Sample records for accommodate multibody dynamics

  1. Modelling Hermetic Compressors Using Different Constraint Equations to Accommodate Multibody Dynamics and Hydrodynamic Lubrication

    Estupinan, Edgar Alberto; Santos, Ilmar


    In this work, the steps involved for the modelling of a reciprocating linear compressor are described in detail. The dynamics of the mechanical components are described with the help of multibody dynamics (rigid components) and finite elements method (flexible components). Some of the mechanical ...... forces among machine components, looking for the optimization and application of active lubrication towards vibration reduction....

  2. Conference on Multibody Dynamics

    Multibody Dynamics : Computational Methods and Applications


    By having its origin in analytical and continuum mechanics, as well as in computer science and applied mathematics, multibody dynamics provides a basis for analysis and virtual prototyping of innovative applications in many fields of contemporary engineering. With the utilization of computational models and algorithms that classically belonged to different fields of applied science, multibody dynamics delivers reliable simulation platforms for diverse highly-developed industrial products such as vehicle and railway systems, aeronautical and space vehicles, robotic manipulators, smart structures, biomechanical applications and nano-technologies. The chapters of this volume are based on the revised and extended versions of the selected scientific papers from amongst 255 original contributions that have been accepted to be presented within the program of the distinguished international ECCOMAS conference. It reflects state-of-the-art in the advances of multibody dynamics, providing excellent insight in the recen...

  3. Substructured multibody molecular dynamics.

    Grest, Gary Stephen; Stevens, Mark Jackson; Plimpton, Steven James; Woolf, Thomas B. (Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD); Lehoucq, Richard B.; Crozier, Paul Stewart; Ismail, Ahmed E.; Mukherjee, Rudranarayan M. (Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, Troy, NY); Draganescu, Andrei I.


    We have enhanced our parallel molecular dynamics (MD) simulation software LAMMPS (Large-scale Atomic/Molecular Massively Parallel Simulator, to include many new features for accelerated simulation including articulated rigid body dynamics via coupling to the Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute code POEMS (Parallelizable Open-source Efficient Multibody Software). We use new features of the LAMMPS software package to investigate rhodopsin photoisomerization, and water model surface tension and capillary waves at the vapor-liquid interface. Finally, we motivate the recipes of MD for practitioners and researchers in numerical analysis and computational mechanics.

  4. Multibody dynamics with unilateral contacts

    Pfeiffer, Friedrich


    As mechanical systems become more complex so do the mathematical models and simulations used to describe the interactions of their parts. One area of multibody theory that has received a great deal of attention in recent years is the dynamics of multiple contact situations occurring in continuous joints and couplings. Despite the rapid gains in our understanding of what occurs when continuous joints and couplings interact, until now there were no books devoted exclusively to this intriguing phenomenon. Focusing on the concerns of practicing engineers, Multibody Dynamics with Unilateral Contact

  5. Multibody system dynamics, robotics and control

    Gerstmayr, Johannes


    The volume contains 19 contributions by international experts in the field of multibody system dynamics, robotics and control. The book aims to bridge the gap between the modeling of mechanical systems by means of multibody dynamics formulations and robotics. In the classical approach, a multibody dynamics model contains a very high level of detail, however, the application of such models to robotics or control is usually limited. The papers aim to connect the different scientific communities in multibody dynamics, robotics and control. Main topics are flexible multibody systems, humanoid robots, elastic robots, nonlinear control, optimal path planning, and identification.

  6. Multibody dynamic simulation of knee contact mechanics.

    Bei, Yanhong; Fregly, Benjamin J


    Multibody dynamic musculoskeletal models capable of predicting muscle forces and joint contact pressures simultaneously would be valuable for studying clinical issues related to knee joint degeneration and restoration. Current three-dimensional multibody knee models are either quasi-static with deformable contact or dynamic with rigid contact. This study proposes a computationally efficient methodology for combining multibody dynamic simulation methods with a deformable contact knee model. The methodology requires preparation of the articular surface geometry, development of efficient methods to calculate distances between contact surfaces, implementation of an efficient contact solver that accounts for the unique characteristics of human joints, and specification of an application programming interface for integration with any multibody dynamic simulation environment. The current implementation accommodates natural or artificial tibiofemoral joint models, small or large strain contact models, and linear or nonlinear material models. Applications are presented for static analysis (via dynamic simulation) of a natural knee model created from MRI and CT data and dynamic simulation of an artificial knee model produced from manufacturer's CAD data. Small and large strain natural knee static analyses required 1 min of CPU time and predicted similar contact conditions except for peak pressure, which was higher for the large strain model. Linear and nonlinear artificial knee dynamic simulations required 10 min of CPU time and predicted similar contact force and torque but different contact pressures, which were lower for the nonlinear model due to increased contact area. This methodology provides an important step toward the realization of dynamic musculoskeletal models that can predict in vivo knee joint motion and loading simultaneously.

  7. Multibody systems and robot dynamics

    Schiehlen, Werner


    The method of multibody system has been developed during the last two decades with application to various engineering topics, including robotics and walking machines. On the other hand, special algorithms for robot dynamics are available featuring the high computational efficiency required for control purposes. This paper shows the close relation between both approaches. Essential criteria for the effeciency of dynamics software are the numbers of coordinates used, which should be minimal. Fo...

  8. Numerical methods in multibody dynamics

    Eich-Soellner, Edda


    Today computers play an important role in the development of complex mechanical systems, such as cars, railway vehicles or machines. Efficient simulation of these systems is only possible when based on methods that explore the strong link between numerics and computational mechanics. This book gives insight into modern techniques of numerical mathematics in the light of an interesting field of applications: multibody dynamics. The important interaction between modeling and solution techniques is demonstrated by using a simplified multibody model of a truck. Different versions of this mechanical model illustrate all key concepts in static and dynamic analysis as well as in parameter identification. The book focuses in particular on constrained mechanical systems. Their formulation in terms of differential-algebraic equations is the backbone of nearly all chapters. The book is written for students and teachers in numerical analysis and mechanical engineering as well as for engineers in industrial research labor...

  9. ECCOMAS Thematic Conference on Multibody Dynamics

    Multibody Dynamics : Computational Methods and Applications


    This book includes selected papers from the ECCOMAS Thematic Conference on Multibody Dynamics, that took place in Barcelona, Spain, from June 29 to July 2, 2015. By having its origin in analytical and continuum mechanics, as well as in computer science and applied mathematics, multibody dynamics provides a basis for analysis and virtual prototyping of innovative applications in many fields of contemporary engineering. With the utilization of computational models and algorithms that classically belonged to different fields of applied science, multibody dynamics delivers reliable simulation platforms for diverse highly-developed industrial products such as vehicle and railway systems, aeronautical and space vehicles, robotic manipulators, smart structures, biomechanical systems,and nanotechnologies.

  10. Contact force models for multibody dynamics

    Flores, Paulo


    This book analyzes several compliant contact force models within the context of multibody dynamics, while also revisiting the main issues associated with fundamental contact mechanics. In particular, it presents various contact force models, from linear to nonlinear, from purely elastic to dissipative, and describes their parameters. Addressing the different numerical methods and algorithms for contact problems in multibody systems, the book describes the gross motion of multibody systems by using a two-dimensional formulation based on the absolute coordinates and employs different contact models to represent contact-impact events. Results for selected planar multibody mechanical systems are presented and utilized to discuss the main assumptions and procedures adopted throughout this work. The material provided here indicates that the prediction of the dynamic behavior of mechanical systems involving contact-impact strongly depends on the choice of contact force model. In short, the book provides a comprehens...

  11. Earth system multi-body restriction dynamics model research

    ZHANG; Qingxian; BI; Siwen; GONG; Huili


    Research provides a theoretical basis for an Earth system multi-body mechanics model and its dynamics, including the Earth system multi-body restriction function and its power, Earth system multi-body restriction under decreasing generalized velocity and decreasing partial palstance, the Earth system multi-body decreasing generalized force, a moving mechanics function, and the Earth system multi-body restriction's wattful and wattless forces.

  12. Dynamics and control of underactuated multibody spacecraft

    Cho, Sangbum

    In this dissertation, we develop equations of motion for a class of multibody spacecraft consisting of a rigid base body and multiple rigid appendages connected to the base body. There has been much prior research on this topic; however, much of this research is not appropriate for nonlinear control design purposes. The motion of a multibody spacecraft is described by the position and attitude of a base body in an inertial frame and by the relative position and attitude of the attached bodies with respect to the base body; these latter quantities define the shape of the multibody spacecraft. Our aim is to develop equations of motion that reveal important nonlinear coupling effects between the translation, rotation and shape dynamics, but are simple enough for control design purposes. A rotation matrix is used to represent the attitude of the spacecraft. This allows us to avoid complexity related to the use of parameter representations such as Euler angles. Hamilton's variational principle gives three sets of nonlinear equations of motion. The latter part of this dissertation presents results of control problems for several underactuated multibody spacecraft examples. These include spacecraft with an unactuated internal sliding mass, spacecraft with unactuated fuel slosh dynamics, tethered spacecraft with attachment point actuation and the triaxial attitude control testbed with two proof mass actuation devices. These examples illustrate important features related to the dynamics and control of various underactuated multibody spacecraft. Differences in geometries of the spacecraft and gravitational assumptions require adoption of different types of control schemes. We use the multibody equations in this dissertation to formulate control equations for the models and to construct feedback controllers that achieves asymptotic stability (or convergence) to the desired (relative) equilibrium manifolds. Computer simulations demonstrate the effectiveness of the controllers.

  13. ECCOMAS Thematic Conference on Multibody Dynamics

    Fisette, Paul; Multibody Dynamics : Computational Methods and Applications


    This volume provides the international multibody dynamics community with an up-to-date view on the state of the art in this rapidly growing field of research which now plays a central role in the modeling, analysis, simulation and optimization of mechanical systems in a variety of fields and for a wide range of industrial applications. This book contains selected contributions delivered at the ECCOMAS Thematic Conference on Multibody Dynamics, which was held in Brussels, Belgium and organized by the Université catholique de Louvain, from 4th to 7th July 2011.  Each paper reflects the State-of-Art in the application of Multibody Dynamics to different areas of engineering. They are enlarged and revised versions of the communications, which were enhanced in terms of self-containment and tutorial quality by the authors. The result is a comprehensive text that constitutes a valuable reference for researchers and design engineers which helps to appraise the potential for the application of multibody dynamics meth...


    A.Y.T.Leung; WuGuorong; ZhongWeifang


    The nonlinear dynamic equations of a multibody system composed of flexible beams are derived by using the Lagrange multiplier method. The nonlinear Euler beam theory with inclusion of axial deformation effect is employed and its deformation field is described by exact vibration modes. A numerical procedure for solving the dynamic equations is presented based on the Newmark direct integration method combined with Newton-Raphson iterative method. The results of numerical examples prove the correctness and efficiency of the method proposed.

  15. Planar multibody dynamics formulation, programming and applications

    Nikravesh, Parviz E


    Introduction Multibody Mechanical Systems Types of Analyses Methods of Formulation Computer Programming Application Examples Unit System Remarks Preliminaries Reference Axes Scalars and Vectors Matrices Vector, Array, and Matrix Differentiation Equations and Expressions Remarks Problems Fundamentals of Kinematics A Particle Kinematics of a Rigid Body Definitions Remarks Problems Fundamentals of Dynamics Newton's Laws of Motion Dynamics of a Body Force Elements Applied Forces Reaction Force Remarks Problems Point-Coordinates: Kinematics Multipoint

  16. Flexible joints in structural and multibody dynamics

    O. A. Bauchau; Han, S.


    Flexible joints, sometimes called bushing elements or force elements, are found in all structural and multibody dynamics codes. In their simplest form, flexible joints simply consist of sets of three linear and three torsional springs placed between two nodes of the model. For infinitesimal deformations, the selection of the lumped spring constants is an easy task, which can be based on a numerical simulation of the joint or on experimental measurements. If the joint undergoes finite deformat...

  17. Elastic Multibody Dynamics A Direct Ritz Approach

    Bremer, H


    This textbook is an introduction to and exploration of a number of core topics in the field of applied mechanics: On the basis of Lagrange's Principle, a Central Equation of Dynamics is presented which yields a unified view on existing methods. From these, the Projection Equation is selected for the derivation of the motion equations of holonomic and of non-holonomic systems. The method is applied to rigid multibody systems where the rigid body is defined such that, by relaxation of the rigidity constraints, one can directly proceed to elastic bodies. A decomposition into subsystems leads to a minimal representation and to a recursive representation, respectively, of the equations of motion. Applied to elastic multibody systems one obtains, along with the use of spatial operators, a straight-on procedure for the interconnected partial and ordinary differential equations and the corresponding boundary conditions. The spatial operators are eventually applied to a RITZ series for approximation. The resulting equ...

  18. Constraint Embedding Technique for Multibody System Dynamics

    Woo, Simon S.; Cheng, Michael K.


    Multibody dynamics play a critical role in simulation testbeds for space missions. There has been a considerable interest in the development of efficient computational algorithms for solving the dynamics of multibody systems. Mass matrix factorization and inversion techniques and the O(N) class of forward dynamics algorithms developed using a spatial operator algebra stand out as important breakthrough on this front. Techniques such as these provide the efficient algorithms and methods for the application and implementation of such multibody dynamics models. However, these methods are limited only to tree-topology multibody systems. Closed-chain topology systems require different techniques that are not as efficient or as broad as those for tree-topology systems. The closed-chain forward dynamics approach consists of treating the closed-chain topology as a tree-topology system subject to additional closure constraints. The resulting forward dynamics solution consists of: (a) ignoring the closure constraints and using the O(N) algorithm to solve for the free unconstrained accelerations for the system; (b) using the tree-topology solution to compute a correction force to enforce the closure constraints; and (c) correcting the unconstrained accelerations with correction accelerations resulting from the correction forces. This constraint-embedding technique shows how to use direct embedding to eliminate local closure-loops in the system and effectively convert the system back to a tree-topology system. At this point, standard tree-topology techniques can be brought to bear on the problem. The approach uses a spatial operator algebra approach to formulating the equations of motion. The operators are block-partitioned around the local body subgroups to convert them into aggregate bodies. Mass matrix operator factorization and inversion techniques are applied to the reformulated tree-topology system. Thus in essence, the new technique allows conversion of a system with

  19. A multibody dynamic approach for colliding particles

    van Staeyen, K.; Tijskens, E.; Ramon, H.


    The dynamics of systems of moving particles in engineering applications is rapidly gaining interest as the incentive to control and optimize granular flow systems increases. Increasing availability of computing power has rendered the in silico study of large assemblies of discrete particles in near-realistic systems feasible. Generally, the governing equations for systems of non-adhesive discrete particles are derived from Newton's equation of motion with the basic assumption that the normal and tangential forces arising between two impacting particles can be independently derived from the virtual overlap of the particles and the tangential displacement of the initial contact points. In this study, the problem is placed in a rigorous multibody dynamics setting and a detailed comparison is made with the classical theory. An attempt has been made to treat particles and walls in a unified way.

  20. An Earth multi-body system elasticity and plasticity dynamics model

    ZHANG Qingxian; BI Siwen; GONG Huili


    Research on the elasticity and plasticity dynamics of the Earth multi-body system, including the Earth multi-body system stratum-block's equivalent inertia force system and generalized inertia force, the Earth multi-body system stratum-block's equivalent inertia force system expressed with partial velocity and partial palstance, and Earth multi-body system generalized inertia force expressed with partial velocity and partial palstance. This research provides a theoretical foundation for further investigation of Earth multi-body dynamics.

  1. Multibody system dynamics and mechatronics. Plenary lecture

    Hiller, M.H.; Hirsch, K. [Duisburg-Essen Univ., Duisburg (Germany). Faculty of Engineering


    Mechatronics as an interdisciplinary combination of domains of mechanical engineering, electrical engineering, electronics, and computer science has developed in industry and universities since the eighties of the last century, and it is meanwhile fully established in many technical areas. The main focus of the mechatronic approach is to extend and to complete the design process of mechanical and more general engineering systems by incorporating from the very beginning sensors and controllers - which includes also the required information processing - and thus being able to generate partly intelligent products. The components and modules of such systems originate from mechanical engineering, from electrical engineering or from other engineering domains. Methods for describing and designing these components and modules are based in the fields of applied mechanics, electrical engineering, system theory, control and automation theory, and information processing. In particular, in mechatronic systems like robots, manipulation systems, machine tools, or all kinds of vehicles, the multibody systems approach offers a powerful tool to model the mechanical properties of the system in an appropriate manner. In this paper, methodologies for the development of formalisms and software for modeling and simulation of multibody and mechatronic systems will be presented and illustrated by examples from automotive systems and robotics. (orig.)

  2. Isogeometric shell discretizations for flexible multibody dynamics

    Goyal, Anmol, E-mail:; Doerfel, Michael R., E-mail:; Simeon, Bernd, E-mail:; Vuong, Anh-Vu, E-mail: [Technische Universitaet Kaiserslautern, Felix Klein Zentrum fuer Mathematik, FB Mathematik (Germany)


    This work aims at including nonlinear elastic shell models in a multibody framework. We focus our attention to Kirchhoff-Love shells and explore the benefits of an isogeometric approach, the latest development in finite element methods, within a multibody system. Isogeometric analysis extends isoparameteric finite elements to more general functions such as B-splines and NURBS (Non-Uniform Rational B-Splines) and works on exact geometry representations even at the coarsest level of discretizations. Using NURBS as basis functions, high regularity requirements of the shell model, which are difficult to achieve with standard finite elements, are easily fulfilled. A particular advantage is the promise of simplifying the mesh generation step, and mesh refinement is easily performed by eliminating the need for communication with the geometry representation in a CAD (Computer-Aided Design) tool. Target applications are wind turbine blades and twist beam rear suspensions. First numerical examples demonstrate an impressive convergence behavior of the isogeometric approach even for a coarse mesh, while offering substantial savings with respect to the number of degrees of freedom.

  3. Screw-matrix method in dynamics of multibody systems

    Yanzhu, Liu


    In the present paper the concept of screw in classical mechanics is expressed in matrix form, in order to formulate the dynamical equations of the multibody systems. The mentioned method can retain the advantages of the screw theory and avoid the shortcomings of the dual number notation. Combining the screw-matrix method with the tool of graph theory in Roberson/Wittenberg formalism. We can expand the application of the screw theory to the general case of multibody systems. For a tree system, the dynamical equations for each j-th subsystem, composed of all the outboard bodies connected by j-th joint can be formulated without the constraint reaction forces in the joints. For a nontree system, the dynamical equations of subsystems and the kinematical consistency conditions of the joints can be derived using the loop matrix. The whole process of calculation is unified in matrix form. A three-segment manipulator is discussed as an example.

  4. Inverse and forward dynamics: models of multi-body systems.

    Otten, E


    Connected multi-body systems exhibit notoriously complex behaviour when driven by external and internal forces and torques. The problem of reconstructing the internal forces and/or torques from the movements and known external forces is called the 'inverse dynamics problem', whereas calculating motion from known internal forces and/or torques and resulting reaction forces is called the 'forward dynamics problem'. When stepping forward to cross the street, people use muscle forces that generate angular accelerations of their body segments and, by virtue of reaction forces from the street, a forward acceleration of the centre of mass of their body. Inverse dynamics calculations applied to a set of motion data from such an event can teach us how temporal patterns of joint torques were responsible for the observed motion. In forward dynamics calculations we may attempt to create motion from such temporal patterns, which is extremely difficult, because of the complex mechanical linkage along the chains forming the multi-body system. To understand, predict and sometimes control multi-body systems, we may want to have mathematical expressions for them. The Newton-Euler, Lagrangian and Featherstone approaches have their advantages and disadvantages. The simulation of collisions and the inclusion of muscle forces or other internal forces are discussed. Also, the possibility to perform a mixed inverse and forward dynamics calculation are dealt with. The use and limitations of these approaches form the conclusion. PMID:14561340

  5. Rigid multibody system dynamics with uncertain rigid bodies

    Batou, A., E-mail:; Soize, C., E-mail: [Universite Paris-Est, Laboratoire Modelisation et Simulation Multi Echelle, MSME UMR 8208 CNRS (France)


    This paper is devoted to the construction of a probabilistic model of uncertain rigid bodies for multibody system dynamics. We first construct a stochastic model of an uncertain rigid body by replacing the mass, the center of mass, and the tensor of inertia by random variables. The prior probability distributions of the stochastic model are constructed using the maximum entropy principle under the constraints defined by the available information. The generators of independent realizations corresponding to the prior probability distribution of these random quantities are further developed. Then several uncertain rigid bodies can be linked to each other in order to calculate the random response of a multibody dynamical system. An application is proposed to illustrate the theoretical development.

  6. Roller-chain Drives Mechanics using Multibody Dynamics Tools

    Ambrosio, Jorge A. C.; Hansen, John Michael


    An integrated model for the simulation of roller-chain drives based on a multibody dynamics methodology is presented here in order to describeits complex dynamic behavior. The chain is modeled by masses lumped at the roller locations and connected by translational spring-damper elements in order...... to take into account the elastic flexibility of the chain and the energy dissipation at the joints. The driver and driven sprockets are modeled as rigid bodies that can be repositioned during the analysis in order to simulate automatic tensioners or out-of-balanceshafts. The problem of the rollers...

  7. Numerical Solution for Stiff Dynamic Equations of Flexible Multibody System

    L(U) Yan-ping; WU Guo-rong


    A nonlinear numerical integration method, based on forward and backward Euler integration methods, is proposed for solving the stiff dynamic equations of a flexible multibody system, which are transformed from the second order to the first order by adop- ring state variables. This method is of A0 stability and infinity stability. The numerical solutions violating the constraint equations are corrected by Blajer's modification approach. Simulation results of a slider-crank mechanism by the proposed method are in good a- greement with ones from other literature.

  8. General background and approach to multibody dynamics for space applications

    Santini, Paolo; Gasbarri, Paolo


    Multibody dynamics for space applications is dictated by space environment such as space-varying gravity forces, orbital and attitude perturbations, control forces if any. Several methods and formulations devoted to the modeling of flexible bodies undergoing large overall motions were developed in recent years. Most of these different formulations were aimed to face one of the main problems concerning the analysis of spacecraft dynamics namely the reduction of computer simulation time. By virtue of this, the use of symbolic manipulation, recursive formulation and parallel processing algorithms were proposed. All these approaches fall into two categories, the one based on Newton/Euler methods and the one based on Lagrangian methods; both of them have their advantages and disadvantages although in general, Newtonian approaches lend to a better understanding of the physics of problems and in particular of the magnitude of the reactions and of the corresponding structural stresses. Another important issue which must be addressed carefully in multibody space dynamics is relevant to a correct choice of kinematics variables. In fact, when dealing with flexible multibody system the resulting equations include two different types of state variables, the ones associated with large (rigid) displacements and the ones associated with elastic deformations. These two sets of variables have generally two different time scales if we think of the attitude motion of a satellite whose period of oscillation, due to the gravity gradient effects, is of the same order of magnitude as the orbital period, which is much bigger than the one associated with the structural vibration of the satellite itself. Therefore, the numerical integration of the equations of the system represents a challenging problem. This was the abstract and some of the arguments that Professor Paolo Santini intended to present for the Breakwell Lecture; unfortunately a deadly disease attacked him and shortly took him

  9. Dynamics of Multibody Systems Near Lagrangian Points

    Wong, Brian

    This thesis examines the dynamics of a physically connected multi-spacecraft system in the vicinity of the Lagrangian points of a Circular Restricted Three-Body System. The spacecraft system is arranged in a wheel-spoke configuration with smaller and less massive satellites connected to a central hub using truss/beams or tether connectors. The kinematics of the system is first defined, and the kinetic, gravitational potential energy and elastic potential energy of the system are derived. The Assumed Modes Method is used to discretize the continuous variables of the system, and a general set of ordinary differential equations describing the dynamics of the connectors and the central hub are obtained using the Lagrangian method. The flexible body dynamics of the tethered and truss connected systems are examined using numerical simulations. The results show that these systems experienced only small elastic deflections when they are naturally librating or rotating at moderate angular velocities, and these deflections have relatively small effect on the attitude dynamics of the systems. Based on these results, it is determined that the connectors can be modeled as rigid when only the attitude dynamics of the system is of interest. The equations of motion of rigid satellites stationed at the Lagrangian points are linearized, and the stability conditions of the satellite are obtained from the linear equations. The required conditions are shown to be similar to those of geocentric satellites. Study of the linear equations also revealed the resonant conditions of rigid Lagrangian point satellites, when a librational natural frequency of the satellite matches the frequency of its station-keeping orbit leading to large attitude motions. For tethered satellites, the linear analysis shows that the tethers are in stable equilibrium when they lie along a line joining the two primary celestial bodies of the Three-Body System. Numerical simulations are used to study the long term

  10. Decoupling Kinematic Loops for Real-Time Multibody Dynamic Simulations

    Omar Mohamed


    Full Text Available Earth moving equipment are typically equipped with hydraulic cylinder actuators to perform the designated tasks. Multibody modelling of such systems results in models with kinematic loops that couples the motion variables of the loop bodies. Iterative solutions will be needed to satisfy the loop constraints and the applied constraints, which require evaluation of the constraint Jacobean matrix. The size of the Jacobean matrix and the associated projections depends on the number of motion variables in each kinematic loop. Consequently, the computational cost significantly increases as the number of variables in the kinematic loop increases. Real-time control and hybrid hardware-in-the-loop systems both require efficient and fast computational algorithms. Eliminating the kinematic loops can improve the computational efficiency and effectiveness of the control algorithms. This paper presents an efficient approach to eliminate the coupling due to the cylinder-rod connections and consequently the kinematic loops in the multibody models leading to efficient simulation. The proposed approach calculates the spatial accelerations and inertia forces of the actuator bodies and the interaction forces with other components. The actuator forces are then projected onto the connecting bodies leading to exact dynamics of the system.

  11. A Modelling Approach to Multibody Dynamics of Fluid Power Machinery with Hydrodynamic Lubrication

    Johansen, Per; Rømer, Daniel; Andersen, Torben Ole


    The efficiency potential of the digital displacement technology and the increasing interest in hydraulic transmissions in wind and wave energy applications has created an incentive for development of high efficiency fluid power machinery. Modelling and analysis of fluid power machinery loss...... to be coupled with multibody dynamics models. The focus of the current paper is an approach where the transient pressure field in hydrodynamic lubricated joint clearances are modelled by a set of control volumes and coupled with the fluid power machinery mechanics....... mechanisms is necessary in order to accommodate this demand. At present fully coupled thermo-elastic models for various tribological interfaces has been presented. However, in order to analyse the interaction between tribological interfaces in fluid power pumps and motors, these interface models needs...

  12. Spatially recursive filtering and smoothing for multibody dynamics

    Rodriguez, G.


    Methods developed recently by the author to solve the problem of forward dynamics for nonlinear joint-connected multibody systems are summarized. Solution of this problem is of interest in such application areas as robotics, deploying structures, ground vehicles, and pointing of antennas and instrumented platforms. The problem is solved by the recursive filtering and smoothing techniques of state estimation theory. The filtering stage takes the applied joint moments as inputs to produce a sequence of spatial constraint forces acting at the joints of the system. The smoothing stage takes the innovations process resulting from the filter as an input and produces a set of spatial accelerations and a corresponding set of joint-angle accelerations.



    A new dynamic model for mixed, flexible bar and gear multibody systems is developed based on a specific finite element method, and a new gear-element is proposed. The gear-element can take into account the time variant stiffness, the gear errors and mass unbalance. The model for geared multibody systems can couple the gear meshing and the flexibility of all contained components. The kinematic and dynamic analyses of the geared multibody systems are expounded and illustrated on an example composed of three gears, two bars and one slider.

  14. Dynamics of underactuated multibody systems modeling, control and optimal design

    Seifried, Robert


    Underactuated multibody systems are intriguing mechatronic systems, as they possess fewer control inputs than degrees of freedom. Some examples are modern light-weight flexible robots and articulated manipulators with passive joints. This book investigates such underactuated multibody systems from an integrated perspective. This includes all major steps from the modeling of rigid and flexible multibody systems, through nonlinear control theory, to optimal system design. The underlying theories and techniques from these different fields are presented using a self-contained and unified approach and notation system. Subsequently, the book focuses on applications to large multibody systems with multiple degrees of freedom, which require a combination of symbolical and numerical procedures. Finally, an integrated, optimization-based design procedure is proposed, whereby both structural and control design are considered concurrently. Each chapter is supplemented by illustrated examples.

  15. Modeling friction phenomena and elastomeric dampers in multibody dynamics analysis

    Ju, Changkuan

    The first part of this dissertation focuses on the development, implementation and validation of models that capture the behavior of joints in a realistic manner. These models are presented within the framework of finite element based, nonlinear multibody dynamics formulations that ensure unconditional nonlinear stability of the computation for complex systems of arbitrary topology. The proposed approach can be divided into three parts. First, the joint configuration: this purely kinematic part deals with the description of the configuration of the joint and the evaluation of the relative distance and relative tangential velocity between the contacting bodies. Second, the contact conditions: in most cases, contact at the joint is of an intermittent nature. The enforcement of the unilateral contact condition is a critical aspect of the computational procedure. And finally, the contact forces: this last part deals with the evaluation of the forces that arise at the interface between contacting bodies. The advantage of the proposed approach is that the three parts of the problem can be formulated and implemented independently. Many articulated rotor helicopters use hydraulic dampers, which provide high levels of damping but are also associated with high maintenance costs and difficulties in evaluating their conditions due to the presence of seals, lubricants and numerous moving parts, all operating in a rotating frame. To avoid problems associated with hydraulic dampers, the industry is now switching to elastomeric lead-lag dampers that feature simpler mechanical design, lower part count, and result in "dry" rotors. However, the design of robust elastomeric dampers is hampered by the lack of reliable analytical tools that can be used to predict their damping behavior in the presence of large multi-frequency motions experienced by the rotor and thus the damper. The second part of this dissertation focuses on the development of an elastomeric damper model which predicts


    Wu Nanxing; Sun Qinghong; Zhang Yonghong; Yu Dongling


    Based on multi-body system theory and the mainshaft system of precision NC lathe as object investigated, it is treated as a coupled rigid-flexible multi-body system which is made up of some rigid and elastic bodies in an especial linking mode. And a dynamic model is established. The problems of computing vibration characteristics are resolved by using multi-body system transfer matrix method. Results show that the mainshaft system of NC lathe is in the stable and reliable working area all the time. The method is simple and easy, the idea is clear. In addition, the method can be easily used and popularized in the other multi-body system.


    徐建国; 贾军国


    The dynamics, stability and control problem of a kind of infinite dimensional system are studied in the functional space with the method of modern mathematics. First,the dynamical control model of the distributed parameter system with multi-body flexible and multi-topological structure was established which has damping, gyroscopic parts and constrained damping. Secondly, the necessary and sufficient condition of controllability and observability, the stability theory and asymptotic property of the system were obtained.These results expand the theory of the field about the dynamics and control of the system with multi-body flexible structure, and have important engineering significance.

  18. Structure-preserving integrators in nonlinear structural dynamics and flexible multibody dynamics


    This book focuses on structure-preserving numerical methods for flexible multibody dynamics, including nonlinear elastodynamics and geometrically exact models for beams and shells. It also deals with the newly emerging class of variational integrators as well as Lie-group integrators. It discusses two alternative approaches to the discretization in space of nonlinear beams and shells. Firstly, geometrically exact formulations, which are typically used in the finite element community and, secondly, the absolute nodal coordinate formulation, which is popular in the multibody dynamics community. Concerning the discretization in time, the energy-momentum method and its energy-decaying variants are discussed. It also addresses a number of issues that have arisen in the wake of the structure-preserving discretization in space. Among them are the parameterization of finite rotations, the incorporation of algebraic constraints and the computer implementation of the various numerical methods. The practical application...

  19. Evolution of the DeNOC-based dynamic modelling for multibody systems

    S. K. Saha


    Full Text Available Dynamic modelling of a multibody system plays very essential role in its analyses. As a result, several methods for dynamic modelling have evolved over the years that allow one to analyse multibody systems in a very efficient manner. One such method of dynamic modelling is based on the concept of the Decoupled Natural Orthogonal Complement (DeNOC matrices. The DeNOC-based methodology for dynamics modelling, since its introduction in 1995, has been applied to a variety of multibody systems such as serial, parallel, general closed-loop, flexible, legged, cam-follower, and space robots. The methodology has also proven useful for modelling of proteins and hyper-degree-of-freedom systems like ropes, chains, etc. This paper captures the evolution of the DeNOC-based dynamic modelling applied to different type of systems, and its benefits over other existing methodologies. It is shown that the DeNOC-based modelling provides deeper understanding of the dynamics of a multibody system. The power of the DeNOC-based modelling has been illustrated using several numerical examples.

  20. Multibody Dynamics of a Fluid Power Radial Piston Motor Including Transient Hydrodynamic Pressure Models of Lubricating Gaps

    Johansen, Per; Rømer, Daniel; Andersen, Torben Ole


    is a multibody dynamics model of a radial piston fluid power motor, which connects the rigid bodies through models of the transient hydrodynamic lubrication pressure in the joint clearance. A finite volume approach is used to model the pressure dynamics of the fluid film lubrication. The model structure......The increasing interest in hydraulic transmissions in wind and wave energy applications has created an incentive for the development of high efficiency fluid power machinery. Modeling and analysis of fluid power machinery loss mechanisms are necessary in order to accommodate this demand. At present...... fully coupled thermo-elastic models has been used to simulate and study loss mechanisms in various tribological interfaces. Consequently, a reasonable focus of further development is to couple the interface models and the rigid body mechanics of fluid power machinery. The focus of the current paper...

  1. Research on the Earth system multi-body force system dynamical model

    CHEN; Xiaofei; BI; Siwen; WU; Fei; DONG; Qianlin


    This paper presents an overview of the binding force and freedom force of Earth system, and describes force moment to point and line and force system in the Earth system. It introduces the force theory of the Earth system multi-body force system from special or equivalent force system of Earth system mechanics, general force and no-power force of Earth system. Finally it describes the force and moment of nodes of Earth system and provides basic model for the research of the Earth system multi-body dynamics.

  2. Multibody systems handbook

    Schiehlen, W. (Univ. Stuttgart (DE))


    Dynamics of multibody systems is of importance in the fields of robotics, biomechanics, spacecraft control, road and rail vehicle design, and dynamics of machinery. Many research problems have been solved and a considerable number of computer codes based on multibody formalisms is now available. This book reports on software systems for multibody system dynamics which are established and have found acceptance in the users community.

  3. A Component Mode Synthesis Algorithm for Multibody Dynamics of Wind Turbines

    Holm-Jørgensen, Kristian; Nielsen, Søren R.K.


    A system reduction scheme related to a multibody formulation of wind turbine dynamics is devised. Each substructure is described in its own frame of reference, which is moving freely in the vicinity of the moving substructure, in principle without any constraints to the rigid body part of the mot...

  4. Development of a dynamic multibody model to analyze human lower extremity impact response and injury

    Thunissen, J.G.; Hall, G.W.; Crandall, J.R.; Pilkey, W.D.


    A dynamic multibody model of the 50th percentile male lower extremity is developed to examine internal loading plantar impact. The foot and leg, represented by five and seven rigid bodies respectively, are provided with degrees of freedom and stiffness values from cadaveric and volunteer data. Soft

  5. A New Application of Multi-Body System Dynamics in Vehicle-Road Interaction Simulation

    RenWei-qun; ZhangYun-qing; JinGuo-dong


    In vehicle-road interaction simulation, multibody system (MBS) dynamics as well as the corresponding software ADAMS has been employed to model the nonlinear vehicle in more detail. The simulation method has been validated by the test data, and been compared to the former simple models. This method can be used for estimating the effects of dynamic tire forces and other vehicle features on road damage so that the “road-friendliness” can be assessed in vehicle design process.

  6. A computational procedure for multibody systems including flexible beam dynamics

    Downer, J. D.; Park, K. C.; Chiou, J. C.


    A computational procedure suitable for the solution of equations of motions for flexible multibody systems has been developed. The flexible beams are modeled using a fully nonlinear theory which accounts for both finite rotations and large deformations. The present formulation incorporates physical measures of conjugate Cauchy stress and covariant strain increments. As a consequence, the beam model can easily be interfaced with real-time strain measurements and feedback control systems. A distinct feature of the present work is the computational preservation of total energy for undamped systems; this is obtained via an objective strain increment/stress update procedure combined with an energy-conserving time integration algorithm which contains an accurate update of angular orientations. The procedure is demonstrated via several example problems.

  7. Articulated Lifting System Modeling Based on Dynamics of Flexible Multi-Body Systems


    In lifting sub-system of deep-sea mining system, spherical joint is used to connect lifting pipes to replace fixed joint. Based on Dynamics of Flexible Multi-body systems, the mechanics model of articulated lifting system is established. Under the four-grade and six-grade oceanic condition, dynamic responses of lifting system are simulated and experiment verified. The simulation results are consistent with experimental ones. The maximum moment of flexion is 322 kN-m on the first pipe under six-grade sea condition. It is seen that the articulated connection can reduce the moment of flexion. The bending deformation of pipe center is researched, and the maximum is 0.000479 m on the first pipe. Deformation has a little effect on the motion of system. It is feasible to analyze articulated lifting system by applying the theory of flexible multi-body dynamics. The articulated lifting system is obviously better than the fixed one.

  8. Multi-Body Dynamics and Modal Analysis of Compliant Gear Bodies

    Vinayak, H.; Singh, R.


    This paper extends the multi-body dynamics modelling strategy for rigid gears to include compliant gear bodies in multi-mesh transmissions. Only external, fixed center, helical or spur gears are considered. This formulation combines distributed gear mesh stiffness and gear blank compliance models in a multi-body dynamics framework resulting in a set of non-linear differential equations with time-varying coefficients. Linearization and other simplifications are applied to yield the resulting linear time-invariant equations of motion. Several solution techniques are then used to determine eigensolutions and forced harmonic responses. The resulting normal mode solutions are compared to those obtained by the finite element analysis for several examples of transmission containing flexible gears. These include ring-gears and bodies with discontinuities. A parametric study has been performed to assess the effect of gear orientation on the dynamics of transmissions. Finally analytical predictions are compared to the results of a laboratory experiment.

  9. Multibody system dynamics for bio-inspired locomotion: from geometric structures to computational aspects.

    Boyer, Frédéric; Porez, Mathieu


    This article presents a set of generic tools for multibody system dynamics devoted to the study of bio-inspired locomotion in robotics. First, archetypal examples from the field of bio-inspired robot locomotion are presented to prepare the ground for further discussion. The general problem of locomotion is then stated. In considering this problem, we progressively draw a unified geometric picture of locomotion dynamics. For that purpose, we start from the model of discrete mobile multibody systems (MMSs) that we progressively extend to the case of continuous and finally soft systems. Beyond these theoretical aspects, we address the practical problem of the efficient computation of these models by proposing a Newton-Euler-based approach to efficient locomotion dynamics with a few illustrations of creeping, swimming, and flying.

  10. Flight Loads Prediction of High Aspect Ratio Wing Aircraft Using Multibody Dynamics

    Michele Castellani


    Full Text Available A framework based on multibody dynamics has been developed for the static and dynamic aeroelastic analyses of flexible high aspect ratio wing aircraft subject to structural geometric nonlinearities. Multibody dynamics allows kinematic nonlinearities and nonlinear relationships in the forces definition and is an efficient and promising methodology to model high aspect ratio wings, which are known to be prone to structural nonlinear effects because of the high deflections in flight. The multibody dynamics framework developed employs quasi-steady aerodynamics strip theory and discretizes the wing as a series of rigid bodies interconnected by beam elements, representative of the stiffness distribution, which can undergo arbitrarily large displacements and rotations. The method is applied to a flexible high aspect ratio wing commercial aircraft and both trim and gust response analyses are performed in order to calculate flight loads. These results are then compared to those obtained with the standard linear aeroelastic approach provided by the Finite Element Solver Nastran. Nonlinear effects come into play mainly because of the need of taking into account the large deflections of the wing for flight loads computation and of considering the aerodynamic forces as follower forces.

  11. Dynamic Analysis of Flexible Multibody Systems for High-Rise Building Window Cleaning Gondola


    A virtual prototype of high-rise building window cleaning gondola based on multibody system dynamics software MSC.ADAMS is presented. The rigid bodies are modeled by CAD software and flexible bodies are modeled by discrete beam method. The whole machine's natural characteristics are analyzed and changed to frequency field. According to the results, the dangerous frequencies are avoided and the design can be optimized and the performance can be improved.

  12. Recursive linearization of multibody dynamics equations of motion

    Lin, Tsung-Chieh; Yae, K. Harold


    The equations of motion of a multibody system are nonlinear in nature, and thus pose a difficult problem in linear control design. One approach is to have a first-order approximation through the numerical perturbations at a given configuration, and to design a control law based on the linearized model. Here, a linearized model is generated analytically by following the footsteps of the recursive derivation of the equations of motion. The equations of motion are first written in a Newton-Euler form, which is systematic and easy to construct; then, they are transformed into a relative coordinate representation, which is more efficient in computation. A new computational method for linearization is obtained by applying a series of first-order analytical approximations to the recursive kinematic relationships. The method has proved to be computationally more efficient because of its recursive nature. It has also turned out to be more accurate because of the fact that analytical perturbation circumvents numerical differentiation and other associated numerical operations that may accumulate computational error, thus requiring only analytical operations of matrices and vectors. The power of the proposed linearization algorithm is demonstrated, in comparison to a numerical perturbation method, with a two-link manipulator and a seven degrees of freedom robotic manipulator. Its application to control design is also demonstrated.

  13. Experimental validation of flexible multibody dynamics beam formulations

    Bauchau, Olivier A., E-mail:; Han, Shilei [University of Michigan-Shanghai Jiao Tong University Joint Institute (China); Mikkola, Aki; Matikainen, Marko K. [Lappeenranta University of Technology, Department of Mechanical Engineering (Finland); Gruber, Peter [Austrian Center of Competence in Mechatronics GmbH (Austria)


    In this paper, the accuracies of the geometrically exact beam and absolute nodal coordinate formulations are studied by comparing their predictions against an experimental data set referred to as the “Princeton beam experiment.” The experiment deals with a cantilevered beam experiencing coupled flap, lag, and twist deformations. In the absolute nodal coordinate formulation, two different beam elements are used. The first is based on a shear deformable approach in which the element kinematics is described using two nodes. The second is based on a recently proposed approach featuring three nodes. The numerical results for the geometrically exact beam formulation and the recently proposed three-node absolute nodal coordinate formulation agree well with the experimental data. The two-node beam element predictions are similar to those of linear beam theory. This study suggests that a careful and thorough evaluation of beam elements must be carried out to assess their ability to deal with the three-dimensional deformations typically found in flexible multibody systems.

  14. European Space Agency's launcher multibody dynamics simulator used for system and subsystem level analyses

    Baldesi, Gianluigi; Toso, Mario


    Virtual simulation is currently a key activity in the specification, design, verification and operations of space systems. System modelling and simulation support in fact a number of use cases across the spacecraft development life cycle, including activities such as system design validation, software verification and validation, spacecraft unit and sub-system test activities, etc. As the reliance on virtual modelling, simulation and justification has substantially grown in recent years, a more coordinated and consistent approach to the development of such simulation tools across project phases can bring substantial benefit in reducing the overall space programme schedule, risk and cost. By capitalizing on the ESA (European Space Agency) Structures and Mechanisms division's strong expertise in dynamics (multibody software), a generic multibody flight simulator was created to simulate a wide variety of launch vehicle dynamics and control problems at system level since 2001. The backbone of the multibody dynamics simulator is DCAP (Dynamic and Control Analysis Package), a multibody software, developed by ESA together with industry, with more than 30 years heritage in space applications. This software is a suite of fast, effective computer programs that provides the user with capabilities to model, simulate and analyze the dynamics and control performances of coupled rigid and flexible structural systems subjected to possibly time-varying structural characteristics and space environmental loads. The simulator uses the formulation for the dynamics of multi-rigid/flexible-body systems based on Order( n) algorithm. This avoids the explicit computation of a global mass matrix and its inversion, and the computational burden in these schemes increases only linearly with the number n of the system's degrees of freedom. A dedicated symbolic manipulation pre-processor is then used in the coding optimization. With the implementation of dedicated interfaces to other specialised

  15. Online Kinematic and Dynamic-State Estimation for Constrained Multibody Systems Based on IMUs

    José Luis Torres-Moreno


    Full Text Available This article addresses the problems of online estimations of kinematic and dynamic states of a mechanism from a sequence of noisy measurements. In particular, we focus on a planar four-bar linkage equipped with inertial measurement units (IMUs. Firstly, we describe how the position, velocity, and acceleration of all parts of the mechanism can be derived from IMU signals by means of multibody kinematics. Next, we propose the novel idea of integrating the generic multibody dynamic equations into two variants of Kalman filtering, i.e., the extended Kalman filter (EKF and the unscented Kalman filter (UKF, in a way that enables us to handle closed-loop, constrained mechanisms, whose state space variables are not independent and would normally prevent the direct use of such estimators. The proposal in this work is to apply those estimators over the manifolds of allowed positions and velocities, by means of estimating a subset of independent coordinates only. The proposed techniques are experimentally validated on a testbed equipped with encoders as a means of establishing the ground-truth. Estimators are run online in real-time, a feature not matched by any previous procedure of those reported in the literature on multibody dynamics.

  16. Online Kinematic and Dynamic-State Estimation for Constrained Multibody Systems Based on IMUs

    Torres-Moreno, José Luis; Blanco-Claraco, José Luis; Giménez-Fernández, Antonio; Sanjurjo, Emilio; Naya, Miguel Ángel


    This article addresses the problems of online estimations of kinematic and dynamic states of a mechanism from a sequence of noisy measurements. In particular, we focus on a planar four-bar linkage equipped with inertial measurement units (IMUs). Firstly, we describe how the position, velocity, and acceleration of all parts of the mechanism can be derived from IMU signals by means of multibody kinematics. Next, we propose the novel idea of integrating the generic multibody dynamic equations into two variants of Kalman filtering, i.e., the extended Kalman filter (EKF) and the unscented Kalman filter (UKF), in a way that enables us to handle closed-loop, constrained mechanisms, whose state space variables are not independent and would normally prevent the direct use of such estimators. The proposal in this work is to apply those estimators over the manifolds of allowed positions and velocities, by means of estimating a subset of independent coordinates only. The proposed techniques are experimentally validated on a testbed equipped with encoders as a means of establishing the ground-truth. Estimators are run online in real-time, a feature not matched by any previous procedure of those reported in the literature on multibody dynamics. PMID:26959027

  17. Rapid maneuvering of multi-body dynamic systems with optimal motion compensation

    Bishop, B.; Gargano, R.; Sears, A.; Karpenko, M.


    Rapid maneuvering of multi-body dynamical systems is an important, yet challenging, problem in many applications. Even in the case of rigid bodies, it can be difficult to maintain precise control over nominally stationary links if it is required to move some of the other links quickly because of the various nonlinearities and coupled interactions that occur between the bodies. Typical control concepts treat the multi-body motion control problem in two-stages. First, the nonlinear and coupling terms are treated as disturbances and a trajectory tracking control law is designed in order to attenuate their effects. Next, motion profiles are designed, based on kinematics parameterizations, and these are used as inputs to the closed loop system to move the links. This paper describes an approach for rapid maneuvering of multi-body systems that uses optimal control theory to account for dynamic nonlinearities and coupling as part of the motion trajectory design. Incorporating appropriate operational constraints automatically compensates for these multi-body effects so that motion time can be reduced while simultaneously achieving other objectives such as reducing the excitation of selected links. Since the compensatory effect is embedded within the optimal motion trajectories, the performance improvement can be obtained even when using simple closed-loop architectures for maneuver implementation. Simulation results for minimum time control of a two-axis gimbal system and for rapid maneuvering of a TDRS single-access antenna, wherein it is desired to limit the excitation of the satellite body to which the antenna is attached, are presented to illustrate the concepts.

  18. Partition method for impact dynamics of flexible multibody systems based on contact constraint

    段玥晨; 章定国; 洪嘉振


    The impact dynamics of a flexible multibody system is investigated. By using a partition method, the system is divided into two parts, the local impact region and the region away from the impact. The two parts are connected by specific boundary conditions, and the system after partition is equivalent to the original system. According to the rigid-flexible coupling dynamic theory of multibody system, system’s rigid-flexible coupling dynamic equations without impact are derived. A local impulse method for establishing the initial impact conditions is proposed. It satisfies the compatibility con-ditions for contact constraints and the actual physical situation of the impact process of flexible bodies. Based on the contact constraint method, system’s impact dynamic equa-tions are derived in a differential-algebraic form. The contact/separation criterion and the algorithm are given. An impact dynamic simulation is given. The results show that system’s dynamic behaviors including the energy, the deformations, the displacements, and the impact force during the impact process change dramatically. The impact makes great effects on the global dynamics of the system during and after impact.

  19. Applied dynamics with applications to multibody and mechatronic systems

    Moon, Francis C


    Applied Dynamics provides a modern and thorough examination of dynamics with specific emphasis on physical examples and applications such as: robotic systems, magnetic bearings, aerospace dynamics, and microelectromagnetic machines. Also includes the development of the method of virtual velocities based on the principle of virtual power

  20. Evolution of Flexible Multibody Dynamics for Simulation Applications Supporting Human Spaceflight

    Huynh, An; Brain, Thomas A.; MacLean, John R.; Quiocho, Leslie J.


    During the course of transition from the Space Shuttle and International Space Station programs to the Orion and Journey to Mars exploration programs, a generic flexible multibody dynamics formulation and associated software implementation has evolved to meet an ever changing set of requirements at the NASA Johnson Space Center (JSC). Challenging problems related to large transitional topologies and robotic free-flyer vehicle capture/ release, contact dynamics, and exploration missions concept evaluation through simulation (e.g., asteroid surface operations) have driven this continued development. Coupled with this need is the requirement to oftentimes support human spaceflight operations in real-time. Moreover, it has been desirable to allow even more rapid prototyping of on-orbit manipulator and spacecraft systems, to support less complex infrastructure software for massively integrated simulations, to yield further computational efficiencies, and to take advantage of recent advances and availability of multi-core computing platforms. Since engineering analysis, procedures development, and crew familiarity/training for human spaceflight is fundamental to JSC's charter, there is also a strong desire to share and reuse models in both the non-realtime and real-time domains, with the goal of retaining as much multibody dynamics fidelity as possible. Three specific enhancements are reviewed here: (1) linked list organization to address large transitional topologies, (2) body level model order reduction, and (3) parallel formulation/implementation. This paper provides a detailed overview of these primary updates to JSC's flexible multibody dynamics algorithms as well as a comparison of numerical results to previous formulations and associated software.

  1. Brownian dynamics simulations of a flexible polymer chain which includes continuous resistance and multibody hydrodynamic interactions

    Butler, Jason E.; Shaqfeh, Eric S. G.


    Using methods adapted from the simulation of suspension dynamics, we have developed a Brownian dynamics algorithm with multibody hydrodynamic interactions for simulating the dynamics of polymer molecules. The polymer molecule is modeled as a chain composed of a series of inextensible, rigid rods with constraints at each joint to ensure continuity of the chain. The linear and rotational velocities of each segment of the polymer chain are described by the slender-body theory of Batchelor [J. Fluid Mech. 44, 419 (1970)]. To include hydrodynamic interactions between the segments of the chain, the line distribution of forces on each segment is approximated by making a Legendre polynomial expansion of the disturbance velocity on the segment, where the first two terms of the expansion are retained in the calculation. Thus, the resulting linear force distribution is specified by a center of mass force, couple, and stresslet on each segment. This method for calculating the hydrodynamic interactions has been successfully used to simulate the dynamics of noncolloidal suspensions of rigid fibers [O. G. Harlen, R. R. Sundararajakumar, and D. L. Koch, J. Fluid Mech. 388, 355 (1999); J. E. Butler and E. S. G. Shaqfeh, J. Fluid Mech. 468, 204 (2002)]. The longest relaxation time and center of mass diffusivity are among the quantities calculated with the simulation technique. Comparisons are made for different levels of approximation of the hydrodynamic interactions, including multibody interactions, two-body interactions, and the "freely draining" case with no interactions. For the short polymer chains studied in this paper, the results indicate a difference in the apparent scaling of diffusivity with polymer length for the multibody versus two-body level of approximation for the hydrodynamic interactions.

  2. Multibody Systems

    Wagner, Falko Jens


    Multibody Systems is one area, in which methods for solving DAEs are of special interst. This chapter is about multibody systems, why they result in DAE systems and what kind of problems that can arise when dealing with multibody systems and formulating their corresponding DAE system....

  3. Multibody Dynamic Stress Simulation of Rigid-Flexible Shovel Crawler Shoes

    Samuel Frimpong


    Full Text Available Electric shovels are used in surface mining operations to achieve economic production capacities. The capital investments and operating costs associated with the shovels deployed in the Athabasca oil sands formation are high due to the abrasive conditions. The shovel crawler shoes interact with sharp and abrasive sand particles, and, thus, are subjected to high transient dynamic stresses. These high stresses cause wear and tear leading to crack initiation, propagation and premature fatigue failure. The objective of this paper is to develop a model to characterize the crawler stresses and deformation for the P&H 4100C BOSS during propel and loading using rigid-flexible multi-body dynamic theory. A 3-D virtual prototype model of the rigid-flexible crawler track assembly and its interactions with oil sand formation is simulated to capture the model dynamics within multibody dynamics software MSC ADAMS. The modal and stress shapes and modal loads due to machine weight for each flexible crawler shoes are generated from finite element analysis (FEA. The modal coordinates from the simulation are combined with mode and stress shapes using modal superposition method to calculate real-time stresses and deformation of flexible crawler shoes. The results show a maximum von Mises stress value of 170 MPa occurring in the driving crawler shoe during the propel motion. This study provides a foundation for the subsequent fatigue life analysis of crawler shoes for extending crawler service life.

  4. System Reduction in Multibody Dynamics of Wind Turbines

    Holm-Jørgensen, Kristian; Nielsen, Søren R.K.


    . The Ritz bases spanning the reduced system comprises of rigid body modes and some dynamic low-frequency elastic eigenmodes compatible to the kinematic constraints of the related substructure. The high-frequency elastic modes are presumed to cause merely quasi-static displacements, and thus are included...

  5. Dynamic multibody protein interactions suggest versatile pathways for copper trafficking.

    Keller, Aaron M; Benítez, Jaime J; Klarin, Derek; Zhong, Linghao; Goldfogel, Matthew; Yang, Feng; Chen, Tai-Yen; Chen, Peng


    As part of intracellular copper trafficking pathways, the human copper chaperone Hah1 delivers Cu(+) to the Wilson's Disease Protein (WDP) via weak and dynamic protein-protein interactions. WDP contains six homologous metal binding domains (MBDs) connected by flexible linkers, and these MBDs all can receive Cu(+) from Hah1. The functional roles of the MBD multiplicity in Cu(+) trafficking are not well understood. Building on our previous study of the dynamic interactions between Hah1 and the isolated fourth MBD of WDP, here we study how Hah1 interacts with MBD34, a double-domain WDP construct, using single-molecule fluorescence resonance energy transfer (smFRET) combined with vesicle trapping. By alternating the positions of the smFRET donor and acceptor, we systematically probed Hah1-MBD3, Hah1-MBD4, and MBD3-MBD4 interaction dynamics within the multidomain system. We found that the two interconverting interaction geometries were conserved in both intermolecular Hah1-MBD and intramolecular MBD-MBD interactions. The Hah1-MBD interactions within MBD34 are stabilized by an order of magnitude relative to the isolated single-MBDs, and thermodynamic and kinetic evidence suggest that Hah1 can interact with both MBDs simultaneously. The enhanced interaction stability of Hah1 with the multi-MBD system, the dynamic intramolecular MBD-MBD interactions, and the ability of Hah1 to interact with multiple MBDs simultaneously suggest an efficient and versatile mechanism for the Hah1-to-WDP pathway to transport Cu(+).

  6. On the effect of linear algebra implementations in real-time multibody system dynamics

    González, Manuel; González, Francisco; Dopico, Daniel; Luaces, Alberto


    This paper compares the efficiency of multibody system (MBS) dynamic simulation codes that rely on different implementations of linear algebra operations. The dynamics of an N-loop four-bar mechanism has been solved with an index-3 augmented Lagrangian formulation combined with the trapezoidal rule as numerical integrator. Different implementations for this method, both dense and sparse, have been developed, using a number of linear algebra software libraries (including sparse linear equation solvers) and optimized sparse matrix computation strategies. Numerical experiments have been performed in order to measure their performance, as a function of problem size and matrix filling. Results show that optimal implementations can increase the simulation efficiency in a factor of 2 3, compared with our starting classical implementations, and in some topics they disagree with widespread beliefs in MBS dynamics. Finally, advices are provided to select the implementation which delivers the best performance for a certain MBS dynamic simulation.

  7. A multibody approach for 6-DOF flight dynamics and stability analysis of the hawkmoth Manduca sexta.

    Kim, Joong-Kwan; Han, Jae-Hung


    This paper investigates the six degrees of freedom (6-DOF) flight dynamics and stability of the hawkmoth Manduca sexta using a multibody dynamics approach that encompasses the effects of the time varying inertia tensor of all the body segments including two wings. The quasi-steady translational and unsteady rotational aerodynamics of the flapping wings are modeled with the blade element theory with aerodynamic coefficients derived from relevant experimental studies. The aerodynamics is given instantaneously at each integration time step without wingbeat-cycle-averaging. With the multibody dynamic model and the aerodynamic model for the hawkmoth, a direct time integration of the fully coupled 6-DOF nonlinear multibody dynamics equations of motion is performed. First, the passive damping magnitude of each single DOF is quantitatively examined with the measure of the time taken to half the initial velocity (thalf). The results show that the sideslip translation is less damped approximately three times than the other two translational DOFs, and the pitch rotation is less damped approximately five times than the other two rotational DOFs; each DOF has the value of (unit in wingbeat strokes): thalf,forward/backward = 7.10, thalf,sideslip = 17.95, thalf,ascending = 7.13, thalf,descending = 5.77, thalf,roll = 0.68, thalf,pitch = 2.39, and thalf,yaw = 0.25. Second, the natural modes of motion, with the hovering flight as a reference equilibrium condition, are examined by analyzing fully coupled 6-DOF dynamic responses induced by multiple sets of force and moment disturbance combinations. The given disturbance combinations are set to excite the dynamic modes identified in relevant eigenmode analysis studies. The 6-DOF dynamic responses obtained from this study are compared with eigenmode analysis results in the relevant studies. The longitudinal modes of motion showed dynamic modal characteristics similar to the eigenmode analysis results from the relevant literature

  8. Numerical Simulation of the Spreading Dynamic Responses of the Multibody System with a Floating Base

    Zhaobing Jiang; Luzhong Shao; Fei Shao


    To simulate the dynamic responses of the multibody system with a floating base when the upper parts spread with a certain sequence and relative speed, the homogeneous matrix method is employed to model and simulate a four-body system with a floating base and the motions are analyzed when the upper parts are spread sequentially or synchronously. The rolling, swaying and heaving temporal variations are obtained when the multibody system is under the conditions of the static water along with the wave loads and the mean wind loads or the single pulse wind loads, respectively. The moment variations of each joint under the single pulse wind load are also gained. The numerical results showed that the swaying of the floating base is almost not influenced by the spreading time or form when the upper parts spread sequentially or synchronously, while the rolling and the heaving mainly depend on the spreading time and forms. The swaying and heaving motions are influenced significantly by the mean wind loads. The single pulse wind load also has influences on the dynamic responses. The torque of joint 3 and joint 4 in the single pulse wind environment may be twice that in the windless environment when the system spreads with 60 s duration.

  9. Multi-body dynamic system simulation of carrier-based aircraft ski-jump takeoff

    Wang Yangang; Wang Weijun; Qu Xiangju


    The flight safety is threatened by the special flight conditions and the low speed of carrier-based aircraft ski-jump takeoff.The aircraft carrier motion,aircraft dynamics,landing gears and wind field of sea state are comprehensively considered to dispose this multidiscipline intersection problem.According to the particular naval operating environment of the carrier-based aircraft ski-jump takeoff,the integrated dynamic simulation models of multi-body system are developed,which involves the movement entities of the carrier,the aircraft and the landing gears,and involves takeoff instruction,control system and the deck wind disturbance.Based on Matlab/Simulink environment,the multi-body system simulation is realized.The validity of the model and the rationality of the result are verified by an example simulation of carrier-based aircraft ski-jump takeoff.The simulation model and the software are suitable for the study of the multidiscipline intersection problems which are involved in the performance,flight quality and safety of carrier-based aircraft takeoff,the effects of landing gear loads,parameters of carrier deck,etc.

  10. A Coupled Helicopter Rotor/Fuselage Dynamics Model Using Finite Element Multi-body

    Cheng Qi-you


    Full Text Available To develop a coupled rotor/flexible fuselage model for vibration reduction studies, the equation of coupled rotor-fuselage is set up based on the theory of multi-body dynamics, and the dynamic analysis model is established with the software MSC.ADMAS and MSC.NASTRAN. The frequencies and vibration acceleration responses of the system are calculated with the model of coupled rotor-fuselage, and the results are compared with those of uncoupled modeling method. Analysis results showed that compared with uncoupled model, the dynamic characteristic obtained by the model of coupled rotor-fuselage are some different. The intrinsic frequency of rotor is increased with the increase of rotational velocities. The results also show that the flying speed has obvious influence on the vibration acceleration responses of the fuselage. The vibration acceleration response in the vertical direction is much higher at the low speed and high speed flight conditions.

  11. Non-recursive augmented Lagrangian algorithms for the forward and inverse dynamics of constrained flexible multibodies

    Bayo, Eduardo; Ledesma, Ragnar


    A technique is presented for solving the inverse dynamics of flexible planar multibody systems. This technique yields the non-causal joint efforts (inverse dynamics) as well as the internal states (inverse kinematics) that produce a prescribed nominal trajectory of the end effector. A non-recursive global Lagrangian approach is used in formulating the equations for motion as well as in solving the inverse dynamics equations. Contrary to the recursive method previously presented, the proposed method solves the inverse problem in a systematic and direct manner for both open-chain as well as closed-chain configurations. Numerical simulation shows that the proposed procedure provides an excellent tracking of the desired end effector trajectory.

  12. The bond graph model of planar flexible multibody mechanical systems and its dynamic principle


    In order to increase the efficiency and reliability of the dynamic analysis for flexible planar linkage containing the coupling of multi-energy domains, a method based on bond graph is introduced. From the viewpoint of power conservation, the peculiar property of bond graph multiport element MTF is discussed. The procedure of modeling planar flexible multibody mechanical systems by bond graphs and its dynamic principle are described. To overcome the algebraic difficulty brought by differential causality and nonlinear junction structure, the constraint forces at joints can be considered as unknown effort sources and added to the corresponding O-junctions of system bond graph model. As a result, the automatic modeling on a computer is realized. The validity of the procedure is illustrated by a practical example.

  13. Virtual design software for mechanical system dynamics using transfer matrix method of multibody system and its application

    Hai-gen Yang


    Full Text Available The complex mechanical systems such as high-speed trains, multiple launch rocket system, self-propelled artillery, and industrial robots are becoming increasingly larger in scale and more complicated in structure. Designing these products often requires complex model design, multibody system dynamics calculation, and analysis of large amounts of data repeatedly. In recent 20 years, the transfer matrix method of multibody system has been widely applied in engineering fields and welcomed at home and in abroad for the following features: without global dynamic equations of the system, low orders of involved system matrices, high computational efficiency, and high programming. In order to realize the rapid and visual simulation for complex mechanical system virtual design using transfer matrix method of multibody system, a virtual design software named MSTMMSim is designed and implemented. In the MSTMMSim, the transfer matrix method of multibody system is used as the solver for dynamic modeling and calculation; the Open CASCADE is used for solid geometry modeling. Various auxiliary analytical tools such as curve plot and animation display are provided in the post-processor to analyze and process the simulation results. Two numerical examples are given to verify the validity and accuracy of the software, and a multiple launch rocket system engineering example is given at the end of this article to show that the software provides a powerful platform for complex mechanical systems simulation and virtual design.

  14. Improved Multibody Dynamics for Investigating Energy Dissipation in Train Collisions Based on Scaling Laws

    Heng Shao


    Full Text Available This study aimed to investigate energy dissipation in train collisions. A 1/8 scaled train model, about one-dimensional in longitudinal direction, was used to carry out a scaled train collision test. Corresponding multibody dynamic simulations were conducted using traditional and improved method model (IMM in ADAMS. In IMM, the connection between two adjacent cars was expressed by a nonlinear spring and energy absorbing structures were equivalently represented by separate forces, instead of one force. IMM was able to simulate the motion of each car and displayed the deformation of structures at both ends of the cars. IMM showed larger deformations and energy absorption of structures in moving cars than those in stationary cars. Moreover, the asymmetry in deformation proportion in main energy absorbing structures decreased with increasing collision speed. The asymmetry decreased from 11.69% to 3.60% when the collision speed increased from 10 km/h to 36 km/h.

  15. Multi-Body Dynamics Analysis and Low Noise Optimization of X6170ZC Diesel


    The multi-body dynamics model of the X6170ZC diesel is established to analyze vibration and acoustic noise. The high quality finite element and simulation models are developed, and nonlinear springs are used to imitate the joints of engine components. The acoustic behavior of the structure is evaluated by the velocity of surface vibration. The noise level is reduced by improving the structure of the engine. The result shows that the surface vibration velocity level is decreased about 3.7 dB (A) at 1 600 Hz after the optimization. Based on the contrast between the two structures, it is concluded that through structure design the combined noise can be reduced, and the virtual design mode of diesel engines is feasible.

  16. Multibody dynamics driving GNC and system design in tethered nets for active debris removal

    Benvenuto, Riccardo; Lavagna, Michèle; Salvi, Samuele


    Debris removal in Earth orbits is an urgent issue to be faced for space exploitation durability. Among different techniques, tethered-nets present appealing benefits and some open points to fix. Former and latter are discussed in the paper, supported by the exploitation of a multibody dynamics tool. With respect to other proposed capture mechanisms, tethered-net solutions are characterised by a safer capturing distance, a passive angular momentum damping effect and the highest flexibility to unknown shape, material and attitude of the target to interface with. They also allow not considering the centre of gravity alignment with thrust axis as a constraint, as it is for any rigid link solution. Furthermore, the introduction of a closing thread around the net perimeter ensures safer and more reliable grasping and holding. In the paper, a six degrees of freedom multibody dynamics simulator is presented: it was developed at Politecnico di Milano - Department of Aerospace Science and Technologies - and it is able to describe the orbital and attitude dynamics of tethered-nets systems and end-bodies during different phases, with great flexibility in dealing with different topologies and configurations. Critical phases as impact and wrapping are analysed by simulation to address the tethered-stack controllability. It is shown how the role of contact modelling is fundamental to describe the coupled dynamics: it is demonstrated, as a major novel contribution, how friction between the net and a tumbling target allows reducing its angular motion, stabilizing the system and allowing safer towing operations. Moreover, the so-called tethered space tug is analysed: after capture, the two objects, one passive and one active, are connected by the tethered-net flexible link, the motion of the system being excited by the active spacecraft thrusters. The critical modes prevention during this phase, by means of a closed-loop control synthesis is shown. Finally, the connection between

  17. Study on accommodation by autorefraction and dynamic refraction in children.

    Krishnacharya, Prabhakar Srinivasapur


    Childhood accommodation interferes with accurate diagnosis of the latent refractive errors. Dynamic retinoscopy offers accurate measurements of accommodative response, while an autorefractometer can predict the accommodative system activation in children. A correlation of the accommodative effort with the dynamic refraction has been investigated in emmetropic children, before and after cycloplegia. A prospective clinical study of accommodative effort in 149 emmetropic children, in the age group 3-16 years, has been conducted using TOPCON AR RM-8000B autorefractor. Dynamic refraction was performed by monocular estimation method before and after cycloplegia, using the retinoscope mirror light as target. Retinoscopic reflex produced 'with the motion' was corrected with positive spherical lenses, and that 'against the motion' was corrected with negative spherical lenses, to achieve neutralization. Mean accommodative effort measured for 149 children included in the study was -0.63±0.69D and dynamic refraction was -0.07±0.44D before cycloplegia, while the mean was+0.52D after cycloplegia, irrespective of the method used. Autorefractor measured -0.17D of accommodative effort per unit change in dynamic refraction before cycloplegia and +0.90D after cycloplegia. The performance of TOPCON AR RM-8000B autorefractor was comparable to dynamic retinoscopy. Presence of many children, and in turn, large number of accommodative response data in 11-13 and 14-15 years group is probably linked to prolonged reading/writing. The accuracy and the agreement of the actual accommodative measurements revealed after cycloplegia. Copyright © 2013 Spanish General Council of Optometry. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  18. Newton-Euler Dynamic Equations of Motion for a Multi-body Spacecraft

    Stoneking, Eric


    The Magnetospheric MultiScale (MMS) mission employs a formation of spinning spacecraft with several flexible appendages and thruster-based control. To understand the complex dynamic interaction of thruster actuation, appendage motion, and spin dynamics, each spacecraft is modeled as a tree of rigid bodies connected by spherical or gimballed joints. The method presented facilitates assembling by inspection the exact, nonlinear dynamic equations of motion for a multibody spacecraft suitable for solution by numerical integration. The building block equations are derived by applying Newton's and Euler's equations of motion to an "element" consisting of two bodies and one joint (spherical and gimballed joints are considered separately). Patterns in the "mass" and L'force" matrices guide assembly by inspection of a general N-body tree-topology system. Straightforward linear algebra operations are employed to eliminate extraneous constraint equations, resulting in a minimum-dimension system of equations to solve. This method thus combines a straightforward, easily-extendable, easily-mechanized formulation with an efficient computer implementation.

  19. Aeroelastic deployable wing simulation considering rotation hinge joint based on flexible multibody dynamics

    Otsuka, Keisuke; Makihara, Kanjuro


    Morphing wings have been developed by several organizations for a variety of applications including the changing of flight ability while in the air and reducing the amount of space required to store an aircraft. One such example of morphing wings is the deployable wing that is expected to be used for Mars exploration. When designing wings, aeroelastic simulation is important to prevent the occurrence of destructive phenomena while the wing is in use. Flutter and divergence are typical issues to be addressed. However, it has been difficult to simulate the aeroelastic motion of deployable wings because of the significant differences between these deployable wings and conventional designs. The most apparent difference is the kinematic constraints of deployment, typically a hinge joint. These constraints lead not only to deformation but also to rigid body rotation. This research provides a novel method of overcoming the difficulties associated with handling these kinematic constraints. The proposed method utilizes flexible multibody dynamics and absolute nodal coordinate formulation to describe the dynamic motion of a deployable wing. This paper presents the simulation of the rigid body rotation around the kinematic constraints as induced by the aeroelasticity. The practicality of the proposed method is confirmed.

  20. Analysis of Free Pendulum Vibration Absorber Using Flexible Multi-Body Dynamics

    Emrah Gumus


    Full Text Available Structures which are commonly used in our infrastructures are becoming lighter with progress in material science. These structures due to their light weight and low stiffness have shown potential problem of wind-induced vibrations, a direct outcome of which is fatigue failure. In particular, if the structure is long and flexible, failure by fatigue will be inevitable if not designed properly. The main objective of this paper is to perform theoretical analysis for a novel free pendulum device as a passive vibration absorber. In this paper, the beam-tip mass-free pendulum structure is treated as a flexible multibody dynamic system and the ANCF formulation is used to demonstrate the coupled nonlinear dynamics of a large deflection of a beam with an appendage consisting of a mass-ball system. It is also aimed at showing the complete energy transfer between two modes occurring when the beam frequency is twice the ball frequency, which is known as autoparametric vibration absorption. Results are discussed and compared with findings of MSC ADAMS. This novel free pendulum device is practical and feasible passive vibration absorber in the mitigation of large amplitude wind-induced vibrations in traffic signal structures.

  1. An Explicit Formulation of Singularity-Free Dynamic Equations of Mechanical Systems in Lagrangian Form---Part Two: Multibody Systems

    Pål Johan From


    Full Text Available This paper presents the explicit dynamic equations of multibody mechanical systems. This is the second paper on this topic. In the first paper the dynamics of a single rigid body from the Boltzmann--Hamel equations were derived. In this paper these results are extended to also include multibody systems. We show that when quasi-velocities are used, the part of the dynamic equations that appear from the partial derivatives of the system kinematics are identical to the single rigid body case, but in addition we get terms that come from the partial derivatives of the inertia matrix, which are not present in the single rigid body case. We present for the first time the complete and correct derivation of multibody systems based on the Boltzmann--Hamel formulation of the dynamics in Lagrangian form where local position and velocity variables are used in the derivation to obtain the singularity-free dynamic equations. The final equations are written in global variables for both position and velocity. The main motivation of these papers is to allow practitioners not familiar with differential geometry to implement the dynamic equations of rigid bodies without the presence of singularities. Presenting the explicit dynamic equations also allows for more insight into the dynamic structure of the system. Another motivation is to correct some errors commonly found in the literature. Unfortunately, the formulation of the Boltzmann-Hamel equations used here are presented incorrectly. This has been corrected by the authors, but we present here, for the first time, the detailed mathematical details on how to arrive at the correct equations. We also show through examples that using the equations presented here, the dynamics of a single rigid body is reduced to the standard equations on a Lagrangian form, for example Euler's equations for rotational motion and Euler--Lagrange equations for free motion.

  2. Implementation of Multi-Body Dynamics Simulation for the Conveyor Chain Drive System

    Suvanjumrat Chakrit


    Full Text Available The conveyor chain drive system which included four sprockets, four flat bars (chain guides and one conveyor chain had been assembled into commercial software, MSC.ADAMS. The conveyor chain was connected with rollers for running on the chain guides. The multi-body dynamics (MBD simulation was implemented to study the large displacement of chain components which happened during rotations of the symmetric model of the conveyor chain drive system. The physical experiment had obtained by construction of the conveyor chain drive system regarding the MBD model. The speeds of chain drive were adjusted by a gear motor with a converter. The trajectory of conveyor chain links which respectively meshed and ran on sprockets and chain guides was recorded by a high speed camera. Furthermore, impact-contact forces by a collision of components in the conveyor chain drive system during rotation were analysis. The comparison between MBD simulation and physical experiment of the conveyor chain drive system was performed for validation of simulation models. The MBD simulation results were in good agreement with the experimental data which obtained an average error of 3.95%.

  3. Investigating the running abilities of Tyrannosaurus rex using stress-constrained multibody dynamic analysis

    William I. Sellers


    Full Text Available The running ability of Tyrannosaurus rex has been intensively studied due to its relevance to interpretations of feeding behaviour and the biomechanics of scaling in giant predatory dinosaurs. Different studies using differing methodologies have produced a very wide range of top speed estimates and there is therefore a need to develop techniques that can improve these predictions. Here we present a new approach that combines two separate biomechanical techniques (multibody dynamic analysis and skeletal stress analysis to demonstrate that true running gaits would probably lead to unacceptably high skeletal loads in T. rex. Combining these two approaches reduces the high-level of uncertainty in previous predictions associated with unknown soft tissue parameters in dinosaurs, and demonstrates that the relatively long limb segments of T. rex—long argued to indicate competent running ability—would actually have mechanically limited this species to walking gaits. Being limited to walking speeds contradicts arguments of high-speed pursuit predation for the largest bipedal dinosaurs like T. rex, and demonstrates the power of multiphysics approaches for locomotor reconstructions of extinct animals.

  4. Rigid multibody simulation of a helix-like structure: the dynamics of bacterial adhesion pili.

    Zakrisson, Johan; Wiklund, Krister; Servin, Martin; Axner, Ove; Lacoursière, Claude; Andersson, Magnus


    We present a coarse-grained rigid multibody model of a subunit assembled helix-like polymer, e.g., adhesion pili expressed by bacteria, that is capable of describing the polymer's force-extension response. With building blocks representing individual subunits, the model appropriately describes the complex behavior of pili expressed by the gram-negative uropathogenic Escherichia coli bacteria under the action of an external force. Numerical simulations show that the dynamics of the model, which include the effects of both unwinding and rewinding, are in good quantitative agreement with the characteristic force-extension response as observed experimentally for type 1 and P pili. By tuning the model, it is also possible to reproduce the force-extension response in the presence of anti-shaft antibodies, which dramatically changes the mechanical properties. Thus, the model and results in this work give enhanced understanding of how a pilus unwinds under the action of external forces and provide a new perspective of the complex bacterial adhesion processes.

  5. A joint-space numerical model of metabolic energy expenditure for human multibody dynamic system.

    Kim, Joo H; Roberts, Dustyn


    Metabolic energy expenditure (MEE) is a critical performance measure of human motion. In this study, a general joint-space numerical model of MEE is derived by integrating the laws of thermodynamics and principles of multibody system dynamics, which can evaluate MEE without the limitations inherent in experimental measurements (phase delays, steady state and task restrictions, and limited range of motion) or muscle-space models (complexities and indeterminacies from excessive DOFs, contacts and wrapping interactions, and reliance on in vitro parameters). Muscle energetic components are mapped to the joint space, in which the MEE model is formulated. A constrained multi-objective optimization algorithm is established to estimate the model parameters from experimental walking data also used for initial validation. The joint-space parameters estimated directly from active subjects provide reliable MEE estimates with a mean absolute error of 3.6 ± 3.6% relative to validation values, which can be used to evaluate MEE for complex non-periodic tasks that may not be experimentally verifiable. This model also enables real-time calculations of instantaneous MEE rate as a function of time for transient evaluations. Although experimental measurements may not be completely replaced by model evaluations, predicted quantities can be used as strong complements to increase reliability of the results and yield unique insights for various applications.

  6. SMA actuator material model with self-sensing and sliding-mode control; experiment and multibody dynamics model

    Lambert, Tyler Ross; Gurley, Austin; Beale, David


    Shape memory alloys (SMA) can be used to create actuators that are simple, high strength, and inexpensive. These benefits come at the cost of low electrical efficiency, moderate lifetime, and complex mechanical behavior that makes them difficult to design into new applications and products. To improve the integration of SMA actuators—in particular thin SMA wires heated by passing electric current through them—into modern mechanical applications, we have created tools for modeling SMA mechanical and thermal behavior in dynamic systems and under feedback controls. Thermo-electro-mechanical constitutive models are implemented in a multibody dynamics software where they are easily applied to an actuator emplaced in a multibody dynamic system. Mechanical behavior is modeled with 1D constitutive equations. The material state determines the electrical resistivity of the material which drives ohmic heating, while thermal cooling is based on a heat transfer analysis of thin cylinders. These models contain states which are very difficult to measure experimentally (such as crystal phase fraction) and thus provide insight into the material behavior and design that experimental results cannot offer. This thermomechanical model is used in conjunction with sliding mode control—historically difficult to simulate in numerically integrated models—to develop a working ball-on-a-beam setup in which the ball position is controlled via current passed through an SMA wire and with application of an original self-sensing method. The constitutive model is developed in the multibody dynamics software MSC ADAMS and validated through the simulation of the same system.

  7. Study on the Dynamics of Laser Gyro Strapdown Inertial Measurement Unit System Based on Transfer Matrix Method for Multibody System

    Gangli Chen


    Full Text Available The dynamic test precision of the strapdown inertial measurement unit (SIMU is the basis of estimating accurate motion of various vehicles such as warships, airplanes, spacecrafts, and missiles. So, it is paid great attention in the above fields to increase the dynamic precision of SIMU by decreasing the vibration of the vehicles acting on the SIMU. In this paper, based on the transfer matrix method for multibody system (MSTMM, the multibody system dynamics model of laser gyro strapdown inertial measurement unit (LGSIMU is developed; the overall transfer equation of the system is deduced automatically. The computational results show that the frequency response function of the LGSIMU got by the proposed method and Newton-Euler method have good agreements. Further, the vibration reduction performance and the attitude error responses under harmonic and random excitations are analyzed. The proposed method provides a powerful technique for studying dynamics of LGSIMU because of using MSTMM and its following features: without the global dynamics equations of the system, high programming, low order of system matrix, and high computational speed.

  8. Lagrangian Dynamics of Open Multibody Systems with Generalized Holonomic and Nonholonomic Joints

    Duindam, Vincent; Stramigioli, Stefano


    Standard methods to model multibody systems are aimed at systems with configuration spaces isomorphic to Rn. This limitation leads to singularities and other artifacts in case the configuration space has a different topology, for example in the case of ball joints or a free-floating mechanism. This

  9. Multibody dynamics modelling and system identification of a quarter-car test rig with McPherson strut suspension

    Sandu, Corina; Andersen, Erik R.; Southward, Steve


    In this paper, we develop a multibody dynamics model of a quarter-car test-rig equipped with a McPherson strut suspension and we apply a system identification technique on it. Constrained equations of motion in the Lagrange multiplier form are derived and employed to characterise the dynamic behaviour of the test rig modelled once as a linear system and once as a non-linear system. The system of differential algebraic equations is integrated using a Hilber-Hughes-Taylor integrator. The responses of both models (linear and non-linear) to a given displacement input are obtained and compared with the experimental response recorded using the physical quarter-car test rig equipped with a McPherson strut suspension. The system identification is performed for control purposes. The results, as well as the performance and area of applicability of the test rig models derived, are discussed.

  10. Comparison of Selected Formulations for Multibody System Dynamics with Redundant Constraints

    Pękal Marcin


    Full Text Available This paper compares selected optimization-based methods for the analysis of multibody systems with redundant constraints. The following numerical schemes are examined: direct integration method, Udwadia-Kalaba formulation, two types of least-squares block solution method and Udwadia-Phohomsiri formulation. In order to compare efficiency of the algorithms, a series of simulations is performed on two exemplary McPherson struts. In the first variant, the mechanism has no redundant constraints whereas the other is overconstrained. Three constraint stabilization schemes are also compared in terms of integration errors.

  11. Prediction of in vivo joint mechanics of an artificial knee implant using rigid multi-body dynamics with elastic contacts.

    Chen, Zhenxian; Zhang, Xuan; Ardestani, Marzieh M; Wang, Ling; Liu, Yaxiong; Lian, Qin; He, Jiankang; Li, Dichen; Jin, Zhongmin


    Lower extremity musculoskeletal computational models play an important role in predicting joint forces and muscle activation simultaneously and are valuable for investigating functional outcomes of the implants. However, current computational musculoskeletal models of total knee replacement rarely consider the bearing surface geometry of the implant. Therefore, these models lack detailed information about the contact loading and joint motion which are important factors for evaluating clinical performances. This study extended a rigid multi-body dynamics simulation of a lower extremity musculoskeletal model to incorporate an artificial knee joint, based upon a novel force-dependent kinematics method, and to characterize the in vivo joint contact mechanics during gait. The developed musculoskeletal total knee replacement model integrated the rigid skeleton multi-body dynamics and the flexible contact mechanics of the tibiofemoral and patellofemoral joints. The predicted contact forces and muscle activations are compared against those in vivo measurements obtained from a single patient with good agreements for the medial contact force (root-mean-square error = 215 N, ρ = 0.96) and lateral contact force (root-mean-square error = 179 N, ρ = 0.75). Moreover, the developed model also predicted the motion of the tibiofemoral joint in all degrees of freedom. This new model provides an important step toward the development of a realistic dynamic musculoskeletal total knee replacement model to predict in vivo knee joint motion and loading simultaneously. This could offer a better opportunity to establish a robust virtual modeling platform for future pre-clinical assessment of knee prosthesis designs, surgical procedures and post-operation rehabilitation.

  12. Convergence of a class of semi-implicit time-stepping schemes for nonsmooth rigid multibody dynamics.

    Gavrea, B. I.; Anitescu, M.; Potra, F. A.; Mathematics and Computer Science; Univ. of Pennsylvania; Univ. of Maryland


    In this work we present a framework for the convergence analysis in a measure differential inclusion sense of a class of time-stepping schemes for multibody dynamics with contacts, joints, and friction. This class of methods solves one linear complementarity problem per step and contains the semi-implicit Euler method, as well as trapezoidal-like methods for which second-order convergence was recently proved under certain conditions. By using the concept of a reduced friction cone, the analysis includes, for the first time, a convergence result for the case that includes joints. An unexpected intermediary result is that we are able to define a discrete velocity function of bounded variation, although the natural discrete velocity function produced by our algorithm may have unbounded variation.

  13. A multibody dynamics model of contact between the drillstring and the wellbore and the rock penetration process

    Ningyu Wang


    Full Text Available This article models the contact between the drillstring with large slenderness ratio and the extending rigid wellbore based on the multibody dynamics method. The drillstring is modeled as absolute nodal coordinate formulation beams with contact detection points. An algorithm is developed to locate the contact points and calculate the contact forces when the drillstring is sliding and rotating in the wellbore. This provides support force and friction for the moving drillstring and effectively confines it inside the wellbore. A rock penetration model is established based on the rock-breaking velocity equation. The governing equation for the full-hole drilling system including the drillstring and the contact model is established and solved. A rock penetration correction method is proposed to stabilize the computation and to model and simulate the slide drilling process. A field drilling process is modeled and simulated. The simulation result fits the experimental result well.

  14. Development of Constraint Force Equation Methodology for Application to Multi-Body Dynamics Including Launch Vehicle Stage Seperation

    Pamadi, Bandu N.; Toniolo, Matthew D.; Tartabini, Paul V.; Roithmayr, Carlos M.; Albertson, Cindy W.; Karlgaard, Christopher D.


    The objective of this report is to develop and implement a physics based method for analysis and simulation of multi-body dynamics including launch vehicle stage separation. The constraint force equation (CFE) methodology discussed in this report provides such a framework for modeling constraint forces and moments acting at joints when the vehicles are still connected. Several stand-alone test cases involving various types of joints were developed to validate the CFE methodology. The results were compared with ADAMS(Registered Trademark) and Autolev, two different industry standard benchmark codes for multi-body dynamic analysis and simulations. However, these two codes are not designed for aerospace flight trajectory simulations. After this validation exercise, the CFE algorithm was implemented in Program to Optimize Simulated Trajectories II (POST2) to provide a capability to simulate end-to-end trajectories of launch vehicles including stage separation. The POST2/CFE methodology was applied to the STS-1 Space Shuttle solid rocket booster (SRB) separation and Hyper-X Research Vehicle (HXRV) separation from the Pegasus booster as a further test and validation for its application to launch vehicle stage separation problems. Finally, to demonstrate end-to-end simulation capability, POST2/CFE was applied to the ascent, orbit insertion, and booster return of a reusable two-stage-to-orbit (TSTO) vehicle concept. With these validation exercises, POST2/CFE software can be used for performing conceptual level end-to-end simulations, including launch vehicle stage separation, for problems similar to those discussed in this report.

  15. Numerical methods for multibody systems

    Glowinski, Roland; Nasser, Mahmoud G.


    This article gives a brief summary of some results obtained by Nasser on modeling and simulation of inequality problems in multibody dynamics. In particular, the augmented Lagrangian method discussed here is applied to a constrained motion problem with impulsive inequality constraints. A fundamental characteristic of the multibody dynamics problem is the lack of global convexity of its Lagrangian. The problem is transformed into a convex analysis problem by localization (piecewise linearization), where the augmented Lagrangian has been successfully used. A model test problem is considered and a set of numerical experiments is presented.

  16. Application of stabilization techniques in the dynamic analysis of multibody systems

    Hajžman M.


    Full Text Available This paper is intended to the discussion of possible methods for the solution of the motion equations of constrained multibody systems. They can be formulated in the form of differential-algebraic equations and their numerical solution brings the problems of constraint violation and numerical stability. Therefore special methods were proposed to handle these problems. Various approaches for the numerical solution of equations are briefly reviewed and the application of the Baumgarte’s stabilization method on testing examples is shown. The paper was motivated by the effort to find the suitable solution methods for the equations of motion in the form of differentialalgebraic equations using the MATLAB standard computational system.

  17. Dynamic analysis of multibodies system with a floating base for rolling of ro-ro ship caused by wave and slip of heavy load

    SHEN Qing; LI Yue; CHEN Xu-jun


    Common effect of wave and slip of internal heavy load will make rolling of the roll-on ship serious. This is one of the important reasons for overturn of ro-ro ships. The multibodies System with a floating base is composed of ro-ro ship and slipping heavy load. This paper takes the rolling angle of the ship and the transverse displacement of the heavy load on desk as two freedoms. Making use of analysis of apparent gravitation and apparent buoyancy, the wave rolling moment is derived. By use of dynamic method of multibodies system with a floating base, dynamic equations of the system are established. Taking a certain channel ferry as an example, a set of numerical calculation have been carried out for rolling response of the ship and displacement response of the slipping heavy load under common effect of synchro-slipping heavy loads and wave.

  18. An Improved Rigid Multibody Model for the Dynamic Analysis of the Planetary Gearbox in a Wind Turbine

    Wenguang Yang


    Full Text Available This paper proposes an improved rigid multibody model for the dynamic analysis of the planetary gearbox in a wind turbine. The improvements mainly include choosing the inertia frame as the reference frame of the carrier, the ring, and the sun and adding a new degree of freedom for each planet. An element assembly method is introduced to build the model, and a time-varying mesh stiffness model is presented. A planetary gear study case is employed to verify the validity of the improved model. Comparisons between the improvement model and the traditional model show that the natural characteristics are very close; the improved model can obtain the right equivalent moment of inertia of the planetary gear in the transient simulation, and all the rotation speeds satisfy the transmission relationships well; harmonic resonance and resonance modulation phenomena can be found in their vibration signals. The improved model is applied in a multistage gearbox dynamics analysis to reveal the prospects of the model. Modal analysis and transient analysis with and without time-varying mesh stiffness considered are conducted. The rotation speeds from the transient analysis are consistent with the theory, and resonance modulation can be found in the vibration signals.

  19. Analysis for the Deployment of Single-Point Mooring Buoy System Based on Multi-Body Dynamics Method

    CHANG Zong-yu; TANG Yuan-guang; LI Hua-jun; YANG Jian-ming; WANG Lei


    Deployment of buoy systems is one of the most important procedures for the operation of buoy system.In the present study,a single-point mooring buoy system which contains surface buoy,cable segments with components,anchor and so on is modeled by applying multi-body dynamics method.The motion equations are developed in discrete node description and fully Cartesian coordinates.Then numerical method is used to solve the ordinary differential equations and dynamics simulations are achieved while anchor is casting from board.The trajectories and velocities of different nodes without current and with current in buoy system are obtained.The transient tension force of each part of the cable is analyzed in the process of deployment.Numerical results indicate that the transient payload increases to a peak value when the anchor is touching the seabed and the maximum tension force will vary with different floating configuration.This work is helpful for design and deployment planning of buoy system.

  20. Discrete time transfer matrix method for dynamics of multibody system with flexible beams moving in space

    Xiao-Ting Rui; Edwin Kreuzer; Bao Rong; Bin He


    In this paper,by defining new state vectors and developing new transfer matrices of various elements moving in space,the discrete time transfer matrix method of multi-rigid-flexible-body system is expanded to study the dynamics of muhibody system with flexible beams moving in space.Formulations and numerical example of a rigidflexible-body three pendulums system moving in space are given to validate the method. Using the new method to study the dynamics of multi-rigid-flexible-body system mov ing in space,the global dynamics equations of system are not needed,the orders of involved matrices of the system are very low and the computational speed is high,irrespective of the size of the system.The new method is simple,straightforward,practical,and provides a powerful tool for multi-rigid-flexible-body system dynamics.

  1. Assimilation, Accommodation, and the Dynamics of Personality Development.

    Block, Jack


    Specifies some problems in the Piagetian characterizations of assimilation and accommodation and offers an alternative formulation intended to resolve some conceptual anomalies. On the basis of the revision, the orthogenetic law of developmental progression is explicitly derived. Further, Piaget's notion of "equilibrium" is extended into…

  2. Gain in computational efficiency by vectorization in the dynamic simulation of multi-body systems

    Amirouche, F. M. L.; Shareef, N. H.


    An improved technique for the identification and extraction of the exact quantities associated with the degrees of freedom at the element as well as the flexible body level is presented. It is implemented in the dynamic equations of motions based on the recursive formulation of Kane et al. (1987) and presented in a matrix form, integrating the concepts of strain energy, the finite-element approach, modal analysis, and reduction of equations. This technique eliminates the CPU intensive matrix multiplication operations in the code's hot spots for the dynamic simulation of the interconnected rigid and flexible bodies. A study of a simple robot with flexible links is presented by comparing the execution times on a scalar machine and a vector-processor with and without vector options. Performance figures demonstrating the substantial gains achieved by the technique are plotted.

  3. Multi-body dynamic coupling mechanism for generating throwing arm velocity during baseball pitching.

    Naito, Kozo; Takagi, Tokio; Kubota, Hideaki; Maruyama, Takeo


    The purpose of this study was to identify the detailed mechanism how the maximum throwing arm endpoint velocity is determined by the muscular torques and non-muscular interactive torques from the perspective of the dynamic coupling among the trunk, thorax and throwing and non-throwing arm segments. The pitching movements of ten male collegiate baseball pitchers were measured by a three-dimensional motion capture system. Using the induced-segmental velocity analysis (IVA) developed in this study, the maximum fingertip velocity of the throwing arm (MFV) was decomposed into each contribution of the muscular torques, passive motion-dependent torques due to gyroscopic moment, Coriolis force and centrifugal force, and other interactive torque components. The results showed that MFV (31.6±1.7m/s) was mainly attributed to two different mechanisms. The first is the passive motion-dependent effect on increasing the angular velocities of three joints (thorax rotation, elbow extension and wrist flexion). The second is the muscular torque effect of the shoulder internal rotation (IR) torque on generating IR angular velocity. In particular, the centrifugal force-induced elbow extension motion, which was the greatest contributor among individual joint contributions, was caused primarily by the angular velocity-dependent forces associated with the humerus, thorax, and trunk rotations. Our study also found that a compensatory mechanism was achieved by the negative and positive contributions of the muscular torque components. The current IVA is helpful to understand how the rapid throwing arm movement is determined by the dynamic coupling mechanism. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Spatial multibody modeling and vehicle dynamics analysis of advanced vehicle technologies

    Letherwood, Michael D.; Gunter, David D.; Gorsich, David J.; Udvare, Thomas B.


    The US Army vision, announced in October of 1999, encompasses people, readiness, and transformation. The goal of the Army vision is to transition the entire Army into a force that is strategically responsive and dominant at every point of the spectrum of operations. The transformation component will be accomplished in three ways: the Objective Force, the Legacy (current) Force, and the Interim Force. The objective force is not platform driven, but rather the focus is on achieving capabilities that will operate as a "system of systems." As part of the Objective Force, the US Army plans to begin production of the Future Combat System (FCS) in FY08 and field the first unit by FY10 as currently defined in the FCS solicitation(1). As part of the FCS program, the Future Tactical Truck System (FTTS) encompasses all US Army tactical wheeled vehicles and its initial efforts will focus only on the heavy class. The National Automotive Center (NAC) is using modeling and simulation to demonstrate the feasibility and operational potential of advanced commercial and military technologies with application to new and existing tactical vehicles and to describe potential future vehicle capabilities. This document will present the results of computer-based, vehicle dynamics performance assessments of FTTS concepts with such features as hybrid power sources, active suspensions, skid steering, and in-hub electric drive motors. Fully three-dimensional FTTS models are being created using commercially available modeling and simulation methodologies such as ADAMS and DADS and limited vehicle dynamics validation studies are will be performed.

  5. Varying parameter models to accommodate dynamic promotion effects

    Foekens, E.W.; Leeflang, P.S.H.; Wittink, D.R.


    The purpose of this paper is to examine the dynamic effects of sales promotions. We create dynamic brand sales models (for weekly store-level scanner data) by relating store intercepts and a brand's own price elasticity to a measure of the cumulated previous price discounts - amount and time - for t

  6. Varying parameter models to accommodate dynamic promotion effects

    Foekens, E.W.; Leeflang, P.S.H.; Wittink, D.R.


    The purpose of this paper is to examine the dynamic effects of sales promotions. We create dynamic brand sales models (for weekly store-level scanner data) by relating store intercepts and a brand's own price elasticity to a measure of the cumulated previous price discounts - amount and time - for

  7. Static and Dynamic Measurement of Accommodation Using the Grand Seiko WAM-5500 Autorefractor

    Win-Hall, Dorothy M.; Houser, Jaime; Glasser, Adrian


    Purpose The Grand Seiko WR-5500 (WAM) is an open field autorefractor capable of measuring accommodation and pupil diameter dynamically. This study was undertaken to compare static and dynamic accommodation measurements with this instrument in young, phakic subjects. Methods Fifteen subjects, aged 20–28 years (23.8±0.58; mean±SD) participated. Accommodation was stimulated with text printed on a transparent sheet presented at various distances. In static mode, subjects focused on the near text and three measurements were taken for each stimulus amplitude. In dynamic mode, the 5 Hz recording was started and subjects alternately looked through the transparent near chart and focused on a letter chart at 6 m for 5 seconds and then focused on the near letter chart for 5 seconds for a total of 30 seconds. After smoothing the raw data, the highest three individual values recorded in each 5 second interval of focusing at near were averaged for each stimulus amplitude. ANOVA and Bland-Altman analysis were used to compare the static and dynamic measurements. A calibration was performed with +3.00 to -10.00 D trial lenses behind an IR filter, in 1.00 D steps in 5 of the 15 subjects. Results Stimulus-response graphs from static and dynamic modes were not significantly different in the lower stimulus range (static and dynamic modes. Corresponding pupil diameter could be recorded along with the accommodation responses for the subjects and pupil diameter decreased with increasing stimulus demand. Calibration curves for static and dynamic measurements were not significantly different from the 1:1 line or from each other (p = 0.32). Conclusion Although slight differences between the dynamically and statically recorded responses were identified, the Grand-Seiko WAM autorefractor provides the ability to measure both. Dynamic measurement of accommodation and pupil constriction potentially provides additional useful information on the accommodative response other than simply the

  8. Dynamic distance direct ophthalmoscopy, a novel technique to assess accommodation in children

    Mihir Kothari


    Full Text Available Aim: To describe and compare dynamic distance direct ophthalmoscopy (DDDO with dynamic retinoscopy (DR in assessment of accommodation in children. Materials and Methods: This prospective observational study had four components. Component 1: to understand the characteristic digital images of DDDO. Component 2: to compare DDDO with DR for detection of accommodative defects in children (1-16 years. Component 3: to compare DDDO with DR for the detection of completeness of pharmacologically induced cycloplegia in children (5-16 years and Component 4: to assess which one of the two techniques was more sensitive to detect onset of cycloplegia after instillation of 1% cyclopentolate eye drops. Results: Component 1: image analysis of DDDO on two subjects (7 years and 35 years demonstrated superior pupillary crescent that progressively disappeared with increasing accommodation. Concurrently an inferior crescent appeared that became bigger in size with increasing accommodation. Component 2: the prevalence of defects in accommodation was 3.3% (33/1000 children. Three had unilateral accommodation failure. Sensitivity of DDDO was 94%, specificity 100%, positive predictive value 100%, negative predictive value 99%, and clinical agreement (kappa 0.97. Component 3: in the detection of completeness of pharmacologically induced cycloplegia (n=30, the sensitivity of DDDO was 94%, specificity 96%, positive predictive value 97%, negative predictive value 93% and kappa 0.9. DR had two false positives. DDDO had one false negative. Component 4: DDDO detected onset of pharmacologically induced cycloplegia 5 min earlier than DR (n=5. Conclusion: DDDO is a novel, simple, clinical and reliable method to assess accommodation in young children. This test can assess the accommodative response of both eyes simultaneously.

  9. 爆破拆除科技发展及多体-离散体动力学%Scientific Development of Explosive Demolition and Multibody-discretebody Dynamics



    多体—离散体动力学是爆破拆除科技理论发展的新阶段。研究描述了建筑物爆破拆除科技的发展历程,定义了建筑物倒塌动力学及包含的多体—离散体动力学,突出了与传统多体的不同特点,建立了动力学方程,列举出典型拆除动力学方程实例,求取其解析解和近似解,提出动力学方程的相似性及无量纲规整应用,实现了变拓扑多体—离散体动力学的全局仿真,阐明了与方程运算参数有关的破损材料力学和混凝土构件冲击动力学。应用多体动力学,可简便地将拆除模型导出各类建筑结构各种倒塌方式的切口尺寸、爆堆形态、后坐下坐、起爆次序和分段时差等无量纲表达,为高大建(构)筑物选择合理的倒塌方式、拆除措施和切口参数提供了完整理论和简单实用算法,实现了对爆破拆除的精确控制。%The multi-discrete body dynamics was new scientific idea in explosive demolition. The building explo-sive demolition was described. The dynamics behavior of building toppling down and multi-discrete body dynamics was defined. The dynamic characteristic was different from traditional multi-body system. The dynamic equations and the representative equations of demolition were erected and enumerated,finally the approximate solutions were put forward. The dynamic equations comparability and applications of complete dimensionless were given. The complete chessboard emulating of variable topological multi-discrete body dynamics were performed. The parameters of material mechanics and impact dynamics of concrete component concerning the equation computing were clarified. With the multi-body dynamics,the demolition model was simply educed such as the dimensionless expression of cutting size, shape of muck pile,back and down sitting,firing order and delay time of collapse types of different buildings. In order to choose reasonable collapse scheme

  10. Dynamic performance of accommodating intraocular lenses in a negative feedback control system: a simulation-based study.

    Schor, Clifton M; Bharadwaj, Shrikant R; Burns, Christopher D


    A dynamic model of ocular accommodation is used to simulate the stability and dynamic performance of accommodating intraocular lenses (A-IOLs) that replace the hardened natural ocular lens that is unable to change focus. Accommodation simulations of an older eye with A-IOL materials having biomechanical properties of a younger eye illustrate overshoots and oscillations resulting from decreased visco-elasticity of the A-IOL. Stable dynamics of an A-IOL are restored by adaptation of phasic and tonic neural-control properties of accommodation. Simulations indicate that neural control must be recalibrated to avoid unstable dynamic accommodation with A-IOLs. An interactive web-model of A-IOL illustrating these properties is available at

  11. Multibody simulation of adhesion pili

    Zakrisson, Johan; Servin, Martin; Axner, Ove; Lacoursiere, Claude; Andersson, Magnus


    We present a coarse grained rigid multibody model of a subunit assembled helix-like polymer, e.g., adhesion pili expressed by bacteria, that is capable of describing the polymers force-extension response. With building blocks representing individual subunits the model appropriately describes the complex behavior of pili expressed by the gram-negative uropathogenic Escherichia coli bacteria under the action of an external force. Numerical simulations show that the dynamics of the model, which include both the effects of unwinding and rewinding, are in good quantitative agreement with the characteristic force-extension response as observed experimentally for type 1 and P pili. By tuning the model, it is also possible to reproduce the force-extension response in the presence of anti-shaft antibodies, which dramatically changes the mechanical properties. Thus, the model and the results in this work give enhanced understanding of how a pilus unwinds under action of external forces and provide new perspective of th...

  12. Study on movement inertia in the Earth multi-body system

    CHEN; Xiaofei; BI; Siwen; GONG; Huili


    This paper summarizes the first movement and mass centre of stratum-block movement inertia in the Earth multi-body system and introduces its application. It also elaborates the moment of inertia and the products of inertia: the inertia dyadic transformation of reference system and the parallel axis theorem of stratum-block movement inertia of the Earth multi-body system. It provides an academic foundation for research on the dynamic model of Earth multi-body system.

  13. 斜齿行星传动多体动力学建模与分析%Multibody dynamic modeling and analysis for a helical planetary gear train

    张俊; 刘先增


    A multibody dynamic model for a helical planetary gear train (HPGT)was proposed and the dynamic performance of the HPGT system was analyzed.Its free vibration characteristics,steady-state dynamic responses and the effects of design parameters on the system dynamic behavior were investigated with numerical simulations.The free vibration of the HGPT was classified into 3 categories according to modal properties,such as,eigenvalue multiplies, modal coordinates of central components and coordinate ratios of planets.The classified vibration modes were axial translational and torsional mode (AT mode ),radial translational and rotational mode (RR mode )and planet mode (P mode).The characteristics of each category were presented.The simulation results agreed well with those using the previous discretized model neglecting the component flexibilities to validate the correctness of the proposed multibody dynamic model.The steady-state dynamic responses indicated that the dynamic meshing forces fluctuate about the average static values and the time-varying meshing stiffness is the major excitation of the system.The parametric sensitivity analysis showed that the floating sun gear and the reduction of circumferential assembly error of planets are effective to suppress the vibration of the HGPT.%建立了斜齿行星传动的多体动力学模型,对其进行了动态特性仿真,获知了该类系统的自由振动特性、稳态动力响应以及部分设计参数对系统动态特性的影响规律。根据系统特征值的重根数、中心构件的振型坐标及各行星轮间振型坐标的比例,将斜齿行星轮系的自由振动归结为3类典型振动模式,即:轴向平移-扭转振动模式、径向平移-扭摆振动模式和行星轮振动模式,并进一步给出了各类模式的特点。当不考虑构件自身柔性时,基于多体动力学模型的自由振动特性与前人的集中参数模型的仿真结果完全一致,表明了本文

  14. Parallel computing studies of flexible multibody system dynamics using OpenMP and Pardiso%基于OpenMP和Pardiso的柔性多体系统动力学并行计算

    曹大志; 强洪夫; 任革学


    Parallel algorithms were developed for multibody dynamic systems to accelerate the speed of dynamic simulations of large complex flexible multibody systems. The main computational loads during the numerical solution of the differential algebraic equations (DAEs) were analyzed with OpenMP then used to compute the system tangent matrix and residual vector in parallel and with a parallel sparse linear equation solver, Pardiso, used for the linear equations. Both of the parallel strategies were implemented in an in-house multibody algorithm for parallel analyses of multibody dynamic systems. The parallel speedup and the computational efficiency of the algorithm are quite good so the simulation speeds of multibody dynamic analyses are increased substantially.%为加快大型、复杂柔性多体系统的动力学仿真的速度,对多体系统动力学的并行算法进行研究。首先分析了微分代数方程(differentialalgebraicequations,DAEs)在数值计算求解过程中主要的计算量。据此,提出采用OpenMP并行计算系统的刚度矩阵、右端项和采用并行的稀疏线性方程组求解器Pardiso对线性方程组进行求解的并行策略。将这两种并行策略应用到自主开发的柔性多体系统动力学软件THUS01ver中,实现了对多体系统动力学的并行计算。通过两个工程算例的仿真得到并行的加速比和计算效率,结果表明:采用的两种并行策略都有很高的计算效率,能大幅提高多体系统动力学仿真的速度。

  15. Dynamics and control for Constrained Multibody Systems modeled with Maggi's equation: Application to Differential Mobile Robots Partll

    Amengonu, Yawo H.; Kakad, Yogendra P.


    Quasivelocity techniques were applied to derive the dynamics of a Differential Wheeled Mobile Robot (DWMR) in the companion paper. The present paper formulates a control system design for trajectory tracking of this class of robots. The method develops a feedback linearization technique for the nonlinear system using dynamic extension algorithm. The effectiveness of the nonlinear controller is illustrated with simulation example.

  16. A computational procedure for the dynamics of flexible beams within multibody systems. Ph.D. Thesis Final Technical Report

    Downer, Janice Diane


    The dynamic analysis of three dimensional elastic beams which experience large rotational and large deformational motions are examined. The beam motion is modeled using an inertial reference for the translational displacements and a body-fixed reference for the rotational quantities. Finite strain rod theories are then defined in conjunction with the beam kinematic description which accounts for the effects of stretching, bending, torsion, and transverse shear deformations. A convected coordinate representation of the Cauchy stress tensor and a conjugate strain definition is introduced to model the beam deformation. To treat the beam dynamics, a two-stage modification of the central difference algorithm is presented to integrate the translational coordinates and the angular velocity vector. The angular orientation is then obtained from the application of an implicit integration algorithm to the Euler parameter/angular velocity kinematical relation. The combined developments of the objective internal force computation with the dynamic solution procedures result in the computational preservation of total energy for undamped systems. The present methodology is also extended to model the dynamics of deployment/retrieval of the flexible members. A moving spatial grid corresponding to the configuration of a deployed rigid beam is employed as a reference for the dynamic variables. A transient integration scheme which accurately accounts for the deforming spatial grid is derived from a space-time finite element discretization of a Hamiltonian variational statement. The computational results of this general deforming finite element beam formulation are compared to reported results for a planar inverse-spaghetti problem.

  17. Linking rigid multibody systems via controllable thin fluid films

    Estupinan, Edgar Alberto; Santos, Ilmar


    , this paper gives a theoretical contribution to the combined fields of fluid–structure interaction and vibration control. The methodology is applied to a reciprocating linear compressor, where the dynamics of the mechanical components are described with help of multibody dynamics. The crank is linked...... of the journal orbits, maximum fluid film pressure and minimum fluid film thickness....

  18. Dynamics and Control of Constrained Multibody Systems modeled with Maggi's equation: Application to Differential Mobile Robots Part I

    Amengonu, Yawo H.; Kakad, Yogendra P.


    Quasivelocity techniques such as Maggi's and Boltzmann-Hamel's equations eliminate Lagrange multipliers from the beginning as opposed to the Euler-Lagrange method where one has to solve for the n configuration variables and the multipliers as functions of time when there are m nonholonomic constraints. Maggi's equation produces n second-order differential equations of which (n-m) are derived using (n-m) independent quasivelocities and the time derivative of the m kinematic constraints which add the remaining m second order differential equations. This technique is applied to derive the dynamics of a differential mobile robot and a controller which takes into account these dynamics is developed.


    富立; 岳凤桐


    当多体系统的约束全部是摩擦接触时,其动力学问题可归结为一个常微分方程(ordinary differential equation,ODE)与线性互补问题(linear complementarity problem,LCP)的混合动力学问题.如果除了摩擦接触之外还增加了光滑的双边约束,则需要将ODE-LCP混合动力学模型推广为微分代数方程(differential algebra equation,DAE)与LCP的混合动力学模型.该文采用DAE与LCP混合动力学方法求解不考虑碰撞但同时含有持续摩擦接触及光滑等式约束的多体系统动力学问题.在建立系统动力学模型时,首先将含摩擦的约束从系统中移去得到基本动力学系统.由于基本系统中带有等式约束,所以基本系统的动力学方程为一组DAE.结合基本系统的DAE与约束的互补条件便可以得到DAE-LCP混合动力学模型.数值计算采用基于DAE与LCP的步进(time-stepping)算法,将系统动力学方程及其约束离散化并转化为一个混合LCP进行求解.该算法无需进行滞-滑状态检测,避免了事件检测导致的繁复计算.利用所提方法对典型机构的非光滑非线性特征进行了数值分析,验证了该文方法的正确有效性.%Presently, dynamics of nonsmooth multibody systems is a hot research topic. The usual approach in treating such systems is to derive basic system from the original system by removing the nonsmooth constraints firstly. The Lagrange equations of the second kind of basic system combine with the complementarity condition of the nonsmooth constraints to set up at each discrete moment in time a Linear Complementarity Problem (LCP).This article focuses on the problem of dynamic modeling and numerical simulating of multibody systems with friction contacts. By neglecting the clearance and the effect of impact between rigid bodies and constraints,the state variables in the differential equations are continuous. Due to the set-value mapping characteristic of dry friction forces, the

  20. The dynamic nature of assimilation and accommodation procedures in the brains of Chinese-English and English-Chinese bilinguals.

    Sun, Yafeng; Peng, Danling; Ding, Guosheng; Qi, Ting; Desroches, Amy S; Liu, Li


    The framework of assimilation and accommodation has been proposed to explain the brain mechanisms supporting second language reading acquisition (Perfetti et al. [2007]: Bilingual Lang Cogn 10:131). Assimilation refers to using the procedures of the native language network in the acquisition of a new writing system, whereas accommodation refers to using second language procedures for reading the newly acquired writing system. We investigated assimilation and accommodation patterns in the brains of bilingual individuals by recruiting a group of Chinese-English bilinguals and a group of English-Chinese bilinguals to perform lexical decision tasks in both English and Chinese. The key question was whether the assimilation/accommodation procedures supporting second language reading in the brains of Chinese-English and English-Chinese bilinguals were dynamic, i.e., modulated by proficiency in the second language and perceptual features of the second language's script. Perceptual features of the scripts were manipulated through orthographic degradation by inserting spaces between the radicals of a Chinese character or between the syllables of an English word. This manipulation disrupts the visual configuration of the orthography but does not change its more fundamental design principles. We found that for English-Chinese bilinguals, higher proficiency was associated with greater accommodation, suggesting that the accommodation procedure in a bilingual individual's brain is modulated by second language proficiency. Most interestingly, we found that the assimilation/accommodation effects vanished or diminished when orthographically degraded scripts were processed by both Chinese-English and English-Chinese bilinguals, suggesting that the assimilation/accommodation procedures in a bilingual individual's brain are modulated by perceptual features of orthography. This work therefore offers a new, dynamic perspective for our understanding of the assimilation/accommodation

  1. Development of New Generation of Multibody System Computer Codes


    Book ,” 2nd edn. Springer , New York. 12. Roberson, R.E., and Schwertassek, R., 1988, Dynamics of Multibody Systems, Springer Verlag, Berlin, Germany...vehicle, machine, aerospace, biomechanics , and biological system components such as tires, belt drives, rubber chains, soil, cables, ligaments, soft

  2. Unconditionally Energy Stable Implicit Time Integration: Application to Multibody System Analysis and Design

    Chen, Shanshin; Tortorelli, Daniel A.; Hansen, John Michael


    however yields spurious oscillations in the computed accelerations. Therefore, a new acceleration correction is applied to eliminate these instabilities and hence retain unconditional stability in an energy sense. In addition sensitivity analyisis and optimizations are applied to create a mechanism design......Advances in computer hardware and improved algorithms for multibody dynamics over the past decade have generated widespread interest in real-time simulations of multibody mechanics systems. At the heart of the widely used algorithms for multibody dynamics are a choice of coordinates which define...... tool. To exemplify the methodology, a wheel loader mechanism is designed to minimize energy consumption subject to trajectory constraints....

  3. Determination of the Accommodation Coefficient Using Vapor/gas Bubble Dynamics in an Acoustic Field

    Gumerov, Nail A.; Hsiao, Chao-Tsung; Goumilevski, Alexei G.; Allen, Jeff (Technical Monitor)


    Nonequilibrium liquid/vapor phase transformations can occur in superheated or subcooled liquids in fast processes such as in evaporation in a vacuum. The rate at which such a phase transformation occurs depends on the "condensation" or "accommodation" coefficient, Beta, which is a property of the interface. Existing measurement techniques for Beta are complex and expensive. The development of a relatively inexpensive and reliable technique for measurement of Beta for a wide range of substances and temperatures is of great practical importance. The dynamics of a bubble in an acoustic field strongly depends on the value of Beta. It is known that near the saturation temperature, small vapor bubbles grow under the action of an acoustic field due to "rectified heat transfer." This finding can be used as the basis for an effective measurement technique of Beta. We developed a theory of vapor bubble behavior in an isotropic acoustic wave and in a plane standing acoustic wave. A numerical code was developed which enables simulation of a variety of experimental situations and accurately takes into account slowly evolving temperature. A parametric study showed that the measurement of Beta can be made over a broad range of frequencies and bubble sizes. We found several interesting regimes and conditions which can be efficiently used for measurements of Beta. Measurements of Beta can be performed in both reduced and normal gravity environments.

  4. Active vibration control of spatial flexible multibody systems

    Neto, Maria Augusta, E-mail: [Universidade de Coimbra (Polo II), Departamento de Engenharia Mecanica, Faculdade de Ciencia e Tecnologia (Portugal); Ambrosio, Jorge A. C., E-mail: [Instituto Superior Tecnico, Instituto de Engenharia Mecanica (Portugal); Roseiro, Luis M., E-mail: [Instituto Superior de Engenharia de Coimbra, Departamento de Engenharia Mecanica (Portugal); Amaro, A., E-mail: [Universidade de Coimbra (Polo II), Departamento de Engenharia Mecanica, Faculdade de Ciencia e Tecnologia (Portugal); Vasques, C. M. A., E-mail: [Universidade do Porto, INEGI-Instituto de Engenharia Mecanica e Gestao Industrial (Portugal)


    In this work a flexible multibody dynamics formulation of complex models including elastic components made of composite materials is extended to include piezoelectric sensors and actuators. The only limitation for the deformation of a structural member is that they must remain elastic and linear when described in a coordinate frame fixed to a material point or region of its domain. The flexible finite-element model of each flexible body is obtained referring the flexible body nodal coordinates to the body fixed frame and using a diagonalized mass description of the inertia in the mass matrix and on the gyroscopic force vector. The modal superposition technique is used to reduce the number of generalized coordinates to a reasonable dimension for complex shaped structural models of flexible bodies. The active vibration control of the flexible multibody components is implemented using an asymmetric collocated piezoelectric sensor/actuator pair. An electromechanically coupled model is taken into account to properly consider the surface-bonded piezoelectric transducers and their effects on the time and spatial response of the flexible multibody components. The electromechanical effects are introduced in the flexible multibody equations of motion by the use of beam and plate/shell elements, developed to this purpose. A comparative study between the classical control strategies, constant gain and amplitude velocity feedback, and optimal control strategy, linear quadratic regulator (LQR), is performed in order to investigate their effectiveness to suppress vibrations in structures with piezoelectric sensing and actuating patches.

  5. 某型转管机枪刚柔耦合多体发射动力学仿真%Simulation of Coupled Rigid and Flexible Multi-body Dynamics on Gatling Gun

    李涛; 王瑞林; 张军挪; 蔡伟


    以某型转管机枪为对象,研究了将CAD软件中复杂实体模型导入到ADAMS软件中的方法;考虑转管机枪实际射击条件下土壤本构关系和射手边界问题,建立了驻锄—土壤参数模型与人—枪参数模型;以多刚体动力学和柔性多体动力学理论为基础,采用ADAMS/Flex柔性体模块,建立了某型转管机枪刚柔耦合的虚拟样机仿真模型.通过对所建立的模型构件之间添加相互作用力,并进行多体发射动力学仿真和分析,获得了自动机运动过程中各主要部件的动力学特性.选取机枪自动机的速度和位移为校验指标,通过与试验数据中枪口响应位移比较,证明建立的刚柔耦合模型科学合理、准确有效,为该枪后期的结构优化与改进提供了模拟试验平台.%The method of translation complex model from CAD to ADAMS was studied on the object of Gatling gun; considering the soil constitutive relationship and the striker boundary problem in the actual shooting condition,spade-soil system and Parameter models of man-gun system were built; based on rigid multi-body dynamics and flexible body dynamics theories,the coupled rigid and flexible ADAMS model of the Gatling gun was established by using ADAMS/Flex module.The whole gun's kinematics circumstances and a series of dynamic curves were obtained during the course of simulation and analysis of coupled rigid and flexible multi-body dynamics.The Model was testified rational,accuracy and effective by comparing simulating results with the experimental data of the velocity and displacement of muzzle,which has laid the foundation for further simulation and structural optimization.

  6. Analysis of servo-constraint problems for underactuated multibody systems

    R. Seifried


    Full Text Available Underactuated multibody systems have fewer control inputs than degrees of freedom. In trajectory tracking control of such systems an accurate and efficient feedforward control is often necessary. For multibody systems feedforward control by model inversion can be designed using servo-constraints. So far servo-constraints have been mostly applied to differentially flat underactuated mechanical systems. Differentially flat systems can be inverted purely by algebraic manipulations and using a finite number of differentiations of the desired output trajectory. However, such algebraic solutions are often hard to find and therefore the servo-constraint approach provides an efficient and practical solution method. Recently first results on servo-constraint problems of non-flat underactuated multibody systems have been reported. Hereby additional dynamics arise, so-called internal dynamics, yielding a dynamical system as inverse model. In this paper the servo-constraint problem is analyzed for both, differentially flat and non-flat systems. Different arising important phenomena are demonstrated using two illustrative examples. Also strategies for the numerical solution of servo-constraint problems are discussed.

  7. Static analysis of large-scale multibody system using joint coordinates and spatial algebra operator.

    Omar, Mohamed A


    Initial transient oscillations inhibited in the dynamic simulations responses of multibody systems can lead to inaccurate results, unrealistic load prediction, or simulation failure. These transients could result from incompatible initial conditions, initial constraints violation, and inadequate kinematic assembly. Performing static equilibrium analysis before the dynamic simulation can eliminate these transients and lead to stable simulation. Most exiting multibody formulations determine the static equilibrium position by minimizing the system potential energy. This paper presents a new general purpose approach for solving the static equilibrium in large-scale articulated multibody. The proposed approach introduces an energy drainage mechanism based on Baumgarte constraint stabilization approach to determine the static equilibrium position. The spatial algebra operator is used to express the kinematic and dynamic equations of the closed-loop multibody system. The proposed multibody system formulation utilizes the joint coordinates and modal elastic coordinates as the system generalized coordinates. The recursive nonlinear equations of motion are formulated using the Cartesian coordinates and the joint coordinates to form an augmented set of differential algebraic equations. Then system connectivity matrix is derived from the system topological relations and used to project the Cartesian quantities into the joint subspace leading to minimum set of differential equations.

  8. Multi-body system dynamics analysis and finite element simulation on marine power transmission system%船舶传动装置多体动力学和有限元仿真技术

    马炳杰; 周文建; 童宗鹏; 沈建平


    目前,传动装置振动计算多采用集中参数法,未将轴系振动(扭转振动、横向振动与纵向振动)以及结构振动进行综合分析,与实际情况有一定的差别.本文以典型双机并车装置传动(包括柴油机、高弹性联轴器、万向轴、传动齿轮、主轴与输出负载)为研究对象,应用多体系统动力学理论对其激励特性进行研究,为传动装置有限元动力学响应分析提供输入条件.在完成传动装置多体动力学仿真分析的基础上建立传动装置有限元分析模型,然后对传动装置进行轴系振动和结构振动有限元动力学响应分析,并进行试验验证.同时,讨论转速和隔振刚度对传动装置结构振动的影响规律.最后,通过总结,初步形成船舶传动装置基于多体动力学和有限元仿真的振动特性预估方法,以完善和充实传动装置的研究方法和理论.%The lumped parameter method is widely adopted in the vibration calculation of the transmission system currently. The aggregate analysis of the torsional vibration of the shafting, the transverse vibration,the extensional vibration and the structural vibration are not undertaken. In this thesis,the drive characteristics are researched applied the theory of the multi-body dynamics and the input conditions are supplied to the dynamic response analysis of the finite element model based on typical two-engined joint operating device ( include diesel engine, the elasticity coupling, cardan shaft, driving gear, main shaft and output load). Through the dynamic simulation with transmission system,the finite element analysis model of the transmission shafting is established, and the dynamic responses of the shafting vibration and structural vibration are analyzed, and the experimental verification was proceeded. Meanwhile, the transmission characteristics of the structure vibration about transmission system are revealed. The influence regulations about the parameters of the

  9. Structure overset grid method and its applications to simulation of multi-body separation

    Zhang, HaiRui; Fan, JingJing; Yuan, Wu; Zhang, WeiHua


    This paper proposes an automatic structure overset grid method, which utilizes the hole-surface optimization with one-step searching, wall-surface grid oversetting, and dynamic overset grid approaches to achieve the high adaptability of overset grids for complex multi-body aircrafts. Specifically, based on the automatic structure overset grids, the method first solves the coupling of Navier-Stokes (N-S) unsteady flow equation and 6DOF motion equation, and establishes the multi-body collision model. Then, the numerical simulation of unsteady flow for complex aircrafts' multi-body separation, the simulation of multi-body separating trajectory and the separation safety analysis are accomplished. Thus, the method can properly handle practical engineering problems including the wing/drop tank separation, aircraft/mount separation, and cluster bomb projection. Experiments show that our numerical results match well with experimental results, which demonstrates the effectiveness of our methods in solving the multi-body separation problem for aircrafts with complex shapes.

  10. Study on Parallel Processing for Efficient Flexible Multibody Analysis based on Subsystem Synthesis Method

    Han, Jong-Boo; Song, Hajun; Kim, Sung-Soo [Chungnam Nat’l Univ., Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)


    Flexible multibody simulations are widely used in the industry to design mechanical systems. In flexible multibody dynamics, deformation coordinates are described either relatively in the body reference frame that is floating in the space or in the inertial reference frame. Moreover, these deformation coordinates are generated based on the discretization of the body according to the finite element approach. Therefore, the formulation of the flexible multibody system always deals with a huge number of degrees of freedom and the numerical solution methods require a substantial amount of computational time. Parallel computational methods are a solution for efficient computation. However, most of the parallel computational methods are focused on the efficient solution of large-sized linear equations. For multibody analysis, we need to develop an efficient formulation that could be suitable for parallel computation. In this paper, we developed a subsystem synthesis method for a flexible multibody system and proposed efficient parallel computational schemes based on the OpenMP API in order to achieve efficient computation. Simulations of a rotating blade system, which consists of three identical blades, were carried out with two different parallel computational schemes. Actual CPU times were measured to investigate the efficiency of the proposed parallel schemes.

  11. Optimal design method for force in vibration control of multi-body system with quick startup and brake

    TANG Hua-ping; PENG Ya-qing


    A kind of active vibration control method was presented through optimal design of driving load of multi-body system with quick startup and brake. Dynamical equation of multi-body system with quick startup and brake was built, and mathematical model of representing vibration control was also set up according to the moving process from startup to brake. Then optimization vibration control model of system driving load was founded by applying theory of optimization control, which takes rigid body moving variable of braking moment as the known condition, and vibration control equation of multi-body system with quick startup and brake was converted into boundary value problem of differential equation. The transient control algorithm of vibration was put forward, which is the analysis basis for the further research. Theoretical analysis and calculation of numerical examples show that the optimal design method for the multi-body system driving load can decrease the vibration of system with duplication.

  12. Finite element approach for transient analysis of multibody systems

    Wu, Shih-Chin; Chang, Che-Wei; Housner, Jerrold M.


    A three-dimensional, finite element based formulation for the transient dynamics of constrained multibody systems with trusslike configurations is presented. A convected coordinate system is used to define the rigid-body motion of individual elements in the system. Deformation of each element is defined relative to its convected coordinate system. The formulation is oriented toward joint-dominated structures. Through a series of sequential transformations, the joint degree of freedom is built into the equations of motion of the element to reduce geometric constraints. Based on the derivation, a general-purpose code has been developed. Two examples are presented to illustrate the application of the code.

  13. An Efficient Method for Synthesis of Planar Multibody Systems including Shape of Bodies as Design Variables

    Hansen, Michael R.; Hansen, John Michael


    A point contact joint has been developed and implemented in a joint coordinate based planar multibody dynamics analysis program that also supports revolute and translational joints. Further, a segment library for the definition of the contours of the point contact joints has been integrated...... in the code and as a result any desired contour shape may be defined. The sensitivities of the basic physical variables of a multibody system, i.e. the positions, velocities, accelerations, and reactions of the system with respect to the automatically identified independent design variables may be determined...

  14. Estimating the largest Lyapunov exponent in a multibody system with dry friction by using chaos synchronization

    Shihui Fu; Qi Wang


    Using the properties of chaos synchronization. the method for estimating the largest Lyapunov exponent in a multibody system with dry friction is presented in this paper. The Lagrange equations with multipliers of the systems are given in matrix form. which is adequate for numerical calculation. The approach for calculating the generalized velocity and acceleration of the slider is given to determine slipping or sticking of the slider in the systems. For slip-slip and stick-slip multibody systems, their largest Lyapunov exponents are calculated to characterize their dynamics.

  15. 大变形复合材料薄板多体系统动力学建模%Dynamic modeling of composite thin-plate multibody systems with large deformation

    张炜华; 刘锦阳


    Dynamic modeling theory of composite thin-plate multibody systems with large deformation was investigated.Based on Kirchhoff's assumption that the normal vector is always perpendicular to the central surface,the relation among in-plane strains,curvatures,absolute nodal coordinates and absolute gradients were derived according to the definition of Green strain,and the generalized elastic-force vector and its differentiation with respect to the generalized coordinates were derived.Equations of motion of the composite thin-plate multibody systems with large deformation were derived based on absolute nodal-coordinate formulation.Generalized method and the Newton-Raphson method were used to solve the differential-algebraic equations.Simulation of a composite thin plate applied with an external force was conducted.Comparison of the present simulation results with those obtained by ANSYS software verifies the accuracy and effectiveness of the formulation.Finally,the proposed formulation is used for numerical simulation of composite solar-array deployment mechanisms.The vibration characteristics of the driving force and constraint forces are analyzed in case of different panel layers.%对大变形复合材料薄板的多体系统动力学建模方法进行研究。基于 Kirchhoff 假设,法线与中面保持垂直,从格林应变的表达式出发,建立了面内应变和曲率与绝对位置坐标和斜率的关系,在此基础上推导了广义弹性力阵和弹性力阵对广义坐标的导数阵,用绝对节点坐标方法建立了大变形复合材料薄板多体系统的动力学方程,用广义α法和和牛顿迭代法求解微分-代数混合方程。对外载荷作用下的复合材料薄板进行数值仿真,通过与 ANSYS 的仿真结果进行对比,验证了该建模方法的准确性和快速收敛性。最后,将建模方法应用于复合材料太阳帆板展开机构的数值仿真,分析了不同铺层情况下驱动力和约束力的振动特性。

  16. Multibody interactions of actuated magnetic particles used as fluid drivers in microchannels

    Derks, R.J.S.; Frijns, A.J.H.; Prins, M.W.J.; Dietzel, A.H.


    The forced motion of superparamagnetic particles and their multibody interactions are studied in view of the application as integrated fluid drivers in microchannel systems. Previous studies on particle manipulation in open fluid volumes serve as our starting point for the analysis of particle dynam

  17. Dynamics of bed use in accommodating emergency admissions: stochastic simulation model.

    Bagust, A; Place, M; Posnett, J W


    To examine the daily bed requirements arising from the flow of emergency admissions to an acute hospital, to identify the implications of fluctuating and unpredictable demands for emergency admission for the management of hospital bed capacity, and to quantify the daily risk of insufficient capacity for patients requiring immediate admission. Modelling of the dynamics of the hospital system, using a discrete-event stochastic simulation model, which reflects the relation between demand and available bed capacity. Hypothetical acute hospital in England. Simulated emergency admissions of all types except mental disorder. The risk of having no bed available for any patient requiring immediate admission; the daily risk that there is no bed available for at least one patient requiring immediate admission; the mean bed occupancy rate. Risks are discernible when average bed occupancy rates exceed about 85%, and an acute hospital can expect regular bed shortages and periodic bed crises if average bed occupancy rises to 90% or more. There are limits to the occupancy rates that can be achieved safely without considerable risk to patients and to the efficient delivery of emergency care. Spare bed capacity is therefore essential for the effective management of emergency admissions, and its cost should be borne by purchasers as an essential element of an acute hospital service.

  18. Influence of Amplitude, Starting Point, and Age on First- and Second-Order Dynamics of Edinger-Westphal–Stimulated Accommodation in Rhesus Monkeys

    Baumeister, Martin; Wendt, Mark; Glasser, Adrian


    First- and second-order dynamics of Edinger-Westphal–stimulated accommodation in rhesus monkeys depend on the amplitude but not on the starting point of the response. The disaccommodative peak velocity for a given amplitude is lower in older than in younger monkeys.

  19. On validation of multibody musculoskeletal models

    Lund, Morten Enemark; de Zee, Mark; Andersen, Michael Skipper;


    This paper reviews the opportunities to validate multibody musculoskeletal models in view of the current transition of musculoskeletal modelling from a research topic to a practical simulation tool in product design, healthcare and other important applications. This transition creates a new need...... for improvement of the validation of multibody musculoskeletal models are pointed out and directions for future research in the field are proposed. It is our hope that a more structured approach to model validation can help to improve the credibility of musculoskeletal models....

  20. X-37 separation from a B-52H: application of multi-body dynamics and closed-loop feedback using overset CFD

    Jolly, B.; Rizk, M. [Jacobs Sverdrup Tech., TEAS Group, Elgin AFB, Florida (United States)]. Email:; Moran, R. [United States Air Force, Elgin AFB, Florida (United States)


    The Air Force SEEK EAGLE Office (AFSEO) provided independent aerodynamic data, which was key in the separation analysis for the X-37 Approach and Landing Test Vehicle (ALTV). To ensure the best aerodynamic B-52H interference database would be generated for the analysis, NASA contracted both NASA Johnson Space Center (JSC) and the AFSEO via the 412th Flight Test Squadron (Edwards AFB CA) to run independent Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) studies. These data were then compared to the existing database from Boeing to establish confidence and determine areas of uncertainty. NASA requested CFD data from the AFSEO primarily for static and carriage solutions of the X-37 at various positions under the B-52H. In addition, several dynamic simulations of X-37 trajectories used rate feedback control to deflect the control surfaces to stabilize the X-37. The AFSEO CFD team calculated 140 static, unsteady solutions and 9 dynamic time-accurate trajectory simulations between April 2003 and June 2004 to support the NASA X-37 ALTV program. The computational models used structured adjacent and overlapping grids with the total computational domain consisting of 25 million points in 315 grids. The rate-control autopilot commanded both yaw and roll in four control surfaces; pitch commands were preset. The results show significant increase in stability of the X-37 trajectory from the B-52H. (author)

  1. 汽车-行人碰撞多体动力学仿真与抛距模型研究%Simulation of Car-Pedestrian Collision Multi-body Dynamics and Study of Throwing Distance Model

    谢州凯; 王秋成; 刘卫国; 宁晓斌


    汽车与行人碰撞是我国道路交通事故的主要类型之一,该类事故在所有事故中致死率最高且与人们的安全出行密切相关,受到民众的广泛关注.然而传统的事故分析方法在此类事故的处理上存在较大困难.文章以多体动力学理论为基础,以PC-CRASH为平台,建立了多刚体数字化行人模型,通过设定代表身体各部分的属性(外形、质量、刚度、摩擦系数等)来定义行人特征.并将模型与国外某实车碰撞试验对比验证其可靠性.通过对仿真结果的回归分析得出了车速-抛距模型,为该类交通事故处理提供了数据参考.%Vehicle-pedestrian collision is a major type traffic accident in China. Because of its high fatality rate and closely related with people's travelling, people pay close attention to this type of accident. However, it is difficult to handle such kind of accident with common use "accident analyzing method". Based on multi-body dynamic theory, the paper built a numerical multi-rigid-body pedestrian model as a platform for PC-CRASH to simulate the collision between vehicle and pedestrian. Through setting rigid-body characters of different parts of the pedestrian (appearance , mass, rigid, friction factor) , the characters of pedestrian can be defined. The model was validated by comparing with a real car collision experiment abroad. The speed throwing distance was obtained through the regression analysis of simulation results. It provides numerical reference for such vehicle-pedestrian traffic accident. [Ch,5 fig. 3 tab. 13 ref.

  2. Multi-body Dynamic Modeling and Mobility Simulation Analysis of Deep Ocean Tracked Miner%深海履带式集矿机多体动力学建模与行走性能仿真分析

    张滔; 戴瑜; 刘少军; 陈君; 黄中华


    Deep seafloor extremely soft cohesive sediment is completely different from land surface soils, which need high requirements for structure design and mobility performance of the seafloor operated machine. According to the physical and mechanical properties of the seafloor sediment, laboratory simulated sediment is prepared. Based on the theory of terramechanics, mechanics experiments on the simulated tracks and simulated sediment interactions are performed. The normal pressure-sinkage and horizontal shear stress-shear displacement mathematical relationships are obtained. According to the detailed structure design parameters of the deep seafloor tracked miner, its multi-body dynamic model is built by the dynamic modeling and simulation code RecurDyn/Track. Application of the mechanics relationships of the seafloor sediment obtained from experiments, user-written subroutines are compiled with C language. Based on the secondary development for RecurDyn/Track, the development of the deep seafloor sediment mechanics model in the RecurDyn/Track is realized. Various dynamic simulations of the tracked miner on the seafloor special sediment are carried out. The mobility performance of the miner are analyzed and evaluated, which lay the foundations for the structure design optimization, mobility performance evaluation and moving control of the practical deep seafloor tracked miner.%深海底极稀软底质是一种完全不同于陆地表面的特殊底质,对海底作业机器的结构设计及其行走性能提出高要求。根据海底底质物理力学特性,配制实验室模拟底质,基于车辆地面力学理论,开展模拟履带板与模拟底质相互作用力学特性试验,分别获得法向压力-沉陷、水平切应力-剪切位移函数关系式。根据深海底履带式集矿机详细结构设计参数,采用动力学建模与仿真程序 RecurDyn/Track 构建海底履带式集矿机多体动力学模型。应用实验室模拟试验获得

  3. Natural Frequency Analysis of Wind Turbines Based on Flexible Multi-body Dynamics%基于柔性多体动力学的风力发电机固有振动频率研究

    张丰豪; 何榕


    The horizontal axis wind turbine has a tendency of being larger and more flexible, which results in the linear dynamic models based on small deflection assumption inappropriate. The coupled vibration of flexible blades and tower become more important in large wind turbine. Hence, it is necessary to analyze the stability of wind turbine using a global model. Based on the theory of flexible multi-body dynamics, a global structural dynamic model of wind turbine was developed using the rigid finite element method. The model could be used in both small and large deflection situations and could be used to analyze the vibration of wind turbine in different cases. Results of the model were compared with other programs, and it was approved that our model was more accurate than other models based on modal method. Natural frequencies of wind turbine were studied under the coupled and uncoupled vibration conditions of blades and tower. Results show that some higher natural frequencies of blades and tower in the whole system have changed and there are some new frequencies created in coupled vibration. The results mean that it is not reliable to analyze the wind turbine vibration using the natural frequencies of the separate tower or blades. The global model should be used for the large wind turbine.%水平轴风力发电机大型化、柔性化的发展趋势使得基于小变形假设的线性分析方法不再合理。大型风力机柔性叶片和塔架的耦合振动加剧,需采用整机模型对其进行分析。基于柔性多体动力学理论,采用刚体有限元方法建立了风力发电机的整机结构动力学模型,该模型不受几何变形量大小限制,能够对风力机在各种情况下的整机振动进行分析。模型结果与其他程序进行了对比,证实该文模型的精度比模态方法更高。研究了叶片和塔架在耦合与非耦合状态下整机的固有振动频率,结果表明:在整机状态下塔架和叶片的部

  4. Active vibration control of multibody system with quick startup and brake based on active damping

    TANG Hua-ping; TANG Yun-jun; TAO Gong-an


    A kind of active vibration control method was presented based on active damping and optimization design for driving load of multibody system with quick startup and brake. Dynamical equation of multibody system with quick startup and brake and piezoelectric actuators intelligent structure was built. The optimum driving load was calculated by applying the presented method. The self-sensing and self-tuning closed-loop active vibration control in quick startup and brake process was realized. The control algorithm, using local velocity negative feedback, i.e. the output of a sensor only affects the output of the actuator collocated, can induce damping effectively to actively suppress the system vibration. Based on the optimization design for driving load of multibody system with quick startup and bake, the active damping of piezoelectric actuators intelligent structure was used to farther suppress the vibration of system. Theoretical analysis and calculation of numerical show that the proposed method makes the vibration of system decrease more than the optimal design method for driving load of multibody system.

  5. Nonlinear Multibody Dynamics of Wind Turbines

    Holm-Jørgensen, Kristian

    The continuing development of wind turbines aim at higher effect production and reducing the purchase and maintenance costs for the customers. This demands that the components in the wind turbine are optimized closer to the limit than previously. In order to determine the design loads it is neces...... of straight elements of uniform thickness to discretize the cross section, where a mean value of the material layers over the thickness direction is used. Good correspondence is demonstrated between the used discretization methods....


    ZHANG Junyuan; ZHANG Min; DING Rufang; QIU Shaobo; ZHANG Yu; LI Hongjian


    Based on multi-body dynamics, the simulation models of auto-side structures and occupant's dynamic responses are set up, using the occupant injury simulation software MADYMO3D. These models include auto-body structure, impact barrier, seat and dummy. Definitions of multi-body and joints and dynamics properties of joints based on FE combination models, of model setup are introduced. Kelvin element of MADYMO is introduced to show the force action between non-adjoining rigid bodies, too. Then all examples of the methods mentioned are given. By the comparison of simulation and real test, the contract curves between simulation and real test for main structures and biology mechanics properties of dummy are obtained. The result shows the accuracy and validity of the models.

  7. Application of Krylov Reduction Technique for a Machine Tool Multibody Modelling

    M. Sulitka


    Full Text Available Quick calculation of machine tool dynamic response represents one of the major requirements for machine tool virtual modelling and virtual machining, aiming at simulating the machining process performance, quality, and precision of a workpiece. Enhanced time effectiveness in machine tool dynamic simulations may be achieved by employing model order reduction (MOR techniques of the full finite element (FE models. The paper provides a case study aimed at comparison of Krylov subspace base and mode truncation technique. Application of both of the reduction techniques for creating a machine tool multibody model is evaluated. The Krylov subspace reduction technique shows high quality in terms of both dynamic properties of the reduced multibody model and very low time demands at the same time.

  8. Engine Multi-Body with Flexible Crankshaft Modeling and Numerical Simulation

    LIU Yong-hong; WANG Hong; GU Hong-liang; ZHANG You-yun


    A multi-body model of engine system with flexible crankshaft was presented in this paper to analyze the dynamic behavior of an internal combustion engine. The flexible crankshaft structural dynamics was coupled with the main bearing hydrodynamic lubrication in this model by a system approach. An application of an I4 engine was given to show this sophisticated simulation model and to predict the loads and the orbit plots in the journal bearings by the dynamic response of the multi-body engine system with flexible crankshaft. The numerical results show the capabilities and significance of the flexible crankshaft in this system. The objective of the research is to provide the scientific guidance for design and maintenance of the internal combustion engine.

  9. Multi-body coalescence in Pickering emulsions

    Wu, Tong; Wang, Haitao; Jing, Benxin; Liu, Fang; Burns, Peter C.; Na, Chongzheng


    Particle-stabilized Pickering emulsions have shown unusual behaviours such as the formation of non-spherical droplets and the sudden halt of coalescence between individual droplets. Here we report another unusual behaviour of Pickering emulsions—the simultaneous coalescence of multiple droplets in a single event. Using latex particles, silica particles and carbon nanotubes as model stabilizers, we show that multi-body coalescence can occur in both water-in-oil and oil-in-water emulsions. The number of droplets involved in the nth coalscence event equals four times the corresponding number of the tetrahedral sequence in close packing. Furthermore, coalescence is promoted by repulsive latex and silica particles but inhibited by attractive carbon nanotubes. The revelation of multi-body coalescence is expected to help better understand Pickering emulsions in natural systems and improve their designs in engineering applications.

  10. Controllability of a multibody mobile robot

    Laumond, J.P. (LAAS/CNRS, Toulouse (France))


    This paper presents a proof of controllability for a multibody mobile robot (e.g., a car pulling and pushing trailers like a luggage carrier in an airport). Such systems appear as canonical systems to illustrate the tools from differential geometric control theory required by nonholonomic motion planning. Three modeling steps are considered: geometric, differential, and control steps. The author derives the kinematic equations for four distinct multibody mobile robot systems: a convoy driven by (1) a unicycle, (2) a two-driving wheels vehicle, (3) a real and (4) the first two bodies. He shows that these four control systems correspond to the same differential model, which is then used to give the same proof of controllability. Previous work proved the controllability of two-body systems and three body systems. The main result of this paper is proving the controllability for a general n-body system.

  11. A multibody strategy for deformable grains

    Mollon, Guilhem


    This article presents a numerical framework dedicated to the simulation of granular materials with highly deformable grains. This framework is based on a multibody meshfree strategy, which makes it possible to account for the constitutive model of the material composing each grain and for possibly complex contact laws (e.g. adhesion, friction, etc.). The main principles of the approach are first presented, and two illustrative cases are then detailed in order to emphasize its potential in several domains of the granular science.

  12. Inverse problem for multi-body interaction of nonlinear waves

    Marruzzo, Alessia; Antenucci, Fabrizio; Pagnani, Andrea; Leuzzi, Luca


    The inverse problem is studied in multi-body systems with nonlinear dynamics representing, e.g., phase-locked wave systems, standard multimode and random lasers. Using a general model for four-body interacting complex-valued variables we test two methods based on pseudolikelihood, respectively with regularization and with decimation, to determine the coupling constants from sets of measured configurations. We test statistical inference predictions for increasing number of sampled configurations and for an externally tunable {\\em temperature}-like parameter mimicing real data noise and helping minimization procedures. Analyzed models with phasors and rotors are generalizations of problems of real-valued spherical problems (e.g., density fluctuations), discrete spins (Ising and vectorial Potts) or finite number of states (standard Potts): inference methods presented here can, then, be straightforward applied to a large class of inverse problems.

  13. Nonlinear MPC and MHE for Mechanical Multi-Body Systems with Application to Fast Tethered Airplanes


    International audience; Mechanical applications often require a high control frequency to cope with fast dynamics. The control frequency of a nonlinear model predictive controller depends strongly on the symbolic complexity of the equations modeling the system. The symbolic complexity of the model equations for multi-body mechanical systems can often be dramatically reduced by using representations based on non-minimal coordinates, which result in index-3 differential-algebraic equations (DAE...

  14. Multi-Body Analysis of a Tiltrotor Configuration

    Ghiringhelli, G. L.; Masarati, P.; Mantegazza, P.; Nixon, M. W.


    The paper describes the aeroelastic analysis of a tiltrotor configuration. The 1/5 scale wind tunnel semispan model of the V-22 tiltrotor aircraft is considered. The analysis is performed by means of a multi-body code, based on an original formulation. The differential equilibrium problem is stated in terms of first order differential equations. The equilibrium equations of every rigid body are written, together with the definitions of the momenta. The bodies are connected by kinematic constraints, applied in form of Lagrangian multipliers. Deformable components are mainly modelled by means of beam elements, based on an original finite volume formulation. Multi-disciplinar problems can be solved by adding user-defined differential equations. In the presented analysis the equations related to the control of the swash-plate of the model are considered. Advantages of a multi-body aeroelastic code over existing comprehensive rotorcraft codes include the exact modelling of the kinematics of the hub, the detailed modelling of the flexibility of critical hub components, and the possibility to simulate steady flight conditions as well as wind-up and maneuvers. The simulations described in the paper include: 1) the analysis of the aeroelastic stability, with particular regard to the proprotor/pylon instability that is peculiar to tiltrotors, 2) the determination of the dynamic behavior of the system and of the loads due to typical maneuvers, with particular regard to the conversion from helicopter to airplane mode, and 3) the stress evaluation in critical components, such as the pitch links and the conversion downstop spring.

  15. DAEs and PDEs in elastic multibody systems

    Simeon, B.


    Elastic multibody systems arise in the simulation of vehicles, robots, air- and spacecrafts. They feature a mixed structure with differential-algebraic equations (DAEs) governing the gross motion and partial differential equations (PDEs) describing the elastic deformation of particular bodies. We introduce a general modelling framework for this new application field and discuss numerical simulation techniques from several points of view. Due to different time scales, singular perturbation theory and model reduction play an important role. A slider crank mechanism with a 2D FE grid for the elastic connecting rod illustrates the techniques.

  16. 基于多刚体动力学模型的漂浮式拦污排的平衡形状和张力%Space Equilibrium Configuration and Tensile Forces of Drift Trash Barrier Based on Multi-Body Dynamic

    徐远杰; 夏明锬; 楚锡华


    漂浮式拦污排为多个浮箱通过铰接组成的多体系统.将浮箱模型简化为刚性杆件,基于多体动力学理论,建立了漂浮式拦污排的运动控制方程,并给出了相应的数值求解方案.模型试验表明了数值模型及求解方案的有效性.数值算例结果表明,传统的悬链线假设得到的结果误差较大.此外还讨论了平衡状态下拦污排发生“自锁”状态的判断方法及水面下降时的张力演化过程.%Drift trash barrier was a kind of multibody system made up of float boxes and hin-ges. The float boxes were simplified to rigid bars, and the governing equations for them were established based on the multi-body dynamics theory. An iteration strategy was also proposed to obtain a numerical solution. To validate the proposed model and solution, a scaled model test was designed and the test results illustrated the validation of the model and the solution. Numerical example compared the results given by the proposed model and classical model. In addition, a judge method of the self-locking state of the drift trash barrier and the change process of tensile force were presented when the water level fell.

  17. Optimization of actuator/sensor position of multi-body system with quick startup and brake


    A new method was put forward to optimize the position of actuator/sensor of multi-body system with quick startup and brake. Dynamical equation was established for the system with intelligent structure of piezoelectric actuators. According to the property of the modes varying with time, the performance index function was developed based on the optimal configuration principle of energy maximal dissipation, and the relevant optimal model was obtained. According to its characteristic, a float-encoding genetic algorithm, which is efficient, simple and excellent for solving the global-optimal solution of this problem, was adopted. Taking the plane manipulator as an example, the result of numerical calculation shows that, after the actuator/sensor position being optimized,the vibration amplitude of the multi-body system is reduced by 35% compared with that without optimization.

  18. Attitude coordination of multi-HUG formation based on multibody system theory

    Xue, Dong-yang; Wu, Zhi-liang; Qi, Er-mai; Wang, Yan-hui; Wang, Shu-xin


    Application of multiple hybrid underwater gliders (HUGs) is a promising method for large scale, long-term ocean survey. Attitude coordination has become a requisite for task execution of multi-HUG formation. In this paper, a multibody model is presented for attitude coordination among agents in the HUG formation. The HUG formation is regarded as a multi-rigid body system. The interaction between agents in the formation is described by artificial potential field (APF) approach. Attitude control torque is composed of a conservative torque generated by orientation potential field and a dissipative term related with angular velocity. Dynamic modeling of the multibody system is presented to analyze the dynamic process of the HUG formation. Numerical calculation is carried out to simulate attitude synchronization with two kinds of formation topologies. Results show that attitude synchronization can be fulfilled based on the multibody method described in this paper. It is also indicated that different topologies affect attitude control quality with respect to energy consumption and adjusting time. Low level topology should be adopted during formation control scheme design to achieve a better control effect.

  19. A minimum state multibody/FEM approach for modeling flexible orbiting space systems

    Pisculli, A.; Gasbarri, P.


    In the past the deployment of space structures has widely been analyzed by using multibody formulations. The two leading approaches are usually based on the Newton-Euler (NE) formulation and Euler-Lagrange (EL) formulation. Both of them present advantages and drawbacks. The ideal approach for describing multi-body systems can be represented by a combination between NE and EL formulations. This can be obtained by considering the NE formulation for assembling the equation of motion and then by defining the ODE governing equations with the use of a minimum set of variables. In this paper the authors present a mixed NE/EL formulation suitable for synthesizing optimal control strategies during the deploying maneuvers of robotic arms or solar arrays. The proposed method has two main characteristics: (i) the reference frame, which all the bodies motions are referred to, is a floating reference frame attached to the orbiting base platform body; (ii) it leads to a more organic formulation which makes a shifting from the NE to the EL formulations possible, through the use of a Jacobian matrix. In the present work this mixed formulation is derived to describe a fully elastic multi-body spacecraft. Furthermore the presented formulation, complemented with gravity, gravity gradient and generalized gravitational modal forces, will be used to study the dynamic behavior of an orbiting manipulator with flexible appendages. Finally a Reaction Null/Jacobian Transpose control strategy will be applied to control and deploy the robotic arms to grasp an orbiting flexible spacecraft.

  20. Integrating Multibody Simulation and CFD: toward Complex Multidisciplinary Design Optimization

    Pieri, Stefano; Poloni, Carlo; Mühlmeier, Martin

    This paper describes the use of integrated multidisciplinary analysis and optimization of a race car model on a predefined circuit. The objective is the definition of the most efficient geometric configuration that can guarantee the lowest lap time. In order to carry out this study it has been necessary to interface the design optimization software modeFRONTIER with the following softwares: CATIA v5, a three dimensional CAD software, used for the definition of the parametric geometry; A.D.A.M.S./Motorsport, a multi-body dynamic simulation software; IcemCFD, a mesh generator, for the automatic generation of the CFD grid; CFX, a Navier-Stokes code, for the fluid-dynamic forces prediction. The process integration gives the possibility to compute, for each geometrical configuration, a set of aerodynamic coefficients that are then used in the multiboby simulation for the computation of the lap time. Finally an automatic optimization procedure is started and the lap-time minimized. The whole process is executed on a Linux cluster running CFD simulations in parallel.

  1. Criteria of benchmark selection for efficient flexible multibody system formalisms

    Valášek M.


    Full Text Available The paper deals with the selection process of benchmarks for testing and comparing efficient flexible multibody formalisms. The existing benchmarks are briefly summarized. The purposes for benchmark selection are investigated. The result of this analysis is the formulation of the criteria of benchmark selection for flexible multibody formalisms. Based on them the initial set of suitable benchmarks is described. Besides that the evaluation measures are revised and extended.

  2. ROBOTRAN: a powerful symbolic gnerator of multibody models

    N. Docquier


    Full Text Available The computational efficiency of symbolic generation was at the root of the emergence of symbolic multibody programs in the eighties. At present, it remains an attractive feature of it since the exponential increase in modern computer performances naturally provides the opportunity to investigate larger systems and more sophisticated models for which real-time computation is a real asset. Nowadays, in the context of mechatronic multibody systems, another interesting feature of the symbolic approach appears when dealing with enlarged multibody models, i.e. including electrical actuators, hydraulic devices, pneumatic suspensions, etc. and requiring specific analyses like control and optimization. Indeed, since symbolic multibody programs clearly distinguish the modeling phase from the analysis process, extracting the symbolic model, as well as some precious ingredients like analytical sensitivities, in order to export it towards any suitable environment (for control or optimization purposes is quite straightforward. Symbolic multibody model portability is thus very attractive for the analysis of mechatronic applications. In this context, the main features and recent developments of the ROBOTRAN software developed at the Université catholique de Louvain (Belgium are reviewed in this paper and illustrated via three multibody applications which highlight its capabilities for dealing with very large systems and coping with multiphysics issues.

  3. Model updating in flexible-link multibody systems

    Belotti, R.; Caneva, G.; Palomba, I.; Richiedei, D.; Trevisani, A.


    The dynamic response of flexible-link multibody systems (FLMSs) can be predicted through nonlinear models based on finite elements, to describe the coupling between rigid- body and elastic behaviour. Their accuracy should be as high as possible to synthesize controllers and observers. Model updating based on experimental measurements is hence necessary. By taking advantage of the experimental modal analysis, this work proposes a model updating procedure for FLMSs and applies it experimentally to a planar robot. Indeed, several peculiarities of the model of FLMS should be carefully tackled. On the one hand, nonlinear models of a FLMS should be linearized about static equilibrium configurations. On the other, the experimental mode shapes should be corrected to be consistent with the elastic displacements represented in the model, which are defined with respect to a fictitious moving reference (the equivalent rigid link system). Then, since rotational degrees of freedom are also represented in the model, interpolation of the experimental data should be performed to match the model displacement vector. Model updating has been finally cast as an optimization problem in the presence of bounds on the feasible values, by also adopting methods to improve the numerical conditioning and to compute meaningful updated inertial and elastic parameters.

  4. Inverse problem for multi-body interaction of nonlinear waves.

    Marruzzo, Alessia; Tyagi, Payal; Antenucci, Fabrizio; Pagnani, Andrea; Leuzzi, Luca


    The inverse problem is studied in multi-body systems with nonlinear dynamics representing, e.g., phase-locked wave systems, standard multimode and random lasers. Using a general model for four-body interacting complex-valued variables we test two methods based on pseudolikelihood, respectively with regularization and with decimation, to determine the coupling constants from sets of measured configurations. We test statistical inference predictions for increasing number of sampled configurations and for an externally tunable temperature-like parameter mimicing real data noise and helping minimization procedures. Analyzed models with phasors and rotors are generalizations of problems of real-valued spherical problems (e.g., density fluctuations), discrete spins (Ising and vectorial Potts) or finite number of states (standard Potts): inference methods presented here can, then, be straightforward applied to a large class of inverse problems. The high versatility of the exposed techniques also concerns the number of expected interactions: results are presented for different graph topologies, ranging from sparse to dense graphs.

  5. Multibody charmless b-hadron decays



    Multibody charmless b-hadron decays are a unique laboratory to probe CP violation, to look for effects of new physics and to provide insights into the hadronisation mechanism. The decay modes $\\Lambda_b^0 \\to \\Lambda K^+ K^-$, $\\Lambda_b^0 \\to \\Lambda K^+ \\pi^-$, $\\Lambda_b^0 \\to \\Lambda \\phi$ and $B_s^0 \\to K_{\\rm S}^0 K^*$ are observed for the first time by LHCb and their branching fractions are measured. Evidence is seen for the $\\Lambda_b^0 \\to \\Lambda \\pi^+ \\pi^-$ decay and limits are set for the decays $\\Xi_b^0\\to \\Lambda h^+ h^{(\\prime)-}$ and $B^0 \\to K_{\\rm S}^0 K^*$ . The phase-space integrated CP asymmetry parameters are measured for $\\Lambda_b^0 \\to \\Lambda K^+ K^-$ and $\\Lambda_b^0 \\to \\Lambda K^+ \\pi^-$ while several triple-product asymmetries are measured for $\\Lambda_b^0 \\to \\Lambda \\phi$. All these asymmetries are found to be compatible with zero.

  6. [Techniques for measuring phakic and pseudophakic accommodation. Methodology for distinguishing between neurological and mechanical accommodative insufficiency].

    Roche, O; Roumes, C; Parsa, C


    The methods available for studying accommodation are evaluated: Donder's "push-up" method, dynamic retinoscopy, infrared optometry using the Scheiner principle, and wavefront analysis are each discussed with their inherent advantages and limitations. Based on the methodology described, one can also distinguish between causes of accommodative insufficiency. Dioptric insufficiency (accommodative lag) that remains equal at various testing distances from the subject indicates a sensory/neurologic (afferent), defect, whereas accommodative insufficiency changing with distance indicates a mechanical/restrictive (efferent) defect, such as in presbyopia. Determining accommodative insufficiency and the cause can be particularly useful when examining patients with a variety of diseases associated with reduced accommodative ability (e.g., Down syndrome and cerebral palsy) as well as in evaluating the effectiveness of various potentially accommodating intraocular lens designs.

  7. Application of Periapse Maps for the Design of Trajectories Near the Smaller Primary in Multi-Body Regimes

    Kathleen C. Howell


    Full Text Available The success of the Genesis spacecraft, as well as the current Artemis mission, continue to generate interest in expanding the trajectory options for future science and exploration goals throughout the solar system. Incorporating multi-body dynamics into the preliminary design can potentially offer flexibility and influence the maneuver costs to achieve certain objectives. In the current analysis, attention is focused on the development and application of design tools to facilitate preliminary trajectory design in a multi-body environment. Within the context of the circular restricted three-body problem, the evolution of a trajectory in the vicinity of the smaller primary is investigated. Introduced previously, periapse Poincaré maps have emerged as a valuable resource to predict both short- and long-term trajectory behaviors. By characterizing the trajectories in terms of radius and periapse orientation relative to the 1-2 line, useful trajectories with a particular set of desired characteristics can be identified and computed.

  8. Development of Three-dimensional Grid-free Solver and its Applications to Multi-body Aerospace Vehicles

    K. Anandhanarayanan


    Full Text Available Grid-free solver has the ability to solve complex multi-body industrial problems with minimal effort. Grid-free Euler solver has been applied to number of multi-body aerospace vehicles using Chimera clouds of points including flight vehicle with fin deflection, nose fairing separation of hypersonic launch vehicle. A preprocessor has been developed to generate connectivity for multi-bodies using overlapped grids. Surface transpiration boundary condition has been implemented to model aerodynamic damping and to impose the relative velocity of moving components. Dynamic derivatives are estimated with reasonable accuracy and less effort using the grid-free Euler solver with the transpiration boundary condition. Further, the grid-free Euler solver has been integrated with six-degrees of freedom (6-DOF equations of motion to form store separation dynamics suite which has been applied to obtain the trajectory of a rail launch air-to-air-missile from a complex fighter aircraft.Defence Science Journal, 2010, 60(6, pp.653-662, DOI:

  9. Optimization of a tuned vibration absorber in a multibody system by operational analysis

    Infante, F.; Perfetto, S.; Mayer, D.; Herold, S.


    Mechanical vibration in a drive-train can affect the operation of the system and must be kept below structural thresholds. For this reason tuned vibration absorbers (TVA) are usually employed. They are optimally designed for a single degree of freedom system using the Den Hartog technique. On the other hand, vibrations can be used to produce electrical energy exploitable locally avoiding the issues to transfer it from stationary devices to rating parts. Thus, the design of an integrated device for energy harvesting and vibration reduction is proposed to be employed in the drive-train. By investigation of the dynamic torque in the system under real operation, the accuracy of a numerical model for the multibody is evaluated. In this study, this model is initially used for the definition of the TVA. An energetic procedure is applied in order to reduce the multibody in an equivalent single degree of freedom system for a particular natural mode. Hence, the design parameters of the absorber are obtained. Furthermore, the introduction of the TVA in the model is considered to evaluate the vibration reduction. Finally, an evaluation of the power generated by the piezo transducer and its feedback on the dynamic of the drive-train is performed.

  10. Multibody simulation of vehicles equipped with an automatic transmission

    Olivier, B.; Kouroussis, G.


    Nowadays automotive vehicles remain as one of the most used modes of transportation. Furthermore automatic transmissions are increasingly used to provide a better driving comfort and a potential optimization of the engine performances (by placing the gear shifts at specific engine and vehicle speeds). This paper presents an effective modeling of the vehicle using the multibody methodology (numerically computed under EasyDyn, an open source and in-house library dedicated to multibody simulations). However, the transmission part of the vehicle is described by the usual equations of motion computed using a systematic matrix approach: del Castillo's methodology for planetary gear trains. By coupling the analytic equations of the transmission and the equations computed by the multibody methodology, the performances of any vehicle can be obtained if the characteristics of each element in the vehicle are known. The multibody methodology offers the possibilities to develop the vehicle modeling from 1D-motion to 3D-motion by taking into account the rotations and implementing tire models. The modeling presented in this paper remains very efficient and provides an easy and quick vehicle simulation tool which could be used in order to calibrate the automatic transmission.

  11. Accommodating Translational Research

    Giles, Howard


    This is an article in a series illustrating the way scholars in communication have pursued translating their research into practice. The translational nature of communication accommodation theory and examples of its application are the focus of this contribution.

  12. Real and Pseudoaccommodation in Accommodative Lenses

    Ioannis G. Pallikaris


    Full Text Available In the attempt to manage presbyopia, different intraocular lens designs have been proposed such as monofocal IOLs with monovision or multifocal IOLs. Even though the lenses mentioned offer satisfactory visual results, contemporary ophthalmology has not completely answered the presbyopic dilemma by simulating the accommodative properties of the crystalline lens itself. Accommodative IOLs were designed to fill this gap and provide satisfactory vision for all distances by restoring some degree of “pseudoaccommodation.” Pseudo accommodative capability can be linked to monofocal IOL’s as well but the results are not satisfactory enough to fully support unaided near vision. Pseudoaccommodation is a complex phenomenon that can be attributed to several static (i.e., pupil size, against-the-rule cylindrical refractive error, multifocality of the cornea and dynamic (i.e., anterior movement of the implant itself factors. Objective measurement of the accommodative capability offered by the accommodative IOLs is extremely difficult to obtain, and different methods such as autorefractometers, retinoscopy, and ultrasound imaging during accommodative effort, ray tracing, or pharmacological stimulation have been developed but the results are sometimes inconsistent. Despite the difficulties in measuring accommodation, accommodative IOLs represent the future in the attempt to successfully “cure” presbyopia.

  13. Analysis of Large Flexible Body Deformation in Multibody Systems Using Absolute Coordinates

    Dombrowski, Stefan von [Institute of Robotics and Mechatronics, German Aerospace Center (DLR) (Germany)], E-mail:


    To consider large deformation problems in multibody system simulations a finite element approach, called absolute nodal coordinate.formulation,has been proposed. In this formulation absolute nodal coordinates and their material derivatives are applied to represent both deformation and rigid body motion. The choice of nodal variables allows a fully nonlinear representation of rigid body motion and can provide the exact rigid body inertia in the case of large rotations. The methodology is especially suited for but not limited to modeling of beams, cables and shells in multibody dynamics.This paper summarizes the absolute nodal coordinate formulation for a 3D Euler-Bernoulli beam model, in particular the definition of nodal variables, corresponding generalized elastic and inertia forces and equations of motion. The element stiffness matrix is a nonlinear function of the nodal variables even in the case of linearized strain/displacement relations. Nonlinear strain/displacement relations can be calculated from the global displacements using quadrature formulae.Computational examples are given which demonstrate the capabilities of the applied methodology. Consequences of the choice of shape.functions on the representation of internal forces are discussed. Linearized strain/displacement modeling is compared to the nonlinear approach and significant advantages of the latter, when using the absolute nodal coordinate formulation, are outlined.

  14. Trajectory evolution in the multi-body problem with applications in the Saturnian system

    Craig Davis, Diane; Howell, Kathleen C.


    Recent discoveries by the Cassini spacecraft have generated interest in future missions to further explore the moons of Saturn as well as other small bodies in the solar system. Incorporating multi-body dynamics into the preliminary design can aid the design process and potentially reduce the cost of maneuvers that are required to achieve certain objectives. The focus in this investigation is the development and application of additional design tools to facilitate preliminary trajectory design in a multi-body environment where the gravitational influence of both primaries is quite significant. Within the context of the circular restricted 3-body problem, then, the evolution of trajectories in the vicinity of the smaller primary (P 2) that are strongly influenced by the distant larger primary (P 1) is investigated. By parameterizing the orbits in terms of radius and periapse orientation relative to the P 1-P 2 line, the short- and long-term behaviors of the trajectories are predictable. Initial conditions that yield a trajectory with a particular set of desired characteristics are easily selected from periapsis Poincaré maps for both short- and long-term orbits. Analysis in the Sun-Saturn and Saturn-Titan systems serves as the basis for examples of mission design applications.

  15. Reasonable Accommodation Information Tracking System

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The Reasonable Accommodation Information Tracking System (RAITS) is a case management system that allows the National Reasonable Accommodation Coordinator (NRAC) and...

  16. Intraocular lens with accommodation capacity

    Dorronsoro, Carlos; Alejandre, Nicolás; Bekesi, Nandor; Marcos, Susana


    Intraocular lens with accommodation capacity comprising a first optical member (1) having a dynamic optical power, to which a second optical member (2) with a fixed optical power is affixed, in such a manner that at least a central part of each of one of one of the curved surfaces (2a, 2b) of the second optical member (2) and of at least one of the surfaces (1a, 1b) of the first optical member (1) are in contact with each other, the second optical member (2) and the first optical member (1) p...

  17. Multiphysics modelling of multibody systems: application to car semi-active suspensions

    Docquier, N.; Poncelet, A.; Delannoy, M.; Fisette, P.


    The goal of the present article is to analyse the performances of a modern vehicle equipped with a novel suspension system linking front, rear, right and left cylinders via a semi-active hydraulic circuit, developed by the Tenneco Automotive company. In addition to improving the vehicle's vertical performances (in terms of comfort), both the stiff roll motion of the carbody and the soft wrap motion of the rear/front wheel-axle units can be obtained and tuned via eight electrovalves. The proposed system avoids the use of classical anti-roll bars, which would be incompatible with the wrap performance. A major problem of the project is to produce a realistic and efficient 3D multibody dynamic model of an Audi A6 coupled, at the equational level, with an hydraulic model of the suspension including cylinders, accumulators, valve characteristics, oil compressibility and pipe dynamics. As regards the hydraulic submodel, a particular attention is paid to assemble resistive components properly without resorting to the use of artificial volumes, as proposed by some software dealing with the dynamics of hydraulic systems. According to Tenneco Automotive requirements, this model must be produced in a Matlab/Simulink form, in particular for control purposes. Thanks to the symbolic approach underlying our multibody program; a unified hybrid model can be obtained as a unique plant dynamic block to be real-time integrated in the Simulink environment on a standard computer. Simulation results highlight the advantages of this new suspension system, in particular regarding the behaviour of the car which can remain stiff in roll for curve negotiation, while maintaining a soft wrap behaviour on uneven surfaces.

  18. Reduced accommodation in children with cerebral palsy.

    Leat, S J


    Accommodation in 43 subjects with cerebral palsy was measured objectively using a dynamic retinoscopy technique, which has already been shown to be reliable and repeatable. The subject's ages ranged from 3 to 35 years. Of these, 42% were found to have an accommodative response pattern which was different from the normal control group for his/her age. Nearly 29% had an estimated amplitude of accommodation of 4 D or less. The presence of reduced accommodation was found to be associated with reduced visual acuity, but was not associated with cognitive or communication ability, refractive error or age. The prevalence of other ocular disorders in this group is also high. These findings have developmental and educational implications.

  19. Accommodating Picky Palates

    Lum, Lydia


    Healthy gourmet offerings are fast becoming the norm at college dining halls around the country. At a time when the children of Baby Boomers are hitting higher education in record numbers, college officials have scrambled to accommodate their picky palates and their insistence for healthier meals than were served to past generations. At the same…

  20. Accommodating Different Learning Styles

    Ovesen, Nis


    Design engineering educations often struggle to accommodate a highly diverse group of students as it combines an equally diverse range of topics in one education. This paper investigates how a specific course, Mathematics and Form, integrates two distinct areas into one course with the aim of fac...

  1. Planar reorientation maneuvers of space multibody systems using internal controls

    Reyhanoglu, Mahmut; Mcclamroch, N. H.


    In this paper a reorientation maneuvering strategy for an interconnection of planar rigid bodies in space is developed. It is assumed that there are no exogeneous torques, and torques generated by joint motors are used as means of control so that the total angular momentum of the multibody system is a constant, assumed to be zero in this paper. The maneuver strategy uses the nonintegrability of the expression for the angular momentum. We demonstrate that large-angle maneuvers can be designed to achieve an arbitrary reorientation of the multibody system with respect to an inertial frame. The theoretical background for carrying out the required maneuvers is briefly summarized. Specifications and computer simulations of a specific reorientation maneuver, and the corresponding control strategies, are described.

  2. Multi-Body Analysis of the 1/5 Scale Wind Tunnel Model of the V-22 Tiltrotor

    Ghiringhelli, G. L.; Masarati, P.; Mantegazza, P.; Nixon, M. W.


    The paper presents a multi-body analysis of the 1/5 scale wind tunnel model of the V-22 tiltrotor, the Wing and Rotor Aeroelastic Testing System (WRATS), currently tested at NASA Langley Research Center. An original multi-body formulation has been developed at the Dipartimento di Ingegneria Aerospaziale of the Politecnico di Milano, Italy. It is based on the direct writing of the equilibrium equations of independent rigid bodies, connected by kinematic constraints that result in the addition of algebraic constraint equations, and by dynamic constraints, that directly contribute to the equilibrium equations. The formulation has been extended to the simultaneous solution of interdisciplinary problems by modeling electric and hydraulic networks, for aeroservoelastic problems. The code has been tailored to the modeling of rotorcrafts while preserving a complete generality. A family of aerodynamic elements has been introduced to model high aspect aerodynamic surfaces, based on the strip theory, with quasi-steady aerodynamic coefficients, compressibility, post-stall interpolation of experimental data, dynamic stall modeling, and radial flow drag. Different models for the induced velocity of the rotor can be used, from uniform velocity to dynamic in flow. A complete dynamic and aeroelastic analysis of the model of the V-22 tiltrotor has been performed, to assess the validity of the formulation and to exploit the unique features of multi-body analysis with respect to conventional comprehensive rotorcraft codes; These are the ability to model the exact kinematics of mechanical systems, and the possibility to simulate unusual maneuvers and unusual flight conditions, that are particular to the tiltrotor, e.g. the conversion maneuver. A complete modal validation of the analytical model has been performed, to assess the ability to reproduce the correct dynamics of the system with a relatively coarse beam model of the semispan wing, pylon and rotor. Particular care has been used

  3. 大型水平轴风力机多体系统的动力学分析与仿生设计%Dynamic Analysis and Bionic Design of Multi-Body System of Large-Scale Horizontal-Axis Wind Turbine

    刘旺玉; 张勇; 陈龙


    In this paper, a dynamic model of the multi-body system of a 1.5MW direct-drive wind turbine is established with the finite element software ANSYS. Then, the natural frequency of the wind turbine is calculated, and the resonance and the stability of the system are analyzed. Moreover, the transient response of each component of the system under extreme operation gusts is discussed. The results indicate that, the tower is flexible; the system is stable and safe at normal working rotational velocity; and that, due to the difference in stiffness of the components, the variation of the tip of the wind turbine blade, which is induced by the coupling of the elastic deformations of three blades and the tower under wind loading, is more complex than that of other components. The flexible structure of the plant trunk is applied to the design of the wind turbine tower, and the feasibility of this bionic design is finally proved.%采用ANSYS建立了1.5 MW直驱风力机多体系统的动力学模型,计算了系统的固有频率,对系统的共振性和稳定性进行了分析,并探讨了在极端运行阵风下风力机系统各部件的瞬态响应振动.分析结果表明:塔架为柔塔,在正常工作转速下风力机能够安全、稳定运转;由于各个部件刚度不同,使得叶片叶尖振动较其它部件复杂,叶尖的振动是受风栽作用的三叶片与塔架弹性变形相互耦合作用的结果.最后将植物树干柔性结构应用于风力机塔架的结构设计中,说明了风力机塔架仿生设计的可行性.

  4. Multibody Modeling and Simulation for the Mars Phoenix Lander Entry, Descent and Landing

    Queen, Eric M.; Prince, Jill L.; Desai, Prasun N.


    A multi-body flight simulation for the Phoenix Mars Lander has been developed that includes high fidelity six degree-of-freedom rigid-body models for the parachute and lander system. The simulation provides attitude and rate history predictions of all bodies throughout the flight, as well as loads on each of the connecting lines. In so doing, a realistic behavior of the descending parachute/lander system dynamics can be simulated that allows assessment of the Phoenix descent performance and identification of potential sensitivities for landing. This simulation provides a complete end-to-end capability of modeling the entire entry, descent, and landing sequence for the mission. Time histories of the parachute and lander aerodynamic angles are presented. The response of the lander system to various wind models and wind shears is shown to be acceptable. Monte Carlo simulation results are also presented.

  5. Development of Viscoelastic Multi-Body Simulation and Impact Response Analysis of a Ballasted Railway Track under Cyclic Loading

    Daisuke Nishiura


    Full Text Available Simulation of a large number of deformable bodies is often difficult because complex high-level modeling is required to address both multi-body contact and viscoelastic deformation. This necessitates the combined use of a discrete element method (DEM and a finite element method (FEM. In this study, a quadruple discrete element method (QDEM was developed for dynamic analysis of viscoelastic materials using a simpler algorithm compared to the standard FEM. QDEM easily incorporates the contact algorithm used in DEM. As the first step toward multi-body simulation, the fundamental performance of QDEM was investigated for viscoelastic analysis. The amplitude and frequency of cantilever elastic vibration were nearly equal to those obtained by the standard FEM. A comparison of creep recovery tests with an analytical solution showed good agreement between them. In addition, good correlation between the attenuation degree and the real physical viscosity was confirmed for viscoelastic vibration analysis. Therefore, the high accuracy of QDEM in the fundamental analysis of infinitesimal viscoelastic deformations was verified. Finally, the impact response of a ballast and sleeper under cyclic loading on a railway track was analyzed using QDEM as an application of deformable multi-body dynamics. The results showed that the vibration of the ballasted track was qualitatively in good agreement with the actual measurements. Moreover, the ballast layer with high friction reduced the ballasted track deterioration. This study suggests that QDEM, as an alternative to DEM and FEM, can provide deeper insights into the contact dynamics of a large number of deformable bodies.

  6. Bridging as Coercive Accommodation

    Bos, J W; Mineur, A M; Bos, Johan; Buitelaar, Paul; Mineur, Anne-Marie


    In this paper we discuss the notion of "bridging" in Discourse Representation Theory as a tool to account for discourse referents that have only been established implicitly, through the lexical semantics of other referents. In doing so, we use ideas from Generative Lexicon theory, to introduce antecedents for anaphoric expressions that cannot be "linked" to a proper antecedent, but that do not need to be "accommodated" because they have some connection to the network of discourse referents that is already established.

  7. Accommodation and Catering


    In the first five months, retail sales of the accommodation and catering sector reached 412.77 billion yuan, contributing 13.6 percent to total retail sales of consumer goods, said the Ministry of Commerce. Their year-on-year growth of 15 percent, or 53.78 billion yuan, was 1.78 percentage points higher than the overall increase of retail sales of consumer goods.

  8. [Spasm of accommodation].

    Lindberg, Laura


    Spasm of accommodation refers to prolonged contraction of the ciliary muscle, most commonly causing pseudomyopia to varying degrees in both eyes by keeping the lens in a state of short sightedness. It may also be manifested as inability to allow the adaptation spasticity prevailing in the ciliary muscle relax without measurable myopia. As a rule, this is a functional ailment triggered by prolonged near work and stress. The most common symptoms include blurring of distance vision, varying visual acuity as well as pains in the orbital region and the head, progressing into a chronic state. Cycloplegic eye drops are used as the treatment.

  9. Temporal accommodation response measured by photorefractive accommodation measurement device

    Song, Byoungsub; Leportier, Thibault; Park, Min-Chul


    Although accommodation response plays an important role in the human vision system for perception of distance, some three-dimensional (3D) displays offer depth stimuli regardless of the accommodation response. The consequence is that most observers watching 3D displays have complained about visual fatigue. The measurement of the accommodation response is therefore necessary to develop human-friendly 3D displays. However, only few studies about accommodation measurement have been reported. Most of the investigations have been focused on the measurement and analysis of monocular accommodation responses only because the accommodation response works individually in each eye. Moreover, a main eye perceives dominantly the object distance. However, the binocular accommodation response should be examined because both eyes are used to watch the 3D display in natural conditions. The ophthalmic instrument that we developed enabled to measure changes in the accommodation response of the two eyes simultaneously. Two cameras acquired separately the infrared images reflected from each eyes after the reflected beams passed through a cylindrical lens. The changes in the accommodation response could then be estimated from the changes in the astigmatism ratio of the infrared images that were acquired in real time. In this paper, we compared the accommodation responses of main eye between the monocular and the binocular conditions. The two eyes were measured one by one, with only one eye opened, during measurement for monocular condition. Then the two eyes were examined simultaneously for binocular condition. The results showed similar tendencies for main eye accommodation response in both cases.

  10. Sensitivity analysis approach to multibody systems described by natural coordinates

    Li, Xiufeng; Wang, Yabin


    The classical natural coordinate modeling method which removes the Euler angles and Euler parameters from the governing equations is particularly suitable for the sensitivity analysis and optimization of multibody systems. However, the formulation has so many principles in choosing the generalized coordinates that it hinders the implementation of modeling automation. A first order direct sensitivity analysis approach to multibody systems formulated with novel natural coordinates is presented. Firstly, a new selection method for natural coordinate is developed. The method introduces 12 coordinates to describe the position and orientation of a spatial object. On the basis of the proposed natural coordinates, rigid constraint conditions, the basic constraint elements as well as the initial conditions for the governing equations are derived. Considering the characteristics of the governing equations, the newly proposed generalized-α integration method is used and the corresponding algorithm flowchart is discussed. The objective function, the detailed analysis process of first order direct sensitivity analysis and related solving strategy are provided based on the previous modeling system. Finally, in order to verify the validity and accuracy of the method presented, the sensitivity analysis of a planar spinner-slider mechanism and a spatial crank-slider mechanism are conducted. The test results agree well with that of the finite difference method, and the maximum absolute deviation of the results is less than 3%. The proposed approach is not only convenient for automatic modeling, but also helpful for the reduction of the complexity of sensitivity analysis, which provides a practical and effective way to obtain sensitivity for the optimization problems of multibody systems.

  11. System Reduction in Nonlinear Multibody Dynamics of Wind Turbines

    Holm-Jørgensen, Kristian; Nielsen, Søren R.K.; Rubak, Rune


    . In the other case, the stiff body motion is defined as the chord line connecting the end points of the beam, and the elastic deformations are simply supported at the end points. The system reduction is performed by discretizing the spatial motion into a set of rigid body modes and linear elastic eigenmodes...

  12. Substructuring of multibody systems for numerical transfer path analysis in internal combustion engines

    Acri, Antonio; Offner, Guenter; Nijman, Eugene; Rejlek, Jan


    Noise legislations and the increasing customer demands determine the Noise Vibration and Harshness (NVH) development of modern commercial vehicles. In order to meet the stringent legislative requirements for the vehicle noise emission, exact knowledge of all vehicle noise sources and their acoustic behavior is required. Transfer path analysis (TPA) is a fairly well established technique for estimating and ranking individual low-frequency noise or vibration contributions via the different transmission paths. Transmission paths from different sources to target points of interest and their contributions can be analyzed by applying TPA. This technique is applied on test measurements, which can only be available on prototypes, at the end of the designing process. In order to overcome the limits of TPA, a numerical transfer path analysis methodology based on the substructuring of a multibody system is proposed in this paper. Being based on numerical simulation, this methodology can be performed starting from the first steps of the designing process. The main target of the proposed methodology is to get information of noise sources contributions of a dynamic system considering the possibility to have multiple forces contemporary acting on the system. The contributions of these forces are investigated with particular focus on distribute or moving forces. In this paper, the mathematical basics of the proposed methodology and its advantages in comparison with TPA will be discussed. Then, a dynamic system is investigated with a combination of two methods. Being based on the dynamic substructuring (DS) of the investigated model, the methodology proposed requires the evaluation of the contact forces at interfaces, which are computed with a flexible multi-body dynamic (FMBD) simulation. Then, the structure-borne noise paths are computed with the wave based method (WBM). As an example application a 4-cylinder engine is investigated and the proposed methodology is applied on the

  13. Distributed digital signal processors for multi-body flexible structures

    Lee, Gordon K. F.


    Multi-body flexible structures, such as those currently under investigation in spacecraft design, are large scale (high-order) dimensional systems. Controlling and filtering such structures is a computationally complex problem. This is particularly important when many sensors and actuators are located along the structure and need to be processed in real time. This report summarizes research activity focused on solving the signal processing (that is, information processing) issues of multi-body structures. A distributed architecture is developed in which single loop processors are employed for local filtering and control. By implementing such a philosophy with an embedded controller configuration, a supervising controller may be used to process global data and make global decisions as the local devices are processing local information. A hardware testbed, a position controller system for a servo motor, is employed to illustrate the capabilities of the embedded controller structure. Several filtering and control structures which can be modeled as rational functions can be implemented on the system developed in this research effort. Thus the results of the study provide a support tool for many Control/Structure Interaction (CSI) NASA testbeds such as the Evolutionary model and the nine-bay truss structure.

  14. Impact behaviors of human knee joint during triple-jump based on multi-body dynamics and finite element analysis%基于多体动力学和有限元方法的三级跳运动人体膝关节冲击损伤分析研究

    刘同众; 朱林; 程曦; 彭双双; 戚银银; 秦义先; 尹成龙; 章文峰; 朱德泉


    In order to better understand the effects of triple-jump movement on jumpers,impact behaviors of left knee joint of a healthy man athlete were studied.Based on CT and MRI scanning pictures of the jumper’s knee joint,a three-dimensional model was built,including complete femur,tibia,fibular,patellar,cartilages and main ligaments of the knee joint.Then,a method combining finite element analysis (FEA)and multi-body dynamic analysis (MDA)was used to simulate a real human triple-jump.Finally,the loading data,such as,muscle force and joint reaction obtained from an MDA were impulted into a finite element model to compute stress,strain and displacement variations of the knee joint under impact conditions.The numerical simulation results showed that the stress,stain and the displacement of medical cartilage are larger than those of lateral cartilage;the contact force and contact areas increase with increase in load,consequently,this can incur severer wear contours of the knee joint and badly injure the jumper.The computation results matched reasonably the research results in the published literatures.The results demonstrated the importance of performing MDA as a preliminary step to FEA in biomechanical fields,and the proposed method had a potential to generate a better understanding of injury mechanisms of jumpers.%为了研究三级跳训练、竞赛对运动员膝关节冲击损伤影响程度,以1名健康男性运动员左膝关节为研究对象,利用膝部 CT 扫描和磁共振(MRI)相结合的方法,建立了包括股骨、胫骨、腓骨、髌骨以及膝部各主要软骨、韧带在内完整的三维膝关节立体模型;采用多体动力学(MDA)与有限元分析(FEA)相结合的方法,计算出三级跳起跑、跳跃、落地全过程运动员膝关节处冲击状态下的应力、应变及位移变化状况。计算显示:在三级跳运动过程中,膝关节胫骨外侧接触区域受到的载荷,

  15. Biomechanical investigation of thoracolumbar spine in different postures during ejection using a combined finite element and multi-body approach.

    Du, Chengfei; Mo, Zhongjun; Tian, Shan; Wang, Lizhen; Fan, Jie; Liu, Songyang; Fan, Yubo


    The aim of this study is to investigate the dynamic response of a multi-segment model of the thoracolumbar spine and determine how the sitting posture affects the response under the impact of ejection. A nonlinear finite element model of the thoracolumbar-pelvis complex (T9-S1) was developed and validated. A multi-body dynamic model of a pilot was also constructed so an ejection seat restraint system could be incorporated into the finite element model. The distribution of trunk mass on each vertebra was also considered in the model. Dynamics analysis showed that ejection impact induced obvious axial compression and anterior flexion of the spine, which may contribute to spinal injuries. Compared with a normal posture, the relaxed posture led to an increase in stress on the cortical wall, endplate, and intradiscal pressure of 43%, 10%, 13%, respectively, and accordingly increased the risk of inducing spinal injuries. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  16. Optimal Disturbance Accommodation with Limited Model Information

    Farokhi, F; Johansson, K H


    The design of optimal dynamic disturbance-accommodation controller with limited model information is considered. We adapt the family of limited model information control design strategies, defined earlier by the authors, to handle dynamic-controllers. This family of limited model information design strategies construct subcontrollers distributively by accessing only local plant model information. The closed-loop performance of the dynamic-controllers that they can produce are studied using a performance metric called the competitive ratio which is the worst case ratio of the cost a control design strategy to the cost of the optimal control design with full model information.

  17. A new subregion mesh method for the investigation of the elastic-plastic impact in flexible multibody systems

    Chen, Peng; Liu, Jin-Yang; Lu, Guang-Can


    Impact processes between flexible bodies often lead to local stress concentration and wave propagation of high frequency. Therefore, the modeling of flexible multibody systems involving impact should consider the local plastic deformation and the strict requirements of the spatial discretization. Owing to the nonlinearity of the stiffness matrix, the reduction of the element number is extremely important. For the contact-impact problem, since different regions have different requirements regarding the element size, a new subregion mesh method is proposed to reduce the number of the unnecessary elements. A dynamic model for flexible multibody systems with elastic-plastic contact impact is established based on a floating frame of reference formulation and complete Lagrange incremental nonlinear finite-element method to investigate the effect of the elastic-plastic deformation as well as spatial discretization. Experiments on the impact between two bodies are carried out to validate the correctness of the elastic-plastic model. The proposed formulation is applied to a slider-crank system with elastic-plastic impact.

  18. CP violation in multibody decays of beauty baryons

    Durieux, Gauthier


    Beauty baryons are being observed in large number in the LHCb detector. The rich kinematics of their multibody decays are therefore becoming accessible and provide us with new opportunities to search for CP violation. We analyse the angular distributions of some three- and four-body decays of spin-$1/2$ baryons using the Jacob-Wick helicity formalism. The asymmetries that provide access to small differences of CP-odd phases between decay amplitudes of identical CP-even phases are notably discussed. The understanding gained on processes featuring specific resonant intermediate states allows us to establish which asymmetries are relevant for what purpose. It is for instance shown that some CP-odd angular asymmetries measured by the LHCb collaboration in the $\\Lambda_b \\to \\Lambda\\,\\varphi \\to p\\,\\pi\\, K^+ K^-$ decay are expected to vanish identically.

  19. CP violation in multibody decays of beauty baryons

    Durieux, Gauthier


    Beauty baryons are being observed in large numbers in the LHCb detector. The rich kinematic distributions of their multibody decays are therefore becoming accessible and provide us with new opportunities to search for CP violation. We analyse the angular distributions of some three- and four-body decays of spin-1/2 baryons using the Jacob-Wick helicity formalism. The asymmetries that provide access to small differences of CP-odd phases between decay amplitudes of identical CP-even phases are notably discussed. The understanding gained on processes featuring specific resonant intermediate states allows us to establish which asymmetries are relevant for what purpose. It is for instance shown that some CP-odd angular asymmetries measured by the LHCb collaboration in the Λ b → Λ φ → p π K + K - decay are expected to vanish identically.

  20. Study of the railway vehicle suspension using the multibody method

    Gheorghe GHITA


    Full Text Available The article presents a mathematical model for the study of a passenger coach hunting motion using the multibody approach. The model comprises the lateral displacement, rolling and yawing motions for the main constitutive elements: axles, bogies and case. The equation system is written applying energetic methods. The forced vibrations determined by the irregular profile of the tracks are considered. The wheel – rail contact forces are expressed using the creepage coefficients established according to Kalker's linear theory. The equations system is solved through numeric methods using specialized calculus programs. The response of the system – passenger coach on a tangent track, the critical speed and the influence of the constructive characteristics of the coach on its performances are determined.

  1. CP violation in multibody decays of beauty baryons

    Durieux, Gauthier


    Beauty baryons are being observed in large numbers in the LHCb detector. The rich kinematic distributions of their multibody decays are therefore becoming accessible and provide us with new opportunities to search for CP violation. We analyse the angular distributions of some three- and four-body decays of spin-1/2 baryons using the Jacob-Wick helicity formalism. The asymmetries that provide access to small differences of CP-odd phases between decay amplitudes of identical CP-even phases are notably discussed. The understanding gained on processes featuring specific resonant intermediate states allows us to establish which asymmetries are relevant for what purpose. It is for instance shown that some CP-odd angular asymmetries measured by the LHCb collaboration in the Λ{sub b}→Λφ→pπ K{sup +}K{sup -} decay are expected to vanish identically.

  2. A simple probabilistic model of multibody interactions in proteins

    Johansson, Kristoffer Enøe; Hamelryck, Thomas


    predictions. Our coarse-grained model is compared to state-of-art methods that use full atomic detail. This article illustrates how the use of simple probabilistic models can lead to new opportunities in the treatment of nonlocal interactions in knowledge-based protein structure prediction and design....... beyond pairwise interactions have been described, the formulation of a general multibody potential is seen as intractable due to the perceived limited amount of data. In this article, we show that it is possible to formulate a probabilistic model of higher order interactions in proteins, without...... arbitrarily limiting the number of contacts. The success of this approach is based on replacing a naive table-based approach with a simple hierarchical model involving suitable probability distributions and conditional independence assumptions. The model captures the joint probability distribution of an amino...

  3. A Multi-Leveled Coordinate for Multibody Mechanics

    Shen Fan


    Full Text Available For a proper way of modelling and simulation, as well as the precise and completeness, and a new multi-level method named homogeneous tensor coordinate(HTC was developed by improving the absolute nodal coordinate formulation(ANCF and the homogeneous coordinates(HC. In HTC, a new form of 2×2 matrix was employed instead of angles, when the capacity of expression and calculation was increased at the same time. HTC has good performance in traditional rigid body mechanics, which especially suitable for multibody modelling. Therefore, the robotic engineering may benefit from this finding, and a new formulation for scientific research may also affect the physics although some mathematical problems are raised in matrix theory.

  4. Water Accommodation on Bare and Coated Ice

    Kong, Xiangrui


    A good understanding of water accommodation on ice surfaces is essential for quantitatively predicting the evolution of clouds, and therefore influences the effectiveness of climate models. However, the accommodation coefficient is poorly constrained within the literature where reported values vary by up to three orders of magnitude. In addition, the complexity of the chemical composition of the atmosphere plays an important role in ice phase behavior and dynamics. We employ an environmental molecular beam (EMB) technique to investigate molecular water interactions with bare and impurity coated ice at temperatures from 170 K to 200 K. In this work, we summarize results of water accommodation experiments on bare ice (Kong et al., 2014) and on ice coated by methanol (Thomson et al., 2013), butanol (Thomson et al., 2013) and acetic acid (Papagiannakopoulos et al., 2014), and compare those results with analogous experiments using hexanol and nitric acid coatings. Hexanol is chosen as a complementary chain alcohol to methanol and butanol, while nitric acid is a common inorganic compound in the atmosphere. The results show a strong negative temperature dependence of water accommodation on bare ice, which can be quantitatively described by a precursor model. Acidic adlayers tend to enhance water uptake indicating that the system kinetics are thoroughly changed compared to bare ice. Adsorbed alcohols influence the temperature dependence of the accommodation coefficient and water molecules generally spend less time on the surfaces before desorbing, although the measured accommodation coefficients remain high and comparable to bare ice for the investigated systems. We conclude that impurities can either enhance or restrict water uptake in ways that are influenced by several factors including temperature and type of adsorbant, with potential implications for the description of ice particle growth in the atmosphere. This work was supported by the Swedish Research Council and

  5. Prediction of elbow joint contact mechanics in the multibody framework.

    Rahman, Munsur; Cil, Akin; Stylianou, Antonis P


    Computational multibody musculoskeletal models of the elbow joint that are capable of simultaneous and accurate predictions of muscle and ligament forces, along with cartilage contact mechanics can be immensely useful in clinical practice. As a step towards producing a musculoskeletal model that includes the interaction between cartilage and muscle loading, the goal of this study was to develop subject-specific multibody models of the elbow joint with discretized humerus cartilage representation interacting with the radius and ulna cartilages through deformable contacts. The contact parameters for the compliant contact law were derived using simplified elastic foundation contact theory. The models were then validated by placing the model in a virtual mechanical tester for flexion-extension motion similar to a cadaver experiment, and the resulting kinematics were compared. Two cadaveric upper limbs were used in this study. The humeral heads were subjected to axial motion in a mechanical tester and the resulting kinematics from three bones were recorded for model validation. The maximum RMS error between the predicted and measured kinematics during the complete testing cycle was 2.7 mm medial-lateral translation and 9.7° varus-valgus rotation of radius relative to humerus (for elbow 2). After model validation, a lateral ulnar collateral ligament (LUCL) deficient condition was simulated and, contact pressures and kinematics were compared to the intact elbow model. A noticeable difference in kinematics, contact area, and contact pressure were observed for LUCL deficient condition. LUCL deficiency induced higher internal rotations for both the radius and ulna during flexion and an associated medial shift of the articular contact area.

  6. GPU-accelerated computing for Lagrangian coherent structures of multi-body gravitational regimes

    Lin, Mingpei; Xu, Ming; Fu, Xiaoyu


    Based on a well-established theoretical foundation, Lagrangian Coherent Structures (LCSs) have elicited widespread research on the intrinsic structures of dynamical systems in many fields, including the field of astrodynamics. Although the application of LCSs in dynamical problems seems straightforward theoretically, its associated computational cost is prohibitive. We propose a block decomposition algorithm developed on Compute Unified Device Architecture (CUDA) platform for the computation of the LCSs of multi-body gravitational regimes. In order to take advantage of GPU's outstanding computing properties, such as Shared Memory, Constant Memory, and Zero-Copy, the algorithm utilizes a block decomposition strategy to facilitate computation of finite-time Lyapunov exponent (FTLE) fields of arbitrary size and timespan. Simulation results demonstrate that this GPU-based algorithm can satisfy double-precision accuracy requirements and greatly decrease the time needed to calculate final results, increasing speed by approximately 13 times. Additionally, this algorithm can be generalized to various large-scale computing problems, such as particle filters, constellation design, and Monte-Carlo simulation.

  7. On the Formulation of Flexible Multibody Systems with Constant Mass Matrix

    Pedersen, Niels Leergaard


    A flexible body in a multibody system isdescribed only by the position of the nodes in theinertial frame. With this description we can formulatethe mass matrix of the flexible multibody as aconstant matrix. This matrix can be inverted in apreprocessing stage which yields a more efficientaccelerat...... of this formulation is that neither thecentrifugal nor the Coriolis forces appear in theequations due to the description of the flexible body....

  8. Anthropometric accommodation in USAF cockpits

    Zehner, Gregory F.


    Over the past three years, a new set of methodologies has been developed to specify and evaluate anthropometric accommodation in USAF crewstation designs. These techniques are used to improve the ability of the pilot to reach controls, to safely escape the aircraft, to achieve adequate mobility and comfort, and to assure full access to the visual field both inside and outside the aircraft. This paper summarized commonly encountered aircraft accommodation problems, explains the failure of the traditional 'percentile man' design concept to resolve these difficulties, and suggests an alternative approach for improving cockpit design to better accommodate today's more heterogeneous flying population.

  9. A Study on the Dynamic Analysis of A Tracked Vehicle for Ocean Mining on the Deep Seabed

    Hyung-suk HAN


    A study is presented on the dynamic analysis of a tracked vehicle for mining on the deep seabed of very soft soil. Equations for the interaction between the track and extremely soft seabed are employed to develop a track/soil interaction module called TVAS. The vehicle is modeled as a multibody dynamic system by the use of a multibody dynamic analysis program. The module developed is cooperated with the multibody dynamic analysis program with a user-defined subroutine. The dynamic behavior and the conceptual design of the mining vehicle on the deep seabed are investigated.

  10. A Constraint Embedding Approach for Complex Vehicle Suspension Dynamics


    2015, Barcelona, Catalonia , Spain same number of degrees of freedom as the number of independent degrees of freedom for the loops they replace...13. SUPPLEMENTARY NOTES ECCOMAS Thematic Conference on Multibody Dynamics 2015, June 29-July 2, 2015, Barcelona, Catalonia , Spain 14. ABSTRACT See...Z39-18 ECCOMAS Thematic Conference on Multibody Dynamics June 29 - July 2, 2015, Barcelona, Catalonia , Spain A Constraint Embedding Approach for

  11. A simple probabilistic model of multibody interactions in proteins.

    Johansson, Kristoffer Enøe; Hamelryck, Thomas


    Protein structure prediction methods typically use statistical potentials, which rely on statistics derived from a database of know protein structures. In the vast majority of cases, these potentials involve pairwise distances or contacts between amino acids or atoms. Although some potentials beyond pairwise interactions have been described, the formulation of a general multibody potential is seen as intractable due to the perceived limited amount of data. In this article, we show that it is possible to formulate a probabilistic model of higher order interactions in proteins, without arbitrarily limiting the number of contacts. The success of this approach is based on replacing a naive table-based approach with a simple hierarchical model involving suitable probability distributions and conditional independence assumptions. The model captures the joint probability distribution of an amino acid and its neighbors, local structure and solvent exposure. We show that this model can be used to approximate the conditional probability distribution of an amino acid sequence given a structure using a pseudo-likelihood approach. We verify the model by decoy recognition and site-specific amino acid predictions. Our coarse-grained model is compared to state-of-art methods that use full atomic detail. This article illustrates how the use of simple probabilistic models can lead to new opportunities in the treatment of nonlocal interactions in knowledge-based protein structure prediction and design. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc., a Wiley company.


    A.G.A. Rahman


    Full Text Available Suspension is part of automotive systems, providing both vehicle control and passenger comfort. The knuckle is an important part within the suspension system, constantly encountering the cyclic loads subjecting it to fatigue failure. This paper presents an evaluation of the fatigue characteristics of a knuckle using multibody simulation (MBS techniques. Load time history extracted from the MBS is used for stress analysis. An actual road profile of road bumps was used as the input to MBS. The stress fluctuations for fatigue simulations are considered with the road profile. The strain-life method is utilized to assess the fatigue life. The instantaneous stress distributions and maximum principal stress are used for fatigue life predictions. Mesh sensitivity analysis has been performed. The results show that the steering link in the knuckle is found to be the most susceptible region for fatigue failure. The number of times the knuckle can manage a road bump at 40 km/hr is determined to be approximately 371 times with a 50% certainty of survival. The proposed method of using the loading time history extracted from MBS simulation for fatigue life estimation is found to be very promising for the accurate evaluation of the performance of suspension system components.

  13. Developments in Accommodating Intraocular Lenses

    Zeki Tunç


    Full Text Available Technical progress in cataract surgery has decreased the incidence of severe complications in this type of surgery. The introduction of micro incision cataract surgery (MICS (sub- 2.0 mm incision allow the surgeon to achieve better postoperative control of astigmatism and higherorder aberration (HOAs with minimum induction of both. It is believed that multifocal lenses provide very successful results, however, there are limitations to these. Implantation of accommodating intraocular lenses (IOLs is an option to treat presbyopia. The IOLs work by using the continued functionality of the ciliary muscle after cataract removal. Accommodating IOLs were designed to avoid the optical side effects of multifocal IOLs. Two main design concepts exist. First, axial shift concepts rely on anterior axial movement of one or two optics creating accommodative ability. Second, curvature change designs are designed to provide significant amplitudes of accommodation with little physical displacement. Accommodative IOLs to correct astigmatism and HOAs in the future are needed. (Turk J Ophthalmol 2012; 42: 288-93

  14. Feasibility Assessment of an ISS Artificial Gravity Conditioning Facility by Means of Multi-Body Approach

    Toso, Mario; Baldesi, Gianluigi; Moratto, Claudio; De Wilde, Don; Bureo Dacal, Rafael; Castellsaguer, Joaquim


    Even though human exploration of Mars is a distant objective, it is well understood that, for human space voyages of several years duration, crews would be at risk of catastrophic consequences should any of the systems that provide adequate air, water, food, or thermal protection fail. Moreover, crews will face serious health and/or safety risks resulting from severe physiologic deconditioning associated with prolonged weightlessness. The principal ones are related to physical and functional deterioration of the regulation of the blood circulation, decreased aerobic capacity, impaired musculo-skeletal systems, and altered sensory- motor system performance. As the reliance of future space programmes on virtual modelling, simulation and justification has substantially grown together with the proto-flight hardware development approach, a range of simulation capabilities have become increasingly important in the requirements specification, design, verification, testing, launch and operation of new space systems. In this frame, multibody software is a key tool in providing a more coordinated and consistent approach from the preliminary development phases of the most complex systems. From a scientific prospective, an artificial gravity facility, such as the one evaluated in this paper, would be the first in-flight testing of the effectiveness and acceptability of short radius centrifuge as a countermeasure to human deconditioning on orbit. The ISS represents a unique opportunity to perform this research. From an engineering point of view, the preliminary assessment described in this paper, highlights the difficult engineering challenges of such a facility. The outcome proves that a human can be accommodated in the available volume, while respecting the human ergonomic basic requirements and preserving the global structural integrity of the hosting ISS module. In particular, analysis shows that, although the load capacity of the structural interfaces imposes a very low

  15. Are high lags of accommodation in myopic children due to motor deficits?

    Labhishetty, Vivek; Bobier, William R


    Children with a progressing myopia exhibit an abnormal pattern of high accommodative lags coupled with high accommodative convergence (AC/A) and high accommodative adaptation. This is not predicted by the current models of accommodation and vergence. Reduced accommodative plant gain and reduced sensitivity to blur have been suggested as potential causes for this abnormal behavior. These etiologies were tested by altering parameters (sensory, controller and plant gains) in the Simulink model of accommodation. Predictions were then compared to the static and dynamic blur accommodation (BA) measures taken using a Badal optical system on 12 children (6 emmetropes and 6 myopes, 8-13years) and 6 adults (20-35years). Other critical parameters such as CA/C, AC/A, and accommodative adaptation were also measured. Usable BA responses were classified as either typical or atypical. Typical accommodation data confirmed the abnormal pattern of myopia along with an unchanged CA/C. Main sequence relationship remained invariant between myopic and nonmyopic children. An overall reduction was noted in the response dynamics such as peak velocity and acceleration with age. Neither a reduced plant gain nor reduced blur sensitivity could predict the abnormal accommodative behavior. A model adjustment reflecting a reduced accommodative sensory gain (ASG) coupled with an increased AC cross-link gain and reduced vergence adaptive gain does predict the empirical findings. Empirical measures also showed a greater frequency of errors in accommodative response generation (atypical responses) in both myopic and control children compared to adults.

  16. 模拟生理调节状态下人眼高阶像差的波动%The dynamic characteristics of ocular wavefront aberrations with the physiological accommodation in human eyes

    熊瑛; 万修华; 余翔; 薛丽霞; 李靖; 李树宁; 卿国平; 凌宁; 王宁利


    Objective To investigate the dynamic characteristics of ocular wavefront aberrations and discuss the relationship between aberrations and pupil size, as well as the relationships between aberrations and accommodation under simulated physiological conditions. Design Prospective comperative study. Participants Normal eyes (21 cases) and the simulated eye. Methods The condition of ocular accommodation was controlled by the moving visual target when the value of the wavefront aberrations was collected by Hart-mann-Shark aberrometry. The simulated eye was used as the control. Main Outcome Measures The root mean square of total wave- front aberration (t-RMS) and high-order aberration (h-RMS) from normal eyes and the simulated eye and their coefficient of variance. Results In normal eye, the mean t-RMS was 0.46±0.18μm; the mean h-RMS was 0.27±0.14μm, the coefficient of variance was 40.37% and 36.34%, respectively. As a control, the mean t-RMS and coefficient of variance of the simulated eye' s was 0.39±0.00μm and 0.47% respectively. The h-RMS of normal eyes was correlated with pupil sizes and accommodation. The regression equation could be expressed as: h-RMS= 0.111 x pupil diameter (mm) -0.015 x dioptre (D) - 0.313(P<0.001 ,R2=0.458). Conclusion The ocular wavefront aberrations could change significantly under physiological conditions. The pupil size is the main factor.%目的 模拟生理调节状态下随着眼调节和瞳孔直径的变化人眼高阶像差的波动特点.设计 前瞻性比较性研究.研究对象 21例正常人眼与模拟眼.方法 通过控制视路上移动视标的位置诱发人眼调节,在调节过程中,不人为控制瞳孔直径,使其处于自然收缩舒张状态,实时用哈特曼波前传感器(Hartman-Shark)采集人眼波前像差.模拟眼作为对照.主要指标 人眼与模拟眼的总波前像差的均方根(t-RMS)和高阶像差的均方根(h-RMS)及其变异系数.结果 生理调节状态下,人眼的t-RMS为(0.46±0

  17. A centre for accommodative vergence motor control

    Wilson, D.


    Latencies in accommodation, accommodative-vergence, and pupil-diameter responses to changing accommodation stimuli, as well as latencies in pupil response to light-intensity changes were measured. From the information obtained, a block diagram has been derived that uses the least number of blocks for representing the accommodation, accommodative-vergence, and pupil systems. The signal transmission delays over the various circuits of the model have been determined and compared to known experimental physiological-delay data. The results suggest the existence of a motor center that controls the accommodative vergence and is completely independent of the accommodation system.

  18. Reasonable Accommodation in Training Safety.

    Sandoz, Jeff

    A pictograph and icon-driven training program has been specifically designed for educators who are responsible for teaching the developmentally disabled regarding the safe use of hazardous chemicals. In alignment with the Americans with Disabilities Act, it offers "reasonable accommodation" by those who educate and train this special…

  19. Ski Control Model for Parallel Turn Using Multibody System

    Kawai, Shigehiro; Yamaguchi, Keishi; Sakata, Toshiyuki

    Now, it is possible to discuss qualitatively the effects of skis, skier’s ski control and slope on a ski turn by simulation. The reliability of a simulation depends on the accuracy of the models used in the simulation. In the present study, we attempt to develop a new ski control model for a “parallel turn” using a computer graphics technique. The “ski control” necessary for the simulation is the relative motion of the skier’s center of gravity to the ski and the force acting on the ski from the skier. The developed procedure is as follows. First, the skier is modeled using a multibody system consisting of body parts. Second, various postures of the skier during the “parallel turn” are drawn using a 3D-CAD (three dimensional computer aided design) system referring to the pictures videotaped on a slope. The position of the skier’s center of gravity is estimated from the produced posture. Third, the skier’s ski control is obtained by arranging these postures in a time schedule. One can watch the ski control on a TV. Last, the three types of forces acting on the ski from the skier are estimated from the gravity force and the three relative types of inertia forces acting on the skier. Consequently, one can obtain accurate ski control for the simulation of the “parallel turn”, that is, the relative motion of the skier’s center of gravity to the ski and the force acting on the ski from the skier. Furthermore, it follows that one can numerically estimate the edging angle from the ski control model.

  20. Validation of Multibody Program to Optimize Simulated Trajectories II Parachute Simulation with Interacting Forces

    Raiszadeh, Behzad; Queen, Eric M.; Hotchko, Nathaniel J.


    A capability to simulate trajectories of multiple interacting rigid bodies has been developed, tested and validated. This capability uses the Program to Optimize Simulated Trajectories II (POST 2). The standard version of POST 2 allows trajectory simulation of multiple bodies without force interaction. In the current implementation, the force interaction between the parachute and the suspended bodies has been modeled using flexible lines, allowing accurate trajectory simulation of the individual bodies in flight. The POST 2 multibody capability is intended to be general purpose and applicable to any parachute entry trajectory simulation. This research paper explains the motivation for multibody parachute simulation, discusses implementation methods, and presents validation of this capability.

  1. FDI and Accommodation Using NN Based Techniques

    Garcia, Ramon Ferreiro; de Miguel Catoira, Alberto; Sanz, Beatriz Ferreiro

    Massive application of dynamic backpropagation neural networks is used on closed loop control FDI (fault detection and isolation) tasks. The process dynamics is mapped by means of a trained backpropagation NN to be applied on residual generation. Process supervision is then applied to discriminate faults on process sensors, and process plant parameters. A rule based expert system is used to implement the decision making task and the corresponding solution in terms of faults accommodation and/or reconfiguration. Results show an efficient and robust FDI system which could be used as the core of an SCADA or alternatively as a complement supervision tool operating in parallel with the SCADA when applied on a heat exchanger.

  2. Treatment of Partly Accommodative Esotropia With a High Accommodative Convergence-Accommodation Ratio

    H.J. Simonsz (Huib)


    textabstractIn the June 1987 issue of the Archives, the results were published of a study by Kushner et al1 on the treatment of accommodative convergence excess, with bilateral medial rectus recessions or recessions with 14-mm posterior fixation sutures. Posterior fixation surgery was considered an

  3. Charles F. Prentice award lecture 2008: surgical correction of presbyopia with intraocular lenses designed to accommodate.

    Schor, Clifton M


    Surgical restoration of accommodation with accommodating intra-ocular lenses (A-IOLs) presents a complex set of problems involving the design of the prosthetic mechanism. A variety of designs are currently employed that either translate the A-IOL toward the cornea along the sagittal axis, shear two lens components laterally, or deform lens shape to change dioptric power of the eye during attempts to accommodate. Effective biomechanical properties (elasticity and viscosity) of these lenses depend on both material properties and structural design of the A-IOL. Inevitable mismatches between the neuromuscular control of accommodation and the effective biomechanical properties of the prosthetic lens could lead to either unstable oscillations or sluggishness of dynamic accommodation; however, optimal dynamic responses may possibly be restored by neural recalibration. A model of dynamic accommodation is used to predict the consequences of these mismatches on dynamic accommodation, and reverse engineering is used to test the feasibility of neuromuscular recalibration. Empirical measures verify that neuromuscular adaptation of dynamic accommodation is possible in response to optically simulated increases and decreases of ocular-lens stiffness. Other design issues for A-IOLs include stability of optical properties, aberrations and image quality, and interactions of restored accommodation with binocular eye alignment (the near response).

  4. Multibody interactions of actuated magnetic particles used as fluid drivers in microchannels

    Derks, R.J.S.; Frijns, A.J.H.; Prins, M.W.J.; Dietzel, A.H.


    The forced motion of superparamagnetic particles and their multibody interactions are studied in view of the application as integrated fluid drivers in microchannel systems. Previous studies on particle manipulation in open fluid volumes serve as our starting point for the analysis of particle

  5. Summary of the 2015 LHCb workshop on multi-body decays of D and B mesons

    Amato, Sandra; Baesso, Clarissa; Haim, Eli Ben; Bigi, Ikaros; Boito, Diogo; Brodzicka, Jolanta; Reis, Alberto Correa dos; Craik, Daniel Charles; Torres, Melissa Maria Cruz; Dalseno, Jeremy; Hickman, Ignacio de Bediaga; Vieira, Daniel Evangelho; Rodrigues, Fernando Luiz Ferreira; Gershon, Timothy; Göbel, Carla; Greenwald, Daniel; Harnew, Samuel Thomas; Henry, Louis; Hicheur, Adlene; Latham, Thomas Edward; Loiseau, Benoit; London, David; Lopes, Helder; Magalhães, Patricia; de Miranda, Jussara Marques; Tostes, Danielle Martins; Rodrigues, Andre Massafferri; Mathad, Abhijit; Meadows, Brian; Carreno, Diego Milanes; Rodriguez, Josue Danilo Molina; Moraes, Danielle; Nasteva, Irina; Nielsen, Marina; Nogueira, Jorge; O'Hanlon, Daniel Patrick; Oset, Eulogio; Rodrigues, Bruno Osorio; Goicochea, Juan Martin Otalora; Paul, Stephan; Polycarpo, Erica; Prouvé, Claire; Quagliani, Renato; Rademacker, Jonas; Robilotta, Manoel; Rodriguez, Jairo Alexis; Coutinho, Rafael Silva; Skwarnicki, Tomasz; Sun, Liang; Szczepaniak, Adam; Aoude, Rafael Tourinho; Wallace, Charlotte; Whitehead, Mark


    This document contains a summary of the LHCb workshop on multi-body decays of D and B mesons, held at CBPF, Rio de Janeiro, in July 2015. The workshop was focused on issues related to amplitude analysis of three- and four-body hadronic decays. In addition to selected LHCb results, contributions from guest theorists are included.

  6. A linearized input-output representation of flexible multibody systems for control synthesis

    Jonker, Jan B.; Aarts, Ronald G.K.M.; van Dijk, Johannes


    In this paper, a linearized input–output representation of flexible multibody systems is proposed in which an arbitrary combination of positions, velocities, accelerations, and forces can be taken as input variables and as output variables. The formulation is based on a nonlinear finite element

  7. Experimental and analytical investigation of inertial propulsion mechanisms and motion simulation of rigid multi-body mechanical systems

    Almesallmy, Mohammed

    Methodologies are developed for dynamic analysis of mechanical systems with emphasis on inertial propulsion systems. This work adopted the Lagrangian methodology. Lagrangian methodology is the most efficient classical computational technique, which we call Equations of Motion Code (EOMC). The EOMC is applied to several simple dynamic mechanical systems for easier understanding of the method and to aid other investigators in developing equations of motion of any dynamic system. In addition, it is applied to a rigid multibody system, such as Thomson IPS [Thomson 1986]. Furthermore, a simple symbolic algorithm is developed using Maple software, which can be used to convert any nonlinear n-order ordinary differential equation (ODE) systems into 1st-order ODE system in ready format to be used in Matlab software. A side issue, but equally important, we have started corresponding with the U.S. Patent office to persuade them that patent applications, claiming gross linear motion based on inertial propulsion systems should be automatically rejected. The precedent is rejection of patent applications involving perpetual motion machines.

  8. Accommodation and pupil responses to random-dot stereograms.

    Suryakumar, Rajaraman; Allison, Robert


    We investigated the dynamics of accommodative and pupillary responses to random-dot stereograms presented in crossed and uncrossed disparity in six visually normal young adult subjects (mean age=25.8±3.1 years). Accommodation and pupil measures were monitored monocularly with a custom built photorefraction system while subjects fixated at the center of a random-dot stereogram. On each trial, the stereogram initially depicted a flat plane and then changed to depict a sinusoidal corrugation in depth while fixation remained constant. Increase in disparity specified depth resulted in pupil constriction during both crossed and uncrossed disparity presentations. The change in pupil size between crossed and uncrossed disparity conditions was not significantly different (p>0.05). The change in pupil size was also accompanied by a small concomitant increase in accommodation. In addition, the dynamic properties of pupil responses varied as a function of their initial (starting) diameter. The finding that accommodation and pupil responses increased with disparity regardless of the sign of retinal disparity suggests that these responses were driven by apparent depth rather than shifts in mean simulated distance of the stimulus. Presumably the need for the increased depth of focus when viewing stimuli extended in depth results in pupil constriction which also results in a concomitant change in accommodation. Starting position effects in pupil response confirm the non-linearity in the operating range of the pupil.

  9. Adaptability: how to accommodate changing user preferences

    Remoy, H.T.; Van der Voordt, D.J.M.


    Purpose: When current accommodation is unsatisfactorily, office organisations consider relocating to new accommodation that optimally facilitate their main processes, supporting image and financial yield. However, due to high vacancy levels, public opinion and governmental awareness oppose new

  10. Accommodative spasm in siblings: A unique finding

    Rutstein Robert


    Full Text Available Accommodative spasm is a rare condition occurring in children, adolescents, and young adults. A familial tendency for this binocular vision disorder has not been reported. I describe accommodative spasm occurring in a brother and sister. Both children presented on the same day with complaints of headaches and blurred vision. Treatment included cycloplegia drops and bifocals. Siblings of patients having accommodative spasm should receive a detailed eye exam with emphasis on recognition of accommodative spasm.

  11. 46 CFR 108.143 - Accommodation space.


    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Accommodation space. 108.143 Section 108.143 Shipping... EQUIPMENT Construction and Arrangement Structural Fire Protection § 108.143 Accommodation space. (a) Each corridor bulkhead in an accommodation space must be an A class or B class bulkhead except if an A...

  12. Pupil movements to light and accommodative stimulation - A comparative study.

    Semmlow, J.; Stark, L.


    Isolation and definition of specific response components in pupil reflexes through comparison of the dynamic features of light-induced and accommodation-induced pupil movements. A quantitative analysis of the behavior of the complex nonlinear pupil responses reveals the presence of two independent nonlinear characteristics: a range-dependent gain and a direction dependence or movement asymmetry. These nonlinear properties are attributed to motor processes because they are observable in pupil responses to both light and accommodation stimuli. The possible mechanisms and consequences of these pupil response characteristics are quantitatively defined and discussed.

  13. Adherence Evaluation of a MacPherson Suspension under EuSAMA Norm in a Mathematical Model and one Multibody

    Juan J. Arbeláez-Toro


    Full Text Available A computational simulation is Implemented, in order to response to a problem of dynamics associated With The assessment of adherence in suspension systems. The process begins with the lifting of the most representative geometries of a MacPherson system of a Nissan Sentra B13, where each of the devices is created and assembled into a CAD software to give a dynamic solution on a CAE multibody package. Afterwards a mathematical model was created whose differential equations are generated substantiated on Newton's second law and this are resolved using Matlab-Simulink applications. Once the model developing process is over, the variables are fed with accurate information of the studied vehicle to obtain the graphs that give an answer to EuSAMA (European Shock Absorber Manufacturers Association test protocol for the adherence analysis. The results presented show the reliability of the developed models when compared with the experimental test; furthermore, it demonstrates that the decrease of the damping coefficient compromises the vehicle´s adherence on the track, affecting its stability and maneuverability.

  14. Accommodating environmental variation in population models: metaphysiological biomass loss accounting.

    Owen-Smith, Norman


    1. There is a pressing need for population models that can reliably predict responses to changing environmental conditions and diagnose the causes of variation in abundance in space as well as through time. In this 'how to' article, it is outlined how standard population models can be modified to accommodate environmental variation in a heuristically conducive way. This approach is based on metaphysiological modelling concepts linking populations within food web contexts and underlying behaviour governing resource selection. Using population biomass as the currency, population changes can be considered at fine temporal scales taking into account seasonal variation. Density feedbacks are generated through the seasonal depression of resources even in the absence of interference competition. 2. Examples described include (i) metaphysiological modifications of Lotka-Volterra equations for coupled consumer-resource dynamics, accommodating seasonal variation in resource quality as well as availability, resource-dependent mortality and additive predation, (ii) spatial variation in habitat suitability evident from the population abundance attained, taking into account resource heterogeneity and consumer choice using empirical data, (iii) accommodating population structure through the variable sensitivity of life-history stages to resource deficiencies, affecting susceptibility to oscillatory dynamics and (iv) expansion of density-dependent equations to accommodate various biomass losses reducing population growth rate below its potential, including reductions in reproductive outputs. Supporting computational code and parameter values are provided. 3. The essential features of metaphysiological population models include (i) the biomass currency enabling within-year dynamics to be represented appropriately, (ii) distinguishing various processes reducing population growth below its potential, (iii) structural consistency in the representation of interacting populations and

  15. Analysis of truck platoon dynamics

    Verhoeff, L.; Zuurbier, J.; Lupker, H.A.


    This paper presents the analysis of truck platoon dynamics using a simulation environment. In this case the platoon consists of a number of trucks following each other using driver algorithms. MADYMO (a multibody and FE software package) and MATLAB/SIMULINK are coupled to allow for these driver algo

  16. The child sexual abuse accommodation syndrome.

    Summit, R C


    Child victims of sexual abuse face secondary trauma in the crisis of discovery. Their attempts to reconcile their private experiences with the realities of the outer world are assaulted by the disbelief, blame and rejection they experience from adults. The normal coping behavior of the child contradicts the entrenched beliefs and expectations typically held by adults, stigmatizing the child with charges of lying, manipulating or imagining from parents, courts and clinicians. Such abandonment by the very adults most crucial to the child's protection and recovery drives the child deeper into self-blame, self-hate, alienation and revictimization. In contrast, the advocacy of an empathic clinician within a supportive treatment network can provide vital credibility and endorsement for the child. Evaluation of the responses of normal children to sexual assault provides clear evidence that societal definitions of "normal" victim behavior are inappropriate and procrustean, serving adults as mythic insulators against the child's pain. Within this climate of prejudice, the sequential survival options available to the victim further alienate the child from any hope of outside credibility or acceptance. Ironically, the child's inevitable choice of the "wrong" options reinforces and perpetuates the prejudicial myths. The most typical reactions of children are classified in this paper as the child sexual abuse accommodation syndrome. The syndrome is composed of five categories, of which two define basic childhood vulnerability and three are sequentially contingent on sexual assault: (1) secrecy, (2) helplessness, (3) entrapment and accommodation, (4) delayed, unconvincing disclosure, and (5) retraction. The accommodation syndrome is proposed as a simple and logical model for use by clinicians to improve understanding and acceptance of the child's position in the complex and controversial dynamics of sexual victimization. Application of the syndrome tends to challenge entrenched

  17. Parameter identification of multi-body railway vehicle models - Application of the adjoint state approach

    Kraft, S.; Puel, G.; Aubry, D.; Funfschilling, C.


    For the calibration of multi-body models of railway vehicles, the identification of the model parameters from on-track measurement is required. This involves the solution of an inverse problem by minimising the misfit function which describes the distance between model and measurement using optimisation methods. The application of gradient-based optimisation methods is advantageous but necessitates an efficient approach for the computation of the gradients considering the large number of model parameters and the costly evaluation of the forward model. This work shows that the application of the adjoint state approach to the nonlinear vehicle-track multi-body system is suitable, reducing on the one hand the computational cost and increasing on the other hand the precision of the gradients. Gradients from the adjoint state method are computed for vehicle models and validated taking into account measurement noise.

  18. Concurrent multibody and Finite Element analysis of the lower-limb during amputee running.

    Rigney, Stacey M; Simmons, Anne; Kark, Lauren


    Lower-limb amputee athletes use Carbon fiber Energy Storage and Return (ESAR) prostheses during high impact activities such as running. The advantage provided to amputee athletes due to the energy-storing properties of ESAR prostheses is as yet uncertain. Conventional energy analysis methods for prostheses rely upon multibody models with articulating joints. Alternatively, Finite Element (FE) analysis treats bodies as a deforming continuum and can therefore calculate the energy stored without using these rigid-body mechanics assumptions. This paper presents a concurrent multibody and FE model of the femur, tibia, socket and ESAR prosthesis of a transtibial amputee athlete during sprinting. Gait analysis spatial data was used to conduct an offline simulation of the affected leg's stance phase in COMSOL Multiphysics. The calculated peak elastic strain energy of the prosthesis was 80J, with an overall RMSE of simulated marker displacement of 4.19 mm. This concurrent model presents a novel method for analyzing in vivo ESAR prosthesis behavior.

  19. Multibody Model for Planetary Gearbox of 500 kW Wind Turbine

    Jørgensen, Martin Felix; Pedersen, Niels Leergaard; Sørensen, Jens Nørkær

    The aim of the work is to simulate the loadings in a planetary gearbox of a wind turbine using a multibody program. A realistic wind turbine gearbox of a 500 kW wind turbine is examined using turbulent inflow data. An aeroelastic model of the wind turbine has been set up using the FLEX5-code...... (industrial standard software). The FLEX5 model as well as the developed multibody code has been verified from strain gauge measurements, giving e.g. the main shaft torque, and met mast wind data measurements. The realistic measurements on both input and output variables form an excellent base for studying...... the gearbox fatigue loads, the effect of wind turbulence on the power production/output torque on the highspeed shaft and for calibration and verification of the gearbox model....

  20. An exact nonlinear hybrid-coordinate formulation for flexible multibody systems

    Jinyang Liu; Jiazhen Hong; Lin Cui


    The previous low-order approximate nonlinear formulations succeeded in capturing the stiffening terms,but failed in simulation of mechanical systems with large deformation due to the neglect of the high-order deforma-tion terms. In this paper, a new hybrid-coordinate formu-lation is proposed, which is suitable for flexible multibody systems with large deformation. On the basis of exact strain-displacement relation, equations of motion for flexible multi-body system are derived by using virtual work principle. A matrix separation method is put forward to improve the efficiency of the calculation. Agreement of the present results with those obtained by absolute nodal coordinate formula-tion (ANCF) verifies the correctness of the proposed formu-lation. Furthermore, the present results are compared with those obtained by use of the linear model and the low-order approximate nonlinear model to show the suitability of the proposed models.

  1. A Large-Scale Multibody Manipulator Soft Sensor Model and Experiment Validation

    Wu Ren


    Full Text Available Stress signal is difficult to obtain in the health monitoring of multibody manipulator. In order to solve this problem, a soft sensor method is presented. In the method, stress signal is considered as dominant variable and angle signal is regarded as auxiliary variable. By establishing the mathematical relationship between them, a soft sensor model is proposed. In the model, the stress information can be deduced by angle information which can be easily measured for such structures by experiments. Finally, test of ground and wall working conditions is done on a multibody manipulator test rig. The results show that the stress calculated by the proposed method is closed to the test one. Thus, the stress signal is easier to get than the traditional method. All of these prove that the model is correct and the method is feasible.

  2. A linearized input-output representation of flexible multibody systems for control synthesis

    Jonker, J. B., E-mail:; Aarts, R. G. K. M., E-mail:; Dijk, J. van [University of Twente, Faculty of Engineering Technology (Netherlands)], E-mail:


    In this paper, a linearized input-output representation of flexible multibody systems is proposed in which an arbitrary combination of positions, velocities, accelerations, and forces can be taken as input variables and as output variables. The formulation is based on a nonlinear finite element approach in which a multibody system is modeled as an assembly of rigid body elements interconnected by joint elements such as flexible hinges and beams. The proposed formulation is general in nature and can be applied for prototype modeling and control system analysis of mechatronic systems. Application of the theory is illustrated through a detailed model development of an active vibration isolation system for a metrology frame of a lithography machine.

  3. Recursive Filtering And Smoothing In Robot Dynamics

    Rodriguez, Guillermo


    Techniques developed originally for electronic systems also useful for multibody mechanical systems. Report summarizes methods developed to solve nonlinear forward-dynamics problem for robot of multiple-link arms connected by joints. Primary objective to show equivalence between recursive methods of dynamical analysis and some filtering and smoothing techniques from state-estimation theory.

  4. Multi-body simulation of a canine hind limb: model development, experimental validation and calculation of ground reaction forces

    Wefstaedt Patrick


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Among other causes the long-term result of hip prostheses in dogs is determined by aseptic loosening. A prevention of prosthesis complications can be achieved by an optimization of the tribological system which finally results in improved implant duration. In this context a computerized model for the calculation of hip joint loadings during different motions would be of benefit. In a first step in the development of such an inverse dynamic multi-body simulation (MBS- model we here present the setup of a canine hind limb model applicable for the calculation of ground reaction forces. Methods The anatomical geometries of the MBS-model have been established using computer tomography- (CT- and magnetic resonance imaging- (MRI- data. The CT-data were collected from the pelvis, femora, tibiae and pads of a mixed-breed adult dog. Geometric information about 22 muscles of the pelvic extremity of 4 mixed-breed adult dogs was determined using MRI. Kinematic and kinetic data obtained by motion analysis of a clinically healthy dog during a gait cycle (1 m/s on an instrumented treadmill were used to drive the model in the multi-body simulation. Results and Discussion As a result the vertical ground reaction forces (z-direction calculated by the MBS-system show a maximum deviation of 1.75%BW for the left and 4.65%BW for the right hind limb from the treadmill measurements. The calculated peak ground reaction forces in z- and y-direction were found to be comparable to the treadmill measurements, whereas the curve characteristics of the forces in y-direction were not in complete alignment. Conclusion In conclusion, it could be demonstrated that the developed MBS-model is suitable for simulating ground reaction forces of dogs during walking. In forthcoming investigations the model will be developed further for the calculation of forces and moments acting on the hip joint during different movements, which can be of help in context with the in

  5. Evaluating relative accommodations in general binocular dysfunctions

    García Muñoz, Ángel; Cacho Martínez, Pilar; Lara Lacarcel, Francisco


    Purpose. To examine the relationship between relative accommodation and general binocular disorders and to establish their importance in the diagnosis of these anomalies. Methods. We analyzed data of negative relative accommodation (NRA) and positive relative accommodation (PRA) in 69 patients with nonstrabismic binocular anomalies. Results. Statistical analysis showed that low values of NRA and PRA were not associated with any particular disorder. High values of PRA (>3.50 D) were related to...

  6. Uniformity of accommodation across the visual field.

    Liu, Tao; Sreenivasan, Vidhyapriya; Thibos, Larry N


    We asked the question: Does accommodation change the eye's focusing power equally over the central visual field in emmetropic and myopic adult eyes? To answer this question we modified our laboratory scanning wavefront aberrometer to rapidly measure ocular refractive state over the central 30° diameter of visual field as a function of foveal accommodative demand. On average, ocular refractive state changed uniformly over the central visual field as the eye accommodated up to 6 D. Visual field maps of accommodative error (relative to a spherical target surface of constant vergence) reveal subtle patterns of deviation on the order of ± 0.5 D that are unique to the individual and relatively invariant to changes in accommodative state. Population mean maps for accommodative error are remarkably uniform across the central visual field, indicating the retina of the hypothetical "average eye" is conjugate to a sphere of constant target vergence for all states of accommodation, even though individual eyes might deviate from the mean due to random variations. No systematic difference between emmetropic and myopic eyes was evident. Since accuracy of accommodation across the central visual field is similar to that measured in the fovea, loss of image quality due to accommodative errors, which potentially drives myopia and may affect many aspects of visual function, will be similar across the central retina.

  7. Accommodative response and cortical activity during sustained attention.

    Poltavski, Dmitri V; Biberdorf, David; Petros, Thomas V


    Greater accommodative lag and vergence deficits have been linked to attentional deficits similar to those observed in Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD). The purpose of the present study was to assess the effect of accommodative-vergence stress on a measure of sustained attention (Conners CPT) used in the diagnosis of ADHD. Twenty-seven normal non-ADHD adults completed the Conners CPT twice: wearing -2.00 D lenses and normally (without the -2.00 D lenses) in a counterbalanced order with at least 24 h between the sessions. Simultaneous recording of participants' dynamic accommodative responses was performed from the right eye using the Grand Seiko WAM-5500 auto-refractor and electroencephalographic activity (EEG) in the left prefrontal region using the Neurosky Mindset headset. The results demonstrated a significantly greater accommodative lag in the -2.00 D stress condition and a significantly poorer performance on the Conners CPT as indexed by slower reaction time, greater standard error of hit reaction time, grater response variability, poorer stimulus detectability and a greater number of perseverations. No differences were observed on measures of EEG in the theta (4-7 Hz), alpha (8-12 Hz), and beta (12-20 Hz) bands. Moreover, when directly juxtaposed with each EEG band in multiple linear regression analyses, greater accommodative lag in the stress condition was significantly associated with a greater probability of clinical classification on the Conners CPT, and was also marginally predictive of the number of omissions recorded in the stress condition. The results demonstrated that sustained attention can be influenced by such factors as accommodative-vergence stress and suggest that bottom-up processes can contribute to and potentially exacerbate attentional problems in individuals with ADHD. The study also showed that cortical dysfunction (while sufficient) may not be a necessary condition for attentional deficits.

  8. Decentralized Disturbance Accommodation with Limited Plant Model Information

    Farokhi, F; Johansson, K H


    The design of optimal disturbance accommodation and servomechanism controllers with limited plant model information is considered in this paper. Their closed-loop performance are compared using a performance metric called competitive ratio which is the worst-case ratio of the cost of a given control design strategy to the cost of the optimal control design with full model information. It was recently shown that when it comes to designing optimal centralized or partially structured decentralized state-feedback controllers with limited model information, the best control design strategy in terms of competitive ratio is a static one. This is true even though the optimal structured decentralized state-feedback controller with full model information is dynamic. In this paper, we show that, in contrast, the best limited model information control design strategy for the disturbance accommodation problem gives a dynamic controller. We find an explicit minimizer of the competitive ratio and we show that it is undomina...

  9. Dynamics Modeling of Heavy Special Driving Simulator


    Based on the dynamical characteristic parameters of the real vehicle, the modeling approach and procedure of dynamics of vehicles are expatiated. The layout of vehicle dynamics is proposed, and the sub-models of the diesel engine, drivetrain system and vehicle multi-body dynamics are introduced. Finally, the running characteristic data of the virtual and real vehicles are compared, which shows that the dynamics model is similar closely to the real vehicle system.

  10. Adaptive Locomotion of Multibody Snake-like Robot

    Meister, Eugen; Kernbach, Serge


    This paper represents an adaptive rhythmic control for a snake-like robot with 25 degrees of freedom. The adaptive gait control is implemented in algorithmic way in simulation and on a real robot. We investigated behavioral and energetic properties of this control and a dynamics of different body segments. It turned out that despite using homogeneous generators, physical constraints have an inhomogeneous impact on neighbor body segments. By analytical modeling of such dynamics, it may result in heterogeneous coupling of oscillators for a rhythmic control and impact scalability and synchronization effects of gait pattern generators.

  11. Bearing-Mounting Concept Accommodates Thermal Expansion

    Nespodzany, Robert; Davis, Toren S.


    Pins or splines allow radial expansion without slippage. Design concept for mounting rotary bearing accommodates differential thermal expansion between bearing and any structure(s) to which bearing connected. Prevents buildup of thermal stresses by allowing thermal expansion to occur freely but accommodating expansion in such way not to introduce looseness. Pin-in-slot configuration also maintains concentricity.

  12. Accommodation Outcomes and the ICF Framework

    Schreuer, Naomi


    Accommodation of the environment and technology is one of the key mediators of adjustment to disability and participation in community. In this article, accommodations are tested empirically as facilitators of return to work and participation, as defined by the "International Classification of Disability, Function, and Health" (ICF) and…


    Melissa Li Sa Liow


    Full Text Available This paper starts by clarifying the role of branding orientation (BO among academic studies. It shortly introduces the development of the BO concepts. The empirical part consists of a search for and analysing of academic articles using a meta-analysis that consider BO in the accommodation industry. According to the results, significant appraisal of the branding building activities among higher star rating and luxury accommodation businesses are taking place due to the increasingly demanding guests. Thus, there is an upward pressure on small and medium accommodation businesses to survive or perform well. This paper recommends that scholars study the owners-managers, employees, and customer perspectives altogether, to better comprehend how large accommodation businesses displaying BO can generate superior performance. For the small and medium accommodation businesses, the emphasis is the owners-managers perceptions since they are the main decision-makers, and due to infancy of the small and medium enterprise (SME branding application.

  14. Variable universe fractal control of flexible multi-body spacecraft for large angle attitude maneuver%柔性航天器大角度姿态机动的变论域分形控制

    杨思亮; 徐世杰


    The dynamic model of flexible multi-body spacecraft with topological tree configuration has been established based on the Lagrange's equations in terms of quasi-coordinates. The kinematics of the spacecraft is described by Modified Rodrigues Parameters (MRPs). For this time-varing uncertainty flexible multi-body spacecraft dynamic system, a modified fractal controller via variable universe of discourse was designed and the numerical simulation was done. The results show that this control scheme avoids the flaw caused by real-time calculating of shrinkable factors, realizes the effective control of flexible multi-body spacecraft for large angte attitude maneuver, and assures the vibration suppression of the spacecraft flexible appendages at the same time%针对具有开环树状拓扑结构的柔性多体航天器,基于真一伪坐标形式的拉格朗日方程,建立柔性多体航天器的动力学模型,充分考虑了柔性航天器的时变与不确定性的动力学特征,设计了改进的变论域分形模糊控制器,并对该系统进行了仿真验证.仿真结果表明,该方案回避了实时计算收缩因子所导致的论域范围实时收缩的缺点,实现了对柔性多体航天器大角度姿态机动的有效控制,同时保证了航天器柔性附件振动的有效抑制.

  15. Nonverbal accommodation in health care communication.

    D'Agostino, Thomas A; Bylund, Carma L


    This exploratory study examined patterns of nonverbal accommodation within health care interactions and investigated the impact of communication skills training and gender concordance on nonverbal accommodation behavior. The Nonverbal Accommodation Analysis System (NAAS) was used to code the nonverbal behavior of physicians and patients within 45 oncology consultations. Cases were then placed in one of seven categories based on patterns of accommodation observed across the interaction. Results indicated that across all NAAS behavior categories, physician-patient interactions were most frequently categorized as joint convergence, followed closely by asymmetrical-patient convergence. Among paraverbal behaviors, talk time, interruption, and pausing were most frequently characterized by joint convergence. Among nonverbal behaviors, eye contact, laughing, and gesturing were most frequently categorized as asymmetrical-physician convergence. Differences were predominantly nonsignificant in terms of accommodation behavior between pre- and post-communication skills training interactions. Only gesturing proved significant, with post-communication skills training interactions more likely to be categorized as joint convergence or asymmetrical-physician convergence. No differences in accommodation were noted between gender-concordant and nonconcordant interactions. The importance of accommodation behavior in health care communication is considered from a patient-centered care perspective.

  16. Accommodative performance of children with unilateral amblyopia.

    Manh, Vivian; Chen, Angela M; Tarczy-Hornoch, Kristina; Cotter, Susan A; Candy, T Rowan


    The purpose of this study was to compare the accommodative performance of the amblyopic eye of children with unilateral amblyopia to that of their nonamblyopic eye, and also to that of children without amblyopia, during both monocular and binocular viewing. Modified Nott retinoscopy was used to measure accommodative performance of 38 subjects with unilateral amblyopia and 25 subjects with typical vision from 3 to 13 years of age during monocular and binocular viewing at target distances of 50, 33, and 25 cm. The relationship between accommodative demand and interocular difference (IOD) in accommodative error was assessed in each group. The mean IOD in monocular accommodative error for amblyopic subjects across all three viewing distances was 0.49 diopters (D) (95% confidence interval [CI], ±1.12 D) in the 180° meridian and 0.54 D (95% CI, ±1.27 D) in the 90° meridian, with the amblyopic eye exhibiting greater accommodative errors on average. Interocular difference in monocular accommodative error increased significantly with increasing accommodative demand; 5%, 47%, and 58% of amblyopic subjects had monocular errors in the amblyopic eye that fell outside the upper 95% confidence limit for the better eye of control subjects at viewing distances of 50, 33, and 25 cm, respectively. When viewing monocularly, children with unilateral amblyopia had greater mean accommodative errors in their amblyopic eyes than in their nonamblyopic eyes, and when compared with control subjects. This could lead to unintended retinal image defocus during patching therapy for amblyopia. Copyright 2015 The Association for Research in Vision and Ophthalmology, Inc.

  17. A multibody modelling approach to determine load sharing between passive elements of the lumbar spine.

    Abouhossein, Alireza; Weisse, Bernhard; Ferguson, Stephen J


    The human spinal segment is an inherently complex structure, a combination of flexible and semi-rigid articulating elements stabilised by seven principal ligaments. An understanding of how mechanical loading is shared among these passive elements of the segment is required to estimate tissue failure stresses. A 3D rigid body model of the complete lumbar spine has been developed to facilitate the prediction of load sharing across the passive elements. In contrast to previous multibody models, this model includes a non-linear, six degrees of freedom intervertebral disc, facet bony articulations and all spinal ligaments. Predictions of segmental kinematics and facet joint forces, in response to pure moment loading (flexion-extension), were compared to published in vitro data. On inclusion of detailed representation of the disc and facets, the multibody model fully captures the non-linear flexibility response of the spinal segment, i.e. coupled motions and a mobile instantaneous centre of rotation. Predicted facet joint forces corresponded well with reported values. For the loading case considered, the model predicted that the ligaments are the main stabilising elements within the physiological motion range; however, the disc resists a greater proportion of the applied load as the spine is fully flexed. In extension, the facets and capsular ligaments provide the principal resistance. Overall patterns of load distribution to the spinal ligaments are in agreement with previous predictions; however, the current model highlights the important role of the intraspinous ligament in flexion and the potentially high risk of failure. Several important refinements to the multibody modelling of the passive elements of the spine have been described, and such an enhanced passive model can be easily integrated into a full musculoskeletal model for the prediction of spinal loading for a variety of daily activities.

  18. Gear fatigue damage for a 500 kW wind turbine exposed to increasing turbulence using a flexible multibody model

    Jørgensen, Martin Felix; Pedersen, Niels Leergaard; Sørensen, Jens Nørkær


    This paper investigates gear tooth fatigue damage in a 500 kW wind turbine using FLEX5 and own multibody code. FLEX5 provides the physical wind eld, rotor and generator torque and the multibody code is used for obtaining gear tooth reaction forces in the planetary gearbox. Dierent turbulence levels...... and therefore increased fatigue damage levels. This article contributes to a better understanding of gear fatigue damage when turbulence is increased (e.g. in the center of large wind farms or at places where turbulence is pronounced)....

  19. Accommodation and Compliance Series: Employees with Arthritis

    ... Resources Home | Accommodation and Compliance Series: Employees with Arthritis By Beth Loy, Ph.D. Preface Introduction Information ... SOAR) at . Information about Arthritis How prevalent is arthritis? An estimated 50 million ...

  20. Accommodation of workers with chronic neurologic disorders.

    Bleecker, Margit L; Barnes, Sheryl K


    The ability to work is important to those with chronic neurologic disorders (CND) and to the aging workforce. Many signs and symptoms are similar in those with CND and normal aging, but may interfere with the ability to work if not appropriately accommodated. This requires the healthcare provider to recognize the specific features of the CND that interferes with work and how it can be accommodated. Review of the American with Disabilities Act and the subsequent amendment informs the healthcare provider as to what is covered under the law and how the disability can be accommodated. Overall employers want to retain qualified employees and therefore accommodating workers is beneficial to both the employee with CND and the employer.

  1. Relationship of ocular accommodation and motor skills performance in developmental coordination disorder.

    Rafique, Sara A; Northway, Nadia


    Ocular accommodation provides a well-focussed image, feedback for accurate eye movement control, and cues for depth perception. To accurately perform visually guided motor tasks, integration of ocular motor systems is essential. Children with motor coordination impairment are established to be at higher risk of accommodation anomalies. The aim of the present study was to examine the relationship between ocular accommodation and motor tasks, which are often overlooked, in order to better understand the problems experienced by children with motor coordination impairment. Visual function, gross and fine motor skills were assessed in children with developmental coordination disorder (DCD) and typically developing control children. Children with DCD had significantly poorer accommodation facility and amplitude dynamics compared to controls. Results indicate a relationship between impaired accommodation and motor skills. Specifically, accommodation anomalies correlated with visual motor, upper limb and fine dexterity task performance. Consequently, we argue accommodation anomalies influence the ineffective coordination of action and perception in DCD. Furthermore, reading disabilities were related to poorer motor performance. We postulate the role of the fastigial nucleus as a common pathway for accommodation and motor deficits. Implications of the findings and recommended visual screening protocols are discussed.

  2. Simulation of Moving Loads in Elastic Multibody Systems With Parametric Model Reduction Techniques

    Fischer Michael


    Full Text Available In elastic multibody systems, one considers large nonlinear rigid body motion and small elastic deformations. In a rising number of applications, e.g. automotive engineering, turning and milling processes, the position of acting forces on the elastic body varies. The necessary model order reduction to enable efficient simulations requires the determination of ansatz functions, which depend on the moving force position. For a large number of possible interaction points, the size of the reduced system would increase drastically in the classical Component Mode Synthesis framework. If many nodes are potentially loaded, or the contact area is not known a-priori and only a small number of nodes is loaded simultaneously, the system is described in this contribution with the parameter-dependent force position. This enables the application of parametric model order reduction methods. Here, two techniques based on matrix interpolation are described which transform individually reduced systems and allow the interpolation of the reduced system matrices to determine reduced systems for any force position. The online-offline decomposition and description of the force distribution onto the reduced elastic body are presented in this contribution. The proposed framework enables the simulation of elastic multibody systems with moving loads efficiently because it solely depends on the size of the reduced system. Results in frequency and time domain for the simulation of a thin-walled cylinder with a moving load illustrate the applicability of the proposed method.

  3. Entropic Measure of Epistemic Uncertainties in Multibody System Models by Axiomatic Design

    Francesco Villecco


    Full Text Available In this paper, the use of the MaxInf Principle in real optimization problems is investigated for engineering applications, where the current design solution is actually an engineering approximation. In industrial manufacturing, multibody system simulations can be used to develop new machines and mechanisms by using virtual prototyping, where an axiomatic design can be employed to analyze the independence of elements and the complexity of connections forming a general mechanical system. In the classic theories of Fisher and Wiener-Shannon, the idea of information is a measure of only probabilistic and repetitive events. However, this idea is broader than the probability alone field. Thus, the Wiener-Shannon’s axioms can be extended to non-probabilistic events and it is possible to introduce a theory of information for non-repetitive events as a measure of the reliability of data for complex mechanical systems. To this end, one can devise engineering solutions consistent with the values of the design constraints analyzing the complexity of the relation matrix and using the idea of information in the metric space. The final solution gives the entropic measure of epistemic uncertainties which can be used in multibody system models, analyzed with an axiomatic design.

  4. Exploring the Relationship Between Students Needing Accommodations and Instructor Self-Efficacy in Complying With Accommodations

    Anna M Wright; Kevin R Meyer


    .... Specifically, the authors' explored the relationship between student selfdisclosure of a disability and instructor empathy, flexibility, and self-efficacy in meeting student accommodation needs...

  5. Multiple Constructs and Effects of Accommodations on Accommodated Test Scores for Students with Disabilities

    Stephanie W. Cawthon


    Full Text Available Students with disabilities frequently use accommodations to participate in large-scale, standardized assessments. Accommodations can include changes to the administration of the test, such as extended time, changes to the test items, such as read aloud, or changes to the student's response, such as the use of a scribe. Some accommodations or modifications risk changing the difficulty of the test items or decreasing the validity of how test scores are interpreted. Questions regarding the validity of accommodated tests are heightened when scores are used in high-stakes decisions such as grade promotion, graduation, teacher merit pay, or other accountability initiatives. The purpose of this article is to review existing literature on multiple constructs that affect validity of interpretations of accommodated assessment scores. Research on assessment accommodations continues to grow but offers few conclusive findings on whether they facilitate fair and accurate measurement of student knowledge and skill. The validity of an accommodated score appears to vary depending on several factors such as student characteristics, test characteristics, and the accommodations themselves. A multiple construct approach may facilitate more accurate evaluations of the effects of accommodated test scores

  6. Structural optimization of wind turbine rotor blades by multilevel sectional/multibody/3D-FEM analysis

    Bottasso, C. L.; Campagnolo, F.; Croce, A.


    level. At first, a "coarse"-level constrained design optimization is performed by using a 1D spatial geometrically exact beam model for aero-servo-elastic multibody analysis and load calculation, integrated with a 2D FEM cross sectional model for stress/strain analysis, and the evaluation of the 1D...

  7. New Computational Framework for the Treatment of Joint Constraints and Connectivity Conditions in Finite Element/Multibody System Algorithms



  8. A geometrically non-linear formulation of a three-dimensional beam element for solving large deflection multibody system problems

    Jonker, J.B.; Meijaard, J.P.


    A beam finite element formulation for large deflection problems in the analysis of flexible multibody systems has been proposed. In this formulation, a set of independent discrete deformation modes are defined for each element which are related to conventional small deflection beam theory in a co-ro

  9. Complex treatment of accommodation disturbances in students

    O. G. Pozdeeva


    Full Text Available Purpose: Assessment of the effectiveness of different methods of treatment accommodation disturbances in patients 18‑23 years old.Methods: Determination of refraction and the size of the absolute accommodation and reserves of the relative accommodationbefore and after the treatment with Midrimax and Irifrin 2.5 % in combination with the course of electrostimulation.Results: The clinical effect was obtained in all patients. The maximum improvement of visual functions with a lower degree of myopia (1.0‑3.0 D, increase of absolute accommodation (by 2.5‑3,.D and reserves of the relative accommodation (up to age norms were observed in the younger age group of patients, wich had received the treatment with Midrimax, especially when combined with electrostimulation.Conclusion: Instillation of Midrimax in the treatment of violations of accommodation contribute to the effective reduction in the degree of myopia and improve of accomodation in patients 18‑23 years old. The combination of this therapy with functional methods of treatment increase its effectiveness.

  10. Complex treatment of accommodation disturbances in students

    O. G. Pozdeeva


    Full Text Available Purpose: Assessment of the effectiveness of different methods of treatment accommodation disturbances in patients 18‑23 years old.Methods: Determination of refraction and the size of the absolute accommodation and reserves of the relative accommodationbefore and after the treatment with Midrimax and Irifrin 2.5 % in combination with the course of electrostimulation.Results: The clinical effect was obtained in all patients. The maximum improvement of visual functions with a lower degree of myopia (1.0‑3.0 D, increase of absolute accommodation (by 2.5‑3,.D and reserves of the relative accommodation (up to age norms were observed in the younger age group of patients, wich had received the treatment with Midrimax, especially when combined with electrostimulation.Conclusion: Instillation of Midrimax in the treatment of violations of accommodation contribute to the effective reduction in the degree of myopia and improve of accomodation in patients 18‑23 years old. The combination of this therapy with functional methods of treatment increase its effectiveness.

  11. Prediction of anthropometric accommodation in aircraft cockpits

    Zehner, Gregory Franklin

    Designing aircraft cockpits to accommodate the wide range of body sizes existing in the U.S. population has always been a difficult problem for Crewstation Engineers. The approach taken in the design of military aircraft has been to restrict the range of body sizes allowed into flight training, and then to develop standards and specifications to ensure that the majority of the pilots are accommodated. Accommodation in this instance is defined as the ability to: (1) Adequately see, reach, and actuate controls; (2) Have external visual fields so that the pilot can see to land, clear for other aircraft, and perform a wide variety of missions (ground support/attack or air to air combat); and (3) Finally, if problems arise, the pilot has to be able to escape safely. Each of these areas is directly affected by the body size of the pilot. Unfortunately, accommodation problems persist and may get worse. Currently the USAF is considering relaxing body size entrance requirements so that smaller and larger people could become pilots. This will make existing accommodation problems much worse. This dissertation describes a methodology for correcting this problem and demonstrates the method by predicting pilot fit and performance in the USAF T-38A aircraft based on anthropometric data. The methods described can be applied to a variety of design applications where fitting the human operator into a system is a major concern. A systematic approach is described which includes: defining the user population, setting functional requirements that operators must be able to perform, testing the ability of the user population to perform the functional requirements, and developing predictive equations for selecting future users of the system. Also described is a process for the development of new anthropometric design criteria and cockpit design methods that assure body size accommodation is improved in the future.

  12. Aerobrake assembly with minimum Space Station accommodation

    Katzberg, Steven J.; Butler, David H.; Doggett, William R.; Russell, James W.; Hurban, Theresa


    The minimum Space Station Freedom accommodations required for initial assembly, repair, and refurbishment of the Lunar aerobrake were investigated. Baseline Space Station Freedom support services were assumed, as well as reasonable earth-to-orbit possibilities. A set of three aerobrake configurations representative of the major themes in aerobraking were developed. Structural assembly concepts, along with on-orbit assembly and refurbishment scenarios were created. The scenarios were exercised to identify required Space Station Freedom accommodations. Finally, important areas for follow-on study were also identified.

  13. Effects of viewing distance on accommodative and pupillary responses following a three-dimensional task.

    Iwasaki, Tsuneto; Tawara, Akihiko


    We have investigated accommodation and pupil responses after viewing stereoscopic images related to the resting position of accommodation. After a 10-min visual task viewing stereoscopic three-dimensional images, measurements of dynamic accommodation and pupil response were made using an infrared optometer and a pupil analyser. Four conditions were given for the viewing distance: 0.4 m (closer than the subjects' resting position), 1 m (approximating to their resting state), and 1.5 and 3 m (farther than the resting position). For the 0.4- and 1-m groups, a delay in the accommodation response for near-to-far movement was shown after the task, from 817 to 1120 ms and from 830 to 898 ms, respectively, but there was no change in the pupillary response. In the 1.5- and 3-m groups, on the other hand, a significant delay in the accommodation response for far-to-near movement was shown, from 827 to 912 ms and from 857 to 1150 ms, respectively, and greater miosis was found, from 7.2 to 9.2 mm2 and from 8.0 to 10.4 mm2. The data reveal that there are different after-effects on accommodation and pupillary functions when subjects perform the task within their accommodative resting position, than when the task is performed outside the resting position.

  14. Combined finite element and multibody musculoskeletal investigation of a fractured clavicle with reconstruction plate

    Cronskar, Marie; Rasmussen, John; Tinnsten, Mats


    This paper addresses the various treatment options for clavicle fractures by means of computational models, more precisely cases with a need for internal fixation: non-unions and certain complex fractures. The motivation for the work is that treatment can be enhanced by a better understanding...... of the loading of the clavicle and fixation device. This study aimed to develop a method for realistic simulation of stresses in the bone and fixation device in the case of a fractured clavicle. A finite element (FE) mesh of the clavicle geometry was created from computer tomography (CT) data and imported...... into the FE solver where the model was subjected to muscle forces and other boundary conditions from a multibody musculoskeletal model performing a typical activity of daily life. A reconstruction plate and screws were also imported into the model. The combination models returned stresses and displacements...

  15. A multi-body vehicle for moving inside cluttered nuclear environment

    Littmann, F.; Chameaud, H. [CEA Centre d`Etudes de Saclay, 91 - Gif-sur-Yvette (France). Dept. des Procedes et Systemes Avances; Dorn, J. [Kernforschungszentrum Karlsruhe GmbH (Germany)


    The paper presents the result of the TALOS (Technologies for Advanced locomotion Systems) programme. The general aim of the TALOS was to prove the feasibility of multi-body articulated vehicles for intervention missions in nuclear plant were high payload volume and mass are required, combined with great geometrical and obstacles constraints. This programme was based on one hand on the TLV (Train Like Vehicle) concept, developed by CEA ( Atomic Energy Commission) and on the other hand on the KfK experience on locomotion. The main difficulties of this programme were to find the mechanical linkage concept and the locomotion concept, and also to build an integrated mockup with linkage and locomotion concepts. (TEC). 4 refs., 5 figs.

  16. [Accommodation and presbyopia : part 2: surgical procedures for the correction of presbyopia].

    Baumeister, M; Kohnen, T


    There are two basic approaches for the surgical correction of presbyopia: increasing depth of focus (e.g. by means of multifocal laser abrasion of the cornea), Or restoring accommodation in the sense of a dynamic change in ocular refraction (accommodative intraocular lenses, scleral expansion). Pseudoaccommodative procedures are able to achieve satisfactory near vision, albeit at the price of lower performance in the intermediate range and decreased image quality. The restoration of accommodation remains problematic, partly because the mechanism of accommodation and the development of presbyopia are still not fully understood. Some surgical procedures are based on concepts, the validity of which is not confirmed or which even contradict experimental evidence. Thus, it is necessary to assess the results and presumed mechanisms critically and objectively.

  17. 22 CFR 142.12 - Reasonable accommodation.


    ..., acquisition or modification of equipment or devices, the provision of readers or interpreters, and other... facilities, and size of budget; (2) Job restructuring, part-time or modified work schedules, acquisition and... sign language, when appropriate. (3) The nature and cost of the accommodation needed. (d) A...

  18. 34 CFR 104.12 - Reasonable accommodation.


    ... 34 Education 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Reasonable accommodation. 104.12 Section 104.12 Education Regulations of the Offices of the Department of Education OFFICE FOR CIVIL RIGHTS, DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION NONDISCRIMINATION ON THE BASIS OF HANDICAP IN PROGRAMS OR ACTIVITIES RECEIVING FEDERAL...

  19. Robot response behaviors to accommodate hearing problems

    Vroon, Jered; Kim, Jaebok; Koster, Raphaël


    One requirement that arises for a social (semi-autonomous telepresence) robot aimed at conversations with the elderly, is to accommodate hearing problems. In this paper we compare two approaches to this requirement; (1) moving closer, mimicking the leaning behavior commonly observed in elderly with

  20. Anthropometric Accommodation in Space Suit Design

    Rajulu, Sudhakar; Thaxton, Sherry


    Design requirements for next generation hardware are in process at NASA. Anthropometry requirements are given in terms of minimum and maximum sizes for critical dimensions that hardware must accommodate. These dimensions drive vehicle design and suit design, and implicitly have an effect on crew selection and participation. At this stage in the process, stakeholders such as cockpit and suit designers were asked to provide lists of dimensions that will be critical for their design. In addition, they were asked to provide technically feasible minimum and maximum ranges for these dimensions. Using an adjusted 1988 Anthropometric Survey of U.S. Army (ANSUR) database to represent a future astronaut population, the accommodation ranges provided by the suit critical dimensions were calculated. This project involved participation from the Anthropometry and Biomechanics facility (ABF) as well as suit designers, with suit designers providing expertise about feasible hardware dimensions and the ABF providing accommodation analysis. The initial analysis provided the suit design team with the accommodation levels associated with the critical dimensions provided early in the study. Additional outcomes will include a comparison of principal components analysis as an alternate method for anthropometric analysis.

  1. Sub-discretized surface model with application to contact mechanics in multi-body simulation

    Johnson, S; Williams, J


    The mechanics of contact between rough and imperfectly spherical adhesive powder grains are often complicated by a variety of factors, including several which vary over sub-grain length scales. These include several traction factors that vary spatially over the surface of the individual grains, including high energy electron and acceptor sites (electrostatic), hydrophobic and hydrophilic sites (electrostatic and capillary), surface energy (general adhesion), geometry (van der Waals and mechanical), and elasto-plastic deformation (mechanical). For mechanical deformation and reaction, coupled motions, such as twisting with bending and sliding, as well as surface roughness add an asymmetry to the contact force which invalidates assumptions for popular models of contact, such as the Hertzian and its derivatives, for the non-adhesive case, and the JKR and DMT models for adhesive contacts. Though several contact laws have been offered to ameliorate these drawbacks, they are often constrained to particular loading paths (most often normal loading) and are relatively complicated for computational implementation. This paper offers a simple and general computational method for augmenting contact law predictions in multi-body simulations through characterization of the contact surfaces using a hierarchically-defined surface sub-discretization. For the case of adhesive contact between powder grains in low stress regimes, this technique can allow a variety of existing contact laws to be resolved across scales, allowing for moments and torques about the contact area as well as normal and tangential tractions to be resolved. This is especially useful for multi-body simulation applications where the modeler desires statistical distributions and calibration for parameters in contact laws commonly used for resolving near-surface contact mechanics. The approach is verified against analytical results for the case of rough, elastic spheres.

  2. Assessment of excitation mechanisms and structural flexibility influence in excitation propagation in multi-megawatt wind turbine gearboxes: Experiments and flexible multibody model optimization

    Helsen, Jan; Marrant, Ben; Vanhollebeke, Frederik; De Coninck, Filip; Berckmans, Dries; Vandepitte, Dirk; Desmet, Wim


    Reliable gearbox design calculations require sufficient insight in gearbox dynamics, which is determined by the interaction between the different excitation mechanisms and the gearbox modal behavior. Both external gearbox excitation originating from the wind turbine drive train and internal gearbox excitation are important. Moreover with regard to the modal behavior the different gearbox structural components: planet carrier, shafts and housing are of influence. The main objective of this article is the experimental investigation of the interaction between the different excitation mechanisms and the gearbox modal behavior. The insights gathered are used to prove the need for accurate gear mesh representation and structural flexibility within the corresponding flexible multibody gearbox simulation model. Experiments are conducted on a dynamic 13.2 MW test facility on which two multi-megawatt wind turbine gearboxes are placed back to back and subjected to a speed run-up. Measurement sensors consist of bearing displacement sensors, torque sensors, encoders and accelerometers distributed over the gearbox. Excitation order amplitudes on different locations in the gearbox are determined by means of a Time Varying Discrete Fourier Transform (TVDFT) order tracking on the measured sensor signals. Moreover the propagation of this excitation throughout the gearbox is assessed. Relating the orders to the corresponding excitation source allows the definition of order influence regions within the gearbox. The interaction between the gear mesh order excitation and structural flexibility is shown.

  3. Simulations and Measurements of Human Middle Ear Vibrations Using Multi-Body Systems and Laser-Doppler Vibrometry with the Floating Mass Transducer

    Tobias Strenger; Stefan Lehner; Frank Böhnke; Theodor Bretan


    The transfer characteristic of the human middle ear with an applied middle ear implant (floating mass transducer) is examined computationally with a Multi-body System approach and compared with experimental results. For this purpose, the geometry of the middle ear was reconstructed from μ-computer tomography slice data and prepared for a Multi-body System simulation. The transfer function of the floating mass transducer, which is the ratio of the input voltage and the generated force, is deri...

  4. Robust Stability and Control of Multi-Body Ground Vehicles with Uncertain Dynamics and Failures


    Modeling for Heavy Articulated Tractor Semi- Trailer Vehicle Rollover Index (RI) for A single Unit Vehicle complexity to capture Roll Over phenomenon and Other Performance and Ride Quality requirements. In this connection, first simple ` Bicycle ...methodology to a specific heavy articulated vehicle with tractor semi- trailer shows that a single active anti-roll bar system at the trailer unit gives

  5. Physics-Based Robot Motion Planning in Dynamic Multi-Body Environments


    replanning interval results in an agressive growth of collision rates. 132 0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 P er fo rm a n ce LOD Time-Horizon (s...Hierarchy of Reactive Behaviors Handles Complexity. Balancing Reactivity and Social Deliberation in Multi-Agent Systems: From Robocup to Real-World

  6. Dynamics of flexible multi-body mechanisms and manipulators. Part 1: An overview

    Dubowsky, Steven


    Flexibility can be a major limitation to the performance of high performance conventional machine systems. The current status of robotic manipulators is limited by the effects of system flexibility. The status of current commercial robots, anticipated development in 5 and 10 years is outlined.

  7. A dynamic model with substructures for contact-impact analysis of flexible multibody systems

    GUO; Anping(郭安萍); HONG; Jiazhen(洪嘉振); YANG; Hui(杨辉)


    Using a substructure synthesis method this paper studies the longitudinal compressive impact of a flexible bar with a rigid body. The crucial variable affecting the validity of the method is derived theoretically. By computational simulation tests, excellent agreement has been found between the solution of this model and the exact solution when the variable is chosen suitably. Considering both the computational efficiency and the accuracy of solutions obtained on the model in different engineering problems, several optimum values of the variable are suggested.

  8. A Multibody Formulation for Three Dimensional Brick Finite Element Based Parallel and Scalable Rotor Dynamic Analysis


    ers of bricks. Different element groups can be prescribed different material properties (e.g. spar, skin , and honey - comb). The component merger can...ensures that computations of the same complexity are compared and that the speed-up is not contaminated with the benefits of substructuring itself

  9. Novel coordinates for nonlinear multibody motion with applications to spacecraft dynamics and control

    Schaub, Hanspeter


    Novel sets of attitude coordinates called the Stereographic Parameters (SPs) and configuration quasivelocity coordinates called the Eigenfactor Quasivelocities (EQVs) are discussed. The SPs are generated through stereographic projections of the Euler parameter constraint hypersphere onto hyperplanes. SP sets are non-unique and have distinct alternate sets referred to as shadow sets. They abide by the same differential kinematic equation, but generally display a different singular behavior. Explicit expressions are developed that map the original SP set to the shadow set and thus avoid any singularities. Both symmetric SPs such as the classical and Modified Rodrigues Parameters (MRPs), as well as asymmetric SPs are discussed. A globally asymptotically stable MRP feedback law which tracks any reference trajectory is presented. Both unsaturated and saturated control cases are discussed. Further, an MRP costate switching condition is developed that allows both original and shadow MRPs to be used simultaneously in optimal control problems. The Lagrange equations of motion in terms of the n-dimensional EQV vector are developed. The EQV formulation has an identity mass matrix which results in no matrix inverse being taken in numerical simulations. An explicit expression is presented that incorporates Pfaffian non-holonomic constraints into the EQV formulation without increasing the system order. Unfortunately, the use of EQV in numerical simulations only proved beneficial in selected cases. Generally the computational burden proved too high. However, the EQVs are found to be valuable when used as velocity feedback coordinates. EQV feedback laws have an exponentially decaying kinetic energy, superior performance to traditional state velocity feedback laws and are found to decouple the motion of multi-link robotic systems. The equations of motion and steering laws of spacecraft containing Variable Speed Control Moment Gyroscopes (VSCMGs) are developed. Contrary to classical CMG steering laws, VSCMG steering laws derived herein do not encounter singularities. Both gimbal angle velocity and acceleration based steering laws are presented. Since gimbaling is more efficient energy consumption wise, the steering law presented only utilizes reaction wheel modes close to classical CMG singularities. The reaction wheel mode also assists in driving the gimbals to preferred angles using null motion.

  10. GPU accelerated tandem traversal of blocked bounding volume hierarchy collision detection for multibody dynamics

    Damkjær, Jesper; Erleben, Kenny


    hierarchies. Our approach makes it possible to perform non-convex object versus non-convex object collision on the GPU, using tandem traversals of bounding volume hierarchies. Prior work only supports single traversals on GPUs. We introduce a blocked hierarchy data structure, using imaginary nodes...

  11. Vehicle dynamics modeling and simulation

    Schramm, Dieter; Bardini, Roberto


    The authors examine in detail the fundamentals and mathematical descriptions of the dynamics of automobiles. In this context different levels of complexity will be presented, starting with basic single-track models up to complex three-dimensional multi-body models. A particular focus is on the process of establishing mathematical models on the basis of real cars and the validation of simulation results. The methods presented are explained in detail by means of selected application scenarios.

  12. Gear fatigue damage for a 500 kW wind turbine exposed to increasing turbulence using a flexible multibody model

    Martin Felix Jørgensen


    Full Text Available This paper investigates gear tooth fatigue damage in a 500 kW wind turbine using FLEX5 and own multibody code. FLEX5 provides the physical wind field, rotor and generator torque and the multibody code is used for obtaining gear tooth reaction forces in the planetary gearbox. Different turbulence levels are considered and the accumulated fatigue damage levels are compared. An example where the turbulence/fatigue sensitivity could be important, is in the middle of a big wind farm. Interior wind turbines in large wind farms will always operate in the wake of other wind turbines, causing increased turbulence and therefore increased fatigue damage levels. This article contributes to a better understanding of gear fatigue damage when turbulence is increased (e.g. in the center of large wind farms or at places where turbulence is pronounced.

  13. Force and Accommodation in World Politics


    two weeks later . Finally, on 22 September two Soviet newspaper editors approached Kennedy’s press secretary, Pierre Salinger , in New York and asked if...the president had received the message . When Salinger indicated he was unaware of it, the Soviet diplomats gave him the essence of Khrushchev’ the 235 FORCE AND ACCOMMODATION United Nations in New York. After reviewing Khrushchev’s letter with Salinger and Dean Rusk, Kennedy delivered a

  14. Knee Kinematics Estimation Using Multi-Body Optimisation Embedding a Knee Joint Stiffness Matrix: A Feasibility Study

    Richard, V.; Lamberto, G.; Lu, T.W.; Cappozzo, A.; Dumas, R


    The use of multi-body optimisation (MBO) to estimate joint kinematics from stereophotogrammetric data while compensating for soft tissue artefact is still open to debate. Presently used joint models embedded in MBO, such as mechanical linkages, constitute a considerable simplification of joint function, preventing a detailed understanding of it. The present study proposes a knee joint model where femur and tibia are represented as rigid bodies connected through an elastic element the behaviou...

  15. Moving beyond misperceptions: the provision of workplace accommodations.

    Hernandez, Brigida; McDonald, Katherine; Lepera, Nicole; Shahna, Monna; Wang, T Arthur; Levy, Joel M


    This mixed-methods study examined the provision of workplace accommodations in the health care, hospitality, and retail sectors. First, focus groups with administrators from each sector revealed that accommodations costs were viewed as minimal (although frontline managers were perceived as having misperceptions). Second, the provision of accommodations as documented through human resources records for health care and hospitality indicated that accommodations were infrequent, not costly, and provided to employees with disabilities. Finally, retail employees (irrespective of disability status) reported many more accommodations than health care and hospitality workers. To dispel misperceptions related to accommodations, education is critical and social workers are well-positioned for this role.

  16. Circuit design for multi-body interactions in superconducting quantum annealing systems with applications to a scalable architecture

    Chancellor, N.; Zohren, S.; Warburton, P. A.


    Quantum annealing provides a way of solving optimization problems by encoding them as Ising spin models which are implemented using physical qubits. The solution of the optimization problem then corresponds to the ground state of the system. Quantum tunneling is harnessed to enable the system to move to the ground state in a potentially high non-convex energy landscape. A major difficulty in encoding optimization problems in physical quantum annealing devices is the fact that many real world optimization problems require interactions of higher connectivity, as well as multi-body terms beyond the limitations of the physical hardware. In this work we address the question of how to implement multi-body interactions using hardware which natively only provides two-body interactions. The main result is an efficient circuit design of such multi-body terms using superconducting flux qubits in which effective N-body interactions are implemented using N ancilla qubits and only two inductive couplers. It is then shown how this circuit can be used as the unit cell of a scalable architecture by applying it to a recently proposed embedding technique for constructing an architecture of logical qubits with arbitrary connectivity using physical qubits which have nearest-neighbor four-body interactions. It is further shown that this design is robust to non-linear effects in the coupling loops, as well as mismatches in some of the circuit parameters.

  17. Effects of pirenzepine on pupil size and accommodation in rhesus monkeys.

    Ostrin, Lisa A; Frishman, Laura J; Glasser, Adrian


    Pirenzepine is suggested to be a relatively selective muscarinic (M(1)) antagonist and is currently under investigation for the treatment of myopia. Atropine, a nonselective M-type antagonist, is used in the treatment of myopia, but has undesired ocular and systemic side effects. An M(1)-specific antagonist may decrease side effects and remain effective at reducing the progression of myopia. In the current study, the effects of pirenzepine on pupil diameter, resting refraction, and accommodation were studied in rhesus monkeys. The time course and extent of mydriasis from subconjunctival injection of 2% pirenzepine were determined in five normal rhesus monkeys, and the effects on static and dynamic accommodation were determined in four rhesus monkeys with permanent indwelling electrodes in the Edinger-Westphal (EW) nucleus of the midbrain. Subconjunctival injections of 0.0002% to 0.2% pirenzepine in log unit dilutions were tested in three monkeys to determine the effects on static EW-stimulated accommodation. At 40 to 50 minutes after pirenzepine injection, accommodation was stimulated pharmacologically in both eyes, and the response was measured for 30 minutes. After 2% pirenzepine injection, pupil size increased 2.02 +/- 0.41 mm, there was a hyperopic shift in resting refraction of 1.07 +/- 0.23 D, and nearly complete cycloplegia occurred. Maximum EW-stimulated accommodation was significantly decreased 20 to 40 minutes after 0.02% or greater pirenzepine. Carbachol-stimulated accommodation was significantly decreased after 0.2% or greater pirenzepine. Subconjunctival injections of 0.02% or greater pirenzepine result in a significant decrease in accommodation and are probably acting through nonselective muscarinic antagonism. Subconjunctival injections of 0.002% or less pirenzepine do not decrease EW-stimulated accommodation.


    I. G. Ovechkin


    Full Text Available Increased load on the visual analyzer of an operator, increase in everyday visual performance, universal introduction of information displaying on cathode-ray tubes result in temporary and stable visual disturbances. Accommodative refractive apparatus of an eye is one of the key points of application of visually intensive labor. Work associated with permanent eyestrain overloads oculomotor and accommodative apparatus thus provoking myopic shift, increase in dynamic refraction, exophoric or esophoric shift of initial visual equilibrium. Accommodation disorders are accompanied by changes in ciliary muscle blood supply, abnormalities of vegetative segment regulation, parasympathetic brain vascular dystonia due to the decreased tonus of sympathetic nervous system. Evaluation of certain kind of activity in terms of ergonomics includes examination of visual status and visual working capacity, development of visual professiograms and vision standards for certain professions, justification of methods and tools of visual work optimization. Visual disturbances in operators developing in the course of visually intensive occupational work should be considered from the viewpoint of traditional accommodation and refraction disorders as well as functional manifestations of general fatigue or thoracic cervical spine dysfunction. Symptoms of accommodative asthenopia can be regarded as a functional manifestation of general fatigue syndrome or functional neurosis. Development of multidisciplinary approach to the correction of accommodation refraction disorders in visually intensive labor persons is of scientific urgency and practical reasonability. There is a long-felt need in additional attraction of different specialists who use in their work physical factors for accommodative asthenopia correction. Development of multidisciplinary approach to accommodation refraction disorder correction in visually intensive labor persons is based on syndromic pathogenic

  19. Exact solutions for generalized variable-coefficients Ginzburg-Landau equation: Application to Bose-Einstein condensates with multi-body interatomic interactions

    Kengne, E.; Lakhssassi, A.; Vaillancourt, R.; Liu, Wu-Ming


    We present a double-mapping method (D-MM), a natural combination of a similarity with F-expansion methods, for obtaining general solvable nonlinear evolution equations. We focus on variable-coefficients complex Ginzburg-Landau equations (VCCGLE) with multi-body interactions. We show that it is easy by this method to find a large class of exact solutions of Gross-Pitaevskii and Gross-Pitaevskii-Ginzburg equations. We apply the D-MM to investigate the dynamics of Bose-Einstein condensation with two- and three-body interactions. As a surprising result, we obtained that it is very easy to use the built D-MM to obtain a large class of exact solutions of VCCGLE with two-body interactions via a generalized VCCGLE with two- and three-body interactions containing cubic-derivative terms. The results show that the proposed method is direct, concise, elementary, and effective, and can be a very effective and powerful mathematical tool for solving many other nonlinear evolution equations in physics.

  20. Applied dynamics

    Schiehlen, Werner


    Applied Dynamics is an important branch of engineering mechanics widely applied to mechanical and automotive engineering, aerospace and biomechanics as well as control engineering and mechatronics. The computational methods presented are based on common fundamentals. For this purpose analytical mechanics turns out to be very useful where D’Alembert’s principle in the Lagrangian formulation proves to be most efficient. The method of multibody systems, finite element systems and continuous systems are treated consistently. Thus, students get a much better understanding of dynamical phenomena, and engineers in design and development departments using computer codes may check the results more easily by choosing models of different complexity for vibration and stress analysis.

  1. Simultaneous refraction measurement and OCT axial biometry of the eye during accommodation (Conference Presentation)

    De Freitas, Carolina; Hernandez, Victor M.; Ruggeri, Marco; Durkee, Heather A.; Williams, Siobhan; Gregori, Giovanni; Ho, Arthur; Manns, Fabrice; Parel, Jean-Marie


    The purpose of this project is to design and evaluate a system that will enable objective assessment of the optical accommodative response in real-time while acquiring axial biometric information. The system combines three sub-systems which were integrated and mounted on a joystick x-y-z adjustable modified slit-lamp base to facilitate alignment and data acquisition: (1) a Shack-Hartmann wavefront sensor for dynamic refraction measurement, provided software calculates sphere, cylinder and axis values, (2) an extended-depth Optical Coherence Tomography (OCT) system using an optical switch records high-resolution cross-sectional images across the length of the eye, from which, dynamic axial biometry (corneal thickness, anterior chamber depth, crystalline lens thickness and vitreous depth) can be extracted, and (3) a modified dual-channel accommodation stimulus unit based on the Badal optometer for providing a step change in accommodative stimulus. The prototypal system is capable of taking simultaneous measurements of both the optical and the mechanical response of lens accommodation. These measurements can provide insight into correlating changes in lens shape with changes in lens power and ocular refraction and ultimately provide a more comprehensive understanding of accommodation, presbyopia and an objective assessment of presbyopia correction techniques.


    Portolan, Ana


    The private tourism accommodation concept has not been largely represented in the scientific research. It started appearing on the margins of the actual research in the past ten years, namely with a hotel as the most analyzed form of tourism accommodation. In the structure of tourism accommodation in Croatia in 2011 private accommodation participated with 465 000 beds which represents 49,8 percent of the total capacity and therefore demands more attention. Using the main marketing postulate w...

  3. Objective Assessment of Vergence and Accommodation After Vision Therapy for Convergence Insufficiency in a Child: A Case Report

    Mitchell Scheiman, OD


    Full Text Available Background: To evaluate objective changes in vergence and accommodation after treatment of symptomatic convergence insufficiency (CI with office-based optometric vision therapy in a pediatric patient. Case Report: A 10-year, 10-month-old child with symptomatic CI was treated with 16 visits of office-based vision therapy with home reinforcement. Pre- and post-therapy testing included both traditional clinical measures and objective laboratory measures of vergence and accommodation. The main clinical outcome measures were the CI Symptom Survey (CISS, near point of convergence (NPC, positive fusional vergence range at near (PFV, accommodative amplitude, and accommodative facility. The objective vergence range outcome measures were peak velocity, time constant, total response time, and steady-state response variability as assessed with the Power Refractor II. The objective accommodative outcome measures were peak velocity, time constant, total response time, steady-state response variability, and steady-state level, as assessed with the Grand Seiko WAM-5500. Most accommodative and vergence objective laboratory parameters improved/normalized following the vision therapy. Gains were greater for vergence than for accommodation. These objective measures confirmed the concurrent improvements in the clinical tests and markedly reduced symptom levels. Conclusions: This is the first study to document, objectively, improvements in laboratory-based dynamic measures of both accommodation and vergence following conventional office-based optometric vision therapy for CI in a child. Objective oculomotor measures can and should be performed in similar future studies in children, as well as in adults

  4. Reminder : Reimbursement of education fees / accommodation fees


    Your attention is drawn to the 20 km distance limit set in Article R A 8.01 of the Staff Regulations, namely, that only accommodation fees of students attending an educational establishment which is more than 20 km from the place of residence and the duty station of the member of the personnel are reimbursed by the Organization, subject to the percentage rate and maximum amounts set out in this article and in Administrative Circular N° 12. Human Resources Division Tel : 72862 / 74474

  5. Reimbursement of education fees / accommodation fees


    Your attention is drawn to the 20 km distance limit set in Article R A 8.01 of the Staff Regulations, namely, that only accommodation fees of students attending an educational establishment which is more than 20 km from the place of residence and the duty station of the member of the personnel are reimbursed by the Organization, subject to the percentage rate and maximum amounts set out in this article and in Administrative Circular N° 12. Human Resources Division Tel: 72862 / 74474

  6. 46 CFR 108.197 - Construction of accommodation spaces.


    ... accommodation spaces. (a) Each sleeping, mess, recreational, or hospital space that is adjacent to or... deckheads of each accommodation space must be a light color. (e) Each accommodation space in which water may... readily enter any sleeping, mess, recreational, or hospital space....

  7. Efficient methodology for multibody simulations with discontinuous changes in system definition

    Mukherjee, Rudranarayan M., E-mail:; Anderson, Kurt S. [Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, Department of Mechanical, Aeronautical, and Nuclear Engineering (United States)], E-mail:


    A new method is presented for accurately and efficiently simulating multi-scale multibody systems with discontinuous changes in system definitions as encountered in adaptive switching between models with different resolutions as well as models with different system topologies. An example of model resolution change is a transition of a system from a discrete particle model to a reduced order articulated multi-rigid body model. The discontinuous changes in system definition may be viewed as an instantaneous change (release or impulsive application of) the system constraints. The method uses a spatial impulse-momentum formulation in a divide and conquer scheme. The approach utilizes a hierarchic assembly-disassembly process by traversing the system topology in a binary tree map to solve for the jumps in the system generalized speeds and the constraint impulsive loads in linear and logarithmic cost in serial and parallel implementations, respectively. The method is applicable for systems in serial chain as well as kinematical loop topologies. The coupling between the unilateral and bilateral constraints is handled efficiently through the use of kinematic joint definitions. The equations of motion for the system are produced in a hierarchic sub-structured form. This has the advantage that changes in sub-structure definitions/models results in a change to the system equations only within the associated sub-structure. This allows for significant changes in model types and definitions without having to reformulate the equations for the whole system.

  8. Effect of various upper limb multibody models on soft tissue artefact correction: A case study.

    Naaim, Alexandre; Moissenet, Florent; Duprey, Sonia; Begon, Mickaël; Chèze, Laurence


    Soft tissue artefacts (STA) introduce errors in joint kinematics when using cutaneous markers, especially on the scapula. Both segmental optimisation and multibody kinematics optimisation (MKO) algorithms have been developed to improve kinematics estimates. MKO based on a chain model with joint constraints avoids apparent joint dislocation but is sensitive to the biofidelity of chosen joint constraints. Since no recommendation exists for the scapula, our objective was to determine the best models to accurately estimate its kinematics. One participant was equipped with skin markers and with an intracortical pin screwed in the scapula. Segmental optimisation and MKO for 24-chain models (including four variations of the scapulothoracic joint) were compared against the pin-derived kinematics using root mean square error (RMSE) on Cardan angles. Segmental optimisation led to an accurate scapula kinematics (1.1°≤RMSE≤3.3°) even for high arm elevation angles. When MKO was applied, no clinically significant difference was found between the different scapulothoracic models (0.9°≤RMSE≤4.1°) except when a free scapulothoracic joint was modelled (1.9°≤RMSE≤9.6°). To conclude, using MKO as a STA correction method was not more accurate than segmental optimisation for estimating scapula kinematics.

  9. Stress and heat flux for arbitrary multi-body potentials: A unified framework

    Admal, Nikhil Chandra


    A two-step unified framework for the evaluation of continuum field expressions from molecular simulations for arbitrary interatomic potentials is presented. First, pointwise continuum fields are obtained using a generalization of the Irving-Kirkwood procedure to arbitrary multi-body potentials. Two ambiguities associated with the original Irving-Kirkwood procedure (which was limited to pair potential interactions) are addressed in its generalization. The first ambiguity is due to the non-uniqueness of the decomposition of the force on an atom as a sum of central forces, which is a result of the non-uniqueness of the potential energy representation in terms of distances between the particles. This is in turn related to the shape space of the system. The second ambiguity is due to the non-uniqueness of the energy decomposition between particles. The latter can be completely avoided through an alternate derivation for the energy balance. It is found that the expressions for the specific internal energy and the h...

  10. A Synchronous Multi-Body Sensor Platform in a Wireless Body Sensor Network: Design and Implementation

    Jungtae Lee


    Full Text Available Background: Human life can be further improved if diseases and disorders can be predicted before they become dangerous, by correctly recognizing signals from the human body, so in order to make disease detection more precise, various body-signals need to be measured simultaneously in a synchronized manner. Object: This research aims at developing an integrated system for measuring four signals (EEG, ECG, respiration, and PPG and simultaneously producing synchronous signals on a Wireless Body Sensor Network. Design: We designed and implemented a platform for multiple bio-signals using Bluetooth communication. Results: First, we developed a prototype board and verified the signals from the sensor platform using frequency responses and quantities. Next, we designed and implemented a lightweight, ultra-compact, low cost, low power-consumption Printed Circuit Board. Conclusion: A synchronous multi-body sensor platform is expected to be very useful in telemedicine and emergency rescue scenarios. Furthermore, this system is expected to be able to analyze the mutual effects among body signals.

  11. Planning acetabular fracture reduction using patient-specific multibody simulation of the hip

    Oliveri, Hadrien; Boudissa, Mehdi; Tonetti, Jerome; Chabanas, Matthieu


    Acetabular fractures are a challenge in orthopedic surgery. Computer-aided solutions were proposed to segment bone fragments, simulate the fracture reduction or design the osteosynthesis fixation plates. This paper addresses the simulation part, which is usually carried out by freely moving bone fragments with six degrees of freedom to reproduce the pre-fracture state. Instead we propose a different paradigm, closer to actual surgeon's requirements: to simulate the surgical procedure itself rather than the desired result. A simple, patient-specific, biomechanical multibody model is proposed, integrating the main ligaments and muscles of the hip joint while accounting for contacts between bone fragments. Main surgical tools and actions can be simulated, such as clamps, Schanz screws or traction of the femur. Simulations are computed interactively, which enables clinicians to evaluate different strategies for an optimal surgical planning. Six retrospective cases were studied, with simple and complex fracture patterns. After interactively building the models from preoperative CT, gestures from the surgical reports were reproduced. Results of the simulations could then be compared with postoperative CT data. A qualitative study shows the model behavior is excellent and the simulated reductions fit the observed data. A more quantitative analysis is currently being completed. Two cases are particularly significant, for which the surgical reduction actually failed. Simulations show it was indeed not possible to reduce these fractures with the chosen approach. Had our simulator being used, a better planning may have avoided a second surgery to these patients.

  12. Accommodation-Amplitudes following an Accommodative Lens Refilling Procedure — an in vivo Update

    Nishi, Okihiro; Nishi, Yutaro; Chang, S.; Nishi, Kayo


    Purpose To investigate whether a newly developed lens refilling procedure can provide some accommodation in monkey eyes and to evaluate the difference in accommodation with different degrees of capsular bag refilling. Setting Jinshikai Medical Foundation, Nishi Eye Hospital, Osaka, Japan. Design Experimental monkey study. Methods Following a central 3–4 mm continuous curvilinear capsulorhexis, phacoemulsification was performed in the usual manner. A novel accommodative membrane intraocular lens for sealing capsular opening was implanted into the capsular bag. Silicone polymers were injected beneath the intraocular lens into the capsular bag through the delivery hole. In three study groups, each with six monkey eyes, the lens capsule was refilled with 0.08 ml corresponding to 65% bag volume, 0.1 ml corresponding to 80% bag volume, and 0.125 ml of silicone polymers corresponding to 100% bag volume, respectively. To calculate the accommodation-amplitudes achieved, automated refractometry was performed before and 1 hour after the topical 4% pilocarpine application before and four weeks after surgery. Results The refilling technique was successful in all monkeys without polymer leakage. Accommodation-amplitudes attained were 2.56 ± 0.74 dioptries (D), 2.42 ± 1.00D, and 2.71 ± 0.63D, respectively, 4 weeks after surgery in the three study groups. Conclusions Using the technique, some accommodation could be obtained in the young monkey eyes. Leakage of the injectable silicone polymer and anterior capsular opacification at least in the visual axis could be avoided. The results suggest that this lens refilling procedure warrants further studies for a possible clinical application. PMID:24461501

  13. [Dissociated near reflex and accommodative convergence excess].

    Gräf, M; Becker, R; Kloss, S


    We report on an 8-year-old boy whose near reflex could be elicited exclusively when the left eye was fixing (LF) but not when the right eye was fixing (RF). With RE +1.25/-1.25/169 degrees and LE +1.0/-0.75/24 degrees, the visual acuity was 1.0 OU at 5 m and RE 0.5, LE 1.0 at 0.3 m improving to 1.0 OU by a near addition of 3.0 D. Stereopsis was 100 degrees (Titmus test). The prism and cover test revealed an esophoria of 4 degrees at 5 m. At 3 m there was an esophoria of 6 degrees (RF) and an esotropia of 28 degrees (LF), compensating to an esophoria of 3 degrees (RF/LF) with a near addition of 3.0 D. Accommodation and the pupillary near reaction (OU) were hardly elicitable during RF. During LF, retinoscopy revealed an accommodation of 8 D (OU) and the pupils constricted normally. Correction by bifocal glasses yielded orthotropia with random dot stereopsis at near.

  14. Near-unity mass accommodation coefficient of organic molecules of varying structure.

    Julin, Jan; Winkler, Paul M; Donahue, Neil M; Wagner, Paul E; Riipinen, Ilona


    Atmospheric aerosol particles have a significant effect on global climate, air quality, and consequently human health. Condensation of organic vapors is a key process in the growth of nanometer-sized particles to climate relevant sizes. This growth is very sensitive to the mass accommodation coefficient α, a quantity describing the vapor uptake ability of the particles, but knowledge on α of atmospheric organics is lacking. In this work, we have determined α for four organic molecules with diverse structural properties: adipic acid, succinic acid, naphthalene, and nonane. The coefficients are studied using molecular dynamics simulations, complemented with expansion chamber measurements. Our results are consistent with α = 1 (indicating nearly perfect accommodation), regardless of the molecular structural properties, the phase state of the bulk condensed phase, or surface curvature. The results highlight the need for experimental techniques capable of resolving the internal structure of nanoparticles to better constrain the accommodation of atmospheric organics.

  15. Dynamic Characteristics Analysis of the Coupled Lateral-Torsional Vibration with Spur Gear System

    Shihua Zhou; Zhaohui Ren; Guiqiu Song; Bangchun Wen


    A sixteen-degree-of-freedom (16-DOF) lumped parameter dynamic model taking into account the gravity, eccentricity, bearing clearance, transmission error, and coupled lateral-torsional vibration is established. Based on the dynamical equation, the dynamic behaviors of the spur gear rotor bearing system are investigated by using Runge-Kutta method. The research focuses on the effect of rotational speed, eccentricity, and bearing clearance and nonlinear response of the coupled multibody dynamics...

  16. Application of parallel computing to robot dynamics

    Schäfer, Peter; Schiehlen, Werner


    In this paper an approach for the application of parallel processing to the dynamic analysis of robots based on the multibody system method is presented. The inherent structure of the symbolic equations of motion is used for partitioning those into independent modules for concurrent evaluation. The applied strategies for parallelization include the parallel evaluation of subsystem equations and the parallel computation of the inertia matrix along with its factorization, and of the force vecto...

  17. Feasibility of Applying Controllable Lubrication to Dynamically Loaded Journal Bearings

    Estupinan, Edgar Alberto; Santos, Ilmar


    A multibody dynamic model of the main mechanical components of a hermetic reciprocating compressor is presented in this work. Considering that some of the mechanical elements are interconnected via thin fluid films, the multibody dynamic model is coupled to the equations from the dynamics...... levels, wear and power losses of the system components. From the point of view of actively controlled lubrication and specifically for the case of dynamically loaded journal bearings, the injection pressure should be controlled in time domain. However, taking into account that the gas pressure...... and reaction forces in a reciprocating compressor have a cyclic behavior, periodic oil pressure injection rules based on the instantaneous crank angle and load bearing condition can be established. In this paper, several bearing configurations working under different oil pressure injection rules conditions...

  18. Digital Elevation Map Reconstruction for Port-based Dynamic Simulation of Contacts on Irregular Surfaces

    Wassink, Martin; Carloni, Raffaella; Poulakis, Pantelis; Stramigioli, Stefano


    This paper presents a method to utilize a port-based multibody contact model for simulating dynamic interaction between irregular surfaces. The existing compliant contact model requires an analytic parametrization of the surfaces involved in the interaction, the definition of a Gauss frame in each o

  19. Kinematic and Dynamic Analysis of New Polar Positioning System Dedicated to Mechatronic Laser Glass Engraving System

    Trochimczuk R.


    Full Text Available Analytical formulas describing the kinematics and dynamics of a multibody system of a new polar positioning system dedicated to mechatronic laser glass or other transparent dielectrics engraving system will be presented in this work. The analytical results will become in the later stages of the research the basis of numerical simulations. They will optimize the proposed solution of the positioning system.

  20. Workplace accommodations for people with mental illness: a scoping review.

    McDowell, Caitlin; Fossey, Ellie


    Disability discrimination legislation means that employees with a disability or mental illness are legally entitled to reasonable workplace accommodations that enable them to work effectively and safely. This scoping review aims to investigate the types of workplace accommodations provided for people with mental illness, and their costs and benefits. A literature search was conducted using five electronic databases. Peer reviewed research articles published between 1993 and June 2013 were included in this scoping review and their quality was assessed. Opinion papers, reports, and case descriptions were excluded. Nine studies explored workplace accommodations for people with mental illness. The most commonly reported work-related accommodations were flexible scheduling/reduced hours, modified training and supervision, and modified job duties/descriptions. The least common type of accommodation was physical modification to the workplace. For employees with persistent mental illness who were accessing a supported employment agency, the majority of accommodations related to support from the job coach or employment specialist, such as facilitating communication with the employer during hiring or on the job. The quality of the studies varied considerably and the benefits of the accommodations are not yet well documented. There is limited evidence that a larger number of workplace accommodations are associated with longer job tenure. Workplace accommodations appear to be important to support employees with mental illness, but more accessible information about how disability discrimination legislation applies to this population is needed. Future research should address the implementation and effectiveness of mental health-related workplace accommodations.

  1. Privately Provided Accommodation Service Quality and Customer Satisfaction

    Joshua Mugambwa; George William Mugerwa; Wilson Williams Mutumba; Claire Muganzi; Bridget Namubiru; Yusuf Waswa; Isaac Newton Kayongo


    .... This research took a case study of Nsamizi Training Institute of Social Development (NTISD) to determine the relationship between privately provided accommodation service quality and customer satisfaction...

  2. A multibody approach applied to the study of driver injuries due to a narrow-track wheeled tractor rollover

    Simone Pascuzzi


    Full Text Available This paper proposes the use of the multibody approach to evaluate the severity of the injuries to the driver associated with rollover of an agricultural tractor. A simple rollover accident of a narrow-track wheeled tractor was simulated in the multibody-FEM Madymo environment and the biomechanical damage to the operator with and without 2-point pelvic restraint was analysed. The structure of the tractor was considered to be unbendable, whereas i infinitely rigid, ii clay-based and iii sand-based soils have been studied. The obtained results highlight the important role played by the seat belt in confining the farm operator within the safety volume maintained by the rollover protective structure (ROPS of the tractor so that the injuries are reduced. The deformation of the soil produces lower acceleration and velocity values than those obtained with a rigid soil. On the other hand, as soil plastic deformations increase, the penetration of ROPS into the soil also increases, thus reducing the safety volume of the tractor and increasing the probability of interactions between the operator and the soil.

  3. Model Order Reduction of Large-Scale Finite Element Systems in an MPI Parallelized Environment for Usage in Multibody Simulation

    Volzer Thomas


    Full Text Available The use of elastic bodies within a multibody simulation became more and more important within the last years. To include the elastic bodies, described as a finite element model in multibody simulations, the dimension of the system of ordinary differential equations must be reduced by projection. For this purpose, in this work, the modal reduction method, a component mode synthesis based method and a moment-matching method are used. Due to the always increasing size of the non-reduced systems, the calculation of the projection matrix leads to a large demand of computational resources and cannot be done on usual serial computers with available memory. In this paper, the model reduction software Morembs++ is presented using a parallelization concept based on the message passing interface to satisfy the need of memory and reduce the runtime of the model reduction process. Additionally, the behaviour of the Block-Krylov-Schur eigensolver, implemented in the Anasazi package of the Trilinos project, is analysed with regard to the choice of the size of the Krylov base, the block size and the number of blocks. Besides, an iterative solver is considered within the CMS-based method.

  4. Can Partial Structures Accommodate Inconsistent Science?

    Peter Vickers


    Full Text Available The semantic approach to scientific representation is now long established as a favourite amongst philosophers of science. One of the foremost strains of this approach—the model-theoretic approach (MTA—is to represent scientific theories as families of models, all of which satisfy or ‘make true’ a given set of constraints. However some authors (Brown 2002, Frisch 2005 have criticised the approach on the grounds that certain scientific theories are logically inconsistent, and there can be no models of an inconsistent set of constraints. Thus it would seem that the MTA fails to represent inconsistent scientific theories at all, and this raises concerns about the way it represents in general. In a series of papers (1990, 1993, 1995 and a recent book (2003 da Costa and French have developed a variant of the MTA approach which they call ‘partial structures’, and which they claim can accommodate inconsistent theories. I assess this claim, looking to two theories which have been called ‘inconsistent’: Bohr’s theory of the atom and classical electrodynamics.

  5. Update: Advancement of Contact Dynamics Modeling for Human Spaceflight Simulation Applications

    Brain, Thomas A.; Kovel, Erik B.; MacLean, John R.; Quiocho, Leslie J.


    Pong is a new software tool developed at the NASA Johnson Space Center that advances interference-based geometric contact dynamics based on 3D graphics models. The Pong software consists of three parts: a set of scripts to extract geometric data from 3D graphics models, a contact dynamics engine that provides collision detection and force calculations based on the extracted geometric data, and a set of scripts for visualizing the dynamics response with the 3D graphics models. The contact dynamics engine can be linked with an external multibody dynamics engine to provide an integrated multibody contact dynamics simulation. This paper provides a detailed overview of Pong including the overall approach and modeling capabilities, which encompasses force generation from contact primitives and friction to computational performance. Two specific Pong-based examples of International Space Station applications are discussed, and the related verification and validation using this new tool are also addressed.

  6. Effect of Vision Therapy on Accommodation in Myopic Chinese Children

    Martin Ming-Leung Ma


    Full Text Available Introduction. We evaluated the effectiveness of office-based accommodative/vergence therapy (OBAVT with home reinforcement to improve accommodative function in myopic children with poor accommodative response. Methods. This was a prospective unmasked pilot study. 14 Chinese myopic children aged 8 to 12 years with at least 1 D of lag of accommodation were enrolled. All subjects received 12 weeks of 60-minute office-based accommodative/vergence therapy (OBAVT with home reinforcement. Primary outcome measure was the change in monocular lag of accommodation from baseline visit to 12-week visit measured by Shinnipon open-field autorefractor. Secondary outcome measures were the changes in accommodative amplitude and monocular accommodative facility. Results. All participants completed the study. The lag of accommodation at baseline visit was 1.29 ± 0.21 D and it was reduced to 0.84 ± 0.19 D at 12-week visit. This difference (−0.46 ± 0.22 D; 95% confidence interval: −0.33 to −0.58 D is statistically significant (p<0.0001. OBAVT also increased the amplitude and facility by 3.66 ± 3.36 D (p=0.0013; 95% confidence interval: 1.72 to 5.60 D and 10.9 ± 4.8 cpm (p<0.0001; 95% confidence interval: 8.1 to 13.6 cpm, respectively. Conclusion. Standardized 12 weeks of OBAVT with home reinforcement is able to significantly reduce monocular lag of accommodation and increase monocular accommodative amplitude and facility. A randomized clinical trial designed to investigate the effect of vision therapy on myopia progression is warranted.

  7. Rigid MATLAB drivetrain model of a 500 kW wind turbine for predicting maximum gear tooth stresses in a planetary gearbox using multibody gear constraints

    Jørgensen, Martin Felix; Pedersen, Niels Leergaard; Sørensen, Jens Nørkær


    The aeroelastic FLEX 5 code and a semi-advanced rigid multibody model has been utilized for simulating drivetrain forces and moments in a real 500 kW wind turbine. Experimental validation is carried out with results based on known physical properties of the blades, tower, hub, gearbox, shaft...

  8. Numerical Algorithm for Calculating Lyapunov Exponents of Multibody Hamilton Systems with Topological Tree Configuration%树形多体Hamilton系统的Lyapunov指数计算方法

    金俐; 王琪; 陆启韶


    A numerical algorithm for calculating Lyapunov exponents of Hamiltonian multibody systems with topological tree configuration is studied. The algorithms for Lyapunov exponents of Hamiltonian multibody systems using the canonical equations of the system and symplectic algorithm for ordinary differential equations are presented, which are used to study the stability of the Hamiltonian multibody systems. An example is given to analyze the stability of a typical Hamiltonian multibody system, including periodic solution and chaos.%研究了树形多体Hamilton系统Lyapunov指数的数值方法.利用多体Hamilton系统的正则方程和辛算法, 给出了多体Hamilton系统Lyapunov指数的计算方法,该算法具有较好的计算精度和通用性.利用该算法可对系统的运动稳定性进行分析.最后用算例说明了该算法的有效性.

  9. ATHENA: system studies and optics accommodation

    Ayre, M.; Bavdaz, M.; Ferreira, I.; Wille, E.; Fransen, S.; Stefanescu, A.; Linder, M.


    ATHENA is currently in Phase A, with a view to adoption upon a successful Mission Adoption Review in 2019/2020. After a brief presentation of the reference spacecraft (SC) design, this paper will focus on the functional and environmental requirements, the thermo-mechanical design and the Assembly, Integration, Verification & Test (AIVT) considerations related to housing the Silicon Pore Optics (SPO) Mirror Modules (MM) in the very large Mirror Assembly Module (MAM). Initially functional requirements on the MM accommodation are presented, with the Effective Area and Half Energy Width (HEW) requirements leading to a MAM comprising (depending on final mirror size selected) between 700-1000 MMs, co-aligned with exquisite accuracy to provide a common focus. A preliminary HEW budget allocated across the main error-contributors is presented, and this is then used as a reference to derive subsequent requirements and engineering considerations, including: The procedures and technologies for MM-integration into the Mirror Structure (MS) to achieve the required alignment accuracies in a timely manner; stiffness requirements and handling scheme required to constrain deformation under gravity during x-ray testing; temperature control to constrain thermo-elastic deformation during flight; and the role of the Instrument Switching Mechanism (ISM) in constraining HEW and Effective Area errors. Next, we present the key environmental requirements of the MMs, and the need to minimise shock-loading of the MMs is stressed. Methods to achieve this Ø are presented, including: Selection of a large clamp-band launch vehicle interface (LV I/F); lengthening of the shock-path from the LV I/F to the MAM I/F; modal-tuning of the MAM to act as a low-pass filter during launch shock events; use of low-shock HDRMs for the MAM; and the possibility to deploy a passive vibration solution at the LV I/F to reduce loads.

  10. Accommodating World Englishes in Developing EFL Learners' Oral Communication

    Mukminatien, Nur


    This article aims to discuss issues of World Englishes (WEs) and the implications in ELT. It explores the extent to which WEs are taken into account as emerging English varieties different from inner circle varieties, how WEs should be accommodated by English teachers, and which standard to adopt to accommodate learner's linguistic needs for…

  11. Making Accommodations: The Legal World of Students with Disabilities.

    Grossman, Paul D.


    Describes the legal requirements with which institutions of higher education must comply regarding students with disabilities. Addresses the topics of equal access, degree of deference toward institutions' accommodations decisions, documentation, types of accommodation, and benefits to the academic community from inclusion of people with…

  12. Evaluating Computer-Based Test Accommodations for English Learners

    Roohr, Katrina Crotts; Sireci, Stephen G.


    Test accommodations for English learners (ELs) are intended to reduce the language barrier and level the playing field, allowing ELs to better demonstrate their true proficiencies. Computer-based accommodations for ELs show promising results for leveling that field while also providing us with additional data to more closely investigate the…

  13. School Boarding Accommodation. A Design Guide. Building Bulletin 84.

    Wilson, Jeremy; Lloyd-Jones, Liz; Carden, Tom; Daniels, Richard; Fitzgerald, Brian; Maddick, Jenny

    This bulletin contains on-statutory guidance describing good practice and its implications for boarding accommodation to assist those responsible for briefing and designing boarding accommodations across all school sectors. It offers practical advice and illustrates examples that reflect changes in provision which are thought to be acceptable and…

  14. The Evolution of the Number of Tourists accommodated in Arad

    Sergiu Rusu


    Full Text Available The paper analyses the evolution of the number of tourists accommodated in Arad between January 2006 and September 2009. For this purpose we have used the statistics data from the official sites. As variables we chose: X – independent variable - Total tourist arrival and accommodated in Arad, Y - dependent variable - Tourists staying in hotels.

  15. Privately Provided Accommodation Service Quality and Customer Satisfaction

    Joshua Mugambwa


    Full Text Available Privately provided accommodation is a growing service in Uganda’s higher education sector due to education liberalization and demand for education. This research took a case study of Nsamizi Training Institute of Social Development (NTISD to determine the relationship between privately provided accommodation service quality and customer satisfaction. Specifically, the objectives of the study were (a to find out the relationship between security and NTISD students’ satisfaction with privately provided accommodation, and (b to find out the hierarchical level of importance of NTISD student satisfaction of the three service quality dimensions (reliability, security, and tangibles with privately provided accommodation. Using quantitative and qualitative modes of data analysis and a sample of 300 students from 20 private hostels, this study established a strong positive significant relationship between security and satisfaction regarding privately provided accommodation. This implies that accommodation service providers should increase the quality of security so as to increase the satisfaction of students regarding privately provided accommodation. The study established the hierarchical order of importance from the most important service quality dimension, respectively, as follows: reliability, security, and tangibles. Therefore, private accommodation service managers should pay extra attention to the dimensions in the same order.

  16. Regional Sign Language Varieties in Contact: Investigating Patterns of Accommodation

    Stamp, Rose; Schembri, Adam; Evans, Bronwen G.; Cormier, Kearsy


    Short-term linguistic accommodation has been observed in a number of spoken language studies. The first of its kind in sign language research, this study aims to investigate the effects of regional varieties in contact and lexical accommodation in British Sign Language (BSL). Twenty-five participants were recruited from Belfast, Glasgow,…

  17. A phase-field model for incoherent martensitic transformations including plastic accommodation processes in the austenite

    Kundin, J.; Raabe, D.; Emmerich, H.


    If alloys undergo an incoherent martensitic transformation, then plastic accommodation and relaxation accompany the transformation. To capture these mechanisms we develop an improved 3D microelastic-plastic phase-field model. It is based on the classical concepts of phase-field modeling of microelastic problems (Chen, L.Q., Wang Y., Khachaturyan, A.G., 1992. Philos. Mag. Lett. 65, 15-23). In addition to these it takes into account the incoherent formation of accommodation dislocations in the austenitic matrix, as well as their inheritance into the martensitic plates based on the crystallography of the martensitic transformation. We apply this new phase-field approach to the butterfly-type martensitic transformation in a Fe-30 wt%Ni alloy in direct comparison to recent experimental data (Sato, H., Zaefferer, S., 2009. Acta Mater. 57, 1931-1937). It is shown that the therein proposed mechanisms of plastic accommodation during the transformation can indeed explain the experimentally observed morphology of the martensitic plates as well as the orientation between martensitic plates and the austenitic matrix. The developed phase-field model constitutes a general simulations approach for different kinds of phase transformation phenomena that inherently include dislocation based accommodation processes. The approach does not only predict the final equilibrium topology, misfit, size, crystallography, and aspect ratio of martensite-austenite ensembles resulting from a transformation, but it also resolves the associated dislocation dynamics and the distribution, and the size of the crystals itself.

  18. Age-related changes in ocular aberrations with accommodation.

    Radhakrishnan, Hema; Charman, W Neil


    This study investigates the changes in aberrations with monocular accommodation as a function of age. Second-order and higher order wavefront aberrations and pupil size were measured as a function of accommodation demand over the range of 0-4 D in the right eyes of 47 normal subjects with ages between 17 and 56 years. Higher order ocular Zernike aberrations were analyzed for the natural pupil size in terms of their equivalent defocus and were also determined for fixed pupil diameters of 4.5 mm in the unaccommodated eyes and 2.5 mm in the accommodating eyes. With relaxed accommodation (0 D accommodation stimulus), the major change with age was in the value of C4(0), which increased in positive value over the age range studied, although the total higher order RMS wavefront aberration did not increase. When the data were analyzed for natural pupils, spherical aberration was again found to change systematically in the positive direction with age. The equivalent defocus of total higher order RMS error for natural pupils showed no significant correlation with age (p > .05). With active accommodation, spherical aberration was found to decrease and become negative as the accommodative response increased in the younger subjects (40 years), the spherical aberration showed only small changes, some of which were positive, within the limited amplitude of accommodation available. Other higher order aberrations and the RMS of higher order aberrations did not appear to change systematically with accommodation, except in the oldest subjects. The change with age in the relationship between aberration and accommodation is interpreted in terms of the changing gradients of refractive index and surface curvatures of the crystalline lens.

  19. Failure Accommodation Tested in Magnetic Suspension Systems for Rotating Machinery

    Provenza, Andy J.


    The NASA Glenn Research Center at Lewis Field and Texas A&M University are developing techniques for accommodating certain types of failures in magnetic suspension systems used in rotating machinery. In recent years, magnetic bearings have become a viable alternative to rolling element bearings for many applications. For example, industrial machinery such as machine tool spindles and turbomolecular pumps can today be bought off the shelf with magnetically supported rotating components. Nova Gas Transmission Ltd. has large gas compressors in Canada that have been running flawlessly for years on magnetic bearings. To help mature this technology and quiet concerns over the reliability of magnetic bearings, NASA researchers have been investigating ways of making the bearing system tolerant to faults. Since the potential benefits from an oil-free, actively controlled bearing system are so attractive, research that is focused on assuring system reliability and safety is justifiable. With support from the Fast Quiet Engine program, Glenn's Structural Mechanics and Dynamics Branch is working to demonstrate fault-tolerant magnetic suspension systems targeted for aerospace engine applications. The Flywheel Energy Storage Program is also helping to fund this research.

  20. Quasi-variational principles of single flexible body dynamics and their applications


    The reasons for studying single flexible body dynamics are that on one hand,it is the basis of flexible multi-body dynamics.If the theory of the single flexible body dynamics has been deeply studied,the theory of flexible multi-body dynamics will be researched easily.On the other hand,it has its unique and important applications.Quasi-variational principle of non-conservative single flexible body dynamics is established under the cross-link of particle rigid body mechanics and deformable body mechanics.Taking the interceptor as an example,this paper has explained the physical meaning of the quasi-stationary value condition of the quasi-variational principle in non-conservative single flexible body dynamics.Taking the launch of rocket as an example,it has illustrated the features of"one force for two effects"in a single flexible body dynamics.With an example of the extending flexible beam coupled with the spacecraft attitude,it has shown the transition from the single flexible body dynamics to the flexible multi-body dynamics.Finally,a number of related problems are discussed.

  1. Quasi-variational principles of single flexible body dynamics and their applications

    LIANG LiFu; LIU ShiQuan; ZHOU JianSheng


    The reasons for studying single flexible body dynamics are that on one hand, it is the basis of flexible multi-body dynamics. If the theory of the single flexible body dynamics has been deeply studied, the theory of flexible multi-body dynamics will be researched easily. On the other hand, it has its unique and important applications. Quasi-variational principle of non-conservative single flexible body dynamics is established under the cross-link of particle rigid body mechanics and deformable body mechanics. Taking the interceptor as an example, this paper has explained the physical meaning of the quasi-stationary value condition of the quasi-variational principle in non-conservative single flexible body dynamics. Taking the launch of rocket as an example, it has illustrated the features of "one force for two effects" in s single flexible body dynamics. With an example of the extending flexible beam coupled with the spacecraft attitude, it has shown the transition from the single flexible body dynamics to the flexible multi-body dynamics. Finally, a number of related problems are discussed.

  2. Towards electricity markets accommodating uncertain offers

    Papakonstantinou, Athanasios; Pinson, Pierre


    infrastructure investments. In this paper we propose a new electricity market mechanism whereby the uncertain and dynamic nature of wind power and other stochastic sources is embedded in the market mechanism itself, by modelling producers’ bids as probabilistic estimates. An extension on the bilevel programming...

  3. Perturbation Dynamics and Its Application for Parachute-Munition System


    The nine-degree-freedom dynamic model of the parachute-munition system is developed by the theories and the analysis methods of parachute dynamics and multibody dynamics. On the basis of the above model, a linear five-degree-offreedom dynamic model is developed by linearization at the steady state. A new algorithm, which can be fused with submunition kinematics and used in target identification, is developed by the principle of parachute dynamics. The simulation program is developed and used to remove the influence of wind gust on hitting accuracy. The successful airdrop test demonstrates that the new method can be used in the guidance of smart munition.

  4. Heavy-lift airship dynamics

    Tischler, M. B.; Ringland, R. F.; Jex, H. R.


    The basic aerodynamic and dynamic properties of an example heavy-lift airship (HLA) configuration are analyzed using a nonlinear, multibody, 6-degrees-of-freedom digital simulation. The slung-payload model is described, and a preliminary analysis of the coupled vehicle-payload dynamics is presented. Trim calculations show the importance of control mixing selection and suggest performance deficiencies in crosswind stationkeeping for the unloaded example HLA. Numerically linearized dynamics of the unloaded vehicle exhibit a divergent yaw mode and an oscillatory pitch mode whose stability characteristic is sensitive to flight speed. An analysis of the vehicle-payload dynamics shows significant coupling of the payload dynamics with those of the basic HLA. It is shown that significant improvement in the vehicle's dynamic behavior can be achieved with the incorporation of a simple flight controller having proportional, rate, and integral-error feedbacks.

  5. Advanced Dynamics Analytical and Numerical Calculations with MATLAB

    Marghitu, Dan B


    Advanced Dynamics: Analytical and Numerical Calculations with MATLAB provides a thorough, rigorous presentation of kinematics and dynamics while using MATLAB as an integrated tool to solve problems. Topics presented are explained thoroughly and directly, allowing fundamental principles to emerge through applications from areas such as multibody systems, robotics, spacecraft and design of complex mechanical devices. This book differs from others in that it uses symbolic MATLAB for both theory and applications. Special attention is given to solutions that are solved analytically and numerically using MATLAB. The illustrations and figures generated with MATLAB reinforce visual learning while an abundance of examples offer additional support. This book also: Provides solutions analytically and numerically using MATLAB Illustrations and graphs generated with MATLAB reinforce visual learning for students as they study Covers modern technical advancements in areas like multibody systems, robotics, spacecraft and des...

  6. Can ultrasound biomicroscopy be used to predict accommodation accurately?

    Ramasubramanian, Viswanathan; Glasser, Adrian


    Clinical accommodation testing involves measuring either accommodative optical changes or accommodative biometric changes. Quantifying both optical and biometric changes during accommodation might be helpful in the design and evaluation of accommodation restoration concepts. This study aims to establish the accuracy of ultrasound biomicroscopy (UBM) in predicting the accommodative optical response (AOR) from biometric changes. Static AOR from 0 to 6 diopters (D) stimuli in 1-D steps were measured with infrared photorefraction and a Grand Seiko autorefractor (WR-5100 K; Shigiya Machinery Works Ltd., Hiroshima, Japan) in 26 human subjects aged 21 to 36 years. Objective measurements of accommodative biometric changes to the same stimulus demands were measured from UBM (Vu-MAX; Sonomed Escalon, Lake Success, NY) images in the same group of subjects. AOR was predicted from biometry using linear regressions, 95% confidence intervals, and 95% prediction intervals. Bland-Altman analysis showed 0.52 D greater AOR with photorefraction than with the Grand Seiko autorefractor. Per-diopter changes in accommodative biometry were: anterior chamber depth (ACD): -0.055 mm/D, lens thickness (LT): +0.076 mm/D, anterior lens radii of curvature (ALRC): -0.854 mm/D, posterior lens radii of curvature (PLRC): -0.222 mm/D, and anterior segment length (ASL): +0.030 mm/D. The standard deviation of AOR predicted from linear regressions for various biometry parameters were: ACD: 0.24 D, LT: 0.30 D, ALRC: 0.24 D, PLRC: 0.43 D, ASL: 0.50 D. UBM measured parameters can, on average, predict AOR with a standard deviation of 0.50 D or less using linear regression. UBM is a useful and accurate objective technique for measuring accommodation in young phakic eyes. Copyright 2015, SLACK Incorporated.

  7. A Multibody Knee Model Corroborates Subject-Specific Experimental Measurements of Low Ligament Forces and Kinematic Coupling During Passive Flexion.

    Kia, Mohammad; Schafer, Kevin; Lipman, Joseph; Cross, Michael; Mayman, David; Pearle, Andrew; Wickiewicz, Thomas; Imhauser, Carl


    A multibody model of the knee was developed and the predicted ligament forces and kinematics during passive flexion corroborated subject-specific measurements obtained from a human cadaveric knee that was tested using a robotic manipulator. The model incorporated a novel strategy to estimate the slack length of ligament fibers based on experimentally measured ligament forces at full extension and included multifiber representations for the cruciates. The model captured experimentally measured ligament forces (≤ 5.7 N root mean square (RMS) difference), coupled internal rotation (≤ 1.6 deg RMS difference), and coupled anterior translation (≤ 0.4 mm RMS difference) through 130 deg of passive flexion. This integrated framework of model and experiment improves our understanding of how passive structures, such as ligaments and articular geometries, interact to generate knee kinematics and ligament forces.

  8. Microgravity Flight: Accommodating Non-Human Primates

    Dalton, Bonnie P.; Searby, Nancy; Ostrach, Louis


    thermoregulation, muscular, and cardiac responses to weightlessness. In contrast, the five completed Cosmos/Bion flights, lacked the metabolic samples and behavioral task monitoring, but did facilitate studies of the neurovestibular system during several of the flights. The RRF accommodated two adult 8-11 kg rhesus monkeys, while the Russian experiments and hardware were configured for a younger animal in the 44 kg range. Both the American and Russian hardware maintained a controlled environmental system, specifically temperature, humidity, a timed lighting cycle, and had means for providing food and fluids to the animal(s). Crew availability during a Shuttle mission was to be an optimal condition for retrieval and refrigeration of the animal urine samples along with a manual calcein injection which could lead to greater understanding of bone calcium incorporation. A special portable bioisolation glove box was under development to support this aspect of the experiment profile along with the capability of any contingency human intervention. As a result of recent U.S./Russian negotiations, funding for Space Station, and a series of other events, the SLS-3 mission was cancelled and applicable Rhesus Project experiments incorporated into the Russian Bion 11 and 12 missions. A presentation of the RRF and COSMOS/Bion rhesus hardware is presented along with current plans for the hardware.

  9. Amplitude of Accommodation and its Relation to Refractive Errors

    Abraham Lekha


    Full Text Available Aims: To evaluate the relationship between amplitude of accommodation and refractive errors in the peri-presbyopic age group. Materials and Methods: Three hundred and sixteen right eyes of 316 consecutive patients in the age group 35-50 years who attended our outpatient clinic were studied. Emmetropes, hypermetropes and myopes with best-corrected visual acuity of 6/6 J1 in both eyes were included. The amplitude of accommodation (AA was calculated by measuring the near point of accommodation (NPA. In patients with more than ± 2 diopter sphere correction for distance, the NPA was also measured using appropriate soft contact lenses. Results: There was a statistically significant difference in AA between myopes and hypermetropes ( P P P P P P >0.5. Conclusion: Our study showed higher amplitude of accommodation among myopes between 35 and 44 years compared to emmetropes and hypermetropes


    Edna Mrnjavac; Nadia Pavia; Maria Cerovic


    .... The aim is to display how linking all participants who provide private accommodation services into a logistics network will result in better and higher quality service for the guest and in reduced...


    Iwona Cieślik; Ewa Cieślik; Agnieszka Siembida; Małgorzata Tomczyk


    ... the accommodation facilities, and making a choice of a hotel in the Upper Silesia. The study involved 200 people, taking into account their gender, age, place of residence, education and occupational status...

  12. Opto-mechanical artificial eye with accommodative ability.

    Esteve-Taboada, José J; Del Águila-Carrasco, Antonio J; Marín-Franch, Iván; Bernal-Molina, Paula; Montés-Micó, Robert; López-Gil, Norberto


    The purpose of this study was to describe the design and characterization of a new opto-mechanical artificial eye (OMAE) with accommodative ability. The OMAE design is based on a second-pass configuration where a small source of light is used at the artificial retina plane. A lens whose focal length can be changed electronically was used to add the accommodation capability. The changes in the OMAE's aberrations with the lens focal length, which effectively changes the accommodative state of the OMAE, were measured with a commercial aberrometer. Changes in power and aberrations with room temperature were also measured. The OMAE's higher-order aberrations (HOAs) were similar to the ones of the human eye, including the rate at which fourth-order spherical aberration decreased with accommodation. The OMAE design proposed here is simple, and it can be implemented in an optical system to mimic the optics of the human eye.

  13. On cloud modelling and the mass accommodation coefficient of water

    A. Laaksonen


    Full Text Available The mass accommodation coefficient of water is a quantity for which different experimental techniques have yielded conflicting values in the range 0.04–1. From the viewpoint of cloud modelling, this is an unfortunate situation, since the value of the mass accommodation coefficient affects the model results, e.g. the number concentration of activated cloud droplets. In this paper we argue that a mass accommodation coefficient of unity should be used in cloud modelling, since this value has been obtained in experimental studies of water droplet growth rates, a quantity which is explicitly described in cloud models. In contrast, mass accommodation coefficient values below unity have been derived from experimental results which are analyzed with different theoretical expressions than those included in cloud models.

  14. Occlusal accommodation and mouthguards for prevention of orofacial trauma.

    Geary, Julian Lindsay


    The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of two types of occlusal accommodation on the arch separation in centric and eccentric arch positions and to assess the opposing tooth contacts in professionally made, thermoformed sports mouthguards.

  15. An application of SODA methodology in student accommodation problems

    E. Teimoury; H. Gitinavard; Mousavi, S. M.


    The one of the main problems that students have faced with are the accommodation problems. In this paper, we review problems that may occur in university systems. Also, we use strategic options development and analysis method (SODA) to represent the accommodation problems and to create an agreement between student and staff. This method can help us with achieving goals; because in the same situation, there are different viewpoints for various reasons. By plotting the cognitive maps of involve...

  16. Accommodation in pediatric oncology: parental experiences, preferences and unmet needs.

    Daniel, Gunar; Wakefield, Claire E; Ryan, Barbara; Fleming, Catharine Ak; Levett, Nicole; Cohn, Richard J


    For families of children diagnosed with cancer, proximity to the treatment center and staying close to immediate family members are essential for proper patient management. Accommodation services are therefore a key consideration in pediatric oncology. This descriptive study explored the accommodation used, and preferred, by parents of pediatric cancer patients at Sydney Children's Hospital, Randwick (SCH), Australia, and investigated their accommodation and practical needs. Forty-two parents from 25 families participated in individual semi-structured telephone interviews. Interviews were recorded, transcribed verbatim and coded line-by-line. Coding was facilitated by data analysis software QSR NVivo v8 ( Emergent themes were numerically assessed to minimize the potential for researcher bias. Nine families (36%) lived near SCH and were able to stay at their own residence during treatment (mean distance of 15.4 km from SCH). The remaining families were categorized 'local, but requiring accommodation' (n=3 families represented by five parent interviews; mean distance of 82.22 km from SCH),'inner regional' (IR) (n=8 families, 15 parent interviews; mean distance of 396.75 km from SCH) or 'outer regional' (OR) (n=3 families, 5 interviews; mean distance of 547.4 km from SCH) according to the Australian Standard Geographical Classification (ASGC) remoteness ratings. Accommodation provided for families from both IR and OR areas was mixed, with several families using multiple accommodation options during treatment, including Ronald Macdonald House (RMH), private accommodation or a rental property close to the hospital for the duration of the treatment. Six IR and one OR family utilized hotel or motel accommodation as an alternative to RMH due to unavailability of rooms. The majority of parents (37/42) preferred to stay on the hospital campus, near their child. Seven out of 11 IR and OR mothers preferred self-contained accommodation, while three out

  17. Structure and thermodynamics of a mixture of patchy and spherical colloids: a multi-body association theory with complete reference fluid information

    Bansal, Artee; Cox, Kenneth R; Chapman, Walter G


    A mixture of solvent particles with short-range, directional interactions and solute particles with short-range, isotropic interactions that can bond multiple times is of fundamental interest in understanding liquids and colloidal mixtures. Because of multi-body correlations predicting the structure and thermodynamics of such systems remains a challenge. Earlier Marshall and Chapman developed a theory wherein association effects due to interactions multiply the partition function for clustering of particles in a reference hard-sphere system. The multi-body effects are incorporated in the clustering process, which in their work was obtained in the absence of the bulk medium. The bulk solvent effects were then modeled approximately within a second order perturbation approach. However, their approach is inadequate at high densities and for large association strengths. Based on the idea that the clustering of solvent in a defined coordination volume around the solute is related to occupancy statistics in that def...

  18. Simulations and Measurements of Human Middle Ear Vibrations Using Multi-Body Systems and Laser-Doppler Vibrometry with the Floating Mass Transducer

    Tobias Strenger


    Full Text Available The transfer characteristic of the human middle ear with an applied middle ear implant (floating mass transducer is examined computationally with a Multi-body System approach and compared with experimental results. For this purpose, the geometry of the middle ear was reconstructed from μ-computer tomography slice data and prepared for a Multi-body System simulation. The transfer function of the floating mass transducer, which is the ratio of the input voltage and the generated force, is derived based on a physical context. The numerical results obtained with the Multi-body System approach are compared with experimental results by Laser Doppler measurements of the stapes footplate velocities of five different specimens. Although slightly differing anatomical structures were used for the calculation and the measurement, a high correspondence with respect to the course of stapes footplate displacement along the frequency was found. Notably, a notch at frequencies just below 1 kHz occurred. Additionally, phase courses of stapes footplate displacements were determined computationally if possible and compared with experimental results. The examinations were undertaken to quantify stapes footplate displacements in the clinical practice of middle ear implants and, also, to develop fitting strategies on a physical basis for hearing impaired patients aided with middle ear implants.

  19. The role of short-wavelength sensitive cones and chromatic aberration in the response to stationary and step accommodation stimuli.

    Rucker, Frances J; Kruger, Philip B


    The aim of the experiment was to test for a contribution from short-wavelength sensitive cones to the static and step accommodation response, to compare responses from short and long- plus middle-wavelength sensitive cone types, and to examine the contribution of a signal from longitudinal chromatic aberration to the accommodation response. Accommodation was monitored continuously (eight subjects) to a square-wave grating (2.2 c/d; 0.57 contrast) in a Badal optometer. The grating stepped (1.00 D) randomly towards or away from the eye from a starting position of 2.00 D. Five illumination conditions were used to isolate cone responses, and combine them with or without longitudinal chromatic aberration. Accuracy of the response before the step, step amplitude, latencies and time-constants, were compared between conditions using single factor ANOVA and t-test comparisons. Both S-cones and LM-cones mediated static and step accommodation responses. S-cone contrast drives "static" accommodation for near, but the S-cone response is too slow to influence step dynamics when LM-cones participate.

  20. Accommodation with and without short-wavelength-sensitive cones and chromatic aberration.

    Kruger, Philip B; Rucker, Frances J; Hu, Caitlin; Rutman, Hadassa; Schmidt, Nathan W; Roditis, Vasilios


    Accommodation was monitored while observers (23) viewed a square-wave grating (2.2 cycles/deg; 0.53 contrast) in a Badal optometer. The grating moved sinusoidally (0.2 Hz) to provide a stimulus between -1.00 D and -3.00 D during trials lasting 40.96 s. There were three illumination conditions: 1. Monochromatic 550 nm light to stimulate long-wavelength-sensitive cones (L-cones) and medium-wavelength-sensitive cones (M-cones) without chromatic aberration; 2. Monochromatic 550 nm light+420 nm light to stimulate long-, medium- and short-wavelength-sensitive cones (S-cones) with longitudinal chromatic aberration (LCA); 3. Monochromatic 550 nm light+420 nm light to stimulate L-, M- and S-cones viewed through an achromatizing lens. In the presence of LCA mean dynamic gain decreased (p=0.0003; ANOVA) and mean accommodation level was reduced (p=0.001; ANOVA). The reduction in gain and increased lag of accommodation in the presence of LCA could result from a blue-yellow chromatic signal or from a larger depth-of-focus.

  1. Simulation of diatomic gas-wall interaction and accommodation coefficients for negative ion sources and accelerators

    Sartori, E.; Brescaccin, L.; Serianni, G.


    Particle-wall interactions determine in different ways the operating conditions of plasma sources, ion accelerators, and beams operating in vacuum. For instance, a contribution to gas heating is given by ion neutralization at walls; beam losses and stray particle production—detrimental for high current negative ion systems such as beam sources for fusion—are caused by collisional processes with residual gas, with the gas density profile that is determined by the scattering of neutral particles at the walls. This paper shows that Molecular Dynamics (MD) studies at the nano-scale can provide accommodation parameters for gas-wall interactions, such as the momentum accommodation coefficient and energy accommodation coefficient: in non-isothermal flows (such as the neutral gas in the accelerator, coming from the plasma source), these affect the gas density gradients and influence efficiency and losses in particular of negative ion accelerators. For ideal surfaces, the computation also provides the angular distribution of scattered particles. Classical MD method has been applied to the case of diatomic hydrogen molecules. Single collision events, against a frozen wall or a fully thermal lattice, have been simulated by using probe molecules. Different modelling approximations are compared.

  2. An overlooked effect of systemic anticholinergics: alteration on accommodation amplitude

    Mehmet Ali Sekeroglu


    Full Text Available AIM: To investigate the effect of oral solifenacin succinate, tolterodine-L-tartarate and oxybutinin hydrochloride (HCl on accommodation amplitude. METHODS: Female overactive bladder syndrome (OAB patients who were planned to use oral anticholinergics, patients that uses solifenacin succinate 5 mg (Group I, n=25, tolterodine-L-tartarate 4 mg (Group II, n=25, and oxybutinin HCl 5 mg b.i.d (Group III, n=25 and age matched healthy female subjects (Group IV, n=25 were recruited and complete ophthalmological examination and accommodation amplitude assessment were done at baseline and 4wk after initiation of treatment. RESULTS: The mean age of 100 consecutive female subjects was 51.6±5.7 (40-60y and there were no statistically significant difference with regard to the mean age (P=0.107 and baseline accommodation amplitude (P=0.148 between study groups. All treatment groups showed a significant decrease in accommodation amplitude following a 4-week course of anticholinergic treatment (P=0.008 in Group I, P=0.002 in Group II, P=0.001 in Group III, but there was no statistically significant difference in Group IV (P=0.065. CONCLUSION: A 4-week course of oral anticholinergic treatment have statistically significant effect on accommodation amplitude. Clinicians should avoid both overestimating this result, as this would unnecessarily restrict therapeutic possibilities, and also underestimating it which may lead to drug intolerance.

  3. Repeatability of OCT lens thickness measures with age and accommodation.

    Doyle, Lesley; Little, Julie-Anne; Saunders, Kathryn J


    To investigate crystalline lens thickness (LT) across a range of ages and accommodative demands and to evaluate the repeatability of LT measurements using the Visante Anterior Segment Optical Coherence Tomographer (AS-OCT) (Zeiss Meditec, Germany) under non-cycloplegic conditions. Participants were 98 visually normal adults aged 18-75 years, stratified into age groups of 18-29, 30-39, 40-49, 50-59, and 60-75 years of age. Images of the crystalline lens were taken using the Visante AS-OCT during stimulation of accommodation at demands of 0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, and 8 D with accommodative response measured in a subgroup of participants. Images were analyzed and LT measured assuming a refractive index of 1.42. Repeat measures were taken from 86 participants for each accommodative demand at a second visit. The mean unaccommodated LT for all participants was 4.07 ± 0.40 mm. An average increase in LT of 20 μm per year was calculated (linear regression, R² = 0.61, F(1,89) = 143.92, p report the repeatability of LT measures using the Visante AS-OCT in the non-cyclopleged eye. It has also demonstrated the ability of the Visante AS-OCT to detect small changes in lens thickness with accommodation.

  4. A model of job activity description for workplace accommodation assessment.

    Sevilla, Joaquin; Sanford, Jon A


    Workplace accommodations to enable employees with disabilities to perform essential job tasks are an important strategy ways for increasing the presence of people with disabilities in the labor market. However, assessments, which are crucial to identifying necessary accommodations, are typically conducted using a variety of methods that lack consistent procedures and comprehensiveness of information. This can lead to the rediscovery of the same solutions over and over, inability to replicate assessments and a failure to effectively meet all of an individual's accommodation needs. To address standardize assessment tools and processes, a taxonomy of demand-producing activity factors is needed to complement the taxonomies of demand-producing person and environment factors already available in the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF). The purpose of this article is to propose a hierarchical model of accommodation assessment based on level of specificity of job activity. While the proposed model is neither a taxonomy nor an assessment process, the seven-level hierarchical model provides a conceptual framework of job activity that is the first step toward such a taxonomy as well as providing a common language that can bridge the many approaches to assessment. The model was designed and refined through testing against various job examples. Different levels of activity are defined to be easily linked to different accommodation strategies. Finally, the levels can be cross-walked to the ICF, which enhances its acceptability, utility and universality.

  5. Relative Importance of Student Accommodation Quality in Higher Education

    Simon Gyasi Nimako


    Full Text Available This study, which was part of a large study, empirically examinesthe importance students attach to different dimensions of Student Accommodation Quality (SAQ delivered by Student Accommodation Providers (SAP in two tertiary (higher education institutions in Ghana. The study involved a cross-sectional survey that used a structured questionnaire administered to 700 tertiary students in residential and non-residential accommodation. The survey yielded a usable 66.6% response rate for analysis. The findings indicate that utility facility quality is the most important SAQ dimension to the students, followed by the overall impression of hostel, security, physical environment, toilet, distance to lecture, bedroom, bath room, accommodation fee, among others. Moreover, it was found that kitchen facility, access to transport and entertainment facility are less important SAQ items while the least important is garage facility. Few differences were found in the priority for SAQ items between COLTEK and K-Poly respondents and between residential and non-residential respondents. Implications for theory and recommendations to management of the two higher education institutions and SAP have been discussed. The study contributes to the body of knowledge in student affairs and managing student accommodation quality in higher education.

  6. Work accommodations and natural supports for maintaining employment.

    Corbière, Marc; Villotti, Patrizia; Lecomte, Tania; Bond, Gary R; Lesage, Alain; Goldner, Elliot M


    Job tenure for people with severe mental disorders, even for those enrolled in supported employment programs, is typically brief. Few studies to date have investigated the relationship between accommodations and natural supports available in the workplace, and job tenure for this population. The main objectives of this study were to develop and to validate a new measure to describe work accommodations and natural supports available in the workplace and to determine which of them are significantly related to job tenure for participants enrolled in supported employment services. In total, 124 people with a severe mental disorder enrolled in supported employment programs and who obtained only one competitive employment at the 9-month follow-up answered the Work Accommodation and Natural Support Scale (WANSS). They also provided information regarding their disclosure (or non-) of mental disorders in the workplace and the length of their job tenure. Confirmatory factor analysis conducted on the WANSS showed 40 items distributed on 6 dimensions (e.g., Schedule flexibility). Correlation results showed that disclosure was significantly related to the number of work accommodations and natural supports available in the workplace. Survival analyses indicated that one WANSS dimension was more salient in predicting job tenure: Supervisor and coworker supports. The WANSS is a valid and useful tool to assess work accommodations and natural supports available in the workplace that employment specialists could use in their practice.

  7. Interaction between Accommodation and Vergence on Distance Perception

    Tomoyuki Daijogo


    Full Text Available Fisher and Ciuffreda (1988 and Mon-Williams and Tresilian (1999 reported that, without vergence cue, diopter change in accommodation induced change in apparent distance. Meanwhile, there is conflicting evidence about the relative roles of accommodation and vergence in distance perception (Richards & Miller, 1969; von Holst, 1973. In the current study, we investigated interaction between accommodation and vergence on distance perception. The perceived distance from integration of vergence evoked by a fixation target and accommodation by a pair of concave or convex lenses in front of eyes is measured with a mirror stereoscope. The stimulus was a white square with a black cross-shaped fixation on a black background. In dark surroundings, subjects were asked to commit the apparent distance of the target to memory, and then without the lenses, re-create the distance by changing distance of another fixation target. The apparent size of the target through lenses were equivalent to the size without lenses. The results showed that not only vergence but accommodation affect the apparent distance, and they were summed linearly.

  8. Short-term induction of assimilation and accommodation.

    Leipold, Bernhard; Bermeitinger, Christina; Greve, Werner; Meyer, Birgit; Arnold, Manuel; Pielniok, Marianna


    The dual-process model of developmental regulation distinguishes two processes of self-regulation (assimilation = tenacious goal pursuit, and accommodation = flexible goal adjustment) that depend on differing conditions, but both contribute to successful development. Four experiments were conducted to investigate whether assimilation and accommodation can be induced or at least shifted by sensorimotor and cognitive manipulations. Experiment 1 investigated the relation between body manipulation and self-regulation. It was shown that assimilation could be triggered when participants were asked to hold on to golf balls as compared to being asked to drop them. Experiment 2 showed that a semantic priming of "let go" or "hold on" via instructions influenced the processes of self-regulation. Experiment 3 and Experiment 4 investigated the role of cognitive sets (divergent thinking) and motivational processes (thinking about one's action resources) in enhancing accommodation or assimilation. As expected, accommodation was triggered by an intervention activating divergent thought, and participants were more assimilative when they thought about their action resources. In sum, the results indicate that assimilation and accommodation can be induced experimentally; they were systematically dependent on physical, cognitive, and motivational states. The implications of the findings were discussed in the light of the dual-process model.

  9. Comparison of tests of accommodation for computer users.

    Kolker, David; Hutchinson, Robert; Nilsen, Erik


    With the increased use of computers in the workplace and at home, optometrists are finding more patients presenting with symptoms of Computer Vision Syndrome. Among these symptomatic individuals, research supports that accommodative disorders are the most common vision finding. A prepresbyopic group (N= 30) and a presbyopic group (N = 30) were selected from a private practice. Assignment to a group was determined by age, accommodative amplitude, and near visual acuity with their distance prescription. Each subject was given a thorough vision and ocular health examination, then administered several nearpoint tests of accommodation at a computer working distance. All the tests produced similar results in the presbyopic group. For the prepresbyopic group, the tests yielded very different results. To effectively treat symptomatic VDT users, optometrists must assess the accommodative system along with the binocular and refractive status. For presbyopic patients, all nearpoint tests studied will yield virtually the same result. However, the method of testing accommodation, as well as the test stimulus presented, will yield significantly different responses for prepresbyopic patients. Previous research indicates that a majority of patients prefer the higher plus prescription yielded by the Gaussian image test.

  10. Constraint Embedding for Vehicle Suspension Dynamics

    Jain Abhinandan


    Full Text Available The goal of this research is to achieve close to real-time dynamics performance for allowing auto-pilot in-the-loop testing of unmanned ground vehicles (UGV for urban as well as off-road scenarios. The overall vehicle dynamics performance is governed by the multibody dynamics model for the vehicle, the wheel/terrain interaction dynamics and the onboard control system. The topic of this paper is the development of computationally efficient and accurate dynamics model for ground vehicles with complex suspension dynamics. A challenge is that typical vehicle suspensions involve closed-chain loops which require expensive DAE integration techniques. In this paper, we illustrate the use the alternative constraint embedding technique to reduce the cost and improve the accuracy of the dynamics model for the vehicle.

  11. Implicit gas-kinetic unified algorithm based on multi-block docking grid for multi-body reentry flows covering all flow regimes

    Peng, Ao-Ping; Li, Zhi-Hui; Wu, Jun-Lin; Jiang, Xin-Yu


    Based on the previous researches of the Gas-Kinetic Unified Algorithm (GKUA) for flows from highly rarefied free-molecule transition to continuum, a new implicit scheme of cell-centered finite volume method is presented for directly solving the unified Boltzmann model equation covering various flow regimes. In view of the difficulty in generating the single-block grid system with high quality for complex irregular bodies, a multi-block docking grid generation method is designed on the basis of data transmission between blocks, and the data structure is constructed for processing arbitrary connection relations between blocks with high efficiency and reliability. As a result, the gas-kinetic unified algorithm with the implicit scheme and multi-block docking grid has been firstly established and used to solve the reentry flow problems around the multi-bodies covering all flow regimes with the whole range of Knudsen numbers from 10 to 3.7E-6. The implicit and explicit schemes are applied to computing and analyzing the supersonic flows in near-continuum and continuum regimes around a circular cylinder with careful comparison each other. It is shown that the present algorithm and modelling possess much higher computational efficiency and faster converging properties. The flow problems including two and three side-by-side cylinders are simulated from highly rarefied to near-continuum flow regimes, and the present computed results are found in good agreement with the related DSMC simulation and theoretical analysis solutions, which verify the good accuracy and reliability of the present method. It is observed that the spacing of the multi-body is smaller, the cylindrical throat obstruction is greater with the flow field of single-body asymmetrical more obviously and the normal force coefficient bigger. While in the near-continuum transitional flow regime of near-space flying surroundings, the spacing of the multi-body increases to six times of the diameter of the single

  12. Mark My Words! Linguistic Style Accommodation in Social Media

    Danescu-Niculescu-Mizil, Cristian; Dumais, Susan; 10.1145/1963405.1963509


    The psycholinguistic theory of communication accommodation accounts for the general observation that participants in conversations tend to converge to one another's communicative behavior: they coordinate in a variety of dimensions including choice of words, syntax, utterance length, pitch and gestures. In its almost forty years of existence, this theory has been empirically supported exclusively through small-scale or controlled laboratory studies. Here we address this phenomenon in the context of Twitter conversations. Undoubtedly, this setting is unlike any other in which accommodation was observed and, thus, challenging to the theory. Its novelty comes not only from its size, but also from the non real-time nature of conversations, from the 140 character length restriction, from the wide variety of social relation types, and from a design that was initially not geared towards conversation at all. Given such constraints, it is not clear a priori whether accommodation is robust enough to occur given the con...

  13. An Efficient Optimal Design Methodology for Nonlinear Multibody Dynamics Systems with Application to Vehicle Occupant Restraint Systems


    initial vehicle longitudinal velocity is 17 m/s, and the road profile is a sinusoid function with magnitude of 0.05 m and wave length of 8 m...Position and Stiffness of Human Elbow Joint, Biological Cybernetics, Vol. 96, No. 3, pp. 341–350. 36...Comparison between Numerical and Experimental Results on Mine Blast Attenuating Seating, Paper Presented at the 77th Shock & Vibration Symposium

  14. Tracked Vehicle - Soft Soil Interactions and Design Sensitivities for Path Clearing Systems Utilizing Multi-Body Dynamics Simulation Methods


    radius – Pot hole: 17 cm deep x 60 cm long – V-ditch: 1.4 m deep x 7.8 m long – Grades: 40%-60% – Cross-country ( clay only) 13 August 2013 track – Flail or roller-rake path clearing implement. • Soft soil mobility events conducted over clay and sand: – Half-round bump: 17.5 cm...Soil Property Sand Clay Exponent Number (n) [] 1.1 0.13 Terrain Stiffness (kC) [kN/m1+n] 0.99 12.7 Terrain

  15. Analysis on the accommodation of renewable energy in northeast China

    Liu, Jun; Zhang, Jinfang; Tian, Feng; Mi, Zhe


    The accommodation and curtailment of renewable energy in northeast China have attracted much attention with the rapid growth of wind and solar power generation. Large amount of wind power has been curtailed or abandoned in northeast China due to several reasons, such as, the redundancy of power supplies, inadequate power demands, imperfect power structure with less flexibility and limited cross-regional transmission capacity. In this paper, we use multi-area production simulation to analyse the accommodation of renewable energy in northeast China by 2020. Furthermore, we suggest the measures that could be adopted in generation, grid and load side to reduce curtailment of renewables.

  16. Technology needs for the development of the accommodative intraocular lens

    Nishi, Okihiro


    Refilling the lens capsule while preserving capsular integrity offers the potential to restore ocular accommodation. There are two persisting problems in capsular bag refilling for possible clinical application: Leakage of the injectable material through the capsular opening and capsular opacification. Numerous attempts for solving these cardinal problems have not been proven to be clinically applicable. Recently, we developed a novel capsular bag refilling procedure using a novel accommodative intraocular lens that serves as an optic as well as a plug for sealing the capsular opening. The procedure and the results of monkey experiments will be presented.


    Iwona Cieślik


    Full Text Available This paper presents the results of study about impact of accommodation services’ quality, particularly quality of work and qualifications of staff, on the guests’ opinion, and thus promoting the accommodation facilities, and making a choice of a hotel in the Upper Silesia. The study involved 200 people, taking into account their gender, age, place of residence, education and occupational status. The research tool was a survey questionnaire. The results indicate close correlation between the quality of staff services (individual approach, aesthetics, discretion, understanding and the customer is satisfaction. Particular attention was paid to the quality of service by the guests with high professional status, and higher education.

  18. Accommodation of Symptoms in Anorexia Nervosa: A Qualitative Study.

    Fox, John R E; Whittlesea, Anna


    Anorexia nervosa (AN) continues to remain poorly understood within eating disorders. Recent research and theory have moved away from understanding its aetiological causes, addressing instead potential maintaining factors. This study is focused on interpersonal maintenance factors: the response of close others. Relatives of those with AN typically carry the main burden of care, and research has found high levels of carer distress and unmet needs. Recent theories have proposed this emotional impact to contribute to expressed emotion and other unhelpful caregiver interactions which inadvertently maintain AN. One such understudied response is accommodation, described as a 'process' whereby caregivers 'assist or participate' in symptomatic behaviours of the cared for individual. There is a dearth of research relating to accommodation within eating disorders, particularly qualitative accounts. This study utilized a grounded theory methodology to explore caregivers' responses to managing AN, focusing particularly on carers' experience of accommodation. Eight participants with experience of caring for an individual diagnosed with AN were interviewed. Participants were recruited from a national eating disorder charity and regional eating disorder service. A number of themes emerged, including the importance of caregivers' emotional resources in mediating accommodation responses. Low-perceived efficacy over AN contributed to caregiver burnout. Decreased emotional resources influenced a shift in caregiving aims conducive with accommodation. Nevertheless, carers perceived accommodation as counterproductive to recovery and consequently experienced internal conflict (cognitive dissonance). Dissonance was reduced using a number of cognitive and behavioural strategies. The implications of these findings are discussed with reference to existing literature. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Anorexia nervosa (AN) can be difficult to manage. Over time, carers can feel

  19. Dynamics of Flexible Wind Power Generator with Unbalanced Rotor

    Venelin Jivkov


    Full Text Available The paper deals with dynamic analysis of a wind power generator as a large flexible structure with high speed rotating machines and considerable masses. The dynamic model is considered as a multibody system of rigid and flexible bodies. Nonstationary and transitional processes caused because of eccentricity of the high speed rotating machines, as well as, of the propeller vibrations are simulated and analyzed. Analytical method is applied for dynamic simulation. The results are verified by numerical procedures. Example of wind power generator with three propellers is presented.

  20. Against the accommodation of subjective healthcare provider beliefs in medicine: counteracting supporters of conscientious objector accommodation arguments.

    Smalling, Ricardo; Schuklenk, Udo


    We respond in this paper to various counter arguments advanced against our stance on conscientious objection accommodation. Contra Maclure and Dumont, we show that it is impossible to develop reliable tests for conscientious objectors' claims with regard to the reasonableness of the ideological basis of their convictions, and, indeed, with regard to whether they actually hold they views they claim to hold. We demonstrate furthermore that, within the Canadian legal context, the refusal to accommodate conscientious objectors would not constitute undue hardship for such objectors. We reject concerns that refusing to accommodate conscientious objectors would limit the equality of opportunity for budding professionals holding particular ideological positions. We also clarify various misrepresentations of our views by respondents Symons, Glick and Jotkowitz, and Lyus.

  1. Analysis and modeling of error of spiral bevel gear grinder based on multi-body system theory

    CHEN Shu-han; YAN Hong-zhi; MING Xing-zu


    Six-axis numerical control spiral bevel gear grinder was taken as the object, multi-body system theory and Denavit-Hartenberg homogeneous transformed matrix (HTM) were utilized to establish the grinder synthesis error model, and the validity of model was confirmed by the experiment. Additionally, in grinding wheel tool point coordinate system, the errors of six degrees of freedom were simulated when the grinding wheel revolving around C-axis, moving along X-axis and Y-axis. The influence of these six errors on teeth space, helix angle, pitch, teeth profile was discussed. The simulation results show that the angle error is in the range from -0.1484 rad to -0.2419 rad when grinding wheel moving along X, Y-axis; the translation error is in the range from 0.8660 μm to 3.6053 μm when grinding wheel moving along X-axis. These angle and translation errors have a great influence on the helix angle, pitch, teeth thickness and tooth socket.

  2. Validation of multi-body modelling methodology for reconfigurable underwater robots

    Nielsen, M.C.; Eidsvik, O. A.; Blanke, Mogens;


    This paper investigates the problem of employing reconfigurable robots in an underwater setting. The main results presented is the experimental validation of a modelling methodology for a system consisting of N dynamically connected robots with heterogeneous dynamics. Two distinct types....... The purpose of the model is to enable design of control strategies for cooperative reconfigurable underwater systems....... of experiments are performed, a series of hydrostatic free-decay tests and a series of open-loop trajectory tests. The results are compared to a simulation based on the modelling methodology. The modelling methodology shows promising results for usage with systems composed of reconfigurable underwater modules...

  3. Mechanically implementable accommodation matrices for passive force control

    Goswami, A. [Univ. of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA (United States). Center for Human Modeling and Simulation; Peshkin, M. [Northwestern Univ., Evanston, IL (United States). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering


    Robot force control implemented by means of passive mechanical devices has inherent advantages over active implementations with regard to stability, response rapidity, and physical robustness. The class of devices considered in this paper consists of a Stewart platform-type mechanism interconnected with a network of adjustable mechanical elements such as springs and dampers. The control law repertoire of such a device, imagined as a robot wrist, is given by the range of admittance matrices that it may be programmed to possess. This paper focuses on wrists incorporating damper networks for which the admittance matrices reduce to accommodation or inverse-damping matrices. The authors show that a hydraulic network of fully adjustable damper elements may attain any diagonally dominant accommodation matrix. They describe the technique of selecting the individual damping coefficients to design a desired matrix. They identify the set of dominant matrices as a polyhedral convex cone in the space of matrix entries, and show that each dominant matrix can be composed of a positive linear combination of a fixed set of basis matrices. The overall wrist-accommodation matrix is obtained by projecting the accommodation matrix of the damper network through the wrist kinematics. The linear combination of the dominant basis matrices projected through the wrist kinematics generates the entire space of mechanically implementable force-control laws. The authors quantify the versatility of mechanically implementable force-control laws by comparing this space to the space of all matrices.

  4. Effects of combined therapy in 80 cases of accommodative esotropia

    Qi Liu


    Full Text Available AIM: To investigate a comprehensive treatment for accommodative esotropia.METHODS: Eighty patients with accommodative esotropia were analyzed. All cases wore corrective glasses 7d after mydriasis by 10g/L atropine. The pupils were all comprehensively trained. If the position of the esotropic eyes could not be corrected by spectacles and both eyes had similar visual acuity in one year, surgical intervention was taken to correct the position. Refraction, visual acuity, visual function and strabismus degree change before and after treatment were evaluated.RESULTS: One year after wearing glasses, 50 cases had corrected eye position through correction and 30 cases were partially accommodative esotropia. Ten cases of esotropia degree >+15△ which could not be complete corrected by cure correction got surgical intervention. Seven cases of them got normal eye positions and 3 cases were over corrected 10△-20△. After comprehensive treatment of 3 years, the cure rate of amblyopia was 88.7%.CONCLUSION: The treatment for accommodative esotropia is a comprehensive course. It is necessary to pay attention to eye position correction, but also for the treatment of amblyopia, while paying attention to establish binocular vision.

  5. Accommodations in Homeschool Settings for Children with Special Education Needs

    Stoudt, Patricia Koelsch


    This qualitative study was designed to examine how homeschooling parents in Pennsylvania make the determination to engage with public school districts to accommodate the special education needs (SEN) of their children. This phenomenological study used direct interviews with 30 Pennsylvania families who are homeschooling children with SEN. Data…

  6. Development of the Reasonable Accommodation Factor Survey: Results and Implications

    Dong, Shengli; MacDonald-Wilson, Kim L.; Fabian, Ellen


    The purpose of this study was (a) to explore the latent factors in the "Reasonable Accommodation Factor Survey" (RAFS) instrument and (b) to compare scores on the latent factors of the RAFS by participant's role. Eight latent factors were identified through an exploratory factor analysis with orthogonal rotation. The reliability tests…

  7. Language Shift and Language Accommodation across Family Generations in Taiwan

    Sandel, Todd L.; Chao, Wen-Yu; Liang, Chung-Hui


    This study explored language shift and accommodation among bilingual Mandarin and Tai-gi (also called Hokkien, Holo, Tai-gu, Taiwan Min, Taiwanese) families in Taiwan. From the 1940s until the 1980s the Chinese Nationalist Party (KMT) on Taiwan promoted Mandarin Chinese. Recent years have witnessed a shift in policy: since 2001 elementary schools…

  8. Visual Accommodation, the Mandelbaum Effect, and Apparent Size.


    See j Boring, 1942, for an extended treatment of the history of tnese images.) Jessop (cited in Alpern, 1962) also reported instillation of cocaine L...whether the administration of overdoses of nembutal yields results representative of normal ciliary function. Accommodative measurements in cadavers

  9. Translation Accommodations Framework for Testing English Language Learners in Mathematics

    Solano-Flores, Guillermo


    The present framework is developed under contract with the Smarter Balanced Assessment Consortium (SBAC) as a conceptual and methodological tool for guiding the reasonings and actions of contractors in charge of developing and providing test translation accommodations for English language learners. The framework addresses important challenges in…

  10. Target Size and Luminance Effects on Accommodation and Vergence.


    st i mu I at ed Voluntary changes in accommodation and verger .( e Sub je(ts have been shown to be able to make vol untarN changes in vergence Oil...v ith a projected cross with smooth sides. This cross ,. Is riide on a 35 mm slide and its size was altered manually i) diaphragm. Both crosses

  11. Accommodation, Cafes and Restaurants. Industry Training Monograph No. 8.

    Dumbrell, Tom

    Australia's accommodation, cafes, and restaurants industry represents more than half of the nation's total tourism and hospitality employment. It accounts for roughly 4.5% of all jobs in Australia (400,000 workers). Since 1987, the number of jobs in the sector has risen from about 257,000 to about 372,000. Approximately 57% of employees are…

  12. 36 CFR 910.34 - Accommodations for the physically handicapped.


    ... physically handicapped. 910.34 Section 910.34 Parks, Forests, and Public Property PENNSYLVANIA AVENUE... § 910.34 Accommodations for the physically handicapped. (a) Every development shall incorporate features which will make the development accessible by the physically handicapped. The standards in the...

  13. The accommodative ciliary muscle function is preserved in older humans

    Tabernero, Juan; Chirre, Emmanuel; Hervella, Lucia; Prieto, Pedro; Artal, Pablo


    Presbyopia, the loss of the eye’s accommodation capability, affects all humans aged above 45–50 years old. The two main reasons for this to happen are a hardening of the crystalline lens and a reduction of the ciliary muscle functionality with age. While there seems to be at least some partial accommodating functionality of the ciliary muscle at early presbyopic ages, it is not yet clear whether the muscle is still active at more advanced ages. Previous techniques used to visualize the accommodation mechanism of the ciliary muscle are complicated to apply in the older subjects, as they typically require fixation stability during long measurement times and/or to have an ultrasound probe directly in contact with the eye. Instead, we used our own developed method based on high-speed recording of lens wobbling to study the ciliary muscle activity in a small group of pseudophakic subjects (around 80 years old). There was a significant activity of the muscle, clearly able to contract under binocular stimulation of accommodation. This supports a purely lenticular-based theory of presbyopia and it might stimulate the search for new solutions to presbyopia by making use of the remaining contraction force still presented in the aging eye.

  14. The Contribution of University Accommodation to International Student Security

    Paltridge, Toby; Mayson, Susan; Schapper, Jan


    In this paper we argue that living in university accommodation is a possible means of improving the security of international students. Our argument is supported by a qualitative case study of a single Hall of Residence on Monash University's Clayton campus. Data were collected primarily from interviews with three groups of participants--six…

  15. Teaching Disability Employment Discrimination Law: Accommodating Physical and Mental Disabilities

    Kulow, Marianne DelPo


    Disability employment discrimination is often treated summarily in legal environment courses. This is actually a topic with significant practical application in the workplace since managers are often those who are confronted with accommodation requests. It is therefore desirable to include a class with hands-on exercises for students to begin to…

  16. Cooperating or competing in three languages : Cultural accommodation or alienation?

    Gargalianou, Vasiliki; Urbig, D.; van Witteloostuijn, Arjen


    Purpose The purpose of this paper is to study the effect of using foreign languages on cooperative behavior in a prisoner’s dilemma setting. The cultural accommodation hypothesis suggests that people are less cooperative in English, associated with the Anglophone cultural cluster, than in French, wh

  17. The relationship between anemia and accommodative esotropia in children

    Fethiye Gulden Turgut


    Full Text Available Background: Refraction problems, motor disorders, sensorial disorders, physical and psychic traumas of eye may be responsible for development of strabismus. Anemia may cause sensory-neural disorders in children. We investigated the relationship between anemia and accommodative esotropia in children. Materials and Methods: Sixty-four patients with accommodative esotropia were evaluated. This group was identified as patient group (group 1. Eighty-three pediatric patients, who were not esotropia and only had refraction problems, were identified as control group (group 2. The difference between the groups was statistically analyzed evaluating patients for anemia. Results: 33 of 64 patients with accommodative esotropia in group 1 were male, as 43 of 83 patients with refractive error in group 2 were male. The mean age of patients in group 1 and 2 were 6 ΁ 3.92 and 6.37 ΁ 2.74 (P > 0.05 respectively. There was significant difference between two groups, when mean hemoglobin value of those was compared (P < 0.05. Conclusion: Hb level may affects the accommodative esotropia.

  18. Development of a ciliary muscle-driven accommodating intraocular lens

    Hermans, Erik A.; Terwee, Thom T.; Koopmans, Steven A.; Dubbelman, Michiel; van der Heijde, Rob G. L.; Heethaar, Rob M.


    PURPOSE: To develop a ciliary muscle-driven accommodating intraocular lens (IOL) that has a large and predictable range of variable power as a step toward spectacle independence. SETTING: Department of Physics and Medical Technology, VU University Medical Center, Amsterdam, The Netherlands. METHODS:

  19. Accommodating Students with Disabilities in Soil Science Activities

    Langley-Turnbaugh, S. J.; Murphy, Kate; Levin, E.


    Soil science education is lacking in terms of accommodations for persons with disabilities. Individuals with disabilities are often excluded from soil science activities in school, and from soil science careers. GLOBE (Global Learning Observations to Benefit the Environment) is a worldwide, hands-on primary and secondary school-based education and…

  20. Hydrogels for an accommodating intraocular lens. An explorative study

    de Groot, JH; Spaans, CJ; van Calck, RV; van Beijma, FJ; Norrby, S; Pennings, AJ


    In this study it was investigated whether hydrogels could be used for an accommodating lens. The requirements of such a hydrogels are a low modulus, high refractive index, transparency, and strength. Since conventional hydrogels do not possess this combination of properties, a novel preparation meth

  1. Knowledge Transfer and Accommodation Effects in Multinational Corporations

    Geisler Asmussen, Christian; Foss, Nicolai J.; Pedersen, Torben


    Foreign subsidiaries in multinational corporations (MNCs) possess knowledge that has different sources (e.g., the firm itself or various sources in the environment). How such sources influence knowledge transfer is not well understood. Drawing on the "accommodation effect" from cognitive psychology...

  2. Solutions to Efficient Provision of Accommodations for Universities in China



    Chinese universities are facing a series of challenges in their accommodations,of which a pr\\edominant one is how to provide both students and staff with enough accommodations of a large scope and good quality in good time and with limited budgets,In order to find applicable approaches to solve this problem,the current situations of the Chinese higher education reform and the resulted rapid growth of student numbers whereby the requirement of lodgings is greatly incresed are discussed.It is elucidated that in providing enough accommodations for staff and students,Chinese universities are confronted with difficulties including demand too big,lack of funding support,time limitation and incapability in both project management and facilities management.Industrialized building approach is demonstrated to be a desirable access to build large quantities of accommodations of good quality in limited time.and Private Fuinancial Initiative(PFI) appears to be a prosperous solution to the fund shortage,Regarding project and facilities management,qualified professionals are available by either employing exterior consultants or training related staff of universities for such occupations.

  3. Accommodation, Cafes and Restaurants. Industry Training Monograph No. 8.

    Dumbrell, Tom

    Australia's accommodation, cafes, and restaurants industry represents more than half of the nation's total tourism and hospitality employment. It accounts for roughly 4.5% of all jobs in Australia (400,000 workers). Since 1987, the number of jobs in the sector has risen from about 257,000 to about 372,000. Approximately 57% of employees are…




    Full Text Available Accommodation Infrastructure and Tourism Flows on Feleacu Hill (Cluj County. Feleacu Hill experienced tourism development between 2001 and 2015. The INS data indicates that the number of accommodation units increased from one (2001 to four (2015 and there are a few more which are not registered in the INS database. The accommodation capacity increases, as many guesthouses are expanding their premises to receive more tourists and new accommodation units emerge, such as Hotel Premier in Vâlcele (Feleacu commune. Tourism flows also registered a highly positive trend. The number of arrivals increased from 95 tourists in 2002 to 7791 tourists in 2015. However, there was a downturn between 2009 and 2012, due to the economic crisis and the opening of the Turda – Gilău motorway (A3, which redirected transit routes outside the region and led to the closure of Paradis Hotel in 2012. Since 2012, the number of arrivals and overnight stays increased steadily due to the development of new forms of tourism – rural tourism, agrotourism, extreme tourism and complex tourism, materialized in growing numbers of tourists at the two guesthouses in Ciurila commune (“La Mesteceni” and “Domeniul Regilor”. Tourism brings obvious benefits to the rural communities on Feleacu Hill, even if the average duration of stay is still low.

  5. Indirect Inverse Substructuring Method for Multibody Product Transport System with Rigid and Flexible Coupling

    Jun Wang


    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to develop a new frequency response function- (FRF- based indirect inverse substructuring method without measuring system-level FRFs in the coupling DOFs for the analysis of the dynamic characteristics of a three-substructure coupled product transport system with rigid and flexible coupling. By enforcing the dynamic equilibrium conditions at the coupling coordinates and the displacement compatibility conditions, a closed-form analytical solution to inverse substructuring analysis of multisubstructure coupled product transport system is derived based on the relationship of easy-to-monitor component-level FRFs and the system-level FRFs at the coupling coordinates. The proposed method is validated by a lumped mass-spring-damper model, and the predicted coupling dynamic stiffness is compared with the direct computation, showing exact agreement. The method developed offers an approach to predict the unknown coupling dynamic stiffness from measured FRFs purely. The suggested method may help to obtain the main controlling factors and contributions from the various structure-borne paths for product transport system.

  6. Mechanism design and dynamic analysis of a large-scale spatial deployable structure for space mission

    Xu, Yanling; Lin, Qiuhong; Wang, Xingze; Li, Lin; Cong, Qiang; Pan, Bo


    The deployable structure is critical to the overall success of the space mission. This paper introduces a large-scale spatial deployable structure (SDS), which is developed to deploy and support the payload panels in a precise configuration once on the track. And segmental researching in the design, kinematics and dynamics analysis of SDS's prototyping system are presented. Geometric construction method and Bar-groups method are adopted to analysis the dimensions and coordinates of the SDS, which finally construct an well-determined mathematical model to raise the productivity and efficiency during optimization and analysis work. Be reasoned with the large-scale of the truss structures, flexible multibody dynamic simulations are developed, which present much more authentic stress transfer and kinematics behaviors. According to the deployment experiments of SDS's prototyping system, the correctness and validity of the flexible multibody simulation work are well proved.

  7. Generic multi-body formulation of heavy lift airship equations of motion

    Ringland, R. F.; Tischler, M. B.; Ashkenas, I. L.; Jex, H. R.


    This paper describes the formulation of a comprehensive set of equations which describe the dynamic behavior of a generic heavy lift airship (HLA). They are being used in a digital computer simulation to investigate the response dynamics and flying qualities of HLAs operating with various payloads in a variety of operational environments. A key feature is the separate treatment of each component body making up the HLA. This allows the analyst to vary the configuration (e.g., number of lift-propulsion units, presence or absence of slung payload, etc.) without rewriting the equations. It further provides measures of key structural and control loads acting on the HLA and eases the task of modeling wind disturbances.

  8. Geometric shapes and relationships of some one-body and multibody leptodermous distributions

    Royer, G.; Mokus, N.; Jahan, J.


    Different families of geometric shapes, derived mainly from lemniscatoids, are proposed to describe ground and excited states of leptodermous distributions of nuclear matter. The transition from one spherical or ellipsoidal nucleus to several spherical or ellipsoidal nuclei or vice versa (in the decay and entrance channels of nuclear reactions: fission, fusion, and fragmentation) is particularly investigated. The geometric characteristics of these configurations are given, allowing calculations of the system energy, dynamics of the reactions, and angular distribution of the fragments.

  9. Integrated Simulation and Reduced-Order Modeling of Controlled Flexible Multibody Systems

    Bruls, Olivier


    A mechatronic system is an assembly of technological components, such as a mechanism, sensors, actuators, and a control unit. Recently, a number of researchers and industrial manufacturers have highlighted the potential advantages of lightweight parallel mechanisms with respect to the accuracy, dynamic performances, construction cost, and transportability issues. The design of a mechatronic system with such a mechanism, requires a multidisciplinary approach, where the mechanical deformations ...

  10. Multi-body coupling numerical algorithms for free variable-pitch vertical axis tidal turbine%垂直轴自由变偏角水轮机的多体耦合数值求解方法

    张学伟; 张亮; 李志川; 盛其虎; 王树齐


    A structural dynamics model for free variable-pitch vertical axis tidal turbine was established based on D'Alembert principle.Combining this model with viscous CFD method,a multi-body coupling numerical method for analyzing the hydrodynamics of free variable-pitch vertical axis tidal turbine was developed.Coupling algorithms results were compared with experiment results and non-coupling algorithms results,and the effect of self-starting,flow velocity,and load on the performance of the turbine were investigated.Studies have shown that:the developed algorithms can simulate the kinematical characteristics and dynamic characteristics of free variable-pitch vertical axis tidal turbine effectively in all kinds of unsteady process.%基于达朗伯原理建立了自由变偏角水轮机结构动力学模型,并结合粘性CFD方法,形成了一种用于分析自由变偏角潮流能水轮机水动力特性的多体耦合数值计算方法.将该方法与试验及非耦合算法进行了对比分析,并研究了自启动、流速变化和负载变化对水轮机性能的影响规律.研究表明:本文建立的数值计算方法能够有效模拟自由变偏角水轮机在各种非定常过程中的运动特性和动力特性.

  11. Analysis of internal drive train dynamics in a wind turbine

    Peeters, Joris L. M.; Vandepitte, Dirk; Sas, Paul


    Three types of multibody models are presented for the investigation of the internal dynamics of a drive train in a wind turbine. The first approach is limited to the analysis of torsional vibrations only. Then a rigid multibody model is presented with special focus on the representation of the bearings and gears in the drive train. The generic model implementation can be used for parallel as well as planetary gear stages with both helical and spur gears. Examples for different gear stages describe the use of the presented formulations. Furthermore, the influence of the helix angle and the flexibility of the bearings on the results of eigenmode calculations are discussed. The eigenmodes of a planetary stage are classified as rotational, translational or out-of-plane modes. Thirdly, the extension to a flexible multibody model is presented as a method to include directly the drive train components' flexibilities. Finally, a comparison of two different modelling techniques is discussed for a wind turbine's drive train with a helical parallel gear stage and two planetary gear stages. In addition, the response calculation for a torque input at the generator demonstrates which eigenmodes can be excited through this path. Copyright

  12. Image registration reveals central lens thickness minimally increases during accommodation

    Schachar RA


    Full Text Available Ronald A Schachar,1 Majid Mani,2 Ira H Schachar31Department of Physics, University of Texas at Arlington, Arlington, TX, 2California Retina Associates, El Centro, 3Byers Eye Institute of Stanford University, Palo Alto, CA, USAPurpose: To evaluate anterior chamber depth, central crystalline lens thickness and lens curvature during accommodation.Setting: California Retina Associates, El Centro, CA, USA.Design: Healthy volunteer, prospective, clinical research swept-source optical coherence biometric image registration study of accommodation.Methods: Ten subjects (4 females and 6 males with an average age of 22.5 years (range: 20–26 years participated in the study. A 45° beam splitter attached to a Zeiss IOLMaster 700 (Carl Zeiss Meditec Inc., Jena, Germany biometer enabled simultaneous imaging of the cornea, anterior chamber, entire central crystalline lens and fovea in the dilated right eyes of subjects before, and during focus on a target 11 cm from the cornea. Images with superimposable foveal images, obtained before and during accommodation, that met all of the predetermined alignment criteria were selected for comparison. This registration requirement assured that changes in anterior chamber depth and central lens thickness could be accurately and reliably measured. The lens radii of curvatures were measured with a pixel stick circle.Results: Images from only 3 of 10 subjects met the predetermined criteria for registration. Mean anterior chamber depth decreased, −67 µm (range: −0.40 to −110 µm, and mean central lens thickness increased, 117 µm (range: 100–130 µm. The lens surfaces steepened, anterior greater than posterior, while the lens, itself, did not move or shift its position as appeared from the lack of movement of the lens nucleus, during 7.8 diopters of accommodation, (range: 6.6–9.7 diopters.Conclusion: Image registration, with stable invariant references for image correspondence, reveals that during accommodation a

  13. Knee Kinematics Estimation Using Multi-Body Optimisation Embedding a Knee Joint Stiffness Matrix: A Feasibility Study.

    Vincent Richard

    Full Text Available The use of multi-body optimisation (MBO to estimate joint kinematics from stereophotogrammetric data while compensating for soft tissue artefact is still open to debate. Presently used joint models embedded in MBO, such as mechanical linkages, constitute a considerable simplification of joint function, preventing a detailed understanding of it. The present study proposes a knee joint model where femur and tibia are represented as rigid bodies connected through an elastic element the behaviour of which is described by a single stiffness matrix. The deformation energy, computed from the stiffness matrix and joint angles and displacements, is minimised within the MBO. Implemented as a "soft" constraint using a penalty-based method, this elastic joint description challenges the strictness of "hard" constraints. In this study, estimates of knee kinematics obtained using MBO embedding four different knee joint models (i.e., no constraints, spherical joint, parallel mechanism, and elastic joint were compared against reference kinematics measured using bi-planar fluoroscopy on two healthy subjects ascending stairs. Bland-Altman analysis and sensitivity analysis investigating the influence of variations in the stiffness matrix terms on the estimated kinematics substantiate the conclusions. The difference between the reference knee joint angles and displacements and the corresponding estimates obtained using MBO embedding the stiffness matrix showed an average bias and standard deviation for kinematics of 0.9±3.2° and 1.6±2.3 mm. These values were lower than when no joint constraints (1.1±3.8°, 2.4±4.1 mm or a parallel mechanism (7.7±3.6°, 1.6±1.7 mm were used and were comparable to the values obtained with a spherical joint (1.0±3.2°, 1.3±1.9 mm. The study demonstrated the feasibility of substituting an elastic joint for more classic joint constraints in MBO.

  14. Knee Kinematics Estimation Using Multi-Body Optimisation Embedding a Knee Joint Stiffness Matrix: A Feasibility Study.

    Richard, Vincent; Lamberto, Giuliano; Lu, Tung-Wu; Cappozzo, Aurelio; Dumas, Raphaël


    The use of multi-body optimisation (MBO) to estimate joint kinematics from stereophotogrammetric data while compensating for soft tissue artefact is still open to debate. Presently used joint models embedded in MBO, such as mechanical linkages, constitute a considerable simplification of joint function, preventing a detailed understanding of it. The present study proposes a knee joint model where femur and tibia are represented as rigid bodies connected through an elastic element the behaviour of which is described by a single stiffness matrix. The deformation energy, computed from the stiffness matrix and joint angles and displacements, is minimised within the MBO. Implemented as a "soft" constraint using a penalty-based method, this elastic joint description challenges the strictness of "hard" constraints. In this study, estimates of knee kinematics obtained using MBO embedding four different knee joint models (i.e., no constraints, spherical joint, parallel mechanism, and elastic joint) were compared against reference kinematics measured using bi-planar fluoroscopy on two healthy subjects ascending stairs. Bland-Altman analysis and sensitivity analysis investigating the influence of variations in the stiffness matrix terms on the estimated kinematics substantiate the conclusions. The difference between the reference knee joint angles and displacements and the corresponding estimates obtained using MBO embedding the stiffness matrix showed an average bias and standard deviation for kinematics of 0.9±3.2° and 1.6±2.3 mm. These values were lower than when no joint constraints (1.1±3.8°, 2.4±4.1 mm) or a parallel mechanism (7.7±3.6°, 1.6±1.7 mm) were used and were comparable to the values obtained with a spherical joint (1.0±3.2°, 1.3±1.9 mm). The study demonstrated the feasibility of substituting an elastic joint for more classic joint constraints in MBO.

  15. CHOA concussion consensus: establishing a uniform policy for academic accommodations.

    Popoli, David Michael; Burns, Thomas G; Meehan, William P; Reisner, Andrew


    Concussion research generally centers on physical challenges, though aspects such as social functioning and returning to school also warrant attention in pediatric populations. Restoring academic performance postconcussion remains a challenge. Here we provide recommendations addressing a uniform policy for pediatric concussion patients in academic institutions. Tools that may minimize difficulty with academic re-entry include independent educational evaluations, individualized educational programs (IEPs), student support teams (SSTs), letters of academic accommodation, time off, and 504 Plans. Recognition and treatment is crucial for symptom relief and prevention of functional disruption, as is specialist referral during the acute window. We recommend early intervention with a letter of academic accommodation and SST and suggest that 504 Plans and IEPs be reserved for protracted or medically complicated cases. Students with concussion should be observed for anxiety and depression because these symptoms can lead to prolonged recovery, decreased quality of life, and other social challenges.

  16. Ergonomic job design to accommodate and prevent musculoskeletal disabilities.

    Waters, T R; MacDonald, L A


    Work-related musculoskeletal disorders (MSDs) account for a major portion of the cost of work-related injury and illness in the United States. Many of these injuries and illnesses lead to temporary or permanent disability. It is generally accepted that the incidence of MSDs increases when the demands of the job exceed the capabilities of the worker. As the workforce ages and physical capabilities decline, it is anticipated that many more Americans will request disability-related leave resulting from musculoskeletal disorders because they are unable to meet the demands of the job. To prevent these disabilities and to accommodate a wider range of people in the workforce, physical job demands may have to be reduced so that a larger portion of the population will be capable of working. Providing engineering controls or alternative work arrangements allows for accommodation of workers with a wide range of capabilities and can assist in rehabilitation and early return to work following injury.

  17. A flexible multi-body approach for frictional contact in spur gears

    Lundvall, O.; Strömberg, N.; Klarbring, A.


    In the present paper, a large rotational approach for dynamic contact problems with friction is proposed. The approach is used for modelling a spur gear pair with shafts and bearings. The model is obtained by superposing small displacement elasticity on rigid-body motions, and postulating tribological laws on the gear flanks. The finite element method is used to model the elastic properties of the gear pair. Shafts and bearings are represented by linear springs. The tribological laws of the contact interface are Signorini's contact law and Coulomb's law of friction. An important feature of the approach is that the difficulties of impacting mass nodes are avoided. The governing equations of the model are numerically treated by use of the augmented Lagrangian approach. In such manner the geometry of the gear flanks are well represented in the numerical simulations. It is possible to study accurately the consequences of different types of profile modifications as well as flank errors. In this work, the dynamic transmission error is studied. For instance, it turns out that the effect from profile modification is less significant for the transmission error when frictional effects are included.

  18. Linguistic Simplification: A Promising Test Accommodation for LEP Students?

    Charles W. Stansfield


    Full Text Available This article is a synopsis of an experimental study of the effects of linguistic simplification, a test accommodation..designed for LEP students. Conducted as part of Delaware's statewide assessment program, this study examined the..effects of linguistic simplification of fourth- and sixth-grade science test items and specifically looked at score..comparability between LEP and non-LEP examinees.

  19. Recent Religious Accommodations: Have We Gone Too Far Too Fast?


    length of head hair for both men and women , making certain allowances for women to wear longer hairstyles. The regulation prohibits the wear of beards...exceptions in order to further religious sensitivity. 10 Review of Canada, United Kingdom, and Netherlands Policy on Head and Facial Hair Some...militaries have religious accommodations for males who maintain facial and head hair for religious purposes. In addition, one nation allows soldiers to

  20. Holocene reef development where wave energy reduces accommodation

    Grossman, Eric E.; Fletcher, Charles H.


    Analyses of 32 drill cores obtained from the windward reef of Kailua Bay, Oahu, Hawaii, indicate that high wave energy significantly reduced accommodation space for reef development in the Holocene and produced variable architecture because of the combined influence of sea-level history and wave exposure over a complex antecedent topography. A paleostream valley within the late Pleistocene insular limestone shelf provided accommodation space for more than 11 m of vertical accretion since sea level flooded the bay 8000 yr BP. Virtually no net accretion (pile-up of fore-reef-derived rubble (rudstone) and sparse bindstone, and (3) a final stage of catch-up bindstone accretion in depths > 6 m. Coral framestone accreted at rates of 2.5-6.0 mm/yr in water depths > 11 m during the early Holocene; it abruptly terminated at ~4500 yr BP because of wave scour as sea level stabilized. More than 4 m of rudstone derived from the upper fore reef accreted at depths of 6 to 13 m below sea level between 4000 and 1500 yr BP coincident with late Holocene relative sea-level fall. Variations in the thickness, composition, and age of these reef facies across spatial scales of 10-1000 m within Kailua Bay illustrate the importance of antecedent topography and wave-related stress in reducing accommodation space for reef development set by sea level. Although accommodation space of 6 to 17 m has existed through most of the Holocene, the Kailua reef has been unable to catch up to sea level because of persistent high wave stress.

  1. Bimatoprost (0.03%)-induced accommodative spasm and pseudomyopia.

    Padhy, Debananda; Rao, Aparna


    Bimatoprost is a prostaglandin analogue used topically in the treatment of glaucoma. Commonly known side effects include eyelash growth, iris pigmentation and conjunctival hyperemia. While pseudomyopia is reported to be caused by parasympathomimetics, such an effect precipitated by bimatoprost has not yet been reported. We report a case demonstrating pseudomyopia and accommodative spasm caused after starting bimatoprost 0.03% in a young patient with glaucoma.

  2. Accommodating MOOCs into HEI: is blended-learning the solution?

    Martínez, Juan Antonio; Campuzano, Joaquim


    MOOCs are without discussion one of the key changers in education, and in particular in higher education. They affect both on-Campus universities and on-line. Advisory boards in Universities face the need to accommodate a new player in the learning process arena. The MOOC tsunami affects Universities, forcing them to offer MOOCs assuming costs. On the other side, MOOC platform managers need to convince Universities that creating and offering MOOCs is a must, generating revenues at the same ti...

  3. Digital electronic engine control fault detection and accommodation flight evaluation

    Baer-Ruedhart, J. L.


    The capabilities and performance of various fault detection and accommodation (FDA) schemes in existing and projected engine control systems were investigated. Flight tests of the digital electronic engine control (DEEC) in an F-15 aircraft show discrepancies between flight results and predictions based on simulation and altitude testing. The FDA methodology and logic in the DEEC system, and the results of the flight failures which occurred to date are described.

  4. Kinematic and ground reaction force accommodation during weighted walking.

    James, C Roger; Atkins, Lee T; Yang, Hyung Suk; Dufek, Janet S; Bates, Barry T


    Weighted walking is a functional activity common in daily life and can influence risks for musculoskeletal loading, injury and falling. Much information exists about weighted walking during military, occupational and recreational tasks, but less is known about strategies used to accommodate to weight carriage typical in daily life. The purposes of the study were to examine the effects of weight carriage on kinematics and peak ground reaction force (GRF) during walking, and explore relationships between these variables. Twenty subjects walked on a treadmill while carrying 0, 44.5 and 89 N weights in front of the body. Peak GRF, sagittal plane joint/segment angular kinematics, stride length and center of mass (COM) vertical displacement were measured. Changes in peak GRF and displacement variables between weight conditions represented accommodation. Effects of weight carriage were tested using analysis of variance. Relationships between peak GRF and kinematic accommodation variables were examined using correlation and regression. Subjects were classified into sub-groups based on peak GRF responses and the correlation analysis was repeated. Weight carriage increased peak GRF by an amount greater than the weight carried, decreased stride length, increased vertical COM displacement, and resulted in a more extended and upright posture, with less hip and trunk displacement during weight acceptance. A GRF increase was associated with decreases in hip extension (|r|=.53, p=.020) and thigh anterior rotation (|r|=.57, p=.009) displacements, and an increase in foot anterior rotation displacement (|r|=.58, p=.008). Sub-group analysis revealed that greater GRF increases were associated with changes at multiple sites, while lesser GRF increases were associated with changes in foot and trunk displacement. Weight carriage affected walking kinematics and revealed different accommodation strategies that could have implications for loading and stability.

  5. Cubic optical elements for an accommodative intraocular lens.

    Simonov, Aleksey N; Vdovin, Gleb; Rombach, Michiel C


    We present a new accommodative intraocular lens based on a two-element varifocal Alvarez lens. The intraocular lens consists of (1) an anterior element combining a spherical lens for refractive power with a cubic surface for the varifocal effect, and (2) a posterior element with a cubic surface only. The focal length of the IOL lens changes when the superimposed refractive elements shift in opposite directions in a plane perpendicular to the optical axis. The ciliary muscle will drive the accommodation by a natural process of contraction and relaxation. Results of ray-tracing simulations of the model eye with the two-element intraocular lens are presented for on-axis and off-axis vision. The configuration of the lens is optimized to reduce refractive errors as well as effects of misalignment. A prototype with a clear aperture of ~5.7 mm is manufactured and evaluated in air with a Shack-Hartmann wave-front sensor. It provides an accommodation range of ~4 dioptres in the eye at a ~0.75-mm lateral displacement of the optical elements. The experimentally measured on-axis optical performance of the IOL lens agrees with the theoretically predicted performance.

  6. Employers’ Perspectives on Hiring and Accommodating Workers With Mental Illness

    Janki Shankar


    Full Text Available Many individuals with mental illness want to return to work and stay in employment. Yet, there is little research that has examined the perspectives of employers on hiring and accommodating these workers and the kinds of supports employers need to facilitate their reintegration into the workforce. The aim of the current research was to explore the challenges employers face and the support they need to hire and accommodate workers with mental illness (WWMI. A qualitative research design guided by a grounded theory approach was used. In-depth interviews were conducted with 28 employers selected from a wide range of industries in and around Edmonton, Canada. The employers were a mix of frontline managers, disability consultants, and human resource managers who had direct experience with hiring and supervising WWMI. Data were analyzed using the principles of grounded theory. The findings highlight several challenges that employers face when dealing with mental health issues of workers in the workplace. These challenges can act as barriers to hiring and accommodating WWMI.

  7. Workplace accommodations and job success for persons with bipolar disorder.

    Tremblay, Carol Horton


    This research seeks to identify job characteristics and workplace policies conducive to the job success of individuals with bipolar disorder, and to examine the interactions between employers and bipolar employees regarding requested workplace accommodations. The study population consists of 39 adults who were in outpatient care and diagnosed with bipolar I or II disorder. Each participant completed a mail-in questionnaire regarding workplace characteristics that would enhance job performance. Primary beneficial work characteristics reported are schedule flexibility, autonomy, and supervisor willingness to provide accommodations. Specific helpful characteristics noted by participants include allowances for working at home, leaves of absence, frequent breaks, barriers between work spaces, control over goal-setting, creativity, and avoidance of jobs with pace set by machinery. Twelve of the 26 workers requested workplace changes, and of the 12 requests, 10 were implemented. Incidents of employer bias were reported. The experiences of the survey participants regarding beneficial workplace accommodations may help to improve the productivity and well-being of other individuals with bipolar disorder.




    Full Text Available A strong infrastructure is a precondition for the development of balneology. On this base new tourism might build the modern services that supply the experiences. The key factor is the labor force: an EU project about labor force in Romania and Bulgaria in balneology allow us to present the preliminary findings focusing on general infrastructure and accommodation which allow the development of the balneology as well as the additional conditions as the existence of a social pact, easy access facilities etc. Our paper gives more details about the accommodation facilities in Romania insisting about the results of the transition and privatization of the former socialist facilities and the transformation of the property into private ones and the consequences of this. It also present the capability of new developed accommodation units built after 1990 and how they might compete in an international competition. The findings force us to conclude that the actual facilities do not allow the balneology resorts to compete in the international competition and might fill only a poor and low demanding tourists

  9. Multi-Scale Dynamics, Control, and Simulation of Granular Spacecraft

    Quadrelli, Marco B.; Basinger, Scott; Swartzlander, Grover


    In this paper, we present some ideas regarding the modeling, dynamics and control aspects of granular spacecraft. Granular spacecraft are complex multibody systems composed of a spatially disordered distribution of a large number of elements, for instance a cloud of grains in orbit. An example of application is a spaceborne observatory for exoplanet imaging, where the primary aperture is a cloud instead of a monolithic aperture. A model is proposed of a multi-scale dynamics of the grains and cloud in orbit, as well as a control approach for cloud shape maintenance and alignment, and preliminary simulation studies are carried out for the representative imaging system.

  10. Dynamic Analysis of The Intelligent Sprayer Boom

    Wiggers, Sine Leergaard; Maagaard, Jørgen; Terp, Christian Istjord

    and not the surroundings. However this requires that the boom movements are predictable and based on data from field tests. At field tests a first version of the newly developed camera system was tested in 2010. At the field test it was found that the vertical boom movements where too big for the camera weed prediction...... system to work properly. At the University of Southern Denmark (SDU) a patent for an active damping system of the sprayer boom has been obtained. The subject of this paper is analysis of the dynamics of the Sprayer boom. The analysis is based on a Multibody Dynamics model of the sprayer boom and is made...... in Matlab. The model is made in order to analyse the boom movements. The purpose of the model is to support the development of the patented active damping system for the sprayer boom. The Multibody Dynamics model has been made based on data retrieved from a CAD model and a Finite Element model...


    Ji Son Jang


    Full Text Available En el presente artículo se presentan algunos casos en los que se observa la alternancia pronominal en los hablantes de la ciudad de Medellín, con base en la teoría de la acomodación lingüística y especialmente relacionado con la noción de convergencia. Los hablantes de la comunidad de Medellín realizan la estrategia de la convergencia a través del ajustamiento al tratamiento pronominal que es empleado por su interlocutor cuando interactúan con: 1 los extranjeros no hispanohablantes; 2 los españoles que no son voseantes; 3 los colombianos no voseantes; 4 los habitantes de otras zonas de Antioquia y 5 las personas que pertenecen a un diferente estrato socio-económico de Medellín.In this article, we present some cases in which we observe the pronominal alternation on the Medellin speakers, based on the Communication Accommodation Theory and specially related to the notion of convergence. The speakers of the Medellin community practice the convergence strategy throught the ajustement to the pronominal treatment used by their speaker when they interact with: 1 the foreigners not spanish speakers; 2 the spanish speakers not using "vos"; 3 the colombians not using "vos"; 4 the inhabitants coming from another Antioquia zone and 5 the persons from Medellin belonging to a different socio-economical status.

  12. Symmetry and lattice mismatch induced strain accommodation near and away from correlated perovskite interfaces

    Vailionis, A.; Boschker, H.; Liao, Z.; Smit, J. R. A.; Rijnders, G.; Huijben, M.; Koster, G.


    Distinct MnO6 octahedral distortions near and away from the La0.67Sr0.33MnO3/SrTiO3(001) (LSMO/STO) interface are quantified using synchrotron x-ray diffraction and dynamical x-ray diffraction simulations. Three structural regions of stress accommodation throughout the film thickness were resolved: near the LSMO/STO interface, intermediate region farther from the interface, and the main layer away from the interface. The results show that within the first two unit cells stress is accommodated by the suppression of octahedral rotations in the film, leading to the expansion of the c-axis lattice parameter. Farther from the interface film structure acquires octahedral tilts similar to thicker perovskite films under tensile stress, leading to a reduced c-axis parameter. We demonstrate that these regions are related to two different strain coupling mechanisms: symmetry mismatch at the interface and lattice mismatch in the rest of the film. The findings suggest new routes for strain engineering in correlated perovskite heterostructures.

  13. Symmetry and lattice mismatch induced strain accommodation near and away from correlated perovskite interfaces

    Vailionis, A. [Geballe Laboratory for Advanced Materials, Stanford University, Stanford, California 94305 (United States); Boschker, H. [MESA+ Institute for Nanotechnology, University of Twente, 7500 AE Enschede (Netherlands); Max Planck Institute for Solid State Research, 70569 Stuttgart (Germany); Liao, Z.; Smit, J. R. A.; Rijnders, G.; Huijben, M.; Koster, G. [MESA+ Institute for Nanotechnology, University of Twente, 7500 AE Enschede (Netherlands)


    Distinct MnO{sub 6} octahedral distortions near and away from the La{sub 0.67}Sr{sub 0.33}MnO{sub 3}/SrTiO{sub 3}(001) (LSMO/STO) interface are quantified using synchrotron x-ray diffraction and dynamical x-ray diffraction simulations. Three structural regions of stress accommodation throughout the film thickness were resolved: near the LSMO/STO interface, intermediate region farther from the interface, and the main layer away from the interface. The results show that within the first two unit cells stress is accommodated by the suppression of octahedral rotations in the film, leading to the expansion of the c-axis lattice parameter. Farther from the interface film structure acquires octahedral tilts similar to thicker perovskite films under tensile stress, leading to a reduced c-axis parameter. We demonstrate that these regions are related to two different strain coupling mechanisms: symmetry mismatch at the interface and lattice mismatch in the rest of the film. The findings suggest new routes for strain engineering in correlated perovskite heterostructures.

  14. From time series analysis to a biomechanical multibody model of the human eye

    Pascolo, P. [Dipartimento di Ingegneria Civile, Universita di Udine, Udine (Italy); Dipartimento di Bioingegneria, CISM, Udine (Italy)], E-mail:; Carniel, R. [Dipartimento di Georisorse e Territorio, Universita di Udine, Udine (Italy)], E-mail:


    A mechanical model of the human eye is presented aimed at estimating the level of muscular activation. The applicability of the model in the biomedical field is discussed. Human eye movements studied in the laboratory are compared with the ones produced by a virtual eye described in kinematical terms and subject to the dynamics of six actuators, as many as the muscular systems devoted to the eye motion control. The definition of an error function between the experimental and the numerical response and the application of a suitable law that links activation and muscular force are at the base of the proposed methodology. The aim is the definition of a simple conceptual tool that could help the specialist in the diagnosis of potential physiological disturbances of saccadic and nystagmic movements but can also be extended in a second phase when more sophisticated data become available. The work is part of a collaboration between the Functional Mechanics Laboratory of the University and the Neurophysiopatology Laboratory of the 'S. Maria della Misericordia' Hospital in Udine, Italy.

  15. Real-space finite-difference approach for multi-body systems: path-integral renormalization group method and direct energy minimization method.

    Sasaki, Akira; Kojo, Masashi; Hirose, Kikuji; Goto, Hidekazu


    The path-integral renormalization group and direct energy minimization method of practical first-principles electronic structure calculations for multi-body systems within the framework of the real-space finite-difference scheme are introduced. These two methods can handle higher dimensional systems with consideration of the correlation effect. Furthermore, they can be easily extended to the multicomponent quantum systems which contain more than two kinds of quantum particles. The key to the present methods is employing linear combinations of nonorthogonal Slater determinants (SDs) as multi-body wavefunctions. As one of the noticeable results, the same accuracy as the variational Monte Carlo method is achieved with a few SDs. This enables us to study the entire ground state consisting of electrons and nuclei without the need to use the Born-Oppenheimer approximation. Recent activities on methodological developments aiming towards practical calculations such as the implementation of auxiliary field for Coulombic interaction, the treatment of the kinetic operator in imaginary-time evolutions, the time-saving double-grid technique for bare-Coulomb atomic potentials and the optimization scheme for minimizing the total-energy functional are also introduced. As test examples, the total energy of the hydrogen molecule, the atomic configuration of the methylene and the electronic structures of two-dimensional quantum dots are calculated, and the accuracy, availability and possibility of the present methods are demonstrated.

  16. Structure and thermodynamics of a mixture of patchy and spherical colloids: A multi-body association theory with complete reference fluid information.

    Bansal, Artee; Asthagiri, D; Cox, Kenneth R; Chapman, Walter G


    A mixture of solvent particles with short-range, directional interactions and solute particles with short-range, isotropic interactions that can bond multiple times is of fundamental interest in understanding liquids and colloidal mixtures. Because of multi-body correlations, predicting the structure and thermodynamics of such systems remains a challenge. Earlier Marshall and Chapman [J. Chem. Phys. 139, 104904 (2013)] developed a theory wherein association effects due to interactions multiply the partition function for clustering of particles in a reference hard-sphere system. The multi-body effects are incorporated in the clustering process, which in their work was obtained in the absence of the bulk medium. The bulk solvent effects were then modeled approximately within a second order perturbation approach. However, their approach is inadequate at high densities and for large association strengths. Based on the idea that the clustering of solvent in a defined coordination volume around the solute is related to occupancy statistics in that defined coordination volume, we develop an approach to incorporate the complete information about hard-sphere clustering in a bulk solvent at the density of interest. The occupancy probabilities are obtained from enhanced sampling simulations but we also develop a concise parametric form to model these probabilities using the quasichemical theory of solutions. We show that incorporating the complete reference information results in an approach that can predict the bonding state and thermodynamics of the colloidal solute for a wide range of system conditions.

  17. Thermodynamics of mixtures of patchy and spherical colloids of different sizes: A multi-body association theory with complete reference fluid information.

    Bansal, Artee; Valiya Parambathu, Arjun; Asthagiri, D; Cox, Kenneth R; Chapman, Walter G


    We present a theory to predict the structure and thermodynamics of mixtures of colloids of different diameters, building on our earlier work [A. Bansal et al., J. Chem. Phys. 145, 074904 (2016)] that considered mixtures with all particles constrained to have the same size. The patchy, solvent particles have short-range directional interactions, while the solute particles have short-range isotropic interactions. The hard-sphere mixture without any association site forms the reference fluid. An important ingredient within the multi-body association theory is the description of clustering of the reference solvent around the reference solute. Here we account for the physical, multi-body clusters of the reference solvent around the reference solute in terms of occupancy statistics in a defined observation volume. These occupancy probabilities are obtained from enhanced sampling simulations, but we also present statistical mechanical models to estimate these probabilities with limited simulation data. Relative to an approach that describes only up to three-body correlations in the reference, incorporating the complete reference information better predicts the bonding state and thermodynamics of the physical solute for a wide range of system conditions. Importantly, analysis of the residual chemical potential of the infinitely dilute solute from molecular simulation and theory shows that whereas the chemical potential is somewhat insensitive to the description of the structure of the reference fluid, the energetic and entropic contributions are not, with the results from the complete reference approach being in better agreement with particle simulations.

  18. Structure and thermodynamics of a mixture of patchy and spherical colloids: A multi-body association theory with complete reference fluid information

    Bansal, Artee; Asthagiri, D.; Cox, Kenneth R.; Chapman, Walter G.


    A mixture of solvent particles with short-range, directional interactions and solute particles with short-range, isotropic interactions that can bond multiple times is of fundamental interest in understanding liquids and colloidal mixtures. Because of multi-body correlations, predicting the structure and thermodynamics of such systems remains a challenge. Earlier Marshall and Chapman [J. Chem. Phys. 139, 104904 (2013)] developed a theory wherein association effects due to interactions multiply the partition function for clustering of particles in a reference hard-sphere system. The multi-body effects are incorporated in the clustering process, which in their work was obtained in the absence of the bulk medium. The bulk solvent effects were then modeled approximately within a second order perturbation approach. However, their approach is inadequate at high densities and for large association strengths. Based on the idea that the clustering of solvent in a defined coordination volume around the solute is related to occupancy statistics in that defined coordination volume, we develop an approach to incorporate the complete information about hard-sphere clustering in a bulk solvent at the density of interest. The occupancy probabilities are obtained from enhanced sampling simulations but we also develop a concise parametric form to model these probabilities using the quasichemical theory of solutions. We show that incorporating the complete reference information results in an approach that can predict the bonding state and thermodynamics of the colloidal solute for a wide range of system conditions.

  19. Thermodynamics of mixtures of patchy and spherical colloids of different sizes: A multi-body association theory with complete reference fluid information

    Bansal, Artee; Valiya Parambathu, Arjun; Asthagiri, D.; Cox, Kenneth R.; Chapman, Walter G.


    We present a theory to predict the structure and thermodynamics of mixtures of colloids of different diameters, building on our earlier work [A. Bansal et al., J. Chem. Phys. 145, 074904 (2016)] that considered mixtures with all particles constrained to have the same size. The patchy, solvent particles have short-range directional interactions, while the solute particles have short-range isotropic interactions. The hard-sphere mixture without any association site forms the reference fluid. An important ingredient within the multi-body association theory is the description of clustering of the reference solvent around the reference solute. Here we account for the physical, multi-body clusters of the reference solvent around the reference solute in terms of occupancy statistics in a defined observation volume. These occupancy probabilities are obtained from enhanced sampling simulations, but we also present statistical mechanical models to estimate these probabilities with limited simulation data. Relative to an approach that describes only up to three-body correlations in the reference, incorporating the complete reference information better predicts the bonding state and thermodynamics of the physical solute for a wide range of system conditions. Importantly, analysis of the residual chemical potential of the infinitely dilute solute from molecular simulation and theory shows that whereas the chemical potential is somewhat insensitive to the description of the structure of the reference fluid, the energetic and entropic contributions are not, with the results from the complete reference approach being in better agreement with particle simulations.

  20. 49 CFR 595.7 - Requirements for vehicle modifications to accommodate people with disabilities.


    ... accommodate people with disabilities. 595.7 Section 595.7 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) NATIONAL HIGHWAY TRAFFIC SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) MAKE INOPERATIVE EXEMPTIONS Vehicle Modifications To Accommodate People With Disabilities §...

  1. Dynamic Simulation for Missile Erection System


    In order to study the dynamic characteristics of the missile erection system, it can be considered as a rigid-flexible coupling multi-body system. Firstly, the actual system is abstracted as an equal and simplified one and then the forces applied to it are analyzed. Secondly, the rigid-flexible coupling dynamic simulation for erection system is accomplished by use of the system simulation software, for example Pro/E, ADAMS, ANSYS, MATLAB/Simulink, etc. Finally, having the aid of simulation results, the kinetic and dynamic characteristics of the flexible bodies in erection system are analyzed.The simulation considering the erection system as a rigid-flexible coupling system can provide valuable results to the research of its kinetic, dynamic and vibrational characteristics.

  2. Submerged discontent and patterns of accommodation: a case study of doctors' pay in two public hospitals in China.

    Cao, Xuebing


    The article evaluates submerged discontent among Chinese public hospital doctors (Note1) regarding their pay and patterns of accommodation, including doctors' responses through formal and informal actions in the context of health service marketization. On the basis of a case study of two public hospitals, the article illustrates the dynamical impact of marketization on Chinese doctors' pay-related dissatisfaction and health service employment relationship. Because of the authoritarian management and compliant trade unions, the conflict between doctors and hospitals is unable to be accommodated through collective methods. Instead, doctors' discontent is often channelled through informal, individual and subtle activities. Meanwhile, doctors' professional society is gradually influential, showing its potential of developing doctors' group identity and protecting members' interests in future.

  3. Treatment of accommodative dysfunction in children: results from a randomized clinical trial.

    Scheiman, Mitchell; Cotter, Susan; Kulp, Marjean Taylor; Mitchell, G Lynn; Cooper, Jeffrey; Gallaway, Michael; Hopkins, Kristine B; Bartuccio, Mary; Chung, Ida


    To report the effectiveness of various forms of vision therapy/orthoptics in improving accommodative amplitude and facility in children with symptomatic convergence insufficiency (CI) and co-existing accommodative dysfunction. In a randomized clinical trial, 221 children aged 9 to 17 years with symptomatic CI were assigned to one of four treatments. Of the enrolled children, 164 (74%) had accommodative dysfunction; 63 (29%) had a decreased amplitude of accommodation with respect to age, 43 (19%) had decreased accommodative facility, and 58 (26%) had both. Analysis of variance models were used to compare mean accommodative amplitude and accommodative facility for each treatment group after 4, 8, and 12 weeks of treatment. After 12 weeks of treatment, the increases in amplitude of accommodation [office-based vergence/accommodative therapy with home reinforcement group (OBVAT) 9.9 D, home-based computer vergence/accommodative therapy group (HBCVAT+) 6.7 D, and home-based pencil push-up therapy group (HBPP) 5.8 D] were significantly greater than in the office-based placebo therapy (OBPT) group (2.2 D) (p-values ≤0.010). Significant increases in accommodative facility were found in all groups (OBVAT: 9 cpm, HBCVAT+: 7 cpm, HBPP: 5 cpm, OBPT: 5.5 cpm); only the improvement in the OBVAT group was significantly greater than that found in the OBPT group (p = 0.016). One year after completion of therapy, reoccurrence of decreased accommodative amplitude was present in only 12.5% and accommodative facility in only 11%. Vision therapy/orthoptics is effective in improving accommodative amplitude and accommodative facility in school-aged children with symptomatic CI and accommodative dysfunction.

  4. Progressive Fault Accommodation for Time-delay Systems with Parametric Faults

    WU Jun-sheng; WENG Zheng-xin; TIAN Zuo-hua


    The fault accommodation problem for time-delay system is studied in this paper. The progressive accommodation strategy based on the Newton-Raphson scheme is proposed to solve this problem. This accommodation scheme can significantly reduces the loss of performance and risk associated with system instability which results from the time-delay needed by fault accommodation aigorithms to provide a solution. Simulation results are given to illustrate the efficiency of the provided method.

  5. Symptomatology associated with accommodative and binocular vision anomalies.

    García-Muñoz, Ángel; Carbonell-Bonete, Stela; Cacho-Martínez, Pilar


    To determine the symptoms associated with accommodative and non-strabismic binocular dysfunctions and to assess the methods used to obtain the subjects' symptoms. We conducted a scoping review of articles published between 1988 and 2012 that analysed any aspect of the symptomatology associated with accommodative and non-strabismic binocular dysfunctions. The literature search was performed in Medline (PubMed), CINAHL, PsycINFO and FRANCIS. A total of 657 articles were identified, and 56 met the inclusion criteria. We found 267 different ways of naming the symptoms related to these anomalies, which we grouped into 34 symptom categories. Of the 56 studies, 35 employed questionnaires and 21 obtained the symptoms from clinical histories. We found 11 questionnaires, of which only 3 had been validated: the convergence insufficiency symptom survey (CISS V-15) and CIRS parent version, both specific for convergence insufficiency, and the Conlon survey, developed for visual anomalies in general. The most widely used questionnaire (21 studies) was the CISS V-15. Of the 34 categories of symptoms, the most frequently mentioned were: headache, blurred vision, diplopia, visual fatigue, and movement or flicker of words at near vision, which were fundamentally related to near vision and binocular anomalies. There is a wide disparity of symptoms related to accommodative and binocular dysfunctions in the scientific literature, most of which are associated with near vision and binocular dysfunctions. The only psychometrically validated questionnaires that we found (n=3) were related to convergence insufficiency and to visual dysfunctions in general and there no specific questionnaires for other anomalies. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Espana.

  6. Functionalised polysiloxanes as injectable, in situ curable accommodating intraocular lenses.

    Hao, Xiaojuan; Jeffery, Justine L; Wilkie, John S; Meijs, Gordon F; Clayton, Anthony B; Watling, Jason D; Ho, Arthur; Fernandez, Viviana; Acosta, Carolina; Yamamoto, Hideo; Aly, Mohamed G M; Parel, Jean-Marie; Hughes, Timothy C


    The aged eye's ability to change focus (accommodation) may be restored by replacing the hardened natural lens with a soft gel. Functionalised polysiloxane macromonomers, designed for application as an injectable, in situ curable accommodating intraocular lens (A-IOL), were prepared via a two-step synthesis. Prepolymers were synthesised via ring opening polymerisation (ROP) of octamethylcyclotetrasiloxane (D(4)) and 2,4,6,8-tetramethylcyclotetrasiloxane (D(4)(H)) in toluene using trifluoromethanesulfonic acid (TfOH) as catalyst. Hexaethyldisiloxane (HEDS) was used as the end group to control the molecular weight of the prepolymers, which were then converted to macromonomers by hydrosilylation of the SiH groups with allyl methacrylate (AM) to introduce polymerisable groups. The resulting macromonomers had an injectable consistency and thus, were able to be injected into and refill the empty lens capsular bag. The macromonomers also contained a low ratio of polymerisable groups so that they may be cured on demand, in situ, under irradiation of blue light, in the presence of a photo-initiator, to form a soft polysiloxane gel (an intraocular lens) in the eye. The pre-cure viscosity and post-cure modulus of the polysiloxanes, which are crucial factors for an injectable, in situ curable A-IOL application, were controlled by adjusting the end group and D(4)(H) concentrations, respectively, in the ROP. The macromonomers were fully cured within 5 min under light irradiation, as shown by the rapid change in modulus monitored by photo-rheology. Ex vivo primate lens stretching experiments on an Ex Vivo Accommodation Simulator (EVAS) showed that the polysiloxane gel refilled lenses achieved over 60% of the accommodation amplitude of the natural lens. An in vivo biocompatibility study in rabbits using the lens refilling (Phaco-Ersatz) procedure demonstrated that the soft gels had good biocompatibility with the ocular tissue. The polysiloxane macromonomers meet the targeted


    Nur Mukminatien


    Full Text Available This article aims to discuss issues of World Englishes (WEs and the implications in ELT. It explores the extent to which WEs are taken into account as emerging English varieties different from inner circle varieties, how WEs should be accomodated by English teachers, and which standard to adopt to accommodate learner’s linguistic needs for international communication. It would help ELT practitioners adjust their current practices through the inclusion of varieties of WEs in developing learners’ oral communication. This offers relevant pedagogical movement to argue that changes should be made about the way English is valued and taught.

  8. 41 CFR 301-10.122 - What class of airline accommodations must I use?


    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What class of airline accommodations must I use? 301-10.122 Section 301-10.122 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal Travel... Common Carrier Transportation Airline Accommodations § 301-10.122 What class of airline accommodations...

  9. Predictive Validity of Accommodated LSAT Scores. Technical Report. LSAC Research Report Series.

    Thornton, Andrea E.; Reese, Lynda M.; Pashley, Peter J.; Dalessandro, Susan P.

    This study was undertaken to evaluate the predictive validity of the Law School Admission Test (LSAT) earned under accommodated testing conditions. Of special interest was the validity of scores obtained by test takers who were accommodated under nonstandard time conditions (i.e., accommodations that included extra testing time). Separate…

  10. The Use of Computer Technology in Designing Appropriate Test Accommodations for English Language Learners

    Abedi, Jamal


    Among the several forms of accommodations used in the assessment of English language learners (ELLs), language-based accommodations are the most effective in making assessments linguistically accessible to these students. However, there are significant challenges associated with the implementation of many of these accommodations. This article…

  11. The Use of Computer Technology in Designing Appropriate Test Accommodations for English Language Learners

    Abedi, Jamal


    Among the several forms of accommodations used in the assessment of English language learners (ELLs), language-based accommodations are the most effective in making assessments linguistically accessible to these students. However, there are significant challenges associated with the implementation of many of these accommodations. This article…

  12. 41 CFR 301-10.160 - What classes of train accommodations are available?


    ... business-class. (1) First-class—Includes bedrooms, roomettes, club service, parlor car accommodations or other premium accommodations. (2) Business-class—A class of extra fare train service that is offered... only has two classes of accommodations available, i.e., first and business class, then the...

  13. Barriers to Accommodation Use for Students with Disabilities in Postsecondary Education

    Lyman, Michael James


    Students with disabilities at the postsecondary level face a number of different barriers to accommodation use. Past research has shown that students with disabilities that use accommodations obtain greater academic achievement and higher graduation rates. Limited research has been conducted to identify barriers to accommodation use, and the…

  14. Teaching Adolescent Students with Learning Disabilities to Self-Advocate for Accommodations

    Prater, Mary Anne; Redman, Ashleigh Smith; Anderson, Darlene; Gibb, Gordon S.


    In the general education classroom students with learning disabilities (LD) often need academic accommodations to be successful. These accommodations are typically selected and implemented by their general education teachers, not by the students themselves. High school students with LD were taught to recognize when an accommodation was needed,…

  15. 46 CFR 30.10-2 - Accommodation space-TB/ALL.


    ... 46 Shipping 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Accommodation space-TB/ALL. 30.10-2 Section 30.10-2... Accommodation space—TB/ALL. The term accommodation space means any public space such as a hall, dining room... that contains no cooking appliances, and a similar space open to the passengers and crew....

  16. Dynamics

    Goodman, Lawrence E


    Beginning text presents complete theoretical treatment of mechanical model systems and deals with technological applications. Topics include introduction to calculus of vectors, particle motion, dynamics of particle systems and plane rigid bodies, technical applications in plane motions, theory of mechanical vibrations, and more. Exercises and answers appear in each chapter.

  17. Partial and total actuator faults accommodation for input-affine nonlinear process plants.

    Mihankhah, Amin; Salmasi, Farzad R; Salahshoor, Karim


    In this paper, a new fault-tolerant control system is proposed for input-affine nonlinear plants based on Model Reference Adaptive System (MRAS) structure. The proposed method has the capability to accommodate both partial and total actuator failures along with bounded external disturbances. In this methodology, the conventional MRAS control law is modified by augmenting two compensating terms. One of these terms is added to eliminate the nonlinear dynamic, while the other is reinforced to compensate the distractive effects of the total actuator faults and external disturbances. In addition, no Fault Detection and Diagnosis (FDD) unit is needed in the proposed method. Moreover, the control structure has good robustness capability against the parameter variation. The performance of this scheme is evaluated using a CSTR system and the results were satisfactory.

  18. Comparing family accommodation in pediatric obsessive-compulsive disorder, anxiety disorders, and nonanxious children.

    Lebowitz, Eli R; Scharfstein, Lindsay A; Jones, Johnna


    Family accommodation describes ways in which parents modify their behavior to help a child avoid or alleviate distress caused by emotional disorders. Accommodation is associated with increased symptom severity, lower functioning, and poorer treatment outcomes. Accommodation is prevalent in childhood obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) and anxiety disorders (ADs) but no studies have compared accommodation in these groups or compared them to healthy controls to ascertain if accommodation is prevalent in the general population. This study addresses these gaps by comparing patterns of accommodation, factors that maintain accommodation, and its relation to symptom severity in OCD and AD, relative to healthy controls. We directly compared reports of accommodation to childhood OCD (N = 26) and AD (N = 31), and a comparison group of nonanxious (NA) children (N = 30). Mothers completed measures of accommodation (Family Accommodation Scale (FAS)/Family Accommodation Scale-Anxiety (FASA)), anxiety (Screen for Childhood Anxiety Related Emotional Disorders-Parent Report (SCARED-PR)), and OCD (Children's Yale-Brown Obsessive Compulsive Scale (CYBOCS)). Family accommodation is prevalent among mothers of children with OCD and AD. Few differences were found between the two clinical groups who reported more accommodation (F[2,84] = 23.411, P anxiety in AD (r = .426, P = .017) and OCD (r = .465, P = .017), but not in the NA group. Findings highlight family accommodation as a phenomenon that applies broadly and in a similar manner to children with AD and OCD. Evaluating accommodation provides useful information for clinical care and is an important part of the assessment of children with AD and OCD. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  19. Evidence for neural accommodation to a writing system following learning.

    Liu, Ying; Dunlap, Susan; Fiez, Julie; Perfetti, Charles


    Native English speakers with no knowledge of Chinese were trained on 60 Chinese characters according to one of three mapping conditions: orthography to pronunciation and meaning (P + M), orthography to pronunciation (P), and orthography to meaning (M). Following the training, fMRI scans taken during passive viewing of Chinese characters showed activation in brain regions that partially overlap the regions found in studies of skilled Chinese readers, but typically not found in alphabetic readers. Areas include bilateral middle frontal (BA 9), right occipital (BA 18/19), and fusiform (BA 37) regions. The activation pattern of Chinese characters was similar across the three groups. However, peak location was different in the left middle frontal region between groups. Direct contrasts between the groups also revealed stronger activation of left middle frontal in the P + M group. The results suggest that learners acquired skill in reading Chinese characters using a brain network similar to that used by Chinese native speakers. The results are consistent with the system accommodation hypothesis: The brain's reading network accommodates to features of an acquired writing system. Copyright 2007 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  20. Science Language Accommodation in Elementary School Read-Alouds

    Glass, Rory; Oliveira, Alandeom W.


    This study examines the pedagogical functions of accommodation (i.e. provision of simplified science speech) in science read-aloud sessions facilitated by five elementary teachers. We conceive of read-alouds as communicative events wherein teachers, faced with the task of orally delivering a science text of relatively high linguistic complexity, open up an alternate channel of communication, namely oral discussion. By doing so, teachers grant students access to a simplified linguistic input, a strategy designed to promote student comprehension of the textual contents of children's science books. It was found that nearly half (46%) of the read-aloud time was allotted to discussions with an increased percentage of less sophisticated words and reduced use of more sophisticated vocabulary than found in the books through communicative strategies such as simplified rewording, simplified definition, and simplified questioning. Further, aloud reading of more linguistically complex books required longer periods of discussion and an increased degree of teacher oral input and accommodation. We also found evidence of reversed simplification (i.e. sophistication), leading to student uptake of scientific language. The main significance of this study is that it reveals that teacher talk serves two often competing pedagogical functions (accessible communication of scientific information to students and promotion of student acquisition of the specialized language of science). It also underscores the importance of giving analytical consideration to the simplification-sophistication dimension of science classroom discourse as well as the potential of computer-based analysis of classroom discourse to inform science teaching.

  1. Accommodation coefficient of HOBr on deliquescent sodium bromide aerosol particles

    M. Wachsmuth


    Full Text Available Uptake of HOBr on sea salt aerosol, sea salt brine or ice is believed to be a key process providing a source of photolabile bromine (Br2 and sustaining ozone depletion cycles in the Arctic troposphere. In the present study, uptake of HOBr on sodium bromide (NaBr aerosol particles was investigated at an extremely low HOBr concentration of 300 cm-3 using the short-lived radioactive isotopes 83-86Br. Under these conditions, at maximum one HOBr molecule was taken up per particle. The rate of uptake was clearly limited by the mass accommodation coefficient, which was calculated to be 0.6 ± 0.2. This value is a factor of 10 larger than estimates used in earlier models. The atmospheric implications are discussed using the box model "MOCCA'', showing that the increase of the accommodation coefficient of HOBr by a factor of 10 only slightly affects net ozone loss, but significantly increases chlorine release.

  2. Can mergers-in-progress be unmerged in speech accommodation?

    Molly eBabel


    Full Text Available This study examines spontaneous phonetic accommodation of a dialect with distinct categories by speakers who are in the process of merging those categories. We focus on the merger of the NEAR and SQUARE lexical sets in New Zealand English, presenting New Zealand participants with an unmerged speaker of Australian English. Mergers-in-progress are a uniquely interesting sound change as they showcase the asymmetry between speech perception and production. Yet, we examine mergers using spontaneous phonetic imitation, which is phenomenon that is necessarily a behavior where perceptual input influences speech production. Phonetic imitation is quantified by a perceptual measure and an acoustic calculation of mergedness using a Pillai-Bartlett trace. The results from both analyses indicate spontaneous phonetic imitation is moderated by extra-linguistic factors such as the valence of assigned conditions and social bias. We also find evidence for a decrease in the degree of mergedness in post-exposure productions. Taken together, our results suggest that under the appropriate conditions New Zealanders phonetically accommodate to Australian English and that in the process of speech imitation, mergers-in-progress can, but do not consistently, become less merged.

  3. Validation of a nonrigid registration framework that accommodates tissue resection

    Risholm, Petter; Samset, Eigil; Wells, William, III


    We present a 3D extension and validation of an intra-operative registration framework that accommodates tissue resection. The framework is based on the bijective Demons method, but instead of regularizing with the traditional Gaussian smoother, we apply an anisotropic diffusion filter with the resection modeled as a diffusion sink. The diffusion sink prevents unwanted Demon forces that originates from the resected area from diffusing into the surrounding area. Another attractive property of the diffusion sink is the resulting continuous deformation field across the diffusion sink boundary, which allows us to move the boundary of the diffusion sink without changing values in the deformation field. The area of resection is estimated by a level-set method evolving in the space of image intensity disagreements in the intra-operative image domain. A product of using the bijective Demons method is that we can also provide an accurate estimate of the resected tissue in the preoperative image space. Validation of the proposed method was performed on a set of 25 synthetic images. Our experiments show a significant improvement in accommodating resection using the proposed method compared to two other Demons based methods.

  4. H2S, a novel gasotransmitter, involves in gastric accommodation.

    Xiao, Ailin; Wang, Hongjuan; Lu, Xin; Zhu, Jianchun; Huang, Di; Xu, Tonghui; Guo, Jianqiang; Liu, Chuanyong; Li, Jingxin


    H2S is produced mainly by two enzymes:cystathionine-β-synthase (CBS) and cystathionine-γ-lyase (CSE), using L-cysteine (L-Cys) as the substrate. In this study, we investigated the role of H2S in gastric accommodation using CBS(+/-) mice, immunohistochemistry, immunoblot, methylene blue assay, intragastric pressure (IGP) recording and electrical field stimulation (EFS). Mouse gastric fundus expressed H2S-generating enzymes (CBS and CSE) and generated detectable amounts of H2S. The H2S donor, NaHS or L-Cys, caused a relaxation in either gastric fundus or body. The gastric compliance was significantly increased in the presence of L-Cys (1 mM). On the contrary, AOAA, an inhibitor for CBS, largely inhibited gastric compliance. Consistently, CBS(+/-) mice shows a lower gastric compliance. However, PAG, a CSE inhibitor, had no effect on gastric compliances. L-Cys enhances the non-adrenergic, non-cholinergic (NANC) relaxation of fundus strips, but AOAA reduces the magnitude of relaxations to EFS. Notably, the expression level of CBS but not CSE protein was elevated after feeding. Consistently, the production of H2S was also increased after feeding in mice gastric fundus. In addition, AOAA largely reduced food intake and body weight in mice. Furthermore, a metabolic aberration of H2S was found in patients with functional dyspepsia (FD). In conclusion, endogenous H2S, a novel gasotransmitter, involves in gastric accommodation.

  5. The Effects of Branding on Purchasing Preferences of Tourists at Accommodation Enterprises: An Implementation at Chain Accommodation Enterprises in Antalya

    Banu Yıldız


    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to determine the effect of branding on the purchasing preferences of tourists at accommodation enterprises. Towards this end questionnaire technique was used and 398 questionnaires were considered to be evaluated. The data, gathered, analyzed by using statistical methods. As a result it is revealed that branding (brad awareness, perceived quality, brand image, brand trust, brand attitude and brand loyalty parameters has a positive effect on purchasing preferences of tourists and a negative effect on the volume of perceived risk. Factors contributing to more on purchasing preferences of tourists, respectively, brand attitude, brand loyalty and brand awareness.

  6. The effect of proximity on open-loop accommodation responses measured with pinholes.

    Morrison, K A; Seidel, D; Strang, N C; Gray, L S


    Open-loop accommodation levels were measured in 41 healthy, young subjects using a Shin-Nippon SRW-5000 autorefractor in the three viewing conditions: a small physical pinhole pupil (SP), an optically projected pinhole in Maxwellian view (MV) and in the dark (DF). The target viewed through the pinholes was a high-contrast letter presented at 0 D vergence in a +5 D Badal lens system. Overall, results showed that SP open-loop accommodation levels were significantly higher than MV and DF levels. Subjects could be divided into two distinct subgroups according to their response behaviour: responders to the proximal effect of the small physical pinhole (SP accommodation > MV accommodation) and non-responders to the proximal effect of the small physical pinhole (SP accommodation approximately MV accommodation). Correlation analysis demonstrated that open-loop accommodation for both pinhole conditions was correlated with DF for the responders, while for the non-responders SP and MV accommodation were correlated, but were not related to DF accommodation. This suggests that under open-loop conditions some individuals' accommodation levels are mainly affected by proximal and cognitive factors (responders) while others are guided primarily by the presence of the more distal target (non-responders). In conclusion, MV reduces the proximal effect of the physical pinhole and produces open-loop accommodation responses which are more consistent than SP and DF responses.

  7. Sensory outcome with nonsurgical management of esotropia with convergence excess (a high accommodative convergence/accommodation ratio).

    Pratt-Johnson, J A; Tillson, G


    Twenty-seven patients with esotropia and convergence excess (a high accommodative convergence/accommodation [AC/A] ratio) managed nonsurgically underwent a final standardized evaluation of their sensory and motor status after a follow-up period of at least 8 years. All had a deviation with distance fixation of less than 10 prism dioptres (PD) of esotropia with full optical correction both initially and throughout the follow-up period. The average spherical-equivalent refractive error was +2.3 D. The AC/A ratio had tended to decrease with age, and most patients had fusion, although only a small proportion had central fusion and stereopsis. Approximately half of the patients had been treated with bifocals, but their sensory outcome did not differ from that of the other patients. Miotics had not been used for more than a few months in any patient, as they were ineffective in reducing the deviation with near fixation to less than 10 PD of esotropia. A study, possibly a multicentre one, involving larger numbers of patients should be designed to find out whether bifocal therapy offers an advantage in the final sensory outcome of such patients.

  8. Symptomatic accommodative disorders and asthenopia: Prevalence and association in Ghanaian children

    Charles Darko-Takyi


    Full Text Available Background: There is a scarcity of data on asthenopia and accommodative disorders in children in Ghana as optometrists sometimes fail to carry out comprehensive assessments because of the lack of appropriate instruments.Aim: To establish the prevalence of asthenopic symptoms and symptomatic accommodative disorders among Junior High School children in Cape Coast metropolis (in their habitual vision state and to investigate if there are any associations between asthenopic symptoms and the disorders.Method: A prospective cross-sectional school-based study using a multistage sample of 627 participants aged 12–17 years from Junior High Schools in Cape Coast metropolis, Ghana, was conducted. Participants completed a reliable asthenopic symptoms questionnaire (Cronbach’s α = 0.866, and 220 participants who expressed two or more severe or very severe symptoms were selected for comprehensive accommodative system assessment over their habitual vision state.Results: The prevalence of symptoms of asthenopia (two or more severe or very severe and symptomatic accommodative disorders were 35.1% and 17.4% respectively. For specific symptomatic accommodative disorders, the prevalence was as follows: 7.7% accommodative insufficiency, 4.5% accommodative infacility, 1.4% accommodative excess and 3.8% accommodative fatigue. There were significant associations between some specific accommodative disorders and some specific asthenopic symptoms even though these asthenopic symptoms overlapped in other accommodative disorders.Conclusion: Specific asthenopic symptoms do not discriminate between the presences of specific types of accommodative disorders. A comprehensive accommodative system assessment with appropriate instruments is relevant to the diagnosis and management of accommodative disorders to relieve asthenopic symptoms.

  9. Dynamic Analysis of The Intelligent Sprayer Boom

    Wiggers, Sine Leergaard; Maagaard, Jørgen; Terp, Christian Istjord

    As part of the 3 year project “The intelligent Sprayer Boom”, financed by The Danish National Advanced Technology Foundation, the dynamics of the sprayer boom is to be analysed. In order to minimize the amount of herbicides used to kill the weeds in agriculture a new sprayer boom is being developed...... called “The intelligent sprayer boom”. For the sprayer boom the primary challenge is to hit the weeds with precision from a movable platform. Since the sprayer boom is mounted on a tractor the system will react to bumps in the field. The intelligent sprayer boom has an integrated camera technology...... system to work properly. At the University of Southern Denmark (SDU) a patent for an active damping system of the sprayer boom has been obtained. The subject of this paper is analysis of the dynamics of the Sprayer boom. The analysis is based on a Multibody Dynamics model of the sprayer boom and is made...

  10. Effect of interfacial turbulence and accommodation coefficient on CFD predictions of pressurization and pressure control in cryogenic storage tank

    Kassemi, Mohammad; Kartuzova, Olga


    Pressurization and pressure control in cryogenic storage tanks are to a large extent affected by heat and mass transport across the liquid-vapor interface. These mechanisms are, in turn, controlled by the kinetics of the phase change process and the dynamics of the turbulent recirculating flows in the liquid and vapor phases. In this paper, the effects of accommodation coefficient and interfacial turbulence on tank pressurization and pressure control simulations are examined. Comparison between numerical predictions and ground-based measurements in two large liquid hydrogen tank experiments, performed in the K-site facility at NASA Glenn Research Center (GRC) and the Multi-purpose Hydrogen Test Bed (MHTB) facility at NASA Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC), are used to show the impact of accommodation coefficient and interfacial and vapor phase turbulence on evolution of pressure and temperatures in the cryogenic storage tanks. In particular, the self-pressurization comparisons indicate that: (1) numerical predictions are essentially independent of the magnitude of the accommodation coefficient; and (2) surprisingly, laminar models sometimes provide results that are in better agreement with experimental self-pressurization rates, even in parametric ranges where the bulk flow is deemed fully turbulent. In this light, shortcomings of the present CFD models, especially, numerical treatments of interfacial mass transfer and turbulence, as coupled to the Volume-of-Fluid (VOF) interface capturing scheme, are underscored and discussed.

  11. Military Applications of High-Altitude Satellite Orbits in a Multi-Body Dynamical Environment Using Numerical Methods and Dynamical Systems Theory


    integration [20]. Summing miniscule errors from rounding and truncation in the inner- arithmetic of the integrator leads to decreased accuracy toward the end of...S. Air Force, “Air Force Smart Operations for the 21st Century CONOPS,” vol. 4, 2006. [Online]. Available: media

  12. Water Recovery System Architecture and Operational Concepts to Accommodate Dormancy

    Carter, Layne; Tabb, David; Anderson, Molly


    Future manned missions beyond low Earth orbit will include intermittent periods of extended dormancy. The mission requirement includes the capability for life support systems to support crew activity, followed by a dormant period of up to one year, and subsequently for the life support systems to come back online for additional crewed missions. NASA personnel are evaluating the architecture and operational concepts that will allow the Water Recovery System (WRS) to support such a mission. Dormancy could be a critical issue due to concerns with microbial growth or chemical degradation that might prevent water systems from operating properly when the crewed mission began. As such, it is critical that the water systems be designed to accommodate this dormant period. This paper identifies dormancy issues, concepts for updating the WRS architecture and operational concepts that will enable the WRS to support the dormancy requirement.

  13. Communication accommodation and managing musculoskeletal disorders: doctors' and patients' perspectives.

    Baker, Susan C; Gallois, Cindy; Driedger, S Michelle; Santesso, Nancy


    This study examined the ways in which health care providers (general practitioners and specialists) and patients communicate with each other about managing musculoskeletal (MSK) disorders, a major cause of long-term pain and physical disability. In managing their illness, patients must interact closely with health care providers, who play a large role in transferring knowledge to them. In-depth interviews with patients, general practitioners, and specialist rheumatologists in Australia and Canada were analyzed using Leximancer (a text-mining tool). Results indicated that, in their communication, doctors subtly emphasized accepting and adjusting to the illness ("new normal"), whereas patients emphasized pain relief and getting "back to normal." These results suggest that doctors and patients should accommodate in their communication across subtle and often unexpressed differences in the priorities of provider and patient, or they are likely to be at cross purposes and thus less effective.

  14. Disturbance Accommodating Adaptive Control with Application to Wind Turbines

    Frost, Susan


    Adaptive control techniques are well suited to applications that have unknown modeling parameters and poorly known operating conditions. Many physical systems experience external disturbances that are persistent or continually recurring. Flexible structures and systems with compliance between components often form a class of systems that fail to meet standard requirements for adaptive control. For these classes of systems, a residual mode filter can restore the ability of the adaptive controller to perform in a stable manner. New theory will be presented that enables adaptive control with accommodation of persistent disturbances using residual mode filters. After a short introduction to some of the control challenges of large utility-scale wind turbines, this theory will be applied to a high-fidelity simulation of a wind turbine.

  15. Leguminous plants: inventors of root nodules to accommodate symbiotic bacteria.

    Suzaki, Takuya; Yoro, Emiko; Kawaguchi, Masayoshi


    Legumes and a few other plant species can establish a symbiotic relationship with nitrogen-fixing rhizobia, which enables them to survive in a nitrogen-deficient environment. During the course of nodulation, infection with rhizobia induces the dedifferentiation of host cells to form primordia of a symbiotic organ, the nodule, which prepares plants to accommodate rhizobia in host cells. While these nodulation processes are known to be genetically controlled by both plants and rhizobia, recent advances in studies on two model legumes, Lotus japonicus and Medicago truncatula, have provided great insight into the underlying plant-side molecular mechanism. In this chapter, we review such knowledge, with particular emphasis on two key processes of nodulation, nodule development and rhizobial invasion. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Automation for Accommodating Fuel-Efficient Descents in Constrained Airspace

    Coopenbarger, Richard A.


    Continuous descents at low engine power are desired to reduce fuel consumption, emissions and noise during arrival operations. The challenge is to allow airplanes to fly these types of efficient descents without interruption during busy traffic conditions. During busy conditions today, airplanes are commonly forced to fly inefficient, step-down descents as airtraffic controllers work to ensure separation and maximize throughput. NASA in collaboration with government and industry partners is developing new automation to help controllers accommodate continuous descents in the presence of complex traffic and airspace constraints. This automation relies on accurate trajectory predictions to compute strategic maneuver advisories. The talk will describe the concept behind this new automation and provide an overview of the simulations and flight testing used to develop and refine its underlying technology.

  17. The Inuulitsivik Maternities: culturally appropriate midwifery and epistemological accommodation.

    Douglas, Vasiliki K


    This is a literature-based historical analysis that uses Michel Foucault's technique of tracing epistemological change over time to understand the epistemological changes and their outcomes that have occurred in Nunavik, the Inuit region of Northern Quebec, with the introduction of modern techniques and technology of childbirth in the period after the Second World War. Beginning in 1986, in the village of Puvurnituq, a series of community birthing centres known as the Inuulitsivik Maternities have been created. They incorporate biomedical techniques and technology, but are incorporated into the Inuit epistemology of health, in which the community is the final arbitrator of medical authority. This epistemological accommodation between modern biomedicine and the distinctly premodern Inuit epistemology of health has led to the creation of a new and profoundly non-modern approach to childbirth in Nunavik.

  18. Baudoinia, a new genus to accommodate Torula compniacensis.

    Scott, James A; Untereiner, Wendy A; Ewaze, Juliet O; Wong, Bess; Doyle, David


    Baudoinia gen. nov. is described to accommodate Torula compniacensis. Reported originally from the walls of buildings near brandy maturation warehouses in Cognac, France, species of Baudoinia are cosmopolitan colonists of exposed surfaces subjected to large diurnal temperature shifts, episodic high relative humidity and wetting, and ambient airborne ethanol. Morphologically B. compniacensis resembles some anamorphic Mycosphaerellaceae in possessing dark brown, nonseptate or uniseptate conidia with coarsely roughened walls that are borne acropetally in unbranched chains and released by schizolytic dehiscence. Analysis of partial nuclear rDNA SSU sequences positions B. compniacensis in the order Capnodiales and reveals that it is most closely related to the microcolonial genus Friedmanniomyces. Heat resistance is induced by brief sublethal temperature exposure.

  19. Method for compensating bellows pressure loads while accommodating thermal deformations

    Woodle, M.H.


    Many metal bellows are used on storage ring vacuum chambers. They allow the ring to accommodate deformations associated with alignment, mechanical assembly and thermal expansion. The NSLS has two such electron storage rings, the vuv ring and the x-ray ring. Both rings utilize a number of welded metal bellows within the ring and at every beam port. There are provisions for 16 beam ports on the vuv and 28 ports in the x-ray ring. At each of these locations the bellows are acted on by an external pressure of 1 atmosphere, which causes a 520 lb reaction at the vacuum chamber beam port and at the beamline flange downstream of the bellows. The use of rigid tie rods across the bellows flanges to support this load is troublesome because most storage ring vacuum chambers are baked in situ to achieve high internal vacuum. Significant forces can develop on components if thermal deformation is restrained and damage could occur.

  20. Stabilization of computational procedures for constrained dynamical systems

    Park, K. C.; Chiou, J. C.


    A new stabilization method of treating constraints in multibody dynamical systems is presented. By tailoring a penalty form of the constraint equations, the method achieves stabilization without artificial damping and yields a companion matrix differential equation for the constraint forces; hence, the constraint forces are obtained by integrating the companion differential equation for the constraint forces in time. A principal feature of the method is that the errors committed in each constraint condition decay with its corresponding characteristic time scale associated with its constraint force. Numerical experiments indicate that the method yields a marked improvement over existing techniques.

  1. Capsular bag opacification with a new accommodating intraocular lens.

    Floyd, Anne M; Werner, Liliana; Liu, Erica; Stallings, Shannon; Ollerton, Andrew; Leishman, Lisa; Bodnar, Zachary; Morris, Caleb; Mamalis, Nick


    To evaluate the biocompatibility and capsular bag opacification of an accommodating intraocular lens (IOL) containing large haptic elements that separate the anterior and posterior capsules. John A. Moran Eye Center, University of Utah, Salt Lake City, Utah, USA. Experimental study. Bilateral phacoemulsification with IOL implantation was performed in 6 New Zealand rabbits. Each animal received a study (accommodating) IOL and a control (1-piece hydrophobic acrylic) IOL. Eyes were examined at the slitlamp from 1 day through 6 weeks postoperatively. The globes were then enucleated and evaluated grossly. Capsular bag opacification was scored from the posterior aspect (Miyake-Apple view). The eyes were then processed for complete histopathologic evaluation. At 6 weeks, the mean posterior capsule opacification (PCO) clinical score was 0.5 ± 0.3 (SD) in the study group and 3.0 ± 0.9 in the control group (P=.001, 2-tail paired t test). Anterior capsule opacification was practically absent in the study group and mild in the control group. Miyake-Apple posterior view showed a mean central PCO score of 0 ± 0 in the study group and 3.0 ± 1.1 in the control group (P=.001), peripheral PCO score of 0.7 ± 0.4 and 3.5 ± 0.8 (P=.0006), respectively, and Soemmerring ring score of 2.3 ± 0.8 and 7.0 ± 2.8 (P=.01), respectively. Histopathology showed no signs of toxicity in any eye. The study IOL maintained an expanded capsular bag secondary to the large size of the haptic elements, which appears to prevent capsular bag opacification. Copyright © 2013 ASCRS and ESCRS. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Study of thread grinding based on the multi-body system theory%基于多体系统理论的螺纹磨削研究

    范晋伟; 金爱韦; 宁堃; 梅钦; 李海涌


    将多体系统运动建模方法应用到数控螺纹磨床建模中,建立机床、工件和砂轮的运动关系,推导出多线砂轮磨削螺纹的加工方程.开发螺纹磨削仿真软件,获得螺纹磨削加工G代码,在磨削螺纹的生产中取得了很好的效果.%Applying the multi-body system modeling theory to CNC thread grinder modeling. Deriving multi-line grinding wheel thread processing equation based on movement relationship of machine tool, workpiece and grinding wheel. A thread grinding simulation software is developed, and the generating thread grinding G-code achieves good results in the production of thread grinding.

  3. The Assessment of Accommodation and Convergence System in the Bank Employees

    Monireh Mahjoob


    Full Text Available Background: Regarding the high outbreak rate of the eye disorders and problems particularly accommodation disorders and convergence insufficiency in computer users, the study tries to determine the convergence, accommodation system, condition, fusion reserves and vision dimension in bank employees (who work with computers and the control group (who are not computer users and then to compare the mentioned parameters in the two groups. Materials and Methods: In this cross-sectional and observational study a total of 44 bank employees and 44 people as the control group members were selected randomly. Initially, refractive problems were reformed, and then accommodation, convergence and vision dimension evaluative tests were conducted. The test included measuring the near point of convergence, jump convergence, phoria, accommodation range (one eye, both eyes, ease of accommodation (one eye, both eyes, positive and negative related accommodation, near fusion versions and TNO.Results: Our results showed that there was a not significant difference among the near point of convergence, jump convergence, near phoria, accommodation range (one eye and both eyes, ease of accommodation (one eye, both eyes, positive and negative related accommodation in bank employees and control group.Conclusion: Regarding the studies, the outbreak rate of accommodation and convergence disorders is higher in bank employees than the control group which would be due to over working with computer within a fixed interval.

  4. Optimal secondary coil design for inductive powering of the Artificial Accommodation System.

    Nagel, J A; Krug, M; Gengenbach, U; Guth, H; Bretthauer, G; Guthoff, R F


    Age-related ailments like presbyopia and cataract are increasing concerns in the aging society. Both go along with a loss of ability to accommodate. A new approach to restore the patients' ability to accommodate is the Artificial Accommodation System. This micro mechatronic system will be implanted into the capsular bag to replace the human crystalline lens. Depending on the patients' actual need for accommodation, the Artificial Accommodation System autonomously adapts the refractive power of its integrated optical element in a way that the projection on the patients' retina results in a sharp image. As the Artificial Accommodation System is an active implant, its subsystems have to be supplied with electrical energy. Evolving technologies, like energy harvesting, which can potentially be used to power an implant like the Artificial Accommodation System are at the current state of art not sufficient to power the Artificial Accommodation System autonomously [1]. In the near future, therefore an inductive power supply system will be developed which includes an energy storage to power the Artificial Accommodation System autonomously over a period of 24 h and can be recharged wirelessly. This Paper describes a new possibility to optimize the secondary coil design in a solely analytical way, based on a new figure of merit. Within this paper the developed figure of merit is applied to optimize the secondary coil design for the Artificial Accommodation System.

  5. Parental accommodation of child anxiety and related symptoms: Range, impact, and correlates

    Thompson-Hollands, Johanna; Kerns, Caroline E.; Pincus, Donna B.; Comer, Jonathan S.


    Parental accommodation—i.e., changes in parents’ behavior in attempts to prevent or reduce child distress—has been most studied in relation to OCD. Although recent work suggests parents of children with non-OCD anxiety diagnoses also engage in accommodation, little is known about the specific forms, correlates, and associated interference of such accommodation. The present study examined the range and associated interference of parental accommodation behaviors using the newly developed Family Accommodation Checklist and Interference Scale (FACLIS) in a sample of the parents of 71 clinic-referred children with anxiety disorders (NMothers = 68; NFathers= 51). The FACLIS demonstrated good reliability and validity. Ninety-seven percent of mothers and 88% of fathers reported engaging in at least one type of accommodation in the previous two weeks, with parents reporting an average of roughly 4 interfering parental accommodation behaviors. Greater parental accommodation and associated interference were associated with higher maternal distress. Among the anxiety disorders, accommodation was most strongly associated with generalized and separation anxiety disorder, as well as specific phobias. Findings (a) offer psychometric support for the FACLIS as a reliable and valid tool for the assessment of accommodation range and impact, and (b) help clarify the considerable scope and interference associated with parental accommodation of childhood anxiety. PMID:25261837

  6. The rate of change of vergence-accommodation conflict affects visual discomfort.

    Kim, Joohwan; Kane, David; Banks, Martin S


    Stereoscopic (S3D) displays create conflicts between the distance to which the eyes must converge and the distance to which the eyes must accommodate. Such conflicts require the viewer to overcome the normal coupling between vergence and accommodation, and this effort appears to cause viewer discomfort. Vergence-accommodation coupling is driven by the phasic components of the underlying control systems, and those components respond to relatively fast changes in vergence and accommodative stimuli. Given the relationship between phasic changes and vergence-accommodation coupling, we examined how the rate of change in the vergence-accommodation conflict affects viewer discomfort. We used a stereoscopic display that allows independent manipulation of the stimuli to vergence and accommodation. We presented stimuli that simulate natural viewing (i.e., vergence and accommodative stimuli changed together) and stimuli that simulate S3D viewing (i.e., vergence stimulus changes but accommodative stimulus remains fixed). The changes occurred at 0.01, 0.05, or 0.25 Hz. The lowest rate is too slow to stimulate the phasic components while the highest rate is well within the phasic range. The results were consistent with our expectation: somewhat greater discomfort was experienced when stimulus distance changed rapidly, particularly in S3D viewing when the vergence stimulus changed but the accommodative stimulus did not. These results may help in the generation of guidelines for the creation and viewing of stereo content with acceptable viewer comfort.

  7. Countermovement strategy changes with vertical jump height to accommodate feasible force constraints.

    Kim, Seyoung; Park, Sukyung; Choi, Sangkyu


    In this study, we developed a curve-fit model of countermovement dynamics and examined whether the characteristics of a countermovement jump can be quantified using the model parameter and its scaling; we expected that the model-based analysis would facilitate an understanding of the basic mechanisms of force reduction and propulsion with a simplified framework of the center of mass (CoM) mechanics. Ten healthy young subjects jumped straight up to five different levels ranging from approximately 10% to 35% of their body heights. The kinematic and kinetic data on the CoM were measured using a force plate system synchronized with motion capture cameras. All subjects generated larger vertical forces compared with their body weights from the countermovement and sufficiently lowered their CoM position to support the work performed by push-off as the vertical elevations became more challenging. The model simulation reasonably reproduced the trajectories of vertical force during the countermovement, and the model parameters were replaced by linear and polynomial regression functions in terms of the vertical jump height. Gradual scaling trends of the individual model parameters were observed as a function of the vertical jump height with different degrees of scaling, depending on the subject. The results imply that the subjects may be aware of the jumping dynamics when subjected to various vertical jump heights and may select their countermovement strategies to effectively accommodate biomechanical constraints, i.e., limited force generation for the standing vertical jump. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Breakdown of accommodation in nerve: a possible role for persistent sodium current

    Andersen Ole K


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Accommodation and breakdown of accommodation are important elements of information processing in nerve fibers, as they determine how nerve fibers react to natural slowly changing stimuli or electrical stimulation. The aim of the present study was to elucidate the biophysical mechanism of breakdown of accommodation, which at present is unknown. Results A model of a space-clamped motor nerve fiber was developed. It was found that this new model could reproduce breakdown of accommodation when it included a low-threshold, rapidly activating, persistent sodium current. However, the phenomenon was not reproduced when the persistent sodium current did not have fast activation kinetics or a low activation threshold. Conclusion The present modeling study suggests that persistent, low-threshold, rapidly activating sodium currents have a key role in breakdown of accommodation, and that breakdown of accommodation can be used as a tool for studying persistent sodium current under normal and pathological conditions.

  9. A slide rule for calculating the ocular accommodation of an ametrope corrected with a spectacle lens.

    Wang, Guang-Ji


    A slide rule has been designed to calculate the ocular accommodation of an ametrope corrected with a spectacle lens. The slide rule makes the calculation itself easier to perform than with traditional methods and is easily applicable in a clinical setting. In the slide rule, there are 3 scales indicating the power of the spectacle lens, the viewing distance, and the ocular accommodation. The most accurate accommodative unit was used to design the slide rule. The ocular accommodation is the product of the accommodative unit and the dioptric viewing distance. The calculating results are accurate from +21 diopters to all minus powers of the spectacle lens. In a clinical setting, the patients can be advised how much accommodation they exert before and after the refractive surgeries.

  10. Quality of work life of front office employees in selected accommodation establishments / Rosa Naudé

    Naudé, Rosa-Anne


    The South African hospitality industry, and more specifically the accommodation sector, is a booming industry within South African Tourism. Annually thousands of tourists, nationally and internationally, come to stay in accommodation establishments which offer a variety of services to guests (South Africa, 2009:499). What differentiates one accommodation establishment from another is the type and quality of service offered to guests. This service offered to guests can only be generated by ...

  11. The Effect of Child Distress on Accommodation of Anxiety: Relations With Maternal Beliefs, Empathy, and Anxiety.

    Settipani, Cara A; Kendall, Philip C


    Little is known about the influence of child behaviors on accommodation of anxiety and how accommodation relates to other parent factors. The present study examined the comparative effect of high and low levels of child distress on mother-reported accommodation, mother factors in relation to accommodation, and moderators of the relation between accommodation and child distress. Maternal perceptions of accommodation were measured by vignettes depicting youth exhibiting high or low levels of distress in anxiety-provoking situations that elicited social anxiety, generalized anxiety, or separation anxiety in a sample of 7- to 17-year-old youth with anxiety disorders (N = 70, M = 11.66, 47.1% male). Findings indicated an effect of child distress on mother-reported accommodation of youth anxiety, such that mothers reported more overall accommodation under conditions of high child distress; situation-level analyses revealed this effect for social and generalized anxiety situations. Furthermore, an association was found between greater mother-reported accommodation and more negative beliefs about their child's experience of anxiety, which held across situations. Maternal empathy moderated the relation between overall accommodation and child distress. Maternal anxiety also moderated the relation between accommodation and child distress, with results varying based on situation type. Findings, consistent with theory, indicate a relation between child distress and mother-reported accommodation and suggest that maternal beliefs about anxiety are an important treatment target. High maternal empathy may be related to a greater degree of adaptability in response to child behaviors, whereas maternal anxiety may be linked with less adaptive responses to child behaviors.

  12. Maximising the local development potential of Nature Tourism accommodation establishments in South Africa

    Jayne M. Rogerson


    Abstract: Within extant scholarship on tourism and local development one knowledge gap concerns the role of the accommodation sector as a base for tourism-led local development in rural areas and small towns. The focus is upon nature tourism accommodation establishments which cluster mainly in geographically marginal areas in South Africa where poverty levels are high and the imperative exists for new drivers of economic and social development. A national audit of nature tourism accommodation...

  13. Dynamic response analysis of single-span guideway caused by high speed maglev train


    High speed maglev is one of the most important reformations in the ground transportation systems because of its no physical contact nature. This paper intends to study the dynamic response of the single-span guideway induced by moving maglev train. The dynamic model of the maglev train-guideway system is established. In this model, a maglev train consists of three vehicles and each vehicle is regarded as a multibody system with 34 degrees-of-freedom. The guideway is modeled as a simply suppor...

  14. A New Application of Multi- Body System Dynamics in Vehicle- Road Interaction Simulation

    Ren Wei-qun; Zhang Yun-qing; Jin Guo-dong


    In vehicle-road interaction simulation, multi-body system (MBS) dynamics as well as the corresponding software ADAMS has been employed to model the nonlinear vehicle in more detail. The simulation method has been vali-dated by the test data, and been compared to the former sim-ple models. This method can be used for estimating the effects of dynamic tire forces and other vehicle features on road damage so that the "road- friend liness" can be assessed in vehicle design process.

  15. Phenomenology and clinical correlates of family accommodation in pediatric anxiety disorders.

    Storch, Eric A; Salloum, Alison; Johnco, Carly; Dane, Brittney F; Crawford, Erika A; King, Morgan A; McBride, Nicole M; Lewin, Adam B


    Despite evidence documenting high prevalence of family accommodation in pediatric obsessive-compulsive disorder, examination in other pediatric anxiety disorders is limited. Preliminary evidence suggests that family accommodation is common amongst children with anxiety disorders; however, the impact on clinical presentation and functional impairment has not been addressed. This study assessed the nature and clinical correlates of family accommodation in pediatric anxiety, as well as validating a mechanistic model. Participants included 112 anxious youth and their parents who were administered a diagnostic clinical interview and measure of anxiety severity, as well as questionnaires assessing internalizing and externalizing symptoms, family accommodation and functional impairment. Some form of accommodation was present in all families. Family accommodation was associated with increased anxiety severity and externalizing behaviors, having a diagnosis of separation anxiety, and increased functional impairment. Family accommodation partially mediated the relationship between anxiety severity and functional impairment, as well as externalizing behaviors and functional impairment. Family accommodation is common in pediatric anxiety disorders, and is associated with more severe clinical presentations and functional impairment. These findings highlight the importance of parental involvement in treatment and the need to specifically target accommodation practices during interventions to mitigate negative outcomes in anxious youth. Further studies utilizing longitudinal data are needed to validate mechanistic models.

  16. Obsessive-compulsive disorder in children and adolescents: parental understanding, accommodation, coping and distress.

    Futh, Annabel; Simonds, Laura M; Micali, Nadia


    Parental accommodation of pediatric OCD is common and is associated with negative affect in parents. Qualitative accounts of caring for a child with OCD are limited and no studies have assessed differences between mothers and fathers in accommodation, coping and distress. The current study used a mixed methods approach to understand parental accommodation, negative affect and coping. Forty-one mothers and 29 fathers of 43 children with OCD were asked to write narratives about their understanding and management of OCD and to complete measures of accommodation, coping, and distress. Symptom accommodation was high with almost half of the parents watching the child complete rituals or waiting for the child on a daily basis. Analysis of parental narratives indicated a distressing struggle between engaging in and resisting accommodation in order to manage their own and their child's anger and distress. T-tests and correlation analysis indicated that accommodation did not differ significantly between mothers and fathers but was more strongly associated with negative affect in mothers. Analyses indicated that mothers reported using all types of coping strategy more often than fathers, particularly escape-avoidance, taking responsibility and using social support. Escape-avoidance coping was positively correlated with accommodation and negative affect in both mothers and fathers. Interventions that target parental constructions of OCD and their behavioural and emotional responses to it may assist in reducing the occurrence of accommodation, avoidant coping and parental distress. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. The online potential for the development of eco-certified accommodation units in Romania

    Codruţa Adina BĂLTESCU


    Full Text Available The Internet and electronic communication have generated significant changes in the marketing strategies of accommodation units. On the other hand, sustainable development is a goal which requires concrete actions and changed mentalities. In Romania operates a number of eco-certified accommodation units. The online tools allow them to communicate the advantages and benefits of the sustainable services, and also to obtain a quick feedback from the consumers. This paper highlights the extent to which eco-certified accommodation units in our country offer relevant information to potential consumers and analyzes the online reviews regarding the eco-certified accommodation services

  18. A framework for providing telecommuting as a reasonable accommodation: some considerations on a comparative case study.

    Kaplan, Shelley; Weiss, Sally; Moon, Nathan W; Baker, Paul


    Telecommuting, whether full time, part time, or over short periods when the need arises, can be an important accommodation for employees with disabilities. Indeed, telecommuting may be the only form of accommodation that offers employees whose disabilities fluctuate a means to stay consistently and gainfully employed. This article describes one employer's experience in considering a request for telecommuting as a reasonable accommodation for a particular employee. Drawing on real-life examples, both positive and negative, this article provides a win/win framework for decision-making that can help employers evaluate the use of telecommuting as a possible accommodation and facilitates open and ongoing communication between employer and employee.

  19. An Intelligent Hierarchical Approach to Actuator Fault Diagnosis and Accommodation Project

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This proposal presents a novel intelligent hierarchical approach to detection, isolation, and accommodation of primary aerodynamic actuator failures. The proposed...

  20. Motorcycle state estimation for lateral dynamics

    Teerhuis, A. P.; Jansen, S. T. H.


    The motorcycle lean (or roll) angle development is one of the main characteristics of motorcycle lateral dynamics. Control of motorcycle motions requires an accurate assessment of this quantity and for safety applications also the risk of sliding needs to be considered. Direct measurement of the roll angle and tyre slip is not available; therefore, a method of model-based estimation is developed to estimate the state of a motorcycle. This paper investigates the feasibility of such a motorcycle state estimator (MCSE). A simplified analytic model of a motorcycle is developed by comparison to an extended multi-body model of the motorcycle, designed in Matlab/SimMechanics. The analytic model is used inside an extended Kalman filter. Experimental results of an instrumented Yamaha FJR1300 motorcycle show that the MCSE is a feasible concept for obtaining signals related to the lateral dynamics of the motorcycle.