um teste diagnóstico para rosácea. O diagnóstico da rosácea ocular depende da observação das manifestações clínicas, o que pode ser bastante desafiador em até 90% dos pacientes, em que os achados cutâneos são discretos ou inexistentes. Nesta revisão, descrevemos os mecanismos fisiopatológicos propostos na literatura, manifestações clínicas, diagnóstico e tratamento da rosácea ocular, assim como abordamos a necessidade de um teste diagnóstico.

  5. Against the accommodation of subjective healthcare provider beliefs in medicine: counteracting supporters of conscientious objector accommodation arguments.

    Smalling, Ricardo; Schuklenk, Udo


    We respond in this paper to various counter arguments advanced against our stance on conscientious objection accommodation. Contra Maclure and Dumont, we show that it is impossible to develop reliable tests for conscientious objectors' claims with regard to the reasonableness of the ideological basis of their convictions, and, indeed, with regard to whether they actually hold they views they claim to hold. We demonstrate furthermore that, within the Canadian legal context, the refusal to accommodate conscientious objectors would not constitute undue hardship for such objectors. We reject concerns that refusing to accommodate conscientious objectors would limit the equality of opportunity for budding professionals holding particular ideological positions. We also clarify various misrepresentations of our views by respondents Symons, Glick and Jotkowitz, and Lyus.

  6. Albinism: Particular attention to the ocular motor system

    Richard W Hertle


    Full Text Available The purpose of this report is to summarize an understanding of the ocular motor system in patients with albinism. Other than the association of vertical eccentric gaze null positions and asymmetric, (a periodic alternating nystagmus in a large percentage of patients, the ocular motor system in human albinism does not contain unique pathology, rather has "typical" types of infantile ocular oscillations and binocular disorders. Both the ocular motor and afferent visual system are affected to varying degrees in patients with albinism, thus, combined treatment of both systems will maximize visual function.

  7. Albinism: particular attention to the ocular motor system.

    Hertle, Richard W


    The purpose of this report is to summarize an understanding of the ocular motor system in patients with albinism. Other than the association of vertical eccentric gaze null positions and asymmetric, (a) periodic alternating nystagmus in a large percentage of patients, the ocular motor system in human albinism does not contain unique pathology, rather has "typical" types of infantile ocular oscillations and binocular disorders. Both the ocular motor and afferent visual system are affected to varying degrees in patients with albinism, thus, combined treatment of both systems will maximize visual function.

  8. Further observations of ocular pathology in Down's syndrome.

    Ginsberg, J; Ballard, E T; Buchino, J J; Kinkler, A K


    We studied the eyes of two children with proven trisomy 21 and updated the microscopic ocular findings. The ocular malformations, generally of a minor nature, comprise a variety of nonspecific hyperplasia or hamartomata, hypoplasias, tissue defects and heterotopias, and involve virtually every portion of the globe. Ocular and extraocular abnormalities in Down's syndrome do not correlate well embryologically, cytogenetically or in regard to incidence or severity. The type of ocular anomalies usually encountered in trisomy 21 suggests that the globe was affected by the chromosomal anomaly rather late in its development.

  9. Plasticity of the human otolith-ocular reflex

    Wall, C. 3rd; Smith, T. R.; Furman, J. M.


    The eye movement response to earth vertical axis rotation in the dark, a semicircular canal stimulus, can be altered by prior exposure to combined visual-vestibular stimuli. Such plasticity of the vestibulo-ocular reflex has not been described for earth horizontal axis rotation, a dynamic otolith stimulus. Twenty normal human subjects underwent one of two types of adaptation paradigms designed either to attenuate or enhance the gain of the semicircular canal-ocular reflex prior to undergoing otolith-ocular reflex testing with horizontal axis rotation. The adaptation paradigm paired a 0.2 Hz sinusoidal rotation about a vertical axis with a 0.2 Hz optokinetic stripe pattern that was deliberately mismatched in peak velocity. Pre- and post-adaptation horizontal axis rotations were at 60 degrees/s in the dark and produced a modulation in the slow component velocity of nystagmus having a frequency of 0.17 Hz due to putative stimulation of the otolith organs. Results showed that the magnitude of this modulation component response was altered in a manner similar to the alteration in semicircular canal-ocular responses. These results suggest that physiologic alteration of the vestibulo-ocular reflex using deliberately mismatched visual and semicircular canal stimuli induces changes in both canal-ocular and otolith-ocular responses. We postulate, therefore, that central nervous system pathways responsible for controlling the gains of canal-ocular and otolith-ocular reflexes are shared.

  10. [Quantification of ocular dominance for better management of eye disease].

    Chaumillon, R; Alahyane, N; Senot, P; Vergne, J; Lemoine, C; Doré-Mazars, K; Blouin, J; Vergilino-Perez, D; Guillaume, A


    The dominant eye is defined as the one we unconsciously choose when we have to perform monocular tasks. In the field of clinical neuro-ophthalmology, it is well-established that ocular dominance plays a key role in several eye diseases. Furthermore, the accurate quantification of ocular dominance is crucial with regard to certain surgical techniques. However, classical preoperative tests cannot determine the amount of ocular dominance. In order to obtain further insight into the phenomenon of ocular dominance, we study its influence at behavioral and neurophysiological levels (experiments 1 and 2). Based on these new data, we suggest a method to improve quantification of ocular dominance (experiment 3). We demonstrate that ocular dominance has an influence on hand movements and on interhemispheric transfer time. Moreover, we show that an analysis of the dynamics of saccades allows us to sort out participants with strong or weak ocular dominance. In conclusion, this better understanding of the phenomenon of ocular dominance, coupled with the analysis of saccadic dynamics, might, in the short or medium term, lead to the establishment of a quick and straightforward battery of tests allowing determination of the amount of ocular dominance for each patient. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  11. Ocular rigidity, outflow facility, ocular pulse amplitude, and pulsatile ocular blood flow in open-angle glaucoma: a manometric study.

    Dastiridou, Anna I; Tsironi, Evangelia E; Tsilimbaris, Miltiadis K; Ginis, Harilaos; Karyotakis, Nikos; Cholevas, Pierros; Androudi, Sofia; Pallikaris, Ioannis G


    To compare ocular rigidity (OR) and outflow facility (C) coefficients in medically treated open-angle glaucoma (OAG) patients and controls, and to investigate differences in ocular pulse amplitude (OPA) and pulsatile ocular blood flow (POBF) between the two groups. Twenty-one OAG patients and 21 controls undergoing cataract surgery were enrolled. Patients with early or moderate primary or pseudoexfoliative OAG participated in the glaucoma group. A computer-controlled system, consisting of a pressure transducer and a microstepping device was employed intraoperatively. After cannulation of the anterior chamber, IOP was increased by infusing the eye with microvolumes of saline solution. IOP was recorded after each infusion step. At an IOP of 40 mm Hg, an IOP decay curve was recorded for 4 minutes. OR coefficients, C, OPA, and POBF were estimated from IOP and volume recordings. There were no differences in age or axial length in the two groups. The OR coefficient was 0.0220 ± 0.0053 μl(-1) in the OAG and 0.0222 ± 0.0039 μl(-1) in the control group (P = 0.868). C was 0.092 ± 0.082 μL/min/mm Hg in the glaucoma group compared with 0.149 ± 0.085 μL/min/mm Hg in the control group at an IOP of 35 mm Hg (P 0.05). Manometric data reveal lower C in OAG patients and increased C with increasing IOP. There were no differences in the OR coefficient, OPA, and POBF between medically treated OAG patients and controls, failing to provide evidence of altered scleral distensibility and choroidal blood flow in OAG.

  12. Assimilation, Accommodation, and the Dynamics of Personality Development.

    Block, Jack


    Specifies some problems in the Piagetian characterizations of assimilation and accommodation and offers an alternative formulation intended to resolve some conceptual anomalies. On the basis of the revision, the orthogenetic law of developmental progression is explicitly derived. Further, Piaget's notion of "equilibrium" is extended into…

  13. Mechanically implementable accommodation matrices for passive force control

    Goswami, A. [Univ. of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA (United States). Center for Human Modeling and Simulation; Peshkin, M. [Northwestern Univ., Evanston, IL (United States). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering


    Robot force control implemented by means of passive mechanical devices has inherent advantages over active implementations with regard to stability, response rapidity, and physical robustness. The class of devices considered in this paper consists of a Stewart platform-type mechanism interconnected with a network of adjustable mechanical elements such as springs and dampers. The control law repertoire of such a device, imagined as a robot wrist, is given by the range of admittance matrices that it may be programmed to possess. This paper focuses on wrists incorporating damper networks for which the admittance matrices reduce to accommodation or inverse-damping matrices. The authors show that a hydraulic network of fully adjustable damper elements may attain any diagonally dominant accommodation matrix. They describe the technique of selecting the individual damping coefficients to design a desired matrix. They identify the set of dominant matrices as a polyhedral convex cone in the space of matrix entries, and show that each dominant matrix can be composed of a positive linear combination of a fixed set of basis matrices. The overall wrist-accommodation matrix is obtained by projecting the accommodation matrix of the damper network through the wrist kinematics. The linear combination of the dominant basis matrices projected through the wrist kinematics generates the entire space of mechanically implementable force-control laws. The authors quantify the versatility of mechanically implementable force-control laws by comparing this space to the space of all matrices.

  14. Effects of combined therapy in 80 cases of accommodative esotropia

    Qi Liu


    Full Text Available AIM: To investigate a comprehensive treatment for accommodative esotropia.METHODS: Eighty patients with accommodative esotropia were analyzed. All cases wore corrective glasses 7d after mydriasis by 10g/L atropine. The pupils were all comprehensively trained. If the position of the esotropic eyes could not be corrected by spectacles and both eyes had similar visual acuity in one year, surgical intervention was taken to correct the position. Refraction, visual acuity, visual function and strabismus degree change before and after treatment were evaluated.RESULTS: One year after wearing glasses, 50 cases had corrected eye position through correction and 30 cases were partially accommodative esotropia. Ten cases of esotropia degree >+15△ which could not be complete corrected by cure correction got surgical intervention. Seven cases of them got normal eye positions and 3 cases were over corrected 10△-20△. After comprehensive treatment of 3 years, the cure rate of amblyopia was 88.7%.CONCLUSION: The treatment for accommodative esotropia is a comprehensive course. It is necessary to pay attention to eye position correction, but also for the treatment of amblyopia, while paying attention to establish binocular vision.

  15. Accommodations in Homeschool Settings for Children with Special Education Needs

    Stoudt, Patricia Koelsch


    This qualitative study was designed to examine how homeschooling parents in Pennsylvania make the determination to engage with public school districts to accommodate the special education needs (SEN) of their children. This phenomenological study used direct interviews with 30 Pennsylvania families who are homeschooling children with SEN. Data…

  16. Development of the Reasonable Accommodation Factor Survey: Results and Implications

    Dong, Shengli; MacDonald-Wilson, Kim L.; Fabian, Ellen


    The purpose of this study was (a) to explore the latent factors in the "Reasonable Accommodation Factor Survey" (RAFS) instrument and (b) to compare scores on the latent factors of the RAFS by participant's role. Eight latent factors were identified through an exploratory factor analysis with orthogonal rotation. The reliability tests…

  17. Language Shift and Language Accommodation across Family Generations in Taiwan

    Sandel, Todd L.; Chao, Wen-Yu; Liang, Chung-Hui


    This study explored language shift and accommodation among bilingual Mandarin and Tai-gi (also called Hokkien, Holo, Tai-gu, Taiwan Min, Taiwanese) families in Taiwan. From the 1940s until the 1980s the Chinese Nationalist Party (KMT) on Taiwan promoted Mandarin Chinese. Recent years have witnessed a shift in policy: since 2001 elementary schools…

  18. Visual Accommodation, the Mandelbaum Effect, and Apparent Size.


    See j Boring, 1942, for an extended treatment of the history of tnese images.) Jessop (cited in Alpern, 1962) also reported instillation of cocaine L...whether the administration of overdoses of nembutal yields results representative of normal ciliary function. Accommodative measurements in cadavers

  19. Translation Accommodations Framework for Testing English Language Learners in Mathematics

    Solano-Flores, Guillermo


    The present framework is developed under contract with the Smarter Balanced Assessment Consortium (SBAC) as a conceptual and methodological tool for guiding the reasonings and actions of contractors in charge of developing and providing test translation accommodations for English language learners. The framework addresses important challenges in…

  20. Target Size and Luminance Effects on Accommodation and Vergence.


    st i mu I at ed Voluntary changes in accommodation and verger .( e Sub je(ts have been shown to be able to make vol untarN changes in vergence Oil...v ith a projected cross with smooth sides. This cross ,. Is riide on a 35 mm slide and its size was altered manually i) diaphragm. Both crosses

  1. Accommodation, Cafes and Restaurants. Industry Training Monograph No. 8.

    Dumbrell, Tom

    Australia's accommodation, cafes, and restaurants industry represents more than half of the nation's total tourism and hospitality employment. It accounts for roughly 4.5% of all jobs in Australia (400,000 workers). Since 1987, the number of jobs in the sector has risen from about 257,000 to about 372,000. Approximately 57% of employees are…

  2. 36 CFR 910.34 - Accommodations for the physically handicapped.


    ... physically handicapped. 910.34 Section 910.34 Parks, Forests, and Public Property PENNSYLVANIA AVENUE... § 910.34 Accommodations for the physically handicapped. (a) Every development shall incorporate features which will make the development accessible by the physically handicapped. The standards in the...

  3. The accommodative ciliary muscle function is preserved in older humans

    Tabernero, Juan; Chirre, Emmanuel; Hervella, Lucia; Prieto, Pedro; Artal, Pablo


    Presbyopia, the loss of the eye’s accommodation capability, affects all humans aged above 45–50 years old. The two main reasons for this to happen are a hardening of the crystalline lens and a reduction of the ciliary muscle functionality with age. While there seems to be at least some partial accommodating functionality of the ciliary muscle at early presbyopic ages, it is not yet clear whether the muscle is still active at more advanced ages. Previous techniques used to visualize the accommodation mechanism of the ciliary muscle are complicated to apply in the older subjects, as they typically require fixation stability during long measurement times and/or to have an ultrasound probe directly in contact with the eye. Instead, we used our own developed method based on high-speed recording of lens wobbling to study the ciliary muscle activity in a small group of pseudophakic subjects (around 80 years old). There was a significant activity of the muscle, clearly able to contract under binocular stimulation of accommodation. This supports a purely lenticular-based theory of presbyopia and it might stimulate the search for new solutions to presbyopia by making use of the remaining contraction force still presented in the aging eye.

  4. The Contribution of University Accommodation to International Student Security

    Paltridge, Toby; Mayson, Susan; Schapper, Jan


    In this paper we argue that living in university accommodation is a possible means of improving the security of international students. Our argument is supported by a qualitative case study of a single Hall of Residence on Monash University's Clayton campus. Data were collected primarily from interviews with three groups of participants--six…

  5. Teaching Disability Employment Discrimination Law: Accommodating Physical and Mental Disabilities

    Kulow, Marianne DelPo


    Disability employment discrimination is often treated summarily in legal environment courses. This is actually a topic with significant practical application in the workplace since managers are often those who are confronted with accommodation requests. It is therefore desirable to include a class with hands-on exercises for students to begin to…

  6. Cooperating or competing in three languages : Cultural accommodation or alienation?

    Gargalianou, Vasiliki; Urbig, D.; van Witteloostuijn, Arjen


    Purpose The purpose of this paper is to study the effect of using foreign languages on cooperative behavior in a prisoner’s dilemma setting. The cultural accommodation hypothesis suggests that people are less cooperative in English, associated with the Anglophone cultural cluster, than in French, wh

  7. The relationship between anemia and accommodative esotropia in children

    Fethiye Gulden Turgut


    Full Text Available Background: Refraction problems, motor disorders, sensorial disorders, physical and psychic traumas of eye may be responsible for development of strabismus. Anemia may cause sensory-neural disorders in children. We investigated the relationship between anemia and accommodative esotropia in children. Materials and Methods: Sixty-four patients with accommodative esotropia were evaluated. This group was identified as patient group (group 1. Eighty-three pediatric patients, who were not esotropia and only had refraction problems, were identified as control group (group 2. The difference between the groups was statistically analyzed evaluating patients for anemia. Results: 33 of 64 patients with accommodative esotropia in group 1 were male, as 43 of 83 patients with refractive error in group 2 were male. The mean age of patients in group 1 and 2 were 6 ΁ 3.92 and 6.37 ΁ 2.74 (P > 0.05 respectively. There was significant difference between two groups, when mean hemoglobin value of those was compared (P < 0.05. Conclusion: Hb level may affects the accommodative esotropia.

  8. Development of a ciliary muscle-driven accommodating intraocular lens

    Hermans, Erik A.; Terwee, Thom T.; Koopmans, Steven A.; Dubbelman, Michiel; van der Heijde, Rob G. L.; Heethaar, Rob M.


    PURPOSE: To develop a ciliary muscle-driven accommodating intraocular lens (IOL) that has a large and predictable range of variable power as a step toward spectacle independence. SETTING: Department of Physics and Medical Technology, VU University Medical Center, Amsterdam, The Netherlands. METHODS:

  9. Accommodating Students with Disabilities in Soil Science Activities

    Langley-Turnbaugh, S. J.; Murphy, Kate; Levin, E.


    Soil science education is lacking in terms of accommodations for persons with disabilities. Individuals with disabilities are often excluded from soil science activities in school, and from soil science careers. GLOBE (Global Learning Observations to Benefit the Environment) is a worldwide, hands-on primary and secondary school-based education and…

  10. Hydrogels for an accommodating intraocular lens. An explorative study

    de Groot, JH; Spaans, CJ; van Calck, RV; van Beijma, FJ; Norrby, S; Pennings, AJ


    In this study it was investigated whether hydrogels could be used for an accommodating lens. The requirements of such a hydrogels are a low modulus, high refractive index, transparency, and strength. Since conventional hydrogels do not possess this combination of properties, a novel preparation meth

  11. Knowledge Transfer and Accommodation Effects in Multinational Corporations

    Geisler Asmussen, Christian; Foss, Nicolai J.; Pedersen, Torben


    Foreign subsidiaries in multinational corporations (MNCs) possess knowledge that has different sources (e.g., the firm itself or various sources in the environment). How such sources influence knowledge transfer is not well understood. Drawing on the "accommodation effect" from cognitive psychology...

  12. Solutions to Efficient Provision of Accommodations for Universities in China



    Chinese universities are facing a series of challenges in their accommodations,of which a pr\\edominant one is how to provide both students and staff with enough accommodations of a large scope and good quality in good time and with limited budgets,In order to find applicable approaches to solve this problem,the current situations of the Chinese higher education reform and the resulted rapid growth of student numbers whereby the requirement of lodgings is greatly incresed are discussed.It is elucidated that in providing enough accommodations for staff and students,Chinese universities are confronted with difficulties including demand too big,lack of funding support,time limitation and incapability in both project management and facilities management.Industrialized building approach is demonstrated to be a desirable access to build large quantities of accommodations of good quality in limited time.and Private Fuinancial Initiative(PFI) appears to be a prosperous solution to the fund shortage,Regarding project and facilities management,qualified professionals are available by either employing exterior consultants or training related staff of universities for such occupations.

  13. Accommodation, Cafes and Restaurants. Industry Training Monograph No. 8.

    Dumbrell, Tom

    Australia's accommodation, cafes, and restaurants industry represents more than half of the nation's total tourism and hospitality employment. It accounts for roughly 4.5% of all jobs in Australia (400,000 workers). Since 1987, the number of jobs in the sector has risen from about 257,000 to about 372,000. Approximately 57% of employees are…




    Full Text Available Accommodation Infrastructure and Tourism Flows on Feleacu Hill (Cluj County. Feleacu Hill experienced tourism development between 2001 and 2015. The INS data indicates that the number of accommodation units increased from one (2001 to four (2015 and there are a few more which are not registered in the INS database. The accommodation capacity increases, as many guesthouses are expanding their premises to receive more tourists and new accommodation units emerge, such as Hotel Premier in Vâlcele (Feleacu commune. Tourism flows also registered a highly positive trend. The number of arrivals increased from 95 tourists in 2002 to 7791 tourists in 2015. However, there was a downturn between 2009 and 2012, due to the economic crisis and the opening of the Turda – Gilău motorway (A3, which redirected transit routes outside the region and led to the closure of Paradis Hotel in 2012. Since 2012, the number of arrivals and overnight stays increased steadily due to the development of new forms of tourism – rural tourism, agrotourism, extreme tourism and complex tourism, materialized in growing numbers of tourists at the two guesthouses in Ciurila commune (“La Mesteceni” and “Domeniul Regilor”. Tourism brings obvious benefits to the rural communities on Feleacu Hill, even if the average duration of stay is still low.

  15. Profound retinal ischaemia after ranibizumab administration in an eye with ocular ischaemic syndrome

    Kofoed, Peter Kristian; Munch, Inger Christine; Larsen, Michael


    Abstract. Purpose: To report the result of ranibizumab administration in an eye with ocular ischaemic syndrome. Methods: Fluorescein angiography, ocular pneumoplethysmography and retinal vessel calibre measurement. Results: An 85-year-old man with ocular ischaemic syndrome demonstrated vision loss...

  16. Accommodating environmental variation in population models: metaphysiological biomass loss accounting.

    Owen-Smith, Norman


    1. There is a pressing need for population models that can reliably predict responses to changing environmental conditions and diagnose the causes of variation in abundance in space as well as through time. In this 'how to' article, it is outlined how standard population models can be modified to accommodate environmental variation in a heuristically conducive way. This approach is based on metaphysiological modelling concepts linking populations within food web contexts and underlying behaviour governing resource selection. Using population biomass as the currency, population changes can be considered at fine temporal scales taking into account seasonal variation. Density feedbacks are generated through the seasonal depression of resources even in the absence of interference competition. 2. Examples described include (i) metaphysiological modifications of Lotka-Volterra equations for coupled consumer-resource dynamics, accommodating seasonal variation in resource quality as well as availability, resource-dependent mortality and additive predation, (ii) spatial variation in habitat suitability evident from the population abundance attained, taking into account resource heterogeneity and consumer choice using empirical data, (iii) accommodating population structure through the variable sensitivity of life-history stages to resource deficiencies, affecting susceptibility to oscillatory dynamics and (iv) expansion of density-dependent equations to accommodate various biomass losses reducing population growth rate below its potential, including reductions in reproductive outputs. Supporting computational code and parameter values are provided. 3. The essential features of metaphysiological population models include (i) the biomass currency enabling within-year dynamics to be represented appropriately, (ii) distinguishing various processes reducing population growth below its potential, (iii) structural consistency in the representation of interacting populations and

  17. Mudanças oculares durante a gestação Ocular changes during pregnancy

    Enéias Bezerra Gouveia


    Full Text Available A gestação pode causar várias alterações no funcionamento do olho humano, tanto nas condições sistêmicas quanto em doenças oculares, sendo seus efeitos divididos em três categorias: alterações fisiológicas, mudanças em doenças oculares pré-existentes e alterações patológicas. O presente texto propõe uma revisão bibliográfica sobre o tema. Os autores pesquisaram os bancos de dados do PubMed (MEDLINE e LILACS.Pregnancy can cause several alterations in human eye function in healthy condition as well in ocular disease; these effects on the eyes are divided into three categories: physiologic alterations, ocular diseases changes already existing before the pregnancy, and pathological alterations. The present text proposes a bibliographical revision on the theme. The authors researched PubMed (MEDLINE and LILACS databases.

  18. Serological IgG avidity test for ocular toxoplasmosis

    Suresh S


    Full Text Available Subramaniam Suresh1, Saidin Nor-Masniwati1, Muhd Nor Nor-Idahriani1, Wan-Hitam Wan-Hazabbah1, Mohamed Zeehaida2, Embong Zunaina11Department of Ophthalmology, 2Department of Medical Microbiology and Parasitology, School of Medical Sciences, Universiti Sains Malaysia, Kelantan, MalaysiaBackground: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the immunoglobulin (Ig G avidity of serological toxoplasmosis testing in patients with ocular inflammation and to determine the clinical manifestations of ocular toxoplasmosis.Methods: A retrospective review of all patients presenting with ocular inflammation to the Hospital Universiti Sains Malaysia, Kelantan, Malaysia between 2005 and 2009 was undertaken. Visual acuity, clinical manifestations at presentation, toxoplasmosis antibody testing, and treatment records were analyzed.Results: A total of 130 patients with ocular inflammation were reviewed retrospectively. The patients had a mean age of 38.41 (standard deviation 19.24, range 6–83 years. Seventy-one patients (54.6% were found to be seropositive, of whom five (3.8% were both IgG and IgM positive (suggestive of recently acquired ocular toxoplasmosis while one (0.8% showed IgG avidity ≤40% (suggestive of recently acquired ocular toxoplasmosis and 65 patients (50.0% showed IgG avidity >40% (suggestive of reactivation of toxoplasmosis infection. Chorioretinal scarring as an ocular manifestation was significantly more common in patients with seropositive toxoplasmosis (P = 0.036. Eighteen patients (13.8% were diagnosed as having recent and/or active ocular toxoplasmosis based on clinical manifestations and serological testing.Conclusion: Ocular toxoplasmosis is a clinical diagnosis, but specific toxoplasmosis antibody testing helps to support the diagnosis and to differentiate between reactivation of infection and recently acquired ocular toxoplasmosis.Keywords: ocular toxoplasmosis, chorioretinal scar, toxoplasmosis antibody, IgG avidity test

  19. Buccal Epithelium in treating Ocular Surface Disorders

    Srinivas KR


    Full Text Available Background - Ocular surface disorders due to limbal stem cell deficiency are an important cause of ocular morbidity and visual loss. Although autologous limbal stem cell transplants have helped in the management of unilateral disease, allografts in those with bilateral disease often fail due to immunological reasons. The use of autologous buccal epithelium cultivated on amniotic membrane has been described as a useful approach in the management of this condition. It is the purpose of this study to explore the feasibility of using a novel thermo-gelatin polymer (TGP as a substrate to culture these cells, and to characterize them using RNA extraction and RT-PCR. Methods - Oral cheek mucosal biopsies were obtained from 5 adult patients undergoing Modified Osteo-Odonto Keratoprosthesis surgery. The specimens were transported to the laboratory in transport medium. The cells were released using enzymatic digestion and seeded in both convention culture medium and TGP. The resulting cellular growth was characterized using RNA extraction and RT-PCR. Results - Cells could be cultured from 4 of the 5 specimens. In one specimen, contamination occurred and this was discarded. In the other specimens, the cheek epithelial cells could be cultured in both the conventional culture medium and TGP, with equal ease. RT-PCR revealed the presence of K3, a marker for epithelial cells, and GAPDH indicating the presence of some adipose tissue as well. Conclusions - It is possible to culture autologous cheek mucosal epithelial cells using TGP, a synthetic scaffold, without the need for other biological substrates. Since the specimens are obtained from the oral cavity, stringent asepsis is required. Further studies are required for histopathological characterization of the cultured cells and to create a model for delivery onto the ocular surface of eyes with bilateral surface disease due to limbal stem cell deficiency.

  20. Persian Traditional Medicine and Ocular Health

    Namdar, Hasan; Emaratkar, Elham; Hadavand, Mohammad Bagher


    The Persian Traditional Medicine (PTM) system pays special attention to disease prevention. In PTM, physicians believe that overeating may cause accumulation of unhealthy substances in the body and diseases called “Emtela.” With respect to ocular health, foods can be categorized as beneficial and harmful. Harmful foods such as beef, geese, eggplant, cauliflower, and cheese can cause reduced vision. Dehydrating foods such as walnut and salty fish and hot foods such as garlic, onion, and pepper can cause dry eye. Food items that have beneficial effects on ocular health include thyme and saffron and fruits such as grape, fig, apple, plum, and berries. PTM stipulates that one should not drink water with meals or immediately afterwards, since drinking cold (icy) water causes difficulty in absorption of nutrients. Gulping water may have harmful effects on the eyes; therefore, PTM physicians recommend drinking water at a suitable temperature. It is not safe to drink water first at the morning. Sleeping right after eating is harmful too. Avicenna believes that sleeping on one’s belly after a full meal is very harmful for the eyes. Galen says that old people need deep and continuous sleep more than others. From the view of PTM, moving eyes in different directions, making delicate expressions, trying to look at delicate and find pictures and reading small letters would remove ocular fatigue. There have been mentions of local medicine for improving vision as well; for instance, fennel extracts, pomegranate juice, and honey which are suitable for vision improvement. Local administration of pomegranate blossoms is suitable for treating inflammatory reactions. PMID:27800504

  1. Silk film biomaterials for ocular surface repair

    Lawrence, Brian David

    Current biomaterial approaches for repairing the cornea's ocular surface upon injury are partially effective due to inherent material limitations. As a result there is a need to expand the biomaterial options available for use in the eye, which in turn will help to expand new clinical innovations and technology development. The studies illustrated here are a collection of work to further characterize silk film biomaterials for use on the ocular surface. Silk films were produced from regenerated fibroin protein solution derived from the Bombyx mori silkworm cocoon. Methods of silk film processing and production were developed to produce consistent biomaterials for in vitro and in vivo evaluation. A wide range of experiments was undertaken that spanned from in vitro silk film material characterization to in vivo evaluation. It was found that a variety of silk film properties could be controlled through a water-annealing process. Silk films were then generated that could be use in vitro to produce stratified corneal epithelial cell sheets comparable to tissue grown on the clinical standard substrate of amniotic membrane. This understanding was translated to produce a silk film design that enhanced corneal healing in vivo on a rabbit injury model. Further work produced silk films with varying surface topographies that were used as a simplified analog to the corneal basement membrane surface in vitro. These studies demonstrated that silk film surface topography is capable of directing corneal epithelial cell attachment, growth, and migration response. Most notably epithelial tissue development was controllably directed by the presence of the silk surface topography through increasing cell sheet migration efficiency at the individual cellular level. Taken together, the presented findings represent a comprehensive characterization of silk film biomaterials for use in ocular surface reconstruction, and indicate their utility as a potential material choice in the

  2. Ocular findings in patients with systemic sclerosis

    Beatriz de A. F Gomes


    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the frequency and characteristics of ocular manifestations in outpatients with systemic sclerosis. METHODS: In this cross-sectional study, 45 patients with systemic sclerosis were enrolled. Data regarding demographics, disease duration and subtype, age at diagnosis, nailfold capillaroscopic pattern and autoantibody profile were collected, and a full ophthalmic examination was conducted. Parametric (Student's t-test and nonparametric (Mann-Whitney U test tests were used to compare continuous variables. Fisher's exact test was used to compare categorical data. P values < 0.05 were considered significant. RESULTS: Twenty-three subjects (51.1% had eyelid skin changes; 22 (48.9% had keratoconjunctivitis sicca, 19 (42.2% had cataracts, 13 (28.9% had retinal microvascular abnormalities and 6 (13.3% had glaucoma. Eyelid skin changes were more frequent in patients with the diffuse subtype of systemic sclerosis and were associated with a younger age and an earlier age at diagnosis. Cataracts were presumed to be age-related and secondary to corticosteroid treatment. There was no association between demographic, clinical or serological data and keratoconjunctivitis sicca. The retinal microvascular abnormalities were indistinguishable from those related to systemic hypertension and were associated with an older age and a severe capillaroscopic pattern. CONCLUSIONS: Eyelid skin abnormalities and keratoconjunctivitis sicca were the most common ocular findings related to systemic sclerosis. Some demographic and clinical data were associated with some ophthalmic features and not with others, showing that the ocular manifestations of systemic sclerosis are characterized by heterogeneity and reflect the differences in the implicated pathophysiological mechanisms.

  3. 360-degree retinectomy for severe ocular rupture

    ZHANG Mao-nian; JIANG Cai-hui


    Objective: To investigate the effect of 360-degree retinectomy for severe ocular rupture and evaluate the related factors associated with prognosis.Methods: A retrospective analysis was performed on 28 consecutive patients, 18 men and 10 women, with severe ocular rupture admitted to the Chinese PLA General Hospital between January 1999 and January 2002. The patients' ages ranged from 16 to 58 years, mean 29.5years. All operations were performed by the first author.All patients underwent standard 3-port pars plana vitrectomy with scleral encircling buckle,endophotocoagulation, and tamponaded with silicone oil.Lensectomy were performed on 15 eyes. 360-degree retinotomy and retinectomy were performed at anterior equator on 16 eyes, and posterior equator on 12 eyes.Results: During operation, all patients were confirmed to have vitreous hemorrhage and retinal detachment, in which hemorrhagic ciliary body detachment was found in 9 eyes, suprachoroidal hemorrhage in 12 eyes,retinal twisting like flower stalk in 11 eyes, and retinal incarceration in 17 eyes. Postoperative follow-up was conducted in 26 cases, ranged from 6 months to 46 months.Retinal reattachment achieved in 20 eyes (76. 9%), in which three patients' retina was reattached after revitrectomy. The silicone oil was removed at the fourth month in 8 eyes postoperatively. Corrected visual acuity of 0.02 or more was in 14 eyes (70. 0%) among the 20patients with reattached retina. Visual acuity of 0.05 or more was in 7 eyes ( 35.0 % ), and 0.1 or more was in 3eyes. The best visual acuity was 0.3 in 1 eye.Conclusions: Retinectomy may improve the prognosis of severe ocular rupture and save the visual function of some patients.

  4. The prevalence of ocular surface complaints in Brazilian patients with glaucoma or ocular hypertension

    Vital Paulino Costa


    Full Text Available PURPOSE: To examine the prevalence of ocular surface complaints in Brazilian patients with glaucoma or ocular hypertension who used topical intraocular pressure (IOP-lowering regimens. METHODS: In this multicenter, noninterventional, single-visit study, adults with glaucoma or ocular hypertension treated with an IOP-lowering regimen were administered the 12-item ocular surface disease index (OSDI questionnaire. Each response was scored on a 5-point scale, with 0 indicating symptom present none of the time and 4 indicating symptom present all of the time. The average of the 12 item responses for each patient was transformed to a scale from 0 to 100, with higher scores representing worse disabilities. OSDI results then were categorized as absence of OSD (scores of 0-12, mild OSD (scores of 13-22, moderate OSD (scores of 23-32, or severe OSD (scores of 33100. RESULTS: The 173 enrolled patients had a mean age of 61.2 years, were women in 65.3% of cases, and had glaucoma in 89.0% of cases and ocular hypertension in 11.0% of cases. OSDI scores for 158 patients using 1 IOP-lowering therapy indicated no OSD in 37.3% of patients (59/158, mild OSD in 20.9% (33/158, moderate OSD in 17.1% (27/158, and severe OSD in 24.7% (39/158. For the 120 patients using 1 IOP-lowering medication and having a known duration of diagnosis of glaucoma or ocular hypertension, mean OSDI scores were numerically higher (worse for the 39 patients with a diagnosis ≥6 years long (score 25 [± 20], indicating moderate OSD than for the 81 patients with a diagnosis lasting <6 years (score 22 [± 20], indicating mild OSD; however, no significant differences in OSDI scores by duration of diagnosis were evident in means (P=0.49, distributions (P≥0.26, or correlation (P=0.77. CONCLUSIONS: A large proportion of Brazilian patients treated with 1 IOP-lowering therapy had some ocular surface complaints.

  5. Alterações oculares induzidas pela quimioterapia Ocular changes induced by chemotherapy

    Alessandra Pinheiro Chaves


    Full Text Available As drogas antineoplásicas proporcionam aumento da sobrevida dos portadores de neoplasias, mas podem induzir efeitos adversos em vários órgãos e tecidos. A mucosite é efeito adverso freqüentemente observado durante a administração de certos quimioterápicos. A toxicidade ocular dessas drogas pode se manifestar por alterações da superfície ocular e do filme lacrimal. O objetivo foi avaliar alterações da superfície ocular induzidas pelos quimioterápicos e estabelecer sua correlação clínica com mucosite e quimioterapia. Trinta e nove pacientes foram submetidos a exame oftalmológico completo, citologia de impressão e estudo microbiológico da conjuntiva. Comparamos 2 grupos: com manifestação de mucosite (caso e sem manifestação de mucosite (controle. Para análise estatística, utilizamos o software Statistical Package for Social Sciences. A mucosite foi identificada em 51,4% dos pacientes avaliados após a quimioterapia. O tempo de quebra do filme lacrimal mostrou redução significativa após a quimioterapia (pAntineoplastic agents offer an increase in the patients' survival rates, but may induce side effects in different organs and tissues. Mucositis is one of the most common side effects during chemotherapy with certain agents. The ocular toxicity induced by these drugs may manifest as changes in the ocular surface and in the tear film. The purpose of this research was to study the ocular surface changes induced by chemotherapy and to establish their clinical correlation with the chemotherapy and mucositis. The 39 selected patients underwent a full ophthalmological examination and supplementary tests. We compared 2 groups of patients: with (case and without mucositis (control. Statistical analysis was performed with the Statistical Package for Social Sciences software. Mucositis was identified in 51.4% of the patients after chemotherapy. The brakeup time showed a statistically significant decrease after chemotherapy (p<0

  6. Sources of variance in ocular microtremor.

    Sheahan, N F; Coakley, D; Bolger, C; O'Neill, D; Fry, G; Phillips, J; Malone, J F


    This study presents a preliminary investigation of the sources of variance in the measurement of ocular microtremor frequency in a normal population. When the results from both experienced and relatively inexperienced operators are pooled, factors that contribute significantly to the total variance include the measurement procedure (p < 0.001), day-to-day variations within subjects (p < 0.001), and inter-subject differences (p < 0.01). Operator experience plays a role in determining the measurement precision: the intra-subject coefficient of variation is about 5% for a very experienced operator, and about 14% for a relatively inexperienced operator.

  7. Ocular cells and light: harmony or conflict?

    Jurja, Sanda; Hîncu, Mihaela; Dobrescu, Mihaela Amelia; Golu, Andreea Elena; Bălăşoiu, Andrei Theodor; Coman, Mălina


    Vision is based on the sensitivity of the eye to visible rays of the solar spectrum, which allows the recording and transfer of visual information by photoelectric reaction. Any electromagnetic radiation, if sufficiently intense, may cause damages in living tissues. In a changing environment, the aim of this paper is to point out the impact of light radiation on ocular cells, with its phototoxicity potential on eye tissues. In fact, faced with light and oxygen, the eye behaves like an ephemeral aggregate of unstable molecules, like a temporary crystallization threatened with entropia.

  8. Oculomotricidade e seus fundamentos Ocular motility: foundations

    Harley E. A. Bicas


    Partindo-se de um circuito esquemático relacionando os sistemas sensorial (visual binocular) e oculomotor, cujos defeitos em vias aferentes ou eferentes, ou de suas interações, explicam o aparecimento dos estrabismos e suas conseqüências, são examinados os fundamentos e referenciais da movimentação ocular. Apresentam-se os conceitos de eixos e planos, centro de massa e de rotação, definem-se os movimentos monoculares de translação e de rotação e os binoculares de versões e vergências. É també...

  9. An unusual ocular emergency in severe dengue

    Kalpana Badami Nagaraj


    Full Text Available Dengue, one of the most common mosquito-borne flavivirus diseases affecting humans, is spread by the Aedes aegypti mosquito. Most people infected with dengue virus are asymptomatic or only have mild symptoms such as an uncomplicated fever; few have more severe features, while in a small proportion it is life-threatening. Severe dengue is defined as that associated with severe bleeding, severe organ dysfunction, or severe plasma leakage. Ophthalmic manifestations can involve both the anterior and posterior segment. We report an ocular emergency of proptosis and globe rupture in a patient with severe dengue.

  10. Fabrication of a custom ocular prosthesis

    Tania Sethi


    Full Text Available Defects of the eye may follow removal of a part of or the entire orbit. This results in the patient becoming visually, esthetically and psychologically handicapped. Restoring the defect with a silicone- or acrylic-based prosthesis not only restores esthetics but also gives back the lost confidence to the patient. This is a case report of a patient with a `pthisical eye` and details the steps in fabrication of an ocular prosthesis. Particular attention has been given to the laboratory process in this technique to minimize the residual monomer content in the artificial eye.

  11. Microbiota conjuntival em pacientes com alergia ocular

    Alexandre Mattoso Libório; Maria Cristina Nishiwaki-Dantas; Lycia Mara Jenne Mimica; Paulo Elias Correa Dantas; Ana Luísa Höfling de Lima


    OBJETIVO: Avaliar a presença de microbiota aeróbia da conjuntiva de portadores de alergia ocular e comparar a um grupo controle. MÉTODOS: Foram examinados 133 pacientes no período de abril a junho de 2001 divididos em 2 grupos. O grupo A foi composto de 63 portadores de conjuntivite alérgica (sem uso de medicação) e o grupo B de 70 pacientes do ambulatório geral (controle). Foram coletadas amostras do fundo de saco conjuntival do olho direito de todos os pacientes e o material foi semeado em ...

  12. [Contusive ocular trauma--case report].

    Muşat, O; Coman, Corina; Cristescu, R; Asandi, R


    We present the case of a 48 year old man who was admitted for the decreased visual acuity of the left eye for about 20 years, when a left sided facial trauma had occured. Clinical examination and lab exams revealed the cause of this change: ocular contusive posttraumatic status for about 20 years (anamnestic), iridodialysis, corectopie, traumatic cataract, PVR, tractional retinal detachment. Surgical treatment was warranted. We performed cataract extraction, posterior vitrectomy with laser fotocoagulation and injection of silicon oil 1000. We followed the pacient's post-operative evolution and we extracted of the silicone oil six months later. The evolution was favorable.

  13. Curvature sensor for ocular wavefront measurement.

    Díaz-Doutón, Fernando; Pujol, Jaume; Arjona, Montserrat; Luque, Sergio O


    We describe a new wavefront sensor for ocular aberration determination, based on the curvature sensing principle, which adapts the classical system used in astronomy for the living eye's measurements. The actual experimental setup is presented and designed following a process guided by computer simulations to adjust the design parameters for optimal performance. We present results for artificial and real young eyes, compared with the Hartmann-Shack estimations. Both methods show a similar performance for these cases. This system will allow for the measurement of higher order aberrations than the currently used wavefront sensors in situations in which they are supposed to be significant, such as postsurgery eyes.

  14. Clinical application of ocular trauma score for mechanical ocular injury in armed forces

    Ying ZHANG


    Full Text Available Objective To evaluate the predictive value of ocular trauma score(OTS in mechanical ocular injuries occurring in military forces,and compare the difference of OTS application between ocular injury caused by military training and non-military training.Methods The data of 633 inpatients from armed forces suffering from injury of 665 eyes were retrospectively reviewed.Of the 665 injured eyes,326 were injured during military training and 339 during non-military training.The likelihood of final visual acuity(VA calculated with the OTS score was compared with that by the present OTS study,and the correlation between the score and final VA was then analyzed.Results Compared with the distribution of final VA in standard OTS score,the ratio in category 1 was statistically different in present study(P 0.05.There were significant differences in ratio of category 3 between eyes injured by military and non-military training(P < 0.05,and both ratios in category 1 were significantly different compared with those in standard OTS(P < 0.01,e.g.the ratio of NLP was lower(50% vs 73%,P < 0.01;43% vs 73%,P < 0.01;and the ratio in category 2 was significantly different between the eyes injured by non-military training and standard OTS(P < 0.05.However,the OTS showed positive correlation with final VA in present study(P < 0.0001.Conclusion OTS calculated at initial examination may primarily provide a piece of prognostic information of mechanical ocular injuries,and is of special benefit for deciding a prompt management or for evacuation decision for severe ocular injuries caused by military training.

  15. Black Sun: Ocular Invisibility of Relativistic Luminous Astrophysical Bodies

    Lee, Jeffrey S


    The relativistic Doppler shifting of visible electromagnetic radiation to beyond the human ocular range reduces the incident radiance of the source. Consequently, luminous astrophysical bodies (LABs) can be rendered invisible with sufficient relativistic motion. This paper determines the proper distance as a function of relativistic velocity at which a luminous object attains ocular invisibility.

  16. Experimental Models of Ocular Infection with Toxoplasma Gondii

    Dukaczewska, Agata; Tedesco, Roberto; Liesenfeld, Oliver


    Ocular toxoplasmosis is a vision-threatening disease and the major cause of posterior uveitis worldwide. In spite of the continuing global burden of ocular toxoplasmosis, many critical aspects of disease including the therapeutic approach to ocular toxoplasmosis are still under debate. To assist in addressing many aspects of the disease, numerous experimental models of ocular toxoplasmosis have been established. In this article, we present an overview on in vitro, ex vivo, and in vivo models of ocular toxoplasmosis available to date. Experimental studies on ocular toxoplasmosis have recently focused on mice. However, the majority of murine models established so far are based on intraperitoneal and intraocular infection with Toxoplasma gondii. We therefore also present results obtained in an in vivo model using peroral infection of C57BL/6 and NMRI mice that reflects the natural route of infection and mimics the disease course in humans. While advances have been made in ex vivo model systems or larger animals to investigate specific aspects of ocular toxoplasmosis, laboratory mice continue to be the experimental model of choice for the investigation of ocular toxoplasmosis. PMID:26716018

  17. Ocular toxicity of benzalkonium chloride homologs compared with their mixtures.

    Okahara, Akihiko; Tanioka, Hidetoshi; Takada, Koichi; Kawazu, Kouichi


    This study was performed to assess the in vivo ocular toxicity of benzalkonium chloride (BAK) homologs compared with commercially available BAK (BAK mixture) and to assess the ocular toxicity of BAK homolog after repeated ocular application. Rabbit eyes were examined by ophthalmology and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) after 10 applications of BAK homologs with C12 (C12-BAK) and C14 (C14-BAK) alkyl chain lengths and a BAK mixture at concentrations of 0.001% (w/v), 0.003% (w/v), 0.005% (w/v), 0.01% (w/v) and 0.03% (w/v). The ocular toxicity of C12-BAK to rabbit eyes was examined by ophthalmology and histopathology after repeated ocular application for 39 weeks. In addition, the antimicrobial activities of C12-BAK and C14-BAK against A. niger, S. aureus and P. aeruginosa were assessed. Ocular toxicity of C12-BAK was less than those of the BAK mixture and C14-BAK. No ocular toxicity was noted after ocular application of 0.01% C12-BAK to rabbits for 39 weeks. C12-BAK showed antimicrobial activities at a concentration of 0.003%. These results suggest that the use of C12-BAK to replace BAK mixture as a preservative in ophthalmic solutions should be considered in order to reduce the incidence of the corneal epithelial cell injury induced clinically by BAK.

  18. Implementing and applying the Ocular Trauma Score: the challenges

    Desirée C Murray


    Full Text Available Ocular trauma is a significant cause of unilateral blindness in the Caribbean in both adults and children. In Trinidad and Tobago, blunt ocular injury will typically account for around a third of all referrals from the Accident and Emergency department to the ophthalmology unit.

  19. Epidemiology, Pathophysiology, and the Future of Ocular Toxoplasmosis

    Kijlstra, A.; Pedersen, E.


    Despite large advances in the field of ocular toxoplasmosis, large gaps still exist in our knowledge concerning the epidemiology and pathophysiology of this potentially blinding infectious disease. Although ocular toxoplasmosis is considered to have a high health burden, still little is known about

  20. Effect of sleep related breathing disorders on ocular function

    Enas Elsayed Mohamed


    In conclusion: The increased prevalence of ocular symptoms and signs in patients with OSAHS indicates a need to increase awareness and establish close collaboration with the sleep physicians with clear pathways for review of OSAHS patients by the ophthalmic services. We should study the effect of treatment of OSAHS on the ocular manifestations.

  1. Characterization of the normal microbiota of the ocular surface.

    Willcox, Mark D P


    The ocular surface is continually exposed to the environment and as a consequence to different types of microbes, but whether there is a normal microbiota of the ocular surface remains unresolved. Using traditional microbial culture techniques has shown that microbiota, or whether the microbiota are only transiently present. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Image registration reveals central lens thickness minimally increases during accommodation

    Schachar RA


    Full Text Available Ronald A Schachar,1 Majid Mani,2 Ira H Schachar31Department of Physics, University of Texas at Arlington, Arlington, TX, 2California Retina Associates, El Centro, 3Byers Eye Institute of Stanford University, Palo Alto, CA, USAPurpose: To evaluate anterior chamber depth, central crystalline lens thickness and lens curvature during accommodation.Setting: California Retina Associates, El Centro, CA, USA.Design: Healthy volunteer, prospective, clinical research swept-source optical coherence biometric image registration study of accommodation.Methods: Ten subjects (4 females and 6 males with an average age of 22.5 years (range: 20–26 years participated in the study. A 45° beam splitter attached to a Zeiss IOLMaster 700 (Carl Zeiss Meditec Inc., Jena, Germany biometer enabled simultaneous imaging of the cornea, anterior chamber, entire central crystalline lens and fovea in the dilated right eyes of subjects before, and during focus on a target 11 cm from the cornea. Images with superimposable foveal images, obtained before and during accommodation, that met all of the predetermined alignment criteria were selected for comparison. This registration requirement assured that changes in anterior chamber depth and central lens thickness could be accurately and reliably measured. The lens radii of curvatures were measured with a pixel stick circle.Results: Images from only 3 of 10 subjects met the predetermined criteria for registration. Mean anterior chamber depth decreased, −67 µm (range: −0.40 to −110 µm, and mean central lens thickness increased, 117 µm (range: 100–130 µm. The lens surfaces steepened, anterior greater than posterior, while the lens, itself, did not move or shift its position as appeared from the lack of movement of the lens nucleus, during 7.8 diopters of accommodation, (range: 6.6–9.7 diopters.Conclusion: Image registration, with stable invariant references for image correspondence, reveals that during accommodation a

  3. Ocular vergence measurement in projected and collimated simulator displays.

    Morahan, P; Meehan, J W; Patterson, J; Hughes, P K


    The purpose of this study was to investigate electrooculography (EOG) as a measurement of ocular vergence in both collimated and projected simulator environments. The task required participants to shift their gaze between a central fixation point and a target appearing at one of three eccentricities. EOG was effective in recording ocular vergence. The EOG results were similar between collimated and projected displays, except for differences in vergence changes during lateral movement of the eyes, and ocular excursions downward elicited a greater EOG response than the reverse upward movement. The computer-based technique of recording vergence was found to produce measurable traces from a majority of participants. The technique has potential for further development as a tool for measuring ocular vergence in virtual environments where methods that require the wearing of head-mounted apparatus to track ocular structures (e.g., the pupil), which cannot be worn at the same time as a flight or flight-simulator helmet, are unsuitable.

  4. Effects of diethylcarbamazine on ocular onchocerciasis.

    Anderson, J; Fuglsang, H; de C Marshall, T F


    A single 10-14 day course of diethylcarbamazine (DEC) was given under betamethazone cover to 18 patients (Group A) with ocular onchocerciasis, and the effects were studied in detail over 1-2 years. A comparison was made with the findings in 21 patients (Group B) who received a similar course to be followed by a weekly suppressive 100-200 mg dose of DEC. A further 18 patients (Group C) served as controls. The initial DEC course provoked severe general reactions, but ocular complications could be controlled by betamethazone. The weekly suppressive dose was not acceptable to the majority of patients, and only one young patient with severe iritis who improved during the initial course took the weekly tablet voluntarily over 2 years. The initial DEC course reduced the numbers of microfilariae in the eye and was of temporary benefit to lesions of the anterior segment, but it did not affect lesions of the posterior segment. A possible adverse effect on the optic disc is discussed. Any beneficial long term effect was almost confined to Group B, and to lesions of the anterior segment. The best to hope for in lesions of the posterior segment was arrest of further development. The findings at the end of the trial were as follows: No. of lesions (see article).

  5. Lipid Nanoparticles for Ocular Gene Delivery

    Yuhong Wang


    Full Text Available Lipids contain hydrocarbons and are the building blocks of cells. Lipids can naturally form themselves into nano-films and nano-structures, micelles, reverse micelles, and liposomes. Micelles or reverse micelles are monolayer structures, whereas liposomes are bilayer structures. Liposomes have been recognized as carriers for drug delivery. Solid lipid nanoparticles and lipoplex (liposome-polycation-DNA complex, also called lipid nanoparticles, are currently used to deliver drugs and genes to ocular tissues. A solid lipid nanoparticle (SLN is typically spherical, and possesses a solid lipid core matrix that can solubilize lipophilic molecules. The lipid nanoparticle, called the liposome protamine/DNA lipoplex (LPD, is electrostatically assembled from cationic liposomes and an anionic protamine-DNA complex. The LPD nanoparticles contain a highly condensed DNA core surrounded by lipid bilayers. SLNs are extensively used to deliver drugs to the cornea. LPD nanoparticles are used to target the retina. Age-related macular degeneration, retinitis pigmentosa, and diabetic retinopathy are the most common retinal diseases in humans. There have also been promising results achieved recently with LPD nanoparticles to deliver functional genes and micro RNA to treat retinal diseases. Here, we review recent advances in ocular drug and gene delivery employing lipid nanoparticles.

  6. Microsurgical anatomy of the ocular motor nerves.

    Zhang, Yi; Liu, Hao; Liu, En-Zhong; Lin, You-Zhi; Zhao, Shi-Guang; Jing, Guo-Hua


    This study was designed to provide anatomic data to help surgeons avoid damage to the ocular motor nerves during intraorbital operations. The microsurgical anatomy of the ocular motor nerves was studied in 50 adult cadaveric heads (100 orbits). Dissections were performed with a microscope. The nerves were exposed and the neural and muscular relationships of each portion of the nerve were examined and measured. The superior division of the oculomotor nerve coursed between the optic nerve and the superior rectus muscle after it left the annular tendon, and its branches entered into the superior rectus muscle and levator muscle. A mean of five fibers (range 3-7) innervated the superior rectus muscle, and a mean of one fiber (range 1-2) followed a medial direction (84%) or went straight through the superior rectus muscle (16%). The inferior division of the oculomotor nerve branched into the medial rectus, inferior rectus and inferior oblique muscles. The trochlear nerve ended on the orbital side of the posterior one-third of the superior oblique muscle in 76 specimens. The abducens nerve ended on the posterior one-third of the lateral rectus muscle in 86 specimens. If the belly of the lateral rectus muscle was divided into three superior-inferior parts, the nerve commonly entered into the middle one-third in 74 specimens. Based on the observed data, microanatomical relationships of the orbital contents were revised.

  7. Boston ocular surface prosthesis: An Indian experience

    Varsha Madanlal Rathi


    Full Text Available Context: Boston ocular surface prosthesis (BOSP is a scleral contact lens used in the management of patients who are rigid gas permeable (RGP failures as with corneal ectasias such as keratoconus and in those patients who have ocular surface disease such as Stevens-Johnson syndrome (SJS. Aim: To report utilization of BOSP in a tertiary eye care center in India. Materials and Methods: We retrospectively reviewed charts of 32 patients who received BOSP from July 2008 to May 2009. Indications for fitting these lenses, improvement in visual acuity (VA before and after lens fitting and relief of symptoms of pain and photophobia were noted. Paired t-test was used for statistical analysis using SPSS version 16.0 for Windows. Results: Thirty-two patients (43 eyes received these lenses. These consisted of 23 eyes of 17 patients who failed RGP trials for irregular astigmatism and corneal ectasia such as keratoconus and post radial keratotomy and scar and 20 eyes of 15 patients with SJS. Mean age of RGP failures was 27.94 years. Pre- and post-BOSP wear mean LogMAR VA was 1.13 and 0.29, respectively, in RGP failures. The P value was statistically significant (P 2 lines in 7/20 eyes (35% with SJS, with improvement in symptoms. Conclusion: BOSP improves VA in patients who have irregular astigmatism as in ectasias and RGP failures and improves vision and symptoms in patients with SJS.

  8. Ocular Involvement in Systemic Autoimmune Diseases.

    Generali, Elena; Cantarini, Luca; Selmi, Carlo


    Eye involvement represents a common finding in patients with systemic autoimmune diseases, particularly rheumatoid arthritis, Sjogren syndrome, seronegative spondyloarthropathy, and antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibody (ANCA)-associated vasculitis. The eye is a privileged immune site but commensal bacteria are found on the ocular surface. The eye injury may be inflammatory, vascular or infectious, as well as iatrogenic, as in the case of hydroxychloroquine, chloroquine, corticosteroids, and bisphosphonates. Manifestations may affect different components of the eye, with episcleritis involving the episclera, a thin layer of tissue covering the sclera; scleritis being an inflammation of the sclera potentially leading to blindness; keratitis, referring to corneal inflammation frequently associated with scleritis; and uveitis as the inflammation of the uvea, including the iris, ciliary body, and choroid, subdivided into anterior, posterior, or panuveitis. As blindness may result from the eye involvement, clinicians should be aware of the possible manifestations and their management also independent of the ophthalmologist opinion as the therapeutic approach generally points to the underlying diseases. In some cases, the eye involvement may have a diagnostic implication, as for episcleritis in rheumatoid arthritis, or acute anterior uveitis in seronegative spondyloarthritis. Nonetheless, some conditions lack specificity, as in the case of dry eye which affects nearly 30 % of the general population. The aim of this review is to elucidate to non-ophthalmologists the major ocular complications of rheumatic diseases and their specific management and treatment options.

  9. Ocular comparative anatomy of the family Rodentia.

    Rodriguez-Ramos Fernandez, Julia; Dubielzig, Richard R


    There is little information regarding ocular anatomy and histology in many of the rodent species. Histological analyses for morphologic features were performed in 31 globes from 18 rodent species submitted to and archived at the Comparative Ocular Pathology Laboratory of Wisconsin. The following measurements were taken: thickness of the cornea, corneal epithelium, corneal stroma, Descemet's membrane, and retina. H&E sections were evaluated for the following anatomical features: presence of pigmented epithelial cells in the peripheral cornea, presence and location of Schlemm's canal, presence of iridal sphincter and dilator and ciliary body muscles, presence of pars plicata and plana, presence of retinal vessels, presence of lamina cribrosa, and presence of tapetum lucidum. The springhaas was the only rodent in our collection that presented a well-developed tapetum lucidum fibrosum. The presence of retinal vessels was variable: vessels were observed in all of the members of the mouse-related clade, except the springhaas and the beaver, in all of the squirrel-related clade members, and in none of the Ctenohystrica. In the flying squirrels, blood vessels extended to the outer limiting membrane in the photoreceptor layer. Beavers, chinchillas, capybara, and guinea pigs lacked vessels within the retina; however, they had vessels within the optic nerve head. Ground squirrels have an optic nerve head, which is linear in the horizontal plane and an asymmetric retina. The tree-dwelling squirrels have a rounded but still elongated optic nerve, and the flying squirrel has a round optic nerve head like all the other rodents.

  10. Ocular changes in pregnant Nigerian women.

    Ebeigbe, J A; Ebeigbe, P N; Ighoroje, Ada


    Pregnancy results in a lot of hormonal changes in the body and the eyes are no exception. These ocular changes could be physiologic, pathologic or a modification of a pre-existing condition. The aim of this study was to determine physiologic ocular changes that are associated with pregnancy in healthy Nigerian women. A total of 100 women were followed longitudinally through out the course of their pregnancy and 6 weeks postpartum. The women were recruited at 8 weeks of pregnancy at the anti-natal clinic in the Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, University of Benin Teaching Hospital, Nigeria. The women were aged between 20 and 35 years. Tests carried out included visual acuity, ophthalmoscopy, retinoscopy, and tonometry. The tests were carried out in each of the three trimesters of pregnancy and 6 weeks postpartum. There was a fall in intraocular pressure across the trimesters and this was very significant (Pchanges associated with pregnancy are transient and most tend to resolve postpartum, with values returning to near pre-pregnant state.

  11. Ocular toxoplasmosis in immunosuppressed nonhuman primates

    Holland, G.N.; O' Connor, G.R.; Diaz, R.F.; Minasi, P.; Wara, W.M.


    To investigate the role of cellular immunodeficiency in recurrent toxoplasmic retinochoroiditis, six Cynomolgus monkeys (Macaca fascicularis) with healed toxoplasmic lesions of the retina were immunosuppressed by total lymphoid irradiation. Three months prior to irradiation 30,000 Toxoplasma gondii organisms of the Beverley strain had been inoculated onto the macula of eye in each monkey via a pars plana approach. Toxoplasmic retinochoroiditis developed in each animal, and lesions were allowed to heal without treatment. During total lymphoid irradiation animals received 2000 centigrays (cGy) over a 7-week period. Irradiation resulted in an immediate drop in total lymphocyte counts and decreased ability to stimulate lymphocytes by phytohemagglutinin. Weekly ophthalmoscopic examinations following irradiation failed to show evidence of recurrent ocular disease despite persistent immunodeficiency. Four months after irradiation live organisms were reinoculated onto the nasal retina of the same eye in each animal. Retinochoroidal lesions identical to those seen in primary disease developed in five of six animals. Toxoplasma organisms therefore were able to proliferate in ocular tissue following the administration of immunosuppressive therapy. This study fails to support the hypothesis that cellular immunodeficiency alone will initiate recurrent toxoplasmic retinochoroiditis. Results suggest that reactivation of disease from encysted organisms involves factors other than suppression of Toxoplasma proliferation. If reactivation occurs by other mechanisms, however, cellular immunodeficiency then may allow development of extensive disease.

  12. Effects of suramin on ocular onchocerciasis.

    Anderson, J; Fuglsang, H; de C Marshall, T F


    39 patients (Group A) with ocular onchocerciasis in the Sudan-savanna of north Cameroon were given 4-6 g of suramin and followed in detail over 1-2 years. 39 other patients (Group B) received suramin followed 2 weeks later by a 6-7 day course of diethylcarbamazine (DEC). A further 18 patients (Group C) received placebo injections and were followed in the same way by the same observers. Suramin caused serious general reactions among the 100 patients who started the course - 1 case of stomatitis, 1 exfoliative dermatitis, and several cases of severe prostration, among which 2 ended fatally. These reactions underline the urgency for further studies on the toxicity of suramin, which is without doubt an efficient macro- and micro-filaricidal drug. Changes which occurred in the ocular lesions are described in detail. There was an initial aggravation of punctate and sclerosing keratitis, and sometimes a serious aggravation or development of anterior uveitis, corresponding to the peak microfilaricidal effect of the drug. The possibility of a simultaneous adverse effect on the optic disc is discussed. Despite these reactions, which might have been avoided by prior elimination of microfilariae by DEC, the eyes were in general quieter at 3 months and thereafter than before treatment. However, no posterior segment lesion improved after suramin, and the majority remained unchanged. The findings at the end of the trial were as follows: No. of lesions (see article).

  13. CHOA concussion consensus: establishing a uniform policy for academic accommodations.

    Popoli, David Michael; Burns, Thomas G; Meehan, William P; Reisner, Andrew


    Concussion research generally centers on physical challenges, though aspects such as social functioning and returning to school also warrant attention in pediatric populations. Restoring academic performance postconcussion remains a challenge. Here we provide recommendations addressing a uniform policy for pediatric concussion patients in academic institutions. Tools that may minimize difficulty with academic re-entry include independent educational evaluations, individualized educational programs (IEPs), student support teams (SSTs), letters of academic accommodation, time off, and 504 Plans. Recognition and treatment is crucial for symptom relief and prevention of functional disruption, as is specialist referral during the acute window. We recommend early intervention with a letter of academic accommodation and SST and suggest that 504 Plans and IEPs be reserved for protracted or medically complicated cases. Students with concussion should be observed for anxiety and depression because these symptoms can lead to prolonged recovery, decreased quality of life, and other social challenges.

  14. Decentralized Disturbance Accommodation with Limited Plant Model Information

    Farokhi, F; Johansson, K H


    The design of optimal disturbance accommodation and servomechanism controllers with limited plant model information is considered in this paper. Their closed-loop performance are compared using a performance metric called competitive ratio which is the worst-case ratio of the cost of a given control design strategy to the cost of the optimal control design with full model information. It was recently shown that when it comes to designing optimal centralized or partially structured decentralized state-feedback controllers with limited model information, the best control design strategy in terms of competitive ratio is a static one. This is true even though the optimal structured decentralized state-feedback controller with full model information is dynamic. In this paper, we show that, in contrast, the best limited model information control design strategy for the disturbance accommodation problem gives a dynamic controller. We find an explicit minimizer of the competitive ratio and we show that it is undomina...

  15. Ergonomic job design to accommodate and prevent musculoskeletal disabilities.

    Waters, T R; MacDonald, L A


    Work-related musculoskeletal disorders (MSDs) account for a major portion of the cost of work-related injury and illness in the United States. Many of these injuries and illnesses lead to temporary or permanent disability. It is generally accepted that the incidence of MSDs increases when the demands of the job exceed the capabilities of the worker. As the workforce ages and physical capabilities decline, it is anticipated that many more Americans will request disability-related leave resulting from musculoskeletal disorders because they are unable to meet the demands of the job. To prevent these disabilities and to accommodate a wider range of people in the workforce, physical job demands may have to be reduced so that a larger portion of the population will be capable of working. Providing engineering controls or alternative work arrangements allows for accommodation of workers with a wide range of capabilities and can assist in rehabilitation and early return to work following injury.


    Renu Dhasmana


    Full Text Available Background: Although ocular trauma is preventable public health problem throughout the world it is still one of the common causes of ophthalmic morbidity and monocular blindness. There are no published studies on pattern and severity of ocular trauma in Uttarakhand. The present study analyzes the pattern and visual outcome of ocular trauma in this region. Methods: Study design: Prospective hospital-based study. Settings: Patients of ocular trauma presenting to Ophthalmology OPD and emergency department of Himalayan Institute of Medical Sciences, Dehradun. Participants: All ocular injury patients seen for the first time during the period January to December 2008. Results: A total of 88 patients, and 103 eyes, were studied. Men had two fold higher rate of ocular injury than women. The mean age of presentation was 31.2 + 13.6 years (range: 6 - 80 years. The predominant age group of patients was 21-40 years, 55.29 % (n = 47. Eye injuries related to road traffic accident were seen in 37.86% of eyes. Industrial workers were more frequently involved in ocular trauma (23.86%. Closed globe injuries were noted in 55 eyes (53.39% and open globe injuries were noted in 40 eyes (38.83%. Eight eyes (7.76% suffered from chemical injuries. The initial presenting visual acuity of patients with blunt ocular trauma was better than penetrating injury. Eye with better visual acuity at presentation had better visual prognosis at 6 months. Conclusion: Ocular injuries were common in young males. Road traffic accidents related eye injuries were noted in significant number of cases. Strict implementation of traffic rules, health education and preventive strategies may help to decrease the occurrence of ocular injuries.

  17. Ocular and extra-ocular features of patients with Leber congenital amaurosis and mutations in CEP290

    Yzer, Suzanne; den Hollander, Anneke I.; Lopez, Irma; Pott, Jan-Willem R.; de Faber, Jan Tjeerd H. N.; Cremers, Frans P. M.; Koenekoop, Robert K.; van den Born, L. Ingeborgh


    Purpose: This study investigated the centrosomal protein, 290-KD (CEP290) associated genotype and ocular and extra-ocular phenotype in 18 patients with Leber congenital amaurosis (LCA). Methods: Eighteen patients with LCA from 14 families with mutations in the CEP290 gene were identified with sequen

  18. Ocular and extra-ocular features of patients with Leber congenital amaurosis and mutations in CEP290

    Yzer, S.; Hollander, A.I. den; Lopez, I.; Pott, J.W.; Faber, J.T. de; Cremers, F.P.; Koenekoop, R.K.; Born, L.I. van den


    PURPOSE: This study investigated the centrosomal protein, 290-KD (CEP290) associated genotype and ocular and extra-ocular phenotype in 18 patients with Leber congenital amaurosis (LCA). METHODS: Eighteen patients with LCA from 14 families with mutations in the CEP290 gene were identified with sequen

  19. Ocular and extra-ocular features of patients with Leber congenital amaurosis and mutations in CEP290

    Yzer, Suzanne; den Hollander, Anneke I.; Lopez, Irma; Pott, Jan-Willem R.; de Faber, Jan Tjeerd H. N.; Cremers, Frans P. M.; Koenekoop, Robert K.; van den Born, L. Ingeborgh


    Purpose: This study investigated the centrosomal protein, 290-KD (CEP290) associated genotype and ocular and extra-ocular phenotype in 18 patients with Leber congenital amaurosis (LCA). Methods: Eighteen patients with LCA from 14 families with mutations in the CEP290 gene were identified with sequen

  20. Linguistic Simplification: A Promising Test Accommodation for LEP Students?

    Charles W. Stansfield


    Full Text Available This article is a synopsis of an experimental study of the effects of linguistic simplification, a test accommodation..designed for LEP students. Conducted as part of Delaware's statewide assessment program, this study examined the..effects of linguistic simplification of fourth- and sixth-grade science test items and specifically looked at score..comparability between LEP and non-LEP examinees.

  1. Recent Religious Accommodations: Have We Gone Too Far Too Fast?


    length of head hair for both men and women , making certain allowances for women to wear longer hairstyles. The regulation prohibits the wear of beards...exceptions in order to further religious sensitivity. 10 Review of Canada, United Kingdom, and Netherlands Policy on Head and Facial Hair Some...militaries have religious accommodations for males who maintain facial and head hair for religious purposes. In addition, one nation allows soldiers to

  2. Holocene reef development where wave energy reduces accommodation

    Grossman, Eric E.; Fletcher, Charles H.


    Analyses of 32 drill cores obtained from the windward reef of Kailua Bay, Oahu, Hawaii, indicate that high wave energy significantly reduced accommodation space for reef development in the Holocene and produced variable architecture because of the combined influence of sea-level history and wave exposure over a complex antecedent topography. A paleostream valley within the late Pleistocene insular limestone shelf provided accommodation space for more than 11 m of vertical accretion since sea level flooded the bay 8000 yr BP. Virtually no net accretion (pile-up of fore-reef-derived rubble (rudstone) and sparse bindstone, and (3) a final stage of catch-up bindstone accretion in depths > 6 m. Coral framestone accreted at rates of 2.5-6.0 mm/yr in water depths > 11 m during the early Holocene; it abruptly terminated at ~4500 yr BP because of wave scour as sea level stabilized. More than 4 m of rudstone derived from the upper fore reef accreted at depths of 6 to 13 m below sea level between 4000 and 1500 yr BP coincident with late Holocene relative sea-level fall. Variations in the thickness, composition, and age of these reef facies across spatial scales of 10-1000 m within Kailua Bay illustrate the importance of antecedent topography and wave-related stress in reducing accommodation space for reef development set by sea level. Although accommodation space of 6 to 17 m has existed through most of the Holocene, the Kailua reef has been unable to catch up to sea level because of persistent high wave stress.

  3. Bimatoprost (0.03%)-induced accommodative spasm and pseudomyopia.

    Padhy, Debananda; Rao, Aparna


    Bimatoprost is a prostaglandin analogue used topically in the treatment of glaucoma. Commonly known side effects include eyelash growth, iris pigmentation and conjunctival hyperemia. While pseudomyopia is reported to be caused by parasympathomimetics, such an effect precipitated by bimatoprost has not yet been reported. We report a case demonstrating pseudomyopia and accommodative spasm caused after starting bimatoprost 0.03% in a young patient with glaucoma.

  4. Accommodating MOOCs into HEI: is blended-learning the solution?

    Martínez, Juan Antonio; Campuzano, Joaquim


    MOOCs are without discussion one of the key changers in education, and in particular in higher education. They affect both on-Campus universities and on-line. Advisory boards in Universities face the need to accommodate a new player in the learning process arena. The MOOC tsunami affects Universities, forcing them to offer MOOCs assuming costs. On the other side, MOOC platform managers need to convince Universities that creating and offering MOOCs is a must, generating revenues at the same ti...

  5. Digital electronic engine control fault detection and accommodation flight evaluation

    Baer-Ruedhart, J. L.


    The capabilities and performance of various fault detection and accommodation (FDA) schemes in existing and projected engine control systems were investigated. Flight tests of the digital electronic engine control (DEEC) in an F-15 aircraft show discrepancies between flight results and predictions based on simulation and altitude testing. The FDA methodology and logic in the DEEC system, and the results of the flight failures which occurred to date are described.

  6. Kinematic and ground reaction force accommodation during weighted walking.

    James, C Roger; Atkins, Lee T; Yang, Hyung Suk; Dufek, Janet S; Bates, Barry T


    Weighted walking is a functional activity common in daily life and can influence risks for musculoskeletal loading, injury and falling. Much information exists about weighted walking during military, occupational and recreational tasks, but less is known about strategies used to accommodate to weight carriage typical in daily life. The purposes of the study were to examine the effects of weight carriage on kinematics and peak ground reaction force (GRF) during walking, and explore relationships between these variables. Twenty subjects walked on a treadmill while carrying 0, 44.5 and 89 N weights in front of the body. Peak GRF, sagittal plane joint/segment angular kinematics, stride length and center of mass (COM) vertical displacement were measured. Changes in peak GRF and displacement variables between weight conditions represented accommodation. Effects of weight carriage were tested using analysis of variance. Relationships between peak GRF and kinematic accommodation variables were examined using correlation and regression. Subjects were classified into sub-groups based on peak GRF responses and the correlation analysis was repeated. Weight carriage increased peak GRF by an amount greater than the weight carried, decreased stride length, increased vertical COM displacement, and resulted in a more extended and upright posture, with less hip and trunk displacement during weight acceptance. A GRF increase was associated with decreases in hip extension (|r|=.53, p=.020) and thigh anterior rotation (|r|=.57, p=.009) displacements, and an increase in foot anterior rotation displacement (|r|=.58, p=.008). Sub-group analysis revealed that greater GRF increases were associated with changes at multiple sites, while lesser GRF increases were associated with changes in foot and trunk displacement. Weight carriage affected walking kinematics and revealed different accommodation strategies that could have implications for loading and stability.

  7. Cubic optical elements for an accommodative intraocular lens.

    Simonov, Aleksey N; Vdovin, Gleb; Rombach, Michiel C


    We present a new accommodative intraocular lens based on a two-element varifocal Alvarez lens. The intraocular lens consists of (1) an anterior element combining a spherical lens for refractive power with a cubic surface for the varifocal effect, and (2) a posterior element with a cubic surface only. The focal length of the IOL lens changes when the superimposed refractive elements shift in opposite directions in a plane perpendicular to the optical axis. The ciliary muscle will drive the accommodation by a natural process of contraction and relaxation. Results of ray-tracing simulations of the model eye with the two-element intraocular lens are presented for on-axis and off-axis vision. The configuration of the lens is optimized to reduce refractive errors as well as effects of misalignment. A prototype with a clear aperture of ~5.7 mm is manufactured and evaluated in air with a Shack-Hartmann wave-front sensor. It provides an accommodation range of ~4 dioptres in the eye at a ~0.75-mm lateral displacement of the optical elements. The experimentally measured on-axis optical performance of the IOL lens agrees with the theoretically predicted performance.

  8. Employers’ Perspectives on Hiring and Accommodating Workers With Mental Illness

    Janki Shankar


    Full Text Available Many individuals with mental illness want to return to work and stay in employment. Yet, there is little research that has examined the perspectives of employers on hiring and accommodating these workers and the kinds of supports employers need to facilitate their reintegration into the workforce. The aim of the current research was to explore the challenges employers face and the support they need to hire and accommodate workers with mental illness (WWMI. A qualitative research design guided by a grounded theory approach was used. In-depth interviews were conducted with 28 employers selected from a wide range of industries in and around Edmonton, Canada. The employers were a mix of frontline managers, disability consultants, and human resource managers who had direct experience with hiring and supervising WWMI. Data were analyzed using the principles of grounded theory. The findings highlight several challenges that employers face when dealing with mental health issues of workers in the workplace. These challenges can act as barriers to hiring and accommodating WWMI.

  9. Workplace accommodations and job success for persons with bipolar disorder.

    Tremblay, Carol Horton


    This research seeks to identify job characteristics and workplace policies conducive to the job success of individuals with bipolar disorder, and to examine the interactions between employers and bipolar employees regarding requested workplace accommodations. The study population consists of 39 adults who were in outpatient care and diagnosed with bipolar I or II disorder. Each participant completed a mail-in questionnaire regarding workplace characteristics that would enhance job performance. Primary beneficial work characteristics reported are schedule flexibility, autonomy, and supervisor willingness to provide accommodations. Specific helpful characteristics noted by participants include allowances for working at home, leaves of absence, frequent breaks, barriers between work spaces, control over goal-setting, creativity, and avoidance of jobs with pace set by machinery. Twelve of the 26 workers requested workplace changes, and of the 12 requests, 10 were implemented. Incidents of employer bias were reported. The experiences of the survey participants regarding beneficial workplace accommodations may help to improve the productivity and well-being of other individuals with bipolar disorder.




    Full Text Available A strong infrastructure is a precondition for the development of balneology. On this base new tourism might build the modern services that supply the experiences. The key factor is the labor force: an EU project about labor force in Romania and Bulgaria in balneology allow us to present the preliminary findings focusing on general infrastructure and accommodation which allow the development of the balneology as well as the additional conditions as the existence of a social pact, easy access facilities etc. Our paper gives more details about the accommodation facilities in Romania insisting about the results of the transition and privatization of the former socialist facilities and the transformation of the property into private ones and the consequences of this. It also present the capability of new developed accommodation units built after 1990 and how they might compete in an international competition. The findings force us to conclude that the actual facilities do not allow the balneology resorts to compete in the international competition and might fill only a poor and low demanding tourists

  11. Ocular manifestation in treated multibacillary Hansen's disease.

    Parikh, Rajul; Thomas, Saju; Muliyil, Jayaprakash; Parikh, Shefali; Thomas, Ravi


    To report the prevalence of ocular morbidity in patients with treated multibacillary Hansen's disease (HD) using modern ophthalmic diagnostic techniques in a rural community endemic for HD. Cross-sectional, observation study. All patients with multibacillary HD who had completed their multidrug therapy and who resided in 4 defined geographical areas in Vellore, Tamil Nadu, India. All participants underwent a complete eye examination that included slit-lamp examination, esthesiometry, gonioscopy, applanation tonometry, and dilated fundus examination, including a stereobiomicroscopic examination of the fundus at an ophthalmic center set up for that purpose. Glaucoma suspects underwent automated perimetry using a Humphrey Field Analyzer (Humphrey Instruments, San Leandro, CA). The prevalence of various ocular disease parameters were reported as mean value with 95% confidence interval. The difference of disease prevalence between various leprosy groups was compared using an unpaired t test. The association between eye symptoms and potentially sight-threatening complications was analyzed using the chi-square test. Three hundred eighty-six of the 446 patients with multibacillary HD residing in the defined areas were evaluated. Four patients (1.04%; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.0%-2.0%) were bilaterally blind; 33 (8.55%; 95% CI, 5.8%-11.3%) had unilateral blindness. Mean intraocular pressure was 12 mmHg (standard deviation, 4.1 mmHg), and prevalence of glaucoma was 3.6% (95% CI, 1.8%-5.5%). Potentially sight-threatening (PST) pathologic features (corneal anesthesia, lagophthalmos, uveitis, scleritis, and advanced glaucoma) were present in 10.4% (95% CI, 7.4%-13.4%) of patients. Significant cataracts occurred 3 times more frequently in those with polar lepromatous leprosy. The odds ratio for PST pathology in the presence of patient-reported symptoms (pain, redness, inability to close eye, burning, and irritation) was 2.9 (95% CI, 1.34-6.26). Patients who have completed

  12. Consideraciones del trauma ocular infantil Considerations on the ocular trauma in children

    Alejandro Arias Díaz


    Full Text Available Se realizó una descripción de los aspectos clínicos y el manejo terapéutico del trauma ocular en edades pediátricas. Se identifican las particularidades a abordar en estos pacientes con presencia de cataratas traumáticas y/o heridas penetrantes corneales, por las diferencias en el manejo de las mismas en estas edades y en la adultez. Se hace énfasis en el hifema traumático.The clinical aspects and the treatment management of the ocular trauma at pediatric ages were described. Those particularities to be taken into account when approaching these patients who suffer traumatic cataracts and/or penetrating corneal injuries were indentified, on the account of the differences in the management of this disease between children and adults. Emphasis was made on the description of traumatic hyphema.

  13. Iontoforese no transporte ocular de drogas Iontophoresis for ocular drug delivery

    Sílvia Ligório Fialho


    Full Text Available O método mais comum de administração de drogas no olho é por meio de colírios. Entretanto, por este método, não é possível atingir a concentração terapêutica nos fluidos e tecidos posteriores do olho. A administração sistêmica apresenta reduzido acesso ao segmento posterior do olho devido à presença das barreiras oculares. Injeções subconjuntivais e retrobulbares não são capazes de proporcionar níveis adequados da droga, e a injeção intravítrea é método invasivo, inconveniente e que apre-senta riscos de perfuração do bulbo ocular ou descolamento da retina. A iontoforese, no entanto, apresenta-se como alternativa para o transporte de doses terapêuticas de drogas para o segmento posterior do olho. A iontoforese é uma técnica que consiste na administração de drogas para o organismo através dos tecidos, utilizando um campo elétrico. O eletrodo ativo, que se encontra em contato com a droga, é colocado no local a ser tratado, e um segundo eletrodo, com a finalidade de fechar o circuito elétrico, é colocado em outro local do organismo. O campo elétrico facilita o transporte da droga, que deve se encontrar, preferencialmente, na forma ionizada. A iontoforese pode ser considerada como um método seguro e não invasivo de transporte de drogas para locais específicos do olho. Aplicada experimentalmente para o tratamento de doenças oculares, esta técnica tem evoluído muito nos últimos anos e, atualmente, testes clínicos de fase III encontram-se em andamento.The most traditional method of ocular drug delivery is through the use of eyedrops. However, by this method, the therapeutic concentration in deep ocular fluids and tissues can not be efficiently reached. Systemic administration presents poor access to the posterior segment of the eye due to ocular barriers. Subconjuntival and retrobulbar injections are not able to produce adequate levels of the drug, and intravitreal injection is an invasive and problematic

  14. Headaches with ocular localization and involvement Cefaleas de localización y compromiso oculares

    Marta Lucía Muñoz Cardona


    Full Text Available The most frequent primary headaches, including migraine variants, and intrinsic optic nerve disorders that produce headache, are reviewed. The latter are often accompanied by autonomic nervous system alterations which lead to vasomotor changes, frequently present in neuralgic processes known as headaches with disautonomic involvement. Epidemiological, semiological, clinical, and therapeutical aspects of different cranial, facial and ocular diseases that produce headache are included. Some physiopathological elements that may help to analyze painful craniofacial processes are discussed. Secondary headaches and common facial neuralgias, on the other hand, are also considered because they may confuse the differential diagnosis. Se revisan las cefaleas primarias más frecuentes que comprometen las estructuras oculares y vecinas al globo ocular, las variantes de la migraña y las alteraciones propias del nervio óptico que alteran la función visual y que se acompañan no solamente de síntomas dolorosos sino también de trastornos vasomotores debidos a alteraciones del sistema nervioso autónomo que suelen ser comunes en algunos procesos neurálgicos llamados ahora cefaleas con compromiso disautonómico. En este artículo se comentan los elementos epidemiológicos de las diferentes enfermedades craneales, faciales y oculares que cursan con cefalea; las diferencias clínicas entre las mismas y su presentación semiológica, al igual que algunos elementos terapéuticos. Se discuten además algunos elementos fisiopatológicos de gran utilidad en el análisis de los procesos dolorosos craneofaciales y el perfil temporal de los mismos; también se comentan algunas cefaleas secundarias que comparten con las primarias elementos que se prestan a confusión en la clínica. Finalmente, se hace un análisis de las neuralgias faciales comunes.

  15. A multidisciplinary approach for rehabilitation following ocular trauma

    Pradeep Kumar


    Full Text Available Ocular trauma is a very common incidence that occurs in up to 67% of patients with maxillofacial trauma. It results in life-long agony of not being like others with two eyes, which can see and admire the nature's beauty. This article reports on a case of a 23-year-old male patient with phthisis bulbi, resulting from ocular trauma. The patient was rehabilitated aesthetically by fabrication of custom-made ocular prosthesis for his traumatically injured right eye. The patient was pleased with the aesthetic outcome, comfort, and mobility offered by the custom ocular prosthesis. There were no complications with regard to health of underlying residual ocular tissues and there was no need of relining of the prosthesis at 6 month recall appointment. Rehabilitation of patients with ocular trauma requires a multidisciplinary approach involving ophthalmologist, psychologist, and skilled maxillofacial prosthodontist. Custom-made ocular prosthesis fitted over the phthisical globe seems to be a highly positive, logical, noninvasive, and beneficial approach to increase mobility to the prosthesis, improve the cosmetic appearance and psychological well-being of the patient.

  16. Ocular manifestations in Hansen’s disease- a clinical study

    Christina Samuel, Sundararajan D


    Full Text Available Leprosy or Hansen’s disease is a chronic mildly contagious granulomatous disease of tropical and subtropical regions caused by the rod shaped bacillus, Mycobacterium leprae. It affects the skin, peripheral nerves in the hands and feet, mucous membrane of nose, throat and eyes. When left untreated, it is capable of producing various deformities and disfigurements. Aim: To study the ocular involvement in patients with Leprosy under the parameters of age group, sex type and duration of leprosy. To study the different ocular manifestations and identify the potentially sight threatening lesions and provide early management. Methods: This was a prospective study which included 50 cases diagnosed with Hansen’s disease. Detailed history and thorough clinical examination was done. Potentially sight threatening lesions were managed conservatively or surgically. Results: Out of 50 cases of Leprosy, 58% had ocular involvement and majority were in the age group 21-40years. Ocular involvement was predominantly seen in Lepromatous type with 35% having ocular lesions. The most common ocular manifestation observed was superciliary madarosis (48%. Potentially sight threatening lesions accounted for 72.4% of which lagophthalmos was common. No cases of blindness seen. Conclusion: Visual impairment is preventable in Leprosy if detected early. The risk of ocular complications increases with the duration of the disease, despite being treated with systemic anti-leprosy drugs.

  17. Influence of ocular perfusion pressure fluctuation on glaucoma

    Min-Zi Ren


    Full Text Available AIM:To investigate the influence of ocular perfusion pressure fluctuation on glaucoma. METHODS:Forty patients with primary open angle glaucoma from January 2013 to June 2015 in our hospital were used as observation group and 40 families were used as control group. Circadian fluctuation of intraocular pressure, blood pressure and ocular perfusion pressure in 24h were determined to obtain systolic ocular perfusion pressure(SOPP, diastolic ocular perfusion pressure(DOPPand mean ocular perfusion pressure(MOPP. Pearson linear correlation was used to analyze the correlation of circadian MOPP fluctuation with cup-disc ratio, mean defect(MDand the picture standard deviation(PSD. RESULTS:The fluctuation of MOPP, SOPP and DOPP of observation group were significantly higher than those of control group(Pr=-0.389, 95%CI:-0.612~-0.082; P=0.011, was positively correlated with PSD(r=0.512, 95%CI:0.139 ~0.782; P=0.008; no correlation was found between it and the vertical cup-disc ratio(r=0.115, 95%CI:0.056~0.369; P=0.355. CONCLUSION:Ocular perfusion pressure fluctuations in patients with primary open angle glaucoma may reflect the severity of the disease and may make the situation aggravating. Therefore through perfusion pressure monitor in 24h may help us understand the ocular blood flow and the development of primary open-angle glaucoma.

  18. Downbeat nystagmus: evidence for enhancement of utriculo-ocular pathways by ocular vestibular evoked myogenic potentials?

    Bremova, Tatiana; Glasauer, Stefan; Strupp, Michael


    Downbeat nystagmus (DBN) is caused by an impairment of Purkinje cells in the flocculus. The decreased cerebellar inhibitory input affects otolith pathways. Since ocular and cervical vestibular evoked myogenic potentials (o-/cVEMP) test the otoliths, the VEMP were measured in DBN patients and in controls. Sixteen patients with DBN, 14 cerebellar oculomotor disorder patients without DBN (COMD), and 16 healthy controls were examined with o-/cVEMP. Computational modeling was used to predict VEMP differences between groups. DBN patients had significantly higher oVEMP peak-to-peak (PP) amplitudes than COMD patients without DBN and controls. Cervical VEMP did not differ. The computational model of DBN predicted a twofold oVEMP increase for DBN patients. These findings suggest an enhancement of the utriculo-ocular response. The unchanged cVEMP indicate no effect on the otolith-cervical reflex in DBN. Computational modeling suggests that the utriculo-ocular enhancement is caused by an impaired vertical neural integrator resulting in the increased influence of utricular signals. This also explains the gravitational dependence of DBN.

  19. The Impact of Visual Guided Order Picking on Ocular Comfort, Ocular Surface and Tear Function.

    Angelika Klein-Theyer

    Full Text Available We investigated the effects of a visual picking system on ocular comfort, the ocular surface and tear function compared to those of a voice guided picking solution.Prospective, observational, cohort study.Institutional.A total of 25 young asymptomatic volunteers performed commissioning over 10 hours on two consecutive days.The operators were guided in the picking process by two different picking solutions, either visually or by voice while their subjective symptoms and ocular surface and tear function parameters were recorded.The visual analogue scale (VAS values, according to subjective dry eye symptoms, in the visual condition were significantly higher at the end of the commissioning than the baseline measurements. In the voice condition, the VAS values remained stable during the commissioning. The tear break-up time (BUT values declined significantly in the visual condition (pre-task: 16.6 sec and post-task: 9.6 sec in the right eyes, that were exposed to the displays, the left eyes in the visual condition showed only a minor decline, whereas the BUT values in the voice condition remained constant (right eyes or even increased (left eyes over the time. No significant differences in the tear meniscus height values before and after the commissioning were observed in either condition.In our study, the use of visually guided picking solutions was correlated with post-task subjective symptoms and tear film instability.

  20. Vasoinhibins: novel inhibitors of ocular angiogenesis.

    Clapp, Carmen; Thebault, Stéphanie; Arnold, Edith; García, Celina; Rivera, José Carlos; de la Escalera, Gonzalo Martínez


    Disruption of the quiescent state of blood vessels in the retina leads to aberrant vasopermeability and angiogenesis, the major causes of vision loss in diabetic retinopathy. Prolactin is expressed throughout the retina, where it is proteolytically cleaved to vasoinhibins, a family of peptides (including the 16-kDa fragment of prolactin) with potent antiangiogenic, vasoconstrictive, and antivasopermeability actions. Ocular vasoinhibins act directly on endothelial cells to block blood vessel growth and dilation and to promote apoptosis-mediated vascular regression. Also, vasoinhibins prevent retinal angiogenesis and vasopermeability associated with diabetic retinopathy, and inactivation of endothelial nitric oxide synthase via protein phosphatase 2A is among the various mechanisms mediating their actions. Here, we discuss the potential role of vasoinhibins both in the maintenance of normal retinal vasculature and in the cause and prevention of diabetic retinopathy and other vasoproliferative retinopathies.

  1. Ocular microtremor measurement system: design and performance.

    Sheahan, N F; Coakley, D; Hegarty, F; Bolger, C; Malone, J


    The frequency of ocular microtremor (OMT) is related to the functional status of the brain stem, and thus OMT may be useful in the diagnosis and management of brain stem disorders. The paper discusses the design of an OMT measurement system and reports quantitative specifications for three portable systems. All systems use a piezo-electric element as the transducer, which measures the displacement of the sclera during eye rotations. The systems differ in the manner in which the signal is recorded. All systems can detect eye movements corresponding to displacements of the sclera ranging from 12 to over 3000 nm. The frequency responses of all systems are flat (< 2 dB deviation from peak response) between 20 and 150 Hz. The phase response shows deviations (< pi) at the extremes of this range, but qualitative comparison of input and measured signals demonstrates that phase distortion is not excessive. Thus all systems are acceptable for clinical studies involving OMT.

  2. Unusual Presentation of Cutaneous Leishmaniasis: Ocular Leishmaniasis

    Masoud Doroodgar


    Full Text Available The leishmaniases are parasitic diseases that are transmitted to humans by infected female sandflies. Cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL is one of 3 main forms of the disease. CL is the most common form of the disease and is endemic in many urban and rural parts of Iran and usually caused by two species of Leishmania: L. major and L. tropica. We report a case of unusual leishmaniasis with 25 lesions on exposed parts of the body and right eyelid involvement (ocular leishmaniasis. The patient was a 75-year-old male farmer referred to health care center in Aran va Bidgol city. The disease was diagnosed by direct smear, culture, and PCR from the lesions. PCR was positive for Leishmania major.

  3. Development of ocular inserts for cattle.

    Greer, R T; Ryoo, J P


    Ring shaped ocular inserts have been developed to administer a therapeutic level of tylosin tartrate throughout a five day period to treat pinkeye in cattle. The inserts are based on polyvinyl chloride rings which are dip coated with a copolymer containing the antibiotic (tylosin tartrate). Scanning electron microscope (SEM) characterization of surfaces has been of value to evaluate the presence and extent of surface flaws in the hydrogel coating, and to contribute to improvement in fabrication of the rings to insure the establishment of satisfactory seals at joints, uniformity of microporosity and cross sections, and the absence of significant cracking or flaking. In vitro release rates were determined using thin layer chromatography techniques, and rates were seen to be above a few micrograms of antibiotic per hour for experiments as long as nine days at simulated tear rates as high as 2 milliliters per hour.

  4. Tumor-specific frequencies and ocular melanoma.

    Milham, Samuel; Stetzer, David


    Specific kilohertz frequencies in the environment from variable frequency drives on electric motors at a liquid natural gas compressor and storage station on a natural gas pipeline seem to be associated with the development of a very rare cancer, ocular melanoma, at a high school and in individuals living or working in a neighborhood near the plant. Primary neutral-to-earth oscilloscope voltage waveforms and spectra measured near the high school were nearly identical to the ground voltage 2.3 miles away at the gas pipeline. Peak frequencies of 7440 and 19,980 Hz were found at both places. The electric utility practice of using the earth as a conduit for return currents facilitated this exposure.

  5. Nutrición y salud ocular

    Olmedilla Alonso, Begoña


    El texto está disponible para cualquiera que se registre previamente en .- 24.Nutrición y salud ocular 377-388,12 páginas--Manual Práctico de Nutrición y Salud Kellogg’s, obra colectiva de visión multidisciplinar que surge a propuesta del colectivo médico ante la necesidad de recibir formación en materia de nutrición. Existen numerosos manuales de nutrición, pero en esta ocasión se ofrece una edición de consulta rápida, fácil acceso y manejo para utiliz...


    L. K. Moshetova


    Full Text Available Structural changes in eyes are present in all patients with chronic kidney disease. A study to detect ocular patho- logy in patients with end-stage chronic renal failure after kidney transplantation in the early and late postopera- tive period compared with patients receiving replacement therapy with hemodialysis. Revealed that in the early post-transplant period in recipients of kidneyas in patients on hemodialysis, continued angioretinopatiya, 40% of patients had «dry eye syndrome». In the delayed post-transplant period, patients showed significant impro- vement in the retina and retinal vessels, the improvement of spatial-temporal parameters of visual perception. However, a decrease of visual acuity on the background of the development of posterior subcapsular cataract caused by prolonged corticosteroid, and an increased incidence of viral and bacterial conjunctivitis. 

  7. Surgical management of advanced ocular adnexal amyloidosis.

    Patrinely, J R; Koch, D D


    Ocular adnexal amyloidosis is characterized by amyloid deposition within the deep connective tissue layers of the eyelids, conjunctiva, and anterior orbit. Management of advanced cases has traditionally been unsatisfactory, with either no surgery offered because of fear of hemorrhage or an en bloc resection performed of the entire involved area. We present two cases of advanced periorbital amyloidosis successfully managed by preserving the anatomic planes of the eyelids and meticulously debulking the deposits with a spooned curette. Lax eyelid tendons and aponeuroses were simultaneously repaired, and no sacrifice of eyelid tissues was necessary. One patient remained asymptomatic for 2 years after surgery before developing early reaccumulation in the lower eyelids. The other patient required additional eyelid debulking and ptosis revision 8 months after surgery, but was in stable condition at follow-up 2 years after surgery. This technique offers safe, easily repeatable, nondestructive treatment for advanced periocular amyloidosis.

  8. Nanotechnology approaches for ocular drug delivery

    Qingguo Xu


    Full Text Available Blindness is a major health concern worldwide that has a powerful impact on afflicted individuals and their families, and is associated with enormous socio-economical consequences. The Middle East is heavily impacted by blindness, and the problem there is augmented by an increasing incidence of diabetes in the population. An appropriate drug/gene delivery system that can sustain and deliver therapeutics to the target tissues and cells is a key need for ocular therapies. The application of nanotechnology in medicine is undergoing rapid progress, and the recent developments in nanomedicine-based therapeutic approaches may bring significant benefits to address the leading causes of blindness associated with cataract, glaucoma, diabetic retinopathy and retinal degeneration. In this brief review, we highlight some promising nanomedicine-based therapeutic approaches for drug and gene delivery to the anterior and posterior segments.

  9. Slit-Robo signaling in ocular angiogenesis.

    Chen, Haoyu; Zhang, Mingzhi; Tang, Shibo; London, Nyall R; Li, Dean Y; Zhang, Kang


    Slit-Robo signaling was firstly discovered as a major repellent pathway at the midline of the central nervous system. Intense investigation found that this pathway also plays an important role in other biological process including angiogenesis. Robo4 is the vascular endothelial cell specific member of Robo family. It was found that Slit-Robo signaling can inhibit endothelial cell migration, tube formation and vascular permeability. Slit-Robo signaling also plays an important role in embryonic and tumor angiogenesis. In animal model of ocular angiogenesis, addition of Slit inhibited laser induced choroidal neovascularization, oxygen induced retinopathy and VEGF induced retinal permeability in a Robo4 dependent manner. Recent data demonstrates that Robo1 and Robo4 form a heterodimer in endothelial cells, The role of this heterodimer in counteracting VEGF signaling is unknown. Further investigation is required to better understand Slit-Robo signaling and develop novel therapy for angiogenesis.

  10. Unusual Presentation of Cutaneous Leishmaniasis: Ocular Leishmaniasis

    Doroodgar, Masoud; Doroodgar, Moein


    The leishmaniases are parasitic diseases that are transmitted to humans by infected female sandflies. Cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) is one of 3 main forms of the disease. CL is the most common form of the disease and is endemic in many urban and rural parts of Iran and usually caused by two species of Leishmania: L. major and L. tropica. We report a case of unusual leishmaniasis with 25 lesions on exposed parts of the body and right eyelid involvement (ocular leishmaniasis). The patient was a 75-year-old male farmer referred to health care center in Aran va Bidgol city. The disease was diagnosed by direct smear, culture, and PCR from the lesions. PCR was positive for Leishmania major. PMID:28210511

  11. The Chinchilla's vestibulo-ocular reflex

    Merwin, W. H., Jr.; Wall, Conrad, III; Tomko, D. L.


    The horizontal vestibulo-ocular reflex (VOR) was measured and characterized in seven adult chinchillas using 0.01 to 1.0 Hz angular velocity sinusoids. Gains were less than compensatory, and were variable from day to day, but phases were highly repeatable both within and between animals. The best fitting transfer function to the average data of all animals had a dominant time constant of 7.5 sec, and an adaptation operator with a time constant of 24.0 sec. There were certain nonlinearities in the horizontal VOR of this animal, and it was difficult to elicit a robust optokinetic response. Results are discussed in relation to similar measurements in other species.

  12. Ocular abnormalities in atopic dermatitis in Indian patients

    Kaujalgi Radhika


    Full Text Available Background and Aims: Atopic dermatitis (AD is a common skin disease. Long-standing, severe AD with repeated scratching and rubbing of the face, which requires continuous dermatologic care, predisposes the patient to various ocular complications. The knowledge of the frequency and significance of these ocular complications may allow their early diagnosis and treatment. The present study assesses the ocular complications in Indian children suffering from AD. Methods: In order to study the ocular complications in AD, 100 patients (61 male and 39 female between the ages of 1 and 14 years were recruited. All the patients had complete dilated fundus examination with indirect ophthalmoscopy. The lid, conjunctiva and cornea were examined. Also, any evidence of cataract formation and retinal disorders were recorded. Results: The mean age of the children was 5.4 years. Forty-three (43.0% AD patients showed ocular abnormalities in the form of lid and conjunctival changes. Of these, 18 (41.9% patients showed only lid involvement, 16 (37.2% only conjunctival involvement and both conjunctival and lid changes were seen in nine (20.9% patients. Conjunctival changes were mostly in the form of a cobblestone appearance of the papillae, with mild to moderate papillary reaction and papillary hypertrophy. Variables observed to have a significant impact on the development of ocular abnormalities were age more than 5 years, duration of illness> 12 months, positive family history of atopy, presence of palmar hyperlinearity and a combination of both xerosis and Dennie-Morgan fold. Conclusions: The present study is the first of its kind from India to document an association between AD in children and various ocular manifestations. The ocular manifestations observed in our cohort were not associated with significant ocular morbidity or visual impairment possibly because of a less-severe disease in Indians.

  13. Novel ocular antihypertensive compounds in clinical trials

    Chen J


    Full Text Available June Chen1, Stephen A Runyan1, Michael R Robinson21Department of Biological Sciences, 2Ophthalmology Clinical Research, Allergan, Inc, Irvine, CA, USAIntroduction: Glaucoma is a multifactorial disease characterized by progressive optic nerve injury and visual field defects. Elevated intraocular pressure (IOP is the most widely recognized risk factor for the onset and progression of open-angle glaucoma, and IOP-lowering medications comprise the primary treatment strategy. IOP elevation in glaucoma is associated with diminished or obstructed aqueous humor outflow. Pharmacotherapy reduces IOP by suppressing aqueous inflow and/or increasing aqueous outflow.Purpose: This review focuses on novel non-FDA approved ocular antihypertensive compounds being investigated for IOP reduction in ocular hypertensive and glaucoma patients in active clinical trials within approximately the past 2 years.Methods: The mode of IOP reduction, pharmacology, efficacy, and safety of these new agents were assessed. Relevant drug efficacy and safety trials were identified from searches of various scientific literature databases and clinical trial registries. Compounds with no specified drug class, insufficient background information, reformulations, and fixed-combinations of marketed drugs were not considered.Results: The investigational agents identified comprise those that act on the same targets of established drug classes approved by the FDA (ie, prostaglandin analogs and β-adrenergic blockers as well as agents belonging to novel drug classes with unique mechanisms of action. Novel targets and compounds evaluated in clinical trials include an actin polymerization inhibitor (ie, latrunculin, Rho-associated protein kinase inhibitors, adenosine receptor analogs, an angiotensin II type 1 receptor antagonist, cannabinoid receptor agonists, and a serotonin receptor antagonist.Conclusion: The clinical value of novel compounds for the treatment of glaucoma will depend

  14. Risk factors for ocular toxoplasmosis in Brazil.

    Ferreira, A I C; De Mattos, C C Brandão; Frederico, F B; Meira, C S; Almeida, G C; Nakashima, F; Bernardo, C R; Pereira-Chioccola, V L; De Mattos, L C


    The aim of this study was to investigate risk factors for ocular toxoplasmosis (OT) in patients who received medical attention at a public health service. Three hundred and forty-nine consecutive patients, treated in the Outpatient Eye Clinic of Hospital de Base, São José do Rio Preto, São Paulo state, Brazil, were enrolled in this study. After an eye examination, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) was used to determine anti-Toxoplasma gondii antibodies. The results showed that 25.5% of the patients were seronegative and 74.5% were seropositive for IgG anti-T. gondii antibodies; of these 27.3% had OT and 72.7% had other ocular diseases (OOD). The presence of cats or dogs [odds ratio (OR) 2.22, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.24-3.98, P = 0.009] and consumption of raw or undercooked meat (OR 1.77, 95% CI 1.05-2.98, P = 0.03) were associated with infection but not with the development of OT. Age (OT 48.2 ± 21.2 years vs. OOD: 69.5 ± 14.7 years, P < 0.0001) and the low level of schooling/literacy (OT vs. OOD: OR 0.414, 95% CI 0.2231-0.7692, P = 0.007) were associated with OT. The presence of dogs and cats as well as eating raw/undercooked meat increases the risk of infection, but is not associated with the development of OT.

  15. Ocular morbidity among refugees in Southwest Ethiopia.

    Gelaw, Yeshigeta; Abateneh, Aemero


    Low vision and blindness are recognized as one of the major public health problems worldwide, especially in developing countries. The prevalence and cause of blindness and low vision vary from region to region, among different age and population groups in a country or geographical region. The objective of this study is thus to determine the causes of blindness and ocular morbidity among refugees in Southwest Ethiopia. A cross-sectional clinic based study was conducted on 1,054 refugees in Southwest Ethiopia. A basic anterior and posterior segment examination was done by ophthalmologists with Magnifying Loupe 2.5X and Direct Ophthalmoscope. Data were analyzed using SPSS version 16.0. The most common causes of ocular morbidity identified were trachoma 547(21.2%), cataract 501(19.4%), refractive error 353(13.7%), conjunctivitis 240(9.3%), glaucoma 130(5.1%) and climatic droplet keratopathy 112(4.4%). The overall prevalence of blindness was 26.2% and the prevalence of childhood blindness was 0.7%. The prevalence was higher among females (16.9%) than males (9.3%) and age groups 60 years and above (15.9%) than other age groups (10.3%) (Pcauses of blindness were cataract 112(40.6%), trachomatous corneal opacity 58(21.0%) and glaucoma 49(17.8%). The commonest cause of low vision was cataract 102(37.6%) followed by trachomatous corneal opacity 49(18.1%) and refractive error 35(12.9%). There is a very high burden of blinding eye diseases among refugees. Integrated multidisciplinary intervention strategies for the prevention and control of blindness and low vision in the study settings should be initiated.

  16. Crohn’s Disease Ocular Manifestations

    Koev Kr.


    Full Text Available Crohn’s disease is an inflammatory bowel disease which causes inflammation of the digestive tract. Crohn’s disease most frequently affects the ileum and the colon. In the active stage of the disease signs and symptoms may include diarrhea, abdominal pain and cramping, blood in the stools, reduced appetite and weight loss. In patients with severe Crohn’s disease the following signs and symptoms may be observed: fever, fatigue, arthritis, eye inflammation, oral ulcers, skin disorders, inflammation of the liver or bile ducts or delayed growth. Heredity and dysfunctions of the immune system are considered to cause the development of Crohn’s disease. About 10% of people with inflammatory bowel disease have also ocular problems. The most common ocular manifestations of Crohn’s disease are uveitis, iritis, episcleritis, keratopathy, keratoconjunctivitis and retinal vasculitis. Untreated uveitis may cause glaucoma and vision loss. Uveitis and iritis are four times more common in women than in men. In patients in the active stage of the disease, episcleritis also flares. Symptoms of episcleritis include inflammation, bright red spots on the sclera and localized pain. Keratoconjunctivitis in Crohn’s disease is caused by decreased tear production or increased tear film evaporation. Dry eyes can cause itching, burning or infection. Keratopathy usually causes no pain or vision loss, therefore in most cases no treatment is needed. In retinal vasculitis tortuosity of retinal veins, retinal edema at the posterior pole and intraretinal blood near blood vessels are observed. Intravenous fluorescein angiography shows intraretinal neovascularisation and haemorrhage in the posterior pole.

  17. 49 CFR 595.7 - Requirements for vehicle modifications to accommodate people with disabilities.


    ... accommodate people with disabilities. 595.7 Section 595.7 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) NATIONAL HIGHWAY TRAFFIC SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) MAKE INOPERATIVE EXEMPTIONS Vehicle Modifications To Accommodate People With Disabilities §...

  18. An introduction to the mathematics of ocular kinematics

    Graeme E MacKenzie


    Full Text Available The research surrounding ocular kinematics has widespread applications including the study of binocular vision, virtual reality and the detec-tion of ocular and neurologic pathologies. This field promises to have a significant impact on optometric diagnostic techniques. This paper in-troduces the terminology used in the description of eye rotations and explores a number of the mathematical approaches pertinent to the topic of ocular kinematics.

  19. Kabuki Syndrome: a case report with severe ocular abnormalities

    Flavio Mac Cord Medina


    Full Text Available Kabuki syndrome is a rare congenital anomaly, characterized by five fundamental features, the "Pentad of Niikawa": dysmorphic facies, skeletal anomalies, dermatoglyphic abnormalities, mild to moderate mental retardation and postnatal growth deficiency. Patients present characteristic external ocular features, nonetheless they may also present significant ocular abnormalities. We report a case of a brazilian child diagnosed with Kabuki syndrome, addressing the clinical features observed, with emphasis on the ocular manifestations. This case highlights the existence of this syndrome and all of its complexity. The identification of preventable causes of loss of vision underlines the value of detailed ophthalmologic examination of Kabuki syndrome patients.

  20. Lesions in the ocular posterior segment of raptors.

    Buyukmihci, N C


    Thirty-eight free-living raptors, including various hawks, owls, and an eagle, had lesions of the ocular posterior segment believed to be the result of trauma. Although lesions of the anterior ocular segment and of the rest of the body often were seen, the lesions of the posterior segment of the eye were disproportionately more severe and usually were not suspected by rehabilitation personnel. The tightly encased raptor eye, with its anteriorly placed scleral ossicles, may have rendered the eye more susceptible to contrecoup damage. In the birds that were treated, ocular lesions were resolved and some vision was restored.


    Coroi, Mihaela Cristina; Bungau, Simona; Tit, Mirela


    The use of preservatives in eye drops (eyewashes) has known glory at the beginning, but the side effects that they have on the ocular surface have led to a decrease of their popularity. Lachrymal film dysfunction, ocular hyperemia, dotted keratitis or toxic keratopathy were reported and analyzed in terms of pathophysiological mechanism of the role played by preservatives in ophthalmic drops (eyewashes). This article reviews the most common preservatives and the existing alternatives for the maintenance of the eye sterile drops. Keywords: preservatives, eye drops, ocular surface

  2. Treatment of accommodative dysfunction in children: results from a randomized clinical trial.

    Scheiman, Mitchell; Cotter, Susan; Kulp, Marjean Taylor; Mitchell, G Lynn; Cooper, Jeffrey; Gallaway, Michael; Hopkins, Kristine B; Bartuccio, Mary; Chung, Ida


    To report the effectiveness of various forms of vision therapy/orthoptics in improving accommodative amplitude and facility in children with symptomatic convergence insufficiency (CI) and co-existing accommodative dysfunction. In a randomized clinical trial, 221 children aged 9 to 17 years with symptomatic CI were assigned to one of four treatments. Of the enrolled children, 164 (74%) had accommodative dysfunction; 63 (29%) had a decreased amplitude of accommodation with respect to age, 43 (19%) had decreased accommodative facility, and 58 (26%) had both. Analysis of variance models were used to compare mean accommodative amplitude and accommodative facility for each treatment group after 4, 8, and 12 weeks of treatment. After 12 weeks of treatment, the increases in amplitude of accommodation [office-based vergence/accommodative therapy with home reinforcement group (OBVAT) 9.9 D, home-based computer vergence/accommodative therapy group (HBCVAT+) 6.7 D, and home-based pencil push-up therapy group (HBPP) 5.8 D] were significantly greater than in the office-based placebo therapy (OBPT) group (2.2 D) (p-values ≤0.010). Significant increases in accommodative facility were found in all groups (OBVAT: 9 cpm, HBCVAT+: 7 cpm, HBPP: 5 cpm, OBPT: 5.5 cpm); only the improvement in the OBVAT group was significantly greater than that found in the OBPT group (p = 0.016). One year after completion of therapy, reoccurrence of decreased accommodative amplitude was present in only 12.5% and accommodative facility in only 11%. Vision therapy/orthoptics is effective in improving accommodative amplitude and accommodative facility in school-aged children with symptomatic CI and accommodative dysfunction.

  3. Progressive Fault Accommodation for Time-delay Systems with Parametric Faults

    WU Jun-sheng; WENG Zheng-xin; TIAN Zuo-hua


    The fault accommodation problem for time-delay system is studied in this paper. The progressive accommodation strategy based on the Newton-Raphson scheme is proposed to solve this problem. This accommodation scheme can significantly reduces the loss of performance and risk associated with system instability which results from the time-delay needed by fault accommodation aigorithms to provide a solution. Simulation results are given to illustrate the efficiency of the provided method.

  4. Review of external ocular compression: clinical applications of the ocular pressure estimator

    Korenfeld MS


    Full Text Available Michael S Korenfeld,1,2 David K Dueker3 1Comprehensive Eye Care, Ltd. Washington, MO, USA; 2Washington University Department of Ophthalmology and Visual Sciences, St Louis, MO, USA; 3Ophthalmology, Hamad Medical Corporation, Doha, Qatar Purpose: The authors have previously validated an Ocular Pressure Estimator (OPE that can estimate the intraocular pressure (IOP during external ocular compression (EOC. The authors now apply the OPE in clinical states where EOC is clinically important. The original work is described for two periods of risk: during sleep and during the digital ocular massage (DOM maneuver used by surgeons after trabeculectomy to keep the operation functional. Other periods of risk for external ocular compression are then reviewed.Methods: The first protocol estimated the IOP in the dependent eye during simulated sleep. Subjects had their IOPs initially measured in an upright-seated position, immediately upon assuming a right eye dependent side sleeping position (with nothing contacting the eye, and then 5 minutes later while still in this position. While maintaining this position, the fluid filled bladder of the OPE was then placed between the subject’s closed eye and a pillow during simulated sleep. The IOP was continuously estimated in this position for 5 minutes. The subjects then had the IOP measured in both eyes in an upright-seated position. The second protocol determined if a larger vertical cup-to-disc ratio was more common on the side that patients reported they preferred to sleep on. The hypothesis was that chronic asymmetric, compression induced, elevations of IOP during sleep would be associated with otherwise unexplained asymmetry of the vertical cup-to-disc ratio. The third protocol assessed the IOP during DOM. The OPE was used to characterize the IOP produced during the DOM maneuver of five glaucoma surgeons. After this, 90 mmHg was chosen as a target pressure for DOM. The surgeons were then verbally coached

  5. Symptomatology associated with accommodative and binocular vision anomalies.

    García-Muñoz, Ángel; Carbonell-Bonete, Stela; Cacho-Martínez, Pilar


    To determine the symptoms associated with accommodative and non-strabismic binocular dysfunctions and to assess the methods used to obtain the subjects' symptoms. We conducted a scoping review of articles published between 1988 and 2012 that analysed any aspect of the symptomatology associated with accommodative and non-strabismic binocular dysfunctions. The literature search was performed in Medline (PubMed), CINAHL, PsycINFO and FRANCIS. A total of 657 articles were identified, and 56 met the inclusion criteria. We found 267 different ways of naming the symptoms related to these anomalies, which we grouped into 34 symptom categories. Of the 56 studies, 35 employed questionnaires and 21 obtained the symptoms from clinical histories. We found 11 questionnaires, of which only 3 had been validated: the convergence insufficiency symptom survey (CISS V-15) and CIRS parent version, both specific for convergence insufficiency, and the Conlon survey, developed for visual anomalies in general. The most widely used questionnaire (21 studies) was the CISS V-15. Of the 34 categories of symptoms, the most frequently mentioned were: headache, blurred vision, diplopia, visual fatigue, and movement or flicker of words at near vision, which were fundamentally related to near vision and binocular anomalies. There is a wide disparity of symptoms related to accommodative and binocular dysfunctions in the scientific literature, most of which are associated with near vision and binocular dysfunctions. The only psychometrically validated questionnaires that we found (n=3) were related to convergence insufficiency and to visual dysfunctions in general and there no specific questionnaires for other anomalies. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Espana.


    Nur Mukminatien


    Full Text Available This article aims to discuss issues of World Englishes (WEs and the implications in ELT. It explores the extent to which WEs are taken into account as emerging English varieties different from inner circle varieties, how WEs should be accomodated by English teachers, and which standard to adopt to accommodate learner’s linguistic needs for international communication. It would help ELT practitioners adjust their current practices through the inclusion of varieties of WEs in developing learners’ oral communication. This offers relevant pedagogical movement to argue that changes should be made about the way English is valued and taught.

  7. 41 CFR 301-10.122 - What class of airline accommodations must I use?


    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What class of airline accommodations must I use? 301-10.122 Section 301-10.122 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal Travel... Common Carrier Transportation Airline Accommodations § 301-10.122 What class of airline accommodations...

  8. Predictive Validity of Accommodated LSAT Scores. Technical Report. LSAC Research Report Series.

    Thornton, Andrea E.; Reese, Lynda M.; Pashley, Peter J.; Dalessandro, Susan P.

    This study was undertaken to evaluate the predictive validity of the Law School Admission Test (LSAT) earned under accommodated testing conditions. Of special interest was the validity of scores obtained by test takers who were accommodated under nonstandard time conditions (i.e., accommodations that included extra testing time). Separate…

  9. The Use of Computer Technology in Designing Appropriate Test Accommodations for English Language Learners

    Abedi, Jamal


    Among the several forms of accommodations used in the assessment of English language learners (ELLs), language-based accommodations are the most effective in making assessments linguistically accessible to these students. However, there are significant challenges associated with the implementation of many of these accommodations. This article…

  10. The Use of Computer Technology in Designing Appropriate Test Accommodations for English Language Learners

    Abedi, Jamal


    Among the several forms of accommodations used in the assessment of English language learners (ELLs), language-based accommodations are the most effective in making assessments linguistically accessible to these students. However, there are significant challenges associated with the implementation of many of these accommodations. This article…

  11. 41 CFR 301-10.160 - What classes of train accommodations are available?


    ... business-class. (1) First-class—Includes bedrooms, roomettes, club service, parlor car accommodations or other premium accommodations. (2) Business-class—A class of extra fare train service that is offered... only has two classes of accommodations available, i.e., first and business class, then the...

  12. Barriers to Accommodation Use for Students with Disabilities in Postsecondary Education

    Lyman, Michael James


    Students with disabilities at the postsecondary level face a number of different barriers to accommodation use. Past research has shown that students with disabilities that use accommodations obtain greater academic achievement and higher graduation rates. Limited research has been conducted to identify barriers to accommodation use, and the…

  13. Are high lags of accommodation in myopic children due to motor deficits?

    Labhishetty, Vivek; Bobier, William R


    Children with a progressing myopia exhibit an abnormal pattern of high accommodative lags coupled with high accommodative convergence (AC/A) and high accommodative adaptation. This is not predicted by the current models of accommodation and vergence. Reduced accommodative plant gain and reduced sensitivity to blur have been suggested as potential causes for this abnormal behavior. These etiologies were tested by altering parameters (sensory, controller and plant gains) in the Simulink model of accommodation. Predictions were then compared to the static and dynamic blur accommodation (BA) measures taken using a Badal optical system on 12 children (6 emmetropes and 6 myopes, 8-13years) and 6 adults (20-35years). Other critical parameters such as CA/C, AC/A, and accommodative adaptation were also measured. Usable BA responses were classified as either typical or atypical. Typical accommodation data confirmed the abnormal pattern of myopia along with an unchanged CA/C. Main sequence relationship remained invariant between myopic and nonmyopic children. An overall reduction was noted in the response dynamics such as peak velocity and acceleration with age. Neither a reduced plant gain nor reduced blur sensitivity could predict the abnormal accommodative behavior. A model adjustment reflecting a reduced accommodative sensory gain (ASG) coupled with an increased AC cross-link gain and reduced vergence adaptive gain does predict the empirical findings. Empirical measures also showed a greater frequency of errors in accommodative response generation (atypical responses) in both myopic and control children compared to adults.

  14. Teaching Adolescent Students with Learning Disabilities to Self-Advocate for Accommodations

    Prater, Mary Anne; Redman, Ashleigh Smith; Anderson, Darlene; Gibb, Gordon S.


    In the general education classroom students with learning disabilities (LD) often need academic accommodations to be successful. These accommodations are typically selected and implemented by their general education teachers, not by the students themselves. High school students with LD were taught to recognize when an accommodation was needed,…

  15. 46 CFR 30.10-2 - Accommodation space-TB/ALL.


    ... 46 Shipping 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Accommodation space-TB/ALL. 30.10-2 Section 30.10-2... Accommodation space—TB/ALL. The term accommodation space means any public space such as a hall, dining room... that contains no cooking appliances, and a similar space open to the passengers and crew....

  16. Compound 49b Reduces Inflammatory Markers and Apoptosis after Ocular Blast Injury


    few 12 posterior ocular injuries, using high-resolution optical coherence topography , gross pathology, and optokinetics [9]. In this study of...exposure to ocular blast or in closed- globe ocular injuries. For most ocular trauma studies, work has focused on corneal burns or trauma. However...exposure to ocular blast agree with work from corneal burns or other closed globe models. A recent 17 report from British soldiers in Iraq and

  17. Accommodation: The role of the external muscles of the eye: A consideration of refractive errors in relation to extraocular malfunction.

    Hargrave, B K


    Speculation as to optical malfunction has led to dissatisfaction with the theory that the lens is the sole agent in accommodation and to the suggestion that other parts of the eye are also conjointly involved. Around half-a-century ago, Robert Brooks Simpkins suggested that the mechanical features of the human eye were precisely such as to allow for a lengthening of the globe when the eye accommodated. Simpkins was not an optical man but his theory is both imaginative and comprehensive and deserves consideration. It is submitted here that accommodation is in fact a twofold process, and that although involving the lens, is achieved primarily by means of a give - and - take interplay between adducting and abducting external muscles, whereby an elongation of the eyeball is brought about by a stretching of the delicate elastic fibres immediately behind the cornea. The three muscles responsible for convergence (superior, internal and inferior recti) all pull from in front backwards, while of the three abductors (external rectus and the two obliques) the obliques pull from behind forwards, allowing for an easy elongation as the eye turns inwards and a return to its original length as the abducting muscles regain their former tension, returning the eye to distance vision. In refractive errors, the altered length of the eyeball disturbs the harmonious give - and - take relationship between adductors and abductors. Such stresses are likely to be perpetuated and the error exacerbated. Speculation is not directed towards a search for a possible cause of the muscular imbalance, since none is suspected. Muscles not used rapidly lose tone, as evidenced after removal of a limb from plaster. Early attention to the need for restorative exercise is essential and results usually impressive. If flexibility of the external muscles of the eyes is essential for continuing good sight, presbyopia can be avoided and with it the supposed necessity of glasses in middle life. Early attention

  18. Glaucoma drainage implant surgery and ocular surface transplant graft preservation.

    Aref, Ahmad A; Sivaraman, Kavitha R; Djalilian, Ali R


    Glaucoma may develop or worsen after ocular surface transplantation and often requires surgical management for adequate intraocular pressure control. Traditional glaucoma filtering procedures in patients with prior ocular surface transplant may be problematic for several reasons, which include mechanical disruption of the pre-existing graft, epithelial and stem cell toxicity induced by antifibrotic agents, and increased risk of future corneal transplantation failure. We describe the implantation of a glaucoma drainage implant via a limbal-based conjunctival incision with tube placement in the ciliary sulcus in three eyes of two patients with prior ocular surface transplantation. At a follow-up interval of 3-7 months, all three eyes have excellent postoperative control of intraocular pressure, stable vision, and healthy ocular surface grafts.

  19. Intra-bleb hematoma and hyphema following digital ocular compression

    Sagar Bhargava


    Full Text Available We report successful outcome of a huge post- trabeculectomy intra-bleb hematoma and hyphema that occurred following digital ocular compression. The patient was a 64-year-old lady suffering from bilateral primary angle closure glaucoma and cataract. She was on anti-platelet therapy. She underwent single-site phacoemulsification, intra-ocular lens implantation and trabeculectomy with mitomycin C in the right eye. The trabeculectomy was under-filtering. She was asked to perform digital ocular compression thrice daily. On 15 th post-operative day, she presented with a huge intra-bleb hematoma and hyphema. The hematoma did not respond to conservative measures and was drained to prevent bleb failure. We recommend caution in the consideration of digital ocular compression in patients on prophylactic anti-coagulation.

  20. Treatment of onchocerciasis. The ocular effects of ivermectin and diethylcarbamazine.

    Taylor, H R; Murphy, R P; Newland, H S; White, A T; D'Anna, S A; Keyvan-Larijani, E; Aziz, M A; Cupp, E W; Greene, B M


    The ocular changes that occur with diethylcarbamazine treatment of onchocerciasis seriously restrict its usefulness. Ivermectin, a newly developed antifilarial drug, was compared with diethylcarbamazine for treatment of onchocerciasis in a double-masked, placebo-controlled trial. Thirty men with moderate to severe infection and ocular involvement were randomly assigned to receive ivermectin as a single oral dose (200 micrograms/kg), diethylcarbamazine (administered for eight days), or placebo. Detailed ocular examinations were performed serially over a 12-month period. Diethylcarbamazine treatment caused a marked increase in living and dead microfilariae in the cornea, punctate opacities, and limbitis during the first week of therapy. Ivermectin had no such effect. However, ivermectin therapy resulted in a long-term reduction in intraocular microfilariae comparable to that seen with diethylcarbamazine. Ivermectin appears to have few ocular complications and be a better-tolerated and more effective microfilaricidal agent than diethylcarbamazine for the treatment of onchocerciasis.

  1. The effects of lateral head tilt on ocular astigmatic axis

    Hamid Fesharaki


    Conclusion: Any minimal angle of head tilt may cause erroneous measurement of astigmatic axis and should be avoided during refraction. One cannot rely on the compensatory function of ocular counter-torsion during the refraction.

  2. Ocular Injuries: Another Example of the Heavy Prize of Terrorism


    Dec 13, 2016 ... A 25‑year‑old air force personnel (lance corporal) presented to our accident and emergency ... Ocular Injuries: Another Example of the Heavy Prize of. Terrorism ..... Singapore: World Scientific Publishing Co. Pte. Ltd.; 2011. p.

  3. An unusual case of late ocular changes after lightning injury.

    Datta Himadri


    Full Text Available We describe a case of late ocular changes after lightning injury. One year after the injury, complete ankyloblepharon, severe dry eye, corneal opacity, healed iritis and mature cataracts were noted in both eyes of the patient.

  4. Progressive hemifacial atrophy with ciliary body atrophy and ocular hypotony

    T Ashwini Kini


    Full Text Available Progressive hemifacial atrophy (PHA is a disease of unknown etiology affecting one-half of the face. Ocular involvement is uncommon. Atrophy of iris is rare, with only a few cases of partial atrophy being reported in the literature. We report a case of total atrophy of iris and ciliary body with associated ocular hypotony in a 16-year-old girl with PHA. We believe this is the first reported case of complete atrophy of iris and ciliary body in PHA. Ocular hypotony in PHA was thought to be due to intra-ocular inflammation. However in our case it appears to be secondary to severe atrophy of the ciliary body.

  5. Ocular manifestations and outcome of treatment of Stevens-Johnson ...

    Abstract. Background: Stevens-Johnson Syndrome (SJS) is an immune-based ... and cicatrisation occur, resulting in degrees of ocular motility, tear-function, and visual defects. ... Full blood count, urinalysis and HIV tests were all normal.

  6. Amniotic membrane transplantation: An option for ocular surface disorders

    Shreya Thatte


    Conclusion : AMT in various ocular surface pathologies shows success in achieving the goal of symptomatic relief, improved epithelialization, stromal healing and vision. Reduction in inflammation, corneal haze and recurrence of original disease is achieved with minimum complications.

  7. Formulation and evaluation of Cyclosporin A emulgel for ocular delivery.

    Shen, Yan; Ling, Xiang; Jiang, Weiwei; Du, Shuang; Lu, Yang; Tu, Jiasheng


    Emulgels have been extensively covered as a promising drug delivery system for the administration of lipophilic drugs. This work was conducted to develop an emulgel formulation for Cyclosporin A (CsA) employing polycarbophil as the gelling agent for ocular delivery. The prepared emulgels were evaluated for their physical appearance, rheological behavior, drug release, stability, precorneal clearance and irritation. Results showed that CsA emulgel formulations prepared with polycarbophil exhibited acceptable physical properties and drug release, which remained consistent after storage for 3 months. A prolonged retention time was also observed on the ocular surface with improved ocular bioavailability and no irritation. Therefore, the polycarbophil-based emulgel could be exploited as a potential hydrophobic drug carrier for topical ocular drug delivery.

  8. Airbag Related Ocular Injuries: A Short Case Series

    Airbags are designed to protect occupants of motor vehicles from injuries in the event of a crash but have been implicated in some serious .... risk of severe ocular injury,[23] and posterior segment trauma. ... safety devices installed in vehicles.

  9. Comparing family accommodation in pediatric obsessive-compulsive disorder, anxiety disorders, and nonanxious children.

    Lebowitz, Eli R; Scharfstein, Lindsay A; Jones, Johnna


    Family accommodation describes ways in which parents modify their behavior to help a child avoid or alleviate distress caused by emotional disorders. Accommodation is associated with increased symptom severity, lower functioning, and poorer treatment outcomes. Accommodation is prevalent in childhood obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) and anxiety disorders (ADs) but no studies have compared accommodation in these groups or compared them to healthy controls to ascertain if accommodation is prevalent in the general population. This study addresses these gaps by comparing patterns of accommodation, factors that maintain accommodation, and its relation to symptom severity in OCD and AD, relative to healthy controls. We directly compared reports of accommodation to childhood OCD (N = 26) and AD (N = 31), and a comparison group of nonanxious (NA) children (N = 30). Mothers completed measures of accommodation (Family Accommodation Scale (FAS)/Family Accommodation Scale-Anxiety (FASA)), anxiety (Screen for Childhood Anxiety Related Emotional Disorders-Parent Report (SCARED-PR)), and OCD (Children's Yale-Brown Obsessive Compulsive Scale (CYBOCS)). Family accommodation is prevalent among mothers of children with OCD and AD. Few differences were found between the two clinical groups who reported more accommodation (F[2,84] = 23.411, P anxiety in AD (r = .426, P = .017) and OCD (r = .465, P = .017), but not in the NA group. Findings highlight family accommodation as a phenomenon that applies broadly and in a similar manner to children with AD and OCD. Evaluating accommodation provides useful information for clinical care and is an important part of the assessment of children with AD and OCD. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. Advanced drug delivery and targeting technologies for the ocular diseases

    Barar, Jaleh; AGHANEJAD, Ayuob; Fathi, Marziyeh; Omidi, Yadollah


    Introduction: Ocular targeted therapy has enormously been advanced by implementation of new methods of drug delivery and targeting using implantable drug delivery systems (DDSs) or devices (DDDs), stimuli-responsive advanced biomaterials, multimodal nanomedicines, cell therapy modalities and medical bioMEMs. These technologies tackle several ocular diseases such as inflammation-based diseases (e.g., scleritis, keratitis, uveitis, iritis, conjunctivitis, chorioretinitis, choroiditis, retinitis...


    Venkata Madusudanarao Kanukollu


    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Ocular trauma is a major cause of preventable ocular blindness in the world. The present available data represents the tip of iceberg. The data pertaining to ocular trauma is just hospital based data which does not accurately represent the population at risk. The ocular morbidity may be disproportionate to the severity of injury. Though eyes represent only 0.21% of body surface area and 4% of facial area, they are the third most common trauma exposed areas after hands and feet. MATERIALS AND METHODS Our study group consisted of 341 patients who attended ophthalmology OPD with history of ocular trauma of whom 221 were males and 121 were females. The study was conducted over a period of one year. A complete anterior and posterior segment evaluation of all the patients was done. Other accessory ocular and systemic investigations wherever essential were done. RESULTS The ocular trauma was more common in males (64.52% predominantly affecting patients of 20-40 years age group (36.07%. Most often the injuries were occupation related (73.90% and the most common work related injury observed was extraocular foreign body in 134 patients (39.29%. Closed globe injuries were more common as compared to open globe injuries. Eyes with better visual acuity at presentation had better visual prognosis. Blinding trauma was observed in 29 patients (8.50%. CONCLUSION Ocular injuries are more commonly occupation related and mostly effect young males who are the main work force of our society. Stringent implementation of preventive norms in industries to all the workers and safety precautions during sports, driving need to be enforced.

  12. Smart, Injury-Triggered Therapy for Ocular Trauma


    vitreoretinopathy (PVR), a form of intraocular fibrosis, is often the primary reason for the loss of vision after ocular trauma, and frequently occurs after blunt...metalloproteinase activity by shedding/releasing tagged- ectodomains in the vicinity of affected cells after traumatic eye injury and induction of PVR. We...primary reason for the loss of vision after ocular trauma, and frequently occurs after blunt trauma and open globe injuries caused by penetration

  13. Hybrid nonlinear model of the angular vestibulo-ocular reflex.

    Ranjbaran, Mina; Galiana, Henrietta L


    A hybrid nonlinear bilateral model for the horizontal angular vestibulo-ocular reflex (AVOR) is presented in this paper. The model relies on known interconnections between saccadic burst circuits in the brainstem and ocular premotor areas in the vestibular nuclei during slow and fast phase intervals. A viable switching strategy for the timing of nystagmus events is proposed. Simulations show that this hybrid model replicates AVOR nystagmus patterns that are observed in experimentally recorded data.

  14. Evidence for neural accommodation to a writing system following learning.

    Liu, Ying; Dunlap, Susan; Fiez, Julie; Perfetti, Charles


    Native English speakers with no knowledge of Chinese were trained on 60 Chinese characters according to one of three mapping conditions: orthography to pronunciation and meaning (P + M), orthography to pronunciation (P), and orthography to meaning (M). Following the training, fMRI scans taken during passive viewing of Chinese characters showed activation in brain regions that partially overlap the regions found in studies of skilled Chinese readers, but typically not found in alphabetic readers. Areas include bilateral middle frontal (BA 9), right occipital (BA 18/19), and fusiform (BA 37) regions. The activation pattern of Chinese characters was similar across the three groups. However, peak location was different in the left middle frontal region between groups. Direct contrasts between the groups also revealed stronger activation of left middle frontal in the P + M group. The results suggest that learners acquired skill in reading Chinese characters using a brain network similar to that used by Chinese native speakers. The results are consistent with the system accommodation hypothesis: The brain's reading network accommodates to features of an acquired writing system. Copyright 2007 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  15. Science Language Accommodation in Elementary School Read-Alouds

    Glass, Rory; Oliveira, Alandeom W.


    This study examines the pedagogical functions of accommodation (i.e. provision of simplified science speech) in science read-aloud sessions facilitated by five elementary teachers. We conceive of read-alouds as communicative events wherein teachers, faced with the task of orally delivering a science text of relatively high linguistic complexity, open up an alternate channel of communication, namely oral discussion. By doing so, teachers grant students access to a simplified linguistic input, a strategy designed to promote student comprehension of the textual contents of children's science books. It was found that nearly half (46%) of the read-aloud time was allotted to discussions with an increased percentage of less sophisticated words and reduced use of more sophisticated vocabulary than found in the books through communicative strategies such as simplified rewording, simplified definition, and simplified questioning. Further, aloud reading of more linguistically complex books required longer periods of discussion and an increased degree of teacher oral input and accommodation. We also found evidence of reversed simplification (i.e. sophistication), leading to student uptake of scientific language. The main significance of this study is that it reveals that teacher talk serves two often competing pedagogical functions (accessible communication of scientific information to students and promotion of student acquisition of the specialized language of science). It also underscores the importance of giving analytical consideration to the simplification-sophistication dimension of science classroom discourse as well as the potential of computer-based analysis of classroom discourse to inform science teaching.

  16. Accommodation coefficient of HOBr on deliquescent sodium bromide aerosol particles

    M. Wachsmuth


    Full Text Available Uptake of HOBr on sea salt aerosol, sea salt brine or ice is believed to be a key process providing a source of photolabile bromine (Br2 and sustaining ozone depletion cycles in the Arctic troposphere. In the present study, uptake of HOBr on sodium bromide (NaBr aerosol particles was investigated at an extremely low HOBr concentration of 300 cm-3 using the short-lived radioactive isotopes 83-86Br. Under these conditions, at maximum one HOBr molecule was taken up per particle. The rate of uptake was clearly limited by the mass accommodation coefficient, which was calculated to be 0.6 ± 0.2. This value is a factor of 10 larger than estimates used in earlier models. The atmospheric implications are discussed using the box model "MOCCA'', showing that the increase of the accommodation coefficient of HOBr by a factor of 10 only slightly affects net ozone loss, but significantly increases chlorine release.

  17. Can mergers-in-progress be unmerged in speech accommodation?

    Molly eBabel


    Full Text Available This study examines spontaneous phonetic accommodation of a dialect with distinct categories by speakers who are in the process of merging those categories. We focus on the merger of the NEAR and SQUARE lexical sets in New Zealand English, presenting New Zealand participants with an unmerged speaker of Australian English. Mergers-in-progress are a uniquely interesting sound change as they showcase the asymmetry between speech perception and production. Yet, we examine mergers using spontaneous phonetic imitation, which is phenomenon that is necessarily a behavior where perceptual input influences speech production. Phonetic imitation is quantified by a perceptual measure and an acoustic calculation of mergedness using a Pillai-Bartlett trace. The results from both analyses indicate spontaneous phonetic imitation is moderated by extra-linguistic factors such as the valence of assigned conditions and social bias. We also find evidence for a decrease in the degree of mergedness in post-exposure productions. Taken together, our results suggest that under the appropriate conditions New Zealanders phonetically accommodate to Australian English and that in the process of speech imitation, mergers-in-progress can, but do not consistently, become less merged.

  18. Validation of a nonrigid registration framework that accommodates tissue resection

    Risholm, Petter; Samset, Eigil; Wells, William, III


    We present a 3D extension and validation of an intra-operative registration framework that accommodates tissue resection. The framework is based on the bijective Demons method, but instead of regularizing with the traditional Gaussian smoother, we apply an anisotropic diffusion filter with the resection modeled as a diffusion sink. The diffusion sink prevents unwanted Demon forces that originates from the resected area from diffusing into the surrounding area. Another attractive property of the diffusion sink is the resulting continuous deformation field across the diffusion sink boundary, which allows us to move the boundary of the diffusion sink without changing values in the deformation field. The area of resection is estimated by a level-set method evolving in the space of image intensity disagreements in the intra-operative image domain. A product of using the bijective Demons method is that we can also provide an accurate estimate of the resected tissue in the preoperative image space. Validation of the proposed method was performed on a set of 25 synthetic images. Our experiments show a significant improvement in accommodating resection using the proposed method compared to two other Demons based methods.

  19. H2S, a novel gasotransmitter, involves in gastric accommodation.

    Xiao, Ailin; Wang, Hongjuan; Lu, Xin; Zhu, Jianchun; Huang, Di; Xu, Tonghui; Guo, Jianqiang; Liu, Chuanyong; Li, Jingxin


    H2S is produced mainly by two enzymes:cystathionine-β-synthase (CBS) and cystathionine-γ-lyase (CSE), using L-cysteine (L-Cys) as the substrate. In this study, we investigated the role of H2S in gastric accommodation using CBS(+/-) mice, immunohistochemistry, immunoblot, methylene blue assay, intragastric pressure (IGP) recording and electrical field stimulation (EFS). Mouse gastric fundus expressed H2S-generating enzymes (CBS and CSE) and generated detectable amounts of H2S. The H2S donor, NaHS or L-Cys, caused a relaxation in either gastric fundus or body. The gastric compliance was significantly increased in the presence of L-Cys (1 mM). On the contrary, AOAA, an inhibitor for CBS, largely inhibited gastric compliance. Consistently, CBS(+/-) mice shows a lower gastric compliance. However, PAG, a CSE inhibitor, had no effect on gastric compliances. L-Cys enhances the non-adrenergic, non-cholinergic (NANC) relaxation of fundus strips, but AOAA reduces the magnitude of relaxations to EFS. Notably, the expression level of CBS but not CSE protein was elevated after feeding. Consistently, the production of H2S was also increased after feeding in mice gastric fundus. In addition, AOAA largely reduced food intake and body weight in mice. Furthermore, a metabolic aberration of H2S was found in patients with functional dyspepsia (FD). In conclusion, endogenous H2S, a novel gasotransmitter, involves in gastric accommodation.

  20. The Effects of Branding on Purchasing Preferences of Tourists at Accommodation Enterprises: An Implementation at Chain Accommodation Enterprises in Antalya

    Banu Yıldız


    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to determine the effect of branding on the purchasing preferences of tourists at accommodation enterprises. Towards this end questionnaire technique was used and 398 questionnaires were considered to be evaluated. The data, gathered, analyzed by using statistical methods. As a result it is revealed that branding (brad awareness, perceived quality, brand image, brand trust, brand attitude and brand loyalty parameters has a positive effect on purchasing preferences of tourists and a negative effect on the volume of perceived risk. Factors contributing to more on purchasing preferences of tourists, respectively, brand attitude, brand loyalty and brand awareness.