WorldWideScience

Sample records for acclimatization

  1. Acclimatization to cold in humans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaciuba-Uscilko, Hanna; Greenleaf, John E.

    1989-01-01

    This review focuses on the responses and mechanisms of both natural and artificial acclimatization to a cold environment in mammals, with specific reference to human beings. The purpose is to provide basic information for designers of thermal protection systems for astronauts during intra- and extravehicular activities. Hibernation, heat production, heat loss, vascular responses, body insulation, shivering thermogenesis, water immersion, exercise responses, and clinical symptoms and hypothermia in the elderly are discussed.

  2. Altitude Preexposure Recommendations for Inducing Acclimatization

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    acetazolamide ( Kronenberg and Cain, 1968). Acute exposure to high altitude increases heart rate and cardiac output to maintain systemic oxygen delivery...emphasizing the regulation of breathing. Physiologist. 11:37–57. Kronenberg R.S., and Cain S.M. (1968). Hastening respiratory acclimatization to

  3. Sex Differences in Physiological Acclimatization after Transfer in Wistar Rats

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Arts, J.W.M.; Kramer, K.; Arndt, Saskia; Ohl, Frauke

    2014-01-01

    Simple Summary: This study in laboratory rodents shows a sex specific effect of breeder to research facility transfer on several physiological parameters, such as heart rate and blood pressure. We recommend at least 8 days of acclimatization time after transfer in male rats and at least two weeks in

  4. Temperature effects on copepod egg hatching: does acclimatization matter?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Benni Winding; Drillet, Guillaume; Kozmér, A.;

    2010-01-01

    This report investigates female sizes, egg sizes and egg hatching rates in relation to temperature for the near-shore calanoid copepod Acartia tonsa cultured at 6, 9, 14 and 24°C for several generations to achieve acclimatization. Inverse size relationships of eggs and females were revealed...... with increasing temperature. Eggs produced at 6°C were 85 ± 4 µm in diameter, but decreased to 80 ± 3 µm at 24°C. Female cephalothorax length was 840 ± 52 and 692 ± 39 µm at 9 and 24°C, respectively. Parallel hatching experiments were performed between non-acclimatized and acclimatized cultures across a range...... of temperatures reflecting natural conditions in Danish waters. A greater fraction of eggs enter quiescence as temperature declines. Eggs were able to hatch at temperatures as low as 1.5°C. Final egg hatching success increased with temperature. Acclimatization of the copepods resulted in a lower maximum hatching...

  5. Breathing in thin air: acclimatization to altitude in ducks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powell, Frank L; Shams, Hashim; Hempleman, Steven C; Mitchell, Gordon S

    2004-12-15

    We measured ventilation (VI) and arterial blood gases in Pekin ducks during acclimatization to 3800 m altitude for 1-90 days. Four experimental series were conducted over 4 years using both natural altitude and a hypobaric chamber. PaCO2 decreased to 3.5 Torr, relative to the value measured during acute hypoxia after 1 day and remained at this level for up to 90 days. However, PaO2 did not increase. Arterial pH showed an unexpected metabolic alkalosis during the first hours at altitude but after 3 days, a metabolic acidosis partially compensated the respiratory alkalosis and pHa was constant thereafter. When normoxia was restored after hypoxia, PaCO2 was 5.5 Torr less than the original normoxic control value, but PaO2 was not increased. VI showed variable changes during acclimatization but if metabolic rate was constant in our study, as reported by others, then effective parabronchial V(VP) increased during acclimatization. Increased VP tends to restore PaO2 toward normoxic levels and decreases adverse effects of gas exchange limitation, which apparently increased during acclimatization in ducks.

  6. Micropropagation, Acclimatization, and Greenhouse Culture of Veratrum californicum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Sarah A; Adelberg, Jeffrey; Naylor-Adelberg, Jacqueline; Mann, David A; Song, Ju Yeon; Sun, Youping

    2016-01-01

    Micropropagation and production of Veratrum californicum is most successful when using a premixed Murishage and Skoog basal medium with vitamins and a 5-week subculture cycle at 16 °C for multiplication. These culture conditions provide the best percent survival after acclimatization in the greenhouse. However, clone response to temperature and light quality within culture conditions varies. Micropropagated plants have mass and morphology similar to 2- or 3-year-old seedlings. Acclimatized plantlets can then be grown in the greenhouse using sub-irrigation (ebb and flood) to maintain substrate volumetric water content > 44 %. Growth cycle in the greenhouse must be about 100 days, followed by dormancy for 5 months at 5 °C.

  7. Ibuprofen Blunts Ventilatory Acclimatization to Sustained Hypoxia in Humans.

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    Kemal Erdem Basaran

    Full Text Available Ventilatory acclimatization to hypoxia is a time-dependent increase in ventilation and the hypoxic ventilatory response (HVR that involves neural plasticity in both carotid body chemoreceptors and brainstem respiratory centers. The mechanisms of such plasticity are not completely understood but recent animal studies show it can be blocked by administering ibuprofen, a nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug, during chronic hypoxia. We tested the hypothesis that ibuprofen would also block the increase in HVR with chronic hypoxia in humans in 15 healthy men and women using a double-blind, placebo controlled, cross-over trial. The isocapnic HVR was measured with standard methods in subjects treated with ibuprofen (400 mg every 8 hrs or placebo for 48 hours at sea level and 48 hours at high altitude (3,800 m. Subjects returned to sea level for at least 30 days prior to repeating the protocol with the opposite treatment. Ibuprofen significantly decreased the HVR after acclimatization to high altitude compared to placebo but it did not affect ventilation or arterial O2 saturation breathing ambient air at high altitude. Hence, compensatory responses prevent hypoventilation with decreased isocapnic ventilatory O2-sensitivity from ibuprofen at this altitude. The effect of ibuprofen to decrease the HVR in humans provides the first experimental evidence that a signaling mechanism described for ventilatory acclimatization to hypoxia in animal models also occurs in people. This establishes a foundation for the future experiments to test the potential role of different mechanisms for neural plasticity and ventilatory acclimatization in humans with chronic hypoxemia from lung disease.

  8. Historical thermal regimes define limits to coral acclimatization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howells, Emily J; Berkelmans, Ray; van Oppen, Madeleine J H; Willis, Bette L; Bay, Line K

    2013-05-01

    Knowledge of the degree to which corals undergo physiological acclimatization or genetic adaptation in response to changes in their thermal environment is crucial to the success of coral reef conservation strategies. The potential of corals to acclimatize to temperatures exceeding historical thermal regimes was investigated by reciprocal transplantation of Acropora millepora colonies between the warm central and cool southern regions of the Great Barrier Reef (GBR) for a duration of 14 months. Colony fragments retained at native sites remained healthy, whereas transplanted fragments, although healthy over initial months when temperatures remained within native thermal regimes, subsequently bleached and suffered mortality during seasonal temperature extremes. Corals hosting Symbiodinium D transplanted to the southern GBR bleached in winter and the majority suffered whole (40%; n=20 colonies) or partial (50%) mortality at temperatures 1.1 degrees C below their 15-year native minimum. In contrast, corals hosting Symbiodinium C2 transplanted to the central GBR bleached in summer and suffered whole (50%; n=10 colonies) or partial (42%) mortality at temperatures 2.5 degrees C above their 15-year native maximum. During summer bleaching, the dominant Symbiodinium type changed from C2 to D within corals transplanted to the central GBR. Corals transplanted to the cooler, southern GBR grew 74-80% slower than corals at their native site, and only 50% of surviving colonies reproduced, at least partially because of cold water bleaching of transplants. Despite the absence of any visual signs of stress, corals transplanted to the warmer, central GBR grew 52-59% more slowly than corals at their native site before the summer bleaching (i.e., from autumn to spring). Allocation of energy to initial acclimatization or reproduction may explain this pattern, as the majority (65%) of transplants reproduced one month earlier than portions of the same colonies retained at the southern

  9. Altitude acclimatization improves submaximal cognitive performance in mice and involves an imbalance of the cholinergic system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guerra-Narbona, R; Delgado-García, J M; López-Ramos, J C

    2013-06-15

    The aim of this work was to reveal a hypothetical improvement of cognitive abilities in animals acclimatized to altitude and performing under ground level conditions, when looking at submaximal performance, once seen that it was not possible when looking at maximal scores. We modified contrasted cognitive tasks (object recognition, operant conditioning, eight-arm radial maze, and classical conditioning of the eyeblink reflex), increasing their complexity in an attempt to find performance differences in acclimatized animals vs. untrained controls. In addition, we studied, through immunohistochemical quantification, the expression of choline acetyltransferase and acetyl cholinesterase, enzymes involved in the synthesis and degradation of acetylcholine, in the septal area, piriform and visual cortexes, and the hippocampal CA1 area of animals submitted to acute hypobaric hypoxia, or acclimatized to this simulated altitude, to find a relationship between the cholinergic system and a cognitive improvement due to altitude acclimatization. Results showed subtle improvements of the cognitive capabilities of acclimatized animals in all of the tasks when performed under ground-level conditions (although not before 24 h), in the three tasks used to test explicit memory (object recognition, operant conditioning in the Skinner box, and eight-arm radial maze) and (from the first conditioning session) in the classical conditioning task used to evaluate implicit memory. An imbalance of choline acetyltransferase/acetyl cholinesterase expression was found in acclimatized animals, mainly 24 h after the acclimatization period. In conclusion, altitude acclimatization improves cognitive capabilities, in a process parallel to an imbalance of the cholinergic system.

  10. In vitro development and acclimatization of dendezeiro (Elaeis guineensis

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    Marlúcia Souza Souza Pádua

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Fruits and almond from the dendezeiro, oil palmbelonging to the Elaeis genus,are widely used for the production of cookingoils or for the pharmaceutical and cosmetic industries.In the last decade, this oil palm also emerged as a promising source for commercialbiofuel production. This study evaluated the effect of different culture media, MS (MURASHIGUE AND SKOOG and Y3 (EEUWENSand carbohydrates duringin vitro germination of zygotic embryos, the effect of growth regulators GA3, NAA and BA Ponin vitro seedling development, and the survival rate of acclimatized seedlingsof Manicoré hybrid (Elaeis oleifera x E. guineensis. Zygotic embryos were inoculated on MS and modified Y3 media, supplemented with different sucrose concentrations (30, 45, and 60 gL-1 or sorbitol (36 gL-1, and the germination rate was evaluated after 30 days. Subsequently, seedlings were transferred to modified Y3 culture medium supplemented with differentGA3 concentrations (3.5 and 7 mgL-1 or without it, combined or not with 1 mgL-1 of NAA, 5 mgL-1 of BAP.The highest germinationpercentage of germinated embryos (92% was observed in MS medium supplemented with 36 gL-1 sorbitol. Culture media supplemented with growth regulatorsGA3, NAA and BAP promoted greater shoot lengththan control media. Rooted seedlings showed high survival percentage (85% during acclimatization.

  11. In vitro propagation and acclimatization of genipapo accessions

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    Francielen Paola de Sa

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Genipapo is a species with an intermediate seed storage behavior, and its germination is slow and asynchronous; therefore the tissue culture is an alternative strategy for the propagation in large-scale. This study aimed to evaluate three genipapo accessions at different micropropagation stages (adventitious shoot induction, in vitro rooting and acclimatization. Genipapo nodal segments from the Sabinópolis (AS, Cruz das Almas (CZA and Núcleo Bandeirante (NB accessions were used and inoculated in culture media with 0 and 1.0 mg L-1 6-benzylaminopurine (BAP. Different indole-3-butyric acid (IBA concentrations were tested for in vitro rooting. Subsequently, the effect of two substrates on the seedling development of three genipapo accessions was assessed. The molecular characterization of accessions was performed using 15 inter-simple sequence repeat (ISSR primers, and genotype clustering was performed based on genetic dissimilarity using the Unweighted Pair-Group Method with Arithmetic Mean (UPGMA. Culture media supplementation with 1.0 mg L-1 BAP favors the development of adventitious shoots and promotes a higher callogenesis percentage, leaf number and feasibility at 90 days of in vitro culture. The immersion of the basal portion of shoots for 20 seconds in all IBA solutions induces the rhizogenesis in the genipapo accessions at 90 days of in vitro culture. The substrates consisting of washed sand + dried coconut shell powder, at a 1:1 ratio by volume, and Topstrato HT(r may be recommended for genipapo acclimatization. The NB accession is genetically different from the CZA and AS populations and shows superiority for most of the variables analyzed.

  12. Effect of acclimatization on hexavalent chromium reduction in a biocathode microbial fuel cell.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Xiayuan; Zhu, Xujun; Song, Tianshun; Zhang, Lixiong; Jia, Honghua; Wei, Ping

    2015-03-01

    A simple acclimatization method for the reduction of hexavalent chromium (Cr(VI)) at a biocathode by first enriching an exoelectrogenic biofilm on a microbial fuel cell (MFC) anode, followed by direct inversion of the anode to function as the biocathode, has been established. This novel method significantly enhanced the Cr(VI) reduction efficiency of the MFC, which was mainly attributed to the higher microbial density and less resistive Cr(III) precipitates on the cathode when compared with a common biocathode acclimatization method (control). The biocathode acclimatization period was shortened by 19days and the Cr(VI) reduction rate was increased by a factor of 2.9. Microbial community analyses of biocathodes acclimatized using different methods further verified the feasibility of this electrode inversion method, indicating similar dominant bacteria species in biofilms, which mainly consist of Gamma-proteobacteria and Bacteria.

  13. Altitude acclimatization and blood volume: effects of exogenous erythrocyte volume expansion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sawka, M N; Young, Jette Feveile; Rock, P B;

    1996-01-01

    We studied sea-level residents during 13 days of altitude acclimatization to determine 1) altitude acclimatization effects on erythrocyte volume and plasma volume, 2) if exogenous erythrocyte volume expansion alters subsequent erythrocyte volume and plasma volume adaptations, 3) if an increased...... blood oxygen content alters erythropoietin responses during altitude acclimatization, and 4) mechanisms responsible for plasma loss at altitude. Sixteen healthy men had a series of hematologic measurements made at sea level, on the first and ninth days of altitude (4,300 m) residence, and after...... had no effect; in addition, initially at altitude, blood oxygen content was 8% higher in erythrocyte-infused than in saline-infused subjects. The new findings regarding altitude acclimatization are summarized as follows: 1) erythrocyte volume does not change during the first 13 days...

  14. Degradation of atrazine by an acclimatized soil fungal isolate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Shashi B; Lal, Shashi P; Pant, Shashi; Kulshrestha, Gita

    2008-01-01

    A fungal strain able to use atrazine (2-chloro-4-ethylamino-5-isopropylamino-1,3,5-triazine) as a source of nitrogen was isolated from a corn field soil that has been previously treated with the herbicide. This strain was purified and acclimatized to atrazine at a higher level in the laboratory. A supplemented N was required to trigger the reaction. Atrazine was degraded at a faster rate in inoculated mineral salt medium (MSM) than non-inoculated MSM. Within 20 days, nearly 34% of the atrazine was degraded in inoculated medium while only 2% of the herbicide was degraded in non-inoculated medium. Degradation of atrazine by the isolated fungal strain was also studied in sterile and non-sterile soil to determine the compatibility of the isolated strain with native microorganisms in soil. The degradation of atrazine was found to be more in inoculated sterile soil than in inoculated non-sterile soil. Cell free extract (CFE) of fungal mycelium degraded about 50% of the atrazine in buffer in 96 hours compared to the control. Four atrazine metabolites were isolated and characterized by LCMS. On the basis of morphological parameters the isolate was identified as Penicillium species. Results indicated that the microorganism may be useful for remediation of atrazine-contaminated soil.

  15. Growth and symptomatological aspects in the acclimatization of ipê roxo

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    João Paulo Rodrigues Martins

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available This work evaluated the influence of seal type and substrate type on pre-acclimatization, and symptomatological aspects relating to acclimatization of ipê-roxo. For the pre-acclimatization, ipê-roxo plants obtained through an in vitro zygotic embryo culture were aseptically inoculated in test tubes with different types of seal (cotton plug, plastic cap + parafilm and plastic lid and different substrates (agar, vermiculite and Plantmax® supplemented with a WPM culture medium with 1 gL-1 of activated charcoal, 10 mgL-1 of citric acid and 30 gL-1 of sucrose added. For the acclimatization, in vitro ipê-roxo plants were transplanted into 56-cm3 plastic tubes containing vermiculite and Plantmax® at a 2:1 ratio which had been previously autoclaved at 121oC and 1 atm for 20 minutes. Once transplanted, the plants were irrigated with different concentrations of the MS medium (25%, 50%, 75%, 100% and 150%, using distilled water as control. After 30 days, the effects of seal type and substrate type on pre-acclimatization were examined. Cotton can be recommended where Plantmax® or vermiculite is used as substrate. In the acclimatization it was noted that where plants were irrigated with distilled water and concentrations < 50% they showed symptoms of nutritional deficiency. Similar symptoms were observed when using MS medium at a concentration equal to or greater than 100%. The 75% MS concentration was found to be the most effective at maintaining the nutritional vigor of ipê-roxo seedlings in the process of acclimatization.

  16. Acclimatization of Phalaenopsis and Cattleya obtained by micropropagation

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    Lucía Primitiva Díaz

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Título en español: Aclimatización de Phalaenopsis y Cattleya obtenidas por micropropagación ABSTRACT The quality of micropropagated plants relies on the acclimatization stage. This research intends to develop an efficient protocol to obtain the acclimatization of Phalaenopsis and Cattleya. Plants of Phalaenopsis obtained from protocorms were selected. They came from flowering stalks grown at modified Murashige and Skoog (MS (1962 medium and classified by growth ranks and put into moss, mesquite wood shaving and perlite (1:1:1, into a humidity chamber. The protocorms were multiplied at MS from Cattleya sown in Knudson C (1946 medium; regenerated plants of 1-2 cm were selected, and implanted in humidity chamber on: moss, coal and perlite (1:1:1 MCP; mesquite wood shavings, coal and perlite (1:1:1 ACP; moss and perlite (1:1 MP; mesquite wood shaving and perlite (1:1 AP. The following results were obtained: Phalanopsis: a Survival: 44% in R0 and 100% in RI and RII of the. b Number of leaves: RI gave on average 1 more leaf than the range 0; c Roots number and length: RI and RII gave on average 2 more roots than R0, and there were no significant differences in length. d Height: RII presented greater growth than RI and Ro. Cattleya: a The survival in MCP was 0%, MP 16 %, ACP 32% and AP 80%. b The height in MP was significantly superior to the ones in ACP and AP. Plants from both genera need to achieve a 2 to 4 cm growth rank in vitro to endure the greenhouse conditions. MAP was the best substrate in Phalaenopsis and moss-perlite in Cattleya. Key words: Orchidaceae, substrates, in vitro culture. RESUMEN La calidad final de las plantas producidas por micropropagación depende de la etapa de aclimatización. Se intenta desarrollar un protocolo eficiente para la aclimatización de Phalaenopsis y Cattleya. Se seleccionaron plantas de Phalaenopsis, obtenidas de protocormos provenientes de estacas florales cultivadas en Murashige y Skoog modificado (MS

  17. Seasonal acclimatization determined by non-invasive measurements of coat insulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langman, Vaughan A; Langman, Sarah L; Ellifrit, Nancy

    2015-01-01

    Seasonal acclimatization in terrestrial mammals in the Northern Hemisphere involves changes in coat insulation. It is more economical to provide increased insulation than increased heat production for protection against the cold. This study was done to test a technique for the non-invasive measurement of mammal coat insulation and to measure coat insulation over several seasons on captive exotics. The working hypothesis was that species that have no coat or have a coat that does not change seasonally do not acclimatize seasonally. Three surface temperature readings were measured from the torso area. The insulation was calculated using measured metabolic rates and body temperature when possible. The African elephants, giraffe and okapi did not acclimatize with average maximum insulation values of 0.256°Cm(2)  W(-1) . The Amur tigers and mountain goats acclimatized to seasonal ambient conditions by increasing the insulation values of the hair coats in the cold with an average maximum insulation values of 0.811°Cm(2)  W(-1) . The cold adapted species are more than three times more insulated in the cold than the equatorial species. The husbandry implications of exotics that have no ability to acclimatize to Northern Hemisphere seasonal ambient changes are profound. Giraffe, African elephants, and okapi when exposed to cold conditions with ambient air temperatures below 21°C will use body energy reserves to maintain a heat balance and will require housing that provides ambient conditions of 21°C.

  18. Human physiological responses to cold exposure: Acute responses and acclimatization to prolonged exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castellani, John W; Young, Andrew J

    2016-04-01

    Cold exposure in humans causes specific acute and chronic physiological responses. This paper will review both the acute and long-term physiological responses and external factors that impact these physiological responses. Acute physiological responses to cold exposure include cutaneous vasoconstriction and shivering thermogenesis which, respectively, decrease heat loss and increase metabolic heat production. Vasoconstriction is elicited through reflex and local cooling. In combination, vasoconstriction and shivering operate to maintain thermal balance when the body is losing heat. Factors (anthropometry, sex, race, fitness, thermoregulatory fatigue) that influence the acute physiological responses to cold exposure are also reviewed. The physiological responses to chronic cold exposure, also known as cold acclimation/acclimatization, are also presented. Three primary patterns of cold acclimatization have been observed, a) habituation, b) metabolic adjustment, and c) insulative adjustment. Habituation is characterized by physiological adjustments in which the response is attenuated compared to an unacclimatized state. Metabolic acclimatization is characterized by an increased thermogenesis, whereas insulative acclimatization is characterized by enhancing the mechanisms that conserve body heat. The pattern of acclimatization is dependent on changes in skin and core temperature and the exposure duration.

  19. ENERGY SOURCES AFFECT IN VITRO PROPAGATION AND SUBSEQUENT ACCLIMATIZATION OF ANANAS COMOSUS, VAR. SMOOTH CAYENNE PLANTS

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    Ayelign Mengesha

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Plant tissue culture is an inevitable technique to overcome healthy and limited planting materials problems using suitable energy sources. Different carbohydrates have diverse effect on in vitro growing plantlets in terms of growth performance, acclimatization and cost used for micro-propagation. Hence, this paper reports the effects of sucrose, fructose, glucose, table sugar and starch on pineapple in vitro mass propagation and acclimatization as well as the analysis of energy source required cost per a medium. A complete randomized design was used to compare analytic grade sucrose with other four energy sources at 2 and 3 % (w/v. The results revealed that the energy sources with varied concentration strongly influenced the in vitro growth and subsequent acclimatization of pineapple plantlets. Analytic grade sucrose and table sugar at 3 % performed well for in vitro survival rate (100%, shoot amplification (15.3-16.5 shoots, rooting ability (2.5cm long and 12 roots and acclimatization (95.4-97%. However, fructose and glucose required high importation cost (229.1% and 121.9% over analytic grade sucrose, respectively, and have low growth and acclimatization performance next to starch and energy free medium. Thus, table sugar has found to be a suitable alternative energy source for pineapple mass propagation, which saved about 95-97% cost from that of laboratory grade sucrose.

  20. The effects of two different types of clothing on seasonal warm acclimatization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, X.; Tokura, H.; Midorikawa, T.

    1995-09-01

    The work described in this paper investigates the effects of two types of clothing leaving the legs covered or uncovered, on seasonal warm acclimatization in women. Experiments were carried out to observe the differences in thermal responses between two groups of subjects who dressed themselves in trousers or kneelength skirts during the daytime for 3 months from April to June. Rectal temperatures in the subjects wearing skirts were found to be shifted to higher levels when the season gradually became warmer from spring to summer. The results suggest that the clothing type worn in daily life may play an important role in the seasonal warm acclimatization of thermal responses in humans.

  1. PRUNUS SERRULATA VAR. 'KANZAN' MICROSHOOTS BEHAVIOUR DURING IN VITRO ROOTING AND ACCLIMATIZATION PHASES

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    Magdalena Duţă

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents aspects regarding in vitro rooting and acclimatization percentages of Prunus serrulata var. Kanzan vitroplants. During in vitro rooting stage, good results were obtained using a nutrient medium with the following composition: halved Murashige - Skoog mineral salts, Linsmaier – Skoog vitamins, gibberellic acid (GA 0.1 mg/l, indolelacetic acid (IAA 1.0 mg/l, activated carbon 0.3 mg/l, iron chelate 38 mg/l, 30 g/l dextrose, 7 g/l agar. The substrate recommended for acclimatization of in vitro plants is composed of black peat + perlite (1:1, at pH = 6.0.

  2. Limitations to Thermoregulation and Acclimatization Challenge Human Adaptation to Global Warming

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    Elizabeth G. Hanna

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Human thermoregulation and acclimatization are core components of the human coping mechanism for withstanding variations in environmental heat exposure. Amidst growing recognition that curtailing global warming to less than two degrees is becoming increasing improbable, human survival will require increasing reliance on these mechanisms. The projected several fold increase in extreme heat events suggests we need to recalibrate health protection policies and ratchet up adaptation efforts. Climate researchers, epidemiologists, and policy makers engaged in climate change adaptation and health protection are not commonly drawn from heat physiology backgrounds. Injecting a scholarly consideration of physiological limitations to human heat tolerance into the adaptation and policy literature allows for a broader understanding of heat health risks to support effective human adaptation and adaptation planning. This paper details the physiological and external environmental factors that determine human thermoregulation and acclimatization. We present a model to illustrate the interrelationship between elements that modulate the physiological process of thermoregulation. Limitations inherent in these processes, and the constraints imposed by differing exposure levels, and thermal comfort seeking on achieving acclimatization, are then described. Combined, these limitations will restrict the likely contribution that acclimatization can play in future human adaptation to global warming. We postulate that behavioral and technological adaptations will need to become the dominant means for human individual and societal adaptations as global warming progresses.

  3. Metabolic response to lipid infusion in fasting winter-acclimatized king penguin chicks (Aptenodytes patagonicus).

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    Teulier, Loïc; Tornos, Jérémy; Rouanet, Jean-Louis; Rey, Benjamin; Roussel, Damien

    2013-05-01

    During the cold austral winter, king penguin chicks are infrequently fed by their parents and thus experience severe nutritional deprivation under harsh environmental conditions. These energetic constraints lead to a range of energy sparing mechanisms balanced by the maintenance of efficient thermogenic processes. The present work investigated whether the high thermogenic capacities exhibited by winter-acclimatized king penguin chicks could be related to an increase in lipid substrate supply and oxidation in skeletal muscle, the main site of thermogenesis in birds. To test this hypothesis, we examined i) the effect of an experimental rise in plasma triglyceride on the whole metabolic rate in winter-acclimatized (WA) and de-acclimatized king penguin chicks kept at thermoneutrality (TN), and ii) investigated the fuel preference of muscle mitochondria. In vivo, a perfusion of a lipid emulsion induced a small 10% increase of metabolic rate in WA chicks but not in TN group. In vitro, the oxidation rate of muscle mitochondria respiring on lipid-derived substrate was +40% higher in WA chicks than in TN, while no differences were found between groups when mitochondria oxidized carbohydrate-derived substrate or succinate. Despite an enhanced fuel selection towards lipid oxidation in skeletal muscle, a rise of circulating lipids per se was not sufficient to fully unravel the thermogenic capacity of winter-acclimatized king penguin chicks.

  4. The impact of acclimatization on thermophysiological strain for contrasting regional climates

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    de Freitas, C. R.; Grigorieva, E. A.

    2014-12-01

    During acclimatization to heat and cold, the body experiences additional thermally induced physiological strain. The first signs show up in the respiratory organs because respiration is a continuous heat exchange process in which the body is in closest contact with the ambient air. There are no behavioral or other adjustments to prevent the ambient air from entering into the body's core area through the respiratory tract. The Acclimatization Thermal Strain Index (ATSI) describes the acclimatization thermal loading (ATL) on respiratory organs until full adaptation is achieved. The aim here is to further assess the ATSI scheme using a range of actual but contrasting bioclimatic conditions. To simulate ATL, scenarios of the consequences of acclimatization due to movement to or from five contrasting climates are used. The results show that adjusting to cold comes with greater physiological strain than adjusting to heat, the biggest impact occurring for a change of location from hot-humid to cold-dry climatic conditions. The approach can be used to assess risks due to increases in short-term thermal variability in weather conditions such as encountered during heat waves and cold snaps. The information could also be useful for assessing the need for public health services and measures that might be used to help mitigate impacts.

  5. Cerebral artery alpha-1 AR subtypes: high altitude long-term acclimatization responses.

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    Ravi Goyal

    Full Text Available In response to hypoxia and other stress, the sympathetic (adrenergic nervous system regulates arterial contractility and blood flow, partly through differential activities of the alpha1 (α1 - adrenergic receptor (AR subtypes (α1A-, α1B-, and α1D-AR. Thus, we tested the hypothesis that with acclimatization to long-term hypoxia (LTH, contractility of middle cerebral arteries (MCA is regulated by changes in expression and activation of the specific α1-AR subtypes. We conducted experiments in MCA from adult normoxic sheep maintained near sea level (300 m and those exposed to LTH (110 days at 3801 m. Following acclimatization to LTH, ovine MCA showed a 20% reduction (n = 5; P<0.05 in the maximum tension achieved by 10-5 M phenylephrine (PHE. LTH-acclimatized cerebral arteries also demonstrated a statistically significant (P<0.05 inhibition of PHE-induced contractility in the presence of specific α1-AR subtype antagonists. Importantly, compared to normoxic vessels, there was significantly greater (P<0.05 α1B-AR subtype mRNA and protein levels in LTH acclimatized MCA. Also, our results demonstrate that extracellular regulated kinase 1 and 2 (ERK1/2-mediated negative feedback regulation of PHE-induced contractility is modulated by α1B-AR subtype. Overall, in ovine MCA, LTH produces profound effects on α1-AR subtype expression and function.

  6. 'Ome' on the range: update on high-altitude acclimatization/adaptation and disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Yongjun; Wang, Yuxiao; Lu, Hongxiang; Gao, Yuqi

    2014-11-01

    The main physiological challenge in high-altitude plateau environments is hypoxia. When people living in a plain environment migrate to the plateau, they face the threat of hypoxia. Most people can acclimatize to high altitudes; the acclimatization process mainly consists of short-term hyperventilation and long-term compensation by increased oxygen uptake, transport, and use due to increased red blood cell mass, myoglobin, and mitochondria. If individuals cannot acclimatize to high altitude, they may suffer from a high-altitude disease, such as acute mountain disease (AMS), high-altitude pulmonary edema (HAPE), high-altitude cerebral edema (HACE) or chronic mountain sickness (CMS). Because some individuals are more susceptible to high altitude diseases than others, the incidence of these high-altitude diseases is variable and cannot be predicted. Studying "omes" using genomics, proteomics, metabolomics, transcriptomics, lipidomics, immunomics, glycomics and RNomics can help us understand the factors that mediate susceptibility to high altitude illnesses. Moreover, analysis of the "omes" using a systems biology approach may provide a greater understanding of high-altitude illness pathogenesis and improve the efficiency of the diagnosis and treatment of high-altitude illnesses in the future. Below, we summarize the current literature regarding the role of "omes" in high-altitude acclimatization/adaptation and disease and discuss key research gaps to better understand the contribution of "omes" to high-altitude illness susceptibility.

  7. In vitro culture systems and acclimatization of Aechmea setigera Mart. ex Schult. & Schult. f. (Bromeliaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janaína Medeiros Vasconcelos

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Aechmea setigera is an endemic bromeliad from Amazon with ornamental potential. Bromeliads have been propagated by tissue culture. The consistency of the culture medium in vitro multiplication influences the rate of propagation. In this sense, the objective of this study was to evaluate different culture systems with the use of 6-benzylaminopurine (BAP on in vitro propagation and the effect of different substrates in acclimatization of plantlets Aechmea setigera. In vitro germinated seedlings were inoculated in MS medium in liquid stationary, semisolid, double-phase systems, plus 6-benzylaminopurine (BAP in different concentrations (0, 2.2, 4.4, 8.8 and 17.7 μM. The ex vitro rooting and acclimatization were performed on substrate Plantmax Forest ®, vermiculite and sawdust eucalyptus. After three successive subcultures, the double-phase system showed a higher number of regenerated shoots in comparison to other systems. Acclimatization using the combination of commercial substrate Plantmax Forest ® and vermiculite favored the growth of micropropagated plants. The use of a culture medium double-phase without growth regulator, and the rooting in acclimatization are feasible strategy for the micropropagation of A. setigera. Indexação

  8. Liver function in rats acclimatized to a simulated altitude of 5500 m.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ou, Lo Chang; Faulkner, Charles; Tam, Vincent; Leiter, James C

    2013-12-01

    We examined the functional and morphological characteristics of the liver in rats acclimatized to a simulated altitude of 5500 m. We examined the metabolic activity and cytoplasmic distribution of liver mitochondria and the capacity of the liver to regenerate after partial hepatectomy. Mitochondrial respiration, oxidative phosphorylation, the respiratory control ratio (RCR), and the morphological characteristics of mitochondria in liver sections were studied after 3 months acclimatization to high altitude (HA). Partial hepatectomy was performed in a subset of animals after 30 days acclimatization to 5500 m. The rate of hepatic regeneration, induction of ornithine decarboxylase and uridine diphosphate glucuronyltransferase (UGT1a1), and plasma bilirubin were measured 24, 48, 72, and 96 hours after hepatectomy. Acclimatization to 5500 m did not affect the mitochondrial respiratory capacity or oxidative phosphorylation. The RCR decreased and acid phosphatase activity increased, which suggests that there were subtle changes in mitochondrial integrity. In addition, mitochondria were distributed more homogeneously in hepatocytes. Hepatic regeneration, which was associated with 25-fold induction of the ornithine decarboxylase, did not differ between controls and the altitude-exposed animals. Plasma bilirubin levels rose markedly 24 hours after hepatectomy, but returned to control levels 48 hours after the operation in the altitude-exposed animals. Thus, the remarkable functional capacity of the liver was retained at simulated HA. Redistribution of hepatic mitochondria seems to play an important role in maintaining hepatic function despite severe cellular hypoxia.

  9. Limitations to Thermoregulation and Acclimatization Challenge Human Adaptation to Global Warming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanna, Elizabeth G; Tait, Peter W

    2015-07-15

    Human thermoregulation and acclimatization are core components of the human coping mechanism for withstanding variations in environmental heat exposure. Amidst growing recognition that curtailing global warming to less than two degrees is becoming increasing improbable, human survival will require increasing reliance on these mechanisms. The projected several fold increase in extreme heat events suggests we need to recalibrate health protection policies and ratchet up adaptation efforts. Climate researchers, epidemiologists, and policy makers engaged in climate change adaptation and health protection are not commonly drawn from heat physiology backgrounds. Injecting a scholarly consideration of physiological limitations to human heat tolerance into the adaptation and policy literature allows for a broader understanding of heat health risks to support effective human adaptation and adaptation planning. This paper details the physiological and external environmental factors that determine human thermoregulation and acclimatization. We present a model to illustrate the interrelationship between elements that modulate the physiological process of thermoregulation. Limitations inherent in these processes, and the constraints imposed by differing exposure levels, and thermal comfort seeking on achieving acclimatization, are then described. Combined, these limitations will restrict the likely contribution that acclimatization can play in future human adaptation to global warming. We postulate that behavioral and technological adaptations will need to become the dominant means for human individual and societal adaptations as global warming progresses.

  10. In vitro mycorrhization and acclimatization of Amanita caesareoides and its relatives on Pinus densiflora.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Endo, Naoki; Gisusi, Seiki; Fukuda, Masaki; Yamada, Akiyoshi

    2013-05-01

    Amanita caesareoides is a sister species of Amanita caesarea, also known as Caesar's mushroom and one of the most desirable edible mycorrhizal mushrooms. However, cultivation of Caesar's mushrooms has not yet been successful due to the difficulties involved in establishing pure cultures. In this study, we established pure cultures of four Asian Caesar's mushroom species, i.e., A. caesareoides, Amanita javanica, Amanita esculenta, and Amanita similis, which were identified by sequence analysis of their rDNA internal transcribed spacer (ITS) region. Five selected isolates in A. caesareoides, A. javanica, and A. esculenta were tested for ectomycorrhizal syntheses with axenic Pinus densiflora seedlings in vitro. Ectomycorrhizal tips of each fungal isolate tested were observed on pine lateral roots within 5 months of inoculation. Seventeen pine seedlings that formed ectomycorrhizas in vitro with these three Amanita species were acclimatized under non-sterile conditions. Seven months following acclimatization, ectomycorrhizal colonization by A. caesareoides was observed on newly grown root tips, which was confirmed by polymerase chain reaction restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis of the fungal rDNA ITS region. Two other Amanita species also survived during ectomycorrhizal acclimatization. These results suggest that the cultivation of A. caesareoides and its relatives can be attempted through mycorrhizal synthesis using P. densiflora as a host. This is the first report of in vitro mycorrhization of Asian Caesar's mushrooms and their acclimatization under non-sterile conditions.

  11. Retinal vessel diameters in relation to hematocrit variation during acclimatization of highlanders to sea level altitude

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kofoed, Peter Kristian; Sander, Birgit; Zubieta-Calleja, Gustavo;

    2009-01-01

    PURPOSE: To examine variations in retinal vessel diameters during acclimatization of native highlanders to normobaric normoxia at sea level. METHODS: Fifteen healthy residents of the greater La Paz region in Bolivia (3600 m above sea level) were examined thrice over a 72-day period, after having ...

  12. Effect of heat and heat acclimatization on cycling time trial performance and pacing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Racinais, Sebastien; Périard, Julien D; Karlsen, Anders;

    2015-01-01

    PURPOSE: To determine the effects of heat-acclimatization on performance and pacing during outdoor cycling time-trials (TT, 43.4km) in the heat. METHODS: Nine cyclists performed 3 TTs in hot ambient conditions (TTH, ∼37ºC) on the first (TTH-1), sixth (TTH-2) and fourteenth (TTH-3) days of trainin...

  13. Endogenous cytokinin profiles of tissue-cultured and acclimatized 'Williams' bananas subjected to different aromatic cytokinin treatments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aremu, Adeyemi O; Plačková, Lenka; Bairu, Michael W; Novák, Ondřej; Szüčová, Lucie; Doležal, Karel; Finnie, Jeffrey F; Van Staden, Johannes

    2014-01-01

    Endogenous cytokinin (CK) levels of in vitro-cultured and greenhouse-acclimatized 'Williams' bananas treated with six aromatic CKs were quantified using UPLC-MS/MS. The underground parts had higher endogenous CK levels than the aerial parts. Control plantlets had more isoprenoid CKs while the aromatic-type CKs were predominant in all other regenerants. Following acclimatization of the control and 10 μM CK regenerants, there was a rapid decline in both isoprenoid and aromatic CK in the greenhouse-grown plants. Apart from the control and 6-(3-Methoxybenzylamino)-9-tetrahydropyran-2-ylpurine (MemTTHP) treatment with higher level of isoprenoid CK, aromatic CK remain the predominant CK-type across all CK treatments. The most abundant CK forms were meta-topolin (mT) and benzyladenine (BA) in the micropropagated and acclimatized plants, respectively. Micropropagated plantlets had cis-Zeatin (cZ) as the major isoprenoid CK-type which was in turn replaced by isopentenyladenine (iP) upon acclimatization. On a structural and functional basis, 9-glucoside, a deactivation/detoxicification product was the most abundant and mainly located in the underground parts (micropropagation and acclimatization). The results establish the wide variation in metabolic products of the tested aromatic CKs during micropropagation and acclimatization. The findings are discussed with the possible physiological roles of the various CK constituents on the growth and development of banana plants.

  14. Diazotrophic bacteria and nitrogen fertilization on the growth of micropropagated pineapple plantlets during acclimatization

    OpenAIRE

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT: This study examines the effect of inoculation with diazotrophic bacteria and nitrogen fertilization on the growth of micropropagated pineapple cv. 'Vitória' plantlets during the acclimatization period. The experiment was carried out in a greenhouse in Campos dos Goytacazes, in randomized blocks, using a 2x5x5 factorial scheme, with the factors being two types of inocula (absence or presence of a mixture of diazotrophic bacteria that contained Burkholderia sp. UENF 114111, Burkholder...

  15. Niche acclimatization in Red Sea corals is dependent on flexibility of host-symbiont association

    KAUST Repository

    Ziegler, Maren

    2015-08-06

    Knowledge of host-symbiont specificity and acclimatization capacity of corals is crucial for understanding implications of environmental change. Whilst some corals have been shown to associate with a number of symbionts that may comprise different physiologies, most corals associate with only one dominant Symbiodinium species at a time. Coral communities in the Red Sea thrive under large fluctuations of environmental conditions, but the degree and mechanisms of coral acclimatization are largely unexplored. Here we investigated the potential for niche acclimatization in 2 dominant corals from the central Red Sea, Pocillopora verrucosa and Porites lutea, in relation to the fidelity of the underlying coral-symbiont association. Repeated sampling over 2 seasons along a cross-shelf and depth gradient revealed a stable symbiont association in P. verrucosa and flexible association in P. lutea. A statistical biological-environmental matching routine revealed that the high plasticity of photophysiology and photopigments in the stable Symbiodinium microadriaticum (type A1) community in P. verrucosa were correlated with environmental influences along spatio-temporal dimensions. In contrast, photophysiology and pigments were less variable within each symbiont type from P. lutea indicating that niche acclimatization was rather regulated by a flexible association with a variable Symbiodinium community. Based on these data, we advocate an extended concept of phenotypic plasticity of the coral holobiont, in which the scleractinian host either associates with a specific Symbiodinium type with a broad physiological tolerance, or the host-symbiont pairing is more flexible to accommodate for different symbiont associations, each adapted to specific environmental settings.

  16. Rooting and acclimatization of the Japanese plum tree, cv. América

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    Juliana de Magalhães Bandeira

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Rooting and acclimatization are limiting steps in plant micropropagation, especially in woody plant species. This study aimed to evaluate the IAA and IBA effect on the in vitro rooting and acclimatization of micropropagated shoots of Japanese plum (Prunus salicina Lindl. cv. América. Shoots from 3 to 4 cm long were inoculated in MS medium with half salt and vitamin concentrations (MS/2 added with IAA and IBA (0, 0.25, 0.5, 0.75 and 1 mg L-1. After a 20-day period in in vitro cultivation, the shoots were evaluated, and then transferred to a greenhouse, and evaluated after 30 days. At the end of the in vitro cultivation period, no significant interactions were observed for number of roots per shoot and rooting percentage, but a significant effect was recorded for auxin type only, for which shoots grown in media added with IBA showed high values - 0.87 and 41.95%, respectively. A linear increase response from 1.45 to 5.75 cm was verified for root length of shoots cultivated in IBA medium; however, no significant effect was observed, and a 0.86 cm average root length per shoot grown in medium added with IAA was found. After 30 days of acclimatization period, the largest survival percentage was obtained from shoots cultivated in medium with 1 mg L-1 of IBA and IAA (88% and 92%, respectively. Although, IBA provided the highest in vitro rooting, most of the surviving shoots were those originated in IAA-added medium, probably because IBA promoted longer fibrous roots, less appropriate for transplant and soil fixation, as they are easily damaged. It was concluded that in vitro rooting with the addition of the highest IAA concentration (1 mg L-1 provided the greatest plant survival during the acclimatization period of the Japanese plum cv. América.

  17. Effect of explant type on the rooting and acclimatization of Dianthus serotinus Waldst. & Kit.

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    Marković Marija

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The effect of the concentration of MS salts and explant type on D. serotinus rooting and acclimatization was investigated in order to optimize a protocol for the micropropagation of this species. The obtained results showed that explant type as well as the concentration of MS salts had a significant effect on rooting, and the highest rooting rate (85-86,7% was achieved when culturing single-node cuttings and terminal buds on a half-strength MS medium supplemented with 0,5 mgL-1 NAA. Nevertheless, mean number of roots per explant was higher on the MS media (15,3-18,6 than on the half-strength MS media (11,8-13,4. The best acclimatization rate was obtained in a 4:1 mixture of peat and sand (83,3-86,7%. The explant type from which in vitro plantlets developed had no effect on the acclimatization rate. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 43007

  18. Light in intermediate acclimatization of in vitro germinated seedlings of Dendrobium phalaenopsis Deang Suree

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    José Carlos Sorgato

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The success in micropropagation of Dendrobium phalaenopsis Deang Suree is high, but when transplanted into the greenhouse, their survival is minimal. To increase survival in production in the present study it was evaluated the effect of intermediate acclimatization for 30 days in a grow room utilizing the following luminosity conditions: 1- white fluorescent light (B (18.9µmol m-2 s-1; 2- white fluorescent light + red fluorescent light (GRO-LUX(r (BV (14.85µmol m-2 s-1; 3- red fluorescent light (GRO-LUX(r (V (9.45µmol m-2 s-1 and the control plants were accommodated directly in a greenhouse (162.0µmol m-2 s-1. After this the leaves were characterized anatomically and the plants transferred to the control greenhouse. It was evaluated survival percentage and final number of roots, and calculated the relations between the final and initial values of fresh weight, number of leaves, length and diameter of the largest pseudo bulb, number of pseudo bulbs and longest root length. Only plants submitted to red light, were statistically better than the control in relation to the survival percentage and in relation to fresh weight, while the control showed a higher number of roots that plants acclimatized in this luminosity conditions. Intermediate acclimatization, using red light or red + white light, is recommended for D. phalaenopsis Deang Suree.

  19. Erythrocytes retain hypoxic adenosine response for faster acclimatization upon re-ascent

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Anren; Zhang, Yujin; Han, Leng; Yegutkin, Gennady G.; Liu, Hong; Sun, Kaiqi; D'Alessandro, Angelo; Li, Jessica; Karmouty-Quintana, Harry; Iriyama, Takayuki; Weng, Tingting; Zhao, Shushan; Wang, Wei; Wu, Hongyu; Nemkov, Travis; Subudhi, Andrew W.; Jameson-Van Houten, Sonja; Julian, Colleen G.; Lovering, Andrew T.; Hansen, Kirk C.; Zhang, Hong; Bogdanov, Mikhail; Dowhan, William; Jin, Jianping; Kellems, Rodney E.; Eltzschig, Holger K.; Blackburn, Michael; Roach, Robert C.; Xia, Yang

    2017-01-01

    Faster acclimatization to high altitude upon re-ascent is seen in humans; however, the molecular basis for this enhanced adaptive response is unknown. We report that in healthy lowlanders, plasma adenosine levels are rapidly induced by initial ascent to high altitude and achieved even higher levels upon re-ascent, a feature that is positively associated with quicker acclimatization. Erythrocyte equilibrative nucleoside transporter 1 (eENT1) levels are reduced in humans at high altitude and in mice under hypoxia. eENT1 deletion allows rapid accumulation of plasma adenosine to counteract hypoxic tissue damage in mice. Adenosine signalling via erythrocyte ADORA2B induces PKA phosphorylation, ubiquitination and proteasomal degradation of eENT1. Reduced eENT1 resulting from initial hypoxia is maintained upon re-ascent in humans or re-exposure to hypoxia in mice and accounts for erythrocyte hypoxic memory and faster acclimatization. Our findings suggest that targeting identified purinergic-signalling network would enhance the hypoxia adenosine response to counteract hypoxia-induced maladaptation. PMID:28169986

  20. Liver mitochondrial and whole-animal level metabolic compensation in a catfish during seasonal acclimatization

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yulian YAN; Xiaojun XIE

    2011-01-01

    To examine whether metabolic compensation during seasonal acclimatization at the liver mitochondrial level is consistent with that at the whole-animal level, respiration rates of liver mitochondria and resting metabolic rates in winter- and summer- acclimatized southern catfish (Silurus meridionalis Chen) were measured. At 12.5, 17.5, 22.5, 27.5 and 32.5℃, the mean values of state 3 respiration rates were 12.21, 13.84, 18.96, 24.78 and 32.01 nmol O2 min-1 mg-1 mitochondrial protein in the winter group, and 8.56, 9.20, 17.32, 22.74 and 26.32 nmol O2min-1 mg-1 in the summer group, respectively. At the five assay temperatures the resting metabolic rates were 24.86, 42.68, 61.59, 84.10 and 125.65 mg O2 h-1 kg-1 body mass in the winter group,and 22.89, 40.59, 52.94, 75.13 and 109.35 mg O2 h-1 kg-1 in the summer group, respectively. Total mitochondrial respiration rates in the liver organ were estimated based on state 3 respiration rates, mitochondrial protein content and organ mass, and the mean values were 72.96, 71.87, 112.47, 167.35 and 183.27 nmol O2min-1 in the winter group, and were 47.89, 47.39, 105.67, 138.18 and 132.29 nmol O2 min-1 in the summer group, respectively. Metabolic compensation caused by seasonal acclimatization occurred at the liver mitochondrial level and compensation at the liver organ level was found to be more efficient because of an increase in metabolic capacity of mitochondria and a boost in organ mass. Metabolic compensation at the whole-animal level was not detected. During seasonal acclimatization, the effect of metabolic compensation at liver mitochondrial level is inconsistent with that at the whole-animal level in the southern catfish. This may be due to different degrees of regulation of metabolic mechanisms among various tissues and organs in an acclimatized organism [Current Zoology 57 (1): 109-115, 2011].

  1. Ascent schedules, acute altitude illness, and altitude acclimatization: Observations on the Yushu Earthquake

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wu Tianyi; Hou Shike; Li Shuzhi; Li Wenxiang; Gen Deng

    2013-01-01

    During the Yushu Earthquake on April 14,2010,a large number of rescuers from sea level or lowlands ascended to the quake areas very rapidly or rapidly less than 24 h.However,Yushu Earthquake is the highest quake in the world at altitudes between 3750 m and 4878 m where is a serious hypoxic environment.A high incidence of acute altitude illness was found in the unacclimatized rescuers; the mountain rescue operation changed as "rescue the rescuers".Lesson from the Yushu Earthquake is that the occurrence of acute altitude illness may be closely related to the ascent schedules.This prompted us to study the relationship between ascent rate and the incidence and severity of acute altitude illness; five different groups were compared.The first group was 42 sea level male young soldiers who ascended to quake area very rapidly within 8 h at 4000 m; the second group was 48 sea level male young soldiers who ascended to 4000 m rapidly less than 18 h; the third group was 66 acclimatized medical workers from 2261 m who ascended to 4000 m rapidly within 12 h; the fourth group was 56 Tibetan medical workers from 2800 m who ascended to 4000 m rapidly within 8 h; the fifth group was 50 male sea level workers who ascended to 4000 m gradually over a period of 4 d.The results showed that the sea level rescuers ascended to 4000 m very rapidly or rapidly had the highest incidence of acute mountain sickness (AMS) with the greatest AMS scores and the lowest arterial oxygen saturation (SaO2) ; the sea level workers ascended to 4000 m gradually had moderate incidence of AMS with moderate AMS scores and SaO2 values; whereas the acclimatized and adapted rescuers had the lowest incidence of AMS,lowest AMS scores and higher SaO2; especially none AMS occurred in Tibetan rescuers.AMS score is inversely related to the ascent rate (r=-0.24,p<0.001).Additionally,acute altitude illness is significantly influenced by altitude acclimatization.The ascent rate is inversely related to

  2. AltitudeOmics: the integrative physiology of human acclimatization to hypobaric hypoxia and its retention upon reascent.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew W Subudhi

    Full Text Available An understanding of human responses to hypoxia is important for the health of millions of people worldwide who visit, live, or work in the hypoxic environment encountered at high altitudes. In spite of dozens of studies over the last 100 years, the basic mechanisms controlling acclimatization to hypoxia remain largely unknown. The AltitudeOmics project aimed to bridge this gap. Our goals were 1 to describe a phenotype for successful acclimatization and assess its retention and 2 use these findings as a foundation for companion mechanistic studies. Our approach was to characterize acclimatization by measuring changes in arterial oxygenation and hemoglobin concentration [Hb], acute mountain sickness (AMS, cognitive function, and exercise performance in 21 subjects as they acclimatized to 5260 m over 16 days. We then focused on the retention of acclimatization by having subjects reascend to 5260 m after either 7 (n = 14 or 21 (n = 7 days at 1525 m. At 16 days at 5260 m we observed: 1 increases in arterial oxygenation and [Hb] (compared to acute hypoxia: PaO2 rose 9±4 mmHg to 45±4 while PaCO2 dropped a further 6±3 mmHg to 21±3, and [Hb] rose 1.8±0.7 g/dL to 16±2 g/dL; 2 no AMS; 3 improved cognitive function; and 4 improved exercise performance by 8±8% (all changes p<0.01. Upon reascent, we observed retention of arterial oxygenation but not [Hb], protection from AMS, retention of exercise performance, less retention of cognitive function; and noted that some of these effects lasted for 21 days. Taken together, these findings reveal new information about retention of acclimatization, and can be used as a physiological foundation to explore the molecular mechanisms of acclimatization and its retention.

  3. CO2, H2O exchange and stomatal regulation of regenerated Camptotheca acuminata plantlets during ex vitro acclimatization

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Hui-mei; LI Yan-hua; GAO Yin-xiang; ZU Yuan-gang

    2006-01-01

    For finding the changes in CO2, H2O exchange and their stomatal regulation during ex vitro acclimatization of regenerated Camptotheca acuminata plantlets, the net photosynthesis rate (Pn), respiration rate (Rd), light compensation point (Lc) and light saturation point (Ls), transpiration rate (Tr), stomatal conductance (gs) and water use efficiency(WUE) were measured during 37 days of ex vitro acclimatization. The results showed that Pn sharply increased until 29 days, then slightly decreased. A substantial decrease in Lc and a substantial increase of Ls in the former two weeks were observed, indicating the light regime enlargement for effective leaf photosynthesis. Tr and gs abruptly decreased during the first week then linearly increased until 29days ex vitro acclimatization, reflecting the strong regulation effect of stomata on water changes of ex vitro acclimating plantlets. Stomatal regulation effect on CO2 exchange was different from that on water exchange, i.e. Pn was almost independent of gs during the first week, while Pn was significantly correlated with gs thereafter (i.e. dual patterns). Different from dual patterns of gs-Pn relation, the Tr monotonously linearly increased with gs. Furthermore, WUE was almost independent on gs during the first week, while a marked decreasing tendency with gs was found thereafter. At the beginning of the acclimatization, WUE was mainly determined by photosynthetic capacity, while transpiration becomes a main determinant factor for WUE from 7 to 37 days' acclimatization.

  4. Effect of Silver Nitrate DuringEx vitro Acclimatization of Micropropagated Ginger Cultivars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dikash Singh THINGBAIJAM

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Silver nitrate (AgNO3 was used under in vitro conditions to study the response of ginger cultivars ‘Nadia’ and ‘Baishey’ under ex vitro. Micropropagated plants treated with AgNO3 showed significant difference (p<0.05 compared to those plantlets without AgNO3 and control type in almost all the different quantitative traits analyzed. Significant difference in number of finger per plant and minirhizome yield indicated the repercussion of AgNO3 during acclimatization.

  5. The Growth of Brown Adipose Tissue in Cold-acclimatized Rats after Depletion of Mast Cell Histamine by Compound 48/80

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daló Nelson L

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available Cold acclimatization (4-5°C is accompanied by 2-3 fold increase of brown adipose tissue (BAT. This rapid growth of interscapular BAT was studied after histamine depletion. In control rats maintained at room temperature (28 ± 2°C the BAT histamine content was 23.4 ± 5.9 (mean ± SD µg/g of tissue and cold acclimatization (5±1°C produced a significant increase of BAT weight, but reduced the histamine content to 8.4 ± 1.9 µg/g. The total weight of BAT after 20 days of acclimatization was unaffected by depletion of histamine due to compound 48/80. The low level of histamine in BAT of cold acclimatized rats could be due to a fast rate of amine utilization; alternatively an altered synthesis or storage process may occur during acclimatization.

  6. Diazotrophic bacteria and nitrogen fertilization on the growth of micropropagated pineapple plantlets during acclimatization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aurilena de Aviz Silva

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: This study examines the effect of inoculation with diazotrophic bacteria and nitrogen fertilization on the growth of micropropagated pineapple cv. 'Vitória' plantlets during the acclimatization period. The experiment was carried out in a greenhouse in Campos dos Goytacazes, in randomized blocks, using a 2x5x5 factorial scheme, with the factors being two types of inocula (absence or presence of a mixture of diazotrophic bacteria that contained Burkholderia sp. UENF 114111, Burkholderia silvatlantica UENF 11711, and Herbaspirillum seropedicae HRC 54, five levels of urea (0, 2, 5, 7, and 10g L-1, and five evaluation periods (30, 60, 90, 120, and 150 days following the planting of plantlets in trays, and with four replications of each treatment. An increase in the dried weight of shoots and roots of micropropagated pineapple cv. 'Vitória' plants depended on inoculation with diazotrophic bacteria, and plantlets acclimatization could be reduced by up to 57 days, depending on the concentration of urea fertilizer.

  7. Variations of Endocrine Hormones Concentrations in Tupaia belangeri under Simulated Seasonal Acclimatized: Role of Leptin Sensitivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhu, Wan-long

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Seasonal variations in endocrine hormones concentrations are important for the survival of small mammals during acclimatization. In order to understand the role of leptin sensitivity on other endocrine hormones concentrations, we examined body mass, serum leptin level, serum insulin, tri-iodothyronine (T 3, thyroxine (T4 and thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH concentrations in Tupaia belangeri under seasonal acclimatized (The simulated temperature and photoperiod in winter: 5°C and SD, 8h:16h Light:Dark; the simulated temperature and photoperiod in summer: 30°C and SD, 16h:8h Light:Dark for 4 weeks. The results showed that body mass, serum leptin level, serum T3, T4 concentrations and T3/T4 showed significant variation, but serum insulin and TSH concentrations showed no variations between treatment group. There were positive correlation between serum leptin level and insulin, T4 concentrations, and were negative correlation between serum leptin level and body mass, T3 concentrations. However, no correlation was found between serum TSH concentrations and serum leptin level. The present results suggested T. belangeri overcome winter thermogenesis challenges by adjusting body mass and endocrine hormones concentrations. Furthermore, leptin may play an potential role in their body mass regulation in T. belangeri.

  8. Removal of concentrated sulfamethazine by acclimatized aerobic sludge and possible metabolic products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Na; Wan, Junfeng; Zhao, Shiju; Wang, Yan

    2015-01-01

    This article examined the biological removal of high concentrated sulfamethazine (SMZ) antibiotics by the acclimatized activated sludge in lab-scale SBRs system. The removal of SMZ was characterized by a quick adsorption and a slow process of biodegradation. The adsorption capacity of activated sludge for SMZ was 44 and 47 µg SMZ/g SS, respectively, with the initial SMZ concentrations of 1 and 2 mg/L. The adsorption process fitted pseudo-second-order kinetic model. In a series of batch studies, with the increase of initial SMZ concentration that were 1, 2, 3, 5, 7 and 9 mg/L, 56.0%, 51.3%, 42.2%, 29.5%, 25.0% and 20.8% of influent SMZ were biodegraded within 24 h of biological reaction, respectively. The Monod equation applied to simulate SMZ biodegradation had a good coefficient of determination (R2 > 0.99). Furthermore, the results of HPLC demonstrated that the SMZ was not completely removed by the acclimatized activated sludge. From the analysis of LC-MS, 4 intermediates of SMZ biodegradation were identified: Sulfanilic Acid, 4-amino-N-(4,6-dimethyl-2 pyrimidin) benzene sulfonamide, N-(4,6-dimethyl-2-pyrimidin)-4-N-(benzene sulfonamide) benzene sulfonamide, N-(4,6-dimethyl-2-pyrimidin)-4-N-(4,6-dimethyl pyrimidine) benzene sulfonamide, and N-(4,6-dimethyl-2-pyrimidin)-4-N-(3-dimethyl-4-N sodium benzene sulfonamide) benzene sulfonamide.

  9. Mesophotic coral depth acclimatization is a function of host-specific symbiont physiology

    KAUST Repository

    Ziegler, Maren

    2015-02-06

    Mesophotic coral ecosystems receive increasing attention owing to their potential as deep coral refuges in times of global environmental change. Here, the mechanisms of coral holobiont photoacclimatization over a 60 m depth gradient in the central Red Sea were examined for the four coral genera Porites, Leptoseris, Pachyseris, and Podabacia. General acclimatization strategies were common to all host-symbiont combinations, e.g., Symbiodinium cell densities and photoprotective (PP) to light-harvesting pigment ratios both significantly decreased with water depth. Porites harbored Symbiodinium type C15 over the whole 60 m depth range, while Pachyseris and Podabacia had limited vertical distributions and hosted mainly Symbiodinium type C1. Symbiodinium type C15 had generally higher xanthophyll de-epoxidation rates and lower maximum quantum yields than C1, and also exhibited a strong photoacclimatory signal over depth that relates to the large distribution range of Porites. Interestingly, the coral host had an effect on Symbiodinium pigment composition. When comparing Symbiodinium type C1 in Podabacia and Pachyseris, the ß-carotene chl a−1, the peridinin chl a−1, and diadinoxanthin chl a−1 ratios were significantly different between host species. Our data support a view that depth acclimatization of corals in the mesophotics is facilitated by Symbiodinium physiology, which in turn is host-specific.

  10. Free radical scavenging potential of in vitro raised and greenhouse acclimatized plants of Artemisia amygdalina

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    R.Rasool; B.A.Ganai; S.Akbar; A.N.Kamili

    2013-01-01

    AIM:Artemisia amygdalina Decne.(Asteraceae) is a critically endangered and endemic herb of Kashmir Himalayan sub-alpine region and Pakistan.Scientific research throughout the world has evidence to support the tremendous medicinal utility of the genus Artemisia.The natural resources of medicinal plants are being reduced day by day.This study provides the alternative way for medicinal resource utilization and conservation of A.amygdalina.METHODS:In vitro-raised plants and greenhouse acclimatized plants were obtained by culturing wild explants on Murashige and Skoog's medium.Plant extracts were obtained and subjected to different antioxidant assays:DPPH assay,riboflavin photo-oxidation assay,deoxy ribose assay,ferric thiocyanate assay,thiobarbituric acid assay,post mitochondrial supernatant assay and DNA damage on agarose gel.RESULTS:In vitro grown plants,as well as those acclimatized in the greenhouse reveals antioxidant activity against hydroxyl,superoxide,and lipid peroxyl radicals.CONCLUSION:This preliminary study revealed the free radical scavenging potential of tissue culture-raised plant extracts of A.amydalina.

  11. Acclimatization and Adaptive Capacity of Marine Species in a Changing Ocean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foo, S A; Byrne, M

    2016-01-01

    To persist in an ocean changing in temperature, pH and other stressors related to climate change, many marine species will likely need to acclimatize or adapt to avoid extinction. If marine populations possess adequate genetic variation in tolerance to climate change stressors, species might be able to adapt to environmental change. Marine climate change research is moving away from single life stage studies where individuals are directly placed into projected scenarios ('future shock' approach), to focus on the adaptive potential of populations in an ocean that will gradually change over coming decades. This review summarizes studies that consider the adaptive potential of marine invertebrates to climate change stressors and the methods that have been applied to this research, including quantitative genetics, laboratory selection studies and trans- and multigenerational experiments. Phenotypic plasticity is likely to contribute to population persistence providing time for genetic adaptation to occur. Transgenerational and epigenetic effects indicate that the environmental and physiological history of the parents can affect offspring performance. There is a need for long-term, multigenerational experiments to determine the influence of phenotypic plasticity, genetic variation and transgenerational effects on species' capacity to persist in a changing ocean. However, multigenerational studies are only practicable for short generation species. Consideration of multiple morphological and physiological traits, including changes in molecular processes (eg, DNA methylation) and long-term studies that facilitate acclimatization will be essential in making informed predictions of how the seascape and marine communities will be altered by climate change.

  12. Le camfranglais, né de l’acclimatement/acclimatation du français, au cœur d’une glottonomie socio-profane

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Venant Eloundou Eloundou

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Cette contribution analyse les perceptions que les internautes des sites Forum Bonaberi.com et Cameroon-Info.Net ont du camfranglais, né du processus d’acclimatement/acclimatation du français au Cameroun. Mettant à contribution les discours des camfranglophones, l’approche glottonomique et l’imaginaire linguistique, l’étude se focalise sur les représentations systémiques et sociolinguistiques du camfranglais. S’agissant du premier axe, l’analyse des interventions discursives révèle les spécificités linguistiques du camfranglais, en l’opposant au pidgin-english-camerounais né de l’anglais et aux variétés de français parlé au Cameroun. Le second axe examine l’imaginaire de la variation sociolangagière du camfrançais. Il en découle que les internautes ont une saisie variationniste de cet parler selon trois niveaux : diachronique, diatopique et diaphasique. Ce camfranglais apparaît dans les discours épilinguistiques analysés comme une langue à part entière : d’où la revendication de ses statuts et ses fonctions officiels ; voire sa prise en compte glottopolitique. Toutes ces représentations faites par ce qu’on peut appeler les acteurs glottonomiques profanes permettent d’aboutir à la conclusion selon laquelle la gestion des problématiques glottopolitiques doit tenir compte de toutes les composantes sociales, pour un développement durable, stimulé par des langues. Par ailleurs, relativement à la linguistique française, cette analyse permet de saisir les tensions sociolinguistiques et les modalités de représentations impliquant le français et le camfranglais. Si le français constitue une langue matrice pour le camfranglais, il ressort de cette réflexion que ses locuteurs construisent des représentations visant à établir une frontière linguistique et sociolinguistique entre la langue mère (français et le camfranglais dérivé.

  13. The different mechanisms of hypoxic acclimatization and adaptation in Lizard Phrynocephalus vlangalii living on Qinghai-Tibet Plateau.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Jianzheng; Xiu, Minghui; Tang, Xiaolong; Yue, Feng; Wang, Ningbo; Yang, Shaobin; Chen, Qiang

    2013-03-01

    Phrynocephalus vlangalii is a species of lizard endemic in China, which lives on Qinghai-Tibet Plateau ranging from 2000 to 4600 m above sea level. In this study, P. vlangalii were collected from low altitude (2750 m) and high altitude (4564 m). The lizards from low altitude were acclimatized in simulated hypoxic chamber (equivalent to 4600 m) for 7, 15, and 30 days. The hematological parameters, heart weight, myocardial capillary density, and myocardial enzyme activities were examined. The results showed that acclimatization to hypoxia significantly increased hemoglobin concentration ([Hb]), hematocrit (Hct), heart weight (HW), heart weight to body mass (HW/BM), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) activity, but markedly decreased mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration (MCHC) and succinate dehydrogenase (SDH) activity. Red blood cell (RBC) count, body mass (BM), myocardial capillary density did not change markedly during hypoxic acclimatization. On the other hand, [Hb], Hct, MCHC, HW/BM, myocardium capillary density, and SDH activity of P. vlangalii from high altitude were remarkably higher than those from low-altitude; however, LDH activity of high-altitude P. vlangalii was lower than that of low-altitude lizards. There was no significant difference in HW or BM between populations of high-altitude and low-altitude. Based on the present data, we suggest that P. vlangalii has special anatomical, physiological, and biochemical accommodate mechanisms to live in hypoxic environment, and the regulative mechanisms are different between hypoxic acclimatization and adaptation.

  14. Thermal stress resistance of the brown alga Fucus serratus along the North-Atlantic coast : Acclimatization potential to climate change

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jueterbock, Alexander; Kollias, Spyros; Smolina, Irina; Fernandes, Jorge M. O.; Coyer, James A.; Olsen, Jeanine L.; Hoarau, Galice

    2014-01-01

    Seaweed-dominated communities are predicted to disappear south of 45 degrees latitude on North-Atlantic rocky shores by 2200 because of climate change. The extent of predicted habitat loss, however, could be mitigated if the seaweeds' physiology is sufficiently plastic to rapidly acclimatize to the

  15. Similar carbohydrate but enhanced lactate utilization during exercise after 9 wk of acclimatization to 5,620 m

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Van Hall, Gerrit; Calbet, J A L; Sondergaard, H;

    2002-01-01

    We hypothesized that reliance on lactate as a means of energy distribution is higher after a prolonged period of acclimatization (9 wk) than it is at sea level due to a higher lactate Ra and disposal from active skeletal muscle. To evaluate this hypothesis, six Danish lowlanders (25 +/- 2 yr) wer...

  16. Why is VO2 max after altitude acclimatization still reduced despite normalization of arterial O2 content?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Calbet, J A L; Boushel, Robert Christopher; Radegran, G

    2003-01-01

    Acute hypoxia (AH) reduces maximal O2 consumption (VO2 max), but after acclimatization, and despite increases in both hemoglobin concentration and arterial O2 saturation that can normalize arterial O2 concentration ([O2]), VO2 max remains low. To determine why, seven lowlanders were studied at VO2...

  17. Exogenous sphingosine-1-phosphate boosts acclimatization in rats exposed to acute hypobaric hypoxia: assessment of haematological and metabolic effects.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonam Chawla

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The physiological challenges posed by hypobaric hypoxia warrant exploration of pharmacological entities to improve acclimatization to hypoxia. The present study investigates the preclinical efficacy of sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P to improve acclimatization to simulated hypobaric hypoxia. EXPERIMENTAL APPROACH: Efficacy of intravenously administered S1P in improving haematological and metabolic acclimatization was evaluated in rats exposed to simulated acute hypobaric hypoxia (7620 m for 6 hours following S1P pre-treatment for three days. MAJOR FINDINGS: Altitude exposure of the control rats caused systemic hypoxia, hypocapnia (plausible sign of hyperventilation and respiratory alkalosis due to suboptimal renal compensation indicated by an overt alkaline pH of the mixed venous blood. This was associated with pronounced energy deficit in the hepatic tissue along with systemic oxidative stress and inflammation. S1P pre-treatment improved blood oxygen-carrying-capacity by increasing haemoglobin, haematocrit, and RBC count, probably as an outcome of hypoxia inducible factor-1α mediated erythropoiesis and renal S1P receptor 1 mediated haemoconcentation. The improved partial pressure of oxygen in the blood could further restore aerobic respiration and increase ATP content in the hepatic tissue of S1P treated animals. S1P could also protect the animals from hypoxia mediated oxidative stress and inflammation. CONCLUSION: The study findings highlight S1P's merits as a preconditioning agent for improving acclimatization to acute hypobaric hypoxia exposure. The results may have long term clinical application for improving physiological acclimatization of subjects venturing into high altitude for occupational or recreational purposes.

  18. Exogenous Sphingosine-1-Phosphate Boosts Acclimatization in Rats Exposed to Acute Hypobaric Hypoxia: Assessment of Haematological and Metabolic Effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chawla, Sonam; Rahar, Babita; Singh, Mrinalini; Bansal, Anju; Saraswat, Deepika; Saxena, Shweta

    2014-01-01

    Background The physiological challenges posed by hypobaric hypoxia warrant exploration of pharmacological entities to improve acclimatization to hypoxia. The present study investigates the preclinical efficacy of sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P) to improve acclimatization to simulated hypobaric hypoxia. Experimental Approach Efficacy of intravenously administered S1P in improving haematological and metabolic acclimatization was evaluated in rats exposed to simulated acute hypobaric hypoxia (7620m for 6 hours) following S1P pre-treatment for three days. Major Findings Altitude exposure of the control rats caused systemic hypoxia, hypocapnia (plausible sign of hyperventilation) and respiratory alkalosis due to suboptimal renal compensation indicated by an overt alkaline pH of the mixed venous blood. This was associated with pronounced energy deficit in the hepatic tissue along with systemic oxidative stress and inflammation. S1P pre-treatment improved blood oxygen-carrying-capacity by increasing haemoglobin, haematocrit, and RBC count, probably as an outcome of hypoxia inducible factor-1α mediated erythropoiesis and renal S1P receptor 1 mediated haemoconcentation. The improved partial pressure of oxygen in the blood could further restore aerobic respiration and increase ATP content in the hepatic tissue of S1P treated animals. S1P could also protect the animals from hypoxia mediated oxidative stress and inflammation. Conclusion The study findings highlight S1P’s merits as a preconditioning agent for improving acclimatization to acute hypobaric hypoxia exposure. The results may have long term clinical application for improving physiological acclimatization of subjects venturing into high altitude for occupational or recreational purposes. PMID:24887065

  19. Rooting and acclimatization of in vitro plantlets of mtl-D gene modified Robinia pseudoacacia 'Idaho'

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xie Jun-wen; Li Min; Chen Shou-yi; Sun De-you; Wang Hua-fang

    2006-01-01

    Robinia pseudoacacia 'Idaho' (Robinia × ambigua 'Idahoensis', R. pseudoacacia × R. viscosa) modified by a mtl-D gene went through five lines and had characteristics of drought tolerance. Three stages of their micropropagation had been studied by previous investigators. The other two stages, in vitro shoot rooting and plantlet acclimatization, still remained unsolved in the laboratory.For this paper, we studied the later two stages based on the previous achievements. Results showed that the highest rooting rate of Idaho locust was 98.4% when the in vitro shoots, over 2.5 cm in height and 0.08 cm in diameter, were placed on a half strength MS was 98.3% when the rooted plantlets were potted in vermiculite. All the stages for micropropagation of the Idaho locust, modified by the mtl-D gene, were assembled completely. The tissue culture plants grow well in the field.

  20. Acclimatization of the crustose coralline alga Porolithon onkodes to variable pCO₂.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Maggie D; Moriarty, Vincent W; Carpenter, Robert C

    2014-01-01

    Ocean acidification (OA) has important implications for the persistence of coral reef ecosystems, due to potentially negative effects on biomineralization. Many coral reefs are dynamic with respect to carbonate chemistry, and experience fluctuations in pCO₂ that exceed OA projections for the near future. To understand the influence of dynamic pCO₂ on an important reef calcifier, we tested the response of the crustose coralline alga Porolithon onkodes to oscillating pCO₂. Individuals were exposed to ambient (400 µatm), high (660 µatm), or variable pCO₂ (oscillating between 400/660 µatm) treatments for 14 days. To explore the potential for coralline acclimatization, we collected individuals from low and high pCO₂ variability sites (upstream and downstream respectively) on a back reef characterized by unidirectional water flow in Moorea, French Polynesia. We quantified the effects of treatment on algal calcification by measuring the change in buoyant weight, and on algal metabolism by conducting sealed incubations to measure rates of photosynthesis and respiration. Net photosynthesis was higher in the ambient treatment than the variable treatment, regardless of habitat origin, and there was no effect on respiration or gross photosynthesis. Exposure to high pCO₂ decreased P. onkodes calcification by >70%, regardless of the original habitat. In the variable treatment, corallines from the high variability habitat calcified 42% more than corallines from the low variability habitat. The significance of the original habitat for the coralline calcification response to variable, high pCO₂ indicates that individuals existing in dynamic pCO₂ habitats may be acclimatized to OA within the scope of in situ variability. These results highlight the importance of accounting for natural pCO₂ variability in OA manipulations, and provide insight into the potential for plasticity in habitat and species-specific responses to changing ocean chemistry.

  1. Plasma volume expansion does not increase maximal cardiac output or VO2 max in lowlanders acclimatized to altitude.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calbet, José A L; Rådegran, Göran; Boushel, Robert; Søndergaard, Hans; Saltin, Bengt; Wagner, Peter D

    2004-09-01

    With altitude acclimatization, blood hemoglobin concentration increases while plasma volume (PV) and maximal cardiac output (Qmax) decrease. This investigation aimed to determine whether reduction of Qmax at altitude is due to low circulating blood volume (BV). Eight Danish lowlanders (3 females, 5 males: age 24.0 +/- 0.6 yr; mean +/- SE) performed submaximal and maximal exercise on a cycle ergometer after 9 wk at 5,260 m altitude (Mt. Chacaltaya, Bolivia). This was done first with BV resulting from acclimatization (BV = 5.40 +/- 0.39 liters) and again 2-4 days later, 1 h after PV expansion with 1 liter of 6% dextran 70 (BV = 6.32 +/- 0.34 liters). PV expansion had no effect on Qmax, maximal O2 consumption (VO2), and exercise capacity. Despite maximal systemic O2 transport being reduced 19% due to hemodilution after PV expansion, whole body VO2 was maintained by greater systemic O2 extraction (P VO2 during exercise regardless of PV. Pulmonary ventilation, gas exchange, and acid-base balance were essentially unaffected by PV expansion. Sea level Qmax and exercise capacity were restored with hyperoxia at altitude independently of BV. Low BV is not a primary cause for reduction of Qmax at altitude when acclimatized. Furthermore, hemodilution caused by PV expansion at altitude is compensated for by increased systemic O2 extraction with similar peak muscular O2 delivery, such that maximal exercise capacity is unaffected.

  2. Relationship between seasonal cold acclimatization and mtDNA haplogroup in Japanese

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nishimura Takayuki

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The purpose of this study was to elucidate the interaction between mtDNA haplogroup and seasonal variation that contributes to cold adaptation. Methods There were 15 subjects (seven haplotype D subjects and eight haplotype non-D subjects. In summer and winter, the subjects were placed in an environment where the ambient temperature dropped from 27 °C to 10 °C in 30 minutes. After that, they were exposed to cold for 60 minutes. Results In summer, the decrease in rectal temperature and increase in oxygen consumption was smaller and cold tolerance was higher in the haplotype non-D group than in the haplotype D group. In winter, no significant differences were seen in rectal temperature or oxygen consumption, but the respiratory exchange ratio decreased in the haplotype D group. Conclusions The results of the present study suggest that haplogroup D subjects are a group that changes energy metabolism more, and there appears to be a relationship between differences in cold adaptability and mtDNA polymorphism within the population. Moreover, group differences in cold adaptability seen in summer may decrease in winter due to supplementation by seasonal cold acclimatization.

  3. NaCl-induced physiological and biochemical changes in two cyanobacteria Nostoc muscorum and Phormidium foveolarum acclimatized to different photosynthetically active radiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Jitendra; Singh, Vijay Pratap; Prasad, Sheo Mohan

    2015-10-01

    The present study is aimed at investigating physiological and biochemical behavior of two cyanobacteria Nostoc muscorum and Phormidium foveolarum acclimatized to different levels (sub-optimum; 25 ± 0.5, optimum; 75 ± 2.5 and supra-optimum; 225 ± 3.5 μmol photons m(-2) s(-1)) of photosynthetic active radiation (PAR), and subsequently treated with two doses (30 and 90 mM) of NaCl. PAR influences growth in tested cyanobacteria being maximum in supra-optimum PAR acclimatized cells. NaCl-induced maximum percent decline in growth was observed in sub-optimum PAR acclimatized cells, which was in consonance with a decrease in chlorophyll content. Sub-optimum PAR acclimatization stimulated phycocyanin content in control cells, whereas maximum carotenoids content was observed in supra-optimum PAR acclimatized cells. Photosystem II photochemistry viz. Fv/F0, Fv/Fm, Ψ0, ϕE0, PIABS, ABS/RC, TR0/RC, ET0/RC and DI0/RC was also influenced by PAR and NaCl. Maximum percent rise in superoxide radical (SOR), hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) and lipid peroxidation was observed in sub-optimum PAR acclimatized cells exposed to NaCl, which could be correlated with lower values of enzymatic (superoxide dismutase, catalase, peroxidase and glutathione-S-transferase) and non-enzymatic (NP-SH and cysteine) antioxidants. In supra-optimum PAR acclimatized cells level of oxidative stress markers was in parallel with enhanced antioxidants. The results suggest that PAR significantly changes physiological and biochemical responses of studied cyanobacteria under NaCl stress. Besides this, this study also shows that P. foveolarum is more tolerant than N. muscorum under test conditions.

  4. Adaptation and acclimatization to formaldehyde in methylotrophs capable of high-concentration formaldehyde detoxification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chongcharoen, Rotsaman; Smith, Thomas J; Flint, Kenneth P; Dalton, Howard

    2005-08-01

    Formaldehyde is a highly toxic chemical common in industrial effluents, and it is also an intermediate in bacterial metabolism of one-carbon growth substrates, although its role as a bacterial growth substrate per se has not been extensively reported. This study investigated two highly formaldehyde-resistant formaldehyde utilizers, strains BIP and ROS1; the former strain has been used for industrial remediation of formaldehyde-containing effluents. The two strains were shown by means of 16S rRNA characterization to be closely related members of the genus Methylobacterium. Both strains were able to use formaldehyde, methanol and a range of multicarbon compounds as their principal growth substrate. Growth on formaldehyde was possible up to a concentration of at least 58 mM, and survival at up to 100 mM was possible after stepwise acclimatization by growth at increasing concentrations of formaldehyde. At such high concentrations of formaldehyde, the cultures underwent a period of formaldehyde removal without growth before the formaldehyde concentration fell below 60 mM, and growth could resume. Two-dimensional electrophoresis and MS characterization of formaldehyde-induced proteins in strain BIP revealed that the pathways of formaldehyde metabolism, and adaptations to methylotrophic growth, were very similar to those seen in the well-characterized methanol-utilizing methylotroph Methylobacterium extorquens AM1. Thus, it appears that many of the changes in protein expression that allow strain BIP to grow using high formaldehyde concentrations are associated with expression of the same enzymes used by M. extorquens AM1 to process formaldehyde as a metabolic intermediate during growth on methanol.

  5. Effect of acclimatization on hemocyte functional characteristics of the Pacific oyster (Crassostrea gigas) and carpet shell clam (Ruditapes decussatus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hurtado, Miguel Ángel; da Silva, Patricia Mirella; Le Goïc, Nelly; Palacios, Elena; Soudant, Philippe

    2011-12-01

    Most experimental procedures on molluscs are done after acclimatization of wild animals to lab conditions. Similarly, short-term acclimation is often unavoidable in a field survey when biological analysis cannot be done within the day of sample collection. However, acclimatization can affect the general physiological condition and particularly the immune cell responses of molluscs. Our aim was to study the changes in the hemocyte characteristics of the Pacific oyster Crassostrea gigas and the carpet shell clam Ruditapes decussatus acclimated 1 or 2 days under emersed conditions at 14 ± 1 °C and for 1, 2, 7, or 10 days to flowing seawater conditions (submerged) at 9 ± 1 °C, when compared to hemolymph withdrawn from organisms sampled in the field and immediately analyzed in the laboratory (unacclimated). The hemocyte characteristics assessed by flow cytometry were the total (THC) and differential hemocyte count, percentage of dead cells, phagocytosis, and reactive oxygen species (ROS) production. Dead hemocytes were lower in oysters acclimated both in emersed and submerged conditions (1%-5%) compared to those sampled in the field (7%). Compared to oysters, the percentage of dead hemocytes was lower in clams (0.4% vs. 1.1%) and showed a tendency to decrease during acclimatization in both emersed and submerged conditions. In comparison to organisms not acclimated, the phagocytosis of hemocytes decreased in both oysters and clams acclimated under submerged conditions, but was similar in those acclimated in emersed conditions. The ROS production remained stable in both oysters and clams acclimated in emersed conditions, whereas in submerged conditions ROS production did not change in both the hyalinocytes and granulocytes of oysters, but increased in clams. In oysters, the THC decreased when they were acclimated 1 and 2 days in submerged conditions and was mainly caused by a decrease in granulocytes, but the decrease in THC in oysters acclimated 2 days in emersed

  6. Extensive phenotypic plasticity of a Red Sea coral over a strong latitudinal temperature gradient suggests limited acclimatization potential to warming

    KAUST Repository

    Sawall, Yvonne

    2015-03-10

    Global warming was reported to cause growth reductions in tropical shallow water corals in both, cooler and warmer, regions of the coral species range. This suggests regional adaptation with less heat-tolerant populations in cooler and more thermo-tolerant populations in warmer regions. Here, we investigated seasonal changes in the in situ metabolic performance of the widely distributed hermatypic coral Pocillopora verrucosa along 12° latitudes featuring a steep temperature gradient between the northern (28.5°N, 21-27°C) and southern (16.5°N, 28-33°C) reaches of the Red Sea. Surprisingly, we found little indication for regional adaptation, but strong indications for high phenotypic plasticity: Calcification rates in two seasons (winter, summer) were found to be highest at 28-29°C throughout all populations independent of their geographic location. Mucus release increased with temperature and nutrient supply, both being highest in the south. Genetic characterization of the coral host revealed low inter-regional variation and differences in the Symbiodinium clade composition only at the most northern and most southern region. This suggests variable acclimatization potential to ocean warming of coral populations across the Red Sea: high acclimatization potential in northern populations, but limited ability to cope with ocean warming in southern populations already existing at the upper thermal margin for corals.

  7. Why is VO2 max after altitude acclimatization still reduced despite normalization of arterial O2 content?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calbet, J A L; Boushel, R; Radegran, G; Sondergaard, H; Wagner, P D; Saltin, B

    2003-02-01

    Acute hypoxia (AH) reduces maximal O2 consumption (VO2 max), but after acclimatization, and despite increases in both hemoglobin concentration and arterial O2 saturation that can normalize arterial O2 concentration ([O2]), VO2 max remains low. To determine why, seven lowlanders were studied at VO2 max (cycle ergometry) at sea level (SL), after 9-10 wk at 5,260 m [chronic hypoxia (CH)], and 6 mo later at SL in AH (FiO2 = 0.105) equivalent to 5,260 m. Pulmonary and leg indexes of O2 transport were measured in each condition. Both cardiac output and leg blood flow were reduced by approximately 15% in both AH and CH (P VO2 max (4.1 +/- 0.3 l/min at SL) fell to 2.2 +/- 0.1 l/min in AH (P VO2 max after acclimatization despite normalization of arterial [O2] is explained by two circulatory effects of altitude: 1) failure of cardiac output to normalize and 2) preferential redistribution of cardiac output to nonexercising tissues. Oxygen transport from blood to muscle mitochondria, on the other hand, appears unaffected by CH.

  8. Extensive phenotypic plasticity of a Red Sea coral over a strong latitudinal temperature gradient suggests limited acclimatization potential to warming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sawall, Yvonne; Al-Sofyani, Abdulmoshin; Hohn, Sönke; Banguera-Hinestroza, Eulalia; Voolstra, Christian R.; Wahl, Martin

    2015-03-01

    Global warming was reported to cause growth reductions in tropical shallow water corals in both, cooler and warmer, regions of the coral species range. This suggests regional adaptation with less heat-tolerant populations in cooler and more thermo-tolerant populations in warmer regions. Here, we investigated seasonal changes in the in situ metabolic performance of the widely distributed hermatypic coral Pocillopora verrucosa along 12° latitudes featuring a steep temperature gradient between the northern (28.5°N, 21-27°C) and southern (16.5°N, 28-33°C) reaches of the Red Sea. Surprisingly, we found little indication for regional adaptation, but strong indications for high phenotypic plasticity: Calcification rates in two seasons (winter, summer) were found to be highest at 28-29°C throughout all populations independent of their geographic location. Mucus release increased with temperature and nutrient supply, both being highest in the south. Genetic characterization of the coral host revealed low inter-regional variation and differences in the Symbiodinium clade composition only at the most northern and most southern region. This suggests variable acclimatization potential to ocean warming of coral populations across the Red Sea: high acclimatization potential in northern populations, but limited ability to cope with ocean warming in southern populations already existing at the upper thermal margin for corals.

  9. Start-up and stabilization of an Anammox process from a non-acclimatized sludge in CSTR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bagchi, Samik; Biswas, Rima; Nandy, Tapas

    2010-09-01

    Development of an Anammox (anaerobic ammonium oxidation) process using non-acclimatized sludge requires a long start-up period owing to the very slow growth rate of Anammox bacteria. This article addresses the issue of achieving a shorter start-up period for Anammox activity in a well-mixed continuously stirred tank reactor (CSTR) using non-acclimatized anaerobic sludge. Proper selection of enrichment conditions and low stirring speed of 30 +/- 5 rpm resulted in a shorter start-up period (82 days). Activity tests revealed the microbial community structure of Anammox micro-granules. Ammonia-oxidizing bacteria (AOB) were found on the surface and on the outer most layers of granules while nitrite-oxidizing bacteria (NOB) and Anammox bacteria were present inside. Fine-tuning of influent NO2(-)/NH4+ ratio allowed Anammox activity to be maintained when mixed microbial populations were present. The maximum nitrogen removal rate achieved in the system was 0.216 kg N/(m(3) day) with a maximum specific nitrogen removal rate of 0.434 g N/(g VSS day). During the study period, Anammox activity was not inhibited by pH changes and free ammonia toxicity.

  10. Home Away from Home: Acclimatization of Filipino Elderly from Being Home to a Sense of Being "at Home" in an Elderly Institution

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Guzman, Allan B.; Guevara, Katrina Illyana J.; Guiang, Frances Jane B.; Gutierez, Anton Lorenzo I.; Habaluyas, Alayne S.; Hizon, Marc Alison P.; Idanan, Shalaine G.

    2012-01-01

    This grounded study examined the process of acclimatization or the process of changing perspectives of a person so as to get used to or feel "at home" among a select group of Filipino elderly in a nursing care facility. As institutionalization of the elderly is not typical in the Philippine context, varied responses were analyzed to…

  11. Home Away from Home: Acclimatization of Filipino Elderly from Being Home to a Sense of Being "at Home" in an Elderly Institution

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Guzman, Allan B.; Guevara, Katrina Illyana J.; Guiang, Frances Jane B.; Gutierez, Anton Lorenzo I.; Habaluyas, Alayne S.; Hizon, Marc Alison P.; Idanan, Shalaine G.

    2012-01-01

    This grounded study examined the process of acclimatization or the process of changing perspectives of a person so as to get used to or feel "at home" among a select group of Filipino elderly in a nursing care facility. As institutionalization of the elderly is not typical in the Philippine context, varied responses were analyzed to understand the…

  12. Pulmonary gas exchange and acid-base state at 5,260 m in high-altitude Bolivians and acclimatized lowlanders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wagner, Hans Peter; Araoz, Mauricio; Boushel, Robert Christopher

    2002-01-01

    Pulmonary gas exchange and acid-base state were compared in nine Danish lowlanders (L) acclimatized to 5,260 m for 9 wk and seven native Bolivian residents (N) of La Paz (altitude 3,600-4,100 m) brought acutely to this altitude. We evaluated normalcy of arterial pH and assessed pulmonary gas exch...

  13. Estimating the capability of microalgae to physiological acclimatization and genetic adaptation to petroleum and diesel oil contamination

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Romero-Lopez, Julia; Lopez-Rodas, Victoria [Genetica, Facultad de Veterinaria, Universidad Complutense de Madrid, Avda. Puerta de Hierro s/n, E-28040 Madrid (Spain); Costas, Eduardo, E-mail: ecostas@vet.ucm.es [Genetica, Facultad de Veterinaria, Universidad Complutense de Madrid, Avda. Puerta de Hierro s/n, E-28040 Madrid (Spain)

    2012-11-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Microalgae are able to physiological acclimatization low doses of petroleum and diesel oil. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer When petroleum or oil concentration exceeds these limits, survival depend of rare mutations. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Petroleum-resistant and diesel oil mutants occur spontaneously prior to oil exposure. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer After 300 generations of artificial selection resistant strains were obtained. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Cyanobacteria has more difficulties to achieve petroleum resistance than Chlorophyta. - Abstract: There is increasing scientific interest in how phytoplankton reacts to petroleum contamination, since crude oil and its derivatives are generating extensive contamination of aquatic environments. However, toxic effects of short-term petroleum exposure are more widely known than the adaptation of phytoplankton to long-term petroleum exposure. An analysis of short-term and long-term effects of petroleum exposure was done using experimental populations of freshwater (Scenedesmus intermedius and Microcystis aeruginosa) and marine (Dunaliella tertiolecta) microalgae isolated from pristine sites without crude oil product contamination. These strains were exposed to increased levels of petroleum and diesel oil. Short-term exposure to petroleum or diesel oil revealed a rapid inhibition of photosynthetic performance and cell proliferation in freshwater and marine phytoplankton species. A broad degree of inter-specific variation in lethal contamination level was observed. When different strains were exposed to petroleum or diesel oil over the long-term, the cultures showed massive destruction of the sensitive cells. Nonetheless, after further incubation, some cultures were able to grow again due to cells that were resistant to the toxins. By means of a fluctuation analysis, discrimination between cells that had become resistant due to physiological acclimatization and resistant

  14. Acclimatization of micropropagated Heliconia bihai (Heliconiaceae plants Aclimatização de mudas micropropagadas de Heliconia bihai (Heliconiaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Hercílio Viegas Rodrigues

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available To evaluate the behavior of micropropagated heliconia seedlings during the acclimatization process using different substrates and shade levels, seedlings of H. bihai (Lobster Claw I were planted in plastic trays using the substrates: washed sand, vermiculite (medium texture, and PlantMax® Horticultura, and shade cloths with percentages of 0% (full sun, 30%, 40%, 50%, 60%, 70%, and 80% of shade in relation to full sun. Best results were obtained for washed sand and PlantMax substrates at shade conditions starting from 50%, especially at 70% and 80%. Pre-existing roots from in vitro rootings were not functional, not presenting secondary roots, and showing root tissue necrosis. Acclimatized seedlings developed new roots. This finding suggests that this plant can be acclimatized without going through a laboratory rooting stage.A cultura da helicônia é a que apresenta maior crescimento entre o cultivo de flores tropicais para a exportação. Avaliou-se o comportamento de mudas de helicônias micropropagadas no processo de aclimatização, em diferentes substratos e níveis de sombreamento. Foram plantadas mudas de H. bihai (Lobster Claw I em bandejas plásticas contendo os diferentes substratos: areia lavada, vermiculita (textura média e PlantMax® Horticultura. Na avaliação de níveis de sombreamento foi utilizado o telado (sombrite, com ordem de sombreamento 0% (pleno sol, 30%, 40%, 50%, 60%, 70% e 80%. O desempenho foi superior nos substratos areia lavada e PlantMax® Horticultura e nas condições de sombreamento a partir de 50 %, em especial 70% e 80%. As raízes pré-existentes, oriundas do enraizamento in vitro, mostraram-se não funcionais, sem a emissão de raízes secundárias e apresentando necrose do tecido radicular. As mudas aclimatizadas desenvolveram novas raízes, o que sugere que esta cultura pode ser aclimatizada sem que as plântulas passem pela fase de enraizamento em laboratório.

  15. The effect of Yucca schidigera liquid extract on water quality and survival of Pacific Red Snapper Lutjanus peru during acclimatization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Castillo-Vargasmachuca

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The goal of this study was to determine the effect of the liquid extract of Yucca schidigera on water quality and survival of Pacific red snapper Lutjanus peru during its transfer from wild to laboratory conditions. Three experimental groups (0.00; 0.25 and 0.75 mg of Y. schidigera liquid extract per liter of culture were tested with four replicates using water recirculating systems. The liquid extract was dispensed every 72 h during 28 days. It was proved that Y. schidigera extract could be effective to reduce ammonia nitrogen caused by biogenic source (excretion of fish juveniles diminishing mortality of Pacific red snapper during acclimatization process. It is recommended the use of yucca extract concentration at a dose of 0.75 mg L-1 to reduce ammonia concentration in marine water for holding red snapper juveniles.

  16. A community change in the algal endosymbionts of a scleractinian coral following a natural bleaching event: field evidence of acclimatization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, A M; Berkelmans, R; van Oppen, M J H; Mieog, J C; Sinclair, W

    2008-06-22

    The symbiosis between reef-building corals and their algal endosymbionts (zooxanthellae of the genus Symbiodinium) is highly sensitive to temperature stress, which makes coral reefs vulnerable to climate change. Thermal tolerance in corals is known to be substantially linked to the type of zooxanthellae they harbour and, when multiple types are present, the relative abundance of types can be experimentally manipulated to increase the thermal limits of individual corals. Although the potential exists for this to translate into substantial thermal acclimatization of coral communities, to date there is no evidence to show that this takes place under natural conditions. In this study, we show field evidence of a dramatic change in the symbiont community of Acropora millepora, a common and widespread Indo-Pacific hard coral species, after a natural bleaching event in early 2006 in the Keppel Islands (Great Barrier Reef). Before bleaching, 93.5% (n=460) of the randomly sampled and tagged colonies predominantly harboured the thermally sensitive Symbiodinium type C2, while the remainder harboured a tolerant Symbiodinium type belonging to clade D or mixtures of C2 and D. After bleaching, 71% of the surviving tagged colonies that were initially C2 predominant changed to D or C1 predominance. Colonies that were originally C2 predominant suffered high mortality (37%) compared with D-predominant colonies (8%). We estimate that just over 18% of the original A. millepora population survived unchanged leaving 29% of the population C2 and 71% D or C1 predominant six months after the bleaching event. This change in the symbiont community structure, while it persists, is likely to have substantially increased the thermal tolerance of this coral population. Understanding the processes that underpin the temporal changes in symbiont communities is key to assessing the acclimatization potential of reef corals.

  17. Potential costs of acclimatization to a warmer climate: growth of a reef coral with heat tolerant vs. sensitive symbiont types.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alison Jones

    Full Text Available One of the principle ways in which reef building corals are likely to cope with a warmer climate is by changing to more thermally tolerant endosymbiotic algae (zooxanthellae genotypes. It is highly likely that hosting a more heat-tolerant algal genotype will be accompanied by tradeoffs in the physiology of the coral. To better understand one of these tradeoffs, growth was investigated in the Indo-Pacific reef-building coral Acropora millepora in both the laboratory and the field. In the Keppel Islands in the southern Great Barrier Reef this species naturally harbors nrDNA ITS1 thermally sensitive type C2 or thermally tolerant type D zooxanthellae of the genus Symbiodinium and can change dominant type following bleaching. We show that under controlled conditions, corals with type D symbionts grow 29% slower than those with type C2 symbionts. In the field, type D colonies grew 38% slower than C2 colonies. These results demonstrate the magnitude of trade-offs likely to be experienced by this species as they acclimatize to warmer conditions by changing to more thermally tolerant type D zooxanthellae. Irrespective of symbiont genotype, corals were affected to an even greater degree by the stress of a bleaching event which reduced growth by more than 50% for up to 18 months compared to pre-bleaching rates. The processes of symbiont change and acute thermal stress are likely to act in concert on coral growth as reefs acclimatize to more stressful warmer conditions, further compromising their regeneration capacity following climate change.

  18. Potential costs of acclimatization to a warmer climate: growth of a reef coral with heat tolerant vs. sensitive symbiont types.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Alison; Berkelmans, Ray

    2010-05-03

    One of the principle ways in which reef building corals are likely to cope with a warmer climate is by changing to more thermally tolerant endosymbiotic algae (zooxanthellae) genotypes. It is highly likely that hosting a more heat-tolerant algal genotype will be accompanied by tradeoffs in the physiology of the coral. To better understand one of these tradeoffs, growth was investigated in the Indo-Pacific reef-building coral Acropora millepora in both the laboratory and the field. In the Keppel Islands in the southern Great Barrier Reef this species naturally harbors nrDNA ITS1 thermally sensitive type C2 or thermally tolerant type D zooxanthellae of the genus Symbiodinium and can change dominant type following bleaching. We show that under controlled conditions, corals with type D symbionts grow 29% slower than those with type C2 symbionts. In the field, type D colonies grew 38% slower than C2 colonies. These results demonstrate the magnitude of trade-offs likely to be experienced by this species as they acclimatize to warmer conditions by changing to more thermally tolerant type D zooxanthellae. Irrespective of symbiont genotype, corals were affected to an even greater degree by the stress of a bleaching event which reduced growth by more than 50% for up to 18 months compared to pre-bleaching rates. The processes of symbiont change and acute thermal stress are likely to act in concert on coral growth as reefs acclimatize to more stressful warmer conditions, further compromising their regeneration capacity following climate change.

  19. Estimating the capability of microalgae to physiological acclimatization and genetic adaptation to petroleum and diesel oil contamination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romero-Lopez, Julia; Lopez-Rodas, Victoria; Costas, Eduardo

    2012-11-15

    There is increasing scientific interest in how phytoplankton reacts to petroleum contamination, since crude oil and its derivatives are generating extensive contamination of aquatic environments. However, toxic effects of short-term petroleum exposure are more widely known than the adaptation of phytoplankton to long-term petroleum exposure. An analysis of short-term and long-term effects of petroleum exposure was done using experimental populations of freshwater (Scenedesmus intermedius and Microcystis aeruginosa) and marine (Dunaliella tertiolecta) microalgae isolated from pristine sites without crude oil product contamination. These strains were exposed to increased levels of petroleum and diesel oil. Short-term exposure to petroleum or diesel oil revealed a rapid inhibition of photosynthetic performance and cell proliferation in freshwater and marine phytoplankton species. A broad degree of inter-specific variation in lethal contamination level was observed. When different strains were exposed to petroleum or diesel oil over the long-term, the cultures showed massive destruction of the sensitive cells. Nonetheless, after further incubation, some cultures were able to grow again due to cells that were resistant to the toxins. By means of a fluctuation analysis, discrimination between cells that had become resistant due to physiological acclimatization and resistant cells arising from rare spontaneous mutations was accomplished. In addition, an analysis was done as to the maximum capacity of adaptation to a gradual contamination process. An experimental ratchet protocol was used, which maintains a strong selection pressure in a temporal scale up to several months over very large experimental populations of microalgae. Microalgae are able to survive to petroleum contamination as a result of physiological acclimatization without genetic changes. However, when petroleum concentration exceeds the physiological limits, survival depends exclusively on the occurrence on

  20. Role of Acclimatization in Weather-Related Human Mortality During the Transition Seasons of Autumn and Spring in a Thermally Extreme Mid-Latitude Continental Climate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Freitas, Christopher R; Grigorieva, Elena A

    2015-11-26

    Human mortality is closely related to natural climate-determined levels of thermal environmental stress and the resulting thermophysiological strain. Most climate-mortality research has focused on seasonal extremes during winter and summer when mortality is the highest, while relatively little attention has been paid to mortality during the transitional seasons of autumn and spring. The body acclimatizes to heat in the summer and cold in winter and readjusts through acclimatization during the transitions between the two during which time the body experiences the thermophysiological strain of readjustment. To better understand the influences of weather on mortality through the acclimatization process, the aim here is to examine the periods that link very cold and very warms seasons. The study uses the Acclimatization Thermal Strain Index (ATSI), which is a comparative measure of short-term thermophysiological impact on the body. ATSI centers on heat exchange with the body’s core via the respiratory system, which cannot be protected. The analysis is based on data for a major city in the climatic region of the Russian Far East characterized by very hot summers and extremely cold winters. The results show that although mortality peaks in winter (January) and is at its lowest in summer (August), there is not a smooth rise through autumn nor a smooth decline through spring. A secondary peak occurs in autumn (October) with a smaller jump in May. This suggests the acclimatization from warm-to-cold produces more thermophysiological strain than the transition from cold-to-warm. The study shows that ATSI is a useful metric for quantifying the extent to which biophysical adaptation plays a role in increased strain on the body during re-acclimatization and for this reason is a more appropriate climatic indictor than air temperature alone. The work gives useful bioclimatic information on risks involved in transitional seasons in regions characterized by climatic extremes. This

  1. Acclimatation de vitroplants de bananier Musa sp. en culture hydroponique: impact de différentes concentrations en cuivre sur la croissance des vitroplants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mazinga, MK.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Acclimatation of Banana's Vitroplants (Musa sp. in Hydroponic Culture: Effects of Different Concentrations Copper on Growth of Vitroplants. Constraints due to copper and consequences of its accumulation in acclimatized banana in vitroplants have been studied in hydroponic culture. 0-100- 500-1000 ppm copper was added to the nutrient medium in hydroponic culture. At 1000 ppm, copper was accumulated in the roots but not in the aerial parts. Surprisingly, biomass of shoots and roots was augmented significantly at this concentration (with leaves as an exception. Plant height was reduced strongly even at 100 ppm CuSO4, although the copper content in shoots and leaves was very low.

  2. Effect of nitrogen source and acclimatization on specific growth rates of microalgae determined by a high-throughput in vivo microplate autofluorescence method

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Podevin, Mike; De Francisci, Davide; Holdt, Susan Løvstad

    2015-01-01

    Specific growth rates (SGR) of freshwater algaespecies (Chlorella vulgaris, Auxenochlorella protothecoides,and Chlorella sorokiniana) and the marine speciesNannochloropsis oculata on various nitrogen sources (ammoniumcarbonate, ammonium chloride, sodium nitrate, andurea) could be determined...... SGRs of the second and third cultivations. ANOVA of SGRs in the acclimatized second and third cultivations revealed preferences for nitrogen sources among most of the algae; C. vulgaris preferred sodiumnitrate over other nitrogen sources, A. protothecoides adapted to urea after no growth in the first...

  3. Effects of 60 Hz sinusoidal magnetic field on in vitro establishment, multiplication, and acclimatization phases of Coffea arabica seedlings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isaac Alemán, Elizabeth; Oliveira Moreira, Rafael; Almeida Lima, Andre; Chaves Silva, Samuel; González-Olmedo, Justo Lorenzo; Chalfun-Junior, Antonio

    2014-09-01

    The influence of extremely low frequency electromagnetic fields on net photosynthesis, transpiration, photosynthetic pigment concentration, and gene expression of ribulose 1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase small subunit (RBCS1), during in vitro establishment, in vitro multiplication and acclimatization phases of coffee seedlings were investigated. Untreated coffee plants were considered as control, whereas treated plants were exposed to a 60 Hz sinusoidal magnetic field of 2 mT of magnetic induction during 3 min. This magnetic field was generated by an electromagnet, connected to a wave generator. The results revealed that magnetically treated plants showed a significant increase in net photosynthesis (85.4% and 117.9%, in multiplication and acclimatization phases, respectively), and in photosynthetic pigment concentration (66.6% for establishment phase, 79.9% for multiplication phase, and 43.8% for acclimatization phase). They also showed a differential RBCS1 gene expression (approximately twofold) and a decrease of transpiration rates in regard to their control plants. In conclusion, the findings suggest that the application of 60 Hz magnetic field to in vitro coffee plants may improve the seedlings quality by modifying some photosynthetic physiological and molecular processes, increasing their vigor, and ensuring better plant development in later stages.

  4. [Variation in mitochondrial DNA in Far Eastern mullet pilengas, Liza haematocheilus Temminck and Schlegel, acclimatized in the Azov-Black Sea basin].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salmenkova, E A; Gordeeva, N V; Omel'chenko, V T; Makhotkin, M A; Dudkin, S I

    2007-09-01

    This study continues the investigation of genetic variation in the populations of native and acclimatized in the Azov-Black Sea basin pilengas from the Sea of Japan. The previous comparison based on allozyme analysis was supplemented by analysis of restriction polymorphism of a mitochondrial DNA fragment containing the cytochrome b gene and the D-loop. Five out of fifteen endonucleases tested detected polymorphic sites. In the samples of native and acclimatized pilengas, five common haplotypes were found; ten and three "population-specific" haplotypes were detected in the Far Eastern and the Azov populations, respectively. The differences in haplotype distributions between these populations were highly significant (P < 0.001). The mtDNA variation was lower in the Azov than in the Far Eastern population (haplotype diversity mu respectively 6.35 +/- 0.27 and 9.14 +/- 0.55), which is in good agreement with the decrease in the number of polymorphic loci and the mean number of alleles per locus, found earlier for allozyme markers in this population. The reasons for these differences in the acclimatized population are discussed.

  5. Pulmonary gas exchange at maximal exercise in Danish lowlanders during 8 wk of acclimatization to 4,100 m and in high-altitude Aymara natives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lundby, Carsten; Calbet, Jose A L; van Hall, Gerrit

    2004-01-01

    at this altitude. As expected, alveolar Po2 was reduced during AH but increased gradually during acclimatization (61 +/- 0.7, 69 +/- 0.9, and 72 +/- 1.4 mmHg in AH, 2W, and 8W, respectively), reaching values significantly higher than in Aymaras (67 +/- 0.6 mmHg). Arterial Po2 (PaO2) also decreased during exercise...... in AH but increased significantly with acclimatization (51 +/- 1.1, 58 +/- 1.7, and 62 +/- 1.6 mmHg in AH, 2W, and 8W, respectively). PaO2 in lowlanders reached levels that were not different from those in high-altitude natives (66 +/- 1.2 mmHg). Arterial O2 saturation (SaO2) decreased during maximum...... ventilatory equivalent of O2 after 8W: 59 +/- 4, 58 +/- 4, and 52 +/- 4 l x min x l O2(-1), respectively. The ventilatory equivalent of O2 reached levels not different from that of Aymaras (51 +/- 3 l x min x l O2(-1)). However, increases in exercise alveolar Po2 and PaO2 with acclimatization had no net...

  6. Denitrification of high strength nitrate waste from a nuclear industry using acclimatized biomass in a pilot scale reactor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhamole, Pradip B; Nair, Rashmi R; D'Souza, Stanislaus F; Pandit, Aniruddha B; Lele, S S

    2015-01-01

    This work investigates the performance of acclimatized biomass for denitrification of high strength nitrate waste (10,000 mg/L NO3) from a nuclear industry in a continuous laboratory scale (32 L) and pilot scale reactor (330 L) operated over a period of 4 and 5 months, respectively. Effect of substrate fluctuations (mainly C/NO3-N) on denitrification was studied in a laboratory scale reactor. Incomplete denitrification (95-96 %) was observed at low C/NO3-N (≤2), whereas at high C/NO3-N (≥2.25) led to ammonia formation. Ammonia production increased from 1 to 9 % with an increase in C/NO3-N from 2.25 to 6. Complete denitrification and no ammonia formation were observed at an optimum C/NO3-N of 2.0. Microbiological studies showed decrease in denitrifiers and increase in nitrite-oxidizing bacteria and ammonia-oxidizing bacteria at high C/NO3-N (≥2.25). Pilot scale studies were carried out with optimum C/NO3-N, and sustainability of the process was checked on the pilot scale for 5 months.

  7. Temperature mapping of trucks transporting fertile eggs and day-old chicks: Efficiency and/or acclimatization?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aérica C. Nazareno

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the thermal profiles of trucks used for transporting fertile eggs and day-old chicks. This study was carried out in a broiler hatchery in the State of Sao Paulo. The experiment was conducted during three months, in which six egg loads and 11 chick loads were observed. Thermal profile assessments were performed in an environmental controlled trucks with thermal control and following dimensions: 7.5 x 2.6 x 2.5 m for eggs, and 8.0 x 2.5 x 2.5 m for chicks. The maximum transport capacities were approximately of 592 boxes of eggs and 630 boxes of chicks, distributed all over the lorry. The thermal profiles were assessed at five-minutes-interval for eggs and in ten-minutes-interval for chicks, using thermal variables such as temperature, relative humidity and specific enthalpy. Geostatistics was used to model spatial dependency (by kriging. The results showed that the acclimatization in trucks was deficient. The loads were found to be submitted to an incompatible temperature, showing a huge thermal variety in the body trucks.

  8. Acclimatization and leaf anatomy of micropropagated fig plantlets Aclimatização e anatomia foliar de plântulas de figo micropropagadas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chrystiane Fráguas Chirinéa

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The survival of micropropagated plants during and after acclimatization is a limiting process to plant establishment. There is little information on how the anatomy of vegetative organs of Ficus carica can be affected by culture conditions and acclimatization. The present research aimed to study the effects of time on culture medium and substrates during the acclimatization of fig tree plantlets produced in vitro, characterizing some leaf anatomy aspects of plantlets cultured in vitro and of fig trees produced in field. Plantlets previously multiplied in vitro were separated and transferred into Wood Plant Medium (WPM where they were kept for 0, 15, 30, 45 and 60 days. Different substrates were tested and studies on leaf anatomy were performed in order to compare among plantlets grown in vitro, plantlets under 20, 40 and 60 days of acclimatization, and field grown plants. Keeping plantlets for 30 days in WPM allowed better development in Plantmax during acclimatization. Field grown plants presented higher number of stomata, greater epicuticular wax thickness and greater leaf tissue production compared to in vitro ones. The leaf tissues of in vitro plantlets show little differentiation and have great stomata number compared with acclimatized plants, which reduce the number of stomata during the acclimatization process.A sobrevivência de plantas micropropagadas durante e após a aclimatização é um processo limitante para o estabelecimento de plantas. Poucas informações são encontradas de como a anatomia de órgãos vegetativos de Ficus carica pode ser afetada pelas condições de cultivo e aclimatização. O presente trabalho teve por objetivo estudar os efeitos do tempo em meio de cultura e substratos durante a aclimatização de plântulas de figueira produzidas in vitro e cultivadas no campo. Plântulas multiplicadas in vitro foram separadas e transferidas para meio WPM, onde foram mantidas por 0; 15; 30; 45 e 60 dias. Diferentes

  9. The physiology of climate change: how potentials for acclimatization and genetic adaptation will determine 'winners' and 'losers'.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Somero, G N

    2010-03-15

    Physiological studies can help predict effects of climate change through determining which species currently live closest to their upper thermal tolerance limits, which physiological systems set these limits, and how species differ in acclimatization capacities for modifying their thermal tolerances. Reductionist studies at the molecular level can contribute to this analysis by revealing how much change in sequence is needed to adapt proteins to warmer temperatures--thus providing insights into potential rates of adaptive evolution--and determining how the contents of genomes--protein-coding genes and gene regulatory mechanisms--influence capacities for adapting to acute and long-term increases in temperature. Studies of congeneric invertebrates from thermally stressful rocky intertidal habitats have shown that warm-adapted congeners are most susceptible to local extinctions because their acute upper thermal limits (LT(50) values) lie near current thermal maxima and their abilities to increase thermal tolerance through acclimation are limited. Collapse of cardiac function may underlie acute and longer-term thermal limits. Local extinctions from heat death may be offset by in-migration of genetically warm-adapted conspecifics from mid-latitude 'hot spots', where midday low tides in summer select for heat tolerance. A single amino acid replacement is sufficient to adapt a protein to a new thermal range. More challenging to adaptive evolution are lesions in genomes of stenotherms like Antarctic marine ectotherms, which have lost protein-coding genes and gene regulatory mechanisms needed for coping with rising temperature. These extreme stenotherms, along with warm-adapted eurytherms living near their thermal limits, may be the major 'losers' from climate change.

  10. Organogênese direta e aclimatização de plantas de patchouli Direct organogenesis and acclimatization of patchouli

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria de Fátima Arrigoni-Blank

    2011-06-01

    aromatic species whose essential oil is largely employed by perfume industry. This conventional propagation is carried out using cuttings. Micropropagation is an alternative for clonal propagation of pathogens free individuals in large scale. We analyzed the influence of different combinations of auxins and kinetin in patchouli organogenesis and different kinds of substrate mixtures for the acclimatization of micropropagated plantlets. Two tests of organogenesis induction were carried out. In the first, five kinetin concentrations (0.0; 1.0; 2.0; 4.0 and 6.0 mg L‑1 and four IAA concentrations (0.0; 0.5; 1.0 and 2.0 mg L-1 were tested, and in the second, five kinetin concentrations (0.0; 0.5; 1.0; 2.0 and 4.0 mg L-1 and three NAA concentrations (0.0; 0.1 and 0.5 mg L-1. For acclimatization the following substrates were analyzed: coconut dust + formulated fertilizer (NPK 3-12-6 + Ca, S, Zn, B, Cu, Fe, Mn and B at 3.0; 2.5; 0.1; 0.025; 0.01; 0.075; 0.05 and 0.0015%, respectively at the concentration of 12 g L-1 + limestone (1 g L-1 [PBC]; coconut dust + vermiculite (2:1 + formulated fertilizer at the concentration of 12 g L-1 + limestone (1 g L-1 [PBCV (2:1]; coconut dust + vermiculite (1:1 v/v + formulated fertilizer at the concentration of 12 g L-1 + limestone (1 g L-1 [PBCV (1:1]; coconut dust + limestone (1 g L-1 + MS salts [PCMS]; vermiculite added with MS salts, using 15 mL of the salt mixture per plant [VMS]; vermiculite + formulated fertilizer at the concentration of 12 g L-1 [VMB]. Direct organogenesis can be promoted by MS medium supplemented with 2.47 mg L-1 of kinetin and 0.1 mg L-1 of NAA. The shoot elongation, individualization and shoot rooting steps, however, were promoted in MS medium without growth regulators. For acclimatization one of the best results was obtained using PBCV (1:1.

  11. Aclimatização de mudas micropropagadas de bananeira sob diferentes condições de luminosidade Acclimatization of young banana plants under different conditions of luminosity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marlon Cristian Toledo Pereira

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo do presente trabalho foi avaliar a taxa de sobrevivência de mudas de bananeira micropropagadas, sob diferentes condições de aclimatização. Mudas de bananeira "Prata-Anã', obtidas por micropropagação, com 2-3 cm de comprimento, foram plantadas em bandejas contendo substrato comercial Plantmax. As bandejas contendo os tubetes foram colocadas sob estufins com cobertura plástica transparente, para aclimatização em diferentes condições de luminosidade. Os tratamentos foram compostos de: T1- Câmara de aclimatização sob cobertura em telhado de amianto; T2- Câmara de aclimatização sob telado, com 50 % de sombreamento, e T3- Câmara de aclimatização coberta com papel tipo Kraft e sob telado, com 50 % de sombreamento. O delineamento experimental foi inteiramente casualizado, com três tratamentos e setenta repetições. As plantas permaneceram por 15 dias nos referidos tratamentos, quando foi realizada a primeira avaliação. Aos 30 dias após o plantio, foi realizada a segunda avaliação. Foram avaliadas as características comprimento da muda, diâmetro do coleto, número de folhas completamente expandidas e porcentagem de pegamento. As características avaliadas foram submetidas à análise de variância, sendo os efeitos dos tratamentos comparados pelo teste de Tukey, a 5% de probabilidade. Na primeira avaliação, observaram-se 100 % de sobrevivência das plântulas nas três condições de luminosidade testadas. Aos trinta dias após o plantio em tubete, as plantas aclimatizadas em estufin sob telado com 50% de sombreamento apresentaram as maiores médias de comprimento, diâmetro e número de folhas, com 4,6 cm, 0,64 cm e 5,5 folhas, respectivamente.The present work aimed at evaluating the rate of survival of micro propagated young plants of banana under different acclimatization conditions. Young banana plants 'Prata Anã', from micro propagation, with 2-3 cm of length were planted in little tubes filled with the

  12. Hemoglobina y testosterona: importancia en la aclimatación y adaptación a la altura Hemoglobin and testosterone: importance on high altitude acclimatization and adaptation

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    Gustavo F. Gonzales

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Los diferentes tipos de mecanismos que emplea el organismo cuando se enfrenta a una situación de hipoxia incluyen la acomodación, la aclimatación y la adaptación. La acomodación es la respuesta inicial a la exposición aguda a la hipoxia de altura y se caracteriza por aumento de la ventilación y de la frecuencia cardiaca. La aclimatación se presenta en los individuos que están temporalmente expuestos a la altura y, que en cierto grado, les permite tolerar la altura. En esta fase hay un incremento en la eritropoyesis, se incrementa la concentración de hemoglobina y mejora la capacidad de transporte de oxígeno. La adaptación es el proceso de aclimatación natural donde entra en juego las variaciones genéticas y la aclimatación que les permiten a los individuos vivir sin dificultad en la altura. La testosterona es una hormona que regula la eritropoyesis y la ventilación, podría estar asociada con los procesos de aclimatación y adaptación a la altura. La eritrocitosis excesiva que conduce al mal de montaña crónico es causada por una baja saturación arterial de oxígeno, una ineficiencia ventilatoria y reducida respuesta ventilatoria a la hipoxia. La testosterona se incrementa en la exposición aguda en la altura y en los nativos de altura con eritrocitosis excesiva. Los resultados de las investigaciones actuales permitirían concluir que el incremento de la testosterona y de la hemoglobina son buenas para la aclimatación adquirida pues mejoran el transporte de oxígeno pero no para la adaptación a la altura, dado que valores altos de testosterona en suero se asocian con eritrocitosis excesiva.The different types of response mechanisms that the organism uses when exposed to hypoxia include accommodation, acclimatization and adaptation. Accommodation is the initial response to acute exposure to high altitude hypoxia and is characterized by an increase in ventilation and heart rate. Acclimatization is observed in individuals

  13. Amadurecimento da banana-prata climatizada em diferentes dias após a colheita Characterization of 'prata' bananas, acclimatized at different time intervals after the harvest

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    Cíntia de Souza Silva

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available O amadurecimento induzido por climatização em bananas, é um procedimento que tem sido largamente utilizado. Ele proporciona uma maturação uniforme, já que a fruta apresenta maturação desuniforme em vista da formação dos frutos em pencas com diferentes idades. No entanto, não há para todas as cultivares de banana, estudos específicos em relação ao tempo entre a colheita e a climatização que possa afetar a qualidade dos frutos. Desta forma, com o presente trabalho objetivou-se avaliar mediante as características físicas, químicas e fisiológicas a qualidade da banana - prata climatizada em diferentes dias entre a colheita e a climatização. Foram testados três diferentes dias de climatização sendo 1, 2 e 3 dias após a colheita. Ao final da climatização, os frutos foram armazenados em temperatura ambiente por um período de 5 dias. As análises realizadas foram: perda de massa, coloração da casca, respiração, firmeza, pH, sólidos solúveis, acidez titulável e amido. Frutas climatizadas 1 dia após a colheita apresentaram-se, no 1º dia de armazenamento, com menor perda de massa, mais verdes, com maior liberação de CO2, mais firmes, com menores teores de sólidos solúveis e maior porcentagem de amido, quando comparados àqueles climatizados aos 2 e 3 dias após a colheita. Essa diferença foi reduzida com o decorrer do armazenamento praticamente se igualando os tratamentos ao final do armazenamento.The ripening of bananas, as induced by acclimatization, it is a procedure that has been used widely. It provides an uniform maturation, so overcoming the irregular maturation due to the formation of the fruits in bunches with different ages. Nonetheless, there are no specific studies relating the quality of the fruits and the time between the harvest and the acclimatization. In this sense, the present work used the physico-chemical characteristics of the 'prata' bananas to evaluate their quality when submitted to

  14. Enraizamento e aclimatização de plantas micropropagadas de amoreira-preta cv. Brazos Rooting and acclimatization of micropropagated plants of blackberry cv. Brazos

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    Carolina Smanhotto Schuchovski Augusto

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available O presente trabalho estudou as fases finais do processo de micropropagação, incluindo o enraizamento e a posterior aclimatização da amoreira-preta cv. Brazos. Os experimentos foram realizados no Laboratório de Micropropagação de Plantas da UFPR, Curitiba-PR, no período de março de 2000 a julho de 2001. No enraizamento in vitro com ou sem imersão em AIB, obteve-se mais de 95% de enraizamento nos dois tratamentos. No experimento de enraizamento ex vitro, com microestacas provenientes da multiplicação com diferentes citocininas, as taxas de enraizamento e sobrevivência foram de 100%. Na fase final, testou-se a influência da sacarose do meio de cultura de enraizamento in vitro na posterior aclimatização. Em todos os tratamentos, houve 100% de sobrevivência. Conclui-se que pode ser realizado um eficiente enraizamento in vitro sem AIB e sem a adição de sacarose ao meio de cultura, com posterior aclimatização em túnel plástico ou, ainda, realizar o enraizamento ex vitro e aclimatização em casa de vegetação com nebulização intermitente.The present work studied the final stages of blackberry cv. Brazos micropropagation, including rooting and acclimatization. The experiments were carried out in the Plant Micropropagation Laboratory at UFPR, Curitiba-PR, during March 2000 until July 2001. In the in vitro rooting with or without immersion in IBA, the percentage of rooting was higher than 95% in both treatments. In the experiment of ex vitro rooting, with micro-shoots proceeding from the multiplication with different cytokinins, the rooting and survival rates were of 100%. In the final stage it was tested the influence of sucrose of the in vitro rooting media on the acclimatization. All the treatments showed 100% of survival. It can be concluded that an efficient in vitro rooting can be realized without both IBA and sucrose in the culture media with acclimatization under plastic tunnel or ex vitro rooting and acclimatization

  15. Heat acclimatization does not improve VO2max or cycling performance in a cool climate in trained cyclists

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karlsen, Anders; Racinais, S; Jensen, M V;

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated if well-trained cyclists improve V ˙ O 2 m a x and performance in cool conditions following heat acclimatization through natural outdoor training in hot conditions. Eighteen trained male cyclists were tested for physiological adaptations, V ˙ O 2 m a x , peak aerobic power...... was associated with marked improvements in TT performance in the heat. However, for the well-trained endurance athletes, this did not transfer to an improved aerobic exercise capacity or outdoor TT performance in cool conditions....

  16. Thermal performance in layer hen house with natural acclimatization/ Desempenho térmico de aviário de postura acondicionado naturalmente

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    Luiz Antônio Targa

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available The work aimed at presenting analyses and comparisons of the thermal performance of a laying hens housing in the region of Bastos, in the state of São Paulo, adapted from natural alternatives of acclimatization, having a not adapted housing as reference, that is, of a more common typology in the area, and another one, artificially acclimatized. The index evaluated was the temperature and humidity (THI, the black globe temperature and humidity index (GTHI and the thermal radiation charge (TRC. It was calculated from the measurement of the temperature of dry bulb, temperature of wet bulb, temperature of black globe and air speed. The measurements were made both in the intern and the extern environment, at four times (5 a.m, 11a.m., 3 p.m. and 4 p.m. o´clock and in two seasons (late spring and early summer, for ten days in a row. The results allow to conclude that the house naturally acclimatized (NA has presented intermediate performance as compared with the others, making it to possible to control environment at adequate levels only during spring.O objetivo do trabalho foi apresentar análises e comparações sobre o desempenho térmico de um galpão para aves de postura, na região de Bastos, estado de São Paulo, adaptado a partir de alternativas naturais de acondicionamento, tendo como referências um galpão não adaptado, ou seja, de tipologia mais comum na região e outro acondicionado artificialmente. Os parâmetros avaliados – Índice de Temperatura e Umidade (ITU, o Índice de Temperatura de Globo Negro (UTGU, Umidade e a Carga Térmica de Radiação (CTR – foram calculados a partir de medidas de temperatura de bulbo seco, temperatura de bulbo úmido, temperatura de globo negro e velocidade do ar. As medições foram realizadas, nos ambientes internos e externos, em quatro horários (5, 11, 15 e 16 horas na estação primavera e verão, durante dez dias consecutivos. Os resultados obtidos permitiram concluir que o sistema de

  17. Aclimatização de germoplasma de capim-elefante, pós cultivo in vitro Acclimatization of elephantgrass germplasm after in vitro growth

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    Fausto de Souza Sobrinho

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available Entre as forrageiras tropicais, o capim-elefante (Pennisetum purpureum Schum. se destaca pelo grande potencial de produção de forragem e ampla adaptação ambiental. A utilização de acessos do banco de germoplasma mantidos in vitro requer a prévia aclimatização das plantas. No caso específico do capim-elefante, não existem informações a respeito das condições ideais e variabilidade para a aclimatização. Por isso, objetivou-se com este trabalho verificar a existência de variabilidade para aclimatização entre os genótipos de capim-elefante, utilizando-se diferentes substratos. Foi utilizado o delineamento inteiramente casualizado, em esquema fatorial, com três repetições e parcelas de quatro vasos com uma planta cada. Os tratamentos foram constituídos por quatro genótipos de capim-elefante [Cameroon, Mineiro, Pioneiro e um híbrido triplóide (P. purpureum x P. glaucum], quatro substratos [substrato comercial Plantmax; Areia irrigada com adubo Ouro Verde (1 g/l; Vermiculita irrigada com adubo Ouro Verde (1 g/l e mistura de solo, areia e esterco (1:1:1] e dois tempos de introdução in vitro (permanência de 15 e 90 dias in vitro. Os resultados evidenciaram que os substratos estudados não interferiram na porcentagem de pegamento das plantas de capim-elefante aclimatizadas. De um modo geral, quanto maior o período in vitro das plantas de capim-elefante, menor a porcentagem de pegamento na aclimatização.Among the tropical forages, elephantgrass (Pennisetum purpureum Schum. is noted due its high potential of forage production as well as the wide environmental adaptability. The utilization of accessions from in vitro germoplasm bank requires previous acclimatization of the plants. In the specific case of elephantgrass, there is no information regarding the ideal conditions and the variability for acclimatization. The objective of this study was to verify the existence of variability in elephantgrass genotypes for

  18. Silver Nitrate and Different Culture Vessels Influence High Frequency Microrhizome Induction In Vitro and Enhancement Growth of Turmeric Plantlet During Ex Vitro Acclimatization

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    Dikash Singh THINGBAIJAM

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Eleven cultivars of C. longa var. Lakadong were collected from Manipur having different topography. Curcumin content in different cultivars has been analyzed by using UV-Visible Spectrophotometer (100 Bio-Carry Spectrophotometer. The curcuminoids content were analyzed and quantified for identification of best quality cultivar. Thoubal Cultivar with highest curcumin content (9.44% was subjected for tissue culture technique using different culture vessels and silver nitrate for rapid multiplication and scaling up of microrhizome production. High multiplication rate of 27.40�0.47 were obtained in Murashige and Skoog�s medium supplemented with 3% sucrose + 1 mg L-1 ?-napthalene acetic acid, 4 mg L-1 6-benzyl-amino-purine and 11 ?M silver nitrate. Effect of different culture vessels and silver nitrate were studied for microrhizome and multiple shoots formation. Relatively higher rate of shoots along with microrhizome (17.5�0.32 can be seen in Growtek which was grown without any plant growth regulator. Growtek was used for scaling up of microrhizome production in vitro and utmost microrhizome was produced in liquid Murashige and Skoog�s medium supplemented with 8% sucrose, 1 mg L-1 ?-napthalene acetic acid, 4 mg L-1 6-benzyl-amino-purine and 11 ?M silver nitrate (36.25�0.27. Addition of silver nitrate in the medium resulted in improvement of microrhizome induction in vitro. Higher concentration of silver nitrate (33, 44, 66, 88 ?M negatively affected the microrhizome and shoot multiplication and shows inhibition of tissue response completely. Analysis of in vitro derived plantlets during acclimatization shows that the exogenous applied of silver nitrate shows superior growth as compared to control. 90-95% of plantlets with and 75-80% plantlets without silver nitrate treatment were successfully established under ex vitro acclimatization. The protocol could be utilized for large scale production of true-to-type plantlets and as alternative

  19. VIGOR OF PLANTLET FROM MICROPLANTLET TREATED BY FILTRATE AND CELL SUSPENSION OF SOME ISOLATES OF BACILLUS AND RESISTANCE TO BANANA WILT PATHOGEN AFTER ACCLIMATIZATION

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    Hadi wiyono

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Blood Disease Bacterium (BDB and Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. cubense (FOC is a couple wilt pathogen  of  banana.  These pathogens are the most important constraint in cultivation of banana in Indonesia.  In the integrated control strategy of the disease, the use of healthy seedlings produced from tissue culture technique is recommended.  The seedling produced by tissue culture technique however leads to lower vigor and susceptibility to the disease due to the aseptic work in vitro causing the beneficial bacterial endophytic to be eliminated. Therefore, the utility of the beneficial endophytic bacteria should be studied for recovering the vigor and resistance of the seedling.     Three isolates of endophytic Bacillus (B04, B05, B10 have been effective as growth promoter of microplantlet and antagonist of BDB and FOC in vitro.   Here then, this article reports the study results of the vigor of the plantlet (treated microplantlet by filtrate or cell suspension of the Bacillus after 3 months in acclimatization. The results were similar to the previous results on microplantlet in vitro, that Bacillus isolates B04, B05, and B10 were capable of promoting the growth and inducing the resistance to wilt pathogens on banana plantlets.  The treatments with bacterial cell inoculums were more effective than those bacterial filtrate. Isolate B10 was most potential followed by B05 and B04 respectively.

  20. Micropropagation of Achillea millefolium L. on half-strength ms medium and direct rooting and acclimatization of microshoots in hydroponic culture

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    Marković Marija

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to determine the possibility of micropropagation of the medicinal plant A. millefolium on half-strength MS medium and ex vitro rooting and acclimatization of the obtained microshoots in hydroculture in order to establish an efficient production method. Two explant types were used: basal and terminal cuttings, and better results were achieved when terminal cuttings were used. The development of shoots in the multiplication phase was successful with a regeneration percentage of 100%. Ex vitro rooting in a modified Hoagland nutrient solution was successful (83%, but the percentage of in vitro rooting on half-strength MS medium without hormones was higher (95%. However, bearing in mind that mass production of A. millefolium is more efficient when the phase of in vitro rooting is excluded, this method could be recommended for commercial propagation of this medicinal plant. It is necessary to conduct additional research in order to optimize the composition, EC and pH value of the hydroponic nutrient solution. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 43007

  1. Micropropagação e aclimatização de gerânio (Pelargonium graveolens L. Micropropagation and acclimatization of geranium (Pelargonium graveolens L.

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    M.F Arrigoni-Blank

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available O gerânio (Pelargonium graveolens L. é uma planta medicinal e aromática nativa do sul da África, cujo óleo essencial é amplamente empregado nas indústrias de perfumaria e cosmético, além de ser usado como terapêutico. Avaliou-se o efeito da luminosidade e dos reguladores de crescimento BAP e ANA na multiplicação in vitro e o uso de diferentes substratos na aclimatização de mudas micropropagadas. Foram avaliadas as concentrações 0; 0,5; 1,0 e 2,0 mg L-1 de BAP, 0; 0,1 e 0,5 mg L-1 de ANA e duas condições de luminosidade (ausência e presença de luz, em esquema fatorial 4x3x2; para a aclimatização foram utilizados quatro substratos, pó de coco + Biosafra® (3-12-6 (12 g L-1 + calcário (1 g L-1 (PCBC; pó de coco + Biosafra® (3-12-6 (12 g L-1 + calcário (1 g L-1 + vermiculita (1:1 (PCBCV 1:1; pó de coco + Biosafra® (3-12-6 (12 g L­-1 + calcário (1 g L-1 + vermiculita (PCBCV 2:1 e vermiculita e adição semanal de sais MS (VS. Para a micropropagação de P. graveolens a utilização de 1,3 mg L-1 de BAP e 0,5 mg L-1 de ANA é eficiente na regeneração direta de plantas de gerânio, sendo a condição de escuro a mais indicada por proporcionar o maior número de brotos por explante. Para a aclimatização das mudas de gerânio, os melhores resultados foram obtidos em mudas aclimatizadas no substrato vermiculita com adição semanal de sais de MS seguido do substrato PCBCV 1:1.Geranium (Pelargonium graveolens L. is a medicinal and aromatic plant native to the south of Africa and whose essential oil is widely used by perfume and cosmetic industries, as well as in therapeutics. The effect of luminosity and growth regulators BAP and NAA on in vitro multiplication was evaluated, together with the use of different substrates on the acclimatization of micropropagated seedlings. The evaluated concentrations were 0, 0.5, 1.0 and 2.0 mg L-1 BAP; 0, 0.1 and 0.5 mg L-1 NAA; and two luminosity conditions (absence and presence of

  2. Short-term captivity influences maximal cold-induced metabolic rates and their repeatability in summer-acclimatized American goldfinches Spinus tristis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    David L.SWANSON; Marisa O.KING

    2013-01-01

    Studies of metabolic variation in birds have involved both wild and captive individuals,but few studies have investigated whether captivity directly influences metabolic rates,despite such variation potentially confounding conclusions regarding how metabolic rates respond to the conditions under study.In addition,whether short-term captivity influences metabolic rate repeatability in birds is currently uninvestigated.In this study,we measured Msum (maximal cold-induced metabolic rates) in summer acclimatized American goldfinches Spinus tristis directly after capture from wild populations,after approximately 2 weeks of indoor captivity (Captive 1),and again after an additional 1-2 weeks of captivity (Captive 2).Msum increased significantly (16.9%) following the initial captive period,but remained stable thereafter.Body mass (Mb) also increased significantly (9.2%) during the initial captive period but remained stable thereafter,suggesting that muscle growth and/or remodeling of body composition produced the observed metabolic variation.Mb and Msum were not significantly repeatable between wild and Captive 1 birds,but were significantly repeatable between Captive 1 and Captive 2 groups.These data suggest that caution must be exercised when extrapolating metabolic rates from short-term captive to wild populations.In addition,Msum was a repeatable trait for birds under conditions where mean metabolic rates remained stable,but Msum repeatability disappeared during acclimation to conditions promoting phenotypically flexible metabolic responses.This suggests that the capacity for phenotypic flexibility varies among individuals,and such variation could have fitness consequences.

  3. Anatomia foliar de Tabebuia serratifolia (Vahl Nich. (Bignoniaceae propagadas in vitro, in vivo e durante a aclimatização Leaf anatomy of Tabebuia serratifolia (Vahl Nich. (Bignoniaceae propagated in vitro, in vivo and during the acclimatization

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    Sara Dousseau

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available As mudas propagadas por técnicas de micropropagação geralmente apresentam alterações significativas induzidas pelas condições in vitro, que diminuem a capacidade de sobrevivência após a transferência para o ambiente ex vitro, sendo fundamental a avaliação da mudança estrutural durante o processo de adaptação. Objetivou-se com este trabalho, identificar as diferenças anatômicas foliares entre plantas de Tabebuia serratifolia (Vahl Nich. (ipê amarelo, cultivadas in vitro, in vivo e durante a aclimatização. Foram utilizadas plântulas mantidas por 43 dias em sala de crescimento, com 20, 40, 60 e 80 dias de aclimatização e mudas de 90 dias cultivadas em viveiro. As plântulas foram obtidas via cultura de embriões em meio MS e transplantadas para tubetes contendo plantmax®, para aclimatização em viveiro, sob 50% de sombreamento. Nas mesmas condições da aclimatização, foram produzidas as mudas in vivo. Cortes transversais e paradérmicos foram preparados de acordo com técnicas usuais em microtecnia vegetal. As plântulas in vitro apresentam os tecidos foliares pouco diferenciados e estômatos maiores e mais abertos, exigindo maiores cuidados na etapa inicial de aclimatização. Aos 60 dias de aclimatização as novas folhas produzidas possuem alguns aspectos anatômicos que podem conferir maior eficiência fotossintética e maior capacidade de regulação hídrica das plantas.The seedlings spread by micropropagation techniques, usually show significant alterations induced by the conditions in vitro, which decrease the survival capacity after the transfer to conditions ex vitro. The evaluation of the structural change during the acclimatization is necessary for the understanding of this adaptation process. The objective of this research was to identify the anatomical differences among the seedlings cultivated in vitro, in vivo and acclimatized plants of Tabebuia serratifolia (Vahl Nich. (yellow ipe, species with great

  4. Adição de torta de mamona em substratos na aclimatação de mudas micropropagadas de bananeira Effect of addition of castor bean pie in substrates in acclimatization of micropropagated banana plantlets

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    Adriana Novais Martins

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available A utilização de mudas micropropagadas de bananeira que oferecem qualidade genética e fitossanitária, favorecendo o desenvolvimento, instalação e uniformidade do pomar, é importante para a exploração comercial da bananicultura. O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a influência da adição da torta de mamona nos substratos na aclimatação de mudas micropropagadas de bananeira da cv. Willians. O delineamento estatístico utilizado foi o inteiramente casualizado, com 10 tratamentos, sendo 2 substratos e 5 dosagens de torta de mamona (0; 6; 12; 18 e 24 g vaso-1. O substrato Vivatto Slim Plus® possibilitou o melhor desenvolvimento das plantas na aclimatação. Não são recomendadas doses superiores a 12 g planta-1 de torta de mamona misturadas ao substrato na aclimatação de mudas de bananeira.The use of micropropagated banana tree seedlings offer genetic and phytosanitary qualities, favoring the development, installation and uniformity of the yield and it is very important for the commercial exploration of banana fruits. The objective of this study was to evaluate the influence of castor oil plant pie added to the substrate in the acclimatization of micropropagated banana plantlets cv. 'Willians'. It was use the completely randomized, with 10 treatments, being 2 substrates and 5 dosages of castor oil plant pie (0; 6; 12; 18 and 24 g for each recipient. The substrate Vivatto Slim Plus® showed the best development of the plants in acclimatization processes. Dosages above 12 g of castor oil plant pie for each plant are not recommended mixed to the substrate in the acclimatization of banana tree seedlings

  5. Aclimatização de mudas micropropagadas de Bastão do Imperador em diferentes volumes de recipientes Acclimatization of micropropagated seedlings of Torch Lily in containers of different capacities

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    Elisangela Maria dos Santos

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available É crescente o mercado de flores tropicais no Brasil. No nordeste, por causa do clima, torna-se difícil a aclimatização dessas plantas. Portanto, este trabalho tem por objetivo determinar o recipiente mais adequado para aclimatizar mudas micropropagadas de bastão do imperador cv. Porcelana, em ambiente protegido. O experimento foi realizado em estufa e as mudas utilizadas foram obtidas por micropropagação. O delineamento experimental utilizado foi de blocos ao acaso, com quatro tratamentos (volumes e cinco repetições. Os volumes dos recipientes testados foram: V1 - 50 cm³ (Copo pequeno - CP; V2 - 150 cm³ (Tubete pequeno - TP; V3 - 300 cm³ (Tubete grande - TG; V4 - 450 cm³(Vaso pequeno - VP. Foram coletados dados correspondentes ao número de folhas (NF, altura da muda (AM, diâmetro do pseudocaule (DP, massa fresca da parte aérea (MFPA, massa fresca do sistema radicular (MFSR, massa seca da parte aérea (MSPA e massa seca do sistema radicular (MSSR. Foi realizada a análise de variância e os resultados de natureza qualitativa foram submetidos ao teste de média. O vaso de 450 cm³ é o recipiente mais adequado para aclimatização de bastão do imperador, pois proporcionou melhor desenvolvimento das mudas.The Brazilian market of tropical flowers is in a rapid growth stage. The climate of the Brazilian northeastern region, however, tends to hamper plant acclimatization. Considering this, our study aims at determining the most appropriate container (concerning to capacity to acclimatize micropropagated Torch Lily (cultivar Porcelana in a greenhouse. The experimental design was randomized blocks with four treatments (container capacities and five replications. The tested container capacities were: V1 = 50cm³ (small glass - CP; V2 = 150cm³ (small plastic tube - TP; V3 = 300 cm³ (large plastic tube - TG; V4 = 450cm³ (small vase - VP. The characteristics evaluated were: the number of leaves (NF, seedling height (AM, stem diameter (DP

  6. Aclimatização de Cattleya (Orchidaceae, em substratos alternativos ao xaxim e ao esfagno = Acclimatization of the Cattleya (Orchidaceae in alternative substrates to tree fern fiber and sphagno

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    Alessandro Borini Lone

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available O xaxim desfibrado e o esfagno são os substratos mais utilizados pelosprodutores brasileiros para aclimatização de orquídeas, porém ambos correm o risco de serem extintos e a coleta está proibida pelo Ibama. Desta forma, o objetivo do trabalho foi avaliar a eficiência de substratos alternativos no desenvolvimento de plântulas de Cattleyaintermédia, durante a etapa de aclimatização. Os substratos testados foram: xaxim desfibrado; esfagno; casca de arroz carbonizada; casca de pínus + fibra de coco (1:1 v v-1; casca de pínus; fibra de coco. Após dez meses, foram avaliados: comprimento de parte aérea; comprimento da maior raiz; número de pseudobulbos; número de raízes; massa fresca total; pH do substrato; condutividade elétrica do substrato. Verificou-se que o substrato fibra de coco e a mistura de casca de pínus + fibra de coco (1:1 v v-1 são os mais indicados comoalternativa ao xaxim e ao esfagno para o cultivo de Cattleya intermédia, durante a etapa de aclimatização.The tree fern fiber and sphagno are the most utilized substrates by Brazilian producers for the acclimatization of orchids; however, bothare considered endangered species and their collection is forbidden by the authorities. Therefore, the objective of this work was to evaluate the efficiency of alternative substratesin the development of Cattleya intermedia plantules during the acclimatization stage. The tested substrates were: tree fern fiber; sphagno; carbonized rice hull; pinus bark + coconut fiber (1:1 v v-1; pinus bark; coconut fiber. After 10 months, the following were evaluated: length of aerial part; length of the bigger root; number of pseudobulbs; number of roots; total fresh mass; pH of the substrate; electric conductivity of the substrate. It was verifiedthat the substrate of coconut fiber and the mixture of pinus bark + coconut fiber (1:1 v v-1 are the most indicated as alternatives to tree fern fiber and sphagno for the cultivation of Cattleya

  7. Influence of auxin on acclimatization of Oncidium baueri (Orchidaceae/ Influência de auxina na aclimatização de Oncidium baueri (Orchidaceae

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    Lúcia Sadayo Assari Takahashi

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate roots formation and vegetative development of Oncidium baueri (Orchidaceae using naftalen acetic acid (NAA during the acclimatization phase. The experiment was set up at the Agronomy Department – Universidade Estadual de Londrina – Paraná State, between March and October of 2005. Seedlings were obtained from seeds grew up “in vitro”, with culture medium (MS. Seedlings were taken out from dishes and washed using flow water, in order to remove the medium. After this, they were transplanted on trail, with sphagnum substrate and were set up on elevated tables at greenhouse (50% of solar radiation. Auxin was used by two ways: fast plants immersion, during 10 seconds (T2, T3, T4 and four weekly spraying on beds (T5, T6, T7. Treatments with NAA were: T1 – 0 mg.L-1; T2 – 40 mg.L-1; T3 – 200 mg.L-1; T4 – 1 g.L-1; T5 – 40 mg.L-1; T6 – 200 mg.L-1; T7 – 1 g.L-1. A randomized design with seven treatments and three replications was used as statistical model and ten plants composed each plot. Seven months after the trial settle the plants were evaluated by root length; roots number; plant height; sprouts number; and total fresh mass. It was observed that 200 mg.L-1 NAA spraying on seedlings of Oncidium baueri had better rooting and vegetative development, but seedlings immersion had no satisfactory results.O presente trabalho teve como objetivo avaliar o enraizamento e desenvolvimento vegetativo de plântulas de Oncidium baueri (Orchidaceae utilizando o ácido naftaleno acético (ANA, durante a fase de aclimatização. O experimento foi conduzido no período de março à outubro de 2005, no Departamento de Agronomia da Universidade Estadual de Londrina (PR. As plântulas foram obtidas a partir de sementes germinadas in vitro, em meio de cultura (MS. Foram retiradas dos frascos e lavados em água corrente para a remoção do meio de cultura, e em seguida transplantadas em bandejas, com esfagno

  8. Effects of Heat Acclimatization on the Erythropoietin of Kidney in Rats%热习服对大鼠肾脏促红细胞生成素的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李松仑; 王忠超; 刘焕; 张海军; 白云刚; 徐玫

    2012-01-01

    Objective: The aim of this work is to investigate the effects of heat acclimatization on the Erythropoietin (Epo) of Kidney in Rats. Methods: Twenty one male healthy SD rats were divided into three groups (n=7) randomly, a control group (CON), a acute heat stress group (HS) and heat acclimatization group (HA). Acute heat stress rats exposed to heat stress once at the end of the experiment, and heat acclimatization rats exposed to heat stress daily, while control rats were kept in normal room temperature for whole period of experiment. Ten days later, rats were anesthetized, the kidney was removed for test. ELISA was used to detect the Epo content of kidney, Western blot and RT-PCR were applied to test the protein expression and mRNA expression of Epo in kidney. Results: The results were as follows: there were no differences of the Epo content of kidney between HA rats and HS rats, but compared with that of CON rats, the Epo content of kidney increased markedly in HA rats and HS rats; Both the mRNA expression and protein expression of Epo increased significantly in kidney of HA rats and HS rats, compared with that of CON. And the expression of both the mRNA expression and protein expression of Epo in HA rats were lower thant those of HS rats. Conclusion: These data indicated that heat acclimatization can result in increasing of Epo of kidney in rats, and these increases may contribute to production of red blood cells in heat acclimatization.%目的:探讨热习服对大鼠肾脏促红细胞生成素的影响.方法:雄性SD大鼠21只,按体重配对随机分为对照组、单次高温暴露组(高温组)和热习服组,每组7只,各组在各自的实验条件下进行10天,对照组大鼠第11天留取肾脏组织标本;高温组和热习服组第11天进行相同条件的标准热负荷实验后留取肾脏组织标本.采用用酶联免疫吸附法(ELISA)定量测定肾脏组织中促红细胞生成素(Epo)含量,采用实时荧光定量PCR(RT-PCR)方法检

  9. Morpho-physiological changes in pineapple plantlets [Ananas comosus (L. merr.] during acclimatization Mudanças morfofisiológicas em plântulas de abacaxi [Ananas comosus (L. Merr.] durante a aclimatização

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    Ariel Villalobo

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Pineapple producing countries lack good quality propagation material to expand cultivars into new areas. Previously, research protocols may increase the offer of high quality plantlets and speed the introduction of new pineapple cultivars. The present work is to evaluate the morpho-physiological changes in plantlets of pineapple [Ananas comosus (L. Merr. 'MD-2'] during the acclimatization phase. Plantlets were acclimatized under 80% relative humidity, 25.5 °C temperature and photosynthetic photon flux of 400-500 µmol m-2 s-1 as average for 45 d under natural photoperiods. All measurements (plant length, number of leaves and roots, fresh weight, width and length of leaf 'D', net photosynthesis and total transpiration rate were carried out at the end of in vitro rooting phase coincident with 0 d of acclimatization and at 15, 30 and 45 d thereafter. Photosynthetic activity of in vitro plantlets did not increase during the first 30 d of the acclimatization phase. After 30 d, photosynthetic activity ranged from 5.72 to 9.36 µmol CO2 m-2 s-1 while total transpiration ranged from 6.0 to 1.42 mmol H2O m-2 s-1. During the first 30 days there were no significant differences in number of leaves, length or width of the longest ('D' leaf (cm or plant length (cm. However, after 45 days plant fresh weight (g, length and width of the 'D' leaf (cm and root number all increased significantly, while transpiration (mmol H2O m-2 s-1 declined. There were small but significant decreases in chlorophyll a and b (µg g-1 mf.. Increased photosynthetic activity after 30 d shows that the increase in light intensity and the reduction of relative humidity during acclimatization did not constitute inhibitory factors.Os países produtores do abacaxi precisam de mudas de boa qualidade para a introdução de novas culturas nas áreas de cultivo. Os protocolos de pesquisa podem aumentar a oferta de mudas de alta qualidade e acelerar a introdução de novas culturas do abacaxi

  10. 硫酸盐还原型甲烷厌氧氧化菌群驯化及其群落特征%Acclimatization and Characteristics of Microbial Community in Sulphate-Dependent Anaerobic Methane Oxidation

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    席婧茹; 刘素琴; 李琳; 刘俊新

    2014-01-01

    The greenhouse effect of methane is 26 times worse than that of carbon dioxide, and wastewater containing high concentrations of sulfate is harmful to water, soil and plants. Therefore, anaerobic oxidation of methane driven by sulfate is one of the effective ways for methane reduction. In this paper, with sulfate as the electron accepter, a microbial consortium capable of oxidating methane under anaerobic condition was cultured. The diversity and characteristics of bacterial and archaeal community were investigated by PCR-DGGE, and phylogenetic analysis of the dominant microorganisms was also carried out. The DGGE fingerprints showed that microbial community structure changed distinctly, and the abundance of methane-oxidizing archea and sulfate-reducing bacteria increased in the acclimatization system added sulfate. After acclimatization, the bacterial diversity increased, while archaea diversity decreased slightly. The representative bands in the DGGE profiles were excised and sequenced. Results indicated that the dominant species in the acclimatization system were Spirochaetes, Desulfuromonadales, Methanosarcinales, Methanosaeta. Methane converted into carbon dioxide while sulfate transformed into hydrogen sulfide and sulfur in the process of anaerobic methane oxidation accompanied by sulphate reduction.%甲烷的温室效应是二氧化碳的26倍,高浓度硫酸盐废水对水体、土壤和植物均有危害。硫酸盐为氧化剂的甲烷厌氧氧化是减少甲烷的主要途径之一。本研究以硫酸盐作为电子受体,驯化培养硫酸盐还原型甲烷厌氧氧化菌群,采用 PCR-DGGE技术分析细菌和古菌菌群多样性和群落结构特征,并对其中的优势菌进行系统发育分析。 DGGE 指纹图谱结果表明,硫酸盐的加入使微生物群落结构和优势种群数量发生了明显的改变,其增强了甲烷氧化古菌和硫酸盐还原细菌的丰度,加入硫酸盐驯化的菌群,其细菌

  11. 木薯酒精废液厌氧发酵菌种的筛选及其初步发酵研究%Study on the Screening and Fermentation of Anaerobes Acclimatized to Cassava Alcohol Wastewater

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    雷杨; 伍时华; 童张法

    2012-01-01

    [目的]驯化出适合木薯酒精废液特性的厌氧降解菌,探讨提高发酵效果的几个生态因子对发酵过程的影响.[方法]试验以牛粪为菌种来源,采用逐级驯化的方式,驯化培养出了适合厌氧发酵处理木薯酒精废液的菌种,在已驯化成功的菌种上采用单因素试验研究基质浓度和氮源投加比例对厌氧发酵的影响.同时还研究了微量元素液、碱金属与碱土金属离子以及铁离子等外源添加物对厌氧发酵COD降解以及甲烷产量情况的影响.[结果]单因素试验时,基质浓度以5倍稀释液的发酵效果最佳,氮源投加比例以100∶3.5时效果最佳;添加微量元素液、碱金属与碱土金属离子均有利于厌氧发酵的进行,而铁离子的添加对厌氧反应产生了一定的抑制.[结论]研究得出了适合木薯酒精废液特性的厌氧降解菌,而且向发酵瓶中投加少量的微量元素液能保证发酵液的COD降解更彻底.%[Objective] To acclimatize an anaerobe strain for cassava alcohol wastewater treatment, and explore the impact of several ecological factors on the fermentation process. [Method] The strain was successfully cultured by step-by-step acclimatization using cow manure as seeds. Effects of the substrate concentration and nitrogen source on the anaerobic fermentation were investigated by one-factor experimental design. This trial also studied the effects of trace elements, alkali metals and alkaline-earth metals and ferrous ion on the COD degradation and CH4 yields during anaerobic fermentation. [Result] As a result of the one-factor experimental design,the optimum substrate concentration for fermentation was 5 times dilution,and the optimum value of COD- N for fermentation was 100:3.5. On the other hand, As a result,Both trace elements and alkali metals combined with alkaline-earth metals promoted the anaerobic fermentations,however,the addition of ferrous ion brought about some inhibitions. [ Conclusion

  12. Inoculação micorrízica e aclimatização de dois porta-enxertos de macieira micropropagados Mycorrhizal inoculation and acclimatization of two micropropagated apple rootstocks

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    Lucir Maria Locatelli

    2002-02-01

    Full Text Available A micropropagação e a inoculação de fungos micorrízicos arbusculares (FMA podem melhorar a qualidade de mudas produzidas comercialmente. Essas técnicas permitem a produção de plantas homogêneas e de alta qualidade em curtos períodos de tempo, mas isso exige o conhecimento da interação entre fungos e plantas, substratos e técnicas de aclimatização e inoculação. Foi realizado um estudo em condições controladas a fim de desenvolver procedimentos para aclimatizar e inocular FMA nos porta-enxertos de macieira (Malus spp. Marubakaido, vigoroso e com forte sistema radicular, e M.9, nanizante e com sistema radicular pouco desenvolvido. Plantas oriundas de micropropagação foram imersas em ácido indolebutírico (5miM e transferidas para substrato à base de solo, a fim de serem enraizadas ex vitro. Antes ou após o enraizamento, inoculou-se uma mistura de isolados de Scutellospora pellucida, Glomus etunicatum e Glomus sp. A fase de enraizamento durou 21 dias, e após 51 e 81 dias avaliaram-se colonização micorrízica, altura, peso da matéria fresca e seca da parte aérea e relação entre raiz e parte aérea das plantas. A colonização micorrízica variou entre 50% e 70% para ambos porta-enxertos, tendo efeito positivo sobre o crescimento do porta-enxerto Marubakaido, enquanto o porta-enxerto M.9 teve seu desenvolvimento inibido pela presença dos FMA.The combination of micropropagation and inoculation with arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF can improve the quality of seedling plants produced on a commercial scale. These techniques allow high quality and homogeneous seedling production in a shorter period of time, but they require understanding of the interaction among fungi, plants, substrates, acclimatization and inoculation techniques. A study was performed under controlled conditions to develop procedures to acclimatize and inoculate AMF in two apple (Malus spp. rootstocks: vigorous strong-rooted Marubakaido and the dwarfing

  13. Aclimatização de mudas micropropagadas de helicônia em ambiente protegido em função do tipo de substrato Acclimatization of micropropagated heliconia plants in different substrates

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    Eliana Lee Jorge Rocha

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available A etapa de aclimatização é uma fase crítica da micropropagação vegetal, podendo ser responsável por altos índices de mortalidade, baixas taxas de crescimento e desuniformidade das plantas. Um fator fundamental na aclimatização é tipo de substrato a ser utilizado. Nesse trabalho, objetivou-se avaliar o efeito de diferentes substratos na aclimatização de mudas micropropagadas de helicônia (Heliconia lingulata Ruiz & Pav.. A pesquisa foi conduzida em um túnel alto de cultivo forçado pertencente à Embrapa Agroindústria Tropica,l situada no município de Fortaleza - CE, Brasil (3º44'S e 38º33'W. O delineamento experimental utilizado foi em blocos casualizados com cinco tratamentos e cinco repetições. Os substratos testados foram: T1 -pó-de-coco seco + húmus de minhoca + solo (PCS+H+S; T2 -pó-de-coco verde + vermiculita + composto de cama de frango (PCV+V+CCF; T3 -pó-de-coco verde + húmus de minhoca + solo (PCV+H+S; T4 -pó-de-coco seco + vermiculita + composto de cama de frango (PCS+V+CCF; e T5 - substrato comercial Hortimix® (HORT. As variáveis agronômicas, avaliadas no experimento foram: altura da planta, número de folhas e diâmetro do pseudocaule. Os resultados do experimento evidenciaram o maior desenvolvimento das mudas micropropagadas de helicônia, quando o substrato utilizado foi a combinação pó de coco verde + húmus de minhoca + solo (PCV + H + S.Acclimatization is the most important and critical plant micropropagation phase. It can be responsible for high mortality rate, low growth rate, and plant heterogeneity. One of the limiting factors in plant acclimatization is the substrate. The objective of this work was to evaluate the effect of different substrates on the acclimatization of micropropagated heliconia plants (Heliconia lingulata Ruiz & Pav.. The research was carried out in a greenhouse at the Embrapa Tropical Agroindustry located in Fortaleza, Ceará, Brazil (3º44' S and 38º33' W. The

  14. Shading and periods of acclimatization of micropropagated banana plantlets cv. Grande Naine Sombreamento e períodos de aclimatização de mudas micropropagadas de bananeira cv. Grande Naine

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    Ciro Scaranari

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Banana plantlets obtained by micropropagation need to be submitted to a period of acclimatization since they do not use light, water, and nutrients in an efficient way. The acclimatization must be carried out under greenhouse conditions where temperature, light, and air humidity are adequate for a gradual hardening of the plantlets. In this study, the development of banana plantlets was evaluated during acclimatization under a full light condition including covered surfaces with red shade cloth (70%, 50%, and 30% shade and black shade cloth (50% shade, both under a transparent plastic film of 100 µm. Temperature, relative air humidity, irrigation, and nutrition conditions were also controlled. Physical and physiological parameters were recorded at various stages in the greenhouses after three, six, and nine weeks and also after seven weeks of transplanting to field conditions. Treatments were hierarchically graded according to their statistic classification. Combined results indicated superior outcomes of plantlets maintained under black 50% shade cloth for nine weeks, both in the summer and winter seasons. Similar results, but in a shorter time, were obtained with plantlets cultivated under red 70% shade cloth, for six weeks in the summer.Após a sua obtenção em laboratório, mudas in vitro necessitam passar por um período de aclimatização, pois na fase em que se encontram não realizam eficientemente a absorção de luz, água e nutrientes, devendo ser feita em ambiente protegido, onde as condições de temperatura, umidade e luminosidade são favoráveis a um gradual endurecimento das plântulas. No presente trabalho estudou-se o desenvolvimento das mudas de bananeira (Musa sp. durante o segundo estágio da aclimatização (a partir de 10 cm de altura sob condições de luminosidade (plena, 70, 50 e 30% de superfície de cobertura com malha vermelha e 50% com malha preta, ambas sob filme plástico transparente de 100 µm associadas a

  15. 高性能战斗机飞行员前庭习服训练效果观察%Effects of vestibular acclimatization training on high-performance fighter pilots

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄炜; 季思菊; 李交杰; 张刚林

    2010-01-01

    目的 通过前庭习服训练,提高高性能战斗机飞行员前庭稳定性,以降低空晕病的发生.方法 应用VTS-0型电动转椅对45例前庭稳定性评定等级为D、E级的高性能战斗机飞行员进行每天1次,持续2周的前庭习服训练,记录训练前后前庭稳定性评定中的Coriolis加速度耐受值及训练耐受时间.结果 训练后,45例高性能战斗机飞行员的前庭稳定性较训练前有不同程度提高,均达到C级以上,Coriolis加速度耐受值和训练耐受时间明显提高,且有统计学意义(t=14.55、12.66,P<0.01).结论 前庭习服训练对提高高性能战斗机飞行员的前庭稳定性效果明显.%Objective To explore the effects of vestibular accliratization training of highperformance fighter pilots for improving their vestibular stability and reducing airsickness. Methods Forty-five high-performance fighter pilots, who were graded as D and E in vestibular stability evaluation, performed vestibular acclimatization training by VTS-0 rotational chair once a day for 2weeks. In vestibular stability evaluation, tolerated Coriolis acceleration value and endurable duration of rotation were compared between the states before and after training.Results All 45 pilots'vestibular stability was variously improved and reached or exceeded grade C by training. Tolerated Coriolis acceleration value and endurable duration were significantly increased (t=14.55, 12.66, P<0.01).Conclusions Vestibular acclimatization training shows significant effects on improving the vestibular stability of high-performance fighter pilots.

  16. 不同热习服条件对大鼠湿热环境下运动能力的影响%Effects of different heat acclimatization conditions on the physical activity of rats in hot and humid environment

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    李玉祥; 陈新民; 梁涵; 安合定; 马文领; 史仍飞

    2016-01-01

    目的 观察不同热习服条件对大鼠热习服能力及湿热环境下运动能力的影响. 方法 将64只雄性SD大鼠按数字表法随机分为常温常湿安静(LLQ)组、常温常湿运动(LLE)组、常温高湿安静(LHQ)组、常温高湿运动(LHE)组、高温常湿安静(HLQ)组、高温常湿运动(HLE)组、高温高湿安静(HHQ)组和高温高湿运动(HHE)组共8组,每组8只. 安静组大鼠每天在相应环境中安静放置2 h,运动组在相应环境中安静放置1 h后运动(14 m/min)1 h,连续14 d. 每天实验前后称量大鼠体质量并计算体质量丢失率,实验结束后立即测定大鼠肛温. 第16天所有大鼠在高温(36℃)高湿(85%)条件下运动30 min (28 m/min),记录运动期间力竭大鼠的数量与力竭时间,并记录力竭即刻或运动结束后大鼠肛温,第17天统计动物死亡数量.结果 在热习服过程中,除高温安静组外,其余各组从第4天开始体质量丢失率明显下降(P0.05). 高温高湿条件下运动刺激后,HLE组和HHE组的肛温、中途力竭数量和死亡数量明显低于LLQ组和HHQ组(P0.05). 结论 高温高湿和高温常湿条件下运动训练均能达到最好的习服效果;从训练期间对人体体温和体质量丢失率影响较小且体感更舒适的角度考虑,选择在高温常湿环境条件下进行运动训练是较为适宜的热习服训练方法.%Objective To investigate the effects of different thermal conditions on the heat acclimatization and physical ability of rats in hot and humid environment .Methods Sixty-four male SD rats were randomly divided into 8 groups:the normal temperature and humidity rest group ( or the NTHR group );the normal temperature and humidity exercise group ( or the NTHE group );the normal temperature and high humidity rest group ( or the NTHHR group ); the normal temperature and high humidity exercise group ( or the NTHHE group);the high temperature and normal humidity rest group (or the HTNHR group); the high

  17. Comparison on the effects of different hypoxic exposures for the acclimatization in plateau%不同低氧暴露方式高原习服效果比较

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    吴锋; 俞梦孙; 曹征涛; 杨军; 王彬华; 罗永昌

    2013-01-01

    Objective To compare the acclimatization effects of progressively intermittent hypoxia training before entering plateau,progressive hypoxia exposure after entering plateau and natural acclimatization.Methods Twelve healthy subjects were averagely divided into training group,oxygensupply group and control group according to different plateau entering methods.Training group ascended to the simulated high altitude in a normal hypobaric chamber 210 min a day for 10 days before entering plateau,and the altitude was progressively varied from 3000 m to 4500 m.Oxygen-supply group was implemented progressive hypoxic exposures in the first 10 days of entering plateau.The gas dispersion (O2 concentration:22 %-25 %,physiological equivalent height:2600-3500 m) was respectively applied in dormitory during the daytime and in the oxygen fed sleep tent (O2 concentration:25%-27%,physiological equivalent height:2000-2600 m) at night.Control group entered and stationed in plateau with natural acclimatization.The arterial oxygen saturation (SaO2) and sleep condition were compared among 3 groups.Results ①Compared with that before training,the SaO2 of training group was significantly increased at simulated 3600 m by 10 day training (t=3.66,P=0.035).②There were significant differences on total sleep time,deep sleep time and SaO2 among 3 groups (F=16.253-70.865,P<0.01).For the first 10 d of entry the total sleep time,deep sleep time and SaO2 of training group and oxygen-supply group were significantly higher than those of control group (t=2.22-7.88,P<0.05 or P<0.01).Conclmions Both ways of progressively intermittent hypoxia training before entering plateau and progressive hypoxia exposures after entering plateau can increase person's hypoxia intolerance and improve altitude acclimatization.%目的 比较急进高原前渐进式间歇性低氧预习服训练、急进高原后渐进式低氧暴露及急进高原3种不同进驻高原方式的习服效果. 方法 12名青

  18. Assessment of hypoxia right heart remodeling after acclimatization at high different altitude areas%高海拔地区高原习服后缺氧性右心重构情况评价

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赖小今; 张开强; 彭燕; 马宽军; 肖欣荣; 郭进春; 廖明松; 梁燕; 邓旦; 陶杰; 黄跃; 李伟

    2012-01-01

    目的 综合评价高海拔地区高原习服后的缺氧性右心重构情况.方法 随机选择从内地低海拔地区空运进藏的100名志愿者列为对照组,从低海拔地区移居海拔3000m以上且对高原完全习服的100名驻藏部队官兵列为高原组.后者根据移居高原的海拔高度再分为移居高度Ⅰ组(海拔高度3000~4000m,n=67)和移居高度Ⅱ组(海拔高度4000~5500m,n=33);根据受试者移居高原时间的不同又分为移居时间Ⅰ组(进藏1~2年,n=72)和移居时间Ⅱ组(进藏2年以上,n=28).应用便携式多功能复合超声心动图技术测量静息状态下的右心结构与功能,综合分析与评价高海拔地区高原习服后的缺氧性右心重构情况.结果 与对照组比较,移居高海拔地区后右心重构主要表现为右室、右房增大,右室壁增厚,三尖瓣反流程度增加,肺动脉主干及分支增宽(P<0.0l)等.随着海拔高度增加,右心重构更加明显,移居海拔4000m以上受试者的右心重构程度明显高于4000m以下者(P<0.01),4500m以上者尤甚.随着移居时间延长,右心重构亦更加明显,移居时间2年以上的受试者右心重构程度明显高于2年以下者(P<0.01),5年以上者尤甚.结论 海拔高度和时间是影响缺氧性右心重构的主要因素,高原习服仅仅是机体对高原低氧环境的一种调节性适应.应用便携式多功能超声技术能早期、及时地评价缺氧性右心重构情况,对保障移居高原部队官兵的身体健康具有重要意义.%Objective To assess hypoxic right heart remodeling after acclimatization at high altitude area. Methods One hundred volunteers who came to Tibet from the low-altitude areas by plane were randomly selected to serve as control group, and another 100 servicemen, who were dispatched from low altitude area to a station in Tibet area 3000m above sea level and got acclimatized to serve as altitude group. The altitude group was divided into

  19. Sucrose concentrations in in vitro development and acclimatization of Cattleya loddigesii LindleyConcentrações de sacarose no desenvolvimento in vitro e na aclimatização de Cattleya loddigesii Lindley

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    Renato Fernandes Galdiano Júnior

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available This work aimed to study the influence of sucrose in the culture medium for in vitro growth and acclimatization of the epiphytic orchid Cattleya loddigesii. Five sucrose treatments (absence, 10, 20, 30 and 40g L-1 were used in a randomic experimental design. Mature seeds were sowed in ½ MS culture medium and after 90 days the plantlets (1.0 +/- 0.2 cm were inoculated between the treatments, whereby they were remained more 90 days. After 180 days of the beginning of the experiment the plantlets were removed from the flasks and evaluated the number of roots, shoot length, number of leafs, total dry weight and photosynthetic pigments. Survival percentage was evaluated after 75 days of acclimatization. The data of biometric variables were analyzed by Anovaand polynomial regression (pEste trabalho foi realizado com objetivo de estudar a influência da concentração de sacarose no meio de cultura para o crescimento in vitro e aclimatização da orquídea epífita Cattleya loddigesii. Cinco tratamentos (ausência, 10, 20, 30 e 40g L-1 de sacarose foram utilizados, em delineamento inteiramente casualizado. A semeadura procedeu-se em meio de cultura ½ MS e, após 90 dias as plântulas de 1,0 +/- 0,2 cm foram distribuídas entre os tratamentos, em que permaneceram por mais 90 dias. Após 90 dias da transferência dos explantes para o meio contendo os tratamentos foi avaliado o número de raízes, comprimento da maior raiz, comprimento da parte aérea, comprimento da maior folha, número de folhas, massa de matéria seca total e pigmentos fotossintéticos. A porcentagem de sobrevivência foi aferida 75 dias após a aclimatização das plantas em casa de vegetação. Os dados das variáveis biométricas foram submetidos à análise de variância e regressão polinomial (p<0,05 e para os demais as médias foram comparadas pelo teste de Tukey (p<0,05. A concentração de 20g L-1 de sacarose favoreceu o crescimento in vitro, em todos os par

  20. Influence of substrates and in vitro preconditioning treatments on ex vitro acclimatization of Arachis retusa Influência de substratos e de pré-tratamentos in vitro na aclimatização ex vitro de Arachis retusa

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    Georgia Pacheco

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to evaluate the influence of substrate and preconditioning treatments on the acclimatization of in vitro plants of Arachis retusa. Plants were transferred to Plantmax or sand, and fertilized with Hoagland's nutrient solution. Plants maintained in sand, with or without fertilizer, showed the highest survival rates. In order to evaluate the influence of in vitro preconditioning treatments, stem segments were cultured on MS medium supplemented with different sucrose concentrations. The highest survival and developmental rates were observed in plants from two accessions cultured on MS supplemented with 1.5% and 3% sucrose. Flowering and fruit production were observed after five months.O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a influência de diferentes substratos e pré-tratamentos in vitro, na aclimatização de plantas in vitro de Arachis retusa. As plantas foram transferidas para Plantmax ou areia e adubadas com solução de Hoagland. Plantas mantidas em areia, com adubação ou sem adubação, apresentaram maiores taxas de sobrevivência. Para avaliação da influência de pré-tratamentos in vitro, segmentos de caule foram cultivados em meio MS suplementado com diferentes concentrações de sacarose. As maiores taxas de sobrevivência e desenvolvimento foram observadas em plantas cultivadas em sacarose a 1,5% e 3%. Depois de cinco meses, foram observadas a floração e a produção de frutos.

  1. Impact of high altitude acclimatization-deacclimatization on menstruation of female attendants on trains to Tibet%进藏列车女乘务员高原习服-脱习服过程对月经的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    冯平; 张雪峰; 王胜玉; 周其全

    2014-01-01

    Objective To explore the correlation between high altitude acclimatization-deacclimatization and menstrual disorder in female attendants on trains to Tibet .Methods 58 female attendants on trains to Tibet from Beijing ,Shanghai and Chengdu were selected for the questionnaire on abnormity in menstruation since their work as attendants in 2007 and a correlated analysis was made.Results The total incidence of abnormal menstruation was 72.41%,and the rates of the 5 symptoms of abnormal menstruation ranged as follows:hypomenorrhea (41.38%),menstrual disorder (27.59%),menstrual period advanced (20.69%),menstrual period postponed(13.79%)and hypermenorrhea(10.34%);of the 5 symptoms,abnormity of one took up 41.38%and abnormity ≥two took up 31.03%;there existed a positive correlation between above 5 symptoms and the abnormal conditions , such as hypodynamia , sinsomnia,anorexia,hypomnesia,total working time on train,etc.,caused by acclimatization-deacclimatization (r=0.369-0.730,P=0.000-0.041);the total working time of the attendants with menstrual disorder was longer than that of the attendants without menstrual disorder,averagely 13.13 months longer(t=2.218,P<0.05).Conclusions There exists a high incidence of abnormal menstruation in female attendants on trains from plain to high altitude due to their working environments ,various factors caused by acclimatization-deacclimatization and the total working time may cause certain harm to the health;prevention measures should be explored and taken .%目的:调查进藏列车女乘务员高原习服-脱习服过程中,月经失调情况与高原习服、高原脱习服程度的关系。方法选择北京、上海、成都籍进藏列车女乘务员58人,通过问卷调查自2007年出乘以来的月经异常率,并与高原习服-脱习服水平及症状做相关分析。结果全组月经异常检出率为72.41%,其中月经异常5项表现的检出率依次为:经量减少41.38%、月经紊乱27.59

  2. Efeito de substratos na aclimatização de mudas micropropagadas de abacaxizeiro cv. Pérola Acclimatization of micropropagated pineapple plants cv. "Pérola": substrata effect

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    Maria Aparecida Moreira

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se com este trabalho verificar o efeito da matéria orgânica como componente de substratos para mudas micropropagadas de abacaxizeiro cv. Pérola em fase de aclimatização. Mudas micropropagadas de abacaxizeiro cv. Pérola, selecionadas de acordo com o peso (aproximadamente 2 g, foram plantadas em bandejas de isopor de 72 células de 120 cm³ contendo proporções de substratos com terra, esterco bovino, Plantmax e matéria orgânica. O delineamento estatístico utilizado foi o inteiramente casualizado com 4 repetições e 3 plantas por parcela. As avaliações foram feitas 90 dias após o plantio, quando se avaliou: altura da planta, comprimento de raiz, peso de matéria fresca de raiz e parte aérea, peso de matéria seca de raiz e parte aérea e número de folhas. Com os resultados obtidos, conclui-se que a matéria orgânica tem efeito significativo no desenvolvimento das mudas. Com o substrato contendo terra, esterco e Plantmax foi obtido o melhor desenvolvimento das raízes e parte aérea.The objective of this work was to evaluate the effect of the organic matter as component of substrata for micropropagated plants of pineapple cv. Pérola in the acclimatization phase. Micropropagated plants were selected according to the weight (approximately 2g and planted in trays with 72 cels of 120 cm³, containing substrata made of soil, bovine manure, Plantmax and organic matter at different proportions. At 90 days after planting, the following parameters were evaluated: height of the plant, root length, weight of fresh matter of root and aerial part, dry matter weight of root and aerial part and number of leaves. The obtained results allowed to conclude that the organic matter has significant effect on the development of the seedlings. The best results for the development of the roots and aerial part were obtained with substratum containing soil, manure and Plantmax.

  3. Benefits of automated acclimatization during the pre-milking phase of lactating girolando cows Benefícios da climatização automatizada na pré-ordenha de vacas girolando em lactação

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    Irenilson M. da Silva

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper was to evaluate the automated acclimatization effects during pre-milking of cows on thermal conditioning, physiology, milk production and cost-benefit of the automated adiabatic evaporative cooling system (AECS. The treatments 20; 30; 40 min and control consisted of exposure time of pre-milking cows to the automated AECS. Sixteen cows were used with an average daily milk yield of 19 kg, distributed in a 4 x 4 Latin square design. The Tukey's test (PObjetivou-se com esta pesquisa avaliar os efeitos da climatização na pré-ordenha sobre o acondicionamento térmico, fisiologia, produção de leite e relação custo/benefício do sistema de resfriamento adiabático evaporativo (SRAE automatizado. Os tratamentos adotados foram os tempos de exposição dos animais ao SRAE no curral de espera, 20; 30; 40 min e o tratamento-controle. Utilizaram-se 16 vacas com produção de 19 kg de leite dia-1, adotando-se delineamento em quadrado latino 4 x 4 e comparação entre as médias pelo teste de Tukey (P<0,05. Foram registradas as variáveis ambientais temperatura de bulbo seco (Tbs e umidade relativa (UR a cada minuto, o que permitiu determinar a eficiência do sistema por meio do índice de temperatura e umidade (ITU. A frequência respiratória (FR, temperatura retal (TR e temperatura de pelame (TP foram medidas antes e depois da climatização. O tratamento 40 min permitiu manter as variáveis ambientais e os índices de conforto entre os limites recomendados. As variáveis fisiológicas (FR, TR e TP mostraram valores inferiores no tratamento 40 min, com aumento de 3,66% na produção de leite, quando comparado com o controle. O investimento promoveu acréscimo na receita mensal de R$ 1.992,67 com tempo de retorno do capital de 43 dias.

  4. Micropropagação da amoreira-preta (Rubus spp. e efeito de substratos na aclimatização de plântulas = Blackberry micropropagation (Rubus spp. and effects of substrates in plants acclimatization

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    Fabíola Villa

    2006-01-01

    , supplemented with five activated charcoal concentrations and five BAP concentrations. Both experiments were entirely performed in a designrandomized complete block, using in vitro 3 explants by repetition and 4 replications for treatment and in greenhouse, a factorial 4x4. The pH of the culture medium was adjusted to 5.8 before the additionof 6 g L-1 of agar and the sterilization to 121ºC and 1 atm for 20 minutes. After 70 days, several parameters in the explants were evaluated. A greater number of leaves and roots were obtained with0.5 mg L-1 of BAP. The number of roots and their length were larger in the presence of 3 g L-1 of activated charcoal. A larger weight of the fresh matter was obtained in the absence of activated charcoal. The second experiment consisted of plants cv. Cherokee maintained in in vitro conditions and transplanted to plastic trays, containing the substrates and kept in greenhouse. Four types of substrates were tested. After 100 days of acclimatization, the leaf number, root length and aerial part, cool and dry root weight and cool and dry aerial part weight had been evaluated. It was concluded that the acclimatization can be successfully performed using Plantmax. followed by the Plantmax. + vermiculita + rind rice carbonized mixture. There was a 92% rate of the plants' survival in allsubstrates.

  5. Micropropagation and acclimatization of Stevia rebaudiana Bertoni.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chotikadachanarong, Kittisak; Dheeranupattana, Srisuluk

    2013-09-01

    Multiple shoot induction of Stevia rebaudiana Bertoni was studied by node explants that were cultured on solidified MS media and supplemented with 0, 1, 2, 3 and 4 mg L-1 kinetin for 4 weeks. The results showed the maximum amount of multiple shoot induction (9.31+/-4.17 shoots/explant) when cultured on MS media supplemented with 3 mg L-1 kinetin. In vitro shoots were rooted on solidified MS media supplemented with 0, 0.1, 0.5 and 2 mg L-1 Naphthaleneacetic Acid (NAA) for 4 weeks. The highest number of roots (11.18+/-1.34 roots/shoot) was detected on a concentration of 0.1 mg L-1 NAA while the high survival rate (80%) was obtained when the rooted plantlets were transferred to greenhouse conditions.

  6. Influência do substrato e do tipo de fertilizante na aclimatação de mudas de bananeira 'Prata-Anã' Influence of substrate and fertilizer type on the acclimatization of 'Prata-Anã' banana plantlets

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    Edson Shigueaki Nomura

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Objetivando-se avaliar a influência do substrato e tipo de fertilizante na aclimatação de mudas de bananeira 'Prata-Anã', provenientes de micropropagação, foi instalado um experimento em blocos casualizados, no esquema fatorial 5 x 3, com quatro repetições. Os substratos utilizados foram: S1 - Terra de subsolo + casca de arroz carbonizada + substrato comercial Rendimax Floreira®; S2 - Terra de subsolo + casca de arroz carbonizada + composto orgânico Organifol®; S3 - Terra de subsolo + casca de arroz carbonizada + composto orgânico Organifol® 9% SiO; S4 - substrato comercial Technes Vivatto®; S5 - Areia grossa + casca de arroz carbonizada + Rendimax Floreira®, todos na proporção 1:1:1 (v/v/v. Os fertilizantes utilizados foram: SF - sem fertilizante; FLL - fertilizante de liberação lenta, 14-14-14 (5,0 kg m-3 misturado ao substrato; e FLN - fertilizante de liberação normal, 14-14-14 (5,0 kg m-3 aplicado em cobertura, 30 dias após o plantio. As mudas foram plantadas em sacos de polietileno quando apresentavam quatro a cinco folhas, sendo mantidas em viveiro com 50% de sombreamento. Foram feitas medidas de altura, diâmetro do colo e número de folhas, e determinada a massa seca das mudas. As diferenças químicas das misturas utilizadas como substrato, juntamente com o tipo de fertilizante utilizado, proporcionaram crescimento diferenciado das mudas. O substrato S4 pode ser utilizado sem fertilização. Os substratos S2 e S3 devem ser utilizados com fertilizante de liberação normal ou lenta de nutrientes, e S1 e S5, sendo pobres em nutrientes, com fertilizante de liberação lenta.With the aim of evaluating the influence of the substrate and fertilizer type on the acclimatization of plantlets of 'Prata-Anã' banana obtained from micropropagation, a complete randomized block design was installed, in a 5 x 3 factorial structure, with four replications. The substrates used were: S1 - subsoil dirt + carbonized rice hull

  7. Desempenho do abacaxizeiro 'Vitória' em resposta à aplicação de ácidos húmicos durante a aclimatação Performance of 'Vitória' pineapple in response to humic acid application during acclimatization

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    Lílian Estrela Borges Baldotto

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available A aclimatação de mudas de abacaxizeiro propagadas por cultura in vitro é um processo lento. A promoção do crescimento radicular pelo uso de ácidos húmicos pode ser útil durante esse processo. O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar o desempenho do abacaxizeiro 'Vitória' propagado por cultura de tecidos em resposta à aplicação de diferentes doses de ácidos húmicos isolados de vermicomposto e de torta de filtro durante o período de aclimatação em casa de vegetação. Foram avaliadas as características anatômicas da lâmina foliar, o teor de pigmentos fotossintéticos, o crescimento da parte aérea e do sistema radicular, e o conteúdo de nutrientes foliares. Os resultados mostraram incrementos no crescimento e desenvolvimento da parte aérea e do sistema radicular com a aplicação de ácidos húmicos, bem como acúmulo significativo de N, P, K, Ca e Mg e aumento na relação clorofila a/clorofila b. A promoção do crescimento das mudas durante o período de aclimatação, em resposta à aplicação de ácidos húmicos, pode melhorar a adaptação do abacaxizeiro ao ambiente ex vitro.The acclimatization of pineapple plantlets propagated by plant tissue culture is slow. The intensification of root growth by the use of humic acids may be useful during this process. The aim of this study was to evaluate the greenhouse acclimatization of 'Vitória' pineapple propagated by plant tissue culture in response to different doses of humic acids isolated from vermicompost and filter cake. Leaf anatomy, photosynthetic pigment content, shoot and root growth, and leaf nutrients were evaluated. An increase in growth and development of shoots and root system with the application of humic acids as well as a significant accumulation of N, P, K, Ca, and Mg and increase in the chlorophyll a / chlorophyll b ratio were found. Growth promotion by the application of humic acids to plantlets during the period of acclimatization can improve their

  8. BAP e substratos na aclimatização de plântulas de gloxínia (Sinningia speciosa Lood. Hiern. provenientes de cultura de tecidos BAP and substrates on gloxinia (Sinningia speciosa Lood. Hiern. plantlets from tissue culture acclimatization

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    Adriano Bortolotti da Silva

    2003-04-01

    Full Text Available A gloxínia é uma planta ornamental cultivada pela exoticidade e variação de coloração de suas flores. Objetivou-se avaliar a influência residual da citocinina 6-Benzilaminopurina (BAP usada durante a cultura in vitro sobre o processo de aclimatização de gloxínia (Sinningia speciosa Lood. Hiern.. As concentrações de 0,0; 0,5; 1 e 2,0 mg L-1 de BAP, em cultivo in vitro, foram combinadas com os substratos: vermiculita, plantmax® e vermiculita + plantmax®, durante o processo de aclimatização. Após o processo de inoculação in vitro, o material foi transferido para sala de crescimento com temperatura de 26 ± 1ºC, intensidade luminosa de 35 m mol m² s-1 e fotoperíodo de 16 horas, permanecendo nessas condições por 60 dias. Após esse período, as plantas obtidas foram plantadas nos diferentes substratos. As avaliações foram efetuadas após 120 dias, em casa-de-vegetação, registrando-se o número de brotos, peso da matéria fresca do sistema radicular, peso da matéria seca da planta e número de flores. Os melhores resultados foram obtidos com o cultivo em substrato plantmax® ou plantmax�� + vermiculita advinda de meio de cultura in vitro isento de BAP.The present work aimed to evaluate the influence of concentrations of 6-benzylaminopurine (BAP used in acclimatization of gloxinia (Sinningia speciosa Lood. Hiern. Concentrations of BAP (0.0; 0.5; 1.0 and 2.0 mg L-1 in vitro and substrates (vermiculite, plantmax®, and vermiculite+plantmax® were tested for acclimatization in every possible combination. After in vitro inoculation, the material was transferred to a growth chamber with temperature of 26±1ºC and light intensity of 35 m mol m-2 s-1 for 16 hours, remaining under these conditions for 60 days. After that period, the plants obtained were transferred to pots containing substrates in a greenhouse. The evaluations were performed 120 days after cultivation. It were measured number of shoots, roots dry weight, above

  9. Cultivo in vitro de embriões zigóticos e aclimatação de plântulas de coqueiro-anão In vitro culture of zygotic embryos and acclimatization of green dwarf coconut palm

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    Ana da Silva Lédo

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi ajustar os protocolos de cultivo in vitro de embriões zigóticos e de aclimatação de plântulas de coqueiro-anão-verde do Brasil de Jiqui (Cocos nucifera L.. Os embriões zigóticos maduros, colocados assepticamente em meio de cultura líquido Y3 suplementado com 27,8 mg L-1 de Fe2SO4.7H2O e 60 g L-1 de sacarose, apresentaram maior germinação e formação de plântulas normais. As plântulas transferidas para meio indutor de enraizamento Y3, gelificado e suplementado com 1 mg L-1 de ANA, 0,5 mg L-1 de BAP e 2,5 g L-1 de carvão ativado, apresentaram incremento do desenvolvimento radicular e da parte aérea. Na fase de aclimatação, o substrato composto por areia lavada e pó de casca de coco seco, na proporção de 1:1, proporcionou maior sobrevivência das plântulas (58,33%, maior crescimento da parte aérea (39,08 cm e maior número de folhas (6,33. Os protocolos estabelecidos para o cultivo in vitro de embriões zigóticos e a aclimatação de coqueiro-anão-verde de Jiqui podem ser utilizados no intercâmbio e conservação de germoplasma.The objective of this work was to improve the protocols for culture and acclimatization of green dwarf coconut palm (Cocos nucifera L.. Mature zygotic embryos, cultivated in vitro aseptically in Y3 liquid medium culture, supplemented with 27.8 mg L-1 of Fe2SO4.7H2O and 60 g L-1 of sucrose, presented higher germination and normal plantlets formation. The plantlets transferred to Y3 semi-solid medium culture supplemented with 1 mg L-1 of ANA, 0.5 mg L-1 of BAP and 2.5 g L-1 of activated charcoal, promoted better root and shoot development. In the acclimatization phase, the 1:1 substrate composed of washed sand and coconut coir dust provided higher survival of plantlets (58.33%, larger growth of the aerial part (39.08 cm and larger number of leaves (6.33. The established protocols for in vitro culture of zygotic embryos and acclimatization of green dwarf coconut palm

  10. Crescimento de mudas micropropagadas de bananeira aclimatizadas nas condições da Amazônia Sul Ocidental sob a influência de diferentes substratos e recipientes Growth of micropropagated banana plantlets acclimatized on conditions of South West Amazon under the influence of different substrates and recipients

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    Janiffe Peres de Oliveira

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Para laboratórios que produzem milhares de plantas micropropagadas regularmente, a otimização da fase de aclimatização é de fundamental importância para evitar perdas excessivas de plantas, bem como favorecer seu crescimento. O trabalho teve por objetivo avaliar o crescimento de mudas micropropagadas de bananeira na aclimatização, sob a influência de diferentes substratos e recipientes, nas condições da Amazônia Sul-Ocidental. Após o sexto subcultivo, brotações de bananeira, cv. Grand Naine (AAA, foram enraizadas em meio MS básico sendo, posteriormente, transferidas para viveiro onde foram plantadas em tubetes de 115 cm³ e 180 cm³ preenchidos com seis diferentes substratos, formulados a partir da combinação de terra de encosta, esterco bovino e casca de arroz carbonizada. Avaliações sobre sobrevivência, altura da parte aérea e diâmetro do pseudocaule foram realizadas quinzenalmente, sendo que, ao final de 75 dias, também foi determinada a massa fresca e seca das plantas. Observou-se que a sobrevivência das plantas não foi influenciada pelo uso de tubetes de 115 cm³ ou 180 cm³, no entanto, plantas aclimatizadas em tubetes de 180 cm³ apresentam maior crescimento em altura e diâmetro do pseudocaule e, conseqüentemente, maior acúmulo de massa fresca e seca das partes aérea e raízes, durante a aclimatização, quando comparados aos tubetes com 115 cm³ de capacidade. Entre os substratos, verificou-se que aqueles que continham esterco bovino na sua composição, proporcionaram resultados superiores quando comparados aos demais substratos testados para todas as variáveis analisadas, sendo este, portanto, um importante componente no desenvolvimento das plantas durante a fase de aclimatização.For laboratories that produce thousands of micropropagated plants regularly, the optimization of the acclimatization phase is of fundamental importance to avoid excessive losses and to promote the development of the plants

  11. Autonomic nervous system activity during acclimatization after rapid air travel across time zones: A case study [Aktivita autonomního nervového systému během aklimatizace po rychlém přeletu časových pásem: Kazuistika

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    Michal Botek

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The rapid transition across time zones also known as jet lag syndrome leads to desynchronization of our endogenous "biological" clock and causes a transient decrease in the adaptation capacity of an athlete. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to verify the use of the spectral analysis of heart rate variability (SA HRV method as a tool for classification of the answer of the body to both the rapid transition across time zones and the training intensity level during the following acclimatization. METHODS: Changes in autonomic activity were assessed by SA HRV during acclimatization after eastward (+6 hours and westward (–7 hours flights in two elite athletes. RESULTS: The results revealed that the athlete, who undertook a flight from Prague to Beijing (China, was able to start with intensive training during the fourth day of his acclimatization. No acute decrease in training ability (adaptability was found in the athlete after the flight from Prague to Bogota (Columbia. Significant modifications in her training load level were made only on the third day in Columbia. The study confirmed that the reaction of the body to the rapid transition across time zones is highly individual. CONCLUSIONS: Therefore, in the future, the SA HRV method could become a promising tool for solving questions of both the acclimatization strategy and the optimizing of sport performance in elite athletes. [VÝCHODISKA: Vlivem rychlého přesunu přes časová pásma dochází k poruše vnitřních regulací organismu, které mohou být u sportovců příčinou přechodného poklesu jejich tréninkové adaptační kapacity. CÍLE: Cílem práce bylo ověřit možnost využití metody spektrální analýzy variability srdeční frekvence (SA HRV jako nástroje pro hodnocení aktivity autonomního nervového systému (ANS, který se podílí na regulaci těchto změn souvisejících s aklimatizací. METODY: U dvou vrcholových sportovců, kteří absolvovali p

  12. Avaliação de substratos e adubos orgânicos na aclimatização de plântulas de Heliconia psittacorum Evaluation of substrates and organic fertilizers in the acclimatization of plantlets of Heliconia psittacorum

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    Maurício Reginaldo Alves dos Santos

    2004-10-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a eficiência de três substratos orgânicos - casca de arroz carbonizada, pó de casca de coco seco e verde - e dois adubos -Vitasolo® e húmus de minhoca -, na aclimatização de plântulas de Heliconia psittacorum L., provenientes da micropropagação. Aos 75 dias, avaliaram-se a altura das plantas, o diâmetro do pseudocaule, o número de folhas e a área da terceira folha. A casca de arroz foi mais eficiente que o pó de casca de coco, verde ou seco; o pó de casca de coco verde foi mais eficiente que o pó de casca de coco seco; e o húmus foi mais eficiente que o Vitasolo®.The objective of this work was to evaluate the efficiency of three organic substrates, carbonised rice hull, dry and green coir dust, and two fertilizers, Vitasolo® and earthworm humus, in the acclimatization of plantlets of Heliconia psittacorum L., obtained from micropropagation. After 75 days, the height of the plants, diameter of pseudo-stem, number of leaves and area of the third leaf were evaluated. The rice hull was more efficient than the coir dust (dry or green; the green coir dust was more efficient than dry coir dust; and the humus was more efficient than Vitasolo®.

  13. Micropropagação, aclimatização, teor e composição química do óleo essencial de genótipos de hortelã japonesa Micropropagation, acclimatization, essential oil content and chemical composition of japanese mint genotypes

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    Maria de Fátima Arrigoni-Blank

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available A hortelã japonesa (Mentha arvensis é uma espécie aromática, originária do sul da China, o seu óleo essencial é rico em mentol, o qual é empregado nas indústrias farmacêuticas, de alimentos e de cosméticos. Este trabalho teve como objetivo desenvolver um protocolo para a micropropagação e aclimatização de genótipos de hortelã japonesa, além de analisar a composição química dos óleos essenciais de plantas micropropagadas e não micropropagadas. Segmentos nodais são os mais indicados para a micropropagação dos genótipos de M. arvensis. A concentração de 4,4 µM de AIA promoveu um maior número de brotos e folhas por explante do genótipo MA701-02, em relação aos demais genótipos. A utilização de 4,4 µM AIA e 9,3 µM CIN + 8,9 µM BAP + 2,2 µM AIA proporcionou maior acúmulo de massa seca no genótipo MA701-02, e no MA701-04 foi a concentração de 8,9 µM BAP + 5,4 µM ANA. O substrato pó de coco + 1 g L-1 de calcário + 12 g L-1 de Biosafra® (3-12-6 pode ser indicado para a aclimatização de mudas micropropagadas dos genótipos de hortelã japonesa avaliados. A micropropagação não alterou o teor de óleo essencial e foram identificados 17 constituintes químicos, perfazendo um total de 92 a 99%.Japanese mint (Mentha arvensis L. is an aromatic species originated from South China and its essential oil is rich in menthol, which is used in the pharmaceutical, food and cosmetic industries. The aim of this work was to develop a protocol for micropropagation and acclimatization of japanese mint genotypes and analyze the chemical composition of the essential oils from micropropagated and not micropropagated plants. Nodal segments are the most indicated for micropropagation of the M. arvensis genotypes. The concentration of 4.4 µM of IAA promoved higher number of shoots and leaves per explant of the MA701-02 genotype when compared with the others. The use of 4,4 µM of IAA and 9,3 µM of KIN + 8,9 µM of BAP + 2

  14. Vegetative development of orchids submitted to different macronutrient formulations and fertilization frequencies during the acclimatization phase Desenvolvimento vegetativo de orquídeas submetidas a diferentes formulações de macronutrientes e freqüências de adubação durante a fase de aclimatização

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    Adriane Marinho Assis

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The macronutrient concentration, the dose and the fertilizing application frequency affect the vegetative development of the plants in a significant way. The aim of this work was to evaluate the vegetative development of plants of Cattleya intermedia x Laelia purpurata in the acclimatization phase, fertirrigated with different formulations of N-P-K and with different fertilizing frequencies. The formulations of N-P-K (nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium, applied to the plants with the irrigation water, were 10:10:10 and 6:6:8, to each seven or fifteen days, in the concentration of 2 g.L-1, during 10 months, mantaining a control group of plants that did not receive the fertilizers. After that period, the following parameters were appraised: length of the aerial part; length of the largest root; pseudobulbs number; number of roots; total fresh mass; pH, and electric conductivity (µS of the substratum. Considering all parameters, the fertirrigation with N-P-K 10:10:10 in the interval time of 15 days, in the concentration of 2 g.L-1, provided the best vegetative development of the intergeneric hybrid Cattleya intermedia x Laelia purpurata during the acclimatization phase.A concentração de macronutrientes, a dose e a freqüência da aplicação da adubação afetam de maneira significativa o desenvolvimento vegetativo das plantas. O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar o desenvolvimento vegetativo de plantas de Cattleya intermedia x Laelia purpurata, na fase de aclimatização, fertirrigadas com diferentes formulações de N-P-K e com diferentes freqüências de adubação. As formulações de N-P-K (nitrogênio, fósforo e potássio aplicadas às plantas, juntamente com a água de irrigação, foram 10:10:10 e 6:6:8, a cada sete e quinze dias, na concentração de 2 g.L-1, durante o período de 10 meses, mantendo-se um grupo controle, que não recebeu adubação. Após esse período foram avaliados os seguintes parâmetros: comprimento da parte a

  15. Crescimento de plântulas de Pfaffia glomerata (Spreng. Pedersen cultivadas in vitro sob dois níveis de nitrogênio e sacarose, durante seis subculturas sucessivas e aclimatização Growth of Pfaffia glomerata (Spreng. Pedersen in vitro cultured plantlets on two levels of nitrogen and sucrose, during six successive subcultures and acclimatization

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    Joseila Maldaner

    2007-02-01

    úmero de folhas por planta.The present research was aimed at evaluating the growth of brazilian ginseng (Pfaffia glomerata (Spreng. Pedersen in vitro cultured plantlets under two levels of nitrogen and sucrose, during six successive subcultures and acclimatization. Two nutritional treatments were tested: nitrogen at 100% strength of the MS medium + 30g L-1 sucrose; and nitrogen at 50% strength + 45g L-1 sucrose. During six successive subcultures, the explants of 30-day-old plantlets grown under both treatments were transferred, respectively to the next subculture on the same treatment conditions. At 6th subculture, plantlets were transferred to substrate Plantmax® Hortaliças and submitted to acclimatization in a growth chamber. Throughout the subcultures, fluctuations in growth response due to nutritional conditions tested were observed. The height of the higher sprout, the average height of sprouts, and the total number of nodal segments per plantlet, respectively for four, four and three subcultures were greater in 100% strength of the MS medium + 30g L-1 sucrose than in 50% strength + 45g L-1 sucrose. On the other hand, dry matter of roots, of shoots and of the whole plant, respectively for two, two and three subcultures, were greater in 50% strength + 45g L-1 sucrose. In conclusion, the increase of sucrose associated with reduction of N level in the culture medium enhanced the biomass production, while the MS at full strength enhanced the growth based in sprout length and number of nodal segments. These differences concerning the biomass production observed during in vitro culture did not persisted in the acclimatization process ex vitro, where MS at full strength give rise greater growth in sprout length and number of leaves per plant.

  16. Efeito do cultivo in vitro na presença de NaCl em plantas de abacaxizeiro na fase de aclimatação Effects of in vitro culture in the presence of NaCl in pineapple plants during the acclimatization phase

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    Paulo A. V. Barroso

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available A cultura de tecidos tem sido utilizada como ferramenta para gerar e selecionar variabilidade genética que confira maior tolerância das espécies cultivadas à salinidade. Plantas de abacaxi das variedades Pérola e Smooth Cayenne foram micropropagadas em meio de cultura contendo zero, 12,5 e 25 mM de NaCl e avaliadas durante a fase de aclimatação quanto às alterações induzidas pelo NaCl durante o cultivo in vitro e para determinar o melhor parâmetro para quantificar estas alterações. Foram avaliados os caracteres altura das plantas, diâmetro da roseta foliar, número de folhas, comprimento e largura da folha ‘D’ aos 0, 15, 45, 75 e 105 dias após a instalação do experimento. Observou-se que as plantas micropropagadas em meio com NaCl e sem NaCl apresentaram médias e taxas de crescimento semelhantes, mas diferiram quanto às correlações entre os caracteres e às variâncias fenotípicas. Os resultados indicaram que a variância fenotípica foi o parâmetro mais adequado para avaliar o impacto da seleção in vitro sobre caracteres aparentemente não relacionados com a salinidade em plantas de abacaxi.Plant tissue culture has been used to induce and select genetic variability in order to increase the level of salinity tolerance in several species. Pineapple plants from Pérola and Smooth Cayenne varieties were micropropagated for six months in a medium with 0, 12.5 and 25 mM of NaCl and evaluated during the acclimatization phase to verify the changes induced by NaCl during in vitro cultivation and to determine the best parameter to quantify these changes. The traits evaluated for plant height, plant diameter, leaf number, length and width of the D leaf at 0, 15, 45, 75 and 105 days after the installation of the experiment. There was no effect of different levels of NaCl during the micropropagation on the traits and mean growing rates. Differences were found in the correlation coefficients between the characters and mainly, in

  17. Análise do desempenho reprodutivo e do uso de energia elétrica em instalações climatizadas de cachaços Analysis of reproductive performance and use of electrical energy in the acclimatized facilities of boars

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    Luiz A. Rossi

    2012-10-01

    there was no improvement in the mean values of seminal volume and sperm concentration. It is worthwhile to mention that monthly increase in energy costs due to use of acclimatization and automation equipments were not significant as the equipments are of low energy consumption.

  18. Aclimatação do camarão marinho Litopenaeus vannamei (Boone, 1931 à água doce com diferentes estratégias de alimentação e calagem = Acclimatization of the marine shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei (Boone, 1931 to the freshwater with different feeding and liming strategies

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    Paulo de Paula Mendes

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Pós-Larvas do camarão Litopenaeus vannamei, na fase de PL9-10 e PL25-26 foram aclimatadas à água doce (0,0 ‰, objetivando promover cultivos em regiões interioranas. Para isso, foram realizados dois experimentos conduzidos em aquários com capacidade útil de 44 litros e densidade de estocagem de 11,36 pós-larvas/L. No experimento 1, foram testadas diferentes concentrações de cal hidratada (0,018 g a 0,031 g e 2 dietas, formuladas à base de ração comercial para camarão e biomassa de artêmia. No experimento 2, foram testadas 5dietas com diferentes concentrações de biomassa de artêmia (0% a 100%, inseridas em rações de peixes e camarões. No final do processo de aclimatação, a sobrevivência das póslarvas variou de 40,44% a 98,04%. Concluiu-se que pós-larvas do Litopenaeus vannamei podem ser aclimatadas à água doce e que o aumento da concentração de cal e de artêmia na ração melhoraram significativamente (pLitopenaeus vannamei postlarvae with 9-10 (PL9-10, 25-26 days old (PL25-26 were acclimated to freshwater (0 ppt for the purpose of attending the inland cultures. Two experiments were conducted in 44 liter aquariums with stocking density of 11.36 postlarvae/L. In experiment 01, different concentrations of hydrated lime (0.018 g a 0.031 g and two diets, formulated with commercial shrimp ration and artemia biomass, were tested. In experiment 02, five diets, withdifferent concentrations of artemia biomass (0 to 100% inserted in fish and shrimp rations, were tested. At the end of the acclimatization process, the postlarvae survival varied from40.44 to 98.04%. Results showed that Litopenaeus vannamei postlarvae can be acclimated to freshwater. Also, the increase of lime concentration and the artemia biomass in the ration improved (p<0.05 the zootechnic parameters of the species in a significant way.

  19. Estudo de simulações de microclimas em casas de vegetação visando à aclimatação de mudas micropropagadas de bananeira cv Grande Naine Simulations of microclimate in greenhouses aiming the acclimatization of micropropagated seedlings of banana cv. Grande Naine

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    Ciro Scaranari

    2008-12-01

    fotovoltaicos de silício, por volta das 9h, 12h e 15h, sob condições de céu claro e encoberto, durante o verão de 2004/05 e inverno de 2005. As malhas vermelhas apresentam transmitâncias diferenciadas ao longo do espectro da radiação fotossinteticamente ativa, constituindo-se assim em interessantes materiais para os pretendidos estudos sobre aclimatação. Resultados mostram maiores reduções na faixa RFA para as telas vermelhas, independentes do horário, insolação e estação do ano, concordantes com aqueles obtidos por espectro-radiômetro.In acclimatization processes, the environment control takes over a part of vital importance, since in in vitro condition banana seedlings do not efficiently operate the absorption of light, water and nutrients. Therefore, they should be submitted to controlled environments under feasible conditions of luminosity, temperature (around 28ºC, with minimum of 18ºC and maximum of 34ºC, and relative humidity above 75%. For this purpose, it was installed five mini tunnels with controlled temperature and relative humidity. For the control of temperature it was used pad-fan evaporative coolers at 28/25ºC. For the control of relative humidity it was used fogging during the day at 75% under intermittence of 6s at each 40s. For temperature and relative humidity monitoring, it was installed three aspirate psychrometers in each mini tunnel connected to a data logger for daily acquisition every 60s. Temperature and relative air humidity were adequate for plants development, however significant differences were observed between the different environment conditions. For luminosity study, under transparent plastic film (low density polyethylene of 100µm thickness, it was used four meshes with average shading in the PAR spectrum band (400 to 700nm of 69.92%, 50.73%, 29.73%, and 57.77%, being the first three in red color (with top level at 580nm, and abrupt reduction after that, the fourth mesh was black (linear behavior. The fifth tunnel had

  20. Crescimento in vitro e aclimatização de Cattleya loddigesii Lindley (Orchidaceae com carvão ativado sob dois espectros luminosos In vitro growth and acclimatization of Cattleya loddigesii Lindley (Orchidaceae with actived charcoal in two light spectra

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    Renato Fernandes Galdiano Júnior

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar a adição de concentrações de carvão ativado em meio de cultura ½ MS (com metade da concentração dos macronutrientes sob dois espectros luminosos para a obtenção de plântulas in vitro de Cattleya loddigesii. Plântulas com aproximadamente 90 dias foram subcultivadas em oito tratamentos, nos quais foi testada a adição ao meio de cultura ½ MS com carvão ativado (0; 0,5; 1,0 e 2,0g L-1 e combinados sob espectro de luz branca e luz vermelha. Após 180 dias da germinação, foram mensurados dados biométricos (raiz e parte aérea, massa fresca e teores de pigmentos fotossintéticos. Em plântulas aclimatizadas em casa de vegetação, foram avaliadas a taxa de sobrevivência após 120 dias. As concentrações de clorofila total, clorofila a e carotenoides foram maiores nos tratamentos sob luz branca, enquanto a luz vermelha influenciou significativamente maior clorofila b, plântulas com menos raízes e de menor comprimento e elevada mortalidade ex vitro. A adição de 2,0g L-1 de carvão ativado ao meio de cultura e o uso de luz branca proporcionaram maior eficiência de desenvolvimento tanto para as culturas in vitro quanto para a sobrevivência ex vitro das plantas.The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of different concentrations of activated charcoal in ½ MS (half concentration of macronutrients culture medium under two light spectra on the in vitro growth of Cattleya loddigesii seedlings. Plantlets with approximately 90 days were subcultured under eight treatments, consisting of different active charcoal concentrations (0; 0.5; 1.0 and 2.0g L-1 in ½ MS medium combined with white and red light spectra. After 180 days of germination, biometric data, fresh weight, and the level of photosynthetic pigments were evaluated. Plantlets acclimatized in a greenhouse were evaluated for survival after 120 days. Total chlorophyll, chlorophyll a, and carotenoid concentrations were higher in

  1. Micorriza arbuscular e matéria orgânica na aclimatização de mudas de bananeira, cultivar nanicão Arbuscular mycorrhizal and organic matter on the acclimatization of banana-tree seedlings, cv. Nanicão

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    Rosa Maria Barbosa Matos

    2002-12-01

    substrata with 0, 10 and 20% of organic matter, in the presence or absence of the fungus Glomus clarum. The results showed a significant positive effect of the inoculation on seedling height and number of leaves, 65 days after acclimatization. At 93 days, this positive effect was shown also by the pseudostem diameter. After harvest, the seedlings inoculated with G. clarum showed a significant increase in leaf, pseudostem and root dry matter, as well as total phosphorus content and radicular ratio efficiency in comparison to non-inoculated seedlings. As a rule, the addition of organic matter to the substratum led to an increase in the development of banana seedlings, cv. Nanicão, even in the absence of G. clarum.

  2. Aclimatação do camarão marinho Litopenaeus vannamei (Boone, 1931 à água doce com diferentes estratégias de alimentação e calagem - DOI: 10.4025/actascianimsci.v28i1.668 Acclimatization of the marine shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei (Boone, 1931 to the freshwater with different feeding and liming strategies - DOI: 10.4025/actascianimsci.v28i1.668

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    Bruno Leonardo da Silva Santos

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Pós-Larvas do camarão Litopenaeus vannamei, na fase de PL9-10 e PL25-26 foram aclimatadas à água doce (0,0 ‰, objetivando promover cultivos em regiões interioranas. Para isso, foram realizados dois experimentos conduzidos em aquários com capacidade útil de 44 litros e densidade de estocagem de 11,36 pós-larvas/L. No experimento 1, foram testadas diferentes concentrações de cal hidratada (0,018 g a 0,031 g e 2 dietas, formuladas à base de ração comercial para camarão e biomassa de artêmia. No experimento 2, foram testadas 5 dietas com diferentes concentrações de biomassa de artêmia (0% a 100%, inseridas em rações de peixes e camarões. No final do processo de aclimatação, a sobrevivência das póslarvas variou de 40,44% a 98,04%. Concluiu-se que pós-larvas do Litopenaeus vannamei podem ser aclimatadas à água doce e que o aumento da concentração de cal e de artêmia na ração melhoraram significativamente (p Litopenaeus vannamei postlarvae with 9-10 (PL9-10, 25-26 days old (PL25-26 were acclimated to freshwater (0 ppt for the purpose of attending the inland cultures. Two experiments were conducted in 44 liter aquariums with stocking density of 11.36 postlarvae/L. In experiment 01, different concentrations of hydrated lime (0.018 g a 0.031 g and two diets, formulated with commercial shrimp ration and artemia biomass, were tested. In experiment 02, five diets, with different concentrations of artemia biomass (0 to 100% inserted in fish and shrimp rations, were tested. At the end of the acclimatization process, the postlarvae survival varied from 40.44 to 98.04%. Results showed that Litopenaeus vannamei postlarvae can be acclimated to freshwater. Also, the increase of lime concentration and the artemia biomass in the ration improved (p < 0.05 the zootechnic parameters of the species in a significant way.

  3. AltitudeOmics: rapid hemoglobin mass alterations with early acclimatization to and de-acclimatization from 5260 m in healthy humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryan, Benjamin J; Wachsmuth, Nadine B; Schmidt, Walter F; Byrnes, William C; Julian, Colleen G; Lovering, Andrew T; Subudhi, Andrew W; Roach, Robert C

    2014-01-01

    It is classically thought that increases in hemoglobin mass (Hbmass) take several weeks to develop upon ascent to high altitude and are lost gradually following descent. However, the early time course of these erythropoietic adaptations has not been thoroughly investigated and data are lacking at elevations greater than 5000 m, where the hypoxic stimulus is dramatically increased. As part of the AltitudeOmics project, we examined Hbmass in healthy men and women at sea level (SL) and 5260 m following 1, 7, and 16 days of high altitude exposure (ALT1/ALT7/ALT16). Subjects were also studied upon return to 5260 m following descent to 1525 m for either 7 or 21 days. Compared to SL, absolute Hbmass was not different at ALT1 but increased by 3.7 ± 5.8% (mean ± SD; n = 20; pcell destruction. Our novel findings demonstrate that Hbmass increases within 7 days of ascent to 5260 m but that the altitude-induced Hbmass adaptation is lost within 7 days of descent to 1525 m. The rapid time course of these adaptations contrasts with the classical dogma, suggesting the need to further examine mechanisms responsible for Hbmass adaptations in response to severe hypoxia.

  4. Reduction of time for producing and acclimatizing two bamboo species in a greenhouse

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    Giovanni Aquino Gasparetto

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available China has been investing in bamboo cultivation in Brazilian lands. However, there’s a significant deficit of seedling production for civil construction and the charcoal and cellulose sectors, something which compromises a part of the forestry sector. In order to contribute so that the bamboo production chain solves this problem, this study aimed to check whether the application of indole acetic acid (IAA could promote plant growth in a shorter cultivation time. In the study, Bambusa vulgaris and B. vulgaris var. vitatta stakes underwent two treatments (0.25% and 5.0% of IAA and they were grown on washed sand in a greenhouse. Number of leaves, stem growth, rooting, and chlorophyll content were investigated. There was no difference with regard to stem growth, root length, and number of leaves for both species in the two treatments (0.25% and 5% IAA. The chlorophyll content variation between the two species may constitute a quality parameter of forest seedling when compared to other bamboo species. After 43 days, the seedlings are ready for planting in areas of full sun. For the species studied here, the average time to the seedling sale is from 4 to 6 months, with no addition of auxin. Using this simple and low cost technique, several nurserymen will produce bamboo seedlings with reduced time, costs, and manpower.

  5. Eugenics, environment, and acclimatizing to Manchukuo: psychiatric studies of Japanese colonists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsumura, Janice

    2010-09-01

    Both the advocates and critics of what has been called "the new imperial history," which may be characterized by its focus on how colonies were not simply influenced by but also exercised an influence on a dominating foreign state, have inspired this article. The article addresses the production and dissemination of medical knowledge in its examination of psychiatric research conducted in the 1930s in Japan's unofficial colony of Manchukuo. It highlights the political dimension of studies of psychosomatic disorders, syphilis, and alcoholism among colonists by placing it in the context of contending theories of racial improvement and growing official support for mass migration, especially to northeast China. Moreover, it inquires into restrictions on the flow of ideas from the colonies by examining how these studies were received in Japan. While interest in the colonies ensured that psychiatrists in Manchukuo were able to publish their research in leading Japanese medical journals, their findings jeopardized too many political and professional interests to become more public. In much-publicized debates stimulated by the impeding establishment of eugenic sterilization legislation, their colleagues in Japan in the late 1930s who championed the argument of environment over heredity were conspicuously silent about conditions among Japanese colonists, using instead examples of European and North American colonists to make their case.

  6. AltitudeOmics: The Basic Biology of Human Acclimatization to High Altitude

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-01

    variables were assessed before and immediately (2.5 min) after each trial. Before each trial, maximum voluntary contraction ( MVC ) force was determined...from three control contrac- tions. Femoral nerve stimulation was delivered during each 5-s MVC , and an additional stimulus was delivered after the MVC ...superim- posed twitch (SIT), delivered within 0.5 s of attaining peak force during the MVC , was to be compared with the force produced by the single twitch

  7. Differential energy costs of winter acclimatized common spiny mice Acomys cahirinus from two adjacent habitats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scantlebury, Michael; Shanas, Uri; Kupshtein, Hagai; Speakman, John R; Haim, Abraham

    2004-02-01

    The common spiny mouse Acomys cahirinus, of Ethiopian origin, has a widespread distribution across arid, semi-arid and Mediterranean parts of the Arabian sub-region. We compared the daily energy expenditure (DEE), water turnover (WTO) and sustained metabolic scope (SusMS=DEE/resting metabolic rate) of two adjacent populations during the winter. Mice were captured from North- and South- facing slopes (NFS and SFS) of the same valley, comprising mesic and xeric habitats, respectively. Both DEE and SusMS winter values were greater in NFS than SFS mice and were significantly greater than values previously measured in the summer for these two populations in the same environments. However, WTO values were consistent with previously established values and were not significantly different from allometric predictions for desert eutherians. We suggest that physiological plasticity in energy expenditure, which exists both temporally and spatially, combined with stable WTO, perhaps reflecting a xeric ancestry, has enabled A. cahirinus to invade a wide range of habitats.

  8. Unchanged cerebral blood flow and oxidative metabolism after acclimatization to high altitude

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Kirsten; Paulson, Olaf B; Hornbein, Thomas F.

    2002-01-01

    . At high altitude at rest, arterial carbon dioxide tension, oxygen saturation, and oxygen tension were significantly reduced, and arterial oxygen content was increased because of an increase in hemoglobin concentration. Global cerebral blood flow was similar in the four conditions. Cerebral oxygen delivery...

  9. Maximal exercise and muscle oxygen extraction in acclimatizing lowlanders and high altitude natives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lundby, Carsten; Sander, Mikael; van Hall, Gerrit;

    2006-01-01

    O(2) extraction at maximal exercise was 90.0+/-1.0% in the Danish lowlanders at sea level, and remained close to this value in all situations. In contrast to this, fractional arterial O(2) extraction was 83.2+/-2.8% in the high altitude natives, and did not change with the induction of normoxia...

  10. Diversity of Araliaceae in Sulasih Talang Nature Reserve, West Sumatra and its acclimatization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DWI MURTI PUSPITANINGTYAS

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Sulasih Talang Nature Reserve is a conservation area in West Sumatra Province, which contains high diversity of plants including Araliaceae. Araliaceae mostly consist of attractive plants which have potentiallity as ornamental plants. The aim of this research is to record the diversity of Araliaceae in Sulasih Talang Nature Reserve. The result of the study indicates that there are, species of Araliaceae found in Sulasih Talang Nature Reserve, which are : Arthrophyllum diversifolium, Brassaiopsis glomerulata, Brassaiopsis sumatrana var. variaefolia, Macropanax dispermus, Schefflera elliptica, S. farinosa, S. lucescens, S. scandens, Schefflera sp., and Trevesia beccarii, in which Bogor Botanic Garden collected 6 species of them, i.e.: Brassaiopsis glomerulata, Brassaiopsis sumatrana var. variaefolia, Macropanax dispermus, Schefflera elliptica, S. scandens, Schefflera sp. Most of the collections are successfully acclimated in the gardens.

  11. AltitudeOmics: The Basic Biology of Human Acclimatization to High Altitude. Addendum

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-09-01

    150 34 Figure Legends Figure 1. Altitude hypoxia-induced plasma adenosine levels and soluble CD73 activity correlate to increased erythrocyte...Dietitian for the US Army Special Forces, Navy Special Warfare Development Group, Colorado Avalanche National Hockey League Club, and NCAA Division I

  12. Sex Differences in Physiological Acclimatization after Transfer in Wistar Rats Animals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Arts, J.W.M.; Kramer, K.; Arndt, Saskia; Ohl, Frauke

    2014-01-01

    Most laboratory animals used in research are vendor-bred and transferred to research facilities. Transfer procedures might have considerable and unintended effects on research results. In the present study we compared physiological and behavioral parameters before and after external and internal tra

  13. 关于Acclimation和Acclimatization的含义及其翻译%"Acclimation" and "Acclimatization", Their Concepts and Chinese Counterparts

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王德华; 杨俊成; 王祖望

    2004-01-01

    Acclimation和Acclimatization是生态学(Ecology)、生理学(Physiology)、热生理学(Thermal Physiology)、热生物学(Thermal Biology)、生理生态学(Physiological Ecology)(或生态生理学,Ecological Physiology或Ecophysiology)、环境生理学(Environmental Physiology)、比较生理学(Comparative Physi—

  14. Plasma volume expansion does not increase maximal cardiac output or VO2 max in lowlanders acclimatized to altitude

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Calbet, José A L; Rådegran, Göran; Boushel, Robert Christopher

    2004-01-01

    liter of 6% dextran 70 (BV = 6.32 +/- 0.34 liters). PV expansion had no effect on Qmax, maximal O2 consumption (VO2), and exercise capacity. Despite maximal systemic O2 transport being reduced 19% due to hemodilution after PV expansion, whole body VO2 was maintained by greater systemic O2 extraction (P...... VO2 during exercise regardless of PV. Pulmonary ventilation, gas exchange, and acid-base balance were essentially unaffected by PV expansion. Sea...

  15. A community change in the algal endosymbionts of a scleractinian coral following a natural bleaching event : field evidence of acclimatization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jones, A. M.; Berkelmans, R.; van Oppen, M. J. H.; Mieog, J. C.; Sinclair, W.

    2008-01-01

    The symbiosis between reef-building corals and their algal endosymbionts (zooxanthellae of the genus Symbiodinium) is highly sensitive to temperature stress, which makes coral reefs vulnerable to climate change. Thermal tolerance in corals is known to be substantially linked to the type of zooxanthe

  16. Time course of natural heat acclimatization in well-trained cyclists during a 2-week training camp in the heat

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karlsen, Anders; Nybo, Lars; Nørgaard, S J;

    2015-01-01

    ). On days 1, 6, and 13, they performed standardized heat response tests (HRT-1, 2, 3), and 43.4-km time trials in the heat (TTH-1, 2, 3) were completed on days 2, 7, and 14. Within the first 5-6 days, sweat sodium concentration decreased from 75 ± 22 mmol/L to 52 ± 24 mmol/L, sweat rate increased (+20 ± 15...

  17. Microbial decolorization of reactive black-5 in a two-stage anaerobic-aerobic reactor using acclimatized activated textile sludge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohanty, Sagarika; Dafale, Nishant; Rao, Nageswara Neti

    2006-10-01

    A two-stage anaerobic-aerobic treatment process based on mixed culture of bacteria isolated from textile dye effluent was used to degrade reactive black 5 dye (RB-5). The anaerobic step was studied in more detail by varying the dye concentration from 100 to 3000 mg l(-1). The results showed that major decolorization was achieved during the anaerobic process. The time required for decolorization by > 90% increased as the concentration of the dye increased. It was also found that maintaining dissolved oxygen (DO) concentration below 0.5 mg l(-1 )and addition of a co-substrate viz., glucose, facilitates anaerobic decolorization reaction remarkably. An attempt was made to identify the metabolites formed in anaerobic process by using high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and UV-VIS spectrophotometry. A plate assay was performed for the detection of dominant decolorizing bacteria. Only a few bacterial colonies with high clearing zones (decolorization zones) were found. The results showed that under anaerobic condition RB-5 molecules were reduced and aromatic amines were generated. The aromatic amine metabolite was partly removed in subsequent aerobic bio-treatment. It was possible to achieve more than 90% decolorization and approximately 46% reduction in amine metabolite concentration through two-stage anaerobic-aerobic treatment after a reaction period of 2 days.

  18. Women at Altitude: Effects of Menstrual Cycle Phase and Alpha-Adrenergic Blockade on High Altitude Acclimatization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1996-10-01

    Operations and Reports, 1215 Jefferson Davis Highway, Suite 1204, Arlington, vA 22202-4302, and to the Office of Management and Budget, Paperwork Reduction...Palmer SK, Dahms TE, et al. Blood volume expansion, preeclampsia , and infant birth weight at high altitude. J Appl Physiol 1993;74:1566- 73. Contract...is Ms. Virginia Miller at DSN 343-7327 or by email at virginia.miller@det.amedd.army.mil. FOR THE COMMANDER: PHYL IM. RINEHART Deputy Chief of, Staff for Information Management

  19. Functional and transcriptome analysis reveals an acclimatization strategy for abiotic stress tolerance mediated by Arabidopsis NF-YA family members.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leyva-González, Marco Antonio; Ibarra-Laclette, Enrique; Cruz-Ramírez, Alfredo; Herrera-Estrella, Luis

    2012-01-01

    Nuclear Factor Y (NF-Y) is a heterotrimeric complex formed by NF-YA/NF-YB/NF-YC subunits that binds to the CCAAT-box in eukaryotic promoters. In contrast to other organisms, in which a single gene encodes each subunit, in plants gene families of over 10 members encode each of the subunits. Here we report that five members of the Arabidopsis thaliana NF-YA family are strongly induced by several stress conditions via transcriptional and miR169-related post-transcriptional mechanisms. Overexpression of NF-YA2, 7 and 10 resulted in dwarf late-senescent plants with enhanced tolerance to several types of abiotic stress. These phenotypes are related to alterations in sucrose/starch balance and cell elongation observed in NF-YA overexpressing plants. The use of transcriptomic analysis of transgenic plants that express miR169-resistant versions of NF-YA2, 3, 7, and 10 under an estradiol inducible system, as well as a dominant-repressor version of NF-YA2 revealed a set of genes, whose promoters are enriched in NF-Y binding sites (CCAAT-box) and that may be directly regulated by the NF-Y complex. This analysis also suggests that NF-YAs could participate in modulating gene regulation through positive and negative mechanisms. We propose a model in which the increase in NF-YA transcript levels in response to abiotic stress is part of an adaptive response to adverse environmental conditions in which a reduction in plant growth rate plays a key role.

  20. Influência do tempo de aclimatação na resposta do cajueiro à salinidade Influence of acclimatization time on response of cashew plant to salinity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean C. A. Brilhante

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available A resposta das plantas à salinidade depende de fatores fisiológicos, bioquímicos e genéticos. Com este trabalho, objetivou-se estudar o impacto do tempo de aclimatação à solução nutritiva sobre a resposta do cajueiro à salinidade. Plantas de Anarcadium occidentale L., CCP06, cultivadas em vermiculita durante 28 dias, foram transferidas para solução nutritiva de Hoagland com 1/10 de sua força iônica, onde permaneceram por 1 e 7 dias. Ao final dos dois tempos, a solução nutritiva foi suplementada com 200 mM de NaCl, condições em que as plantas foram cultivadas por 0, 12, 24, 48 e 72 h. As plantas aclimatadas por 7 dias á solução de Hoagland apresentaram sinais fisiológicos mais compatíveis com a tolerância ao NaCl, como menor acumulação de Na+ e, também, menores danos nas membranas, peroxidação dos lipídeos, degradação de proteínas, acumulação de aminoácidos livres e acumulação de prolina. A amônia livre foi o melhor indicador da intensidade do estresse salino. Os danos de membranas aumentaram com a acumulação de Na+ nas folhas. Os resultados evidenciam que o tempo de aclimatação das raízes à solução nutritiva influencia a expressão de fatores capazes de atenuar os efeitos do estresse salino.The plant response to salinity depends on physiological, biochemical and genetic factors and on their interaction with external environment. This work aimed to study the impact of adaptation time in nutrient solution on the cashew response to salinity. Seedlings of Anacardium occidentale L (CCP06 grown in vermiculite, for 28 days, were placed to grow in 1/10 ionic strength Hoagland solution for 1 and 7 days. At the end of each time the solution was supplemented with 200 mM NaCl, and under this condition the plants were monitored for 0, 12, 24, 48 and 72 h. The 7 days Hoagland solution acclimated plants had physiological index more compatible to tolerance to NaCl such as low Na+ accumulation and also low membrane damage, lipid peroxidation, protein degradation and free amino acids and proline accumulation. The free ammonia was the best index to predict the salt stress intensity. Membrane damage increased with Na+ accumulation in the leaves. The results evidence that the root adaptation time in Hoagland solution has influence on the expression of factors capable to alleviate the salt stress effects.

  1. Adaptation and acclimatization to ocean acidification in marine ectotherms : an in situ transplant experiment with polychaetes at a shallow CO2 vent system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Calosi, Piero; Rastrick, Samuel P. S.; Lombardi, Chiara; de Guzman, Heidi J.; Davidson, Laura; Jahnke, Marlene; Giangrande, Adriana; Hardege, Joerg D.; Schulze, Anja; Spicer, John I.; Gambi, Maria-Cristina

    2013-01-01

    Metabolic rate determines the physiological and life-history performances of ectotherms. Thus, the extent to which such rates are sensitive and plastic to environmental perturbation is central to an organism's ability to function in a changing environment. Little is known of long-term metabolic plas

  2. Objective criteria for diagnosing high altitude pulmonary edema in acclimatized patients at altitudes between 2700 m and 3500 m

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chawla, Anuj; Tripathi, K.K.

    2015-01-01

    Background The criteria used for diagnosing high altitude illnesses are largely based on Western literature. This study was undertaken to define objective, simple and reliable diagnostic criteria for high altitude pulmonary edema (HAPE) in Indian soldiers at altitudes between 2700 m and 3500 m. Methods Clinical data of 235 cases of HAPE that occurred between 2700 m and 3500 m were analysed. Receiver operator characteristic (ROC) curve analysis was used to select simple clinical parameters suitable for the diagnosis of HAPE at peripheral medical facilities. Cut-off values and their reliability for the diagnosis of HAPE were defined. Results HAPE occurred 2.8 ± 2.2 days after arrival at altitudes between 2700 m and 3500 m. Breathlessness, cough, chest discomfort and headache were the commonest symptoms. Low pulse oximetry (SPO2) values than normal for this altitude were seen in 89% of patients. ROC analysis of clinical parameters identified a heart rate more than 95 beats per minute (bpm), respiratory rate more than 21 per minute and SPO2 less than 86% while breathing ambient air at this altitude as diagnostic of HAPE. The sensitivity and specificity of these cut-offs was 0.66, 0.83 and 0.82 and 0.94, 0.95 and 0.93 respectively. Conclusion A heart rate of more than 95 bpm, respiratory rate more than 21 per minute and SPO2 less than 86% breathing room air in individuals complaining of breathlessness, cough, chest discomfort or headache within the first 5 days of arrival at altitudes between 2700 m and 3500 m is highly suggestive of HAPE. PMID:26663962

  3. 京藏铁路列车乘务人员高原习服调查研究%Altitude Acclimatization of Coach Attendants Serving Beijing-Tibet Railway

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    姚晶磊; 肖林; 金恩忠; 任骁芳; 石红; 储刚

    2013-01-01

    [Objective] To assess the high altitude adaptability of railway coach crew members and its influencing factors by monitoring their physiological parameters,and to provide reference for future occupational health supervision and work arrangement guidance.[Methods] Pulse oximeter,tonometer,fundus photography,and Lake Louise self-assessment questionnaires were performed on 98 randomly selected coach attendants during the entire journey to examine saturation oxygen (SaO2),intraocular pressure,fundus conditions,and occurrence of acute mountain sickness (AMS).[Results] The oxygen partial pressures of the coach compartments and the blood oxygen pressures of the attendants were negatively correlated with altitude.In the 98 studied subjects,AMS was presented in varying degrees in 94 attendants,and the AMS scores were obviously higher for the attendants with shorter on-duty hours and higher workload (P < 0.05).Moreover,83 subjects presented retinal vascular engorgement and 21 subjects presented retinal hemorrhage and papilledema.[Conclusion] Existing coach oxygen-rich measures cannot sufficiently prevent occurrence of AMS.Both on-duty hours and workload may affect coach attendants' altitude adaptation.Retinal vascular changes can be used as an important indicator of AMS in railway coach attendants.%[目的]通过跟踪监测高原列车乘务人员相关生理指标变化,分析乘务人员高原适应性及影响因素,为高原乘务人员的健康监护及指定作业方式提供依据. [方法]随机对一列京藏线列车98名乘务人员全程监测血氧饱和度(SaO2)、眼压、眼底情况及Lake Louise急性高原病(AMS)自评评分. [结果]车厢内氧分压及乘务员血氧饱和度与海拔高程呈负相关性,94人发生不同程度AMS,在岗时间短及劳动强度大的人群AMS较明显(P<0.05),83人出现视网膜静脉扩张,21人出现视乳头充血水肿. [结论]现行列车富氧措施不能完全防止AMS的发生;在岗时间及劳动强度均对乘务员高原适应性有影响;视网膜血管改变可作为AMS重要指征.

  4. Effects of quantum flux density of photosynthesis and chloroplast ultrastructure in tissue-cultured plantlets and seedlings of Liquidambar styraciflua L. towards improved acclimatization and field survival

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, N.; Wetzstein, H.Y.; Sommer, H.E.

    1985-07-01

    Liquidambar styraciflua L. seedlings and tissue-cultured plantlets were grown under high, medium, or low quantum flux densities. Net photosynthesis, chlorophyll content, and chloroplast ultrastructure of leaves differentiated from these conditions were investigated. Seedling photosynthetic rates at light saturation were positively related to light pretreatments. Cultured plantlets under all light conditions had appreciably higher photosynthetic rates than noncultured seedlings. Chlorophyll in seedlings and plantlets was significantly higher in low light-treated plants. Seedling leaves had chloroplasts with abundant starch regardless of light pretreatment. In high light, starch granules were predominant and associated with disrupted granal structure. Low light seedling chloroplasts had smaller starch grains and well-formed grana. In contrast, tissue culture-differentiated leaves were devoid of starch; grana were well organized in higher quantum flux density treatments, but disorganized at low flux densities. 29 references, 7 figures, 1 table.

  5. Seasonal acclimatization in water flux rate, urine osmolality and kidney water channels in free-living degus : molecular mechanisms, physiological processes and ecological implications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bozinovic, F; Gallardo, PA; Visser, GH; Cortes, A; Bosinovic, F

    2003-01-01

    The environmental modification of an organism's physiology in the field is often hypothesized to be responsible for allowing an organism to adjust to changing biotic and abiotic environmental conditions through increases in biological performance. Here, we examine the phenotypic flexibility of water

  6. Post-capture immune gene expression studies in the deep-sea hydrothermal vent mussel Bathymodiolus azoricus acclimatized to atmospheric pressure

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Barros, I.; Divya, B.; Martins, I.; Vandeperre, F.; Santos, R.S.; Bettencourt, R.

    carried out with oligos corresponding to non-complementary sequences to mitochon- drial 16S rDNA. Gill filaments were visualized under fluorescent light and differential interference contrast (DIC) microscopy using a Leica DM6000 digital microscope (Leica... Microsystems CMS GmbH, Germany) with the 63X objective. The Rhodamine Green and Rhodamine Red fluorochromes were visualized with appropriate green (Abs503/Em528) and red (Abs560/Em580) chan- nels according to their spectrum of absorbance (Abs) and emission (Em...

  7. Brassinosteróide e substratos na aclimatização do abacaxizeiro ‘Imperial’ = Brassinosteroid and substrates in acclimatization of ‘Imperial’ pineapple

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Henrique Aragão Catunda

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar o efeito da aplicação de diferentes concentrações de um análogo de brassinosteróide (BIOBRAS – 16 e de dois substratos sobre o crescimento de mudas micropropagadas do abacaxizeiro ‘Imperial’. O experimento foi conduzido em DBC, em esquema fatorial 2 x 5 x 4, no qual foram avaliadas cincoconcentrações do BIOBRAS - 16 (0; 0,1; 0,3; 0,5 e 1 mg L-1, dois tipos de substratos e quatro épocas de amostragem (60, 90, 120 e 150 dias após transplantio. Os substratos utilizados foram o Plantmax® e outro substrato obtido pela compostagem de uma mistura entre o bagaço-de-cana e torta de filtro (BT. As plântulas foram transplantadas para tubetes cônicos em casa-de-vegetação equipada com nebulizadores intermitentes. As plantas cultivadas no substrato BT e pulverizadas com 0,1 mg L-1 do BIOBRAS - 16 apresentaram maior crescimento da parte aérea, com maior número de folhas, diâmetro de roseta, largurade folha, massa fresca e massa seca, aos 150 dias após transplantio. Nas plantas cultivadas no substrato BT as pulverizações com o BIOBRAS-16 a 0,1 mg L-1 proporcionaram acúmulo de matéria seca 2,8 vezes superior ao valor da testemunha cultivada no substrato Plantmax®. A massa fresca e seca de raízes foram superiores no substrato Plantmax® em relação ao BT, nas últimas épocas de amostragem.This work aimed to evaluate the effects of different concentrations of a brassinoesteroid analogue (BIOBRAS-16 and two substrates on the growth of micropropagated seedlings of ‘Imperial’ pineapple. A randomized block design was used in a 2 x 5 x 4 factorial scheme, evaluating five concentrations of BIOBRAS-16 (0; 0.1; 0.3; 0.5and 1 mg L-1, two types of substrates and four sampling periods (60, 90, 120 and 150 day safter planting. The substrates used were Plantmax® and another obtained from a mix of composting sugar-cane bagasse and filter cake (CC. The seedlings were transplanted tosmall conic tubes and allocated in a greenhouse equipped with an intermittent mist. The plants cultivated in CC substrate and sprayed with 0.1 mg L-1 of BIOBRAS-16 showed higher growth of shoots with greater numbers of leaves, rosette diameter, leaf width, freshand dry matter production at 150 days after planting. The plants that were cultivated on CC substrate and sprayed with BIOBRAS-16 at a 0.1 mg L-1 produced 2.8 times more dry matter than the control cultivated in Plantmax® substrate. The fresh and dry matter of roots were superior in Plantmax® when compared to CC at late sampling periods.

  8. Introduction and Acclimatization of Wild Forgae-- Ⅰ. Ceratoides arborescens%野生牧草的引种驯化——Ⅰ华北驼绒藜

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵书元; 阿拉塔

    2012-01-01

    Ceratoides arborescend is preferred by livestock such as sheep,horses and camels because of its luxuriant foliages, abundant nutrition, rich protein and calcium. It's stem and leaf preserved well in cold season, and the characteristics of drought resistance,cold resistance, barren tolerance made it a kind of excellent xerophil semi-shrub in arid area. It's also a kind of important grass seed for building and planting in non-irrigated pasture. This paper introduces Ceratoides arborescens' exploitation and utilization, morphological characteristics, ecological types and cytology researches, growth and development, adaptation and habitats,building and planting technology,grassland management,nutritional value ;it also gives reference plants ofthe same genus as Ceratoides arborescens for extending plantation, exploitation and utilization.%华北驼绒藜枝叶繁茂,营养丰富,富含蛋白质及钙,为羊、马、骆驼等家畜所喜食。其茎叶在冷季保存良好,并具有抗旱、抗寒、耐瘠薄的特性,是干旱地区的优等半灌木饲草,也是建植灌草结合旱作草地的重要草种之一。概述了华北驼绒藜的开发利用、形态特征、生态型与细胞学研究、生长发育、适应性和生境条件、建植技术与草地管理、营养价值,并介绍了华北驼绒藜的同属植物,以期为更好地推广种植和合理开发利用华北驼绒藜提供参考。

  9. The malacostraca Caspian Sea as object of acclimatization and enrichment of a foоd reserve of fishes of lakes, water basins of foothill and mountain Dagestan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. A. Abdulmedzhidov

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Peracarilae – Paramysis (Paramysis intermedia, Paramysis (Paramysis kessleri, Paramysis (Mesomysis lacustris, Limnomysis benedeni, Niphargoides (Pontogammarus robustoides, can live in mountain lakes of Dagestan.

  10. Geographic and seasonal patterns and limits on the adaptive response to temperature of European Mytilus spp. and Macoma balthica populations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jansen, J.M.; Pronker, A.E.; Kube, S.; Sokolowski, A.; Sola, J.C.; Marquiegui, M.A.; Scheidek, D.; Bonga, W.S.; Wolowicz, M.; Hummel, H.

    2007-01-01

    Seasonal variations in seawater temperature require extensive metabolic acclimatization in cold-blooded organisms inhabiting the coastal waters of Europe. Given the energetic costs of acclimatization, differences in adaptive capacity to climatic conditions are to be expected among distinct populatio

  11. Geographic and seasonal patterns and limits in the adaptive response to temperature of European Mytilus spp. and Macoma balthica populations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jansen, J.M.; Pronker, A.E.; Kube, S.; Sokolowski, A.; Sola, J.C.; Marquiegui, M.A.; Schiedek, D.; Wendelaar Bonga, S.; Wolowicz, M.; Hummel, H.

    2007-01-01

    Seasonal variations in seawater temperature require extensive metabolic acclimatization in cold-blooded organisms inhabiting the coastal waters of Europe. Given the energetic costs of acclimatization, differences in adaptive capacity to climatic conditions are to be expected among distinct populatio

  12. Análise do conforto térmico em galpões avícolas com diferentes sistemas de acondicionamento Thermal comfort analysis in poultry houses with different acclimatization systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dermeval A. Furtado

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available A base deste trabalho foi a análise da influência da tipologia e das condições de conforto térmico ambiental em sete sistemas de acondicionamento de aviários de frangos de corte, localizados na mesorregião do Agreste paraibano. Os sistemas foram os seguintes: telha de amianto sem ventilação artificial; telha de barro sem ventilação artificial; telha de amianto com ventilação artificial; telha de barro com ventilação artificial; telha de amianto com ventilação artificial e nebulização; telha de barro com ventilação artificial e nebulização e telha de amianto com ventilação artificial e aspersão sobre a cobertura. A avaliação foi feita com base na temperatura do ar (TA, na umidade relativa (UR, no índice de temperatura de globo negro e umidade (ITGU e na carga térmica de radiação (CTR em diferentes horários, durante o período de verão. Constatou-se influência da tipologia nas condições de conforto térmico e que em todos os sistemas os índices de conforto variaram ao longo do dia, sendo que a TA, o ITGU e a CTR, apresentaram valores considerados acima do ideal, enquanto a UR ficou dentro da zona de conforto térmico.The study had the objective of analyzing the influence of seven types of roofs on thermal comfort in poultry-house, in the region of "Paraíba Agreste’. The systems were: asbestos tiles and clay tiles without forced ventilation, asbestos tiles and clay tiles with forced ventilation, asbestos tiles and clay tiles with artificial ventilation and fogging and asbestos tiles with forced ventilation, fogging and sprinkling on the roof. The evaluation was based on the results of air temperature (AT, relative humidity (RH, black globe temperature (BGT and the radiation thermal charge (RTC, measured at different diurnal times during the summer. Influence of the roof types on the thermal comfort was observed. In all systems the comfort index evaluated varied during the day and that AT, BGT and RTC showed values higher than those considered optimum. The RH values were within the thermal comfort zone.

  13. Male erectile function during high altitude acclimatization:changes and correlation with many physiopathologic factors%高原习服期男性勃起功能及相关改变

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    裴志伟; 张雪峰; 刘军生; 祁裕

    2010-01-01

    目的 探讨高原习服期男性性功能变化及与多种病理生理因素相关性.方法 医学体检健康的97名已婚男性工人在平原和进入海拔5000 m高原3个月时,测定其催乳素(PRL)、卵泡刺激素(FSH)、黄体生成素(LH)、雌二醇(E2)、睾酮(T)、血氧饱和度(SpO2)、心率(HR)、血压(DBP,SBP),用国际勃起功能指数-5(IIEF-5)评判勃起功能,进入高原后还加测内源性一氧化碳(NO).结果 进入高原前后比较,LH、E2、PRL、SpO2、IIEF-5评分高原时均显著低于平原时(P<0.05或P<0.01);IIEF-5评分大于17者其LH、E2、NO、SpO2高于IIEF-5评分小于17者(P<0.01),IIEF-5评分与SpO2、NO、T、LH、E2呈正相关(P<0.05或P<0.01),与DBP、HR呈负相关(P<0.01).结论 高原男性勃起功能可受到一定影响,这种变化与低氧、内分泌功能紊乱密切相关,其中低氧是始动因素和核心机制.

  14. Análise comparativa do ambiente de aviários de postura com diferentes sistemas de acondicionamento Comparative analysis of the environment of poultry sheds with different systems of acclimatization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guilherme Vitorasso

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available As tipologias dos galpões de galinhas poedeiras e os materiais utilizados principalmente na cobertura são determinantes para uma condição térmica apropriada com vistas à produção. Neste contexto, o objetivo deste trabalho foi identificar diferenças no ambiente interno de dois galpões de poedeiras, utilizando monitoramento e posterior comparação estatística das variáveis do ambiente. A análise dos dados não evidenciou maior conforto térmico no galpão recoberto com telhas de barro, em razão da ausência de lanternim que dificultou a renovação do ar por "efeito chaminé". A concentração de amônia medida no interior de ambas as instalações ficou dentro do limite de conforto. O índice de temperatura e umidade do galpão recoberto com telhas de cerâmica apresentou valores maiores que do galpão recoberto com telha de cimento amianto, mesmo se verificando temperaturas de superfície menores nas telhas de cerâmica, evidenciando os efeitos positivos do lanternim na instalação. Com base nos resultados desta pesquisa, recomendam-se, para a região de Bastos, SP, que os aviários para galinhas de postura sejam construídos com lanternim e prolongamento do beiral e que sejam recobertos com telhas de cerâmica.Poulty house typology and the materials used (mainly for roofing are the determining factors for an appropriate thermal condition aiming at production. In this context, the main point of this paper was to identify differences in the internal environment of two poultry houses, using monitoring and afterwards using statistics for comparing the environmental variables. The data analyzed did not show evidence of better thermal comfort for the house which was covered with ceramic roofing tile, because this house did not have ridged vents, making the hot air exit from the house difficult by the "chimney effect". The ammonia concentration measured inside both houses was within the comfort limit. The temperature and humidity index of the house covered with ceramic roofing tiles was higher than the house which was covered with cement asbestos roofing tile, even though lower temperature on the tiles' surfaces was verified, showing the positive effects of the use of ridge vents at the housing. Based on the results obtained it is recommended for the Bastos, SP region, that poulty houses should be built with the ridge vent and long eaves beyond the roof of ceramic tiles.

  15. Metabolism of winter-acclimatized new Holland honeyeaters Phylidonyris novaehollandiae from Hobart, Tasmania%澳洲塔斯马尼亚霍巴特冬季驯化黄翅澳蜜鸟的代谢率

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    L. P. E. Kusuma YUNI; R.W. ROSE

    2005-01-01

    在5-40℃ 温度范围内,测定了澳大利亚塔斯马尼亚黄翅澳蜜鸟(Phylidonyris novaehollandiae)(平均体重24.1 ± 0.27 g)冬季的耗氧量.结果表明,热中性区是25-35℃.基础代谢率是4.92 ± 0.14 ml/g.h,分别比Lasiewski and Dawson (1967) 和 Aschoff and Pohl (1970)基于体重的关于雀型鸟类的期望值高57%和77%.本研究结果同样也比已经报道的分布在澳洲大陆的该物种的代谢率高[动物学报 51(2):338-343,2005].

  16. Fungos micorrízicos-arbusculares no desenvolvimento de mudas de helicônia e gérbera micropropagadas Application of arbuscular mycorrhiza to micropropagated heliconia and gerbera plants during acclimatization period

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aurora Yoshiko Sato

    1999-03-01

    Full Text Available Plântulas micropropagadas de helicônia (Heliconia sp gérbera (Gerbera sp de vaso, foram aclimatadas em substrato (torta de filtro 50%, solo 30% e areia 20%, inoculado com três espécies de fungo micorrízico (Glomus clarum Nicolson. & Schenck, Glomus etunicatum Becker & Gerdemann e Gigaspora margarita Becker & Hall e uma mistura destas espécies (inóculo múltiplo. As avaliações quanto ao desenvolvimento da parte aérea e do sistema radicular e porcentagem de colonização, foram feitas aos 60 dias para gérbera e aos 90 dias para helicônia, após transplante. As duas espécies comportaram-se de modo diferente em resposta à micorrização. Glomus etunicatum não colonizou bem nenhuma das duas espécies estudadas. Apesar da elevada colonização, a helicônia não se beneficiou da inoculação, enquanto que a gérbera beneficiou-se da inoculação com G. clarum, G. etunicatum e do inóculo misto.Heliconia (Heliconia sp. and pot gerbera plantlets (Gerbera sp. obtained by in vitro micropropagation on Murashige and Skoog (MS medium were inoculated with 3 vesicular arbuscular mycorrhiza (VAM species and a mixture of three species. A control treatment without inoculation was also included. The plantlets were acclimated in a mixture of soil 30%, sand 20% and "torta de filtro" 50%. The fungal species were Glomus clarum, Glomus etunicatum and Gigaspora margarita. At 60 days for gerbera and 90 days for heliconia after the inoculation, fresh and dry matter of the aerial and root parts were determined, and the percentage of mycorrhizal colonization of the roots was obtained. Both species behaved different to mycorrhization. Glomus etunicatum did not show to be effective in colonization of heliconia and gerbera. Colonization was high, but heliconia did not benefit from this inoculation, however Gerbera was benefited by G. clarum, G. etunicatum and mixture inoculation.

  17. Production of 2-hydroxy-4-methoxybenzaldehyde in roots of tissue culture raised and acclimatized plants of Decalepis hamiltonii Wight & Arn., an endangered shrub endemic to Southern India and evaluation of its performance vis-a-vis plants from natural habitat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giridhar, P; Rajasekaran, T; Nagarajan, S; Ravishankar, G A

    2004-01-01

    Axillary buds obtained from field grown plants of D. hamiltonii were used to initiate multiple shoots on Murashige and Skoog's medium (MS) supplemented with 2 mg L(-1) 6-benzyl aminopurine (BA) and 0.5 mg L(-1) indole-3-acetic acid (IAA). Profuse rooting was achieved when the actively growing shoots were cultured on MS medium supplemented with 1.0 mg l(-1) indole-3-butyric acid (IBA). Regenerated plants were grown successfully in the plains, in contrast to wild growth in high altitudes and rocky crevices of hilly regions. Roots of different sizes from one-year-old tissue culture raised field grown plants had the same profile of 2-hydroxy-4-methoxybenzaldehyde as that of wild plants. A maximum of 0.14% and 0.12% 2-hydroxy-4-methoxybenzaldehyde was produced in roots of one year old tissue culture derived plants and greenhouse grown plants respectively.

  18. Ex vitro acclimatization of Cattleya forbesii and Laelia purpurata seedlings in a selection of substrates = Aclimatização ex-vitro de mudas de Cattleya forbesii e Laelia purpurata em diferentes substratos.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Donato Seidel Júnior

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Four substrates were compared (peat, no. 2 gravel only, mixture of no. 2 gravel and peat at a 3:1 ratio, and xaxim for use in ex vitro growth of Cattleya forbesii and Laelia purpurata - Orquidacea. A substrate x species interaction was observed for the variables vigor and height, showing that each species has its own specificity for substrate. For C. forbesii, xaxim placed first in two of the four assessed parameters. Next came the gravel:peat substrates and peat in the second position for two parameters and in third place for two. In last place was gravel, which was in fourth place for all four parameters assessed. For L. purpurata, the substrates with the greatest number of parameters in first and second positions were gravel:peat and peat, both with two first positions, one second and one third. Next was xaxim, which had one second position, two third positions and one fourth. As thelast came gravel, which had one second position and three fourth positions. Xaxim was the best substrate for C. forbesii, but could be replaced, with a minor reduction in performance, by the no. 2 gravel:peat mixture. For L. purpurata, the best substrate was no. 2 gravel:peat mixture. The low effectiveness of the no. 2 gravel substrate when compared with no. 2gravel:peat provides evidence of the importance of organic matter for these orchids.Quatro substratos (turfa, pedra brita nº 2, mistura de turfa: pedrabrita nº 2 na proporção 1:3 e xaxim foram testados sobre o crescimento ex-vitro de Cattleya forbesii e Laelia purpurata – Orquidácea. Foi observada interação significativa entre substrato xespécie para as variáveis vigor e altura, demonstrando que cada espécie tem sua especificidade para o substrato. Para a C. forbesii, o xaxim obteve duas primeiras posições em todos os quatro parâmetros avaliados. Em seguida, vieram os substratos turfa:pedra brita nº 2 e a turfa com dois parâmetros ocupando a segunda posição e dois, a terceira. Por último a pedra brita nº 2, que nos quatro parâmetros avaliados, ocupou sempre o último lugar. Para a L. purpurata os substratos com maior número de parâmetros nas primeira e segundaposições foram a turfa:pedra brita nº 2 e a turfa, ambos ocupando duas posições em primeiro lugar, uma em segundo e uma em terceiro. Em seguida, teve-se o xaxim, que ocupou uma posição em segundo lugar, dois em terceiro e um em quarto. Por último, tevese a pedra brita nº 2, que ocupou uma posição em segundo lugar e três em quarto. Xaxim foio melhor substrato para C. forbesii, mas que poderá ser substituído, com pequena desvantagem, pela mistura turfa:pedra brita nº 2. Para a L. purpurata, o melhor substrato foi a mistura turfa:pedra brita nº 2. Para L. purpurata, o melhor substrato foi a mistura turfa: pedra brita nº 2. A baixa eficiência do substrato de pedra brita nº 2 quando comparado com a turfa:pedra brita nº 2 evidencia a importância da matéria orgânica para estas orquídeas.

  19. Spatial Disorientation Training – Demonstration and Avoidance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bles, W.

    2008-01-01

    Acclimatization ; Aerospace medicine ; Attitude indicators ; Aviation accidents ; Flight maneuvers ; Flight simulators ; Human factors engineering ; Orientation ; Perception ; Physiological effects ; Pilot training ; Pilots (personnel) ; Responses ; Reviews ; Situational awareness ; Spatial disorien

  20. Cold induced peripheral vasodilation at high altitudes- a field study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Daanen, H.A.M.; Ruiten, H.J.A. van

    2000-01-01

    A significant reduction in cold-induced vasodilation (CIVD) is observed at high altitudes. No agreement is found in the literature about acclimatization effects on CIVD. Two studies were performed to investigate the effect of altitude acclimatization on CIVD. In the first study 13 male subjects imme

  1. Study on rectal temperature and scores of comprehensive sensation during heat acclimatization training in artificial hot-humid environment%人工湿热环境热习服训练中肛温和综合感受评分的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邓元; 党晨珀; 张雷; 刘小冬

    2013-01-01

    目的 研究接受人工湿热环境下热习服训练前后肛温、心率、综合感受评分变化与人体对湿热环境适应改善情况的关系.方法 在温度39.0℃、湿度80.00%的湿热条件下,以某高校30名男性健康志愿者为对象,进行为期1周的湿热环境训练和测试,监测每次训练前后肛温、心率、综合感受评分.对所得数据进行方差分析并做Tukey检验,分别以肛温、综合感受评分为衡量标准计算每次训练后对热环境适应的改善率.结果和结论 肛温和综合感受评分对反映热环境适应的改善状况具有一致性.建议将肛温和综合感受评分一同作为判定对湿热环境适应改善的参考标准.不支持将心率作为参考标准,但仍支持将其与肛温、综合感受评分一同作为安全控制标准.%Objective To study the relationship between adaptability improvement to hot-humid environment with the changes of rectal temperature,heart rate,and scores of comprehensive sensation before and after training in hot-humid environment.Methods Thirty healthy male university students were trained and tested under a temperature of 39.0℃ and a relative humidity of 80.00% for a week.Their rectal temperature,heart rate,and scores of comprehensive sensation were monitored every time before and after training.The obtained data were subjected to ANOVA analysis and Tukey-tests.The improvement rate of rectal temperature and improvement rate of comprehensive sensation scores were calculated each time after training in hot-humid environment.Results and conclusion We found that rectal temperature and scores of comprehensive sensation were consistent in demonstrating the improvement of the adaptability to hot-humid.It is suggested that rectal temperature and scores of comprehensive sensation should be used as reference standards for adaptability improvement to hothumid environment,and heart rate is not recommended,but the combination of three indices should be used as safety control standard.

  2. Acclimatization of bananas ‘Prata-Anã’: methods and times for degreening after cold storage. = Climatização de bananas ‘Prata-Anã’: métodos e tempos para o desverdecimento após o armazenamento refrigerado.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcos André de Souza Prill

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available The control and standardization of the ripening of bananas brings economic advantages for the agricultural marketing. Thus, the aim of this study was to evaluate the application of methods (Muffling and Ethrel® and times of degreening aimed on the standardization and uniformity of bananas ‘Prata-Anã’ produced in Boa Vista/RR. After harvested, the fruits were selected in the form of bouquets, sanitized and stored under refrigeration for four periods of time, 0, 10, 20 and 30 days at 12 ± 1°C and 93 ± 2% RH. The treatments were: T1–muffling + 0 days of cold storage (CS, T2–Ethrel® + 0 days of cold storage,T3–muffling + 10 days of cold storage; T4–Ethrel® + 10 days of cold storage; T5–muffling + 20 days of cold storage; T6–Ethrel ® + 20 days of cold storage; T7–muffling + 20 days of cold storage; T8–Ethrel ® + 30 days of cold storage. After each period of cold storage, the fruits were subjected to degreening and analyzed with 1, 2, 3 and 4 days thereafter. The following analyses were performed: lesions in the skin, ethylene production, pH, titratable acidity (TA total and reduced sugars. There were no significant effects to determine what is the best method of muffling, however, it was found that the longer the period of cold storage, the lower was the period of maintaining the bananas ‘Prata-Anã’ quality after the degreening. It is thereforerecommended that the degreenning be carried out safely for up 20 days (12 ± 1oC e 93 ± 2% de R.U. It is expected, in this situation, the maintenance of the sensory quality attributes in bananas for at least three days, average marketing. =O controle e padronização do amadurecimento em bananas trazem vantagens econômicas para o setor agrícola de comercialização. Assim, objetivou-se com o presente trabalho avaliar a aplicação de métodos (Abafamento e Ethrel® e tempos de desverdecimento visando à padronização e uniformização de bananas ‘Prata-Anã’ produzidas em Boa Vista/RR. Depois de colhidos, os frutos foram selecionados no formato de buquês, sanitizados e armazenados sob refrigeração (AR por quatro períodos de tempo, com 0, 10, 20 e 30 dias em refrigeração a 12 ± 1 oC e 93 ± 2% de U.R. Os tratamentos foram: T1–abafamento + 0 dias de AR; T2–Ethrel® + 0 dias de AR; T3–Abafamento + 10 dias de AR; T4–Ethrel® + 10 dias de AR; T5–Abafamento + 20 dias de AR; T6–Ethrel® + 20 dias de AR; T7–Abafamento + 30 dias de AR; T8–Ethrel® + 30 dias de AR. Após cada período de armazenamento refrigerado (AR, os frutos foram analizados com 1, 2, 3 e 4 dias após cada tratamento. As análises realizadas foram: lesões na casca, concentração de etileno, pH, acidez titulável (AT e açúcares totais e redutores. Independentemente dos métodos de desverdecimento, verificou-se que quanto maior o período de AR, menor o período de manutenção da qualidade das bananas ‘Prata-Anã’ após o desverdecimento. Assim, recomenda-se que o desverdecimento sejarealizado com segurança por até 20 dias (12 ± 1oC e 93 ± 2% de U.R. Espera-se, nessa situação, a manutenção dos atributos de qualidade sensorial nas bananas por no mínimo três dias, período médio de comercialização.

  3. Aclimatação do híbrido da tilápia vermelha Oreochromis niloticus sp. e utilização em ambientes marinhos como isca viva para a pesca de tunideos - Acclimatization of red tilápia hybrids, Oreochromis niloticus sp., and use in sea environments as lively bait in the baitboat fishery of tuna

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hilton Amaral Junior

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available ResumenLa tilápia roja de Florida Oreochromis sp, obtenido mediante el cruce de O.mossambicus y O. urulepis hornorum, se caracteriza por tener altaresistencia a la salinidad y ser muy tolerante a una variedad de condiciones climáticas. Por lo tanto, es ampliamente utilizado en los cultivos comerciales en algunas partes del mundo tanto en agua dulce y salobre. Se enfrenta actualmente a un problema importante en relación a la disponibilidad de cebo vivo, que usa sardina como atracción a los atunes. Además, crea un conflicto con los pescadores industriales que utilizan el mismo recurso, así como los pescadores artesanales y la sociedad. Este trabajo consistió en una evaluaciónde la resistencia a la salinidad de la tilápia roja, lo que sugiere una nueva técnica para la aclimatación de los juveniles de esta especie. Los lotes de alevines de tilápia roja sexualmente invertido se crearon en el Campo Experimental de Piscicultura de Camboriú - CEPC/Epagri y recreado en el laboratorio de maricultura UNIVALI - EMC, Penha SC. Los parámetros analizados fueron: la tolerancia a la salinidad, la supervivencia y la capacidad de almacenamiento. Los resultados de esta experiencia indican que esta especie responde a las necesidades requeridas para este tipo de pesca. Losjuveniles adaptados a la salinidad, se han utilizado para los ensayos como cebo vivo en la pesca de atún. Este trabajo ofrece una alternativa a cebo vivo en la pesca de atún.ResumoA tilápia vermelha da Flórida (Oreochromis sp, obtida através do cruzamento de O. mossambicus e O. urulepis hornorum, se caracteriza por apresentar grande resistência à salinidade e ser bastante tolerante a uma diversidade de condições climáticas. Sendo assim, é bastante utilizada em cultivos comerciais em algumas partes do mundo, tanto em água doce como salobra. A pesca de atum e afins com vara e isca-viva, atualmente vem enfrentando um grande problema em relação à disponibilidade da isca propriamente dita, que utiliza juvenis de sardinha como atrativo dos cardumes. Também, gera um conseqüente conflito com os pescadores industriais que utilizam o mesmo recurso quando adultos, bem como com os pescadores artesanais e a sociedade. O presente trabalho consistiu em realizar uma avaliação da resistência a salinidade da tilápia vermelha, sugerindo uma nova técnica de aclimatação para juvenis desta espécie. Lotes de alevinos de tilápias vermelhas revertidas sexualmente foram criadas no Campo Experimental de Piscicultura de Camboriú – CEPC/Epagri e recriados no Laboratório de Maricultura da UNIVALI – CEM, Penha SC. Os parâmetros analisados foram: Tolerância à salinidade, sobrevivência e capacidade de estocagem. Os resultados deste experimento, indicam que esta espécie atende as necessidades exigidas para este tipo de pesca. Os alevinos adaptados à salinidade, foram utilizados em testes como isca viva na pesca de tunídeos. Este trabalho oferece uma alternativa de isca viva na pesca de tunídeos

  4. Neurophysiological Problems in Snow Bound High Altitude Areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. Selvamurthy

    1984-10-01

    Full Text Available A series of studies have been conducted to evaluate the neurophysiological responses in young healthy soldiers during acclimatization at 3,500m altitude in Western Himalayas. The responses of autonomic nervous system, electroencephalogram hypothalamic thermoregulatory efficiency, orthostatic tolerance, sleep profile and effects of sleep deprivation have been studied in fresh inductees during three to five weeks of acclimatization at high altitude and compared with those of one year acclimatized lowlanders and high altitude natives. Physiological significance of these neurophysiological responses in the process of altitude adaptation is discussed in the light of current knowledge in the field.

  5. Earthworm tolerance to residual agricultural pesticide contamination

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Givaudan, Nicolas; Binet, Françoise; Le Bot, Barbara

    2014-01-01

    This study investigates if acclimatization to residual pesticide contamination in agricultural soils is reflected in detoxification, antioxidant enzyme activities and energy budget of earthworms. Five fields within a joint agricultural area exhibited different chemical and farming histories from ...

  6. Cholesterol-independent effects of methyl-β-cyclodextrin on chemical synapses.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kiel G Ormerod

    Full Text Available The cholesterol chelating agent, methyl-β-cyclodextrin (MβCD, alters synaptic function in many systems. At crayfish neuromuscular junctions, MβCD is reported to reduce excitatory junctional potentials (EJPs by impairing impulse propagation to synaptic terminals, and to have no postsynaptic effects. We examined the degree to which physiological effects of MβCD correlate with its ability to reduce cholesterol, and used thermal acclimatization as an alternative method to modify cholesterol levels. MβCD impaired impulse propagation and decreased EJP amplitude by 40% (P<0.05 in preparations from crayfish acclimatized to 14 °C but not from those acclimatized to 21 °C. The reduction in EJP amplitude in the cold-acclimatized group was associated with a 49% reduction in quantal content (P<0.05. MβCD had no effect on input resistance in muscle fibers but decreased sensitivity to the neurotransmitter L-glutamate in both warm- and cold-acclimatized groups. This effect was less pronounced and reversible in the warm-acclimatized group (90% reduction in cold, P<0.05; 50% reduction in warm, P<0.05. MβCD reduced cholesterol in isolated nerve and muscle from cold- and warm-acclimatized groups by comparable amounts (nerve: 29% cold, 25% warm; muscle: 20% cold, 18% warm; P<0.05. This effect was reversed by cholesterol loading, but only in the warm-acclimatized group. Thus, effects of MβCD on glutamate-sensitivity correlated with its ability to reduce cholesterol, but effects on impulse propagation and resulting EJP amplitude did not. Our results indicate that MβCD can affect both presynaptic and postsynaptic properties, and that some effects of MβCD are unrelated to cholesterol chelation.

  7. Exercise in the heat: strategies to minimize the adverse effects on performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terrados, N; Maughan, R J

    1995-01-01

    Exercise in the heat is usually associated with reduced performance; both dehydration and hyperthermia adversely affect mental and physical performance. For athletes from temperate climates, the negative effects of heat had humidity can be attenuated by a period of acclimatization. This requires up to 10-14 days. Endurance-trained individuals already show some of the adaptations that accompany acclimatization, but further adaptation occurs with training in the heat. Prior dehydration has a negative effect even on exercise of short duration where sweat losses are small. The athlete must begin exercise fully hydrated and regular ingestion of fluids is beneficial where the exercise duration exceeds 40 min. Dilute carbohydrate-electrolyte (sodium) drinks are best for fluid replacement and also supply some substrate for the exercising muscles. Post-exercise rehydration requires electrolyte as well as volume replacement. In extreme conditions, neither acclimatization nor fluid replacement will allow hard exercise to be performed without some risk of heat illness.

  8. Pineapple (Ananas comosus cv. pérola ex vitro growth and mycorrhizal colonization affected by in vitro sucrose concentration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alceu Kunze

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of sucrose concentration in the culture medium on growth and on the establishment of mycorrhizas during the acclimatization of pineapple cv. Pérola. The plantlets were micropropagated in MS culture medium with 0, 10, 20 and 30 g L-1 of sucrose and then they were acclimatized during 12 weeks under greenhouse conditions, in a sandy soil - compost mixture, uninoculated or inoculated with a Rhizophagus clarus isolate. Plantlets from the culture medium with 20 g and 30 g of sucrose L-1 showed higher shoot and root biomass than those from sugar-free medium. Mycorrhizal colonization was lower in plantlets micropropagated in sucrose-free medium, but the intensity of arbuscules did not differ among treatments. In the 12-week period of acclimatization, mycorrhizal colonization had no effect on plant biomass.

  9. Recovering vitrified carnation (Dianthus caryophyllus L.) shoots using Bacto-Peptone and its subfractions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, S; Hagimori, M; Iwai, S

    1993-05-01

    Vitrified shoots regenerated from carnation petals (Dianthus caryophyllus L. cv. Scania) were recovered by culturing them in a medium containing 3.0 g/l Bacto-Peptone. Wax structures not found on vitrified shoots developed on the abaxial surface of leaves of recovered shoots and on those of normal leaves. Recovered shoots were rooted and successfully acclimatized while vitrified shoots could not survive the acclimatization process. The Bacto-Peptone solution was fractionated and the efficiency of each fraction for the recovery of vitrification was examined. Only basic, non high molecular fractions whose molecular weight was less than 10,000 were effective.

  10. Timing the arrival at 2340m altitude for aerobic performance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schuler, B; Thomsen, JJ; Gassmann, M

    2007-01-01

    This study tested the hypothesis that maximal oxygen uptake (VO2max) and performance increase upon altitude acclimatization at moderate altitude. Eight elite cyclists were studied at sea level, and after 1 (Day 1), 7 (Day 7), 14 (Day 14) and 21 (Day 21) days of exposure to 2340 m. Capillary blood...... samples were taken on these days before performing two consecutive maximal exercise trials. Acclimatization reased hemoglobin concentration and arterial oxygen content. On Day 1, VO2max and time to exhaustion (at 80% of sea-level maximal power output) decreased by 12.8% (P

  11. Consensus recommendations on training and competing in the heat

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Racinais, Sébastien; Alonso, Juan-Manuel; Coutts, Aaron J

    2015-01-01

    conditions. The most important intervention one can adopt to reduce physiological strain and optimize performance is to heat acclimatize. Heat acclimatization should comprise repeated exercise-heat exposures over 1-2 weeks. In addition, athletes should initiate competition and training in an euhydrated state...... and minimize dehydration during exercise. Following the development of commercial cooling systems (e.g., cooling vests), athletes can implement cooling strategies to facilitate heat loss or increase heat storage capacity before training or competing in the heat. Moreover, event organizers should plan for large...

  12. Consensus recommendations on training and competing in the heat

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Racinais, S; Alonso, J M; Coutts, A J

    2015-01-01

    conditions. The most important intervention one can adopt to reduce physiological strain and optimize performance is to heat acclimatize. Heat acclimatization should comprise repeated exercise-heat exposures over 1-2 weeks. In addition, athletes should initiate competition and training in a euhydrated state...... and minimize dehydration during exercise. Following the development of commercial cooling systems (e.g., cooling vest), athletes can implement cooling strategies to facilitate heat loss or increase heat storage capacity before training or competing in the heat. Moreover, event organizers should plan for large...

  13. The emergence of cold-induced brown adipocytes in mouse white fat depots is determined predominantly by white to brown adipocyte transdifferentiation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barbatelli, G.; Murano, I.; Madsen, Lise;

    2010-01-01

    The origin of brown adipocytes arising in white adipose tissue (WAT) after cold acclimatization is unclear. Here, we demonstrate that several UCP1-immunoreactive brown adipocytes occurring in WAT after cold acclimatization have a mixed morphology (paucilocular adipocytes). These cells also had a ...... for C/EBP (an antimitotic protein), whereas Ccna1 expression (related to cell proliferation) was unchanged. Overall, our data strongly suggest that the cold-induced emergence of brown adipocytes in WAT predominantly reflects ß3-adrenoceptor-mediated transdifferentiation....

  14. Modelling the effects of dietary methionine level and form on postprandial plasma essential amino acid profiles in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rolland, Marine; Feekings, Jordan P.; Dalsgaard, Anne Johanne Tang

    2016-01-01

    essential amino acid (EAA) in rainbow trout. Twelve diets were formulated with pea and soya protein concentrate or fish meal as the main protein ingredients and were supplemented or not with increasing amount of either crystalline or agar-coated methionine. Fish were acclimatized to one of the 12 diets...

  15. Daily variation in body mass and thermoregulation in male Hwamei (Garrulax canorus) at different seasons

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lidan Zhao; Runmei Wang; Yunan Wu; Mengsi Wu; Weihong Zheng; Jinsong Liu

    2015-01-01

    Background:Acclimatization to winter conditions is an essential prerequisite for survival of small passerines of the northern temperate zone. In the present study, we measured diurnal variations in body mass, body temperature and basal metabolic rate (BMR) for seasonally acclimatized Hwameis (Garrulax canorus). Methods:Body mass was determined with a Sartorius balance. Metabolic rates of Hwameis were measured with an open-circuit respirometry system. Results:Body masses varied with time of day and were higher in daytime for Hwameis in both summer and winter, and body masses in winter were higher compared to that in summer. Body temperatures of Hwameis were higher in daytime, and the summer acclimatized birds had significantly higher body temperatures compared to the winter acclimatized birds. BMRs of Hwameis were significantly higher during the daytime compared to the nighttime of the daily cycle in both summer and winter, and Hwameis in winter had significantly higher BMRs than that in summer. Conclusions:This result showed that Hwameis rely mostly on metabolic capacity to maintain their body temperature in cold weathers, and Hwameis exhibited daily and seasonal flexibility in morphology and physiology which is important under changing environmental conditions.

  16. Selecting the best inoculation for anaerobic thermophilic treatment in sewage plants; Seleccion de inoculo para el tratamiento anaerobio termofilico de lodos de depuradora

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Riau, V.; Rubia, M. A. de la; Forster, T.; Perez, M.

    2009-07-01

    The objective of the present work is to propose a suitable method to obtain an thermophilic inoculum source able for the anaerobic thermophilic digestion of sludge raw. Also, the acclimatization period to the temperature and the substrate is study as well as the thermophilic process at different solids retention of solids is analyzed. (Author) 18 refs.

  17. Experimental and finite element study of the effect of temperature and moisture on the tangential tensile strength and fracture behavior in timber logs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Finn; Ormarsson, Sigurdur

    2014-01-01

    and numerical simulations by finite element modeling (FEM) concerning the TSt and fracture behavior of Norway spruce under various climatic conditions. Thin log disc specimens were studied to simplify the description of the moisture flow in the samples. The specimens designed for TS were acclimatized...

  18. Effect of ammonium and acetate on methanogenic pathway and methanogenic community composition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fotidis, Ioannis; Karakashev, Dimitar Borisov; Kotsopoulos, T. A.

    2013-01-01

    exposure to different ammonia concentrations. The methanogenic pathway was determined by following the production of (14) CH(4) and (14) CO(2) from acetate labeled in the methyl group (C-2). Microbial communities' composition was determined by fluorescence in situ hybridization. Upon acclimatization...

  19. Mycorrhizal synthesis between Lactarius deliciosus and Arbutus unedo L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomes, Filomena; Suárez, Diego; Santos, Rita; Silva, Márcia; Gaspar, Daniel; Machado, Helena

    2016-04-01

    Arbutoid mycorrhizae were synthesized in vitro between Arbutus unedo L. and two isolates of Lactarius deliciosus. The fungal isolates were obtained from sporocarps collected under Pinus sylvestris and in a mixed forest stand of Quercus suber and Pinus pinea. Synthesis tubes filled with a mixture of sterilized peat, vermiculite, and perlite imbibed with nutrient solution were used. Two inoculation methods using solid and liquid media were tested. Shoots from an adult selected clone of A. unedo were used after in vitro rooting by auxin dipping. After 3 months of shoots transfer to the substrate, the root systems were examined for arbutoid mycorrhizae formation and later on ex vitro conditions, 9 months after acclimatization. The inoculum treatment with liquid medium improved the mycorrhizal development for both isolates, in vitro. Sterilized substrate for plant acclimatization increased the mycorrhizal development. The arbutoid mycorrhizae were observed in vitro as well as 9 months after acclimatization. Standard arbutoid mycorrhiza features were observed: pale yellow mantle, typical cruciform appearance, Hartig net (HN), and intracellular hyphal complexes, both confined to the epidermis. L. deliciosus mycorrhizae synthetized in vitro persisted 9 months after plant acclimatization. Morphological observations were confirmed by molecular techniques.

  20. Daily variation in body mass and thermoregulation in male Hwamei(Garrulax canorus) at different seasons

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lidan; Zhao; Runmei; Wang; Yunan; Wu; Mengsi; Wu; Weihong; Zheng; Jinsong; Liu

    2015-01-01

    Background: Acclimatization to winter conditions is an essential prerequisite for survival of small passerines of the northern temperate zone. In the present study, we measured diurnal variations in body mass, body temperature and basal metabolic rate(BMR) for seasonally acclimatized Hwameis(Garrulax canorus).Methods: Body mass was determined with a Sartorius balance. Metabolic rates of Hwameis were measured with an open-circuit respirometry system.Results: Body masses varied with time of day and were higher in daytime for Hwameis in both summer and winter, and body masses in winter were higher compared to that in summer. Body temperatures of Hwameis were higher in daytime, and the summer acclimatized birds had significantly higher body temperatures compared to the winter acclimatized birds. BMRs of Hwameis were significantly higher during the daytime compared to the nighttime of the daily cycle in both summer and winter, and Hwameis in winter had significantly higher BMRs than that in summer.Conclusions: This result showed that Hwameis rely mostly on metabolic capacity to maintain their body temperature in cold weathers, and Hwameis exhibited daily and seasonal flexibility in morphology and physiology which is important under changing environmental conditions.

  1. Biodegradation Characteristics of Environmental Endocrine Disruptor Di-n-butyl Phthalate

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIN WANG; QI-FANG LUO

    2005-01-01

    Objective The biodegradation characteristics of di-n-butyl phthalate (DBP), an environmental endocrine disruptor, were studied by the method of dominant bacteria and immobilized microorganisms. Methods Taking DBP as the only carbon source to acclimatize the collected activated sludge, the concentration of DBP increased progressively in the process of acclimatization. Plate streaking was used to separate 1 strain of the degradation dominant bacteria after acclimatization. Better conditions to degrade DBP by the bacterium could be obtained through orthogonal experiments and the bacterium was identified. Then the acclimated activated sludge was made to immobilize the microorganism using polyvinyl alcohol as entrapment agent. The immobilized microorganism degraded DBP at different conditions. Results The appropriate conditions to degrade DBP by the dominant bacteria were: degradation time, 32 h; DBP concentration, 200 mg/L; rate of shaking incubator, 100 r/min; pH, 7 and temperature, 30℃. DBP could be degraded by more than 95% under such conditions. The bacteria were identified as pseudomonas. The proliferated immobilized microorganisms degraded DBP more effectively and more adapted to temperature and pH than the free acclimated activated sludge. Conclusion One strain of DBP degradation dominant bacteria was separated from the acclimatized activated sludge. It could grow with DBP as the only carbon source and energy, and degraded DBP effectively. After having been immobilized and proliferated, the dominant bacteria could keep a higher biological activity and degrade DBP more effectively than activated sludge.

  2. Interaction between the blood fluke, Sanguinicola inermis and humoral components of the immune response of carp, Cyprinus carpio

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roberts, M.L.; Lewis, J.W.; Wiegertjes, G.F.; Hoole, D.

    2005-01-01

    The effect of Sanguinicola inermis on serum antibody and complement activity in Cyprinus carpio was assessed using an ELISA and haemolytic assays. Possible immune evasion strategies were assessed using immunodetection of host proteins on the surface of the parasite. Carp acclimatized to 20 or 25 °C

  3. High–frequency in vitro plantlet regeneration from apical bud as a novel explant of Carum copticum L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mansoureh Salehi

    2014-05-01

    Conclusion: In this study, a simple and reliable regeneration and acclimatization protocol for Carum copticum has been presented. This protocol can be found very advantageous for a variety of purposes, including mass multiplication of Carum species, medicinal plant breeding studies and transgenic plant production.

  4. Evaluation of macronutrient demand in calla lily (Zantedeschia aethiopica)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carneiro, Daniella N. M.; Lopes Coelho, Lívia; Paiva, Patrícia D. O.

    2015-01-01

    . Following acclimatization, micropropagated shoots were cultivated in pots with coconut fiber as a substrate and were fertilized with a modified version of Malavolta solution, as described. For each tested plot, evaluations were performed every 30 days for 12 months. We evaluated the dry mass of each plant...

  5. Cloning: plants – micropropagation/tissue culture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clonal micropropagation is the multiplication of the buds and shoots that occur in leaf axils on a defined nutrient medium in an aseptic in vitro environment. The resulting shoots are either subdivided for continued multiplication or rooted and acclimatized to the greenhouse or field. Micropropagati...

  6. USSR Report, Agriculture, No. 1375.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-03-18

    vines that are acclimatized to Cri- mean conditions and they gather 100-120 quintals of grapes from the young vineyards. The winery processes more than...strawberries and the method of pruning intensive orchards. And they themselves, of course, "paid" with interest for this with their own experi

  7. INFLUENCIA DE DIFERENTES SUBSTRATOS E FERTILIZANTES NA ACLIMATIZAÇÃO DE PLANTAS DE FIGUEIRA (FICUS CARICA L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ester Alice Ferreira

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Due to a great amount of environmental differences between in vitro and ex vitro conditions, the acclimatization phase of plantlets is one of the essential points to guarantee the success in obtaining micropropagated plants. Using a substrate with chemical and organic composition is important on this phase, because it will influence in the nutritional state of the seedlings. The present paper aimed to evaluate the effects of different substrate on acclimatization of fig plants 'Roxo de Valinhos'. It were selected uniform plantlets within a 5 cm of height which were transferred to the greenhouse, with an intermittent mist system, with 50% mesh of shadow by sombrite® planted in stereo foam trays where were submitted to the following treatments: Plantmax®; carbonized rice husk; soil in combination with Osmocote®; manure (3:1:1; NPKMg. The experimental design adopted was randomized blocks in factorial scheme and the evaluation was done one hundred and twenty days after the acclimatization by the following characteristics: plant high (cm, number of leaves/plant, dry weight of aerial part and roots and total weight (g/plant. As results, it was verified that on the acclimatization of fig plantlets 'Roxo de Valinhos' using of substrate soil + carbonized rice husk+ manure promotted highest number of leaves and largest weight of aerial dry matter were obtained Plantmax® substrate without any addition of fertilizers.

  8. Recovery from transportation by road of farmed European eel (Anguilla anguilla)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boerrigter, J.G.J.; Manuel, R.; Bos, van den R.; Roques, J.A.C.; Spanings, T.; Flik, G.; Vis, van de J.W.

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study was to assess the effects of transportation of marketable eel (0.15 kg) in the Netherlands with respect to welfare. Eels (Anguilla anguilla) were obtained from a commercial farm and acclimatized for 7 weeks at the laboratory. Fish were transported according to regular com

  9. ТОЧКА КРИСТАЛЛИЗАЦИИ ТКАНЕЙ ТЕЛА МЕДОНОСНЫХ ПЧЕЛ APIS MELLIFERA MELLIFERA L. И APIS MELLIFERA CARNICA

    OpenAIRE

    Мурылёв, Александр; Петухов, Александр

    2011-01-01

    The year cycle of crystallization point of different departments of a body of honeybee is shown in dynamics. Distinction of crystallization point of tissues of honeybee in Apis mellifera mellifera and Apis mellifera carnica is noted. The given indicator will allow to explain the mechanism of adaptation of bees at physiological level to adverse winter conditions and acclimatization on the north of the range.

  10. 40 CFR 799.9120 - TSCA acute dermal toxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true TSCA acute dermal toxicity. 799.9120 Section 799.9120 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) TOXIC SUBSTANCES...) Preparations. Healthy young adult animals are acclimatized to the laboratory conditions for at least 5...

  11. 40 CFR 799.9325 - TSCA 90-day dermal toxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true TSCA 90-day dermal toxicity. 799.9325 Section 799.9325 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) TOXIC SUBSTANCES... healthy animals as soon as possible after weaning and acclimatization. (B) Dosing should generally...

  12. 40 CFR 799.9410 - TSCA chronic toxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true TSCA chronic toxicity. 799.9410 Section 799.9410 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) TOXIC SUBSTANCES... healthy animals as soon as possible after weaning and acclimatization. (B) Dosing of rodents...

  13. 40 CFR 799.9310 - TSCA 90-day oral toxicity in rodents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true TSCA 90-day oral toxicity in rodents. 799.9310 Section 799.9310 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) TOXIC... with young healthy animals as soon as possible after weaning and acclimatization. (B) Dosing of...

  14. Length determination on industrial polymer parts from measurement performed under transient temperature conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dalla Costa, Giuseppe; Madruga, Daniel González; De Chiffre, Leonardo;

    2016-01-01

    A way to reduce the cost of metrology in manufacturing is to perform dimensional verification directly in the production environment, avoiding a long and expensive acclimatization phase. In this work the effect of a transient temperature state, typical of the production environment, was investiga...

  15. Variation in bioactive principles of Artemisia amygdalina Decne. in wild and tissue culture regenerants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasool, Rafia; Ganai, Bashir Ahmad; Akbar, Seema; Kamili, Azra Nahaid; Dar, Muhammad Younus; Masood, Akbar

    2013-05-01

    Wild and tissue culture raised regenerants of Artemisia amygdalina, a critically endangered and endemic plant of Kashmir and North West Frontier Provinces of Pakistan were screened for the amount of bioactive principles and in particular antimalarial compound artemesinin. Phytochemical screening of extracts revealed the presence of terpenes, alkaloids, phenolics, tannins (polyphenolics), cardiac glycosides and steroids in wild (aerial, inflorescence) and tissue culture regenerants (in vitro grown plant, callus and green house acclimatized plants). HPLC of Artemisia amygdalina revealed the presence of artemesinin in petroleum ether extracts of wild aerial part, tissue culture raised plant and green house acclimatized plants. Acetonitrile and water in 70:30 ratios at flow rate of 1ml/min was standardised as mobile phase. Retention time for standard chromatogram was 6.7. Wild inflorescences and callus does not produce artemesinin. This is the first report of phytochemical screening and artemesinin estimation of wild and tissue culture raised regenerants of Artemisia amygdalina.

  16. Sleep apneas and high altitude newcomers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldenberg, F; Richalet, J P; Onnen, I; Antezana, A M

    1992-10-01

    Sleep and respiration data from two French medical high altitude expeditions (Annapurna 4,800 m and Mt Sajama 6,542 m) are presented. Difficulties in maintaining sleep and a SWS decrease were found with periodic breathing (PB) during both non-REM and REM sleep. Extent of PB varied considerably among subjects and was not correlated to the number of arousals but to the intercurrent wakefulness duration. There was a positive correlation between the time spent in PB and the individual hypoxic ventilatory drive. The relation between PB, nocturnal desaturation, and mountain sickness intensity are discussed. Acclimatization decreased the latency toward PB and improved sleep. Hypnotic benzodiazepine intake (loprazolam 1 mg) did not worsen either SWS depression or apneas and allowed normal sleep reappearance after acclimatization.

  17. Condition-specific RNA editing in the coral symbiont Symbiodinium microadriaticum

    KAUST Repository

    Liew, Yi Jin

    2017-03-01

    RNA editing is a rare post-transcriptional event that provides cells with an additional level of gene expression regulation. It has been implicated in various processes including adaptation, viral defence and RNA interference; however, its potential role as a mechanism in acclimatization has just recently been recognised. Here, we show that RNA editing occurs in 1.6% of all nuclear-encoded genes of Symbiodinium microadriaticum, a dinoflagellate symbiont of reef-building corals. All base-substitution edit types were present, and statistically significant motifs were associated with three edit types. Strikingly, a subset of genes exhibited condition-specific editing patterns in response to different stressors that resulted in significant increases of non-synonymous changes. We posit that this previously unrecognised mechanism extends this organism’s capability to respond to stress beyond what is encoded by the genome. This in turn may provide further acclimatization capacity to these organisms, and by extension, their coral hosts.

  18. Local stressors reduce coral resilience to bleaching.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carilli, Jessica E; Norris, Richard D; Black, Bryan A; Walsh, Sheila M; McField, Melanie

    2009-07-22

    Coral bleaching, during which corals lose their symbiotic dinoflagellates, typically corresponds with periods of intense heat stress, and appears to be increasing in frequency and geographic extent as the climate warms. A fundamental question in coral reef ecology is whether chronic local stress reduces coral resistance and resilience from episodic stress such as bleaching, or alternatively promotes acclimatization, potentially increasing resistance and resilience. Here we show that following a major bleaching event, Montastraea faveolata coral growth rates at sites with higher local anthropogenic stressors remained suppressed for at least 8 years, while coral growth rates at sites with lower stress recovered in 2-3 years. Instead of promoting acclimatization, our data indicate that background stress reduces coral fitness and resilience to episodic events. We also suggest that reducing chronic stress through local coral reef management efforts may increase coral resilience to global climate change.

  19. Importance of hemoglobin concentration to exercise: acute manipulations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Calbet, José A L; Lundby, Carsten; Koskolou, Maria;

    2006-01-01

    An acute reduction of blood hemoglobin concentration ([Hb]), even when the circulating blood volume is maintained, results in lower (.)V(O(2)(max) and endurance performance, due to the reduction of the oxygen carrying capacity of blood. Conversely, an increase of [Hb] is associated with enhanced...... (.)V(O(2)(max) and endurance capacity, that is also proportional to the increase in the oxygen carrying capacity of blood. The effects on endurance capacity appear more pronounced and prolonged than on (.)V(O(2)(max). During submaximal exercise, there is a tight coupling between O(2) demand and O(2...... on maximal exercise capacity or (.)V(O(2)(max) during exercise in acute hypoxia. Likewise, reducing [Hb] in altitude-acclimatized humans to pre-acclimatization values has no effect on (.)V(O(2)(max) during exercise in hypoxia....

  20. Reduced heterotrophy in the stony coral Galaxea fascicularis after life-long exposure to elevated carbon dioxide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Joy N.; Strahl, Julia; Noonan, Sam H. C.; Schmidt, Gertraud M.; Richter, Claudio; Fabricius, Katharina E.

    2016-06-01

    Ocean acidification imposes many physiological, energetic, structural and ecological challenges to stony corals. While some corals may increase autotrophy under ocean acidification, another potential mechanism to alleviate some of the adverse effects on their physiology is to increase heterotrophy. We compared the feeding rates of Galaxea fascicularis colonies that have lived their entire lives under ocean acidification conditions at natural carbon dioxide (CO2) seeps with colonies living under present-day CO2 conditions. When provided with the same quantity and composition of zooplankton as food, corals acclimatized to high CO2 showed 2.8 to 4.8 times depressed rates of zooplankton feeding. Results were consistent over four experiments, from two expeditions and both in field and chamber measurements. Unless replenished by other sources, reduced zooplankton uptake in G. fascicularis acclimatized to ocean acidification is likely to entail a shortage of vital nutrients, potentially jeopardizing their health and survival in future oceans.

  1. Nemesia root hair response to paper pulp substrate for micropropagation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Labrousse, Pascal; Delmail, David; Decou, Raphaël; Carlué, Michel; Lhernould, Sabine; Krausz, Pierre

    2012-01-01

    Agar substrates for in vitro culture are well adapted to plant micropropagation, but not to plant rooting and acclimatization. Conversely, paper-pulp-based substrates appear as potentially well adapted for in vitro culture and functional root production. To reinforce this hypothesis, this study compares in vitro development of nemesia on several substrates. Strong differences between nemesia roots growing in agar or in paper-pulp substrates were evidenced through scanning electron microscopy. Roots developed in agar have shorter hairs, larger rhizodermal cells, and less organized root caps than those growing on paper pulp. In conclusion, it should be noted that in this study, in vitro microporous substrates such as paper pulp lead to the production of similar root hairs to those found in greenhouse peat substrates. Consequently, if agar could be used for micropropagation, rooting, and plant acclimatization, enhancement could be achieved if rooting stage was performed on micro-porous substrates such as paper pulp.

  2. Biodegradation kinetics during different start up of the anaerobic tapered fluidized bed reactor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rangasamy Parthiban

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Kinetic study for different start up conditions of the anaerobic digestion of wastewater derived from the sago processingfrom tubers of tapioca (Mannihot utillisema is discussed. The experiment is carried out with synthetic waste water usinga tapered fluidized bed reactor. Mesoporous granulated activated carbon is used as a bacterial support. The kinetic modelfollows half order kinetics for substrate utilization and for methane formation and it exhibits an order of 0.20 during thestart up of the reactor without acclimatization. For the remaining start up with acclimatized sludge, kinetic parameters areexpressed in terms of Langmuir-Hinshelwood kinetics for the substrate utilization. The methane formation kinetics followsan order of the reaction as 0.30. The values of the kinetic constants are in the range of 0.13–0.21.

  3. Reduced heterotrophy in the stony coral Galaxea fascicularis after life-long exposure to elevated carbon dioxide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Joy N.; Strahl, Julia; Noonan, Sam H. C.; Schmidt, Gertraud M.; Richter, Claudio; Fabricius, Katharina E.

    2016-01-01

    Ocean acidification imposes many physiological, energetic, structural and ecological challenges to stony corals. While some corals may increase autotrophy under ocean acidification, another potential mechanism to alleviate some of the adverse effects on their physiology is to increase heterotrophy. We compared the feeding rates of Galaxea fascicularis colonies that have lived their entire lives under ocean acidification conditions at natural carbon dioxide (CO2) seeps with colonies living under present-day CO2 conditions. When provided with the same quantity and composition of zooplankton as food, corals acclimatized to high CO2 showed 2.8 to 4.8 times depressed rates of zooplankton feeding. Results were consistent over four experiments, from two expeditions and both in field and chamber measurements. Unless replenished by other sources, reduced zooplankton uptake in G. fascicularis acclimatized to ocean acidification is likely to entail a shortage of vital nutrients, potentially jeopardizing their health and survival in future oceans. PMID:27255977

  4. Methionine-rich storage protein gene in the rice stem borer, Chilo suppressalis, is expressed during diapause in response to cold acclimation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sonoda, S; Fukumoto, K; Izumi, Y; Ashfaq, M; Yoshida, H; Tsumuki, H

    2006-12-01

    Gene expressions of acclimatized and non-acclimatized diapausing larvae were examined in Chilo suppressalis using a subtraction technique. A gene encoding a methionine-rich storage protein, CsSP1, was cloned and its complete cDNA sequence was determined. Potentially, CsSP1 encoded a 758-amino acid protein, with a calculated molecular weight of 88.8 kDa. The expression level of CsSP1 was higher in nondiapausing larvae than in diapausing ones. The CsSP1 expression was up-regulated in diapausing larvae when the temperature of cold acclimation was shifted to 5 degrees C. The up-regulated level was maintained at 40 days after incubation at 5 degrees C. In nondiapausing larvae, CsSP1 expression was down-regulated when the temperature was below developmental zero. Involvement of CsSP1 in diapause, cold tolerance acquisition and postdiapause development in C. suppressalis is discussed.

  5. Endophytic bacteria isolated from orchid and their potential to promote plant growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faria, Deise Cristina; Dias, Armando Cavalcante Franco; Melo, Itamar Soares; de Carvalho Costa, Francisco Eduardo

    2013-02-01

    Twelve endophytic bacteria were isolated from the meristem of in vitro Cymbidium eburneum orchid, and screened according to indole yield quantified by colorimetric assay, in vitro phosphate solubilization, and potential for plant growth promotion under greenhouse conditions. Eight strains with positive results were classified into the genus Paenibacillus by FAME profile, and evaluated for their ability to increase survival and promote the growth of in vitro germinated Cattleya loddigesii seedlings during the acclimatization process. The obtained results showed that all strains produced detectable indole levels and did not exhibit potential for solubilizing inorganic phosphate. Particularly, an increase of the total biomass and number of leaves was observed. Two strains of Paenibacillus macerans promoted plant growth under greenhouse conditions. None of the treatments had a deleterious effect on growth of inoculated plants. These results suggest that these bacterial effects could be potentially useful to promote plant growth during seedling acclimatization in orchid species other than the species of origin.

  6. Denitrification of nitrate and nitrite by 'Candidatus Accumulibacter phosphatis' clade IC.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saad, Sondos A; Welles, Laurens; Abbas, Ben; Lopez-Vazquez, Carlos M; van Loosdrecht, Mark C M; Brdjanovic, Damir

    2016-11-15

    Phosphate accumulating organisms (PAO) are assumed to use nitrate as external electron acceptor, allowing an efficient integration of simultaneous nitrogen and phosphate removal with minimal organic carbon (COD) requirements. However, contradicting findings appear in literature regarding the denitrification capacities of PAO due to the lack of clade specific highly enriched PAO cultures. Whereas some studies suggest that only PAO clade I may be capable of using nitrate as external electron acceptor for anoxic P-uptake, other studies indicate that PAO clade II may be responsible for anoxic P-removal. In the present study, a highly enriched PAO clade IC culture (>99% according to FISH) was cultivated in an SBR operated under Anaerobic/Oxic conditions and subsequently exposed to Anaerobic/Anoxic/Oxic conditions using nitrate as electron acceptor. Before and after acclimatization to the presence of nitrate, the aerobic and anoxic (nitrate and nitrite) activities of the PAO I culture were assessed through the execution of batch tests using either acetate or propionate as electron donor. In the presence of nitrate, significant P-uptake by PAO I was not observed before or after acclimatization. Using nitrite as electron acceptor, limited nitrite removal rates were observed before acclimatization with lower rates in the acetate fed reactor without P-uptake and slightly higher in the propionate fed reactor with a marginal anoxic P-uptake. Only after acclimatization to nitrate, simultaneous P and nitrite removal was observed. This study suggests that PAO clade IC is not capable of using nitrate as external electron acceptor for anoxic P-removal. The elucidation of the metabolic capacities for individual PAO clades helps in better understanding and optimization of the relation between microbial ecology and process performance in enhanced biological phosphate removal processes.

  7. Catechol biodegradation kinetics using Candida parapsilopsis

    OpenAIRE

    Maurício Rigo; Ranulfo Monte Alegre; José Raniere Mazile Vidal Bezerra; Narjara Coelho; Reinaldo Gaspar Bastos

    2010-01-01

    This study evaluated the biodegradation of catechol by a yeast strain of Candida parapsilopsis in standard medium in Erlenmeyer flasks. Results shown that the highest concentration of catechol caused the longer lag period, demonstrating that acclimatized cultures could completely degrade an initial catechol concentration of 910 mg/L within 48 h. Haldane's model validated the experimental data adequately for growth kinetics over the studied catechol concentration ranges of 36 to 910 mg/L. The ...

  8. Nemesia Root Hair Response to Paper Pulp Substrate for Micropropagation

    OpenAIRE

    Pascal Labrousse; David Delmail; Raphaël Decou; Michel Carlué; Sabine Lhernould; Pierre Krausz,

    2012-01-01

    Agar substrates for in vitro culture are well adapted to plant micropropagation, but not to plant rooting and acclimatization. Conversely, paper-pulp-based substrates appear as potentially well adapted for in vitro culture and functional root production. To reinforce this hypothesis, this study compares in vitro development of nemesia on several substrates. Strong differences between nemesia roots growing in agar or in paper-pulp substrates were evidenced through scanning electron microscopy....

  9. Early fruit setting from tissue culture-derived mangosteen tree

    OpenAIRE

    Sompong Te-chato; Mongkol Lim

    2004-01-01

    Vitro-plantlets of mangosteen derived from culturing young leaves were acclimatized in 1993. Small and large polybag seedlings were carefully raised under controlled environmental conditions until 1994 when they were ready to be transferred to the field. During this stage, morphological abnormalities of the seedlings were recorded. After transferring to the field for 5-6 years (1994-1999) at Yi Ngo District, Narathiwat Province and Klong Hoi Khong District, Songkhla Province, morphological ch...

  10. Stress free oral medication in captive cervids

    OpenAIRE

    G.M. Das; A. Srivastav; Chakraborty, D.; Gupta, S. K.; Nigam, P

    2009-01-01

    Efficacy of oral administration of fenbendazole was studied against gastrointestinal helminthes in captive Cheetal (Axis axis) at Hisar Deer Park from November 2006- January 2007. A novel method of administration of oral medication that included acclimatizing cheetal to feed individually from specific containers and providing drugs in feed after habituation was developed. Efficacy of fenbendazole was assessed by egg per gram EPG count of faecal sample on day 11 and 19 post 1st treatment and 4...

  11. EFFECT OF PERMEABLE VESSEL CLOSURE AND GELLING AGENT ON REDUCTION OF HYPERHYDRICITY IN IN VITRO CULTURE OF CARNATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Winarto

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Hyperhydricity, an abnormal morphological appearance and physiologicalfunction, is an important problem in carnation tissue culture. The problem causes premature flowering, high occurrence of abnormal shoots, difficulty in transferring hyperhydric plantlets to soil, and low survival rate of plantlets. High relative humidity and the water potential are considered as the key factors involved in the abnormality. Furthermore, permeable culture vessel and gelling agent were assured to be high potential treatment to eliminate it. Objective of this research was to reduce  hyperhydricity in regenerants of carnation using different permeable vessel closures and gelling agents and to assess the multiplication and  acclimatization abilities of recovered shoots. Experiment was arranged in randomized complete block design with four replications. First factor was different types of closure, i.e. cotton wool, plastic wrap, parafilm and aluminium foil, while second one was gelling agents, i.e. bacto agar, phytagel, swallow agar, and Type 900 agar. The recovered shoots were then multiplied, rooted, and acclimatized. The results showed that hyperhydricity was successfully reduced by applying permeable closure (cotton wool and plastic wrap in combination with Type 900 agar. The combination of plastic wrap and Type 900 agar was the most appropriate treatment in reducing hyperhydricity and producing good quality shoots. The treatment reduced the problem down to 23% of total condition of hyperhydricity (100% and increased leaf chlorophyll content from 0.0883 to 0.1288 mg mg-1. The plastic wrap was easily applied and cheaper material compared to cotton wool. The recovered shoots were able to produce 1-3 healthy axillary shoots and easily rooted on half-strength MS. The recovered plantlets were simply acclimatized with survival rate up to 100% on kossas peat + soil (1:1, v/v and flowered 4-5 months after acclimatization with decreasing in number and size of flower.

  12. Amine-synthesizing enzyme N-substituted formamide deformylase: Screening, purification, characterization, and gene cloning

    OpenAIRE

    Fukatsu, Hiroshi; Hashimoto, Yoshiteru; Goda, Masahiko; Higashibata, Hiroki; Kobayashi, Michihiko

    2004-01-01

    N-substituted formamide was produced through the hydration of an isonitrile by isonitrile hydratase in the isonitrile metabolism. The former compound was further degraded by a microorganism, strain F164, which was isolated from soil through an acclimatization culture. The N-substituted formamide-degrading microorganism was identified as Arthrobacter pascens. The microbial degradation was found to proceed through an enzymatic reaction, the N-substituted formamide being hydrolyzed to yield the ...

  13. USING PHYTOREMEDIATION AND BIOREMEDIATION FOR PROTECTION SOIL NEAR GRAVEYARD

    OpenAIRE

    Katarzyna Ignatowicz

    2016-01-01

    The aim of present research was to assess the usefulness of Basket willow (Salix viminalis) to phytoremediation and bioremediation of sorption subsoil contaminated with pesticides. Studies upon purification of sorption material consisting of a soil and composting sewage sludge were conducted under pot experiment conditions. The study design included control pot along with 3 other ones polluted with pesticides. The vegetation season has lasted since spring till late autumn 2015. After acclimat...

  14. Milk residues and performance of lactating dairy cows administered high doses of monensin

    OpenAIRE

    Bagg, Randal; Vessie, Gordon H.; Dick, C. Paul; Duffield, Todd; Wilson, Jeff B.; Aramini, Jeff J

    2005-01-01

    Milk residues and performance were evaluated in lactating cows that were fed up to 10 times the recommended dose of monensin. Following an acclimatization period of 14 d, during which cows were fed a standard lactating cow total mixed ration containing 24 ppm monensin, 18 lactating Holstein dairy cows were grouped according to the level of feed intake and then randomly assigned within each group to 1 of 3 challenge rations delivering 72, 144, and 240 ppm monensin. Outcome measurements include...

  15. Formation of genotoxic nitroPAH compounds in fish exposed to ambient nitrite and PAH

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Shailaja, M.S.; Rajamanickam, R.; Wahidullah, S.

    -relevant, sub-lethal concentrations of the two stressors, and characterising the biliary metabolites. Materials and Methods a) Exposure protocol: Juvenile O. mossambicus (9.3 to 11 g, n=24) obtained from a local estuarine fish farm were acclimatized... medium were 1 mg l-1 and 1 ? M, respectively. Control fish (n=6) were exposed to equivalent concentrations of nitrite or phenanthrene only. In another set of experiments, O. mossambicus (n=6) were administered a single intra...

  16. Accumulated Effects of Work under Heat Stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-04-01

    for acclimatized men. The American Society of Heating, Refrigeration and Air- Conditioning Engineers ( ASHRAE ), on the other hand recommended that the... refrigeration . The sera and urines were kept frozen until just prior to analysis. 2. Blood and urine chemical analysis: Within 5 min after the urine was pa...All the certificates of illness stored in the archives of the plants were collected for each employee from January 1st 1971 to December 31, 1976. The

  17. Predictive Models of Acute Mountain Sickness after Rapid Ascent to Various Altitudes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    SR, Rock PB , Fulco CS , et al. Women at altitude: ventilatory acclimatization at 4,300 m. J Appl Physiol. 2001;91(14):1791–9. 25. Peoples GE, Gerlinger...Approved for public release; distribution unlimited. I3 . SUPPLEMENTARY NOTES 14. ABSTRACT Purpose: Despite decades of research, no predictive models of...Beidleman BA, Muza SR, Fulco CS , et al. Intermittent altitude exposures reduce acute mountain sickness at 4300 m. Clin Sci. 2004;106(3):321–8. 4. Beidleman

  18. Mycorrhizal synthesis between Pisolithus arhizus and adult clones of Arbutus unedo in vitro and in nursery

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Filomena Gomes; Helena Machado; Esteban San Martin; A. Portugal; Jorge M. Canhoto

    2013-01-01

    Arbutoid mycorrhizae were synthesized between adult se-lected clones of Arbutus unedo L. and Pisolithus arhizus. Two micro-propagated clones were tested:AL1, in vitro and C1 (acclimatized plants) in nursery and later in a field trial. In vitro, rooted shoots were trans-ferred to test tubes containing the substrate previously inoculated with mycelium cultured on agar. In the nursery, two inoculation treatments were tested (vegetative inocula or dry sporocarps) and compared to con-trol plants. In the field trial, plants from nursery inoculation treatments were compared and an additional control treatment using seedlings was implemented. Plant height was evaluated 4 months later in the nursery and 20 months later in the field trial. Roots were examined by morpho-logical and histological studies: a) in vitro plantlets one month after inoculation and nine months after acclimatization;and b) 20 months after the field trial was established. Arbutoid mycorrhizae were observed in vitro one month after inoculation, indicating compatibility between A. unedo and P. arhizus. These showed the presence of a mantle, Hartig net, and intracellular hyphal complexes confined to the epidermal root cells. Arbutoid mycorrhizae were also observed nine months after acclimatiza-tion in inoculated and control plants. In order to confirm the identity of mycorrhizae, molecular techniques were used, in previously inoculated in vitro plants, 12 months after acclimatization. Thelephora and Hebeloma mycorrhizae, two types of highly competitive and widespread my-corrhizae on nurseries were identified. In the nursery, dry sporocarp treatment improved plant height after four months. In a field trial (20 months later), plants growth did not show significant differences. By this time, mycorrhized roots with Cenococcum geophilum and other types were identified. These results and their implications on A. unedo breed-ing program are discussed.

  19. Transitioning the Defense Automated Neurobehavioral Assessment (DANA) to Operational Use

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-12-01

    foundation to explore the molecular mechanisms of acclimatization and its retention. Citation: Subudhi AW, Bourdillon N, Bucher J, Davis C, Elliott JE...acclimatiza- tion and its retention. These might include physiological responses that we did not measure, or molecular and cellular responses in a...the following people and organizations were key to our success: Marcelino Gonzales and Enrique Vargas, Instituto Biologia de Boliviano Human

  20. Regulation of Heat Stress by HSF1 and GR

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-09-01

    AWARD NUMBER: W81XWH-14-2-0133 TITLE: “Regulation of Heat Stress by HSF1 and GR” PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: Yifan Chen CONTRACTING ORGANIZATION...SUBTITLE “Regulation of Heat Stress by HSF1 and GR” 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER W81XWH-14-2-0133 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S...greater resistance against heat stress compared to unacclimatized ones. Heat -acclimatized cells were associated with significant translocation of both

  1. Adaptation to High Altitude

    OpenAIRE

    1984-01-01

    Hypoxia is inconsequential for physiologically fit persons below an effective altitude of 2640 metres. At higher altitudes, the adaptation is brought about by four main factors, viz., hyperventilation, increased diffusion of oxygen across alveolar membrane, erythrocythemia and maintenance of body hydration. Carbon dioxide sensitivity is markedly elevated at high altitude, both in sojourners and acclimatized low-landers. The greater pulmonary diffusing capacity observed in high altitude native...

  2. Management of Heat and Cold Stress -- Guidance to NATO Medical Personnel (Gestion des contraintes thermiques (chaleur et froid) Conseils aux personnels medicaux de I’OTAN)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-01

    Brussels BELGIUM Christian.carton@mil.be Prof. Dr. Vahur Ööpik Institute of Exercise Biology and Physiotherapy Estonian Centre of Behavioural and...including prior history of heat stroke , use of medications, alcohol or drugs abuse). Fit, healthy, heat acclimatized, fully hydrated, and well-rested...casualties (heat exhaustion and heat stroke ). For these casualties, preparation should include arrangements for rapid cooling (cool or cold water

  3. Mitochondrial function in human skeletal muscle following high-altitude exposure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobs, Robert A; Boushel, Robert; Wright-Paradis, Cynthia

    2013-01-01

    Studies regarding mitochondrial modifications in human skeletal muscle following acclimatization to high altitude are conflicting, and these inconsistencies may be due to the prevalence of representing mitochondrial function through static and isolated measurements of specific mitochondrial.......059) to limit mass-specific maximal oxidative phosphorylation capacity. These data suggest that 9-11 days of exposure to high altitude do not markedly modify integrated measures of mitochondrial functional capacity in skeletal muscle despite significant decrements in the concentrations of enzymes involved...

  4. Detection of antibodies to Oropouche virus in non-human primates in Goiânia City, Goiás

    OpenAIRE

    2016-01-01

    Abstract: INTRODUCTION Arboviruses are associated with human disease, and non-human primates (NHPs) are important primary hosts. This study shows the detection of antibodies to Oropouche virus (OROV) in NHPs either living in urban parks or acclimatized at the Wild Animal Screening Center, Goiânia city. METHODS: Fifty blood samples were analyzed by hemagglutination-inhibition and neutralization assays. RESULTS: Two monkeys (Alouatta caraya) had antibodies to OROV by both techniques. CONCL...

  5. Control of breathing and the circulation in high-altitude mammals and birds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivy, Catherine M; Scott, Graham R

    2015-08-01

    Hypoxia is an unremitting stressor at high altitudes that places a premium on oxygen transport by the respiratory and cardiovascular systems. Phenotypic plasticity and genotypic adaptation at various steps in the O2 cascade could help offset the effects of hypoxia on cellular O2 supply in high-altitude natives. In this review, we will discuss the unique mechanisms by which ventilation, cardiac output, and blood flow are controlled in high-altitude mammals and birds. Acclimatization to high altitudes leads to some changes in respiratory and cardiovascular control that increase O2 transport in hypoxia (e.g., ventilatory acclimatization to hypoxia). However, acclimatization or development in hypoxia can also modify cardiorespiratory control in ways that are maladaptive for O2 transport. Hypoxia responses that arose as short-term solutions to O2 deprivation (e.g., peripheral vasoconstriction) or regional variation in O2 levels in the lungs (i.e., hypoxic pulmonary vasoconstriction) are detrimental at in chronic high-altitude hypoxia. Evolved changes in cardiorespiratory control have arisen in many high-altitude taxa, including increases in effective ventilation, attenuation of hypoxic pulmonary vasoconstriction, and changes in catecholamine sensitivity of the heart and systemic vasculature. Parallel evolution of some of these changes in independent highland lineages supports their adaptive significance. Much less is known about the genomic bases and potential interactive effects of adaptation, acclimatization, developmental plasticity, and trans-generational epigenetic transfer on cardiorespiratory control. Future work to understand these various influences on breathing and circulation in high-altitude natives will help elucidate how complex physiological systems can be pushed to their limits to maintain cellular function in hypoxia.

  6. Fermentation Kinetics for Xylitol Production by a Pichia stipitis d-Xylulokinase Mutant Previously Grown in Spent Sulfite Liquor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigues, Rita C. L. B.; Lu, Chenfeng; Lin, Bernice; Jeffries, Thomas W.

    Spent sulfite pulping liquor (SSL) contains lignin, which is present as lignosulfonate, and hemicelluloses that are present as hydrolyzed carbohydrates. To reduce the biological oxygen demand of SSL associated with dissolved sugars, we studied the capacity of Pichia stipitis FPL-YS30 (xyl3Δ) to convert these sugars into useful products. FPL-YS30 produces a negligible amount of ethanol while converting xylose into xylitol. This work describes the xylose fermentation kinetics of yeast strain P.stipitis FPL-YS30. Yeast was grown in rich medium supplemented with different carbon sources: glucose, xylose, or ammonia-base SSL. The SSL and glucose-acclimatized cells showed similar maximum specific growth rates (0.146 h-1). The highest xylose consumption at the beginning of the fermentation process occurred using cells precultivated in xylose, which showed relatively high specific activity of glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (EC 1.1.1.49). However, the maximum specific rates of xylose consumption (0.19 gxylose/gcel h) and xylitol production (0.059 gxylitol/gcel h) were obtained with cells acclimatized in glucose, in which the ratio between xylose reductase (EC 1.1.1.21) and xylitol dehydrogenase (EC 1.1.1.9) was kept at higher level (0.82). In this case, xylitol production (31.6 g/l) was 19 and 8% higher than in SSL and xylose-acclimatized cells, respectively. Maximum glycerol (6.26 g/l) and arabitol (0.206 g/l) production were obtained using SSL and xylose-acclimatized cells, respectively. The medium composition used for the yeast precultivation directly reflected their xylose fermentation performance. The SSL could be used as a carbon source for cell production. However, the inoculum condition to obtain a high cell concentration in SSL needs to be optimized.

  7. Translational environmental biology: cell biology informing conservation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Traylor-Knowles, Nikki; Palumbi, Stephen R

    2014-05-01

    Typically, findings from cell biology have been beneficial for preventing human disease. However, translational applications from cell biology can also be applied to conservation efforts, such as protecting coral reefs. Recent efforts to understand the cell biological mechanisms maintaining coral health such as innate immunity and acclimatization have prompted new developments in conservation. Similar to biomedicine, we urge that future efforts should focus on better frameworks for biomarker development to protect coral reefs.

  8. Ex situ Conservation of Three Endemic and/or Endangered Dianthus Species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victoria CRISTEA

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Within the current context of declining biodiversity, the botanical gardens play an essential role in its conservation. Dianthus callizonus, D. glacialis ssp. gelidus and D. spiculifolius are the species that we seek to preserve in "Alexandru Borza" Botanical Garden of Cluj-Napoca (Romania. Several replicates were collected for each taxon from different populations in order to avoid the genetic uniformity. The material collected from the natural sites, was planted on a rockery, specially designed for this collection in the Botanical Garden. At the time of planting, each individual was sampled for setting up an in vitro collection and further biochemical and molecular analyses. In case of ex situ outdoor conservation of the three Dianthus species, 80.6% of the individuals collected in the field survived during the first year but the percentage decreased drastically after four years. In the case of in situ collected individuals, as well as in the case of in vitro individuals, D. spiculifolius had the best ability to acclimatize in the Botanical Garden, and D. callizonus presented the lowest number of surviving individuals. The ex vitro acclimatization of the plantlets had 80% efficiency at 10ºC, using three different substrates: soil and pearl stone mix 1/1, soil and sand mix 1/1 and pearl stone. All the three species are preserved in vitro, whereas the plantlets are acclimatized outdoors. Ex situ conservation of these species will have a positive impact on the biodiversity conservation.

  9. Performance Enhancement Of Mems-Based Microbial Fuel Cells (μMFC) For Microscale Power Generation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Şen Doğan, Begüm; Afşar Erkal, Nilüfer; Özgür, Ebru; Zorlu, Özge; Külah, Haluk

    2016-11-01

    This paper reports the design, fabrication, and testing of a microliter scale Microbial Fuel Cell (μMFC) based on silicon MEMS fabrication technology. μMFC systems are operated under different loads or open circuit to compare the effect of different acclimatization conditions on start-up time. Shewanella oneidensis MR-1 is preferred to be the biocatalyst. The internal resistance is calculated as 20 kΩ under these conditions. Acclimatization of μMFC under a finite load resulted in shorter start-up time (30 hours) when compared to the open load case. Power and current densities normalized to anode area are 2 μW/cm2 and 12 μA/cm2 respectively. When the load resistance value is closer to the internal resistance of the μMFC, higher power and current densities are achieved as expected, and it resulted in a shorter start-up time. Further studies focusing on the different acclimatization techniques for μMFC could pave the way to use μMFCs as fast and efficient portable power sources.

  10. Effects of High Altitude on Sleep and Respiratory System and Theirs Adaptations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Turhan San

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available High-altitude (HA environments have adverse effects on the normal functioning body of people accustomed to living at low altitudes because of the change in barometric pressure which causes decrease in the amount of oxygen leading to hypobaric hypoxia. Sustained exposure to hypoxia has adverse effects on body weight, muscle structure and exercise capacity, mental functioning, and sleep quality. The most important step of acclimatization is the hyperventilation which is achieved by hypoxic ventilatory response of the peripheral chemoreceptors. Hyperventilation results in increase in arterial carbondioxide concentration. Altitude also affects sleep and cardiac output, which is the other determinant of oxygen delivery. Upon initial exposure to HA, the resting pulse rate increases rapidly, but with acclimatization, heart rate and cardiac output tend to fall. Another important component that leads to decrease in cardiac output is the reduction in the stroke volume with acclimatization. During sleep at HA, the levels of CO2 in the blood can drop very low and this can switch off the drive to breathe. Only after the body senses a further drop in O2 levels breathing is started again. Periodic breathing is thought to result from instability in the control system through the hypoxic drive or the response to CO2.

  11. Phenotypic plasticity in sex pheromone production in Bicyclus anynana butterflies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dion, Emilie; Monteiro, Antónia; Yew, Joanne Y

    2016-12-14

    Phenotypic plasticity refers to the environmental control of phenotypes. Cues experienced during development (developmental plasticity) or during adulthood (acclimatization) can both affect adult phenotypes. Phenotypic plasticity has been described in many traits but examples of developmental plasticity in physiological traits, in particular, remain scarce. We examined developmental plasticity and acclimatization in pheromone production in the butterfly Bicyclus anynana in response to rearing temperature. B. anynana lives in the African tropics where warm rearing temperatures of the wet season produce active males that court and females that choose, whereas cooler temperatures of the dry season lead to choosy less active males and courting females. We hypothesized that if male pheromone production is costly, it should be reduced in the dry season form. After describing the ultrastructure of pheromone producing cells, we showed that dry season males produced significantly less sex pheromones than wet season males, partly due to acclimatization and partly due to developmental plasticity. Variation in levels of one of the compounds is associated with differential regulation of a pheromone biosynthetic enzyme gene. This plasticity might be an adaptation to minimize pheromone production costs during the stressful dry season.

  12. Selective upregulation of lipid metabolism in skeletal muscle of foraging juvenile king penguins: an integrative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teulier, Loic; Dégletagne, Cyril; Rey, Benjamin; Tornos, Jérémy; Keime, Céline; de Dinechin, Marc; Raccurt, Mireille; Rouanet, Jean-Louis; Roussel, Damien; Duchamp, Claude

    2012-06-22

    The passage from shore to marine life of juvenile penguins represents a major energetic challenge to fuel intense and prolonged demands for thermoregulation and locomotion. Some functional changes developed at this crucial step were investigated by comparing pre-fledging king penguins with sea-acclimatized (SA) juveniles (Aptenodytes patagonicus). Transcriptomic analysis of pectoralis muscle biopsies revealed that most genes encoding proteins involved in lipid transport or catabolism were upregulated, while genes involved in carbohydrate metabolism were mostly downregulated in SA birds. Determination of muscle enzymatic activities showed no changes in enzymes involved in the glycolytic pathway, but increased 3-hydroxyacyl-CoA dehydrogenase, an enzyme of the β-oxidation pathway. The respiratory rates of isolated muscle mitochondria were much higher with a substrate arising from lipid metabolism (palmitoyl-L-carnitine) in SA juveniles than in terrestrial controls, while no difference emerged with a substrate arising from carbohydrate metabolism (pyruvate). In vivo, perfusion of a lipid emulsion induced a fourfold larger thermogenic effect in SA than in control juveniles. The present integrative study shows that fuel selection towards lipid oxidation characterizes penguin acclimatization to marine life. Such acclimatization may involve thyroid hormones through their nuclear beta receptor and nuclear coactivators.

  13. Decolorization of Mordant Orange-1 by Marinobacter algicola MO-17

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. S. Shertate

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: The textile industries use different types of dyes in their processing units which are liberated in natural marine water bodies. This release of dyes in turn affect the marine flora and fauna very adversely. Approach: The release of textile dyes into the environment is a matter of concern due to the toxicity, mutagenicity, carcinogenicity and xenobiotic nature. Hence, considerable attention has been given in determining the ability of marine microorganism in decolorization and degradation of textile dyes. Results: The present study deals with the decolorization of Mordant Orange-1 was carried out using the acclimatized Marinobacter algicola MO-17 isolated from natural marine environment. The acclimatized strain was capable of decolorizing 800 μg mL-1 of the dye at high salt concentration (12% in 24 h. The percent decolorization of the dye was moderated by spectroscopy at 385 nm (λmax. Conclusion/Recommendations: The spectrophotometric analysis showed 78.78% decolorization in Nutrient Broth and 76.78% decolorization in Half Strength Nutrient Broth. The percent Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD reduction of the dye by the strain was 90%. From the study performed, we conclude that, this acclimatized strain can prove better option for bioremediation of textile dyes in wastes containing high salts and in marine environment.

  14. Symbiotic propagation of seedlings of Cyrtopodium glutiniferum Raddi (Orchidaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernanda Aparecida Rodrigues Guimarães

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available In nature, orchid seeds obtain the nutrients necessary for germination by degrading intracellular fungal structures formed after colonization of the embryo by mycorrhizal fungi. Protocols for asymbiotic germination of orchid seeds typically use media with high concentrations of soluble carbohydrate and minerals. However, when reintroduced into the field, seedlings obtained via asymbiotic germination have lower survival rates than do seedlings obtained via symbiotic germination. Tree fern fiber, the ideal substrate for orchid seedling acclimatization, is increasingly scarce. Here, we evaluated seed germination and protocorm development of Cyrtopodium glutiniferum Raddi cultivated in asymbiotic media (Knudson C and Murashige & Skoog and in oatmeal agar (OA medium inoculated with the mycorrhizal fungus Epulorhiza sp., using non-inoculated OA medium as a control. We also evaluated the performance of tree fern fiber, pine bark, eucalyptus bark, corncob and sawdust as substrates for the acclimatization of symbiotically propagated plants. We determined germination percentages, protocorm development and growth indices at 35 and 70 days of cultivation. Relative growth rates and the effects of substrates on mycorrhizal formation were calculated after 165 days of cultivation. Germination efficiency and growth indices were best when inoculated OA medium was used. Corncob and pine bark showed the highest percentages of colonized system roots. The OA medium inoculated with Epulorhiza sp. shows potential for C. glutiniferum seedling production. Corncob and pine bark are promising substitutes for tree fern fiber as substrates for the acclimatization of orchid seedlings.

  15. MIKROPROPAGASI ANGGREK ALMA Grammatophyllum scriptum Blume

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth Handini

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Grammatophyllum scriptum is a beautiful wild orchid that has an interesting economic value. However, the existence of this ornamental plant species is at risk because of irresponsible exploitation of the natural population and insufficient cultivation efforts. Currently, the Bogor Botanic Garden is developing a program of orchid propagation for enhancing the conservation of all potential orchid collections. The propagation of G. scriptum was basically carried out by culturing the seeds in a modified Hyponex or Vacin & Went medium, transplanting the plantlets into a more suitable medium and finally acclimatizing the resulting seedlings. A study was done to observe the effect of fertilizer application on the growth of acclimatized G. scriptum seedlings, as a means to improve the propagation technique of the species. The result showed that the application of 1 and 2 m1/I organic fertilizer (Sugih as well as 1 and 2 g/I inorganic fertilizer (Hyponex increased the seedling mortality, in which the application of 2 g/ml Hyponex fertilizer was being the most damaging treatment, leaving 12,5 % seedlings to survive. However, in terms of seedling growth, the application of 1 m1/I Sugih fertilizer was slightly beneficial to the formation of root and the elongation of stem of the acclimatized seedlings. It may be suggested, therefore, that G. scriptum seedlings require no (or very little amount of supplementary fertilizer to boost their vegetative growth.

  16. Micropropagation of ornamental Prunus spp. and GF305 peach, a Prunus viral indicator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalinina, Anna; Brown, Daniel C W

    2007-07-01

    A micropropagation approach was developed for nine ornamental Prunus species, P. americana, P. cistena, P. glandulosa, P. serrulata 'Kwanzan', P. laurocerasus, P. sargentii, P. tomentosa, P. triloba, P. virginiana 'Schubert', commercially important in North America, and GF305 peach, commonly used for Prunus virus indexing. The micropropagation cycle based on proliferation of vegetative tissues includes establishment of tissue culture through introduction of shoot meristems in vitro, shoot proliferation, root induction and plant acclimatization steps and can be completed in 5 months. A meristem sterilization protocol minimized bacterial and fungal contamination. Multiple shoot formation in ornamental Prunus was obtained through the use of 1 mg l(-1) 6-benzyladenine. For GF305 peach, alteration in the sugar composition, fructose instead of sucrose, and addition of 1 mg l(-1 )ferulic acid had a significant impact on the shoot proliferation rate and maintenance of long-term in vitro culture. Rooting and plant acclimatization conditions were improved using a two-step protocol with a 4-day root induction in indole-3-butiric acid (IBA)-containing media with consequent 3-week root elongation in IBA-free media. One-month incubation of rooted shoots in a vermiculite-based medium resulted in additional shoot and root growth and provided better acclimatization and plant recovery. The micropropagation approach can be used for maintenance of the clonal properties for Prunus spp. as well as a protocol to support meristem therapy against viral infection.

  17. Influence of repeated daily diving on decompression stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zanchi, J; Ljubkovic, M; Denoble, P J; Dujic, Z; Ranapurwala, S; Pollock, N W

    2014-06-01

    Acclimatization (an adaptive change in response to repeated environmental exposure) to diving could reduce decompression stress. A decrease in post-dive circulating venous gas emboli (VGE or bubbles) would represent positive acclimatization. The purpose of this study was to determine whether four days of daily diving alter post-dive bubble grades. 16 male divers performed identical no-decompression air dives on 4 consecutive days to 18 meters of sea water for 47 min bottom times. VGE monitoring was performed with transthoracic echocardiography every 20 min for 120 min post-dive. Completion of identical daily dives resulted in progressively decreasing odds (or logit risk) of having relatively higher grade bubbles on consecutive days. The odds on Day 4 were half that of Day 1 (OR 0.50, 95% CI: 0.34, 0.73). The odds ratio for a >III bubble grade on Day 4 was 0.37 (95% CI: 0.20, 0.70) when compared to Day 1. The current study indicates that repetitive daily diving may reduce bubble formation, representing a positive (protective) acclimatization to diving. Further work is required to evaluate the impact of additional days of diving and multiple dive days and to determine if the effect is sufficient to alter the absolute risk of decompression sickness.

  18. Differential enrichment of TTF-I and Tip5 in the T-like promoter structures of the rDNA contribute to the epigenetic response of Cyprinus carpio during environmental adaptation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nardocci, Gino; Simonet, Nicolas G; Navarro, Cristina; Längst, Gernot; Alvarez, Marco

    2016-08-01

    To ensure homeostasis, ectothermic organisms adapt to environmental variations through molecular mechanisms. We previously reported that during the seasonal acclimatization of the common carp Cyprinus carpio, molecular and cellular functions are reprogrammed, resulting in distinctive traits. Importantly, the carp undergoes a drastic rearrangement of nucleolar components during adaptation. This ultrastructural feature reflects a fine modulation of rRNA gene transcription. Specifically, we identified the involvement of the transcription termination factor I (TTF-I) and Tip-5 (member of nucleolar remodeling complex, NoRC) in the control of rRNA transcription. Our results suggest that differential Tip5 enrichment is essential for silencing carp ribosomal genes and that the T0 element is key for regulating the ribosomal gene during the acclimatization process. Interestingly, the expression and content of Tip5 were significantly higher in winter than in summer. Since carp ribosomal gene expression is lower in the winter than in summer, and considering that expression concomitantly occurs with nucleolar ultrastructural changes of the acclimatization process, these results indicate that Tip5 importantly contributes to silencing the ribosomal genes. In conclusion, the current study provides novel evidence on the contributions of TTF-I and NoRC in the environmental reprogramming of ribosomal genes during the seasonal adaptation process in carp.

  19. Adaptation to High Altitude

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. S. Nayar

    1984-10-01

    Full Text Available Hypoxia is inconsequential for physiologically fit persons below an effective altitude of 2640 metres. At higher altitudes, the adaptation is brought about by four main factors, viz., hyperventilation, increased diffusion of oxygen across alveolar membrane, erythrocythemia and maintenance of body hydration. Carbon dioxide sensitivity is markedly elevated at high altitude, both in sojourners and acclimatized low-landers. The greater pulmonary diffusing capacity observed in high altitude natives is well documented. RBC count, haemoglobin and haematocrit increase whereas arterial oxyhaemoglobin saturation percentage decreases at high altitude. Diuretics (Furosemide have no role in adaptation to high altitude and adequate body hydration must be maintained.The ultimate adaptive mechanisms occur at tissue level which facilitate the diffusion of oxygen from blood to tissue and its utilization. The work capacity decreases at high altitude and a relationship between load carried and speed of marching has been determined at various altitudes. Although altitude has an adverse effect on process of cold acclimatization, yet it is possible to induce cold acclimatization by exposing subjects to a temperature of 0° to -5°C for a period of three hours daily for three weeks. The caloric requirements increase at high altitudes and are 4,286 K Cal and 4,380 K Cal at 13000 feet (3950 m and 17000 feet (5170 m, respectively.

  20. In vitro rescue of interspecific embryos from Elaeis guineensis x E. oleifera (Arecaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angelo, Paula Cristina da Silva; Moraes, Larissa Alexandra Cardoso; Lopes, Ricardo; Sousa, Nelcimar Reis; da Cunha, Raimundo Nonato Vieira; Quisen, Regina Caetano

    2011-09-01

    The African oil palm (Elaeis guineensis) is the most effective oil producer in tons per hectare. Nevertheless, its increasing cultivation in Latin America is harmed by the "lethal yellowing". Genetic resistance to this anomaly can be found in the germplasm of American oil palm or caiaué (E. oleifera), a native species from the Amazon rainforest. However, the procedures adopted to induce seeds of E. guineensis to germination frequently result mild for interespecific hybrids. Embryo in vitro cultivation can be a viable option. This work was aimed initially to test liquid MS medium supplemented with different glucose or sucrose concentrations for the in vitro cultivation of zygotic embryos from E. guineensis x E. oleifera controlled pollinations. Additionally we investigated different compost mixtures to acclimatize the regenerated hybrid plantlets. Concentrations of 10, 20 and 30g/L of both sugars were tested on flasks containing five mature zygotic embryos, with 15 repetitions per treatment in a total of 450 explants. The number of embryos displaying shoots and radicles at least 2mm in length per experimental unit was evaluated during phase one of in vitro cultivation. Plantlets displaying shoots and radicles were transferred to phase two of in vitro cultivation and subsequently to acclimatization, under 70% shading with manual water supply. The experiments of acclimatization were conducted with 130 plantlets randomly distributed in pure horticultural compost, 3:1 or 1:1 compost:sand mixtures and each plantlet was defined as an experimental unit. Data were submitted to ANOVA, t test and analyzes of correlation (p < or = 0.05). Highest emergence rates were 97% for shoots and 73% for radicles, observed in MS medium supplemented with 20g/L (110mM) of glucose. This sugar in concentrations of 20 or 30g/L provided balanced shoot/root development, and this was considered one of the reasons for the higher frequency of plantlet establishment. The survival percentage was 55

  1. Altitude and endurance training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rusko, Heikki K; Tikkanen, Heikki O; Peltonen, Juha E

    2004-10-01

    The benefits of living and training at altitude (HiHi) for an improved altitude performance of athletes are clear, but controlled studies for an improved sea-level performance are controversial. The reasons for not having a positive effect of HiHi include: (1) the acclimatization effect may have been insufficient for elite athletes to stimulate an increase in red cell mass/haemoglobin mass because of too low an altitude (stress with possible overtraining symptoms and an increased frequency of infections. Moreover, the effects of hypoxia in the brain may influence both training intensity and physiological responses during training at altitude. Thus, interrupting hypoxic exposure by training in normoxia may be a key factor in avoiding or minimizing the noxious effects that are known to occur in chronic hypoxia. When comparing HiHi and HiLo (living high and training low), it is obvious that both can induce a positive acclimatization effect and increase the oxygen transport capacity of blood, at least in 'responders', if certain prerequisites are met. The minimum dose to attain a haematological acclimatization effect is > 12 h a day for at least 3 weeks at an altitude or simulated altitude of 2100-2500 m. Exposure to hypoxia appears to have some positive transfer effects on subsequent training in normoxia during and after HiLo. The increased oxygen transport capacity of blood allows training at higher intensity during and after HiLo in subsequent normoxia, thereby increasing the potential to improve some neuromuscular and cardiovascular determinants of endurance performance. The effects of hypoxic training and intermittent short-term severe hypoxia at rest are not yet clear and they require further study.

  2. Spatio-Temporal Analyses of Symbiodinium Physiology of the Coral Pocillopora verrucosa along Large-Scale Nutrient and Temperature Gradients in the Red Sea

    KAUST Repository

    Sawall, Yvonne

    2014-08-19

    Algal symbionts (zooxanthellae, genus Symbiodinium) of scleractinian corals respond strongly to temperature, nutrient and light changes. These factors vary greatly along the north-south gradient in the Red Sea and include conditions, which are outside of those typically considered optimal for coral growth. Nevertheless, coral communities thrive throughout the Red Sea, suggesting that zooxanthellae have successfully acclimatized or adapted to the harsh conditions they experience particularly in the south (high temperatures and high nutrient supply). As such, the Red Sea is a region, which may help to better understand how zooxanthellae and their coral hosts successfully acclimatize or adapt to environmental change (e. g. increased temperatures and localized eutrophication). To gain further insight into the physiology of coral symbionts in the Red Sea, we examined the abundance of dominant Symbiodinium types associated with the coral Pocillopora verrucosa, and measured Symbiodinium physiological characteristics (i.e. photosynthetic processes, cell density, pigmentation, and protein composition) along the latitudinal gradient of the Red Sea in summer and winter. Despite the strong environmental gradients from north to south, our results demonstrate that Symbiodinium microadriaticum (type A1) was the predominant species in P. verrucosa along the latitudinal gradient. Furthermore, measured physiological characteristics were found to vary more with prevailing seasonal environmental conditions than with region-specific differences, although the measured environmental parameters displayed much higher spatial than temporal variability. We conclude that our findings might present the result of long-term acclimatization or adaptation of S. microadriaticum to regionally specific conditions within the Red Sea. Of additional note, high nutrients in the South correlated with high zooxanthellae density indicating a compensation for a temperature-driven loss of photosynthetic

  3. Performance of BTX degraders under substrate versatility conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maliyekkal, Shihabudeen M; Rene, Eldon R; Philip, Ligy; Swaminathan, T

    2004-06-18

    A microbial consortium acclimatized with benzene, toluene or xylene (BTX) was employed to study the degradation pattern of these compounds individually under aerobic conditions. Batch and continuous experiments were conducted to evaluate the adaptability of the enriched cultures under substrate versatility conditions. The bio-kinetic parameters obtained under substrate versatility conditions were compared with those of a single substrate condition. Similar degradation patterns were observed for all the substrates with inhibition occurring at higher concentration (approximately 150 mg/L for benzene and xylene, and approximately 200 mg/L for toluene). Toluene degradation was highest, followed by benzene and xylene in the aqueous phase. Adaptation to a more toxic compound like benzene and xylene improved the utilization of toluene. On the other hand, microbes grown on a less toxic compound (toluene) grew at a lower rate in the presence of more toxic compounds. Suitable kinetic parameters such as micro(max) (maximum specific growth rate per hour), Ks (half saturation constant, mg/L), and KI (threshold substrate inhibition constant, mg/L) were determined using Haldane and Levenspiel substrate inhibition models. The Haldane equation seems to be an adequate expression for the system. The degradation behavior of pollutants in the gas phase was also evaluated using a toluene acclimatized biotrickling filter operated in continuous mode. The biotrickling filter acclimatized with toluene could degrade benzene and xylene with a lower elimination capacity. But, the system could recover its original efficiency quite fast even after a prolonged shock loading. The degradation was better for toluene, followed by benzene and xylene.

  4. Working in hot conditions--a study of electrical utility workers in the northern territory of Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brearley, Matt; Harrington, Phillip; Lee, Doug; Taylor, Raymond

    2015-01-01

    Environmental conditions of Australia's Northern Territory are seasonally conducive to excessive body heat storage by outdoor workers. For electrical utility workers who periodically work at height, in confined space, and in proximity to live power sources, the impact of the climate may be considered a hazardous condition. Therefore, this study examined the physiological and fluid balance responses of 20 power network workers (31.5 years; 86.0 kg; 1.71 m; BMI 29.5) throughout work shifts in the Northern and Southern regions of the Northern Territory, Australia. Twenty male heat-acclimatized power network workers provided written informed consent to be monitored during maintenance of electrical infrastructure that included replacing power pole components and transformer and substation repairs in the Northern (n = 13) and Southern regions (n = 7) of the Northern Territory (mean wet-bulb globe temperatures of 32.0°C and 28.7°C, respectively). An ingestible telemetry pill provided measurement of gastrointestinal temperature (Tgi), that when combined with heart rate values, provided physiological strain index (PSI). Urine specific gravity, sweat rate, and level of dehydration were also determined. The Tgi values of this study were within the ISO9886 limit for monitored, heat-acclimatized workers, with a peak of 38.4°C. Mean PSI was 2.6, which represents overall low strain, with periods of moderate strain. Urinary analysis indicated that workers were dehydrated prior to and following the work shift, however the mean sweat rate of 0.44 L.h(-1) was matched by fluid consumption of 0.42 L.h(-1) to limit body mass loss to 0.1% during the shift. This study demonstrates that heat acclimatized electrical utility workers adhere to ISO9886 requirements when undertaking self-paced activity in hot conditions.

  5. Adaptive phenotypic plasticity and local adaptation for temperature tolerance in freshwater zooplankton.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yampolsky, Lev Y; Schaer, Tobias M M; Ebert, Dieter

    2014-02-07

    Many organisms have geographical distributions extending from the tropics to near polar regions or can experience up to 30°C temperature variation within the lifespan of an individual. Two forms of evolutionary adaptation to such wide ranges in ambient temperatures are frequently discussed: local adaptation and phenotypic plasticity. The freshwater planktonic crustacean Daphnia magna, whose range extends from South Africa to near arctic sites, shows strong phenotypic and genotypic variation in response to temperature. In this study, we use D. magna clones from 22 populations (one clone per population) ranging from latitude 0° (Kenya) to 66° North (White Sea) to explore the contributions of phenotypic plasticity and local adaptation to high temperature tolerance. Temperature tolerance was studied as knockout time (time until immobilization, T(imm)) at 37°C in clones acclimatized to either 20°C or 28°C. Acclimatization to 28°C strongly increased T(imm), testifying to adaptive phenotypic plasticity. At the same time, Timm significantly correlated with average high temperature at the clones' sites of origin, suggesting local adaptation. As earlier studies have found that haemoglobin expression contributes to temperature tolerance, we also quantified haemoglobin concentration in experimental animals and found that both acclimatization temperature (AccT) and temperature at the site of origin are positively correlated with haemoglobin concentration. Furthermore, Daphnia from warmer climates upregulate haemoglobin much more strongly in response to AccT, suggesting local adaptation for plasticity in haemoglobin expression. Our results show that both local adaptation and phenotypic plasticity contribute to temperature tolerance, and elucidate a possible role of haemoglobin in mediating these effects that differs along a cold-warm gradient.

  6. Changes of gill and hemocyte-related bio-indicators during long term maintenance of the vent mussel Bathymodiolus azoricus held in aquaria at atmospheric pressure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bettencourt, Raul; Dando, Paul; Rosa, Domitília; Riou, Virginie; Colaço, Ana; Sarrazin, Jozée; Sarradin, Pierre-Marie; Santos, Ricardo Serrão

    2008-05-01

    The deep-sea hydrothermal vent mussel Bathymodiolus azoricus has been the subject of several studies aimed at understanding the physiological adaptations that vent animals have developed in order to cope with the particular physical and chemical conditions of hydrothermal environments. In spite of reports describing successful procedures to maintain vent mussels under laboratory conditions at atmospheric pressure, few studies have described the mussel's physiological state after a long period in aquaria. In the present study, we investigate changes in mucocytes and hemocytes in B. azoricus over the course of several months after deep-sea retrieval. The visualization of granules of mucopolysaccharide or glycoprotein was made possible through their inherent auto-fluorescent property and the Alcian blue-Periodic Acid Schiff staining method. The density and distribution of droplets of mucus-like granules was observed at the ventral end of lamellae during acclimatization period. The mucus-like granules were greatly reduced after 3 months and nearly absent after 6 months of aquarium conditions. Additionally, we examined the depletion of endosymbiont bacteria from gill tissues, which typically occurs within a few weeks in sea water under laboratory conditions. The physiological state of B. azoricus after 6 months of acclimatization was also examined by means of phagocytosis assays using hemocytes. Hemocytes from mussels held in aquaria up to 6 months were still capable of phagocytosis but to a lesser extent when compared to the number of ingested yeast particles per phagocytic hemocytes from freshly collected vent mussels. We suggest that the changes in gill mucopolysaccharides and hemocyte glycoproteins, the endosymbiont abundance in gill tissues and phagocytosis are useful health criteria to assess long term maintenance of B. azoricus in aquaria. Furthermore, the laboratory set up to which vent mussels were acclimatized is an applicable system to study physiological

  7. Heat illness and death among workers - United States, 2012-2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arbury, Sheila; Jacklitsch, Brenda; Farquah, Opeyemi; Hodgson, Michael; Lamson, Glenn; Martin, Heather; Profitt, Audrey

    2014-08-08

    Exposure to heat and hot environments puts workers at risk for heat stress, which can result in heat illnesses and death. This report describes findings from a review of 2012‒2013 Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) federal enforcement cases (i.e., inspections) resulting in citations under paragraph 5(a)(1), the "general duty clause" of the Occupational Safety and Health Act of 1970. That clause requires that each employer "furnish to each of his employees employment and a place of employment which are free from recognized hazards that are causing or are likely to cause death or serious physical harm to his employees". Because OSHA has not issued a heat standard, it must use 5(a)(1) citations in cases of heat illness or death to enforce employers' obligations to provide a safe and healthy workplace. During the 2-year period reviewed, 20 cases of heat illness or death were cited for federal enforcement under paragraph 5(a)(1) among 18 private employers and two federal agencies. In 13 cases, a worker died from heat exposure, and in seven cases, two or more employees experienced symptoms of heat illness. Most of the affected employees worked outdoors, and all performed heavy or moderate work, as defined by the American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists. Nine of the deaths occurred in the first 3 days of working on the job, four of them occurring on the worker's first day. Heat illness prevention programs at these workplaces were found to be incomplete or absent, and no provision was made for the acclimatization of new workers. Acclimatization is the result of beneficial physiologic adaptations (e.g., increased sweating efficiency and stabilization of circulation) that occur after gradually increased exposure to heat or a hot environment. Whenever a potential exists for workers to be exposed to heat or hot environments, employers should implement heat illness prevention programs (including acclimatization requirements) at their

  8. Anesthesia considerations and intraoperative monitoring during surgery for arteriovenous malformations and dural arteriovenous fistulas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Christina; Mirski, Marek

    2012-01-01

    The anesthetic considerations for surgical resection of arteriovenous malformations (AVMs) and dural arteriovenous fistulas (DAVFs) incorporate many principles that are common to craniotomies for other indications. However, a high-flow, low-resistance shunt results in chronic hypoperfusion of adjacent brain tissue that is vulnerable to ischemia and at high risk for hyperemia and hemorrhage as resection of the lesion redirects blood flow. A comprehensive understanding of AVM pathophysiology and rapidly titratable anesthetic and vasoactive agents allow the anesthesiologist to alter blood pressure targets as resection evolves for optimal patient outcome. Intensive management is continued post-operatively as the brain acclimatizes to new parameters.

  9. Reduced heat stress in offices in the tropics using solar powered drying of the supply air

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gunnarsen, Lars; Santos, A M B

    2002-01-01

    Many solutions to indoor climate problems known from developed countries may have prohibitive installation and running costs in developing countries. The purpose was to develop a low-cost solution to heat stress in a hot and humid environment based on solar powered drying of supply air. Dry supply...... combinations of temperature and humidity and led to Personal Units for Ventilation and Cooling (PUVAC) in six cubicles simulating office workplaces. A total of 123 heat acclimatized subjects were exposed 45 min in each of the cubicles. A model for the combined effect of operative temperature of room, moisture...

  10. Electricity generation and microbial community response to substrate changes in microbial fuel cell

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Yifeng; Min, Booki; Huang, L.;

    2011-01-01

    The effect of substrate changes on the performance and microbial community of two-chamber microbial fuel cells (MFCs) was investigated in this study. The MFCs enriched with a single substrate (e.g., acetate, glucose, or butyrate) had different acclimatization capability to substrate changes....... The MFC enriched with glucose showed rapid and higher power generation, when glucose was switched with acetate or butyrate. However, the MFC enriched with acetate needed a longer adaptation time for utilizing glucose. Microbial community was also changed when the substrate was changed. Clostridium...... of substrate fed to MFC is a very important parameter for reactor performance and microbial community, and significantly affects power generation in MFCs....

  11. Micropropagation of Madhuca longifolia (Koenig) MacBride var. latifolia Roxb.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rout, G R; Das, P

    1993-07-01

    Bud break and multiple shoots were induced in apical and axillary meristems derived from 10-d old seedlings of Madhuca longifolia var. latifolia on Murashige and Skoog (MS) medium supplemented with 1.0 mg/l N(6)-benzyladenine (BA) singly or in combinatiobn with 1-naphthalene acetic acid (NAA), indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) and indole-3-butyric acid (IBA). Excised shoots were rooted on half-strength MS with IBA (1.0 mg/l) after 18d of culture. Regenerated plantlets were acclimatized and successfully transferred to soil.

  12. Physical performance and environmental conditions: 2014 World Soccer Cup and 2016 Summer Olympics in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veneroso, Christiano E; Ramos, Guilherme P; Mendes, Thiago T; Silami-Garcia, Emerson

    2015-01-01

    This editorial is for the special issue "Temperature sciences in Brazil" of the journal Temperature. It focuses on the physical performance and environmental conditions during the 2014 World Cup and the coming 2016 Summer Olympics. It emphasizes that a hot and humid environment imposes a great challenge to the human thermoregulation system, can lead to performance decrements, and increases the risk of developing hyperthermia. Adequate hydration, acclimatization, and body cooling strategies are effective interventions to minimize the risks associated with exercise in the heat.

  13. Regulatory detoxication responses in Gobiidae experimentally exposed to PCBs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fossi, C.; Leonzio, C.; Focardi, S. (Univ. di Siena (Italy))

    1989-08-01

    In order to investigate interspecific responses to pollutants, physiological and biochemical parameters were studied in two species of Gobiidae under both natural and experimental conditions. Gobius niger, collected in a polluted area, had higher mixed function oxidases activity and polychlorobiphenyl (PCB) residues than another species, Zosterisessor ophiocephalus, collected from a relatively clean lagoon. After acclimatization to clean water and exposure to PCBs (Aroclor 1260), both species showed responses similar to those observed in the field and all biochemical parameters related to detoxication were much higher in G. niger. This suggests that this species undergoes metabolic or genetic adaptation.

  14.   Biotechnology in Danish forestry - Christmas trees and Biofuels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Find, Jens

    and the production of trees ‘fit for purpose'. However, commercial application of the technology has until now been hampered by two essential problems: 1) the production costs per plant must be reduced, 2) improved methods must be developed for transfer and acclimatization of plants from sterile in vitro conditions...... methods developed at the University of Copenhagen for SE in nordmanns fir and sitka spruce. Nordmanns fir has special interest in Denmark for production of Christmas trees and sitka spruce has gained renewed interest for production of biofuels.  ...

  15. Effects of Sub-Lethal Concentrations of Diazinon on Total Protein and Transaminase Activities in Clarias gariepinus

    OpenAIRE

    Erema Ransome Daka; I.R. Inyang; E.N. Ogamba

    2010-01-01

    Diazinon-induced changes in the total protein and transaminase activities of Clarias gariepinus, a common Niger Delta wetland fish were assessed. Adult fish (mean length 35.24±2.80 cm) were acclimatized to laboratory conditions for 7 days and then exposed to varying sub-lethal concentrations of diazinon (1.0, 2.5, 5.0, 7.5 and 10.0 mg/L) in semi-static bioassays for 30 days. Total protein and the activities of aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and alanine aminotransferase (ALT) were determined...

  16. Mitochondrial DNA response to high altitude: a new perspective on high-altitude adaptation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Yongjun; Yang, Xiaohong; Gao, Yuqi

    2013-08-01

    Mitochondria are the energy metabolism centers of the cell. More than 95% of cellular energy is produced by mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation. Hypoxia affects a wide range of energy generation and consumption processes in animals. The most important mechanisms limiting ATP consumption increase the efficiency of ATP production and accommodate the reduced production of ATP by the body. All of these mechanisms relate to changes in mitochondrial function. Mitochondrial function can be affected by variations in mitochondrial DNA, including polymorphisms, content changes, and deletions. These variations play an important role in acclimatization or adaptation to hypoxia. In this paper, the association between mitochondrial genome sequences and high-altitude adaptation is reviewed.

  17. Résistance des gammares de la Seine aux élévations de température

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    BARBIER B.

    1974-10-01

    Full Text Available Des tests thermiques ont permis la définition des températures moyennes supérieures létales pour les Gammares de la Seine (Rivulogammarus roeselii 85 % ; Rivulogammarus pulex 15 % acclimatés, dans leur milieu naturel, à 5° C, 14° C et 21° C. Les températures létales moyennes sur 96 heures sont respectivement de 24,9° C, 27,7° C et 28,4° C.

  18. Factors Influencing Manual Performance in Cold Water Diving

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-04-01

    impairment as a function of nitrogen narcosis . J. Applied Psychology, 46, 91-95. 12. Mackworth, N. (1953) Cold acclimatization and finger numbness...water. Results show that narcosis did not affect manual performance at 40 msw (p>0.05). In 25 oC water, three fingered neoprene gloves caused a...in 25oC water, and with gloves in 4oC water. Results: Narcosis did not have a significant effect on these components of manual performance (p

  19. 挑战首份工

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李茜

    2007-01-01

    <正>Generally speaking,most of what you learned in school will not prepare you for this job.Perhaps you did an internship or participated in some other type of cooperative education experience.In that case,you were fortunate;you are a small step ahead of your peers.However,there is a big difference between being a student at work,and being an employee.Certainly,more will be expected of you.Here are some rules that will help you get acclimatized to the world of

  20. The Harmony of Eco-translation in Chinese Version of“Of Studies”

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    青岛滨海学院,山东青岛266555

    2014-01-01

    A study on Eco-translatology starting at the beginning of the 2000s aims at studying the harmony and unity between a translator and eco-translation. It requires translators to acclimatize themselves to translating ecosystem so that their translation as adaptation and selection may follow the dynamic variation of eco-translatology, which is the prerequisite for the balance between the original text and the version, the translator and the writer, the translator and readers, the culture of the original language and the target language. This paper shows the harmony of eco-translation by analyzing Wang Zuoliang ’s translation of Of Studies in light of eco-translatology.

  1. Modeling and simulation of energy consumption inside greenhouses aiming at energy saving in Spain and Brazil; Modelado y simulacion del consumo de energia invernaderos: aplicacion para el ahorro de energia en Espana y Brasil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oliveira, Celso Eduardo Lins de; Rabi, Jose Antonio [Universidade Federal de Sao Paulo (USP), Pirassununga, SP (Brazil). Fac. de Zootecnia e Eng. de Alimentos. Dept. de Engenharia de Alimentos], E-mail: celsooli@usp.br; Navas Gravia, Luis Manoel [Universidad de Valladolid (UVa) (Spain). Dept. de Engenharia Agricola e Florestal

    2009-07-01

    The study was accomplished taking into account the model framework development by authors in order to simulate acclimatized greenhouses for 10 cities in Brazil and Spain. Results showed that the use of a versatile energy source (such as electricity) has a higher cost in both countries. Particularly in Brazil, the use of heating systems to prevent losses in protected crops is only feasible for high-added value crops while in Spain heating systems are mandatory so as to make several crops possible during no-harvest periods. (author)

  2. Some bio-morphological particularities of hop (Humulus lupulus L. cultivated near Cluj

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandru SALONTAI

    1977-08-01

    Full Text Available Le houblon est l' une des plantes avec une grande plasticite biologique presentant, en fonction de l'acclimatation, differentes particularites morphologiques, anatomiques et fonctionnelles (1, 2, 3, 6. Bien que le houblon soit cultive depuis tres longtemps dans notre pays les etudes scientifiques portant sur la morpho-biologie sont peu nombreuses (4, 5. Dans cette etude sont presentes les resultats de certaines recherches portant sur la structure morpho - biologique des sortes de houblon, comparativement aux sortes plus valeureuses en culture a la Station experimentale de l'Institut Agronomique de Cluj-Napoca.

  3. Micropropagation of Elaeagnus angustifolia from mature trees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iriondo, J M; De La Iglesia, M; Pérez, C

    1995-10-01

    Multiple shoots were obtained from nodal segments of mature trees of Elaeagnus angustifolia L. cultured on MS medium (Murashige and Skoog 1962) supplemented with 0, 0.88 or 2.22 micro M N(6)-benzyladenine. When nodal segments taken from the in vitro proliferated shoots were cultured under the same conditions, additional multiple shoots were obtained. Rooting of the in vitro propagated shoots was achieved on full strength MS medium or on MS supplemented with 2.46 micro M indole-3-butyric acid. Regenerated plantlets were acclimatized and successfully transplanted to soil.

  4. Some like it hot: heat tolerance of the Crab-eating Frog, Fejervarya cancrivora (Note

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bennett, W.A.

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available We used Critical Thermal Methodology to quantify thermal tolerance of the crab-eating frog, Fejervarya cancrivora,from Hoga Island, southeast Sulawesi, Indonesia. The critical thermal maximum of F. cancrivora was 42.1 ± 0.76°C, and is perhaps the highest thermal tolerance value known in an anuran acclimatized to 25°C. The frogs’ ability to tolerate extreme high temperatures allows them to exploit abiotically harsh mangal habitats and accounts for their wide distribution across the tropical Pacific.

  5. Anther Culture in Pepper (Capsicum annuum L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parra-Vega, Verónica; Seguí-Simarro, Jose M

    2016-01-01

    Anther culture is the most popular of the techniques used to induce microspore embryogenesis. This technique is well set up in a wide range of crops, including pepper. In this chapter, a protocol for anther culture in pepper is described. The protocol presented hereby includes the steps from the selection of buds from donor plants to the regeneration and acclimatization of doubled haploid plants derived from the embryos, as well as a description of how to analyze the ploidy level of the regenerated plants.

  6. Establishment of suspension cell culture of Gymnema sylvestre R.Br.- A threatened anti-diabetic plant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karthic Raju

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available A cell suspension culture was established from leaf explants of wild Gymnema sylvestre plants collected from Muniyankudisai,Tamilnadu, India. Murashige and Skoog medium supplemented with 9.0 μM l-1 of 2, 4- Dichlorophenoxy acetic acid and 2.1 μM l-1Benzyl adenine produced yellow friable callus with green patches.The cells were subcultured conscientiously twelve times to getconsistent growth of the cells in suspension. From the 10thsubculture onwards callus cells acclimatized to grow in suspensionwith aggregation and reached 168.6 g l-1 fw and 5.16 g l-1 dw of cellbiomass.

  7. Integration of biotechnology, visualisation technology and robot technology for automated mass propagation af elite trees

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Find, Jens

    in the early steps of the production, whereas they increase dramatically during the later stages: 'embryo selection & germination' and 'ex-vitro acclimatization'). The aim of the present project is to reduce labour costs associated with the late stages of the production of cloned plants through development...... extended periods in liquid nitrogen at -196°C However, commercial application of the technology has until now been hampered by two essential problems: The production costs per plant must be reduced. Labour costs are low in the early steps of the process whereas they increase dramatically during the later...

  8. Climate Change Effects on Heat Waves and Future Heat Wave-Associated IHD Mortality in Germany

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefan Zacharias

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The influence of future climate change on the occurrence of heat waves and its implications for heat wave-related mortality due to ischemic heart diseases (IHD in Germany is studied. Simulations of 19 regional climate models with a spatial resolution of 0.25° × 0.25° forced by the moderate climate change scenario A1B are analyzed. Three model time periods of 30 years are evaluated, representing present climate (1971–2000, near future climate (2021–2050, and remote future climate (2069–2098. Heat waves are defined as periods of at least three consecutive days with daily mean air temperature above the 97.5th percentile of the all-season temperature distribution. Based on the model simulations, future heat waves in Germany will be significantly more frequent, longer lasting and more intense. By the end of the 21st century, the number of heat waves will be tripled compared to present climate. Additionally, the average duration of heat waves will increase by 25%, accompanied by an increase of the average temperature during heat waves by about 1 K. Regional analyses show that stronger than average climate change effects are observed particularly in the southern regions of Germany. Furthermore, we investigated climate change impacts on IHD mortality in Germany applying temperature projections from 19 regional climate models to heat wave mortality relationships identified in a previous study. Future IHD excess deaths were calculated both in the absence and presence of some acclimatization (i.e., that people are able to physiologically acclimatize to enhanced temperature levels in the future time periods by 0% and 50%, respectively. In addition to changes in heat wave frequency, we incorporated also changes in heat wave intensity and duration into the future mortality evaluations. The results indicate that by the end of the 21st century the annual number of IHD excess deaths in Germany attributable to heat waves is expected to rise by factor 2

  9. Dicty_cDB: SSB177 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available strain AX4, complete sequence. 428 e-116 1 CB293485 |CB293485.1 UCRCS01_06ag01_g1 Washington Navel orange cold acclimate...ered pieces. 42 4.0 1 CB291576 |CB291576.1 UCRCS01_03af02_b1 Washington Navel orange cold acclimated flavedo...42 4.0 1 CB293416 |CB293416.1 UCRCS01_06ac11_b1 Washington Navel orange cold acclimated flavedo & albedo cDN...dg03_g1 Washington Navel orange cold acclimated flavedo & albedo cDNA library Cit

  10. Effect of Different Photoperiods on Cold Hardiness in Cherry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.Z. Makaraci

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available In this research we have investigated the effects of different photoperiods on cold hardiness of cherry trees (Prunus avium cv. Ulster. One year old, cherry trees were exposed 8 hours of day length and 16 hours of dark period for short day conditions and 16 hours of light and 8 hours of dark period for long day conditions. We also compared the acclimatization pattern of cherry trees with hybrid aspen (Populus tremula ×Populus tremuloides trees. LT50 values indicated that short day and long day conditions did not alter the cold hardiness of cherry trees. Under the same experimental conditions hybrid aspen trees were affected from different photoperiods. Aspen trees exposed to short day conditions were hardier than the trees exposed to long day conditions. We also investigated the acclimatization the patterns of basal and apical parts of the branches both in cherry and aspen trees. There were no significant differences in cold hardiness of the basal and apical parts of the branches in aspen and cherry trees.

  11. Degradation of Tectilon Yellow 2G by hybrid technique: combination of sonolysis and biodegradation using mutant Pseudomonas putida.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srinivasan, Raman; Kathiravan, Mathur Nadarajan; Gopinath, Kannappan Panchamoorthy

    2011-02-01

    Degradation of Tectilon Yellow 2G (TY2G), an azo dye has been studied by hybrid technique involving pretreatment by sonochemical method and further biological treatment by Pseudomonas putida mutant. Pretreatment experiments were carried out by sonolysis of the dye solution at different concentrations (100-1000 mg/L). Wild type Gram-negative P. putida species isolated from the textile effluent contaminated soil, which was found to be effective towards dye degradation, has been acclimatized so as to consume TY2G as the sole source of nutrition. Mutant strain was obtained from the acclimatized species by random mutagenesis using the chemical mutagen ethidium bromide for various time intervals (6-30 min). The optimum mutagenesis exposure time for obtaining the most efficient species for dye degradation was found to be 18 min. An efficient mutant strain P. putida ACT 1 has been isolated and was used for growth experiments. The mutant strain showed a better growth compared to the wild strain. The substrate utilization kinetics has been modeled using Monod and Haldane model equations of which the Haldane model provided a better fit. The enzyme kinetics of the mutant and wild species was obtained using Michaelis-Menten equation. The mutated species showed better enzyme kinetics towards the degradation of TY2G.

  12. Ammonium-oxidizing bacteria facilitate aerobic degradation of sulfanilic acid in activated sludge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Gang; Ginige, Maneesha P; Kaksonen, Anna H; Cheng, Ka Yu

    2014-01-01

    Sulfanilic acid (SA) is a toxic sulfonated aromatic amine commonly found in anaerobically treated azo dye contaminated effluents. Aerobic acclimatization of SA-degrading mixed microbial culture could lead to co-enrichment of ammonium-oxidizing bacteria (AOB) because of the concomitant release of ammonium from SA oxidation. To what extent the co-enriched AOB would affect SA oxidation at various ammonium concentrations was unclear. Here, a series of batch kinetic experiments were conducted to evaluate the effect of AOB on aerobic SA degradation in an acclimatized activated sludge culture capable of oxidizing SA and ammonium simultaneously. To account for the effect of AOB on SA degradation, allylthiourea was used to inhibit AOB activity in the culture. The results indicated that specific SA degradation rate of the mixed culture was negatively correlated with the initial ammonium concentration (0-93 mM, R²= 0.99). The presence of AOB accelerated SA degradation by reducing the inhibitory effect of ammonium (≥ 10 mM). The Haldane substrate inhibition model was used to correlate substrate concentration (SA and ammonium) and oxygen uptake rate. This study revealed, for the first time, that AOB could facilitate SA degradation at high concentration of ammonium (≥ 10 mM) in an enriched activated sludge culture.

  13. Characterization of Active Dry Wine Yeast During Starter Culture (Pied de Cuve) Preparation for Sparkling Wine Production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benucci, Ilaria; Liburdi, Katia; Cerreti, Martina; Esti, Marco

    2016-08-01

    The preparation of yeast starter culture (Pied de Cuve) for producing sparkling wine with the traditional method is a key factor for manufacturing a good Prise de mousse. In this paper, the evolution of total yeast population, its viability during Pied de Cuve preparation, and the pressure profile during the 2nd fermentation in 2 different base wines made from Bombino bianco and Chardonnay grapes were investigated using 4 different commercial active dried yeasts. The study proves that despite the initial differences observed throughout the acclimatization phase, all the tested strains showed similar results on either the total population (from 8.2 × 10(7) cells/mL to 1.3 × 10(8) cells/mL) or cellular viability (from 70% to 84%). Independently from the base wine tested, the kinetic of sugar consumption was faster during the gradual acclimatization to the alcoholic medium (phase II) and slower during the preparation of starter culture in active growth phase (phase III). During both of these phases Saccharomyces cerevisiae bayanus Vitilevure DV10(®) (Station œnotechnique de Champagne) proved to have a higher sugar consumption rate than the other strains. During the Prise de mousse, S. cerevisiae bayanus Lalvin EC-1118(®) (Lallemand) reached the maximum pressure increase within time in both base wines.

  14. Blood Volume: Importance and Adaptations to Exercise Training, Environmental Stresses and Trauma/Sickness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sawka, Michael N.; Convertino, Victor A.; Eichner, E. Randy; Schnieder, Suzanne M.; Young, Andrew J.

    2000-01-01

    This paper reviews the influence of several perturbations (physical exercise, heat stress, terrestrial altitude, microgravity, and trauma/sickness) on adaptations of blood volume (BV), erythrocyte volume (EV), and plasma volume (PV). Exercise training can induced BV expansion; PV expansion usually occurs immediately, but EV expansion takes weeks. EV and PV expansion contribute to aerobic power improvements associated with exercise training. Repeated heat exposure induces PV expansion but does not alter EV. PV expansion does not improve thermoregulation, but EV expansion improves thermoregulation during exercise in the heat. Dehydration decreases PV (and increases plasma tonicity) which elevates heat strain and reduces exercise performance. High altitude exposure causes rapid (hours) plasma loss. During initial weeks at altitude, EV is unaffected, but a gradual expansion occurs with extended acclimatization. BV adjustments contribute, but are not key, to altitude acclimatization. Microgravity decreases PV and EV which contribute to orthostatic intolerance and decreased exercise capacity in astronauts. PV decreases may result from lower set points for total body water and central venous pressure, which EV decrease bay result form increased erythrocyte destruction. Trauma, renal disease, and chronic diseases cause anemia from hemorrhage and immune activation, which suppressions erythropoiesis. The re-establishment of EV is associated with healing, improved life quality, and exercise capabilities for these injured/sick persons.

  15. Bioremediation of heavy metal-contaminated effluent using optimized activated sludge bacteria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bestawy, Ebtesam El.; Helmy, Shacker; Hussien, Hany; Fahmy, Mohamed; Amer, Ranya

    2013-03-01

    Removal of heavy metals from contaminated domestic-industrial effluent using eight resistant indigenous bacteria isolated from acclimatized activated sludge was investigated. Molecular identification using 16S rDNA amplification revealed that all strains were Gram-negative among which two were resistant to each of copper, cadmium and cobalt while one was resistant to each of chromium and the heavy metal mixture. They were identified as Enterobacter sp. (Cu1), Enterobacter sp. (Cu2), Stenotrophomonas sp. (Cd1), Providencia sp. (Cd2), Chryseobacterium sp. (Co1), Comamonas sp. (Co2), Ochrobactrum sp. (Cr) and Delftia sp. (M1) according to their resistance pattern. Strains Cu1, Cd1, Co2 and Cr were able to resist 275 mg Cu/l, 320 mg Cd/l, 140 mg Co/l and 29 mg Cr/l respectively. The four resistant strains were used as a mixture to remove heavy metals (elevated concentrations) and reduce the organic load of wastewater effluent. Results revealed that using the proposed activated sludge with the resistant bacterial mixture was more efficient for heavy metal removal compared to the activated sludge alone. It is therefore recommended that the proposed activated sludge system augmented with the acclimatized strains is the best choice to ensure high treatment efficiency and performance under metal stresses especially when industrial effluents are involved.

  16. Assessment of mint (Mentha spp. species for large-scale production of plantlets by micropropagation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hugo Teixeira Gomes

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Species of the genus Mentha produce essential oils which are widely used in pharmaceutical and cosmetic industries. Current study evaluates the potential for in vitro propagation and estimates mass production of plantlets of Mentha species. Nine species (M. piperita, M. suaveolens, M. canadensis, M. longiflora, M. aquatica, M. arvensis, Mentha x gracilis, M. gracilis and M. spicata were propagated with five successive 30-day subcultures in MS medium supplemented with NAA (0.05 µM and BAP (4.4 µM. Shoots were rooted in MS with IBA, IAA or NAA (0.0; 0.25; 0.5; 2.5 or 5.0 µM. The rooted plantlets were finally acclimatized in a greenhouse. Studied species increased in multiplication rates between 4.2 and 9.0-fold per month. M. piperita, M. longiflora, M. arvensis, M. x gracilis and M. gracilis showed the greatest potential for plantlet production since the estimated production varied between 6,000 and 27,000 plantlets after five 30-days subcultures. The addition of auxin to the medium did not influence root induction. However, IAA at a concentration of 5 µM provided the best results for root length and fresh weight, with averages 11.1 cm and 0.16 g, respectively. Survival of plantlets reached 100% during the greenhouse acclimatization process.

  17. Bioremediation: Technology for treating hydrocarbon-contaminated wastewater

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Towprayoon, S.; Kuntrangwattana, S. [King Mongkut`s Institute of Technology, Bangkok (Thailand)

    1996-12-31

    Cutting oil wastewater from an iron and steel factory was applied to the soil windrow. Self-remediation was then compared with remediation with acclimatized indigenous microbes. The incremental reduction rate of the microorganisms and hydrocarbon-degradable microbes was slower in self-remediation than in the latter treatment. Within 30 days, when the acclimatized indigenous microbes were used, there was a significant reduction of the contaminated hydrocarbons, while self-remediation took longer to reduce to the same concentration. Various nitrogen sources were applied to the soil pile, namely, organic compost, chemical fertilizer, ammonium sulfate, and urea. The organic compost induced a high yield of hydrocarbon-degradable microorganisms, but the rate at which the cutting oil in the soil decreased was slower than when other nitrogen sources were used. The results of cutting oil degradation studied by gas chromatography showed the absence of some important hydrocarbons. The increment of the hydrocarbon-degradable microbes in the land treatment ecosystem does not necessarily correspond to the hydrocarbon reduction efficiency. 3 refs., 3 figs.

  18. Efeitos do pH, acidez e alcalinidade na microbiota de um reator anaeróbio de manta de lodo (UASB tratando efluentes de suinocultura

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erlon Lopes Pereira

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The anaerobic processes used for treating wastewater have been often applied mainly for optimizing treatment systems. Among many of these systems, the UASB is one of the most successfully used. This type of reactor presents a good condition for microorganisms development, and therefore, for organic matter degradation. As a result, the goal of this research was to evaluate the effect of parameters, such as: temperature, pH, acidity and alkalinity on the microorganisms consortia, acclimatized in an UASB reactor, and simultaneously, observing the sludge morphology through a scanning electronic microscopy (SEM, in order to identify the response of the bacteria consortia under this environmental circumstances. The biomass operated under a mesophilic temperature, varying from 190C to 210C. The maximum concentration of volatile acids was 100 mg L-1, and the volumetric organic loading rate was 59 kgCOD m-3d-1. The total alkalinity concentration values were between 2500 and 5550 mgCaCO3 L-1. The average pH value of the sludge was 7.3. Under these conditions it was observed the development of a well acclimatized granular biomass, composed mainly of filamentous bacteria.

  19. Effects of pH, acidity and alkalinity on the microbiota activity of an anaerobic sludge blanket reactor (UASB treating pigmanure effluents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabricio Moterani

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The anaerobic processes used for treating wastewater have been often applied mainly for optimizing treatment systems. Among many of these systems, the UASB is one of the most successfully used. This type of reactor presents a good condition for microorganisms development, and therefore, for organic matter degradation. As a result, the goal of this research was to evaluate the effect of parameters, such as: temperature, pH, acidity and alkalinity on the microorganisms consortia, acclimatized in an UASB reactor, and simultaneously, observing the sludge morphology through a scanning electronic microscopy (SEM, in order to identify the response of the bacteria consortia under this environmental circumstances. The biomass operated under a mesophilic temperature, varying from 190C to 210C. The maximum concentration of volatile acids was 100 mg L-1, and the volumetric organic loading rate was 59 kgCOD m-3d-1. The total alkalinity concentration values were between 2500 and 5550 mgCaCO3 L-1. The average pH value of the sludge was 7.3. Under these conditions it was observed the development of a well acclimatized granular biomass, composed mainly of filamentous bacteria.

  20. The effect of environmental temperature on olfactory perception in Drosophila melanogaster.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riveron, Jacob; Boto, Tamara; Alcorta, Esther

    2009-10-01

    Olfaction provides chemical information to an animal about its environment. When environmental conditions change, individuals should be able to adequately maintain function. Temperature may influence olfaction in a double manner, as it modifies the concentrations of gaseous compounds and affects biological processes. Here, we address acclimatization to environmental temperature in the olfactory system of Drosophila melanogaster using heat and cold treatments. Because the consequences of temperature shifts persist for some time after the treatment's end, comparison of olfactory behaviors at the same temperature in treated and untreated flies allows us to infer the biological effects of temperature in olfaction. At intermediate odorant concentrations heat always generates a reduction of olfactory sensitivity, as they would be expected to compensate for the increase of volatiles in the air. Cold produces the opposite effect. These changes are observed in both sexes and in natural populations as well as in standard laboratory stocks. Short applications suffice to cause detectable olfactory perception changes, but even prolonged temperature treatments have only a transitory effect. Together, these results suggest that olfaction in Drosophila underlies acclimatization to environmental temperature. However, sensitivity changes are not immediate and may cause imperfect adjustment of olfactory function for short time periods.

  1. Phytosterols elevation in bamboo shoot residue through laboratorial scale solid-state fermentation using isolated Aspergillus niger CTBU.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, X X; Chen, R S; Shen, Y; Yin, Z Y

    2014-04-01

    Aspergillus niger CTBU isolated from local decayed bamboo shoot residue was employed to solid-state fermentation (SSF) of bamboo shoot residue to elevate the content of phytosterols. Strain acclimatization was carried out under the fermentation condition using bamboo shoot as substrate for fermentation performance improvement. The optimal fermentation temperature and nitrogen level were investigated using acclimatized strain, and SSF was carried out in a 500-ml Erlenmeyer flask feeding 300-mg bamboo shoot residue chips under the optimal condition (33 °C and feeding 4 % urea), and 1,186 mg (100 g)(-1) of total phytosterol was attained after 5-day fermentation, in comparison, only 523 mg (100 g)(-1) of phytosterol was assayed in fresh shoots residue. HPLC analysis of the main composition of total phytosterols displays that the types of phytosterols and composition ratio of main sterols keep steady. This laboratorial scale SSF unit could be scaled up for raw phytosterols production from discarded bamboo shoot residue and could reduce its cost.

  2. Mood Sensitivity to Seasonal Changes in African College Students Living in the Greater Washington D.C. Metropolitan Area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alvaro Guzman

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to estimate the degree of seasonality and prevalence of winter- and summer-type seasonal affective disorder (SAD in African immigrant college students in comparison with African American peers. A convenience sample of 246 African immigrants and 599 African Americans studying in Washington, D.C. completed the Seasonal Pattern Assessment Questionnaire (SPAQ, which was used to calculate a global seasonality score (GSS and to estimate the prevalence of winter- and summer-type SAD. Degree of seasonality was related to a complex interaction between having general awareness of SAD, ethnicity, and gender. A greater percentage of African students reported experiencing a problem with seasonal changes relative to African American students, and had summer SAD, but the groups did not differ on GSS and winter SAD. African students reported more difficulties with seasonal changes than their African American peers, which could represent a manifestation of incomplete acclimatization to a higher latitude and temperate climate. As Africans also had a greater rate of summer SAD, this argues against acclimatization to heat.

  3. REVUE DES INTRODUCTIONS DE POISSONS ET DE CRUSTACÉS DÉCAPODES D’EAU DOUCE EN POLYNÉSIE FRANÇAISE.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    KEITH P.

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available La faune dulçaquicole indigène ou introduite de Polynésie française a été méconnue jusqu’à la fin du 20ème siècle, qui a vu les premiers inventaires exhaustifs du Muséum National d’Histoire Naturelle. Les introductions d’espèces ont commencé en 1920 avec le guppy pour atteindre finalement 11 espèces, qui se sont plus ou moins acclimatées. Seul l’archipel des Marquises est exempt d’espèces introduites. Les trois autres pourvus de rivières, les archipels de la Société, des Gambier et des Australes possèdent 1 à 3 espèces acclimatées et 1 à 3 espèces présentes dans des fermes aquacoles et que l’on pourrait retrouver dans les rivières durant les prochaines années.

  4. Parasites, politics and public science: the promotion of biological control in Western Australia, 1900-1910.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deveson, Edward

    2016-06-01

    Biological control of arthropods emerged as a scientific enterprise in the late nineteenth century and the orchard industry of California was an early centre of expertise. In 1900, as the Australian colonies prepared for federation, each had a government entomologist attached to its agriculture department. The hiring of George Compere from California by the Western Australian Department of Agriculture began a controversial chapter in the early history of biological control that was linked to a late, local popularization of acclimatization. Compere became known as the 'travelling entomologist' and for a decade brought 'parasites' of pest insects from overseas and released them in Perth. His antagonistic disciplinary rhetoric and inflated claims for the 'parasite theory' created conflict with his counterparts in the eastern states. The resulting inter-state entomological controversy was played out in the press, revealing the political use of science for institutional and even state identity. It is a story of transnational exchanges, chance discoveries and popular public science: popular because of the promise of a simple, natural solution to agricultural insect pests and because of the public nature of the disputes it generated between the experts. This microcosm contributes to the global historiography of acclimatization, biological control, scientific exposition and the professionalization of agricultural science.

  5. Cytogenetics of Anodonta cygnea (Mollusca: Bivalvia) as possible indicator of environmental adversity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrilho, J.; Leitão, A.; Vicente, C.; Malheiro, I.

    2008-11-01

    Anodonta cygnea is a freshwater clam, belonging to the Unionidae family, which can be found in rivers and lagoons all over Europe and Northern America. As they appear as important case studies for ecological damage assessments, the various species of the Unionidae family have been submitted to a sort of recent studies on their chromosomal or cytogenetic status. In this study we confirmed the diploid chromosome number of 2 n = 38 for this species, and established for the first time the karyotype, which comprised six metacentric, 12 submetacentric and one subtelocentric chromosome pairs. We also found a high percentage of cells with an abnormal number of chromosomes. Considering that karyotype disturbances in Unionids have been previously related with exposure to chemicals, either natural or produced by human activity, we determined the aneuploidy index for our population. The aneuploidy index is an excellent marker for pollutant presence/effect. The animals acclimatized in tap water and in natural water from the lake where the individuals were collected showed different levels of aneuploidy. The higher values were found in tap water. Chromosome analysis techniques seem a suitable tool to study the impact of contaminants referred above, and making A. cygnea a suitable organism for assessment of an eugenic damage in aquatic systems. On the other hand, our results also point out to the importance of doing the acclimatizing process of the collected animals in their own natural water.

  6. Research on optimal domestication of thiobacillus ferooxidans and desulfurization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gong, G.; Tao, X.; Zhang, X.; ??? Luo, Z. [China University of Mining and Technology, Xuzhou (China)

    2006-07-15

    In order to increase the efficiency of biodesulfurization and reduce the reaction time, based on the high selectivity adsorption and oxidation characteristic of thiobacillus ferooxidans (T.f.) for pyrite (FeS{sub 2}) in coal, the strain of T.f. was acclimatized by changing concentration of Fe{sup 2+}, H{sup +} and NH{sub 4}{sup +} and adding FeS{sub 2} and glucose in the 9 K medium. The optimal conditions of growth were investigated and used in the biodesulfurization experiments. The results show that the normal growth of T.f. was achieved after two turns of acclimatization. The desulfurization efficiency is the best under the conditions of 10% inoculation, 1.85 pH value and 27{sup o}C. The smaller the size of coal particle is, the effective the biodesulfurization is. The maximum sulphur removal from coal of 76.2% was obtained after reaction time of 7 days. The mechanisms of desulfurization with T.f. can be explained by the cooperation reaction of dissolved oxygen, bacteria and Fe{sup 3+}. 9 refs., 6 figs.

  7. Pathophysiology and pathological findings of heatstroke in dogs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Romanucci M

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Mariarita Romanucci, Leonardo Della SaldaDepartment of Comparative Biomedical Sciences, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Teramo, Teramo, ItalyAbstract: Canine heatstroke is a life-threatening condition resulting from an imbalance between heat dissipation and production, and characterized by a nonpyrogenic elevation in core body temperature above 41°C (105.8°F. Several exogenous and endogenous factors may predispose dogs to the development of heatstroke; on the other hand, adaptive mechanisms also exists which allow organisms to combat the deleterious effects of heat stress, which are represented by the cellular heat-shock response and heat acclimatization. The pathophysiology and consequences of heatstroke share many similarities to those observable in sepsis and are related to the interaction between the direct cytotoxicity of heat, the acute physiological alterations associated with hyperthermia, such as increased metabolic demand, hypoxia, and circulatory failure, and the inflammatory and coagulation responses of the host to the widespread endothelial and tissue injuries, which may culminate in disseminated intravascular coagulation, systemic inflammatory response syndrome, and multiple organ dysfunction.Keywords: thermoregulation, acclimatization, heat shock proteins, hyperthermia, systemic inflammatory response, multiple organ dysfunction

  8. Atmospheric Humidity Influences Oviposition Rate of Tetranychus urticae (Acari: Tetranychidae) Through Morphological Responses of Host Cucumis sativus Leaves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shibuya, T; Itagaki, K; Ueyama, S; Hirai, N; Endo, R

    2016-02-01

    We investigated the effects of morphology of host cucumber, Cucumis sativus L., leaves acclimatized to different atmospheric humidity levels on oviposition by adult females of the twospotted spider mite, Tetranychus urticae Koch. Cucumber seedlings were grown at a vapor pressure deficit (VPD) of 0.4, 1.9, or 3.0 kPa at 28°C (90%, 50%, or 20% relative humidity, respectively) in growth chambers until the second true leaves had expanded. Adult females of T. urticae were released on the adaxial surfaces of leaf squares cut from first and second true leaves in each treatment group, and held in the same humidity condition. Eggs were counted 2 d after release. The lower acclimatization humidity (higher VPD) increased trichome (leaf hair) density of the host leaves and oviposition rate, but the relationship between the trichome and oviposition differed between leaf positions. The leaf mass per area (LMA) was greater in first true leaves than in second true leaves, but was not influenced by VPD. A linear regression model with oviposition rate as the dependent variable and trichome density and LMA as independent variables showed that both variables influenced the oviposition rate approximately equally. We conclude that oviposition was accelerated under low humidity (high VPD) conditions indirectly probably through an increase in the trichome density of host leaves.

  9. Discordant coral-symbiont structuring: factors shaping geographical variation of Symbiodinium communities in a facultative zooxanthellate coral genus, Oculina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leydet, Karine Posbic; Hellberg, Michael E.

    2016-06-01

    Understanding the factors that help shape the association between corals and their algal symbionts, zooxanthellae ( Symbiodinium), is necessary to better understand the functional diversity and acclimatization potential of the coral host. However, most studies focus on tropical zooxanthellate corals and their obligate algal symbionts, thus limiting our full comprehension of coral-algal symbiont associations. Here, we examine algal associations in a facultative zooxanthellate coral. We survey the Symbiodinium communities associated with Oculina corals in the western North Atlantic and the Mediterranean using one clade-level marker ( psbA coding region) and three fine-scale markers ( cp23S- rDNA, b7sym15 flanking region, and b2sym17). We ask whether Oculina spp. harbor geographically different Symbiodinium communities across their geographic range and, if so, whether the host's genetics or habitat differences are correlated with this geographical variation. We found that Oculina corals harbor different Symbiodinium communities across their geographical range. Of the habitat differences (including chlorophyll a concentration and depth), sea surface temperature is better correlated with this geographical variation than the host's genetics, a pattern most evident in the Mediterranean. Our results suggest that although facultative zooxanthellate corals may be less dependent on their algal partners compared to obligate zooxanthellate corals, the Symbiodinium communities that they harbor may nevertheless reflect acclimatization to environmental variation among habitats.

  10. A reusable immobilization matrix for the biodegradation of phenol at 5000 mg/L

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Najun; Jiang, Jun; Chen, Dongyun; Xu, Qingfeng; Li, Hua; Lu, Jianmei

    2015-03-01

    Bacteria-mediated degradation of toxins has been reported as a practical technique for the innocuous removal of toxic organic compounds from water. Specifically, immobilized and pre-acclimatized Pseudomonas putida has been shown to clear low levels of contaminants (less than 2000 mg/L) from wastewater, wherein the bacteria consumes toxic aromatic compounds as the only source of carbon and energy. Here we report the preparation of a high-capacity composite adsorbent as an immobilization matrix for pre-acclimatized P. putida that is capable of complete degradation of 5000 mg/L of phenol within 80 hours. The composite adsorbent, a n-Butyl acrylate (BA)-resin evenly coated on polyester fiber (PF), can quickly reduce the phenol concentration to a level that is suitable for the immobilized bacteria to start the biodegradation process. Furthermore, the composite adsorbent (PF-BA) is regenerated during the biodegradation process without any additional manipulations, therefore it is reusable. As a whole, we provide a general strategy for more efficient biodegradation for phenol, which can be generalized to other water-soluble toxic organics removal for waste water treatment.

  11. 耳鸣习服治疗进展%The research progress of tinnitus retraining therapy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    余斌

    2016-01-01

    One of tinnitus is a common disease and frequently encountered disease in otology, the serious influence the patient's quality of life, to the patient's psychological and mental caused problems. Many clinical treatment, the tinnitus acclimatization therapy is a simple, safe, effective and without side effects. In this paper the mechanism oftinnitus retraining therapy and clinical application were reviewed, aimed at making tinnitus acclimatization therapy in clinical application of further promotion.%耳鸣是耳科的常见病、多发病之一,严重影响患者的生活质量,给患者的心理和精神上造成困扰。临床上治疗方法很多,其中耳鸣的习服疗法是一种简便、安全、有效并无副作用的有效治疗方法。本文对耳鸣习服疗法的机制及临床应用等进行了综述,旨在提高耳鸣习服疗法在临床上的应用得到进一步的推广。

  12. A digital processing strategy to optimize hearing aid outputs directly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blamey, Peter J; Martin, Lois F A; Fiket, Hayley J

    2004-01-01

    A new amplification strategy (ADRO), based on 64 independently operating channels, was compared with a nine-channel wide dynamic range compression strategy (WDRC). Open-platform in-the-ear hearing instruments were configured either with ADRO or the manufacturer's WDRC strategy. Twenty-two subjects with mild to moderate hearing loss took home the ADRO or WDRC hearing aids. After three weeks' acclimatization, the aids were evaluated using monosyllables in quiet at 50 to 65 dB SPL and sentences in eight-talker babble. The acclimatization and evaluation were repeated in the second phase of the balanced reverse-block blind experimental design. The ADRO program showed a statistically significant mean advantage of 7.85% word score (95% confidence interval 3.19% to 12.51%; p = 0.002) and 6.41% phoneme score for the monosyllables in quiet (95% confidence interval 2.03% to 10.79%; p = 0.006). A statistically significant advantage of 7.25% was also found for the ADRO program in background noise (95% confidence interval 1.95% to 12.55%; p = 0.010). The results are consistent with earlier data for listeners with moderate to severe hearing loss.

  13. On the mechanisms that limit oxygen uptake during exercise in acute and chronic hypoxia: role of muscle mass

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Calbet, José A L; Rådegran, Göran; Boushel, Robert

    2009-01-01

    Peak aerobic power in humans (VO2,peak) is markedly affected by inspired O2 tension (FIO2). The question to be answered in this study is what factor plays a major role in the limitation of muscle peak VO2 in hypoxia: arterial O2 partial pressure (Pa,O2) or O2 content (Ca,O2)? Thus, cardiac output...... altitude acclimatization. Acclimatization improved Bike peak exercise Pa,O2 from 34 +/- 1 in AH to 45 +/- 1 mmHg in CH(P Pa,O2 from 38 +/- 1 to 55 +/- 2 mmHg(P ... level values (2.65 +/- 0.15 and 1.16 +/- 0.11 l min(-1), respectively) during Knee, but not during Bike. During Knee in CH, leg oxygen delivery was similar to normoxia and, therefore, also VO2,peak in spite of a Pa,O2 of 55 mmHg. Reducing the size of the active mass improves pulmonary gas exchange...

  14. A Model of Genome Size Evolution for Prokaryotes in Stable and Fluctuating Environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bentkowski, Piotr; Van Oosterhout, Cock; Mock, Thomas

    2015-08-04

    Temporal variability in ecosystems significantly impacts species diversity and ecosystem productivity and therefore the evolution of organisms. Different levels of environmental perturbations such as seasonal fluctuations, natural disasters, and global change have different impacts on organisms and therefore their ability to acclimatize and adapt. Thus, to understand how organisms evolve under different perturbations is a key for predicting how environmental change will impact species diversity and ecosystem productivity. Here, we developed a computer simulation utilizing the individual-based model approach to investigate genome size evolution of a haploid, clonal and free-living prokaryotic population across different levels of environmental perturbations. Our results show that a greater variability of the environment resulted in genomes with a larger number of genes. Environmental perturbations were more effectively buffered by populations of individuals with relatively large genomes. Unpredictable changes of the environment led to a series of population bottlenecks followed by adaptive radiations. Our model shows that the evolution of genome size is indirectly driven by the temporal variability of the environment. This complements the effects of natural selection directly acting on genome optimization. Furthermore, species that have evolved in relatively stable environments may face the greatest risk of extinction under global change as genome streamlining genetically constrains their ability to acclimatize to the new environmental conditions, unless mechanisms of genetic diversification such as horizontal gene transfer will enrich their gene pool and therefore their potential to adapt.

  15. Epithelial thickness and lipid droplets in the hepatopancreas of Porcellio scaber (Crustacea: Isopoda) in different physiological conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leser, Vladka; Drobne, Damjana; Vilhar, Barbara; Kladnik, Ales; Znidarsic, Nada; Strus, Jasna

    2008-01-01

    We investigated the morphometric characteristics of the hepatopancreatic epithelium in the terrestrial isopod Porcellio scaber during acclimatization to laboratory conditions, during the daily cycle, the molt cycle, and fasting. The hepatopancreatic epithelium was analyzed using computer-assisted microscopy of serial sections of the hepatopancreatic tubes. In addition, the abundance, the distribution, and the size of lipid droplets in the hepatopancreatic epithelium were recorded. The experimental animals were collected in the field and transferred to the laboratory. The hepatopancreatic epithelium was thinner and lipid droplets reduced after 2 months of acclimatization to laboratory conditions. The daily cycle and the molt cycle affected neither the epithelial thickness nor the abundance of lipid droplets. But in animals fasted for 2 weeks, these two parameters were significantly reduced. Based on both the epithelial thickness and the abundance of lipid droplets in B cells, we propose criteria for estimating the stress status of the animals. With the possibility to determine the stress status, many studies on isopods gain in relevance.

  16. Consensus recommendations on training and competing in the heat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Racinais, S; Alonso, J M; Coutts, A J; Flouris, A D; Girard, O; González-Alonso, J; Hausswirth, C; Jay, O; Lee, J K W; Mitchell, N; Nassis, G P; Nybo, L; Pluim, B M; Roelands, B; Sawka, M N; Wingo, J E; Périard, J D

    2015-06-01

    Exercising in the heat induces thermoregulatory and other physiological strain that can lead to impairments in endurance exercise capacity. The purpose of this consensus statement is to provide up-to-date recommendations to optimize performance during sporting activities undertaken in hot ambient conditions. The most important intervention one can adopt to reduce physiological strain and optimize performance is to heat acclimatize. Heat acclimatization should comprise repeated exercise-heat exposures over 1-2 weeks. In addition, athletes should initiate competition and training in a euhydrated state and minimize dehydration during exercise. Following the development of commercial cooling systems (e.g., cooling vest), athletes can implement cooling strategies to facilitate heat loss or increase heat storage capacity before training or competing in the heat. Moreover, event organizers should plan for large shaded areas, along with cooling and rehydration facilities, and schedule events in accordance with minimizing the health risks of athletes, especially in mass participation events and during the first hot days of the year. Following the recent examples of the 2008 Olympics and the 2014 FIFA World Cup, sport governing bodies should consider allowing additional (or longer) recovery periods between and during events for hydration and body cooling opportunities when competitions are held in the heat.

  17. Cryopreservation of coconut (Cocos nucifera L.) zygotic embryos does not induce morphological, cytological or molecular changes in recovered seedlings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sisunandar; Rival, Alain; Turquay, Patricia; Samosir, Yohannes; Adkins, Steve W

    2010-07-01

    The present study aimed at exploring the fidelity of coconut (Cocos nucifera L.) plants recovered from cryopreservation. Zygotic embryos from various different cultivars were cryopreserved following four successive steps, namely: rapid dehydration, rapid freezing, rapid thawing and in vitro recovery followed by acclimatization. At the end of the acclimatization period, the seedlings were compared to counterparts of the same age, which were produced from non-cryopreserved embryos. Both series were submitted to morphological, cytological and molecular comparisons. No significant differences in terms of growth rates could be measured. In addition, no morphological variation could be detected through the measurement of shoot elongation rates, production of opened leaves, and the number and total length of primary roots. Karyotype analysis revealed the same chromosome number (2n = 32) in all studied cultivars independently of cryopreservation. No significant differences could be observed between control and cryopreserved material concerning the type of chromosomes, the length of the long and short arms, the arm length ratio and the centromeric index. However, idiogram analysis did show a greater number of black banding on chromosomes isolated from cryopreserved material. Genetic and epigenetic fidelity was assessed through microsatellite (SSR) analysis and global DNA methylation rates; no significant differences would be observed between genomic DNAs isolated from seedlings originating from cryopreserved embryos and respective controls. In conclusion, our results suggest that the method of cryopreservation under study did not induce gross morphological, genetic or epigenetic changes, thus suggesting that it is an appropriate method to efficiently preserve coconut germplasm.

  18. Micropropagation of Hedychium coronarium J. Koenig through rhizome bud.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohanty, Pritam; Behera, Shashikanta; Swain, Swasti S; Barik, Durga P; Naik, Soumendra K

    2013-10-01

    An optimized protocol was developed for in vitro plant regeneration of a medicinally important herb Hedychium coronarium J. Koenig using sprouted buds of rhizomes. The rhizomes with sprouted bud were inoculated on Murashige and Skoog (Physiol Plant 15:473-497, 1962) medium (MS) supplemented with either N(6)-benzyladenine (BA) alone (1.0-4.0 mg L(-1)) or in combination with 0.5 mg L(-1) naphthalene acetic acid (NAA). Of these combinations, MS supplemented with a combination of 2.0 mg L(-1) BA and 0.5 mg L(-1) NAA was most effective. In this medium, best shoots (3.6) and roots (4.0) regeneration was observed simultaneously with an average shoot and root length of 4.7 cm and 4.2 cm respectively. Regeneration of shoots and roots in the same medium at the same time (One step shoot and root regeneration) reduced the time for production of in vitro plantlets and eliminates the media cost of rooting. Cent-percent (100 %) success in plant establishment was observed in both gradual acclimatization process as well as when plants were directly transferred to outdoor in clay pots containing a mixture of garden soil and sand (2:1) without any sequential acclimatization stage.

  19. Micropropagation of peach rootstocks and cultivars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balla, Ildikó; Mansvelt, Lucienne

    2013-01-01

    Peach (Prunus persica (L.) Batsch) is one of the most popular stone fruits, commercially produced largely in Mediterranean and, to a lesser extent, in continental climatic conditions. Several breeding programs with different aims release annually large numbers of new cultivars. Micropropagation offers a suitable method to provide the growers of sufficient quantities of rootstocks, as well as of pathogen-free planting material of old and new cultivars.An effective four-step micropropagation procedure for cultivar and rootstock production is described here, based on the use of modified MS and WPM media. The health status of the initial shoot tips is very important, also because the growth and proliferation rate of shoot cultures from virus-infected clones are generally very poor. Proliferation and elongation phases depend on the major macro-elements, as well as the content and ratio of plant growth regulators. It is important to grow the cultures at 22°C, as hyperhydricity may develop at higher temperatures. Although sucrose is the most common carbon source used during proliferation and rooting, for some peach cultivars and rootstocks the replacement of sucrose (10 g/L) with glucose (20 g/L) in the rooting medium improves the rooting and survival rates of plants in the acclimatization phase. The rooting rate of the rootstock "Cadaman" is improved with the chelated form of iron FeEDDHA at 150 mg/L. Rooted plants are acclimatized in greenhouse under high humidity conditions.

  20. In vitro micropropagation of Dracaena sanderiana Sander ex Mast: An important indoor ornamental plant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aslam, Junaid; Mujib, Abdul; Sharma, Maheshwar Prasad

    2013-01-01

    A protocol has been developed for in vitro plant regeneration from a nodal explant of Dracaena sanderiana Sander ex Mast. Nodal explant showed high callus induction potentiality on MS medium supplemented with 6.78 μM 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D) followed by 46.5 μM chlorophenoxy acetic acid (CPA). The highest frequency of shoot regeneration (85%) and number of shoots per explant (5.6) were obtained on medium supplemented with 7.84 μM N(6)-benzylaminopurine (BA). Rooting was high on MS solid compared to liquid medium when added with 7.38 μM indole-3-butyric acid (IBA). Fifty percent of the roots were also directly rooted as microcuttings on soil rite, sand and peat mixture (1:1:1). In vitro and ex vitro raised plantlets were used for acclimatization. More than 90% of the plantlets was successfully acclimatized and established in plastic pots. Ex vitro transferred plantlets were normal without any phenotypic aberrations.

  1. An efficient system for in vitro propagation of Bouchea fluminensis (Vell. Mold. (Verbenaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristiano Ferrara de Resende

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to establish and propagate in vitro plants of Bouchea fluminensis, a medicinal species known in Brazil as gervão-falso ("false verbena", evaluating the influences of different growth regulators on in vitro multiplication and rooting stages, as well as examining ex vitro acclimatization of rooted plants. Explants were established on Murashige and Skoog medium at half strength of salts and vitamins without growth regulators. For multiplication, the explants were subjected to combinations of 6-benzyladenine (BA; 0, 2.5, 5.0 and 7.5 µM and α-naphthalene-acetic acid (NAA; 0, 0.2, 0.4 and 0.6 µM. The medium found to induce the greatest number of shoot was that containing 5 µM of BA (NAA-free. For rooting, we evaluated three auxins (NAA, indole-3-acetic acid and indole-3-butyric acid; 0.1, 0.2, 0.3 and 0.4 µM, as well as a control. No differences were observed between the control and the other treatments. The auxin-free medium was deemed the most suitable, because it ensures the lowest cost in the micropropagation procedures. We obtained 100% survival of the acclimatized seedlings, and the plants showed normal vegetative and reproductive development, suggesting that the micropropagation did not alter the biological cycle of this species. The results show the importance and potential of micropropagation for biodiversity conservation of Bouchea fluminensis.

  2. Enzymatic activity of rodents acclimated to cold and long scotophase

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fourie, F. Le R.; Haim, A.

    1980-09-01

    Rodents representative of a diurnal species ( Rhabdomys pumilio) as well as a nocturnal species ( Praomys natalensis) were acclimated to cold (Ta = 8°C) at a photoperiod of LD 12:12 and a long scotophase (LD 8; 16) at a temperature of 25° C(Ta). Control groups were kept for both species at Ta = 25° C and LD 12:12 and winter acclimated individuals were obtained during July and August to serve as further reference. Blood samples obtained from the tail were analysed for enzymes representative of three major biochemical pathways. The enzymatic activity of LDH (glycolytic pathway), MDH (Krebs cycle) and G6PDH (hexose monophosphate shunt, as an indicator of gonadal activity) were monitored to represent metabolic activity of the respective cycles. Cold acclimated as well as winter acclimatized mice revealed similar enzymatic patterns for both species and significant increases in LDH and MDH were recorded with a concurrent decrease in G6PDH activity. Specimens exposed to long scotophase exhibited similar enzymatic patterns for both species studied, but enzymatic activity was higher than those of cold acclimated individuals. From these results it is concluded that cold as well as long scotophase induce metabolic adaptations through biochemical activity in the experimental animals. The effect of long scotophase is assumed to be an important factor in the induction of winter acclimatization.

  3. Optimization of Micropropagation Protocol for Goji Berry (Lycium barbarum L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandru Fira

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Micropropagation of Lycium barbarum cv. 'Ningxia N1' was achieved. The cultures were by initiated by axenical seed germination. The highest shoot proliferation was obtained on the MS media with 1.33 or 2.22 µM benzyl adenine, gelled with wheat starch as an agar alternative. The treatments with 2.22 µM benzyl adenine ensured proliferation rates superior to the ones with 1.33 μM benzyl adenine, but the latter provided longer and more robust shoots. Use of large microcuttings as an explant onto the multiplication media ensured higher in vitro explant survival, higher number of shoots regeneration and more vigorous plantlets. The microcuttings inserted vertically into the media yielded superior growth and multiplication as compared to the microcuttings placed horizontally. The non-rooted, elongated shoots from the treatment 1.33 μM benzyl adenine were either rooted in vitro on a hormone-free MS medium with starch or used for direct ex vitro rooting and acclimatization. The optimal number of microcuttings/vessel for in vitro rooting was 40 and the rooted plantlets were efficiently acclimatized ex vitro by three methods: float hydroculture in floating cell trays, floating perlite, and in Jiffy7 pellets.

  4. Effects of ozone on kraft process pulp mill effluent

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mohammed, A. (Stanley Industrial Consultants, Edmonton, Alberta (Canada)); Smith, D.W. (Univ. of Alberta, Edmonton, (Canada))

    1992-12-01

    Effluent from a kraft process pulp mill was studied in a batch reactor for ozone doses between 50 and 200 mg O[sub 3]/L to identify the suitability of ozone application locations in the treatment process and see the improvements in biotreatability of wastewaters from a kraft process pulp mill. Laboratory acclimatized seed were used for (Biochemical Oxygen Demand) BOD tests for ozonated and unozonated samples. The inhibitory effects were minimized by using optimum dilutions. The studies were divided into three major sections: characterization of mill effluent; ozone system calibration, and reactor design; and ozonation of mill effluent. Seed for BOD tests were acclimatized in batch units for primary, bleach and secondary effluents separately. The results were analyzed using the [open quote]t[close quote] test for paired experiments and an ANOVA table for statistical confirmation. Residuals were plotted to check the assumptions of constant variance and normal distribution. It was concluded that ozone is most effective for the removal of color and the increase of BOD in secondary effluent. 21 refs., 9 figs., 7 tabs.

  5. Geographic and seasonal patterns and limits on the adaptive response to temperature of European Mytilus spp. and Macoma balthica populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jansen, Jeroen M; Pronker, Annelies E; Kube, Sandra; Sokolowski, Adam; Sola, J Carlos; Marquiegui, Mikel A; Schiedek, Doris; Wendelaar Bonga, Sjoerd; Wolowicz, Maciej; Hummel, Herman

    2007-11-01

    Seasonal variations in seawater temperature require extensive metabolic acclimatization in cold-blooded organisms inhabiting the coastal waters of Europe. Given the energetic costs of acclimatization, differences in adaptive capacity to climatic conditions are to be expected among distinct populations of species that are distributed over a wide geographic range. We studied seasonal variations in the metabolic adjustments of two very common bivalve taxa at European scale. To this end we sampled 16 populations of Mytilus spp. and 10 Macoma balthica populations distributed from 39 degrees to 69 degrees N. The results from this large-scale comprehensive comparison demonstrated seasonal cycles in metabolic rates which were maximized during winter and springtime, and often reduced in the summer and autumn. Studying the sensitivity of metabolic rates to thermal variations, we found that a broad range of Q (10) values occurred under relatively cold conditions. As habitat temperatures increased the range of Q (10) narrowed, reaching a bottleneck in southern marginal populations during summer. For Mytilus spp., genetic-group-specific clines and limits on Q (10) values were observed at temperatures corresponding to the maximum climatic conditions these geographic populations presently experience. Such specific limitations indicate differential thermal adaptation among these divergent groups. They may explain currently observed migrations in mussel distributions and invasions. Our results provide a practical framework for the thermal ecophysiology of bivalves, the assessment of environmental changes due to climate change and its impact on (and consequences for) aquaculture.

  6. Decreases in surface activities and aquatic toxicities of linear alkylbenzene sulfonate and alcohol ethoxylates during biodegradation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oya, Masaru; Hisano, Noriko

    2010-01-01

    We discussed the relation between aquatic toxicity and interfacial activity during biodegradation with using LAS (Linear Alkylbenzene Sulphonate) and AE (Alcohol Ethoxylate). The change of death rate of Daphnia magna, surface tension, concentration of surfactant, and biodegradation by oxygen demand during biodegradation were measured. As a result, a rapid decrease in toxicity and rapid increase in surface tension were observed within the time before biodegradation based on oxygen demand started to increase. These rapid changes in toxicity and surface tension occurred due to the structural change of surfactant molecules in the primary biodegradation process, which was confirmed by HPLC (High Performance Liquid Chromatography) analysis. We also performed re-addition test to study the effects of acclimatization since it takes an important role on boidegradation, and found that the acclimatization significantly accelerated the primary biodegradation, which were indicated by increase in surface tension and decrease in aquatic toxicity. These results show that the environmental risk of surfactants should be considered not only with the biodegradation based on oxygen demand but also with the decrease of interfacial activity through the primary biodegradation process.

  7. Efficient somatic embryogenesis and molecular marker based analysis as effective tools for conservation of red-listed plant Commiphora wightii

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ASHOK KUMAR PARMAR

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available A refined and high efficiency protocol for in vitro regeneration of Commiphora wightii, a red-listed medicinal plant of medicinal importance, has been developed through optimized somatic embryogenesis pathway. Cultures from immature fruits were induced and proliferated on B5 medium supplemented with 2.26 µM 2,4-D. Embryogenic calli were obtained and then maintained for extended periods by alternately subculturing on modified MS medium supplemented with 1.11 µM BAP, 0.57 µM IBA and with 0.5% activated charcoal or without PGR every 3-4 weeks. Cyclic embryogenesis was obtained. Late torpedo and early cotyledonary stages somatic embryos were regularly harvested from PGR-free modified MS medium. It was found that percent moisture available in culture containers play a critical role in maturation and subsequent germination of somatic embryos of C. wighti. Maximum germination of more than 80% was achieved through media recycling. Somatic embryo derived plants (emblings were acclimatized. After 5 months, acclimatized plants were out-planted in experimental field. These morphologically normal plants have been surviving for over 3 years. Molecular polymorphism was clearly evident when these plants were tested using RAPD primers, making the plants suitable for use in its species restoration program.

  8. In vitro propagation of critically endangered species Scilla autumnalis L. – biochemical analyses of the regenerants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristian BANCIU

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available The present study belongs to the international efforts for plant conservation from the areas threatened by human activities. The saline soils areas are restricting for agriculture and in some cases for fishery facilities and the plant species are extinct from those areas. Scilla autumnalis L. is one of the threatened plants (rare on the national red list of vascular plants from Romania that grows in the Natural Park Comana, Giurgiu County, South Romania. Seeds from plants grown in the natural habitat have been used for in vitro plant regeneration and multiplication. After successfully rooting and acclimatization of the regenerated plantlets from germinated seeds, biochemical studies have been performed in order to compare the regenerants from in vitro cultures with native plants from genetically point of view. Peroxydase and esterase’s spectra were the biochemical markers used.The results indicated that this plant species can be multiplicated, rooted and acclimatized on synthetic medium (MS supplemented with NAA, IBA, IAA, kinetin and BAP with a good efficiency and the regenerants had no genetic alterations determinated by culture conditions.

  9. Reduced heat stress in offices in the tropics using solar powered drying of the supply air.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunnarsen, L; Santos, A M B

    2002-12-01

    Many solutions to indoor climate problems known from developed countries may have prohibitive installation and running costs in developing countries. The purpose was to develop a low-cost solution to heat stress in a hot and humid environment based on solar powered drying of supply air. Dry supply air may facilitate personal cooling by increased evaporation of sweat. Heat acclimatized people with efficient sweating may in particular benefit from this cooling. A prototype solar powered supply system for dried-only air was made. Air from the system was mixed with room air, heated to six different combinations of temperature and humidity and led to Personal Units for Ventilation and Cooling (PUVAC) in six cubicles simulating office workplaces. A total of 123 heat acclimatized subjects were exposed 45 min in each of the cubicles. A model for the combined effect of operative temperature of room, moisture content of room air, temperature of supply air and moisture content of supply air was developed based on the experiments. Reduction of moisture content in the supply air by 1.6 g/kg had the same effect as lowering the operative temperature by 1 degree C. The solar-powered system for supplying dry air is a low-cost alternative to traditional air conditioning in hot and humid regions.

  10. Micropropagação de sucupira-preta por meio de gemas axilares Sucupira-preta micropropagation through axillary buds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciana Coelho de Moura

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar o uso de reguladores de crescimento, aditivos antioxidantes, tipo de explantes e intensidade de cobertura de mudas aclimatizadas, na micropropagação de sucupira-preta (Bowdichia virgilioides por meio de gemas axilares. Os explantes foram cultivados para a multiplicação em meio de cultura básico WPM, suplementado com concentrações de benzilaminopurina (BAP. No alongamento, os tratamentos foram combinações de ácido naftalenoacético (ANA e BAP adicionadas ao meio. Para o enraizamento, as brotações foram colocadas em meio com concentrações de ácido indolbutírico, ou em meio com combinações dos aditivos polivinilpirrolidona e carvão ativado, em diferentes concentrações de ANA. As plantas foram transplantadas para copos de plástico, com substrato, e cobertas com saco de polietileno. Posteriormente, esses sacos foram retirados, ou perfurados, ou não retirados, o que constituiu os tratamentos de pré-aclimatização in vitro. A aclimatização ex vitro foi realizada após o período de pré-aclimatização in vitro. A sucupira-preta apresentou melhor micropropagação com emprego de: segmentos cotiledonares e 0,3 mg L-1 de BAP, na multiplicação; 0,3 mg L-1 de ANA e 0,03 mg L-1 de BAP, no alongamento; e carvão ativado (2,0 mg L-1, no enraizamento e na pré-aclimatização in vitro, com uso de cobertura de plástico transparente em torno da muda.The objective of this work was to evaluate the use of growth regulators, antioxidant additives, type of explants, and coverage intensity of acclimatized seedlings in the micropropagation of sucupira-preta (Bowdichia virgilioides through axillary buds. Explants were cultured for multiplication on WPM medium, supplemented with concentrations of benzylaminopurine (BAP. In the elongation phase, treatments consisted of naphthaleneacetic acid (NAA and BAP combinations added to the medium. For rooting, shoots were inoculated in medium containing

  11. Anatomia comparada das folhas e raízes de Cymbidium Hort. (Orchidaceae cultivadas ex vitro e in vitro Comparative leaf and root anatomy of ex vitro and in vitro cultured Cymbidium Hort. plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliana Lischka Sampaio Mayer

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Na fase de cultivo in vitro, as plantas são mantidas em ambiente com alta umidade relativa do ar, baixa luminosidade e trocas gasosas restritas, o que resulta em taxa de transpiração reduzida. Portanto, quando essas mudas são expostas ao meio ex vitro, sofrem estresse que pode causar a morte. O objetivo desse trabalho foi comparar a estrutura anatômica das mudas de Cymbidium 'Joy Polis' cultivadas ex vitro (planta matriz e aclimatizada e in vitro e verificar se a estrutura anatômica das plantas in vitro influencia no processo de aclimatização. As plantas ex vitro foram mantidas em casa-de-vegetação, em vasos individuais com o substrato fibra de coco em pó combinada com fibra de coco, e as plantas in vitro foram mantidas em meio de cultura MS. Para a análise anatômica qualitativa foram coletadas amostras de folhas e raízes de plantas ex vitro e in vitro. As plantas aclimatizadas apresentaram estrutura morfoanatômica semelhante à da planta matriz. A estrutura anatômica das plantas in vitro não influenciou a sobrevivência das mudas durante a aclimatização devido à plasticidade fenotipica desse cultivar. As plantas de Cymbidium 'Joy Polis' possuem grande capacidade de aclimatização ao ambiente, sendo provavelmente este um dos fatores responsáveis pela sobrevivência de 100% das mudas.During in vitro culture plants are kept in an atmosphere with high relative humidity, low light intensity and reduced gas exchange, resulting in low transpiration rates. Therefore, when these plants are exposed to ex vitro conditions, they suffer stress, which can induce mortality. The purpose of this study was to compare the anatomical structure of Cymbidium 'Joy Polis' plants from ex vitro (mother plant and acclimatized plants and in vitro cultures and to verify if the anatomical structure of in vitro cultured plants affects acclimatization. The ex vitro plants were kept in a greenhouse in pots containing a mixture of coconut-fiber powder and

  12. Effects of continuous drought and immersion on hatchability of Ochlerotatus albifasciatus (Diptera: Culicidae eggs stored at low temperature Efecto de la sequía continua y la inmersión sobre la respuesta de eclosión de los huevos de Ochlerotatus albifasciatus (Diptera: Culicidae almacenados a baja temperatura

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raúl E Campos

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available The role of environmental factors on the hatching response of O. albifasciatus (Macquart eggs is studied by simulating winter conditions in the laboratory. The hypothesis tested was that hatching response is affected by: (1 time that eggs remain at low temperature, (2 storage conditions, and (3 acclimatization time. Eggs were stored at 5ºC in drought and immersion conditions during 7, 21, 35, 90 and 146 days, immediately after, they were acclimatized at 22ºC during 24, 72, and 168 hours, and then eggs were flooded to induce hatching. Percent of hatched eggs was analyzed with a Generalized Lineal Model with a binomial distribution. Results show that: (1 a long storage period at cold temperature and long acclimatization periods improve the hatching response; (2 storage conditions have a moderate effect on hatching, being more evident in eggs stored dry; (3 a long time of acclimatization favors the hatching response in submerged eggs more than in eggs stored dry; (4 long time at cold favors the hatching response in eggs stored dry more than in submerged eggs; (5 the hatching response of eggs that remain for a long time at low temperature is higher when the time of acclimatization is long.Se estudió el rol de los factores ambientales sobre la eclosión de los huevos de O. albifasciatus (Macquart, simulando condiciones de invierno. La hipótesis planteada fue que la respuesta de eclosión de los huevos depende de: (1 tiempo de permanencia a baja temperatura, (2 condiciones de almacenamiento, y (3 tiempo de aclimatación. Los huevos fueron almacenados a 5º C en condiciones de sequía y sumergidos durante 7, 21, 35, 90 y 146 días; luego fueron aclimatados a 22º C durante 24, 72, y 168 horas y posteriormente inundados para inducir la eclosión. El porcentaje de huevos eclosionados se analizó con un Modelo Lineal Generalizado con distribución binomial. Los resultados mostraron que: (1 largos períodos de almacenamiento en frío y largos tiempos

  13. Impact of high altitude on the hepatic fatty acid oxidation and synthesis in rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ni, Qian [Department of General Surgery, Hepatic-biliary-pancreatic Institute, Lanzhou University Second Hospital, Lanzhou (China); Department of Pediatrics, Lanzhou University Second Hospital, Lanzhou (China); Shao, Yuan; Wang, Ying Zhen [Department of General Surgery, Hepatic-biliary-pancreatic Institute, Lanzhou University Second Hospital, Lanzhou (China); Jing, Yu Hong [Institute of Anatomy, School of Basic Medicine, Lanzhou University, Lanzhou (China); Zhang, You Cheng, E-mail: zhangychmd@126.com [Department of General Surgery, Hepatic-biliary-pancreatic Institute, Lanzhou University Second Hospital, Lanzhou (China)

    2014-04-04

    Highlights: • Acute exposure to high altitude (HA) increased hepatic fatty acid (FA) β-oxidation. • Acute exposure of rats to HA increased hepatic FA synthesis. • PPARα and AMPK can regulate the FA metabolism. • FA may be a key energy fuel and a compensation for CHO during acute exposure to HA. • The acute changes of FA metabolism may be a mechanism of acclimatization. - Abstract: High altitude (HA) affects energy metabolism. The impact of acute and chronic HA acclimatization on the major metabolic pathways is still controversial. In this study, we aimed to unveil the impact of HA on the key enzymes involved in the fatty acid (FA) metabolism in liver. Rats were exposed to an altitude of 4300 m for 30 days and the expressions of two key proteins involved in FA β-oxidation (carnitine palmitoyl transferase I, CPT-I; and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha, PPARα), two proteins involved in FA synthesis (acetyl CoA carboxylase-1, ACC-1; and AMP-activated protein kinase, AMPK), as well as the total ketone body in the liver and the plasma FFAs were examined. Rats without HA exposure were used as controls. We observed that the acute exposure of rats to HA (3 days) led to a significant increase in the expressions of CPT-I and PPARα and in the total hepatic ketone body. Longer exposure (15 days) caused a marked decrease in the expression of CPT-I and PPARα. By 30 days after HA exposure, the expression levels of CPT-I and PPARα returned to the control level. The hepatic ACC-1 level showed a significant increase in rats exposed to HA for 1 and 3 days. In contrast, the hepatic level of AMPK showed a significant reduction throughout the experimental period. Plasma FFA concentrations did not show any significant changes following HA exposure. Thus, increased hepatic FA oxidation and synthesis in the early phase of HA exposure may be among the important mechanisms for the rats to respond to the hypoxic stress in order to acclimatize themselves to the

  14. Living and training in moderate hypoxia does not improve VO2 max more than living and training in normoxia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henderson, K K; Clancy, R L; Gonzalez, N C

    2001-06-01

    The objective of these experiments was to determine whether living and training in moderate hypoxia (MHx) confers an advantage on maximal normoxic exercise capacity compared with living and training in normoxia. Rats were acclimatized to and trained in MHx [inspired PO2 (PI(O2)) = 110 Torr] for 10 wk (HTH). Rats living in normoxia trained under normoxic conditions (NTN) at the same absolute work rate: 30 m/min on a 10 degrees incline, 1 h/day, 5 days/wk. At the end of training, rats exercised maximally in normoxia. Training increased maximal O2 consumption (VO2 max) in NTN and HTH above normoxic (NS) and hypoxic (HS) sedentary controls. However, VO2 max and O2 transport variables were not significantly different between NTN and HTH: VO2 max 86.6 +/- 1.5 vs. 86.8 +/- 1.1 ml x min(-1) x kg(-1); maximal cardiac output 456 +/- 7 vs. 443 +/- 12 ml x min(-1) x kg(-1); tissue blood O2 delivery (cardiac output x arterial O2 content) 95 +/- 2 vs. 96 +/- 2 ml x min(-1) x kg(-1); and O2 extraction ratio (arteriovenous O2 content difference/arterial O2 content) 0.91 +/- 0.01 vs. 0.90 +/- 0.01. Mean pulmonary arterial pressure (Ppa, mmHg) was significantly higher in HS vs. NS (P < 0.05) at rest (24.5 +/- 0.8 vs. 18.1 +/- 0.8) and during maximal exercise (32.0 +/- 0.9 vs. 23.8 +/- 0.6). Training in MHx significantly attenuated the degree of pulmonary hypertension, with Ppa being significantly lower at rest (19.3 +/- 0.8) and during maximal exercise (29.2 +/- 0.5) in HTH vs. HS. These data indicate that, despite maintaining equal absolute training intensity levels, acclimatization to and training in MHx does not confer significant advantages over normoxic training. On the other hand, the pulmonary hypertension associated with acclimatization to hypoxia is reduced with hypoxic exercise training.

  15. Evidence for an apical Na-Cl cotransporter involved in ion uptake in a teleost fish

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hiroi, J.; Yasumasu, S.; McCormick, S.D.; Hwang, P.-P.; Kaneko, T.

    2008-01-01

    Cation-chloride cotransporters, such as the Na+/K +/2Cl- cotransporter (NKCC) and Na+/Cl - cotransporter (NCC), are localized to the apical or basolateral plasma membranes of epithelial cells and are involved in active ion absorption or secretion. The objectives of this study were to clone and identify 'freshwater-type' and 'seawater-type' cation-chloride cotransporters of euryhaline Mozambique tilapia (Oreochromis mossambicus) and to determine their intracellular localization patterns within mitochondria-rich cells (MRCs). From tilapia gills, we cloned four full-length cDNAs homologous to human cation-chloride cotransporters and designated them as tilapia NKCC1a, NKCC1b, NKCC2 and NCC. Out of the four candidates, the mRNA encoding NKCC1a was highly expressed in the yolk-sac membrane and gills (sites of the MRC localization) of seawater-acclimatized fish, whereas the mRNA encoding NCC was exclusively expressed in the yolk-sac membrane and gills of freshwater-acclimatized fish. We then generated antibodies specific for tilapia NKCC1a and NCC and conducted whole-mount immunofluorescence staining for NKCC1a and NCC, together with Na+/K+-ATPase, cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) and Na+/H+ exchanger 3 (NHE3), on the yolk-sac membrane of tilapia embryos acclimatized to freshwater or seawater. The simultaneous quintuple-color immunofluorescence staining allowed us to classify MRCs clearly into four types: types I, II, III and IV. The NKCC1a immunoreactivity was localized to the basolateral membrane of seawater-specific type-IV MRCs, whereas the NCC immunoreactivity was restricted to the apical membrane of freshwater-specific type-II MRCs. Taking account of these data at the level of both mRNA and protein, we deduce that NKCC1a is the seawater-type cotransporter involved in ion secretion by type-IV MRCs and that NCC is the freshwater-type cotransporter involved in ion absorption by type-II MRCs. We propose a novel ion-uptake model by MRCs in

  16. PENGARUH PENAMBAHAN KALIUM PADA MASA ADAPTASI PENURUNAN SALINITAS TERHADAP PERFORMA PASCALARVA UDANG VANAMEI (Litopenaeus vannamei

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ferdinand Hukama Taqwa

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Tujuan penelitian ini adalah untuk mengetahui pengaruh penambahan kalium selama masa adaptasi penurunan salinitas terhadap performa pascalarva udang vanamei. Penelitian ini dilaksanakan untuk mendapatkan kadar kalium optimal yang dapat menurunkan tingkat stres dan meningkatkan sintasan pascalarva udang vanamei setelah melalui masa adaptasi penurunan salinitas. Hewan uji yang digunakan adalah PL20 udang vanamei. Rancangan percobaan menggunakan rancangan acak lengkap dengan perlakuan yang diterapkan adalah penambahan kalium ke air tawar pengencer masing-masing sebanyak 0 mg/L (A, 25 mg/L (B, 50 mg/L (C, dan 75 mg/L (D. Penurunan salinitas dilakukan secara gradual selama 4 hari dari salinitas 25 ppt hingga mencapai 2 ppt. Hasil percobaan menunjukkan bahwa penambahan kalium sebanyak 25 mg/L hingga kadar kalium media menjadi 51 mg/L dapat mengurangi pembelanjaan energi untuk osmoregulasi, tingkat stres, dan laju metabolisme standar sehingga meningkatkan sintasan pascalarva udang vanamei setelah melalui masa adaptasi penurunan salinitas selama 96 jam (4 hari. The objective of this research was to study the effect of potassium addition during salinity acclimatization from 25 ppt down to 2 ppt on the performance of Litopenaeus vannamei postlarvae. This experiment was done to determine optimal dosage of potassium which can reduce stress level and increase survival rate of L. vannamei postlarvae after salinity acclimatization. Specimen test used was PL20 of white shrimp (0.001 g. Experimental design used completely randomized design with four treatments and three replications of different potassium addition levels to freshwater: 0 mg/L (A, 25 mg/L (B, 50 mg/L (C, and 75 mg/L (D. Dilution of salinity was done gradually using freshwater during 4 days from 25 ppt down to 2 ppt. The result of this experiment indicated that the addition of 25 mg/L potassium (potassium level in media was 51 mg/L reduced the energy cost for osmoregulation, level of stress and

  17. How does Diet influence Behavior and Neuroinflammation?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Bettina Merete Pyndt; Hansen, Julie Torpe; Hansen, Axel Jacob Kornerup

    A high number of Non-responders in induced animal models of depression is a problem in research as it results in a high work load and a waste of animals. The aim of this project is to investigate the possible relationship between diet, gut microbiota (GM), low-grade inflammation in the brain...... starch-containing diet for 10 weeks. Blood samples were drawn after acclimatization, and fecal samples were taken at relevant time points during the study. Behavioral testing was performed before diet feeding using the Triple test and after the trial by the use of the Sucrose Preference test...... tissue are still to be analyzed and so is the brain level of BDNF. Fecal- and cecal GM composition are currently being examined. Preliminary results shows that high-fat diet increased terminal weight (p

  18. PHYSIOLOGICAL RESPONSES OF ECKLONIA RADIATA (LAMINARIALES) TO A LATITUDINAL GRADIENT IN OCEAN TEMPERATURE

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stæhr, Peter Anton; Wernberg, Thomas

    2009-01-01

    We tested the ability of sporophytes of a small kelp, Ecklonia radiata (C. Agardh) J. Agardh, to adjust their photosynthesis, respiration, and cellular processes to increasingly warm ocean climates along a latitudinal gradient in ocean temperature (~4°C). Tissue concentrations of pigment and nutr......We tested the ability of sporophytes of a small kelp, Ecklonia radiata (C. Agardh) J. Agardh, to adjust their photosynthesis, respiration, and cellular processes to increasingly warm ocean climates along a latitudinal gradient in ocean temperature (~4°C). Tissue concentrations of pigment...... and nutrients decreased with increasing ocean temperature. Concurrently, a number of gradual changes in the metabolic balance of E. radiata took place along the latitudinal gradient. Warm-acclimatized kelps had 50% lower photosynthetic rates and 90% lower respiration rates at the optimum temperature than did...

  19. PROPAGASI BIBIT RUMPUT LAUT Gracilaria gigas PADA TAHAP KULTUR JARINGAN, AKLIMATISASI, DAN PEMBESARAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siti Fadilah

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Ketersediaan bibit rumput laut secara berkesinambungan diperlukan untuk meningkatkan produktivitas budidayanya. Kultur jaringan adalah salah satu metode yang digunakan untuk memenuhi kebutuhan bibit tersebut. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengevaluasi performansi pertumbuhan dan sintasan bibit rumput laut Gracilaria gigas pada tiga tahap propagasi bibit rumput laut. Propagasi bibit rumput laut dilakukan melalui tahap kultur jaringan, kemudian dilanjutkan dengan aklimatisasi dan pembesaran bibit. Pada tahap kultur, eksplan dengan panjang awal ± 2 cm dikultur dalam 2 L media air laut yang diperkaya pupuk PES 20 mL/L. Kepadatan eksplan adalah 500, 750, 1.000, dan 1.250 per L. Eksplan dipelihara selama delapan minggu dengan pembaruan media setiap minggu. Pada tahap aklimatisasi bibit, perlakuan yang dicobakan adalah penambahan pupuk organik dengan dosis 0,025; 0,05; dan 0,1 mL/L. Aklimatisasi dilakukan dengan menggunakan kontainer plastik dengan 20 L media air laut selama delapan minggu. Pembesaran bibit dilakukan di kotak hapa berukuran 50 cm x 50 cm x 50 cm di laut selama tujuh minggu. Hasil menunjukkan bahwa tidak ada beda nyata (P>0,05 sintasan antar kepadatan eksplan. Sintasan eksplan pada tahap kultur di atas 95%. Pada tahap aklimatisasi, dosis pupuk organik 0,05 mL/L cenderung memberikan pertumbuhan bibit yang lebih baik daripada dosis lainnya. Pertumbuhan bibit rumput laut pada pembesaran di laut setelah tujuh minggu mengikuti persamaan y= 17,09x + 27,8 dengan rata-rata LPH sebesar 3,57%/hari. Sustainability supply of seaweed seedlings is needed to improve its productivity. Tissue culture is one of the methods applied to fulfill the seedlings demands. This study aims to evaluate the growth performance and survival rate of seaweed seedlings Gracilaria gigas at three stages of seedling propagation. Seedling propagation was carried out by three stages namely, tissue culture acclimatization and seedlings rearing. For the stage of tissue

  20. Micropropagation of Dianthus deltoides L. through shoot tip and nodal cuttings culture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marković Marija

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Micropropagation (shoot tip and nodal cuttings culture was used for the rapid propagation of the non-invasive, decorative, native plants of maiden pink (Dianthus deltoides L. in order to preserve their genetic diversity. In vitro culture was successfully established on Murashige and Skoog medium (MS using seeds as the initial material. In the shoot multiplication phase, the explants were cultured on MS medium supplemented with different concentrations of 6-benzylaminopurine (BAP and naphthaleneacetic acid (NAA. The highest multiplication rate was achieved on a medium containing 0.1 mgL-1 of BAP and 0.1 mgL-1 of NAA. The rooting was successful on a hormone-free medium (100%, and the highest percentage of microplant acclimatization (97% was recorded in a 4: 1 mixture of peat and sand. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. TR 31041: Establishment of wood plantations intended for a forestation of Serbia

  1. Anaerobic degradation of azo dye Drimaren blue HFRL in UASB reactor in the presence of yeast extract a source of carbon and redox mediator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baêta, B E L; Aquino, S F; Silva, S Q; Rabelo, C A

    2012-04-01

    This paper presents results on anaerobic degradation of the azo dye blue HFRL in a bench scale Upflow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB) reactor operated at ambient temperature. The results show that the addition of yeast extract (500 mg/L) increased color removal (P dye removal increased along the operational phases and depended on the presence of yeast extract, suggesting progressive biomass acclimatization. Analysis of bacterial diversity by Polymerase Chain Reaction-Denaturing Gradient Gel Electrophoresis (PCR-DGGE) method showed there was biomass selection along the bioreactor operation and no evidence of azo dye degrading bacteria predominance. This strengthens the hypothesis that color removal happens extracellularly by the reduction of azo bond by reduced redox mediators, such as riboflavin, which is present in high amount in the yeast extract.

  2. Stress free oral medication in captive cervids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G.M. Das

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Efficacy of oral administration of fenbendazole was studied against gastrointestinal helminthes in captive Cheetal (Axis axis at Hisar Deer Park from November 2006- January 2007. A novel method of administration of oral medication that included acclimatizing cheetal to feed individually from specific containers and providing drugs in feed after habituation was developed. Efficacy of fenbendazole was assessed by egg per gram EPG count of faecal sample on day 11 and 19 post 1st treatment and 4 days after 2nd treatment i.e. on 22nd day and compared with pre-treatment counts. Fenbendazole was efficacious against Strongyles sp., Strongyloides sp., Ascaris sp., Trichuris sp. and Moniezia sp. and significantly reduced the mean EPG of faeces, decreasing p< 0.01 after provision of drug at doses of 7.5 mg/kg body weight. The method was efficacious and provided adequate dosage to individual animals irrespective of their social hierarchy.

  3. Exploring characteristics of bioelectricity generation and dye decolorization of mixed and pure bacterial cultures from wine-bearing wastewater treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Jing-Long; Liu, Ying; Chang, Chang-Tang; Chen, Bor-Yann; Chen, Wen-Ming; Xu, Hui-Zhong

    2011-04-01

    This study uncovered microbial characteristics of bioelectricity generation and dye decolorization in single-chamber microbial fuel cells (MFCs) using activated sludge for wine-containing wastewater treatment. Phylogenetic tree analysis on 16S rRNA gene fragments indicated that the predominant strains on anodic biofilm in acclimatized MFCs were Gamma-Proteobacteria Aeromonas punctata NIU-P9, Pseudomonas plecoglossicida NIU-Y3, Pseudomonas koreensis NIU-X8, Acinetobacter junii NIU-Y8, Stenotrophomonas maltophila NIU-X2. Our findings showed that the current production capabilities of these pure strains were only ca. 10% of those of their mother activated sludge, indicating that synergistic interactions among microbes might be the most influential factor to maximize power generation in MFCs. Plus, these electrochemically active strains also performed reductive decolorization of C.I. reactive blue 160, suggesting that bioelectricity generation might be directly associated to azo dye decolorization to deal with electron transfer on anodic biofilm in MFCs.

  4. The impact of temperature change on the activity and community composition of sulfate-reducing bacteria in arctic versus temperate marine sediments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Robador, Alberto; Brüchert, Volker; Jørgensen, Bo Barker

    2009-01-01

    that was weaker after prolonged incubations, which could imply an acclimatization response rather than a selection process of the SRB community. The microbial community composition was analysed by targeting the 16S ribosomal RNA using catalysed reporter deposition fluorescence in situ hybridization (CARD...... composition of sulfate-reducing bacteria were studied in the permanently cold sediment of north-western Svalbard (Arctic Ocean) and compared with a temperate habitat with seasonally varying temperature (German Bight, North Sea). Short-term 35S-sulfate tracer incubations in a temperature-gradient block......-FISH). The results showed the decline of specific groups of SRB and confirmed a strong impact of increasing temperatures on the microbial community composition of arctic sediment. Conversely, in seasonally changing sediment sulfate reduction rates and sulfate-reducing bacterial abundance changed little in response...

  5. Redefining thermal regimes to design reserves for coral reefs in the face of climate change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chollett, Iliana; Enríquez, Susana; Mumby, Peter J

    2014-01-01

    Reef managers cannot fight global warming through mitigation at local scale, but they can use information on thermal patterns to plan for reserve networks that maximize the probability of persistence of their reef system. Here we assess previous methods for the design of reserves for climate change and present a new approach to prioritize areas for conservation that leverages the most desirable properties of previous approaches. The new method moves the science of reserve design for climate change a step forwards by: (1) recognizing the role of seasonal acclimation in increasing the limits of environmental tolerance of corals and ameliorating the bleaching response; (2) using the best proxy for acclimatization currently available; (3) including information from several bleaching events, which frequency is likely to increase in the future; (4) assessing relevant variability at country scales, where most management plans are carried out. We demonstrate the method in Honduras, where a reassessment of the marine spatial plan is in progress.

  6. GRASS SPECIES FROM C-4 CARBON FIXATION GROUP: POLISH EXPERIMENT WITH A NOVEL ENERGY AND FORAGE PURPOSES CROP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Włodzimierz Majtkowski

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Experiment was conducted during four years 2003-2006. Materials used were three genus grass species of C-4 photosynthesis: Andropogon gerardi Vitman, Panicum virgatum L. and Miscanthus sacchariflorus (Maxim. Hack. Plants were planted at spring 1998. Agrotechnical part of experiment was conducted in Botanical Garden of Plant Breeding Acclimatization Institute in Bydgoszcz and analytical part in Department of Animal Nutrition and Feed Management, Faculty of Animal Breeding and Biology of University of Technology and Life Science in Bydgoszcz. Forage from grass C-4 photosynthesis were material of good ensilage suitability. High structural carbohydrates (NDF, ADF contents in tested forage dry matter suggest ensilage at early phases of plant development. Above results suggest to possibility of usage of forage from grass C-4 carbon fixation group for animal feeding purposes. C-4 grass forage should be recognized as a supplementary source of green matter in periods of insufficient access to traditional silage sources.

  7. Mineral nutrition and adventitious rooting in microcuttings of Eucalyptus globulus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwambach, Joséli; Fadanelli, Cristina; Fett-Neto, Arthur G

    2005-04-01

    We characterized the adventitious rooting response of Eucalyptus globulus Labill. to various concentrations of calcium, nitrogen, phosphorus, iron, manganese, zinc, boron and copper. The parameters analyzed were percent rooting, root number, root length and mean rooting time. Root number and root length were significantly affected by mineral nutrition, whereas mean rooting time and rooting percentage seemed to be closely related to auxin availability. Root number was affected by calcium, nitrogen source and zinc, whereas root length was influenced by concentrations of phosphorus, iron and manganese, and by nitrogen source. Based on these results, we evaluated various combinations of several concentrations of these minerals in each rooting phase. Cuttings that were rooted in an optimized mineral nutrient medium and acclimatized to ex-vitro conditions for two months showed significantly higher survival after transplanting and drought stress than cuttings rooted in basal medium and treated in the same way.

  8. Water and electrolytes. [in human bodies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenleaf, J. E.; Harrison, M. H.

    1986-01-01

    It has been found that the performance of the strongest and fittest people will deteriorate rapidly with dehydration. The present paper is concerned with the anatomy of the fluid spaces in the body, taking into account also the fluid shifts and losses during exercise and their effects on performance. Total body water is arbitrarily divided into that contained within cells (cellular) and that located outside the cells (extracellular). The anatomy of body fluid compartments is considered along with the effects of exercise on body water, fluid shifts with exercise, the consequences of sweating, dehydration and exercise, heat acclimatization and endurance training, the adverse effects of dehydration, thirst and drinking during exercise, stimuli for drinking, and water, electrolyte, and carbohydrate replacement during exercise. It is found that the deterioration of physical exercise performance due to dehydration begins when body weight decreases by about 1 percent.

  9. Effects of Acute Exposure to Endosulfan (Organochlorine Pesticides) on Hematology of African Mud Catfish, Clarias gariepinus (Burchell, 1822).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ndimele, P E; Jenyo-Oni, A; Kumolu-Johnson, C A; Chukwuka, K S; Onuoha, S

    2015-08-01

    Changes in the blood parameters of fingerlings of Clarias gariepinus were investigated after 24 and 96-h of exposures to endosulfan. 180 fingerlings of C. gariepinus [mean weight (10.5±1.3 g); total length (11.2±1.2 cm)] were exposed to five different concentrations (1.00, 2.20, 4.80, 11.00, 23.00 µg/L) of endosulfan and a control for 96 h after being acclimatized for 21 days. After 24 h of exposure, microcytic hypochromic anemia was observed and all erythrocyte profiles tested showed significant variation (pgariepinus fingerlings. Therefore, awareness on the hazards associated with the use of endosulfan should be intensified and sound sustainable alternatives to endosulfan should be developed.

  10. The Canadian Microgravity Sciences Program - Past present and future

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wetter, Barry; Saghir, Ziad; Mortimer, Alan

    1992-08-01

    An overview is given of the Canadian microgravity sciences program emphasizing the development and progress of microgravity-related research in the areas of materials and life sciences. Activities in the area of materials include: (1) materials processing by means of lasers; (2) crystal growth from melts solutions, and/or biological materials; (3) composite, glass, metal, and alloy materials research; and (4) combustion and fluid physics studies. The life-sciences segment incorporates studies of: cardiovascular/muscular acclimatization, radiation dosimetry, aquatic biology, bone decalcification, neurovestibular adaptations, cell cultures, and metabolism. Experimental payloads and processes are described for such infrastructures as the Mir space station, sounding rockets, drop towers, and the International Microgravity Laboratory. In addition to a significant body of useful scientific data the program contributes to the development of useful R&D hardware such as laser systems and a float-zone furnace.

  11. Improving methane production and phosphorus release in anaerobic digestion of particulate saline sludge from a brackish aquaculture recirculation system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xuedong; Ferreira, Rui B; Hu, Jianmei; Spanjers, Henri; van Lier, Jules B

    2014-06-01

    In this study, batch tests were conducted to examine the effects of trehalose and glycine betaine as well as potassium on the specific methanogenic activity (SMA), acid and alkaline phosphatase activity of anaerobic biomass and phosphorus release in anaerobic digestion of saline sludge from a brackish recirculation aquaculture system. The results of ANOVA and Tukey's HSD (honestly significant difference) tests showed that glycine betaine and trehalose enhanced SMA of anaerobic biomass and reactive phosphorus release from the particulate waste. Moreover, SMA tests revealed that methanogenic sludge, which was long-term acclimatized to a salinity level of 17 g/L was severely affected by the increase in salinity to values exceeding 35 g/L. Addition of compatible solutes, such as glycine betaine and trehalose, could be used to enhance the specific methane production rate and phosphorus release in anaerobic digestion from particulate organic waste produced in marine or brackish aquaculture recirculation systems.

  12. AgNO3 boosted high-frequency shoot regeneration in Vigna mungo (L.) Hepper.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mookkan, Muruganantham; Andy, Ganapathi

    2014-01-01

    In order to further increase shoot regeneration frequency of Vigna mungo (L.) Hepper., the effects of AgNO3 on this process was investigated in this study. The shoot tip and cotyledonary node explants were cultured on MS salts B5 Vitamins medium containing BA+TDZ+Ads+AgNO3 for multiple shoot induction. AgNO3 influenced the shoot bud formation and their subsequent proliferation. The best medium composition for multiple shoot induction was BA, TDZ combination with Ads and AgNO3 in MSB5 medium. Maximum 39 shoots in cotyledonary node and 22 shoots in shoot tip were obtained per explants after 4 - 6 wk. of culture. Elongation and rooting were performed in GA3 (0.6mg/l) and IBA (0.4mg/L) containing media respectively. The in vitro raised plantlets were acclimatized in green house and successfully transplanted to the field with a survival rate of 78%.

  13. SATISFAÇÃO DOS USUÁRIOS DE APARELHO DE AMPLIFICAÇÃO SONORA INDIVIDUAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrícia Arruda de Souza Alcarás

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The present study aimed to verify the level of satisfaction appliances fitted with Individual Sound Amplification and followed at a hearing center in the state of Sao Paulo - SP. The sample consisted of 30 participants, of both genders, aged 50 years, adapted with digital hearing aid technology and realizes that currently the monitoring process of adaptation. The materials used understand the Hearing Handicap Questionnaire for Elderly - HHIE, containing 25 multiple choice questions and applied directly. The results revelead that of the 30 study participants 46.6% have perceived hearing handicap, and that 36.7% had mild to moderate perception and 50% had severe or perception significant. Regarding the time of fitting adaptation were 66.7% made use of individual hearing aids for more than six months. Through the results we conclude that though most participants are adapted for more than six months, minimum period of acclimatization, many still feel limited as to the benefits of hearing aids.

  14. Acetone, butanol, and ethanol production from gelatinized cassava flour by a new isolates with high butanol tolerance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Han-Guang; Ofosu, Fred Kwame; Li, Kun-Tai; Gu, Qiu-Ya; Wang, Qiang; Yu, Xiao-Bin

    2014-11-01

    To obtain native strains resistant to butanol toxicity, a new isolating method and serial enrichment was used in this study. With this effort, mutant strain SE36 was obtained, which could withstand 35g/L (compared to 20g/L of the wild-type strain) butanol challenge. Based on 16s rDNA comparison, the mutant strain was identified as Clostridium acetobutylicum. Under the optimized condition, the phase shift was smoothly triggered and fermentation performances were consequently enhanced. The maximum total solvent and butanol concentration were 23.6% and 24.3%, respectively higher than that of the wild-type strain. Furthermore, the correlation between butanol produced and the butanol tolerance was investigated, suggesting that enhancing butanol tolerance could improve butanol production. These results indicate that the simple but effective isolation method and acclimatization process are a promising technique for isolation and improvement of butanol tolerance and production.

  15. The physiology of extremes: Ancel Keys and the International High Altitude Expedition of 1935.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tracy, Sarah W

    2012-01-01

    This article examines the International High Altitude Expedition of 1935 and its significance in the life and science of Ancel Keys. Both the expedition and Keys's story afford excellent opportunities to explore the growing reach of interwar physiology into extreme climates-whether built or natural. As IHAE scientists assessed human performance and adaptation to hypoxia, low barometric pressure, and cold, they not only illuminated the physiological and psychological processes of high altitude acclimatization, but they also drew borderlines between the normal and the pathological, paved the way for the neocolonial exploitation of natural and human resources in Latin America, and pioneered field methods in physiology that were adapted and adopted by the Allied Forces during the Second World War. This case study in the physiology of place reveals the power and persistence of environmental determinism within biomedicine well into the twentieth century.

  16. Redefining thermal regimes to design reserves for coral reefs in the face of climate change.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iliana Chollett

    Full Text Available Reef managers cannot fight global warming through mitigation at local scale, but they can use information on thermal patterns to plan for reserve networks that maximize the probability of persistence of their reef system. Here we assess previous methods for the design of reserves for climate change and present a new approach to prioritize areas for conservation that leverages the most desirable properties of previous approaches. The new method moves the science of reserve design for climate change a step forwards by: (1 recognizing the role of seasonal acclimation in increasing the limits of environmental tolerance of corals and ameliorating the bleaching response; (2 using the best proxy for acclimatization currently available; (3 including information from several bleaching events, which frequency is likely to increase in the future; (4 assessing relevant variability at country scales, where most management plans are carried out. We demonstrate the method in Honduras, where a reassessment of the marine spatial plan is in progress.

  17. Mosquito development and biological control in a macrophyte-based wastewater treatment plant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kengne Noumsi, I M; Akoa, A; Atangana Eteme, R; Nya, J; Ngniado, P; Fonkou, T; Brissaud, F

    2005-01-01

    A one-year study of the proliferation of mosquito in a Pistia stratiotes-based waste stabilization ponds in Cameroon revealed that Mansonia and Culex were the main breeding genera with about 55% and 42% of the total imagoes respectively. Though the ponds represent a favorable breeding ground for mosquitoes, only 0.02% of captured imagoes was Anopheles gambiae, suggesting that this wastewater treatment plant does not significantly contribute to the development of the malaria vector in the area. Gambusia sp. introduced to control mosquito population in the ponds acclimatized relatively well in most of the ponds (B3-B7) and their feeding rate without any diet ranged from 15.0 to 50.2 larvae/day for a single fish.

  18. Respirometry applied for biological nitrogen removal process; Aplicacion de la respirometria al tratamiento biologico para la eliminacion del nitrogeno

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Serrano, E.

    2004-07-01

    In waste water treatment plants, the Biological Nitrogen Removal (BNR) has acquired a fundamental importance. The BNR processes are Nitrification ( aerobic) and Denitrification (anoxic). Since both processes are carried on living microorganisms, a lack of their bioactivity information might cause serious confusion about their control criteria and following up purposes. For this reason, the Re spirometry applied to those processes has reached an important role by getting an essential information in a timely manner through respiration rate measurements in static and dynamic modes and applications such as AUR (Ammonium Uptake Rate), Nitrification Capacity. RBCOD (Readily Biodegradable COD) as well as AUR related to SRT (Sludge age), RBCOD related to NUR (Specific Nitrate Uptake Rate) and others. By other side in this article we have introduced a not very well known applications related to denitrification, about the methanol acclimatization and generated bioactivity. (Author) 6 refs.

  19. BIOPHYSICOCHEMICAL EVALUATION AND MICROPROPAGATION STUDIES ON NEEM FOR BIODIESEL PRODUCTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prithviraj Bhandare

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available In this experiment the seed oils of 30 Neem (Azadirachta indica. A. juss biotypes were screened and evaluated for their physio-chemical parameters for oil content, biodiesel yield, density, viscosity, iodine value , free fatty acid, saponification value, flash point and fire point which were estimated for selection of the elite neem biotype. The best shoot regeneration (60%-80% was observed in Murashige and Skoog (MS medium supplemented with naphthalene acetic acid NAA (0.2-0.4 mg/L and benzyl amino purine BAP (0.2-0.4 mg/L. Root induction (80% was successfully obtained in MS medium supplemented with IBA (0.05 mg/L and IAA (0.05 mg/L. Acclimatization and hardening was quite successful with survival rate of 60%.

  20. Ocorrência de Spalangia endius Walker, 1839 (Hymenoptera, Pteromalidae em pupas de Musca domestica L. e Stomoxys calcitrans L. (Diptera, Muscidae no sul do Rio Grande do Sul

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R.K Brandão

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available It was reported the occurrence of Spalangia endius Walker, 1839 (Hymenoptera, Pteromalidae as a parasitoid of pupae of Musca domestica Linnaeus, 1758 (Diptera, Muscidae and Stomoxys calcitrans Linnaeus, 1758 (Diptera, Muscidae in the extreme Southern of Brazil. The collection of pupae was performed in January and February, 2008. The pupae of M. domestica and S. calcitrans were collected from bovine feces using the flotation method. The pupae were individualized in glass tubes and maintained in acclimatized chamber at 27±2ºC with relative air humidity > 70% until the emergence of the flies or the parasitoids. The referred occurrence consists in the first report to Rio Grande do Sul.

  1. In vitro Propagation of Adenium obesum (Forssk. Roem. and Schult.

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    Kantamaht KANCHANAPOOM

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available An in vitro protocol using shoot tip explants from seedling of Adenium obesum (Forssk. Roem. and Schult. was developed. Explants were cultured on Murashige and Skoog (MS medium supplemented with various combinations of NAA and BA. The most effective medium for shoot proliferation at a high frequency of 5.201.10 shoots per explant consisted of 22.2 ?M BA. High rooting and survival were achieved using MS medium supplemented with 0.3% activated charcoal and without any growth regulators. Rooted plants were successfully acclimatized to greenhouse conditions. This study showed that A. obesum could be micropropagated by utilizing multiple shoots derived from seedling shoot tips. A flow cytometric analysis for DNA content revealed no differences among the micropropagated plants and the in vivo natural grown plants. The resulting 2C DNA value (8.350.039 pg of this species was estimated for the first time.

  2. Toxicological effects of ammonia on gills of Cyprinus carpio var. communis (Linn.)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Senthamilselvan Devaraj; Chezhian Arulprakasam; Arul Pandian Kandhan; Kabilan Neelamegam; Rajalakshmi Kalaiselvan

    2014-01-01

    Objective:To monitor the response of gills of Cyprinus carpio var. communis to LC50 levels of ammonia over a period of 96 h by bath exposure, using scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Methods: Cyprinus carpio procured from a local fish farm in Vadalore, Cuddalore District, Tamil Nadu, India were acclimatized under laboratory conditions for 20 d. Fish were placed into experimental tanks with 20 L of water and 22 mg/L ammonia. A total of 10 fish were collected from each experimental tank every 24 h for histopathological studies. Results:Histopathological studies showed these changes in the gills:secondary lamellar fusion, haemorrhage, oedema, epithelial hyperplasia, and chloride cell proliferation. Occasionally, multifocal necrosis of inter-lamellar regions of gill filaments but with no apparent haemorrhage was observed under electron microscopy. Conclusion:The present study shows that histopathological and ultrastructural alterations in gills are useful indicators for ammonia toxicity in Cyprinus carpio.

  3. Micropropagation and callogenesis in Mandevilla guanabarica (Apocynaceae, an endemic plant from Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra Zorat Cordeiro

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Mandevilla guanabarica is an endemic plant from Brazil, with pharmacological and ornamental potential, both unexplored. This study established the best culture medium for in vitro plant maintenance, efficient protocol for its regeneration, and callogenesis from different explants excised from in vitro-grown plants. Woody plant medium with double boron concentration (WPMB plus 2.27 µM thidiazuron or 0.49 µM 2-isopentenyladenine provided multiplication rates higher than 1:6. Shoots were 100% rooted on WPMB. After acclimatization, plants showed 83% survival. For callogenesis, the use of MS media supplemented with high concentrations of picloram or 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid produced, respectively, friable or compact non-morphogenic calluses from different types of explants. This micropropagation protocol allows the production of seedlings of M. guanabarica for ornamental or commercial uses, and for conservation purposes; calluses can be used to establish suspension cultures in prospecting for bioactive compounds

  4. Chestnut, European (Castanea sativa).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corredoira, Elena; Valladares, Silvia; Vieitez, Ana M; Ballester, Antonio

    2015-01-01

    Development of a system for direct transfer of antifungal candidate genes into European chestnut (Castanea sativa) would provide an alternative approach to conventional breeding for production of chestnut trees that are tolerant to ink disease caused by Phytophthora spp. Overexpression of genes encoding PR proteins (such as thaumatin-like proteins), which display antifungal activity, may represent an important advance in control of the disease. We have used a chestnut thaumatin-like protein gene (CsTL1) isolated from European chestnut cotyledons and have achieved overexpression of the gene in chestnut somatic embryogenic lines used as target material. We have also acclimatized the transgenic plants and grown them on in the greenhouse. Here, we describe the various steps of the process, from the induction of somatic embryogenesis to the production of transgenic plants.

  5. Effects of high doses of magnesium in drinking water and voluntary wheel running on magnesium and calcium concentrations in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meludu, S C; Nishimuta, M; Aboh, N A; Okonkwo, C; Dioka, C E

    2002-12-01

    The effect of high magnesium intake in addition to supplementation and voluntary wheel activity on magnesium and calcium homeostasis was investigated in rats. Thirty-six 5-week-old male Wistar rats were divided into four groups (n = 9). Groups 2 and 4 received five hundred ppm of elemental magnesium as MgCl2 provided in drinking water. After 1 week of acclimatization and 4 weeks of supplement and/or exercise, the animals were fasted and sacrificed. It appears that magnesium supplementation as well as exercise played some significant role in the homeostatic changes of magnesium and calcium. This could be of great significance in better understanding of mineral homeostasis particularly in sports medicine.

  6. Induction of Embryogenic Callus and Plant Regeneration in Carnation (Dianthus caryophyllus L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Omid Karami

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, efficient plant regeneration through somatic embryogenesis is achieved in four cultivars of carnation (Nelson, Sagres, Spirit and Impulse. Embryogenic calli were induced on petal explants only, all the calli established on leaf, sepal, receptacle and style explants were not embryogenic. Embryogenic calli were obtained on Morashige and Skoog basal medium (1962 containing sucrose 9%, 2.0 mg L-1 2,4-dichlorophenoxy acetic acid (2,4-D, 0.2 mg L-1 6-benzyladenine (BA. After transfer of embryogenic calli to growth regulator free MS medium or medium containing low amount of 2, 4-D (0.2-0.4 mm L-1 resulted in successful somatic embryogenesis. A high frequency (80-85% of Somatic embryo germination and development into normal plantlets was observed on half-strength MS medium supplement with 3% sucrose without growth regulator. About 95% of somatic embryo-derived plantlets were acclimatized in the greenhouse conditions.

  7. Indirect organogenesis from various explants of Hildegardia populifolia (Roxb. Schott & Endl. – A threatened tree species from Eastern Ghats of Tamil Nadu, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.R. Lavanya

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Hildegardia species are an important resource for fiber industry. This investigation was conducted to develop a plant regeneration protocol for Hildegardia populifolia (Roxb. Schott & Endl. via indirect organogenesis Callus was obtained from leaf, internode and petiole explants, among these explants internode explant gave best result on MS medium supplemented with different concentrations of 2,4-Dichlorophenoxy acetic acid (2,4-D. The highest percentage (100% of regeneration was obtained with benzyladenine (BA (2.0 mg/l + indole-3-acetic acid (IAA (0.1 mg/l + glutamine (25 mg/l + thidiazuron (TDZ (0.5 mg/l from internode explants. Shootlets were highly rooted on MS medium supplemented with 3.0 mg/l indole-3-butyric acid (IBA. In vitro rooted seedlings were successfully acclimatized. This in vitro regeneration system will facilitate further development of reliable procedures for this genus.

  8. [Concept for a bioclimatic evaluation of an expedition and trekking area at moderate and high altitudes].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lazar, Reinhold

    2005-04-01

    This paper presents a concept which is built up on climate data with a long period of observation (temperature, wind conditions, precipitation, irradiation, and the frequency of low pressure weather situations with unfavorable biotropy stages). It therefore allows an evaluation of the bioclimate of a high mountain area. With the help of this relatively simple method, the risk of problems like AMS can be better estimated. Latest comparisons between different agencies of expeditions show that often the time schedule for climbing to the summit is too short and allows too little time for acclimatization; furthermore the number of days allowed for recreation is too small. A comparison of selected alpine regions shows better conditions in, for example, the Mount Kenia/Kilimandjaro region and parts of the western Andes in Chile, whereas the Himalaya and the Karakorum group can be problematic.

  9. Embriogénesis somática en el cultivar de plátano ‘FHIA – 25’ (AAB a partir de ápices meristemáticos

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    Dayana Rodríguez González

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Plantain cultivar 'FHIA – 25' (AAB shows high yielding qualities and high resistance to Black Sigatoka disease, but its sugar content in the fruit is low, so a regeneration method at cell level is necessary, such as somatic embryogenesis supported by biotechnological tools to improve fruit quality. This work was performed with the aim of establishing a plant regeneration method via somatic embryogenesis using initial explants of shoot apices from axillary buds in liquid culture medium. Homogenous embryogenic cell suspensions were obtained from mentioned explants. The highest cellular multiplication rates were achieved at 3,0% density. The incubation of somatic embryos during 30 days in the maturation culture medium permitted to increase germination. During the acclimatization stage, plants regenerated from somatic embryos, as well as plants from organogenesis, showed a high survival percentage (98 and 97 respectively, without somaclonal variation.

  10. Decolorization of Orange Ⅱ using an anaerobic sequencing batch reactor with and without co-substrates

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Soon-An Ong; Eiichi Toorisaka; Makoto Hirata; Tadashi Hano

    2012-01-01

    We investigated the decolorization of Orange Ⅱ with and without the addition of co-substrates and nutrients under an anaerobic sequencing batch reactor (ASBR).The increase in COD concentrations from 900 to 1750 to 3730 mg/L in the system treating 100 mg/L of Orange H-containing wastewater enhanced color removal from 27% to 81% to 89%,respectively.In the absence of co-substrates and nutrients,more than 95% of decolorization was achieved by the acclimatized anaerobic microbes in the bioreactor treating 600 mg/L of Orange Ⅱ.The decrease in mixed liquor suspended solids concentration by endogenous lysis of biomass preserved a high reducing environment in the ASBR,which was important for the reduction of the Orange Ⅱ azo bond that caused decolorization.The maximum decolorization rate in the ASBR was approximately 0.17 g/hr in the absence of co-substrates and nutrients.

  11. Effect of hypoxaemia on water and sodium homeostatic hormones and renal function

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Niels Vidiendal

    1995-01-01

    Changes in body fluid homeostasis during acute hypoxaemia suggest a crucial role of renal function in acclimatization processes. Hypoxaemia stimulates sympathetic nervous activity, and also the cardiovascular system is affected with increases in heart rate and cardiac output. In most subjects...... the advantage of opposing excessive sodium and water retention, which characterizes acute mountain sickness. Short-term isocapnic or hypocapnic hypoxaemia in spontaneously breathing humans causes moderate if any increases in renal blood flow and only minor changes in GFR. In contrast, renal blood flow and GFR...... and bicarbonate in the proximal tubules secondary to the associated hyperventilation and hypocapnia. After 6 hours, sodium and water excretion is normalized or even depressed, dependent on the severity of acute mountain sickness. In view of the prompt increase in sodium and water excretion found during short...

  12. In vitro micropropagation of Stevia rebaudiana Bertoni in Malaysia

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    Ummi Nur Ain Abdul Razak

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Stevia rebaudiana Bertoni is a medicinal plants and commercially use as non-caloric sweetener for diabetic patient. In the present study, a protocol was developed for in vitro micropropagation using 6-benzylamino purine (BAP and Kinetin (Kn for the formation of multiple shoot proliferation and Indole-3-acetic acid (IAA, Indole-3-butyric acid (IBA and 1-Naphthaleneacetic acid (NAA for the induction of roots. Maximum shoot formation (7.82 ± 0.7 shoots per explants was observed on a Murashige and Skoog (MS medium supplemented with 0.5 mg L-1 BAP and 0.25 mg L-1 Kn. The maximum number of roots (30.12 ± 2.1 roots per explants was obtained on a MS medium containing 1.0 mg L-1 IBA. The well rooted plantlets were successfully weaned and acclimatized in plant soil with survival rate of 83.3 %.

  13. In-Vitro Seed Germination and Effect of Growth Regulators on Subsequent Development of Protocorms of Eulophia Nuda Lindl

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    Varsha Dawande

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Asymbiotic seed germination of Eulophia nuda Lindl. was observed on Knudson C medium. About 90% seeds germinated within 8-10 weeks and formed green protocorms in 11-12 weeks. Effect of BA and IBA was studied on plantlet development from protocorms. BA shows the best results with respect to number and length of shoots. Maximum number (6.45±1.36 and length (3.90±0.99 was observed on MS medium supplemented with 4.44μM.BA. Maximum root growth was also observed on same medium (4.8±0.99 number of roots and 1.43±0.13cm length. The regenerated plantlets were successfully acclimatized and transferred to earthen pots. The results presented here show that in vitro seed germination and plantlet development in Eulophia nuda Lindl., an endangered orchid, can be achieved at a higher rate by this method.

  14. Somatic embryogenesis and plant regeneration from immature zygotic embryos of Hinoki cypress (Chamaecyparis obtusa Sieb. et Zucc.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taniguchi, T; Kurita, M; Itahana, N; Kondo, T

    2004-08-01

    We established a plant regeneration system for Hinoki cypress (Chamaecyparis obtusa) via somatic embryogenesis. Embryogenic tissues were successfully induced on three kinds of Smith media from megagametophyte explants containing pre-cotyledonary embryos of C. obtusa plus-trees. Factors affecting somatic embryo maturation were examined. The concentration of polyethylene glycol 4000 in the medium was a critical factor for embryo maturation and its effective concentration was 150 g/l. The addition of 30 g/l maltose to the medium had a positive effect on embryo maturation, but sucrose was ineffective. The mature somatic embryos germinated at a germination frequency of approximately 60%, and the presence of activated charcoal was effective in stimulating plantlet growth. The plantlets acclimatized successfully in a greenhouse. To our knowledge, this is first report describing details of a plant regeneration method for C. obtusa via somatic embryogenesis.

  15. Exploring action dynamics as an index of paired-associate learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dale, Rick; Roche, Jennifer; Snyder, Kristy; McCall, Ryan

    2008-03-05

    Much evidence exists supporting a richer interaction between cognition and action than commonly assumed. Such findings demonstrate that short-timescale processes, such as motor execution, may relate in systematic ways to longer-timescale cognitive processes, such as learning. We further substantiate one direction of this interaction: the flow of cognition into action systems. Two experiments explored match-to-sample paired-associate learning, in which participants learned randomized pairs of unfamiliar symbols. During the experiments, their hand movements were continuously tracked using the Nintendo Wiimote. Across learning, participant arm movements are initiated and completed more quickly, exhibit lower fluctuation, and exert more perturbation on the Wiimote during the button press. A second experiment demonstrated that action dynamics index novel learning scenarios, and not simply acclimatization to the Wiimote interface. Results support a graded and systematic covariation between cognition and action, and recommend ways in which this theoretical perspective may contribute to applied learning contexts.

  16. People who live in a cold climate: thermal adaptation differences based on availability of heating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, J; Cao, G; Cui, W; Ouyang, Q; Zhu, Y

    2013-08-01

    Are there differences in thermal adaptation to cold indoor environments between people who are used to living in heating and non-heating regions in China? To answer this question, we measured thermal perceptions and physiological responses of young men from Beijing (where there are indoor space heating facilities in winter) and Shanghai (where there are not indoor space heating facilities in winter) during exposures to cold. Subjects were exposed to 12°C, 14°C, 16°C, 18°C, 20°C for 1 h. Subjects from Beijing complained of greater cold discomfort and demonstrated poorer physiological acclimatization to cold indoor environments than those from Shanghai. These findings indicate that people's chronic indoor thermal experience might be an important determinant of thermal adaptation.

  17. Hemoglobin isoform differentiation and allosteric regulation of oxygen binding in the turtle, Trachemys scripta

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Damsgaard, Christian; Storz, Jay F.; Hoffmann, Federico G.;

    2013-01-01

    When freshwater turtles acclimatize to winter hibernation, there is a gradual transition from aerobic to anaerobic metabolism, which may require adjustments of blood O2 transport before turtles become anoxic. Here, we report the effects of protons, anionic cofactors, and temperature on the O2......-binding properties of isolated hemoglobin (Hb) isoforms, HbA and HbD, in the turtle Trachemys scripta. We determined the primary structures of the constituent subunits of the two Hb isoforms, and we related the measured functional properties to differences in O2 affinity between untreated hemolysates from...... turtles that were acclimated to normoxia and anoxia. Our data show that HbD has a consistently higher O2 affinity compared with HbA, whereas Bohr and temperature effects, as well as thiol reactivity, are similar. Although sequence data show amino acid substitutions at two known β-chain ATP-binding site...

  18. Altitude headache.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez, J Ivan; Holdridge, Ashley; Mendizabal, Jorge E

    2013-12-01

    High altitude headache (HAH) has been defined by the International Headache Society as a headache that appears within 24 hours after ascent to 2,500 m or higher [1••]. The headache can appear in isolation or as part of acute mountain sickness (AMS), which has more dramatic symptoms than the headache alone. If symptoms are ignored, more serious conditions such as high altitude cerebral edema (HACE), high altitude pulmonary edema (HAPE), or even death may ensue. While there is no definitive understanding of the underlying pathophysiologic mechanism, it is speculated that HAH occurs from the combination of hypoxemia-induced intracranial vasodilation and subsequent cerebral edema. There are a number of preventive measures that can be adopted prior to ascending, including acclimatization and various medications. A variety of pharmacological interventions are also available to clinicians to treat this extremely widespread condition.

  19. Jacques Roubaud, piéton de Paris - échantillons de mémoire urbaine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christophe Reig

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Jacques Roubaud sillonne depuis plus de cinquante ans le labyrinthe parisien en forme d’escargot. La prose de mémoire du Grand Incendie de Londres, les poèmes de La Forme d’une ville change plus vite, hélas, que le cœur des humains… chantent une capitale tour à tour honnie et acclimatée, un Paris pluriel qui suscite le pari d’un art poétique prouvant le mouvement en marchant, sans faire l’économie du rythme. Après Baudelaire, Apollinaire, Queneau et bien d’autres encore, Roubaud court et recourt les rues de Paris, en quête de lui-même, planifiant dans la Capitale autant de parcours de mémoire que de trajets poétiques.

  20. Imaging Findings of a Survivor of Avalanche without Any Life Support at Very High Altitude and Extreme Low Temperatures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abhishek Dwivedi

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Survival at high altitude is very challenging and in spite of adequate training and acclimatization, injuries are frequent. The fate of mountaineers and soldiers at such areas largely depends on the mercy of the climate. An avalanche causes physical trauma, cold injury and asphyxia to the victim. The patient in our report had diffuse cerebral edema, bilateral pulmonary consolidation and pneumothorax. In spite of the best efforts the victim succumbed to the injuries. There are many incidents of high altitude accidents in India. This case report is of a soldier deployed at the high altitude, is a lone ever reported survivor above 5000 meters, under 35 feet snow and below - 45°C for greater than 5 days of exposure to an avalanche

  1. Micropropagation and Phenolic exudation protocol for Excoecaria agallocha-an important mangrove

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Manickam Arumugam; Rajaram Panneerselvam

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To develop a standard micropropagation protocol for an important vulnerable mangrove Excoecaria agallocha. Methods: Collection of explants, surface sterilization, phenolic exudation and medium was standardized. Shoot induction, shoot multiplication and rooting were carried out in MMS medium supplemented with BAP, Kinetin, Zeatin, 2ip, NAA, IAA and IBA. Hardening was carried out after root well established. Results: The best phenolic exudation removal was resulted in 4 g/L activated charcoal. The maximum shoot induction response showed in MMS medium and better shoot induction was performed in the concentration of BAP (3.9 μmol) and NAA (1.34 μmol). Rooting induction was performed high range at 5.02 μmol of IAA. Well rooted micro-shoots were hardened and acclimatized. Conclusions: From the present investigation, it can be concluded that a standard micropropagation protocol was developed for an important vulnerable mangrove species.

  2. Comparative leaf anatomy of long pepper (Piper hispidinervum C. DC. and spiked pepper (Piper aduncum L. cultured in vitro, ex vitro and in vivo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simone de Alencar Maciel

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Piper hispidinervum and Piper aduncum contain the secondary metabolites safrole and dilapiol, and there is commercial interest in their essential oils. The study aimed to compare anatomical aspects related to physiological responses of leaves from P. hispidinervum and P. aduncum propagated in vitro, in vivo and during acclimatization. Paradermal sections and cross-sections of leaves from in vitro, ex vitro and in vivo culture, were obtained for the measurement of anatomical structures using a light microscope. The thickness of the epidermis and hypodermis of P. hispidinervum and P. aduncum underwent changes in the transition from in vitro to ex vitro. Mesophyll tissues and stomatal pore opening of both species were inluenced by the environment in vitro. Different cultivation environments promote the plasticity of the cellular structures of the leaf blade and underlie the success of micropropagation of both species.

  3. Micropropagation of apple--a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dobránszki, Judit; da Silva, Jaime A Teixeira

    2010-01-01

    Micropropagation of apple has played an important role in the production of healthy, disease-free plants and in the rapid multiplication of scions and rootstocks with desirable traits. During the last few decades, in apple, many reliable methods have been developed for both rootstocks and scions from a practical, commercial point of view. Successful micropropagation of apple using pre-existing meristems (culture of apical buds or nodal segments) is influenced by several internal and external factors including ex vitro (e.g. genotype and physiological state) and in vitro conditions (e.g., media constituents and light). Specific requirements during stages of micropropagation, such as the establishment of in vitro cultures, shoot multiplication, rooting of microshoots and acclimatization are summarized in this review. New approaches for increasing shoot multiplication and rooting for apple and current use of micropropagated plantlets as tools in basic and applied research are also discussed.

  4. The elaboration of a practical protocol for the micropropagation of several apple rootstock varieties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Doina Clapa

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The apple rootstock varieties ‘MM 106/4’, ‘MM 106/6’, ‘D 18’, ‘D 20’, ‘JTE-H’ and ‘MR 09/4’ were multiplied in vitro on modified Murashige and Skoog media gelled with wheat starch (MSs and supplemented with 0.7 mg/l BA, which provided intense axillary shoot proliferation. Among the genotypes we studied, MR 09/4 had the highest multiplication rate  (19.56, followed by D18 (15.36. The lowest multiplication rates were recorded in MM 106/6 (5.36 and in MM 106/4 (3.32. The use of the technique of direct ex vitro rooting and acclimatization in floating perlite provided rooting percentages of more than 90 %.

  5. Micropropagation and cytogenetic assessment of Zingiber species of Northeast India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Archana; Kesari, Vigya; Rangan, Latha

    2013-12-01

    An improved micropropagation protocol was developed for Zingiber moran and Z. zerumbet, two wild species of the genus Zingiber, found in Northeast India. The effects of growth regulators, sugar concentrations, and nutrients were tested on the rate of shoot initiation and multiplication. An increase in proliferation and multiplication occurred in modified Murashige and Skoog (MS) medium supplemented with benzyladenine and kinetin. About 2 % sucrose and 0.7 % agar were found to be the optimum for shoot multiplication and regeneration. Naphthalene acetic acid at 0.5 mg/L produced the best rooting response for both the species. Regenerated plantlets were acclimatized successfully and cytogenetic stability was confirmed by RAPD profiling and ploidy checks.

  6. Clonal fidelity of chrysanthemum regenerated from long term cultures

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    Jevremović Slađana

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Morphological characteristics of flowers of long term regenerated chrysanthemum, cv. "White Spider", after ten years of micropropagation are investigated. Shoot cultures are established and maintained more than ten years by stem segment culture on MS medium supplemented with BAP and NAA (1.0, 0.1 mgL-1, respectively. Rooting of shoots (100 % has done on MS medium without hormones and it was very successful after ten years, as well as, after two or eight years of micropropagation. Acclimation of rooted chrysanthemum plantlets at greenhouse conditions was excellent and after appropriate photoperiod "in vitro" plants flowered 90.3 % and have the same flower color, shape and size as mother plants. Flower color changes of "in vitro" plants are observed during another flowering cycle one year after acclimatization. Observed variations of chrysanthemum flowers could be attributed to epigenetic factors.

  7. Rapid in vitro propagation of medicinally important Aquilaria agallocha

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HE Meng-ling; QI Shu-yuan; HU Lan-juan

    2005-01-01

    Aquilaria agallocha can produce fragrant agarwood used for incense, traditional medicine and other products. An efficient plant regeneration system was established via organogenesis from shoots developed from seedlings ofAquilaria agallocha. Shoots generated many buds on MS medium supplemented with 1.3 μmol/L BA (6-benzylaminopurine) in the first 7 weeks,and the buds elongated on MS medium with 1.3 μmol/L BA+0.5 μmol/L NAA (naphthaleneacetic acid) in another 7 weeks, 2.3shoots 2 cm in length per explant were obtained within 14 weeks. Plantlets were rooted on 1/2 MS medium after being immersed in5 μmol/L NAA for 48 h, 96.7% of the roots grew up two weeks later. All plantlets that survived acclimatization grew well in the pots.

  8. Response acquisition by Siamese fighting fish (Betta splendens) with delayed visual reinforcement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lattal, K A; Metzger, B

    1994-01-01

    Male Siamese fighting fish, Betta splendens, swam through a ring in an aquarium, breaking a photocell beam and initiating an unsignaled, resetting delay interval. Following delays of 0 s, 10 s, or 25 s, a 15-s mirror presentation released an aggressive display by the fish. Swimming through the ring increased in the absence of either a period of acclimatization to the reinforcer (analogous to magazine training when appetitive reinforcers are used) or explicit training of the response by the experimenters. Response rates were a decreasing function of delay duration. Other fish exposed to a schedule of response-independent mirror presentations failed to acquire and maintain the response. The results demonstrate the robustness and generality of the phenomenon of response acquisition with delayed reinforcement. They further qualify earlier observations about behavioral mechanisms involved in the phenomenon.

  9. Gibberellins - a multifaceted hormone in plant growth regulatory network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gantait, Saikat; Sinniah, Uma Rani; Ali, Md Nasim; Sahu, Narayan Chandra

    2015-01-01

    Plants tend to acclimatize to unfavourable environs by integrating growth and development to environmentally activated signals. Phytohormones strongly regulate convergent developmental and stress adaptive procedures and synchronize cellular reaction to the exogenous and endogenous conditions within the adaptive signaling networks. Gibberellins (GA), a group of tetracyclic diterpenoids, being vital regulators of plant growth, are accountable for regulating several aspects of growth and development of higher plants. If the element of reproduction is considered as an absolute requisite then for a majority of the higher plants GA signaling is simply indispensable. Latest reports have revealed unique conflicting roles of GA and other phytohormones in amalgamating growth and development in plants through environmental signaling. Numerous physiological researches have detailed substantial crosstalk between GA and other hormones like abscisic acid, auxin, cytokinin, and jasmonic acid. In this review, a number of explanations and clarifications for this discrepancy are explored based on the crosstalk among GA and other phytohormones.

  10. APPARENT DIGESTIBILTY EXPERIMENT WITH NILE TILAPIA (OREOCHROMIS NILOTICUS FED DIETS CONTAINING CITRULLUS LANATUS SEEDMEAL

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    Wasiu Adeyemi JIMOH

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Apparent digestibility coefficients of nutrients in Citrullus lanatus based diets were determined for Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus using AIA as marker or indicator. 150 tilapia fingerlings of average weight 6.12±0.05g were acclimatized for a week, weighed and allotted into five dietary treatments; CTR, DT2, DT3, DT4 and DT5 containing 0, 15, 30, 45 and 60% Citrullus lanatus respectively. The diets were isonitrogenous, isocaloric and isolipidic. Each treatment was replicated three times with ten fish per replicate. Fish were fed 5% body weight on two equal proportions per day. The results from the study indicated that there was no significant variation (p>0.05 in the apparent organic matter and gross energy digestibility coefficients of the diets; that there was significant (p0.05 in the apparent digestibility coefficients of nutrients (protein, energy, lipid and carbohydrates between the diets up to 30% replacement levels for tilapia.

  11. Sprint performance under heat stress: A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Girard, O; Brocherie, F; Bishop, D J

    2015-06-01

    Training and competition in major track-and-field events, and for many team or racquet sports, often require the completion of maximal sprints in hot (>30 °C) ambient conditions. Enhanced short-term (heat exposure (muscle temperature rise), can be attributed to improved muscle contractility. Under heat stress, elevations in skin/core temperatures are associated with increased cardiovascular and metabolic loads in addition to decreasing voluntary muscle activation; there is also compelling evidence to suggest that large performance decrements occur when repeated-sprint exercise (consisting of brief recovery periods between sprints, usually 39 °C). Here we also discuss strategies (heat acclimatization, precooling, hydration strategies) employed by "sprint" athletes to mitigate the negative influence of higher environmental temperatures.

  12. Effectiveness of exercise-heat acclimation for preventing heat illness in the workplace.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamazaki, Fumio

    2013-09-01

    The incidence of heat-related illness in the workplace is linked to whether or not workers have acclimated to a hot environment. Heat acclimation improves endurance work performance in the heat and thermal comfort at a given work rate. These improvements are achieved by increased sweating and skin blood flow responses, better fluid balance and cardiovascular stability. As a practical means of acclimatizing the body to heat stress, daily aerobic exercise training is recommended since thermoregulatory capacity and blood volume increase with physical fitness. In workers wearing personal protective suits in hot environments, however, little psychophysiological benefit is received from short-term exercise training and/or heat acclimation because of the ineffectiveness of sweating for heat dissipation and the aggravation of thermal discomfort with the accumulation of sweat within the suit. For a manual laborer who works under uncompensable heat stress, better management of the work rate, the work environment and health is required.

  13. Highly efficient transformation protocol for plum (Prunus domestica L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petri, César; Scorza, Ralph; Srinivasan, Chinnathambi

    2012-01-01

    A high-throughput transformation system for plum has been developed using hypocotyl slices excised from zygotic embryos as the source of explants. The hypocotyl slices are infected in an Agrobacterium tumefaciens suspension and then cocultivated for 3 days in shoot regeneration ¾ MS basal medium supplemented with 9 μM 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid. Transgenic shoots are regenerated in a medium containing 7.5 μM thidiazuron and elongated in a medium containing 3 μM benzyladenine in the presence of 80 mg/L kanamycin in both media. Transformed shoots are rooted in ½ MS basal medium supplemented with 5 μM NAA and 40 mg/L kanamycin. The transgenic plants are acclimatized in a growth chamber and transferred to a temperature-controlled greenhouse. This protocol has allowed transformation efficiencies up to 42% and enabled the production of self-rooted transgenic plum plants within 6 months of transformation.

  14. Mitogenomic analyses propose positive selection in mitochondrial genes for high-altitude adaptation in galliform birds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Taicheng; Shen, Xuejuan; Irwin, David M; Shen, Yongyi; Zhang, Yaping

    2014-09-01

    Galliform birds inhabit very diverse habitats, including plateaus that are above 3000 m in altitude. At high altitude, lower temperature and hypoxia are two important factors influencing survival. Mitochondria, as the ultimate oxygen transductor, play an important role in aerobic respiration through oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS). We analyzed the mitochondrial genomes of six high-altitude phasianidae birds and sixteen low-altitude relatives in an attempt to determine the role of mitochondrial genes in high-altitude adaptation. We reconstructed the phylogenetic relationships of these phasianidae birds and relatives and found at least four lineages that independently occupied this high-altitude habitat. Selective analyses revealed significant evidence for positive selection in the genes ND2, ND4, and ATP6 in three of the high-altitude lineages. This result strongly suggests that adaptive evolution of mitochondrial genes played a critical role during the independent acclimatization to high altitude by galliform birds.

  15. Alginate-encapsulation of shoot tips of jojoba [Simmondsia chinensis (Link) Schneider] for germplasm exchange and distribution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Sunil; Rai, Manoj K; Singh, Narender; Mangal, Manisha

    2010-12-01

    Shoot tips excised from in vitro proliferated shoots derived from nodal explants of jojoba [Simmondsia chinensis (Link) Schneider] were encapsulated in calcium alginate beads for germplasm exchange and distribution. A gelling matrix of 3 % sodium alginate and 100 mM calcium chloride was found most suitable for formation of ideal calcium alginate beads. Best response for shoot sprouting from encapsulated shoot tips was recorded on 0.8 % agar-solidified full-strength MS medium. Rooting was induced upon transfer of sprouted shoots to 0.8 % agar-solidified MS medium containing 1 mg l(-1) IBA. About 70 % of encapsulated shoot tips were rooted and converted into plantlets. Plants regenerated from encapsulated shoot tips were acclimatized successfully. The present encapsulation approach could also be applied as an alternative method of propagation of desirable elite genotype of jojoba.

  16. Study on submerged anaerobic membrane bioreactor (SAMBR) treating high suspended solids raw tannery wastewater for biogas production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Umaiyakunjaram, R; Shanmugam, P

    2016-09-01

    This study deals with the treatment of high suspended solids raw tannery wastewater using flat sheet Submerged Anaerobic Membrane (0.4μm) Bioreactor (SAMBR) acclimatized with hypersaline anaerobic seed sludge for recovering biogas. The treatability of SAMBR achieved higher CODremoval efficiency (90%) and biogas yield (0.160L.g(-1) CODremoved) coincided with high r(2) values between permeate flux and TSS (0.95), biogas and COD removed (0.96). The acidification of hypersaline influent wastewater by biogas mixing with high CO2, achieved quadruplet benefit of gas liquid and solid separation, in-situ pH and NH3 control, in-situ CH4 enrichment, and prevention of membrane fouling. The initial high VFA became stable as time elapsed reveals the hydrolysing ability of particulate COD into soluble COD and into biogas, confirms the suitability of SAMBR for high suspended solids tannery wastewater.

  17. Herbo mineral formulations (rasaoushadhies) of ayurveda an amazing inheritance of ayurvedic pharmaceutics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaudhary, Anand; Singh, Neetu

    2010-07-01

    The one of the oldest system of medicine, Ayurveda is momentous in audience of worldwide on virtue of its holistic approach of life. Formulations of Ayurveda consist of substances of herbal, mineral/metal and animal origin which are processed pharmaceutical to have therapeutic effects. This is attribute of processes of Shodhan (purification/potentiation), Bhavana (impregation /levigation) and Marana (incineration/calcinations) of Rasa Shastra which acclimatize these toxic industrial matter to a effective remedies known as herbo mineral formulations (Rasaoushadhies) of Ayurveda. In recent past there is prevalence of some doubt on safety and efficacy of these medicines. In this review paper we tried to justify application of these medicines as these are time tested and showed wonderful clinical adaptability. We also attempted to establish new facts of figures of core science in explanation of these medicines.

  18. In vitro propagation of Saussurea obvallata (DC.) Edgew.--an endangered ethnoreligious medicinal herb of Himalaya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joshi, M; Dhar, U

    2003-06-01

    This is the first report of a micropropagation protocol for Saussurea obvallata (DC.) Edgew. (Asteraceae), a rare, threatened and near-endemic medicinal herb of the Indian Himalayan region. Multiple shoots were formed from epicotyle explants on Murashige and Skoog (MS) medium supplemented with 1.0 microM kinetin and 0.25 microM alpha-naphthaleneacetic acid. A maximum of five shoots were obtained from one explant in a 75-day culture period. The effect of subsequent subcultures on shoot formation was also studied. After 100% in vitro rooting was obtained in half-strength MS supplemented with 2.5 microM indole-3-butyric acid, the plantlets were transferred to ex vitro conditions. Following a 15-day in vitro rooting period and 12 days of ex vitro acclimatization, 66.7% of the plantlets had established in the field. Application of this protocol has the potential to substantially reduce the pressure on natural populations.

  19. Hidden impacts of ocean acidification to live and dead coral framework.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hennige, S J; Wicks, L C; Kamenos, N A; Perna, G; Findlay, H S; Roberts, J M

    2015-08-22

    Cold-water corals, such as Lophelia pertusa, are key habitat-forming organisms found throughout the world's oceans to 3000 m deep. The complex three-dimensional framework made by these vulnerable marine ecosystems support high biodiversity and commercially important species. Given their importance, a key question is how both the living and the dead framework will fare under projected climate change. Here, we demonstrate that over 12 months L. pertusa can physiologically acclimate to increased CO2, showing sustained net calcification. However, their new skeletal structure changes and exhibits decreased crystallographic and molecular-scale bonding organization. Although physiological acclimatization was evident, we also demonstrate that there is a negative correlation between increasing CO2 levels and breaking strength of exposed framework (approx. 20-30% weaker after 12 months), meaning the exposed bases of reefs will be less effective 'load-bearers', and will become more susceptible to bioerosion and mechanical damage by 2100.

  20. Micropropagación de plantas de lechosa en recipientes de inmersión temporal a partir de brotes axilares Micropropagation of papaya plants in temporary immersion recipients from axilary shoots

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ariadne Vegas García

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Título en ingles: Micropropagation of papaya plants in temporary immersion recipients from axilary shootsTítulo corto: Micropropagación de lechosa en recipientes de inmersión temporal.Resumen: Se estandarizaron las condiciones de iniciación, multiplicación, enraizamiento y aclimatización de plantas hermafroditas de lechosa cv Maradol provenientes de brotes axilares, producidos en recipientes de inmersión temporal RITA®. En cada envase, contentivo de 200 ml de medio de cultivo líquido de Fitch, se colocaron cuatro brotes de 2 a 3 cm de longitud. Los biorreactores se conectaron a tres líneas de inmersión de 5, 2 y 1 min cada 4h y se colocaron 6 envases en promedio por línea, en condiciones de fotoperíodo de 16 h. Transcurridos 30 a 45 días, se cuantificaron los brotes y se clasificaron de acuerdo al tamaño: < 2 cm (pequeños, entre 2 a 3 cm (medianos,  ˃ 3 cm con y sin raíz (grandes. Los dos primeros tipos de brotes se continuaron multiplicando en los mismos medios; y los más elongados se aclimatizaron utilizando el Sistema Autotrófico Hidropónico (SAH. Se determinó la sanidad y la fidelidad de las plantas producidas mediante pruebas de ELISA y RAPD, respectivamente. Durante un periodo de 6 meses se reciclaron un total de 47 recipientes, los cuales produjeron 1.091 brotes: 377  pequeños; 482 medianos; 175 grandes sin raíz y 57 con raíz. Usando el SAH se obtuvo 89,5% de plantas aclimatizadas cuando se usaron brotes enraizados, y 41,6% a partir de brotes sin  raíces. Con la combinación de las técnicas RITA y SAH se logró un sistema continuo y eficiente de producción de plantas sanas y fieles al tipo, en comparación con los métodos convencionales de micropropagación y aclimatización.Palabras clave: Carica papaya, RITA®, sistema autotrófico, estabilidad genética.Abstract: We standardized initiation, multiplication, rooting and acclimatization conditions of papaya cv Maradol hermaphrodite plants from axillary

  1. A novel combination of plant growth regulators for in vitro regeneration of complete plantlets of guar [Cyamopsis tetragonoloba (L.) Taub].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verma, S; Gill, K S; Pruthi, V; Dhugga, K S; Randhaw, G S

    2013-12-01

    A novel combination of plant growth regulators comprising indole-3-butyric acid (IBA), 6-benzylaminopurine (BA) and gibberellic acid (GA3) in Murashige and Skoog basal medium has been formulated for in vitro induction of both shoot and root in one culture using cotyledonary node explants of guar, (Cyamopsis tetragonoloba). Highest percentages of shoot (92%) and root (80%) induction were obtained in the medium containing (mg/L) 2 IBA, 3 BA and 1 GA3. Shoot regeneration from the cotyledonary node explants was observed after 10-15 days. Regeneration of roots from these shoots occurred after 20 to 25 days. The regenerated plantlets showed successful acclimatization on transfer to soil. This protocol is expected to be helpful in carrying out various in vitro manipulations in this economically and industrially important legume.

  2. Biofunctional characteristics of lignite fly ash modified by humates: a new soil conditioner.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chassapis, Konstantinos; Roulia, Maria; Vrettou, Evangelia; Fili, Despina; Zervaki, Monica

    2010-01-01

    Fly ash superficially modified with humic substances from the Megalopolis lignitic power plant was prepared and evaluated for agricultural uses. UV-vis spectrophotometry and IR spectroscopy revealed that fly ash shows high sorption efficiency towards humic substances. Adsorption proceeds stepwise via strong Coulombic and hydrophophic forces of attraction between guest and host materials. Langmuir, Freundlich, BET, Harkins-Jura, and Dubinin-Radushkevich isotherm models were employed to evaluate the ongoing adsorption and shed light to the physicochemical properties of the sorbent-adsorbate system. Humic substances desorption and microbial cultivation experiments were also carried out to examine the regeneration of the humates under washing and explore the possibility of this material acclimatizing in real soil conditions, both useful for biofunctional agricultural applications.

  3. Detection of antibodies to Oropouche virus in non-human primates in Goiânia City, Goiás

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marize Moreira Gibrail

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: INTRODUCTION Arboviruses are associated with human disease, and non-human primates (NHPs are important primary hosts. This study shows the detection of antibodies to Oropouche virus (OROV in NHPs either living in urban parks or acclimatized at the Wild Animal Screening Center, Goiânia city. METHODS: Fifty blood samples were analyzed by hemagglutination-inhibition and neutralization assays. RESULTS: Two monkeys (Alouatta caraya had antibodies to OROV by both techniques. CONCLUSIONS This is the first report demonstrating the detection of OROV antibodies in Goiás State and may represent the introduction/circulation of OROV in the region and a potential risk to the human population.

  4. Integration of biotechnology, robot technology and visualisation technology for development of methods for automated mass production of elite trees

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Find, Jens

    hampered by two essential problems: The production costs per plant must be reduced. Labour costs are low in the early steps of the process whereas they increase dramatically during the later stages (Fig. 1). Improved methods must be developed for transfer and acclimatisation of plants from sterile in vitro...... conditions to non sterile (ex vitro/in vivo) conditions at the nursery. Fig. 1. Predicted labour cost by clonal propagation through somatic embryogenesis.   The labour costs are very low in the early steps of the production, whereas they increase dramatically during the later stages: 'embryo selection...... & germination' and 'ex-vitro acclimatization'). The aim of the present project is to reduce labour costs associated with the late stages of the production of cloned plants through development of robot- and visualisation technologies. (From Afreen & Zobayed, p. 96, 2005)   The presentation will report on two...

  5. Respiration rate of stream insects measured in situ along a large altitude range

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rostgaard, S.; Jacobsen, D.

    2005-01-01

    Field studies of respiration in stream insects are few in comparison with laboratory studies. To evaluate the influence of temperature and oxygen along altitudinal gradients we measured the respiration rate of fully acclimatized larval Trichoptera, Plecoptera and Ephemeroptera under similar field...... at 100 and 50% oxygen saturation indicated that highland animals reduced their oxygen uptake more than their counterparts in the lowland when oxygen availability decreased. The temperature response of respiration calculated between the insect assemblages at different altitudes showed a mean assemblage Q...... conditions in streams from 400 to 3800 m above sea level in tropical Ecuador. Mean active respiration rates of the animals at 3800 m were approximately half of those at 400 m. Trichoptera showed a slightly larger difference in respiration with altitude than Ephemeroptera. Comparative respiration measurements...

  6. MATLAB WEB SERVER AND ITS APPLICATION IN REMOTE COLLABORATIVE DESIGN OF MAGNETIC BEARING SYSTEMS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    Acclimatizing itself to the development of network,Math Works Inc constructed a MATLAB Web Server environment by dint of which one can browse the calculation and plots of MATLAB through Internet directly.The installation and use of the environment is introduced.A code established on the platform of MATLAB,which deals with the modal analysis of magnetic bearing system(MBS) supporting rotors of five degrees of freedom and considering the coupling of thrust bearing with radical bearings is modified to work in the environment.The purpose is to realize a remote call of the code by users through Internet for the performance analysis of the system.Such an application is very important to the concurrent design of MBS and for the utilization of distributive knowledge acquisition resources in collaborative design.The work on modification and realization is described and the results are discussed.

  7. AGROBACTERIUM MEDIATED TRANSFORMATION OF PIGEONPEA (CAJANUS CAJAN L MILLLSP VAR LRG-41 FROM AXILLARY BUD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Raghavendra

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available A reliable method of plant regeneration has been achieved from Axillary buds. Shoots appeared from explants when cultured on Murashige and skoog (MS medium supplemented with BAP (Benzyl amino purine, Napthalene acetic acid (NAA and Kinetin at various combinations. Elongated shoots were rooted with 70.6% rooting frequency in MS medium with indole buteric acid (IBA at 1.0mg/l. The rooted plantlets were established well in soilrite mixture medium with 91% success and days taken for acclimatization were 12.8 days. This protocol was used in Agrobacterium mediated transformation. The transformation was carried out using the Agrobacterium strain LBA4404 containing the binary vector pCAMBIA2301 harboring npt II as selectable marker and GUS as reporter gene.

  8. AGROBACTERIUM MEDIATED TRANSFORMATION OF PIGEONPEA (CAJANUS CAJAN L MILLLSP VAR LRG-41 FROM AXILLARY BUD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Raghavendra

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available A reliable method of plant regeneration has been achieved from Axillary buds. Shoots appeared from explants when cultured on Murashige and skoog (MS medium supplemented with BAP (Benzyl amino purine, Napthalene acetic acid (NAA and Kinetin at various combinations. Elongated shoots were rooted with 70.6% rooting frequency in MS medium with indole buteric acid (IBA at 1.0mg/l. The rooted plantlets were established well in soilrite mixture medium with 91% success and days taken for acclimatization were 12.8 days. This protocol was used in Agrobacterium mediated transformation. The transformation was carried out using the Agrobacterium strain LBA4404 containing the binary vector pCAMBIA2301 harboring npt II as selectable marker and GUS as reporter gene.

  9. Altered antibiotic tolerance in anaerobic digesters acclimated to triclosan or triclocarban.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carey, Daniel E; McNamara, Patrick J

    2016-11-01

    Bench-scale anaerobic digesters were amended to elevated steady-state concentrations of triclosan (850 mg/kg) and triclocarban (150 mg/kg) using a synthetic feed. After more than 9 solids retention time (SRT) values of acclimatization, biomass from each digester (and a control digester that received no antimicrobials) was used to assess the toxicity of three antibiotics. Methane production rate was measured as a surrogate for activity in microcosms that received doses of antibiotics ranging from no-antibiotic to inhibitory concentrations. Biomass amended with triclocarban was more sensitive to tetracycline compared to the control indicating synergistic inhibitory effects between this antibiotic and triclocarban. In contrast, biomass amended with triclosan was able to tolerate statistically higher levels of ciprofloxacin indicating that triclosan can induce functional resistance to ciprofloxacin in an anaerobic digester community.

  10. Use of gamma radiation cobalt 60 for disinfestation of Lasioderma serricorne (Fabricius, 1972) (Coleoptera: Anobiidae) in Cymbopogon citratus stapf and Ocimun basillicum L. dehydrated

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ramos, Amanda C.O.; Potenza, Marcos R.; Alves, Juliana N.; Justi Junior, Joao [Instituto Biologico, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Centro de Pesquisa e Desenvolvimento de Sanidade Vegetal]. E-mail: potenza@biologico.sp.gov.br; Arthur, Valter [Centro de Energia Nuclear na Agricultura (CENA), Piracicaba, SP (Brazil)]. E-mail: arthur@cena.usp.br

    2007-07-01

    Stored products such as grains, flours, dry fruits and spices are normally infested by pests as beetles (Lasioderma serricorne), mites and moths, depreciating the product visually and promoting its deterioration. To improve the quality of spices, medicinal plants, seasoning and others foodstuffs there is a need for adequate methods of handling, correct identification of the species, adequate collection, pre and post-treatment procedures and adequate storage. The objective of this work was to determine the dose of gamma radiation for the disinfestations of medicinal and aromatic plants dehydrated infested by L. serricone. The plants used in this study were Cymbopogon citratus stapf (lemon grass) and Ocimun basillicum L. (basil) in this dehydrated form. The experiment was carried out in the Arthropods Laboratory of the Instituto Biologico/SP, during the months of January and May 2006, and the irradiations were carried out in the Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares-IPEN/CNEN/SP, using an experimental Cobalt 60 irradiator, model Gammacell 220. Each treatment consisted of 5 parcels containing 10g of dehydrated products infested with 20 last instar larvae of L. serricorne, conditioned in plastic 10x10 cm containers with small punctures in the cover to allow internal aeration. The substratum previously infested was kept for 1 day in a acclimatized room at 27 {+-} 2 deg C, after this period the substratum was submitted to increasing doses of gamma radiation: 0; 0,5; 0,75; 1,0; 1,25; 1,50; 1,75; 2,0; 2,25; 2,50 e 2,75 kGy. After irradiation, the samples were kept in a acclimatized room at 27 {+-} 2 deg C of temperature and relative humidity of 70 {+-} 5 % and after a 45 days period the number of adults insects emerged was evaluated. The lethal dose of gamma radiation for L. serrricorne last instar larvae on Cymbopogon citratus stapf and Ocimun basillicum L. was 1,75 kGy. (author)

  11. Finger cold-induced vasodilation of older Korean female divers, haenyeo: effects of chronic cold exposure and aging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Joo-Young; Park, Joonhee; Koh, Eunsook; Cha, Seongwon

    2017-02-01

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate the local cold tolerance of older Korean female divers, haenyeo (N = 22) in terms of cold acclimatization and ageing. As control groups, older non-diving females (N = 25) and young females from a rural area (N = 15) and an urban area (N = 51) participated in this study. To evaluate local cold tolerance, finger cold-induced vasodilation (CIVD) during finger immersion of 4 °C water was examined. As a result, older haenyeos showed greater minimum finger temperature and recovery finger temperature than older non-diving females (P < 0.05), but similar responses in onset time, peak time, maximum finger temperature, frequency of CIVD, heart rate, blood pressure, and thermal and pain sensations as those of older non-diving females. Another novel finding was that young urban females showed more vulnerable responses to local cold in CIVD variables and subjective sensations when compared to older females, whereas young rural females had the most excellent cold tolerance in terms of maximum temperature and frequency of CIVD among the four groups (P < 0.05). The present results imply that older haenyeos still retain cold acclimatized features on the periphery even though they changed their cotton diving suits to wet suits in the early 1980s. However, cardiovascular responses and subjective sensations to cold reflect aging effects. In addition, we suggest that young people who have been adapted to highly insulated clothing and indoor heating systems in winter should be distinguished from young people who were exposed to less modern conveniences when compared to the aged in terms of cold tolerance.

  12. Is hypoxia training good for muscles and exercise performance?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vogt, Michael; Hoppeler, Hans

    2010-01-01

    Altitude training has become very popular among athletes as a means to further increase exercise performance at sea level or to acclimatize to competition at altitude. Several approaches have evolved during the last few decades, with "live high-train low" and "live low-train high" being the most popular. This review focuses on functional, muscular, and practical aspects derived from extensive research on the "live low-train high" approach. According to this, subjects train in hypoxia but remain under normoxia for the rest of the time. It has been reasoned that exercising in hypoxia could increase the training stimulus. Hypoxia training studies published in the past have varied considerably in altitude (2300-5700 m) and training duration (10 days to 8 weeks) and the fitness of the subjects. The evidence from muscle structural, biochemical, and molecular findings point to a specific role of hypoxia in endurance training. However, based on the available performance capacity data such as maximal oxygen uptake (Vo(2)max) and (maximal) power output, hypoxia as a supplement to training is not consistently found to be advantageous for performance at sea level. Stronger evidence exists for benefits of hypoxic training on performance at altitude. "Live low-train high" may thus be considered when altitude acclimatization is not an option. In addition, the complex pattern of gene expression adaptations induced by supplemental training in hypoxia, but not normoxia, suggest that muscle tissue specifically responds to hypoxia. Whether and to what degree these gene expression changes translate into significant changes in protein concentrations that are ultimately responsible for observable structural or functional phenotypes remains open. It is conceivable that the global functional markers such as Vo(2)max and (maximal) power output are too coarse to detect more subtle changes that might still be functionally relevant, at least to high-level athletes.

  13. Hydration in soccer: a review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monteiro Cristiano Ralo

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Hydration should be considered before, during and after the exercise. This review intends to approach the main points of hydration process in soccer. The replacement of fluids during exercise is proportional to some factors, such as: exercise intensity; climatic conditions; the athlete's acclimatization; the athlete's physical conditioning; physiologic individual characteristics and the player's biomechanics. Performance is improved when players ingest not only water but also carbohydrate. The rates that carbohydrate and water are absorbed by the organism are limited by the rates of gastric emptying and intestinal absorption. The composition of drinks offered to the players should be influenced by the relative importance of the need of supplying carbohydrates or water; it should be remembered that the depletion of carbohydrate can result in fatigue and decrease of performance, but it is not usually a life-threatening condition. The addition of carbohydrate in these drinks increases the concentrations of blood glucose, increases the use of external fuel through the increase of the glucose oxidation in the muscles and it spares muscle glycogen. So, the ingestion of carbohydrate before and during the exercise can delay the emergence of fatigue and increase the players' performance. Several tactics can be used to avoid dehydration, like hyperhydration before exercise and player's acclimatization. The ideal situation to restore the player's fluid losses is between the sessions of exercises. Since soccer is a sport with quite peculiar characteristics related to hydration, the players should be concerned and educated about the importance of fluid ingestion before, during and after the exercise.

  14. The cumulative impact of annual coral bleaching can turn some coral species winners into losers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grottoli, Andréa G; Warner, Mark E; Levas, Stephen J; Aschaffenburg, Matthew D; Schoepf, Verena; McGinley, Michael; Baumann, Justin; Matsui, Yohei

    2014-12-01

    Mass coral bleaching events caused by elevated seawater temperatures result in extensive coral loss throughout the tropics, and are projected to increase in frequency and severity. If bleaching becomes an annual event later in this century, more than 90% of coral reefs worldwide may be at risk of long-term degradation. While corals can recover from single isolated bleaching and can acclimate to recurring bleaching events that are separated by multiple years, it is currently unknown if and how they will survive and possibly acclimatize to annual coral bleaching. Here, we demonstrate for the first time that annual coral bleaching can dramatically alter thermal tolerance in Caribbean corals. We found that high coral energy reserves and changes in the dominant algal endosymbiont type (Symbiodinium spp.) facilitated rapid acclimation in Porites divaricata, whereas low energy reserves and a lack of algal phenotypic plasticity significantly increased susceptibility in Porites astreoides to bleaching the following year. Phenotypic plasticity in the dominant endosymbiont type of Orbicella faveolata did not prevent repeat bleaching, but may have facilitated rapid recovery. Thus, coral holobiont response to an isolated single bleaching event is not an accurate predictor of its response to bleaching the following year. Rather, the cumulative impact of annual coral bleaching can turn some coral species 'winners' into 'losers', and can also facilitate acclimation and turn some coral species 'losers' into 'winners'. Overall, these findings indicate that cumulative impact of annual coral bleaching could result in some species becoming increasingly susceptible to bleaching and face a long-term decline, while phenotypically plastic coral species will acclimatize and persist. Thus, annual coral bleaching and recovery could contribute to the selective loss of coral diversity as well as the overall decline of coral reefs in the Caribbean.

  15. Coral thermal tolerance: tuning gene expression to resist thermal stress.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anthony J Bellantuono

    Full Text Available The acclimatization capacity of corals is a critical consideration in the persistence of coral reefs under stresses imposed by global climate change. The stress history of corals plays a role in subsequent response to heat stress, but the transcriptomic changes associated with these plastic changes have not been previously explored. In order to identify host transcriptomic changes associated with acquired thermal tolerance in the scleractinian coral Acropora millepora, corals preconditioned to a sub-lethal temperature of 3°C below bleaching threshold temperature were compared to both non-preconditioned corals and untreated controls using a cDNA microarray platform. After eight days of hyperthermal challenge, conditions under which non-preconditioned corals bleached and preconditioned corals (thermal-tolerant maintained Symbiodinium density, a clear differentiation in the transcriptional profiles was revealed among the condition examined. Among these changes, nine differentially expressed genes separated preconditioned corals from non-preconditioned corals, with 42 genes differentially expressed between control and preconditioned treatments, and 70 genes between non-preconditioned corals and controls. Differentially expressed genes included components of an apoptotic signaling cascade, which suggest the inhibition of apoptosis in preconditioned corals. Additionally, lectins and genes involved in response to oxidative stress were also detected. One dominant pattern was the apparent tuning of gene expression observed between preconditioned and non-preconditioned treatments; that is, differences in expression magnitude were more apparent than differences in the identity of genes differentially expressed. Our work revealed a transcriptomic signature underlying the tolerance associated with coral thermal history, and suggests that understanding the molecular mechanisms behind physiological acclimatization would be critical for the modeling of reefs

  16. Impact of addition of amendments on the degradation of DDT and its residues partitioned on soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Swatantra P; Bose, Purnendu; Guha, Saumyen; Gurjar, Suresh K; Bhalekar, Santosh

    2013-08-01

    Market-grade DDT used for mosquito control and other purposes is a mixture of 4,4-DDT, 2,4-DDT and smaller amounts of 4,4-DDD, 2,4-DDD, 4,4-DDE and 4,4-DDMU. All above components (together known as DDTr) are strongly hydrophobic and hence are present in the environment predominantly in the soil/sediment phases. The persistence of DDTr and the feasibility of attenuation of DDTr concentration in soil matrix through addition of amendments is a subject of ongoing interest. The objective of this study was to compare the decline of soil-partitioned DDTr concentration through, (1) the natural attenuation process, (2) enhanced aerobic and anaerobic biodegradation processes involving addition of acclimatized seed and co-metabolites and (3) Nanoscale Zero Valent Iron (NZVI) addition. The extent of decline in soil DDTr concentration in control experiments, where biodegradation and photolysis were excluded, was around 10-15% in ∼100d. Extent of DDTr decline in natural attenuation experiments was 25-30% and 15-20% under aerobic and anaerobic conditions respectively. In enhanced biodegradation experiments, addition of acclimatized seed and/or co-metabolites did not enhance the extent of DDTr attenuation over and above the natural attenuation rates both in aerobic and anaerobic conditions. It thus appeared that biodegradation of DDTr adsorbed on soil was severely limited and controlled by desorption and consequent bioavailability of DDTr in the aqueous phase. In case of NZVI addition, the rate of DDTr degradation was much faster, with 40% decrease in DDTr concentration within 28h of NZVI addition. Here, the faster DDTr degradation may be through direct electron transfer between NZVI particles and DDTr molecules adsorbed on soil. Increase in the concentration of 4,4-DDD and 2,4-DDD during NZVI addition suggest that these compounds are either intermediate or end products of DDT degradation process.

  17. THE USE OF CONTINUOUS, TEMPORARY IMMERSION BIOREACTOR SYSTEM AND SEMISOLID CULTURE MEDIUM FOR THE PRODUCTION OF Eucalyptus camaldulensis CLONES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evânia Galvão Mendonça

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The plant micro-propagation in bioreactor systems is regarded as one way to reduce cost by automation and production scheduling. This research was carried out in order to obtain an efficient procedure for clone production of Eucalyptus camaldulensis on different types of bioreactor including continuous and temporary immersion bioreactor. To do so, the apical meristems (1 mm and the apical meristems with adjacent tissue (2,5 mm were used as initial explants. These tissues were cultured, for 60 days, in semisolid culture medium supplemented with 1 mg L -1 indole acetic acid (IAA and 0.32 mg L -1 benzylaminopurine (BA. After 60 days, the meristems with adjacent tissue were transferred to a continuous immersion bioreactor and maintained in dark or light conditions. In order to verify the effect of the explant source on bioreactor multiplication, the explants subcultured from meristems multiplied in semisolid culture medium and the meristems multiplied in continuous immersion bioreactor were tested and maintained in dark conditions. After establishing this parameters, the multiplication experiments were carried out in continuous and temporary immersion and the multiplied explants were then rooted in MS medium supplemented with 0, 2, 4, 8 and 20 mg L -1 indole butyric acid (IBA and kept in the dark or under controlled lighting conditions. After that, the rooting the plants were acclimatized in mist chamber. The meristem with adjacent tissue favored a greater number of buds/explants. The continuous immersion bioreactor in the dark provided higher shoots number and multiplication rate. The rooting was better on culture medium without auxin and kept in the dark for 15 days or the culture medium supplemented with auxin and maintained under light with 100% plantlet rooting. The Eucalyptus camaldulensis acclimatization was efficient, with high survival rate (76%. It was possible to establish the procedure for bioreactor micro-propagation of Eucalyptus

  18. 处理木薯淀粉废水的厌氧反应器初次启动方法研究%Study on the initial start-up method of anaerobic reactor for treating cassava starch wastewater

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    任伯帜; 韦兴浩; 侯保林

    2012-01-01

    对处理木薯淀粉废水的EGSB厌氧反应器初次启动时的接种污泥选择、污泥驯化方法、厌氧反应器控制条件进行研究.当选用木薯酒精厂厌氧发酵污泥作为接种污泥,控制pH在6.8~7.6,VFA<1 000 mg/L,温度在26~28℃时,采用阶段进水驯化方式,经过近100 d的实际运行,成功培养出适应木薯淀粉废水的颗粒污泥,系统COD去除率达86%以上,厌氧反应器启动成功,运行状况良好,处理效果稳定.%everal factors such as the selection of inoculated sludge,method of sludge acclimatization and the condition of the anaerobic reactor control for treating cassava starch wastewater when initially started-up have been studied. When the anaerobic fermented sludge of the cassava alcohol plant is selected as inoculated sludge,its pH should be controlled at 6.8-7.6,VFA<1 000 mg/L,and temperature at 26-28 ℃ ,the influent water acclimatization in phasic mode is used. After running for almost 100 d,the granular sludge that is suitable for cassava starch has successfully been cultivated. Under these conditions,the removing rate of COD could be higher than 86% ,and the anaerobic reactor has started up smoothly and fluently, with stable treatment effect.

  19. Response of branchial Na(+)/K(+) ATPase to changes in ambient temperature in Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua) and whiting (Merlangius merlangus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michael, Katharina; Koschnick, Nils; Pörtner, Hans-O; Lucassen, Magnus

    2016-05-01

    The maintenance of ion and pH homeostasis despite changes in ambient temperature is crucial for ectothermic organisms. Thermal sensitivity of Na(+)/K(+) ATPase mRNA expression, protein expression and activity was determined in gills of North Sea cod (NC) and Northeastern Arctic cod (NEAC), acclimated for 6 weeks at 4 and 10 °C and compared to field samples of North Sea cod (sNC), acclimatized to early spring (4 °C) and summer (18 °C) conditions. The same analyses were conducted in gills of the confamiliar whiting, acclimated at 4 and 10 °C. Branchial Na(+)/K(+) ATPase capacities remained uncompensated at functional and protein levels in NC and NEAC at both acclimation temperatures. Na(+)/K(+) ATPase mRNA expression in NEAC acclimated at 10 °C was about twofold higher compared to NC, indicating some population-specific differentiation at this level. Lower Na(+)/K(+) ATPase capacities in gills of warm-acclimatized sNC at common assay temperatures indicate thermal compensation between seasonal extremes, and post-translational modifications contributed to this mitigation at high assay temperature. Together, cod compensates Na(+)/K(+) ATPase capacities on the warm edge of the thermal window and below 4 °C, respectively. In contrast, whiting Na(+)/K(+) ATPase capacities were cold compensated at 4 °C, supported by 1.5-fold higher mRNA and protein expression. Besides, capacities were lower in whiting compared to NC and NEAC at optimum temperature, which may be advantageous in terms of reduced maintenance cost, but at temperatures ≤4 °C, compensation may represent an energy trade-off to maintain homeostasis. The species-specific response of gadid Na(+)/K(+) ATPase indicates certain threshold temperatures beyond which compensation of the pump is elicited, possibly related to the different biogeography of these species.

  20. Time required to stabilize thermographic images at rest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marins, João Carlos Bouzas; Moreira, Danilo Gomes; Cano, Sergio Piñonosa; Quintana, Manuel Sillero; Soares, Danusa Dias; Fernandes, Alex de Andrade; Silva, Fabrício Sousa da; Costa, Carlos Magno Amaral; Amorim, Paulo Roberto dos Santos

    2014-07-01

    Thermography for scientific research and practical purposes requires a series of procedures to obtain images that should be standardized; one of the most important is the time required for acclimatization in the controlled environment. Thus, the objective of this study was to identify the appropriate acclimatization time in rest to reach a thermal balance on young people skin. Forty-four subjects participated in the study, 18 men (22.3 ± 3.1 years) and 26 women (21.7 ± 2.5 years). Thermographic images were collected using a thermal imager (Fluke®), totaling 44 images over a period of 20 min. The skin temperature (TSK) was measured at the point of examination which included the 0 min, 2, 4, 6, 8, 10, 12, 14, 16, 18 and 20. The body regions of interest (ROI) analyzed included the hands, forearms, arms, thighs, legs, chest and abdomen. We used the Friedman test with post hoc Dunn's in order to establish the time at rest required to obtain a TSK balance and the Mann-Whitney test was used to compare age, BMI, body fat percentage and temperature variations between men and women, considering always a significance level of p < 0.05. Results showed that women had significantly higher temperature variations than men (p < 0.01) along the time. In men, only the body region of the abdomen obtained a significant variance (p < 0.05) on the analyzed period, both in the anterior and posterior part. In women, the anterior abdomen and thighs, and the posterior part of the hands, forearms and abdomen showed significant differences (p < 0.05). Based on our results, it can be concluded that the time in rest condition required reaching a TSK balance in young men and women is variable, but for whole body analysis it is recommended at least 10 min for both sexes.

  1. Occurrence and Distribution of Phytochemicals in the Leaves of 17 In vitro Cultured Hypericum spp. Adapted to Outdoor Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kucharíková, Andrea; Kusari, Souvik; Sezgin, Selahaddin; Spiteller, Michael; Čellárová, Eva

    2016-01-01

    A plethora of plants belonging to the genus Hypericum have been investigated so far owing to the biological efficacies of pharmacologically important secondary metabolites produced by several Hypericum species. However, there is currently a dearth of information about the localization (accumulation) of these compounds in the plants in situ. In particular, the biosynthetic and ecological consequence of acclimatization of in vitro cultured Hypericum spp. to outdoor conditions is not fully known. Herein, we report an application of matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization high-resolution mass spectrometry (MALDI-HRMS) to reveal the distribution of major naphthodianthrones hypericin, pseudohypericin, protohypericin, and their proposed precursor emodin as well as emodin anthrone, along with the phloroglucinol derivative hyperforin, the flavonoids quercetin, quercitrin, rutin and hyperoside (and/or isoquercitrin), and chlorogenic acid in Hypericum leaves. Plants encompassing seventeen Hypericum species classified into eleven sections, which were first cultured in vitro and later acclimatized to outdoor conditions, were studied. We focused both on the secretory (dark and translucent glands, other types of glands, and glandular-like structures) as well as the non-secretory leaf tissues. We comparatively analyzed and interpreted the occurrence and accumulation of our target compounds in different leaf tissues of the seventeen species to get an intra-sectional as well as inter-sectional perspective. The naphthodianthrones, along with emodin, were present in all species containing the dark glands. In selected species, hypericin and pseudohypericin accumulated not only in the dark glands, but also in translucent glands and non-secretory leaf tissues. Although hyperforin was localized mainly in translucent glands, it was present sporadically in the dark glands in selected species. The flavonoids quercetin, quercitrin, and hyperoside (and/or isoquercitrin) were distributed

  2. Hypoxia induces no change in cutaneous thresholds for warmth and cold sensation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malanda, U L; Reulen, J P H; Saris, W H M; van Marken Lichtenbelt, W D

    2008-09-01

    Hypoxia can affect perception of temperature stimuli by impeding thermoregulation at a neural level. Whether this impact on the thermoregulatory response is solely due to affected thermoregulation is not clear, since reaction time may also be affected by hypoxia. Therefore, we studied the effect of hypoxia on thermal perception thresholds for warmth and cold. Thermal perception thresholds were determined in 11 healthy overweight adult males using two methods for small nerve fibre functioning: a reaction-time inclusive method of limits (MLI) and a reaction time exclusive method of levels (MLE). The subjects were measured under normoxic and hypoxic conditions using a cross-over design. Before the thermal threshold tests under hypoxic conditions were conducted, the subjects were acclimatized by staying 14 days overnight (8 h) in a hypoxic tent system (Colorado Altitude Training: 4,000 m). For normoxic measurements the same subjects were not acclimatized, but were used to sleep in the same tent system. Measurements were performed in the early morning in the tent. Normoxic MLI cold sensation threshold decreased significantly from 30.3 +/- 0.4 (mean +/- SD) to 29.9 +/- 0.7 degrees C when exposed to hypoxia (P 0.05). Neither was there a significant change in MLE warm threshold comparing normoxic (32.8 +/- 0.9 degrees C) with hypoxic condition (32.9 +/- 1.0 degrees C) (P > 0.05). Exposure to normobaric hypoxia induces slowing of neural activity in the sensor-to-effector pathway and does not affect cutaneous sensation threshold for either warmth or cold detection.

  3. Effect of temperature on the pharmacokinetics of benzocaine in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) after bath exposures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stehly, G.R.; Meinertz, J.R.; Gingerich, W.H.

    1998-01-01

    The pharmacokinetics of benzocaine during bath exposures at 1 mg/L were determined in rainbow trout acclimated at 6 °C, 12 °C or 18 °C for at least 1 month. Individual fish were exposed to benzocaine in a recirculating system for 4 h and pharmacokinetic parameters were estimated in a unique manner from the concentration of benzocaine in the bath water vs. time curve. Elimination from plasma was also determined after the 4 h exposure. The uptake clearance and metabolic clearance increased with increased acclimatization temperatures (uptake clearance 581 ± 179 mL/min/kg at 6 °C and 1154 ± 447 mL/ min/kg at 18 °C; metabolic clearance 15.2 ± 4.1 mL/min/kg at 6 °C and 22.3 ± 4.2 mL/min/kg at 18 °C). The apparent volume of distribution had a trend for increasing with temperature that was not significant at the 5% level (2369 ± 678 mL/kg at 6 °C to 3260 ± 1182 mL/kg at 18 °C). The elimination half-life of benzocaine in plasma was variable and did not differ significantly with temperature (60.8 ± 30.3 min at 6 °C to 35.9 ± 13.0 min at 12 °C). Elimination of benzocaine from rainbow trout is relatively rapid and even more rapid at higher acclimatization temperatures based on calculated metabolic clearances and measured plasma concentrations, but was not evident by measurement of terminal plasma half-lifes.

  4. Interactive effects of ocean acidification and warming on coral reef associated epilithic algal communities under past, present-day and future ocean conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vogel, N.; Cantin, N. E.; Strahl, J.; Kaniewska, P.; Bay, L.; Wild, C.; Uthicke, S.

    2016-06-01

    Epilithic algal communities play critical ecological roles on coral reefs, but their response to individual and interactive effects of ocean warming (OW) and ocean acidification (OA) is still largely unknown. We investigated growth, photosynthesis and calcification of early epilithic algal community assemblages exposed for 6 months to four temperature profiles (-1.1, ±0.0, +0.9, +1.6 °C) that were crossed with four carbon dioxide partial pressure (pCO2) levels (360, 440, 650, 940 µatm), under flow-through conditions and natural light regimes. Additionally, we compared the cover of heavily calcified crustose coralline algae (CCA) and lightly calcified red algae of the genus Peyssonnelia among treatments. Increase in cover of epilithic communities showed optima under moderately elevated temperatures and present pCO2, while cover strongly decreased under high temperatures and high-pCO2 conditions, particularly due to decreasing cover of CCA. Similarly, community calcification rates were strongly decreased at high pCO2 under both measured temperatures. While final cover of CCA decreased under high temperature and pCO2 (additive negative effects), cover of Peyssonnelia spp. increased at high compared to annual average and moderately elevated temperatures. Thus, cover of Peyssonnelia spp. increased in treatment combinations with less CCA, which was supported by a significant negative correlation between organism groups. The different susceptibility to stressors most likely derived from a different calcification intensity and/or mineral. Notably, growth of the epilithic communities and final cover of CCA were strongly decreased under reduced-pCO2 conditions compared to the present. Thus, CCA may have acclimatized from past to present-day pCO2 conditions, and changes in carbonate chemistry, regardless in which direction, negatively affect them. However, if epilithic organisms cannot further acclimatize to OW and OA, the interacting effects of both factors may change

  5. High-frequency in vitro plantlet regeneration from apical bud as a novel explant of Carum copticum L.

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mansoureh Salehi; Bahman Hosseini; Zohreh Jabbarzadeh

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To develop an in vitro regeneration system to increase the recovery of Carum copticum L. plantlets as a part of developing a metabolic engineering program.Methods:3-acetic acid and indole butyric acid on direct shoot regeneration and rooting of ajowan from apical bud explants were assessed. All explants were cultured on Murashige and Skoog (MS) medium supplemented with different combinations of 6-benzyl amino purine (BAP) (0, 2.2, 4.4, 8.8µ The efficacy of different concentrations and combinations of 6-benzyladenine, indole-Results: The maximum shoot regeneration frequency (97.5%) and the highest number of shoots produced from apical buds (34 shoots per explant) were obtained on MS medium fortified with BAP (4.4 µmol/L) and IAA (0.5 µmol/L). Low shoot regeneration frequency was observed in BAP free treatments. The effects of different strengths of MS medium and various concentrations of IAA and indole-3- butyric acid on rooting rate, length and average number of roots were also investigated. Application of indole-3- butyric acid (6 µmol/L) in full-strength MS medium, was more effective than IAA and resulted in highest shoot regeneration frequency with the rooting rate of 100% and highest mean number of roots per shoot (41.8). The rooted plantlets were acclimatized successfully in greenhouse conditions with a survival rate of 90%. mol/L) and indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) (0, 0.5, 1.1, 2.2 µmol/L). Conclusion: In this study, a simple and reliable regeneration and acclimatization protocol for Carum copticum has been presented. This protocol can be found very advantageous for a variety of purposes, including mass multiplication of Carum species, medicinal plant breeding studies and transgenic plant production.

  6. Nitric oxide in adaptation to altitude.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beall, Cynthia M; Laskowski, Daniel; Erzurum, Serpil C

    2012-04-01

    This review summarizes published information on the levels of nitric oxide gas (NO) in the lungs and NO-derived liquid-phase molecules in the acclimatization of visitors newly arrived at altitudes of 2500 m or more and adaptation of populations whose ancestors arrived thousands of years ago. Studies of acutely exposed visitors to high altitude focus on the first 24-48 h with just a few extending to days or weeks. Among healthy visitors, NO levels in the lung, plasma, and/or red blood cells fell within 2h, but then returned toward baseline or slightly higher by 48 h and increased above baseline by 5 days. Among visitors ill with high-altitude pulmonary edema at the time of the study or in the past, NO levels were lower than those of their healthy counterparts. As for highland populations, Tibetans had NO levels in the lung, plasma, and red blood cells that were at least double and in some cases orders of magnitude greater than other populations regardless of altitude. Red blood cell-associated nitrogen oxides were more than 200 times higher. Other highland populations had generally higher levels although not to the degree shown by Tibetans. Overall, responses of those acclimatized and those presumed to be adapted are in the same direction, although the Tibetans have much larger responses. Missing are long-term data on lowlanders at altitude showing how similar they become to the Tibetan phenotype. Also missing are data on Tibetans at low altitude to see the extent to which their phenotype is a response to the immediate environment or expressed constitutively. The mechanisms causing the visitors' and the Tibetans' high levels of NO and NO-derived molecules at altitude remain unknown. Limited data suggest processes including hypoxic upregulation of NO synthase gene expression, hemoglobin-NO reactions, and genetic variation. Gains in understanding will require integrating appropriate methods and measurement techniques with indicators of adaptive function under hypoxic

  7. Adaptation of microalgae to a gradient of continuous petroleum contamination

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carrera-Martinez, Daniel; Mateos-Sanz, Aranzazu [AlgasGen Biotecnologia, EBT-UCM, Facultad de Veterinaria, Universidad Complutense de Madrid, Puerta de Hierro s/n, E-28040 Madrid (Spain); Lopez-Rodas, Victoria [AlgasGen Biotecnologia, EBT-UCM, Facultad de Veterinaria, Universidad Complutense de Madrid, Puerta de Hierro s/n, E-28040 Madrid (Spain); Genetica, Facultad de Veterinaria, Universidad Complutense de Madrid, Puerta de Hierro s/n, E-28040 Madrid (Spain); Costas, Eduardo, E-mail: ecostas@vet.ucm.es [AlgasGen Biotecnologia, EBT-UCM, Facultad de Veterinaria, Universidad Complutense de Madrid, Puerta de Hierro s/n, E-28040 Madrid (Spain); Genetica, Facultad de Veterinaria, Universidad Complutense de Madrid, Puerta de Hierro s/n, E-28040 Madrid (Spain)

    2011-01-25

    In order to study adaptation of microalgae to petroleum contamination, we have examined an environmental stress gradient by crude oil contamination in the Arroyo Minero River (AMR), Argentina. Underground crude oil has constantly leaked out since 1915 as a consequence of test drilling for possible petroleum exploitation. Numerous microalgae species proliferated in AMR upstream of the crude oil spill. In contrast, only four microalgal species were detected in the crude oil spill area. Species richness increases again downstream. Microalgae biomass in the crude oil spill area is dominated by a mesophile species, Scenedesmus sp. Effects of oil samples from AMR spill on photosynthetic performance and growth were studied using laboratory cultures of two Scenedesmus sp. strains. One strain (Se-co) was isolated from the crude oil spill area. The other strain (Se-pr) was isolated from a pristine area without petroleum contamination. Crude oil has undetectable effects on Se-co strain. In contrast crude oil rapidly destroys Se-pr strain. However, Se-pr strain can adapt to low doses of petroleum ({<=}3% v/v total hydrocarbons/water) by means of physiological acclimatization. In contrast, only rare crude oil-resistant mutants are able to grow under high levels of crude oil ({>=}10% v/v total hydrocarbons/water). These crude oil-resistant mutants have arisen through rare spontaneous mutations that occur prior to crude oil exposure. Species richness in different areas of AMR is closely connected to the kind of mechanism (genetic adaptation vs. physiological acclimatization) that allows adaptation. Resistant-mutants are enough to assure the survival of microalgal species under catastrophic crude oil spill.

  8. Removal of disperse dyes from textile wastewater using bio-sludge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sirianuntapiboon, Suntud; Srisornsak, Parawee

    2007-03-01

    Granular activated carbon (GAC) did not show any significant adsorption ability on the disperse dyes, while resting (living) bio-sludge of a domestic wastewater treatment plant showed high adsorption abilities on both disperse dyes and organic matter. The dye adsorption ability of bio-sludge increased by approximately 30% through acclimatization with disperse dyes, and it decreased by autoclaving. The deteriorated bio-sludge could be reused after being washed with 0.1N NaOH solution. Disperse Red 60 was more easily adsorbed onto the bio-sludge than Disperse Blue 60. The Disperse Red 60, COD, and BOD5 adsorption capacities of acclimatized, resting bio-sludge were 40.0+/-0.1, 450+/-12, and 300+/-10mg/g of bio-sludge, respectively. The GAC-SBR system could be applied to treat textile wastewater (TWW) containing disperse dyes with high dye, BOD5, COD, and TKN removal efficiencies of 93.0+/-1.1%, 88.0+/-3.1%, 92.2+/-2.7% and 51.5+/-7.0%, respectively without any excess bio-sludge production under an organic loading of 0.18 kg BOD5/m3-d. Furthermore, the removal efficiencies increased with the addition of glucose into the system. The dye, BOD5, COD, and TKN removal efficiencies of the GAC-SBR system with TWW containing 0.89 g/L glucose were 94.6+/-0.7%, 94.4+/-0.6%, 94.4+/-0.8% and 59.3+/-8.5%, respectively, under an SRT of 67+/-0.4 days.

  9. In Vitro Propagation of Muña-Muña (Clinopodium odorum (Griseb. Harley

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    María Soledad Diaz

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available A micropropagation protocol was developed which may assist in the safeguarding and augmentation of dwindling natural populations of Clinopodium odorum (Griseb. Harley, a critically and endangered medicinal plant. Factors affecting culture initiation bud sprouting and growth, rooting, and acclimatization were studied, using nodal segments of in vitro germinated seedling as primary explants on six media supplemented with different concentrations and combinations of 6-benzylaminopurine (BAP (0.5–1.5 and 2-Naphthalene acetic acid (NAA (0.5–1.5. Best results for culture initiation with sustainable multiplication rates (100% were obtained on WP medium without any growth regulator. WP with the addition of 0.5 : 1 or 0.5 : 1.5 of BAP and NAA promoted a higher elongation; however, the optimum number of nodes were obtained in plantlets grown on 1/2 MS with the addition of 1 : 1.5 of BAP and NAA. Culture of sectioned individual nodes transferred to the media with different rates of BAP and NAA 1/2 MS-9 (1.5 : 1.5, SH-8 (1.5 : 1.0, and 1/2 B5-4 (1.0 : 0.5 media resulted in no proliferated shoots. The in vitro plants were successfully acclimatized garden soil and sand (2 : 1 in the greenhouse, with over 90% survival rate. The in vitro-grown plants could be transferred to ex vitro conditions and the efficacy in supporting ex vitro growth was assessed, with a view to develope longer-term strategies for the transfer and reintroduction into natural habitats.

  10. The red coral (Corallium rubrum) transcriptome: a new resource for population genetics and local adaptation studies.

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    Pratlong, M; Haguenauer, A; Chabrol, O; Klopp, C; Pontarotti, P; Aurelle, D

    2015-09-01

    The question of species survival and evolution in heterogeneous environments has long been a subject for study. Indeed, it is often difficult to identify the molecular basis of adaptation to contrasted environments, and nongenetic effects increase the difficulty to disentangle fixed effects, such as genetic adaptation, from variable effects, such as individual phenotypic plasticity, in adaptation. Nevertheless, this question is also of great importance for understanding the evolution of species in a context of climate change. The red coral (Corallium rubrum) lives in the Mediterranean Sea, where at depths ranging from 5 to 600 m, it meets very contrasted thermal conditions. The shallowest populations of this species suffered from mortality events linked with thermal anomalies that have highlighted thermotolerance differences between individuals. We provide here a new transcriptomic resource, as well as candidate markers for the study of local adaptation. We sequenced the transcriptome of six individuals from 5 m and six individuals from 40 m depth at the same site of the Marseilles bay, after a period of common garden acclimatization. We found differential expression maintained between the two depths even after common garden acclimatization, and we analysed the polymorphism pattern of these samples. We highlighted contigs potentially implicated in the response to thermal stress, which could be good candidates for the study of thermal adaptation for the red coral. Some of these genes are also involved in the response to thermal stress in other corals. Our method enables the identification of candidate loci of local adaptation useful for other nonmodel organisms.

  11. Micropropagation of Araucaria excelsa R. Br. var. glauca Carrière from orthotropic stem explants.

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    Sarmast, Mostafa Khoshhal; Salehi, Hassan; Khosh-Khui, Morteza

    2012-07-01

    The objectives of the present work were in vitro propagation of Araucaria excelsa R. Br. var. glauca Carrière (Norfolk Island pine) with focus on the evaluation of the mean number of shoots per explant (MNS/E) and mean length of shoots per explants (MLS/E) produced by different parts of the orthotropic stem of A. excelsa R. Br. var. glauca in response to plant growth regulators. Norfolk Island pine axillary meristems responded very well to the 2-iso-pentenyl adenine (2iP) and thidiazuron (TDZ) levels. Explants taken from stem upper segments in the media containing 2iP had a higher MNS/E (3.47) and MLS/E (6.27 mm) in comparison to those taken from stem lower segments, which were 0.71 and 0.51 mm, respectively. Using 0.045 μM TDZ in the MS medium not only resulted in 4.60 MNS/E with 7.08 mm MLS/E but proliferated shoots showed a good performance as well. Investigating the best position of stem explant on mother plant as well as the best concentrations of growth regulators were performed which were useful for efficient micropropagation of this plant. Thirty three percent of explants were rooted in the MS medium containing 3 % sucrose, supplemented with 7.5 μM of both NAA and IBA for 2 weeks before transferring to a half strength MS medium without any growth regulator. Plantlets obtained were acclimatized and transferred to the greenhouse with less than 20 % mortality. This procedure considered the first successful report for regeneration and acclimatization of A. excelsa R. Br. var. glauca plantlet through main stem explants.

  12. Micropropagation of Cyclopia genistoides, an endemic South African plant of economic importance.

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    Kokotkiewicz, Adam; Luczkiewicz, Maria; Hering, Anna; Ochocka, Renata; Gorynski, Krzysztof; Bucinski, Adam; Sowinski, Pawel

    2012-01-01

    An efficient micropropagation protocol of Cyclopia genistoides (L.) Vent., an indigenous South African shrub of economic importance, was established. In vitro shoot cultures were obtained from shoot tip fragments of sterile seedlings cultured on solid Schenk and Hildebrandt (SH) medium supplemented with 9.84 microM 6-(gamma,gamma-dimethylallylamino)purine (2iP) and 1.0 microM thidiazuron (TDZ). Maximum shoot multiplication rate [(8.2 +/- 1.3) microshoots/explant)] was observed on this medium composition. Prior to rooting, the multiplied shoots were elongated for 60 days (two 30-days passages) on SH medium with one-half sucrose concentration, supplemented with 4.92 microM indole-3-butyric acid (IBA). The rooting of explants was only possible in the case of the elongated shoots. The highest root induction rate (54.8%) was achieved on solid SH medium with one-half sucrose and one-half potassium nitrate and ammonium nitrate concentration, respectively, supplemented with 28.54 microM indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) and 260.25 microM citric acid. The plantlets were acclimatized for 30 days in the glasshouse, with the use of peat/gravel/perlite substrate (1:1:1). The highest acclimatization rate (80%) was obtained for explants rooted with the use of IAA-supplemented medium. The phytochemical profile of the regenerated plants was similar to that of the reference intact plant material. HPLC analyses showed that C. genistoides plantlets obtained by the micropropagation procedure kept the ability to produce xanthones (mangiferin and isomangiferin) and the flavanone hesperidin, characteristic of wild-growing shrubs.

  13. The second Summer Youth Olympic Games in Nanjing, People's Republic of China: preparing youth athletes to compete in the heat

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    Brito J

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Joao Brito,1 Sebastien Racinais,2 George P Nassis,1,3 1National Sports Medicine Programme, Excellence in Football Project, Aspetar – Qatar Orthopaedic and Sports Medicine Hospital, Doha, Qatar; 2Athlete Health and Performance Research Centre, Aspetar – Qatar Orthopaedic and Sports Medicine Hospital, Doha, Qatar; 3School of Physical Education and Sport Science, National and Kapodistrian University of Athens, Athens, Greece  All authors contributed equally to this manuscript Abstract: The second Summer Youth Olympic Games will take place August 16–28, 2014 in Nanjing, People's Republic of China during the peak of the summer. Nanjing has been reported as one of the hottest cities in the People's Republic of China, with temperatures reaching as high as 40°C. There is limited clinical evidence of the real risks that youth athletes face when training and competing in the heat, but some recommendations can be made. The estimated average wet bulb globe temperature for Nanjing in August is 32°C, which has been classified as a very high risk/stop play condition for heat illness and injury. Training and competing under extreme heat conditions could stress the thermoregulatory system and adversely affect health and performance. However, current guidelines appear to be inadequate or too conservative, and mostly focus on adult elite athletes. Therefore, proper preventive measures are warranted to reduce the risks of heat illness and injury. With proper heat acclimatization and monitoring, youth athletes can exercise reasonably well and safely in the heat. During the second Summer Youth Olympic Games in Nanjing, People's Republic of China, special attention should be devoted to athletes exposed to long and extensive sunny and hot conditions. Keywords: youth sports, heat acclimatization, thermoregulation

  14. Effect of nitrogen limitation on enrichment of activated sludge for PHA production.

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    Basak, Bertan; Ince, Orhan; Artan, Nazik; Yagci, Nevin; Ince, Bahar Kasapgil

    2011-10-01

    Polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHA) are good candidates to plastics because of their material properties similar to conventional plastics and complete biodegradability. The use of activated sludge can be a cheaper alternative to pure cultures for PHA production. In this study, effect of nitrogen limitation during acclimatization period of biomass on production of polyhydroxyalkanoate was investigated. Activated sludge was selected in two sequencing batch reactors operated with and without nitrogen limitation. Batch tests were performed to examine polymer productions of activated sludges acclimatized to different nitrogen regimes. Responses of biomass to different organic loading rates, organic acids, and carbon to nitrogen (C/N) ratios were studied by determining specific polymer storage rate, polymer storage yield, and sludge polymer content of biomasses. Results obtained from batch experiments showed that concentrations of polymer accumulated by two different sludges increased directly with initial substrate concentration. Observed highest polymer yields for the biomasses enriched with and without nitrogen deficiency were 0.69 g COD PHA g(-1) COD S and 0.51 g COD PHA g(-1) COD S, and corresponding polymer contents of biomasses were 43.3% (g COD PHA g(-1) COD X) and 38.3% (g COD PHA g(-1) COD X), respectively. Polymer yields for both biomasses decreased with substrate shift however, biomass enriched with nitrogen deficiency adapted well to acetate-propionate mixture. The results presented in this study showed that polymer storage ability of biomass was improved more under dynamic conditions with nitrogen deficiency when compared to that without nitrogen deficiency. Limiting ammonia availability during batch experiments also caused higher polymer production by suppressing growth, as well as during enrichment of biomass.

  15. Effects of test media on reproduction in Potamopyrgus antipodarum and of pre-exposure population densities on sensitivity to cadmium in a reproduction test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sieratowicz, Agnes; Schulte-Oehlmann, Ulrike; Wigh, Adriana; Oehlmann, Jörg

    2013-01-01

    Molluscan species can be affected by various anthropogenic substances. Yet, these effects are disregarded in chemical risk assessment as molluscs are unrepresented in standard OECD guidelines. The project "validation of a mollusc reproduction test" (Federal Environment Agency, code 371165417) deals with the development of a test method with the mudsnail Potamopyrgus antipodarum for OECD purposes. In this context, the influence on reproduction of both, different media and varying snail density, has been observed in independent experiments. Further, the impact of density on the outcome of subsequent cadmium (Cd) toxicity in a test has been investigated to refine the existing methodology. First, adult snails were kept in different test media for 12 weeks. Second, snail density was increased for 4 weeks to induce stress. Snails from each density scenario were used for another 4 weeks in a reproduction test at an equal density with 12 μg Cd/L, respectively. Significant differences in reproduction between medium groups were noted after 4 and 8, but not 12, weeks. Further, reproduction was significantly altered by snail density in the beakers but after subsequent 4 weeks at a constant density, no differences were observed between control groups. Cd reduced reproduction and this effect increased with snail density in the pre-exposure period, demonstrating that a previous stress factor may result in increased sensitivity to chemicals and underlines the need for more standardized breeding conditions to minimize effect variations. Based on the outcome of this study, an acclimatization period of 12 weeks must be guaranteed for specimens transferred to another medium. Further, 4 weeks of acclimatization are necessary after density stress. An additional 12 weeks density experiment showed that medium volume in each replicate can be decreased by half to save on chemicals, water and space during tests.

  16. Exploring the response of West Siberian wetland methane emissions to future changes in climate, vegetation, and soil microbial communities

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    T. J. Bohn

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available We ran the VIC land surface model over the West Siberian Lowland (WSL, forced with outputs from 32 CMIP5 models for the RCP4.5 scenario, and compared the effects of changes in climate and vegetation (leaf area index in particular on predicted wetland CH4 emissions and other fluxes for the period 2071–2100, relative to the period 1981–2010. We also explored possible responses of soil microbial communities to these changes. Our results suggest that, if soil microbial communities acclimatize to elevated temperatures without changes in species abundances, end-of-century CH4 emissions from the WSL will only rise to 3.6 Tg CH4 yr−1 (6% above historical emissions. In contrast, if microbial species abundances in the north additionally shift to resemble those in the south, CH4 emissions will more than double, to 7.3 Tg CH4 yr−1. Crucially, while historical emissions were concentrated in the southern half of the domain, acclimatization plus microbial population shifts concentrate almost 3/4 of future emissions in the northern half of the domain, where the possible release of carbon with permafrost thaw is a concern. In addition, microbial population shifts disproportionately increase microbial activity in the period during and immediately following snowmelt, when highly labile carbon is first thought to be released from the soil. This work indicates the importance of better constraining the responses of soil microbial communities to changes in climate and vegetation as they are critical determinants of the region's future methane emissions.

  17. Low symbiont diversity as a potential adaptive strategy in a marginal non-reefal environment: a case study of corals in Hong Kong

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng, Tsz Yan; Ang, Put

    2016-09-01

    Symbiosis with genetically diverse Symbiodinium has been shown to affect host coral physiological responses to environmental stresses. Hong Kong, located in a subtropical region, is a marginal environment for coral growth largely due to its wide annual temperature fluctuation with low mean winter sea water temperature (~16 °C) and variable salinity conditions. The symbiont diversity in Hong Kong corals is therefore worth investigating to enrich our understanding on symbioses in marginal and fluctuating environments. Examination of 56 scleractinian coral species and five soft coral species using denaturing gel gradient electrophoresis of the internal transcribed spacer region 2 found only five distinct subclades of Symbiodinium with C1 the dominant type occurring in all but one scleractinian coral and all soft coral species investigated. C15 and C21 Symbiodinium were found in Porites spp. and Montipora peltiformis, respectively, both of which are vertical transmitters. D8-12 was found in Oulastrea crispata, a stress-tolerant species, and D1 in a single sample of Goniastrea aspera. No spatial differences in Symbiodinium composition were found among different regions of Hong Kong. Seasonal monitoring of tagged Platygyra acuta and Porites spp. colonies also revealed no changes in their symbiont types despite wide ranges of in situ temperature fluctuation. Hong Kong scleractinian corals hosted a remarkably low symbiont diversity compared with corals in the surrounding regions. The predominance of a single subclade, C1 Symbiodinium, suggests that this subclade is best acclimatized to local fluctuating conditions and/or low winter temperature. Forming symbiosis with the best acclimatized symbiont, instead of with a diverse group of symbionts with different physiological performances, either sequentially or simultaneously, may be a strategy used by Hong Kong corals to cope with stressful conditions.

  18. The effect of combined glutamate receptor blockade in the NTS on the hypoxic ventilatory response in awake rats differs from the effect of individual glutamate receptor blockade.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pamenter, Matthew E; Nguyen, Jetson; Carr, John A; Powell, Frank L

    2014-08-01

    Ventilatory acclimatization to hypoxia (VAH) increases the hypoxic ventilatory response (HVR) and causes persistent hyperventilation when normoxia is restored, which is consistent with the occurrence of synaptic plasticity in acclimatized animals. Recently, we demonstrated that antagonism of individual glutamate receptor types (GluRs) within the nucleus tractus solitarii (NTS) modifies this plasticity and VAH (J. Physiol. 592(8):1839-1856); however, the effects of combined GluR antagonism remain unknown in awake rats. To evaluate this, we exposed rats to room air or chronic sustained hypobaric hypoxia (CSH, PiO2 = 70 Torr) for 7-9 days. On the experimental day, we microinjected artificial cerebrospinal fluid (ACSF: sham) and then a "cocktail" of the GluR antagonists MK-801 and DNQX into the NTS. The location of injection sites in the NTS was confirmed by glutamate injections on a day before the experiment and with histology following the experiment. Ventilation was measured in awake, unrestrained rats breathing normoxia or acute hypoxia (10% O2) in 15-min intervals using barometric pressure plethysmography. In control (CON) rats, acute hypoxia increased ventilation; NTS microinjections of GluR antagonists, but not ACSF, significantly decreased ventilation and breathing frequency in acute hypoxia but not normoxia (P NTS significantly decreased ventilation in normoxia and breathing frequency in hypoxia. A persistent HVR after combined GluR blockade in the NTS contrasts with the effect of individual GluR blockade and also with results in anesthetized rats. Our findings support the hypotheses that GluRs in the NTS contribute to, but cannot completely explain, VAH in awake rats.

  19. Field study of cyclic hypoxic effects on gene expression in grass shrimp hepatopancreas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Tiandao; Brouwer, Marius

    2013-12-01

    Grass shrimp, Palaemonetes pugio, are widely used for ecological and toxicological research. They commonly experience cyclic hypoxia in their natural habitats. The response of grass shrimp to laboratory-controlled cyclic hypoxia has been studied in detail, but little is known about how field acclimatized grass shrimp regulate the gene expression and response to cyclic hypoxia. In this study we examined morphometric parameters, relative fecundity and gene expression of grass shrimp collected from two areas in Weeks Bay (Mobile, Alabama). One is a traditionally normoxic location (WBM), and the other is a traditionally cyclic hypoxic location (WC). In the week preceding grass shrimp collection dissolved oxygen (DO) at the field sites was measured continuously. DO was shrimp were significantly greater than weight and length of WC shrimp. WBM shrimp had more eggs than WC shrimp, but the difference was not significant. Shrimp from WC had a significant higher number of parasites than those from WBM. A cDNA microarray was utilized to investigate the changes in gene expression in grass shrimp hepatopancreas. Five genes, previously identified as hypoxia/cyclic hypoxia-responsive genes in laboratory exposure studies, were significantly up-regulated in WC shrimp relative to WBM. A total of 5 genes were significantly down-regulated in the field study. Only one of those genes, vitellogenin, has been previously found in chronic and cyclic hypoxic studies. Up and down-regulation of 7 selected genes was confirmed by qPCR. The overall pattern of gene expression in wild shrimp from cyclic DO sites in Weeks Bay showed only weak correlations with gene expression in shrimp from chronic and cyclic hypoxic laboratory studies. It appears therefore that transcriptome profiles of laboratory acclimated animals are of limited utility for understanding responses in field acclimatized animals that are exposed to a broader array of environmental variables.

  20. Dissolved oxygen regimen (PO2 may affect osmorespiratory compromise in European sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax, L.

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    Genciana Terova

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Fundamentally, in land based mediterranean aquaculture, two techniques are applied to supply water with oxygen: paddling water aeration and application of pure oxygen. The two oxygenation techniques result in quite different PO2 regimens and, consequently, different fish growth performance and gill morphology. Data exist showing a reduction in total respiratory surface (RSA and increasing gas diffusion distance (GDD in gills of sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax, L. farmed under elevated PO2 regimens. That such a modification might have an effect on the ion regulation has been defined elsewhere as osmorespiratory compromise. In this study, European sea bass previously acclimatized to two PO2 regimens, mild hypoxia and mild hyperoxia (70-80% and 130-140% of the saturation value, respectively, were challenged for 1 hour with hypo-osmotic plus manipulation stress in two separate trials. During the first trial, when only Na+ loss was determined, the ion efflux during the first 5 min resulted in a rate of 163.72±31 and 112.23±87 nmol g-1min-1 from hypoxia and hyperoxia sea bass groups, respectively, and, if sustained, would approach 15.3 and 11.2% per hour of the total body Na+, respectively. During the second trial, in which both Na+ and Cl- loss were determined, after 60 min the Na+ loss was shown to be 76.86±12 and 179.28±32 nmol g-1 min-1 for the fish previously acclimatized to hyperoxia and hypoxia regimens, respectively, whereas for Cl- this loss was 62.02±11 and 157.28±28 nmol g-1min-1, respectively. Our data are compatible with the hypothesis of an osmotic advantage of sea bass exposed to an elevated PO2 regimen, achievable with application of pure oxygen, instead of simple water aeration.

  1. Effect of rearing water temperature on protandrous sex inversion in cultured Asian Seabass (Lates calcarifer).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Athauda, Saman; Anderson, Trevor; de Nys, Rocky

    2012-02-01

    Asian Seabass, Lates calcarifer (Bloch, 1790), is a protandrous species cultured for Aquaculture. The cultured Asian Seabass in Australia exhibits precocious sex inversion before 2years of age. This phenomenon highly affects on maintaining a proper broodstock in a hatchery. The effect of temperature on sex inversion inducement in Asian Seabass was thus investigated at five different temperature regimes experienced in Australia. Asian Seabass (14months) grown in fresh water under natural temperature in a commercial farm in Queensland were transported to the research facility at James Cook University, Australia and held in fresh water at 28°C until acclimatized to the experimental conditions. Fish were acclimated to the experimental conditions (30ppt salinity) over the first and final week (22°C, 25°C, 28°C, 31°C and 34°C) of one month acclimatizing period. Fish were fed daily with a commercial pellet (50% protein, 18MJkg(-1)) to satiety. Blood, brain and gonad collected before transfer to the experimental temperature regime in the final week of acclimatization and at the end of the experiment were analysed. Plasma sex steroids level and aromatase activity of brain and gonad were also measured. There was an increase in plasma estradiol levels with increasing temperature from 25°C while no significant difference was observed among all treatment temperatures except at 25°C. However, fish held at 22°C showed higher estradiol level than at 25°C and 28°C. Significantly higher (pplasma testosterone levels were detected in fish held at 31°C and 34°C while a reducing trend was observed towards lower temperature regimes. Fish held at 22°C had significantly lower plasma testosterone than all others as well those sampled at the beginning. The plasma 11-ketoTestosterone was at non-detectable levels in all experimental temperatures as shown at the beginning. The average aromatase activity in brain was highest at 28°C among all temperatures, but no significant

  2. Impact of cadmium and lead on Catharanthus roseus--a phytoremediation study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandey, S; Gupta, K; Mukherjee, A K

    2007-07-01

    The Madagascar Periwinkle, Catharanthus roseus (L.) G. Don (a valued medicinal plant) was exposed to different concentrations ofheavymetals like, CdCl, and PbCl, with a view to observe their bioaccumulation efficiency. Germination was inhibited by both the heavy metals in the seeds previously imbibed in GA, and KNO, for 24 hr. EC50 (the effective concentration which inhibits root length by 50%) was recorded as 180 microM for CdCl2, and 50 microM for PbCl2. Both alpha-amylase and protease activity were reduced substantially on treatment of seeds with increasing concentrations of CdCl2, and PbCl2. Malondialdehyde (MDA) a product of lipoxigenase (LOX) activity also increased due to the treatment of both CdCl, and PbCl2. When two-months-old plants grown in normal soil were transferred to soils containing increasing amounts of these two heavy metals, senescence of lower leaves and extensive chlorosis were noticed after four days of transfer However, plants gradually acclimatized and after 20 days the chlorophyll content was almost comparable to normal. Plants receiving CdCl2 treatment (250 microg g(-1) and less) became acclimatized after two weeks and started normal growth. But PbCl2 of 432 microg g(-1) and less could not affect the plant growth throughout, after a preliminary shock was erased. In case of CdCl2 treatment, a stunted growth with reduced leaf area, reduced biomass and sterility were recorded after six months, while plants show normal growth and flowering in case of PbCl2 treatment. Total alkaloid was also found to be decreased in the roots of CdCl2 treated plants. No change was observed in case of PbCl2. GA3 treatments to the CdCl2 treated plants show internode elongation and increase in leaf area with relatively elongated leaves and thinning of stem diameter AAS analyses of leaves of treated plants exhibited 5-10% accumulation of cadmium, but there was no accumulation of lead at all.

  3. Intermittent hypoxic exposure does not improve sleep at 4300 m.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Juli E; Muza, Stephen R; Fulco, Charles S; Beidleman, Beth A; Tapia, Michael L; Cymerman, Allen

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine in sea-level residents if 6 to 7 consecutive days of normobaric intermittent hypoxic exposure (IHE) (hypoxia room: 2-h ambient PO2=90 mmHg sedentary and 1-h ambient PO2=110 mmHg exercising at 80+/-5% of maximum heart rate) improved sleep quality (awakenings per hour) and quantity at altitude (4300 m). We hypothesized that IHE would improve sleep arterial oxygen saturation (SaO2) levels and decrease desaturation events, thereby contributing to improvements in sleep quality and quantity during subsequent exposure to high altitude. Ten sea-level residents (mean+/-SE: 22+/-1 yr, 179+/-2 cm, 79+/-3 kg) were assigned to an IHE group and six to a SHAM group (20+/-0.5 yr, 180+/-3 cm, 77+/-4 kg). Sleep quantity, SaO2, and heart rate (HR) were monitored at sea level and during high altitude (i.e., 4300 m in a hypobaric chamber) before pretest (PRE-T) and 60 h after posttest (POST-T) for the last IHE or SHAM treatment. Over the 6 to 7 days of IHE, resting SaO2 increased from 75+/-1% to 81+/-3% in the IHE group, while the SHAM group remained at 98+/-1%. From PRE-T to POST-T at 4300-m exposure, both the IHE and SHAM groups had significantly higher sleep SaO2, fewer desaturation events per hour, and an increase in the percentage of time asleep while sleeping (sleep percent). The IHE group, but not the SHAM group, had significantly lower sleep HR and a trend to more awakenings during the POST-T 4300-m exposure. These results indicate that although IHE treatment induced significant ventilatory acclimatization, relative to the SHAM group, IHE did not further improve sleep SaO2 quality and quantity following rapid ascent to 4300 m. Rather, it is likely that the acquired ventilatory acclimatization was lost in the 60 h between the last IHE session and the POST-T altitude exposure.

  4. Sinoatrial tissue of crucian carp heart has only negative contractile responses to autonomic agonists

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    Hälinen Mervi

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In the anoxia-tolerant crucian carp (Carassius carassius cardiac activity varies according to the seasons. To clarify the role of autonomic nervous control in modulation of cardiac activity, responses of atrial contraction and heart rate (HR to carbacholine (CCh and isoprenaline (Iso were determined in fish acclimatized to winter (4°C, cold-acclimated, CA and summer (18°C, warm-acclimated, WA temperatures. Results Inhibitory action of CCh was much stronger on atrial contractility than HR. CCh reduced force of atrial contraction at an order of magnitude lower concentrations (EC50 2.75-3.5·10-8 M in comparison to its depressive effect on HR (EC50 1.23-2.02·10-7 M (P -8 M and 10-7 M CCh, respectively (P + current, IK,CCh, with an EC50 value of 3-4.5·10-7 M and inhibited Ca2+ current (ICa by 28 ± 8% and 51 ± 6% at 10-7 M and 10-6 M, respectively. These currents can explain the shortening of AP. Iso did not elicit any responses in crucian carp sinoatrial preparations nor did it have any effect on atrial ICa, probably due to the saturation of the β-adrenergic cascade in the basal state. Conclusion In the crucian carp, HR and force of atrial contraction show cardio-depressive responses to the cholinergic agonist, but do not have any responses to the β-adrenergic agonist. The scope of inhibitory regulation by CCh is increased by the high basal tone of the adenylate cyclase-cAMP cascade. Higher concentrations of CCh were required to induce IK,CCh and inhibit ICa than was needed for CCh's negative inotropic effect on atrial muscle suggesting that neither IK,CCh nor ICa alone can mediate CCh's actions but they might synergistically reduce AP duration and atrial force production. Autonomic responses were similar in CA winter fish and WA summer fish indicating that cardiac sensitivity to external modulation by the autonomic nervous system is not involved in seasonal acclimatization of the crucian carp heart to cold and anoxic

  5. Micropropagação de plântulas de erva-mate obtidas de embriões zigóticos Micropropagation of holly plantlets obtained from zygotic embryos

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    Micheli Angélica Horbach

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar o potencial de micropropagação de erva-mate (Ilex paraguariensis Saint Hilaire a partir de plântulas assépticas oriundas de embriões zigóticos imaturos. Ápices caulinares foram inoculados em meio base, formado por ¼ da concentração dos sais do meio MS, com diferentes doses de 6-benzilaminopurina (BAP. Ápices caulinares foram enraizados em meio base com diferentes doses de ácido indolbutírico (AIB e avaliado o efeito do AIB do meio de enraizamento in vitro na aclimatização das plantas. O meio base com 8,88µM de BAP foi o mais efetivo para a multiplicação, promovendo o maior número e comprimento de brotações adventícias. Ápices caulinares enraizaram em 30 dias de cultivo em meio base, acrescido de 7,38µM de AIB. A dose de AIB utilizada no enraizamento in vitro interfere na aclimatização das plantas. A técnica de micropropagação descrita pode ser utilizada para a produção massal de plantas de erva-mate.The aim of this research was to evaluate the micropropagation potential of holly (Ilex paraguariensis Saint Hilaire aseptic plantlets derived from immature zygotic embryos. Shoot tip were inoculated in a quarter-strength MS basal medium with different doses of 6-benzylaminopurine (BAP to induce multiple shoots. Shoot tips were inoculated in a basal medium with different doses of indol-butiric acid (IBA for in vitro rooting and to test their effects in plantlet acclimatization. The addition of 8.88µM BAP to the basal medium increased the number of adventitious shoots and shoot height. Shoot tip rooted in basal medium with 7.38µM IBA in 30 days of culture. The IBA doses of the rooting medium affect plantlet acclimatization. The described micropropagation protocol might be used to produce a high number of holly plants.

  6. Effects of maturation, artery size, and chronic hypoxia on 5-HT receptor type in ovine cranial arteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teng, G Q; Williams, J; Zhang, L; Purdy, R; Pearce, W J

    1998-09-01

    To test the hypothesis that variations in cerebrovascular reactivity to 5-HT among arteries of different size or type, during maturation, or during acclimatization to high altitude involve differences in serotonergic receptor subtype, we determined relative agonist potency orders and antagonist affinities in common carotid (Com), main branch middle cerebral (Main), and second branch middle cerebral (2BR) arteries from term fetal lambs and nonpregnant adult sheep acclimatized at sea level or at an altitude of 3,820 m for approximately 110 days. In normoxic adult Com segments, agonist potency order was 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) > 5-carboxamidotryptamine (5-CT) >/= 8-hydroxy-2(di-n-propylamino)tetraline (8-OH-DPAT); sumatriptan (Suma) produced no contractile response; and antagonist dissociation constant (pKb) values were 9.4 and 9.5 for ketanserin against 5-HT and 5-CT, 7.5 for GR-127935 against 5-HT, and 7.2 for SB-206553 against 5-HT. In normoxic adult Main segments, agonist potency order was 5-HT > 5-CT >/= Suma >/= DPAT, and pKb values were 9.1 and 9.2 for ketanserin against 5-HT and 5-CT and 7.4 and 8.5 for GR-127935 against 5-HT and Suma, respectively. In the 2BR segments from normoxic adults, agonist potency order was 5-CT > 5-HT > Suma > DPAT and pKb values were 7.4 and 7.2 for ketanserin against 5-HT and 5-CT and 10.0 and 8.7 for GR-127935 against 5-HT and Suma, respectively. Compared with normoxic adults, none of these values were significantly different in hypoxic adults and in fetuses only the pKb values for ketanserin against 5-HT in the 2BR segments (8.8) were greater. From these results we propose that the ratio of 5-HT2 to 5-HT1 receptors is greatest in the Com and decreases progressively to its smallest values in 2BR or smaller segments. Because this gradient appears stable and relatively resistant to the effects of maturation and chronic hypoxia, changes in reactivity associated with these perturbations may involve alterations in receptor density

  7. Hormetic response triggers multifaceted anti-oxidant strategies in immature king penguins (Aptenodytes patagonicus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rey, Benjamin; Dégletagne, Cyril; Bodennec, Jacques; Monternier, Pierre-Axel; Mortz, Mathieu; Roussel, Damien; Romestaing, Caroline; Rouanet, Jean-Louis; Tornos, Jeremy; Duchamp, Claude

    2016-08-01

    Repeated deep dives are highly pro-oxidative events for air-breathing aquatic foragers such as penguins. At fledging, the transition from a strictly terrestrial to a marine lifestyle may therefore trigger a complex set of anti-oxidant responses to prevent chronic oxidative stress in immature penguins but these processes are still undefined. By combining in vivo and in vitro approaches with transcriptome analysis, we investigated the adaptive responses of sea-acclimatized (SA) immature king penguins (Aptenodytes patagonicus) compared with pre-fledging never-immersed (NI) birds. In vivo, experimental immersion into cold water stimulated a higher thermogenic response in SA penguins than in NI birds, but both groups exhibited hypothermia, a condition favouring oxidative stress. In vitro, the pectoralis muscles of SA birds displayed increased oxidative capacity and mitochondrial protein abundance but unchanged reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation per g tissue because ROS production per mitochondria was reduced. The genes encoding oxidant-generating proteins were down-regulated in SA birds while mRNA abundance and activity of the main antioxidant enzymes were up-regulated. Genes encoding proteins involved in repair mechanisms of oxidized DNA or proteins and in degradation processes were also up-regulated in SA birds. Sea life also increased the degree of fatty acid unsaturation in muscle mitochondrial membranes resulting in higher intrinsic susceptibility to ROS. Oxidative damages to protein or DNA were reduced in SA birds. Repeated experimental immersions of NI penguins in cold-water partially mimicked the effects of acclimatization to marine life, modified the expression of fewer genes related to oxidative stress but in a similar way as in SA birds and increased oxidative damages to DNA. It is concluded that the multifaceted plasticity observed after marine life may be crucial to maintain redox homeostasis in active tissues subjected to high pro-oxidative pressure

  8. Arginine-vasopressin marker copeptin is a sensitive plasma surrogate of hypoxic exposure

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    Ostergaard L

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Louise Ostergaard,1,2,* Alain Rudiger,3,* Sven Wellmann,2,4,5 Elena Gammella,6 Beatrice Beck-Schimmer,2,3 Joachim Struck,7 Marco Maggiorini,2,8 Max Gassmann,1,2,9 1Institute of Veterinary Physiology, Vetsuisse Faculty, University of Zürich, 2Zürich Center for Integrative Human Physiology, 3Institute of Anesthesiology, 4Division of Neonatology, University Hospital Zürich, Zürich, 5Department of Neonatology, University Children's Hospital Basel, Basel, Switzerland; 6Department of Human Morphology and Biomedical Science, University of Milan, Milan, Italy; 7Research Department, B•R•A•H•M•S Biomarkers, Thermo Fisher Scientific, Hennigsdorf, Germany; 8Medical Intensive Care Unit, University Hospital Zürich, Zürich, Switzerland; 9Universidad Peruana Cayetano Heredia, Lima, Peru *These authors contributed equally to this work and share first authorship Background: A reduced oxygen supply puts patients at risk of tissue hypoxia, organ damage, and even death. In response, several changes are activated that allow for at least partial adaptation, thereby increasing the chances of survival. We aimed to investigate whether the arginine vasopressin marker, copeptin, can be used as a marker of the degree of acclimatization/adaptation in rats exposed to hypoxia. Methods: Sprague-Dawley rats were exposed to 10% oxygen for up to 48 hours. Arterial and right ventricular pressures were measured, and blood gas analysis was performed at set time points. Pulmonary changes were investigated by bronchoalveolar lavage, wet and dry weight measurements, and lung histology. Using a newly developed specific rat copeptin luminescence immunoassay, the regulation of vasopressin in response to hypoxia was studied, as was atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP by detecting mid-regional proANP. Results: With a decreasing oxygen supply, the rats rapidly became cyanotic and inactive. Despite continued exposure to 10% oxygen, all animals recuperated within 16 hours and

  9. Protein evolution in two co-occurring types of Symbiodinium: an exploration into the genetic basis of thermal tolerance in Symbiodinium clade D

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    Ladner Jason T

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The symbiosis between reef-building corals and photosynthetic dinoflagellates (Symbiodinium is an integral part of the coral reef ecosystem, as corals are dependent on Symbiodinium for the majority of their energy needs. However, this partnership is increasingly at risk due to changing climatic conditions. It is thought that functional diversity within Symbiodinium may allow some corals to rapidly adapt to different environments by changing the type of Symbiodinium with which they partner; however, very little is known about the molecular basis of the functional differences among symbiont groups. One group of Symbiodinium that is hypothesized to be important for the future of reefs is clade D, which, in general, seems to provide the coral holobiont (i.e., coral host and associated symbiont community with elevated thermal tolerance. Using high-throughput sequencing data from field-collected corals we assembled, de novo, draft transcriptomes for Symbiodinium clades C and D. We then explore the functional basis of thermal tolerance in clade D by comparing rates of coding sequence evolution among the four clades of Symbiodinium most commonly found in reef-building corals (A-D. Results We are able to highlight a number of genes and functional categories as candidates for involvement in the increased thermal tolerance of clade D. These include a fatty acid desaturase, molecular chaperones and proteins involved in photosynthesis and the thylakoid membrane. We also demonstrate that clades C and D co-occur within most of the sampled colonies of Acropora hyacinthus, suggesting widespread potential for this coral species to acclimatize to changing thermal conditions via ‘shuffling’ the proportions of these two clades from within their current symbiont communities. Conclusions Transcriptome-wide analysis confirms that the four main Symbiodinium clades found within corals exhibit extensive evolutionary divergence (18.5-27.3% avg

  10. Associação de fungos micorrízicos arbusculares e cultivares micropropagadas de antúrio Mycorrhizal fungi and micropropagated cultivars of Anthurium associations

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    Giulio Cesare Stancato

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Para a formação de mudas, plântulas micropropagadas de antúrio (Anthurium andraeanum são submetidas a uma das etapas mais críticas na cultura de tecidos de plantas que é a da aclimatização. Uma forma de se estimular a autotrofia pode ser o estabelecimento da associação de fungos micorrízicos e as raízes das plântulas de antúrio. Assim, com o objetivo de avaliar o efeito da associação micorrízica em plântulas de antúrio, foi realizado um experimento, em casa de vegetação, empregando-se as cultivares IAC Astral, IAC Eidibel, IAC Juréia, IAC Luau, IAC Netuno e IAC Ômega e os fungos micorrízicos arbusculares Glomus intraradices, Glomus etunicatum e Acaulospora sp., em substrato orgânico, na fase de aclimatização das plântulas micropropagadas. Os resultados permitiram concluir que houve resposta das cultivares de antúrio à micorrização, em termos de produção de matéria seca, e que a eficiência simbiótica variou com a cultivar e o fungo micorrízico associado.One of the most important steps on micropropagated Anthurium plantlets is the acclimatization. Mycorrhization could be a process that helps the plantlets to change to the autotrophic state. The objective was to evaluate the effect of the mycorrhizal association on the growth of Anthurium cultivars. A experiment was conducted under greenhouse conditions, using the cultivars IAC Astral, IAC Eidibel, IAC Juréia, IAC Luau, IAC Netuno and IAC Ômega and the arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi Glomus intraradices, Glomus etunicatum and Acaulospora sp., in organic substrate, at the plantlets acclimatization stage. The results showed that there was increase in shoot dry matter in mycorrhizal plantlets and that the symbiotic efficiency varied according to the cultivar and arbuscular mycorrhizal fungus.

  11. Application gamma radiation of cobalt-60 in disinfestation of some types of rations for feeding small animals; Emprego da radiacao gama do cobalto-60 na desinfestacao de alguns tipos de racoes para alimentacao de animais de pequeno porte

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arthur, Paula Bergamin

    2012-07-01

    The pests as beetles, mites, moths and mushrooms among other, usually infest products stored as: grains, crumbs, flours, coffee, tobacco, dried fruits, animal rations, spices, dehydrated plants, causing the visual depreciation and promoting to deterioration of the products. The present research had as objective the use of the gamma radiation in the disinfestation of some types of rations used for feeding animals of small size. In the first experiment packing of free samples were used measuring 10 cm x 20 cm with capacity of 70 grams of substrate (ration) with 4 types of existent marks in the trade: (1), (2), e (3), and (4). Each treatment consisted of 10 repetitions, that were irradiated with doses of: 0 (control) 0,5; 1,0 and 2,0 kGy, to do the disinfestation of the samples. After the irradiation (disinfestation) of the all irradiated packing and more the control was conditioned in plastic boxes of 80 cm x 50 cm with cover, where the insects were liberated Lasioderma serricorne, Plodia interpuctella, Sitophilus zeamais and Sitophilus oryzae, in a total of 400 for each box and maintained at room acclimatized with 27 {+-} 2 Deg C and relative humidity of 70 {+-} 5%. In the second experiment packing were used made with the materials of packing of the first experiment. Each packing was made of 10 cm x 15 cm, with capacity of 30 grams of substrate (ration). In each repetition was inoculated 10 insects of each species, in a total of 400 insects for experiment per box. The packing with substrate and insect, were stamped in commercial machine and irradiated with doses of: 0 (control) 0,5; 1,0 and 2,0 kGy. The irradiated packing and the control were maintained at room acclimatized same the mentioned in the first experiment. The counting of the number of insects and holes in the packing were made after 60 days. Concluded that only the packing of the ration type number 4 was susceptive to attack of all species of insects. The dose of 0,5 kGy was sufficient to induce the

  12. Micropropagação de Croton antisyphiliticus Mart. Micropropagation of Croton antisyphiliticus Mart.

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    Taíce Gonçalves de Oliveira

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Croton antisyphiliticus Mart. ex M. Arg., conhecido popularmente como pé-de-perdiz, é uma planta medicinal nativa do Cerrado, cuja raiz é utilizada na forma de decoctos para combater infecções do aparelho reprodutor masculino e feminino. A coleta da planta é realizada de forma extrativista e não há trabalhos a respeito da sua conservação. O objeto do trabalho foi estabelecer um protocolo de micropropagação de Croton antisyphiliticus. Foram avaliados o efeito de diferentes concentrações das citocininas, o tamanho do recipiente para o cultivo in vitro, o co-cultivo e a posição da gema em relação ao desenvolvimento dos explantes, bem como a influência do AIB no enraizamento in vitro e a aclimatização dos explantes. O melhor desenvolvimento in vitro foi obtido com explantes do tipo gema apical, co-cultivadas em meio MS suplementado com BAP (1µM, em frasco tipo pote. O enraizamento foi obtido em meio MS sem regulador vegetal e a aclimatização pode ser realizada em solo do cerrado com brotações sem a presença de raízes desenvolvidas in vitro.Croton antisyphiliticus Mart. ex M. Arg., popularly known as "pé-de-perdiz", is a native medicinal plant of Cerrado, whose root is used in the form of decoctions against infections of the male and female reproductive. The collection of the plant is carried through of extractives form and there are no studies regarding its conservation. The aim of this study was to establish a micropropagation protocol of C. antisyphiliticus. The effect of different concentrations of cytokinins, the size of the container for the in vitro culture, co-cultivation and bud position in relation to the development of the explants, as well as the influence of AIB on in vitro rooting and acclimatization of explants were evaluated. The best development in vitro was obtained with apical explants co-cultivated on MS medium supplemented with BAP (1µM in bottle type pot. Rooting was achieved on MS medium without

  13. EFFECTS OF PLANT GROWTH REGULATORS ON SHOOT MULTIPLICATION AND ROOT INDUCTION OF CASSAVA VARIETIES CULTURE IN VITRO

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    HERNI WIDHIASTUTI

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available A study on propagation of three superior cassava ( Crant varieties i.e.Darul Hidayah, Malang-6 and Adira-4 through tissue culture technique was conducted at theTissue Culture Lab of SEAMEO BIOTROP, Bogor. The objective of the experiment was tostudy effect of plant growth regulators on propagation, which can be used in cassavamicropropagation protocol. Plant materials used were auxiliary shoots of a stem node. Theexperiment consisted of (i shoot multiplication, (ii roots induction, and (iii acclimatization.The multiple shoot regeneration was observed by using Murashige & Skoog (MS basal mediasupplemented with 0, 0.1, 1.0 and 5.0 mg/L of benzylaminopurine (BAP combined with 0.0,0.1 and 1.0 mg/L of thidiazuron. The root induction was observed by using 0.1 and 1.0 mg/Lof IBA and NAA. The resulting plantlets were transplanted into plastic polybags containingsoil mixed with organic fertilizer (1:1 covered with plastic sheets and transferred to agreenhouse. The result of the study showed that the highest number of shoots for DarulHidayah, Malang-6 and Adira-4 varieties were 4.93 shoots treated with BAP 1 mg/L +thidiazuron 0.1 mg/L, 4.20 shoots at BAP media of 1 mg/L, and 7.20 shoots at the mediaof BAP 1 mg/L + thidiazuron 0.1 mg/L respectively. The highest number of nodes producedwas 2.9 nodes for Darul Hidayah at BAP 5 mg/L, 5.13 nodes for Malang-6 at BAP 0.1 mg/L,and 6.18 nodes for Adira-4 at BAP 5 mg/L + thidiazuron 1 mg/L. The utilization of auxin IAAor NAA could induce and accelerate the growth of roots which finally could increase thesuccess of acclimatization process. With an average of four multiplication factors of eachculture period, the potency of each cassava shoot propagated through tissue culture couldproduce around 37 000 plants/year.

  14. Desenvolvimento de Opuntia ficus-indica (L. Mill., em diferentes substratos, após micropropagação in vitro = The development of Opuntia ficus-indica (L mill., in different substrates, after in vitro micropropagation

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    Márcio José Alves Peixoto

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Com o objetivo de avaliar o desenvolvimento de Opuntia ficus-indica (L. Mill, em diferentes substratos, utilizaram-se plantas micropropagadas nas seguintes etapas: indução, crescimento, multiplicação e enraizamento dos brotos. Após o enraizamento, asplântulas foram aclimatizadas em casa de vegetação, usando-se os seguintes substratos: solo não adubado, solo adubado de acordo com análise de solo, solo + pó de coco (1:1 e 2:1, solo + esterco de bovino (1:1 e 2:1, solo + bioadubo (1:1 e 2:1, em delineamento inteiramente ao acaso com quatro repetições. As plântulas possuíam entre 1 a 2 cm de comprimento e foram enterradas a dois terços no solo. Semanalmente, foram medidas as alturas das plantas e contado o número de brotações. Verificou-se diferença significativa ao nível de 5% de probabilidade pelo Teste t quando comparados os efeitos dos diferentes substratos. Conclui-se que deve-se utilizar o substrato à base de esterco bovino na aclimatização da palma forrageira.The study aimed to evaluate the development of Opuntia ficus-indica (L. Mill, in different substrates, using micropropagated plants in the following stages: induction, growth, multiplication and bud rooting. After rooting, seedlings were acclimatized in greenhouse, by means of the following potting mixture: unfertilized soil, fertilized soil according to soil analysis, soil + coconut dust (1:1 and 2:1, soil + bovine manure (1:1 and 2:1, soil + biofertilizer (1:1 and 2:1, randomly applied with four replications. The seedlings had between 1 and 2 cm of length and were planted two thirds under the soil. There were weekly measures of the plants’ height and the number of shoots. Significant difference to the level of 5% of probability for test was verified when comparing the effects of different substrates. Results show that the potting mixture must be based onbovine manure in the acclimatization of palm grass.

  15. Desenvolvimento de Opuntia ficus-indica (L. Mill., em diferentes substratos, após micropropagação in vitro - DOI: 10.4025/actascianimsci.v28i1.659 The development of Opuntia ficus-indica (L mill., in different substrates, after in vitro micropropagation - DOI: 10.4025/actascianimsci.v28i1.659

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    Jacob Silva Souto

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Com o objetivo de avaliar o desenvolvimento de Opuntia ficus-indica (L. Mill, em diferentes substratos, utilizaram-se plantas micropropagadas nas seguintes etapas: indução, crescimento, multiplicação e enraizamento dos brotos. Após o enraizamento, as plântulas foram aclimatizadas em casa de vegetação, usando-se os seguintes substratos: solo não adubado, solo adubado de acordo com análise de solo, solo + pó de coco (1:1 e 2:1, solo + esterco de bovino (1:1 e 2:1, solo + bioadubo (1:1 e 2:1, em delineamento inteiramente ao acaso com quatro repetições. As plântulas possuíam entre 1 a 2 cm de comprimento e foram enterradas a dois terços no solo. Semanalmente, foram medidas as alturas das plantas e contado o número de brotações. Verificou-se diferença significativa ao nível de 5% de probabilidade pelo Teste t quando comparados os efeitos dos diferentes substratos. Conclui-se que deve-se utilizar o substrato à base de esterco bovino na aclimatização da palma forrageira.The study aimed to evaluate the development of Opuntia ficus-indica (L. Mill, in different substrates, using micropropagated plants in the following stages: induction, growth, multiplication and bud rooting. After rooting, seedlings were acclimatized in greenhouse, by means of the following potting mixture: unfertilized soil, fertilized soil according to soil analysis, soil + coconut dust (1:1 and 2:1, soil + bovine manure (1:1 and 2:1, soil + biofertilizer (1:1 and 2:1, randomly applied with four replications. The seedlings had between 1 and 2 cm of length and were planted two thirds under the soil. There were weekly measures of the plants’ height and the number of shoots. Significant difference to the level of 5% of probability for test was verified when comparing the effects of different substrates. Results show that the potting mixture must be based on bovine manure in the acclimatization of palm grass.

  16. Early fruit setting from tissue culture-derived mangosteen tree

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    Sompong Te-chato

    2004-05-01

    Full Text Available Vitro-plantlets of mangosteen derived from culturing young leaves were acclimatized in 1993. Small and large polybag seedlings were carefully raised under controlled environmental conditions until 1994 when they were ready to be transferred to the field. During this stage, morphological abnormalities of the seedlings were recorded. After transferring to the field for 5-6 years (1994-1999 at Yi Ngo District, Narathiwat Province and Klong Hoi Khong District, Songkhla Province, morphological characters of the plants were again observed in comparison with seed-derived plants. The results showed that tissue culture-derived plants were more bushy and started blooming 5 years after planting while the seed-derived plants still had tall canopy (not bushy and were not bearing fruit in the same period of time. However, the blooming of cultured plants did not give the fruit setting in the first blooming year. All flowers dropped off completely. Heavy fruit setting was observed in the following year (2000. Tissue culture trees had smaller but healthier leaves whereas seed-derived trees had pale yellowish green leaves. Fruit qualities in terms of total soluble solids (TSS and total acids (TA were not much different between the two types of these mangosteen trees.

  17. Micropropagation of an Exotic Ornamental Plant, Calathea crotalifera, for Production of High Quality Plantlets

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    Shahril Efzueni Rozali

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A successful protocol was established for micropropagation in two selected varieties of exotic ornamental plants, Calathea crotalifera. The effects of different sterilization techniques, explant type, and the combination and concentration of plant growth regulators on shoots induction were studied. The axillary shoot buds explants sprouted from rhizomes in soil free conditions showed high induction rate of shoots with lowest contamination percentage when treated with combination of 30% (v/v NaOCl, 70% (v/v ethanol, and 0.3% (w/v HgCl2. In the present study, the highest number of multiple shoots was obtained in MS basal medium supplemented with 3.5 mg/L 6-Benzylaminopurine (BAP, 1.0 mg/L 1-Naphthaleneacetic acid (NAA, 3% sucrose, and 6 g/L plant agar for both varieties and was used as multiplication medium. Microshoots were highly induced when the young shoot bud explants were incised longitudinally prior subculture. Chlorophyll analysis was studied to test the effects of activated charcoal and L-glutamine on reduction of necrosis problem. The maximum roots induction was recorded on MS medium supplemented with 1.0 mg/L 1-Naphthaleneacetic acid (NAA compared to indolebutyric acid (IBA. The complete regenerated plantlets were successfully acclimatized in the soilless medium under greenhouse condition. This is the first report of rapid mass propagation for C. crotalifera.

  18. Assessment of the ability of sludge to degrade PCP under anaerobic conditions

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    R. M. L. Bolaños

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available The capacity of sludge from different sources to degrade pentachlorophenol (PCP was evaluated. Three 2.5 liter reactors (R1, R2, and R3 were inoculated with different anaerobic sludges, semi continuously fed and maintained in orbital motion at 30±1°C. R1 was inoculated with aerobic sludge and river sediment collected downstream from a pulp and paper plant. R2 received sludge from an anaerobic reactor treating effluents from a paper recycling plant and R3 received anaerobic sludge from a biodigestor treating industrial and domestic effluents. The sludges were first acclimatized to a culture medium generally recommended for organochloride anaerobic degradation studies. The reactors were then subjected to increasing concentrations of PCP from 0.05 to 10.0 mg.l-1. PCP degradation and metabolite formation were monitored using gas chromatography, and the effects of PCP on the anaerobic process were verified by monitoring pH, volatile fatty acids, alkalinity, total suspended solids, and chemical oxygen demand. It was found that PCP did not affect reactor performance. All the sludges displayed the best PCP degradation capacity at a concentration of 0.2 mg.l-1, producing fewer chlorinated metabolites than when higher PCP concentrations were applied. R1 consistently produced fewer chlorinated metabolites, confirming the hypothesis that pre exposure to chlorinated compounds improves the sludge's capacity to degrade PCP.

  19. Cognitive Changes during Prolonged Stay at High Altitude and Its Correlation with C-Reactive Protein.

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    Sheng Li Hu

    Full Text Available Hypersensitive C-reaction protein (hsCRP may be a risk factor for cognitive impairment resulting from Alzheimer's disease (AD, stroke, and vascular dementia. This study explored the correlation of peripheral blood hsCRP level with cognitive decline due to high altitude exposure. The study was conducted on 100 male military participants who had never been to high altitude. Cerebral oxygen saturation monitoring, event related potentials (P300, N200 detection, and neurocognitive assessment was performed and total hsCRP, interleukin-6 (IL-6, and homocysteine was estimated at 500 m altitude, 3650 m altitude, 3 day, 1, and 3 month post arriving at the base camp (4400 m, and 1 month after coming back to the 500 m altitude. High altitude increased brain oxygen saturation, prolonged P300 and N200 latencies, injured cognitive functions, and raised plasma hsCRP levels. But they all recovered in varying degrees at 1 and 3 month post arriving at the base camp (4400 m. P300 latencies and hsCRP levels were strongly correlated to cognitive performances. These results suggested that cognitive deterioration occurred during the acute period of exposure to high altitude and may recover probably owning to acclimatization after extended stay at high altitude. Plasma hsCRP is inversely correlated to neurological cognition and it may be a potential biomarker for the prediction of high altitude induced cognitive dysfunction.

  20. Cognitive Changes during Prolonged Stay at High Altitude and Its Correlation with C-Reactive Protein

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Sheng Li; Xiong, Wei; Dai, Zhi Qiang; Zhao, Heng Li; Feng, Hua

    2016-01-01

    Hypersensitive C-reaction protein (hsCRP) may be a risk factor for cognitive impairment resulting from Alzheimer’s disease (AD), stroke, and vascular dementia. This study explored the correlation of peripheral blood hsCRP level with cognitive decline due to high altitude exposure. The study was conducted on 100 male military participants who had never been to high altitude. Cerebral oxygen saturation monitoring, event related potentials (P300, N200) detection, and neurocognitive assessment was performed and total hsCRP, interleukin-6 (IL-6), and homocysteine was estimated at 500m altitude, 3650m altitude, 3day, 1, and 3 month post arriving at the base camp (4400m), and 1 month after coming back to the 500m altitude. High altitude increased brain oxygen saturation, prolonged P300 and N200 latencies, injured cognitive functions, and raised plasma hsCRP levels. But they all recovered in varying degrees at 1 and 3 month post arriving at the base camp (4400m). P300 latencies and hsCRP levels were strongly correlated to cognitive performances. These results suggested that cognitive deterioration occurred during the acute period of exposure to high altitude and may recover probably owning to acclimatization after extended stay at high altitude. Plasma hsCRP is inversely correlated to neurological cognition and it may be a potential biomarker for the prediction of high altitude induced cognitive dysfunction. PMID:26731740

  1. Molecular perspectives and recent advances in microbial remediation of persistent organic pollutants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chakraborty, Jaya; Das, Surajit

    2016-09-01

    Nutrition and pollution stress stimulate genetic adaptation in microorganisms and assist in evolution of diverse metabolic pathways for their survival on several complex organic compounds. Persistent organic pollutants (POPs) are highly lipophilic in nature and cause adverse effects to the environment and human health by biomagnification through the food chain. Diverse microorganisms, harboring numerous plasmids and catabolic genes, acclimatize to these environmentally unfavorable conditions by gene duplication, mutational drift, hypermutation, and recombination. Genetic aspects of some major POP catabolic genes such as biphenyl dioxygenase (bph), DDT 2,3-dioxygenase, and angular dioxygenase assist in degradation of biphenyl, organochlorine pesticides, and dioxins/furans, respectively. Microbial metagenome constitutes the largest genetic reservoir with miscellaneous enzymatic activities implicated in degradation. To tap the metabolic potential of microorganisms, recent techniques like sequence and function-based screening and substrate-induced gene expression are proficient in tracing out novel catabolic genes from the entire metagenome for utilization in enhanced biodegradation. The major endeavor of today's scientific world is to characterize the exact genetic mechanisms of microbes for bioremediation of these toxic compounds by excavating into the uncultured plethora. This review entails the effect of POPs on the environment and involvement of microbial catabolic genes for their removal with the advanced techniques of bioremediation.

  2. Protoplast-to-plant regeneration of American elm (Ulmus americana).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, A M P; Shukla, M R; Biswas, G C G; Saxena, P K

    2015-05-01

    This study describes a protocol for regeneration of plants from cell suspension-derived protoplasts of American elm (Ulmus americana). Efficient protoplast isolation was achieved from a two-phase culture system through the incorporation of 100 μM 2-aminoindan-2-phosphonic acid, with a yield of approximately 2 × 10(6) protoplasts/ml packed cell volume. Isolated protoplasts failed to survive in liquid or alginate bead culture systems but initiated and continued to divide when embedded in low melting point agarose beads. Protoplast-derived callus proliferated and differentiated into shoot buds in response to 10 or 20 μM thidiazuron. Differentiated buds elongated and continued to proliferate on elm shoot medium supplemented with 3.0 μM GA3. The protoplast-derived shoots rooted and acclimatized to greenhouse conditions and continued to grow. This system provides the first protoplast-to-plant regeneration system for American elm and provides a framework for the development of protoplast fusion or genome editing technologies.

  3. A novel PSB-EDI system for high ammonia wastewater treatment, biomass production and nitrogen resource recovery: PSB system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hangyao; Zhou, Qin; Zhang, Guangming; Yan, Guokai; Lu, Haifeng; Sun, Liyan

    A novel process coupling photosynthetic bacteria (PSB) with electrodeionization (EDI) treatment was proposed to treat high ammonia wastewater and recover bio-resources and nitrogen. The first stage (PSB treatment) was used to degrade organic pollutants and accumulate biomass, while the second stage (EDI) was for nitrogen removal and recovery. The first stage was the focus in this study. The results showed that using PSB to transform organic pollutants in wastewater into biomass was practical. PSB could acclimatize to wastewater with a chemical oxygen demand (COD) of 2,300 mg/L and an ammonia nitrogen (NH4(+)-N) concentration of 288-4,600 mg/L. The suitable pH was 6.0-9.0, the average COD removal reached 80%, and the biomass increased by an average of 9.16 times. The wastewater COD removal was independent of the NH4(+)-N concentration. Moreover, the PSB functioned effectively when the inoculum size was only 10 mg/L. The PSB-treated wastewater was then further handled in an EDI system. More than 90% of the NH4(+)-N was removed from the wastewater and condensed in the concentrate, which could be used to produce nitrogen fertilizer. In the whole system, the average NH4(+)-N removal was 94%, and the average NH4(+)-N condensing ratio was 10.0.

  4. Effects of NAA and BAP, double-layered media, and light distance on in vitro regeneration of Nelumbo nucifera Gaertn. (lotus), an aquatic edible plant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahmad, Noraini; Taha, Rosna Mat; Othman, Rashidi; Saleh, Azani; Hasbullah, Nor Azlina; Elias, Hashimah

    2014-01-01

    In vitro direct regeneration of Nelumbo nucifera Gaertn. was successfully achieved from immature explants (yellow plumule) cultured on a solid MS media supplemented with combinations of 0.5 mg/L BAP and 1.5 mg/L NAA which resulted in 16.00 ± 0.30 number of shoots per explant and exhibited a new characteristic of layered multiple shoots, while normal roots formed on the solid MS basal media. The double-layered media gave the highest number of shoots per explant with a ratio of 2 : 1 (liquid to solid) with a mean number of 16.67 ± 0.23 shoots per explant with the formation of primary and secondary roots from immature explants. In the study involving light distance, the tallest shoot (16.67 ± 0.23 mm) obtained from the immature explants was at a light distance of 200 mm from the source of inflorescent light (1000 lux). The plantlets were successfully acclimatized in clay loam soil after 8 months being maintained under in vitro conditions.

  5. The von Hippel-Lindau Chuvash mutation in mice causes carotid-body hyperplasia and enhanced ventilatory sensitivity to hypoxia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slingo, Mary E; Turner, Philip J; Christian, Helen C; Buckler, Keith J; Robbins, Peter A

    2014-04-01

    The hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF) family of transcription factors coordinates diverse cellular and systemic responses to hypoxia. Chuvash polycythemia (CP) is an autosomal recessive disorder in humans in which there is impaired oxygen-dependent degradation of HIF, resulting in long-term systemic elevation of HIF levels at normal oxygen tensions. CP patients demonstrate the characteristic features of ventilatory acclimatization to hypoxia, namely, an elevated baseline ventilation and enhanced acute hypoxic ventilatory response (AHVR). We investigated the ventilatory and carotid-body phenotype of a mouse model of CP, using whole-body plethysmography, immunohistochemistry, and electron microscopy. In keeping with studies in humans, CP mice had elevated ventilation in euoxia and a significantly exaggerated AHVR when exposed to 10% oxygen, with or without the addition of 3% carbon dioxide. Carotid-body immunohistochemistry demonstrated marked hyperplasia of the oxygen-sensing type I cells, and the cells themselves appeared enlarged with more prominent nuclei. This hypertrophy was confirmed by electron microscopy, which also revealed that the type I cells contained an increased number of mitochondria, enlarged dense-cored vesicles, and markedly expanded rough endoplasmic reticulum. The morphological and ultrastructural changes seen in the CP mouse carotid body are strikingly similar to those observed in animals exposed to chronic hypoxia. Our study demonstrates that the HIF pathway plays a major role, not only in regulating both euoxic ventilatory control and the sensitivity of the response to hypoxia, but also in determining the morphology of the carotid body.

  6. Flask sealing on in vitro seed germination and morphogenesis of two types of ornamental pepper explants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diego Silva Batista

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: The influence of flask sealing and explant source on the in vitro morphogenesis of pepper, were evaluated in Capsicum annuum. Seeds were sterilized and inoculated in Murashige and Skoog media supplemented with vitamins, myo-inositol, sucrose, and agar. Gas exchange was evaluated in the germination stage by comparing 3 flask-sealing systems: rigid polypropylene lids (PLs without vents, PLs with 1 vent, and PLs with 2 vents covered with membranes. In the regeneration stage, cotyledon and hypocotyl segments were transferred to the organogenesis-inducing media, being the different sealing types also tested in a factorial scheme. Photosynthetic pigments, morphological and hystological analyses were conducted for each treatment. Plants maintained in glass flasks capped with vented lids showed more vigorous growth and differentiated anatomical structures. These treatments resulted in taller plants, higher numbers and more expanded leaves, higher fresh and dry weights, and an increase in photosynthetic pigments. Cultivation of C. annuum in flasks with reduced gas exchange was more effective on callus induction. During the regeneration stage, hypocotyls were more effective than cotyledons. Sealing type influenced the morphogenic responses of pepper, demonstrating that an increase in gas exchange has a positive effect on biomass production and acclimatization of the plantlets.

  7. PATHOLOGICAL TISSUE LESIONS INDUCED BY CHRONIC MERCURY INTOXICATION IN SILVER CRUCIAN CARP CARASSIUS AURATUS GIBELIO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MARIOARA NICULA

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this work was to describe the histopathological effects of chronic inorganic mercury intoxication on liver, gills, kidneys, small intestine and skin in silver crucian carp Carassius auratus gibelio. 20 immature 1+-year-old crucian carp were obtained from a private fishfarm and acclimatized to laboratory conditions. After a 3 weeks exposure to a sublethal mercury concentration (0.25 ppm from a HgCl2 stock solution, liver, gills, kidney, small intestine and skin were sampled and processed for histological examination.The main effects observed: numerous interstitial leukocytar infiltrates, followed by glomerulonephritis and tubulonephritis there are at the renal level; fibrosation of peri- and interlobular conjunctive tissue, including ectasiated blood vessel and numerous limphocytar infiltrates enlarged both in perilobular and intralobular conjunctive tissue at the liver level; an disorganization process of gill lamellae by superficial layer alteration, at the gill level; cells of skin epiderma exhibit hiperplazic hypertrophy, epithelial desquamation, intraepithelial edema and citoplasmatic vacuolization; light epithelial distrophic processes and an abundant leukocytar infiltrate both in vilositaire chorion and basal chorion at the small intestine level.

  8. Plant tissue culture--an opportunity for the production of nutraceuticals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucchesini, Mariella; Mensuali-Sodi, Anna

    2010-01-01

    This chapter provides a short discussion about the opportunity to cultivate in vitro plant tissue of species which synthesize secondary metabolites of nutraceutical interest. The introduction of species of particular interest in cultivation and domestication, can be an alternative to the harvest of wild species. In vitro culture techniques are a useful tool to improve production and marketing nutraceutical species which allows to make a rapid clonal propagation of plants selected for their active principles. The techniques of tissue culture are described in detail. In particular, it is underlined the necessity to clone selected plants and produce true-type plants when standardized plant products are the main goal. This can be reached by conventional micropropagation protocols culturing plants in vitro through the five culture phases. Another approach consists in applying unconventional systems in the last phase of in vitro culture which permit to develop autotrophy of the explants. Autotrophic growth improves the quality of the multiplied shoots and facilitates the acclimatization of the plantlets.

  9. In vitro direct shoot regeneration from proximal, middle and distal segment of Coleus forskohlii leaf explants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krishna, Gaurav; Sairam Reddy, P; Anoop Nair, N; Ramteke, P W; Bhattacharya, P S

    2010-04-01

    Coleus forskohlii is an endangered multipurpose medicinal plant that has widespread applications. In spite of this, there have been few attempts to propagate its cultivation in India. The present communication presents an in vitro rapid regeneration method using leaf explants of Coleus forskohlii through direct organogenesis. Leaf explants that were excised into three different segments i.e. proximal (P), middle (M) and distal (D) were cultured on Murashige and Skoog (MS) basal medium supplemented with cytokinins. MS Media containing 5.0 mg L(-1) BAP (6-Benzylaminopurine) promoted regeneration of multiple shoots through direct organogenesis from the leaf, which were further elongated on MS media augmented with 0.1 mg L-1 BAP and 0.1 mg L(-1) IAA (Indole-3-acetic acid), cytokinin and auxin combination. Regenerated and elongated shoots, when transferred to ose resulted in profuse rooting plants that were transferred to soil after acclimatization and maintained in a green house. The current protocol offers a direct, mass propagation method bypassing the callus phase of C. forskohlii and is suitable for conservation, large-scale commercial cultivation, and genetic transformation with agronomically desirable traits.

  10. Development of an Efficient Plant Regeneration System for Pelargonium × Citrosum Vanleenii

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIAO Fang-lei; DAI Ya-juan; WANG Pan-pan; SONG Qing; LU Hong-fei

    2011-01-01

    [Objective] As a mosquito-repelling ornamental plant, Pelargonium × Citrosum Vanleenii ( P. × Citrosum Vanleenii) is hard to be acquired because of its hybrid background, the paper was to a new regeneration system of ( P. × Citrosum Vanleenii ). [Method] By studying the influence of plant growth regulators (PGRs) on e×plant type (leaves and petioles), the optimal combinations of PGRs to maximize SELSs (somatic embryo-like structure) and buds were established. [Result]0.2 mg/L NAA + 1.0 mg/L BA was best for LS (leaves segments) and 0.2mg/L NAA + 1.5 mg/L BAs was best for PS (petioles segments). Cultured plantlets were successfully acclimatized in soil where they grew nornally without any morphological variation. Although both LS and PS were usable, the leaf was a better explant for induction of embryogenic calli, somatic embryo-like structures and buds. [Conclusion]This work offered a rapid and efficient system for plant regeneration of P. × Citrosum Vanleenii.

  11. Direct proof by 13C-nuclear magnetic resonance of semi-purified extract and isolation of ent-Catechin from leaves of Eucalyptus cinerea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Sayonara Mendes; Abe, Simone Yae; Bueno, Fernanda Giacomini; Lopes, Norberto Peporine; de Mello, João Carlos Palazzo; Nakashima, Tomoe

    2014-01-01

    Background: Eucalyptus cinerea F. Muell. ex Benth. is native to Australia and acclimatized to Southern Brazil. Its aromatic leaves are used for ornamental purposes and have great potential for essential oil production, although reports of its use in folk medicine are few. Objective: This study evaluated the composition of E. cinerea leaves using the solid state 13C-nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) and isolation of the compound from the semipurified extract (SE). Materials and Methods: The SE of E. cinerea leaves was evaluated in the solid state by 13C-NMR spectrum, and the SE was chromatographed on a Sephadex LH-20 column, followed by high-speed counter-current chromatography to isolate the compound. The SE was analyzed by 13C-NMR and matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization-time-of-flight spectra. Results: Flavan-3-ol units were present, suggesting the presence of proanthocyanidins as well as a gallic acid unit. The uncommon ent-catechin was isolated. Conclusion: The presence of ent-catechin is reported for the first time in this genus and species. PMID:25210302

  12. Contributions of A. Roberto Frisancho to human population biology: an introduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leonard, William R

    2009-01-01

    Over the span of his career, A. Roberto Frisancho has been one of the prime architects of the development and expansion of human population biology. His research and scholarly publications have helped to move the field beyond simple descriptions of human variation to address the nature and evolutionary origins of human biological diversity. Frisancho's early work in the Peruvian Andes elegantly demonstrated the importance of developmental acclimatization for promoting adaptive responses to the multiple stressors of high-altitude environments. Since mid-1970s, he has played a major role in developing and expanding the use of anthropometric techniques for assessing physical growth and nutritional status. Frisancho's influential publications have helped to make the use of anthropometric methods commonplace in the fields of nutritional science and public health. Throughout his career, Frisancho's work has examined how environmental, genetic, and developmental factors interact to influence human health and nutritional status. His research has addressed topics ranging from the determinants of low-birth weight infants in teenage mothers to the origins of obesity and associated metabolic diseases in populations of the developing world. Both the breadth and impact of Frisancho's work have been truly remarkable. The field of human population biology owes much to the tremendous contributions of A. Roberto Frisancho.

  13. In Vitro Selection of Abaca for Resistance to Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. cubense

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    RULLY DYAH PURWATI

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Abaca (Musa textilis Nee is an important industrial crop. However, the cultivation of this crop in Indonesia is hampered by Fusarium wilt (Panama disease as a result of Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. cubense (Foc infection. The objectives of this study were to (i evaluate inhibitory effects of culture filtrates (CF of three Foc isolates (Banyuwangi, Malang, and Bojonegoro isolates on shoot growth of abaca cv. Tangongon and Sangihe-1, (ii determine sublethal concentration of Foc CF, (iii isolate variant cells/tissues which are insensitive against Foc CF and regenerate plantlets from the variants, and (iv evaluate responses of the plantlets against Foc infection. The results of the experiment showed that even though CF of all Foc isolates inhibited abaca’s shoot growth, CF of Foc Banyuwangi isolate showed the most inhibitory effect. Sublethal concentration of CF of Foc Banyuwangi isolate was 40%. From abaca cv. Tangongon, 326 shoots were regenerated from CF insensitive embryogenic calli while from Sangihe-1 - 176 shoots were regenerated. Following acclimatization and Foc inoculation using detached-leaf dual culture test, a total of four immune, two resistant, and two moderately resistant plantlets were identified out of 45 tested variants of Tangongon. On the other hand, only two resistant and one moderately resistant plantlets were identified out of 10 tested variants of Sangihe-1.

  14. High Altitude and Heart

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Murat Yalcin

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, situations associated with high altitude such as mountaineering, aviation increasingly draw the attention of people. Gas pressure decreases and hypoxia is encountered when climbing higher. Physiological and pathological responses of human body to different heights are different. Therefore, physiological and pathological changes that may occur together with height and to know the clinical outcomes of these are important . Acute mountain sickness caused by high altitude and high altitude cerebral edema are preventable diseases with appropriate precautions. Atmospheric oxygen decreasing with height, initiates many adaptive mechanisms. These adaptation mechanisms and acclimatization vary widely among individuals because of reasons such as environmental factors, exercise and cold. High altitude causes different changes in the cardiovascular system with various mechanisms. Although normal individuals easily adapt to these changes, this situation can lead to undesirable results in people with heart disease. For this reason, it should be known the effective evaluation of the people with known heart disease before traveling to high altitude and the complications due to the changes with height and the recommendations can be made to these patients. [TAF Prev Med Bull 2011; 10(2.000: 211-222

  15. Responses of the autonomic nervous system in altitude adapted and high altitude pulmonary oedema subjects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathew, Lazar; Purkayastha, S. S.; Jayashankar, A.; Radhakrishnan, U.; Sen Gupta, J.; Nayar, H. S.

    1985-06-01

    Studies were carried out to ascertain the role of sympatho-parasympathetic responses in the process of adaptation to altitude. The assessment of status of autonomic balance was carried out in a group of 20 young male subjects by recording their resting heart rate, blood pressure, oral temperature, mean skin temperature, extremity temperatures, pupillary diameter, cold pressor response, oxygen consumption, cardioacceleration during orthostasis and urinary excretion of catecholamines; in a thermoneutral laboratory. The same parameters were repeated on day 3 and at weekly intervals for a period of 3 weeks, after exposing them to 3,500 m; and also after return to sea level. At altitude, similar studies were carried out in a group of 10 acclimatized lowlanders, 10 high altitude natives and 6 patients who had recently recovered from high altitude pulmonary oedema. In another phase, similar studies were done in two groups of subjects, one representing 15 subjects who had stayed at altitude (3,500 4,000 m) without any ill effects and the other comprising of 10 subjects who had either suffered from high altitude pulmonary oedema (HAPO) or acute mountain sickness (AMS). The results revealed sympathetic overactivity on acute induction to altitude which showed gradual recovery on prolonged stay, the high altitude natives had preponderance to parasympathetic system. Sympathetic preponderance may not be an essential etiological factor for the causation of maladaptation syndromes.

  16. In vitro propagation of ornamental myrtus (Myrtus communis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruffoni, Barbara; Mascarello, Carlo; Savona, Marco

    2010-01-01

    The Myrtle (Myrtus communis L.) is an evergreen shrub typical of the Mediterranean area; it is an interesting plant with multipurpose use. The ornamental use takes into account the production of green cut branches for indoor decoration and production of pot plants for gardening. In this species, there is a great variability in the natural germplasm around the Mediterranean coasts for type and size of fruit, plant architecture, leaf size and internode length. Selected genotypes have been successfully sterilized and cultured in vitro. The shoots were multiplied on MS (16) salts and vitamins, with 0.5 mg/L BA and 0.2 mg/L IAA. Clones showed variation of multiplication rate and rooting percentage. IAA or IBA at 0.5 mg/L increased the rooting percentage and noticed differences in root number and length. The sucrose concentration can affect rooting, such as light intensity during the in vitro rooting phase can modulate biomass production and chlorophyll content. The combination of these factors enhanced the frequency rate of acclimatization.

  17. Effects of lipids and oleic acid on biomass development in anaerobic fixed-bed reactors. Part II: Oleic acid toxicity and biodegradability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alves, M M; Vieira, J A; Pereira, R M; Pereira, M A; Mota, M

    2001-01-01

    Oleic acid toxicity and biodegradability were followed during long-term operation of two similar anaerobic fixed-bed units. When treating an oleate based effluent, the sludge from the bioreactor that was acclimated with lipids during the first operation period, showed a higher tolerance to oleic acid toxicity (IC50 = 137 mg/l) compared with the sludge fed with a non-fat substrate (IC50 = 80 mg/l). This sludge showed also the highest biodegradation capacity of oleic acid, achieving maximum methane production rates between 33 and 46 mlCH4(STP)/gVS.day and maximum percentages of methanization between 85 and 98% for the range of concentrations between 500 and 900 mg oleate/l. When oleate was the sole carbon source fed to both digesters, the biomass became encapsulated with organic matter, possibly oleate or an intermediate of its degradation, e.g. stearate that was degraded at a maximum rate of 99 mlCH4(STP)/gVS.day. This suggests the possibility of using adsorption-degradation cycles for the treatment of LCFA based effluents. Both tolerance to toxicity and biodegradability of oleic acid were improved by acclimatization with lipids or oleate below a threshold concentration.

  18. The lab and the land: overcoming the Arctic in Cold War Alaska.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farish, Matthew

    2013-03-01

    The militarization of Alaska during and after World War II created an extraordinary set of new facilities. But it also reshaped the imaginative role of Alaska as a hostile environment, where an antagonistic form of nature could be defeated with the appropriate combination of technology and training. One of the crucial sites for this reformulation was the Arctic Aeromedical Laboratory, based at Ladd Air Force Base in Fairbanks. In the first two decades of the Cold War, its employees conducted numerous experiments on acclimatization and survival. The laboratory is now best known for an infamous set of tests involving the application of radioactive tracers to indigenous Alaskans--experiments publicized by post-Cold War panels established to evaluate the tragic history of atomic-era human subject research. But little else has been written about the laboratory's relationship with the populations and landscapes that it targeted for study. This essay presents the laboratory as critical to Alaska's history and the history of the Cold War sciences. A consideration of the laboratory's various projects also reveals a consistent fascination with race. Alaskan Natives were enrolled in experiments because their bodies were understood to hold clues to the mysteries of northern nature. A scientific solution would aid American military campaigns not only in Alaska, but in cold climates everywhere.

  19. Modifications to an interactive model of the human body during exercise: With special emphasis on thermoregulation. M.S. Thesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scherb, Megan Kay

    1993-01-01

    Since 1988 an interactive computer model of the human body during exercise has been under development by a number of undergraduate students in the Department of Chemical Engineering at Iowa State University. The program, written under the direction of Dr. Richard C. Seagrave, uses physical characteristics of the user, environmental conditions and activity information to predict the onset of hypothermia, hyperthermia, dehydration, or exhaustion for various levels and durations of a specified exercise. The program however, was severely limited in predicting the onset of dehydration due to the lack of sophistication with which the program predicts sweat rate and its relationship to sensible water loss, degree of acclimatization, and level of physical training. Additionally, it was not known whether sweat rate also depended on age and gender. For these reasons, the goal of this creative component was to modify the program in the above mentioned areas by applying known information and empirical relationships from literature. Furthermore, a secondary goal was to improve the consistency with which the program was written by modifying user input statements and improving the efficiency and logic of the program calculations.

  20. Epigenetics and nutritional environmental signals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazzio, Elizabeth A; Soliman, Karam F A

    2014-07-01

    All terrestrial life is influenced by multi-directional flows of information about its environment, enabling malleable phenotypic change through signals, chemical processes, or various forms of energy that facilitate acclimatization. Billions of biological co-inhabitants of the earth, including all plants and animals, collectively make up a genetic/epigenetic ecosystem by which adaptation/survival (inputs and outputs) are highly interdependent on one another. As an ecosystem, the solar system, rotation of the planets, changes in sunlight, and gravitational pull influence cyclic epigenetic transitions and chromatin remodeling that constitute biological circadian rhythms controlling senescence. In humans, adverse environmental conditions such as poverty, stress, alcohol, malnutrition, exposure to pollutants generated from industrialization, man-made chemicals, and use of synthetic drugs can lead to maladaptive epigenetic-related illnesses with disease-specific genes being atypically activated or silenced. Nutrition and dietary practices are one of the largest facets in epigenetic-related metabolism, where specific "epi-nutrients" can stabilize the genome, given established roles in DNA methylation, histone modification, and chromatin remodeling. Moreover, food-based "epi-bioactive" constituents may reverse maladaptive epigenetic patterns, not only prior to conception and during fetal/early postnatal development but also through adulthood. In summary, in contrast to a static genomic DNA structure, epigenetic changes are potentially reversible, raising the hope for therapeutic and/or dietary interventions that can reverse deleterious epigenetic programing as a means to prevent or treat major illnesses.

  1. Comparative effects of indomethacin and nabumetone on urine and electrolyte output in conscious rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    bin Long, Idris; Singh, Harbindar Jeet; Rao, Gurubelli Janardhana

    2005-11-01

    The effects of indomethacin and nabumetone on urine and electrolyte excretion in conscious rats were examined. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were housed individually for a five-week duration, consisting of acclimatization, control, experimental, and recovery phases. During the experimental phase, rats were given either indomethacin (1.5 mg . kg(-1) body weight . day(-1) in 0.5 ml saline, n = 10), nabumetone (15 mg . kg(-1) body weight . day(-1) 0.5 ml saline, n = 10), or 0.5 ml saline alone (n = 10) for a period of two weeks. Water and food intake, body weight, urine output, and electrolyte excretions were estimated. Data were analyzed using two-way ANOVA. Urine output in the indomethacin- and nabumetone-treated groups was not different from the controls, but was significantly different between the drug-treated groups (Pnabumetone-treated and control rats. However, sodium and potassium excretion was significantly lower in rats receiving indomethacin when compared to the control rats. Calcium and magnesium outputs, although did not differ from the controls, nevertheless decreased significantly with indomethacin (Pnabumetone when given at maximum human therapeutic doses may affect urine and electrolyte output in conscious rats.

  2. Effect of radiation-degraded chitosan on growth promotion of flower plant in tissue culture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luan, Le Quang; Ha, Vo Thi Thu; Hai, Le; Hien, Nguyen Quoc [Vietnam Atomic Energy Commission, Nuclear Research Institute, Dalat (Viet Nam); Nagasawa, Naotsugu; Yoshii, Fumio; Kume, Tamikazu [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Takasaki, Gunma (Japan). Takasaki Radiation Chemistry Research Establishment

    2002-03-01

    Radiation is a useful tool for degradation of polysaccharides, such as starch, carrageenan, alginate and chitin/chitosan. The viscosity molecular weight (Mw) of chitosan with 80% degree of deacetylation was reduced to 1.5 x 10{sup 5} by irradiation of 50kGy in solid phase. The solution of 10% of chitosan with Mw ca. 15 x 10{sup 5} was then irradiated at doses ranging 10-250kGy for further degradation and the products were supplemented into cultural media for testing of plant growth promotion effect. The results indicated that irradiated chitosan showed a strong growth-promotion effect on the increase of the length of shoot, the length of root and fresh biomass for flower plants namely Limonium latifolium, Eustoma grandiflorum and Chrysanthemum morifolium in tissue culture. The growth-promotion effect was obtained by the treatments with 50ppm of chitosan irradiated at the doses of 75-100kGy in 10% solution. The suitable concentrations of chitosan irradiated at 100kGy are ca. 100ppm for C. morifolium, 30ppm for E. grandiflorum and 40ppm for L. latifolium. In addition, our study also indicated that the survival ratio of transferred flower plantlets treated with irradiated chitosan was improved after acclimatizing for 30 days in the greenhouse. Accordingly, it is concluded that degraded chitosan obtained by radiation degradation technique is effective as a plant growth promoter as well as irradiated alginate. (author)

  3. How Will Climate Warming Affect Non-Native Pumpkinseed Lepomis gibbosus Populations in the U.K.?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zięba, Grzegorz; Fox, Michael G.; Copp, Gordon H.

    2015-01-01

    Of the non-native fishes introduced to the U.K., the pumpkinseed is one of six species predicted to benefit from the forecasted climate warming conditions. To demonstrate the potential response of adults and their progeny to a water temperature increase, investigations of parental pumpkinseed acclimatization, reproduction and YOY over-wintering were carried out in outdoor experimental ponds under ambient and elevated water temperature regimes. No temperature effects were observed on either adult survivorship and growth, and none of the assessed reproductive activity variables (total spawning time, spawning season length, number of spawning bouts) appeared to be responsible for the large differences observed in progeny number and biomass. However, it was demonstrated in a previous study [Zięba G. et al., 2010] that adults in the heated ponds began spawning earlier than those of the ambient ponds. Ambient ponds produced 2.8× more progeny than the heated ponds, but these progeny were significantly smaller, probably due to their late hatching date, and subsequently suffered very high mortality over the first winter. Pumpkinseed in the U.K. will clearly benefit from climate warming through earlier seasonal reproduction, resulting in larger progeny going into winter, and as a result, higher over-winter survivorship would be expected relative to that which occurs under the present climatic regime. PMID:26302021

  4. Impact of temperature on ammonium and nitrite removal rates in RAS moving bed biofilters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kinyage, John Peter Hewa; Pedersen, Lars-Flemming

    2016-01-01

    at each of the six temperatures (6, 12, 18, 24, 30 and 36 °C) and then spiked with ammonium chloride or sodium nitrite under identical conditions. The average surface specific TAN removal (STR) increased a six-fold from 6 to 30 °C (0.04–0.25 g TAN m−2 day−1) and dropped significantly at 36 °C–0.14 g TAN m......The impact of temperature on bacterial processes is well known; however temperature related data on nitrification rates in aquaculture systems are fragmented and compiled from different studies. We sought to determine ammonium and nitrite removal kinetics over a temperature range from 6 to 36 °C...... by using moving bed bio-elements from a freshwater RAS in steady state operated at 18 °C. The impact of temperature on ammonium and nitrite oxidation rates was evaluated by transferring the colonized bio elements to six liter batch reactors (triplicated setup). Each reactor was acclimatized for 24 h...

  5. Toxicity of neem pesticides on a fresh water loach, Lepidocephalichthys guntea (Hamilton Buchanan) of Darjeeling district in West Bengal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mondal, Debashri; Barat, Sudip; Mukhopadhyay, M K

    2007-01-01

    Static renewal bioassay tests were conducted to evaluate the acute toxicity of two neem based biopesticides, applied widely on tea plantation namely, Nimbecidine and Neem Gold either separately as well as, in combination to the fingerlings (mean body length- 4.46 +/- 0.15 cm; mean body weight- 0.49 +/- 0.15g) of a fresh water loach, Lepidocephalichthys guntea (Hamilton Buchanan) acclimatized to laboratory conditions prior to experiment. The 96 hours LC50 values for Nimbecidine and Neem Gold and the combination of the two were 0.0135 mgl(-1), 0.0525mgl(-1) and 0.0396 mgl(-1), respectively. The regular water quality analysis showed, that with increasing doses of biopesticides, dissolved oxygen level was lower and other parameters like pH, free carbon dioxide, total alkalinity total hardness, chloride ions of water increased. The fish under toxicity stress suffered several abnormalities such as erratic and rapid movement, body imbalance and surface floating responding proportionately to the increase in concentrations of the toxicant biopesticides. The 96 hours LC50 values proved Nimbecidine more toxic than Neem Gold and the combination of the two biopesticides.

  6. pH, redox potential and local biofilm potential microenvironments within Geobacter sulfurreducens biofilms and their roles in electron transfer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babauta, Jerome T; Nguyen, Hung Duc; Harrington, Timothy D; Renslow, Ryan; Beyenal, Haluk

    2012-10-01

    The limitation of pH inside electrode-respiring biofilms is a well-known concept. However, little is known about how pH and redox potential are affected by increasing current inside biofilms respiring on electrodes. Quantifying the variations in pH and redox potential with increasing current is needed to determine how electron transfer is tied to proton transfer within the biofilm. In this research, we quantified pH and redox potential variations in electrode-respiring Geobacter sulfurreducens biofilms as a function of respiration rates, measured as current. We also characterized pH and redox potential at the counter electrode. We concluded that (1) pH continued to decrease in the biofilm through different growth phases, showing that the pH is not always a limiting factor in a biofilm and (2) decreasing pH and increasing redox potential at the biofilm electrode were associated only with the biofilm, demonstrating that G. sulfurreducens biofilms respire in a unique internal environment. Redox potential inside the biofilm was also compared to the local biofilm potential measured by a graphite microelectrode, where the tip of the microelectrode was allowed to acclimatize inside the biofilm.

  7. High Frequency Plant Regeneration System from Transverse Thin Cell Layer Section of In vitro Derived ‘Nadia’ Ginger Microrhizome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dikash Singh THINGBAIJAM

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available An efficient and reproducible procedure is outlined for rapid in vitro multiplication of Zingiber officinale var. ‘Nadia’ through high frequency shoot proliferation from transverse thin cell layer (tTCL sections of in vitro derived microrhizome. In vitro derived microrhizome of size 500 μm in thickness was used as initial explants for induction of somatic embryos. Among the different phytohormones tested, tTCL explants shows maximum calli proliferation in medium containing 2 mg/L 2,4-Dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (88.30±0.11%. Reduced concentration of 2,4 Dichlorophenoxyacetic acid was supplemented with different cytokinins for regeneration of callus. Among the different medium tested, optimum redifferentiation of somatic embryos were observed in medium containing 0.2 mg/L 2,4 Dichlorophenoxyacetic acid and 6.0 mg/L BAP (141.08±0.25. Clump of regenerated plantlets were further subculture and transfer into microrhizome inducing medium containing high sucrose concentration (8%. Plantlets with well developed microrhizome were successfully acclimatized and eventually transferred to the field. The application of studying embryo section for regeneration of plants might be useful alternative to ginger improvement programme. Histological analysis showed formation of somatic embryos and regenerated adventitious shoot.

  8. Somatic hybridization between Citrus sinensis (L. Osbeck and C. grandis (L. Osbeck Hibridação somática entre Citrus sinensis (L. Osbeck e C. grandis (L. Osbeck

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcia Cristina Calixto

    2004-07-01

    Full Text Available This work had as objective to produce citrus somatic hybrids between sweet oranges and pummelos. After chemical fusion of sweet orange embryogenic protoplasts with pummelo mesophyll-derived protoplasts, plants were regenerated by somatic embryogenesis and acclimatized in a greenhouse. The hybrids of 'Hamlin' sweet orange + 'Indian Red' pummelo and 'Hamlin' sweet orange + 'Singapura' pummelo were confirmed by leaf morphology, chromosome counting and molecular analysis. These hybrids have potential to be used directly as rootstocks aiming blight, citrus tristeza virus, and Phytophthora-induced disease tolerance, as well as for rootstocks improvement programs.O objetivo deste trabalho foi produzir híbridos somáticos entre laranjas doces e toranjas. Após fusão de protoplastos embriogênicos de laranja doce com protoplastos derivados de mesófilo foliar de toranjas, plantas foram regeneradas por embriogênese somática e aclimatizadas em casa de vegetação. Os híbridos laranja 'Hamlin' + toranja 'Indian Red' e laranja 'Hamlin' + toranja 'Singapura' foram confirmados pela morfologia foliar, contagem do número de cromossomos e análise molecular. Esses híbridos apresentam potencial para serem testados como porta-enxertos tolerantes a declínio, tristeza e doenças causadas por Phytophthora, bem como em programas de melhoramento de porta-enxertos.

  9. Simultaneous denitrifying phosphorus accumulation in a sequencing batch reactor

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YUAN Linjiang; HAN Wei; WANG Lei; YANG Yongzhe; WANG Zhiying

    2007-01-01

    In order to achieve simultaneous nitrogen and phosphorus removal in the biological treatment process,denitrifying phosphorus accumulation(DNPA)and its affecting factors were studied in a sequencing batch reactor(SBR)with synthetic wastewater.The results showed that when acetate was used as the sole carbon resource in the influent.the sludge acclimatized under anaerobic/aerobic operation had good phosphorus removal ability.Denitrifying phosphorus accumulation was observed soon when fed with nitrate instead of aeration following the anaerobic stage,which is a vital premise to DNPA.If DNPA sludge is fed with nitrate prior to the anaerobic stage,the DNPA would weaken or even disappear.At the high concen tration of nitrate fed in the anoxic stage,the longer anoxic time needed,the better the DNPA was.Induced DNPA did not disappear even though an aerobic stage followed the anoxic stage,but the shorter the aerobic stage lasted,the higher the proportions of phosphorus removal via DNPA to total removal.

  10. Earliest economic exploitation of chicken outside East Asia: Evidence from the Hellenistic Southern Levant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perry-Gal, Lee; Erlich, Adi; Gilboa, Ayelet; Bar-Oz, Guy

    2015-08-11

    Chicken (Gallus gallus domesticus) is today one of the most widespread domesticated species and is a main source of protein in the human diet. However, for thousands of years exploitation of chickens was confined to symbolic and social domains such as cockfighting. The question of when and where chickens were first used for economic purposes remains unresolved. The results of our faunal analysis demonstrate that the Hellenistic (fourth-second centuries B.C.E.) site of Maresha, Israel, is the earliest site known today where economic exploitation of chickens was widely practiced. We base our claim on the exceptionally high frequency of chicken bones at that site, the majority of which belong to adult individuals, and on the observed 2:1 ratio of female to male bones. These results are supported further by an extensive survey of faunal remains from 234 sites in the Southern Levant, spanning more than three millennia, which shows a sharp increase in the frequency of chicken during the Hellenistic period. We further argue that the earliest secure evidence for economic exploitation of chickens in Europe dates to the first century B.C.E. and therefore is predated by the finds in the Southern Levant by at least a century. We suggest that the gradual acclimatization of chickens in the Southern Levant and its gradual integration into the local economy, the latter fully accomplished in the Hellenistic period, was a crucial step in the adoption of this species in European husbandry some 100 y later.

  11. Remediation of a mixture of analgesics in a stirred-tank photobioreactor using microalgal-bacterial consortium coupled with attempt to valorise the harvested biomass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ismail, Maha M; Essam, Tamer M; Ragab, Yasser M; El-Sayed, Abo El-Khair B; Mourad, Fathia E

    2017-02-20

    An artificial microalgal-bacterial consortium was used to remediate a mixture of analgesics (ketoprofen, paracetamol and aspirin) in a stirred-tank photobioreactor. A hydraulic retention time (HRT) of 3days supported poor treatment because of the formation of p-aminophenol (paracetamol toxic metabolite). Increasing the HRT to 4days enhanced the bioremediation efficiency. After applying an acclimatization regime, 95% removal of the analgesics mixture, p-aminophenol and COD reduction were achieved. However, shortening the HRT again to 3days neither improved the COD reduction nor ketoprofen removal. Applying continuous illumination achieved the best analgesics removal results. The harvested biomass contained 50% protein, which included almost all essential amino acids. The detected fatty acid profile suggested the harvested biomass to be a good biodiesel-producing candidate. The water-extractable fraction possessed the highest phenolic content and antioxidant capacity. These findings suggest the whole process to be an integrated eco-friendly and cost-efficient strategy for remediating pharmaceutical wastewater.

  12. Low-cost personal cooling in hot humid offices. Feasibility study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gunnarsen, L. [Danish Building Research Inst., (Denmark); Santos, A. [Univ. of the Philippines, Diliman (Philippines)

    1997-05-01

    A solution, based on low-cost solar-powered air drying, to heat stress in buildings located in developing countries with a hot and humid climate is presented. The air-drying facilities are described and a validation of the ensuing benefits through comprehensive human exposure studies is given. A prototype of a solar powered supply system for dried air was constructed and supply air was led to six personal units for ventilation and cooling placed in cubicles simulating office workplaces. 123 heat-acclimatized people were exposed for one hour in each of the cubicles. It is concluded that drying indoor air reduces heat stress among heat-adapted people in hot and humid offices and that the low-cost solar powered air drying system functioned satisfactorily , although some improvements are recommended. The drying power of the sun can be stored in recovered silica gel beads and used for other purposes. It is suggested that further research could explore the possibility of desiccant drying of agricultural products during the rainy season. (ARW) 30 refs.

  13. Dietary Recommendations for Cyclists during Altitude Training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michalczyk, Małgorzata; Czuba, Miłosz; Zydek, Grzegorz; Zając, Adam; Langfort, Józef

    2016-06-18

    The concept of altitude or hypoxic training is a common practice in cycling. However, several strategies for training regimens have been proposed, like "live high, train high" (LH-TH), "live high, train low" (LH-TL) or "intermittent hypoxic training" (IHT). Each of them combines the effect of acclimatization and different training protocols that require specific nutrition. An appropriate nutrition strategy and adequate hydration can help athletes achieve their fitness and performance goals in this unfriendly environment. In this review, the physiological stress of altitude exposure and training will be discussed, with specific nutrition recommendations for athletes training under such conditions. However, there is little research about the nutrition demands of athletes who train at moderate altitude. Our review considers energetic demands and body mass or body composition changes due to altitude training, including respiratory and urinary water loss under these conditions. Carbohydrate intake recommendations and hydration status are discussed in detail, while iron storage and metabolism is also considered. Last, but not least the risk of increased oxidative stress under hypoxic conditions and antioxidant supplementation suggestions are presented.

  14. cAMP levels in fast- and slow-twitch skeletal muscle after an acute bout of aerobic exercise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheldon, A.; Booth, F. W.; Kirby, C. R.

    1993-01-01

    The present study examined whether exercise duration was associated with elevated and/or sustained elevations of postexercise adenosine 3',5'-cyclic monophosphate (cAMP) by measuring cAMP levels in skeletal muscle for up to 4 h after acute exercise bouts of durations that are known to either produce (60 min) or not produce (10 min) mitochondrial proliferation after chronic training. Treadmill-acclimatized, but untrained, rats were run at 22 m/min for 0 (control), 10, or 60 min and were killed at various postexercise (0, 0.5, 1, 2, and 4 h) time points. Fast-twitch white and red (quadriceps) and slow-twitch (soleus) muscles were quickly excised, frozen in liquid nitrogen, and assayed for cAMP with a commercial kit. Unexpectedly, cAMP contents in all three muscles were similar to control (nonexercise) at most (21 of 30) time points after a single 10- or 60-min run. Values at 9 of 30 time points were significantly different from control (P single bout of endurance-type exercise is not, by itself, associated with exercise duration.

  15. Resistance of the packing to attack of insects pest in irradiated ration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arthur, Paula B.; Arthur, Valter; Silva, Lucia C.A.S.; Franco, Suely S.H., E-mail: paula.arthur@hotmail.com [Centro de Energia Nuclear na Agricultura (CENA/USP), Piracicaba, SP (Brazil). Lab. de Radiobiologia e Ambiente; Franco, Jose G.; Villavicencio, Anna L.H.C., E-mail: gilmita@uol.com.br, E-mail: villavic@ipen.br [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2013-07-01

    The pests as beetles, acarids, moths and mushrooms among other, usually infest products stored as: grains, crumbs, flours, coffee, tobacco, dried fruits, animal rations, spices, dehydrated plants, causing the visual depreciation and promoting the deterioration of the products. The objective of the research was use the gamma radiation of Cobalt-60 in the disinfestation of some types of rations used for feeding of animals of small size. In the experiment packing measuring 10 cm x 20 cm with capacity of 70 grams of substrate (ration) with 4 types of existent marks in the trade: (1), (2), (3) and (4) of free samples were used. Each treatment had 10 repetitions, that were irradiated with doses of: 0 (control) 0,5; 1,0 and 2,0 kGy, to do the disinfestation of the ration samples. After the irradiation all the packing and the control were conditioned in plastic boxes of 80 cm x 50 cm with cover, where the insects: Lasioderma serricorne, Plodia interpuctella, Sitophilus zeamais and S. oryzae were liberated, in a total of 400 for each box. The boxes were maintained at room acclimatized with 27 ± 2 deg C and relative humidity of 70 ± 5%. The counting of the number of insects and holes in the packing were made after 60 days. The results showed that only the package of the ration type number 4, was susceptive to the attack of the species of insects. (author)

  16. Increase of acceptability period of Musca domestic l., 1758 (diptera: muscidae) pupae, irradiated by gamma radiation as host of the pupal parasitoid Spalangia endius, Walker, 1839 (hymenoptera: pteromalidae)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Itepan, Natanael M., E-mail: nmitepan@ifsp.edu.br [Instituto Federal de Sao Paulo (IFSP), Piracicaba, SP (Brazil); Itepan, Sara E.D.Z., E-mail: sarazenitepan@ig.com.br [Universidade de Sao Paulo (FFCLRP/USP), Ribeirao Preto, SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Filosofia Ciencias e Letras; Arthur, Valter, E-mail: arthur@cena.usp.br [Centro de Energia Nuclear na Agricultura (CENA/USP), Piracicaba, SP (Brazil)

    2013-07-01

    This experiment was carried out in Biological Control of Domestic Fly 'Eduardo Hiroshi Mizumoto' Laboratory at Entomology and Acarology Department (LEA/ESALQ/USP) and in Food Irradiation and Radioentomology Laboratory (LIARE/CENA/USP). The gamma radiation source used was a Co-60 irradiator model Gammabeam-650 of the Atomic Energy of Canada Ltd. whose activity in the beginning of the experiments was 9.8x10{sup 13} Bq. (2,644 Ci). The lots of pupae of Musca domestic L., 1758 and the parasitoid Spalangia endius Walker, 1839 had been kept in acclimatized room with 25 ± 2 deg C of temperature and 70 ± 5% of relative humidity. This experiment was designed to investigate if the non-viabilization M. domestic pupae, using gamma radiation, could build up the acceptability period as host of the pupal parasitoid S. endius. At these age intervals, the dose to prevent adult emergence was 25, 220, 360 and 520 Gy respectively. The 1, 2, 3 and 4 days old pupae were irradiated (dose rate: 1,510 Gy/hr) and exposed to the parasitoid S. endius at a proportion of one female parasitoid to five housefly pupae, during different periods after the irradiation. The results allow us to conclude that irradiation increase the acceptability period of the housefly pupae by the parasitoid. The best age to irradiate the housefly pupae was one day. (author)

  17. Gamma radiation in the control of insects in animal feed

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arthur, Paula B.; Arthur, Valter; Silva, Lucia C.A.S.; Franco, Suely S.H., E-mail: paula.arthur@hotmail.com, E-mail: arthur@cena.usp.br [Centro de Energia Nuclear na Agricultura (CENA/USP), Piracicaba, SP (Brazil); Franco, Jose G.; Villavicencio, Anna Lucia, E-mail: gilmita@uol.com.br, E-mail: villavic@ipen.br [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Harder, Marcia N.C., E-mail: marcia.harder@fatec.sp.gov.br [Centro Paula Souza, Curso Superior de Tecnologia em Biocombustiveis (FATEC), Piracicaba, SP (Brazil)

    2015-07-01

    The pests as beetles, acarids, moths and mushrooms among other, usually infest products stored as: grains, crumbs, flours, coffee, tobacco, dried fruits, animal feeds, spices and dehydrated plants, causing the visual depreciation and promoting the deterioration of the products. The objective of this study was to use gamma radiation of Cobalt-60 in the disinfestation of some types of commercial feeds used for animals of small size. In the experiment, packages measuring 10 cm x 15 cm, with capacity of 30 grams of substrate with 4 types of trademarks were irradiated with doses of: 0 (control) 0.5; 1.0 and 2.0 kGy. Each treatment had 10 repetitions, infested with 10 insects for each package with the following species: Lasioderma serricorne, Plodia interpuctella, Sitophilus zeamais and S. oryzae. After the irradiation, all the packages were maintained at acclimatized room with 27 ± 2ºC and relative humidity of 70 ± 5%. The number of insects and holes in all packages were assessed after 60 days. The results showed that the dose of 0.5 kGy was sufficient to control all the species of insects in the tested feeds. (author)

  18. Influence of season on plasma antidiuretic hormone, angiotensin II, aldosterone and plasma renin activity in young volunteers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanikowska, Dominika; Sugenoya, Junichi; Sato, Maki; Shimizu, Yuuki; Inukai, Yoko; Nishimura, Naoki; Iwase, Satoshi

    2010-05-01

    We investigated seasonal changes in hormonal and thermoregulatory responses. Eight volunteers were subjected to the experiment at four times of the year: around the vernal and autumnal equinoxes, and at the summer and winter solstices at latitude 35 degrees N. Plasma antidiuretic hormone (ADH), angiotensin II (ANG II), aldosterone (ALD) and plasma renin activity (PRA) were analyzed before and after water immersion. Seasonal changes in thermoregulatory responses were assessed by measuring core temperature and sweat rate during immersion of the leg in hot water (at 42 degrees C) for 30 min in a room maintained at 26 degrees C. The concentration of plasma ADH and ALD before water immersion was significantly higher in summer than in other seasons. The concentrations of ANG II and PRA did not show seasonal variations. Changes in tympanic temperature during water immersion showed significant differences between seasons, and were higher in winter than in other seasons. The sweat rate was significantly higher in summer than in other seasons. In summary, ADH and ALD concentrations displayed a seasonal rhythm with marked elevation in summer; this may be a compensative mechanism to prevent dehydration from increased sweat loss during summer due to heat acclimatization.

  19. Orthostatic fluid-electrolyte and endocrine responses in fainters and nonfainters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shvartz, E.; Convertino, V. A.; Keil, L. C.; Haines, R. F.

    1981-01-01

    The responses to orthostasis of fluid-electrolyte and endocrine indicators in persons subject and not subject to fainting during tilting are investigated, along with the effects of heat acclimatization and physical training on those responses. Plasma volume and electrolytes and plasma vasopressin and renin activity were determined in tilt-table tests conducted before and after an eight-day period of daily heat acclimation during exercise at 50% maximal oxygen uptake at 40 C, or a control period of exercise at 24 C. Half of the 10 subjects in the study, regardless of exercise regime, showed improved orthostatic reactions in the second tilting test, related to increases in post-tilt plasma volume and potassium concentration, particularly in the nonfainters. In the first test, plasma renin activity is observed to increase fivefold and plasma vasopressin 50 times after the transition from the supine to the orthostatic positions; the respective increases were reduced by 50 and 75% in the second test. The fainters also exhibit a greater increase in vasopressin and a lower increase in renin activity upon tilting than the nonfainters. Results indicate the orthostatic-induced vasopressin increase to be related to volume control independent of renin activity.

  20. Insulin secretion in the hibernating edible dormouse (Glis glis): in vivo and in vitro studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castex, C; Tahri, A; Hoo-Paris, R; Sutter, B C

    1984-01-01

    Plasma glucose and insulin have been studied during lethargy and spontaneous arousal of hibernating edible dormouse. During lethargy blood glucose was low while plasma insulin remained at the same level as in other seasons. Plasma glucose and insulin did not fluctuate along the phase of lethargy. During spontaneous arousal plasma insulin rose strongly from the 17 degrees C stage, reaching the higher values at 26 degrees C while blood glucose was only 85 mg/100 ml, then decreased at 37 degrees C. The effect of glucose and temperature on insulin secretion was studied using perfused pancreas preparation from hibernating edible dormice. During the rewarming of the edible dormouse pancreas the insulin release did not occur in response to the absolute extracellular glucose level but occurred in response to a B cell membrane phenomenon which was dependent on the changing rate of glucose level. The effect of glucose and temperature on insulin secretion from perfused pancreas was compared between edible dormouse and homeotherm permanent, the rat. The B cell response to glucose of the dormouse pancreas increased up to 15 degrees C whereas that of the rat only from 25 degrees C. The dormouse insulin secretion reached a peak value at the 30 degrees C of temperature, whereas that of the rat progressively increased until 37 degrees C. These results showed that some biochemical adjustment or process of acclimatization took place in the B cells of the hibernators.