Sample records for accommodation improves visual

  1. Uniformity of accommodation across the visual field. (United States)

    Liu, Tao; Sreenivasan, Vidhyapriya; Thibos, Larry N


    We asked the question: Does accommodation change the eye's focusing power equally over the central visual field in emmetropic and myopic adult eyes? To answer this question we modified our laboratory scanning wavefront aberrometer to rapidly measure ocular refractive state over the central 30° diameter of visual field as a function of foveal accommodative demand. On average, ocular refractive state changed uniformly over the central visual field as the eye accommodated up to 6 D. Visual field maps of accommodative error (relative to a spherical target surface of constant vergence) reveal subtle patterns of deviation on the order of ± 0.5 D that are unique to the individual and relatively invariant to changes in accommodative state. Population mean maps for accommodative error are remarkably uniform across the central visual field, indicating the retina of the hypothetical "average eye" is conjugate to a sphere of constant target vergence for all states of accommodation, even though individual eyes might deviate from the mean due to random variations. No systematic difference between emmetropic and myopic eyes was evident. Since accuracy of accommodation across the central visual field is similar to that measured in the fovea, loss of image quality due to accommodative errors, which potentially drives myopia and may affect many aspects of visual function, will be similar across the central retina.

  2. Visual Accommodation, the Mandelbaum Effect, and Apparent Size. (United States)


    monkeys were awakened, accommodation immediately went to a far distance, followed by accurate accommodation to the - ambient stimuli. Similarly... ambient stimulation is present. Morgan (1957) proposes - two possible conditions in which visual stimuli are reduced to the minimum--in complete darkness...oj Physiology, 1941, 12, 720-733. Otero, J. M. and Duran, Continuacion del estudio de la miopia nocturna. Anales de i y Quimica , 1942, 38, 236-248

  3. The Effect of Visual-Chunking-Representation Accommodation on Geometry Testing for Students with Math Disabilities (United States)

    Zhang, Dake; Ding, Yi; Stegall, Joanna; Mo, Lei


    Students who struggle with learning mathematics often have difficulties with geometry problem solving, which requires strong visual imagery skills. These difficulties have been correlated with deficiencies in visual working memory. Cognitive psychology has shown that chunking of visual items accommodates students' working memory deficits. This…

  4. Visual discomfort and the temporal properties of the vergence-accommodation conflict (United States)

    Kim, Joohwan; Kane, David; Banks, Martin S.


    The vergence-accommodation conflict associated with viewing stereoscopic 3D (S3D) content can cause visual discomfort. Previous studies of vergence and accommodation have shown that the coupling between the two responses is driven by a fast, phasic component. We investigated how the temporal properties of vergence-accommodation conflicts affect discomfort. Using a unique volumetric display, we manipulated the stimulus to vergence and the stimulus to accommodation independently. There were two experimental conditions: 1) natural viewing in which the stimulus to vergence was perfectly correlated with the stimulus to accommodation; and 2) conflict viewing in which the stimulus to vergence varied while the stimulus to accommodation remained constant (thereby mimicking S3D viewing). The stimulus to vergence (and accommodation in natural viewing) varied at one of three temporal frequencies in those conditions. The magnitude of the conflict was the same for all three frequencies. The young adult subjects reported more visual discomfort when vergence changes were faster, particularly in the conflict condition. Thus, the temporal properties of the vergence-accommodation conflict in S3D media affect visual discomfort. The results can help content creators minimize discomfort by making conflict changes sufficiently slow.

  5. Teaching Biology to the Visually Impaired: Accommodating Students' Special Needs. (United States)

    Womble, Mark D.; Walker, Gary R.


    Describes how to teach a visually-oriented biology lecture and laboratory course to blind students. Using several techniques in the laboratory enabled a student to have a meaningful laboratory experience. (SAH)

  6. Assessing the accommodation response after near visual tasks using different handheld electronic devices

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    Aikaterini I. Moulakaki

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Purpose: To assess the accommodation response after short reading periods using a tablet and a smartphone as well as determine potential differences in the accommodation response at various stimulus vergences using a Hartmann- Shack aberrometer. Methods: Eighteen healthy subjects with astigmatism of less than 1 D, corrected visual acuity of 20/20 or better, and normal findings in an ophthalmic examination were enrolled. Accommodation responses were obtained under three different conditions: accommodation system of the eye relaxed and visually stressed with a tablet and an smartphone for 10 min, at a distance of 0.25 m from the subject's eyes. Three measurements of accommodation response were monocularly acquired at stimulus vergences ranging from 0 to 4 D (1-D step. Results: No statistically significant differences were found in the accommodation responses among the conditions. A moderate but gradually increasing root mean square, coma-like aberration was found for every condition. Conversely, the spherical aberration decreased as stimulus vergences increased. These outcomes were identified in comparison to the one-to-one ideal accommodation response, implying that a certain lag value was present in all stimulus vergences different from 0 D. Conclusions: The results support the hypothesis that the difference between the ideal and real accommodation responses is mainly attributed to parameters associated with the accommodation process, such as the near visual acuity, depth of focus, pupil diameter, and wavefront aberrations. The wavefront aberrations were dependent on the 3-mm pupil size selected in this study. The accommoda tion response was not dependent on the electronic device employed in each condition, and it was mainly associated with young age and level of amplitude of accommodation of the subjects.

  7. Performance Measurement and Accommodation: Students with Visual Impairments on Pennsylvania's Alternate Assessment (United States)

    Zebehazy, Kim T.; Zigmond, Naomi; Zimmerman, George J.


    Introduction: This study investigated the use of accommodations and the performance of students with visual impairments and severe cognitive disabilities on the Pennsylvania Alternate System of Assessment (PASA)yCoan alternate performance-based assessment. Methods: Differences in test scores on the most basic level (level A) of the PASA of 286…

  8. Quasi-Monochromatic Visual Environments and the Resting Point of Accommodation (United States)


    29 3 Schematic overview of the laser-Badal optometer ......... 31 4 Justification of the working formula for determining...accommodation using the laser-Badal optometer ........... 32 5 Graphic representation of mean diopter values achieved for red, green and white conditions in...stimulated visual environments. Investigations following the advent of the laser optometer have pursued this concern and convincingly argued against the long

  9. The Dark Focus of Visual Accommodation: Its Existence, Its Measurement, Its Effects (United States)


    Polarized vernier, Behavioral research, Vision, C) Optometer , Polarized light, Accommodation, Dark focus 3 ,J 20, ABSTRACT (Continue on ret-erge side If...quantification and its effects on visual performance. In Experiment I, a new optometer -- the J1 polarized vernier optometer -- is described and compared...experimentally to the better-known laser optometer . The former compared favorably to IDD I JAN 1473 EDTION OF I NOV 1S OBSOLETE Unclassified I JO E

  10. Characterization of Visual Symptomatology Associated with Refractive, Accommodative, and Binocular Anomalies

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    Pilar Cacho-Martínez


    Full Text Available Purpose. To characterize the symptomatology of refractive, accommodative, and nonstrabismic binocular dysfunctions and to assess the association between dysfunctions and symptoms. Methods. 175 randomised university students were examined. Subjects were given a subjective visual examination with accommodative and binocular tests, evaluating their symptomatology. Accommodative and binocular dysfunctions (AD, BD were diagnosed according to the number of existing clinical signs: suspect AD or BD (one fundamental clinical sign, high suspect (one fundamental + 1 complementary clinical sign, and definite (one fundamental + 2 or more complementary clinical signs. A logistic regression was conducted in order to determine whether there was an association between dysfunctions and symptoms. Results. 78 subjects (44.6% reported any kind of symptoms which were grouped into 18 categories, with “visual fatigue” being the most frequent (20% of the overall complaints. Logistic regression adjusted by the presence of an uncorrected refractive error showed no association between any grade of AD and symptoms. Subjects with BD had more likelihood of having symptoms than without dysfunction group (OR = 3.35, being greater when only definite BD were considered (OR = 8.79. Conclusions. An uncorrected refractive error is a confusion factor when considering AD symptomatology. For BD, the more the number of clinical signs used the greater the likelihood suffering symptoms.

  11. Visual acuity, amplitude of accommodation and near point of convergence and academic achievement in primary school learners in Bloemfontein

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    Mariette Nel


    Full Text Available Introduction: Learning problems influencing the social and psychological development of children may result from poor visual acuity (VA, insufficient amplitude of accommodation and receded near point of convergence (NPC. This study assessed Grade 4 and 5 academic achievement (< 50%, 51-69% and ≥ 70% in relation to visual acuity, amplitude of accommodation and NPC. The study attempts to determine the association between these visual functions and academic performance. Methods: A cross-sectional study included a randomised sample of learners (n = 199 selected from five public schools in Bloemfontein. Information was obtained on each participant regarding history, visual acuity (distance and near, amplitude of accommodation and NPC (subjective and objective. Participant aggregates for the most recent school term and the grade average were compared to measures of these visual functions.Results: The children’s median age was 10.3 years (with range 8.7 to 12.7 years and 53.8% were female. More than 50% of children were Sesotho-speaking. Complaints revealed by his-tory-taking were mostly headaches (57.8% and eyestrain (58.3%. Regarding academic achievement, 18.6% of the learners were below average, 53.8% on average and 27.6% above average. Of the learners tested, 42.2% achieved a VA of 6/6 or better on both distance and near visual acuity. Amplitude of accommodation was less than the minimum requirements in 17.6% of participants. Approximately 30% of those below grade average did not meet the minimum requirements for amplitude of accommodation, compared to 13% of learners above grade average, which was statistically significant. More than 70% had a receded break point (> 5 cm for NPC and 85.7% had a receded recovery point (> 7 cm.Conclusion: Of the three visual functions evaluated in this study, the only visual function associated with academic achievement was amplitude of accommodation. It would thus be recommended that learners are screened for

  12. The rate of change of vergence-accommodation conflict affects visual discomfort. (United States)

    Kim, Joohwan; Kane, David; Banks, Martin S


    Stereoscopic (S3D) displays create conflicts between the distance to which the eyes must converge and the distance to which the eyes must accommodate. Such conflicts require the viewer to overcome the normal coupling between vergence and accommodation, and this effort appears to cause viewer discomfort. Vergence-accommodation coupling is driven by the phasic components of the underlying control systems, and those components respond to relatively fast changes in vergence and accommodative stimuli. Given the relationship between phasic changes and vergence-accommodation coupling, we examined how the rate of change in the vergence-accommodation conflict affects viewer discomfort. We used a stereoscopic display that allows independent manipulation of the stimuli to vergence and accommodation. We presented stimuli that simulate natural viewing (i.e., vergence and accommodative stimuli changed together) and stimuli that simulate S3D viewing (i.e., vergence stimulus changes but accommodative stimulus remains fixed). The changes occurred at 0.01, 0.05, or 0.25 Hz. The lowest rate is too slow to stimulate the phasic components while the highest rate is well within the phasic range. The results were consistent with our expectation: somewhat greater discomfort was experienced when stimulus distance changed rapidly, particularly in S3D viewing when the vergence stimulus changed but the accommodative stimulus did not. These results may help in the generation of guidelines for the creation and viewing of stereo content with acceptable viewer comfort.

  13. Effect of elimination of nitrogen and/or hypoxia or restricted visual environment on color vision and range of accommodation (United States)

    Wolbarsht, M. L.; White, C. W.; Anderson, W. B., Jr.


    The effects upon range of accommodation and color vision of reduced atmospheric pressure, at partial and complete elimination of nitrogen, of hypoxia, and of exposure for varying periods of time to restricted visual environment, have been studied alone or in various combinations. Measurements were made on the electroretinogram, the electrooculogram, and the diameter of the retinal vessels as an indicator of blood flow to the retina at the time of total elimination of nitrogen. An objective method was used to test range of accommodation. In the color vision test the flicker colors of a Benham's top were matched with a colorimeter.

  14. Anthropometric accommodation in USAF cockpits (United States)

    Zehner, Gregory F.


    Over the past three years, a new set of methodologies has been developed to specify and evaluate anthropometric accommodation in USAF crewstation designs. These techniques are used to improve the ability of the pilot to reach controls, to safely escape the aircraft, to achieve adequate mobility and comfort, and to assure full access to the visual field both inside and outside the aircraft. This paper summarized commonly encountered aircraft accommodation problems, explains the failure of the traditional 'percentile man' design concept to resolve these difficulties, and suggests an alternative approach for improving cockpit design to better accommodate today's more heterogeneous flying population.

  15. Developing Testing Accommodations for English Language Learners: Illustrations as Visual Supports for Item Accessibility (United States)

    Solano-Flores, Guillermo; Wang, Chao; Kachchaf, Rachel; Soltero-Gonzalez, Lucinda; Nguyen-Le, Khanh


    We address valid testing for English language learners (ELLs)--students in the United States who are schooled in English while they are still acquiring English as a second language. Also, we address the need for procedures for systematically developing ELL testing accommodations--changes in tests intended to support ELLs to gain access to the…

  16. The role of interactions between accommodation and vergence in human visual development (United States)

    Teel, Danielle F. W.

    Even in early infancy accommodation and vergence interact through neural coupling such that accommodation drives vergence (AC/A ratio) and vergence drives accommodation (CA/C ratio), to assist coordination and development of clear and single binocular vision. Infants have narrow inter-pupillary distances (IPD) requiring less vergence in angular units (degrees or prism diopters), and are typically hyperopic, requiring larger accommodative responses (diopters) than adults. The relative demands also change with emmetropization (decreasing hyperopia) and head growth (increasing IPD) over time. Therefore, adult-like couplings may not be optimal during development and the couplings may play a role in abnormality such as esotropia. A range of cues can drive accommodation and vergence. In addition to blur and disparity, proximity in the form of looming, size and perceived distance has been shown to influence the interactions between accommodation and vergence in adults. The role of this cue in measures of coupling is also poorly understood and may impact key clinical AC/A estimates in young children. Utilizing principles of eccentric photorefraction and Purkinje image eye tracking, this research examines the AC/A and CA/C ratios in infants, preschoolers and adults as a function of age, refractive error and interpupillary distance, plus the role proximity, specifically looming and size cues, plays in estimating the AC/A ratio in three year olds and adults. The AC/A (PD/D) was significantly higher in adults than three-year-olds or infants but similar across age groups in MA/D units. The CA/C was higher in infants than adults or three-year-olds (D/MA and D/PD). Although, not fully reciprocally related, a significant negative relationship was found between the response AC/A and CA/C. Similarly, higher AC/As (PD/D) and lower CA/Cs (D/PD) were associated with larger IPDs and less hyperopia. Although, not statistically significant the absence of proximity resulted in a trend

  17. A comparison of graphic and visual test accommodations in measuring urban fifth-grade English language learners' science content acquisition (United States)

    Shanahan, Therese Boulanger

    This randomized control-group posttest only experimental study investigated the effects of several kinds of test accommodations in measuring English Language Learners' (EL) science content acquisition. These accommodations included embedding contextual clues such as visuals and graphic organizers (i.e., graphs, charts, or tables) in a 20-question multiple choice life science test for 86 urban Fifth-grader English Language Learners. Each of the three randomly distributed parallel test forms contained the same text but each differed in their use of pictures and charts. The results demonstrated that there was no significant difference between the percentages of correct responses for the traditional, visual, and graphic organizer test items when English Learners and Native English Speakers were compared. However, there was a significant but moderate positive correlation between the percentages of visual responses and those of graphic organizers for these students. There was a significant but moderate correlation between the ability to read in another language and the percentage of correct visual responses and the ability to read in another language and the percentage of correct graphic organizer responses. The students' language proficiency level was significantly correlated to the total number of their correct responses as well as to their percentage of correct visual responses. Most students received science instruction in English. There was a significant correlation between the amount of time teachers spent teaching content related to that found on the examination and the percentage of total correct responses by their students regardless of the test accommodation. The results suggest that assessment designers include more questions with visuals to provide context. The results also imply that elementary teachers should incorporate visuals and graphic organizers in their instruction and their own classroom assessments. In addition, because students with higher

  18. The Influence of Subject Expectation on Visual Accommodation in the Dark, (United States)


    principle optometer was developed at the Naval Aerospace Medical Research Laboratory for self-evaluation of accommodative state, and to correct any deficits. This "pocket optometer "is hand held, light weight, and economical. It was designed to provide a cognitive feedback...because of possible bias in any resulting data. For this reason, a separate, vernier-type, optometer was also developed that provides no such feedback

  19. Improving reading with visual processing training


    Cvet, Mateja


    An apropriatly developed visual perception is an important element of success in reading. Visual dyslexia in children is connected with significant deficits in visual processing skills, and therefore has a strong impact on the reading ability as well as on the process of learning to read. Several studies have shown that regular training of visual skills can improve one’s reading ability and visual processing performance (Vidyasagar in Pammer, 2009) The purpose of this research project was...

  20. The Improvement of the Accommodation Offer in Vojvodina (Serbia as a Factor of its Competitiveness on the Market

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    Svetlana Vukosav


    Full Text Available The accommodation offer, particularly hotel industry in Vojvodina is experiencing significant changes today both in quality and in quantity compared to the period 10 years ago. These positive changes and the improvement of the receptive base are a direct consequence of the transition process, ownership transformation and investment in accommodation facilities, which is reflected through the constant increase of foreign tourists, foreign exchange input, as well as market share and competitiveness of certain types of accommodation. Investments in the accommodation offer in Vojvodina are one of the priorities in the Strategy of Tourism Development of Serbia, where a significant increase in the number of accommodation units in the Province is expected.

  1. Possibilities to Improve the Quality of Accommodation and Eco-Tourism Services throught the Online Software of the Housing Units


    Alina GHEORGHE


    The problem of eco-tourism services represent an actual topic for specialists in Romania or abroad, due to excessive modernization, because natural traditions and values of the area with tourism potential were forgotten. In this paper, I shall present an acquisition modality for accommodation services which comes to suppor the customer and will lead to improvements in the field of accommodation services offered by companies engaged in this field.

  2. Oral messages improve visual search

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    Kieffer, Suzanne


    Input multimodality combining speech and hand gestures has motivated numerous usability studies. Contrastingly, issues relating to the design and ergonomic evaluation of multimodal output messages combining speech with visual modalities have not yet been addressed extensively. The experimental study presented here addresses one of these issues. Its aim is to assess the actual efficiency and usability of oral system messages including brief spatial information for helping users to locate objects on crowded displays rapidly. Target presentation mode, scene spatial structure and task difficulty were chosen as independent variables. Two conditions were defined: the visual target presentation mode (VP condition) and the multimodal target presentation mode (MP condition). Each participant carried out two blocks of visual search tasks (120 tasks per block, and one block per condition). Scene target presentation mode, scene structure and task difficulty were found to be significant factors. Multimodal target presenta...

  3. Accommodating Remedial Readers in the General Education Setting: Is Listening-while-Reading Sufficient to Improve Factual and Inferential Comprehension? (United States)

    Schmitt, Ara J.; Hale, Andrea D.; McCallum, Elizabeth; Mauck, Brittany


    Word reading accommodations are commonly applied in the general education setting in an attempt to improve student comprehension and learning of curriculum content. This study examined the effects of listening-while-reading (LWR) and silent reading (SR) using text-to-speech assistive technology on the comprehension of 25 middle-school remedial…

  4. Magnocellular training improves visual word recognition

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    Tara eChouake


    Full Text Available Current research has shown that the magnocellular system may play a crucial role in reading deficits related to dyslexia. The current study explored the relationship between magnocellular activity and reading abilities; we examined the hypothesis that a repeated usage of the magnocellular stream may improve reading by strengthening crucial neural pathways. Visual training was conducted for five consecutive days using a motion detection task (magnocellular training and a control task of pattern detection (parvocellular training. Reading abilities of skilled readers were measured before and after the training using a lexical decision task. It was found that low grade visual training overall can improve speed of lexical decision, but only magnocellular training selectively improved accuracy. Improvement in the magnocellular training task predicted performance on adjacent anagram and word recognition after training. In contrast, in the control group (parvocellular training degree of improvement in training did not predict lexical decision performance after training. This result lends support to the role of the magnocellular system in reading, and has potential implications for neuro-rehabilitation of reading related deficits.

  5. Perceptual Learning in Children With Visual Impairment Improves Near Visual Acuity

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    Huurneman, Bianca; Boonstra, F. Nienke; Cox, Ralf F. A.; van Rens, Ger; Cillessen, Antonius H. N.


    PURPOSE. This study investigated whether visual perceptual learning can improve near visual acuity and reduce foveal crowding effects in four-to nine-year-old children with visual impairment. METHODS. Participants were 45 children with visual impairment and 29 children with normal vision. Children w

  6. Comparing and Combining Accommodation and Remediation Interventions to Improve the Written-Language Performance of Children with Asperger Syndrome (United States)

    Schneider, Ariane B.; Codding, Robin S.; Tryon, Georgiana S.


    The relative effectiveness of two writing accommodations, word processing (WP) and speech-recognition (SR) technology, was examined relative to the writing skills of four boys with Asperger syndrome. The more effective accommodation was then combined with the Self-Regulated Strategy Development (SRSD) writing intervention and compared with SRSD…

  7. Complex treatment of accommodation disturbances in students

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    O. G. Pozdeeva


    Full Text Available Purpose: Assessment of the effectiveness of different methods of treatment accommodation disturbances in patients 18‑23 years old.Methods: Determination of refraction and the size of the absolute accommodation and reserves of the relative accommodationbefore and after the treatment with Midrimax and Irifrin 2.5 % in combination with the course of electrostimulation.Results: The clinical effect was obtained in all patients. The maximum improvement of visual functions with a lower degree of myopia (1.0‑3.0 D, increase of absolute accommodation (by 2.5‑3,.D and reserves of the relative accommodation (up to age norms were observed in the younger age group of patients, wich had received the treatment with Midrimax, especially when combined with electrostimulation.Conclusion: Instillation of Midrimax in the treatment of violations of accommodation contribute to the effective reduction in the degree of myopia and improve of accomodation in patients 18‑23 years old. The combination of this therapy with functional methods of treatment increase its effectiveness.

  8. Complex treatment of accommodation disturbances in students

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    O. G. Pozdeeva


    Full Text Available Purpose: Assessment of the effectiveness of different methods of treatment accommodation disturbances in patients 18‑23 years old.Methods: Determination of refraction and the size of the absolute accommodation and reserves of the relative accommodationbefore and after the treatment with Midrimax and Irifrin 2.5 % in combination with the course of electrostimulation.Results: The clinical effect was obtained in all patients. The maximum improvement of visual functions with a lower degree of myopia (1.0‑3.0 D, increase of absolute accommodation (by 2.5‑3,.D and reserves of the relative accommodation (up to age norms were observed in the younger age group of patients, wich had received the treatment with Midrimax, especially when combined with electrostimulation.Conclusion: Instillation of Midrimax in the treatment of violations of accommodation contribute to the effective reduction in the degree of myopia and improve of accomodation in patients 18‑23 years old. The combination of this therapy with functional methods of treatment increase its effectiveness.

  9. Quantifying Improved Visual Performance Through Vision Training (United States)


    either eye alone. Research suggests that spatial mechanisms may be differentially sensitive to inputs from the two eyes ( Arditi et al., 1981). If...importance of measuring contrast sensitivity in cases of visual disturbance. Br J Ophthalmol, 62, 198-209. Arditi , A.R., Anderson, P.A. and Movshon, J.A

  10. Improved discrimination of visual stimuli following repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation.

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    Michael L Waterston

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS at certain frequencies increases thresholds for motor-evoked potentials and phosphenes following stimulation of cortex. Consequently rTMS is often assumed to introduce a "virtual lesion" in stimulated brain regions, with correspondingly diminished behavioral performance. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Here we investigated the effects of rTMS to visual cortex on subjects' ability to perform visual psychophysical tasks. Contrary to expectations of a visual deficit, we find that rTMS often improves the discrimination of visual features. For coarse orientation tasks, discrimination of a static stimulus improved consistently following theta-burst stimulation of the occipital lobe. Using a reaction-time task, we found that these improvements occurred throughout the visual field and lasted beyond one hour post-rTMS. Low-frequency (1 Hz stimulation yielded similar improvements. In contrast, we did not find consistent effects of rTMS on performance in a fine orientation discrimination task. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Overall our results suggest that rTMS generally improves or has no effect on visual acuity, with the nature of the effect depending on the type of stimulation and the task. We interpret our results in the context of an ideal-observer model of visual perception.

  11. Big data in medical informatics: improving education through visual analytics. (United States)

    Vaitsis, Christos; Nilsson, Gunnar; Zary, Nabil


    A continuous effort to improve healthcare education today is currently driven from the need to create competent health professionals able to meet healthcare demands. Limited research reporting how educational data manipulation can help in healthcare education improvement. The emerging research field of visual analytics has the advantage to combine big data analysis and manipulation techniques, information and knowledge representation, and human cognitive strength to perceive and recognise visual patterns. The aim of this study was therefore to explore novel ways of representing curriculum and educational data using visual analytics. Three approaches of visualization and representation of educational data were presented. Five competencies at undergraduate medical program level addressed in courses were identified to inaccurately correspond to higher education board competencies. Different visual representations seem to have a potential in impacting on the ability to perceive entities and connections in the curriculum data.

  12. [Spasm of accommodation]. (United States)

    Lindberg, Laura


    Spasm of accommodation refers to prolonged contraction of the ciliary muscle, most commonly causing pseudomyopia to varying degrees in both eyes by keeping the lens in a state of short sightedness. It may also be manifested as inability to allow the adaptation spasticity prevailing in the ciliary muscle relax without measurable myopia. As a rule, this is a functional ailment triggered by prolonged near work and stress. The most common symptoms include blurring of distance vision, varying visual acuity as well as pains in the orbital region and the head, progressing into a chronic state. Cycloplegic eye drops are used as the treatment.

  13. Prediction of anthropometric accommodation in aircraft cockpits (United States)

    Zehner, Gregory Franklin

    Designing aircraft cockpits to accommodate the wide range of body sizes existing in the U.S. population has always been a difficult problem for Crewstation Engineers. The approach taken in the design of military aircraft has been to restrict the range of body sizes allowed into flight training, and then to develop standards and specifications to ensure that the majority of the pilots are accommodated. Accommodation in this instance is defined as the ability to: (1) Adequately see, reach, and actuate controls; (2) Have external visual fields so that the pilot can see to land, clear for other aircraft, and perform a wide variety of missions (ground support/attack or air to air combat); and (3) Finally, if problems arise, the pilot has to be able to escape safely. Each of these areas is directly affected by the body size of the pilot. Unfortunately, accommodation problems persist and may get worse. Currently the USAF is considering relaxing body size entrance requirements so that smaller and larger people could become pilots. This will make existing accommodation problems much worse. This dissertation describes a methodology for correcting this problem and demonstrates the method by predicting pilot fit and performance in the USAF T-38A aircraft based on anthropometric data. The methods described can be applied to a variety of design applications where fitting the human operator into a system is a major concern. A systematic approach is described which includes: defining the user population, setting functional requirements that operators must be able to perform, testing the ability of the user population to perform the functional requirements, and developing predictive equations for selecting future users of the system. Also described is a process for the development of new anthropometric design criteria and cockpit design methods that assure body size accommodation is improved in the future.

  14. Visual Aids Improve Diagnostic Inferences and Metacognitive Judgment Calibration

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    Rocio eGarcia-Retamero


    Full Text Available Visual aids can improve comprehension of risks associated with medical treatments, screenings, and lifestyles. Do visual aids also help decision makers accurately assess their risk comprehension? That is, do visual aids help them become well calibrated? To address these questions, we investigated the benefits of visual aids displaying numerical information and measured accuracy of self-assessment of diagnostic inferences (i.e., metacognitive judgment calibration controlling for individual differences in numeracy. Participants included 108 patients who made diagnostic inferences about three medical tests on the basis of information about the sensitivity and false-positive rate of the tests and disease prevalence. Half of the patients received the information in numbers without a visual aid, while the other half received numbers along with a grid representing the numerical information. In the numerical condition, many patients --especially those with low numeracy-- misinterpreted the predictive value of the tests and profoundly overestimated the accuracy of their inferences. Metacognitive judgment calibration mediated the relationship between numeracy and accuracy of diagnostic inferences. In contrast, in the visual aid condition, patients at all levels of numeracy showed high-levels of inferential accuracy and metacognitive judgment calibration. Results indicate that accurate metacognitive assessment may explain the beneficial effects of visual aids and numeracy --a result that accords with theory suggesting that metacognition is an essential part of risk literacy. We conclude that well-designed risk communications can inform patients about health-relevant numerical information while helping them assess the quality of their own risk comprehension.

  15. Perceptual Training Strongly Improves Visual Motion Perception in Schizophrenia (United States)

    Norton, Daniel J.; McBain, Ryan K.; Ongur, Dost; Chen, Yue


    Schizophrenia patients exhibit perceptual and cognitive deficits, including in visual motion processing. Given that cognitive systems depend upon perceptual inputs, improving patients' perceptual abilities may be an effective means of cognitive intervention. In healthy people, motion perception can be enhanced through perceptual learning, but it…

  16. In vitro Spatial Compound Scanning for Improved Visualization of Atherosclerosis

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    Jespersen, Søren Kragh; Wilhjelm, Jens E.; Sillesen, Henrik


    A new off-line multiangle ultrasound (US) compound scanner has been built with the purpose of investigating possible improvements in visualization of vascular structure. Images of two formalin-fixed human atherosclerotic plaques removed by carotid endarterectomy were recorded from seven insonific...

  17. A new visual stimulation program for improving visual acuity in children with visual impairment: a pilot study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li-Ting eTsai


    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to investigate the effectiveness of visual rehabilitation of a computer-based visual stimulation (VS program combining checkerboard pattern reversal (passive stimulation with oddball stimuli (attentional modulation for improving the visual acuity (VA of visually impaired (VI children and children with amblyopia and additional developmental problems. Six children (3 females, 3 males; mean age = 3.9 ± 2.3 years with impaired VA caused by deficits along the anterior and/or posterior visual pathways were recruited. Participants received eight rounds of VS training (two rounds per week of at least 8 sessions per round. Each session consisted of stimulation with 200 or 300 pattern reversals. Assessments of VA (assessed with the Lea symbol VA test or Teller VA cards, visual evoked potential (VEP, and functional vision (assessed with the Chinese-version Functional Vision Questionnaire, FVQ were carried out before and after the VS program. Significant gains in VA were found after the VS training (VA=1.05 logMAR ± 0.80 to 0.61 logMAR ± 0.53, Z=-2.20, asymptotic significance (2-tailed =0.028. No significant changes were observed in the FVQ assessment (92.8 ± 12.6 to 100.8 ± SD=15.4, Z=-1.46, asymptotic significance (2-tailed = 0.144. VEP measurement showed improvement in P100 latency and amplitude or integration of the waveform in two participants. Our results indicate that a computer-based VS program with passive checkerboard stimulation, oddball stimulus design, and interesting auditory feedback could be considered as a potential intervention option to improve the VA of a wide age range of VI children and children with impaired VA combined with other neurological disorders.

  18. The Significance of Emotions and Professional Relations for Accommodating a Web-Based Ulcer Record and Improving Home-Based Care

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne G. Ekeland


    Full Text Available Evidence of technological performance, medical improvements and economic effectiveness is generally considered sufficient for judging advances in healthcare. In this paper, I aim to add knowledge about the ways human emotions and professional relations play roles in the processes of accommodating new technologies for quality improvements. A newly-implemented, web-based ulcer record service for patients with chronic skin ulcers constitutes the case. After one year, only a few home care nurses were using the service, interacting with a specialist team. The result was disappointing, but the few users were enthusiastic. An explorative, qualitative study was initiated to understand the users, the processes that accounted for use and how improvements were enacted. In the paper, I expose the emotional aspects of the record accommodation by analyzing the ways emotions were translated in the process and how they influenced the improvements. I contend that use came about through a heterogeneous assemblage of ethical engagement and compassionate emotions stemming from frustration, combined with technological affordances and relations between different professionals. Certain aspects of the improvements are exposed. These are discussed as: (1 reconciliations between the medical facts and rational judgments, on one side, and the emotional and subjective values for judging quality, on the other; and (2 mediation between standardized and personalized care. The healing of ulcers was combined with a sense of purpose and wellbeing to validate improvements. Emotions were strongly involved, and the power of evaluative emotions and professional relations should be further explored to add to the understanding of innovation processes and to validate quality improvements.

  19. Magnifying the Scale of Visual Biofeedback Improves Posture. (United States)

    Jehu, Deborah A; Thibault, Jérémie; Lajoie, Yves


    Biofeedback has been shown to minimize body sway during quiet standing. However, limited research has reported the optimal sensitivity parameters of visual biofeedback related to the center of pressure (COP) sway. Accordingly, 19 young adults (6 males; 13 females; aged 21.3 ± 2.5) stood with feet together and performed three visual biofeedback intensities [unmodified biofeedback (UMBF), BF magnified by 5 (BF5), BF magnified by 10 (BF10)], along with control trials with no biofeedback (NBF). The participants were instructed to stand as still as possible while minimizing the movements of the visual target. The findings revealed that UMBF produced significantly greater COP displacement in both the anterior-posterior (AP) and medial-lateral directions, as well as greater standard deviation of the COP in the AP direction (p biofeedback should be given in order to improve postural control (i.e., BF5 or BF10).

  20. Improved similarity trees and their application to visual data classification. (United States)

    Paiva, Jose Gustavo S; Florian-Cruz, Laura; Pedrini, Helio; Telles, Guilherme P; Minghim, Rosane


    An alternative form to multidimensional projections for the visual analysis of data represented in multidimensional spaces is the deployment of similarity trees, such as Neighbor Joining trees. They organize data objects on the visual plane emphasizing their levels of similarity with high capability of detecting and separating groups and subgroups of objects. Besides this similarity-based hierarchical data organization, some of their advantages include the ability to decrease point clutter; high precision; and a consistent view of the data set during focusing, offering a very intuitive way to view the general structure of the data set as well as to drill down to groups and subgroups of interest. Disadvantages of similarity trees based on neighbor joining strategies include their computational cost and the presence of virtual nodes that utilize too much of the visual space. This paper presents a highly improved version of the similarity tree technique. The improvements in the technique are given by two procedures. The first is a strategy that replaces virtual nodes by promoting real leaf nodes to their place, saving large portions of space in the display and maintaining the expressiveness and precision of the technique. The second improvement is an implementation that significantly accelerates the algorithm, impacting its use for larger data sets. We also illustrate the applicability of the technique in visual data mining, showing its advantages to support visual classification of data sets, with special attention to the case of image classification. We demonstrate the capabilities of the tree for analysis and iterative manipulation and employ those capabilities to support evolving to a satisfactory data organization and classification.

  1. Improved curveball hitting through the enhancement of visual cues.


    Osborne, K; Rudrud, E; Zezoney, F


    This study investigated the effectiveness of using visual cues to highlight the seams of baseballs to improve the hitting of curveballs. Five undergraduate varsity baseball team candidates served as subjects. Behavior change was assessed through an alternating treatments design involving unmarked balls and two treatment conditions that included baseballs with 1/4-in. and 1/8-in. orange stripes marking the seams of the baseballs. Results indicated that subjects hit a greater percentage of mark...

  2. Quality improvement of services in rural tourism - Comparative analysis regarding the satisfaction level of tourists accommodated in Neamţ County

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucian TANASĂ


    Full Text Available Regarding the hospitality industry, it is very important that clients’ wishes are recognized in order to permanently ensure the quality of the tourism services. The questionnaire, as a statistic tool, is frequently used especially at the level of important hotel chains, but it also has an applicability to small-dimensioned accommodation structures. In the current paper such a questionnaire is applied in Neamţ County to “Buhalniţa Chalet” (Hangu commune, “Eden Boarding House” (Agapia commune and “Mariko Inn” Hotel (Cordun commune, representative for the three different types of tourism practiced in each area (Izvorul Muntelui Lake touristic sub-zone - ecotourism, Târgu-Neamţ touristic zone - cultural-religious tourism and also Roman touristic sub-zone - transit tourism. The case study analyzes the satisfaction level of tourists who benefited from services offered by the tourist structures mentioned above, thus offering important information regarding the clients’ profile (from a social, ethnic, professional and financial perspective and also on other relevant elements necessary in the process of improving the marketing strategy practiced by those accommodation structures.

  3. Subjective evaluation of two stereoscopic imaging systems exploiting visual attention to improve 3D quality of experience (United States)

    Hanhart, Philippe; Ebrahimi, Touradj


    Crosstalk and vergence-accommodation rivalry negatively impact the quality of experience (QoE) provided by stereoscopic displays. However, exploiting visual attention and adapting the 3D rendering process on the fly can reduce these drawbacks. In this paper, we propose and evaluate two different approaches that exploit visual attention to improve 3D QoE on stereoscopic displays: an offline system, which uses a saliency map to predict gaze position, and an online system, which uses a remote eye tracking system to measure real time gaze positions. The gaze points were used in conjunction with the disparity map to extract the disparity of the object-of-interest. Horizontal image translation was performed to bring the fixated object on the screen plane. The user preference between standard 3D mode and the two proposed systems was evaluated through a subjective evaluation. Results show that exploiting visual attention significantly improves image quality and visual comfort, with a slight advantage for real time gaze determination. Depth quality is also improved, but the difference is not significant.

  4. PromoSer: improvements to the algorithm, visualization and accessibility. (United States)

    Halees, Anason S; Weng, Zhiping


    PromoSer is a web service that provides an easy and efficient approach to the batch retrieval of a large number of proximal promoters. Since its introduction last year, it has undergone continued development and expansion. At the core, there have been improvements in the filtering of the raw mRNA/EST sequences upon which all predictions are built, improvements in the alignments clustering and transcription start site prediction algorithms, and improvements in the backing database for increased performance. At the user interface level, improvements include enhanced functionality and user options, better integration with other resources on the web and a new visualization tool. PromoSer now also supports queries using a SOAP-based interface and XML-based responses. The service is publicly available at

  5. Mirtazapine improves visual hallucinations in Parkinson's disease: a case report. (United States)

    Tagai, Kenji; Nagata, Tomoyuki; Shinagawa, Shunichiro; Tsuno, Norifumi; Ozone, Motohiro; Nakayama, Kazuhiko


    Psychotic symptoms often occur as a complication in Parkinson's disease patients, and a set of criteria for Parkinson's disease with psychosis (PDPsy) has been established. Among these criteria, hallucinations are one of the specific symptoms, with visual hallucinations being the most common. While atypical antipsychotic agents are often used for the treatment of PDPsy, adverse effects, including extrapyramidal symptoms, often hinder its continuation or tolerance. There have been some reports and reviews indicating that antidepressants may be effective for PDPsy and other forms of dementia with psychosis. In this report, we present a patient with PDPsy who was treated with one of the new-generation antidepressants, mirtazapine. Mirtazapine improved the patient's refractory psychotic symptoms, especially her visual hallucinations, without worsening her motor symptoms.

  6. Working memory training improves visual short-term memory capacity. (United States)

    Schwarb, Hillary; Nail, Jayde; Schumacher, Eric H


    Since antiquity, philosophers, theologians, and scientists have been interested in human memory. However, researchers today are still working to understand the capabilities, boundaries, and architecture. While the storage capabilities of long-term memory are seemingly unlimited (Bahrick, J Exp Psychol 113:1-2, 1984), working memory, or the ability to maintain and manipulate information held in memory, seems to have stringent capacity limits (e.g., Cowan, Behav Brain Sci 24:87-185, 2001). Individual differences, however, do exist and these differences can often predict performance on a wide variety of tasks (cf. Engle What is working-memory capacity? 297-314, 2001). Recently, researchers have promoted the enticing possibility that simple behavioral training can expand the limits of working memory which indeed may also lead to improvements on other cognitive processes as well (cf. Morrison and Chein, Psychol Bull Rev 18:46-60 2011). However, initial investigations across a wide variety of cognitive functions have produced mixed results regarding the transferability of training-related improvements. Across two experiments, the present research focuses on the benefit of working memory training on visual short-term memory capacity-a cognitive process that has received little attention in the training literature. Data reveal training-related improvement of global measures of visual short-term memory as well as of measures of the independent sub-processes that contribute to capacity (Awh et al., Psychol Sci 18(7):622-628, 2007). These results suggest that the ability to inhibit irrelevant information within and between trials is enhanced via n-back training allowing for selective improvement on untrained tasks. Additionally, we highlight a potential limitation of the standard adaptive training procedure and propose a modified design to ensure variability in the training environment.

  7. Formal Art Observation Training Improves Medical Students’ Visual Diagnostic Skills (United States)

    Naghshineh, Sheila; Hafler, Janet P.; Miller, Alexa R.; Blanco, Maria A.; Lipsitz, Stuart R.; Dubroff, Rachel P.; Khoshbin, Shahram


    Background Despite evidence of inadequate physical examination skills among medical students, teaching these skills has declined. One method of enhancing inspection skills is teaching “visual literacy,” the ability to reason physiology and pathophysiology from careful and unbiased observation. Objective To improve students’ visual acumen through structured observation of artworks, understanding of fine arts concepts and applying these skills to patient care. Design Prospective, partially randomized pre- vs. post-course evaluation using mixed-methods data analysis. Participants Twenty-four pre-clinical student participants were compared to 34 classmates at a similar stage of training. Intervention Training the Eye: Improving the Art of Physical Diagnosis consists of eight paired sessions of art observation exercises with didactics that integrate fine arts concepts with physical diagnosis topics and an elective life drawing session. Measurements The frequency of accurate observations on a 1-h visual skills examination was used to evaluate pre- vs. post-course descriptions of patient photographs and art imagery. Content analysis was used to identify thematic categories. All assessments were blinded to study group and pre- vs. post-course evaluation. Results Following the course, class participants increased their total mean number of observations compared to controls (5.41 ± 0.63 vs. 0.36 ± 0.53, p < 0.0001) and had increased sophistication in their descriptions of artistic and clinical imagery. A ‘dose-response’ was found for those who attended eight or more sessions, compared to participants who attended seven or fewer sessions (6.31 + 0.81 and 2.76 + 1.2, respectively, p = 0.03). Conclusions This interdisciplinary course improved participants’ capacity to make accurate observations of art and physical findings. Electronic supplementary material The online version of this article (doi:10.1007/s11606-008-0667-0) contains

  8. Real and Pseudoaccommodation in Accommodative Lenses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ioannis G. Pallikaris


    Full Text Available In the attempt to manage presbyopia, different intraocular lens designs have been proposed such as monofocal IOLs with monovision or multifocal IOLs. Even though the lenses mentioned offer satisfactory visual results, contemporary ophthalmology has not completely answered the presbyopic dilemma by simulating the accommodative properties of the crystalline lens itself. Accommodative IOLs were designed to fill this gap and provide satisfactory vision for all distances by restoring some degree of “pseudoaccommodation.” Pseudo accommodative capability can be linked to monofocal IOL’s as well but the results are not satisfactory enough to fully support unaided near vision. Pseudoaccommodation is a complex phenomenon that can be attributed to several static (i.e., pupil size, against-the-rule cylindrical refractive error, multifocality of the cornea and dynamic (i.e., anterior movement of the implant itself factors. Objective measurement of the accommodative capability offered by the accommodative IOLs is extremely difficult to obtain, and different methods such as autorefractometers, retinoscopy, and ultrasound imaging during accommodative effort, ray tracing, or pharmacological stimulation have been developed but the results are sometimes inconsistent. Despite the difficulties in measuring accommodation, accommodative IOLs represent the future in the attempt to successfully “cure” presbyopia.

  9. Improving the User Experience of Finding and Visualizing Oceanographic Data (United States)

    Rauch, S.; Allison, M. D.; Groman, R. C.; Chandler, C. L.; Galvarino, C.; Gegg, S. R.; Kinkade, D.; Shepherd, A.; Wiebe, P. H.; Glover, D. M.


    Searching for and locating data of interest can be a challenge to researchers as increasing volumes of data are made available online through various data centers, repositories, and archives. The Biological and Chemical Oceanography Data Management Office (BCO-DMO) is keenly aware of this challenge and, as a result, has implemented features and technologies aimed at improving data discovery and enhancing the user experience. BCO-DMO was created in 2006 to manage and publish data from research projects funded by the Division of Ocean Sciences (OCE) Biological and Chemical Oceanography Sections and the Division of Polar Programs (PLR) Antarctic Sciences Organisms and Ecosystems Program (ANT) of the US National Science Foundation (NSF). The BCO-DMO text-based and geospatial-based data access systems provide users with tools to search, filter, and visualize data in order to efficiently find data of interest. The geospatial interface, developed using a suite of open-source software (including MapServer [1], OpenLayers [2], ExtJS [3], and MySQL [4]), allows users to search and filter/subset metadata based on program, project, or deployment, or by using a simple word search. The map responds based on user selections, presents options that allow the user to choose specific data parameters (e.g., a species or an individual drifter), and presents further options for visualizing those data on the map or in "quick-view" plots. The data managed and made available by BCO-DMO are very heterogeneous in nature, from in-situ biogeochemical, ecological, and physical data, to controlled laboratory experiments. Due to the heterogeneity of the data types, a 'one size fits all' approach to visualization cannot be applied. Datasets are visualized in a way that will best allow users to assess fitness for purpose. An advanced geospatial interface, which contains a semantically-enabled faceted search [5], is also available. These search facets are highly interactive and responsive, allowing

  10. [Dissociated near reflex and accommodative convergence excess]. (United States)

    Gräf, M; Becker, R; Kloss, S


    We report on an 8-year-old boy whose near reflex could be elicited exclusively when the left eye was fixing (LF) but not when the right eye was fixing (RF). With RE +1.25/-1.25/169 degrees and LE +1.0/-0.75/24 degrees, the visual acuity was 1.0 OU at 5 m and RE 0.5, LE 1.0 at 0.3 m improving to 1.0 OU by a near addition of 3.0 D. Stereopsis was 100 degrees (Titmus test). The prism and cover test revealed an esophoria of 4 degrees at 5 m. At 3 m there was an esophoria of 6 degrees (RF) and an esotropia of 28 degrees (LF), compensating to an esophoria of 3 degrees (RF/LF) with a near addition of 3.0 D. Accommodation and the pupillary near reaction (OU) were hardly elicitable during RF. During LF, retinoscopy revealed an accommodation of 8 D (OU) and the pupils constricted normally. Correction by bifocal glasses yielded orthotropia with random dot stereopsis at near.

  11. Using Symmetrical Regions of Interest to Improve Visual SLAM

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kootstra, Geert; Schomaker, Lambertus


    Simultaneous Localization and Mapping (SLAM) based on visual information is a challenging problem. One of the main problems with visual SLAM is to find good quality landmarks, that can be detected despite noise and small changes in viewpoint. Many approaches use SIFT interest points as visual landma

  12. Accommodating Translational Research (United States)

    Giles, Howard


    This is an article in a series illustrating the way scholars in communication have pursued translating their research into practice. The translational nature of communication accommodation theory and examples of its application are the focus of this contribution.

  13. Reduced accommodation in children with cerebral palsy. (United States)

    Leat, S J


    Accommodation in 43 subjects with cerebral palsy was measured objectively using a dynamic retinoscopy technique, which has already been shown to be reliable and repeatable. The subject's ages ranged from 3 to 35 years. Of these, 42% were found to have an accommodative response pattern which was different from the normal control group for his/her age. Nearly 29% had an estimated amplitude of accommodation of 4 D or less. The presence of reduced accommodation was found to be associated with reduced visual acuity, but was not associated with cognitive or communication ability, refractive error or age. The prevalence of other ocular disorders in this group is also high. These findings have developmental and educational implications.

  14. Visualization


    Balon, Andreja


    The present thesis entails the field of visualization which is divided into visualization along traditional lines and visualization in computer science. As the psychological aspect of image is of vital importance for visualization, it is shortly described in the beginning. Visualization in computer science is divided into three main fields: scientific visualization, program visualization and visual programming. An explanation and examples of approach to applications are given for each field....

  15. Coupling Advanced Modeling and Visualization to Improve High-Impact Tropical Weather Prediction (United States)

    Shen, Bo-Wen; Tao, Wei-Kuo; Green, Bryan


    To meet the goals of extreme weather event warning, this approach couples a modeling and visualization system that integrates existing NASA technologies and improves the modeling system's parallel scalability to take advantage of petascale supercomputers. It also streamlines the data flow for fast processing and 3D visualizations, and develops visualization modules to fuse NASA satellite data.

  16. Visual syntax does matter: improving the cognitive effectiveness of the i* visual notation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Moody, Daniel L.; Heymans, Patrick; Matulevicius, Raimundas


    Goal-oriented modelling is one of the most important research developments in the requirements engineering (RE) field. This paper conducts a systematic analysis of the visual syntax of i*, one of the leading goal-oriented languages. Like most RE notations, i* is highly visual. Yet surprisingly, ther

  17. Improved Discrimination of Visual Stimuli Following Repetitive Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation


    Waterston, Michael L.; Pack, Christopher C.


    BACKGROUND: Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) at certain frequencies increases thresholds for motor-evoked potentials and phosphenes following stimulation of cortex. Consequently rTMS is often assumed to introduce a "virtual lesion" in stimulated brain regions, with correspondingly diminished behavioral performance. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Here we investigated the effects of rTMS to visual cortex on subjects' ability to perform visual psychophysical tasks. Contrary t...

  18. Visual quality of multifocal, accommodative and monofocal intraocular lens: a comparative study of 139 eyes%多焦点、可调节和单焦点人工晶状体临床视觉质量的观察

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郑登易; 叶剑; 谭薇


    目的 比较植入多焦点( multifocal intraocular lenses,MIOL)、可调节(accommodative intraocular lens,AIOL)和单焦点( monofocal/single focus intraocular lens,SIOL)人工晶状体植入术后的视觉质量.方法 采用同期随机对照研究,选取2010年9月至2011年4月期间,在本科行白内障超声乳化联合人工晶状体植入术的患者,分别植入3种人工晶状体,其中多焦点ZMA00组30例(43只眼),可调节FLEX组33例(49只眼),单焦点AKROS组32例(47只眼).术后1d,1、3个月随访,测定患者裸眼及矫正远视力、矫正远视力下近视力及中视力;离焦法测伪调节力;MFVA-100多功能视力检测仪测量对比敏感度视力,并问卷调查其脱镜率.结果 裸眼远视力ZMA00组和FLEX组略高于AKROS组,但差异无统计学意义(P>0.05),矫正远视力3组无明显差异(P>0.05);矫正远视力下中视力,ZMA00和FLEX组均明显优于AKROS组(P<0.05),但ZMA00和FLEX 2组间无差异(P>0.05);矫正远视力下近视力及人工晶体眼伪调节力均表现为ZMA00组最佳,FLEX组次之,AKROS组最低,差异有统计学意义(P<0.05).脱镜率ZMA00组86.7%( 26/30),FLEX组63.6%(21/33),均优于AKROS组18.8%(6/32),差异有统计学意义(P<0.05);在各百分比对比度下,3组患者的对比敏感度视力无显著差异(P>0.05).结论 3种人工晶状体均可获得较好的远视力,但多焦点和可调节人工晶状体均拥有更佳的远、中、近视力及较高的调节力和脱镜率.非球面多焦点人工晶状体未带来对比敏感度的缺失,且在近视力及伪调节力方面,比可调节人工晶状体具有更大的优势.%Objective To assess the visual outcomes of the 3 types of intraocular lens, multifocal intraocular lens ( MIOL ZMAOO) , accommodating intraocular lens (AIOL, FLEX) and monofocal/single focus intraocular lens (SIOL, AKROS), in the treatment of phacoemulsification for the patients with age-related cataract. Methods A randomized

  19. Do study circles and a nutritional care policy improve nutritional care in a short- and long-term perspective in special accommodations?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Albert Westergren


    Full Text Available Background: Disease-related malnutrition is a major health problem in the elderly population and management issues are under-explored. Objectives: What is the prevalence of undernutrition-risk (UN-risk, underweight, and overweight in special accommodations (SAs? Do study circles and a nutritional care policy (NCP improve the precision in nutritional care (NC and decrease the prevalence of under- and overweight in a short- and/or long-term perspective?Design: Quasi-experimental pre- and post-intervention design with three experimental groups and one control group (CG. Setting: SAs. Participants: In 2005 (Time 1 – T1, 1726 (90.4% residents agreed to participate; in 2007 (Time 2 – T2, 1,526 (81.8%; and in 2009 (Time 3 – T3, 1,459 (81.3% residents participated. Interventions: Experimental groups: between T1 and T2 the first period of study circles was conducted in one municipality; between T2 and T3 a second period of study circles in another municipality was conducted; after T1 a NCP was implemented in one municipality. CG: residents in three municipalities. Measurements: Under- and overweight were defined based on BMI. Risk of undernutrition was defined as involving any of: involuntary weight loss, low BMI, and/or eating difficulties. The ‘precision in NC’ describes the relationship between nutritional treatment (protein- and energy-enriched food (PE-food and/or oral supplements and UN-risk. Results: The prevalence of UN-risk varied between 64 and 66%, underweight between 25 and 30%, and overweight between 30 and 33% in T1–T3. At T2 the prevalence of underweight was significantly lower in the first period study circle municipality, and at T3 in the second period study circle municipality compared to in the CG. The precision in NC was higher in a short-term perspective in the study circle municipalities and both in a short- and long-term perspective in the NCP municipality. At T3 between 54 and 70% of residents at UN-risk did not


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kravtsov �. M.


    Full Text Available The article describes hardware and software specific issues of implementing augmented reality for improving user interface of visualization of a virtual object. It also defines possible future improvements of the subject

  1. Formation of 17-18 yrs age girl students’ visual performance by means of visual training at stage of adaptation to learning loads

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bondarenko S.V.


    Full Text Available Purpose: substantiation of health related training influence of basketball and volleyball elements on functional state of 1 st year students’ visual analyzers in period of adaptation to learning loads with expressed visual component. Material: in experiment 29 students of 17-18 year age without visual pathologies participated. Indicators of visual performance were determined by correction table of Tagayeva and processed by Weston methodic. Accommodative function was tested by method of mechanical proximetry. Results: the authors worked out and tested two programs of visual training. Influence of visual trainings on visual performance’s main components (quickness, quality, integral indicators was studied as well as eye’s accommodative function (by dynamic of position of the nearest point of clear vision. Conclusions: Application of visual trainings at physical education classes permits to improve indicators of visual analyzer’s performance as well as minimize negative influence of intensive learning loads on eye’ accommodative function.

  2. Accommodating Different Learning Styles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ovesen, Nis


    Design engineering educations often struggle to accommodate a highly diverse group of students as it combines an equally diverse range of topics in one education. This paper investigates how a specific course, Mathematics and Form, integrates two distinct areas into one course with the aim of fac...

  3. Accommodating Picky Palates (United States)

    Lum, Lydia


    Healthy gourmet offerings are fast becoming the norm at college dining halls around the country. At a time when the children of Baby Boomers are hitting higher education in record numbers, college officials have scrambled to accommodate their picky palates and their insistence for healthier meals than were served to past generations. At the same…

  4. Improving user-friendliness by using visually supported speech recognition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Waals, J.A.J.S.; Kooi, F.L.; Kriekaard, J.J.


    While speech recognition in principle may be one of the most natural interfaces, in practice it is not due to the lack of user-friendliness. Words are regularly interpreted wrong, and subjects tend to articulate in an exaggerated manner. We explored the potential of visually supported error correcti

  5. Navigating through virtual environments: visual realism improves spatial cognition. (United States)

    Meijer, Frank; Geudeke, Branko L; van den Broek, Egon L


    Recent advances in computer technology have significantly facilitated the use of virtual environments (VE) for small and medium enterprises (SME). However, achieving visual realism in such VE requires high investments in terms of time and effort, while its usefulness has not yet become apparent from research. Other qualities of VE, such as the use of large displays, proved its effectiveness in enhancing the individual user's spatial cognition. The current study assessed whether the same benefits apply for visual realism in VE. Thirty-two participants were divided into two groups, who explored either a photorealistic or a nonrealistic supermarket presented on a large screen. The participants were asked to navigate through the supermarket on a predetermined route. Subsequently, spatial learning was tested in four pen-and-paper tests that assessed how accurately they had memorized the route and the environment's spatial layout. The study revealed increased spatial learning from the photorealistic compared to the nonrealistic supermarket. Specifically, participants performed better on tests that involved egocentric spatial knowledge. The results suggest visual realism is useful because it increases the user's spatial knowledge in the VE. Therefore, the current study provides clear evidence that it is worthwhile for SME to invest in achieving visual realism in VE.

  6. Cognitive and psychological science insights to improve climate change data visualization (United States)

    Harold, Jordan; Lorenzoni, Irene; Shipley, Thomas F.; Coventry, Kenny R.


    Visualization of climate data plays an integral role in the communication of climate change findings to both expert and non-expert audiences. The cognitive and psychological sciences can provide valuable insights into how to improve visualization of climate data based on knowledge of how the human brain processes visual and linguistic information. We review four key research areas to demonstrate their potential to make data more accessible to diverse audiences: directing visual attention, visual complexity, making inferences from visuals, and the mapping between visuals and language. We present evidence-informed guidelines to help climate scientists increase the accessibility of graphics to non-experts, and illustrate how the guidelines can work in practice in the context of Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change graphics.

  7. Bridging as Coercive Accommodation

    CERN Document Server

    Bos, J W; Mineur, A M; Bos, Johan; Buitelaar, Paul; Mineur, Anne-Marie


    In this paper we discuss the notion of "bridging" in Discourse Representation Theory as a tool to account for discourse referents that have only been established implicitly, through the lexical semantics of other referents. In doing so, we use ideas from Generative Lexicon theory, to introduce antecedents for anaphoric expressions that cannot be "linked" to a proper antecedent, but that do not need to be "accommodated" because they have some connection to the network of discourse referents that is already established.

  8. Accommodation and Catering

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    In the first five months, retail sales of the accommodation and catering sector reached 412.77 billion yuan, contributing 13.6 percent to total retail sales of consumer goods, said the Ministry of Commerce. Their year-on-year growth of 15 percent, or 53.78 billion yuan, was 1.78 percentage points higher than the overall increase of retail sales of consumer goods.

  9. Intuitive Source Code Visualization Tools for Improving Student Comprehension: BRICS

    CERN Document Server

    Pearson, Christopher; Coady, Yvonne


    Even relatively simple code analysis can be a daunting task for many first year students. Perceived complexity, coupled with foreign and harsh syntax, often outstrips the ability for students to take in what they are seeing in terms of their verbal memory. That is, first year students often lack the experience to encode critical building blocks in source code, and their interrelationships, into their own words. We believe this argues for the need for IDEs to provide additional support for representations that would appeal directly to visual memory. In this paper, we examine this need for intuitive source code visualization tools that are easily accessible to novice programmers, discuss the requirements for such a tool, and suggest a novel idea that takes advantage of human peripheral vision to achieve stronger overall code structure awareness.

  10. Improving Visual Survey Capabilities for Marine Mammal Studies (United States)


    binoculars will be used to collect critical ground-truth visual observations from ship - and land-based platforms in proximity to autonomous ...breathing mammals, and they can be conducted from ships , aircraft, or land. For ship - and land-based surveys, powerful, pedestal-mounted, 25×150...classification, and reporting from autonomous platforms, a capability that has been developed with support from the ONR MMB program. The DURIP-funded big-eye

  11. Improving Empathy and Communication Skills of Visually Impaired Early Adolescents through a Psycho-Education Program (United States)

    Yildiz, Mehmet Ali; Duy, Baki


    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effectiveness of an interpersonal communication skills psycho-education program to improve empathy and communication skills of visually impaired adolescents. Participants of the study were sixteen early adolescents schooling in an elementary school for visually impaired youth in Diyarbakir. The…

  12. Visual Working Memory in Deaf Children with Diverse Communication Modes: Improvement by Differential Outcomes (United States)

    Lopez-Crespo, Ginesa; Daza, Maria Teresa; Mendez-Lopez, Magdalena


    Although visual functions have been proposed to be enhanced in deaf individuals, empirical studies have not yet established clear evidence on this issue. The present study aimed to determine whether deaf children with diverse communication modes had superior visual memory and whether their performance was improved by the use of differential…

  13. Intensive video gaming improves encoding speed to visual short-term memory in young male adults. (United States)

    Wilms, Inge L; Petersen, Anders; Vangkilde, Signe


    The purpose of this study was to measure the effect of action video gaming on central elements of visual attention using Bundesen's (1990) Theory of Visual Attention. To examine the cognitive impact of action video gaming, we tested basic functions of visual attention in 42 young male adults. Participants were divided into three groups depending on the amount of time spent playing action video games: non-players (15h/month, N=20). All participants were tested in three tasks which tap central functions of visual attention and short-term memory: a test based on the Theory of Visual Attention (TVA), an enumeration test and finally the Attentional Network Test (ANT). The results show that action video gaming does not seem to impact the capacity of visual short-term memory. However, playing action video games does seem to improve the encoding speed of visual information into visual short-term memory and the improvement does seem to depend on the time devoted to gaming. This suggests that intense action video gaming improves basic attentional functioning and that this improvement generalizes into other activities. The implications of these findings for cognitive rehabilitation training are discussed.

  14. Improved visualization of delayed perfusion in lung MRI

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Risse, Frank [Department of Medical Physics in Radiology, German Cancer Research Center, Heidelberg (Germany); Eichinger, Monika [Department of Radiology, German Cancer Research Center, Heidelberg (Germany); Kauczor, Hans-Ulrich [Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, University Hospital Heidelberg, Heidelberg (Germany); Semmler, Wolfhard [Department of Medical Physics in Radiology, German Cancer Research Center, Heidelberg (Germany); Puderbach, Michael, E-mail: [Department of Radiology, German Cancer Research Center, Heidelberg (Germany)


    Introduction: The investigation of pulmonary perfusion by three-dimensional (3D) dynamic contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (DCE-MRI) was proposed recently. Subtraction images are generated for clinical evaluation, but temporal information is lost and perfusion defects might therefore be masked in this process. The aim of this study is to demonstrate a simple analysis strategy and classification for 3D-DCE-MRI perfusion datasets in the lung without omitting the temporal information. Materials and methods: Pulmonary perfusion measurements were performed in patients with different lung diseases using a 1.5 T MR-scanner with a time-resolved 3D-GRE pulse sequence. 25 3D-volumes were acquired after iv-injection of 0.1 mmol/kg KG Gadolinium-DTPA. Three parameters were determined for each pixel: (1) peak enhancement S{sub n,max} normalized to the arterial input function to detect regions of reduced perfusion; (2) time between arterial peak enhancement in the large pulmonary artery and tissue peak enhancement {tau} to visualize regions with delayed bolus onset; and (3) ratio R = S{sub n,max}/{tau} was calculated to visualize impaired perfusion, irrespectively of whether related to reduced or delayed perfusion. Results: A manual selection of peak perfusion images is not required. Five different types of perfusion can be found: (1) normal perfusion; (2) delayed non-reduced perfusion; (3) reduced non-delayed perfusion; (4) reduced and delayed perfusion; and (5) no perfusion. Types II and IV could not be seen in subtraction images since the temporal information is necessary for this purpose. Conclusions: The analysis strategy in this study allows for a simple and observer-independent visualization and classification of impaired perfusion in dynamic contrast-enhanced pulmonary perfusion MRI by using the temporal information of the datasets.

  15. Fourier-based automatic alignment for improved Visual Cryptography schemes. (United States)

    Machizaud, Jacques; Chavel, Pierre; Fournel, Thierry


    In Visual Cryptography, several images, called "shadow images", that separately contain no information, are overlapped to reveal a shared secret message. We develop a method to digitally register one printed shadow image acquired by a camera with a purely digital shadow image, stored in memory. Using Fourier techniques derived from Fourier Optics concepts, the idea is to enhance and exploit the quasi periodicity of the shadow images, composed by a random distribution of black and white patterns on a periodic sampling grid. The advantage is to speed up the security control or the access time to the message, in particular in the cases of a small pixel size or of large numbers of pixels. Furthermore, the interest of visual cryptography can be increased by embedding the initial message in two shadow images that do not have identical mathematical supports, making manual registration impractical. Experimental results demonstrate the successful operation of the method, including the possibility to directly project the result onto the printed shadow image.

  16. Improving driving performance of persons with visual field defects : Results of a pilot study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Coeckelbergh, TRM; Kooijman, AC; Brouwer, WH; Cornelissen, FW; Gale, AG


    Four subjects with peripheral field defects, one subject with central field defects and one subject with normal visual fields were trained to improve driving performance by means of improving their scanning behaviour. After training, overall driving performance did not improve. Viewing behaviour, ho

  17. Improving texture optimization with application to visualizing meat products

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clemmensen, Line Katrine Harder; Laursen, Lasse Farnung


    et al. in 2007. This method accepts a number of 2D input exemplars, from which it generates a solid texture volume. The volume is iteratively improved via an expectation maximization algorithm. The bottleneck of Texture Optimization occurs during a nearest neighbor search, between texture patches...

  18. Rapid improvement in visual loss with cabergoline treatment in a giant prolactinoma case: 5 years survey. (United States)

    Tasan, Ertugrul; Hanimoglu, Hakan; Turgut, Seda; Ilhan, Mahmut Muzaffer; Evran, Sevket; Kaynar, Mehmet Yasar


    Giant prolactinoma is a rare subset of macroadenomas. Limited studies demonstrated which therapy could be successfully used in the first-line therapy of giant prolactinoma. We presented a case with a 54 × 40 × 40 mm pituitary adenoma and optic chiasmatic compression with left sphenoid sinus invasion. The tumor caused a loss of visual field of the right side. Cabergoline treatment was started with dose of 1.5 mg/week. Fifteen days later, the clinical visual acuity examination showed a significant improvement in the patient with visual field defect. After the five years follow-up magnetic resonance imagining showed reduction of the adenoma size (17 × 12 mm) was significant. Our findings suggest that, cabergoline can be used as a first-line therapy in giant prolactinomas because tumoral shrinkage without a surgical procedure and rapid improvement in visual field defect is achieved with this medical treatment.

  19. Assistance to bone milling: a tool mounted visual display improves the efficiency of robotic guidance. (United States)

    Francoise, Vincent; Sahbani, Anis; Roby-Brami, Agnes; Morel, Guillaume


    In this paper, a new kind of assistance for bone milling is disclosed. It combines a robotic comanipulator applying forces to guide the milling tool tip with a visual display mounted on the hand-held tool. This visual display is a LED bargraph providing to the user a geometric information that is mostly redundant with the forces exerted by the robot, thus constituting a multi-modal feedback. Although very basic and rather inexpensive, the additional visual display is experimentally shown to significantly improve the precision of the gesture.

  20. Analysis of visual quality improvements provided by known tools for HDR content (United States)

    Kim, Jaehwan; Alshina, Elena; Lee, JongSeok; Park, Youngo; Choi, Kwang Pyo


    In this paper, the visual quality of different solutions for high dynamic range (HDR) compression using MPEG test contents is analyzed. We also simulate the method for an efficient HDR compression which is based on statistical property of the signal. The method is compliant with HEVC specification and also easily compatible with other alternative methods which might require HEVC specification changes. It was subjectively tested on commercial TVs and compared with alternative solutions for HDR coding. Subjective visual quality tests were performed using SUHD TVs model which is SAMSUNG JS9500 with maximum luminance up to 1000nit in test. The solution that is based on statistical property shows not only improvement of objective performance but improvement of visual quality compared to other HDR solutions, while it is compatible with HEVC specification.

  1. Improving the Visual Magnitudes of the Planets in The Astronomical Almanac. I. Mercury and Venus (United States)


    2005 2. REPORT TYPE N/A 3. DATES COVERED - 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Improving the Visual Magnitudes of the Planets in The Astronomical Almanac...1. Mercury and Venus 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) 5d. PROJECT NUMBER 5e. TASK NUMBER 5f. WORK

  2. The Role of Visual Learning in Improving Students' High-Order Thinking Skills (United States)

    Raiyn, Jamal


    Various concepts have been introduced to improve students' analytical thinking skills based on problem based learning (PBL). This paper introduces a new concept to increase student's analytical thinking skills based on a visual learning strategy. Such a strategy has three fundamental components: a teacher, a student, and a learning process. The…

  3. Accommodation-Amplitudes following an Accommodative Lens Refilling Procedure — an in vivo Update (United States)

    Nishi, Okihiro; Nishi, Yutaro; Chang, S.; Nishi, Kayo


    Purpose To investigate whether a newly developed lens refilling procedure can provide some accommodation in monkey eyes and to evaluate the difference in accommodation with different degrees of capsular bag refilling. Setting Jinshikai Medical Foundation, Nishi Eye Hospital, Osaka, Japan. Design Experimental monkey study. Methods Following a central 3–4 mm continuous curvilinear capsulorhexis, phacoemulsification was performed in the usual manner. A novel accommodative membrane intraocular lens for sealing capsular opening was implanted into the capsular bag. Silicone polymers were injected beneath the intraocular lens into the capsular bag through the delivery hole. In three study groups, each with six monkey eyes, the lens capsule was refilled with 0.08 ml corresponding to 65% bag volume, 0.1 ml corresponding to 80% bag volume, and 0.125 ml of silicone polymers corresponding to 100% bag volume, respectively. To calculate the accommodation-amplitudes achieved, automated refractometry was performed before and 1 hour after the topical 4% pilocarpine application before and four weeks after surgery. Results The refilling technique was successful in all monkeys without polymer leakage. Accommodation-amplitudes attained were 2.56 ± 0.74 dioptries (D), 2.42 ± 1.00D, and 2.71 ± 0.63D, respectively, 4 weeks after surgery in the three study groups. Conclusions Using the technique, some accommodation could be obtained in the young monkey eyes. Leakage of the injectable silicone polymer and anterior capsular opacification at least in the visual axis could be avoided. The results suggest that this lens refilling procedure warrants further studies for a possible clinical application. PMID:24461501

  4. Noise improves visual motion discrimination via a stochastic resonance-like phenomenon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mario Treviño


    Full Text Available The stochastic resonance (SR is a phenomenon in which adding a moderate amount of noise can improve the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR and performance of nonlinear systems. SR occurs in all sensory modalities including the visual system in which noise can enhance contrast detection sensitivity and the perception of ambiguous figures embedded in static scenes. Here, we explored how adding background white pixel-noise to a random dot motion (RDM stimulus produced changes in visual motion discrimination in healthy human adults. We found that, although the average reaction times remained constant, an intermediate level of noise improved the subjects' ability to discriminate motion direction in the RDM task. The psychophysical responses followed an inverted U-like function of the input noise, whereas the incorrect responses with short reaction times did not exhibit such modulation by external noise. Moreover, by applying stimulus and noisy signals to different eyes, we found that the SR phenomenon occurred presumably in the primary visual cortex, where these two signals first converge. Our results suggest that a stochastic resonance-like phenomenon mediates the improvement of visual motion perception in the RDM task.

  5. Noise Improves Visual Motion Discrimination via a Stochastic Resonance-Like Phenomenon (United States)

    Treviño, Mario; De la Torre-Valdovinos, Braniff; Manjarrez, Elias


    The stochastic resonance (SR) is a phenomenon in which adding a moderate amount of noise can improve the signal-to-noise ratio and performance of non-linear systems. SR occurs in all sensory modalities including the visual system in which noise can enhance contrast detection sensitivity and the perception of ambiguous figures embedded in static scenes. Here, we explored how adding background white pixel-noise to a random dot motion (RDM) stimulus produced changes in visual motion discrimination in healthy human adults. We found that, although the average reaction times (RTs) remained constant, an intermediate level of noise improved the subjects’ ability to discriminate motion direction in the RDM task. The psychophysical responses followed an inverted U-like function of the input noise, whereas the incorrect responses with short RTs did not exhibit such modulation by external noise. Moreover, by applying stimulus and noisy signals to different eyes, we found that the SR phenomenon occurred presumably in the primary visual cortex, where these two signals first converge. Our results suggest that a SR-like phenomenon mediates the improvement of visual motion perception in the RDM task. PMID:27932960

  6. A double dissociation of the acuity and crowding limits to letter identification, and the promise of improved visual screening. (United States)

    Song, Shuang; Levi, Dennis M; Pelli, Denis G


    Here, we systematically explore the size and spacing requirements for identifying a letter among other letters. We measure acuity for flanked and unflanked letters, centrally and peripherally, in normals and amblyopes. We find that acuity, overlap masking, and crowding each demand a minimum size or spacing for readable text. Just measuring flanked and unflanked acuity is enough for our proposed model to predict the observer's threshold size and spacing for letters at any eccentricity. We also find that amblyopia in adults retains the character of the childhood condition that caused it. Amblyopia is a developmental neural deficit that can occur as a result of either strabismus or anisometropia in childhood. Peripheral viewing during childhood due to strabismus results in amblyopia that is crowding limited, like peripheral vision. Optical blur of one eye during childhood due to anisometropia without strabismus results in amblyopia that is acuity limited, like blurred vision. Furthermore, we find that the spacing:acuity ratio of flanked and unflanked acuity can distinguish strabismic amblyopia from purely anisometropic amblyopia in nearly perfect agreement with lack of stereopsis. A scatter diagram of threshold spacing versus acuity, one point per patient, for several diagnostic groups, reveals the diagnostic power of flanked acuity testing. These results and two demonstrations indicate that the sensitivity of visual screening tests can be improved by using flankers that are more tightly spaced and letter like. Finally, in concert with Strappini, Pelli, Di Pace, and Martelli (submitted), we jointly report a double dissociation between acuity and crowding. Two clinical conditions-anisometropic amblyopia and apperceptive agnosia-each selectively impair either acuity A or the spacing:acuity ratio S/A, not both. Furthermore, when we specifically estimate crowding, we find a double dissociation between acuity and crowding. Models of human object recognition will need to

  7. Music training improves verbal but not visual memory: cross-sectional and longitudinal explorations in children. (United States)

    Ho, Yim-Chi; Cheung, Mei-Chun; Chan, Agnes S


    The hypothesis that music training can improve verbal memory was tested in children. The results showed that children with music training demonstrated better verbal but not visual memory than did their counterparts without such training. When these children were followed up after a year, those who had begun or continued music training demonstrated significant verbal memory improvement. Students who discontinued the training did not show any improvement. Contrary to the differences in verbal memory between the groups, their changes in visual memory were not significantly different. Consistent with previous findings for adults (A. S. Chan, Y. Ho, & M. Cheung, 1998), the results suggest that music training systematically affects memory processing in accordance with possible neuroanatomical modifications in the left temporal lobe.

  8. Amplitude of Accommodation and its Relation to Refractive Errors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abraham Lekha


    Full Text Available Aims: To evaluate the relationship between amplitude of accommodation and refractive errors in the peri-presbyopic age group. Materials and Methods: Three hundred and sixteen right eyes of 316 consecutive patients in the age group 35-50 years who attended our outpatient clinic were studied. Emmetropes, hypermetropes and myopes with best-corrected visual acuity of 6/6 J1 in both eyes were included. The amplitude of accommodation (AA was calculated by measuring the near point of accommodation (NPA. In patients with more than ± 2 diopter sphere correction for distance, the NPA was also measured using appropriate soft contact lenses. Results: There was a statistically significant difference in AA between myopes and hypermetropes ( P P P P P P >0.5. Conclusion: Our study showed higher amplitude of accommodation among myopes between 35 and 44 years compared to emmetropes and hypermetropes

  9. Visual evoked potentials (VEP and visual acuity improvement after cytidine 52 -diphosphocholine (CDP-Choline therapy in amblyopic patient

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Regina Halfeld Furtado de Mendonça


    Full Text Available Citicoline may be used in many neurological disorders. Combined treatment of citicoline with patching in amblyopia has previously been researched. The purpose of this paper is to illustrate the effect of citicoline in non-patching amblyopic patient. A 11-year-old amblyopic boy underwent complete ophthalmological examinations, including VEP with flash and pattern stimulus. Two averages of 100 sweep were performed for flash stimulus. Pattern reversal stimulus obtained with high contrast was performed with 60', 30' and 15' checks stimuli. The VEP was repeated 90 days later after a therapy with citicoline and vitamin and the results compared with the responses of the previous recording session. The visual acuity (VA was 0,7 in the RE and 1,0 in the LE. The VEP pattern amplitude was normal in both eyes. Delayed in latency was detected for all spatial frequency stimulus (SFS in the RE. Delay in latency was detected only for high SFS in the LE. After the treatment, the VA was 1,0 in both eyes. The latency was normalized with low SFS on the RE and with high SFS on the LE. The flash VEP was normal before and after the therapy. In conclusion, the citicoline demonstrated that it was effective in the treatment of amblyopic eye without patching. The VA and the VEP latency improvement demonstrated that the citicoline enhance the transmission of the electric impulse from retina to visual cortex. Further research is required to understand the immediate and long-term effect of coline treatment in amblyopic patients.

  10. Concurrent visuomotor behaviour improves form discrimination in a patient with visual form agnosia. (United States)

    Schenk, Thomas; Milner, A David


    It is now well established that the visual brain is divided into two visual streams, the ventral and the dorsal stream. Milner and Goodale have suggested that the ventral stream is dedicated for processing vision for perception and the dorsal stream vision for action [A.D. Milner & M.A. Goodale (1995) The Visual Brain in Action, Oxford University Press, Oxford]. However, it is possible that ongoing processes in the visuomotor stream will nevertheless have an effect on perceptual processes. This possibility was examined in the present study. We have examined the visual form-discrimination performance of the form-agnosic patient D.F. with and without a concurrent visuomotor task, and found that her performance was significantly improved in the former condition. This suggests that the visuomotor behaviour provides cues that enhance her ability to recognize the form of the target object. In control experiments we have ruled out proprioceptive and efferent cues, and therefore propose that D.F. can, to a significant degree, access the object's visuomotor representation in the dorsal stream. Moreover, we show that the grasping-induced perceptual improvement disappears if the target objects only differ with respect to their shape but not their width. This suggests that shape information per se is not used for this grasping task.

  11. Microperimetric Biofeedback Training Improved Visual Acuity after Successful Macular Hole Surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomoko Ueda-Consolvo


    Full Text Available Purpose. To evaluate the efficacy of setting a preferred retinal locus relocation target (PRT and performing Macular Integrity Assessment (MAIA biofeedback training in patients showing insufficient recovery of best corrected visual acuity (BCVA despite successful closure of an idiopathic macular hole (MH. Methods. Retrospective interventional case series. Nine eyes of 9 consecutive patients with the decimal BCVA of less than 0.6 at more than 3 months after successful MH surgery were included. A PRT was chosen based on MAIA microperimetry and the patients underwent MAIA biofeedback training. BCVA, reading speed, fixation stability, and 63% bivariate contour ellipse area (BCEA were evaluated before and after the training. Statistical analysis was carried out using paired Student’s t-test. Results. PRT was chosen on the nasal side of the closed MH fovea in 8 patients. After the MAIA training, BCVA improved in all patients. The mean logMAR value of BCVA significantly improved from 0.33 to 0.12 (p=0.007. Reading speed improved in all patients (p=0.29, fixation stability improved in 5 patients (p=0.70, and 63% BCEA improved in 7 patients (p=0.21, although these improvements were not statistically significant. Conclusion. MAIA biofeedback training improved visual acuity in patients with insufficient recovery of BCVA after successful MH surgery.

  12. Evaluation of Ocular Accommodation, Convergence and Fusional Vergence Changes during Ramadan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyed Hosein Hoseini-Yazdi


    Full Text Available Purpose: There are a few researches regarding the effects of Islamic fasting on visual system. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of Ramadan fasting on the amplitude of accommodation (AA, near point of convergence (NPC, positive and negative fusional vergences (PFV and NFV, respectively in visually healthy fasters. Methods: AA, NPC, PFV and NFV at far (6m and near (40cm were measured in 30 male students. Nutritional habits in a week before each examination visit were assessed with the Food Frequency Questionnaire (FFQ. Results: Mean age and fasting average experience were 23.9 and 10 years, respectively. AA and NPC showed significant changes (p<0.05 during Ramadan; but there was no significant difference before and after Ramadan in these parameters. NFV blur, break and recovery points at far significantly reduced in Ramadan than before (p=0.003, p=0.005, p=0.003, respectively with insignificant compensation after Ramadan. Results showed that there was no significant correlation between changes in diet pattern and AA, NPC and distant NFV variations (p<0.05. Conclusion: Some visual problems may be reported at far and near visual tasks during Ramadan; but most of the problems may be resolved after it. Some visual preparations may be needed for more effective visual activities during Ramadan; essentially for students with intensive visual tasks. Vision therapy may be suggested along with nutrient pattern improvement during Ramadan.

  13. Improving Target Detection in Visual Search Through the Augmenting Multi-Sensory Cues (United States)


    target detection, visual search James Merlo , Joseph E. Mercado, Jan B.F. Van Erp, Peter A. Hancock University of Central Florida 12201 Research Parkway...cued control condition (e.g. Fisher et al. 1989; Fisher and Tan 1989; Hofer, Palen, and Possolo 1993; Merlo and Hancock 2011; Sklar and Sarter the improvements encountered in bi-modal forms of presentation ( Merlo , Duley, and Hancock 2010) and thus the present extension into the exploration

  14. Elbow arthroscopy: a new setup to avoid visual paradox and improve triangulation. (United States)

    Sinha, Apurv; Pydah, Satya Kanth V; Webb, Mark


    Elbow arthroscopy is a useful diagnostic and therapeutic tool for various conditions. Conventional arthroscopy with the patient in the prone or lateral position where the screen is placed on the opposite side makes it difficult to interpret the image, results in visual paradox, and is associated with difficult triangulation. We present a modified setup for the operating room to help eliminate these problems and improve triangulation.

  15. Effect of Vision Therapy on Accommodation in Myopic Chinese Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Ming-Leung Ma


    Full Text Available Introduction. We evaluated the effectiveness of office-based accommodative/vergence therapy (OBAVT with home reinforcement to improve accommodative function in myopic children with poor accommodative response. Methods. This was a prospective unmasked pilot study. 14 Chinese myopic children aged 8 to 12 years with at least 1 D of lag of accommodation were enrolled. All subjects received 12 weeks of 60-minute office-based accommodative/vergence therapy (OBAVT with home reinforcement. Primary outcome measure was the change in monocular lag of accommodation from baseline visit to 12-week visit measured by Shinnipon open-field autorefractor. Secondary outcome measures were the changes in accommodative amplitude and monocular accommodative facility. Results. All participants completed the study. The lag of accommodation at baseline visit was 1.29 ± 0.21 D and it was reduced to 0.84 ± 0.19 D at 12-week visit. This difference (−0.46 ± 0.22 D; 95% confidence interval: −0.33 to −0.58 D is statistically significant (p<0.0001. OBAVT also increased the amplitude and facility by 3.66 ± 3.36 D (p=0.0013; 95% confidence interval: 1.72 to 5.60 D and 10.9 ± 4.8 cpm (p<0.0001; 95% confidence interval: 8.1 to 13.6 cpm, respectively. Conclusion. Standardized 12 weeks of OBAVT with home reinforcement is able to significantly reduce monocular lag of accommodation and increase monocular accommodative amplitude and facility. A randomized clinical trial designed to investigate the effect of vision therapy on myopia progression is warranted.

  16. Audio-visual feedback improves the BCI performance in the navigational control of a humanoid robot. (United States)

    Tidoni, Emmanuele; Gergondet, Pierre; Kheddar, Abderrahmane; Aglioti, Salvatore M


    Advancement in brain computer interfaces (BCI) technology allows people to actively interact in the world through surrogates. Controlling real humanoid robots using BCI as intuitively as we control our body represents a challenge for current research in robotics and neuroscience. In order to successfully interact with the environment the brain integrates multiple sensory cues to form a coherent representation of the world. Cognitive neuroscience studies demonstrate that multisensory integration may imply a gain with respect to a single modality and ultimately improve the overall sensorimotor performance. For example, reactivity to simultaneous visual and auditory stimuli may be higher than to the sum of the same stimuli delivered in isolation or in temporal sequence. Yet, knowledge about whether audio-visual integration may improve the control of a surrogate is meager. To explore this issue, we provided human footstep sounds as audio feedback to BCI users while controlling a humanoid robot. Participants were asked to steer their robot surrogate and perform a pick-and-place task through BCI-SSVEPs. We found that audio-visual synchrony between footsteps sound and actual humanoid's walk reduces the time required for steering the robot. Thus, auditory feedback congruent with the humanoid actions may improve motor decisions of the BCI's user and help in the feeling of control over it. Our results shed light on the possibility to increase robot's control through the combination of multisensory feedback to a BCI user.

  17. Nonvisual motor learning improves visual motion perception: evidence from violating the two-thirds power law. (United States)

    Beets, I A M; Rösler, F; Fiehler, K


    Few studies have reported direct effects of motor learning on visual perception, especially when using novel movements for the motor system. Atypical motor behaviors that violate movement constraints provide an excellent opportunity to study action-to-perception transfer. In our study, we passively trained blindfolded participants on movements violating the 2/3 power law. Before and after motor training, participants performed a visual discrimination task in which they decided whether two consecutive movements were same or different. For motor training, we randomly assigned the participants to two motor training groups or a control group. The motor training group experienced either a weak or a strong elliptic velocity profile on a circular trajectory that matched one of the visual test stimuli. The control group was presented with linear trajectories unrelated to the viewed movements. After each training session, participants actively reproduced the movement to assess motor learning. The group trained on the strong elliptic velocity profile reproduced movements with increasing elliptic velocity profiles while circular geometry remained constant. Furthermore, both training groups improved in visual discrimination ability for the learned movement as well as for highly similar movements. Participants in the control group, however, did not show any improvements in the visual discrimination task nor did participants who did not acquire the trained movement. The present results provide evidence for a transfer from action to perception which generalizes to highly related movements and depends on the success of motor learning. Moreover, under specific conditions, it seems to be possible to acquire movements deviating from the 2/3 power law.

  18. Adapting the iSNOBAL model for improved visualization in a GIS environment (United States)

    Johansen, W. J.; Delparte, D.


    Snowmelt is a primary means of crucial water resources in much of the western United States. Researchers are developing models that estimate snowmelt to aid in water resource management. One such model is the image snowcover energy and mass balance (iSNOBAL) model. It uses input climate grids to simulate the development and melting of snowpack in mountainous regions. This study looks at applying this model to the Reynolds Creek Experimental Watershed in southwestern Idaho, utilizing novel approaches incorporating geographic information systems (GIS). To improve visualization of the iSNOBAL model, we have adapted it to run in a GIS environment. This type of environment is suited to both the input grid creation and the visualization of results. The data used for input grid creation can be stored locally or on a web-server. Kriging interpolation embedded within Python scripts are used to create air temperature, soil temperature, humidity, and precipitation grids, while built-in GIS and existing tools are used to create solar radiation and wind grids. Additional Python scripting is then used to perform model calculations. The final product is a user-friendly and accessible version of the iSNOBAL model, including the ability to easily visualize and interact with model results, all within a web- or desktop-based GIS environment. This environment allows for interactive manipulation of model parameters and visualization of the resulting input grids for the model calculations. Future work is moving towards adapting the model further for use in a 3D gaming engine for improved visualization and interaction.

  19. Significant improvement in dynamic visual acuity after cataract surgery: a promising potential parameter for functional vision.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mingxin Ao

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: Dynamic visual acuity (DVA is a relatively independent parameter for evaluating the ability to distinguish details of a moving target. The present study has been designed to discuss the extent to which age-related cataract impacts DVA in elderly individuals and to determine whether it could be restored after bilateral phacoemulsification combined with intraocular lens implantation surgery. METHODS: Twenty-six elderly cataract patients scheduled for binocular cataract surgery and 30 elderly volunteers without cataract were enrolled in the study. DVA at 15, 30, 60 and 90 degree per second (dps was assessed, and velocity-dependent visual acuity decreases between consecutive speed levels were calculated. RESULTS: Compared with the control group, the patient group exhibited significantly worse DVA performance at all speed levels (p<0.001, and the decreases in velocity-dependent visual acuity were more serious in the patient group at the intervals of 0-15 dps (p<0.001, 15-30 dps (p = 0.007 and 30-60 dps (p = 0.008. Postoperatively, DVA performance at every speed level in the patient group clearly improved (p<0.001 and recovered to levels compatible to the control group. The decrease in visual acuity with increasing speed was less pronounced than during the preoperative phase (p0-15 dps = 0.001, p15-30 dps<0.001 and p30-60 dps = 0.001 and became similar to that of the control group. The postoperative visual benefit regarding DVA was more pronounced than the improvement in static visual acuity (p15 dps = 0.001 and p<0.001 at 30 dps, 60 dps and 90 dps. CONCLUSIONS: The impact of age-related cataract on DVA was more severe than its effects on static visual acuity. After cataract surgery, not only static vision of the patients was restored markedly, but also the dynamic vision. DVA could be an important adjunct to the current evaluation system of functional vision, thereby meriting additional attention in clinical assessment.

  20. Playing shooter and driving videogames improves top-down guidance in visual search. (United States)

    Wu, Sijing; Spence, Ian


    Playing action videogames is known to improve visual spatial attention and related skills. Here, we showed that playing action videogames also improves classic visual search, as well as the ability to locate targets in a dual search that mimics certain aspects of an action videogame. In Experiment 1A, first-person shooter (FPS) videogame players were faster than nonplayers in both feature search and conjunction search, and in Experiment 1B, they were faster and more accurate in a peripheral search and identification task while simultaneously performing a central search. In Experiment 2, we showed that 10 h of play could improve the performance of nonplayers on each of these tasks. Three different genres of videogames were used for training: two action games and a 3-D puzzle game. Participants who played an action game (either an FPS or a driving game) achieved greater gains on all search tasks than did those who trained using the puzzle game. Feature searches were faster after playing an action videogame, suggesting that players developed a better target template to guide search in a top-down manner. The results of the dual search suggest that, in addition to enhancing the ability to divide attention, playing an action game improves the top-down guidance of attention to possible target locations. The results have practical implications for the development of training tools to improve perceptual and cognitive skills.

  1. Improvements in clinical and functional vision and perceived visual disability after first and second eye cataract surgery


    Elliott, D; Patla, A.; Bullimore, M.


    AIMS—To determine the improvements in clinical and functional vision and perceived visual disability after first and second eye cataract surgery.
METHODS—Clinical vision (monocular and binocular high and low contrast visual acuity, contrast sensitivity, and disability glare), functional vision (face identity and expression recognition, reading speed, word acuity, and mobility orientation), and perceived visual disability (Activities of Daily Vision Scale) were measured in 25 subjects before a...

  2. Improving aviation safety with information visualization: Airflow hazard display for helicopter pilots (United States)

    Aragon, Cecilia Rodriguez

    Many aircraft accidents each year are caused by encounters with airflow hazards near the ground, such as vortices or other turbulence. While such hazards frequently pose problems to fixed-wing aircraft, they are especially dangerous to helicopters, whose pilots often have to operate into confined areas or under operationally stressful conditions. Pilots are often unaware of these invisible hazards while simultaneously attending to other aspects of aircraft operation close to the ground. Recent advances in aviation sensor technology offer the potential for aircraft-based sensors that can gather large amounts of airflow velocity data in real time. This development is likely to lead to the production of onboard detection systems that can convey detailed, specific information about imminent airflow hazards to pilots. A user interface is required that can present extensive amounts of data to the pilot in a useful manner in real time, yet not distract from the pilot's primary task of flying the aircraft. In this dissertation, we address the question of how best to present safety-critical visual information to a cognitively overloaded user in real time. We designed an airflow hazard visualization system according to user-centered design principles, implemented the system in a high fidelity, aerodynamically realistic rotorcraft flight simulator, and evaluated it via usability studies with experienced military and civilian helicopter pilots. We gathered both subjective data from the pilots' evaluations of the visualizations, and objective data from the pilots' performance during the landing simulations. Our study demonstrated that information visualization of airflow hazards, when presented to helicopter pilots in the simulator, dramatically improved their ability to land safely under turbulent conditions. Although we focused on one particular aviation application, the results may be relevant to user interfaces and information visualization in other safety

  3. Improving the spelling ability of Grade 3 learners through visual imaging teaching strategies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annalene van Staden


    Full Text Available This paper discusses two key cognitive theories underlying spelling acquisition, i.e. the developmental stage theory and the overlapping waves theory. Within the developmental stage framework, learning to spell is viewed as a process of moving from spelling that represents sound to spelling that represents meaning, following a sequence of qualitatively distinct stages in a linear fashion. In contrast, proponents of the overlapping waves theory emphasise the use of different instructional approaches at any given time. This model is process-orientated and stresses the adaptation of strategies to meet the needs of the task. Other researchers maintain that spelling is a natural process and emphasise the importance of invented spelling practices and creative writing embedded in whole-language programmes. There is, however, a lack of research validating the efficacy of an exclusively naturalistic approach to spelling. In general, research findings support a combination of incidental learning and direct instruction as most beneficial for learners with spelling problems. Thus, this study was undertaken to develop a visual imagery programme for Grade 3 learners by compromising between direct instruction in specific spelling skills (i.e. visual imaging strategies whilst also immersing learners in meaningful authentic reading activities. It was hypothesised that the spelling abilities of Afrikaans-speaking Grade 3 learners can be improved significantly by exposing them to a spelling programme that focuses on visual imaging, immediate feedback and self-correcting strategies. Researchers opposed to visual teaching methods for spelling moreover postulate, among other things, that learners with auditory preferences will not benefit from a visual approach to the teaching of spelling. In this empirical study the possible relation between preferential learning styles and spelling performance was also investigated.

  4. Improved Visualization of Alphitobius diaperinus (Panzer (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae—Part II: Alimentary Canal Components and Measurements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tawni L. Crippen


    Full Text Available Alphitobius diaperinus (Panzer (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae is a pest of stored food products and problematic to every type of poultry production facility. Larvae and adults can ingest and harbor foodborne and poultry pathogens. Determining the efficiency of this insect’s capacity to transmit disease is critical to improving management of A. diaperinus on poultry facilities and providing a safe food supply for human consumption. However, a deficiency exists in the literature reporting measurements of the gut and its defined segments. Previous reports include line drawing depictions, which aid little in the determination of the pathogen reservoir potential of these insects. Advances in technology allowed more accurate visualization and precise measurement of gross anatomical features of the alimentary canal. A photographic depiction to aid the researcher in the visualization of anatomical features and accurate measurements of the alimentary canal for these insects is presented here.

  5. How Visual Management for Continuous Improvement Might Guide and Affect Hospital Staff: A Case Study. (United States)

    Ulhassan, Waqar; von Thiele Schwarz, Ulrica; Westerlund, Hugo; Sandahl, Christer; Thor, Johan


    Visual management (VM) tools such as whiteboards, often employed in Lean thinking applications, are intended to be helpful in improving work processes in different industries including health care. It remains unclear, however, how VM is actually applied in health care Lean interventions and how it might influence the clinical staff. We therefore examined how Lean-inspired VM using whiteboards for continuous improvement efforts related to the hospital staff's work and collaboration. Within a case study design, we combined semistructured interviews, nonparticipant observations, and photography on 2 cardiology wards. The fate of VM differed between the 2 wards; in one, it was well received by the staff and enhanced continuous improvement efforts, whereas in the other ward, it was not perceived to fit in the work flow or to make enough sense in order to be sustained. Visual management may enable the staff and managers to allow communication across time and facilitate teamwork by enabling the inclusion of team members who are not present simultaneously; however, its adoption and value seem contingent on finding a good fit with the local context. A combination of continuous improvement and VM may be helpful in keeping the staff engaged in the change process in the long run.

  6. Reasonable Accommodation in Training Safety. (United States)

    Sandoz, Jeff

    A pictograph and icon-driven training program has been specifically designed for educators who are responsible for teaching the developmentally disabled regarding the safe use of hazardous chemicals. In alignment with the Americans with Disabilities Act, it offers "reasonable accommodation" by those who educate and train this special…

  7. A centre for accommodative vergence motor control (United States)

    Wilson, D.


    Latencies in accommodation, accommodative-vergence, and pupil-diameter responses to changing accommodation stimuli, as well as latencies in pupil response to light-intensity changes were measured. From the information obtained, a block diagram has been derived that uses the least number of blocks for representing the accommodation, accommodative-vergence, and pupil systems. The signal transmission delays over the various circuits of the model have been determined and compared to known experimental physiological-delay data. The results suggest the existence of a motor center that controls the accommodative vergence and is completely independent of the accommodation system.

  8. Relationship of ocular accommodation and motor skills performance in developmental coordination disorder. (United States)

    Rafique, Sara A; Northway, Nadia


    Ocular accommodation provides a well-focussed image, feedback for accurate eye movement control, and cues for depth perception. To accurately perform visually guided motor tasks, integration of ocular motor systems is essential. Children with motor coordination impairment are established to be at higher risk of accommodation anomalies. The aim of the present study was to examine the relationship between ocular accommodation and motor tasks, which are often overlooked, in order to better understand the problems experienced by children with motor coordination impairment. Visual function, gross and fine motor skills were assessed in children with developmental coordination disorder (DCD) and typically developing control children. Children with DCD had significantly poorer accommodation facility and amplitude dynamics compared to controls. Results indicate a relationship between impaired accommodation and motor skills. Specifically, accommodation anomalies correlated with visual motor, upper limb and fine dexterity task performance. Consequently, we argue accommodation anomalies influence the ineffective coordination of action and perception in DCD. Furthermore, reading disabilities were related to poorer motor performance. We postulate the role of the fastigial nucleus as a common pathway for accommodation and motor deficits. Implications of the findings and recommended visual screening protocols are discussed.

  9. Enhanced stimulus strength improves visual cognition in aging and Alzheimer's disease. (United States)

    Cronin-Golomb, Alice; Gilmore, Grover C; Neargarder, Sandy; Morrison, Sarah R; Laudate, Thomas M


    Deficits in visual cognition in Alzheimer's disease (AD) arise from neuropathological changes in higher-order association areas of the cortex and from defective input from lower-level visual processing areas. We investigated whether enhanced signal strength may lead to improvement of visual cognition in AD. We tested 35 individuals with probable AD, 35 age-matched elderly control (EC) and 58 young control (YC) adults on letter identification, word reading, picture naming, discrimination of unfamiliar faces, and pattern completion. The contrast sensitivity step-difference across an independent sample of AD and EC groups was used in calculating an image filter, from which we produced stimulus-strength conditions of low-degraded, medium-normal, and high-enhanced. Using this filter we created a hypothetical proximal-strength equivalence between AD at medium strength and EC at low strength, and between AD at high strength and EC at medium strength. For letter identification, word reading, picture naming, and face discrimination, medium strength elicited AD accuracy levels and reaction times that were similar to those of EC at low strength. On picture naming, increased strength reduced perceptual-type errors for EC and AD and random errors for AD. For word reading, high strength elicited AD accuracy levels and reaction times that were equivalent to those of EC at medium strength. We saw no effect of signal-strength manipulation on performance of pattern completion, possibly owing to the complex cognitive demands of that task or to the inadequacy of the filter for its images. The results indicate that putative AD-EC differences in cognition directly reflect contrast sensitivity differences between the groups. Enhancement of stimulus strength can ameliorate vision-based deficits and lead to improvement in some aspects of cognitive performance. These results suggest new non-pharmacological avenues to explore in the attempt to improve cognition in elderly adults and

  10. An improved visualization-based force-measurement technique for short-duration hypersonic facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laurence, Stuart J.; Karl, Sebastian [Institute of Aerodynamics and Flow Technology, Spacecraft Section, German Aerospace Center (DLR), Goettingen (Germany)


    This article is concerned with describing and exploring the limitations of an improved version of a recently proposed visualization-based technique for the measurement of forces and moments in short-duration hypersonic wind tunnels. The technique is based on tracking the motion of a free-flying body over a sequence of high-speed visualizations; while this idea is not new in itself, the use of high-speed digital cinematography combined with a highly accurate least-squares tracking algorithm allows improved results over what have been previously possible with such techniques. The technique precision is estimated through the analysis of artificially constructed and experimental test images, and the resulting error in acceleration measurements is characterized. For wind-tunnel scale models, position measurements to within a few microns are shown to be readily attainable. Image data from two previous experimental studies in the T5 hypervelocity shock tunnel are then reanalyzed with the improved technique: the uncertainty in the mean drag acceleration is shown to be reduced to the order of the flow unsteadiness, 2-3%, and time-resolved acceleration measurements are also shown to be possible. The response time of the technique for the configurations studied is estimated to be {proportional_to}0.5 ms. Comparisons with computations using the DLR TAU code also yield agreement to within the overall experimental uncertainty. Measurement of the pitching moment for blunt geometries still appears challenging, however. (orig.)

  11. An improved visualization-based force-measurement technique for short-duration hypersonic facilities (United States)

    Laurence, Stuart J.; Karl, Sebastian


    This article is concerned with describing and exploring the limitations of an improved version of a recently proposed visualization-based technique for the measurement of forces and moments in short-duration hypersonic wind tunnels. The technique is based on tracking the motion of a free-flying body over a sequence of high-speed visualizations; while this idea is not new in itself, the use of high-speed digital cinematography combined with a highly accurate least-squares tracking algorithm allows improved results over what have been previously possible with such techniques. The technique precision is estimated through the analysis of artificially constructed and experimental test images, and the resulting error in acceleration measurements is characterized. For wind-tunnel scale models, position measurements to within a few microns are shown to be readily attainable. Image data from two previous experimental studies in the T5 hypervelocity shock tunnel are then reanalyzed with the improved technique: the uncertainty in the mean drag acceleration is shown to be reduced to the order of the flow unsteadiness, 2-3%, and time-resolved acceleration measurements are also shown to be possible. The response time of the technique for the configurations studied is estimated to be ˜0.5 ms. Comparisons with computations using the DLR TAU code also yield agreement to within the overall experimental uncertainty. Measurement of the pitching moment for blunt geometries still appears challenging, however.

  12. Treatment of Partly Accommodative Esotropia With a High Accommodative Convergence-Accommodation Ratio

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    H.J. Simonsz (Huib)


    textabstractIn the June 1987 issue of the Archives, the results were published of a study by Kushner et al1 on the treatment of accommodative convergence excess, with bilateral medial rectus recessions or recessions with 14-mm posterior fixation sutures. Posterior fixation surgery was considered an





    This research aimed to improve the skill in appreciating dances owned by the students of Primary Teacher Education of Makassar State University, to improve the perception towards audio-visual based art appreciation, to increase the students’ interest in audio-visual based art education subject, and to increase the students’ responses to the subject. This research was classroom action research using the research design created by Kemmis & MC. Taggart, which was conducted to 42 students of Prim...

  14. Improvement of visual debugging tool. Shortening the elapsed time for getting data and adding new functions to compare/combine a set of visualized data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matsuda, Katsuyuki; Takemiya, Hiroshi


    The visual debugging tool 'vdebug' has been improved, which was designed for the debugging of programs for scientific computing. Improved were the following two points; (1) shortening the elapsed time required for getting appropriate data to visualize; (2) adding new functions which enable to compare and/or combine a set of visualized data originated from two or more different programs. As for shortening elapsed time for getting data, with the improved version of 'vdebug', we could achieve the following results; over hundred times shortening the elapsed time with dbx, pdbx of SX-4 and over ten times with ndb of SR2201. As for the new functions to compare/combine visualized data, it was confirmed that we could easily checked the consistency between the computational results obtained in each calculational steps on two different computers: SP and ONYX. In this report, we illustrate how the tool 'vdebug' has been improved with an example. (author)

  15. Visiting Richard Serra's "Promenade" sculpture improves postural control and judgment of subjective visual vertical. (United States)

    Kapoula, Zoï; Lang, Alexandre; Lê, Thanh-Thuan; Adenis, Marie-Sarah; Yang, Qing; Lipede, Gabi; Vernet, Marine


    Body sway while maintaining an upright quiet stance reflects an active process of balance based on the integration of visual, vestibular, somatosensory, and proprioceptive inputs. Richard Serra's Promenade sculpture featured in the 2008 Monumenta exhibition at the Grand Palais in Paris, France is herein hypothesized to have stimulated the body's vertical and longitudinal axes as it showcased five monumental rectangular solids pitched at a 1.69(°) angle. Using computerized dynamic posturography we measured the body sway of 23 visitors when fixating a cross, or when observing the artwork (fixating it or actively exploring it with eye movements) before and after walking around and alongside the sculpture (i.e., before and after a promenade). A first fixation at the sculpture increased medio-lateral stability (in terms of spectral power of body sway). Eye movement exploration in the depth of the sculpture increased antero-posterior stability [in terms of spectral power and canceling time (CT) of body sway] at the expense of medio-lateral stability (in terms of CT). Moreover, a medio-lateral instability associated with eye movement exploration before the promenade (in terms of body sway sensu stricto) was canceled after the promenade. Finally, the overall medio-lateral stability (in terms of spectral power) increased after the promenade. Fourteen additional visitors were asked to stand in a dark room and adjust a luminous line to what they considered to be the earth-vertical axis. The promenade executed within the sculpted environment afforded by Serra's monumental statuary works resulted in significantly improved performances on the subjective visual vertical test. We attribute these effects to the sculpted environment provided by the exhibition which may have acted as a kind of physiologic "training ground" thereby improving the visitors' overall sense of visual perspective, equilibrium, and gravity.

  16. Visiting Richard Serra’s Promenade sculpture improves postural control and judgment of subjective visual vertical.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zoï eKapoula


    Full Text Available Body sway while maintaining an upright quiet stance reflects an active process of balance based on the integration of visual, vestibular, somatosensory and proprioceptive inputs. Richard Serra’s Promenade sculpture featured in the 2008 Monumenta exhibition at the Grand Palais in Paris, France is herein hypothesised to have stimulated the body’s vertical and longitudinal axes as it showcased 5 monumental rectangular solids pitched at a 1.69° angle.Using computerised dynamic posturography we measured the body sway of 23 visitors when fixating a cross, or when observing the artwork (fixating it or actively exploring it with eye movements before and after walking around and alongside the sculpture (i.e., before and after a promenade. A first fixation at the sculpture increased medio-lateral stability (in terms of spectral power of body sway. Eye movement exploration in the depth of the sculpture increased antero-posterior stability (in terms of spectral power and cancelling time of body sway at the expense of medio-lateral stability (in terms of cancelling time. Moreover, a medio-lateral instability associated with eye movement exploration before the promenade (in terms of body sway sensu stricto was cancelled after the promenade. Finally, the overall medio-lateral stability (in terms of spectral power increased after the promenade.Fourteen additional visitors were asked to sit in a dark room and adjust a luminous line to what they considered to be the earth-vertical axis. The promenade executed within the sculpted environment afforded by Serra’s monumental statuary works resulted in significantly improved performances on the subjective visual vertical test.We attribute these effects to the sculpted environment provided by the exhibition which may have acted as a kind of physiologic training ground thereby improving the visitors’ overall sense of visual perspective, equilibrium and gravity.

  17. Active training and driving-specific feedback improve older drivers' visual search prior to lane changes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lavallière Martin


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Driving retraining classes may offer an opportunity to attenuate some effects of aging that may alter driving skills. Unfortunately, there is evidence that classroom programs (driving refresher courses do not improve the driving performance of older drivers. The aim of the current study was to evaluate if simulator training sessions with video-based feedback can modify visual search behaviors of older drivers while changing lanes in urban driving. Methods In order to evaluate the effectiveness of the video-based feedback training, 10 older drivers who received a driving refresher course and feedback about their driving performance were tested with an on-road standardized evaluation before and after participating to a simulator training program (Feedback group. Their results were compared to a Control group (12 older drivers who received the same refresher course and in-simulator active practice as the Feedback group without receiving driving-specific feedback. Results After attending the training program, the Control group showed no increase in the frequency of the visual inspection of three regions of interests (rear view and left side mirrors, and blind spot. In contrast, for the Feedback group, combining active training and driving-specific feedbacks increased the frequency of blind spot inspection by 100% (32.3 to 64.9% of verification before changing lanes. Conclusions These results suggest that simulator training combined with driving-specific feedbacks helped older drivers to improve their visual inspection strategies, and that in-simulator training transferred positively to on-road driving. In order to be effective, it is claimed that driving programs should include active practice sessions with driving-specific feedbacks. Simulators offer a unique environment for developing such programs adapted to older drivers' needs.

  18. Improving patient safety through education: how visual recognition skills may reduce medication errors on surgical wards

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher R. Davis


    Full Text Available Medication errors compromise patient safety and cost £500m per annum in the UK. Patients who forget the name of their medication may describe the appearance to the doctor. Nurses use recognition skills to assist in safe administration of medications. This study quantifies healthcare professionals’ accuracy in visually identifying medications. Members of the multidisciplinary team were asked to identify five commonly prescribed medications. Mean recognition rate (MRR was defined as the percentage of correct responses. Dunn’s multiple comparison tests quantified inter-professional variation. Fifty-six participants completed the study (93% response rate. MRRs were: pharmacists 61%; nurses 35%; doctors 19%; physiotherapists 11%. Pharmacists’ MRR were significantly higher than both doctors and physiotherapists (P<0.001. Nurses’ MRR was statistically comparable to pharmacists (P>0.05. The majority of healthcare professionals cannot accurately identify commonly prescribed medications on direct visualization. By increasing access to medication identification resources and improving undergraduate education and postgraduate training for all healthcare professionals, errors may be reduced and patient safety improved.

  19. Video game training to improve selective visual attention in older adults. (United States)

    Belchior, Patrícia; Marsiske, Michael; Sisco, Shannon M; Yam, Anna; Bavelier, Daphne; Ball, Karlene; Mann, William C


    The current study investigated the effect of video game training on older adult's useful field of view performance (the UFOV® test). Fifty-eight older adult participants were randomized to receive practice with the target action game (Medal of Honor), a placebo control arcade game (Tetris), a clinically validated UFOV training program, or into a no contact control group. Examining pretest-posttest change in selective visual attention, the UFOV improved significantly more than the game groups; all three intervention groups improved significantly more than no-contact controls. There was a lack of difference between the two game conditions, differing from findings with younger adults. Discussion considers whether games posing less challenge might still be effective interventions for elders, and whether optimal training dosages should be higher.

  20. Forging partnerships between optometrists and ergonomists to improve visual comfort and productivity in the workplace. (United States)

    Long, Jennifer


    Ergonomists and optometrists often have mutual clients/patients with complex visual needs in the workplace but communication between the professionals is usually indirect through the client/patient. This paper describes a joint professional development meeting between optometrists and ergonomists in Canberra, Australia, which included a discussion to explore how to improve communication between the two professions. Optometrists and ergonomists reported they would prefer more information before conducting assessments and providing advice. Vision screening forms commonly in use for computer workers were viewed as inadequate to meet these needs. Communication between the two professions was hampered by absence of contact details of the optometrist/ergonomist, perceptions that the other profession is too busy to talk, privacy considerations in sharing information and funding issues for shared care arrangements. There are opportunities for increasing awareness of good vision in workplaces. Communication between optometrists and ergonomists can be improved by developing information-sharing documents relevant to modern workplaces.

  1. Improved orbits and parallaxes for eight visual binaries with unrealistic previous masses using the Hipparcos parallax

    CERN Document Server

    Docobo, J A; Malkov, O Yu; Campo, P P; Chulkov, D A


    Improved orbits are presented for the visual binaries WDS 02366+1227, WDS 02434-6643, WDS 03244-1539, WDS 08507+1800, WDS 09128-6055, WDS 11532-1540, WDS 17375+2419, and WDS 22408-0333. The latest orbits for these binaries were demonstrating a great inconsistency between the systemic mass obtained through Kepler's Third Law and that calculated as a sum of their components' mass through standard mass-luminosity and mass-spectrum relationships. Our improvement allowed us to obtain consistent systemic masses for WDS 02434-6643 and WDS 09128-6055 without a need for changing the Hipparcos parallax. For the remaining 6 pairs, we suggest the use of their dynamical parallax as a reliable distance estimate unless more precise parallax is reported. Astrophysical and dynamical properties of individual objects are discussed.

  2. Functional clustering drives encoding improvement in a developing brain network during awake visual learning.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaspar Podgorski


    Full Text Available Sensory experience drives dramatic structural and functional plasticity in developing neurons. However, for single-neuron plasticity to optimally improve whole-network encoding of sensory information, changes must be coordinated between neurons to ensure a full range of stimuli is efficiently represented. Using two-photon calcium imaging to monitor evoked activity in over 100 neurons simultaneously, we investigate network-level changes in the developing Xenopus laevis tectum during visual training with motion stimuli. Training causes stimulus-specific changes in neuronal responses and interactions, resulting in improved population encoding. This plasticity is spatially structured, increasing tuning curve similarity and interactions among nearby neurons, and decreasing interactions among distant neurons. Training does not improve encoding by single clusters of similarly responding neurons, but improves encoding across clusters, indicating coordinated plasticity across the network. NMDA receptor blockade prevents coordinated plasticity, reduces clustering, and abolishes whole-network encoding improvement. We conclude that NMDA receptors support experience-dependent network self-organization, allowing efficient population coding of a diverse range of stimuli.

  3. 正视儿童视近条件下对显示终端不同颜色光线的调节反应%Effects of different colors on accommodation in emmetropic children when viewing a visual display terminal

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱晓伟; 付东; 蓝卫忠; 王冬梅; 赵峰; 杨智宽


    Objective To investigate the effects of different colors on accommodation in emmetropic children when viewing a visual display terminal (VDT).Methods Fourteen emmetropic children with normal color vision were enrolled in this cross-sectional study.They were required to read 7 automatically activated text displays on a VDT at 50 cm.The 7 texts were presented in 2series of patterns.The first series of patterns was set according to the background color, including black/white,white/red,white/green,white/blue.The second series of patterns was set according to the character color, including black/white, red/white, green/white, blue/white. Accommodative response was measured with an objective infrared autorefractor.The difference in accommodative response,accommodative lag and corrected accommodative lag among groups were then compared, using the randomized blocks analysis of variance.Results All the fourteen emmetropic children successfully completed the task.There were no statistically significant differences in the mean accommodative response (F=0.282,P=0.946) and accommodative lag (F=0.281,P=0.945) among the 7 texts.After correcting for longitudinal chromatic aberration, the mean accommodative lags were (0.77±0.21)D,(0.98±0.26)D,(0.34±0.23)D, (-0.26±0.25)D,(0.96±0.27)D, (0.30 ±0.28)D,and (-0.23±0.26)D,respectively. Multiple comparisons with the Bonferroni test showed that there were statistically significant differences between each pair of groups (P<0.01) except that between black/white and red/white.Conclusion Greater accommodative lag is detected in emmetropic children when reading texts in long wavelength light.The lag tend to reduce the response to short wavelength light and even accommodative lead is found to some extent for blue light.%目的 研究正视儿童在视近条件下(50 cm)对显示器终端不同波长光线的调节反应.方法 横断面研究.招募正视儿童14例,注视50 cm处显示屏上动态呈现的不同颜色字体/背景组

  4. Improving visual functions in adult amblyopia with combined perceptual training and transcranial random noise stimulation (tRNS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gianluca eCampana


    Full Text Available Amblyopia is a visual disorder due to an abnormal pattern of functional connectivity of the visual cortex and characterized by several visual deficits of spatial vision including impairments of visual acuity (VA and of the contrast sensitivity function (CSF. Despite being a developmental disorder caused by reduced visual stimulation during early life (critical period, several studies have shown that extensive visual perceptual training can improve VA and CSF in people with amblyopia even in adulthood. With the present study we assessed whether a much shorter perceptual training regime, in association with high-frequency transcranial electrical stimulation (hf-tRNS, was able to improve visual functions in a group of adult participants with amblyopia. Results show that, in comparison with previous studies where a large number sessions with a similar training regime were used (Polat, Ma-Naim, Belkin & Sagi, 2004, here just eight sessions of training in contrast detection under lateral masking conditions combined with hf-tRNS, were able to substantially improve VA and CSF in adults with amblyopia.

  5. Accommodation and pupil responses to random-dot stereograms. (United States)

    Suryakumar, Rajaraman; Allison, Robert


    We investigated the dynamics of accommodative and pupillary responses to random-dot stereograms presented in crossed and uncrossed disparity in six visually normal young adult subjects (mean age=25.8±3.1 years). Accommodation and pupil measures were monitored monocularly with a custom built photorefraction system while subjects fixated at the center of a random-dot stereogram. On each trial, the stereogram initially depicted a flat plane and then changed to depict a sinusoidal corrugation in depth while fixation remained constant. Increase in disparity specified depth resulted in pupil constriction during both crossed and uncrossed disparity presentations. The change in pupil size between crossed and uncrossed disparity conditions was not significantly different (p>0.05). The change in pupil size was also accompanied by a small concomitant increase in accommodation. In addition, the dynamic properties of pupil responses varied as a function of their initial (starting) diameter. The finding that accommodation and pupil responses increased with disparity regardless of the sign of retinal disparity suggests that these responses were driven by apparent depth rather than shifts in mean simulated distance of the stimulus. Presumably the need for the increased depth of focus when viewing stimuli extended in depth results in pupil constriction which also results in a concomitant change in accommodation. Starting position effects in pupil response confirm the non-linearity in the operating range of the pupil.

  6. "A retrospective cohort study for prognostic significance of visual acuity for near over that for distance in anisometropic amblyopia.".

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Singh Vinita


    Full Text Available A cohort of 50 anisometropic amblyopes, between the ages of 2.5 to 10 years, was studied retrospectively to assess the prognostic significance of visual acuity for near over that for distance. There is ample evidence in the literature for a significantly lower accommodative response in the anisometropic amblyopic eye. It has been proposed that the efferent accommodative dysfunction may be a fundamental and causative factor in anisometropic amblyopia. A reduced visual acuity for near over that for distance was found in 17 [34%] patients and in 11 out of these the near vision improved after an addition of +3.0D sph. When a reduced visual acuity for near, was obtained it was difficult to determine whether the visual afferent system (due to insufficient visual input, or the accommodation efferent mechanism was responsible. However an improvement in corrected near vision by addition of +3.0D sph. suggested an accommodative dysfunction. In patients with reduced visual acuity for near over that for distance, not only was the final visual outcome poor but also the onset of visual improvement in response to amblyopia therapy was delayed.

  7. Accommodative spasm in siblings: A unique finding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rutstein Robert


    Full Text Available Accommodative spasm is a rare condition occurring in children, adolescents, and young adults. A familial tendency for this binocular vision disorder has not been reported. I describe accommodative spasm occurring in a brother and sister. Both children presented on the same day with complaints of headaches and blurred vision. Treatment included cycloplegia drops and bifocals. Siblings of patients having accommodative spasm should receive a detailed eye exam with emphasis on recognition of accommodative spasm.

  8. Intraocular lens with accommodation capacity


    Dorronsoro, Carlos; Alejandre, Nicolás; Bekesi, Nandor; Marcos, Susana


    Intraocular lens with accommodation capacity comprising a first optical member (1) having a dynamic optical power, to which a second optical member (2) with a fixed optical power is affixed, in such a manner that at least a central part of each of one of one of the curved surfaces (2a, 2b) of the second optical member (2) and of at least one of the surfaces (1a, 1b) of the first optical member (1) are in contact with each other, the second optical member (2) and the first optical member (1) p...

  9. 46 CFR 108.143 - Accommodation space. (United States)


    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Accommodation space. 108.143 Section 108.143 Shipping... EQUIPMENT Construction and Arrangement Structural Fire Protection § 108.143 Accommodation space. (a) Each corridor bulkhead in an accommodation space must be an A class or B class bulkhead except if an A...

  10. Improved Visual Hook Capturing and Tracking for Precision Hoisting of Tower Crane

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanming Li


    Full Text Available To maintain safe operation of the tower crane, it is important to monitor the activities of the hook system. Visual monitoring and image recognition are the optimum methods for crane hook tracking and precision hoisting. High real-time performance and low computation requirements are required for tower crane hook capturing and tracking system which is implemented on the embedded Advanced RISC Machines (ARM processor or Microcontrol Unit (MCU. Using the lift rope of a tower crane as the target object, a new high-performance hook tracking method suitble for ARM processor or MCU applications is presented. The features of the lifting process are analyzed, and an improved progressive probabilistic Hough transform (IPPHT algorithm is proposed which canreduce capturing time by up to 80%. Combining color histogram with a binary search algorithm, an adaptive zooming method for precise hoisting is presented. Using this method the optimum zoom scale can be achieved within a few iterations.

  11. Improved dimensionally-reduced visual cortical network using stochastic noise modeling. (United States)

    Tao, Louis; Praissman, Jeremy; Sornborger, Andrew T


    In this paper, we extend our framework for constructing low-dimensional dynamical system models of large-scale neuronal networks of mammalian primary visual cortex. Our dimensional reduction procedure consists of performing a suitable linear change of variables and then systematically truncating the new set of equations. The extended framework includes modeling the effect of neglected modes as a stochastic process. By parametrizing and including stochasticity in one of two ways we show that we can improve the systems-level characterization of our dimensionally reduced neuronal network model. We examined orientation selectivity maps calculated from the firing rate distribution of large-scale simulations and stochastic dimensionally reduced models and found that by using stochastic processes to model the neglected modes, we were able to better reproduce the mean and variance of firing rates in the original large-scale simulations while still accurately predicting the orientation preference distribution.

  12. Visualizing stressful aspects of repetitive motion tasks and opportunities for ergonomic improvements using computer vision. (United States)

    Greene, Runyu L; Azari, David P; Hu, Yu Hen; Radwin, Robert G


    Patterns of physical stress exposure are often difficult to measure, and the metrics of variation and techniques for identifying them is underdeveloped in the practice of occupational ergonomics. Computer vision has previously been used for evaluating repetitive motion tasks for hand activity level (HAL) utilizing conventional 2D videos. The approach was made practical by relaxing the need for high precision, and by adopting a semi-automatic approach for measuring spatiotemporal characteristics of the repetitive task. In this paper, a new method for visualizing task factors, using this computer vision approach, is demonstrated. After videos are made, the analyst selects a region of interest on the hand to track and the hand location and its associated kinematics are measured for every frame. The visualization method spatially deconstructs and displays the frequency, speed and duty cycle components of tasks that are part of the threshold limit value for hand activity for the purpose of identifying patterns of exposure associated with the specific job factors, as well as for suggesting task improvements. The localized variables are plotted as a heat map superimposed over the video, and displayed in the context of the task being performed. Based on the intensity of the specific variables used to calculate HAL, we can determine which task factors most contribute to HAL, and readily identify those work elements in the task that contribute more to increased risk for an injury. Work simulations and actual industrial examples are described. This method should help practitioners more readily measure and interpret temporal exposure patterns and identify potential task improvements.

  13. Aversive reinforcement improves visual discrimination learning in free-flying honeybees.

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    Aurore Avarguès-Weber

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Learning and perception of visual stimuli by free-flying honeybees has been shown to vary dramatically depending on the way insects are trained. Fine color discrimination is achieved when both a target and a distractor are present during training (differential conditioning, whilst if the same target is learnt in isolation (absolute conditioning, discrimination is coarse and limited to perceptually dissimilar alternatives. Another way to potentially enhance discrimination is to increase the penalty associated with the distractor. Here we studied whether coupling the distractor with a highly concentrated quinine solution improves color discrimination of both similar and dissimilar colors by free-flying honeybees. As we assumed that quinine acts as an aversive stimulus, we analyzed whether aversion, if any, is based on an aversive sensory input at the gustatory level or on a post-ingestional malaise following quinine feeding. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We show that the presence of a highly concentrated quinine solution (60 mM acts as an aversive reinforcer promoting rejection of the target associated with it, and improving discrimination of perceptually similar stimuli but not of dissimilar stimuli. Free-flying bees did not use remote cues to detect the presence of quinine solution; the aversive effect exerted by this substance was mediated via a gustatory input, i.e. via a distasteful sensory experience, rather than via a post-ingestional malaise. CONCLUSION: The present study supports the hypothesis that aversion conditioning is important for understanding how and what animals perceive and learn. By using this form of conditioning coupled with appetitive conditioning in the framework of a differential conditioning procedure, it is possible to uncover discrimination capabilities that may remain otherwise unsuspected. We show, therefore, that visual discrimination is not an absolute phenomenon but can be modulated by experience.

  14. A visual tracking method based on improved online multiple instance learning (United States)

    He, Xianhui; Wei, Yuxing


    Visual tracking is an active research topic in the field of computer vision and has been well studied in the last decades. The method based on multiple instance learning (MIL) was recently introduced into the tracking task, which can solve the problem that template drift well. However, MIL method has relatively poor performance in running efficiency and accuracy, due to its strong classifiers updating strategy is complicated, and the speed of the classifiers update is not always same with the change of the targets' appearance. In this paper, we present a novel online effective MIL (EMIL) tracker. A new update strategy for strong classifier was proposed to improve the running efficiency of MIL method. In addition, to improve the t racking accuracy and stability of the MIL method, a new dynamic mechanism for learning rate renewal of the classifier and variable search window were proposed. Experimental results show that our method performs good performance under the complex scenes, with strong stability and high efficiency.

  15. Improving the extent of malignant glioma resection by dual intraoperative visualization approach.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilker Y Eyüpoglu

    Full Text Available Despite continuing debates around cytoreductive surgery in malignant gliomas, there is broad consensus that increased extent of tumor reduction improves overall survival. However, maximization of the extent of tumor resection is hampered by difficulty in intraoperative discrimination between normal and pathological tissue. In this context, two established methods for tumor visualization, fluorescence guided surgery with 5-ALA and intraoperative MRI (iMRI with integrated functional neuronavigation were investigated as a dual intraoperative visualization (DIV approach. Thirty seven patients presumably suffering from malignant gliomas (WHO grade III or IV according to radiological appearance were included. Twenty-one experimental sequences showing complete resection according to the 5-ALA technique were confirmed by iMRI. Fourteen sequences showing complete resection according to the 5-ALA technique could not be confirmed by iMRI, which detected residual tumor. Further analysis revealed that these sequences could be classified as functional grade II tumors (adjacent to eloquent brain areas. The combination of fluorescence guided resection and intraoperative evaluation by high field MRI significantly increased the extent of tumor resection in this subgroup of malignant gliomas located adjacent to eloquent areas from 61.7% to 100%; 5-ALA alone proved to be insufficient in attaining gross total resection without the danger of incurring postoperative neurological deterioration. Furthermore, in the case of functional grade III gliomas, iMRI in combination with functional neuronavigation was significantly superior to the 5-ALA resection technique. The extent of resection could be increased from 57.1% to 71.2% without incurring postoperative neurological deficits.

  16. A Small Motor Cortex Lesion Abolished Ocular Dominance Plasticity in the Adult Mouse Primary Visual Cortex and Impaired Experience-Dependent Visual Improvements (United States)

    Pielecka-Fortuna, Justyna; Kalogeraki, Evgenia; Greifzu, Franziska; Löwel, Siegrid


    It was previously shown that a small lesion in the primary somatosensory cortex (S1) prevented both cortical plasticity and sensory learning in the adult mouse visual system: While 3-month-old control mice continued to show ocular dominance (OD) plasticity in their primary visual cortex (V1) after monocular deprivation (MD), age-matched mice with a small photothrombotically induced (PT) stroke lesion in S1, positioned at least 1 mm anterior to the anterior border of V1, no longer expressed OD-plasticity. In addition, in the S1-lesioned mice, neither the experience-dependent increase of the spatial frequency threshold (“visual acuity”) nor of the contrast threshold (“contrast sensitivity”) of the optomotor reflex through the open eye was present. To assess whether these plasticity impairments can also occur if a lesion is placed more distant from V1, we tested the effect of a PT-lesion in the secondary motor cortex (M2). We observed that mice with a small M2-lesion restricted to the superficial cortical layers no longer expressed an OD-shift towards the open eye after 7 days of MD in V1 of the lesioned hemisphere. Consistent with previous findings about the consequences of an S1-lesion, OD-plasticity in V1 of the nonlesioned hemisphere of the M2-lesioned mice was still present. In addition, the experience-dependent improvements of both visual acuity and contrast sensitivity of the open eye were severely reduced. In contrast, sham-lesioned mice displayed both an OD-shift and improvements of visual capabilities of their open eye. To summarize, our data indicate that even a very small lesion restricted to the superficial cortical layers and more than 3mm anterior to the anterior border of V1 compromised V1-plasticity and impaired learning-induced visual improvements in adult mice. Thus both plasticity phenomena cannot only depend on modality-specific and local nerve cell networks but are clearly influenced by long-range interactions even from distant brain

  17. A Small Motor Cortex Lesion Abolished Ocular Dominance Plasticity in the Adult Mouse Primary Visual Cortex and Impaired Experience-Dependent Visual Improvements. (United States)

    Pielecka-Fortuna, Justyna; Kalogeraki, Evgenia; Greifzu, Franziska; Löwel, Siegrid


    It was previously shown that a small lesion in the primary somatosensory cortex (S1) prevented both cortical plasticity and sensory learning in the adult mouse visual system: While 3-month-old control mice continued to show ocular dominance (OD) plasticity in their primary visual cortex (V1) after monocular deprivation (MD), age-matched mice with a small photothrombotically induced (PT) stroke lesion in S1, positioned at least 1 mm anterior to the anterior border of V1, no longer expressed OD-plasticity. In addition, in the S1-lesioned mice, neither the experience-dependent increase of the spatial frequency threshold ("visual acuity") nor of the contrast threshold ("contrast sensitivity") of the optomotor reflex through the open eye was present. To assess whether these plasticity impairments can also occur if a lesion is placed more distant from V1, we tested the effect of a PT-lesion in the secondary motor cortex (M2). We observed that mice with a small M2-lesion restricted to the superficial cortical layers no longer expressed an OD-shift towards the open eye after 7 days of MD in V1 of the lesioned hemisphere. Consistent with previous findings about the consequences of an S1-lesion, OD-plasticity in V1 of the nonlesioned hemisphere of the M2-lesioned mice was still present. In addition, the experience-dependent improvements of both visual acuity and contrast sensitivity of the open eye were severely reduced. In contrast, sham-lesioned mice displayed both an OD-shift and improvements of visual capabilities of their open eye. To summarize, our data indicate that even a very small lesion restricted to the superficial cortical layers and more than 3mm anterior to the anterior border of V1 compromised V1-plasticity and impaired learning-induced visual improvements in adult mice. Thus both plasticity phenomena cannot only depend on modality-specific and local nerve cell networks but are clearly influenced by long-range interactions even from distant brain regions.

  18. Indexing Large Visual Vocabulary by Randomized Dimensions Hashing for High Quantization Accuracy: Improving the Object Retrieval Quality (United States)

    Yang, Heng; Wang, Qing; He, Zhoucan

    The bag-of-visual-words approach, inspired by text retrieval methods, has proven successful in achieving high performance in object retrieval on large-scale databases. A key step of these methods is the quantization stage which maps the high-dimensional image feature vectors to discriminatory visual words. In this paper, we consider the quantization step as the nearest neighbor search in large visual vocabulary, and thus proposed a randomized dimensions hashing (RDH) algorithm to efficiently index and search the large visual vocabulary. The experimental results have demonstrated that the proposed algorithm can effectively increase the quantization accuracy compared to the vocabulary tree based methods which represent the state-of-the-art. Consequently, the object retrieval performance can be significantly improved by our method in the large-scale database.

  19. The accommodative ciliary muscle function is preserved in older humans (United States)

    Tabernero, Juan; Chirre, Emmanuel; Hervella, Lucia; Prieto, Pedro; Artal, Pablo


    Presbyopia, the loss of the eye’s accommodation capability, affects all humans aged above 45–50 years old. The two main reasons for this to happen are a hardening of the crystalline lens and a reduction of the ciliary muscle functionality with age. While there seems to be at least some partial accommodating functionality of the ciliary muscle at early presbyopic ages, it is not yet clear whether the muscle is still active at more advanced ages. Previous techniques used to visualize the accommodation mechanism of the ciliary muscle are complicated to apply in the older subjects, as they typically require fixation stability during long measurement times and/or to have an ultrasound probe directly in contact with the eye. Instead, we used our own developed method based on high-speed recording of lens wobbling to study the ciliary muscle activity in a small group of pseudophakic subjects (around 80 years old). There was a significant activity of the muscle, clearly able to contract under binocular stimulation of accommodation. This supports a purely lenticular-based theory of presbyopia and it might stimulate the search for new solutions to presbyopia by making use of the remaining contraction force still presented in the aging eye.

  20. Visual documentation process of historic building refurbishment "Improving energy efficiency by insulating wall cavity" (United States)

    Bennadji, A.


    The North East of Scotland's construction method is similar to most popular building typologies in the UK. This typology can vary in term of external material (Granite, brick or stone) but with a secondary, usually timber sub frame with a lining on its interior. Insulation was seldom a consideration when such buildings were completed. Statistics shows that 80% of existing buildings in the UK will need to be upgraded. The lack of knowledge in dealing with old building fabric's manipulation has a negative impact on buildings' integrity. The documentation of such process seems to be an important step that buildings' actors should undertake to communicate a practical knowledge that is still at incubation stage. We wanted for this documentation to be visual, as descriptions might mislead none specialised and specialised in the field due to the innovative approach our method was conducted with. For the Scottish context this research/experiment will concentrate on existing granite wall buildings with plastered lath internal wall. It is unfortunate to see the commonly beautiful interiors of Scottish buildings disappearing, when the internal linings are removed. Skips are filled with old Plaster and Lath and new linings have to be supplied and fitted. Excessive waste is created in this change. This paper is based on a historic building energy improvement case study financed by the European commission and the Scottish Government. The pilot study consists of insulating an 18th century house using an innovative product and method. The project was a response to a call by the CIC start (Construction Innovation Club), aiming to establish a link between SMEs and the Universities. The project saw the day in collaboration with Icynene Canada, KDL Kishorn (see full list in the acknowledgment). This paper describes the process through which the team went through to improve the building envelope without damaging the buildings original features (Loveday et all). The energy efficiency

  1. Improving the visual field in coronary artery by with non-obstructive angioscopy: dual infusion method. (United States)

    Komatsu, Sei; Ohara, Tomoki; Takahashi, Satoru; Takewa, Mitsuhiko; Yutani, Chikao; Kodama, Kazuhisa


    Non-obstructive angioscopy (NOA) is used to visualize the surface of the coronary artery, and a clear visual field is obtained by injecting transparent fluid into the gap between the probing catheter and the fiber. This study examines visual field expansion by a dual infusion method, which involves an infusion from the probing and guiding catheters, and the relationships between visual grade and vessel characteristics. Thirty-two patients and thirty patients performed coronary plaque analysis with NOA using the conventional method and the novel dual infusion method, respectively. Images were blindly analyzed retrospectively. Visual fields were assessed from image slices using a 5-point scale (0 = invisible, 1 = poor, 2 = adequate, 3 = good, 4 = excellent) at 5-s intervals. The relationships between visual grade and vessel characteristics were analyzed using multiple stepwise linear regression analysis. The mean visual grade, "excellent" ratio, and "adequate" ratio were significantly higher using the dual infusion method than those obtained using the conventional method (p = 0.003, p = 0.004, and p = 0.005 respectively). The "invisible" ratio was significantly lower using the dual infusion method than the conventional method (p = 0.027). The visual field was negatively associated with the conventional method (β  = -0.154, p visual field with NOA can be effectively expanded by the dual infusion method.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available This research aimed to improve the skill in appreciating dances owned by the students of Primary Teacher Education of Makassar State University, to improve the perception towards audio-visual based art appreciation, to increase the students’ interest in audio-visual based art education subject, and to increase the students’ responses to the subject. This research was classroom action research using the research design created by Kemmis & MC. Taggart, which was conducted to 42 students of Primary Teacher Education of Makassar State University. The data collection was conducted using observation, questionnaire, and interview. The techniques of data analysis applied in this research were descriptive qualitative and quantitative. The results of this research were: (1 the students’ achievement in audio-visual based dance appreciation improved: precycle 33,33%, cycle I 42,85% and cycle II 83,33%, (2 the students’ perception towards the audio-visual based dance appreciation improved: cycle I 59,52%, and cycle II 71,42%. The students’ perception towards the subject obtained through structured interview in cycle I and II was 69,83% in a high category, (3 the interest of the students in the art education subject, especially audio-visual based dance appreciation, increased: cycle I 52,38% and cycle II 64,28%, and the students’ interest in the subject obtained through structured interview was 69,50 % in a high category. (3 the students’ response to audio-visual based dance appreciation increased: cycle I 54,76% and cycle II 69,04% in a good category.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liliya A. Kolmakova


    Full Text Available The aim of the study is to consider the problem of improving the quality of education in the professional educational organizations.Methods. The scientific and pedagogical analyses of the concepts forming a terminological field of a problem are used. The system, competence-based and personal approaches are used for development of models of cognitive visualization. Questioning of students was carried out to establish the level of development of their informative activity.Results. The constituent parts of the modern educational process and the need to create specific conditions for its implementation are identified and described. The author gives a generalized characteristic of visualization technology of educational information. The application of cognitive visualization models using information and communication technologies are proved. The results showing the evolution of motivational indicators of students’ activity before and after application of LSM and the «Metaplan» in the educational process are presented.Scientific novelty. The pedagogical conditions that allow using information and communication technologies as means of the trainees’ educational informative activity improvement in the professional educational organization are defined. Features of the directed application of methods of cognitive visualization of educational information, both for improvement of educational cognitive activity, and for formation of professional competences of students by profession «A chef, a confectioner» are noted.Practical importance. Use of methods of cognitive visualization in educational process on the example of studying of Chemistry and Biology in the professional educational organization is considered in details. The teaching package providing application of methods of cognitive visualization of educational information for the purpose of improvement of educational cognitive activity of students in the professional educational organization

  4. Improving UGV teleoperation performance using novel visualization techniques and manual interfaces (United States)

    Vozar, Steven; Tilbury, Dawn M.


    Unmanned ground vehicles (UGVs) are well-suited to a variety of tasks that are dangerous or repetitive for humans to perform. Despite recent advances, UGVs still suffer from reliability issues, and human operation failures have been identified as one root cause of UGV system failure. However, most literature relevant to UGV reliability does not address the effects of human errors or the user interface. Our previous work investigated the issue of user situational awareness and sense of presence in the robot workspace by implementing a Mixed Reality interface featuring a first-person video feed with an Augmented Reality overlay and a third-person Virtual Reality display. The interface was evaluated in a series of user tests in which users manually controlled a UGV with a manipulator arm using traditional input modalities including a computer mouse, keyboard and gamepad. In this study, we learned that users found it challenging to mentally map commands from the manual inputs to the robot arm behavior. Also, switching between control modalities seemed to add to the cognitive load during teleoperation tasks. A master-slave style manual controller can provide an intuitive one-to-one mapping from user input to robot pose, and has the potential to improve both operator situational awareness for teleoperation tasks and decrease mission completion time. This paper describes the design and implementation of a teleoperated UGV with a Mixed Reality visualization interface and a master-slave controller that is suitable for teleoperated mobile manipulation tasks.

  5. An Efficient Adaptive Window Size Selection Method for Improving Spectrogram Visualization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shibli Nisar


    Full Text Available Short Time Fourier Transform (STFT is an important technique for the time-frequency analysis of a time varying signal. The basic approach behind it involves the application of a Fast Fourier Transform (FFT to a signal multiplied with an appropriate window function with fixed resolution. The selection of an appropriate window size is difficult when no background information about the input signal is known. In this paper, a novel empirical model is proposed that adaptively adjusts the window size for a narrow band-signal using spectrum sensing technique. For wide-band signals, where a fixed time-frequency resolution is undesirable, the approach adapts the constant Q transform (CQT. Unlike the STFT, the CQT provides a varying time-frequency resolution. This results in a high spectral resolution at low frequencies and high temporal resolution at high frequencies. In this paper, a simple but effective switching framework is provided between both STFT and CQT. The proposed method also allows for the dynamic construction of a filter bank according to user-defined parameters. This helps in reducing redundant entries in the filter bank. Results obtained from the proposed method not only improve the spectrogram visualization but also reduce the computation cost and achieves 87.71% of the appropriate window length selection.

  6. Robot tracking system improvements and visual calibration of orbiter position for radiator inspection (United States)

    Tonkay, Gregory


    The following separate topics are addressed: (1) improving a robotic tracking system; and (2) providing insights into orbiter position calibration for radiator inspection. The objective of the tracking system project was to provide the capability to track moving targets more accurately by adjusting parameters in the control system and implementing a predictive algorithm. A computer model was developed to emulate the tracking system. Using this model as a test bed, a self-tuning algorithm was developed to tune the system gains. The model yielded important findings concerning factors that affect the gains. The self-tuning algorithms will provide the concepts to write a program to automatically tune the gains in the real system. The section concerning orbiter position calibration provides a comparison to previous work that had been performed for plant growth. It provided the conceptualized routines required to visually determine the orbiter position and orientation. Furthermore, it identified the types of information which are required to flow between the robot controller and the vision system.

  7. Evaluating relative accommodations in general binocular dysfunctions


    García Muñoz, Ángel; Cacho Martínez, Pilar; Lara Lacarcel, Francisco


    Purpose. To examine the relationship between relative accommodation and general binocular disorders and to establish their importance in the diagnosis of these anomalies. Methods. We analyzed data of negative relative accommodation (NRA) and positive relative accommodation (PRA) in 69 patients with nonstrabismic binocular anomalies. Results. Statistical analysis showed that low values of NRA and PRA were not associated with any particular disorder. High values of PRA (>3.50 D) were related to...

  8. Dense codes at high speeds: varying stimulus properties to improve visual speller performance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Geuze, J.; Farquhar, J.D.R.; Desain, P.W.M.


    This paper investigates the effect of varying different stimulus properties on performance of the visual speller. Each of the different stimulus properties has been tested in previous literature and has a known effect on visual speller performance. This paper investigates whether a combination of th

  9. Can Dynamic Visualizations Improve Middle School Students' Understanding of Energy in Photosynthesis? (United States)

    Ryoo, Kihyun; Linn, Marcia C.


    Dynamic visualizations have the potential to make abstract scientific phenomena more accessible and visible to students, but they can also be confusing and difficult to comprehend. This research investigates how dynamic visualizations, compared to static illustrations, can support middle school students in developing an integrated understanding of…

  10. Noise-improved signal detection in cat primary visual cortex via a well-balanced stochastic resonance-like procedure. (United States)

    Funke, Klaus; Kerscher, Nicolas J; Wörgötter, Florentin


    Adding noise to a weak signal can paradoxically improve signal detection, a process called 'stochastic resonance' (SR). In the visual system, noise might be introduced by the image jitter resulting from high-frequency eye movements, like eye microtremor and microsaccades. To test whether this kind of noise might be beneficial or detrimental for cortical signal detection, we performed single-unit recordings from area 17 of anaesthetized cats while jittering the visual stimulus in a frequency and amplitude range resembling the possible range of eye movements. We used weak, sub- and peri-threshold visual stimuli, on top of which we superimposed noise with variable jitter amplitude. In accordance with the typical SR effect, we found that small noise levels actually increased the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) of previously weak cortical visual responses, while originally strong responses were little affected or even reduced. Above a certain noise level, the SNR dropped a little, but not as a result of increased background activity - as would be proposed by SR theory - but because of a lowered response to signal and noise. Therefore, it seems that the ascending visual pathway optimally utilizes signal detection improvement by a SR-like process, while at the same time preventing spurious noise-induced activity and keeping the SNR sufficiently high.

  11. Comparative reference of accommodation tension in schoolchildren of junior classes depending on emotional state

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. E. Fedorischeva


    Full Text Available Purpose: to study the change of adaptation mechanisms in children of junior classes during working on close distance depending on their psychoemotional state.Methods: 52 children of the second classes of grammar school were included into the study. There were allocated 30 emotional labile schoolchildren with choleric temperament. The children were examined by pediatrician, neurologist and in laboratory. Standard ophthalmic examination was performed. Accommodation was examined by subjective (reserve of relative accommodation and objective (familiar tone of accommodation methods.Results: All children had low reserve of relative accommodation (RRA and high familiar tone of accommodation (FTA in the end of educational week especially in emotional labile children. After course of treatment (hygiene of visual activity; restoration of accommodation and therapy of visual tiredness; gymnastics for cervical spine; preparations with microelements, vitamins C,E, B-carotene; fenibute RRA was increased and FTA was decreased even in emotional labile children.Conclusion: There is correlation between refractive-accommodative apparatus and psychoemotional state in schoolchildren ofjunior classes.

  12. Amplitude, facility and accuracy of accommodation in a primary school population

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    V. R. Moodley


    Full Text Available Vision screening at an early age in children is important as it can identify aspects in the visual system that may need to be managed to enable a child to function optimally at school.  The National School Vision Screening Programme was discontinued in many provinces of South Africa, often due to a lack of financial resources or adequately trained personnel. This action has resulted in the majority of children not having a visual examination during their school career.  In a few instances where vision screenings are performed, these are usually limited to visual acuity (VA evaluation alone; an endeavour that may miss many significant visual problems.  The purpose of this article is to highlight the need for vision screening to be conducted in schools and for the screening protocols to include the various accommodative tests. A retrospective analysis of the amplitudes of accommodation, accommodative facility and accuracy of accommodation findingsfrom a primary school vision screening of 264 children between 6 and 13 years was undertaken in this study.  Data was captured and analysed with Microsoft Excel. The ages of the children ranged from 6 to 13 years with a mean of 9.38 years (SD = 1.85.  One hundred and thirty eight (52.3% were males and 126 (47.7% females.  A significant number of the children failed the monocular accommodative amplitude tests (24%, binocular accommodative amplitude test (26%, the accommodative facility (30% and the MEM test (27%.  These results highlight the need for a more comprehensive vision screening exercise rather than VA alone as this approach would have  missed more than a quarter of the children who had other visual problems that could impact on their ability to perform optimally at school.

  13. No age deficits in the ability to use attention to improve visual working memory. (United States)

    Souza, Alessandra S


    Maintenance of information in mind to the moment-to-moment cognition is accomplished by working memory (WM). WM capacity is reduced in old age, but the nature of this decline is yet not clear. The current study examined the hypothesis that the decline in visual WM performance with age is related to a reduced ability to use attention to control the contents of WM. Young (M = 26 years) and old (M = 71 years) adults performed a color reproduction task in which the precise color of a set of dots had to be maintained in mind over a brief interval and later reproduced using a continuous color wheel. Attention was manipulated by presenting a spatial cue before the onset of the memory array (a precue) or during the maintenance phase (retro-cue). The cue indicated with 100% certainty the item to be tested at the end of the trial. A precue allows the selective encoding of only the relevant item to WM, whereas a retro-cue allows WM contents to be updated by refreshing the relevant (cued) item and removing nonrelevant (noncued) items. Aging was associated with a lower capacity in the baseline (no-cue) condition. Precues and (to a smaller extent) retro-cues improved WM performance (in terms of probability of recall and memory precision). Critically, the benefits of cueing were of similar magnitude in young and older adults showing that the ability to use attention to selectively encode and update the contents of WM is preserved with aging. (PsycINFO Database Record

  14. Bearing-Mounting Concept Accommodates Thermal Expansion (United States)

    Nespodzany, Robert; Davis, Toren S.


    Pins or splines allow radial expansion without slippage. Design concept for mounting rotary bearing accommodates differential thermal expansion between bearing and any structure(s) to which bearing connected. Prevents buildup of thermal stresses by allowing thermal expansion to occur freely but accommodating expansion in such way not to introduce looseness. Pin-in-slot configuration also maintains concentricity.

  15. Nerve growth factor eye drops improve visual acuity and electrofunctional activity in age-related macular degeneration: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandro Lambiase


    Full Text Available Age-related macular degeneration (ARMD is a severe disease affecting visual function in the elderly. Currently available surgical and medical options do not guarantee a significant impact on the outcome of the disease. We describe the effects of nerve growth factor eye drop treatment in a 94 years old female with ARMD, whose visual acuity was progressively worsening in spite of previous surgical and medical treatments. NGF eye drops improved visual acuity and electrofunctional parameters as early as 3 months after initiation of treatment. These results are in line with previous reports on a neuroprotective effect of NGF on retinal cells and on NGF eye drops bioavailability in the retina and optic nerve. No side effects were observed after five years of follow-up, suggesting that topical NGF treatment may be a safe and effective therapy for ARMD.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melissa Li Sa Liow


    Full Text Available This paper starts by clarifying the role of branding orientation (BO among academic studies. It shortly introduces the development of the BO concepts. The empirical part consists of a search for and analysing of academic articles using a meta-analysis that consider BO in the accommodation industry. According to the results, significant appraisal of the branding building activities among higher star rating and luxury accommodation businesses are taking place due to the increasingly demanding guests. Thus, there is an upward pressure on small and medium accommodation businesses to survive or perform well. This paper recommends that scholars study the owners-managers, employees, and customer perspectives altogether, to better comprehend how large accommodation businesses displaying BO can generate superior performance. For the small and medium accommodation businesses, the emphasis is the owners-managers perceptions since they are the main decision-makers, and due to infancy of the small and medium enterprise (SME branding application.

  17. Visualization Laboratory (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — FUNCTION: Evaluates and improves the operational effectiveness of existing and emerging electronic warfare systems. By analyzing and visualizing simulation results...

  18. Environmental enrichment preserved lifelong ocular dominance plasticity, but did not improve visual abilities. (United States)

    Greifzu, Franziska; Kalogeraki, Evgenia; Löwel, Siegrid


    In standard cage (SC)-raised mice, ocular dominance (OD) plasticity of the primary visual cortex (V1) induced by monocular deprivation (MD) is maximal in juveniles, declines in adults, and is absent beyond postnatal day (PD) 110. Raising mice in an enriched environment (EE) preserved a juvenile-like OD plasticity after 7 days of MD until at least PD196, mediated by reductions of deprived eye responses in V1. Whether the sensitive phase for OD plasticity can be prolonged into older age and whether long-term EE modifies visual abilities was not yet known. Here, we demonstrate that EE raising enables lifelong OD plasticity. In contrast to PD200 EE-mice, the preserved OD shift in both >PD400 and >PD700 EE-mice was mediated by increases in open eye responses in V1 (adult OD plasticity). When SC-mice were transferred to EE after PD110, OD plasticity was restored until PD922. Moreover, visual abilities tested by both optomotry and the visual water task and interindividual variability were not different between PD700 SC- and EE-mice. Taken together, EE raising enabled a lifelong OD plasticity but did not affect basic visual performance.

  19. [Techniques for measuring phakic and pseudophakic accommodation. Methodology for distinguishing between neurological and mechanical accommodative insufficiency]. (United States)

    Roche, O; Roumes, C; Parsa, C


    The methods available for studying accommodation are evaluated: Donder's "push-up" method, dynamic retinoscopy, infrared optometry using the Scheiner principle, and wavefront analysis are each discussed with their inherent advantages and limitations. Based on the methodology described, one can also distinguish between causes of accommodative insufficiency. Dioptric insufficiency (accommodative lag) that remains equal at various testing distances from the subject indicates a sensory/neurologic (afferent), defect, whereas accommodative insufficiency changing with distance indicates a mechanical/restrictive (efferent) defect, such as in presbyopia. Determining accommodative insufficiency and the cause can be particularly useful when examining patients with a variety of diseases associated with reduced accommodative ability (e.g., Down syndrome and cerebral palsy) as well as in evaluating the effectiveness of various potentially accommodating intraocular lens designs.

  20. Comment on amniotic membrane covering promotes healing of cornea epithelium and improves visual acuity after debridement for fungal keratitis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ahmet; Tas; Abdullah; Ilhan; Umit; Yolcu; Uzeyir; Erdem


    <正>Dear Editor,We congratulate Zeng et al[1]for their study entitled"Amniotic membrane covering promotes healing of cornea epithelium and improves visual acuity after debridement for fungal keratitis".The authors endeavored to present an alternative method for ophthalmologists in the treatment of a challenging case.We would like to express our reservations and ask for the attitudes of the authors about

  1. Improving Visual Acuity of Myopes through Operant Training: The Evaluation of Psychological and Physiological Mechanisms Facilitating Acuity Enhancement (United States)


    covert servo-controlled tracking optometer (Cornsweet & Crane, 1970) that made the near-instantaneous feedback of monocular accommodative state possible...and Crane infrared- optometer measures of accommodation into auditory tones that reflected the instantaneous refractive state of the eye. While an...performance change might as well have been facilitated by blur interpretation. Nonobtrusive incorporation of a covert tracking optometer (Cornsweet & Crane

  2. Improving Synthetic Biology Communication: Recommended Practices for Visual Depiction and Digital Submission of Genetic Designs. (United States)

    Hillson, Nathan J; Plahar, Hector A; Beal, Jacob; Prithviraj, Ranjini


    Research is communicated more effectively and reproducibly when articles depict genetic designs consistently and fully disclose the complete sequences of all reported constructs. ACS Synthetic Biology is now providing authors with updated guidance and piloting a new tool and publication workflow that facilitate compliance with these recommended practices and standards for visual representation and data exchange.

  3. From Open Geographical Data to Tangible Maps: Improving the Accessibility of Maps for Visually Impaired People (United States)

    Ducasse, J.; Macé, M.; Jouffrais, C.


    Visual maps must be transcribed into (interactive) raised-line maps to be accessible for visually impaired people. However, these tactile maps suffer from several shortcomings: they are long and expensive to produce, they cannot display a large amount of information, and they are not dynamically modifiable. A number of methods have been developed to automate the production of raised-line maps, but there is not yet any tactile map editor on the market. Tangible interactions proved to be an efficient way to help a visually impaired user manipulate spatial representations. Contrary to raised-line maps, tangible maps can be autonomously constructed and edited. In this paper, we present the scenarios and the main expected contributions of the AccessiMap project, which is based on the availability of many sources of open spatial data: 1/ facilitating the production of interactive tactile maps with the development of an open-source web-based editor; 2/ investigating the use of tangible interfaces for the autonomous construction and exploration of a map by a visually impaired user.

  4. Improving visual attention : the effect of Warning signs with different formats


    Yao, Zheng; SUTO, Hidetsugu


    Designed warning signs were applied in this study to describe the performance of visual attention with different formats of stimulation. The dependent variables had be obtained from an eye movement experiment. A new proposal about how to sort experimental materials will be proposed.

  5. Traditional Project Management and the Visual Workplace Environment to Improve Project Success (United States)

    Fichera, Christopher E.


    A majority of large IT projects fail to meet scheduled deadlines, are over budget and do not satisfy the end user. Many projects fail in spite of utilizing traditional project management techniques. Research of project management has not identified the use of a visual workspace as a feature affecting or influencing the success of a project during…

  6. Pip and pop : Non-spatial auditory signals improve spatial visual search

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Burg, E. van der; Olivers, C.N.L.; Bronkhorst, A.W.; Theeuwes, J.


    Searching for an object within a cluttered, continuously changing environment can be a very time-consuming process. The authors show that a simple auditory pip drastically decreases search times for a synchronized visual object that is normally very difficult to find. This effect occurs even though

  7. Enhanced Visual-Attention Model for Perceptually Improved 3D Object Modeling in Virtual Environments (United States)

    Chagnon-Forget, Maude; Rouhafzay, Ghazal; Cretu, Ana-Maria; Bouchard, Stéphane


    Three-dimensional object modeling and interactive virtual environment applications require accurate, but compact object models that ensure real-time rendering capabilities. In this context, the paper proposes a 3D modeling framework employing visual attention characteristics in order to obtain compact models that are more adapted to human visual capabilities. An enhanced computational visual attention model with additional saliency channels, such as curvature, symmetry, contrast and entropy, is initially employed to detect points of interest over the surface of a 3D object. The impact of the use of these supplementary channels is experimentally evaluated. The regions identified as salient by the visual attention model are preserved in a selectively-simplified model obtained using an adapted version of the QSlim algorithm. The resulting model is characterized by a higher density of points in the salient regions, therefore ensuring a higher perceived quality, while at the same time ensuring a less complex and more compact representation for the object. The quality of the resulting models is compared with the performance of other interest point detectors incorporated in a similar manner in the simplification algorithm. The proposed solution results overall in higher quality models, especially at lower resolutions. As an example of application, the selectively-densified models are included in a continuous multiple level of detail (LOD) modeling framework, in which an original neural-network solution selects the appropriate size and resolution of an object.

  8. Spatially valid proprioceptive cues improve the detection of a visual stimulus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jackson, Carl P T; Miall, R Chris; Balslev, Daniela


    Vision and proprioception are the main sensory modalities that convey hand location and direction of movement. Fusion of these sensory signals into a single robust percept is now well documented. However, it is not known whether these modalities also interact in the spatial allocation of attention...... it was incompatible. These results suggest that proprioception influences the allocation of attention in visual space....

  9. Use of visual CO2 feedback as a retrofit solution for improving classroom air quality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wargocki, Pawel; Da Silva, Nuno Alexandre Faria


    , without visual feedback, in the other week. In the heating season, two pairs of classrooms were monitored, one pair naturally and the other pair mechanically ventilated. In the cooling season, two pairs of naturally ventilated classrooms were monitored, one pair with split cooling in operation...

  10. Web-Based Interactive 3D Visualization as a Tool for Improved Anatomy Learning (United States)

    Petersson, Helge; Sinkvist, David; Wang, Chunliang; Smedby, Orjan


    Despite a long tradition, conventional anatomy education based on dissection is declining. This study tested a new virtual reality (VR) technique for anatomy learning based on virtual contrast injection. The aim was to assess whether students value this new three-dimensional (3D) visualization method as a learning tool and what value they gain…

  11. Can walking motions improve visually induced rotational self-motion illusions in virtual reality? (United States)

    Riecke, Bernhard E; Freiberg, Jacob B; Grechkin, Timofey Y


    Illusions of self-motion (vection) can provide compelling sensations of moving through virtual environments without the need for complex motion simulators or large tracked physical walking spaces. Here we explore the interaction between biomechanical cues (stepping along a rotating circular treadmill) and visual cues (viewing simulated self-rotation) for providing stationary users a compelling sensation of rotational self-motion (circular vection). When tested individually, biomechanical and visual cues were similarly effective in eliciting self-motion illusions. However, in combination they yielded significantly more intense self-motion illusions. These findings provide the first compelling evidence that walking motions can be used to significantly enhance visually induced rotational self-motion perception in virtual environments (and vice versa) without having to provide for physical self-motion or motion platforms. This is noteworthy, as linear treadmills have been found to actually impair visually induced translational self-motion perception (Ash, Palmisano, Apthorp, & Allison, 2013). Given the predominant focus on linear walking interfaces for virtual-reality locomotion, our findings suggest that investigating circular and curvilinear walking interfaces offers a promising direction for future research and development and can help to enhance self-motion illusions, presence and immersion in virtual-reality systems.

  12. Improving visual assessment documentation in patients with periorbital trauma through an eye assessment teaching session and a proforma sticker (United States)

    Myuran, Tharsika


    Up to 30% of patients who have periorbital trauma will have ocular injury with devastating consequences if missed. All staff working with acutely injured Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery (OMFS) patients should be competent in a basic eye examination with documentation of visual acuity, gross visual fields, eye movements, diplopia, and pupillary responses at a minimum. As a standard we adapted guidance published by the Emergency Care Institute New South Wales to assess the documentation of the eye examination in OMFS patients at King's College Hospital with any periorbital injury. After initial assessment we presented the data in the departmental audit meeting, then gave a detailed teaching session to junior doctors and introduced an ‘eye exam’ proforma sticker designed to act as an aide memoir. At baseline, 38 eye assessments across all clinical environments and by all seniority of clinician were assessed at random. Of these, 41% of these had visual acuity documented, 5% visual fields, 47% pupils, and 83% movements. After presentation of data, reaudit showed progress to 81%, 0%, 94%, and 100% respectively. Following the teaching session reaudit showed final progression to 83%, 46%, 83%, and 100%. Teaching sessions and use of an eye sticker proforma has been shown to improve rates of documentation of the eye exam for those OMFS patients presenting with periorbital injuries.

  13. An improved self-calibration approach based on adaptive genetic algorithm for position-based visual servo

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ding LIU; Xiongjun WU; Yanxi YANG


    An improved self-calibrating algorithm for visual servo based on adaptive genetic algorithm is proposed in this paper.Our approach introduces an extension of Mendonca-Cipolla and G.Chesi's self-calibration for the positionbased visual servo technique which exploits the singular value property of the essential matrix.Specifically,a suitable dynamic online cost function is generated according to the property of the three singular values.The visual servo process is carried out simultaneous to the dynamic self-calibration,and then the cost function is minirmzed using the adaptive genetic algorithm instead of the gradient descent method in G.Chesi's approach.Moreover,this method overcomes the limitation that the initial parameters must be selected close to the true value,which is not constant in many cases.It is not necessary to know exactly the camera intrinsic parameters when using our approach,instead,coarse coding bounds ot the five parameters are enough for the algorithm,which can be done once and for all off-line.Besides,this algorithm does not require knowledge of the 3D model of the object.Simulation experiments are carried out and the results demonstrate that the proposed approach provides a fast convergence speed and robustness against unpredictable perturbalaons of camera parameters,and it is an effective and efficient visual scrvo algorithm.

  14. Using visual cues of contact to improve interactive manipulation of virtual objects in industrial assembly/maintenance simulations. (United States)

    Sreng, Jean; Lécuyer, Anatole; Mégard, Christine; Andriot, Claude


    This paper describes a set of visual cues of contact designed to improve the interactive manipulation of virtual objects in industrial assembly/maintenance simulations. These visual cues display information of proximity, contact and effort between virtual objects when the user manipulates a part inside a digital mock-up. The set of visual cues encloses the apparition of glyphs (arrow, disk, or sphere) when the manipulated object is close or in contact with another part of the virtual environment. Light sources can also be added at the level of contact points. A filtering technique is proposed to decrease the number of glyphs displayed at the same time. Various effects--such as change in color, change in size, and deformation of shape- can be applied to the glyphs as a function of proximity with other objects or amplitude of the contact forces. A preliminary evaluation was conducted to gather the subjective preference of a group of participants during the simulation of an automotive assembly operation. The collected questionnaires showed that participants globally appreciated our visual cues of contact. The changes in color appeared to be preferred concerning the display of distances and proximity information. Size changes and deformation effects appeared to be preferred in terms of perception of contact forces between the parts. Last, light sources were selected to focus the attention of the user on the contact areas.

  15. Accommodation of workers with chronic neurologic disorders. (United States)

    Bleecker, Margit L; Barnes, Sheryl K


    The ability to work is important to those with chronic neurologic disorders (CND) and to the aging workforce. Many signs and symptoms are similar in those with CND and normal aging, but may interfere with the ability to work if not appropriately accommodated. This requires the healthcare provider to recognize the specific features of the CND that interferes with work and how it can be accommodated. Review of the American with Disabilities Act and the subsequent amendment informs the healthcare provider as to what is covered under the law and how the disability can be accommodated. Overall employers want to retain qualified employees and therefore accommodating workers is beneficial to both the employee with CND and the employer.

  16. Visual function of children with visual and other disabilities in Oman: A case series (United States)

    Gogri, Urmi; Khandekar, Rajiv; Al Harby, Salah


    Background: We assessed the visual functioning of the children with special needs in Oman between 2009 and 2012. We present the methods of assessing different visual functions, outcomes, and interventions carried out to improve their functioning. Methods: Optometrists assessed visual functions of children of “Day care centres” in Oman. Experts further assessed them and provided low vision care. Ocular movements, refractive corrections, near, distance, contrast color, motion, field of vision, and cognitive visual function test results were noted. Feedback to caregivers was given to improve visual functioning of these children. Results: We grouped 321 participants, (196 [61.1%] boys, age range of 3–18 years) into 61; Down syndrome (DS), 72 with intellectual disabilities (IDs), 67; hearing impaired and 121 with other conditions. Refractive error and lag of accommodation were 26 (42.6%) and 14 (22.6%) among children with DS. Contrast sensitivity was impaired in 8 (12.7%) among hearing impaired children. Defective distant and near vision was in 162 (70%) and 104 (42%) of our cohort. Children with ID were most difficult to assess. Children in a group of other disabilities had a higher proportion of impaired visual functioning. They were given low vision aids (telescopes [22], filters [7], and magnifiers [3]) in large numbers compared to those in other groups. Conclusions: Visual functioning of children with other disabilities show great variation and difficult to group. The care, therefore, should be at individual level. All visual functions cannot be assessed at one time. PMID:28112128

  17. Effects of viewing distance on accommodative and pupillary responses following a three-dimensional task. (United States)

    Iwasaki, Tsuneto; Tawara, Akihiko


    We have investigated accommodation and pupil responses after viewing stereoscopic images related to the resting position of accommodation. After a 10-min visual task viewing stereoscopic three-dimensional images, measurements of dynamic accommodation and pupil response were made using an infrared optometer and a pupil analyser. Four conditions were given for the viewing distance: 0.4 m (closer than the subjects' resting position), 1 m (approximating to their resting state), and 1.5 and 3 m (farther than the resting position). For the 0.4- and 1-m groups, a delay in the accommodation response for near-to-far movement was shown after the task, from 817 to 1120 ms and from 830 to 898 ms, respectively, but there was no change in the pupillary response. In the 1.5- and 3-m groups, on the other hand, a significant delay in the accommodation response for far-to-near movement was shown, from 827 to 912 ms and from 857 to 1150 ms, respectively, and greater miosis was found, from 7.2 to 9.2 mm2 and from 8.0 to 10.4 mm2. The data reveal that there are different after-effects on accommodation and pupillary functions when subjects perform the task within their accommodative resting position, than when the task is performed outside the resting position.

  18. Towards Improving the Mental Model of Software Developers through Cartographic Visualization

    CERN Document Server

    Kuhn, Adrian; Nierstrasz, Oscar


    Software is intangible and knowledge about software systems is typically tacit. The mental model of software developers is thus an important factor in software engineering. It is our vision that developers should be able to refer to code as being "up in the north", "over in the west", or "down-under in the south". We want to provide developers, and everyone else involved in software development, with a *shared*, spatial and stable mental model of their software project. We aim to reinforce this by embedding a cartographic visualization in the IDE (Integrated Development Environment). The visualization is always visible in the bottom-left, similar to the GPS navigation device for car drivers. For each development task, related information is displayed on the map. In this paper we present CODEMAP, an eclipse plug-in, and report on preliminary results from an ongoing user study with professional developers and students.

  19. Two Sudden Onsets Capture Attention but Do Not Improve Visual Short-Term Memory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huang Chi-Hsiang


    Full Text Available Onset stimulus can capture attention and then transfer into visual short-term memory. It remains unknown whether two sudden onsets also capture attention and are stored in vSTM. We modified Belopolsky, Kramer, and Godijn's (2008 visual search paradigm to test this issue. Experiment 1 using one onset and replicated Belopolsky et al's results. Two onsets in Experiment 2 were found to capture attention; however, recognition performance for the onsets was only at chance level, showing poor memory. Experiment 3 used a retro-cue to test whether only one of these two onsets can be stored in vSTM. Experiment 4 tested whehter this poor recognition was caused by interference from meory probe. This study has important insights on how attention interacts with memory.

  20. Improving object segmentation by using EEG signals and rapid serial visual presentation


    Mohedano, Eva; Healy, Graham; McGuinness, Kevin; Giró Nieto, Xavier; O'Connor, Noel; Smeaton, Alan F.


    This paper extends our previous work on the potential of EEG-based brain computer interfaces to segment salient objects in images. The proposed system analyzes the Event Related Potentials (ERP) generated by the rapid serial visual presentation of windows on the image. The detection of the P300 signal allows estimating a saliency map of the image, which is used to seed a semi-supervised object segmentation algorithm. Thanks to the new contributions presented in this work, the average Jaccard ...

  1. An amalgamation of 3D city models in urban air quality modelling for improving visual impact analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ujang, U.; Anton, F.; Ariffin, A.


    Geographical Information Systems (GISs) can be seen as a common tool to map and visualize the air quality index based on geographical locations. However, in urban areas, the area resolution for air quality models is less than 2 kilometres.Since the main emissions agent in urban areas...... as physical data input. The Level of Details (LoD) in 3D city models (i.e. LoD1 and LoD2) ascertains the potentials of implementing air quality modelling for urban areas. Therefore, this research is focused towards investigating the integration of 3D city models in air quality modelling for urban areas....... The results presented show the simplicity of using 3D city models as a physical data input in air quality modelling and the 3D air quality will improve insight for visual impact analysis (i.e. analysing the immersion of are circulation zone). The results are advantageous for city planners, architects...

  2. A Technique of Improved Medial Meniscus Visualization by Anterior Cruciate Ligament Graft Placement in Chronic Anterior Cruciate Deficient Knees. (United States)

    Vertullo, Christopher J; Wijenayake, Lahann; Grayson, Jane E


    It is customary to perform medial meniscus repair before anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) graft placement when undertaken as a combined procedure. However, in chronic ACL-deficient knees, intraoperative anterior tibiofemoral translation can cause the medial meniscus repair to be more technically challenging. Intraoperative anterior tibiofemoral translation can both reduce the visualization of the medial meniscus and make its reduction unstable. An operative sequence alteration of ACL graft placement and tensioning before medial meniscal repair improves medial meniscus visualization in chronically ACL-deficient knees by using the ACL graft's ability to prevent anterior tibiofemoral translation. The technique sequence is as follows: (a) the medial meniscus is reduced, (b) ACL reconstruction is undertaken using a hamstring graft without final tibia fixation,

  3. Verbal to visual code switching improves working memory in older adults: An fMRI study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariko eOsaka


    Full Text Available The effects of verbal to visual code switching training on working memory performance were investigated in the elderly. Twenty-five elderly people were introduced to a verbal to visual code switching strategy (training group while the other 25 were not (control group. During this strategy training period, participants in the training group practiced focusing their attention on a target word both by drawing the target’s figure and by forming mental images of the target. To explore the neural substrates underlying strategy effects, fMRI was used to measure brain activity of the elderly in both groups while they performed a working memory task (reading span test, RST, before and after the attention training period. RST recognition accuracy was enhanced only in the training group. fMRI data for this group showed increased activation in the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC, a region that typically shows activation in young adults performing the RST. Furthermore, activation was found both in the left and right inferior parietal lobule (IPL and right superior parietal lobule (SPL, while there was no activation in these areas for the control group. These findings suggest that using a strategy of verbal to visual code switching helped the elderly participants to maintain the words in working memory.

  4. Data visualization

    CERN Document Server

    Azzam, Tarek


    Do you communicate data and information to stakeholders? In Part 1, we introduce recent developments in the quantitative and qualitative data visualization field and provide a historical perspective on data visualization, its potential role in evaluation practice, and future directions. Part 2 delivers concrete suggestions for optimally using data visualization in evaluation, as well as suggestions for best practices in data visualization design. It focuses on specific quantitative and qualitative data visualization approaches that include data dashboards, graphic recording, and geographic information systems (GIS). Readers will get a step-by-step process for designing an effective data dashboard system for programs and organizations, and various suggestions to improve their utility.

  5. Improved Cluster Identification and Visualization in High-Dimensional Data Using Self-Organizing Maps (United States)

    Manukyan, N.; Eppstein, M. J.; Rizzo, D. M.


    A Kohonen self-organizing map (SOM) is a type of unsupervised artificial neural network that results in a self-organized projection of high-dimensional data onto a low-dimensional feature map, wherein vector similarity is implicitly translated into topological closeness, enabling clusters to be identified. In recently published work [1], 209 microbial variables from 22 monitoring wells around the leaking Schuyler Falls Landfill in Clinton, NY [2] were analyzed using a multi-stage non-parametric process to explore how microbial communities may act as indicators for the gradient of contamination in groundwater. The final stage of their analysis used a weighted SOM to identify microbial signatures in this high dimensionality data set that correspond to clean, fringe, and contaminated soils. Resulting clusters were visualized with the standard unified distance matrix (U-matrix). However, while the results of this analysis were very promising, visualized boundaries between clusters in the SOM were indistinct and required manual and somewhat arbitrary identification. In this contribution, we introduce (i) a new cluster reinforcement (CR) phase to be run subsequent to traditional SOM training for automatic sharpening of cluster boundaries, and (ii) a new boundary matrix (B-matrix) approach for visualization of the resulting cluster boundaries. The CR-phase differs from standard SOM training in several ways, most notably by using a feature-based neighborhood function rather than a topologically-based neighborhood function. In contrast to the U-matrix, the B-matrix can be directly superimposed on heat maps of the individual features (as output by the SOM) using grid lines whose thickness corresponds to inter-cluster distances. By thresholding the displayed lines, one obtains hierarchical control of the visual level of cluster resolution. We first illustrate the advantages of these methods on a small synthetic test case, and then apply them to the Schuyler Falls landfill

  6. Social accommodation and energy efficiency dossier; Dossier habitat social et efficacite energetique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Despretz, H. [Agence de l' Environnement et de la Maitrise de l' Energie, ADEME, 75 - Paris (France); Morlot, R. [Centre Scientifique et Technique du Batiment, (CSTB), 75 - Paris (France); Gibert, M. [OPAC 38, Grenoble (France); Marichez, J.M. [CDHR 62 - Arras (France); Bouchardeau, Ph. [ADIL 26 (France); Sidler, O. [Enertech, 26 - Felines sur Rimandoule (France); Hamadou, H. [Mouvement pour les Villages d' Enfants, MVE (France)


    This dossier takes stock of the experiences and programs in progress in some French regions about the enforcement of the new thermal regulation from June 2001 in social accommodations: recall of the principles of the new regulation, practices and needs for renewable energy uses in accommodations for underprivileged people; campaign of sensitization to water, electricity and heat saving; the energy policy of the OPAC 38, a social accommodation organization of Grenoble (SE France); the energy mastery in Northern France rural accommodations; the social stake of energy mastery, its impact on standard of living, health and public finances; the first lessons gained from the scheduled operations of improvement of accommodations (rehabilitation of private buildings) in Drome region (SE France); the electricity mastery action of Montreuil-Vincennes Energie organization for the evaluation of the different specific uses of electricity in common and private parts of social apartment buildings. (J.S.)

  7. Audio-Visual and Autogenic Relaxation Alter Amplitude of Alpha EEG Band, Causing Improvements in Mental Work Performance in Athletes. (United States)

    Mikicin, Mirosław; Kowalczyk, Marek


    The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of regular audio-visual relaxation combined with Schultz's autogenic training on: (1) the results of behavioral tests that evaluate work performance during burdensome cognitive tasks (Kraepelin test), (2) changes in classical EEG alpha frequency band, neocortex (frontal, temporal, occipital, parietal), hemisphere (left, right) versus condition (only relaxation 7-12 Hz). Both experimental (EG) and age-and skill-matched control group (CG) consisted of eighteen athletes (ten males and eight females). After 7-month training EG demonstrated changes in the amplitude of mean electrical activity of the EEG alpha bend at rest and an improvement was significantly changing and an improvement in almost all components of Kraepelin test. The same examined variables in CG were unchanged following the period without the intervention. Summing up, combining audio-visual relaxation with autogenic training significantly improves athlete's ability to perform a prolonged mental effort. These changes are accompanied by greater amplitude of waves in alpha band in the state of relax. The results suggest usefulness of relaxation techniques during performance of mentally difficult sports tasks (sports based on speed and stamina, sports games, combat sports) and during relax of athletes.

  8. Improving the visualization of electron-microscopy data through optical flow interpolation

    KAUST Repository

    Carata, Lucian


    Technical developments in neurobiology have reached a point where the acquisition of high resolution images representing individual neurons and synapses becomes possible. For this, the brain tissue samples are sliced using a diamond knife and imaged with electron-microscopy (EM). However, the technique achieves a low resolution in the cutting direction, due to limitations of the mechanical process, making a direct visualization of a dataset difficult. We aim to increase the depth resolution of the volume by adding new image slices interpolated from the existing ones, without requiring modifications to the EM image-capturing method. As classical interpolation methods do not provide satisfactory results on this type of data, the current paper proposes a re-framing of the problem in terms of motion volumes, considering the depth axis as a temporal axis. An optical flow method is adapted to estimate the motion vectors of pixels in the EM images, and this information is used to compute and insert multiple new images at certain depths in the volume. We evaluate the visualization results in comparison with interpolation methods currently used on EM data, transforming the highly anisotropic original dataset into a dataset with a larger depth resolution. The interpolation based on optical flow better reveals neurite structures with realistic undistorted shapes, and helps to easier map neuronal connections. © 2011 ACM.

  9. Visa: AN Automatic Aware and Visual Aids Mechanism for Improving the Correct Use of Geospatial Data (United States)

    Hong, J. H.; Su, Y. T.


    With the fast growth of internet-based sharing mechanism and OpenGIS technology, users nowadays enjoy the luxury to quickly locate and access a variety of geospatial data for the tasks at hands. While this sharing innovation tremendously expand the possibility of application and reduce the development cost, users nevertheless have to deal with all kinds of "differences" implicitly hidden behind the acquired georesources. We argue the next generation of GIS-based environment, regardless internet-based or not, must have built-in knowledge to automatically and correctly assess the fitness of data use and present the analyzed results to users in an intuitive and meaningful way. The VISA approach proposed in this paper refer to four different types of visual aids that can be respectively used for addressing analyzed results, namely, virtual layer, informative window, symbol transformation and augmented TOC. The VISA-enabled interface works in an automatic-aware fashion, where the standardized metadata serve as the known facts about the selected geospatial resources, algorithms for analyzing the differences of temporality and quality of the geospatial resources were designed and the transformation of analyzed results into visual aids were automatically executed. It successfully presents a new way for bridging the communication gaps between systems and users. GIS has been long seen as a powerful integration tool, but its achievements would be highly restricted if it fails to provide a friendly and correct working platform.

  10. A texture-based frameowrk for improving CFD data visualization in a virtual environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bivins, Gerrick O' Ron [Iowa State Univ., Ames, IA (United States)


    In the field of computational fluid dynamics (CFD) accurate representations of fluid phenomena can be simulated but require large amounts of data to represent the flow domain. Most datasets generated from a CFD simulation can be coarse, ~ 10,000 nodes or cells, or very fine with node counts on the order of 1,000,000. A typical dataset solution can also contain multiple solutions for each node, pertaining to various properties of the flow at a particular node. Scalar properties such as density, temperature, pressure, and velocity magnitude are properties that are typically calculated and stored in a dataset solution. Solutions are not limited to just scalar properties. Vector quantities, such as velocity, are also often calculated and stored for a CFD simulation. Accessing all of this data efficiently during runtime is a key problem for visualization in an interactive application. Understanding simulation solutions requires a post-processing tool to convert the data into something more meaningful. Ideally, the application would present an interactive visual representation of the numerical data for any dataset that was simulated while maintaining the accuracy of the calculated solution. Most CFD applications currently sacrifice interactivity for accuracy, yielding highly detailed flow descriptions but limiting interaction for investigating the field.

  11. A texture-based framework for improving CFD data visualization in a virtual environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bivins, Gerrick O' Ron [Iowa State Univ., Ames, IA (United States)


    In the field of computational fluid dynamics (CFD) accurate representations of fluid phenomena can be simulated hut require large amounts of data to represent the flow domain. Most datasets generated from a CFD simulation can be coarse, ~10,000 nodes or cells, or very fine with node counts on the order of 1,000,000. A typical dataset solution can also contain multiple solutions for each node, pertaining to various properties of the flow at a particular node. Scalar properties such as density, temperature, pressure, and velocity magnitude are properties that are typically calculated and stored in a dataset solution. Solutions are not limited to just scalar properties. Vector quantities, such as velocity, are also often calculated and stored for a CFD simulation. Accessing all of this data efficiently during runtime is a key problem for visualization in an interactive application. Understanding simulation solutions requires a post-processing tool to convert the data into something more meaningful. Ideally, the application would present an interactive visual representation of the numerical data for any dataset that was simulated while maintaining the accuracy of the calculated solution. Most CFD applications currently sacrifice interactivity for accuracy, yielding highly detailed flow descriptions hut limiting interaction for investigating the field.

  12. Exercise and physical training improve physical function in older adults with visual impairments but their effect on falls is unclear: a systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Gleeson


    [Gleeson M, Sherrington C, Keay L (2014 Exercise and physical training improve physical function in older adults with visual impairments but their effect on falls is unclear: a systematic review. Journal of Physiotherapy 60: 130–135

  13. Aerobrake assembly with minimum Space Station accommodation (United States)

    Katzberg, Steven J.; Butler, David H.; Doggett, William R.; Russell, James W.; Hurban, Theresa


    The minimum Space Station Freedom accommodations required for initial assembly, repair, and refurbishment of the Lunar aerobrake were investigated. Baseline Space Station Freedom support services were assumed, as well as reasonable earth-to-orbit possibilities. A set of three aerobrake configurations representative of the major themes in aerobraking were developed. Structural assembly concepts, along with on-orbit assembly and refurbishment scenarios were created. The scenarios were exercised to identify required Space Station Freedom accommodations. Finally, important areas for follow-on study were also identified.

  14. High baseline activity in inferior temporal cortex improves neural and behavioral discriminability during visual categorization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nazli eEmadi


    Full Text Available Spontaneous firing is a ubiquitous property of neural activity in the brain. Recent literature suggests that this baseline activity plays a key role in perception. However, it is not known how the baseline activity contributes to neural coding and behavior. Here, by recording from the single neurons in the inferior temporal cortex of monkeys performing a visual categorization task, we thoroughly explored the relationship between baseline activity, the evoked response, and behavior. Specifically we found that a low-frequency (< 8 Hz oscillation in the spike train, prior and phase-locked to the stimulus onset, was correlated with increased gamma power and neuronal baseline activity. This enhancement of the baseline activity was then followed by an increase in the neural selectivity and the response reliability and eventually a higher behavioral performance.

  15. Tools for improving the characterization and visualization of changes in neuro-oncology patients. (United States)

    Hsu, William; Taira, Ricky K


    Capturing how a patient's medical problems change over time is important for understanding the progression of a disease, its effects, and response to treatment. We describe two prototype tools that are being developed as part of a data processing pipeline for standardizing, structuring, and visualizing problems and findings documented in clinical reports associated with neuro-oncology patients. Given a list of problems and findings identified using a natural language processing (NLP) system, we have created a mapping tool that assigns an observation of a problem to one of nine classes that describe change. The second tool utilizes iconic representations of the nine classes to generate a timeline interface, enabling users to pan, zoom, and filter the data. The result of this preliminary work is an automated approach for understanding and summarizing the evolution of a problem within the patient electronic medical record.

  16. Visual Memory at Birth. (United States)

    Slater, Alan; And Others


    Explored new-born babys' capacity for forming visual memories. Used an habituation procedure that accommodated individual differences by allowing each infant to control the time course of habituation trials. Found significant novelty preference, providing strong evidence that recognition memory can be reliably demonstrated from birth. (Author/JAC)

  17. Visiting Richard Serra’s “Promenade” sculpture improves postural control and judgment of subjective visual vertical (United States)

    Kapoula, Zoï; Lang, Alexandre; Lê, Thanh-Thuan; Adenis, Marie-Sarah; Yang, Qing; Lipede, Gabi; Vernet, Marine


    Body sway while maintaining an upright quiet stance reflects an active process of balance based on the integration of visual, vestibular, somatosensory, and proprioceptive inputs. Richard Serra’s Promenade sculpture featured in the 2008 Monumenta exhibition at the Grand Palais in Paris, France is herein hypothesized to have stimulated the body’s vertical and longitudinal axes as it showcased five monumental rectangular solids pitched at a 1.69° angle. Using computerized dynamic posturography we measured the body sway of 23 visitors when fixating a cross, or when observing the artwork (fixating it or actively exploring it with eye movements) before and after walking around and alongside the sculpture (i.e., before and after a promenade). A first fixation at the sculpture increased medio-lateral stability (in terms of spectral power of body sway). Eye movement exploration in the depth of the sculpture increased antero-posterior stability [in terms of spectral power and canceling time (CT) of body sway] at the expense of medio-lateral stability (in terms of CT). Moreover, a medio-lateral instability associated with eye movement exploration before the promenade (in terms of body sway sensu stricto) was canceled after the promenade. Finally, the overall medio-lateral stability (in terms of spectral power) increased after the promenade. Fourteen additional visitors were asked to stand in a dark room and adjust a luminous line to what they considered to be the earth-vertical axis. The promenade executed within the sculpted environment afforded by Serra’s monumental statuary works resulted in significantly improved performances on the subjective visual vertical test. We attribute these effects to the sculpted environment provided by the exhibition which may have acted as a kind of physiologic “training ground” thereby improving the visitors’ overall sense of visual perspective, equilibrium, and gravity. PMID:25566107

  18. The Effect of a Computerized Visual Perception and Visual-Motor Integration Training Program on Improving Chinese Handwriting of Children with Handwriting Difficulties (United States)

    Poon, K. W.; Li-Tsang, C. W .P.; Weiss, T. P. L.; Rosenblum, S.


    This study aimed to investigate the effect of a computerized visual perception and visual-motor integration training program to enhance Chinese handwriting performance among children with learning difficulties, particularly those with handwriting problems. Participants were 26 primary-one children who were assessed by educational psychologists and…

  19. Use of the Argus II retinal prosthesis to improve visual guidance of fine hand movements



    We studied the capabilities of the Argus II retinal prosthesis for guiding fine hand movement, and demonstrated and quantified guidance improvement when using the device over when not using the device for progressively less predictable trajectories.

  20. Visualizing inequality (United States)

    Eliazar, Iddo


    The study of socioeconomic inequality is of substantial importance, scientific and general alike. The graphic visualization of inequality is commonly conveyed by Lorenz curves. While Lorenz curves are a highly effective statistical tool for quantifying the distribution of wealth in human societies, they are less effective a tool for the visual depiction of socioeconomic inequality. This paper introduces an alternative to Lorenz curves-the hill curves. On the one hand, the hill curves are a potent scientific tool: they provide detailed scans of the rich-poor gaps in human societies under consideration, and are capable of accommodating infinitely many degrees of freedom. On the other hand, the hill curves are a powerful infographic tool: they visualize inequality in a most vivid and tangible way, with no quantitative skills that are required in order to grasp the visualization. The application of hill curves extends far beyond socioeconomic inequality. Indeed, the hill curves are highly effective 'hyperspectral' measures of statistical variability that are applicable in the context of size distributions at large. This paper establishes the notion of hill curves, analyzes them, and describes their application in the context of general size distributions.

  1. 22 CFR 142.12 - Reasonable accommodation. (United States)


    ..., acquisition or modification of equipment or devices, the provision of readers or interpreters, and other... facilities, and size of budget; (2) Job restructuring, part-time or modified work schedules, acquisition and... sign language, when appropriate. (3) The nature and cost of the accommodation needed. (d) A...

  2. 34 CFR 104.12 - Reasonable accommodation. (United States)


    ... 34 Education 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Reasonable accommodation. 104.12 Section 104.12 Education Regulations of the Offices of the Department of Education OFFICE FOR CIVIL RIGHTS, DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION NONDISCRIMINATION ON THE BASIS OF HANDICAP IN PROGRAMS OR ACTIVITIES RECEIVING FEDERAL...

  3. Accommodating Faculty Members Who Have Disabilities. Report (United States)

    American Association of University Professors, 2012


    In recent years the rights and responsibilities of students who have disabilities have received considerable attention. Professors routinely accommodate students with a front-row seat in class or extended time on an examination. Faculty members who have disabilities have received far less attention. This report from a subcommittee of Committee A…

  4. Robot response behaviors to accommodate hearing problems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vroon, Jered; Kim, Jaebok; Koster, Raphaël


    One requirement that arises for a social (semi-autonomous telepresence) robot aimed at conversations with the elderly, is to accommodate hearing problems. In this paper we compare two approaches to this requirement; (1) moving closer, mimicking the leaning behavior commonly observed in elderly with

  5. Anthropometric Accommodation in Space Suit Design (United States)

    Rajulu, Sudhakar; Thaxton, Sherry


    Design requirements for next generation hardware are in process at NASA. Anthropometry requirements are given in terms of minimum and maximum sizes for critical dimensions that hardware must accommodate. These dimensions drive vehicle design and suit design, and implicitly have an effect on crew selection and participation. At this stage in the process, stakeholders such as cockpit and suit designers were asked to provide lists of dimensions that will be critical for their design. In addition, they were asked to provide technically feasible minimum and maximum ranges for these dimensions. Using an adjusted 1988 Anthropometric Survey of U.S. Army (ANSUR) database to represent a future astronaut population, the accommodation ranges provided by the suit critical dimensions were calculated. This project involved participation from the Anthropometry and Biomechanics facility (ABF) as well as suit designers, with suit designers providing expertise about feasible hardware dimensions and the ABF providing accommodation analysis. The initial analysis provided the suit design team with the accommodation levels associated with the critical dimensions provided early in the study. Additional outcomes will include a comparison of principal components analysis as an alternate method for anthropometric analysis.

  6. Sustainable development of the today accommodation; Developpement durable de l'habitat existant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    This first colloquium deals with the energy mastership and the greenhouse gases reduction in the today accommodation. The accommodation represent u=indeed the main part of the energy consumption in front of the industry, the transports, the ternary buildings and the agricultural. This document proposes six papers presented during this day: the importance of the accommodation improvement market; the energy performance of buildings and the main requirements of the french directive; the energy performance of buildings and the german regulations in existing buildings; the energy performance standards in existing buildings in UK; the example of the danish certification; the home energy conservation Act (HECA) in United Kingdom. (A.L.B.)

  7. Neural Correlates of Mirror Visual Feedback-Induced Performance Improvements: A Resting-State fMRI Study (United States)

    Rjosk, Viola; Lepsien, Jöran; Kaminski, Elisabeth; Hoff, Maike; Sehm, Bernhard; Steele, Christopher J.; Villringer, Arno; Ragert, Patrick


    Mirror visual feedback (MVF) is a promising approach to enhance motor performance without training in healthy adults as well as in patients with focal brain lesions. There is preliminary evidence that a functional modulation within and between primary motor cortices as assessed with transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) might be one candidate mechanism mediating the observed behavioral effects. Recently, studies using task-based functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) have indicated that MVF-induced functional changes might not be restricted to the primary motor cortex (M1) but also include higher order regions responsible for perceptual-motor coordination and visual attention. However, aside from these instantaneous task-induced brain changes, little is known about learning-related neuroplasticity induced by MVF. Thus, in the present study, we assessed MVF-induced functional network plasticity with resting-state fMRI (rs-fMRI). We performed rs-fMRI of 35 right-handed, healthy adults before and after performing a complex ball-rotation task. The primary outcome measure was the performance improvement of the untrained left hand (LH) before and after right hand (RH) training with MVF (mirror group [MG], n = 17) or without MVF (control group [CG], n = 18). Behaviorally, the MG showed superior performance improvements of the untrained LH. In resting-state functional connectivity (rs-FC), an interaction analysis between groups showed changes in left visual cortex (V1, V2) revealing an increase of centrality in the MG. Within group comparisons showed further functional alterations in bilateral primary sensorimotor cortex (SM1), left V4 and left anterior intraparietal sulcus (aIP) in the MG, only. Importantly, a correlation analysis revealed a linear positive relationship between MVF-induced improvements of the untrained LH and functional alterations in left SM1. Our results suggest that MVF-induced performance improvements are associated with functional learning

  8. Ocular accommodation and cognitive demand: An additional indicator besides pupil size and cardiovascular measures?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaschinski Wolfgang


    Full Text Available Abstract Background The aim of the present study was to assess accommodation as a possible indicator of changes in the autonomic balance caused by altered cognitive demand. Accounting for accommodative responses from a human factors perspective may be motivated by the interest of designing virtual image displays or by establishing an autonomic indicator that allows for remote measurement at the human eye. Heart period, pulse transit time, and the pupillary response were considered as reference for possible closed-loop accommodative effects. Cognitive demand was varied by presenting monocularly numbers at a viewing distance of 5 D (20 cm which had to be read, added or multiplied; further, letters were presented in a "n-back" task. Results Cardiovascular parameters and pupil size indicated a change in autonomic balance, while error rates and reaction time confirmed the increased cognitive demand during task processing. An observed decrease in accommodation could not be attributed to the cognitive demand itself for two reasons: (1 the cognitive demand induced a shift in gaze direction which, for methodological reasons, accounted for a substantial part of the observed accommodative changes. (2 Remaining effects disappeared when the correctness of task processing was taken into account. Conclusion Although the expectation of accommodation as possible autonomic indicator of cognitive demand was not confirmed, the present results are informative for the field of applied psychophysiology noting that it seems not to be worthwhile to include closed-loop accommodation in future studies. From a human factors perspective, expected changes of accommodation due to cognitive demand are of minor importance for design specifications – of, for example, complex visual displays.

  9. Using Visual Aids to Improve Communication of Risks about Health: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rocio Garcia-Retamero


    Full Text Available Recent research has shown that patients frequently experience difficulties understanding health-relevant numerical concepts. A prominent example is denominator neglect, or the tendency to pay too much attention to numerators in ratios (e.g., number of treated patients who died with insufficient attention to denominators (e.g., overall number of treated patients. Denominator neglect can lead to inaccurate assessments of treatment risk reduction and thus can have important consequences for decisions about health. Here, we reviewed a series of studies investigating (1 different factors that can influence patients’ susceptibility to denominator neglect in medical decision making—including numerical or language-related abilities; (2 the extent to which denominator neglect can be attenuated by using visual aids; and (3 a factor that moderates the effectiveness of such aids (i.e., graph literacy. The review spans probabilistic national U.S. and German samples, as well as immigrant (i.e., Polish people living in the United Kingdom and undergraduate samples in Spain. Theoretical and prescriptive implications are discussed.

  10. Using visual aids to improve communication of risks about health: a review. (United States)

    Garcia-Retamero, Rocio; Okan, Yasmina; Cokely, Edward T


    Recent research has shown that patients frequently experience difficulties understanding health-relevant numerical concepts. A prominent example is denominator neglect, or the tendency to pay too much attention to numerators in ratios (e.g., number of treated patients who died) with insufficient attention to denominators (e.g., overall number of treated patients). Denominator neglect can lead to inaccurate assessments of treatment risk reduction and thus can have important consequences for decisions about health. Here, we reviewed a series of studies investigating (1) different factors that can influence patients' susceptibility to denominator neglect in medical decision making--including numerical or language-related abilities; (2) the extent to which denominator neglect can be attenuated by using visual aids; and (3) a factor that moderates the effectiveness of such aids (i.e., graph literacy). The review spans probabilistic national U.S. and German samples, as well as immigrant (i.e., Polish people living in the United Kingdom) and undergraduate samples in Spain. Theoretical and prescriptive implications are discussed.

  11. Evaluation of the potential of phase-contrast computed tomography for improved visualization of cancerous human liver tissue

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Noel, Peter B.; Fingerle, Alexander A. [Technische Univ. Muenchen (Germany). Dept. of Radiology; Herzen, Julia [Technische Univ. Muenchen (Germany). Physics Dept. and Inst. of Medical Engineering] [and others


    Purpose: Phase-contrast X-ray computed tomography (PCCT) is currently investigated and developed as a potentially very interesting extension of conventional CT, and can offer several advantages for specific indications in diagnostic imaging. Current absorption-based computed tomography (CT) without the application of contrast material is limited in the detection of minor density differences in soft-tissue. The purpose of this study is to test whether PCCT can improve soft tissue contrast in healthy and tumorous human liver specimens. Materials and Methods: Two specimens of human liver (one healthy and one metastasized liver sample) were imaged with brilliant X-ray beam at the synchrotron radiation source ESRF in Grenoble, France. For correlation the same specimens were imaged with a magnetic resonance imaging system at 1.5 T. The histopathology confirmed our findings in the corresponding sections of the specimens. Results: In the phase-contrast CT images we observed a significantly enhanced soft-tissue contrast when compared to simultaneously recorded standard absorption CT measurements. Further, we found that the pathological and morphological information in the PCCT reconstructions show significant improvement when compared to those performed on MRI. Based on matching of prominent features, a good correlation between PCCT and the histological section is demonstrated; especially the tumor capsule and the surrounding vascular structures are visible in PCCT. In addition, our study revealed the ability of PCCT to visualize the blood vessels structure in the tumorous liver without the need of any contrast agents. Conclusion: Grating-based PCCT significantly improves the soft-tissue contrast in ex-vivo liver specimens and holds the potential to overcome the need of contrast materials for visualization of the tumor vascularization. (orig.)

  12. Mirror Visual Feedback Training Improves Intermanual Transfer in a Sport-Specific Task: A Comparison between Different Skill Levels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabian Steinberg


    Full Text Available Mirror training therapy is a promising tool to initiate neural plasticity and facilitate the recovery process of motor skills after diseases such as stroke or hemiparesis by improving the intermanual transfer of fine motor skills in healthy people as well as in patients. This study evaluated whether these augmented performance improvements by mirror visual feedback (MVF could be used for learning a sport-specific skill and if the effects are modulated by skill level. A sample of 39 young, healthy, and experienced basketball and handball players and 41 novices performed a stationary basketball dribble task at a mirror box in a standing position and received either MVF or direct feedback. After four training days using only the right hand, performance of both hands improved from pre- to posttest measurements. Only the left hand (untrained performance of the experienced participants receiving MVF was more pronounced than for the control group. This indicates that intermanual motor transfer can be improved by MVF in a sport-specific task. However, this effect cannot be generalized to motor learning per se since it is modulated by individuals’ skill level, a factor that might be considered in mirror therapy research.

  13. Mirror Visual Feedback Training Improves Intermanual Transfer in a Sport-Specific Task: A Comparison between Different Skill Levels (United States)

    Pixa, Nils Henrik; Doppelmayr, Michael


    Mirror training therapy is a promising tool to initiate neural plasticity and facilitate the recovery process of motor skills after diseases such as stroke or hemiparesis by improving the intermanual transfer of fine motor skills in healthy people as well as in patients. This study evaluated whether these augmented performance improvements by mirror visual feedback (MVF) could be used for learning a sport-specific skill and if the effects are modulated by skill level. A sample of 39 young, healthy, and experienced basketball and handball players and 41 novices performed a stationary basketball dribble task at a mirror box in a standing position and received either MVF or direct feedback. After four training days using only the right hand, performance of both hands improved from pre- to posttest measurements. Only the left hand (untrained) performance of the experienced participants receiving MVF was more pronounced than for the control group. This indicates that intermanual motor transfer can be improved by MVF in a sport-specific task. However, this effect cannot be generalized to motor learning per se since it is modulated by individuals' skill level, a factor that might be considered in mirror therapy research. PMID:27642526

  14. Distributed data discovery, access and visualization services to Improve Data Interoperability across different data holdings (United States)

    Palanisamy, G.; Krassovski, M.; Devarakonda, R.; Santhana Vannan, S.


    The current climate debate is highlighting the importance of free, open, and authoritative sources of high quality climate data that are available for peer review and for collaborative purposes. It is increasingly important to allow various organizations around the world to share climate data in an open manner, and to enable them to perform dynamic processing of climate data. This advanced access to data can be enabled via Web-based services, using common "community agreed" standards without having to change their internal structure used to describe the data. The modern scientific community has become diverse and increasingly complex in nature. To meet the demands of such diverse user community, the modern data supplier has to provide data and other related information through searchable, data and process oriented tool. This can be accomplished by setting up on-line, Web-based system with a relational database as a back end. The following common features of the web data access/search systems will be outlined in the proposed presentation: - A flexible data discovery - Data in commonly used format (e.g., CSV, NetCDF) - Preparing metadata in standard formats (FGDC, ISO19115, EML, DIF etc.) - Data subseting capabilities and ability to narrow down to individual data elements - Standards based data access protocols and mechanisms (SOAP, REST, OpenDAP, OGC etc.) - Integration of services across different data systems (discovery to access, visualizations and subseting) This presentation will also include specific examples of integration of various data systems that are developed by Oak Ridge National Laboratory's - Climate Change Science Institute, their ability to communicate between each other to enable better data interoperability and data integration. References: [1] Devarakonda, Ranjeet, and Harold Shanafield. "Drupal: Collaborative framework for science research." Collaboration Technologies and Systems (CTS), 2011 International Conference on. IEEE, 2011. [2

  15. Attention Cueing and Activity Equally Reduce False Alarm Rate in Visual-Auditory Associative Learning through Improving Memory. (United States)

    Nikouei Mahani, Mohammad-Ali; Haghgoo, Hojjat Allah; Azizi, Solmaz; Nili Ahmadabadi, Majid


    In our daily life, we continually exploit already learned multisensory associations and form new ones when facing novel situations. Improving our associative learning results in higher cognitive capabilities. We experimentally and computationally studied the learning performance of healthy subjects in a visual-auditory sensory associative learning task across active learning, attention cueing learning, and passive learning modes. According to our results, the learning mode had no significant effect on learning association of congruent pairs. In addition, subjects' performance in learning congruent samples was not correlated with their vigilance score. Nevertheless, vigilance score was significantly correlated with the learning performance of the non-congruent pairs. Moreover, in the last block of the passive learning mode, subjects significantly made more mistakes in taking non-congruent pairs as associated and consciously reported lower confidence. These results indicate that attention and activity equally enhanced visual-auditory associative learning for non-congruent pairs, while false alarm rate in the passive learning mode did not decrease after the second block. We investigated the cause of higher false alarm rate in the passive learning mode by using a computational model, composed of a reinforcement learning module and a memory-decay module. The results suggest that the higher rate of memory decay is the source of making more mistakes and reporting lower confidence in non-congruent pairs in the passive learning mode.

  16. Improvement of distension and mural visualization of bowel loops using neutral oral contrasts in abdominal computed tomography

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jahanbakhsh; Hashemi; Yasmin; Davoudi; Mina; Taghavi; Masoud; Pezeshki; Rad; Amien; Mahajeri; Moghadam


    AIM: To assess and compare the image quality of 4% sorbitol and diluted iodine 2%(positive oral contrast agent) in abdomino-pelvic multi-detector computed tomography.METHODS: Two-hundred patients, referred to the Radiology Department of a central educational hospital for multi-detector row abdominal-pelvic computed tomography, were randomly divided into two groups: the first group received 1500 m L of 4% sorbitol solution as a neutral contrast agent, while in the second group 1500 m L of meglumin solution as a positive contrast agent was administered in a one-way randomized prospective study. The results were independently reviewed by two radiologists. Luminal distension and mural thickness and mucosal enhancement were compared between the two groups. Statistical analysis of the results was performed by Statistical Package for the Social Sciences software version 16 and the Mann-Whitney test at a confidence level of 95%. RESULTS: Use of neutral oral contrast agent significantly improved visualization of the small bowel wall thickness and mural appearance in comparison with administration of positive contrast agent(P < 0.01). In patients who received sorbitol, the small bowel showed better distention compared with those who received iodine solution as a positive contrast agent(P < 0.05). CONCLUSION: The results of the study demonstrated that oral administration of sorbitol solution allows better luminal distention and visualization of mural features than iodine solution as a positive contrast agent.

  17. An influenza outbreak among pilgrims sleeping at a school without purpose built overnight accommodation facilities. (United States)

    Staff, Michael; Torres, Maria I


    This report describes a respiratory illness outbreak amongst a group of over 700 World Youth Day 2008 pilgrims staying at a basic accommodation venue for 1 week in July 2008. At this venue, 1 group of pilgrims was accommodated as a large group in a gymnasium and another group was sub-divided into smaller groups and accommodated in classrooms. Following confirmation of an influenza B outbreak by influenza point of care testing, control measures were promptly implemented. Isolation of cases, improved hand, respiratory and general hygiene, establishment of a mobile tent health facility at the accommodation venue, and the use of oseltamivir for the treatment of cases and prophylaxis of high risk contacts were implemented and the outbreak was brought under control within the week. Overall, 20% of pilgrims met the case definition for an influenza-like illness and 36% had an onset prior to arrival at the venue. The attack rate for those with onset while at the venue was significantly higher amongst pilgrims accommodated in the gymnasium than those staying in the classrooms. Findings from this study highlight the importance of early detection, the rapid implementation of control measures and appropriate prescribing of antivirals to manage influenza outbreaks. The findings also highlight the benefits of accommodating individuals in smaller groups within basic accommodation venues in the context of mass gatherings.

  18. The Geology Robot: A Collaborative Effort for improving Outcrop Visualization and Analysis (United States)

    Fredrick, K. C.; Valoski, M. P.; Rodi, A. F.


    Geologic mapping is one of the most important skills a geologist will attempt to master during their education and well into their career. Mapping requires the ability to identify rocks and minerals, an understanding of geologic principles of history, deformation, and tectonics, as well as the ability to access the geology in question. As a student, the first two items are cognitive, and generally gained through education and experience. However, the third involves external, especially physical factors, often outside of a student’s control. Mapping and outcrop analysis can be difficult in areas of especially varied terrain depending on one’s will and physical ability. In our area of southwestern Pennsylvania, steep terrain and dense vegetation dominate the landscape. Road cuts are often the only options for identifying local bedrock. Many outcrops are avoided based on their sheer size or integrity, which can pose risks of physical harm. In order to address some of these concerns, we have developed a robot, able to scale and image rocks in the vertical. The principle behind the robot’s capabilities is to reach steep or over-steep cliff faces to view and measure rock type and stratigraphic relationships. The robot carries a movable camera, allowing the operator a clear view of the rock face in an area that he or she wouldn’t normally be able to access. The robot is suspended from climbing rope over the cliff edge and connected to a power source and video monitor. The current prototype is operated with a handheld remote control including independent camera manipulation. Future development may include detachable wheel tracks for navigating less than vertical surfaces and a coring bit for sampling. Potential uses exist beyond visualization for classroom instruction, including detailed mapping, evaluating geological engineering challenges, viewing down-well conditions in large-bore wells, etc. We believe this robot will allow students (and possibly professionals

  19. Visual discomfort and depth-of-field

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    O'Hare, L.; Zhang, T.; Nefs, H.T.; Hibbard, P.B.


    Visual discomfort has been reported for certain visual stimuli and under particular viewing conditions, such as stereoscopic viewing. In stereoscopic viewing, visual discomfort can be caused by a conflict between accommodation and convergence cues that may specify different distances in depth. Earli

  20. The Use of Test Accommodations as a Gaming Strategy: A State-Level Exploration of Potential Gaming Tendencies in the 2007-2009 Period and Implications for Re-Directing Research on Gaming through Test Accommodations (United States)

    Saatcioglu, Argun; Skrtic, Thomas M.; DeLuca, Thomas A.


    The overuse of test accommodations (e.g., test readers, extra time, and calculators) for students with disabilities is a potential means of gaming the accountability system because it can inflate proficiency gains. However, no direct evidence on this problem exists, and findings on whether or not test accommodations improve test scores are…

  1. Diode Laser 810 Nm as a Potential Treatment to Improve Visual Function in Nonarteritic Anterior Ischemic Optic Neuropathy (NAION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Hossein Heidari


    Full Text Available Nonarteritic anterior ischemic optic neuropathy (NAION is one of the most widespread visually disabling diseases in the middle-aged and elderly population. The optic nerve damage appears to result from a perfusion insufficiency in the short posterior ciliary arteries leading to infarction of the retrolaminar portion of the optic disc. Induced Heat shock protein (Hsp is known to have neuroprotective effects against ischemic injury of the central nervous system in mammals. Transpupillary thermotherapy (TTT application to the optic nerve head induces Hsp70 expression. We hypothesize that Transpupillary thermotherapy (TTT could be a novel method for improving and preserving the function of the optic nerve fibers in the eye with NAION. An 810-nm diode laser beam is focused to the center of the optic nerve head to induce Hsp. Controlled prospective and randomized clinical trial is necessary to confirm conclusively the effectiveness of this method.

  2. Contact lenses fitting teaching: learning improvement with monitor visualization of webcam video recordings (United States)

    Gargallo, Ana; Arines, Justo


    We have adapted low cost webcams to the slit lamps objectives with the aim of improving contact lens fitting practice. With this solution we obtain good quality pictures and videos, we also recorded videos of eye examination, evaluation routines of contact lens fitting, and the final practice exam of our students. In addition, the video system increases the interactions between students because they could see what their colleagues are doing and take conscious of their mistakes, helping and correcting each others. We think that the proposed system is a low cost solution for supporting the training in contact lens fitting practice.

  3. Visual input enhancement via essay coding results in deaf learners' long-term retention of improved English grammatical knowledge. (United States)

    Berent, Gerald P; Kelly, Ronald R; Schmitz, Kathryn L; Kenney, Patricia


    This study explored the efficacy of visual input enhancement, specifically essay enhancement, for facilitating deaf college students' improvement in English grammatical knowledge. Results documented students' significant improvement immediately after a 10-week instructional intervention, a replication of recent research. Additionally, the results of delayed assessment documented students' significant retention of that improvement five and a half months beyond the instructional intervention period. Essay enhancement served to highlight, via a coding procedure, students' successful and unsuccessful production of discourse-required target grammatical structures. The procedure converted students' written communicative output into enhanced input for inducing noticing of grammatical form and, through essay revision, establishing form-meaning connections leading to acquisition. With its optimal design characteristics supported by theoretical and empirical research, essay enhancement is a highly effective methodology that can be easily implemented as primary or supplementary English instruction for deaf students. The results of this study hold great promise for facilitating deaf students' English language and literacy development and have broad implications for second-language research, teaching, and learning.

  4. Patient DF's visual brain in action: Visual feedforward control in visual form agnosia. (United States)

    Whitwell, Robert L; Milner, A David; Cavina-Pratesi, Cristiana; Barat, Masihullah; Goodale, Melvyn A


    Patient DF, who developed visual form agnosia following ventral-stream damage, is unable to discriminate the width of objects, performing at chance, for example, when asked to open her thumb and forefinger a matching amount. Remarkably, however, DF adjusts her hand aperture to accommodate the width of objects when reaching out to pick them up (grip scaling). While this spared ability to grasp objects is presumed to be mediated by visuomotor modules in her relatively intact dorsal stream, it is possible that it may rely abnormally on online visual or haptic feedback. We report here that DF's grip scaling remained intact when her vision was completely suppressed during grasp movements, and it still dissociated sharply from her poor perceptual estimates of target size. We then tested whether providing trial-by-trial haptic feedback after making such perceptual estimates might improve DF's performance, but found that they remained significantly impaired. In a final experiment, we re-examined whether DF's grip scaling depends on receiving veridical haptic feedback during grasping. In one condition, the haptic feedback was identical to the visual targets. In a second condition, the haptic feedback was of a constant intermediate width while the visual target varied trial by trial. Despite this incongruent feedback, DF still scaled her grip aperture to the visual widths of the target blocks, showing only normal adaptation to the false haptically-experienced width. Taken together, these results strengthen the view that DF's spared grasping relies on a normal mode of dorsal-stream functioning, based chiefly on visual feedforward processing.

  5. Moving beyond misperceptions: the provision of workplace accommodations. (United States)

    Hernandez, Brigida; McDonald, Katherine; Lepera, Nicole; Shahna, Monna; Wang, T Arthur; Levy, Joel M


    This mixed-methods study examined the provision of workplace accommodations in the health care, hospitality, and retail sectors. First, focus groups with administrators from each sector revealed that accommodations costs were viewed as minimal (although frontline managers were perceived as having misperceptions). Second, the provision of accommodations as documented through human resources records for health care and hospitality indicated that accommodations were infrequent, not costly, and provided to employees with disabilities. Finally, retail employees (irrespective of disability status) reported many more accommodations than health care and hospitality workers. To dispel misperceptions related to accommodations, education is critical and social workers are well-positioned for this role.

  6. RepeatsDB 2.0: improved annotation, classification, search and visualization of repeat protein structures (United States)

    Paladin, Lisanna; Hirsh, Layla; Piovesan, Damiano; Andrade-Navarro, Miguel A.; Kajava, Andrey V.; Tosatto, Silvio C.E.


    RepeatsDB 2.0 (URL: is an update of the database of annotated tandem repeat protein structures. Repeat proteins are a widespread class of non-globular proteins carrying heterogeneous functions involved in several diseases. Here we provide a new version of RepeatsDB with an improved classification schema including high quality annotations for ∼5400 protein structures. RepeatsDB 2.0 features information on start and end positions for the repeat regions and units for all entries. The extensive growth of repeat unit characterization was possible by applying the novel ReUPred annotation method over the entire Protein Data Bank, with data quality is guaranteed by an extensive manual validation for >60% of the entries. The updated web interface includes a new search engine for complex queries and a fully re-designed entry page for a better overview of structural data. It is now possible to compare unit positions, together with secondary structure, fold information and Pfam domains. Moreover, a new classification level has been introduced on top of the existing scheme as an independent layer for sequence similarity relationships at 40%, 60% and 90% identity. PMID:27899671

  7. Visually Improved Image Compression by using Embedded Zero-tree Wavelet Coding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janaki R


    Full Text Available Image compression is very important for efficient transmission and storage of images. Embedded Zero- tree Wavelet (EZW algorithm is a simple yet powerful algorithm having the property that the bits in the stream are generated in the order of their importance. Image compression can improve the performance of the digital systems by reducing time and cost in image storage and transmission without significant reduction of the image quality. For image compression it is desirable that the selection of transform should reduce the size of resultant data set as compared to source data set. EZW is computationally very fast and among the best image compression algorithm known today. This paper proposes a technique for image compression which uses the Wavelet-based Image Coding. A large number of experimental results are shown that this method saves a lot of bits in transmission, further enhances the compression performance. This paper aims to determine the best threshold to compress the still image at a particular decomposition level by using Embedded Zero-tree Wavelet encoder. Compression Ratio (CR and Peak-Signal-to-Noise (PSNR is determined for different threshold values ranging from 6 to 60 for decomposition level 8.

  8. An improved method for the visualization of conductive vessels in Arabidopsis thaliana inflorescence stems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radek eJupa


    Full Text Available Dye perfusion is commonly used for the identification of conductive elements important for the study of xylem development as well as precise hydraulic estimations. The tiny size of inflorescence stems, the small amount of vessels in close arrangement, and high hydraulic resistivity delimit the use of the method for quantification of the water conductivity of Arabidopsis thaliana, one of the recently most extensively used plant models. Here, we present an extensive adjustment to the method in order to reliably identify individual functional (conductive vessels. Segments of inflorescence stems were sealed in silicone tubes to prevent damage and perfused with a dye solution. Our results showed that dyes often used for staining functional xylem elements (safranin, fuchsine, toluidine blue failed with Arabidopsis. In contrast, Fluorescent Brightener 28 dye solution perfused through segments stained secondary cell walls of functional vessels, which were clearly distinguishable in native cross sections. When compared to identification based on the degree of development of secondary cell walls, identification with the help of dye perfusion revealed a significantly lower number of functional vessels and values of theoretical hydraulic conductivity. We found that lignified but not yet functional vessels form a substantial portion of the xylem in apical and basal segments of Arabidopsis and, thus, significantly affect the analyzed functional parameters of xylem. The presented methodology enables reliable identification of individual functional vessels, allowing thus estimations of hydraulic conductivities to be improved, size distributions and vessel diameters to be refined, and data variability generally to be reduced.

  9. Contradiction Resolution of Competitive and Input Neurons to Improve Prediction and Visualization Performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryotaro Kamimura


    Full Text Available In this paper, we propose a new type of informationtheoretic method to resolve the contradiction observed in competitive and input neurons. For competitive neurons, contradiction between self-evaluation (individuality and outer-evaluation (collectivity exists, which is reduced to realize the self-organizing maps. For input neurons, there exists contradiction between the use of many and few input neurons. We try to realize a situation where as many input neurons as possible are used, and at the same time, another where only a few input neurons are used. This contradictory situation can be resolved by viewing input neurons on different levels, namely, the individual and average level. We applied contradiction resolution to two data sets, namely, the Japanese short term economy survey (Tankan and Dollar-Yen exchange rates. In both data sets, we succeeded in improving the prediction performance. Many input neurons were used on average, but a few input neurons were only taken for each input pattern. In addition, connection weights were condensed into a small number of distinct groups for better prediction and interpretation performance.

  10. Long-Term Electrophysiological and Behavioral Analysis on the Improvement of Visual Working Memory Load, Training Gains, and Transfer Benefits. (United States)

    Kuo, Ching-Chang; Zhang, Cheng; Rissman, Robert A; Chiu, Alan W L


    Recent evidence demonstrates that with training, one can enhance visual working memory (VWM) capacity and attention over time in the near transfer tasks. Not only do these studies reveal the characteristics of VWM load and the influences of training, they may also provide insights into developing effective rehabilitation for patients with VWM deficiencies. However, few studies have investigated VWM over extended periods of time and evaluated transfer benefits on non-trained tasks. Here, we combined behavioral and electroencephalographical approaches to investigate VWM load, training gains, and transfer benefits. Our results reveal that VWM capacity is directly correlated to the difference of event-related potential waveforms. In particular, the "magic number 4" can be observed through the contralateral delay amplitude and the average capacity is 3.25-item over 15 participants. Furthermore, our findings indicate that VWM capacity can be improved through training; and after training exercises, participants from the training group are able to dramatically improve their performance. Likewise, the training effects on non-trained tasks can also be observed at the 12th week after training. Therefore, we conclude that participants can benefit from training gains, and augmented VWM capacity sustained over long periods of time on specific variety of tasks.

  11. Improved classification and visualization of healthy and pathological hard dental tissues by modeling specular reflections in NIR hyperspectral images (United States)

    Usenik, Peter; Bürmen, Miran; Fidler, Aleš; Pernuš, Franjo; Likar, Boštjan


    Despite major improvements in dental healthcare and technology, dental caries remains one of the most prevalent chronic diseases of modern society. The initial stages of dental caries are characterized by demineralization of enamel crystals, commonly known as white spots, which are difficult to diagnose. Near-infrared (NIR) hyperspectral imaging is a new promising technique for early detection of demineralization which can classify healthy and pathological dental tissues. However, due to non-ideal illumination of the tooth surface the hyperspectral images can exhibit specular reflections, in particular around the edges and the ridges of the teeth. These reflections significantly affect the performance of automated classification and visualization methods. Cross polarized imaging setup can effectively remove the specular reflections, however is due to the complexity and other imaging setup limitations not always possible. In this paper, we propose an alternative approach based on modeling the specular reflections of hard dental tissues, which significantly improves the classification accuracy in the presence of specular reflections. The method was evaluated on five extracted human teeth with corresponding gold standard for 6 different healthy and pathological hard dental tissues including enamel, dentin, calculus, dentin caries, enamel caries and demineralized regions. Principal component analysis (PCA) was used for multivariate local modeling of healthy and pathological dental tissues. The classification was performed by employing multiple discriminant analysis. Based on the obtained results we believe the proposed method can be considered as an effective alternative to the complex cross polarized imaging setups.

  12. Objective Assessment of Vergence and Accommodation After Vision Therapy for Convergence Insufficiency in a Child: A Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mitchell Scheiman, OD


    Full Text Available Background: To evaluate objective changes in vergence and accommodation after treatment of symptomatic convergence insufficiency (CI with office-based optometric vision therapy in a pediatric patient. Case Report: A 10-year, 10-month-old child with symptomatic CI was treated with 16 visits of office-based vision therapy with home reinforcement. Pre- and post-therapy testing included both traditional clinical measures and objective laboratory measures of vergence and accommodation. The main clinical outcome measures were the CI Symptom Survey (CISS, near point of convergence (NPC, positive fusional vergence range at near (PFV, accommodative amplitude, and accommodative facility. The objective vergence range outcome measures were peak velocity, time constant, total response time, and steady-state response variability as assessed with the Power Refractor II. The objective accommodative outcome measures were peak velocity, time constant, total response time, steady-state response variability, and steady-state level, as assessed with the Grand Seiko WAM-5500. Most accommodative and vergence objective laboratory parameters improved/normalized following the vision therapy. Gains were greater for vergence than for accommodation. These objective measures confirmed the concurrent improvements in the clinical tests and markedly reduced symptom levels. Conclusions: This is the first study to document, objectively, improvements in laboratory-based dynamic measures of both accommodation and vergence following conventional office-based optometric vision therapy for CI in a child. Objective oculomotor measures can and should be performed in similar future studies in children, as well as in adults

  13. Using surface imaging and visual coaching to improve the reproducibility and stability of deep-inspiration breath hold for left-breast-cancer radiotherapy (United States)

    Cerviño, Laura I.; Gupta, Sonia; Rose, Mary A.; Yashar, Catheryn; Jiang, Steve B.


    Late cardiac complications may arise after left-breast radiation therapy. Deep-inspiration breath hold (DIBH) allows reduction of the irradiated heart volume at the same time as it reduces tumor bed motion and increases lung sparing. In the present study, we have evaluated the improvement in reproducibility and stability of the DIBH for left-breast-cancer treatment when visual coaching is provided with the aid of 3D video surface imaging and video goggles. Five left-breast-cancer patients and fifteen healthy volunteers were asked to perform a series of DIBHs without and with visual coaching. Reproducibility and stability of DIBH were measured for each individual with and without visual coaching. The average reproducibility and stability changed from 2.1 mm and 1.5 mm, respectively, without visual feedback to 0.5 mm and 0.7 mm with visual feedback, showing a significant statistical difference (p 2 mm) in reproducibility and stability were observed in 35% and 15% of the subjects, respectively. The average chest wall excursion of the DIBH with respect to the free breathing preceding the DIBH was found to be 11.3 mm. The reproducibility and stability of the DIBH improve significantly from the visual coaching provided to the patient, especially in those patients with poor reproducibility and stability.



    Portolan, Ana


    The private tourism accommodation concept has not been largely represented in the scientific research. It started appearing on the margins of the actual research in the past ten years, namely with a hotel as the most analyzed form of tourism accommodation. In the structure of tourism accommodation in Croatia in 2011 private accommodation participated with 465 000 beds which represents 49,8 percent of the total capacity and therefore demands more attention. Using the main marketing postulate w...

  15. Optimal Disturbance Accommodation with Limited Model Information

    CERN Document Server

    Farokhi, F; Johansson, K H


    The design of optimal dynamic disturbance-accommodation controller with limited model information is considered. We adapt the family of limited model information control design strategies, defined earlier by the authors, to handle dynamic-controllers. This family of limited model information design strategies construct subcontrollers distributively by accessing only local plant model information. The closed-loop performance of the dynamic-controllers that they can produce are studied using a performance metric called the competitive ratio which is the worst case ratio of the cost a control design strategy to the cost of the optimal control design with full model information.

  16. Reimbursement of education fees / accommodation fees

    CERN Multimedia


    Your attention is drawn to the 20 km distance limit set in Article R A 8.01 of the Staff Regulations, namely, that only accommodation fees of students attending an educational establishment which is more than 20 km from the place of residence and the duty station of the member of the personnel are reimbursed by the Organization, subject to the percentage rate and maximum amounts set out in this article and in Administrative Circular N° 12. Human Resources Division Tel: 72862 / 74474

  17. Reminder : Reimbursement of education fees / accommodation fees

    CERN Multimedia


    Your attention is drawn to the 20 km distance limit set in Article R A 8.01 of the Staff Regulations, namely, that only accommodation fees of students attending an educational establishment which is more than 20 km from the place of residence and the duty station of the member of the personnel are reimbursed by the Organization, subject to the percentage rate and maximum amounts set out in this article and in Administrative Circular N° 12. Human Resources Division Tel : 72862 / 74474

  18. 可植入接触镜屈光手术后调节与拱高的关系%Relationship between accommodation and lens vault following implantable contact lens surgery

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赖晓娟; 李志敏; 谷浩


    Background Implantable contact lens (ICL) surgery is a primary intraocular refractive corrective surgery for high myopia.However,whether there will be enough distance between ICL and anterior face of lens to avoid the occurrence of anterior capsular cataract in non-accommodated and the largest physiological accommodated state after ICL implantation is worthy of investigation.Objective The purpose of this study was to investigate the alteration of lens vault after ICL implantation and explore the relationship between accommodation and change of lens vault.Methods A observational study was carried out.Sixty-six eyes of 33 patients with high myopia who received ICL implantation were enrolled in Affiliated First Hospital of Guiyang Medical College from May to November,2012.Best corrected visual acuity (BCVA),uncorrected visual acuity (UCVA),refractive diopter were regularly examined using synthetical optometry,and crystalline lens rise (CLR) and lens vault in non-accommodative or accommodative condition were observed by the anterior segment OCT (Visante OCT) and ultrasound biomicoscopy (UBM) before operation and 1 day,1 week,l month and 3 months after operation.Data were analyzed with SPSS version 16.0.Repeated measurement one-way analysis of variance was used to compare the differences of vision and refractive diopter among various time points.The relationship between accommodation and CLR was assessed using Pearson linear correlation.The alteration of CLR with accommodation change was analyzed by linear regression equation.Lens vault was measured and compared between non-accommodation and maximal physical accommodation status by paired t test.Results The postoperative UCVA was improved in comparison with preoperative BCVA,and the postoperative diopter was significantly lower than that of preoperation,with significant differences among various time points (F =16.904,P =0.000 ; F =1.498,P =0.000),and the diopter was stable after operation.A positive correlation was

  19. Functional visual improvement after cataract surgery in eyes with age-related macular degeneration; Results of the Ophthalmic Surgical Outcomes Data (OSOD) Project. (United States)

    Stock, Michael V; Vollman, David E; Baze, Elizabeth F; Chomsky, Amy S; Daly, Mary K; Lawrence, Mary


    Purpose: To determine if cataract surgery on eyes with age-related macular degeneration (AMD) confers as much functional visual improvement as on eyes without retinal pathology. Methods: This is a retrospective analysis of 4,924 cataract surgeries from the VA Ophthalmic Surgical Outcomes Data Project. We included cases of eyes with AMD which had both preoperative and postoperative NEI-VFQ-25 questionnaires submitted and compared their outcomes to controls without retinal pathology. We excluded patients with other retinal pathologies. The analyses compared changes in visual acuity and overall functional visual improvement and its subscales. Results: Preoperative and postoperative questionnaires were submitted by 58.3% of AMD and 63.8% of controls. Analysis of overall score showed that cataract surgery on eyes with AMD led to increased visual function (13.8± 2.4 NEI-VFQ units, PNEI-VFQ units, PAMD was predictive of postoperative visual function (r=-0.38, PAMD patients with vision of 20/40 or better had overall outcomes similar to controls (-2.2± 4.7 NEI-VFQ units, P=0.37). Conclusions: Cataract surgery on eyes with AMD offers an increase in functional visual improvement; however, the amount of benefit is associated with the eye's preBCVA. For eyes with preBCVA ≥20/40, the improvement is similar to that of patients without retinal pathology. However, if preBCVA is <20/40, the amount of improvement was shown to be significantly less and decreased with decreasing preBCVA.

  20. 46 CFR 108.197 - Construction of accommodation spaces. (United States)


    ... accommodation spaces. (a) Each sleeping, mess, recreational, or hospital space that is adjacent to or... deckheads of each accommodation space must be a light color. (e) Each accommodation space in which water may... readily enter any sleeping, mess, recreational, or hospital space....

  1. Current smoking is associated with a poor visual acuity improvement after intravitreal ranibizumab therapy in patients with exudative age-related macular degeneration. (United States)

    Lee, Sangmoon; Song, Su Jeong; Yu, Hyeong Gon


    In this study, the risk factors that may influence visual improvement after intravitreal ranibizumab (IVR) treatment for exudative age-related macular degeneration (AMD) were examined. From 2008 to 2012, 420 patients (448 eyes) with exudative AMD were prospectively registered at Seoul National University Hospital. From this group of patients, 125 eyes were included in this study. All patients were treated with 3 consecutive IVR injections. The visual acuity (VA) was evaluated at baseline and 1 month after the third ranibizumab injection. To evaluate the risk factors associated with VA improvement after IVR, patient demographic data and systemic risk factors were analyzed. Patients were divided into a poor VA improvement group and a good VA improvement group, with reference to the median visual improvement in all eyes. Among 125 eyes, 66 eyes (52.8%) were included in the responder group and 59 eyes (47.2%) in the non-responder group. The median VA improvement after 3 monthly ranibizumab injections was -0.05 logMAR. Multivariate analyses revealed that current smoking (adjusted OR, 7.540; 95% CI, 1.732-32.823) was independently associated with poor VA improvement after IVR treatment for exudative AMD. In conclusion, cigarette smoking is an independent risk factor for lower VA gains with IVR treatment for exudative AMD.

  2. Validation of a nonrigid registration framework that accommodates tissue resection (United States)

    Risholm, Petter; Samset, Eigil; Wells, William, III


    We present a 3D extension and validation of an intra-operative registration framework that accommodates tissue resection. The framework is based on the bijective Demons method, but instead of regularizing with the traditional Gaussian smoother, we apply an anisotropic diffusion filter with the resection modeled as a diffusion sink. The diffusion sink prevents unwanted Demon forces that originates from the resected area from diffusing into the surrounding area. Another attractive property of the diffusion sink is the resulting continuous deformation field across the diffusion sink boundary, which allows us to move the boundary of the diffusion sink without changing values in the deformation field. The area of resection is estimated by a level-set method evolving in the space of image intensity disagreements in the intra-operative image domain. A product of using the bijective Demons method is that we can also provide an accurate estimate of the resected tissue in the preoperative image space. Validation of the proposed method was performed on a set of 25 synthetic images. Our experiments show a significant improvement in accommodating resection using the proposed method compared to two other Demons based methods.

  3. Toward an Improved Haptic Zooming Algorithm for Graphical Information Accessed by Individuals Who Are Blind and Visually Impaired (United States)

    Rastogi, Ravi; Pawluk, Dianne T. V.


    An increasing amount of information content used in school, work, and everyday living is presented in graphical form. Unfortunately, it is difficult for people who are blind or visually impaired to access this information, especially when many diagrams are needed. One problem is that details, even in relatively simple visual diagrams, can be very…

  4. Multisensory teamwork: using a tactile or an auditory display to exchange gaze information improves performance in joint visual search. (United States)

    Wahn, Basil; Schwandt, Jessika; Krüger, Matti; Crafa, Daina; Nunnendorf, Vanessa; König, Peter


    In joint tasks, adjusting to the actions of others is critical for success. For joint visual search tasks, research has shown that when search partners visually receive information about each other's gaze, they use this information to adjust to each other's actions, resulting in faster search performance. The present study used a visual, a tactile and an auditory display, respectively, to provide search partners with information about each other's gaze. Results showed that search partners performed faster when the gaze information was received via a tactile or auditory display in comparison to receiving it via a visual display or receiving no gaze information. Findings demonstrate the effectiveness of tactile and auditory displays for receiving task-relevant information in joint tasks and are applicable to circumstances in which little or no visual information is available or the visual modality is already taxed with a demanding task such as air-traffic control. Practitioner Summary: The present study demonstrates that tactile and auditory displays are effective for receiving information about actions of others in joint tasks. Findings are either applicable to circumstances in which little or no visual information is available or when the visual modality is already taxed with a demanding task.

  5. [Efficacy of topical ketorolac for improving visual function after photocoagulation in diabetic patients with focal macular edema]. (United States)

    Razo Blanco-Hernández, Dulce Milagros; Lima-Gómez, Virgilio; Asbun-Bojalil, Juan


    Antecedentes: la fotocoagulación reduce la incidencia de pérdida visual en diabéticos con edema macular focal, aunque puede inducirla durante 6 semanas; la mejoría visual después del tratamiento es excepcional. El ketorolaco tópico puede limitar la inflamación causada por la fotocoagulación, y mejorar el desenlace visual. Objetivo: determinar la eficacia del ketorolaco tópico en la mejoría de la función visual después de la fotocoagulación, en diabéticos con edema macular focal. Material y métodos: estudio experimental, comparativo, prospectivo, longitudinal efectuado en diabéticos con edema macular focal, asignados al azar a dos grupos de tratamiento tópico durante 3 semanas después de la fotocoagulación (A: ketorolaco, B: placebo). En cada grupo se comparó la agudeza visual antes y después del tratamiento (t pareada) y entre grupos la proporción de ojos con mejoría visual (χ(2)). La evaluación se repitió con estratificación por agudeza visual inicial (≥ 0.5, cambio porcentual fue 22.3% en el grupo A y 3.5% en el B (p= 0.03). Hubo mejoría visual en 25 ojos del grupo A (54.3%) y 19 del B (32.2%, p= 0.019, RR 1.65); la diferencia persistió cuando la agudeza visual inicial era ≥ 0.5 (10 [40%], grupo A, 5 [14.7%], grupo B, p= 0.02, RR 2.72). Conclusiones: el ketorolaco fue más eficaz que el placebo para mejorar la agudeza visual en pacientes diabéticos con edema macular focal.

  6. FDI and Accommodation Using NN Based Techniques (United States)

    Garcia, Ramon Ferreiro; de Miguel Catoira, Alberto; Sanz, Beatriz Ferreiro

    Massive application of dynamic backpropagation neural networks is used on closed loop control FDI (fault detection and isolation) tasks. The process dynamics is mapped by means of a trained backpropagation NN to be applied on residual generation. Process supervision is then applied to discriminate faults on process sensors, and process plant parameters. A rule based expert system is used to implement the decision making task and the corresponding solution in terms of faults accommodation and/or reconfiguration. Results show an efficient and robust FDI system which could be used as the core of an SCADA or alternatively as a complement supervision tool operating in parallel with the SCADA when applied on a heat exchanger.

  7. Visualization rhetoric: framing effects in narrative visualization. (United States)

    Hullman, Jessica; Diakopoulos, Nicholas


    Narrative visualizations combine conventions of communicative and exploratory information visualization to convey an intended story. We demonstrate visualization rhetoric as an analytical framework for understanding how design techniques that prioritize particular interpretations in visualizations that "tell a story" can significantly affect end-user interpretation. We draw a parallel between narrative visualization interpretation and evidence from framing studies in political messaging, decision-making, and literary studies. Devices for understanding the rhetorical nature of narrative information visualizations are presented, informed by the rigorous application of concepts from critical theory, semiotics, journalism, and political theory. We draw attention to how design tactics represent additions or omissions of information at various levels-the data, visual representation, textual annotations, and interactivity-and how visualizations denote and connote phenomena with reference to unstated viewing conventions and codes. Classes of rhetorical techniques identified via a systematic analysis of recent narrative visualizations are presented, and characterized according to their rhetorical contribution to the visualization. We describe how designers and researchers can benefit from the potentially positive aspects of visualization rhetoric in designing engaging, layered narrative visualizations and how our framework can shed light on how a visualization design prioritizes specific interpretations. We identify areas where future inquiry into visualization rhetoric can improve understanding of visualization interpretation.

  8. Intentional esophageal intubation to improve visualization during emergent endotracheal intubation in the context of massive vomiting: a case report. (United States)

    Sorour, Khaled; Donovan, Lucas


    Impaired visualization during intubation due to vomitus of gastric contents is a potential cause of failed intubation. An 82-year-old woman was intubated emergently for respiratory distress secondary to aspiration of gastric contents. Her intubation was hindered by the presence of a massive amount of ongoing vomitus that impaired visualization and overwhelmed all suction capabilities. Intentional blind intubation of the esophagus with an endotracheal tube was performed with successful diversion of ongoing vomitus away from the airway. Thereafter, after brief suctioning, the larynx was quickly visualized and the patient was successfully intubated.

  9. Some know- how to improve properties of Visual FoxPro%改进Visual FoxPro性能的几个技巧

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    高性能是Microsoft FoxPro数据库管理系统(特别是它的数据库引擎)的最大特点.Visual FoxPro关系型数据库引进了对象模型,提高了引擎的存取速度并增强了客户/服务器特性,因此整个管理系统的功能变得更加强大.但是,这些强大功能的代价是使管理系统变得更加复杂.因此,一方面,很容易开发出性能稳定、面向对象、使用远程数据的应用程序,另一方面,也很难避免出现低性能的应用程序.

  10. A new visually improved and sensitive loop mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) for diagnosis of symptomatic falciparum malaria. (United States)

    Mohon, Abu Naser; Elahi, Rubayet; Khan, Wasif A; Haque, Rashidul; Sullivan, David J; Alam, Mohammad Shafiul


    Molecular diagnosis of malaria by nucleotide amplification requires sophisticated and expensive instruments, typically found only in well-established laboratories. Loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) has provided a new platform for an easily adaptable molecular technique for molecular diagnosis of malaria without the use of expensive instruments. A new primer set has been designed targeting the 18S rRNA gene for the detection of Plasmodium falciparum in whole blood samples. The efficacy of LAMP using the new primer set was assessed in this study in comparison to that of a previously described set of LAMP primers as well as with microscopy and real-time PCR as reference methods for detecting P. falciparum. Pre-addition of hydroxy napthol blue (HNB) in the LAMP reaction caused a distinct color change, thereby improving the visual detection system. The new LAMP assay was found to be 99.1% sensitive compared to microscopy and 98.1% when compared to real-time PCR. Meanwhile, its specificity was 99% and 100% in contrast to microscopy and real-time PCR, respectively. Moreover, the LAMP method was in very good agreement with microscopy and real-time PCR (0.94 and 0.98, respectively). This new LAMP method can detect at least 5parasites/μL of infected blood within 35min, while the other LAMP method tested in this study, could detect a minimum of 100parasites/μL of human blood after 60min of amplification. Thus, the new method is sensitive and specific, can be carried out in a very short time, and can substitute PCR in healthcare clinics and standard laboratories.

  11. Documentation of high impact visualizations and improvement plans for utilization of VisIt for reactor simulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    R.Childs, H; Bremer, D J


    The primary goal of this milestone was to enable the visualization and analysis needs of the campaign's simulation codes. This goal was well accomplished. We have extended the VisIt visualization and analysis tool to be suitable for the Nek, UNIC, SAS, and DIABLO code teams. This represented a significant development effort, primarily in terms of tuning the processing of the very large data sets produced by the Nek code. As a result of our development, and of the support we provided, these groups have been able to successfully accomplish their visualization and analysis activities using VisIt. Visualization is an important part of the simulation process. It allows stakeholders to explore simulations and discover phenomena, to confirm assumptions, and to convey findings to a larger audience. Further, visualization software is complex and is an active research area, especially in the area of visualization of very large data sets, such as those produced by the Reactor campaign's Nek code. To meet the campaign's visualization and analysis needs, we chose to leverage the existing software tool, VisIt. VisIt is an open source, parallel visualization and analysis tool for interactively exploring scientific data. The tool represents approximately fifty man-years worth of effort, much of which was dedicated to techniques for processing large data and also to user interfaces. VisIt originated in the DOE's Advanced Simulation and Computing Initiative (ASCI) program, but is also actively developed by the Office of Science's Scientific Discovery through Advanced Computing (SciDAC) program, as well as by the at large open source community, including university partners. Our work for this effort consisted of both customizing VisIt to meet Reactor campaign needs and of providing support for stakeholders in the Reactor campaign to ensure they were successful using the tool.

  12. Culture Change from Tobacco Accommodation to Intolerance: Time to Connect the Dots (United States)

    Livingood, William C., Jr.; Allegrante, John P.; Green, Lawrence W.


    Broad changes in normative health behavior are critical to overcoming many of the contemporary challenges to public health. Reduction in tobacco use during the last third of the 20th century--one of the greatest improvements in public health--illustrates such change. The culture change from accommodation to intolerance of smoking is irrefutable.…

  13. 基于改进视觉字典模型的图像检索算法%Image retrieval algorithm based on improved visual dictionary model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李强; 左欣; 沈继锋; 徐云凯; 宋颖


    In the current research field of image searching, due to the good performance, visual vocabulary has currently become the mainstream method for creating visual dictionaries. The traditional method based on visual vocabulary has the disadvantages of low efficiency, high memory consumption and so on. Thus, the system in this paper utilizes the ROOTSift algorithm to extract feature points in images and adopts the efficient k-means cluster algorithm to create random visual vocabulary which can be expanded dynamically. While there are some open problems in current image searching system, such as the problems of ambiguity and synonymity in visual vocabulary, object positioning and detection performance with big data, this system creates the visual vocabulary histogram and index files with reverse order based on visual vocabulary and reallocates the weights to visual vocabulary to improve the hit ratio of detection. Finally, the similarity matching is achieved through Euclidean distance searching.The experiments show that this method can increase the success rate of image searching and improve the efficiency of the searching ,and it can achieve a nice retrieval quality of the image searching.%目前在图像检索领域,由于视觉字典其性能突出,已成为图像检索领域构建视觉词典的主流方法。但传统的视觉字典方法存在运行时间效率低、内存消耗大等缺点。因此本文采用ROOTSift算法提取图像的特征点并利用高效的K-means聚类算法建立支持动态扩充的随机视觉字典。该方法基于视觉字典构建视觉词汇直方图和倒排序索引文件,并对视觉词重新分配权重以提高检索命中率。最后利用欧氏距离法查询完成相似性匹配。试验结果表明该方法能提高图像检索的准确率,对大规模的图像检索能够达到很好的检索质量。

  14. Can Partial Structures Accommodate Inconsistent Science?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Vickers


    Full Text Available The semantic approach to scientific representation is now long established as a favourite amongst philosophers of science. One of the foremost strains of this approach—the model-theoretic approach (MTA—is to represent scientific theories as families of models, all of which satisfy or ‘make true’ a given set of constraints. However some authors (Brown 2002, Frisch 2005 have criticised the approach on the grounds that certain scientific theories are logically inconsistent, and there can be no models of an inconsistent set of constraints. Thus it would seem that the MTA fails to represent inconsistent scientific theories at all, and this raises concerns about the way it represents in general. In a series of papers (1990, 1993, 1995 and a recent book (2003 da Costa and French have developed a variant of the MTA approach which they call ‘partial structures’, and which they claim can accommodate inconsistent theories. I assess this claim, looking to two theories which have been called ‘inconsistent’: Bohr’s theory of the atom and classical electrodynamics.

  15. Ontogenetic improvement of visual function in the medaka Oryzias latipes based on an optomotor testing system for larval and adult fish (United States)

    Carvalho, Paulo S. M.; Noltie, Douglas B.; Tillitt, D.E.


    We developed a system for evaluation of visual function in larval and adult fish. Both optomotor (swimming) and optokinetic (eye movement) responses were monitored and recorded using a system of rotating stripes. The system allowed manipulation of factors such as width of the stripes used, rotation speed of the striped drum, and light illuminance levels within both the scotopic and photopic ranges. Precise control of these factors allowed quantitative measurements of visual acuity and motion detection. Using this apparatus, we tested the hypothesis that significant posthatch ontogenetic improvements in visual function occur in the medaka Oryzias latipes, and also that this species shows significant in ovo neuronal development. Significant improvements in the acuity angle alpha (ability to discriminate detail) were observed from approximately 5 degrees at hatch to 1 degree in the oldest adult stages. In addition, we measured a significant improvement in flicker fusion thresholds (motion detection skills) between larval and adult life stages within both the scotopic and photopic ranges of light illuminance. Ranges of flicker fusion thresholds (X?? ?? SD) at log I=1.96 (photopic) varied from 37.2 ?? 1.6 cycles/s in young adults to 18.6 ?? 1.6 cycles/s in young larvae 10 days posthatch. At log I= - 2.54 (scotopic), flicker fusion thresholds varied from 5.8 ?? 0.7 cycles/s in young adults to 1.7 ?? 0.4 cycles/s in young larvae 10 days posthatch. Light sensitivity increased approximately 2.9 log units from early hatched larval stages to adults. The demonstrated ontogenetic improvements in visual function probably enable the fish to explore new resources, thereby enlarging their fundamental niche. ?? 2002 The Association for the Study of Animal Behaviour. Published by Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. The Predictability of Preoperative Pilocarpine-Induced Lens Shift on the Outcomes of Accommodating Intraocular Lenses Implanted in Senile Cataract Patients (United States)

    Li, Jin; Chen, Qi; Lin, Zhibo; Leng, Lin; Huang, Fang


    Purpose. To evaluate the predictability of lens shift induced by pilocarpine (LSPilo) on the outcomes of accommodating intraocular lens (Acc-IOL) implantation. Methods. Twenty-four eyes of 24 senile cataract patients who underwent phacoemulsification and Acc-IOL implantation were enrolled. LSPilo was evaluated with anterior segment optical coherence tomography (AS-OCT). At 3 months postoperatively, the best corrected distance visual acuities (BCDVA), distance-corrected near visual acuities (DCNVA), and subjective and objective accommodations were measured. IOL shifts under accommodation stimulus (IOLSAcc) were evaluated with AS-OCT. Results. The mean LSPilo was 112.29 ± 30.72 µm. LSPilo was not associated with any preoperative parameters. The mean IOLSAcc was 130.46 ± 42.71 µm. The mean subjective and objective accommodation were 1.54 ± 0.39 D and 1.27 ± 0.41 D, respectively. The mean postoperative BCDVA and DCNVA (log MAR value) were 0.22 ± 0.11 and 0.24 ± 0.12, respectively. LSPilo positively correlated with IOLSAcc (r = 0.541; P = 0.006), subjective accommodation (r = 0.412; P = 0.022), and objective accommodation (r = 0.466; P = 0.045), respectively. Conclusion. LSPilo is an independent preoperative parameter associated with the postoperative Acc-IOL mobility and pseudophakic accommodation. It may offer valuable information for ophthalmologists in determining the suitable candidates for Acc-IOL implantation. PMID:27516899

  17. ATHENA: system studies and optics accommodation (United States)

    Ayre, M.; Bavdaz, M.; Ferreira, I.; Wille, E.; Fransen, S.; Stefanescu, A.; Linder, M.


    ATHENA is currently in Phase A, with a view to adoption upon a successful Mission Adoption Review in 2019/2020. After a brief presentation of the reference spacecraft (SC) design, this paper will focus on the functional and environmental requirements, the thermo-mechanical design and the Assembly, Integration, Verification & Test (AIVT) considerations related to housing the Silicon Pore Optics (SPO) Mirror Modules (MM) in the very large Mirror Assembly Module (MAM). Initially functional requirements on the MM accommodation are presented, with the Effective Area and Half Energy Width (HEW) requirements leading to a MAM comprising (depending on final mirror size selected) between 700-1000 MMs, co-aligned with exquisite accuracy to provide a common focus. A preliminary HEW budget allocated across the main error-contributors is presented, and this is then used as a reference to derive subsequent requirements and engineering considerations, including: The procedures and technologies for MM-integration into the Mirror Structure (MS) to achieve the required alignment accuracies in a timely manner; stiffness requirements and handling scheme required to constrain deformation under gravity during x-ray testing; temperature control to constrain thermo-elastic deformation during flight; and the role of the Instrument Switching Mechanism (ISM) in constraining HEW and Effective Area errors. Next, we present the key environmental requirements of the MMs, and the need to minimise shock-loading of the MMs is stressed. Methods to achieve this Ø are presented, including: Selection of a large clamp-band launch vehicle interface (LV I/F); lengthening of the shock-path from the LV I/F to the MAM I/F; modal-tuning of the MAM to act as a low-pass filter during launch shock events; use of low-shock HDRMs for the MAM; and the possibility to deploy a passive vibration solution at the LV I/F to reduce loads.

  18. Google Earth Mapping Exercises for Structural Geology Students--A Promising Intervention for Improving Penetrative Visualization Ability (United States)

    Giorgis, Scott


    Three-dimensional thinking skills are extremely useful for geoscientists, and at the undergraduate level, these skills are often emphasized in structural geology courses. Google Earth is a powerful tool for visualizing the three-dimensional nature of data collected on the surface of Earth. The results of a 5 y pre- and posttest study of the…

  19. School Boarding Accommodation. A Design Guide. Building Bulletin 84. (United States)

    Wilson, Jeremy; Lloyd-Jones, Liz; Carden, Tom; Daniels, Richard; Fitzgerald, Brian; Maddick, Jenny

    This bulletin contains on-statutory guidance describing good practice and its implications for boarding accommodation to assist those responsible for briefing and designing boarding accommodations across all school sectors. It offers practical advice and illustrates examples that reflect changes in provision which are thought to be acceptable and…

  20. Accommodating World Englishes in Developing EFL Learners' Oral Communication (United States)

    Mukminatien, Nur


    This article aims to discuss issues of World Englishes (WEs) and the implications in ELT. It explores the extent to which WEs are taken into account as emerging English varieties different from inner circle varieties, how WEs should be accommodated by English teachers, and which standard to adopt to accommodate learner's linguistic needs for…

  1. Privately Provided Accommodation Service Quality and Customer Satisfaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joshua Mugambwa


    Full Text Available Privately provided accommodation is a growing service in Uganda’s higher education sector due to education liberalization and demand for education. This research took a case study of Nsamizi Training Institute of Social Development (NTISD to determine the relationship between privately provided accommodation service quality and customer satisfaction. Specifically, the objectives of the study were (a to find out the relationship between security and NTISD students’ satisfaction with privately provided accommodation, and (b to find out the hierarchical level of importance of NTISD student satisfaction of the three service quality dimensions (reliability, security, and tangibles with privately provided accommodation. Using quantitative and qualitative modes of data analysis and a sample of 300 students from 20 private hostels, this study established a strong positive significant relationship between security and satisfaction regarding privately provided accommodation. This implies that accommodation service providers should increase the quality of security so as to increase the satisfaction of students regarding privately provided accommodation. The study established the hierarchical order of importance from the most important service quality dimension, respectively, as follows: reliability, security, and tangibles. Therefore, private accommodation service managers should pay extra attention to the dimensions in the same order.

  2. The Evolution of the Number of Tourists accommodated in Arad

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergiu Rusu


    Full Text Available The paper analyses the evolution of the number of tourists accommodated in Arad between January 2006 and September 2009. For this purpose we have used the statistics data from the official sites. As variables we chose: X – independent variable - Total tourist arrival and accommodated in Arad, Y - dependent variable - Tourists staying in hotels.

  3. Regional Sign Language Varieties in Contact: Investigating Patterns of Accommodation (United States)

    Stamp, Rose; Schembri, Adam; Evans, Bronwen G.; Cormier, Kearsy


    Short-term linguistic accommodation has been observed in a number of spoken language studies. The first of its kind in sign language research, this study aims to investigate the effects of regional varieties in contact and lexical accommodation in British Sign Language (BSL). Twenty-five participants were recruited from Belfast, Glasgow,…

  4. Making Accommodations: The Legal World of Students with Disabilities. (United States)

    Grossman, Paul D.


    Describes the legal requirements with which institutions of higher education must comply regarding students with disabilities. Addresses the topics of equal access, degree of deference toward institutions' accommodations decisions, documentation, types of accommodation, and benefits to the academic community from inclusion of people with…

  5. Age-related changes in ocular aberrations with accommodation. (United States)

    Radhakrishnan, Hema; Charman, W Neil


    This study investigates the changes in aberrations with monocular accommodation as a function of age. Second-order and higher order wavefront aberrations and pupil size were measured as a function of accommodation demand over the range of 0-4 D in the right eyes of 47 normal subjects with ages between 17 and 56 years. Higher order ocular Zernike aberrations were analyzed for the natural pupil size in terms of their equivalent defocus and were also determined for fixed pupil diameters of 4.5 mm in the unaccommodated eyes and 2.5 mm in the accommodating eyes. With relaxed accommodation (0 D accommodation stimulus), the major change with age was in the value of C4(0), which increased in positive value over the age range studied, although the total higher order RMS wavefront aberration did not increase. When the data were analyzed for natural pupils, spherical aberration was again found to change systematically in the positive direction with age. The equivalent defocus of total higher order RMS error for natural pupils showed no significant correlation with age (p > .05). With active accommodation, spherical aberration was found to decrease and become negative as the accommodative response increased in the younger subjects (40 years), the spherical aberration showed only small changes, some of which were positive, within the limited amplitude of accommodation available. Other higher order aberrations and the RMS of higher order aberrations did not appear to change systematically with accommodation, except in the oldest subjects. The change with age in the relationship between aberration and accommodation is interpreted in terms of the changing gradients of refractive index and surface curvatures of the crystalline lens.

  6. Effects on visual functions during tasks of object handling in virtual environment with a head mounted display. (United States)

    Kawara, T; Ohmi, M; Yoshizawa, T


    This study examined the effects on visual functions of a prolonged handling task within the helmet-mounted display environment. Both version eye movement and accommodative response became gradually slower during the 40-min task. Although delayed presentation of display after head movement noticeably worsened both visual responses, presentation delay after hand movement did not significantly change the sluggishness of responses. Therefore it is suggested that decreasing time delay after head movement is a more important factor in order to improve human performance of handling tasks within the HMD environment.

  7. Improvement of warehouse information management based on visual optimization%基于可视化的仓储信息管理系统优化探讨

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    利用各种可视化技术对仓储信息管理系统进行优化再造,提出信息管理系统效率化改善的工具和方法,在虚拟环境下实现实际作业的三维动画演示,构建直观化的智能仓储信息管理系统。%Use a variety of visualization technology to optimize warehouse management information system reengineering, information management system to improve efficiency of tools and methods, in the virtual environment to realize the actual operation of the three dimensional animation demo, build visualizations of intelligent warehouse management information system.

  8. Long-term visual outcomes after Crystalens® HD intraocular lens implantation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karavitaki AE


    Full Text Available Alexandra E Karavitaki, Ioannis G Pallikaris, Sophia I Panagopoulou, George A Kounis, George Kontadakis, George D KymionisInstitute of Vision and Optics, University of Crete, Crete, GreecePurpose: Our purpose was to evaluate the long-term visual outcomes after bilateral implantation of Crystalens® HD (Bausch and Lomb, Inc. accommodative intraocular lenses.Methods: In this study, 25 patients (50 eyes who underwent cataract surgery and bilateral Crystalens HD accommodative intraocular lens implantation were included. The Crystalens HD lens was implanted in the bag in both eyes, without any intra- or postoperative complications. The visual parameters measured before and after surgery were: uncorrected distance visual acuity, corrected distance visual acuity (CDVA (using the Early Diabetic Retinopathy Study [EDTRS] logMAR charts, uncorrected intermediate visual acuity, and uncorrected near visual acuity using a Birkhäuser reading chart, at a distance of 66 cm and 33 cm for intermediate and near vision, respectively, directly illuminated by a lamp of 60 watts. After surgery, the patients were evaluated at 1, 3, 6, 12, 24, and 36 months.Results: The mean age was 68.70±7.1 (range: 54 to 83 years. The mean follow-up was 42.72±0.49 (range: 42.33 to 43.27 months. The uncorrected distance visual acuity improved from 0.56±0.41 (range: 0 to 2 preoperatively to 0.19±0.13 (range: 0 to 0.38 (logMAR scale at the last follow-up visit, and the CDVA improved from 0.17±0.18 (range: 0 to 0.7 preoperatively to 0.05±0.05 (range: −0.02 to 0.22 at the last follow-up visit. No eyes lost lines of CDVA during the follow-up period, while 54% of patients gained one or more lines of CDVA. The uncorrected intermediate and near visual acuity was J2 or better in 71% and 69% of our patients, respectively.Conclusion: Crystalens HD implantation seems to provide an improvement in visual acuity for far, intermediate, and near distances.Keywords: presbyopia, accommodation

  9. Visual Impairment (United States)

    ... Loss Surgery? A Week of Healthy Breakfasts Shyness Visual Impairment KidsHealth > For Teens > Visual Impairment Print A ... with the brain, making vision impossible. What Is Visual Impairment? Many people have some type of visual ...

  10. Visual field (United States)

    Perimetry; Tangent screen exam; Automated perimetry exam; Goldmann visual field exam; Humphrey visual field exam ... Confrontation visual field exam : This is a quick and basic check of the visual field. The health care provider ...

  11. Visual-motor coordination computerized training improves the visuo-spatial performance in a child affected by Cri-du-Chat syndrome. (United States)

    Pizzamiglio, Maria Rosa; Nasti, Marianna; Piccardi, Laura; Vitturini, Claudio; Morelli, Daniela; Guariglia, Cecilia


    The present study reports on the effects of an experimental computerized training specifically conceived for improving visual-motor coordination in a child (L.D.J.) affected by Cri-du-Chat syndrome. The child was asked to touch a picture on the screen with a coordinated hand movement to obtain the appearance of a new picture. The training was organized into four levels of increasing difficulty, which were progressively administered in different sessions. Response times and number of errors were collected at each session. The child improved in performing computerized training, becoming faster and more accurate. Unlike control participants, she also improved in performing untrained tasks, which implied similar skills. Repercussions on L.D.J.'s autonomy and communication skills in daily life are described.

  12. Amniotic membrane covering promotes healing of cornea epithelium and improves visual acuity after debridement for fungal keratitis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Bo; Zeng; Ping; Wang; Ling-Juan; Xu; Xin-Yu; Li; Hong; Zhang; Gui-Gang; Li


    AIM:To investigate the effect of amniotic membrane covering(AMC) on the healing of cornea epithelium and visual acuity for fungal keratitis after debridement.METHODS:Twenty fungal keratitis patients were divided into two groups randomly, the AMC group and the control group, ten patients each group. Both debridement of the infected cornea tissue and standard anti-fungus drugs treatments were given to every patients, monolayer amniotic membrane were sutured to the surface of the entire cornea and bulbar conjunctiva with 10-0 nylon suture for patients in the AMC group.The diameter of the ulcer was determined with slit lamp microscope and the depth of the infiltration was determined with anterior segment optical coherence tomography. Uncorrected visual acuity(UCVA) was tested before surgery and three month after healing of the epithelial layer. The healing time of the cornea epithelium, visual acuity(VA) was compared between the two groups using t- test.RESULTS:There was no statistical difference of the diameter of the ulcer, depth of the infiltration, height of the hypopyon and VA between the two groups beforesurgery(P >0.05). The average healing time of the AMC group was 6.89 ±2.98 d, which was statistically shorter than that of the control group(10.23±2.78d)(P <0.05).The average UCVA of the AMC group was 0.138 ±0.083,which was statistically better than that of the control group(0.053±0.068)(P <0.05).CONCLUSION:AMC surgery could promote healing of cornea epithelium after debridement for fungal keratitis and lead to better VA outcome.

  13. A phase-field model for incoherent martensitic transformations including plastic accommodation processes in the austenite (United States)

    Kundin, J.; Raabe, D.; Emmerich, H.


    If alloys undergo an incoherent martensitic transformation, then plastic accommodation and relaxation accompany the transformation. To capture these mechanisms we develop an improved 3D microelastic-plastic phase-field model. It is based on the classical concepts of phase-field modeling of microelastic problems (Chen, L.Q., Wang Y., Khachaturyan, A.G., 1992. Philos. Mag. Lett. 65, 15-23). In addition to these it takes into account the incoherent formation of accommodation dislocations in the austenitic matrix, as well as their inheritance into the martensitic plates based on the crystallography of the martensitic transformation. We apply this new phase-field approach to the butterfly-type martensitic transformation in a Fe-30 wt%Ni alloy in direct comparison to recent experimental data (Sato, H., Zaefferer, S., 2009. Acta Mater. 57, 1931-1937). It is shown that the therein proposed mechanisms of plastic accommodation during the transformation can indeed explain the experimentally observed morphology of the martensitic plates as well as the orientation between martensitic plates and the austenitic matrix. The developed phase-field model constitutes a general simulations approach for different kinds of phase transformation phenomena that inherently include dislocation based accommodation processes. The approach does not only predict the final equilibrium topology, misfit, size, crystallography, and aspect ratio of martensite-austenite ensembles resulting from a transformation, but it also resolves the associated dislocation dynamics and the distribution, and the size of the crystals itself.

  14. Study on Improvement Countermeasures for Visualized Logistics Information Platform%物流可视化信息平台问题及改进对策研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    探讨了可视化技术对物流信息平台的影响,对当前物流可视化信息平台存在的问题进行了详细介绍,并引入RFID技术对物流可视化信息平台进行改进,增强了物流可视化信息平台的透明度,使整个物流供应链体系都可以动态追踪与掌控物流配送过程,实现了可视化物流技术的协同管理.%In this paper, we discussed the influence of the visualization technology on the logistics information platform, introduced in detail the problems existing in the current visualized logistics information platform, and at the end introduced the RFID technology to improve it by enhancing the transparency of the platform and realizing the collaborative management of the logistics supply chain system using the visualization technologies.

  15. Improving pattern discovery and visualization of SAGE data through poisson-based self-adaptive neural networks. (United States)

    Zheng, Huiru; Wang, Haiying; Azuaje, Francisco


    Serial analysis of gene expression (SAGE) allows a detailed, simultaneous analysis of thousands of genes without the need for prior, complete gene sequence information. However, due to its inherent complexity and the lack of complete structural and function knowledge, mining vast collections of SAGE data to extract useful knowledge poses great challenges to traditional analytical techniques. Moreover, SAGE data are characterized by a specific statistical model that has not been incorporated into traditional data analysis techniques. The analysis of SAGE data requires advanced, intelligent computational techniques, which consider the underlying biology and the statistical nature of SAGE data. By addressing the statistical properties demonstrated by SAGE data, this paper presents a new self-adaptive neural network, Poisson-based growing self-organizing map (PGSOM), which implements novel weight adaptation and neuron growing strategies. An empirical study of key dynamic mechanisms of PGSOM is presented. It was tested on three datasets, including synthetic and experimental SAGE data. The results indicate that, in comparison to traditional techniques, the PGSOM offers significant advantages in the context of pattern discovery and visualization in SAGE data. The pattern discovery and visualization platform discussed in this paper can be applied to other problem domains where the data are better approximated by a Poisson distribution.

  16. On cloud modelling and the mass accommodation coefficient of water

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Laaksonen


    Full Text Available The mass accommodation coefficient of water is a quantity for which different experimental techniques have yielded conflicting values in the range 0.04–1. From the viewpoint of cloud modelling, this is an unfortunate situation, since the value of the mass accommodation coefficient affects the model results, e.g. the number concentration of activated cloud droplets. In this paper we argue that a mass accommodation coefficient of unity should be used in cloud modelling, since this value has been obtained in experimental studies of water droplet growth rates, a quantity which is explicitly described in cloud models. In contrast, mass accommodation coefficient values below unity have been derived from experimental results which are analyzed with different theoretical expressions than those included in cloud models.

  17. Occlusal accommodation and mouthguards for prevention of orofacial trauma.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Geary, Julian Lindsay


    The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of two types of occlusal accommodation on the arch separation in centric and eccentric arch positions and to assess the opposing tooth contacts in professionally made, thermoformed sports mouthguards.

  18. Opto-mechanical artificial eye with accommodative ability. (United States)

    Esteve-Taboada, José J; Del Águila-Carrasco, Antonio J; Marín-Franch, Iván; Bernal-Molina, Paula; Montés-Micó, Robert; López-Gil, Norberto


    The purpose of this study was to describe the design and characterization of a new opto-mechanical artificial eye (OMAE) with accommodative ability. The OMAE design is based on a second-pass configuration where a small source of light is used at the artificial retina plane. A lens whose focal length can be changed electronically was used to add the accommodation capability. The changes in the OMAE's aberrations with the lens focal length, which effectively changes the accommodative state of the OMAE, were measured with a commercial aberrometer. Changes in power and aberrations with room temperature were also measured. The OMAE's higher-order aberrations (HOAs) were similar to the ones of the human eye, including the rate at which fourth-order spherical aberration decreased with accommodation. The OMAE design proposed here is simple, and it can be implemented in an optical system to mimic the optics of the human eye.

  19. An application of SODA methodology in student accommodation problems


    E. Teimoury; H. Gitinavard; Mousavi, S. M.


    The one of the main problems that students have faced with are the accommodation problems. In this paper, we review problems that may occur in university systems. Also, we use strategic options development and analysis method (SODA) to represent the accommodation problems and to create an agreement between student and staff. This method can help us with achieving goals; because in the same situation, there are different viewpoints for various reasons. By plotting the cognitive maps of involve...

  20. Overgeneralized Beliefs, Accommodation, and Treatment Outcome in Youth Receiving Trauma-Focused Cognitive Behavioral Therapy for Childhood Trauma. (United States)

    Ready, C Beth; Hayes, Adele M; Yasinski, Carly W; Webb, Charles; Gallop, Robert; Deblinger, Esther; Laurenceau, Jean-Philippe


    Inhibition of fear generalization with new learning is an important process in treatments for anxiety disorders. Generalization of maladaptive cognitions related to traumatic experiences (overgeneralized beliefs) have been demonstrated to be associated with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in adult populations, whereas more balanced, accommodated beliefs are associated with symptom improvement. It is not yet clear whether (a) overgeneralization and accommodation are associated with PTSD treatment outcome in youth, or (b whether accommodated beliefs can interact with or inhibit cognitive overgeneralization, as has been demonstrated in research on behavior-based fear generalization. The current study examined the relationships between overgeneralized and accommodated beliefs, child age, and symptom reduction in a sample of 81 youth (age 7-17 years), who received Trauma-Focused Cognitive Behavioral Therapy. Overgeneralized and accommodated beliefs expressed during the exposure phase of treatment were coded in audio-recorded therapy sessions. Overgeneralization predicted (a) higher internalizing symptom scores at posttreatment, particularly for younger children, and less improvement over treatment, and (b) higher externalizing scores at 1-year follow-up and steeper symptom increases over this period. In contrast, accommodation was associated with (a) lower posttreatment internalizing symptoms and greater improvement over treatment, and (b) lower externalizing scores at 1-year follow-up, particularly for younger children. High levels of accommodation moderated the relationship between overgeneralization and worse symptom outcomes, except when predicting the slope of internalizing scores over treatment, and age did not moderate these effects. There were no significant predictors of child-reported PTSD-specific symptoms, although PTSD symptoms did decrease significantly over the course of treatment and maintain 1year after treatment.



    Kahle, Jason T.; Klenow, Tyler D.; Highsmith, M. Jason


    The socket-limb interface is vital for functionality and provides stability and mobility for the amputee. Volume fluctuation can lead to compromised fit and function. Current socket technology does not accommodate for volume fluctuation. An adjustable interface may improve function and comfort by filling this technology gap. The purpose of this study was to compare the effectiveness of the standard of care (SOC) ischial ramus containment to an adjustable transfemoral prosthetic interface sock...

  2. Pedimap: software for the visualization of genetic and phenotypic data in pedigrees. (United States)

    Voorrips, Roeland E; Bink, Marco C A M; van de Weg, W Eric


    Pedimap is a user-friendly software tool for visualizing phenotypic and genotypic data for related individuals linked in pedigrees. Genetic data can include marker scores, Identity-by-Descent probabilities, and marker linkage map positions, allowing the visualization of haplotypes through lineages. The pedigrees can accommodate all types of inheritance, including selfing, cloning, and repeated backcrossing, and all ploidy levels are supported. Visual association of the genetic data with phenotypic data simplifies the exploration of large data sets, thereby improving breeding decision making. Data are imported from text files; in addition data exchange with other software packages (FlexQTL(TM) and GenomeStudio(TM)) is possible. Instructions for use and an executable version compatible with the Windows platform are available for free from

  3. Interaction between Accommodation and Vergence on Distance Perception

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomoyuki Daijogo


    Full Text Available Fisher and Ciuffreda (1988 and Mon-Williams and Tresilian (1999 reported that, without vergence cue, diopter change in accommodation induced change in apparent distance. Meanwhile, there is conflicting evidence about the relative roles of accommodation and vergence in distance perception (Richards & Miller, 1969; von Holst, 1973. In the current study, we investigated interaction between accommodation and vergence on distance perception. The perceived distance from integration of vergence evoked by a fixation target and accommodation by a pair of concave or convex lenses in front of eyes is measured with a mirror stereoscope. The stimulus was a white square with a black cross-shaped fixation on a black background. In dark surroundings, subjects were asked to commit the apparent distance of the target to memory, and then without the lenses, re-create the distance by changing distance of another fixation target. The apparent size of the target through lenses were equivalent to the size without lenses. The results showed that not only vergence but accommodation affect the apparent distance, and they were summed linearly.

  4. Short-term induction of assimilation and accommodation. (United States)

    Leipold, Bernhard; Bermeitinger, Christina; Greve, Werner; Meyer, Birgit; Arnold, Manuel; Pielniok, Marianna


    The dual-process model of developmental regulation distinguishes two processes of self-regulation (assimilation = tenacious goal pursuit, and accommodation = flexible goal adjustment) that depend on differing conditions, but both contribute to successful development. Four experiments were conducted to investigate whether assimilation and accommodation can be induced or at least shifted by sensorimotor and cognitive manipulations. Experiment 1 investigated the relation between body manipulation and self-regulation. It was shown that assimilation could be triggered when participants were asked to hold on to golf balls as compared to being asked to drop them. Experiment 2 showed that a semantic priming of "let go" or "hold on" via instructions influenced the processes of self-regulation. Experiment 3 and Experiment 4 investigated the role of cognitive sets (divergent thinking) and motivational processes (thinking about one's action resources) in enhancing accommodation or assimilation. As expected, accommodation was triggered by an intervention activating divergent thought, and participants were more assimilative when they thought about their action resources. In sum, the results indicate that assimilation and accommodation can be induced experimentally; they were systematically dependent on physical, cognitive, and motivational states. The implications of the findings were discussed in the light of the dual-process model.

  5. Relative Importance of Student Accommodation Quality in Higher Education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simon Gyasi Nimako


    Full Text Available This study, which was part of a large study, empirically examinesthe importance students attach to different dimensions of Student Accommodation Quality (SAQ delivered by Student Accommodation Providers (SAP in two tertiary (higher education institutions in Ghana. The study involved a cross-sectional survey that used a structured questionnaire administered to 700 tertiary students in residential and non-residential accommodation. The survey yielded a usable 66.6% response rate for analysis. The findings indicate that utility facility quality is the most important SAQ dimension to the students, followed by the overall impression of hostel, security, physical environment, toilet, distance to lecture, bedroom, bath room, accommodation fee, among others. Moreover, it was found that kitchen facility, access to transport and entertainment facility are less important SAQ items while the least important is garage facility. Few differences were found in the priority for SAQ items between COLTEK and K-Poly respondents and between residential and non-residential respondents. Implications for theory and recommendations to management of the two higher education institutions and SAP have been discussed. The study contributes to the body of knowledge in student affairs and managing student accommodation quality in higher education.

  6. A model of job activity description for workplace accommodation assessment. (United States)

    Sevilla, Joaquin; Sanford, Jon A


    Workplace accommodations to enable employees with disabilities to perform essential job tasks are an important strategy ways for increasing the presence of people with disabilities in the labor market. However, assessments, which are crucial to identifying necessary accommodations, are typically conducted using a variety of methods that lack consistent procedures and comprehensiveness of information. This can lead to the rediscovery of the same solutions over and over, inability to replicate assessments and a failure to effectively meet all of an individual's accommodation needs. To address standardize assessment tools and processes, a taxonomy of demand-producing activity factors is needed to complement the taxonomies of demand-producing person and environment factors already available in the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF). The purpose of this article is to propose a hierarchical model of accommodation assessment based on level of specificity of job activity. While the proposed model is neither a taxonomy nor an assessment process, the seven-level hierarchical model provides a conceptual framework of job activity that is the first step toward such a taxonomy as well as providing a common language that can bridge the many approaches to assessment. The model was designed and refined through testing against various job examples. Different levels of activity are defined to be easily linked to different accommodation strategies. Finally, the levels can be cross-walked to the ICF, which enhances its acceptability, utility and universality.

  7. Effectiveness of accommodation and constant resistance training on maximal strength and power in trained athletes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jalil Ataee


    Full Text Available Accommodation resistance is a training technique that may improve strength and power gains beyond those achieved by traditional free weights. In this method, chains are either added on a free-weight bar and combined with traditional plates or added to the bar as the entire load. Purpose. The aim of the current study was to compare the effectiveness of accommodation and constant resistance training methods during a four-week period on maximal strength and power in trained athletes. Methods. This study was comprised of 24 trained athletes, including 16 trained males [8 Wushu athletes (Kung-Fu and 8 wrestlers, age: 20.5 ± 2.00 yrs. old]. Participants were initially tested on weight, body circumference, fat percent, upper and lower body maximal strength, determined by the 1-repetition maximum (1RM test, which determines the greatest amount of weight a person can successfully lift, and upper and lower body power. Participants were equally randomized to either accommodation or constant resistance training groups. Both groups underwent resistance training for a four-week period that consisted of three sessions per week. Multivariate repeated-measures analyses of variance of the data were used to verify significant differences in strength and power between groups. The modified Bonferroni post hoc test was used to compare the obtained results in pre-, mid-, and post test. Results. In the accommodation resistance group, there was a significant difference in lower body maximal strength compared to the constant group (163.12 ± 18.82 kg in the accommodation group vs. 142.25 ± 20.04 kg in the constant group, P = 0.04. No significant differences were found in upper body power, lower body power, and upper body maximal strength between the two groups (P > 0.05. Conclusion. Although there was only a significant difference in lower body maximal strength between groups, accommodation resistance training may induce a physiological training response by improving

  8. Prose Learning in Children and Adults with Down Syndrome: The Use of Visual and Mental Image Strategies to Improve Recall (United States)

    de la Iglesia, Carmen J. F.; Buceta, M. Jose; Campos, Alfredo


    Background: Research indicates that the use of mental imagery is a rich source of possibilities for improving learning in participants with learning disabilities and intellectual disability. Method: We undertook two experiments designed to assess the effectiveness of using imagery in prose learning for participants with Down syndrome (DS). The…

  9. Uniform silica coated fluorescent nanoparticles: synthetic method, improved light stability and application to visualize lymph network tracer.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liman Cong

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The sentinel lymph node biopsy (SLNB was developed as a new modality in the surgical diagnosis of lymph node metastases. Dye and radioisotope are major tracers for the detection of sentinel lymph nodes (SLN. Dye tends to excessively infiltrate into the interstitium due to their small size (less than several nanometers, resulting in difficulties in maintaining clear surgical fields. Radioisotopes are available in limited number of hospitals. Fluorescent nanoparticles are good candidates for SLN tracer to solve these problems, as we can choose suitable particle size and fluorescence wavelength of near-infrared. However, the use of nanoparticles faces safety issues, and many attempts have been performed by giving insulating coats on nanoparticles. In addition, the preparation of the uniform insulating layer is important to decrease variations in the quality as an SLN tracer. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We herein succeeded in coating fluorescent polystyrene nanoparticles of 40 nm with uniform silica layer of 13 nm by the modified Stöber method. The light stability of silica coated nanoparticles was 1.3-fold greater than noncoated nanoparticles. The popliteal lymph node could be visualized by the silica coated nanoparticles with injection in the rat feet. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The silica coated nanoparticles in lymph nodes could be observed by transmission electron microscope, suggesting that our silica coating method is useful as a SLN tracer with highly precise distribution of nanoparticles in histological evaluation. We also demonstrated for the first time that a prolonged enhancement of SLN is caused by the phagocytosis of fluorescent nanoparticles by both macrophages and dendritic cells.

  10. Audio-Visual Biofeedback Does Not Improve the Reliability of Target Delineation Using Maximum Intensity Projection in 4-Dimensional Computed Tomography Radiation Therapy Planning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lu, Wei, E-mail: [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Maryland School of Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland (United States); Neuner, Geoffrey A.; George, Rohini; Wang, Zhendong; Sasor, Sarah [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Maryland School of Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland (United States); Huang, Xuan [Research and Development, Care Management Department, Johns Hopkins HealthCare LLC, Glen Burnie, Maryland (United States); Regine, William F.; Feigenberg, Steven J.; D' Souza, Warren D. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Maryland School of Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland (United States)


    Purpose: To investigate whether coaching patients' breathing would improve the match between ITV{sub MIP} (internal target volume generated by contouring in the maximum intensity projection scan) and ITV{sub 10} (generated by combining the gross tumor volumes contoured in 10 phases of a 4-dimensional CT [4DCT] scan). Methods and Materials: Eight patients with a thoracic tumor and 5 patients with an abdominal tumor were included in an institutional review board-approved prospective study. Patients underwent 3 4DCT scans with: (1) free breathing (FB); (2) coaching using audio-visual (AV) biofeedback via the Real-Time Position Management system; and (3) coaching via a spirometer system (Active Breathing Coordinator or ABC). One physician contoured all scans to generate the ITV{sub 10} and ITV{sub MIP}. The match between ITV{sub MIP} and ITV{sub 10} was quantitatively assessed with volume ratio, centroid distance, root mean squared distance, and overlap/Dice coefficient. We investigated whether coaching (AV or ABC) or uniform expansions (1, 2, 3, or 5 mm) of ITV{sub MIP} improved the match. Results: Although both AV and ABC coaching techniques improved frequency reproducibility and ABC improved displacement regularity, neither improved the match between ITV{sub MIP} and ITV{sub 10} over FB. On average, ITV{sub MIP} underestimated ITV{sub 10} by 19%, 19%, and 21%, with centroid distance of 1.9, 2.3, and 1.7 mm and Dice coefficient of 0.87, 0.86, and 0.88 for FB, AV, and ABC, respectively. Separate analyses indicated a better match for lung cancers or tumors not adjacent to high-intensity tissues. Uniform expansions of ITV{sub MIP} did not correct for the mismatch between ITV{sub MIP} and ITV{sub 10}. Conclusions: In this pilot study, audio-visual biofeedback did not improve the match between ITV{sub MIP} and ITV{sub 10}. In general, ITV{sub MIP} should be limited to lung cancers, and modification of ITV{sub MIP} in each phase of the 4DCT data set is recommended.

  11. Mark My Words! Linguistic Style Accommodation in Social Media

    CERN Document Server

    Danescu-Niculescu-Mizil, Cristian; Dumais, Susan; 10.1145/1963405.1963509


    The psycholinguistic theory of communication accommodation accounts for the general observation that participants in conversations tend to converge to one another's communicative behavior: they coordinate in a variety of dimensions including choice of words, syntax, utterance length, pitch and gestures. In its almost forty years of existence, this theory has been empirically supported exclusively through small-scale or controlled laboratory studies. Here we address this phenomenon in the context of Twitter conversations. Undoubtedly, this setting is unlike any other in which accommodation was observed and, thus, challenging to the theory. Its novelty comes not only from its size, but also from the non real-time nature of conversations, from the 140 character length restriction, from the wide variety of social relation types, and from a design that was initially not geared towards conversation at all. Given such constraints, it is not clear a priori whether accommodation is robust enough to occur given the con...

  12. Postactivation Potentation Effects From Accommodating Resistance Combined With Heavy Back Squats on Short Sprint Performance. (United States)

    Wyland, Timothy P; Van Dorin, Joshua D; Reyes, G Francis Cisco


    Applying accommodating resistance combined with isoinertial resistance has been demonstrated to be effective in improving neuromuscular attributes important for sport performance. The main purpose of this study was to determine whether short sprints can be acutely enhanced after several sets of back squats with or without accommodating resistance. Twenty recreationally resistance-trained males (age: 23.3 ± 4.4 years; height: 178.9 ± 6.5 cm; weight: 88.3 ± 10.8 kg) performed pre-post testing on 9.1-m sprint time. Three different interventions were implemented in randomized order between pre-post 9.1-m sprints. On 3 separate days, subjects either sat for 5 minutes (CTRL), performed 5 sets of 3 repetitions at 85% of their 1 repetition maximum (1RM) with isoinertial load (STND), or performed 5 sets of 3 repetitions at 85% of their 1RM, with 30% of the total resistance coming from elastic band tension (BAND) between pre-post 9.1-m sprint testing. Posttesting for 9.1-m sprint time occurred immediately after the last set of squats (Post-Immediate) and on every minute for 4 minutes after the last set of squats (Post-1min, Post-2min, Post-3min, and Post-4min). Repeated-measures analysis of variance statistical analyses revealed no significant changes in sprint time across posttesting times during the CTRL and STND condition. During the BAND condition, sprint time significantly decreased from Post-Immediate to Post-4min (p = 0.002). The uniqueness of accommodating resistance could create an optimal postactivation potentiation effect to increase neuromuscular performance. Coaches and athletes can implement heavy accommodating resistance exercises to their warm-up when improving acute sprint time is desired.

  13. Accommodative response and cortical activity during sustained attention. (United States)

    Poltavski, Dmitri V; Biberdorf, David; Petros, Thomas V


    Greater accommodative lag and vergence deficits have been linked to attentional deficits similar to those observed in Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD). The purpose of the present study was to assess the effect of accommodative-vergence stress on a measure of sustained attention (Conners CPT) used in the diagnosis of ADHD. Twenty-seven normal non-ADHD adults completed the Conners CPT twice: wearing -2.00 D lenses and normally (without the -2.00 D lenses) in a counterbalanced order with at least 24 h between the sessions. Simultaneous recording of participants' dynamic accommodative responses was performed from the right eye using the Grand Seiko WAM-5500 auto-refractor and electroencephalographic activity (EEG) in the left prefrontal region using the Neurosky Mindset headset. The results demonstrated a significantly greater accommodative lag in the -2.00 D stress condition and a significantly poorer performance on the Conners CPT as indexed by slower reaction time, greater standard error of hit reaction time, grater response variability, poorer stimulus detectability and a greater number of perseverations. No differences were observed on measures of EEG in the theta (4-7 Hz), alpha (8-12 Hz), and beta (12-20 Hz) bands. Moreover, when directly juxtaposed with each EEG band in multiple linear regression analyses, greater accommodative lag in the stress condition was significantly associated with a greater probability of clinical classification on the Conners CPT, and was also marginally predictive of the number of omissions recorded in the stress condition. The results demonstrated that sustained attention can be influenced by such factors as accommodative-vergence stress and suggest that bottom-up processes can contribute to and potentially exacerbate attentional problems in individuals with ADHD. The study also showed that cortical dysfunction (while sufficient) may not be a necessary condition for attentional deficits.

  14. Modeling and visualization of the activation wavefront propagation to improve understanding the QRS complex changes indicating left ventricular hypertrophy. (United States)

    Svehlikova, Jana; Zelinka, Jan; Bacharova, Ljuba; Tysler, Milan


    Activation wavefront propagation was computed and visualized in a geometrical heart model for pathological cases of reduced velocity of propagation, left ventricular hypertrophy and their combination. Selected parameters of a multiple dipole equivalent heart generator were computed and compared for three heart geometries and several degrees and extents of reduction of propagation velocity. First, the influence of geometrical changes modeling the left ventricular hypertrophy at reference propagation velocity was compared with reduction of the propagation velocity in the reference heart geometry. Reduced propagation velocity yielded similar or greater changes of the magnitude of the (electrical) heart vector representing the activation wavefront than the geometrical changes. Observations of the wavefront propagation with reduced velocity revealed longer presence of a large extent of the wavefront during depolarization which resulted in increased magnitude of the heart vector. The duration of depolarization was significantly prolonged only when the propagation velocity was decreased to 25% of its normal value. Changes of the direction of the maximal heart vector were dependent on the position of the region where the propagation velocity was reduced. Then the combination of the left ventricular hypertrophy and reduced propagation velocity was studied. Such combination enhanced the enlargement of the electrical heart vector and significantly prolonged the duration of depolarization. The influence of reduced activation velocity on the observed parameters was greater than the effect of the enlargement of the left ventricular mass. The presented study showed that intramyocardial conduction disturbances might cause increase of the actual surface area of propagation wavefront leading to changes of the amplitudes of ECG signals comparable with the changes resulting from the left ventricular hypertrophy. Intramyocardial conduction disturbances, as well as the modeled 50


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iwona Cieślik


    Full Text Available This paper presents the results of study about impact of accommodation services’ quality, particularly quality of work and qualifications of staff, on the guests’ opinion, and thus promoting the accommodation facilities, and making a choice of a hotel in the Upper Silesia. The study involved 200 people, taking into account their gender, age, place of residence, education and occupational status. The research tool was a survey questionnaire. The results indicate close correlation between the quality of staff services (individual approach, aesthetics, discretion, understanding and the customer is satisfaction. Particular attention was paid to the quality of service by the guests with high professional status, and higher education.

  16. Technology needs for the development of the accommodative intraocular lens (United States)

    Nishi, Okihiro


    Refilling the lens capsule while preserving capsular integrity offers the potential to restore ocular accommodation. There are two persisting problems in capsular bag refilling for possible clinical application: Leakage of the injectable material through the capsular opening and capsular opacification. Numerous attempts for solving these cardinal problems have not been proven to be clinically applicable. Recently, we developed a novel capsular bag refilling procedure using a novel accommodative intraocular lens that serves as an optic as well as a plug for sealing the capsular opening. The procedure and the results of monkey experiments will be presented.

  17. Analysis on the accommodation of renewable energy in northeast China (United States)

    Liu, Jun; Zhang, Jinfang; Tian, Feng; Mi, Zhe


    The accommodation and curtailment of renewable energy in northeast China have attracted much attention with the rapid growth of wind and solar power generation. Large amount of wind power has been curtailed or abandoned in northeast China due to several reasons, such as, the redundancy of power supplies, inadequate power demands, imperfect power structure with less flexibility and limited cross-regional transmission capacity. In this paper, we use multi-area production simulation to analyse the accommodation of renewable energy in northeast China by 2020. Furthermore, we suggest the measures that could be adopted in generation, grid and load side to reduce curtailment of renewables.

  18. Pupil movements to light and accommodative stimulation - A comparative study. (United States)

    Semmlow, J.; Stark, L.


    Isolation and definition of specific response components in pupil reflexes through comparison of the dynamic features of light-induced and accommodation-induced pupil movements. A quantitative analysis of the behavior of the complex nonlinear pupil responses reveals the presence of two independent nonlinear characteristics: a range-dependent gain and a direction dependence or movement asymmetry. These nonlinear properties are attributed to motor processes because they are observable in pupil responses to both light and accommodation stimuli. The possible mechanisms and consequences of these pupil response characteristics are quantitatively defined and discussed.

  19. Exploring interoperability: The advancements and challenges of improving data discovery, access, and visualization of scientific data through the NOAA Earth Information System (NEIS). (Invited) (United States)

    Stewart, J.; Lynge, J.; Hackathorn, E.; MacDermaid, C.; Pierce, R.; Smith, J.


    Interoperability is a complex subject and often leads to different definitions in different environments. An interoperable framework of web services can improve the user experience by providing an interface for interaction with data regardless of it's format or physical location. This in itself improves accessibility to data, fosters data exploration and use, and provides a framework for new tools and applications. With an interoperable system you have: -- Data ready for action. Services model facilitates agile response to events. Services can be combined or reused quickly, upgraded or modified independently. -- Any data available through an interoperable framework can be operated on or combined with other data. Integrating standardized formats and access. -- New and existing systems have access to wide variety of data. Any new data added is easily incorporated with minimal changes required. The possibilities are limitless. The NOAA Earth Information System (NEIS) at the Earth System Research Laboratory (ESRL) is continuing research into an interoperable framework of layered services designed to facilitate the discovery, access, integration, visualization, and understanding of all NOAA (past, present, and future) data. An underlying philosophy of NEIS is to take advantage of existing off-the-shelf technologies and standards to minimize development of custom code allowing everyone to take advantage of the framework to meet these goals above. This framework, while built by NOAA are not limited to NOAA data or applications. Any other data available through similar services or applications that understand these standards can work interchangeably. Two major challenges are under active research at ESRL are data discoverability and fast access to big data. This presentation will provide an update on development of NEIS, including these challenges, the findings, and recommendations on what is needed for an interoperable system, as well as ongoing research activities

  20. Crusta: Visualizing High-resolution Global Data (United States)

    Bernardin, T. S.; Kreylos, O.; Bowles, C. J.; Cowgill, E.; Hamann, B.; Kellogg, L. H.


    Virtual globes have become indispensable tools for visualizing, understanding and presenting data from Earth and other planetary bodies. The scientific community has invested much effort into exploiting existing globes to their fullest potential by refining and adapting their capabilities to better satisfy specific needs. For example, Google Earth provides users with the ability to view hillshade images derived from airborne LiDAR data such as the 2007 Northern California GeoEarthScope data. However, because most available globes were not designed with the specific needs of geoscientists in mind, shortcomings are becoming increasingly evident in geoscience applications such as terrain visualization. In particular, earth scientists struggle to visualize digital elevation models with both high spatial resolution (0.5 - 1 square meters per sample) and large extent (>2000 square kilometers), such as those obtained with airborne LiDAR. To address the specific earth science need of real-time terrain visualization of LiDAR data, we are developing Crusta as part of a close collaboration involving earth and computer scientists. Crusta is a new virtual globe that differs from widely used globes by both providing accurate global data representation and the ability to easily visualize custom topographic and image data. As a result, Crusta enables real-time, interactive visualization of high resolution digital elevation data spanning thousands of square kilometers, such as the complete 2007 Northern California GeoEarthScope airborne LiDAR data set. To implement an accurate data representation and avoid distortion of the display at the poles, where other projections have singularities, Crusta represents the globe as a thirty-sided polyhedron. Each side of this polyhedron can be subdivided to an arbitrarily fine grid on the surface of the globe, which allows Crusta to accommodate input data of arbitrary resolution ranging from global (e.g., Blue Marble) to local (e.g., a tripod

  1. Improving the efficiency of multisensory integration in older adults: audio-visual temporal discrimination training reduces susceptibility to the sound-induced flash illusion. (United States)

    Setti, Annalisa; Stapleton, John; Leahy, Daniel; Walsh, Cathal; Kenny, Rose Anne; Newell, Fiona N


    From language to motor control, efficient integration of information from different sensory modalities is necessary for maintaining a coherent interaction with the environment. While a number of training studies have focused on training perceptual and cognitive function, only very few are specifically targeted at improving multisensory processing. Discrimination of temporal order or coincidence is a criterion used by the brain to determine whether cross-modal stimuli should be integrated or not. In this study we trained older adults to judge the temporal order of visual and auditory stimuli. We then tested whether the training had an effect in reducing susceptibility to a multisensory illusion, the sound induced flash illusion. Improvement in the temporal order judgement task was associated with a reduction in susceptibility to the illusion, particularly at longer Stimulus Onset Asynchronies, in line with a more efficient multisensory processing profile. The present findings set the ground for more broad training programs aimed at improving older adults׳ cognitive performance in domains in which efficient temporal integration across the senses is required.

  2. Improvement of visualization efficiency for the nondestructive inspection image of internal defects in plate type nuclear fuel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Seung Kyu; Park, Nak Kyu; Baik, Sung Hoon; Lee, Yoon Sang; Cheong, Yong Moo [KAERI, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Kang, Young June [Chonbuk National Univ., Chonju (Korea, Republic of)


    signal processing is almost instantaneous. As a disadvantage, LIT is more sensitive to mechanic vibrations. So, in order to properly detect internal defects, several inspection parameters, such as acquisition time, processing methods, external stimulation, vibration environment etc., must be optimized when the assessment procedure is developed. If a current inspection image showing the information of internal defects is displayed on the monitor in real time, it will be helpful for the practical field application of nondestructive evaluations. For this purpose, a real time visualization technique for the detection of internal defects was developed in this paper. An active laser speckle interferometer with periodic thermal power was adopted to detect the defects. The laser speckle interferometer is sensitive to very small displacement at a resolution of nanometers by superposing the speckle patterns of two different object states. Amplitude and phase differences in deformation among intact and defective areas have been widely used for the detection of internal defects in plate specimens.

  3. Against the accommodation of subjective healthcare provider beliefs in medicine: counteracting supporters of conscientious objector accommodation arguments. (United States)

    Smalling, Ricardo; Schuklenk, Udo


    We respond in this paper to various counter arguments advanced against our stance on conscientious objection accommodation. Contra Maclure and Dumont, we show that it is impossible to develop reliable tests for conscientious objectors' claims with regard to the reasonableness of the ideological basis of their convictions, and, indeed, with regard to whether they actually hold they views they claim to hold. We demonstrate furthermore that, within the Canadian legal context, the refusal to accommodate conscientious objectors would not constitute undue hardship for such objectors. We reject concerns that refusing to accommodate conscientious objectors would limit the equality of opportunity for budding professionals holding particular ideological positions. We also clarify various misrepresentations of our views by respondents Symons, Glick and Jotkowitz, and Lyus.

  4. [Lymph node preparation in colorectal cancer. Ex vivo methylene blue injection as a novel technique to improve lymph node visualization]. (United States)

    Märkl, B; Kerwel, T; Jähnig, H; Anthuber, M; Arnholdt, H


    The UICC requires investigation of a minimum of 12 lymph nodes for adequate lymph node staging in colorectal cancer. Despite that, many authors recommend investigation of a larger number, and different techniques, such as fat clearance, have therefore been developed. In this study we introduce a novel technique involving ex vivo lymph node staining with intraarterial methylene blue injection in colon cancer. We compared 14 cases in which methylene injection was used with 14 cases from our records in which conventional investigation techniques were applied. The lymph node harvest differed highly significantly (pmethylene blue group and the unstained group, respectively. The largest difference occurred in the size group 2-4 mm (191 vs 70 lymph nodes). In 6 cases in the unstained group additional embedding of fatty tissue was necessary to reach an adequate number of investigated lymph nodes. Methylene blue injection is a novel and highly effective method that will improve lymph node preparation in colorectal cancer.

  5. Reporting of missing data and methods used to accommodate them in recent analgesic clinical trials: ACTTION systematic review and recommendations. (United States)

    Gewandter, Jennifer S; McDermott, Michael P; McKeown, Andrew; Smith, Shannon M; Williams, Mark R; Hunsinger, Matthew; Farrar, John; Turk, Dennis C; Dworkin, Robert H


    Missing data in clinical trials can bias estimates of treatment effects. Statisticians and government agencies recommend making every effort to minimize missing data. Although statistical methods are available to accommodate missing data, their validity depends on often untestable assumptions about why the data are missing. The objective of this study was to assess the frequency with which randomized clinical trials published in 3 major pain journals (ie, European Journal of Pain, Journal of Pain, and Pain) reported strategies to prevent missing data, the number of participants who completed the study (ie, completers), and statistical methods to accommodate missing data. A total of 161 randomized clinical trials investigating treatments for pain, published between 2006 and 2012, were included. Approximately two-thirds of the trials reported at least 1 method that could potentially minimize missing data, the most common being allowance of concomitant medications. Only 61% of the articles explicitly reported the number of patients who were randomized and completed the trial. Although only 14 articles reported that all randomized participants completed the study, fewer than 50% of the articles reported a statistical method to accommodate missing data. Last observation carried forward imputation was used most commonly (42%). Thirteen articles reported more than 1 method to accommodate missing data; however, the majority of methods, including last observation carried forward, were not methods currently recommended by statisticians. Authors, reviewers, and editors should prioritize proper reporting of missing data and appropriate use of methods to accommodate them so as to improve the deficiencies identified in this systematic review.

  6. Including deaf and hard-of-hearing students with co-occurring disabilities in the accommodations discussion. (United States)

    Leppo, Rachel H T; Cawthon, Stephanie W; Bond, Mark P


    Students who are deaf or hard of hearing (SDHH) are a low-incidence group of students; however, SDHH also have a high incidence of additional disabilities (SDHH+). Many SDHH and SDHH+ require accommodations for equal access to classroom instruction and assessment, particularly in mainstreamed educational settings where spoken English is the primary language. Accommodations for SDHH, overall, have increased under federal legislation including the Individuals with Disabilities Education Improvement Act and the No Child Left Behind Act. Unfortunately, specific practice recommendations for SDHH+ and their unique needs are often lacking in the research literature. This article presents findings regarding accommodations use by SDHH and SDHH+ from the National Longitudinal Transition Study 2. Initial logistic regression analysis found no differences in accommodations use of SDHH and SDHH+. However, logistic regression analysis that compared specific additional disability groups with the larger overall SDHH group did find differences in accommodations use for two SDHH+ groups: students who had a learning disability and students with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. This article includes a discussion of the implications of these findings for both research and practice.

  7. Visual agnosia. (United States)

    Álvarez, R; Masjuan, J


    Visual agnosia is defined as an impairment of object recognition, in the absence of visual acuity or cognitive dysfunction that would explain this impairment. This condition is caused by lesions in the visual association cortex, sparing primary visual cortex. There are 2 main pathways that process visual information: the ventral stream, tasked with object recognition, and the dorsal stream, in charge of locating objects in space. Visual agnosia can therefore be divided into 2 major groups depending on which of the two streams is damaged. The aim of this article is to conduct a narrative review of the various visual agnosia syndromes, including recent developments in a number of these syndromes.

  8. Cooperating or competing in three languages : Cultural accommodation or alienation?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gargalianou, Vasiliki; Urbig, D.; van Witteloostuijn, Arjen


    Purpose The purpose of this paper is to study the effect of using foreign languages on cooperative behavior in a prisoner’s dilemma setting. The cultural accommodation hypothesis suggests that people are less cooperative in English, associated with the Anglophone cultural cluster, than in French, wh

  9. Accommodating Students with Disabilities in Soil Science Activities (United States)

    Langley-Turnbaugh, S. J.; Murphy, Kate; Levin, E.


    Soil science education is lacking in terms of accommodations for persons with disabilities. Individuals with disabilities are often excluded from soil science activities in school, and from soil science careers. GLOBE (Global Learning Observations to Benefit the Environment) is a worldwide, hands-on primary and secondary school-based education and…

  10. Development of a ciliary muscle-driven accommodating intraocular lens

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hermans, Erik A.; Terwee, Thom T.; Koopmans, Steven A.; Dubbelman, Michiel; van der Heijde, Rob G. L.; Heethaar, Rob M.


    PURPOSE: To develop a ciliary muscle-driven accommodating intraocular lens (IOL) that has a large and predictable range of variable power as a step toward spectacle independence. SETTING: Department of Physics and Medical Technology, VU University Medical Center, Amsterdam, The Netherlands. METHODS:

  11. Accommodations in Homeschool Settings for Children with Special Education Needs (United States)

    Stoudt, Patricia Koelsch


    This qualitative study was designed to examine how homeschooling parents in Pennsylvania make the determination to engage with public school districts to accommodate the special education needs (SEN) of their children. This phenomenological study used direct interviews with 30 Pennsylvania families who are homeschooling children with SEN. Data…

  12. Teaching Disability Employment Discrimination Law: Accommodating Physical and Mental Disabilities (United States)

    Kulow, Marianne DelPo


    Disability employment discrimination is often treated summarily in legal environment courses. This is actually a topic with significant practical application in the workplace since managers are often those who are confronted with accommodation requests. It is therefore desirable to include a class with hands-on exercises for students to begin to…

  13. Development of the Reasonable Accommodation Factor Survey: Results and Implications (United States)

    Dong, Shengli; MacDonald-Wilson, Kim L.; Fabian, Ellen


    The purpose of this study was (a) to explore the latent factors in the "Reasonable Accommodation Factor Survey" (RAFS) instrument and (b) to compare scores on the latent factors of the RAFS by participant's role. Eight latent factors were identified through an exploratory factor analysis with orthogonal rotation. The reliability tests…

  14. Language Shift and Language Accommodation across Family Generations in Taiwan (United States)

    Sandel, Todd L.; Chao, Wen-Yu; Liang, Chung-Hui


    This study explored language shift and accommodation among bilingual Mandarin and Tai-gi (also called Hokkien, Holo, Tai-gu, Taiwan Min, Taiwanese) families in Taiwan. From the 1940s until the 1980s the Chinese Nationalist Party (KMT) on Taiwan promoted Mandarin Chinese. Recent years have witnessed a shift in policy: since 2001 elementary schools…

  15. Translation Accommodations Framework for Testing English Language Learners in Mathematics (United States)

    Solano-Flores, Guillermo


    The present framework is developed under contract with the Smarter Balanced Assessment Consortium (SBAC) as a conceptual and methodological tool for guiding the reasonings and actions of contractors in charge of developing and providing test translation accommodations for English language learners. The framework addresses important challenges in…

  16. The relationship between anemia and accommodative esotropia in children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fethiye Gulden Turgut


    Full Text Available Background: Refraction problems, motor disorders, sensorial disorders, physical and psychic traumas of eye may be responsible for development of strabismus. Anemia may cause sensory-neural disorders in children. We investigated the relationship between anemia and accommodative esotropia in children. Materials and Methods: Sixty-four patients with accommodative esotropia were evaluated. This group was identified as patient group (group 1. Eighty-three pediatric patients, who were not esotropia and only had refraction problems, were identified as control group (group 2. The difference between the groups was statistically analyzed evaluating patients for anemia. Results: 33 of 64 patients with accommodative esotropia in group 1 were male, as 43 of 83 patients with refractive error in group 2 were male. The mean age of patients in group 1 and 2 were 6 ΁ 3.92 and 6.37 ΁ 2.74 (P > 0.05 respectively. There was significant difference between two groups, when mean hemoglobin value of those was compared (P < 0.05. Conclusion: Hb level may affects the accommodative esotropia.

  17. 36 CFR 910.34 - Accommodations for the physically handicapped. (United States)


    ... physically handicapped. 910.34 Section 910.34 Parks, Forests, and Public Property PENNSYLVANIA AVENUE... § 910.34 Accommodations for the physically handicapped. (a) Every development shall incorporate features which will make the development accessible by the physically handicapped. The standards in the...

  18. Mechanically implementable accommodation matrices for passive force control

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goswami, A. [Univ. of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA (United States). Center for Human Modeling and Simulation; Peshkin, M. [Northwestern Univ., Evanston, IL (United States). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering


    Robot force control implemented by means of passive mechanical devices has inherent advantages over active implementations with regard to stability, response rapidity, and physical robustness. The class of devices considered in this paper consists of a Stewart platform-type mechanism interconnected with a network of adjustable mechanical elements such as springs and dampers. The control law repertoire of such a device, imagined as a robot wrist, is given by the range of admittance matrices that it may be programmed to possess. This paper focuses on wrists incorporating damper networks for which the admittance matrices reduce to accommodation or inverse-damping matrices. The authors show that a hydraulic network of fully adjustable damper elements may attain any diagonally dominant accommodation matrix. They describe the technique of selecting the individual damping coefficients to design a desired matrix. They identify the set of dominant matrices as a polyhedral convex cone in the space of matrix entries, and show that each dominant matrix can be composed of a positive linear combination of a fixed set of basis matrices. The overall wrist-accommodation matrix is obtained by projecting the accommodation matrix of the damper network through the wrist kinematics. The linear combination of the dominant basis matrices projected through the wrist kinematics generates the entire space of mechanically implementable force-control laws. The authors quantify the versatility of mechanically implementable force-control laws by comparing this space to the space of all matrices.

  19. Knowledge Transfer and Accommodation Effects in Multinational Corporations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Geisler Asmussen, Christian; Foss, Nicolai J.; Pedersen, Torben


    Foreign subsidiaries in multinational corporations (MNCs) possess knowledge that has different sources (e.g., the firm itself or various sources in the environment). How such sources influence knowledge transfer is not well understood. Drawing on the "accommodation effect" from cognitive psychology...

  20. Solutions to Efficient Provision of Accommodations for Universities in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    Chinese universities are facing a series of challenges in their accommodations,of which a pr\\edominant one is how to provide both students and staff with enough accommodations of a large scope and good quality in good time and with limited budgets,In order to find applicable approaches to solve this problem,the current situations of the Chinese higher education reform and the resulted rapid growth of student numbers whereby the requirement of lodgings is greatly incresed are discussed.It is elucidated that in providing enough accommodations for staff and students,Chinese universities are confronted with difficulties including demand too big,lack of funding support,time limitation and incapability in both project management and facilities management.Industrialized building approach is demonstrated to be a desirable access to build large quantities of accommodations of good quality in limited time.and Private Fuinancial Initiative(PFI) appears to be a prosperous solution to the fund shortage,Regarding project and facilities management,qualified professionals are available by either employing exterior consultants or training related staff of universities for such occupations.

  1. Hydrogels for an accommodating intraocular lens. An explorative study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Groot, JH; Spaans, CJ; van Calck, RV; van Beijma, FJ; Norrby, S; Pennings, AJ


    In this study it was investigated whether hydrogels could be used for an accommodating lens. The requirements of such a hydrogels are a low modulus, high refractive index, transparency, and strength. Since conventional hydrogels do not possess this combination of properties, a novel preparation meth

  2. Accommodation, Cafes and Restaurants. Industry Training Monograph No. 8. (United States)

    Dumbrell, Tom

    Australia's accommodation, cafes, and restaurants industry represents more than half of the nation's total tourism and hospitality employment. It accounts for roughly 4.5% of all jobs in Australia (400,000 workers). Since 1987, the number of jobs in the sector has risen from about 257,000 to about 372,000. Approximately 57% of employees are…


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available Accommodation Infrastructure and Tourism Flows on Feleacu Hill (Cluj County. Feleacu Hill experienced tourism development between 2001 and 2015. The INS data indicates that the number of accommodation units increased from one (2001 to four (2015 and there are a few more which are not registered in the INS database. The accommodation capacity increases, as many guesthouses are expanding their premises to receive more tourists and new accommodation units emerge, such as Hotel Premier in Vâlcele (Feleacu commune. Tourism flows also registered a highly positive trend. The number of arrivals increased from 95 tourists in 2002 to 7791 tourists in 2015. However, there was a downturn between 2009 and 2012, due to the economic crisis and the opening of the Turda – Gilău motorway (A3, which redirected transit routes outside the region and led to the closure of Paradis Hotel in 2012. Since 2012, the number of arrivals and overnight stays increased steadily due to the development of new forms of tourism – rural tourism, agrotourism, extreme tourism and complex tourism, materialized in growing numbers of tourists at the two guesthouses in Ciurila commune (“La Mesteceni” and “Domeniul Regilor”. Tourism brings obvious benefits to the rural communities on Feleacu Hill, even if the average duration of stay is still low.

  4. A review of non-strabismic accommodative-vergence anomalies in school-age children. Part 1: Vergence anomalies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samuel O. Wajuihian


    Full Text Available Comfortable reading and the performance of near point activities involve efficient accommodative and vergence systems. However, accommodative and vergence anomalies are associated with various symptoms that impair efficient near point tasks. Although several studies investigated accommodative-vergence anomalies in school-age populations, their findings were diverse owing to differences in diagnostic techniques and the criteria used to define the variables. The aim of this paper is to derive prevalence and distribution estimates of vergence anomalies in school-age children and address variations in the study methods and findings. Despite variations in the study methods and findings, accommodativevergence anomalies were common in school-age populations. Variations and limitations of previous studies are discussed and recommendations for improving future studies are suggested.

  5. Phenotypic plasticity and epigenetic marking: an assessment of evidence for genetic accommodation. (United States)

    Schlichting, Carl D; Wund, Matthew A


    The relationship between genotype (which is inherited) and phenotype (the target of selection) is mediated by environmental inputs on gene expression, trait development, and phenotypic integration. Phenotypic plasticity or epigenetic modification might influence evolution in two general ways: (1) by stimulating evolutionary responses to environmental change via population persistence or by revealing cryptic genetic variation to selection, and (2) through the process of genetic accommodation, whereby natural selection acts to improve the form, regulation, and phenotypic integration of novel phenotypic variants. We provide an overview of models and mechanisms for how such evolutionary influences may be manifested both for plasticity and epigenetic marking. We point to promising avenues of research, identifying systems that can best be used to address the role of plasticity in evolution, as well as the need to apply our expanding knowledge of genetic and epigenetic mechanisms to our understanding of how genetic accommodation occurs in nature. Our review of a wide variety of studies finds widespread evidence for evolution by genetic accommodation.

  6. Fault Detection, Isolation, and Accommodation for LTI Systems Based on GIMC Structure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. U. Campos-Delgado


    Full Text Available In this contribution, an active fault-tolerant scheme that achieves fault detection, isolation, and accommodation is developed for LTI systems. Faults and perturbations are considered as additive signals that modify the state or output equations. The accommodation scheme is based on the generalized internal model control architecture recently proposed for fault-tolerant control. In order to improve the performance after a fault, the compensation is considered in two steps according with a fault detection and isolation algorithm. After a fault scenario is detected, a general fault compensator is activated. Finally, once the fault is isolated, a specific compensator is introduced. In this setup, multiple faults could be treated simultaneously since their effect is additive. Design strategies for a nominal condition and under model uncertainty are presented in the paper. In addition, performance indices are also introduced to evaluate the resulting fault-tolerant scheme for detection, isolation, and accommodation. Hard thresholds are suggested for detection and isolation purposes, meanwhile, adaptive ones are considered under model uncertainty to reduce the conservativeness. A complete simulation evaluation is carried out for a DC motor setup.

  7. Improvements in performance following optometric vision therapy in a child with dyspraxia. (United States)

    Hurst, Caroline M F; Van de Weyer, Sarah; Smith, Claire; Adler, Paul M


    SS, an 8-year-old boy with dyspraxia, presented for behavioural optometry assessment. He had been diagnosed with a subtle form of dyspraxia by his paediatric occupational therapist, based on poor proprioception, delayed bilateral integration and poor visual perception. A full visual assessment was carried out. SS was given a programme of reflex inhibition exercises for 3 months. Then, a programme of optometric vision therapy (OVT) exercises was prescribed at home and in practice for a period of 8 months. SS was assessed using a battery of occupational therapy Sensory Integration and Praxis Tests (SIPT) before optometric intervention, and after OVT. There were significant improvements in fusional reserves, accommodative facility and oculomotor control of pursuit and saccadic eye movements. His reading level had changed by 4 years in 11 months. The SIPT results showed improvements in the visual and motor/visual perception subtests, confirming the significant changes in visual perceptual performance. Consideration is given to treatment modalities for dyspraxia, and the studies confirming their effectivity of approach. This case study provides evidence supporting the use of OVT eye exercises in dyspraxia, ocular motility, accommodative dysfunction, learning difficulties and sports performance. The need for further research and inter-professional working is discussed.

  8. Accommodating environmental variation in population models: metaphysiological biomass loss accounting. (United States)

    Owen-Smith, Norman


    1. There is a pressing need for population models that can reliably predict responses to changing environmental conditions and diagnose the causes of variation in abundance in space as well as through time. In this 'how to' article, it is outlined how standard population models can be modified to accommodate environmental variation in a heuristically conducive way. This approach is based on metaphysiological modelling concepts linking populations within food web contexts and underlying behaviour governing resource selection. Using population biomass as the currency, population changes can be considered at fine temporal scales taking into account seasonal variation. Density feedbacks are generated through the seasonal depression of resources even in the absence of interference competition. 2. Examples described include (i) metaphysiological modifications of Lotka-Volterra equations for coupled consumer-resource dynamics, accommodating seasonal variation in resource quality as well as availability, resource-dependent mortality and additive predation, (ii) spatial variation in habitat suitability evident from the population abundance attained, taking into account resource heterogeneity and consumer choice using empirical data, (iii) accommodating population structure through the variable sensitivity of life-history stages to resource deficiencies, affecting susceptibility to oscillatory dynamics and (iv) expansion of density-dependent equations to accommodate various biomass losses reducing population growth rate below its potential, including reductions in reproductive outputs. Supporting computational code and parameter values are provided. 3. The essential features of metaphysiological population models include (i) the biomass currency enabling within-year dynamics to be represented appropriately, (ii) distinguishing various processes reducing population growth below its potential, (iii) structural consistency in the representation of interacting populations and

  9. Visual art and visual perception

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koenderink, Jan J.


    Visual art and visual perception ‘Visual art’ has become a minor cul-de-sac orthogonal to THE ART of the museum directors and billionaire collectors. THE ART is conceptual, instead of visual. Among its cherished items are the tins of artist’s shit (Piero Manzoni, 1961, Merda d’Artista) “worth their


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo Leone Alves


    Full Text Available Oral communication comprises one of the most important forms of social interaction. The process of learning the spoken language depends on the hearing, therefore, the total or partial loss of hearing sensitivity hinders such aspect. Digital signal processing techniques with non-invasive character are used for diagnosis, support and improvement of the voice quality of the deaf. Thus, the present study aims to propose and develop a system of analysis and correction of vocal disorders by means of visual and tactile feedback with module implemented in programmable device type FPGA (Field Programmable Gate Array. The results point to the potential of a proposed intervention as a helper for sensory substitution, being based on the monitoring and control of speech, in order to allow for the assessment and remediation by means of an electronic resource, allowing deaf individuals to obtain a support for learning the spoken language. The possibilities for improvements in communication skills observed in this study are dependent on the capability of the device together with the speech therapist, integrating therapies with the support of the family, the time and the motivation of the user, factors that cooperate for the success of this approach.

  11. The Effects of Pilot Age, Lighting, and Head-Down Time on Visual Accommodation (United States)


    SENSITIVITY TO CHANGES I3 OCULAR FOCUS ...... ........ 58 9.4 LASER OPTOMETER 66 SHEET 2 Up A1ge tf84 iac v, .6 NUMBER D162-10378-1 TN , W • f €.......REV...OF TABLES Table No. Page 1 Lens Corrections for Best Vision Obtained by Conventional and LASFR Optometer Refractions . 18 2 Raw Data - Distance Focus...time was provided by a LASER Optometer which consisted of the reflected =.age of a low powered gas LASER onto a slowly rotating drum. Subject view of

  12. Vision in semi-aquatic snakes: Intraocular morphology, accommodation, and eye: Body allometry (United States)

    Plylar, Helen Bond

    Vision in vertebrates generally relies on the refractive power of the cornea and crystalline lens to facilitate vision. Light from the environment enters the eye and is refracted by the cornea and lens onto the retina for production of an image. When an animal with a system designed for air submerges underwater, the refractive power of the cornea is lost. Semi-aquatic animals (e.g., water snakes, turtles, aquatic mammals) must overcome this loss of corneal refractive power through visual accommodation. Accommodation relies on change of the position or shape of the lens to change the focal length of the optical system. Intraocular muscles and fibers facilitate lenticular displacement and deformation. Snakes, in general, are largely unstudied in terms of visual acuity and intraocular morphology. I used light microscopy and scanning electron microscopy to examine differences in eye anatomy between five sympatric colubrid snake species (Nerodia cyclopion, N. fasciata, N. rhombifer, Pantherophis obsoletus, and Thamnophis proximus) from Southeast Louisiana. I discovered previously undescribed structures associated with the lens in semi-aquatic species. Photorefractive methods were used to assess refractive error. While all species overcame the expected hyperopia imposed by submergence, there was interspecific variation in refractive error. To assess scaling of eye size with body size, I measure of eye size, head size, and body size in Nerodia cyclopion and N. fasciata from the SLU Vertebrate Museum. In both species, body size increases at a significantly faster rate than head size and eye size (negative allometry). Small snakes have large eyes relative to body size, and large snakes have relatively small eyes. There were interspecific differences in scaling of eye size with body size, where N. fasciata had larger eye diameter, but N. cyclopion had longer eyes (axial length).


    Kahle, Jason T; Klenow, Tyler D; Highsmith, M Jason


    The socket-limb interface is vital for functionality and provides stability and mobility for the amputee. Volume fluctuation can lead to compromised fit and function. Current socket technology does not accommodate for volume fluctuation. An adjustable interface may improve function and comfort by filling this technology gap. The purpose of this study was to compare the effectiveness of the standard of care (SOC) ischial ramus containment to an adjustable transfemoral prosthetic interface socket in the accommodation of volume fluctuation. A prospective experimental case study using repeated measures of subjective and performance outcome measures between socket conditions was employed. In the baseline volume condition, the adjustable socket improved subjective and performance measures 19% to 37% over SOC, whereas the two-minute walk test demonstrated equivalence. In the volume loss condition, the adjustable socket improved all subjective and performance measures 22% to 93%. All aggregated data improved 16% to 50% compared with the SOC. In simulated volume gain, the SOC socket failed, while the subject was able to complete the protocol using the adjustable socket. In this case study, the SOC socket was inferior to the comparative adjustable transfemoral amputation interface in subjective and performance outcomes. There is a lack of clinical trials and evidence comparing socket functional outcomes related to volume fluctuation.


    Kahle, Jason T.; Klenow, Tyler D.; Highsmith, M. Jason


    The socket-limb interface is vital for functionality and provides stability and mobility for the amputee. Volume fluctuation can lead to compromised fit and function. Current socket technology does not accommodate for volume fluctuation. An adjustable interface may improve function and comfort by filling this technology gap. The purpose of this study was to compare the effectiveness of the standard of care (SOC) ischial ramus containment to an adjustable transfemoral prosthetic interface socket in the accommodation of volume fluctuation. A prospective experimental case study using repeated measures of subjective and performance outcome measures between socket conditions was employed. In the baseline volume condition, the adjustable socket improved subjective and performance measures 19% to 37% over SOC, whereas the two-minute walk test demonstrated equivalence. In the volume loss condition, the adjustable socket improved all subjective and performance measures 22% to 93%. All aggregated data improved 16% to 50% compared with the SOC. In simulated volume gain, the SOC socket failed, while the subject was able to complete the protocol using the adjustable socket. In this case study, the SOC socket was inferior to the comparative adjustable transfemoral amputation interface in subjective and performance outcomes. There is a lack of clinical trials and evidence comparing socket functional outcomes related to volume fluctuation. PMID:28066526

  15. Colouring the Gaps in Learning Design: Aesthetics and the Visual in Learning (United States)

    Carroll, Fiona; Kop, Rita


    The visual is a dominant mode of information retrieval and understanding however, the focus on the visual dimension of Technology Enhanced Learning (TEL) is still quite weak in relation to its predominant focus on usability. To accommodate the future needs of the visual learner, designers of e-learning environments should advance the current…

  16. Flow visualization

    CERN Document Server

    Merzkirch, Wolfgang


    Flow Visualization describes the most widely used methods for visualizing flows. Flow visualization evaluates certain properties of a flow field directly accessible to visual perception. Organized into five chapters, this book first presents the methods that create a visible flow pattern that could be investigated by visual inspection, such as simple dye and density-sensitive visualization methods. It then deals with the application of electron beams and streaming birefringence. Optical methods for compressible flows, hydraulic analogy, and high-speed photography are discussed in other cha

  17. Clinical research on movement of intraocular contact lens during accommodation%调节状态下眼内接触镜在眼内位移的临床观察

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    董喆; 王宁利; 付晶; 李树宁; 李德娇


    Objective To study the movement of intraocular contact lens (ICL) during accommodation.Methods Forty one eyes of 41 consecutive patients implanted ICL to correct high myopia were collected.The visual acuity and accommodation power were checked before and after the surgery.The movement of both the ICL and the lens was measured separately at nonaccommodated state and pilocarpine induced accommodation.Results The uncorrected visual acuity (UCVA) and best corrected visual acuity (BCVA) improved 3 months after surgery.The mean accommodation power betore surgery was(2.12±1.06)D,and was(4.46±2.11)D 3 months after surgery.Accommodation power was improved significantly (t=2,312,P=0.022).The distance from the posterior surface of ICL to the anterior surface of the lens was (0.48±0.27)mm at nonaccommodated state,and (0.34±0.19) mm at drug induced accommodation,the difference was significant (t=2.104,P=0.038).The position from corneal endothelium to the anterior surface of ICL had no significant difference at nonaccommodated state and drug induced accommodation(t= 1.165,P=0.149).Depth of the anterior chamber (from the posterior surface of the cornea to the anterior surface of the lens) between nonaccommodated and drug-induced accommodation had no statistically significant difference(t=1.821,P=0.071),but the anterior pole of the lens actually moved forward at drug induced accommodation checked with slit lamp.With ultrasound biomicroscopy we could see that in several surgical eyes, ICL loop contacted with periphery lens beth in nonaccommodated state and drug induced accommodation condition.Conclusions Although the constriction of pupil induced by pilocarpine decreases the distance from the posterior surface of ICL to the anterior lens surface significantly,there still has enough space to avoid the occurrence of subeapsular cataract.The contact between ICL loop and periphery lens might be one of the causes for periphery lens opacification.but the influence of this contact to

  18. CHOA concussion consensus: establishing a uniform policy for academic accommodations. (United States)

    Popoli, David Michael; Burns, Thomas G; Meehan, William P; Reisner, Andrew


    Concussion research generally centers on physical challenges, though aspects such as social functioning and returning to school also warrant attention in pediatric populations. Restoring academic performance postconcussion remains a challenge. Here we provide recommendations addressing a uniform policy for pediatric concussion patients in academic institutions. Tools that may minimize difficulty with academic re-entry include independent educational evaluations, individualized educational programs (IEPs), student support teams (SSTs), letters of academic accommodation, time off, and 504 Plans. Recognition and treatment is crucial for symptom relief and prevention of functional disruption, as is specialist referral during the acute window. We recommend early intervention with a letter of academic accommodation and SST and suggest that 504 Plans and IEPs be reserved for protracted or medically complicated cases. Students with concussion should be observed for anxiety and depression because these symptoms can lead to prolonged recovery, decreased quality of life, and other social challenges.

  19. Decentralized Disturbance Accommodation with Limited Plant Model Information

    CERN Document Server

    Farokhi, F; Johansson, K H


    The design of optimal disturbance accommodation and servomechanism controllers with limited plant model information is considered in this paper. Their closed-loop performance are compared using a performance metric called competitive ratio which is the worst-case ratio of the cost of a given control design strategy to the cost of the optimal control design with full model information. It was recently shown that when it comes to designing optimal centralized or partially structured decentralized state-feedback controllers with limited model information, the best control design strategy in terms of competitive ratio is a static one. This is true even though the optimal structured decentralized state-feedback controller with full model information is dynamic. In this paper, we show that, in contrast, the best limited model information control design strategy for the disturbance accommodation problem gives a dynamic controller. We find an explicit minimizer of the competitive ratio and we show that it is undomina...

  20. Accommodating MOOCs into HEI: is blended-learning the solution?


    Martínez, Juan Antonio; Campuzano, Joaquim


    MOOCs are without discussion one of the key changers in education, and in particular in higher education. They affect both on-Campus universities and on-line. Advisory boards in Universities face the need to accommodate a new player in the learning process arena. The MOOC tsunami affects Universities, forcing them to offer MOOCs assuming costs. On the other side, MOOC platform managers need to convince Universities that creating and offering MOOCs is a must, generating revenues at the same ti...

  1. Linguistic Simplification: A Promising Test Accommodation for LEP Students?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charles W. Stansfield


    Full Text Available This article is a synopsis of an experimental study of the effects of linguistic simplification, a test accommodation..designed for LEP students. Conducted as part of Delaware's statewide assessment program, this study examined the..effects of linguistic simplification of fourth- and sixth-grade science test items and specifically looked at score..comparability between LEP and non-LEP examinees.

  2. Digital electronic engine control fault detection and accommodation flight evaluation (United States)

    Baer-Ruedhart, J. L.


    The capabilities and performance of various fault detection and accommodation (FDA) schemes in existing and projected engine control systems were investigated. Flight tests of the digital electronic engine control (DEEC) in an F-15 aircraft show discrepancies between flight results and predictions based on simulation and altitude testing. The FDA methodology and logic in the DEEC system, and the results of the flight failures which occurred to date are described.

  3. Bimatoprost (0.03%)-induced accommodative spasm and pseudomyopia. (United States)

    Padhy, Debananda; Rao, Aparna


    Bimatoprost is a prostaglandin analogue used topically in the treatment of glaucoma. Commonly known side effects include eyelash growth, iris pigmentation and conjunctival hyperemia. While pseudomyopia is reported to be caused by parasympathomimetics, such an effect precipitated by bimatoprost has not yet been reported. We report a case demonstrating pseudomyopia and accommodative spasm caused after starting bimatoprost 0.03% in a young patient with glaucoma.

  4. Recent Religious Accommodations: Have We Gone Too Far Too Fast? (United States)


    length of head hair for both men and women , making certain allowances for women to wear longer hairstyles. The regulation prohibits the wear of beards...exceptions in order to further religious sensitivity. 10 Review of Canada, United Kingdom, and Netherlands Policy on Head and Facial Hair Some...militaries have religious accommodations for males who maintain facial and head hair for religious purposes. In addition, one nation allows soldiers to

  5. Kinematic and ground reaction force accommodation during weighted walking. (United States)

    James, C Roger; Atkins, Lee T; Yang, Hyung Suk; Dufek, Janet S; Bates, Barry T


    Weighted walking is a functional activity common in daily life and can influence risks for musculoskeletal loading, injury and falling. Much information exists about weighted walking during military, occupational and recreational tasks, but less is known about strategies used to accommodate to weight carriage typical in daily life. The purposes of the study were to examine the effects of weight carriage on kinematics and peak ground reaction force (GRF) during walking, and explore relationships between these variables. Twenty subjects walked on a treadmill while carrying 0, 44.5 and 89 N weights in front of the body. Peak GRF, sagittal plane joint/segment angular kinematics, stride length and center of mass (COM) vertical displacement were measured. Changes in peak GRF and displacement variables between weight conditions represented accommodation. Effects of weight carriage were tested using analysis of variance. Relationships between peak GRF and kinematic accommodation variables were examined using correlation and regression. Subjects were classified into sub-groups based on peak GRF responses and the correlation analysis was repeated. Weight carriage increased peak GRF by an amount greater than the weight carried, decreased stride length, increased vertical COM displacement, and resulted in a more extended and upright posture, with less hip and trunk displacement during weight acceptance. A GRF increase was associated with decreases in hip extension (|r|=.53, p=.020) and thigh anterior rotation (|r|=.57, p=.009) displacements, and an increase in foot anterior rotation displacement (|r|=.58, p=.008). Sub-group analysis revealed that greater GRF increases were associated with changes at multiple sites, while lesser GRF increases were associated with changes in foot and trunk displacement. Weight carriage affected walking kinematics and revealed different accommodation strategies that could have implications for loading and stability.

  6. Visual Servoing


    Chaumette, Francois; Hutchinson, Seth; Corke, Peter


    International audience; This chapter introduces visual servo control, using computer vision data in the servo loop to control the motion of a robot. We first describe the basic techniques that are by now well established in the field. We give a general overview of the formulation of the visual servo control problem, and describe the two archetypal visual servo control schemes: image-based and pose-based visual servo control. We then discuss performance and stability issues that pertain to the...

  7. Employers’ Perspectives on Hiring and Accommodating Workers With Mental Illness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janki Shankar


    Full Text Available Many individuals with mental illness want to return to work and stay in employment. Yet, there is little research that has examined the perspectives of employers on hiring and accommodating these workers and the kinds of supports employers need to facilitate their reintegration into the workforce. The aim of the current research was to explore the challenges employers face and the support they need to hire and accommodate workers with mental illness (WWMI. A qualitative research design guided by a grounded theory approach was used. In-depth interviews were conducted with 28 employers selected from a wide range of industries in and around Edmonton, Canada. The employers were a mix of frontline managers, disability consultants, and human resource managers who had direct experience with hiring and supervising WWMI. Data were analyzed using the principles of grounded theory. The findings highlight several challenges that employers face when dealing with mental health issues of workers in the workplace. These challenges can act as barriers to hiring and accommodating WWMI.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available A strong infrastructure is a precondition for the development of balneology. On this base new tourism might build the modern services that supply the experiences. The key factor is the labor force: an EU project about labor force in Romania and Bulgaria in balneology allow us to present the preliminary findings focusing on general infrastructure and accommodation which allow the development of the balneology as well as the additional conditions as the existence of a social pact, easy access facilities etc. Our paper gives more details about the accommodation facilities in Romania insisting about the results of the transition and privatization of the former socialist facilities and the transformation of the property into private ones and the consequences of this. It also present the capability of new developed accommodation units built after 1990 and how they might compete in an international competition. The findings force us to conclude that the actual facilities do not allow the balneology resorts to compete in the international competition and might fill only a poor and low demanding tourists

  9. Improving clinical examination in acute tibial fractures by enhancing visual cues: the case for always 'cutting back' a tibial back-slab and marking the dorsalis pedis pulse. (United States)

    Thomas, Alasdair; Kimber, Cheryl; Bramwell, Donald; Jaarsma, Ruurd


    Look, feel, move is a simple and widely taught sequence to be followed when undertaking a clinical examination in orthopaedics (Maher et al., 1994; McRae, 1999; Solomon et al., 2010). The splinting of an acute tibial fracture with a posterior back-slab is also common practice; with the most commonly taught design involving covering the dorsum of the foot with bandaging (Charnley, 1950; Maher et al., 1994; McRae, 1989). We investigated the effect of the visual cues provided by exposing the dorsum of the foot and marking the dorsalis pedis pulse. We used a clinical simulation in which we compared the quality of the recorded clinical examination undertaken by 30 nurses. The nurses were randomly assigned to assess a patient with either a traditional back-slab or one in which the dorsal bandaging had been cut back and the dorsalis pedis pulse marked. We found that the quality of the recorded clinical examination was significantly better in the cut-back group. Previous studies have shown that the cut-back would not alter the effectiveness of the back-slab as a splint (Zagorski et al., 1993). We conclude that all tibial back-slabs should have the bandaging on the dorsum of the foot cut back and the location of the dorsalis pedis pulse marked. This simple adaptation will improve the subsequent clinical examinations undertaken and recorded without reducing the back-slab's effectiveness as a splint.

  10. Framing effectiveness in impact assessment: Discourse accommodation in controversial infrastructure development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rozema, Jaap G., E-mail: [Science, Society and Sustainability (3S) Research Group, School of Environmental Sciences, University of East Anglia, Norwich NR4 7TJ (United Kingdom); Department of Development and Planning, Aalborg University, A.C. Meyers Vænge 15, DK-2450 København SV (Denmark); Bond, Alan J. [Science, Society and Sustainability (3S) Research Group, School of Environmental Sciences, University of East Anglia, Norwich NR4 7TJ (United Kingdom); School of Geo and Spatial Sciences, Internal Box 375, North West University (Potchefstroom campus) (South Africa)


    There is ongoing debate about the effectiveness of impact assessment tools, which matters both because of the threat to future practice of the tools which are frequently perceived to be ineffective, and because of the disillusionment that can ensue, and controversy generated, amongst stakeholders in a decision context where opportunities for meaningful debate have not been provided. In this article we regard debate about the meaning of effectiveness in impact assessment as an inevitable consequence of increased participation in environmental decision-making, and therefore frame effectiveness based on an inclusive democracy role to mean the extent to which impact assessment can accommodate civil society discourse. Our aim is to investigate effectiveness based on this framing by looking at one type of impact assessment – environmental impact assessment (EIA) – in two controversial project proposals: the HS2 rail network in England; and the A4DS motorway in the Netherlands. Documentary analysis and interviews held with key civil society stakeholders have been deployed to identify discourses that were mobilised in the cases. EIA was found to be able to accommodate only one out of four discourses that were identified; for the other three it did not provide the space for the arguments that characterised opposition. The conclusion in relation to debate on framings of effectiveness is that EIA will not be considered effective by the majority of stakeholders. EIA was established to support decision-making through a better understanding of impacts, so its ineffectiveness is unsurprising when its role is perceived to be broader. However, there remains a need to map discourses in different decision contexts and to analyse the extent to which the range of discourses are accommodated throughout the decision process, and the role of impact assessment in those processes, before recommendations can be made to either improve impact assessment effectiveness, or whether it is

  11. Using Storyboarding Techniques to Identify Design Opportunities: When Students Employ Storyboards, They Are Better Able to Understand the Complexity of a Products's Use and Visualize Areas for Improvement (United States)

    Reeder, Kevin


    The movie industry heavily relies on storyboards as an effective way to visually describe the process of a movie. The storyboard visually describes how the movie flows from beginning to end, how the characters are interacting, and where transitions and/or gaps exist in the storyline. The storyboard is an effective tool in industrial design as…

  12. Quality of Visual Cue Affects Visual Reweighting in Quiet Standing (United States)

    Moraes, Renato; de Freitas, Paulo Barbosa; Razuk, Milena; Barela, José Angelo


    Sensory reweighting is a characteristic of postural control functioning adopted to accommodate environmental changes. The use of mono or binocular cues induces visual reduction/increment of moving room influences on postural sway, suggesting a visual reweighting due to the quality of available sensory cues. Because in our previous study visual conditions were set before each trial, participants could adjust the weight of the different sensory systems in an anticipatory manner based upon the reduction in quality of the visual information. Nevertheless, in daily situations this adjustment is a dynamical process and occurs during ongoing movement. The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of visual transitions in the coupling between visual information and body sway in two different distances from the front wall of a moving room. Eleven young adults stood upright inside of a moving room in two distances (75 and 150 cm) wearing a liquid crystal lenses goggles, which allow individual lenses transition from opaque to transparent and vice-versa. Participants stood still during five minutes for each trial and the lenses status changed every one minute (no vision to binocular vision, no vision to monocular vision, binocular vision to monocular vision, and vice-versa). Results showed that farther distance and monocular vision reduced the effect of visual manipulation on postural sway. The effect of visual transition was condition dependent, with a stronger effect when transitions involved binocular vision than monocular vision. Based upon these results, we conclude that the increased distance from the front wall of the room reduced the effect of visual manipulation on postural sway and that sensory reweighting is stimulus quality dependent, with binocular vision producing a much stronger down/up-weighting than monocular vision. PMID:26939058

  13. New software for neutron data reduction and visualization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Worlton, T.; Chatterjee, A.; Hammonds, J.; Chen, D.; Loong, C.K. [Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, IL (United States); Mikkelson, D.; Mikkelson, R. [Univ. of Wisconsin-Stout, Menomonie, WI (United States)


    Development of advanced neutron sources and instruments has necessitated corresponding advances in software for neutron scattering data reduction and visualization. New sources produce datasets more rapidly, and new instruments produce large numbers of spectra. Because of the shorter collection times, users are able to make more measurements on a given sample. This rapid production of datasets requires that users be able to reduce and analyze data quickly to prevent a data bottleneck. In addition, the new sources and instruments are accommodating more users with less neutron-scattering specific expertise, which requires software that is easy to use and freely available. We have developed an Integrated Spectral Analysis Workbench (ISAW) software package to permit the rapid reduction and visualization of neutron data. It can handle large numbers of spectra and merge data from separate measurements. The data can be sorted according to any attribute and transformed in numerous ways. ISAW provides several views of the data that enable users to compare spectra and observe trends in the data. A command interpreter, which is now part of ISAW, allows scientists to easily set up a series of instrument-specific operations to reduce and visualize data automatically. ISAW is written entirely in Java to permit portability to different computer platforms and easy distribution of the software. The software was constructed using modern computer design methods to allow easy customization and improvement. ISAW currently only reads data from IPNS 'run' files, but work is underway to provide input of NeXus files. (author)

  14. Changes in the dark focus of accommodation associated with simulator sickness (United States)

    Fowlkes, Jennifer E.; Kennedy, Robert S.; Hettinger, Lawrence J.; Harm, Deborah L.


    The relationship between the dark focus of accommodation and simulator sickness, a form of motion sickness, was examined in three experiments. In Experiment 1, dark focus was measured in 18 college students in a laboratory setting before and after they viewed a projected motion scene depicting low altitude helicopter flight. In Experiments 2 and 3, dark focus was measured in pilots (N = 16 and 23, respectively) before and after they 'flew' in moving-base helicopter flight simulators with optical infinity CRT visual systems. The results showed that individuals who experienced simulator sickness had either an inward (myopic) change in dark focus (Experiments 1 and 3) or attenuated outward shifts in dark focus (Experiment 2) relative to participants who did not get sick. These results are consonant with the hypothesis that parasympathetic activity, which may be associated with simulator sickness, should result in changes in dark focus that are in a myopic direction. Night vision goggles, virtual environments, extended periods in microgravity, and heads-up displays all produce related visual symptomatology. Changes in dark focus may occur in these conditions, as well, and should be measured.

  15. Impaired visual competition in patients with homonymous visual field defects. (United States)

    Geuzebroek, A C; van den Berg, A V


    include training focused on improving visual decision-making of the defective and the intact visual field.

  16. Visualization by Demonstration: An Interaction Paradigm for Visual Data Exploration. (United States)

    Saket, Bahador; Kim, Hannah; Brown, Eli T; Endert, Alex


    Although data visualization tools continue to improve, during the data exploration process many of them require users to manually specify visualization techniques, mappings, and parameters. In response, we present the Visualization by Demonstration paradigm, a novel interaction method for visual data exploration. A system which adopts this paradigm allows users to provide visual demonstrations of incremental changes to the visual representation. The system then recommends potential transformations (Visual Representation, Data Mapping, Axes, and View Specification transformations) from the given demonstrations. The user and the system continue to collaborate, incrementally producing more demonstrations and refining the transformations, until the most effective possible visualization is created. As a proof of concept, we present VisExemplar, a mixed-initiative prototype that allows users to explore their data by recommending appropriate transformations in response to the given demonstrations.

  17. 49 CFR 595.7 - Requirements for vehicle modifications to accommodate people with disabilities. (United States)


    ... accommodate people with disabilities. 595.7 Section 595.7 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) NATIONAL HIGHWAY TRAFFIC SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) MAKE INOPERATIVE EXEMPTIONS Vehicle Modifications To Accommodate People With Disabilities §...

  18. Progressive Fault Accommodation for Time-delay Systems with Parametric Faults

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WU Jun-sheng; WENG Zheng-xin; TIAN Zuo-hua


    The fault accommodation problem for time-delay system is studied in this paper. The progressive accommodation strategy based on the Newton-Raphson scheme is proposed to solve this problem. This accommodation scheme can significantly reduces the loss of performance and risk associated with system instability which results from the time-delay needed by fault accommodation aigorithms to provide a solution. Simulation results are given to illustrate the efficiency of the provided method.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nur Mukminatien


    Full Text Available This article aims to discuss issues of World Englishes (WEs and the implications in ELT. It explores the extent to which WEs are taken into account as emerging English varieties different from inner circle varieties, how WEs should be accomodated by English teachers, and which standard to adopt to accommodate learner’s linguistic needs for international communication. It would help ELT practitioners adjust their current practices through the inclusion of varieties of WEs in developing learners’ oral communication. This offers relevant pedagogical movement to argue that changes should be made about the way English is valued and taught.

  20. Functionalised polysiloxanes as injectable, in situ curable accommodating intraocular lenses. (United States)

    Hao, Xiaojuan; Jeffery, Justine L; Wilkie, John S; Meijs, Gordon F; Clayton, Anthony B; Watling, Jason D; Ho, Arthur; Fernandez, Viviana; Acosta, Carolina; Yamamoto, Hideo; Aly, Mohamed G M; Parel, Jean-Marie; Hughes, Timothy C


    The aged eye's ability to change focus (accommodation) may be restored by replacing the hardened natural lens with a soft gel. Functionalised polysiloxane macromonomers, designed for application as an injectable, in situ curable accommodating intraocular lens (A-IOL), were prepared via a two-step synthesis. Prepolymers were synthesised via ring opening polymerisation (ROP) of octamethylcyclotetrasiloxane (D(4)) and 2,4,6,8-tetramethylcyclotetrasiloxane (D(4)(H)) in toluene using trifluoromethanesulfonic acid (TfOH) as catalyst. Hexaethyldisiloxane (HEDS) was used as the end group to control the molecular weight of the prepolymers, which were then converted to macromonomers by hydrosilylation of the SiH groups with allyl methacrylate (AM) to introduce polymerisable groups. The resulting macromonomers had an injectable consistency and thus, were able to be injected into and refill the empty lens capsular bag. The macromonomers also contained a low ratio of polymerisable groups so that they may be cured on demand, in situ, under irradiation of blue light, in the presence of a photo-initiator, to form a soft polysiloxane gel (an intraocular lens) in the eye. The pre-cure viscosity and post-cure modulus of the polysiloxanes, which are crucial factors for an injectable, in situ curable A-IOL application, were controlled by adjusting the end group and D(4)(H) concentrations, respectively, in the ROP. The macromonomers were fully cured within 5 min under light irradiation, as shown by the rapid change in modulus monitored by photo-rheology. Ex vivo primate lens stretching experiments on an Ex Vivo Accommodation Simulator (EVAS) showed that the polysiloxane gel refilled lenses achieved over 60% of the accommodation amplitude of the natural lens. An in vivo biocompatibility study in rabbits using the lens refilling (Phaco-Ersatz) procedure demonstrated that the soft gels had good biocompatibility with the ocular tissue. The polysiloxane macromonomers meet the targeted

  1. Are high lags of accommodation in myopic children due to motor deficits? (United States)

    Labhishetty, Vivek; Bobier, William R


    Children with a progressing myopia exhibit an abnormal pattern of high accommodative lags coupled with high accommodative convergence (AC/A) and high accommodative adaptation. This is not predicted by the current models of accommodation and vergence. Reduced accommodative plant gain and reduced sensitivity to blur have been suggested as potential causes for this abnormal behavior. These etiologies were tested by altering parameters (sensory, controller and plant gains) in the Simulink model of accommodation. Predictions were then compared to the static and dynamic blur accommodation (BA) measures taken using a Badal optical system on 12 children (6 emmetropes and 6 myopes, 8-13years) and 6 adults (20-35years). Other critical parameters such as CA/C, AC/A, and accommodative adaptation were also measured. Usable BA responses were classified as either typical or atypical. Typical accommodation data confirmed the abnormal pattern of myopia along with an unchanged CA/C. Main sequence relationship remained invariant between myopic and nonmyopic children. An overall reduction was noted in the response dynamics such as peak velocity and acceleration with age. Neither a reduced plant gain nor reduced blur sensitivity could predict the abnormal accommodative behavior. A model adjustment reflecting a reduced accommodative sensory gain (ASG) coupled with an increased AC cross-link gain and reduced vergence adaptive gain does predict the empirical findings. Empirical measures also showed a greater frequency of errors in accommodative response generation (atypical responses) in both myopic and control children compared to adults.

  2. 41 CFR 301-10.160 - What classes of train accommodations are available? (United States)


    ... business-class. (1) First-class—Includes bedrooms, roomettes, club service, parlor car accommodations or other premium accommodations. (2) Business-class—A class of extra fare train service that is offered... only has two classes of accommodations available, i.e., first and business class, then the...

  3. Teaching Adolescent Students with Learning Disabilities to Self-Advocate for Accommodations (United States)

    Prater, Mary Anne; Redman, Ashleigh Smith; Anderson, Darlene; Gibb, Gordon S.


    In the general education classroom students with learning disabilities (LD) often need academic accommodations to be successful. These accommodations are typically selected and implemented by their general education teachers, not by the students themselves. High school students with LD were taught to recognize when an accommodation was needed,…

  4. Predictive Validity of Accommodated LSAT Scores. Technical Report. LSAC Research Report Series. (United States)

    Thornton, Andrea E.; Reese, Lynda M.; Pashley, Peter J.; Dalessandro, Susan P.

    This study was undertaken to evaluate the predictive validity of the Law School Admission Test (LSAT) earned under accommodated testing conditions. Of special interest was the validity of scores obtained by test takers who were accommodated under nonstandard time conditions (i.e., accommodations that included extra testing time). Separate…

  5. The Use of Computer Technology in Designing Appropriate Test Accommodations for English Language Learners (United States)

    Abedi, Jamal


    Among the several forms of accommodations used in the assessment of English language learners (ELLs), language-based accommodations are the most effective in making assessments linguistically accessible to these students. However, there are significant challenges associated with the implementation of many of these accommodations. This article…

  6. 46 CFR 30.10-2 - Accommodation space-TB/ALL. (United States)


    ... 46 Shipping 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Accommodation space-TB/ALL. 30.10-2 Section 30.10-2... Accommodation space—TB/ALL. The term accommodation space means any public space such as a hall, dining room... that contains no cooking appliances, and a similar space open to the passengers and crew....

  7. Traffic Visualization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Picozzi, Matteo; Verdezoto, Nervo; Pouke, Matti;


    In this paper, we present a space-time visualization to provide city's decision-makers the ability to analyse and uncover important "city events" in an understandable manner for city planning activities. An interactive Web mashup visualization is presented that integrates several visualization...... techniques to give a rapid overview of traffic data. We illustrate our approach as a case study for traffic visualization systems, using datasets from the city of Oulu that can be extended to other city planning activities. We also report the feedback of real users (traffic management employees, traffic police...

  8. Can mergers-in-progress be unmerged in speech accommodation?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Molly eBabel


    Full Text Available This study examines spontaneous phonetic accommodation of a dialect with distinct categories by speakers who are in the process of merging those categories. We focus on the merger of the NEAR and SQUARE lexical sets in New Zealand English, presenting New Zealand participants with an unmerged speaker of Australian English. Mergers-in-progress are a uniquely interesting sound change as they showcase the asymmetry between speech perception and production. Yet, we examine mergers using spontaneous phonetic imitation, which is phenomenon that is necessarily a behavior where perceptual input influences speech production. Phonetic imitation is quantified by a perceptual measure and an acoustic calculation of mergedness using a Pillai-Bartlett trace. The results from both analyses indicate spontaneous phonetic imitation is moderated by extra-linguistic factors such as the valence of assigned conditions and social bias. We also find evidence for a decrease in the degree of mergedness in post-exposure productions. Taken together, our results suggest that under the appropriate conditions New Zealanders phonetically accommodate to Australian English and that in the process of speech imitation, mergers-in-progress can, but do not consistently, become less merged.

  9. Accommodation coefficient of HOBr on deliquescent sodium bromide aerosol particles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Wachsmuth


    Full Text Available Uptake of HOBr on sea salt aerosol, sea salt brine or ice is believed to be a key process providing a source of photolabile bromine (Br2 and sustaining ozone depletion cycles in the Arctic troposphere. In the present study, uptake of HOBr on sodium bromide (NaBr aerosol particles was investigated at an extremely low HOBr concentration of 300 cm-3 using the short-lived radioactive isotopes 83-86Br. Under these conditions, at maximum one HOBr molecule was taken up per particle. The rate of uptake was clearly limited by the mass accommodation coefficient, which was calculated to be 0.6 ± 0.2. This value is a factor of 10 larger than estimates used in earlier models. The atmospheric implications are discussed using the box model "MOCCA'', showing that the increase of the accommodation coefficient of HOBr by a factor of 10 only slightly affects net ozone loss, but significantly increases chlorine release.

  10. H2S, a novel gasotransmitter, involves in gastric accommodation. (United States)

    Xiao, Ailin; Wang, Hongjuan; Lu, Xin; Zhu, Jianchun; Huang, Di; Xu, Tonghui; Guo, Jianqiang; Liu, Chuanyong; Li, Jingxin


    H2S is produced mainly by two enzymes:cystathionine-β-synthase (CBS) and cystathionine-γ-lyase (CSE), using L-cysteine (L-Cys) as the substrate. In this study, we investigated the role of H2S in gastric accommodation using CBS(+/-) mice, immunohistochemistry, immunoblot, methylene blue assay, intragastric pressure (IGP) recording and electrical field stimulation (EFS). Mouse gastric fundus expressed H2S-generating enzymes (CBS and CSE) and generated detectable amounts of H2S. The H2S donor, NaHS or L-Cys, caused a relaxation in either gastric fundus or body. The gastric compliance was significantly increased in the presence of L-Cys (1 mM). On the contrary, AOAA, an inhibitor for CBS, largely inhibited gastric compliance. Consistently, CBS(+/-) mice shows a lower gastric compliance. However, PAG, a CSE inhibitor, had no effect on gastric compliances. L-Cys enhances the non-adrenergic, non-cholinergic (NANC) relaxation of fundus strips, but AOAA reduces the magnitude of relaxations to EFS. Notably, the expression level of CBS but not CSE protein was elevated after feeding. Consistently, the production of H2S was also increased after feeding in mice gastric fundus. In addition, AOAA largely reduced food intake and body weight in mice. Furthermore, a metabolic aberration of H2S was found in patients with functional dyspepsia (FD). In conclusion, endogenous H2S, a novel gasotransmitter, involves in gastric accommodation.

  11. Science Language Accommodation in Elementary School Read-Alouds (United States)

    Glass, Rory; Oliveira, Alandeom W.


    This study examines the pedagogical functions of accommodation (i.e. provision of simplified science speech) in science read-aloud sessions facilitated by five elementary teachers. We conceive of read-alouds as communicative events wherein teachers, faced with the task of orally delivering a science text of relatively high linguistic complexity, open up an alternate channel of communication, namely oral discussion. By doing so, teachers grant students access to a simplified linguistic input, a strategy designed to promote student comprehension of the textual contents of children's science books. It was found that nearly half (46%) of the read-aloud time was allotted to discussions with an increased percentage of less sophisticated words and reduced use of more sophisticated vocabulary than found in the books through communicative strategies such as simplified rewording, simplified definition, and simplified questioning. Further, aloud reading of more linguistically complex books required longer periods of discussion and an increased degree of teacher oral input and accommodation. We also found evidence of reversed simplification (i.e. sophistication), leading to student uptake of scientific language. The main significance of this study is that it reveals that teacher talk serves two often competing pedagogical functions (accessible communication of scientific information to students and promotion of student acquisition of the specialized language of science). It also underscores the importance of giving analytical consideration to the simplification-sophistication dimension of science classroom discourse as well as the potential of computer-based analysis of classroom discourse to inform science teaching.

  12. The Effects of Branding on Purchasing Preferences of Tourists at Accommodation Enterprises: An Implementation at Chain Accommodation Enterprises in Antalya

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Banu Yıldız


    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to determine the effect of branding on the purchasing preferences of tourists at accommodation enterprises. Towards this end questionnaire technique was used and 398 questionnaires were considered to be evaluated. The data, gathered, analyzed by using statistical methods. As a result it is revealed that branding (brad awareness, perceived quality, brand image, brand trust, brand attitude and brand loyalty parameters has a positive effect on purchasing preferences of tourists and a negative effect on the volume of perceived risk. Factors contributing to more on purchasing preferences of tourists, respectively, brand attitude, brand loyalty and brand awareness.

  13. Reasonable Accommodation In The Workplace: To Be Or Not To Be?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rowena Bronwen Bernard


    Full Text Available Freedom of religion is a fundamental right enshrined in and protected by section 15 of the Constitution. This right allows for the practice of religion without interference from the state and individuals. A question which often arises relates to the extent to which freedom of religion can be exercised in the workplace. Religious practice often extends beyond societal norms, but religious intolerance has proven to be a source of conflict. In the workplace this conflict arises "where the employer's right to the employee's labour and service conflicts with the employee's inability or refusal to render services because of a religious or cultural belief". The courts have played an important role in balancing the rights of the employer to manage his business operations efficiently with the rights of the employee to practice his religious or cultural beliefs. The critical question is how the employer is expected to balance and maintain an orderly, disciplined and efficient workplace whilst accommodating an employee's right to religious freedom. The case of Department of Correctional Services v Police and Prison Civil Rights Union (POPCRU 2011 32 ILJ 2629 (LAC is one where the employer's application of rules relating to the dress code of employees impacted on the religious beliefs and practices of five staff. In this note, this decision and the decisions in other recent cases are analysed in order to determine how the courts have dealt with the issue of the reasonable accommodation of religious practices in the workplace. The employer in the POPCRU case was justified in wanting to improve the discipline and standards within the prison. The findings of the LAC and SCA were indeed correct: while the dress code appeared to be neutral, the actual impact resulted in the disparate treatment of the employees. They were discriminated against as a result of wearing dreadlocks. The employer failed to reasonably accommodate the religious beliefs of the employees

  14. Enhancing Eye-Hand Coordination with Therapy Intervention to Improve Visual-Spatial Abilities using ‘The Re-training Approach’ in Children with Down Syndrome: Three Case Studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deena Ashok


    Full Text Available Eye-hand coordination and visual-spatial abilities are an integral part of a child’s development, since both skills are necessary for functional independence as well as for academic progress.Purpose: This study is aimed at understanding the relationship between visual-spatial abilities and eye-hand coordination based on the ‘Re-training Approach’. An underlying assumption of this approach is that skills learned for one task can be generalised to other areas.Method: Three children with Down syndrome were initially tested for eye-hand coordination, and the tests were repeated periodically throughout the intervention programme which comprised visual-spatial activities.Results: The authors observed that there was a steady improvement in the eye-hand coordination as well as the visual-spatial abilities of children involved in the intensive therapy programme. This improvement manifested in the reduction of time taken to perform the coordination tests and in the errors made while performing the tests.doi 10.5463/DCID.v23i2.87

  15. An Improved Medical Image Segmentation Algorithm Based on Visual Perception Model%一种基于视觉感知的复合医学图像分割算法

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘再涛; 魏本征; 柳澄


    To improve the visual effect of the medical image segmentation, an improved medical image segmentation algorithm was presented based on the visual perception delaminated characters. Based the character of medical image, the local region features were described firstly, and then the local texture feature was designed consistently with visual perception of different image region. The Fuzzy-ART neural network as pixels classifier was used to segment the medical image based on the layer feature functions. The experiment results showed that this method effectively solved the local information and distribution of image local features, and achieved a good segmentation and visual effect.%为提高医学图像分割的视觉效果,依据人类视觉感知的分层特性,提出了一种新的复合医学图像分割方法.该方法通过提取医学图像的底层特征,利用Fuzzy-ART神经网络作为像素的分类器,对医学图像进行连续两次分割.实验结果表明,该医学图像分割方法能有效地解决局部信息与整体分布边缘淡化等相关问题,达到良好的分割视觉效果.

  16. Visual search

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Toet, A.; Bijl, P.


    Visual search, with or without the aid of optical or electro-optical instruments, plays a significant role in various types of military and civilian operations (e.g., reconnaissance, surveillance, and search and rescue). Advance knowledge of human visual search and target acquisition performance is

  17. Visual Thinking. (United States)

    Arnheim, Rudolf

    Based on the more general principle that all thinking (including reasoning) is basically perceptual in nature, the author proposes that visual perception is not a passive recording of stimulus material but an active concern of the mind. He delineates the task of visually distinguishing changes in size, shape, and position and points out the…

  18. Accommodation Consumers and Providers’ Attitudes, Behaviours and Practices for Sustainability: A Systematic Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Colin Michael Hall


    Full Text Available Accommodation and lodging are an integral component of the tourism and hospitality industry. Given the sectors’ growing contribution to resource consumption and waste, there is a growing body of literature on the attitudes, behaviours and practices of consumers, managers, staff and owners of lodging with respect to sustainability. This paper presents the results of a systematic analysis of articles on attitudes, behaviours and practices of consumers and the provision of accommodation with respect to sustainability. The results indicate that there is a dearth of longitudinal studies on the sustainability of practices and behaviours. There are limitations in geographical coverage as well as methods, with research dominated by convenience sampling approaches. It is concluded that while there appear to be improvements in the potential sustainability of lodging with respect to technological approaches, the lack of systematic long-term studies on behavioural interventions represents a significant challenge to reducing the absolute emissions of the sector as well as reductions in energy and water use and waste production. Given the lack of longitudinal studies, it is not known whether observed behavioural changes are sustained over time.

  19. Object classification of SAR image based on improved Bag of Visual Words algorithm%基于改进的Bag of Visual Words算法的SAR图像目标分类

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王跃; 薄华


    “视觉词袋”(Bag of Visual Words,BOV)算法是一种有效的基于语义特征表达的物体识别算法.针对传统BOV模型存在的不足,综合利用SAR图像的灰度和纹理特征,提出基于感兴趣目标(Target of Interest,TOI)的“视觉词袋”算法.首先,对训练图像进行TOI选取,用灰度共生矩阵模型提取TOI的纹理特征,再结合灰度特征,组成多维特征向量集,以簇内相似度最高、数据分布密度最大为准则,生成“视觉词袋”.其次,对测试图像,依据已生成的“视觉词袋”,采用支持向量机(Support Vector Machine,SVM)分类器,实现SAR图像感兴趣目标的有效分类.实验结果表明,与传统的“视觉词袋”构建算法相比,该算法在分类正确率提高的同时,能够在训练图像较少的情况下达到良好的分类效果.%Bag of Visual Words (BOV) algorithm is an efficient object recognition algorithm based on semantic features representation,which derives from text-based search algorithm based on semantic.To optimize the construction of the traditional Bag of Visual Words,this paper,comprehensively utilizing the model of gray and texture information,presents an optimized algorithm for the construction of Bag of Visual Words based on Target of Interest (TOI).Firstly,the TOI is extracted from training images.Gray level co-occurrence matrix (GLCM) is introduced to the extraction of texture features that produce a multi-dimensional feature vectors set with gray information.With the highest similarity inside clusters and the maximum data density taken as the cluster criterion,the cluster centers are produced.Namely,Bag of Visual Words is constructed.Secondly,according to the produced BOV,using Support Vector Machine (SVM) Classifier realizes object classification of SAR image.Experimental results show the algorithm proposed in the paper can obtain high classification accuracy in the case of a few training images comparing with the traditional BOV.

  20. The effect of proximity on open-loop accommodation responses measured with pinholes. (United States)

    Morrison, K A; Seidel, D; Strang, N C; Gray, L S


    Open-loop accommodation levels were measured in 41 healthy, young subjects using a Shin-Nippon SRW-5000 autorefractor in the three viewing conditions: a small physical pinhole pupil (SP), an optically projected pinhole in Maxwellian view (MV) and in the dark (DF). The target viewed through the pinholes was a high-contrast letter presented at 0 D vergence in a +5 D Badal lens system. Overall, results showed that SP open-loop accommodation levels were significantly higher than MV and DF levels. Subjects could be divided into two distinct subgroups according to their response behaviour: responders to the proximal effect of the small physical pinhole (SP accommodation > MV accommodation) and non-responders to the proximal effect of the small physical pinhole (SP accommodation approximately MV accommodation). Correlation analysis demonstrated that open-loop accommodation for both pinhole conditions was correlated with DF for the responders, while for the non-responders SP and MV accommodation were correlated, but were not related to DF accommodation. This suggests that under open-loop conditions some individuals' accommodation levels are mainly affected by proximal and cognitive factors (responders) while others are guided primarily by the presence of the more distal target (non-responders). In conclusion, MV reduces the proximal effect of the physical pinhole and produces open-loop accommodation responses which are more consistent than SP and DF responses.

  1. Sensory outcome with nonsurgical management of esotropia with convergence excess (a high accommodative convergence/accommodation ratio). (United States)

    Pratt-Johnson, J A; Tillson, G


    Twenty-seven patients with esotropia and convergence excess (a high accommodative convergence/accommodation [AC/A] ratio) managed nonsurgically underwent a final standardized evaluation of their sensory and motor status after a follow-up period of at least 8 years. All had a deviation with distance fixation of less than 10 prism dioptres (PD) of esotropia with full optical correction both initially and throughout the follow-up period. The average spherical-equivalent refractive error was +2.3 D. The AC/A ratio had tended to decrease with age, and most patients had fusion, although only a small proportion had central fusion and stereopsis. Approximately half of the patients had been treated with bifocals, but their sensory outcome did not differ from that of the other patients. Miotics had not been used for more than a few months in any patient, as they were ineffective in reducing the deviation with near fixation to less than 10 PD of esotropia. A study, possibly a multicentre one, involving larger numbers of patients should be designed to find out whether bifocal therapy offers an advantage in the final sensory outcome of such patients.

  2. Visualization Design Environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pomplun, A.R.; Templet, G.J.; Jortner, J.N.; Friesen, J.A.; Schwegel, J.; Hughes, K.R.


    Improvements in the performance and capabilities of computer software and hardware system, combined with advances in Internet technologies, have spurred innovative developments in the area of modeling, simulation and visualization. These developments combine to make it possible to create an environment where engineers can design, prototype, analyze, and visualize components in virtual space, saving the time and expenses incurred during numerous design and prototyping iterations. The Visualization Design Centers located at Sandia National Laboratories are facilities built specifically to promote the ''design by team'' concept. This report focuses on designing, developing and deploying this environment by detailing the design of the facility, software infrastructure and hardware systems that comprise this new visualization design environment and describes case studies that document successful application of this environment.

  3. Symptomatic accommodative disorders and asthenopia: Prevalence and association in Ghanaian children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charles Darko-Takyi


    Full Text Available Background: There is a scarcity of data on asthenopia and accommodative disorders in children in Ghana as optometrists sometimes fail to carry out comprehensive assessments because of the lack of appropriate instruments.Aim: To establish the prevalence of asthenopic symptoms and symptomatic accommodative disorders among Junior High School children in Cape Coast metropolis (in their habitual vision state and to investigate if there are any associations between asthenopic symptoms and the disorders.Method: A prospective cross-sectional school-based study using a multistage sample of 627 participants aged 12–17 years from Junior High Schools in Cape Coast metropolis, Ghana, was conducted. Participants completed a reliable asthenopic symptoms questionnaire (Cronbach’s α = 0.866, and 220 participants who expressed two or more severe or very severe symptoms were selected for comprehensive accommodative system assessment over their habitual vision state.Results: The prevalence of symptoms of asthenopia (two or more severe or very severe and symptomatic accommodative disorders were 35.1% and 17.4% respectively. For specific symptomatic accommodative disorders, the prevalence was as follows: 7.7% accommodative insufficiency, 4.5% accommodative infacility, 1.4% accommodative excess and 3.8% accommodative fatigue. There were significant associations between some specific accommodative disorders and some specific asthenopic symptoms even though these asthenopic symptoms overlapped in other accommodative disorders.Conclusion: Specific asthenopic symptoms do not discriminate between the presences of specific types of accommodative disorders. A comprehensive accommodative system assessment with appropriate instruments is relevant to the diagnosis and management of accommodative disorders to relieve asthenopic symptoms.

  4. Disturbance Accommodating Adaptive Control with Application to Wind Turbines (United States)

    Frost, Susan


    Adaptive control techniques are well suited to applications that have unknown modeling parameters and poorly known operating conditions. Many physical systems experience external disturbances that are persistent or continually recurring. Flexible structures and systems with compliance between components often form a class of systems that fail to meet standard requirements for adaptive control. For these classes of systems, a residual mode filter can restore the ability of the adaptive controller to perform in a stable manner. New theory will be presented that enables adaptive control with accommodation of persistent disturbances using residual mode filters. After a short introduction to some of the control challenges of large utility-scale wind turbines, this theory will be applied to a high-fidelity simulation of a wind turbine.

  5. Automation for Accommodating Fuel-Efficient Descents in Constrained Airspace (United States)

    Coopenbarger, Richard A.


    Continuous descents at low engine power are desired to reduce fuel consumption, emissions and noise during arrival operations. The challenge is to allow airplanes to fly these types of efficient descents without interruption during busy traffic conditions. During busy conditions today, airplanes are commonly forced to fly inefficient, step-down descents as airtraffic controllers work to ensure separation and maximize throughput. NASA in collaboration with government and industry partners is developing new automation to help controllers accommodate continuous descents in the presence of complex traffic and airspace constraints. This automation relies on accurate trajectory predictions to compute strategic maneuver advisories. The talk will describe the concept behind this new automation and provide an overview of the simulations and flight testing used to develop and refine its underlying technology.

  6. Method for compensating bellows pressure loads while accommodating thermal deformations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Woodle, M.H.


    Many metal bellows are used on storage ring vacuum chambers. They allow the ring to accommodate deformations associated with alignment, mechanical assembly and thermal expansion. The NSLS has two such electron storage rings, the vuv ring and the x-ray ring. Both rings utilize a number of welded metal bellows within the ring and at every beam port. There are provisions for 16 beam ports on the vuv and 28 ports in the x-ray ring. At each of these locations the bellows are acted on by an external pressure of 1 atmosphere, which causes a 520 lb reaction at the vacuum chamber beam port and at the beamline flange downstream of the bellows. The use of rigid tie rods across the bellows flanges to support this load is troublesome because most storage ring vacuum chambers are baked in situ to achieve high internal vacuum. Significant forces can develop on components if thermal deformation is restrained and damage could occur.

  7. Communication accommodation and managing musculoskeletal disorders: doctors' and patients' perspectives. (United States)

    Baker, Susan C; Gallois, Cindy; Driedger, S Michelle; Santesso, Nancy


    This study examined the ways in which health care providers (general practitioners and specialists) and patients communicate with each other about managing musculoskeletal (MSK) disorders, a major cause of long-term pain and physical disability. In managing their illness, patients must interact closely with health care providers, who play a large role in transferring knowledge to them. In-depth interviews with patients, general practitioners, and specialist rheumatologists in Australia and Canada were analyzed using Leximancer (a text-mining tool). Results indicated that, in their communication, doctors subtly emphasized accepting and adjusting to the illness ("new normal"), whereas patients emphasized pain relief and getting "back to normal." These results suggest that doctors and patients should accommodate in their communication across subtle and often unexpressed differences in the priorities of provider and patient, or they are likely to be at cross purposes and thus less effective.

  8. Baudoinia, a new genus to accommodate Torula compniacensis. (United States)

    Scott, James A; Untereiner, Wendy A; Ewaze, Juliet O; Wong, Bess; Doyle, David


    Baudoinia gen. nov. is described to accommodate Torula compniacensis. Reported originally from the walls of buildings near brandy maturation warehouses in Cognac, France, species of Baudoinia are cosmopolitan colonists of exposed surfaces subjected to large diurnal temperature shifts, episodic high relative humidity and wetting, and ambient airborne ethanol. Morphologically B. compniacensis resembles some anamorphic Mycosphaerellaceae in possessing dark brown, nonseptate or uniseptate conidia with coarsely roughened walls that are borne acropetally in unbranched chains and released by schizolytic dehiscence. Analysis of partial nuclear rDNA SSU sequences positions B. compniacensis in the order Capnodiales and reveals that it is most closely related to the microcolonial genus Friedmanniomyces. Heat resistance is induced by brief sublethal temperature exposure.

  9. 儿童调节性内斜视临床观察%Clinical Observation of Accommodative Esotropia in Children

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    卢跃兵; 陈敏


    [ Objective ] To observe the eye position, diopter, visual acuity and binocular vision of children with accommodative esotropia after wearing glasses. [ Methods] 106 children with accommodative esotropia wore the completely correction glasses after accurate refraction, follow-up for 4 years, and the retrospective analysis was conducted. [ Results] After 6 months, 91 cases showed orthotropia, which accounted for 85.85%. Some children with accommodative esotropia must wear the completely correction glasses for 6 months or more. The hyperopic diopter declined from + 6.54D at first visit to + 5.02D after 4 years. The visual acuity increased from 0.36 at first visit to 0.82 after 4 years. [ Conclusion] The treatment of accommodative esotropia is a comprehensive course. It is necessary to pay attention to the correction of eye position, treatment of amblyopia and establishment of binocular vision.%目的 观察儿童屈光性调节性内斜视戴镜后的眼位、屈光度、视力及双眼单视功能情况.方法 搜集106例调节性内斜视儿童,准确验光后即时配戴全矫正眼镜,随访观察4年,并进行回顾性分析.结果 观察6个月以上,眼位正位者91例,占85.85%;部分性调节性内斜视,带全矫眼镜6个月以上,远视度数由初时的+6.5 4D,下降为4年后的+5.0 2D.视力由初诊时的0.36上升到4年后的0.82.结论 调节性内斜视的治疗是一个综合治疗过程.既要注重眼位的矫正、又要进行弱视治疗,同时注意建立双眼单视功能.

  10. Albinism: Improving Teacher and Caregiver Strategies for Meeting the Special Needs of Children with the Visual Disability of Ocular Albinism or Oculocutaneous Albinism (Birth to Age 14). (United States)

    Ashley, Julia Robertson

    This practicum report addresses the educational needs of students with the visual disability of ocular or oculocutaneous albinism. Two booklets were developed, published, and distributed--one for regular education teachers of children with albinism and one specifically about the very young child with albinism. The booklets discuss the special…

  11. Effectiveness of rehabilitation interventions in improving emotional and functional status in hearing or visually impaired older adults : a systematic review with meta-analyses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roets-Merken, Lieve M.; Draskovic, Irena; Zuidema, Sytse U.; van Erp, Willemijn S.; Graff, Maud J. L.; Kempen, Gertrudis I. J. M.; Vernooij-Dassen, Myrra J. F. J.


    Objective: To assess the effectiveness of non-equipment based rehabilitation interventions for older adults with an age-related hearing or visual impairment. Data sources: We searched PubMed, EMBASE, PsychInfo, CINAHL, and the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials. Review methods: Two autho

  12. Visual Impairment (United States)

    ... What Causes Visual Impairment? People rarely lose their eyesight during their teen years. When they do, it's ... inflammation in the eye. It's often found in poor rural countries that have overcrowded living conditions and ...

  13. Optimal secondary coil design for inductive powering of the Artificial Accommodation System. (United States)

    Nagel, J A; Krug, M; Gengenbach, U; Guth, H; Bretthauer, G; Guthoff, R F


    Age-related ailments like presbyopia and cataract are increasing concerns in the aging society. Both go along with a loss of ability to accommodate. A new approach to restore the patients' ability to accommodate is the Artificial Accommodation System. This micro mechatronic system will be implanted into the capsular bag to replace the human crystalline lens. Depending on the patients' actual need for accommodation, the Artificial Accommodation System autonomously adapts the refractive power of its integrated optical element in a way that the projection on the patients' retina results in a sharp image. As the Artificial Accommodation System is an active implant, its subsystems have to be supplied with electrical energy. Evolving technologies, like energy harvesting, which can potentially be used to power an implant like the Artificial Accommodation System are at the current state of art not sufficient to power the Artificial Accommodation System autonomously [1]. In the near future, therefore an inductive power supply system will be developed which includes an energy storage to power the Artificial Accommodation System autonomously over a period of 24 h and can be recharged wirelessly. This Paper describes a new possibility to optimize the secondary coil design in a solely analytical way, based on a new figure of merit. Within this paper the developed figure of merit is applied to optimize the secondary coil design for the Artificial Accommodation System.

  14. The Assessment of Accommodation and Convergence System in the Bank Employees

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monireh Mahjoob


    Full Text Available Background: Regarding the high outbreak rate of the eye disorders and problems particularly accommodation disorders and convergence insufficiency in computer users, the study tries to determine the convergence, accommodation system, condition, fusion reserves and vision dimension in bank employees (who work with computers and the control group (who are not computer users and then to compare the mentioned parameters in the two groups. Materials and Methods: In this cross-sectional and observational study a total of 44 bank employees and 44 people as the control group members were selected randomly. Initially, refractive problems were reformed, and then accommodation, convergence and vision dimension evaluative tests were conducted. The test included measuring the near point of convergence, jump convergence, phoria, accommodation range (one eye, both eyes, ease of accommodation (one eye, both eyes, positive and negative related accommodation, near fusion versions and TNO.Results: Our results showed that there was a not significant difference among the near point of convergence, jump convergence, near phoria, accommodation range (one eye and both eyes, ease of accommodation (one eye, both eyes, positive and negative related accommodation in bank employees and control group.Conclusion: Regarding the studies, the outbreak rate of accommodation and convergence disorders is higher in bank employees than the control group which would be due to over working with computer within a fixed interval.

  15. Graphic visualization of program performance aids management review (United States)

    Eisenhart, G. N.


    Chart technique /PERTREE/ which displays the essential status elements of a PERT system in a vertical flow array, of high graphic quality, enables visual review by management of program performance. Since the display is versatile, it can accommodate any aspect of the program which the presenter wishes to accent.

  16. Applied Computational Chemistry for the Blind and Visually Impaired (United States)

    Wedler, Henry B.; Cohen, Sarah R.; Davis, Rebecca L.; Harrison, Jason G.; Siebert, Matthew R.; Willenbring, Dan; Hamann, Christian S.; Shaw, Jared T.; Tantillo, Dean J.


    We describe accommodations that we have made to our applied computational-theoretical chemistry laboratory to provide access for blind and visually impaired students interested in independent investigation of structure-function relationships. Our approach utilizes tactile drawings, molecular model kits, existing software, Bash and Perl scripts…

  17. Visual cognition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pinker, S.


    This book consists of essays covering issues in visual cognition presenting experimental techniques from cognitive psychology, methods of modeling cognitive processes on computers from artificial intelligence, and methods of studying brain organization from neuropsychology. Topics considered include: parts of recognition; visual routines; upward direction; mental rotation, and discrimination of left and right turns in maps; individual differences in mental imagery, computational analysis and the neurological basis of mental imagery: componental analysis.

  18. Consumer preferences for pig welfare - Can the market accommodate more than one level of welfare pork? (United States)

    Denver, Sigrid; Sandøe, Peter; Christensen, Tove


    The purpose of the present paper is to investigate the market potential of pork labelled to indicate medium and high levels of animal welfare. The paper asks, in particular, whether there is a risk that Danish consumers will abandon high level welfare pork if less expensive products with a medium level of animal welfare became available. The study was based on an online questionnaire with a choice experiment involving 396 Danish respondents. The results indicated that the Danish market could accommodate more than one pork product with a welfare label but the price differential separating medium and high level animal welfare pork will have to be quite narrow. In addition, full willingness-to-pay of consumers who want to buy high level welfare pork cannot be relied upon to incentivise new consumers to buy medium welfare pork. Further, raising brand awareness in the shopping situation and improving consumer's understanding of brand attributes for high level welfare brands were found to be vital.

  19. Culture Change From Tobacco Accommodation to Intolerance: Time to Connect the Dots. (United States)

    Livingood, William C; Allegrante, John P; Green, Lawrence W


    Broad changes in normative health behavior are critical to overcoming many of the contemporary challenges to public health. Reduction in tobacco use during the last third of the 20th century-one of the greatest improvements in public health-illustrates such change. The culture change from accommodation to intolerance of smoking is irrefutable. The role of health communication in predisposing, enabling, and reinforcing the normative social changes that ensued, however, has been less well documented with the linear, cause-and-effect methods of controlled intervention research. We examine the role of mass communication in the cultural transformation that reduced tobacco use, concluding that its influence on reduction in tobacco use follows a pathway as much through secondary transmissions within groups of people as through direct influence on individuals.

  20. Breakdown of accommodation in nerve: a possible role for persistent sodium current

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andersen Ole K


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Accommodation and breakdown of accommodation are important elements of information processing in nerve fibers, as they determine how nerve fibers react to natural slowly changing stimuli or electrical stimulation. The aim of the present study was to elucidate the biophysical mechanism of breakdown of accommodation, which at present is unknown. Results A model of a space-clamped motor nerve fiber was developed. It was found that this new model could reproduce breakdown of accommodation when it included a low-threshold, rapidly activating, persistent sodium current. However, the phenomenon was not reproduced when the persistent sodium current did not have fast activation kinetics or a low activation threshold. Conclusion The present modeling study suggests that persistent, low-threshold, rapidly activating sodium currents have a key role in breakdown of accommodation, and that breakdown of accommodation can be used as a tool for studying persistent sodium current under normal and pathological conditions.

  1. A slide rule for calculating the ocular accommodation of an ametrope corrected with a spectacle lens. (United States)

    Wang, Guang-Ji


    A slide rule has been designed to calculate the ocular accommodation of an ametrope corrected with a spectacle lens. The slide rule makes the calculation itself easier to perform than with traditional methods and is easily applicable in a clinical setting. In the slide rule, there are 3 scales indicating the power of the spectacle lens, the viewing distance, and the ocular accommodation. The most accurate accommodative unit was used to design the slide rule. The ocular accommodation is the product of the accommodative unit and the dioptric viewing distance. The calculating results are accurate from +21 diopters to all minus powers of the spectacle lens. In a clinical setting, the patients can be advised how much accommodation they exert before and after the refractive surgeries.

  2. Visual comparison for information visualization

    KAUST Repository

    Gleicher, M.


    Data analysis often involves the comparison of complex objects. With the ever increasing amounts and complexity of data, the demand for systems to help with these comparisons is also growing. Increasingly, information visualization tools support such comparisons explicitly, beyond simply allowing a viewer to examine each object individually. In this paper, we argue that the design of information visualizations of complex objects can, and should, be studied in general, that is independently of what those objects are. As a first step in developing this general understanding of comparison, we propose a general taxonomy of visual designs for comparison that groups designs into three basic categories, which can be combined. To clarify the taxonomy and validate its completeness, we provide a survey of work in information visualization related to comparison. Although we find a great diversity of systems and approaches, we see that all designs are assembled from the building blocks of juxtaposition, superposition and explicit encodings. This initial exploration shows the power of our model, and suggests future challenges in developing a general understanding of comparative visualization and facilitating the development of more comparative visualization tools. © The Author(s) 2011.

  3. Retrospectively ECG-gated multi-detector row CT of the chest: does ECG-gating improve three-dimensional visualization of the bronchial tree?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schertler, T.; Wildermuth, S.; Willmann, J.K.; Crook, D.W.; Marincek, B.; Boehm, T. [Dept. Medical Radiology, Inst. of Diagnostic Radiology, Univ. Hospital Zurich (Switzerland)


    Purpose: To determine the impact of retrospectively ECG-gated multi-detector row CT (MDCT) on three-dimensional (3D) visualization of the bronchial tree and virtual bronchoscopy (VB) as compared to non-ECG-gated data acquisition. Materials and Methods: Contrast-enhanced retrospectively ECG-gated and non-ECG-gated MDCT of the chest was performed in 25 consecutive patients referred for assessment of coronary artery bypass grafts and pathology of the ascending aorta. ECG-gated MDCT data were reconstructed in diastole using an absolute reverse delay of -400 msec in all patients. In 10 patients additional reconstructions at -200 msec, -300 msec, and -500 msec prior to the R-wave were performed. Shaded surface display (SSD) and virtual bronchoscopy (VB) for visualization of the bronchial segments was performed with ECG-gated and non-ECG-gated MDCT data. The visualization of the bronchial tree underwent blinded scoring. Effective radiation dose and signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) for both techniques were compared. Results: There was no significant difference in visualizing single bronchial segments using ECG-gated compared to non-ECG-gated MDCT data. However, the total sum of scores for all bronchial segments visualized with non-ECG-gated MDCT was significantly higher compared to ECG-gated MDCT (P<0.05). The summary scores for visualization of bronchial segments for different diastolic reconstructions did not differ significantly. The effective radiation dose and the SNR were significantly higher with the ECG-gated acquisition technique (P<0.05). Conclusion: The bronchial tree is significantly better visualized when using non-ECG-gated MDCT compared to ECG-gated MDCT. Additionally, non-ECG-gated techniques require less radiation exposure. Thus, the current retrospective ECG-gating technique does not provide any additional benefit for 3D visualization of the bronchial tree and VB. (orig.) [German] Ziel: Untersuchung des Einflusses der retrospektiven EKG-Synchronisierung auf

  4. The Effect of Child Distress on Accommodation of Anxiety: Relations With Maternal Beliefs, Empathy, and Anxiety. (United States)

    Settipani, Cara A; Kendall, Philip C


    Little is known about the influence of child behaviors on accommodation of anxiety and how accommodation relates to other parent factors. The present study examined the comparative effect of high and low levels of child distress on mother-reported accommodation, mother factors in relation to accommodation, and moderators of the relation between accommodation and child distress. Maternal perceptions of accommodation were measured by vignettes depicting youth exhibiting high or low levels of distress in anxiety-provoking situations that elicited social anxiety, generalized anxiety, or separation anxiety in a sample of 7- to 17-year-old youth with anxiety disorders (N = 70, M = 11.66, 47.1% male). Findings indicated an effect of child distress on mother-reported accommodation of youth anxiety, such that mothers reported more overall accommodation under conditions of high child distress; situation-level analyses revealed this effect for social and generalized anxiety situations. Furthermore, an association was found between greater mother-reported accommodation and more negative beliefs about their child's experience of anxiety, which held across situations. Maternal empathy moderated the relation between overall accommodation and child distress. Maternal anxiety also moderated the relation between accommodation and child distress, with results varying based on situation type. Findings, consistent with theory, indicate a relation between child distress and mother-reported accommodation and suggest that maternal beliefs about anxiety are an important treatment target. High maternal empathy may be related to a greater degree of adaptability in response to child behaviors, whereas maternal anxiety may be linked with less adaptive responses to child behaviors.

  5. Maximising the local development potential of Nature Tourism accommodation establishments in South Africa


    Jayne M. Rogerson


    Abstract: Within extant scholarship on tourism and local development one knowledge gap concerns the role of the accommodation sector as a base for tourism-led local development in rural areas and small towns. The focus is upon nature tourism accommodation establishments which cluster mainly in geographically marginal areas in South Africa where poverty levels are high and the imperative exists for new drivers of economic and social development. A national audit of nature tourism accommodation...

  6. Improved visualization of tubes and lines in portable intensive care unit radiographs: a study comparing a new approach to the standard approach. (United States)

    Foos, David H; Yankelevitz, David F; Wang, Xiaohui; Berlin, David; Zappetti, Dana; Cham, Matthew; Sanders, Abraham; Parker, Katherine Novak; Henschke, Claudia I


    Tube and line interpretation in portable chest radiographs was assessed using a new visualization method. When using the new method, radiologists' interpretation time was reduced by 30% vs. standard modality processing and window and level (23 vs. 33 s). For pulmonary ICU physicians, reading time was essentially unchanged. There was more than a 50% reduction in the use of inferential language in the dictation for both reader groups when using the new method, suggesting greater interpretation confidence.

  7. 西藏地区影响老年性白内障术后视力改善因素分析%Study of impact factors on visual acuity improvement for senile cataract surgery in Tibet

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    才瑜; 潘英姿; 聂红平; 杨松霖


    Objective To analyze impact factors for visual acuity improvement of senile cataract surgery in Tibet prospectively. Methods Of 278 cases were included. To study relations of visual acuity improvement between pre- and post-cataract surgery with patient age, nucleus classification, small incision cataract surgery (SICS) or Phacoemulsification (PHACO) and corneal edema. LogMAR chart was used in visual acuity analysis. Results 1. Univariate analysis: There was no significant difference between PHACO group and SICS group on visual acuity improvement (PHACO 0.92± 0.48, SICS 0.83± 0.46, P >0.05). Age group for 70- and 80- years-old had less improvement on visual acuity (P <0.05). Diffuse corneal edema had much more influence than central corneal edema on visual acuity improvement (0.52± 0.42, 0.70± 0.44, diffuse vs central, respectively). 2. Multivariate analysis: There were significant differences in age and location of corneal edema on visual acuity improvement (P <0.05). Conclusions There is no significant difference on visual acuity improvement between PHACO and SICS. Ophthalmologist can choose either PHACO or SICS for better rehabilitation of visual acuity, depending on area economics, his own experience and so on in Tibet. Visual acuity improvement in cataract surgery is significantly affected by the age of the patients. Since medication is deficient in Tebit, screening of cataract in Tibet is very important for detecting and treating cataract as early as possible. Diffuse corneal edema has much more influence than central edema on visual acuity improvement when corneal edema degrees are not different. It's important to avoid corneal endothelium damage in cataract surgery.%目的 分析影响西藏地区老年性白内障术后视力改善的因素.方法 对西藏地区接受白内障手术的老年性白内障278例,分析年龄、核分级、术式(超声乳化术和小切口白内障囊外摘除术)、人工晶状体度数、角膜水肿部位等对

  8. The novel chamber hardware design to improve the thin film deposition quality in both 12″ (300 mm and 18″ (450 mm wafers with the development of 3D full chamber modeling and experimental visual technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.-H. Liao


    Full Text Available The thin film deposition property and the process difference during the wafer size migration from 12″ (300 mm to 18″ (450 mm in the Chemical Vapor Deposition (CVD equipment is improved and reduced, respectively, when the chamber hardware is designed with the help of 3D full chamber modeling and 3D experimental visual technique developed in this work. The accuracy of 3D chamber simulation model is demonstrated with the experimental visual technique measurement. With the CVD chamber hardware design of placing the inlet position and optimizing the distance between the susceptor edge and the reactor wall, the better thin film deposition property and the larger process compatibility during the wafer size migration from 12″ (300 mm to 18″ (450 mm for the industry cost reduction can be achieved. Non-dimensional Nusselt parameter is also found to be the effective indicator to monitor the thin film deposition property.

  9. Visual Education

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buhl, Mie; Flensborg, Ingelise


    The intrinsic breadth of various types of images creates new possibilities and challenges for visual education. The digital media have moved the boundaries between images and other kinds of modalities (e.g. writing, speech and sound) and have augmented the possibilities for integrating the functi......The intrinsic breadth of various types of images creates new possibilities and challenges for visual education. The digital media have moved the boundaries between images and other kinds of modalities (e.g. writing, speech and sound) and have augmented the possibilities for integrating...... the functions of the images and visuality in new forms of knowledge-building beyond traditional boundaries of school subjects. New learning cultures emerge and place the visual skills of decoding and meaning-making in the centre of future competences for citizens in a globalised world.   This paper discusses...... the learning potential of images and visuality from two perspectives: 1) The perspective of digital media which are assumed to form an increasing part of experience and communication from the use of internet, tv and mobile devices. 2) The perspective of culture where images and visualisations are assumed...

  10. Contributions of Letter-Speech Sound Learning and Visual Print Tuning to Reading Improvement: Evidence from Brain Potential and Dyslexia Training Studies (United States)

    Fraga González, Gorka; Žarić, Gojko; Tijms, Jurgen; Bonte, Milene; van der Molen, Maurits W.


    We use a neurocognitive perspective to discuss the contribution of learning letter-speech sound (L-SS) associations and visual specialization in the initial phases of reading in dyslexic children. We review findings from associative learning studies on related cognitive skills important for establishing and consolidating L-SS associations. Then we review brain potential studies, including our own, that yielded two markers associated with reading fluency. Here we show that the marker related to visual specialization (N170) predicts word and pseudoword reading fluency in children who received additional practice in the processing of morphological word structure. Conversely, L-SS integration (indexed by mismatch negativity (MMN)) may only remain important when direct orthography to semantic conversion is not possible, such as in pseudoword reading. In addition, the correlation between these two markers supports the notion that multisensory integration facilitates visual specialization. Finally, we review the role of implicit learning and executive functions in audiovisual learning in dyslexia. Implications for remedial research are discussed and suggestions for future studies are presented. PMID:28106790

  11. Contributions of Letter-Speech Sound Learning and Visual Print Tuning to Reading Improvement: Evidence from Brain Potential and Dyslexia Training Studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gorka Fraga González


    Full Text Available We use a neurocognitive perspective to discuss the contribution of learning letter-speech sound (L-SS associations and visual specialization in the initial phases of reading in dyslexic children. We review findings from associative learning studies on related cognitive skills important for establishing and consolidating L-SS associations. Then we review brain potential studies, including our own, that yielded two markers associated with reading fluency. Here we show that the marker related to visual specialization (N170 predicts word and pseudoword reading fluency in children who received additional practice in the processing of morphological word structure. Conversely, L-SS integration (indexed by mismatch negativity (MMN may only remain important when direct orthography to semantic conversion is not possible, such as in pseudoword reading. In addition, the correlation between these two markers supports the notion that multisensory integration facilitates visual specialization. Finally, we review the role of implicit learning and executive functions in audiovisual learning in dyslexia. Implications for remedial research are discussed and suggestions for future studies are presented.

  12. Visual neuroscience research in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    Historically,vision research in China was one of a few distinct research programs within the Chinese Academy of Sciences(CAS).With improved funding opportunities and research environment in neuroscience,vision research at several research institutes within the academy has made significant progress not only in the quantity of publications,but also in the quality of the work.Based on our own expertise,this review is mainly focused on the findings that have advanced the understanding of visual processing in the central visual pathway,visual perceptual learning,visual development and eye diseases.

  13. Information efficiency in visual communication (United States)

    Alter-Gartenberg, Rachel; Rahman, Zia-Ur


    This paper evaluates the quantization process in the context of the end-to-end performance of the visual-communication channel. Results show that the trade-off between data transmission and visual quality revolves around the information in the acquired signal, not around its energy. Improved information efficiency is gained by frequency dependent quantization that maintains the information capacity of the channel and reduces the entropy of the encoded signal. Restorations with energy bit-allocation lose both in sharpness and clarity relative to restorations with information bit-allocation. Thus, quantization with information bit-allocation is preferred for high information efficiency and visual quality in optimized visual communication.

  14. Aurally and visually guided visual search in a virtual environment. (United States)

    Flanagan, P; McAnally, K I; Martin, R L; Meehan, J W; Oldfield, S R


    We investigated the time participants took to perform a visual search task for targets outside the visual field of view using a helmet-mounted display. We also measured the effectiveness of visual and auditory cues to target location. The auditory stimuli used to cue location were noise bursts previously recorded from the ear canals of the participants and were either presented briefly at the beginning of a trial or continually updated to compensate for head movements. The visual cue was a dynamic arrow that indicated the direction and angular distance from the instantaneous head position to the target. Both visual and auditory spatial cues reduced search time dramatically, compared with unaided search. The updating audio cue was more effective than the transient audio cue and was as effective as the visual cue in reducing search time. These data show that both spatial auditory and visual cues can markedly improve visual search performance. Potential applications for this research include highly visual environments, such as aviation, where there is risk of overloading the visual modality with information.

  15. Charles F. Prentice award lecture 2008: surgical correction of presbyopia with intraocular lenses designed to accommodate. (United States)

    Schor, Clifton M


    Surgical restoration of accommodation with accommodating intra-ocular lenses (A-IOLs) presents a complex set of problems involving the design of the prosthetic mechanism. A variety of designs are currently employed that either translate the A-IOL toward the cornea along the sagittal axis, shear two lens components laterally, or deform lens shape to change dioptric power of the eye during attempts to accommodate. Effective biomechanical properties (elasticity and viscosity) of these lenses depend on both material properties and structural design of the A-IOL. Inevitable mismatches between the neuromuscular control of accommodation and the effective biomechanical properties of the prosthetic lens could lead to either unstable oscillations or sluggishness of dynamic accommodation; however, optimal dynamic responses may possibly be restored by neural recalibration. A model of dynamic accommodation is used to predict the consequences of these mismatches on dynamic accommodation, and reverse engineering is used to test the feasibility of neuromuscular recalibration. Empirical measures verify that neuromuscular adaptation of dynamic accommodation is possible in response to optically simulated increases and decreases of ocular-lens stiffness. Other design issues for A-IOLs include stability of optical properties, aberrations and image quality, and interactions of restored accommodation with binocular eye alignment (the near response).

  16. A framework for providing telecommuting as a reasonable accommodation: some considerations on a comparative case study. (United States)

    Kaplan, Shelley; Weiss, Sally; Moon, Nathan W; Baker, Paul


    Telecommuting, whether full time, part time, or over short periods when the need arises, can be an important accommodation for employees with disabilities. Indeed, telecommuting may be the only form of accommodation that offers employees whose disabilities fluctuate a means to stay consistently and gainfully employed. This article describes one employer's experience in considering a request for telecommuting as a reasonable accommodation for a particular employee. Drawing on real-life examples, both positive and negative, this article provides a win/win framework for decision-making that can help employers evaluate the use of telecommuting as a possible accommodation and facilitates open and ongoing communication between employer and employee.

  17. An Intelligent Hierarchical Approach to Actuator Fault Diagnosis and Accommodation Project (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This proposal presents a novel intelligent hierarchical approach to detection, isolation, and accommodation of primary aerodynamic actuator failures. The proposed...

  18. Phenomenology and clinical correlates of family accommodation in pediatric anxiety disorders. (United States)

    Storch, Eric A; Salloum, Alison; Johnco, Carly; Dane, Brittney F; Crawford, Erika A; King, Morgan A; McBride, Nicole M; Lewin, Adam B


    Despite evidence documenting high prevalence of family accommodation in pediatric obsessive-compulsive disorder, examination in other pediatric anxiety disorders is limited. Preliminary evidence suggests that family accommodation is common amongst children with anxiety disorders; however, the impact on clinical presentation and functional impairment has not been addressed. This study assessed the nature and clinical correlates of family accommodation in pediatric anxiety, as well as validating a mechanistic model. Participants included 112 anxious youth and their parents who were administered a diagnostic clinical interview and measure of anxiety severity, as well as questionnaires assessing internalizing and externalizing symptoms, family accommodation and functional impairment. Some form of accommodation was present in all families. Family accommodation was associated with increased anxiety severity and externalizing behaviors, having a diagnosis of separation anxiety, and increased functional impairment. Family accommodation partially mediated the relationship between anxiety severity and functional impairment, as well as externalizing behaviors and functional impairment. Family accommodation is common in pediatric anxiety disorders, and is associated with more severe clinical presentations and functional impairment. These findings highlight the importance of parental involvement in treatment and the need to specifically target accommodation practices during interventions to mitigate negative outcomes in anxious youth. Further studies utilizing longitudinal data are needed to validate mechanistic models.

  19. The online potential for the development of eco-certified accommodation units in Romania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Codruţa Adina BĂLTESCU


    Full Text Available The Internet and electronic communication have generated significant changes in the marketing strategies of accommodation units. On the other hand, sustainable development is a goal which requires concrete actions and changed mentalities. In Romania operates a number of eco-certified accommodation units. The online tools allow them to communicate the advantages and benefits of the sustainable services, and also to obtain a quick feedback from the consumers. This paper highlights the extent to which eco-certified accommodation units in our country offer relevant information to potential consumers and analyzes the online reviews regarding the eco-certified accommodation services

  20. Big brake singularity is accommodated as an exotic quintessence field

    CERN Document Server

    Chimento, Luis P


    We describe a big brake singularity in terms of a modified Chaplygin gas equation of state $p=(\\ga_{m}-1)\\rho+\\al\\ga_{m}\\rho^{-n}$, accommodate this late-time event as an exotic quintessence model obtained from an energy-momentum tensor, and focus on the cosmological behaviour of the exotic field, its kinetic energy and the potential energy. At background level, the exotic field does not blow-up whereas its kinetic energy and potential both grow without limit near the future singularity. We evaluate the classical stability of this background solution by examining the scalar perturbations of the metric along with the inclusion of entropy perturbation in the perturbed pressure. Within the Newtonian gauge, the gravitational field approaches to a constant near the singularity plus additional regular terms. When the perturbed exotic field is associated with $\\al>0$, the perturbed pressure and contrast density both diverge whereas the perturbed exotic field and the divergence of exotic field's velocity go to zero e...

  1. Accommodating Thickness in Origami-Based Deployable Arrays (United States)

    Zirbel, Shannon A.; Magleby, Spencer P.; Howell, Larry L.; Lang, Robert J.; Thomson, Mark W.; Sigel, Deborah A.; Walkemeyer, Phillip E.; Trease, Brian P.


    The purpose of this work is to create deployment systems with a large ratio of stowed-to-deployed diameter. Deployment from a compact form to a final flat state can be achieved through origami-inspired folding of panels. There are many models capable of this motion when folded in a material with negligible thickness; however, when the application requires the folding of thick, rigid panels, attention must be paid to the effect of material thickness not only on the final folded state, but also during the folding motion (i.e., the panels must not be required to flex to attain the final folded form). The objective is to develop new methods for deployment from a compact folded form to a large circular array (or other final form). This paper describes a mathematical model for modifying the pattern to accommodate material thickness in the context of the design, modeling, and testing of a deployable system inspired by an origami six-sided flasher model. The model is demonstrated in hardware as a 1/20th scale prototype of a deployable solar array for space applications. The resulting prototype has a ratio of stowed-to-deployed diameter of 9.2 (or 1.25 m deployed outer diameter to 0.136 m stowed outer diameter).

  2. Failure Accommodation Tested in Magnetic Suspension Systems for Rotating Machinery (United States)

    Provenza, Andy J.


    The NASA Glenn Research Center at Lewis Field and Texas A&M University are developing techniques for accommodating certain types of failures in magnetic suspension systems used in rotating machinery. In recent years, magnetic bearings have become a viable alternative to rolling element bearings for many applications. For example, industrial machinery such as machine tool spindles and turbomolecular pumps can today be bought off the shelf with magnetically supported rotating components. Nova Gas Transmission Ltd. has large gas compressors in Canada that have been running flawlessly for years on magnetic bearings. To help mature this technology and quiet concerns over the reliability of magnetic bearings, NASA researchers have been investigating ways of making the bearing system tolerant to faults. Since the potential benefits from an oil-free, actively controlled bearing system are so attractive, research that is focused on assuring system reliability and safety is justifiable. With support from the Fast Quiet Engine program, Glenn's Structural Mechanics and Dynamics Branch is working to demonstrate fault-tolerant magnetic suspension systems targeted for aerospace engine applications. The Flywheel Energy Storage Program is also helping to fund this research.

  3. Visualizing Transformation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Pia


    Transformation, defined as the step of extracting, arranging and simplifying data into visual form (M. Neurath, 1974), was developed in connection with ISOTYPE (International System Of TYpographic Picture Education) and might well be the most important legacy of Isotype to the field of graphic...... design. Recently transformation has attracted renewed interest because of the book ‘The Transformer’ written by Robin Kinross and Marie Neurath. My on-going research project, summarized in this paper, identifies and depicts the essential principles of data visualization underlying the process...... of transformation with reference to Marie Neurath’s sketches on the Bilston Project. The material has been collected at the Otto and Marie Neurath Collection housed at the University of Reading, UK. By using data visualization as a research method to look directly into the process of transformation the project...

  4. Visual cognition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pinker, S.


    This collection of research papers on visual cognition first appeared as a special issue of Cognition: International Journal of Cognitive Science. The study of visual cognition has seen enormous progress in the past decade, bringing important advances in our understanding of shape perception, visual imagery, and mental maps. Many of these discoveries are the result of converging investigations in different areas, such as cognitive and perceptual psychology, artificial intelligence, and neuropsychology. This volume is intended to highlight a sample of work at the cutting edge of this research area for the benefit of students and researchers in a variety of disciplines. The tutorial introduction that begins the volume is designed to help the nonspecialist reader bridge the gap between the contemporary research reported here and earlier textbook introductions or literature reviews.

  5. Visual Discomfort and Depth-of-Field

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Louise O'Hare


    Full Text Available Visual discomfort has been reported for certain visual stimuli and under particular viewing conditions, such as stereoscopic viewing. In stereoscopic viewing, visual discomfort can be caused by a conflict between accommodation and convergence cues that may specify different distances in depth. Earlier research has shown that depth-of-field, which is the distance range in depth in the scene that is perceived to be sharp, influences both the perception of egocentric distance to the focal plane, and the distance range in depth between objects in the scene. Because depth-of-field may also be in conflict with convergence and the accommodative state of the eyes, we raised the question of whether depth-of-field affects discomfort when viewing stereoscopic photographs. The first experiment assessed whether discomfort increases when depth-of-field is in conflict with coherent accommodation–convergence cues to distance in depth. The second experiment assessed whether depth-of-field influences discomfort from a pre-existing accommodation–convergence conflict. Results showed no effect of depth-of-field on visual discomfort. These results suggest therefore that depth-of-field can be used as a cue to depth without inducing discomfort in the viewer, even when cue conflicts are large.

  6. Development of an Accommodation-Dependent Eye Model and Studying the Effects of Accommodation on Electron and Proton Dose Conversion Coefficients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alireza Vejdani-Noghreiyan


    Full Text Available Introduction International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP has provided a comprehensive discussion on threshold dose for radiation-induced cataract in ICRP publication 116. Accordingly, various parts of the eye lens have different radio-sensitivities. Recently, some studies have been performed to develop a realistic eye model with the aim of providing accurate estimation of fluence-to-dose conversion coefficients for different parts of the eye. However, the effect of accommodation, which changes the lens shape and pupil size, on dose conversion coefficients has not been considered yet. In this study, we purport to develop an accommodation-dependent eye model and to study the effects of accommodation on the electron and proton fluence-to-dose conversion coefficients. Materials and Methods Herein, a modified eye model was developed by considering the effects of accommodation on the lens shape and pupil size. In addition, MCNPX 2.6 Monte Carlo transport code was used to calculate the effects of  eye lens accommodation on electron and proton fluence-to-dose conversion coefficients. Results Calculation of dose conversion coefficients demonstrated that the accommodation causes up to 40% discrepancy for fluence-to-dose conversion coefficients of electrons in the range of 600 to 800 keV, which is due to the change of eye lens shape during the accommodation of the eye. Conclusion Since the accommodation of the eye change the lens shape and pupil size, it has considerable effect on fluence-to-dose conversion coefficients of electrons at some ranges of incident particle energies that should be considered in simulation. However, the fluctuation of dose conversion coefficients of protons is negligible.

  7. Novel Scientific Visualization Interfaces for Interactive Information Visualization and Sharing (United States)

    Demir, I.; Krajewski, W. F.


    rainfall conditions are available in the IFIS. 2D and 3D interactive visualizations in the IFIS make the data more understandable to general public. Users are able to filter data sources for their communities and selected rivers. The data and information on IFIS is also accessible through web services and mobile applications. The IFIS is optimized for various browsers and screen sizes to provide access through multiple platforms including tablets and mobile devices. Multiple view modes in the IFIS accommodate different user types from general public to researchers and decision makers by providing different level of tools and details. River view mode allows users to visualize data from multiple IFC bridge sensors and USGS stream gauges to follow flooding condition along a river. The IFIS will help communities make better-informed decisions on the occurrence of floods, and will alert communities in advance to help minimize damage of floods.

  8. Visual Symptoms in Parkinson's Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. A. Armstrong


    Full Text Available Parkinson's disease (PD is a common disorder of middle-aged and elderly people in which degeneration of the extrapyramidal motor system causes significant movement problems. In some patients, however, there are additional disturbances in sensory systems including loss of the sense of smell and auditory and/or visual problems. This paper is a general overview of the visual problems likely to be encountered in PD. Changes in vision in PD may result from alterations in visual acuity, contrast sensitivity, colour discrimination, pupil reactivity, eye movements, motion perception, visual field sensitivity, and visual processing speeds. Slower visual processing speeds can also lead to a decline in visual perception especially for rapidly changing visual stimuli. In addition, there may be disturbances of visuospatial orientation, facial recognition problems, and chronic visual hallucinations. Some of the treatments used in PD may also have adverse ocular reactions. The pattern electroretinogram (PERG is useful in evaluating retinal dopamine mechanisms and in monitoring dopamine therapies in PD. If visual problems are present, they can have an important effect on the quality of life of the patient, which can be improved by accurate diagnosis and where possible, correction of such defects.

  9. An initial study of family accommodation in children and adolescents with chronic tic disorders. (United States)

    Storch, Eric A; Johnco, Carly; McGuire, Joseph F; Wu, Monica S; McBride, Nicole M; Lewin, Adam B; Murphy, Tanya K


    This initial study examined the nature, incidence, and clinical correlates of family accommodation in youth with tic disorders, and validated a brief self-report measure of tic-related family accommodation, the Tic Family Accommodation Scale (TFAS). Seventy-five youth aged 6-18 who were diagnosed with a tic disorder and their parent completed a diagnostic clinical interview, and clinician and parent-report measures of tic severity, depressive symptoms, anxiety symptoms, behavioral problems, family accommodation and impairment. An exploratory factor analysis of the TFAS showed a two-factor structure, with good internal consistency for the Total score, Modification of Child Environment and Modification of Parent Environment subscales (α = 0.88, 0.86, and 0.81, respectively). Family accommodation was not associated with tic severity. Family accommodation was associated with increased anxiety and depressive symptoms, higher externalizing, rule breaking, aggressive behaviors and social problems, and with greater tic-related functional impairment. Anxiety and externalizing problems (but not depressive symptoms) predicted family accommodation when controlling for tic severity. Family accommodation predicted high levels of functional impairment over and above the effect of tic severity, anxiety, depression and externalizing problems. Family accommodation is a common phenomenon for youth with tic disorders, with modifications typically encompassing changes to the child and/or parent environments. Accommodation was not associated with tic severity, but was related to higher levels of anxiety, depressive symptoms, externalizing symptoms, aggression, and rule breaking behaviors. Results suggest that other emotional symptoms are more likely to drive accommodation practices than the tic symptoms per se.

  10. Disturbance Accommodating Control Design for Wind Turbines Using Solvability Conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Na [National Renewable Energy Laboratory,15013 Denver West Parkway,Golden, CO 80401e-mail:; Wright, Alan D. [National Renewable Energy Laboratory,15013 Denver West Parkway,Golden, CO 80401e-mail:; Balas, Mark J. [ProfessorFellow ASMEAerospace Engineering Department,Embry-Riddle Aeronautical University,Daytona Beach, FL 32114e-mail:


    In this paper, solvability conditions for disturbance accommodating control (DAC) have been discussed and applied on wind turbine controller design in above-rated wind speed to regulate rotor speed and to mitigate turbine structural loads. DAC incorporates a predetermined waveform model and uses it as part of the state-space formulation, which is known as the internal model principle to reduce or minimize the wind disturbance effects on the outputs of the wind turbine. An asymptotically stabilizing DAC controller with disturbance impact on the wind turbine being totally canceled out can be found if certain conditions are fulfilled. Designing a rotor speed regulation controller without steady-state error is important for applying linear control methodology such as DAC on wind turbines. Therefore, solvability conditions of DAC without steady-state error are attractive and can be taken as examples when designing a multitask turbine controller. DAC controllers solved via Moore-Penrose Pseudoinverse and the Kronecker product are discussed, and solvability conditions of using them are given. Additionally, a new solvability condition based on inverting the feed-through D term is proposed for the sake of reducing computational burden in the Kronecker product. Applications of designing collective pitch and independent pitch controllers based on DAC are presented. Recommendations of designing a DAC-based wind turbine controller are given. A DAC controller motivated by the proposed solvability condition that utilizes the inverse of feed-through D term is developed to mitigate the blade flapwise once-per-revolution bending moment together with a standard proportional integral controller in the control loop to assist rotor speed regulation. Simulation studies verify the discussed solvability conditions of DAC and show the effectiveness of the proposed DAC control design methodology.

  11. Production-quality Tools for Adaptive Mesh RefinementVisualization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weber, Gunther H.; Childs, Hank; Bonnell, Kathleen; Meredith,Jeremy; Miller, Mark; Whitlock, Brad; Bethel, E. Wes


    Adaptive Mesh Refinement (AMR) is a highly effectivesimulation method for spanning a large range of spatiotemporal scales,such as astrophysical simulations that must accommodate ranges frominterstellar to sub-planetary. Most mainstream visualization tools stilllack support for AMR as a first class data type and AMR code teams usecustom built applications for AMR visualization. The Department ofEnergy's (DOE's) Science Discovery through Advanced Computing (SciDAC)Visualization and Analytics Center for Enabling Technologies (VACET) isextending and deploying VisIt, an open source visualization tool thataccommodates AMR as a first-class data type, for use asproduction-quality, parallel-capable AMR visual data analysisinfrastructure. This effort will help science teams that use AMR-basedsimulations and who develop their own AMR visual data analysis softwareto realize cost and labor savings.

  12. Object Domain and Modality in the Ventral Visual Pathway. (United States)

    Bi, Yanchao; Wang, Xiaoying; Caramazza, Alfonso


    The nature of domain-specific organization in higher-order visual cortex (ventral occipital temporal cortex, VOTC) has been investigated both in the case of visual experience deprivation and of modality of stimulation in sighted individuals. Object domain interacts in an intriguing and revelatory way with visual experience and modality of stimulation: selectivity for artifacts and scene domains is largely immune to visual deprivation and is multi-modal, whereas selectivity for animate items in lateral posterior fusiform gyrus is present only with visual stimulation. This domain-by-modality interaction is not readily accommodated by existing theories of VOTC representation. We conjecture that these effects reflect a distinction between the visual features that characterize different object domains and their interaction with different types of downstream computational systems.

  13. Integrating user centered design, universal design and goal, operation, method and selection rules to improve the usability of DAISY player for persons with visual impairments. (United States)

    Huang, Po-Hsin; Chiu, Ming-Chuan


    The Digital Accessible Information SYstem (DAISY) player is an assistive reading tool developed for use by persons with visual impairments. Certain problems have persisted in the operating procedure and interface of DAISY players, especially for their Chinese users. Therefore, the aim of this study was to redesign the DAISY player with increased usability features for use by native Chinese speakers. First, a User Centered Design (UCD) process was employed to analyze the development of the prototype. Next, operation procedures were reorganized according to GOMS (Goals, Operators, Methods, and Selection rules) methodology. Then the user interface was redesigned according to specific Universal Design (UD) principles. Following these revisions, an experiment involving four scenarios was conducted to compare the new prototype to other players, and it was tested by twelve visually impaired participants. Results indicate the prototype had the quickest operating times, the fewest number of operating errors, and the lowest mental workloads of all the compared players, significantly enhancing the prototype's usability. These findings have allowed us to generate suggestions for developing the next generation of DAISY players for people, especially for Chinese audience.

  14. Classroom Use of Test Accommodations: Issues of Access, Equity, and Conflation (United States)

    Schissel, Jamie L.


    Test accommodations are changes to test administration, responses, or the test itself that are offered to emergent bilingual students for standardized tests and also for classroom assessments in some states in the USA. Currently there is a lack of research examining the use of test accommodations as a pedagogical practice. This paper presents a…

  15. A Structural Equation Analysis of Family Accommodation in Pediatric Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder (United States)

    Caporino, Nicole E.; Morgan, Jessica; Beckstead, Jason; Phares, Vicky; Murphy, Tanya K.; Storch, Eric A.


    Family accommodation of symptoms is counter to the primary goals of cognitive-behavioral therapy for pediatric obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) and can pose an obstacle to positive treatment outcomes. Although increased attention has been given to family accommodation in pediatric OCD, relatively little is known about associated child and…

  16. 41 CFR 301-10.122 - What class of airline accommodations must I use? (United States)


    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What class of airline accommodations must I use? 301-10.122 Section 301-10.122 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal Travel... Common Carrier Transportation Airline Accommodations § 301-10.122 What class of airline...

  17. An Analysis of Accommodations Issues from the Standards and Assessments Peer Review. Technical Report 51 (United States)

    Thurlow, Martha; Christensen, Laurene; Lail, Kathryn E.


    To meet the assessment requirements of the No Child Left Behind Act (NCLB) and the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA), states must ensure the inclusion of students with disabilities, as well as provide for the appropriate use of assessment accommodations. Accommodations have been defined in a number of ways. In the Council of Chief…

  18. Recognizing and Accommodating Employees with PTSD: The Intersection of Human Resource Development, Rehabilitation, and Psychology (United States)

    Hughes, Claretha; Lusk, Stephanie L.; Strause, Stephanie


    All employees within the workplace must be treated fairly and equitably including those with disabilities who may require accommodations that serve to increase access to and maintenance of competitive employment. Human Resource Development (HRD) researchers and practitioners have experience in accommodating employees with disabilities but are now…

  19. Computer Testing as a Form of Accommodation for English Language Learners (United States)

    Abedi, Jamal


    This study compared performance of both English language learners (ELLs) and non-ELL students in Grades 4 and 8 under accommodated and nonaccommodated testing conditions. The accommodations used in this study included a computerized administration of a math test with a pop-up glossary, a customized English dictionary, extra testing time, and…

  20. Polymer refilling of presbyopic human lenses in vitro restores the ability to undergo accommodative changes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koopmans, SA; Terwee, B; Haitjema, HJ; Kooijman, AC; Barkhof, J


    PURPOSE. Because presbyopia is thought to be accompanied by increased lens sclerosis this study was conducted to investigate whether refilling the capsule of the presbyopic human lens with a soft polymer would restore the ability of the lens to undergo accommodative changes. METHODS. Accommodative f

  1. Being an Elbow: A Phenomenological Autoethnography of Faculty-Student Collaboration for Accommodations (United States)

    Aguirre, Regina T. P.; Duncan, Chad


    Hybrid and online courses and advances in assistive technologies make accommodating students with disabilities ever-changing, requiring innovation. This reality, coupled with students' reluctance to disclose disabilities, points toward a need for replacing accommodations directed at those with disabilities with universal design whereby they…

  2. Computer-Based Signing Accommodations: Comparing a Recorded Human with an Avatar (United States)

    Russell, Michael; Kavanaugh, Maureen; Masters, Jessica; Higgins, Jennifer; Hoffmann, Thomas


    Many students who are deaf or hard-of-hearing are eligible for a signing accommodation for state and other standardized tests. The signing accommodation, however, presents several challenges for testing programs that attempt to administer tests under standardized conditions. One potential solution for many of these challenges is the use of…

  3. Disentangling Mathematics Target and Access Skills: Implications for Accommodation Assignment Practices (United States)

    Ketterlin-Geller, Leanne R.; Jamgochian, Elisa M.; Nelson-Walker, Nancy J.; Geller, Joshua P.


    Appropriate assignment of accommodations is predicated on a clear distinction between target skills and access skills. In this study, we examine the agreement between test developer/researchers' and educators' classification of target and access skills as a possible explanatory mechanism for assigning accommodations. Findings indicate that…

  4. Explosive Field Visualization Based on Image Fusion

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Wen-yao; JIANG Ling-shuang


    m the composite sequence. Experimental results show that the new images integrate the advantages of sources, effectively improve the visualization, and disclose more information about explosive field.

  5. Which visual functions depend on intermediate visual regions? Insights from a case of developmental visual form agnosia. (United States)

    Gilaie-Dotan, Sharon


    A key question in visual neuroscience is the causal link between specific brain areas and perceptual functions; which regions are necessary for which visual functions? While the contribution of primary visual cortex and high-level visual regions to visual perception has been extensively investigated, the contribution of intermediate visual areas (e.g. V2/V3) to visual processes remains unclear. Here I review more than 20 visual functions (early, mid, and high-level) of LG, a developmental visual agnosic and prosopagnosic young adult, whose intermediate visual regions function in a significantly abnormal fashion as revealed through extensive fMRI and ERP investigations. While expectedly, some of LG's visual functions are significantly impaired, some of his visual functions are surprisingly normal (e.g. stereopsis, color, reading, biological motion). During the period of eight-year testing described here, LG trained on a perceptual learning paradigm that was successful in improving some but not all of his visual functions. Following LG's visual performance and taking into account additional findings in the field, I propose a framework for how different visual areas contribute to different visual functions, with an emphasis on intermediate visual regions. Thus, although rewiring and plasticity in the brain can occur during development to overcome and compensate for hindering developmental factors, LG's case seems to indicate that some visual functions are much less dependent on strict hierarchical flow than others, and can develop normally in spite of abnormal mid-level visual areas, thereby probably less dependent on intermediate visual regions.

  6. Electrical properties of Lupinus angustifolius L. stem. II. Accommodation and anode break excitation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tadeusz Zawadzki


    Full Text Available Under electrical stimulation of Lupinus stem phenomena of accommodation and anode break excitation appear. Their characteristic is the same as in the axon or nerve. Only their duration is about 103-104 longer in plants. The constant characterizing the rate of accommodation was calculated. A limiting threshold value was found beyond which excitation occurs, irrespective of the rate of stimulus rise (voltage gradient. The accommodation rate is approximately constant, whereas the range of accommodation varies and is dependent on the difference between the rheobase value and the limiting threshold value. Hence plants with a low rheobase are characterized by a wider range of accommodation. It is suggested that the changes in potential (including AP recorded on the stem surface are connected with changes of the potential on cell membranes (Sibaoka, 1962.

  7. Decreased Family Accommodation Associated with Improved Therapy Outcome in Pediatric Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder (United States)

    Merlo, Lisa J.; Lehmkuhl, Heather D.; Geffken, Gary R.; Storch, Eric A.


    Pediatric obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) is a chronic, disabling condition that affects both patients and their families. Despite the identification of efficacious treatments (e.g., cognitive-behavioral therapy and selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor medications), not all patients respond fully. The purpose of the present study was to…

  8. The Sustainable Office. An exploration of the potential for factor 20 environmental improvement of office accommodation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van den Dobbelsteen, A.A.J.F.


    Sustainable development is the goal of a balance between economy and the environment, whilst establishing a better spread prosperity across the world. In order to make this possible, the environmental load of our commodities needs to be reduced by a factor of 20. This factor 20 can also be translate

  9. Revising the Rorschach Ego Impairment Index to Accommodate Recent Recommendations about Improving Rorschach Validity (United States)

    Viglione, Donald J.; Perry, William; Giromini, Luciano; Meyer, Gregory J.


    We used multiple regression to calculate a new Ego Impairment Index (EII-3). The aim was to incorporate changes in the component variables and distribution of the number of responses as found in the new Rorschach Performance Assessment System, while sustaining the validity and reliability of previous EIIs. The EII-3 formula was derived from a…

  10. Improving the accuracy of demographic and molecular clock model comparison while accommodating phylogenetic uncertainty. (United States)

    Baele, Guy; Lemey, Philippe; Bedford, Trevor; Rambaut, Andrew; Suchard, Marc A; Alekseyenko, Alexander V


    Recent developments in marginal likelihood estimation for model selection in the field of Bayesian phylogenetics and molecular evolution have emphasized the poor performance of the harmonic mean estimator (HME). Although these studies have shown the merits of new approaches applied to standard normally distributed examples and small real-world data sets, not much is currently known concerning the performance and computational issues of these methods when fitting complex evolutionary and population genetic models to empirical real-world data sets. Further, these approaches have not yet seen widespread application in the field due to the lack of implementations of these computationally demanding techniques in commonly used phylogenetic packages. We here investigate the performance of some of these new marginal likelihood estimators, specifically, path sampling (PS) and stepping-stone (SS) sampling for comparing models of demographic change and relaxed molecular clocks, using synthetic data and real-world examples for which unexpected inferences were made using the HME. Given the drastically increased computational demands of PS and SS sampling, we also investigate a posterior simulation-based analogue of Akaike's information criterion (AIC) through Markov chain Monte Carlo (MCMC), a model comparison approach that shares with the HME the appealing feature of having a low computational overhead over the original MCMC analysis. We confirm that the HME systematically overestimates the marginal likelihood and fails to yield reliable model classification and show that the AICM performs better and may be a useful initial evaluation of model choice but that it is also, to a lesser degree, unreliable. We show that PS and SS sampling substantially outperform these estimators and adjust the conclusions made concerning previous analyses for the three real-world data sets that we reanalyzed. The methods used in this article are now available in BEAST, a powerful user-friendly software package to perform Bayesian evolutionary analyses.

  11. CT-Finder: A Web Service for CRISPR Optimal Target Prediction and Visualization. (United States)

    Zhu, Houxiang; Misel, Lauren; Graham, Mitchell; Robinson, Michael L; Liang, Chun


    The CRISPR system holds much promise for successful genome engineering, but therapeutic, industrial, and research applications will place high demand on improving the specificity and efficiency of this tool. CT-Finder ( is a web service to help users design guide RNAs (gRNAs) optimized for specificity. CT-Finder accommodates the original single-gRNA Cas9 system and two specificity-enhancing paired-gRNA systems: Cas9 D10A nickases (Cas9n) and dimeric RNA-guided FokI nucleases (RFNs). Optimal target candidates can be chosen based on the minimization of predicted off-target effects. Graphical visualization of on-target and off-target sites in the genome is provided for target validation. Major model organisms are covered by this web service.

  12. Comparison of Wechsler Memory Scale-Fourth Edition (WMS-IV) and Third Edition (WMS-III) dimensional structures: improved ability to evaluate auditory and visual constructs. (United States)

    Hoelzle, James B; Nelson, Nathaniel W; Smith, Clifford A


    Dimensional structures underlying the Wechsler Memory Scale-Fourth Edition (WMS-IV) and Wechsler Memory Scale-Third Edition (WMS-III) were compared to determine whether the revised measure has a more coherent and clinically relevant factor structure. Principal component analyses were conducted in normative samples reported in the respective technical manuals. Empirically supported procedures guided retention of dimensions. An invariant two-dimensional WMS-IV structure reflecting constructs of auditory learning/memory and visual attention/memory (C1 = .97; C2 = .96) is more theoretically coherent than the replicable, heterogeneous WMS-III dimension (C1 = .97). This research suggests that the WMS-IV may have greater utility in identifying lateralized memory dysfunction.

  13. Study on the effective method to improving the coding visual effect of fractal image%改善分形图像编码视觉效果的有效方法研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    针对当前分形图像编码面临如何改善重建图像视觉效果的问题,利用局部图像的特点,采取自适应的分块方法与缩短编码时间的多种块分类技术相结合设计图像编码算法,该算法明显改善了图像编码视觉效果,编码时间缩短上千倍,具有快速实现分形图像编码之功效.%To improve the reconstructed coding visual effect of fractal image, a new image coding algorithm is developed using adaptive block method integrated with classification techniques for multiple types of blocks which can reduce the coding time. Using proposed coding algorithm, the coding visual effect is improved a lot and the coding time is reduced by thousands of times. Finally,a rapid fractal image coding effect can be realized.

  14. Family Accommodation in Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder: A Study on Associated Variables

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teresa Cosentino


    Full Text Available The present study aimed to examine family accommodation in relatives of obsessive-compulsive disease (OCD patients. Accommodation was assessed in a sample of 31 relatives of OCD patients by means of the Family Accommodation Scale. Other variables measured as predictors of accommodation were the tendency of a family member to feel guilty, sensitivity to guilt, anxiety sensitivity and the prevalence of a passive communication style. Accommodation was found to be rather widespread in the family members who took part in our study, and they tended to show more accommodation the greater their sensitivity to guilt and the stable tendency to experience this emotion as well as anxiety sensitivity and a passive communication style. Multiple linear regression analyses showed that, among the variables considered, the family member’s sensitivity to guilt is the only factor which can predict accommodation with regard to the patient’s demands for involvement. On the other hand, the small number of family members in the sample and the lack of clinical data on patients (such as the severity, typology and duration of their obsessive-compulsive disorder pose limits to the generalizability of the results and point to the need for further research.

  15. Accommodation-induced variations in retinal thickness measured by spectral domain optical coherence tomography (United States)

    Fan, Shanhui; Sun, Yong; Dai, Cuixia; Zheng, Haihua; Ren, Qiushi; Jiao, Shuliang; Zhou, Chuanqing


    To research retinal stretching or distortion with accommodation, accommodation-induced changes in retinal thickness (RT) in the macular area were investigated in a population of young adults (n=23) by using a dual-channel spectral domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT) system manufactured in-house for this study. This dual-channel SD-OCT is capable of imaging the cornea and retina simultaneously with an imaging speed of 24 kHz A-line scan rate, which can provide the anatomical dimensions of the eye, including the RT and axial length. Thus, the modification of the RT with accommodation can be calculated. A significant decrease in the RT (13.50±1.25 μm) was observed during maximum accommodation. In the 4 mm×4 mm macular area centered at the fovea, we did not find a significant quadrant-dependent difference in retinal volume change, which indicates that neither retinal stretching nor distortion was quadrant-dependent during accommodation. We speculate that the changes in RT with maximum accommodation resulted from accommodation-induced ciliary muscle contractions.

  16. Quantifying interactions between accommodation and vergence in a binocularly normal population. (United States)

    Sweeney, Laura E; Seidel, Dirk; Day, Mhairi; Gray, Lyle S


    Stimulation of the accommodation system results in a response in the vergence system via accommodative vergence cross-link interactions, and stimulation of the vergence system results in an accommodation response via vergence accommodation cross-link interactions. Cross-link interactions are necessary in order to ensure simultaneous responses in the accommodation and vergence systems. The crosslink interactions are represented most comprehensively by the response AC/A (accommodative vergence) and CA/C (vergence accommodation) ratios, although the stimulus AC/A ratio is measured clinically, and the stimulus CA/C ratio is seldom measured in clinical practice. The present study aims to quantify both stimulus and response AC/A and CA/C ratios in a binocularly normal population, and determine the relationship between them. 25 Subjects (mean ± SD age 21.0 ± 1.9 years) were recruited from the university population. A significant linear relationship was found between the stimulus and response ratios, for both AC/A (r² = 0.96, p values, and lower than response ratios at high values (95% CI -0.46 to 0.42 D/MA). Agreement between stimulus and response CA/C ratios is poorer than that found for AC/A ratios due to increased variability in vergence responses when viewing the Gaussian blurred target. This study has shown that more work is needed to refine the methodology of CA/C ratio measurement.

  17. EcoBrowser: a web-based tool for visualizing transcriptome data of Escherichia coli

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jia Peng


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Escherichia coli has been extensively studied as a prokaryotic model organism whose whole genome was determined in 1997. However, it is difficult to identify all the gene products involved in diverse functions by using whole genome sequencesalone. The high-resolution transcriptome mapping using tiling arrays has proved effective to improve the annotation of transcript units and discover new transcripts of ncRNAs. While abundant tiling array data have been generated, the lack of appropriate visualization tools to accommodate and integrate multiple sources of data has emerged. Findings EcoBrowser is a web-based tool for visualizing genome annotations and transcriptome data of E. coli. Important tiling array data of E. coli from different experimental platforms are collected and processed for query. An AJAX based genome browser is embedded for visualization. Thus, genome annotations can be compared with transcript profiling and genome occupancy profiling from independent experiments, which will be helpful in discovering new transcripts including novel mRNAs and ncRNAs, generating a detailed description of the transcription unit architecture, further providing clues for investigation of prokaryotic transcriptional regulation that has proved to be far more complex than previously thought. Conclusions With the help of EcoBrowser, users can get a systemic view both from the vertical and parallel sides, as well as inspirations for the design of new experiments which will expand our understanding of the regulation mechanism.

  18. Hyperspectral Microwave Atmospheric Sounder (HyMAS) architecture and design accommodations (United States)

    Hilliard, L.; Racette, P.; Blackwell, W.; Galbraith, C.; Thompson, E.

    The Hyperspectral Microwave Atmospheric Sounder (HyMAS) is being developed at Lincoln Laboratories and accommodated by the Goddard Space Flight Center for a flight opportunity on a NASA research aircraft. The term “ hyperspectral microwave” is used to indicate an all-weather sounding that performs equivalent to hyperspectral infrared sounders in clear air with vertical resolution of approximately 1 km. Deploying the HyMAS equipped scanhead with the existing Conical Scanning Microwave Imaging Radiometer (CoSMIR) shortens the path to a flight demonstration. Hyperspectral microwave is achieved through the use of independent RF antennas that sample the volume of the Earth's atmosphere through various levels of frequencies, thereby producing a set of dense, spaced vertical weighting functions. The simulations proposed for HyMAS 118/183-GHz system should yield surface precipitation rate and water path retrievals for small hail, soft hail, or snow pellets, snow, rainwater, etc. with accuracies comparable to those of the Advanced Technology Microwave Sounder. Further improvements in retrieval methodology (for example, polarization exploitation) are expected. The CoSMIR instrument is a packaging concept re-used on HyMAS to ease the integration features of the scanhead. The HyMAS scanhead will include an ultra-compact Intermediate Frequency Processor (IFP) module that is mounted inside the door to improve thermal management. The IFP is fabricated with materials made of Low-Temperature Co-fired Ceramic (LTCC) technology integrated with detectors, amplifiers, A/D conversion and data aggregation. The IFP will put out 52 channels of 16 bit data comprised of 4 - 9 channel data streams for temperature profiles and 2-8 channel streams for water vapor. With the limited volume of the existing CoSMIR scanhead and new HyMAS front end components, the HyMAS team at Goddard began preliminary layout work inside the new drum. Importing and re-using models of the shell, the s- an head

  19. An Improved Scheme of QR Code Based on Visual Crypotography%基于可视密码的改进 QR 码方案

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张舒; 李凌


    QR码在二维码技术中最具代表性,目前广泛应用于电子票务领域。论文针对QR码无法保证用户个人信息的安全问题,利用可视密码技术,采用基于异或(XOR)运算的(2,2)可视密码方案,易于操作且提高了 QR 码的安全性与可靠性。%QR code is widely used in Electronic ticketing which belongs to one of the two‐dimensional code .In order to solve the security issues of protected information of QR Code ,visual cryptography technology is introduced .A (2 ,2) VCS with XOR algorithm what used in this paper is simple to decrypt and the safety and reliability of QR Code has been im‐proved .

  20. The impact of regulatory approaches targeting collaborative economy in the tourism accommodation sector:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dredge, Dianne; Gyimóthy, Szilvia; Birkbak, Andreas

    economy peer-to-peer accommodation sector has significant impacts for traditional tourism industry structures and relationships. The growth of the collaborative economy peer-to-peer accommodation market has led to a diversification of accommodation stock, it has led to increased competition, and it has...... stimulated a range of ancillary services offered by small and micro-entrepreneurs. However, incumbent industry actors (such as hotels, apartment hotels, bed and breakfasts, hostels and vacation rentals) are concerned about the uneven regulatory landscape and the unfair competition this may create. Municipal...

  1. Accommodating Conscientious Objection in Medicine-Private Ideological Convictions Must Not Trump Professional Obligations. (United States)

    Schuklenk, Udo


    The opinion of the American Medical Association (AMA) Council on Ethical and Judicial Affairs (CEJA) on the accommodation of conscientious objectors among medical doctors aims to balance fairly patients' rights of access to care and accommodating doctors' deeply held personal beliefs. Like similar documents, it fails. Patients will not find it persuasive, and neither should they. The lines drawn aim at a reasonable compromise between positions that are not amenable to compromise. They are also largely arbitrary. This article explains why that is the case. The view that conscientious objection accommodation has no place in modern medicine is defended.

  2. Visual Feedback for Rover-based Coring (United States)

    Backes, Paul; Helmick, Daniel; Bajracharya, Max


    Technology for coring from a low-mass rover has been developed to enable core sample acquisition where a planetary rover experiences moderate slip during the coring operation. A new stereo vision technique, Absolute Motion Visual Odometry, is used to measure rover slip during coring and the slip is accommodated through corresponding arm pose updating. Coring rate is controlled by feedback of themeasured force of the coring tool against the environment. Test results in the JPL Marsyard show for the first time that coring from a low-mass rover with slip is feasible.

  3. Visual loss after spine surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kapil Mohan


    Full Text Available Incidence of perioperative visual loss ranges from 0.06% to 0.2% with the most common cause as ischemic optic neuropathy. We report one-year follow up of a 50-years-old hypertensive housewife who underwent lumbar decompression and fusion for degenerative scoliosis, but woke up with painless unilateral visual loss. Fundus examination was normal. Her visual acuity improved from initial finger counting close to face to finger counting at 3 m at 1 year. Identification of high risk patients may help in appropriate preoperative counselling, prevention and early recognition of this devastating complication.

  4. Visual SLAM using straight lines


    Mees Martínez, Oier


    The present thesis is focuses on the problem of Simultaneous Localisation and Mapping (SLAM) using only visual data (VSLAM). This means to concurrently estimate the position of a moving camera and to create a consistent map of the environment. Since implementing a whole VSLAM system is out of the scope of a degree thesis, the main aim is to improve an existing visual SLAM system by complementing the commonly used point features with straight line primitives. This enables more accurate...

  5. Finding the best visualization of an ontology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fabritius, Christina Valentin; Madsen, Nadia Lyngaa; Clausen, Jens


    . One method uses a discrete location model to create an initial solution and we propose heuristic methods to further improve the visual result. We evaluate the visual results according to our success criteria and the feedback from users. Running times of the heuristic indicate that an improved version...

  6. Independent Blade Pitch Controller Design for a Three-Bladed Turbine Using Disturbance Accommodating Control

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Na; Wright, Alan D.; Johnson, Kathryn E.


    Two independent pitch controllers (IPCs) based on the disturbance accommodating control (DAC) algorithm are designed for the three-bladed Controls Advanced Research Turbine to regulate rotor speed and to mitigate blade root flapwise bending loads in above-rated wind speed. One of the DAC-based IPCs is designed based on a transformed symmetrical-asymmetrical (TSA) turbine model, with wind disturbances being modeled as a collective horizontal component and an asymmetrical linear shear component. Another DAC-based IPC is designed based on a multiblade coordinate (MBC) transformed turbine model, with a horizontal component and a vertical shear component being modeled as step waveform disturbance. Both of the DAC-based IPCs are found via a regulation equation solved by Kronecker product. Actuator dynamics are considered in the design processes to compensate for actuator phase delay. The simulation study shows the effectiveness of the proposed DAC-based IPCs compared to a proportional-integral (PI) collective pitch controller (CPC). Improvement on rotor speed regulation and once-per-revolution and twice-per-revolution load reductions has been observed in the proposed IPC designs.

  7. Independent Blade Pitch Controller Design for a Three-Bladed Turbine Using Disturbance Accommodating Control: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Na; Wright, Alan D.; Johnson, Kathryn E.


    Two independent pitch controllers (IPCs) based on the disturbance accommodating control (DAC) algorithm are designed for the three-bladed Controls Advanced Research Turbine to regulate rotor speed and to mitigate blade root flapwise bending loads in above-rated wind speed. One of the DAC-based IPCs is designed based on a transformed symmetrical-asymmetrical (TSA) turbine model, with wind disturbances being modeled as a collective horizontal component and an asymmetrical linear shear component. Another DAC-based IPC is designed based on a multiblade coordinate (MBC) transformed turbine model, with a horizontal component and a vertical shear component being modeled as step waveform disturbance. Both of the DAC-based IPCs are found via a regulation equation solved by Kronecker product. Actuator dynamics are considered in the design processes to compensate for actuator phase delay. The simulation study shows the effectiveness of the proposed DAC-based IPCs compared to a proportional-integral (PI) collective pitch controller (CPC). Improvement on rotor speed regulation and once-per-revolution and twice-per-revolution load reductions has been observed in the proposed IPC designs.

  8. Morphology and Accommodative Function of the Vitreous Zonule in Human and Monkey Eyes


    Lütjen-Drecoll, Elke; Kaufman, Paul L.; Wasielewski, Rainer; Ting-Li, Lin; Croft, Mary Ann


    The vitreous zonule may be a therapeutic target for presbyopia. The age-related changes in the vitreous zonular system and the correlation with loss of accommodative forward movement of the ciliary body are reported.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simona Cristina Martin


    Full Text Available The indicators of demand distribution for various types of accommodation provide information regarding changing tourist preferences for different ways of tourist accommodation. Appreciation of economic efficiency for hotels activity is done through quantitative results obtained in accommodation units. For this purpose it uses, currently, a partial or synthetic indicators system. Taking into account the fact that, in appreciation of hotel business, it must start from the premise that it may not be fully reflected only in terms of economic results, but also through social results, appear obvious the need to maintain costs at a level that satisfies both requirements at the same time. Achieving superior social-financial indicators, remains one of the main goals also in hotel activities, but do not be overlooked the fact that it is necessary that these indicators must be obtained by ensuring a higher level of satisfaction of consumers requirements. Only simultaneous achievement of these two objectives can provide raising efficiency in accommodation sector.

  10. Best Sensor Configuration and Accommodation Rule Based on Navigation Performance for INS with Seven Inertial Sensors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cheol-Kwan Yang


    Full Text Available This paper considers the best sensor configuration and fault accommodation problem for inertial navigation systems which use seven inertial sensors such as gyroscopes and accelerometers. We prove that when six inertial sensors are used, the isolation of a double fault cannot be achieved for some combinations of fault magnitudes, whereas when seven inertial sensors are used, the isolation of any double fault can be achieved. There are many configurations which provide the minimum position errors. This paper proposes four configurations which show the best navigation performance and compares their FDI performances. Considering the FDI performance and the complexity of the accommodation rule, we choose one sensor configuration and provide accommodation rules for double faults. A Monte Carlo simulation is performed to show that the accommodation rules work well.

  11. Accommodations quality for students who are d/Deaf or hard of hearing. (United States)

    Cawthon, Stephanie W; Leppo, Rachel


    Students who are d/Deaf or hard of hearing often receive accommodations that are intended to increase access to the educational environment. The authors provide the results of a large national study of accommodations use in secondary and postsecondary settings. The article focuses on three aspects of accommodations use: access, quality, and consistency. The participants were 1,350 professionals working with a diverse group of students who were d/Deaf or hard of hearing in a variety of roles, including educators, administrators, interpreters, vocational rehabilitation agency staff, and allied service providers. Data were collected from both a national survey and a series of focus groups conducted over a 1-year period. The authors discuss the results in light of the crucial nature of accommodations during the transition into a variety of educational, training, and employment options.

  12. 75 FR 36414 - Federal Travel Regulation (FTR); Directions for Reporting Other Than Coach-Class Accommodations... (United States)


    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office GENERAL SERVICES ADMINISTRATION Federal Travel Regulation (FTR); Directions for Reporting Other Than Coach-Class Accommodations for Employees on Official Travel AGENCY: Office of Governmentwide Policy, General...

  13. Adult Visual Experience Promotes Recovery of Primary Visual Cortex from Long-Term Monocular Deprivation (United States)

    Fischer, Quentin S.; Aleem, Salman; Zhou, Hongyi; Pham, Tony A.


    Prolonged visual deprivation from early childhood to maturity is believed to cause permanent visual impairment. However, there have been case reports of substantial improvement of binocular vision in human adults following lifelong visual impairment or deprivation. These observations, together with recent findings of adult ocular dominance…

  14. Leaf anatomical traits which accommodate the facultative engagement of crassulacean acid metabolism in tropical trees of the genus Clusia. (United States)

    Barrera Zambrano, V Andrea; Lawson, Tracy; Olmos, Enrique; Fernández-García, Nieves; Borland, Anne M


    Succulence and leaf thickness are important anatomical traits in CAM plants, resulting from the presence of large vacuoles to store organic acids accumulated overnight. A higher degree of succulence can result in a reduction in intercellular air space which constrains internal conductance to CO2. Thus, succulence presents a trade-off between the optimal anatomy for CAM and the internal structure ideal for direct C3 photosynthesis. This study examined how plasticity for the reversible engagement of CAM in the genus Clusia could be accommodated by leaf anatomical traits that could facilitate high nocturnal PEPC activity without compromising the direct day-time uptake of CO2 via Rubisco. Nine species of Clusia ranging from constitutive C3 through C3/CAM intermediates to constitutive CAM were compared in terms of leaf gas exchange, succulence, specific leaf area, and a range of leaf anatomical traits (% intercellular air space (IAS), length of mesophyll surface exposed to IAS per unit area, cell size, stomatal density/size). Relative abundances of PEPC and Rubisco proteins in different leaf tissues of a C3 and a CAM-performing species of Clusia were determined using immunogold labelling. The results indicate that the relatively well-aerated spongy mesophyll of Clusia helps to optimize direct C3-mediated CO2 fixation, whilst enlarged palisade cells accommodate the potential for C4 carboxylation and nocturnal storage of organic acids. The findings provide insight on the optimal leaf anatomy that could accommodate the bioengineering of inducible CAM into C3 crops as a means of improving water use efficiency without incurring detrimental consequences for direct C3-mediated photosynthesis.

  15. 基于人眼视觉特性的低比特率图像压缩编码%Improved iow bit-rate image coding scheme based on human visual system.

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王力; 王向阳


    为了提高编码速度和改进视觉效果,提出了一种改进的低比特率SPIHT算法.算法首先用提升小波对原始图像进行分解,再结合人眼视觉掩蔽特性,对不同区域内图像信息所对应的小波系数赋予不同视觉权值,以保证优先传输视觉上的最重要系数,最后根据系数重要性,对低频系数采用新的排列结构,并采用SPIHT编码思想完成图像压缩.实验结果表明,该算法压缩效果优于SPIHT图像压缩方案,特别在低比特率下.%A improved low bit-rate image coding scheme is presented. The lifting wavelet transform is applied to the original image,and the visual gains are achieved by exploiting Human Visual System(HVS) characteristics to weigh wavelet coefficients according to their perceptual importance. Lastly, the lower frequency exploits a new partitioning structure based on the importance of coefficients.The experimental results showthat the modified image compression scheme provides higher perceptual quality and higher PSNR than SPIHT,especially at low bit rates.

  16. Biased visualization of hypoperfused tissue by computed tomography due to short imaging duration: improved classification by image down-sampling and vascular models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mikkelsen, Irene Klaerke; Ribe, Lars Riisgaard; Bekke, Susanne Lise; Tietze, Anna; Oestergaard, Leif; Mouridsen, Kim [Aarhus University Hospital, Center of Functionally Integrative Neuroscience, Aarhus C (Denmark); Jones, P.S.; Alawneh, Josef [University of Cambridge, Department of Clinical Neurosciences, Cambridge (United Kingdom); Puig, Josep; Pedraza, Salva [Dr. Josep Trueta Girona University Hospitals, Department of Radiology, Girona Biomedical Research Institute, Girona (Spain); Gillard, Jonathan H. [University of Cambridge, Department of Radiology, Cambridge (United Kingdom); Warburton, Elisabeth A. [Cambrigde University Hospitals, Addenbrooke, Stroke Unit, Cambridge (United Kingdom); Baron, Jean-Claude [University of Cambridge, Department of Clinical Neurosciences, Cambridge (United Kingdom); Centre Hospitalier Sainte Anne, INSERM U894, Paris (France)


    Lesion detection in acute stroke by computed-tomography perfusion (CTP) can be affected by incomplete bolus coverage in veins and hypoperfused tissue, so-called bolus truncation (BT), and low contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR). We examined the BT-frequency and hypothesized that image down-sampling and a vascular model (VM) for perfusion calculation would improve normo- and hypoperfused tissue classification. CTP datasets from 40 acute stroke patients were retrospectively analysed for BT. In 16 patients with hypoperfused tissue but no BT, repeated 2-by-2 image down-sampling and uniform filtering was performed, comparing CNR to perfusion-MRI levels and tissue classification to that of unprocessed data. By simulating reduced scan duration, the minimum scan-duration at which estimated lesion volumes came within 10 % of their true volume was compared for VM and state-of-the-art algorithms. BT in veins and hypoperfused tissue was observed in 9/40 (22.5 %) and 17/40 patients (42.5 %), respectively. Down-sampling to 128 x 128 resolution yielded CNR comparable to MR data and improved tissue classification (p = 0.0069). VM reduced minimum scan duration, providing reliable maps of cerebral blood flow and mean transit time: 5 s (p = 0.03) and 7 s (p < 0.0001), respectively. BT is not uncommon in stroke CTP with 40-s scan duration. Applying image down-sampling and VM improve tissue classification. (orig.)

  17. Dynamic distance direct ophthalmoscopy, a novel technique to assess accommodation in children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mihir Kothari


    Full Text Available Aim: To describe and compare dynamic distance direct ophthalmoscopy (DDDO with dynamic retinoscopy (DR in assessment of accommodation in children. Materials and Methods: This prospective observational study had four components. Component 1: to understand the characteristic digital images of DDDO. Component 2: to compare DDDO with DR for detection of accommodative defects in children (1-16 years. Component 3: to compare DDDO with DR for the detection of completeness of pharmacologically induced cycloplegia in children (5-16 years and Component 4: to assess which one of the two techniques was more sensitive to detect onset of cycloplegia after instillation of 1% cyclopentolate eye drops. Results: Component 1: image analysis of DDDO on two subjects (7 years and 35 years demonstrated superior pupillary crescent that progressively disappeared with increasing accommodation. Concurrently an inferior crescent appeared that became bigger in size with increasing accommodation. Component 2: the prevalence of defects in accommodation was 3.3% (33/1000 children. Three had unilateral accommodation failure. Sensitivity of DDDO was 94%, specificity 100%, positive predictive value 100%, negative predictive value 99%, and clinical agreement (kappa 0.97. Component 3: in the detection of completeness of pharmacologically induced cycloplegia (n=30, the sensitivity of DDDO was 94%, specificity 96%, positive predictive value 97%, negative predictive value 93% and kappa 0.9. DR had two false positives. DDDO had one false negative. Component 4: DDDO detected onset of pharmacologically induced cycloplegia 5 min earlier than DR (n=5. Conclusion: DDDO is a novel, simple, clinical and reliable method to assess accommodation in young children. This test can assess the accommodative response of both eyes simultaneously.

  18. Decoupled crust-mantle accommodation of Africa-Eurasia convergence in the NW Moroccan margin


    Jiménez-Munt, Ivone; Fernandez, Manel; Vergés, Jaume; García-Castellanos, Daniel; Fullea, J.; M. Pérez-Gussinyé; Afonso, Juan Carlos


    The extent of the area accommodating convergence between the African and Iberian plates, how this convergence is partitioned between crust and mantle, and the role of the plate boundary in accommodating deformation are not well-understood subjects. We calculate the structure of the lithosphere derived from its density distribution along a profile running from the Tagus Abyssal Plain to the Sahara Platform and crossing the Gorringe Bank, the NW Moroccan margin, and the Atlas Mountains. The mod...

  19. A Model of Supervisor Decision-Making in the Accommodation of Workers with Low Back Pain. (United States)

    Williams-Whitt, Kelly; Kristman, Vicki; Shaw, William S; Soklaridis, Sophie; Reguly, Paula


    Purpose To explore supervisors' perspectives and decision-making processes in the accommodation of back injured workers. Methods Twenty-three semi-structured, in-depth interviews were conducted with supervisors from eleven Canadian organizations about their role in providing job accommodations. Supervisors were identified through an on-line survey and interviews were recorded, transcribed and entered into NVivo software. The initial analyses identified common units of meaning, which were used to develop a coding guide. Interviews were coded, and a model of supervisor decision-making was developed based on the themes, categories and connecting ideas identified in the data. Results The decision-making model includes a process element that is described as iterative "trial and error" decision-making. Medical restrictions are compared to job demands, employee abilities and available alternatives. A feasible modification is identified through brainstorming and then implemented by the supervisor. Resources used for brainstorming include information, supervisor experience and autonomy, and organizational supports. The model also incorporates the experience of accommodation as a job demand that causes strain for the supervisor. Accommodation demands affect the supervisor's attitude, brainstorming and monitoring effort, and communication with returning employees. Resources and demands have a combined effect on accommodation decision complexity, which in turn affects the quality of the accommodation option selected. If the employee is unable to complete the tasks or is reinjured during the accommodation, the decision cycle repeats. More frequent iteration through the trial and error process reduces the likelihood of return to work success. Conclusion A series of propositions is developed to illustrate the relationships among categories in the model. The model and propositions show: (a) the iterative, problem solving nature of the RTW process; (b) decision resources necessary

  20. 41 CFR 301-10.123 - When may I use other than coach-class airline accommodations? (United States)


    ... than coach-class airline accommodations? 301-10.123 Section 301-10.123 Public Contracts and Property... 10-TRANSPORTATION EXPENSES Common Carrier Transportation Airline Accommodations § 301-10.123 When may I use other than coach-class airline accommodations? Government travelers are required to...

  1. 78 FR 18837 - Revised Medical Criteria for Evaluating Visual Disorders (United States)


    ... optic tracts, or the brain that may cause a loss of visual acuity or visual fields. A loss of visual... (counts fingers), HM (hand motion only), LP or LPO (light perception or light perception only), or NLP (no light perception) indicates that no optical correction will improve your visual acuity. If your...

  2. An increased flip angle in late phase Gd-EOB-DTPA MRI shows improved performance in bile duct visualization compared to T2w-MRCP

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stelter, Lars, E-mail: [Klinik für Radiologie, Charité – Universitätsmedizin Berlin, Campus Virchow-Klinikum, Augustenburger Platz 1, 13353 Berlin (Germany); Freyhardt, Patrick, E-mail: [Klinik für Radiologie, Charité – Universitätsmedizin Berlin, Campus Virchow-Klinikum, Augustenburger Platz 1, 13353 Berlin (Germany); Grieser, Christian, E-mail: [Klinik für Radiologie, Charité – Universitätsmedizin Berlin, Campus Virchow-Klinikum, Augustenburger Platz 1, 13353 Berlin (Germany); Walter, Thula, E-mail: [Klinik für Radiologie, Charité – Universitätsmedizin Berlin, Campus Virchow-Klinikum, Augustenburger Platz 1, 13353 Berlin (Germany); Geisel, Dominik, E-mail: [Klinik für Radiologie, Charité – Universitätsmedizin Berlin, Campus Virchow-Klinikum, Augustenburger Platz 1, 13353 Berlin (Germany); Baur, Alexander, E-mail: [Klinik für Radiologie, Charité – Universitätsmedizin Berlin, Campus Virchow-Klinikum, Augustenburger Platz 1, 13353 Berlin (Germany); and others


    Highlights: • EOB-MRC acquired with a flip angle of 35° revealed a better diagnostic performance compared to T2w-MRCP. • EOB-MRC increased the readers’ confidence in identifying anatomic variations of the biliary tree. • As EOB-MRC comprises functional information it is a valuable adjunct to T2w-MRCP. - Abstract: Objectives: To estimate the additional value of an increased flip angle of 35° in late phase Gd-EOB-DTPA-enhanced magnetic resonance cholangiography, as compared to T2w-MRCP. Methods: 40 adult patients underwent Gd-EOB-DTPA enhanced MRI of the liver including a T2-weighted 3D TSE MRCP (T2w-MRCP) as well as a late phase T1-weighted THRIVE sequences applying a flip angle of 35° (fa35). Two experienced observers evaluated the images regarding the delineation of the different biliary regions using a three-point grading system. A five-point scale was applied to determine the readers’ confidence in identifying anatomical variations of the biliary tree. ROI analysis was performed to compare the signal-to-noise (SNR) and contrast-to-noise (CNR) ratios. Results: The quality for visualizing the biliary tree differed between T2w-MRCP and fa35 (p = <0.001). Late phase EOB-MRC was rated as good for delineating the entire biliary system, whereas T2w-MRCP received an overall poor rating. Especially the depiction of the intrahepatic bile ducts was estimated as problematic in T2w-MRCP. T2w-MRCP and fa35 revealed a discordant assessment of anatomical variations in 12.5% of the cases, comprising a generally higher confidence level for fa35 (4.0 ± 1.1 vs. 2.2 ± 1.2, p = <0.001). SNR proofed to be significantly higher in fa35 (p = <0.001), whereas T2w-MRCP revealed a significantly higher CNR (<0.001). Conclusions: Gd-EOB-DTPA enhanced magnetic resonance cholangiography acquired with a flip angle of 35° revealed a better diagnostic performance compared to T2w-MRCP and might be a valuable adjunct in assessing functional bile duct abnormalities.

  3. Event visualization in ATLAS

    CERN Document Server

    Bianchi, Riccardo-Maria; The ATLAS collaboration


    At the beginning, HEP experiments made use of photographical images both to record and store experimental data and to illustrate their findings. Then the experiments evolved and needed to find ways to visualize their data. With the availability of computer graphics, software packages to display event data and the detector geometry started to be developed. Here, an overview of the usage of event display tools in HEP is presented. Then the case of the ATLAS experiment is considered in more detail and two widely used event display packages are presented, Atlantis and VP1, focusing on the software technologies they employ, as well as their strengths, differences and their usage in the experiment: from physics analysis to detector development, and from online monitoring to outreach and communication. Towards the end, the other ATLAS visualization tools will be briefly presented as well. Future development plans and improvements in the ATLAS event display packages will also be discussed.

  4. Water accommodation on ice and organic surfaces: insights from environmental molecular beam experiments. (United States)

    Kong, Xiangrui; Thomson, Erik S; Papagiannakopoulos, Panos; Johansson, Sofia M; Pettersson, Jan B C


    Water uptake on aerosol and cloud particles in the atmosphere modifies their chemistry and microphysics with important implications for climate on Earth. Here, we apply an environmental molecular beam (EMB) method to characterize water accommodation on ice and organic surfaces. The adsorption of surface-active compounds including short-chain alcohols, nitric acid, and acetic acid significantly affects accommodation of D2O on ice. n-Hexanol and n-butanol adlayers reduce water uptake by facilitating rapid desorption and function as inefficient barriers for accommodation as well as desorption of water, while the effect of adsorbed methanol is small. Water accommodation is close to unity on nitric-acid- and acetic-acid-covered ice, and accommodation is significantly more efficient than that on the bare ice surface. Water uptake is inefficient on solid alcohols and acetic acid but strongly enhanced on liquid phases including a quasi-liquid layer on solid n-butanol. The EMB method provides unique information on accommodation and rapid kinetics on volatile surfaces, and these studies suggest that adsorbed organic and acidic compounds need to be taken into account when describing water at environmental interfaces.

  5. KTE5型矿山救援可视化指挥装置的应用与改进%Improvement and Application of KTE5 Visual Command Equipment Used in Mine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    结合矿山救护队的工作特点,阐述了KTE5型矿山救援可视化指挥装置的工作原理,论述了设备的功能特点。通过设备在处理灾害事故中的应用分析,提出了完善与改进意见。%This article introduces the characteristics of mine rescue team,elaborated work principle of KTE5 visual command equipment used in mine, discusses the equipment features. Through the device disposed in the disaster accident in application analysis, put forward to perfect and improve an opinion.

  6. Comparison between carbachol iontophoresis and intravenous pilocarpine stimulated accommodation in anesthetized rhesus monkeys. (United States)

    Wendt, Mark; He, Lin; Glasser, Adrian


    Rhesus monkeys are an animal model for human accommodation and presbyopia and consistent and repeatable methods are needed to stimulate and measure accommodation in anesthetized rhesus monkeys. Accommodation has typically been pharmacologically stimulated with topical pilocarpine or carbachol iontophoresis. Intravenous (i.v.) pilocarpine has recently been shown to produce more natural, rapid and reproducible accommodative responses compared to topical pilocarpine. Here, i.v. pilocarpine was compared to carbachol iontophoresis stimulated accommodation. Experiments were performed under anaesthesia on five previously iridectomized monkeys aged 10-16 years. In three monkeys, accommodation was stimulated with carbachol iontophoresis in five successive experiments and refraction measured with a Hartinger coincidence refractometer. In separate experiments, accommodation was stimulated using a 5 mg/kg bolus of i.v. pilocarpine given over 30 s followed by a continuous infusion of 20 mg/kg/hr for 5.5 min in three successive experiments with the same monkeys as well as in single experiments with two additional monkeys. Refraction was measured continuously using photorefraction with baseline and accommodated refraction also measured with the Hartinger. In subsequent i.v. pilocarpine experiments with each monkey, accommodative changes in lens equatorial diameter were measured in real-time with video-image analysis. Maximum accommodation of three monkeys with carbachol iontophoresis (five repeats) was (mean ± SD; range) 14.0 ± 3.5; 9.9-20.3 D and with i.v. pilocarpine stimulation (three repeats) was 11.1 ± 1.1; 9.9-13.0 D. The average of the standard deviations of maximum accommodation from each monkey was 0.8 ± 0.3 D from carbachol iontophoresis and 0.3 ± 0.2 from i.v. pilocarpine. The average latency to the start of the response after carbachol iontophoresis was 2.5 ± 3.9; 0.0-12.0 min with a time constant of 12.7 ± 9.5; 2.3-29.2 min. The average

  7. Multifactor Determinants of Visual Accommodation as a Critical Intervening Variable in the Perception of Size and Distance: Phase I Report (United States)


    psychophysical investigation has addressed the specific mechanisms of and critical influences on the reliably integrated world we perceive. According to Arditi ...Preceding Page Blank Ames, A., Jr. (1925). The illusion of depth from single pictures. Journal of the Optical Society of America, 10, 137-148. Arditi

  8. The Bayley-III accommodated for motor and/or visual impairment : “Low motor/vision version”

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Visser, Linda; van der Meulen, Bieuwe; Ruiter, Selma; Timmerman, Marieke; Ruijssenaars, Wied; Visser, Linda; van der Meulen, B.F.


    The Bayley-III has worldwide attention from researchers. We consider three examples of current research, which focus in some way on over- or underestimation. Susan Milne will make a strong case for the use of developmental quotient scores instead of the usual standardized scores. Linda Visser will p

  9. Near Surface Gas Simulator (NSGS): A Visual Basic program to improve the design of near-surface gas geochemistry surveys above CO2 geological storage sites (United States)

    Beaubien, S. E.; Annunziatellis, A.; Ciotoli, G.; Lombardi, S.


    If CO2 were to leak from a geological storage site and be released to the atmosphere, where would it occur and how large would the leak be in terms of dimension and flow rate? There are many options available to monitor storage sites, including deep and shallow geophysical or geochemical methods, biological markers, or remote sensing techniques, each with its advantages and disadvantages. However only the direct measurement of CO2 at the earth's surface, that is soil gas or gas flux analyses, can give a definitive answer to these questions. Considering that these methods involve point measurements, the question has be raised regarding the sampling density that would be needed to locate a leak above a storage site, or, conversely, to ensure that a leak does not exist. To address this issue we have written a program in Visual Basic which uses highly-detailed, gridded synthetic data (with user-defined gas leakage areas) to study the link between sampling density and anomaly size and to find a sampling strategy which minimises the number of samples collected while maximizing the probability that an anomaly (i.e. a leak) will be found. At the beginning of a run the user is asked to define the location, size, and intensity of leakage areas; these areas are then superimposed on a grid (1 x 1 m step size) of normally-distributed background CO2 flux values. Then the user is asked to provide a series of sampling densities (for example, x = 10, 50, 100, 500, and 1000 samples km-2) and the number of simulations that must be conducted for each sampling density (e.g. y = 100). The program then uses a nested loop structure whereby the synthetic dataset is randomly subsampled at the sampling density "x" for a total of "y" times - each of these smaller datasets is then analysed statistically and spatially using subroutines from the programs Statistica and Surfer, and the resultant data from each simulation for that "x" sampling density is combined to define its statistical

  10. Precipitate-Accommodated Plasma Nitriding for Aluminum Alloys

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Patama Visittipitukul; Tatsuhiko Aizawa; Hideyuki Kuwahara


    Reliable surface treatment has been explored to improve the strength and wear resistance of aluminum alloy parts in automotives. Long duration time as well as long pre-sputtering time are required for plasma nitriding of aluminum or its alloys only with the thickness of a few micrometers. New plasma inner nitriding is proposed to realize the fast-rate nitriding of aluminum alloys. Al-6Cu alloy is employed as a targeting material in order to demonstrate the effectiveness of this plasma nitriding. Mechanism of fast-rate nitriding process is discussed with consideration of the role of Al2Cu precipitates.

  11. 调节和集合功能异常引起视疲劳临床分析%Clinical analysis of accommodation dysfunction and convergence dysfunction in asthenopia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱娉; 赵堪兴; 李丽华; 江洋琳; 王睿


    examinations to exclude eye disease.Based on the results of binocular vision examination and cycloplegic refraction,personalized vision therapy was performed for every patient.On the basis of the refractive,every patient performs office-based vision therapy 1-2 times a week with home reinforcement.It conducted a total of 14 times.All data were rechecked and statistically analyzed by Paired-samples t Test.Results There were 58 cases of convergence insufficiency (77.3%),5 cases of convergence excess (6.7%),12 cases of accommodative dysfunction (16%).All patients' symptoms were relieved after 14 times vision therapy.The score of questionnaire of convergence insufficiency decreased from (22.6±7.4) to (11.6±4.7),the difference was significant (t =23.1,P =0.000).The near point of convergence (NPC) decreased from (13.1±1.9)cm to (5.4±1.2)cm,it showed a significant improvement (t =33.7,P-0.000).The positive fusional vergence at near increased from (17.3±6.5) △ to (29.7±4.9)△,the change was significant (t =-20.9,P =0.000).The amplitude of accommodation of accommodative dysfunction increased from (8.7±1.1)D to (14.9±1.4)D,the improvement was significant (t =-22.2,P =0.000).The monocular accommodative facility increased from (4.7±3.7)cpm to (15.1±2.2)cpm,the binocular accommodative facility increased from (3.4±3.4)cpm to (14.8±2.2)cpm,the differences were statistically significant (t =-12.96,P =0.000; t =-11.98,P=0.000).Conclusions The convergence insufficiency is the most common etiology of the asthenopia,the accommodative dysfunction is the second one.The function of accommodation and vergence improve obviously after reasonable vision therapy.The symptoms of visual fatigue relieve remarkably.

  12. Ancestral variation and the potential for genetic accommodation in larval amphibians: implications for the evolution of novel feeding strategies. (United States)

    Ledon-Rettig, Cris C; Pfennig, David W; Nascone-Yoder, Nanette


    Few studies provide empirical evidence for phenotypic plasticity's role in the evolution of novel traits. One way to do so is to test whether latent plasticity is present in an ancestor that can be refined, enhanced, or diminished by selection in derived taxa (through "genetic accommodation"), thereby producing novel traits. Here, we evaluated whether gut plasticity preceded and promoted the evolution of a novel feeding strategy in spadefoot toad tadpoles. We studied Scaphiopus couchii, whose tadpoles develop an elongate gut and consume only detritus, and two derived species, Spea multiplicata and Sp. bombifrons, whose tadpoles also express a novel, short-gut phenotype in response to a novel resource (anostracan shrimp). Consistent with the expectations of plasticity-mediated trait evolution, we found that shrimp induced a range of phenotypes in Scaphiopus that were not produced with detritus. This plasticity was either suppressed or exaggerated in Spea depending on whether the induced phenotypes were adaptive. Moreover, in contrast to its effects on morphology, shrimp induced little or no functional plasticity, as assessed by gut cell proliferation, in Scaphiopus. Shrimp did, however, induce substantial proliferation in Sp. bombifrons, the species that consumes the most shrimp and that produces the short-gut phenotype the most frequently. Thus, if Spea had ancestral morphological plasticity in response to a novel diet, their shrimp-induced short-gut morphology may have undergone subsequent genetic accommodation that improved its functionality. Hence, diet-induced phenotypic plasticity may have preceded and even promoted the evolution of a novel phenotype.

  13. Fire Risk Assessment of Adaptive Re-Use of Historic Shop Houses for Sleeping Accommodations in Malaysia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mydin M.A.O.


    Full Text Available Heritage buildings were generally constructed without regard for fire risks or the requirements for fire protection, as are obligatory in new constructions. When a heritage building undergoes a change to its original function, improvements to the building’s fire safety are necessary to meet the needs of possible increases in occupancy loads and to account for fire risks related to the new usage. This research focuses on fire safety risks, fire protection and safety systems as well as the rules and regulations that an adaptive reuse heritage shop house is bound to when transitioning to a sleeping accommodation, which, in this case, means becoming a hotel. In this research, six heritage shop houses were chosen as case studies. The objectives of this research were to evaluate current fire emergency plans as well as to identify and assess possible fire hazards created by adaptive reuse of heritage shop houses to sleeping accommodations in Penang through a series of observations and interviews. The results of the research show that most of the buildings were provided with inadequate fire safety systems.

  14. Lightness Constancy in Surface Visualization. (United States)

    Szafir, Danielle Albers; Sarikaya, Alper; Gleicher, Michael


    Color is a common channel for displaying data in surface visualization, but is affected by the shadows and shading used to convey surface depth and shape. Understanding encoded data in the context of surface structure is critical for effective analysis in a variety of domains, such as in molecular biology. In the physical world, lightness constancy allows people to accurately perceive shadowed colors; however, its effectiveness in complex synthetic environments such as surface visualizations is not well understood. We report a series of crowdsourced and laboratory studies that confirm the existence of lightness constancy effects for molecular surface visualizations using ambient occlusion. We provide empirical evidence of how common visualization design decisions can impact viewers' abilities to accurately identify encoded surface colors. These findings suggest that lightness constancy aids in understanding color encodings in surface visualization and reveal a correlation between visualization techniques that improve color interpretation in shadow and those that enhance perceptions of surface depth. These results collectively suggest that understanding constancy in practice can inform effective visualization design.

  15. Why Teach Visual Culture? (United States)

    Passmore, Kaye


    Visual culture is a hot topic in art education right now as some teachers are dedicated to teaching it and others are adamant that it has no place in a traditional art class. Visual culture, the author asserts, can include just about anything that is visually represented. Although people often think of visual culture as contemporary visuals such…

  16. Modeling Visual Symptoms and Visual Skills to Measure Functional Binocular Vision (United States)

    Powers, M. K.; Fisher, W. P., Jr.; Massof, R. W.


    Obtaining a clear image of the world depends on good eye coordination (“binocular vision”). Yet no standard exists by which to determine a threshold for good vs poor binocular vision, as exists for the eye chart and visual acuity. We asked whether data on the signs and symptoms related to binocular vision are sufficiently consistent with children's self-reported visual symptoms to substantiate a construct model of Functional Binocular Vision (FBV), and then whether that model can be used to aggregate clinical and survey observations into a meaningful diagnostic measure. Data on visual symptoms from 1,100 children attending school in Los Angeles were obtained using the Convergence Insufficiency Symptom Survey (CISS); and for more than 300 students in that sample, 35 additional measures were taken, including acuity, cover test near and far, near point of convergence, near point of accommodation, accommodative facility, vergence ranges, tracking ability, and oral reading fluency. A preliminary analysis of data from the 15-item, 5-category CISS and 15 clinical variables from 103 grade school students who reported convergence problems (CISS scores of 16 or higher) suggests that the clinical and survey observations will be optimally combined in a multidimensional model.

  17. 基于快速视觉里程计和大回环局部优化模型的改进VSLAM算法%Improved VSLAM Algorithm Based on Fast Visual Odometry and Large Loop Local Optimization Model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李永锋; 张国良; 王蜂; 汤文俊; 姚二亮


    An improved visual simultaneous localization and mapping (VSLAM) algorithm based on fast visual odometry and large loop local optimization model is proposed in terms of the accuracy and real-time performance of autonomous localization in mobile robot VSLAM. First of all, the error function of color GICP (color supported generalized iterative closest point) is improved based on the uncertainty analysis on the feature points. Frame-to-model approach is utilized to achieve fast registration between data sets and model sets. And the model sets are updated through Kalman filtering and the weighting method. The accuracy of pose estimation is improved through the above steps. Secondly, a large local loop optimization model based on model-to-model registration is proposed and g2o is combined to optimize the accumulated error of the pose estimation quickly, which improves the accuracy and efficiency of autonomous localization further. The offline contrast experiments based on the datasets and the online experiments based on actual scenes show that, with the proposed algorithm, not only the accuracy of autonomous localization and map in mobile robot VSLAM are improved effectively, but also the real-time performance is guaranteed.%从提高移动机器人视觉同时定位与地图创建(visual simultaneous localization and mapping,VSLAM)过程中的自主定位精度和实时性的角度出发,提出了一种基于快速视觉里程计和大回环局部优化模型的改进VSLAM算法.首先,在对特征点进行不确定性分析的基础上,对color GICP(color supported generalized iterative closest point)误差函数进行改进,采用帧到模型(frame-to-model)方式实现对数据集和模型集的快速配准,并结合卡尔曼滤波和加权方法实现对模型集的更新,提高位姿估计精度;其次,提出一种基于模型到模型(model-to-model)配准的大回环局部优化模型,并结合g2o图优化方法对位姿估计累积误差进行快速局部优

  18. Home Stay Accommodation for Tourism Development in East Coast Economic Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Md. Anowar Hossain Bhuiyan


    Full Text Available Problem statement: Home stay program provided tourists multi ethnic life condition with cultural experiences and economic well beings for the local people. Malaysian home stay program differed from the other commercial home stay in the world. Home stay accommodation can create a scope to the local communities for active participation in tourism activities. Home stay accommodation might be a potential economic activity in the East Coast Economic Region (ECER. The study examined the potentialities of home stay accommodation for tourism development in ECER. The aim of the study was to analyze the overall situations of home stay accommodation in ECER from the perception of operators. Approach: The data of this study perceived from both the primary and secondary sources. A structured questionnaire had been used for data collection. In 2006, home stay accommodation was remaining 31 villages and in the year 2008 it spreads in 38 villages of ECER. Within this period, there were 482 and 648 home stay operators in this region. The necessary requirements for home stay operations are located; basic facilities; hygiene; safety and security. Results: There were some potentialities are remaining in ECER for establishing home stay in this region. These were low charging, hospitality, motivation for young generation, women entrepreneurship, profitable investment, easy access and satisfactory income. Some initiatives such as government support, capacity building, develop facilities, appropriate act, Community involvement, loan facilities and infrastructure development might be taken for the home stay accommodations in ECER. Conclusion: Research initiatives, various services for customer satisfaction, sustainable marketing and proper policy in management had been considered for home stay development in ECER. Home stay accommodations would be ensured the economic advancement in this region as well as sustainable regional development.

  19. Accommodations Use Patterns in High School and Postsecondary Settings for Students Who Are d/Deaf or Hard of Hearing. (United States)

    Cawthon, Stephanie W; Leppo, Rachel; Ge, Jin Jin; Bond, Mark


    Using data from the second National Longitudinal Transition Study (Newman et al., 2011), the authors investigated longitudinal patterns of educational accommodations use in secondary and, later, postsecondary settings by students who are d/Deaf or hard of hearing (SDHH). The study focused on language and communication (LC) accommodations used primarily by SDHH, plus non-LC accommodations typically used by a broad range of students. Both LC accommodations for standardized testing and instruction showed decreased use in postsecondary settings compared with high school. After student demographic characteristics were controlled for, no relationships were found between types of accommodations students used in high school and those they later used in postsecondary settings. Student accommodations use in postsecondary settings was not significantly predictive of retention or degree completion. However, several student- and parent-level demographic characteristics were predictive of accommodations use in postsecondary settings. Implications and future research directions are discussed.

  20. Visualization of seismic tomography on Google Earth: Improvement of KML generator and its web application to accept the data file in European standard format (United States)

    Yamagishi, Y.; Yanaka, H.; Tsuboi, S.


    We have developed a conversion tool for the data of seismic tomography into KML, called KML generator, and made it available on the web site ( The KML generator enables us to display vertical and horizontal cross sections of the model on Google Earth in three-dimensional manner, which would be useful to understand the Earth's interior. The previous generator accepts text files of grid-point data having longitude, latitude, and seismic velocity anomaly. Each data file contains the data for each depth. Metadata, such as bibliographic reference, grid-point interval, depth, are described in other information file. We did not allow users to upload their own tomographic model to the web application, because there is not standard format to represent tomographic model. Recently European seismology research project, NEIRES (Network of Research Infrastructures for European Seismology), advocates that the data of seismic tomography should be standardized. They propose a new format based on JSON (JavaScript Object Notation), which is one of the data-interchange formats, as a standard one for the tomography. This format consists of two parts, which are metadata and grid-point data values. The JSON format seems to be powerful to handle and to analyze the tomographic model, because the structure of the format is fully defined by JavaScript objects, thus the elements are directly accessible by a script. In addition, there exist JSON libraries for several programming languages. The International Federation of Digital Seismograph Network (FDSN) adapted this format as a FDSN standard format for seismic tomographic model. There might be a possibility that this format would not only be accepted by European seismologists but also be accepted as the world standard. Therefore we improve our KML generator for seismic tomography to accept the data file having also JSON format. We also improve the web application of the generator so that the