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Sample records for acclimatization

  1. Acclimatization to cold in humans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaciuba-Uscilko, Hanna; Greenleaf, John E.

    1989-01-01

    This review focuses on the responses and mechanisms of both natural and artificial acclimatization to a cold environment in mammals, with specific reference to human beings. The purpose is to provide basic information for designers of thermal protection systems for astronauts during intra- and extravehicular activities. Hibernation, heat production, heat loss, vascular responses, body insulation, shivering thermogenesis, water immersion, exercise responses, and clinical symptoms and hypothermia in the elderly are discussed.

  2. Acclimatization of micropropagated Heliconia bihai (Heliconiaceae plants

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    Rodrigues Paulo Hercílio Viegas

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available To evaluate the behavior of micropropagated heliconia seedlings during the acclimatization process using different substrates and shade levels, seedlings of H. bihai (Lobster Claw I were planted in plastic trays using the substrates: washed sand, vermiculite (medium texture, and PlantMax® Horticultura, and shade cloths with percentages of 0% (full sun, 30%, 40%, 50%, 60%, 70%, and 80% of shade in relation to full sun. Best results were obtained for washed sand and PlantMax substrates at shade conditions starting from 50%, especially at 70% and 80%. Pre-existing roots from in vitro rootings were not functional, not presenting secondary roots, and showing root tissue necrosis. Acclimatized seedlings developed new roots. This finding suggests that this plant can be acclimatized without going through a laboratory rooting stage.

  3. Acclimatization of micropropagated Heliconia bihai (Heliconiaceae) plants

    OpenAIRE

    Rodrigues Paulo Hercílio Viegas; Lima Ana Maria Liner Pereira; Ambrosano Gláucia Maria B.; Dutra Maria de Fátima Batista

    2005-01-01

    To evaluate the behavior of micropropagated heliconia seedlings during the acclimatization process using different substrates and shade levels, seedlings of H. bihai (Lobster Claw I) were planted in plastic trays using the substrates: washed sand, vermiculite (medium texture), and PlantMax® Horticultura, and shade cloths with percentages of 0% (full sun), 30%, 40%, 50%, 60%, 70%, and 80% of shade in relation to full sun. Best results were obtained for washed sand and PlantMax substrates at sh...

  4. Physiological characteristics of cold acclimatization in man

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    Mathew, Lazar; Purkayastha, S. S.; Jayashankar, A.; Nayar, H. S.

    1981-09-01

    Studies were conducted on 15 healthy young soldiers to evaluate the effect of a cold acclimatization schedule on the thermoregulatory and metabolic activity on exposure to acute cold stress. These men were exposed to cold (10‡C) for 4 h daily wearing only shorts for 21 days, in a cold chamber. They were subjected to a standard cold test at 10 ± 1‡C the day 1, 6, 11 and 21. The subjects were made to relax in a thermoneutral room (26 28‡C) for 1 h and their heart rate, blood pressure, oxygen consumption, oral temperature, mean skin temperature, mean body temperature, peripheral temperatures, and shivering activity were recorded. Then they were exposed to 10‡C and measurements were repeated at 30 min intervals, for 2 h. The cold induced vasodilatation (CIVD), cold pressor response and thermoregulatory efficiency tests were measured initially and at the end of acclimatization schedule. The data show that the procedure resulted in elevated resting metabolism, less fall in body temperature during acute cold stress, reduction in shivering, improvement in CIVD and thermoregulatory efficiency and less rise in BP and HR during cold pressor response. The data suggest the possibility of cold acclimatization in man by repeated exposure to moderately severe cold stress.

  5. Acclimatization and leaf anatomy of micropropagated fig plantlets

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    Chrystiane Fráguas Chirinéa

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The survival of micropropagated plants during and after acclimatization is a limiting process to plant establishment. There is little information on how the anatomy of vegetative organs of Ficus carica can be affected by culture conditions and acclimatization. The present research aimed to study the effects of time on culture medium and substrates during the acclimatization of fig tree plantlets produced in vitro, characterizing some leaf anatomy aspects of plantlets cultured in vitro and of fig trees produced in field. Plantlets previously multiplied in vitro were separated and transferred into Wood Plant Medium (WPM where they were kept for 0, 15, 30, 45 and 60 days. Different substrates were tested and studies on leaf anatomy were performed in order to compare among plantlets grown in vitro, plantlets under 20, 40 and 60 days of acclimatization, and field grown plants. Keeping plantlets for 30 days in WPM allowed better development in Plantmax during acclimatization. Field grown plants presented higher number of stomata, greater epicuticular wax thickness and greater leaf tissue production compared to in vitro ones. The leaf tissues of in vitro plantlets show little differentiation and have great stomata number compared with acclimatized plants, which reduce the number of stomata during the acclimatization process.

  6. Biochemical Aspects of Acclimatization of Man to High Altitude Stress

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    K. K. Srivastava

    1975-07-01

    Full Text Available The paper reviews the biochemical aspects of acclimatization of human body to high altitude with particular reference to the adaptive changes in Skeletal muscles, hepatic function, adrenal function and carbohydrate metabolism.

  7. Biophysical and Physiological Basis of Human Cold Acclimatization

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    Bal Krishna

    1968-05-01

    Full Text Available On exposure to cold, the problem is to maintain internal temperature of the human body in the presence of an increased thermal gradient between the core and the external environment. The ability to maintain homeothermy in the cold environment is enhanced in the acclimatized man. Superimposed upon the adaptive responses of the whole body to cold exposure are the adaptive responses of the extermities to avoid severe cold injury. The two major methods of adjustment to cold exposure are metabolic adjustments and peripheral cooling. Metabolic adjustment involve an increase in heat production in response to a cold stress such as shivering and non shivering thermogenesis and voluntary muscular activity. Peripheral cooling reduce the loss of heat from the skin by effectively increasing the thickness of relatively cooler peripheral tissues. The available literature on human cold acclimatization has been surveyed with a view to explain the biophysical and physiological mechanisms involved in the process of acclimatization.

  8. Temperature effects on copepod egg hatching: does acclimatization matter?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Benni Winding; Drillet, Guillaume; Kozmér, A.;

    2010-01-01

    This report investigates female sizes, egg sizes and egg hatching rates in relation to temperature for the near-shore calanoid copepod Acartia tonsa cultured at 6, 9, 14 and 24°C for several generations to achieve acclimatization. Inverse size relationships of eggs and females were revealed...... with increasing temperature. Eggs produced at 6°C were 85 ± 4 µm in diameter, but decreased to 80 ± 3 µm at 24°C. Female cephalothorax length was 840 ± 52 and 692 ± 39 µm at 9 and 24°C, respectively. Parallel hatching experiments were performed between non-acclimatized and acclimatized cultures across a range...... of temperatures reflecting natural conditions in Danish waters. A greater fraction of eggs enter quiescence as temperature declines. Eggs were able to hatch at temperatures as low as 1.5°C. Final egg hatching success increased with temperature. Acclimatization of the copepods resulted in a lower maximum hatching...

  9. Sex Differences in Physiological Acclimatization after Transfer in Wistar Rats

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Arts, J.W.M.; Kramer, K.; Arndt, Saskia; Ohl, Frauke

    2014-01-01

    Simple Summary: This study in laboratory rodents shows a sex specific effect of breeder to research facility transfer on several physiological parameters, such as heart rate and blood pressure. We recommend at least 8 days of acclimatization time after transfer in male rats and at least two weeks in

  10. Breathing in thin air: acclimatization to altitude in ducks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powell, Frank L; Shams, Hashim; Hempleman, Steven C; Mitchell, Gordon S

    2004-12-15

    We measured ventilation (VI) and arterial blood gases in Pekin ducks during acclimatization to 3800 m altitude for 1-90 days. Four experimental series were conducted over 4 years using both natural altitude and a hypobaric chamber. PaCO2 decreased to 3.5 Torr, relative to the value measured during acute hypoxia after 1 day and remained at this level for up to 90 days. However, PaO2 did not increase. Arterial pH showed an unexpected metabolic alkalosis during the first hours at altitude but after 3 days, a metabolic acidosis partially compensated the respiratory alkalosis and pHa was constant thereafter. When normoxia was restored after hypoxia, PaCO2 was 5.5 Torr less than the original normoxic control value, but PaO2 was not increased. VI showed variable changes during acclimatization but if metabolic rate was constant in our study, as reported by others, then effective parabronchial V(VP) increased during acclimatization. Increased VP tends to restore PaO2 toward normoxic levels and decreases adverse effects of gas exchange limitation, which apparently increased during acclimatization in ducks.

  11. Ibuprofen Blunts Ventilatory Acclimatization to Sustained Hypoxia in Humans.

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    Kemal Erdem Basaran

    Full Text Available Ventilatory acclimatization to hypoxia is a time-dependent increase in ventilation and the hypoxic ventilatory response (HVR that involves neural plasticity in both carotid body chemoreceptors and brainstem respiratory centers. The mechanisms of such plasticity are not completely understood but recent animal studies show it can be blocked by administering ibuprofen, a nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug, during chronic hypoxia. We tested the hypothesis that ibuprofen would also block the increase in HVR with chronic hypoxia in humans in 15 healthy men and women using a double-blind, placebo controlled, cross-over trial. The isocapnic HVR was measured with standard methods in subjects treated with ibuprofen (400 mg every 8 hrs or placebo for 48 hours at sea level and 48 hours at high altitude (3,800 m. Subjects returned to sea level for at least 30 days prior to repeating the protocol with the opposite treatment. Ibuprofen significantly decreased the HVR after acclimatization to high altitude compared to placebo but it did not affect ventilation or arterial O2 saturation breathing ambient air at high altitude. Hence, compensatory responses prevent hypoventilation with decreased isocapnic ventilatory O2-sensitivity from ibuprofen at this altitude. The effect of ibuprofen to decrease the HVR in humans provides the first experimental evidence that a signaling mechanism described for ventilatory acclimatization to hypoxia in animal models also occurs in people. This establishes a foundation for the future experiments to test the potential role of different mechanisms for neural plasticity and ventilatory acclimatization in humans with chronic hypoxemia from lung disease.

  12. Ibuprofen Blunts Ventilatory Acclimatization to Sustained Hypoxia in Humans.

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    Basaran, Kemal Erdem; Villongco, Michael; Ho, Baran; Ellis, Erika; Zarndt, Rachel; Antonova, Julie; Hopkins, Susan R; Powell, Frank L

    2016-01-01

    Ventilatory acclimatization to hypoxia is a time-dependent increase in ventilation and the hypoxic ventilatory response (HVR) that involves neural plasticity in both carotid body chemoreceptors and brainstem respiratory centers. The mechanisms of such plasticity are not completely understood but recent animal studies show it can be blocked by administering ibuprofen, a nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug, during chronic hypoxia. We tested the hypothesis that ibuprofen would also block the increase in HVR with chronic hypoxia in humans in 15 healthy men and women using a double-blind, placebo controlled, cross-over trial. The isocapnic HVR was measured with standard methods in subjects treated with ibuprofen (400 mg every 8 hrs) or placebo for 48 hours at sea level and 48 hours at high altitude (3,800 m). Subjects returned to sea level for at least 30 days prior to repeating the protocol with the opposite treatment. Ibuprofen significantly decreased the HVR after acclimatization to high altitude compared to placebo but it did not affect ventilation or arterial O2 saturation breathing ambient air at high altitude. Hence, compensatory responses prevent hypoventilation with decreased isocapnic ventilatory O2-sensitivity from ibuprofen at this altitude. The effect of ibuprofen to decrease the HVR in humans provides the first experimental evidence that a signaling mechanism described for ventilatory acclimatization to hypoxia in animal models also occurs in people. This establishes a foundation for the future experiments to test the potential role of different mechanisms for neural plasticity and ventilatory acclimatization in humans with chronic hypoxemia from lung disease.

  13. Historical thermal regimes define limits to coral acclimatization.

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    Howells, Emily J; Berkelmans, Ray; van Oppen, Madeleine J H; Willis, Bette L; Bay, Line K

    2013-05-01

    Knowledge of the degree to which corals undergo physiological acclimatization or genetic adaptation in response to changes in their thermal environment is crucial to the success of coral reef conservation strategies. The potential of corals to acclimatize to temperatures exceeding historical thermal regimes was investigated by reciprocal transplantation of Acropora millepora colonies between the warm central and cool southern regions of the Great Barrier Reef (GBR) for a duration of 14 months. Colony fragments retained at native sites remained healthy, whereas transplanted fragments, although healthy over initial months when temperatures remained within native thermal regimes, subsequently bleached and suffered mortality during seasonal temperature extremes. Corals hosting Symbiodinium D transplanted to the southern GBR bleached in winter and the majority suffered whole (40%; n=20 colonies) or partial (50%) mortality at temperatures 1.1 degrees C below their 15-year native minimum. In contrast, corals hosting Symbiodinium C2 transplanted to the central GBR bleached in summer and suffered whole (50%; n=10 colonies) or partial (42%) mortality at temperatures 2.5 degrees C above their 15-year native maximum. During summer bleaching, the dominant Symbiodinium type changed from C2 to D within corals transplanted to the central GBR. Corals transplanted to the cooler, southern GBR grew 74-80% slower than corals at their native site, and only 50% of surviving colonies reproduced, at least partially because of cold water bleaching of transplants. Despite the absence of any visual signs of stress, corals transplanted to the warmer, central GBR grew 52-59% more slowly than corals at their native site before the summer bleaching (i.e., from autumn to spring). Allocation of energy to initial acclimatization or reproduction may explain this pattern, as the majority (65%) of transplants reproduced one month earlier than portions of the same colonies retained at the southern

  14. Altitude acclimatization improves submaximal cognitive performance in mice and involves an imbalance of the cholinergic system.

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    Guerra-Narbona, R; Delgado-García, J M; López-Ramos, J C

    2013-06-15

    The aim of this work was to reveal a hypothetical improvement of cognitive abilities in animals acclimatized to altitude and performing under ground level conditions, when looking at submaximal performance, once seen that it was not possible when looking at maximal scores. We modified contrasted cognitive tasks (object recognition, operant conditioning, eight-arm radial maze, and classical conditioning of the eyeblink reflex), increasing their complexity in an attempt to find performance differences in acclimatized animals vs. untrained controls. In addition, we studied, through immunohistochemical quantification, the expression of choline acetyltransferase and acetyl cholinesterase, enzymes involved in the synthesis and degradation of acetylcholine, in the septal area, piriform and visual cortexes, and the hippocampal CA1 area of animals submitted to acute hypobaric hypoxia, or acclimatized to this simulated altitude, to find a relationship between the cholinergic system and a cognitive improvement due to altitude acclimatization. Results showed subtle improvements of the cognitive capabilities of acclimatized animals in all of the tasks when performed under ground-level conditions (although not before 24 h), in the three tasks used to test explicit memory (object recognition, operant conditioning in the Skinner box, and eight-arm radial maze) and (from the first conditioning session) in the classical conditioning task used to evaluate implicit memory. An imbalance of choline acetyltransferase/acetyl cholinesterase expression was found in acclimatized animals, mainly 24 h after the acclimatization period. In conclusion, altitude acclimatization improves cognitive capabilities, in a process parallel to an imbalance of the cholinergic system. PMID:23599398

  15. Polymorphism profiling of nine high altitude relevant candidate gene loci in acclimatized sojourners and adapted natives

    OpenAIRE

    Tomar, Arvind; Malhotra, Seema; Sarkar, Soma

    2015-01-01

    Background Sea level sojourners, on ascent to high altitude, undergo acclimatization through integrated physiological processes for defending the body against oxygen deprivation while the high altitude natives (resident population) are adapted to the prevailing hypobaric hypoxic condition through natural selection. Separating the acclimatization processes from adaptive changes and identifying genetic markers in lowlanders that may be beneficial for offsetting the high altitude hypoxic stress,...

  16. In vitro development and acclimatization of dendezeiro (Elaeis guineensis

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    Marlúcia Souza Souza Pádua

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Fruits and almond from the dendezeiro, oil palmbelonging to the Elaeis genus,are widely used for the production of cookingoils or for the pharmaceutical and cosmetic industries.In the last decade, this oil palm also emerged as a promising source for commercialbiofuel production. This study evaluated the effect of different culture media, MS (MURASHIGUE AND SKOOG and Y3 (EEUWENSand carbohydrates duringin vitro germination of zygotic embryos, the effect of growth regulators GA3, NAA and BA Ponin vitro seedling development, and the survival rate of acclimatized seedlingsof Manicoré hybrid (Elaeis oleifera x E. guineensis. Zygotic embryos were inoculated on MS and modified Y3 media, supplemented with different sucrose concentrations (30, 45, and 60 gL-1 or sorbitol (36 gL-1, and the germination rate was evaluated after 30 days. Subsequently, seedlings were transferred to modified Y3 culture medium supplemented with differentGA3 concentrations (3.5 and 7 mgL-1 or without it, combined or not with 1 mgL-1 of NAA, 5 mgL-1 of BAP.The highest germinationpercentage of germinated embryos (92% was observed in MS medium supplemented with 36 gL-1 sorbitol. Culture media supplemented with growth regulatorsGA3, NAA and BAP promoted greater shoot lengththan control media. Rooted seedlings showed high survival percentage (85% during acclimatization.

  17. In vitro propagation and acclimatization of genipapo accessions

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    Francielen Paola de Sa

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Genipapo is a species with an intermediate seed storage behavior, and its germination is slow and asynchronous; therefore the tissue culture is an alternative strategy for the propagation in large-scale. This study aimed to evaluate three genipapo accessions at different micropropagation stages (adventitious shoot induction, in vitro rooting and acclimatization. Genipapo nodal segments from the Sabinópolis (AS, Cruz das Almas (CZA and Núcleo Bandeirante (NB accessions were used and inoculated in culture media with 0 and 1.0 mg L-1 6-benzylaminopurine (BAP. Different indole-3-butyric acid (IBA concentrations were tested for in vitro rooting. Subsequently, the effect of two substrates on the seedling development of three genipapo accessions was assessed. The molecular characterization of accessions was performed using 15 inter-simple sequence repeat (ISSR primers, and genotype clustering was performed based on genetic dissimilarity using the Unweighted Pair-Group Method with Arithmetic Mean (UPGMA. Culture media supplementation with 1.0 mg L-1 BAP favors the development of adventitious shoots and promotes a higher callogenesis percentage, leaf number and feasibility at 90 days of in vitro culture. The immersion of the basal portion of shoots for 20 seconds in all IBA solutions induces the rhizogenesis in the genipapo accessions at 90 days of in vitro culture. The substrates consisting of washed sand + dried coconut shell powder, at a 1:1 ratio by volume, and Topstrato HT(r may be recommended for genipapo acclimatization. The NB accession is genetically different from the CZA and AS populations and shows superiority for most of the variables analyzed.

  18. Behavioral effects of acclimatization to restraint protocol used for awake animal imaging.

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    Reed, Michael D; Pira, Ashley S; Febo, Marcelo

    2013-07-15

    Functional MRI in awake rats involves acclimatization to restraint to minimize motion. We designed a study to examine the effects of an acclimatization protocol (5 days of restraint, 60 min per day) on the emission of 22-kHz ultrasonic vocalizations and performance in a forced swim test (FST). Our results showed that USV calls are reduced significantly by days 3, 4 and 5 of acclimatization. Although the rats showed less climbing activity (and more immobility) in FST on day 5 compared to the 1st day of restraint acclimatization, the difference was not detected once the animals were given a 2-week hiatus. Overall, we showed that animals adapt to the restraint over a five-day period; however, restraint may introduce confounding behavioral outcomes that may hinder the interpretation of results derived from awake rat imaging. The present data warrants further testing of the effects of MRI restraint on behavior. PMID:23562621

  19. Methods to Estimate Acclimatization to Urban Heat Island Effects on Heat- and Cold-Related Mortality

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    Milojevic, Ai; Armstrong, Ben G.; Gasparrini, Antonio; Bohnenstengel, Sylvia I.; Barratt, Benjamin; Wilkinson, Paul

    2016-01-01

    Background: Investigators have examined whether heat mortality risk is increased in neighborhoods subject to the urban heat island (UHI) effect but have not identified degrees of difference in susceptibility to heat and cold between cool and hot areas, which we call acclimatization to the UHI. Objectives: We developed methods to examine and quantify the degree of acclimatization to heat- and cold-related mortality in relation to UHI anomalies and applied these methods to London, UK. Methods: Case–crossover analyses were undertaken on 1993–2006 mortality data from London UHI decile groups defined by anomalies from the London average of modeled air temperature at a 1-km grid resolution. We estimated how UHI anomalies modified excess mortality on cold and hot days for London overall and displaced a fixed-shape temperature-mortality function (“shifted spline” model). We also compared the observed associations with those expected under no or full acclimatization to the UHI. Results: The relative risk of death on hot versus normal days differed very little across UHI decile groups. A 1°C UHI anomaly multiplied the risk of heat death by 1.004 (95% CI: 0.950, 1.061) (interaction rate ratio) compared with the expected value of 1.070 (1.057, 1.082) if there were no acclimatization. The corresponding UHI interaction for cold was 1.020 (0.979, 1.063) versus 1.030 (1.026, 1.034) (actual versus expected under no acclimatization, respectively). Fitted splines for heat shifted little across UHI decile groups, again suggesting acclimatization. For cold, the splines shifted somewhat in the direction of no acclimatization, but did not exclude acclimatization. Conclusions: We have proposed two analytical methods for estimating the degree of acclimatization to the heat- and cold-related mortality burdens associated with UHIs. The results for London suggest relatively complete acclimatization to the UHI effect on summer heat–related mortality, but less clear evidence for

  20. Certain questions of the acclimatization of construction workers to the conditions of a subtropical climate

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    Babayev, A.

    1979-01-01

    The period of active acclimatization was determined for construction workers coming into a subtropical climate. Changes were observed in metabolic processes, oxygen needs, pulse rate, arterial pressure, body and skin temperature, body weight, water consumption and loss, and the comfort zone of heat sensitivity. It was concluded that acclimatization is facilitated if introduction to the hot climate occurs in the mild cool season, rather than the summer. This also prevents heat prostration and improves the development of adaptive mechanisms.

  1. Variations of Endocrine Hormones Concentrations in Tupaia belangeri under Simulated Seasonal Acclimatized: Role of Leptin Sensitivity

    OpenAIRE

    Zhu, Wan-long; Mu, Yuan; Zhang, Lin; Wang, Zheng-Kun

    2013-01-01

    Seasonal variations in endocrine hormones concentrations are important for the survival of small mammals during acclimatization. In order to understand the role of leptin sensitivity on other endocrine hormones concentrations, we examined body mass, serum leptin level, serum insulin, tri-iodothyronine (T 3), thyroxine (T 4) and thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) concentrations in Tupaia belangeri under seasonal acclimatized (The simulated temperature and photoperiod in winter: 5°C and SD, 8h :...

  2. Growth and symptomatological aspects in the acclimatization of ipê roxo

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    João Paulo Rodrigues Martins

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available This work evaluated the influence of seal type and substrate type on pre-acclimatization, and symptomatological aspects relating to acclimatization of ipê-roxo. For the pre-acclimatization, ipê-roxo plants obtained through an in vitro zygotic embryo culture were aseptically inoculated in test tubes with different types of seal (cotton plug, plastic cap + parafilm and plastic lid and different substrates (agar, vermiculite and Plantmax® supplemented with a WPM culture medium with 1 gL-1 of activated charcoal, 10 mgL-1 of citric acid and 30 gL-1 of sucrose added. For the acclimatization, in vitro ipê-roxo plants were transplanted into 56-cm3 plastic tubes containing vermiculite and Plantmax® at a 2:1 ratio which had been previously autoclaved at 121oC and 1 atm for 20 minutes. Once transplanted, the plants were irrigated with different concentrations of the MS medium (25%, 50%, 75%, 100% and 150%, using distilled water as control. After 30 days, the effects of seal type and substrate type on pre-acclimatization were examined. Cotton can be recommended where Plantmax® or vermiculite is used as substrate. In the acclimatization it was noted that where plants were irrigated with distilled water and concentrations < 50% they showed symptoms of nutritional deficiency. Similar symptoms were observed when using MS medium at a concentration equal to or greater than 100%. The 75% MS concentration was found to be the most effective at maintaining the nutritional vigor of ipê-roxo seedlings in the process of acclimatization.

  3. Acclimatization of Phalaenopsis and Cattleya obtained by micropropagation

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    Lucía Primitiva Díaz

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Título en español: Aclimatización de Phalaenopsis y Cattleya obtenidas por micropropagación ABSTRACT The quality of micropropagated plants relies on the acclimatization stage. This research intends to develop an efficient protocol to obtain the acclimatization of Phalaenopsis and Cattleya. Plants of Phalaenopsis obtained from protocorms were selected. They came from flowering stalks grown at modified Murashige and Skoog (MS (1962 medium and classified by growth ranks and put into moss, mesquite wood shaving and perlite (1:1:1, into a humidity chamber. The protocorms were multiplied at MS from Cattleya sown in Knudson C (1946 medium; regenerated plants of 1-2 cm were selected, and implanted in humidity chamber on: moss, coal and perlite (1:1:1 MCP; mesquite wood shavings, coal and perlite (1:1:1 ACP; moss and perlite (1:1 MP; mesquite wood shaving and perlite (1:1 AP. The following results were obtained: Phalanopsis: a Survival: 44% in R0 and 100% in RI and RII of the. b Number of leaves: RI gave on average 1 more leaf than the range 0; c Roots number and length: RI and RII gave on average 2 more roots than R0, and there were no significant differences in length. d Height: RII presented greater growth than RI and Ro. Cattleya: a The survival in MCP was 0%, MP 16 %, ACP 32% and AP 80%. b The height in MP was significantly superior to the ones in ACP and AP. Plants from both genera need to achieve a 2 to 4 cm growth rank in vitro to endure the greenhouse conditions. MAP was the best substrate in Phalaenopsis and moss-perlite in Cattleya. Key words: Orchidaceae, substrates, in vitro culture. RESUMEN La calidad final de las plantas producidas por micropropagación depende de la etapa de aclimatización. Se intenta desarrollar un protocolo eficiente para la aclimatización de Phalaenopsis y Cattleya. Se seleccionaron plantas de Phalaenopsis, obtenidas de protocormos provenientes de estacas florales cultivadas en Murashige y Skoog modificado (MS

  4. Parental Effect of Long Acclimatization on Thermal Tolerance of Juvenile Sea Cucumber Apostichopus japonicus.

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    Wang, Qing-Lin; Yu, Shan-Shan; Dong, Yun-Wei

    2015-01-01

    To evaluate the thermal resistance of marine invertebrates to elevated temperatures under scenarios of future climate change, it is crucial to understand parental effect of long acclimatization on thermal tolerance of offspring. To test whether there is parental effect of long acclimatization, adult sea cucumbers (Apostichopus japonicus) from the same broodstock were transplanted southward and acclimatized at high temperature in field mesocosms. Four groups of juvenile sea cucumbers whose parents experienced different durations of high temperature acclimatization were established. Upper thermal limits, oxygen consumption and levels of heat shock protein mRNA of juveniles was determined to compare thermal tolerance of individuals from different groups. Juvenile sea cucumbers whose parents experienced high temperature could acquire high thermal resistance. With the increase of parental exposure duration to high temperature, offspring became less sensitive to high temperature, as indicated by higher upper thermal limits (LT50), less seasonal variations of oxygen consumption, and stable oxygen consumption rates between chronic and acute thermal stress. The relatively high levels of constitutive expression of heat-shock proteins should contribute to the high thermal tolerance. Together, these results indicated that the existence of a parental effect of long acclimatization would increase thermal tolerance of juveniles and change the thermal sensitivity of sea cucumber to future climate change. PMID:26580550

  5. Parental Effect of Long Acclimatization on Thermal Tolerance of Juvenile Sea Cucumber Apostichopus japonicus.

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    Qing-Lin Wang

    Full Text Available To evaluate the thermal resistance of marine invertebrates to elevated temperatures under scenarios of future climate change, it is crucial to understand parental effect of long acclimatization on thermal tolerance of offspring. To test whether there is parental effect of long acclimatization, adult sea cucumbers (Apostichopus japonicus from the same broodstock were transplanted southward and acclimatized at high temperature in field mesocosms. Four groups of juvenile sea cucumbers whose parents experienced different durations of high temperature acclimatization were established. Upper thermal limits, oxygen consumption and levels of heat shock protein mRNA of juveniles was determined to compare thermal tolerance of individuals from different groups. Juvenile sea cucumbers whose parents experienced high temperature could acquire high thermal resistance. With the increase of parental exposure duration to high temperature, offspring became less sensitive to high temperature, as indicated by higher upper thermal limits (LT50, less seasonal variations of oxygen consumption, and stable oxygen consumption rates between chronic and acute thermal stress. The relatively high levels of constitutive expression of heat-shock proteins should contribute to the high thermal tolerance. Together, these results indicated that the existence of a parental effect of long acclimatization would increase thermal tolerance of juveniles and change the thermal sensitivity of sea cucumber to future climate change.

  6. Human physiological responses to cold exposure: Acute responses and acclimatization to prolonged exposure.

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    Castellani, John W; Young, Andrew J

    2016-04-01

    Cold exposure in humans causes specific acute and chronic physiological responses. This paper will review both the acute and long-term physiological responses and external factors that impact these physiological responses. Acute physiological responses to cold exposure include cutaneous vasoconstriction and shivering thermogenesis which, respectively, decrease heat loss and increase metabolic heat production. Vasoconstriction is elicited through reflex and local cooling. In combination, vasoconstriction and shivering operate to maintain thermal balance when the body is losing heat. Factors (anthropometry, sex, race, fitness, thermoregulatory fatigue) that influence the acute physiological responses to cold exposure are also reviewed. The physiological responses to chronic cold exposure, also known as cold acclimation/acclimatization, are also presented. Three primary patterns of cold acclimatization have been observed, a) habituation, b) metabolic adjustment, and c) insulative adjustment. Habituation is characterized by physiological adjustments in which the response is attenuated compared to an unacclimatized state. Metabolic acclimatization is characterized by an increased thermogenesis, whereas insulative acclimatization is characterized by enhancing the mechanisms that conserve body heat. The pattern of acclimatization is dependent on changes in skin and core temperature and the exposure duration. PMID:26924539

  7. The lactate paradox revisited in lowlanders during acclimatization to 4100 m and in high-altitude natives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Van Hall, Gerrit; Lundby, C; Araoz, M;

    2009-01-01

    and remained at this higher level during the acclimatization period. HAN had similar high values; however, at the moment of exhaustion their muscle lactate, ADP and IMP content and Cr/PCr ratio were higher than in LN. In conclusion, sea-level residents in the course of acclimatization to high altitude did...

  8. PRUNUS SERRULATA VAR. 'KANZAN' MICROSHOOTS BEHAVIOUR DURING IN VITRO ROOTING AND ACCLIMATIZATION PHASES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magdalena Duţă

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents aspects regarding in vitro rooting and acclimatization percentages of Prunus serrulata var. Kanzan vitroplants. During in vitro rooting stage, good results were obtained using a nutrient medium with the following composition: halved Murashige - Skoog mineral salts, Linsmaier – Skoog vitamins, gibberellic acid (GA 0.1 mg/l, indolelacetic acid (IAA 1.0 mg/l, activated carbon 0.3 mg/l, iron chelate 38 mg/l, 30 g/l dextrose, 7 g/l agar. The substrate recommended for acclimatization of in vitro plants is composed of black peat + perlite (1:1, at pH = 6.0.

  9. Limitations to Thermoregulation and Acclimatization Challenge Human Adaptation to Global Warming

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth G. Hanna

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Human thermoregulation and acclimatization are core components of the human coping mechanism for withstanding variations in environmental heat exposure. Amidst growing recognition that curtailing global warming to less than two degrees is becoming increasing improbable, human survival will require increasing reliance on these mechanisms. The projected several fold increase in extreme heat events suggests we need to recalibrate health protection policies and ratchet up adaptation efforts. Climate researchers, epidemiologists, and policy makers engaged in climate change adaptation and health protection are not commonly drawn from heat physiology backgrounds. Injecting a scholarly consideration of physiological limitations to human heat tolerance into the adaptation and policy literature allows for a broader understanding of heat health risks to support effective human adaptation and adaptation planning. This paper details the physiological and external environmental factors that determine human thermoregulation and acclimatization. We present a model to illustrate the interrelationship between elements that modulate the physiological process of thermoregulation. Limitations inherent in these processes, and the constraints imposed by differing exposure levels, and thermal comfort seeking on achieving acclimatization, are then described. Combined, these limitations will restrict the likely contribution that acclimatization can play in future human adaptation to global warming. We postulate that behavioral and technological adaptations will need to become the dominant means for human individual and societal adaptations as global warming progresses.

  10. In vitro culture systems and acclimatization of Aechmea setigera Mart. ex Schult. & Schult. f. (Bromeliaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janaína Medeiros Vasconcelos

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Aechmea setigera is an endemic bromeliad from Amazon with ornamental potential. Bromeliads have been propagated by tissue culture. The consistency of the culture medium in vitro multiplication influences the rate of propagation. In this sense, the objective of this study was to evaluate different culture systems with the use of 6-benzylaminopurine (BAP on in vitro propagation and the effect of different substrates in acclimatization of plantlets Aechmea setigera. In vitro germinated seedlings were inoculated in MS medium in liquid stationary, semisolid, double-phase systems, plus 6-benzylaminopurine (BAP in different concentrations (0, 2.2, 4.4, 8.8 and 17.7 μM. The ex vitro rooting and acclimatization were performed on substrate Plantmax Forest ®, vermiculite and sawdust eucalyptus. After three successive subcultures, the double-phase system showed a higher number of regenerated shoots in comparison to other systems. Acclimatization using the combination of commercial substrate Plantmax Forest ® and vermiculite favored the growth of micropropagated plants. The use of a culture medium double-phase without growth regulator, and the rooting in acclimatization are feasible strategy for the micropropagation of A. setigera. Indexação

  11. Liver function in rats acclimatized to a simulated altitude of 5500 m.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ou, Lo Chang; Faulkner, Charles; Tam, Vincent; Leiter, James C

    2013-12-01

    We examined the functional and morphological characteristics of the liver in rats acclimatized to a simulated altitude of 5500 m. We examined the metabolic activity and cytoplasmic distribution of liver mitochondria and the capacity of the liver to regenerate after partial hepatectomy. Mitochondrial respiration, oxidative phosphorylation, the respiratory control ratio (RCR), and the morphological characteristics of mitochondria in liver sections were studied after 3 months acclimatization to high altitude (HA). Partial hepatectomy was performed in a subset of animals after 30 days acclimatization to 5500 m. The rate of hepatic regeneration, induction of ornithine decarboxylase and uridine diphosphate glucuronyltransferase (UGT1a1), and plasma bilirubin were measured 24, 48, 72, and 96 hours after hepatectomy. Acclimatization to 5500 m did not affect the mitochondrial respiratory capacity or oxidative phosphorylation. The RCR decreased and acid phosphatase activity increased, which suggests that there were subtle changes in mitochondrial integrity. In addition, mitochondria were distributed more homogeneously in hepatocytes. Hepatic regeneration, which was associated with 25-fold induction of the ornithine decarboxylase, did not differ between controls and the altitude-exposed animals. Plasma bilirubin levels rose markedly 24 hours after hepatectomy, but returned to control levels 48 hours after the operation in the altitude-exposed animals. Thus, the remarkable functional capacity of the liver was retained at simulated HA. Redistribution of hepatic mitochondria seems to play an important role in maintaining hepatic function despite severe cellular hypoxia.

  12. Limitations to Thermoregulation and Acclimatization Challenge Human Adaptation to Global Warming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanna, Elizabeth G; Tait, Peter W

    2015-07-15

    Human thermoregulation and acclimatization are core components of the human coping mechanism for withstanding variations in environmental heat exposure. Amidst growing recognition that curtailing global warming to less than two degrees is becoming increasing improbable, human survival will require increasing reliance on these mechanisms. The projected several fold increase in extreme heat events suggests we need to recalibrate health protection policies and ratchet up adaptation efforts. Climate researchers, epidemiologists, and policy makers engaged in climate change adaptation and health protection are not commonly drawn from heat physiology backgrounds. Injecting a scholarly consideration of physiological limitations to human heat tolerance into the adaptation and policy literature allows for a broader understanding of heat health risks to support effective human adaptation and adaptation planning. This paper details the physiological and external environmental factors that determine human thermoregulation and acclimatization. We present a model to illustrate the interrelationship between elements that modulate the physiological process of thermoregulation. Limitations inherent in these processes, and the constraints imposed by differing exposure levels, and thermal comfort seeking on achieving acclimatization, are then described. Combined, these limitations will restrict the likely contribution that acclimatization can play in future human adaptation to global warming. We postulate that behavioral and technological adaptations will need to become the dominant means for human individual and societal adaptations as global warming progresses.

  13. Cerebral artery alpha-1 AR subtypes: high altitude long-term acclimatization responses.

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    Ravi Goyal

    Full Text Available In response to hypoxia and other stress, the sympathetic (adrenergic nervous system regulates arterial contractility and blood flow, partly through differential activities of the alpha1 (α1 - adrenergic receptor (AR subtypes (α1A-, α1B-, and α1D-AR. Thus, we tested the hypothesis that with acclimatization to long-term hypoxia (LTH, contractility of middle cerebral arteries (MCA is regulated by changes in expression and activation of the specific α1-AR subtypes. We conducted experiments in MCA from adult normoxic sheep maintained near sea level (300 m and those exposed to LTH (110 days at 3801 m. Following acclimatization to LTH, ovine MCA showed a 20% reduction (n = 5; P<0.05 in the maximum tension achieved by 10-5 M phenylephrine (PHE. LTH-acclimatized cerebral arteries also demonstrated a statistically significant (P<0.05 inhibition of PHE-induced contractility in the presence of specific α1-AR subtype antagonists. Importantly, compared to normoxic vessels, there was significantly greater (P<0.05 α1B-AR subtype mRNA and protein levels in LTH acclimatized MCA. Also, our results demonstrate that extracellular regulated kinase 1 and 2 (ERK1/2-mediated negative feedback regulation of PHE-induced contractility is modulated by α1B-AR subtype. Overall, in ovine MCA, LTH produces profound effects on α1-AR subtype expression and function.

  14. Altitude acclimatization and blood volume: effects of exogenous erythrocyte volume expansion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sawka, M N; Young, Jette Feveile; Rock, P B;

    1996-01-01

    blood oxygen content alters erythropoietin responses during altitude acclimatization, and 4) mechanisms responsible for plasma loss at altitude. Sixteen healthy men had a series of hematologic measurements made at sea level, on the first and ninth days of altitude (4,300 m) residence, and after...

  15. Effect of heat and heat acclimatization on cycling time trial performance and pacing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Racinais, Sebastien; Périard, Julien D; Karlsen, Anders;

    2015-01-01

    PURPOSE: To determine the effects of heat-acclimatization on performance and pacing during outdoor cycling time-trials (TT, 43.4km) in the heat. METHODS: Nine cyclists performed 3 TTs in hot ambient conditions (TTH, ∼37ºC) on the first (TTH-1), sixth (TTH-2) and fourteenth (TTH-3) days of trainin...

  16. Retinal vessel diameters in relation to hematocrit variation during acclimatization of highlanders to sea level altitude

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kofoed, Peter Kristian; Sander, Birgit; Zubieta-Calleja, Gustavo;

    2009-01-01

    PURPOSE: To examine variations in retinal vessel diameters during acclimatization of native highlanders to normobaric normoxia at sea level. METHODS: Fifteen healthy residents of the greater La Paz region in Bolivia (3600 m above sea level) were examined thrice over a 72-day period, after having...... diameters were indistinguishable from baseline after 72 days. No funduscopic signs of retinopathy were observed. Arterial blood pressure remained stable throughout the study. CONCLUSIONS: Although a 16% reduction in hematocrit occurred between days 2 and 72 after arrival at sea level, the only significant...... excursion observed was that the diameter of the veins was larger at day 23 than at days 2 and 72. Retinal vessel diameters demonstrated a wide homeostatic range during acclimatization-driven hematocrit variation....

  17. Niche acclimatization in Red Sea corals is dependent on flexibility of host-symbiont association

    KAUST Repository

    Ziegler, Maren

    2015-08-06

    Knowledge of host-symbiont specificity and acclimatization capacity of corals is crucial for understanding implications of environmental change. Whilst some corals have been shown to associate with a number of symbionts that may comprise different physiologies, most corals associate with only one dominant Symbiodinium species at a time. Coral communities in the Red Sea thrive under large fluctuations of environmental conditions, but the degree and mechanisms of coral acclimatization are largely unexplored. Here we investigated the potential for niche acclimatization in 2 dominant corals from the central Red Sea, Pocillopora verrucosa and Porites lutea, in relation to the fidelity of the underlying coral-symbiont association. Repeated sampling over 2 seasons along a cross-shelf and depth gradient revealed a stable symbiont association in P. verrucosa and flexible association in P. lutea. A statistical biological-environmental matching routine revealed that the high plasticity of photophysiology and photopigments in the stable Symbiodinium microadriaticum (type A1) community in P. verrucosa were correlated with environmental influences along spatio-temporal dimensions. In contrast, photophysiology and pigments were less variable within each symbiont type from P. lutea indicating that niche acclimatization was rather regulated by a flexible association with a variable Symbiodinium community. Based on these data, we advocate an extended concept of phenotypic plasticity of the coral holobiont, in which the scleractinian host either associates with a specific Symbiodinium type with a broad physiological tolerance, or the host-symbiont pairing is more flexible to accommodate for different symbiont associations, each adapted to specific environmental settings.

  18. Limitations to Thermoregulation and Acclimatization Challenge Human Adaptation to Global Warming

    OpenAIRE

    Hanna, Elizabeth G.; Peter W. Tait

    2015-01-01

    Human thermoregulation and acclimatization are core components of the human coping mechanism for withstanding variations in environmental heat exposure. Amidst growing recognition that curtailing global warming to less than two degrees is becoming increasing improbable, human survival will require increasing reliance on these mechanisms. The projected several fold increase in extreme heat events suggests we need to recalibrate health protection policies and ratchet up adaptation efforts. Clim...

  19. Rooting and acclimatization of the Japanese plum tree, cv. América

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliana de Magalhães Bandeira

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Rooting and acclimatization are limiting steps in plant micropropagation, especially in woody plant species. This study aimed to evaluate the IAA and IBA effect on the in vitro rooting and acclimatization of micropropagated shoots of Japanese plum (Prunus salicina Lindl. cv. América. Shoots from 3 to 4 cm long were inoculated in MS medium with half salt and vitamin concentrations (MS/2 added with IAA and IBA (0, 0.25, 0.5, 0.75 and 1 mg L-1. After a 20-day period in in vitro cultivation, the shoots were evaluated, and then transferred to a greenhouse, and evaluated after 30 days. At the end of the in vitro cultivation period, no significant interactions were observed for number of roots per shoot and rooting percentage, but a significant effect was recorded for auxin type only, for which shoots grown in media added with IBA showed high values - 0.87 and 41.95%, respectively. A linear increase response from 1.45 to 5.75 cm was verified for root length of shoots cultivated in IBA medium; however, no significant effect was observed, and a 0.86 cm average root length per shoot grown in medium added with IAA was found. After 30 days of acclimatization period, the largest survival percentage was obtained from shoots cultivated in medium with 1 mg L-1 of IBA and IAA (88% and 92%, respectively. Although, IBA provided the highest in vitro rooting, most of the surviving shoots were those originated in IAA-added medium, probably because IBA promoted longer fibrous roots, less appropriate for transplant and soil fixation, as they are easily damaged. It was concluded that in vitro rooting with the addition of the highest IAA concentration (1 mg L-1 provided the greatest plant survival during the acclimatization period of the Japanese plum cv. América.

  20. The effects of acclimatization on blood clotting parameters in exertional heat stress

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    Vesić Zoran

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aim. Exertional heat stress is a common problem in military services. Considering the coagulation abnormalities are of major importance in development of severe heat stroke, we wanted to examine changes in hemostatic parameters in soldiers during exertional heat stress test as well as the effects of a 10-day passive or active acclimatization in a climatic chamber. Methods. A total of 40 male soldiers with high aerobic capacity performed exertional heat stress test (EHST either in cool [20ºC, 16ºC wet bulb globe temperature (WBGT], or hot (40ºC, 29ºC, (WBGT environment, unacclimatized (U or after 10 days of passive (P or active (A acclimatization. Physiological strain was measured by tympanic temperatures (Tty and heart rates (HR. Platelet count (PC, antithrombin III (AT, and prothrombin time (PT were assessed in blood samples collected before and immediately after the EHST. Results. EHST in hot conditions induced physiological heat stress (increase in Tty and HR, with a significant increase in prothrombin time in the groups U and A. Platelet counts were significantly higher after the EHST compared to the basic levels in all the investigated groups, regardless environmental conditions and acclimatization state. Antithrombin levels were not affected by EHST whatsoever. Conclusion. In the trained soldiers, physiological heat stress caused mild changes in some serum parameters of blood clotting such as prothrombin time, while others such as antithrombin levels were not affected. Platelet counts were increased after EHST in all groups. A 10-day passive or active acclimatization in climatic chamber showed no effect on parameters investigated.

  1. Endogenous cytokinin profiles of tissue-cultured and acclimatized 'Williams' bananas subjected to different aromatic cytokinin treatments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aremu, Adeyemi O; Plačková, Lenka; Bairu, Michael W; Novák, Ondřej; Szüčová, Lucie; Doležal, Karel; Finnie, Jeffrey F; Van Staden, Johannes

    2014-01-01

    Endogenous cytokinin (CK) levels of in vitro-cultured and greenhouse-acclimatized 'Williams' bananas treated with six aromatic CKs were quantified using UPLC-MS/MS. The underground parts had higher endogenous CK levels than the aerial parts. Control plantlets had more isoprenoid CKs while the aromatic-type CKs were predominant in all other regenerants. Following acclimatization of the control and 10 μM CK regenerants, there was a rapid decline in both isoprenoid and aromatic CK in the greenhouse-grown plants. Apart from the control and 6-(3-Methoxybenzylamino)-9-tetrahydropyran-2-ylpurine (MemTTHP) treatment with higher level of isoprenoid CK, aromatic CK remain the predominant CK-type across all CK treatments. The most abundant CK forms were meta-topolin (mT) and benzyladenine (BA) in the micropropagated and acclimatized plants, respectively. Micropropagated plantlets had cis-Zeatin (cZ) as the major isoprenoid CK-type which was in turn replaced by isopentenyladenine (iP) upon acclimatization. On a structural and functional basis, 9-glucoside, a deactivation/detoxicification product was the most abundant and mainly located in the underground parts (micropropagation and acclimatization). The results establish the wide variation in metabolic products of the tested aromatic CKs during micropropagation and acclimatization. The findings are discussed with the possible physiological roles of the various CK constituents on the growth and development of banana plants.

  2. Light in intermediate acclimatization of in vitro germinated seedlings of Dendrobium phalaenopsis Deang Suree

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    José Carlos Sorgato

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The success in micropropagation of Dendrobium phalaenopsis Deang Suree is high, but when transplanted into the greenhouse, their survival is minimal. To increase survival in production in the present study it was evaluated the effect of intermediate acclimatization for 30 days in a grow room utilizing the following luminosity conditions: 1- white fluorescent light (B (18.9µmol m-2 s-1; 2- white fluorescent light + red fluorescent light (GRO-LUX(r (BV (14.85µmol m-2 s-1; 3- red fluorescent light (GRO-LUX(r (V (9.45µmol m-2 s-1 and the control plants were accommodated directly in a greenhouse (162.0µmol m-2 s-1. After this the leaves were characterized anatomically and the plants transferred to the control greenhouse. It was evaluated survival percentage and final number of roots, and calculated the relations between the final and initial values of fresh weight, number of leaves, length and diameter of the largest pseudo bulb, number of pseudo bulbs and longest root length. Only plants submitted to red light, were statistically better than the control in relation to the survival percentage and in relation to fresh weight, while the control showed a higher number of roots that plants acclimatized in this luminosity conditions. Intermediate acclimatization, using red light or red + white light, is recommended for D. phalaenopsis Deang Suree.

  3. Effect of explant type on the rooting and acclimatization of Dianthus serotinus Waldst. & Kit.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marković Marija

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The effect of the concentration of MS salts and explant type on D. serotinus rooting and acclimatization was investigated in order to optimize a protocol for the micropropagation of this species. The obtained results showed that explant type as well as the concentration of MS salts had a significant effect on rooting, and the highest rooting rate (85-86,7% was achieved when culturing single-node cuttings and terminal buds on a half-strength MS medium supplemented with 0,5 mgL-1 NAA. Nevertheless, mean number of roots per explant was higher on the MS media (15,3-18,6 than on the half-strength MS media (11,8-13,4. The best acclimatization rate was obtained in a 4:1 mixture of peat and sand (83,3-86,7%. The explant type from which in vitro plantlets developed had no effect on the acclimatization rate. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 43007

  4. Liver mitochondrial and whole-animal level metabolic compensation in a catfish during seasonal acclimatization

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yulian YAN; Xiaojun XIE

    2011-01-01

    To examine whether metabolic compensation during seasonal acclimatization at the liver mitochondrial level is consistent with that at the whole-animal level, respiration rates of liver mitochondria and resting metabolic rates in winter- and summer- acclimatized southern catfish (Silurus meridionalis Chen) were measured. At 12.5, 17.5, 22.5, 27.5 and 32.5℃, the mean values of state 3 respiration rates were 12.21, 13.84, 18.96, 24.78 and 32.01 nmol O2 min-1 mg-1 mitochondrial protein in the winter group, and 8.56, 9.20, 17.32, 22.74 and 26.32 nmol O2min-1 mg-1 in the summer group, respectively. At the five assay temperatures the resting metabolic rates were 24.86, 42.68, 61.59, 84.10 and 125.65 mg O2 h-1 kg-1 body mass in the winter group,and 22.89, 40.59, 52.94, 75.13 and 109.35 mg O2 h-1 kg-1 in the summer group, respectively. Total mitochondrial respiration rates in the liver organ were estimated based on state 3 respiration rates, mitochondrial protein content and organ mass, and the mean values were 72.96, 71.87, 112.47, 167.35 and 183.27 nmol O2min-1 in the winter group, and were 47.89, 47.39, 105.67, 138.18 and 132.29 nmol O2 min-1 in the summer group, respectively. Metabolic compensation caused by seasonal acclimatization occurred at the liver mitochondrial level and compensation at the liver organ level was found to be more efficient because of an increase in metabolic capacity of mitochondria and a boost in organ mass. Metabolic compensation at the whole-animal level was not detected. During seasonal acclimatization, the effect of metabolic compensation at liver mitochondrial level is inconsistent with that at the whole-animal level in the southern catfish. This may be due to different degrees of regulation of metabolic mechanisms among various tissues and organs in an acclimatized organism [Current Zoology 57 (1): 109-115, 2011].

  5. Ascent schedules, acute altitude illness, and altitude acclimatization: Observations on the Yushu Earthquake

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wu Tianyi; Hou Shike; Li Shuzhi; Li Wenxiang; Gen Deng

    2013-01-01

    During the Yushu Earthquake on April 14,2010,a large number of rescuers from sea level or lowlands ascended to the quake areas very rapidly or rapidly less than 24 h.However,Yushu Earthquake is the highest quake in the world at altitudes between 3750 m and 4878 m where is a serious hypoxic environment.A high incidence of acute altitude illness was found in the unacclimatized rescuers; the mountain rescue operation changed as "rescue the rescuers".Lesson from the Yushu Earthquake is that the occurrence of acute altitude illness may be closely related to the ascent schedules.This prompted us to study the relationship between ascent rate and the incidence and severity of acute altitude illness; five different groups were compared.The first group was 42 sea level male young soldiers who ascended to quake area very rapidly within 8 h at 4000 m; the second group was 48 sea level male young soldiers who ascended to 4000 m rapidly less than 18 h; the third group was 66 acclimatized medical workers from 2261 m who ascended to 4000 m rapidly within 12 h; the fourth group was 56 Tibetan medical workers from 2800 m who ascended to 4000 m rapidly within 8 h; the fifth group was 50 male sea level workers who ascended to 4000 m gradually over a period of 4 d.The results showed that the sea level rescuers ascended to 4000 m very rapidly or rapidly had the highest incidence of acute mountain sickness (AMS) with the greatest AMS scores and the lowest arterial oxygen saturation (SaO2) ; the sea level workers ascended to 4000 m gradually had moderate incidence of AMS with moderate AMS scores and SaO2 values; whereas the acclimatized and adapted rescuers had the lowest incidence of AMS,lowest AMS scores and higher SaO2; especially none AMS occurred in Tibetan rescuers.AMS score is inversely related to the ascent rate (r=-0.24,p<0.001).Additionally,acute altitude illness is significantly influenced by altitude acclimatization.The ascent rate is inversely related to

  6. AltitudeOmics: the integrative physiology of human acclimatization to hypobaric hypoxia and its retention upon reascent.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew W Subudhi

    Full Text Available An understanding of human responses to hypoxia is important for the health of millions of people worldwide who visit, live, or work in the hypoxic environment encountered at high altitudes. In spite of dozens of studies over the last 100 years, the basic mechanisms controlling acclimatization to hypoxia remain largely unknown. The AltitudeOmics project aimed to bridge this gap. Our goals were 1 to describe a phenotype for successful acclimatization and assess its retention and 2 use these findings as a foundation for companion mechanistic studies. Our approach was to characterize acclimatization by measuring changes in arterial oxygenation and hemoglobin concentration [Hb], acute mountain sickness (AMS, cognitive function, and exercise performance in 21 subjects as they acclimatized to 5260 m over 16 days. We then focused on the retention of acclimatization by having subjects reascend to 5260 m after either 7 (n = 14 or 21 (n = 7 days at 1525 m. At 16 days at 5260 m we observed: 1 increases in arterial oxygenation and [Hb] (compared to acute hypoxia: PaO2 rose 9±4 mmHg to 45±4 while PaCO2 dropped a further 6±3 mmHg to 21±3, and [Hb] rose 1.8±0.7 g/dL to 16±2 g/dL; 2 no AMS; 3 improved cognitive function; and 4 improved exercise performance by 8±8% (all changes p<0.01. Upon reascent, we observed retention of arterial oxygenation but not [Hb], protection from AMS, retention of exercise performance, less retention of cognitive function; and noted that some of these effects lasted for 21 days. Taken together, these findings reveal new information about retention of acclimatization, and can be used as a physiological foundation to explore the molecular mechanisms of acclimatization and its retention.

  7. CO2, H2O exchange and stomatal regulation of regenerated Camptotheca acuminata plantlets during ex vitro acclimatization

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Hui-mei; LI Yan-hua; GAO Yin-xiang; ZU Yuan-gang

    2006-01-01

    For finding the changes in CO2, H2O exchange and their stomatal regulation during ex vitro acclimatization of regenerated Camptotheca acuminata plantlets, the net photosynthesis rate (Pn), respiration rate (Rd), light compensation point (Lc) and light saturation point (Ls), transpiration rate (Tr), stomatal conductance (gs) and water use efficiency(WUE) were measured during 37 days of ex vitro acclimatization. The results showed that Pn sharply increased until 29 days, then slightly decreased. A substantial decrease in Lc and a substantial increase of Ls in the former two weeks were observed, indicating the light regime enlargement for effective leaf photosynthesis. Tr and gs abruptly decreased during the first week then linearly increased until 29days ex vitro acclimatization, reflecting the strong regulation effect of stomata on water changes of ex vitro acclimating plantlets. Stomatal regulation effect on CO2 exchange was different from that on water exchange, i.e. Pn was almost independent of gs during the first week, while Pn was significantly correlated with gs thereafter (i.e. dual patterns). Different from dual patterns of gs-Pn relation, the Tr monotonously linearly increased with gs. Furthermore, WUE was almost independent on gs during the first week, while a marked decreasing tendency with gs was found thereafter. At the beginning of the acclimatization, WUE was mainly determined by photosynthetic capacity, while transpiration becomes a main determinant factor for WUE from 7 to 37 days' acclimatization.

  8. Notes from Batavia, the Europeans' graveyard: the nineteenth-century debate on acclimatization in the Dutch East Indies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pols, Hans

    2012-01-01

    Since the advent of European colonial expansion, medical theories of acclimatization have been inextricably related to convictions about the possibility and desirability of white settlement in the colonies, and political ideas of colonial governance. Before 1800, acclimatization theories emphasized the inherent flexibility of the human constitution and its ability to adapt to new environments. During the first half of the nineteenth century, European theorists came to highlight the vulnerability of white Europeans in the tropics to disease, degeneration, and death instead. They consequently argued that white settlement in the tropics was impossible and inadvisable. European physicians in the British and French colonies presented similar views. By contrast, their colleagues in the Dutch East Indies remained optimistic. They associated themselves with the colonial European settler community and shared their grievances against autocratic colonial rule. They presented medical theories which related acclimatization to prudent behavior, morality, and proper management of the environment, thereby downplaying the significance of climate and high temperatures. During the following decades, their views on acclimatization were transferred to the Netherlands, where they were deployed as an argument against the cultivation system, the then-current approach of colonial governance, which emphasized the trade of cash crops grown by the indigenous population, severely limited European settlement, and curtailed the rights of Europeans living in the Indies. Throughout the nineteenth century, the influence of climate and the possibility of acclimatization became recurring themes in debates about colonial governance in both the Dutch East Indies and the Netherlands. PMID:21317422

  9. Acclimatization of the Temperature Sensitivity of Ecosystem Respiration: Synthesis of a 5-year Global Change Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogle, K.; Ryan, E.; Pendall, E. G.

    2013-12-01

    The loss of carbon from ecosystems (ecosystem respiration, Reco) is a dynamic process and temperature is a key factor governing short- and long-term Reco dynamics. The goal of this study is to evaluate the temperature sensitivity of Reco and to learn how it adjusts to environmental conditions such as temperature and experimental warming. To do this, we synthesized 5 years of Reco data generated by the Prairie Heating and CO2 Enrichment (PHACE) study that was conducted in a semi-arid grassland in southeastern Wyoming. The PHACE experiment consists of 6 treatments involving atmospheric CO2 (ambient, elevated), temperature (ambient, warmed), and soil water (ambient, shallow irrigation, deep irrigation). Thus, PHACE provided a unique opportunity to explore how the temperature response of Reco over daily, weekly, and longer time scales is governed by the experimental treatments and co-occurring environmental variation. We synthesized the Reco data using a semi-mechanistic temperature response model that involves a temperature sensitivity term (Eo) analogous to an energy of activation. We explored how Eo varies in response to the experimental treatments and current and antecedent soil water and temperature within a Bayesian framework that allowed us to incorporate a novel stochastic model for the antecedent variables. For example, antecedent temperature is modeled as a weighted average of past daily temperatures, and we estimated the unknown daily weights that quantify potential lag responses and time-scales over which past temperatures affect Eo. Thus, changes in Eo describe instantaneous responses of Reco to temperature, the antecedent temperature effects describe relatively short-term (days/weeks) acclimatization, and the effects of experimental warming describe longer term (months/years) acclimatization potential of Reco. Our analysis predicted that Eo can vary by a factor of 2 or more over the growing season. Although not significant, the trend was for Eo to be

  10. Sustained acclimatization in Chilean mine workers subjected to chronic intermittent hypoxia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farias, Jorge G; Osorio, Jorge; Soto, Gustavo; Brito, Julio; Siques, Patricia; Reyes, Juan G

    2006-01-01

    Farias, Jorge G., Jorge Osorio, Gustavo Soto, Julio Brito, Patricia Siques, and Juan G. Reyes. Sustained acclimatization in Chilean mine workers subjected to chronic intermittent hypoxia. High Alt. Med. Biol. 7:302-306, 2006--We wanted to know if sea-level mine workers exposed previously to chronic intermittent hypoxia reached a steady acclimatization at 36 months under hypobaric hypoxia. An intermittently exposed group of mine workers (IE, n = 25) were subjected to submaximal exercise (100 W) at 4500 m. Their systolic blood pressure (SBP), diastolic blood pressure (DBP), heart rate (HR), and hemoglobin oxygen saturation (HbSatO(2)) were monitored. Two comparison groups of unacclimatized sea-level workers (n = 17) were studied. A nonexposed group (NE) performed 5 min of submaximal exercise at sea level. Some kind of exercise was performed both by an acutely exposed group (AE) and IE group at 4500 m. No statistical differences were found for HR, SBP, and DBP (p > 0.05) during exercise between IE and AE groups. Resting HbSatO(2) of IE (87 +/- 6%) was lower than NE (97 +/- 3%) (p < 0.05), but was higher than AE (82 +/- 4%) (p < 0.05). In the exercise condition, HbSatO(2) of IE (85 +/- 5%) was lower than NE (95 +/- 3%) (p < 0.05), but was higher than AE (76 +/- 2%) (p < 0.05). These responses were maintained through the 6 months of the study period. Thus, mine workers subjected to intermittent hypobaric condition for 3 years showed a good degree of acclimatization that was maintained through time. PMID:17173515

  11. Effects of seasonal acclimatization on temperature dependence of cardiac excitability in the roach, Rutilus rutilus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badr, A; El-Sayed, M F; Vornanen, M

    2016-05-15

    Temperature sensitivity of electrical excitability is a potential limiting factor for performance level and thermal tolerance of excitable tissues in ectothermic animals. To test whether the rate and rhythm of the heart acclimatize to seasonal temperature changes, thermal sensitivity of cardiac excitation in a eurythermal teleost, the roach (Rutilus rutilus), was examined. Excitability of the heart was determined from in vivo electrocardiograms and in vitro microelectrode recordings of action potentials (APs) from winter and summer roach acclimatized to 4 and 18°C, respectively. Under heat ramps (3°C h(-1)), starting from the acclimatization temperatures of the fish, heart rate increased to maximum values of 78±5 beats min(-1) (at 19.8±0.5°C) and 150±7 beats min(-1) (at 28.1±0.5°C) for winter and summer roach, respectively, and then declined in both groups. Below 20°C, heart rate was significantly higher in winter than in summer roach (Prising temperature as missing QRS complexes, increase in variability of heart rate, episodes of atrial tachycardia, ventricular bradycardia and complete cessation of the heartbeat (asystole) in both winter and summer roach. Unlike winter roach, atrial APs of summer roach had a distinct early repolarization phase, which appeared as shorter durations of atrial AP at 10% and 20% repolarization levels in comparison to winter roach (Peffects on ventricular AP characteristics. Plasticity of cardiac excitation appears to be necessary for seasonal improvements in performance level and thermal resilience of the roach heart. PMID:26994185

  12. Effect of Silver Nitrate DuringEx vitro Acclimatization of Micropropagated Ginger Cultivars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dikash Singh THINGBAIJAM

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Silver nitrate (AgNO3 was used under in vitro conditions to study the response of ginger cultivars ‘Nadia’ and ‘Baishey’ under ex vitro. Micropropagated plants treated with AgNO3 showed significant difference (p<0.05 compared to those plantlets without AgNO3 and control type in almost all the different quantitative traits analyzed. Significant difference in number of finger per plant and minirhizome yield indicated the repercussion of AgNO3 during acclimatization.

  13. Variations of Endocrine Hormones Concentrations in Tupaia belangeri under Simulated Seasonal Acclimatized: Role of Leptin Sensitivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhu, Wan-long

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Seasonal variations in endocrine hormones concentrations are important for the survival of small mammals during acclimatization. In order to understand the role of leptin sensitivity on other endocrine hormones concentrations, we examined body mass, serum leptin level, serum insulin, tri-iodothyronine (T 3, thyroxine (T4 and thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH concentrations in Tupaia belangeri under seasonal acclimatized (The simulated temperature and photoperiod in winter: 5°C and SD, 8h:16h Light:Dark; the simulated temperature and photoperiod in summer: 30°C and SD, 16h:8h Light:Dark for 4 weeks. The results showed that body mass, serum leptin level, serum T3, T4 concentrations and T3/T4 showed significant variation, but serum insulin and TSH concentrations showed no variations between treatment group. There were positive correlation between serum leptin level and insulin, T4 concentrations, and were negative correlation between serum leptin level and body mass, T3 concentrations. However, no correlation was found between serum TSH concentrations and serum leptin level. The present results suggested T. belangeri overcome winter thermogenesis challenges by adjusting body mass and endocrine hormones concentrations. Furthermore, leptin may play an potential role in their body mass regulation in T. belangeri.

  14. Free radical scavenging potential of in vitro raised and greenhouse acclimatized plants of Artemisia amygdalina

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    R.Rasool; B.A.Ganai; S.Akbar; A.N.Kamili

    2013-01-01

    AIM:Artemisia amygdalina Decne.(Asteraceae) is a critically endangered and endemic herb of Kashmir Himalayan sub-alpine region and Pakistan.Scientific research throughout the world has evidence to support the tremendous medicinal utility of the genus Artemisia.The natural resources of medicinal plants are being reduced day by day.This study provides the alternative way for medicinal resource utilization and conservation of A.amygdalina.METHODS:In vitro-raised plants and greenhouse acclimatized plants were obtained by culturing wild explants on Murashige and Skoog's medium.Plant extracts were obtained and subjected to different antioxidant assays:DPPH assay,riboflavin photo-oxidation assay,deoxy ribose assay,ferric thiocyanate assay,thiobarbituric acid assay,post mitochondrial supernatant assay and DNA damage on agarose gel.RESULTS:In vitro grown plants,as well as those acclimatized in the greenhouse reveals antioxidant activity against hydroxyl,superoxide,and lipid peroxyl radicals.CONCLUSION:This preliminary study revealed the free radical scavenging potential of tissue culture-raised plant extracts of A.amydalina.

  15. Acclimatization and Adaptive Capacity of Marine Species in a Changing Ocean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foo, S A; Byrne, M

    2016-01-01

    To persist in an ocean changing in temperature, pH and other stressors related to climate change, many marine species will likely need to acclimatize or adapt to avoid extinction. If marine populations possess adequate genetic variation in tolerance to climate change stressors, species might be able to adapt to environmental change. Marine climate change research is moving away from single life stage studies where individuals are directly placed into projected scenarios ('future shock' approach), to focus on the adaptive potential of populations in an ocean that will gradually change over coming decades. This review summarizes studies that consider the adaptive potential of marine invertebrates to climate change stressors and the methods that have been applied to this research, including quantitative genetics, laboratory selection studies and trans- and multigenerational experiments. Phenotypic plasticity is likely to contribute to population persistence providing time for genetic adaptation to occur. Transgenerational and epigenetic effects indicate that the environmental and physiological history of the parents can affect offspring performance. There is a need for long-term, multigenerational experiments to determine the influence of phenotypic plasticity, genetic variation and transgenerational effects on species' capacity to persist in a changing ocean. However, multigenerational studies are only practicable for short generation species. Consideration of multiple morphological and physiological traits, including changes in molecular processes (eg, DNA methylation) and long-term studies that facilitate acclimatization will be essential in making informed predictions of how the seascape and marine communities will be altered by climate change. PMID:27573050

  16. Acclimatization and Adaptive Capacity of Marine Species in a Changing Ocean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foo, S A; Byrne, M

    2016-01-01

    To persist in an ocean changing in temperature, pH and other stressors related to climate change, many marine species will likely need to acclimatize or adapt to avoid extinction. If marine populations possess adequate genetic variation in tolerance to climate change stressors, species might be able to adapt to environmental change. Marine climate change research is moving away from single life stage studies where individuals are directly placed into projected scenarios ('future shock' approach), to focus on the adaptive potential of populations in an ocean that will gradually change over coming decades. This review summarizes studies that consider the adaptive potential of marine invertebrates to climate change stressors and the methods that have been applied to this research, including quantitative genetics, laboratory selection studies and trans- and multigenerational experiments. Phenotypic plasticity is likely to contribute to population persistence providing time for genetic adaptation to occur. Transgenerational and epigenetic effects indicate that the environmental and physiological history of the parents can affect offspring performance. There is a need for long-term, multigenerational experiments to determine the influence of phenotypic plasticity, genetic variation and transgenerational effects on species' capacity to persist in a changing ocean. However, multigenerational studies are only practicable for short generation species. Consideration of multiple morphological and physiological traits, including changes in molecular processes (eg, DNA methylation) and long-term studies that facilitate acclimatization will be essential in making informed predictions of how the seascape and marine communities will be altered by climate change.

  17. Removal of concentrated sulfamethazine by acclimatized aerobic sludge and possible metabolic products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Na; Wan, Junfeng; Zhao, Shiju; Wang, Yan

    2015-01-01

    This article examined the biological removal of high concentrated sulfamethazine (SMZ) antibiotics by the acclimatized activated sludge in lab-scale SBRs system. The removal of SMZ was characterized by a quick adsorption and a slow process of biodegradation. The adsorption capacity of activated sludge for SMZ was 44 and 47 µg SMZ/g SS, respectively, with the initial SMZ concentrations of 1 and 2 mg/L. The adsorption process fitted pseudo-second-order kinetic model. In a series of batch studies, with the increase of initial SMZ concentration that were 1, 2, 3, 5, 7 and 9 mg/L, 56.0%, 51.3%, 42.2%, 29.5%, 25.0% and 20.8% of influent SMZ were biodegraded within 24 h of biological reaction, respectively. The Monod equation applied to simulate SMZ biodegradation had a good coefficient of determination (R2 > 0.99). Furthermore, the results of HPLC demonstrated that the SMZ was not completely removed by the acclimatized activated sludge. From the analysis of LC-MS, 4 intermediates of SMZ biodegradation were identified: Sulfanilic Acid, 4-amino-N-(4,6-dimethyl-2 pyrimidin) benzene sulfonamide, N-(4,6-dimethyl-2-pyrimidin)-4-N-(benzene sulfonamide) benzene sulfonamide, N-(4,6-dimethyl-2-pyrimidin)-4-N-(4,6-dimethyl pyrimidine) benzene sulfonamide, and N-(4,6-dimethyl-2-pyrimidin)-4-N-(3-dimethyl-4-N sodium benzene sulfonamide) benzene sulfonamide.

  18. Mesophotic coral depth acclimatization is a function of host-specific symbiont physiology

    KAUST Repository

    Ziegler, Maren

    2015-02-06

    Mesophotic coral ecosystems receive increasing attention owing to their potential as deep coral refuges in times of global environmental change. Here, the mechanisms of coral holobiont photoacclimatization over a 60 m depth gradient in the central Red Sea were examined for the four coral genera Porites, Leptoseris, Pachyseris, and Podabacia. General acclimatization strategies were common to all host-symbiont combinations, e.g., Symbiodinium cell densities and photoprotective (PP) to light-harvesting pigment ratios both significantly decreased with water depth. Porites harbored Symbiodinium type C15 over the whole 60 m depth range, while Pachyseris and Podabacia had limited vertical distributions and hosted mainly Symbiodinium type C1. Symbiodinium type C15 had generally higher xanthophyll de-epoxidation rates and lower maximum quantum yields than C1, and also exhibited a strong photoacclimatory signal over depth that relates to the large distribution range of Porites. Interestingly, the coral host had an effect on Symbiodinium pigment composition. When comparing Symbiodinium type C1 in Podabacia and Pachyseris, the ß-carotene chl a−1, the peridinin chl a−1, and diadinoxanthin chl a−1 ratios were significantly different between host species. Our data support a view that depth acclimatization of corals in the mesophotics is facilitated by Symbiodinium physiology, which in turn is host-specific.

  19. Mesophotic coral depth acclimatization is a function of host-specific symbiont physiology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maren eZiegler

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Mesophotic coral ecosystems receive increasing attention owing to their potential as deep coral refuges in times of global environmental change. Here, the mechanisms of coral holobiont photoacclimatization over a 60 m depth gradient in the central Red Sea were examined for the four coral genera Porites, Leptoseris, Pachyseris, and Podabacia. General acclimatization strategies were common to all host-symbiont combinations, e.g. Symbiodinium cell densities and photoprotective to light-harvesting pigment ratios both significantly decreased with water depth. Porites harboured Symbiodinium type C15 over the whole 60 m depth range, while Pachyseris and Podabacia had limited vertical distributions and hosted mainly Symbiodinium type C1. Symbiodinium type C15 had generally higher xanthophyll de-epoxidation rates and lower maximum quantum yields than C1, and also exhibited a strong photoacclimatory signal over depth that relates to the large distribution range of Porites. Interestingly, the coral host had an effect on Symbiodinium pigment composition. When comparing Symbiodinium type C1 in Podabacia and Pachyseris, the ß-carotene chl a-1, the peridinin chl a-1, and diadinoxanthin chl a-1 ratios were significantly different between host species. Our data support a view that depth acclimatization of corals in the mesophotics is supported by Symbiodinium physiology, which in turn is host-specific.

  20. Le camfranglais, né de l’acclimatement/acclimatation du français, au cœur d’une glottonomie socio-profane

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Venant Eloundou Eloundou

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Cette contribution analyse les perceptions que les internautes des sites Forum Bonaberi.com et Cameroon-Info.Net ont du camfranglais, né du processus d’acclimatement/acclimatation du français au Cameroun. Mettant à contribution les discours des camfranglophones, l’approche glottonomique et l’imaginaire linguistique, l’étude se focalise sur les représentations systémiques et sociolinguistiques du camfranglais. S’agissant du premier axe, l’analyse des interventions discursives révèle les spécificités linguistiques du camfranglais, en l’opposant au pidgin-english-camerounais né de l’anglais et aux variétés de français parlé au Cameroun. Le second axe examine l’imaginaire de la variation sociolangagière du camfrançais. Il en découle que les internautes ont une saisie variationniste de cet parler selon trois niveaux : diachronique, diatopique et diaphasique. Ce camfranglais apparaît dans les discours épilinguistiques analysés comme une langue à part entière : d’où la revendication de ses statuts et ses fonctions officiels ; voire sa prise en compte glottopolitique. Toutes ces représentations faites par ce qu’on peut appeler les acteurs glottonomiques profanes permettent d’aboutir à la conclusion selon laquelle la gestion des problématiques glottopolitiques doit tenir compte de toutes les composantes sociales, pour un développement durable, stimulé par des langues. Par ailleurs, relativement à la linguistique française, cette analyse permet de saisir les tensions sociolinguistiques et les modalités de représentations impliquant le français et le camfranglais. Si le français constitue une langue matrice pour le camfranglais, il ressort de cette réflexion que ses locuteurs construisent des représentations visant à établir une frontière linguistique et sociolinguistique entre la langue mère (français et le camfranglais dérivé.

  1. The Growth of Brown Adipose Tissue in Cold-acclimatized Rats after Depletion of Mast Cell Histamine by Compound 48/80

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daló Nelson L

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available Cold acclimatization (4-5°C is accompanied by 2-3 fold increase of brown adipose tissue (BAT. This rapid growth of interscapular BAT was studied after histamine depletion. In control rats maintained at room temperature (28 ± 2°C the BAT histamine content was 23.4 ± 5.9 (mean ± SD µg/g of tissue and cold acclimatization (5±1°C produced a significant increase of BAT weight, but reduced the histamine content to 8.4 ± 1.9 µg/g. The total weight of BAT after 20 days of acclimatization was unaffected by depletion of histamine due to compound 48/80. The low level of histamine in BAT of cold acclimatized rats could be due to a fast rate of amine utilization; alternatively an altered synthesis or storage process may occur during acclimatization.

  2. Plasma volume expansion does not increase maximal cardiac output or VO2 max in lowlanders acclimatized to altitude

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Calbet, José A L; Rådegran, Göran; Boushel, Robert Christopher;

    2004-01-01

    males: age 24.0 +/- 0.6 yr; mean +/- SE) performed submaximal and maximal exercise on a cycle ergometer after 9 wk at 5,260 m altitude (Mt. Chacaltaya, Bolivia). This was done first with BV resulting from acclimatization (BV = 5.40 +/- 0.39 liters) and again 2-4 days later, 1 h after PV expansion with 1...

  3. Thermal stress resistance of the brown alga Fucus serratus along the North-Atlantic coast : Acclimatization potential to climate change

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jueterbock, Alexander; Kollias, Spyros; Smolina, Irina; Fernandes, Jorge M. O.; Coyer, James A.; Olsen, Jeanine L.; Hoarau, Galice

    2014-01-01

    Seaweed-dominated communities are predicted to disappear south of 45 degrees latitude on North-Atlantic rocky shores by 2200 because of climate change. The extent of predicted habitat loss, however, could be mitigated if the seaweeds' physiology is sufficiently plastic to rapidly acclimatize to the

  4. Similar carbohydrate but enhanced lactate utilization during exercise after 9 wk of acclimatization to 5,620 m

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Van Hall, Gerrit; Calbet, J A L; Sondergaard, H;

    2002-01-01

    We hypothesized that reliance on lactate as a means of energy distribution is higher after a prolonged period of acclimatization (9 wk) than it is at sea level due to a higher lactate Ra and disposal from active skeletal muscle. To evaluate this hypothesis, six Danish lowlanders (25 +/- 2 yr) wer...

  5. Exercise tolerance in a hot and humid climate in heat-acclimatized girls and women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivera-Brown, A M; Rowland, T W; Ramírez-Marrero, F A; Santacana, G; Vann, A

    2006-12-01

    This study compared physiological responses associated with exercise tolerance in girls (G) and women (W) of similar fitness and heat acclimatization level during exercise in a hot and humid outdoor environment (33.4 degrees C and 55.1 % RH; WBGT = 29.9 +/- 0.2 degrees C). Nine pre-menarcheal G (age = 11.3 yr) and nine W (age = 26.8 yr), matched for aerobic capacity and heat acclimatization level, performed a cycling session at 60 % VO2max until fatigue. A sports drink was provided periodically to prevent dehydration. Tolerance time was not different between the groups (G = 56.9 +/- 6.3, W = 76.5 +/- 9.9 min, p > 0.05). During exercise, sweat rate (G = 9.1 +/- 1.1, W = 12.0 +/- 1.1 ml.m(-2).min(-1)), the increase in rectal temperature [T(re)] (G = 0.9 +/- 0.1, W = 1.1 +/- 0.1 degrees C), and heat storage (G = 10.6 +/- 5.3, W = 20.5 +/- 4.5 W.m(-2)) did not differ between the groups. At fatigue, T(re) (G = 38.2 +/- 0.1, W = 38.4 +/- 0.1 degrees C), heart rate (G = 167.3 +/- 7.3, W = 171 +/- 3.3 beats.min(-1)), stroke index (G = 48.3 +/- 1.5, W = 52.4 +/- 1.8 ml.m(-2)), and forearm skin blood flow (G = 9.5 +/- 1.3, W = 11.7 +/- 1.5 ml.100 ml(- 1).min(-1)) did not differ between the groups. Similar to women, the main reasons reported by girls to stop exercising in the heat were localized leg fatigue and gluteus muscle discomfort. We conclude that heat-acclimatized girls exhibit an adequate cardiovascular and thermoregulatory adjustment while exercising in a hot and humid outdoor environment when hypohydration is prevented. PMID:16739090

  6. Exogenous sphingosine-1-phosphate boosts acclimatization in rats exposed to acute hypobaric hypoxia: assessment of haematological and metabolic effects.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonam Chawla

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The physiological challenges posed by hypobaric hypoxia warrant exploration of pharmacological entities to improve acclimatization to hypoxia. The present study investigates the preclinical efficacy of sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P to improve acclimatization to simulated hypobaric hypoxia. EXPERIMENTAL APPROACH: Efficacy of intravenously administered S1P in improving haematological and metabolic acclimatization was evaluated in rats exposed to simulated acute hypobaric hypoxia (7620 m for 6 hours following S1P pre-treatment for three days. MAJOR FINDINGS: Altitude exposure of the control rats caused systemic hypoxia, hypocapnia (plausible sign of hyperventilation and respiratory alkalosis due to suboptimal renal compensation indicated by an overt alkaline pH of the mixed venous blood. This was associated with pronounced energy deficit in the hepatic tissue along with systemic oxidative stress and inflammation. S1P pre-treatment improved blood oxygen-carrying-capacity by increasing haemoglobin, haematocrit, and RBC count, probably as an outcome of hypoxia inducible factor-1α mediated erythropoiesis and renal S1P receptor 1 mediated haemoconcentation. The improved partial pressure of oxygen in the blood could further restore aerobic respiration and increase ATP content in the hepatic tissue of S1P treated animals. S1P could also protect the animals from hypoxia mediated oxidative stress and inflammation. CONCLUSION: The study findings highlight S1P's merits as a preconditioning agent for improving acclimatization to acute hypobaric hypoxia exposure. The results may have long term clinical application for improving physiological acclimatization of subjects venturing into high altitude for occupational or recreational purposes.

  7. Rooting and acclimatization of in vitro plantlets of mtl-D gene modified Robinia pseudoacacia 'Idaho'

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xie Jun-wen; Li Min; Chen Shou-yi; Sun De-you; Wang Hua-fang

    2006-01-01

    Robinia pseudoacacia 'Idaho' (Robinia × ambigua 'Idahoensis', R. pseudoacacia × R. viscosa) modified by a mtl-D gene went through five lines and had characteristics of drought tolerance. Three stages of their micropropagation had been studied by previous investigators. The other two stages, in vitro shoot rooting and plantlet acclimatization, still remained unsolved in the laboratory.For this paper, we studied the later two stages based on the previous achievements. Results showed that the highest rooting rate of Idaho locust was 98.4% when the in vitro shoots, over 2.5 cm in height and 0.08 cm in diameter, were placed on a half strength MS was 98.3% when the rooted plantlets were potted in vermiculite. All the stages for micropropagation of the Idaho locust, modified by the mtl-D gene, were assembled completely. The tissue culture plants grow well in the field.

  8. Carpophilus zeaphilus, a new sap beetle species acclimatized in Italy (Coleoptera: Nitidulidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paolo Audisio

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Carpophilus zeaphilus Dobson, 1969 (Coleoptera, Nitidulidae, Carpophilinae is an Afrotropical species that has become widespread in Sub-Saharan Africa, the Arabian Peninsula, and southern Mediterranean areas in recent years. The species was first recorded from Europe in Portugal and Spain nearly thirty years ago, and it was later intercepted in Sicily near Trapani in 1991. A few specimens of this species were collected in April, 2015 in a sparsely forested area near Rome, which suggests a recent acclimatization into peninsular Italy. Specimens were taken on flowering trees of Prunus spinosa L. (Rosaceae, an unusual occurrence for most introduced species of Carpophilinae that are normally associated with rotten fruit and other decomposing vegetal matter.

  9. Unchanged cerebral blood flow and oxidative metabolism after acclimatization to high altitude

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Kirsten; Paulson, Olaf B; Hornbein, Thomas F.;

    2002-01-01

    . Global cerebral blood flow at rest and during exercise on a bicycle ergometer was measured by the Kety-Schmidt technique. Cerebral metabolic rates of oxygen, glucose, and lactate were calculated by the Fick principle. Cerebral function was assessed by a computer-based measurement of reaction time...... and cerebral metabolic rates of oxygen and glucose also remained unchanged, whereas cerebral metabolic rates of lactate increased slightly but nonsignificantly at high altitude during exercise compared with high altitude at rest. Reaction time was unchanged. The data indicate that cerebral blood flow......The authors investigated the effect of acclimatization to high altitude on cerebral blood flow and oxidative metabolism at rest and during exercise. Nine healthy, native sea-level residents were studied 3 weeks after arrival at Chacaltaya, Bolivia (5,260 m) and after reacclimatization to sea level...

  10. Effect of fourteen days of acclimatization on athletic performance in tropical climate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voltaire, Bruno; Galy, Olivier; Coste, Olivier; Recinais, Sébastien; Callis, André; Blonc, Stephan; Hertogh, Claude; Hue, Olivier

    2002-12-01

    In order to study the acclimatization process over 14 days of exposure to tropical climate, 9 triathletes performed 4 outdoor indirect continuous multistage tests in both thermoneutral and tropical conditions. The thermoneutral test (TN, 14 degree C, 45% rh) was performed before traveling to the tropical area (Martinique, FWI). The tropical tests were performed 2, 8, and 14 days after arrival (32.9 degree C, 78% rh). During each trial, we measured tympanic temperature, sweat rate, body mass loss, heart rate (HR), and performance. The results showed that 1). the mean tympanic temperature was greater in T2 (P <.001), T8 (P <.01) and T14 (P <.01) than in TN and significantly lower in T14 than in T2 (P <.05); 2). the mean sweat rate was significantly greater (P <.001) in T2, T8 and T14 than in TN and significantly greater (P <.05) in T8 and T14 than in T2; 3). the body mass loss after trials was significantly greater (P <.001) in T2, T8 and T14 than in TN and significantly greater (P <.05) in T8 and T14 than in T2; 4). the mean HR and HR at rest were significantly higher (P <.005) in T2 than in TN, T8, T14 and the mean HR was significantly lower (P <.05) in T14 than in the other trials; and 5). the performance time was significantly lower in T2 (P < 0.02), T8 (P < 0.03) and T14 (P < 0.05) than in TN. We concluded that 14 days of exposure to tropical climate led to changes in physiological parameters but were still insufficient to ensure complete acclimatization in well-trained athletes. The hot/wet climate induced impairment of physiological responses and performance that were still evident on the 14th day. PMID:12500994

  11. 高原习服与低氧预适应%Altitude acclimatization and hypoxic preconditioning

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈良恩

    2012-01-01

    Altitude hypoxia often results in acute mountain sickness. Altitude acclimatization is a series of adaptive changes for body to deal with a hypoxic environment. The best strategy to prevent or alleviate acute mountain sickness is to search for measures effective in improving acclimation ability and shortening the acclimation time. Hypoxic ' preconditioning strengthens the organisms innate ability to resist more severe hypoxia (and/or for longer times) after one or more transitory, immortal hypoxic stimulations. As an efficient method for enhancing anoxic tolerance by inducing endogenous protective mechanisms, hypoxic preconditioning is an important measure to promote altitude acclimatization.%高原低氧易导致急性高原反应,高原习服是机体为适应高原低氧环境发生的一系列代偿适应性变化.寻找加快高原习服的有效措施,提高机体高原习服能力,是预防和减轻急性高原反应的最好策略.低氧预适应是指机体经一次或多次短暂、非致死性低氧刺激后,机体获得的对后续更长时间或更严重低氧性损伤的耐受性.低氧预适应作为一种通过内源性保护机制来提高机体缺氧耐力的有效方法,是促进高原习服的重要措施.

  12. Body composition in air and road inductees at high altitude during the initial days of acclimatization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ray, U. S.; Selvamurthy, W.

    This study assesses body composition changes and their time course during the initial days of acclimatization to high altitude (HA). Comparisons were made between gradual and acute induction to HA using 60 male lowlander volunteers (24-28 years of age) divided into two equal groups for inducting them to HA. Thirty subjects were air-lifted from sea level (SL) to 3500 m HA in 1 h. These subjects were air inductees (AI). The other 30 subjects were transported in 4 days by road to the same location at 3500 m. These were road inductees (RI). After remaining for 15 days at 3500 m both groups were inducted to 4200 m by road. All the subjects could not reach the various altitudes at the same time due to logistical problems. Ultimately, data for each altitude (SL, 3500 m and 4200 m) were available for only 26 RI subjects and 10 AI subjects. Skinfold thickness (SKF) measurements for the subscapular, thigh, triceps, biceps, juxtanipple, umbilicus, suprailiac and calf regions were taken in order to calculate fat percentages. Measurements were taken at SL and on days 1 and 9 at both 3500 m and 4200 m. On day 1 at 3500 m, RI showed a significant fall in body weight (BW) with respect to SL but AI maintained it. On subsequent days at HA both groups showed a significant fall in BW and lean body mass but not in percentage fat. SKF in the biceps and triceps regions decreased significantly but in the umbilicus and suprailiac regions it significantly increased at HA in both groups. Body composition, along with other parameters, is discussed determining the acclimatization schedule for sojourners at HA. Possibly, translocation of body fat takes place from the periphery to deep body fat depots in the core/main trunk due to the cold at HA.

  13. Acclimatation de vitroplants de bananier Musa sp. en culture hydroponique: impact de différentes concentrations en cuivre sur la croissance des vitroplants

    OpenAIRE

    Mazinga, MK.; Van Koninckxloo, M.; Godoy Jara, M.; Baboy Longanza, L.; Louvieaux, J.

    2013-01-01

    Acclimatation of Banana's Vitroplants (Musa sp.) in Hydroponic Culture: Effects of Different Concentrations Copper on Growth of Vitroplants. Constraints due to copper and consequences of its accumulation in acclimatized banana in vitroplants have been studied in hydroponic culture. 0-100- 500-1000 ppm copper was added to the nutrient medium in hydroponic culture. At 1000 ppm, copper was accumulated in the roots but not in the aerial parts. Surprisingly, biomass of shoots and roots was augment...

  14. Antenatal maternal long-term hypoxia: acclimatization responses with altered gene expression in ovine fetal carotid arteries.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ravi Goyal

    Full Text Available In humans and other species, long-term hypoxia (LTH during pregnancy can lead to intrauterine growth restriction with reduced body/brain weight, dysregulation of cerebral blood flow (CBF, and other problems. To identify the signal transduction pathways and critical molecules, which may be involved in acclimatization to high altitude LTH, we conducted microarray with advanced bioinformatic analysis on carotid arteries (CA from the normoxic near-term ovine fetus at sea-level and those acclimatized to high altitude for 110+ days during gestation. In response to LTH acclimatization, in fetal CA we identified mRNA from 38 genes upregulated >2 fold (P2-fold (P<0.05. The major genes with upregulated mRNA were SLC1A3, Insulin-like growth factor (IGF binding protein 3, IGF type 2 receptor, transforming growth factor (TGF Beta-3, and genes involved in the AKT and BCL2 signal transduction networks. Most genes with upregulated mRNA have a common motif for Pbx/Knotted homeobox in the promoter region, and Sox family binding sites in the 3' un translated region (UTR. Genes with downregulated mRNA included those involved in the P53 pathway and 5-lipoxygenase activating proteins. The promoter region of all genes with downregulated mRNA, had a common 49 bp region with a binding site for DOT6 and TOD6, components of the RPD3 histone deacetylase complex RPD3C(L. We also identified miRNA complementary to a number of the altered genes. Thus, the present study identified molecules in the ovine fetus, which may play a role in the acclimatization response to high-altitude associated LTH.

  15. The lactate paradox revisited in lowlanders during acclimatization to 4100 m and in high-altitude natives

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Hall, G; Lundby, C; Araoz, M; Calbet, J A L; Sander, M; Saltin, B

    2009-01-01

    Chronic hypoxia has been proposed to induce a closer coupling in human skeletal muscle between ATP utilization and production in both lowlanders (LN) acclimatizing to high altitude and high-altitude natives (HAN), linked with an improved match between pyruvate availability and its use in mitochondrial respiration. This should result in less lactate being formed during exercise in spite of the hypoxaemia. To test this hypothesis six LN (22–31 years old) were studied during 15 min warm up followed by an incremental bicycle exercise to exhaustion at sea level, during acute hypoxia and after 2 and 8 weeks at 4100 m above sea level (El Alto, Bolivia). In addition, eight HAN (26–37 years old) were studied with a similar exercise protocol at altitude. The leg net lactate release, and the arterial and muscle lactate concentrations were elevated during the exercise in LN in acute hypoxia and remained at this higher level during the acclimatization period. HAN had similar high values; however, at the moment of exhaustion their muscle lactate, ADP and IMP content and Cr/PCr ratio were higher than in LN. In conclusion, sea-level residents in the course of acclimatization to high altitude did not exhibit a reduced capacity for the active muscle to produce lactate. Thus, the lactate paradox concept could not be demonstrated. High-altitude natives from the Andes actually exhibit a higher anaerobic energy production than lowlanders after 8 weeks of acclimatization reflected by an increased muscle lactate accumulation and enhanced adenine nucleotide breakdown. PMID:19139048

  16. Acclimatization of micropropagated Heliconia bihai (Heliconiaceae) plants Aclimatização de mudas micropropagadas de Heliconia bihai (Heliconiaceae)

    OpenAIRE

    Paulo Hercílio Viegas Rodrigues; Ana Maria Liner Pereira Lima; Gláucia Maria B. Ambrosano; Maria de Fátima Batista Dutra

    2005-01-01

    To evaluate the behavior of micropropagated heliconia seedlings during the acclimatization process using different substrates and shade levels, seedlings of H. bihai (Lobster Claw I) were planted in plastic trays using the substrates: washed sand, vermiculite (medium texture), and PlantMax® Horticultura, and shade cloths with percentages of 0% (full sun), 30%, 40%, 50%, 60%, 70%, and 80% of shade in relation to full sun. Best results were obtained for washed sand and PlantMax substrates at sh...

  17. Pulmonary gas exchange at maximal exercise in Danish lowlanders during 8 wk of acclimatization to 4,100 m and in high-altitude Aymara natives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lundby, Carsten; Calbet, Jose A L; van Hall, Gerrit;

    2004-01-01

    We aimed to test effects of altitude acclimatization on pulmonary gas exchange at maximal exercise. Six lowlanders were studied at sea level, in acute hypoxia (AH), and after 2 and 8 wk of acclimatization to 4,100 m (2W and 8W) and compared with Aymara high-altitude natives residing at this altit......We aimed to test effects of altitude acclimatization on pulmonary gas exchange at maximal exercise. Six lowlanders were studied at sea level, in acute hypoxia (AH), and after 2 and 8 wk of acclimatization to 4,100 m (2W and 8W) and compared with Aymara high-altitude natives residing...... in AH but increased significantly with acclimatization (51 +/- 1.1, 58 +/- 1.7, and 62 +/- 1.6 mmHg in AH, 2W, and 8W, respectively). PaO2 in lowlanders reached levels that were not different from those in high-altitude natives (66 +/- 1.2 mmHg). Arterial O2 saturation (SaO2) decreased during maximum......, but even acclimatization for 8 wk is insufficient to achieve levels reached by high-altitude natives....

  18. Losers and winners in coral reefs acclimatized to elevated carbon dioxide concentrations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fabricius, Katharina E.; Langdon, Chris; Uthicke, Sven; Humphrey, Craig; Noonan, Sam; de'Ath, Glenn; Okazaki, Remy; Muehllehner, Nancy; Glas, Martin S.; Lough, Janice M.

    2011-06-01

    Experiments have shown that ocean acidification due to rising atmospheric carbon dioxide concentrations has deleterious effects on the performance of many marine organisms. However, few empirical or modelling studies have addressed the long-term consequences of ocean acidification for marine ecosystems. Here we show that as pH declines from 8.1 to 7.8 (the change expected if atmospheric carbon dioxide concentrations increase from 390 to 750ppm, consistent with some scenarios for the end of this century) some organisms benefit, but many more lose out. We investigated coral reefs, seagrasses and sediments that are acclimatized to low pH at three cool and shallow volcanic carbon dioxide seeps in Papua New Guinea. At reduced pH, we observed reductions in coral diversity, recruitment and abundances of structurally complex framework builders, and shifts in competitive interactions between taxa. However, coral cover remained constant between pH 8.1 and ~7.8, because massive Porites corals established dominance over structural corals, despite low rates of calcification. Reef development ceased below pH 7.7. Our empirical data from this unique field setting confirm model predictions that ocean acidification, together with temperature stress, will probably lead to severely reduced diversity, structural complexity and resilience of Indo-Pacific coral reefs within this century.

  19. NaCl-induced physiological and biochemical changes in two cyanobacteria Nostoc muscorum and Phormidium foveolarum acclimatized to different photosynthetically active radiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Jitendra; Singh, Vijay Pratap; Prasad, Sheo Mohan

    2015-10-01

    The present study is aimed at investigating physiological and biochemical behavior of two cyanobacteria Nostoc muscorum and Phormidium foveolarum acclimatized to different levels (sub-optimum; 25 ± 0.5, optimum; 75 ± 2.5 and supra-optimum; 225 ± 3.5 μmol photons m(-2) s(-1)) of photosynthetic active radiation (PAR), and subsequently treated with two doses (30 and 90 mM) of NaCl. PAR influences growth in tested cyanobacteria being maximum in supra-optimum PAR acclimatized cells. NaCl-induced maximum percent decline in growth was observed in sub-optimum PAR acclimatized cells, which was in consonance with a decrease in chlorophyll content. Sub-optimum PAR acclimatization stimulated phycocyanin content in control cells, whereas maximum carotenoids content was observed in supra-optimum PAR acclimatized cells. Photosystem II photochemistry viz. Fv/F0, Fv/Fm, Ψ0, ϕE0, PIABS, ABS/RC, TR0/RC, ET0/RC and DI0/RC was also influenced by PAR and NaCl. Maximum percent rise in superoxide radical (SOR), hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) and lipid peroxidation was observed in sub-optimum PAR acclimatized cells exposed to NaCl, which could be correlated with lower values of enzymatic (superoxide dismutase, catalase, peroxidase and glutathione-S-transferase) and non-enzymatic (NP-SH and cysteine) antioxidants. In supra-optimum PAR acclimatized cells level of oxidative stress markers was in parallel with enhanced antioxidants. The results suggest that PAR significantly changes physiological and biochemical responses of studied cyanobacteria under NaCl stress. Besides this, this study also shows that P. foveolarum is more tolerant than N. muscorum under test conditions. PMID:26318279

  20. Time course of natural heat acclimatization in well-trained cyclists during a 2-week training camp in the heat

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karlsen, Anders; Nybo, Lars; Nørgaard, S J;

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the time course of physiological adaptations and their relationship with performance improvements during 2 weeks of heat acclimatization. Nine trained cyclists completed 2 weeks of training in naturally hot environment (34 ± 3 °C; 18 ± 5% relative humidity...... changes in hematocrit (assessed after the corresponding HRT; r = -0.79, P athletes, sudomotor and hematological adaptations occurred within 5-6 days of training, whereas the additional improvement in performance...

  1. Diagnostic criteria of high altitude de-acclimatization syndrome among plateau migrants after their return to the plain:a multi-center randomized controlled trial

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Qi-quan Zhou; Yong Fan; Fu-ling Wang; Guan-song Wang; Sheng-yue Yang; Zhen-cai Yuan; Yin-hu Wang; Xue-feng Zhang; Wei Gao; Zi-fu Shi; You-li Yang; Yun-hong Wu

    2015-01-01

    Objective: The objective of this study was to investigate the diagnostic methods of high altitude de-acclimatization syndrome and to formulate diagnostic criteria. Methods: This study was conducted using epidemiological surveys and a multi-center randomized controlled clinical trial. A total of 3,011 subjects were studied, and the following indices were collected after their return to low altitude areas from the plateau: general health status, blood, urine and stool samples, myocardial enzyme levels, liver and kidney function, nerve function, sex hormone levels, microalbuminuria, electrocardiogram (ECG), echocardiography, pulmonary function, and hemorheological markers. These data were compared to those of randomized healthy subjects in the same age range who lived at the same altitude to determine the characteristics of high altitude de-acclimatization syndrome. Based on these characteristics, diagnostic criteria for high altitude de-acclimatization syndrome were formulated. Results: This study demonstrated that the incidence of high altitude de-acclimatization syndrome was 84.36%. Sixty percent of the cases were mild, 30% were medium, and 10% were severe. The incidence was higher among those who returned to a place of lower altitude, resided at a high altitude for a longer period of time, or engaged in heavy labor while at high altitude. Patients with high altitude de-acclimatization syndrome manifested hematological abnormalities and abnormal ventricular function, notably a right ventricular diastolic function, which recovered to baseline function after one to five years. Exposure to long-term hypoxia often caused obvious changes in cardiac morphology, i.e., left and right ventricular hypertrophy, particularly within the right ventricle. In addition, patients with high altitude de-acclimatization syndrome often presented with low blood pressure, low pulse pressure, and microalbuminuria. A few patients presented with occult blood in their feces. The diagnosis of

  2. Effect of nitrogen source and acclimatization on specific growth rates of microalgae determined by a high-throughput in vivo microplate autofluorescence method

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Podevin, Mike; De Francisci, Davide; Holdt, Susan Løvstad;

    2015-01-01

    by in vivo chlorophyll-a autofluorescence.These preferences could be determined before large pH changes occurred in the media, with no significant difference(P>0.05) between buffered and non-buffered media. In all algal species, acclimatization was observed with no significant difference (P>0.05) between...... SGRs of the second and third cultivations. ANOVA of SGRs in the acclimatized second and third cultivations revealed preferences for nitrogen sources among most of the algae; C. vulgaris preferred sodiumnitrate over other nitrogen sources, A. protothecoides adapted to urea after no growth in the first...

  3. Start-up and stabilization of an Anammox process from a non-acclimatized sludge in CSTR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bagchi, Samik; Biswas, Rima; Nandy, Tapas

    2010-09-01

    Development of an Anammox (anaerobic ammonium oxidation) process using non-acclimatized sludge requires a long start-up period owing to the very slow growth rate of Anammox bacteria. This article addresses the issue of achieving a shorter start-up period for Anammox activity in a well-mixed continuously stirred tank reactor (CSTR) using non-acclimatized anaerobic sludge. Proper selection of enrichment conditions and low stirring speed of 30 +/- 5 rpm resulted in a shorter start-up period (82 days). Activity tests revealed the microbial community structure of Anammox micro-granules. Ammonia-oxidizing bacteria (AOB) were found on the surface and on the outer most layers of granules while nitrite-oxidizing bacteria (NOB) and Anammox bacteria were present inside. Fine-tuning of influent NO2(-)/NH4+ ratio allowed Anammox activity to be maintained when mixed microbial populations were present. The maximum nitrogen removal rate achieved in the system was 0.216 kg N/(m(3) day) with a maximum specific nitrogen removal rate of 0.434 g N/(g VSS day). During the study period, Anammox activity was not inhibited by pH changes and free ammonia toxicity.

  4. Extensive phenotypic plasticity of a Red Sea coral over a strong latitudinal temperature gradient suggests limited acclimatization potential to warming

    KAUST Repository

    Sawall, Yvonne

    2015-03-10

    Global warming was reported to cause growth reductions in tropical shallow water corals in both, cooler and warmer, regions of the coral species range. This suggests regional adaptation with less heat-tolerant populations in cooler and more thermo-tolerant populations in warmer regions. Here, we investigated seasonal changes in the in situ metabolic performance of the widely distributed hermatypic coral Pocillopora verrucosa along 12° latitudes featuring a steep temperature gradient between the northern (28.5°N, 21-27°C) and southern (16.5°N, 28-33°C) reaches of the Red Sea. Surprisingly, we found little indication for regional adaptation, but strong indications for high phenotypic plasticity: Calcification rates in two seasons (winter, summer) were found to be highest at 28-29°C throughout all populations independent of their geographic location. Mucus release increased with temperature and nutrient supply, both being highest in the south. Genetic characterization of the coral host revealed low inter-regional variation and differences in the Symbiodinium clade composition only at the most northern and most southern region. This suggests variable acclimatization potential to ocean warming of coral populations across the Red Sea: high acclimatization potential in northern populations, but limited ability to cope with ocean warming in southern populations already existing at the upper thermal margin for corals.

  5. Extensive phenotypic plasticity of a Red Sea coral over a strong latitudinal temperature gradient suggests limited acclimatization potential to warming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sawall, Yvonne; Al-Sofyani, Abdulmoshin; Hohn, Sönke; Banguera-Hinestroza, Eulalia; Voolstra, Christian R.; Wahl, Martin

    2015-03-01

    Global warming was reported to cause growth reductions in tropical shallow water corals in both, cooler and warmer, regions of the coral species range. This suggests regional adaptation with less heat-tolerant populations in cooler and more thermo-tolerant populations in warmer regions. Here, we investigated seasonal changes in the in situ metabolic performance of the widely distributed hermatypic coral Pocillopora verrucosa along 12° latitudes featuring a steep temperature gradient between the northern (28.5°N, 21-27°C) and southern (16.5°N, 28-33°C) reaches of the Red Sea. Surprisingly, we found little indication for regional adaptation, but strong indications for high phenotypic plasticity: Calcification rates in two seasons (winter, summer) were found to be highest at 28-29°C throughout all populations independent of their geographic location. Mucus release increased with temperature and nutrient supply, both being highest in the south. Genetic characterization of the coral host revealed low inter-regional variation and differences in the Symbiodinium clade composition only at the most northern and most southern region. This suggests variable acclimatization potential to ocean warming of coral populations across the Red Sea: high acclimatization potential in northern populations, but limited ability to cope with ocean warming in southern populations already existing at the upper thermal margin for corals.

  6. Acclimatization of mice to different cage types and social groupings with respect to fecal secretion of IgA and corticosterone metabolites

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bundgaard, Cathrine Juel; Kalliokoski, Otto; Abelson, Klas Sp;

    2012-01-01

    Stress associated with transport and change of environment may have widespread effects on physiological parameters in laboratory animals. To investigate the time needed for mice to acclimatize to a new environment, based on fecal IgA and corticosterone excretion, eightweek-old BALB/c mice of both...

  7. Home Away from Home: Acclimatization of Filipino Elderly from Being Home to a Sense of Being "at Home" in an Elderly Institution

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Guzman, Allan B.; Guevara, Katrina Illyana J.; Guiang, Frances Jane B.; Gutierez, Anton Lorenzo I.; Habaluyas, Alayne S.; Hizon, Marc Alison P.; Idanan, Shalaine G.

    2012-01-01

    This grounded study examined the process of acclimatization or the process of changing perspectives of a person so as to get used to or feel "at home" among a select group of Filipino elderly in a nursing care facility. As institutionalization of the elderly is not typical in the Philippine context, varied responses were analyzed to understand the…

  8. Human muscle net K+ release during exercise is unaffected by elevated anaerobic metabolism, but reduced after prolonged acclimatization to 4100 m

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nordsborg, Nikolai Baastrup; Calbet, Jose A. L.; Sander, Mikael;

    2010-01-01

    It was investigated if skeletal muscle K(+) release is linked to the degree of anaerobic energy production. Six subjects performed an incremental bicycle exercise test in normoxic and hypoxic conditions prior to and after 2 and 8 weeks of acclimatization to 4100 m. The highest workload completed ...

  9. Estimating the capability of microalgae to physiological acclimatization and genetic adaptation to petroleum and diesel oil contamination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: ► Microalgae are able to physiological acclimatization low doses of petroleum and diesel oil. ► When petroleum or oil concentration exceeds these limits, survival depend of rare mutations. ► Petroleum-resistant and diesel oil mutants occur spontaneously prior to oil exposure. ► After 300 generations of artificial selection resistant strains were obtained. ► Cyanobacteria has more difficulties to achieve petroleum resistance than Chlorophyta. - Abstract: There is increasing scientific interest in how phytoplankton reacts to petroleum contamination, since crude oil and its derivatives are generating extensive contamination of aquatic environments. However, toxic effects of short-term petroleum exposure are more widely known than the adaptation of phytoplankton to long-term petroleum exposure. An analysis of short-term and long-term effects of petroleum exposure was done using experimental populations of freshwater (Scenedesmus intermedius and Microcystis aeruginosa) and marine (Dunaliella tertiolecta) microalgae isolated from pristine sites without crude oil product contamination. These strains were exposed to increased levels of petroleum and diesel oil. Short-term exposure to petroleum or diesel oil revealed a rapid inhibition of photosynthetic performance and cell proliferation in freshwater and marine phytoplankton species. A broad degree of inter-specific variation in lethal contamination level was observed. When different strains were exposed to petroleum or diesel oil over the long-term, the cultures showed massive destruction of the sensitive cells. Nonetheless, after further incubation, some cultures were able to grow again due to cells that were resistant to the toxins. By means of a fluctuation analysis, discrimination between cells that had become resistant due to physiological acclimatization and resistant cells arising from rare spontaneous mutations was accomplished. In addition, an analysis was done as to the maximum capacity of

  10. Estimating the capability of microalgae to physiological acclimatization and genetic adaptation to petroleum and diesel oil contamination

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Romero-Lopez, Julia; Lopez-Rodas, Victoria [Genetica, Facultad de Veterinaria, Universidad Complutense de Madrid, Avda. Puerta de Hierro s/n, E-28040 Madrid (Spain); Costas, Eduardo, E-mail: ecostas@vet.ucm.es [Genetica, Facultad de Veterinaria, Universidad Complutense de Madrid, Avda. Puerta de Hierro s/n, E-28040 Madrid (Spain)

    2012-11-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Microalgae are able to physiological acclimatization low doses of petroleum and diesel oil. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer When petroleum or oil concentration exceeds these limits, survival depend of rare mutations. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Petroleum-resistant and diesel oil mutants occur spontaneously prior to oil exposure. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer After 300 generations of artificial selection resistant strains were obtained. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Cyanobacteria has more difficulties to achieve petroleum resistance than Chlorophyta. - Abstract: There is increasing scientific interest in how phytoplankton reacts to petroleum contamination, since crude oil and its derivatives are generating extensive contamination of aquatic environments. However, toxic effects of short-term petroleum exposure are more widely known than the adaptation of phytoplankton to long-term petroleum exposure. An analysis of short-term and long-term effects of petroleum exposure was done using experimental populations of freshwater (Scenedesmus intermedius and Microcystis aeruginosa) and marine (Dunaliella tertiolecta) microalgae isolated from pristine sites without crude oil product contamination. These strains were exposed to increased levels of petroleum and diesel oil. Short-term exposure to petroleum or diesel oil revealed a rapid inhibition of photosynthetic performance and cell proliferation in freshwater and marine phytoplankton species. A broad degree of inter-specific variation in lethal contamination level was observed. When different strains were exposed to petroleum or diesel oil over the long-term, the cultures showed massive destruction of the sensitive cells. Nonetheless, after further incubation, some cultures were able to grow again due to cells that were resistant to the toxins. By means of a fluctuation analysis, discrimination between cells that had become resistant due to physiological acclimatization and resistant

  11. The effect of Yucca schidigera liquid extract on water quality and survival of Pacific Red Snapper Lutjanus peru during acclimatization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Castillo-Vargasmachuca

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The goal of this study was to determine the effect of the liquid extract of Yucca schidigera on water quality and survival of Pacific red snapper Lutjanus peru during its transfer from wild to laboratory conditions. Three experimental groups (0.00; 0.25 and 0.75 mg of Y. schidigera liquid extract per liter of culture were tested with four replicates using water recirculating systems. The liquid extract was dispensed every 72 h during 28 days. It was proved that Y. schidigera extract could be effective to reduce ammonia nitrogen caused by biogenic source (excretion of fish juveniles diminishing mortality of Pacific red snapper during acclimatization process. It is recommended the use of yucca extract concentration at a dose of 0.75 mg L-1 to reduce ammonia concentration in marine water for holding red snapper juveniles.

  12. Acclimatization of communities of ammonia oxidizing bacteria to seasonal changes in optimal conditions in a coke wastewater treatment plant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Young Mo

    2013-11-01

    The goal of this study was to investigate the correlation between optimal conditions of ammonia oxidation rates (AORs) and communities of ammonia oxidizing bacteria (AOB) adapting to seasonal changes in a full-scale wastewater treatment plant (WWTP). The optimal temperature and pH of specific AORs reflected seasonal variation patterns, showing the lowest values during the cold season, while the highest values in the warm season. Throughout the study period, Nitrosomonas europaea/eutropha and Nitrosomonas nitrosa remained the dominant AOB, indicating resistance to the influences of a changing environment. These results show that the optimal conditions for AOR can be adjusted to accommodate changing environmental conditions, relying on the acclimatization of a stable AOB community to given conditions, without any visible shift in the AOB community. PMID:24001689

  13. Substrate utilization in sea level residents during exercise in acute hypoxia and after 4 weeks of acclimatization to 4100 m

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lundby, C; Van Hall, Gerrit

    2002-01-01

    To investigate the effect of acclimatization to hypoxia on substrate utilization, eight sea level residents were studied during exercise at the same relative (rel) and absolute (abs) work rate as at sea level (SL), under acute (AH), and after 4 weeks exposure to 4100 m altitude (CH). Carbohydrate...... (CHO) and fat oxidation during exercise at SL were 2.0 +/- 0.2 and 0.3 +/- 0.0 g min(-1), respectively. At AHabs and CHabs CHO oxidation increased (P < 0.05) to 2.5 +/- 0.2 and 2.3 +/- 0.1 for CHO, and fat oxidation decreased (P < 0.05) to 0.2 +/- 0.01 and 0.2 +/- 0.01 g min(-1), respectively. Exercise...

  14. Potential costs of acclimatization to a warmer climate: growth of a reef coral with heat tolerant vs. sensitive symbiont types.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alison Jones

    Full Text Available One of the principle ways in which reef building corals are likely to cope with a warmer climate is by changing to more thermally tolerant endosymbiotic algae (zooxanthellae genotypes. It is highly likely that hosting a more heat-tolerant algal genotype will be accompanied by tradeoffs in the physiology of the coral. To better understand one of these tradeoffs, growth was investigated in the Indo-Pacific reef-building coral Acropora millepora in both the laboratory and the field. In the Keppel Islands in the southern Great Barrier Reef this species naturally harbors nrDNA ITS1 thermally sensitive type C2 or thermally tolerant type D zooxanthellae of the genus Symbiodinium and can change dominant type following bleaching. We show that under controlled conditions, corals with type D symbionts grow 29% slower than those with type C2 symbionts. In the field, type D colonies grew 38% slower than C2 colonies. These results demonstrate the magnitude of trade-offs likely to be experienced by this species as they acclimatize to warmer conditions by changing to more thermally tolerant type D zooxanthellae. Irrespective of symbiont genotype, corals were affected to an even greater degree by the stress of a bleaching event which reduced growth by more than 50% for up to 18 months compared to pre-bleaching rates. The processes of symbiont change and acute thermal stress are likely to act in concert on coral growth as reefs acclimatize to more stressful warmer conditions, further compromising their regeneration capacity following climate change.

  15. Potential costs of acclimatization to a warmer climate: growth of a reef coral with heat tolerant vs. sensitive symbiont types.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Alison; Berkelmans, Ray

    2010-05-03

    One of the principle ways in which reef building corals are likely to cope with a warmer climate is by changing to more thermally tolerant endosymbiotic algae (zooxanthellae) genotypes. It is highly likely that hosting a more heat-tolerant algal genotype will be accompanied by tradeoffs in the physiology of the coral. To better understand one of these tradeoffs, growth was investigated in the Indo-Pacific reef-building coral Acropora millepora in both the laboratory and the field. In the Keppel Islands in the southern Great Barrier Reef this species naturally harbors nrDNA ITS1 thermally sensitive type C2 or thermally tolerant type D zooxanthellae of the genus Symbiodinium and can change dominant type following bleaching. We show that under controlled conditions, corals with type D symbionts grow 29% slower than those with type C2 symbionts. In the field, type D colonies grew 38% slower than C2 colonies. These results demonstrate the magnitude of trade-offs likely to be experienced by this species as they acclimatize to warmer conditions by changing to more thermally tolerant type D zooxanthellae. Irrespective of symbiont genotype, corals were affected to an even greater degree by the stress of a bleaching event which reduced growth by more than 50% for up to 18 months compared to pre-bleaching rates. The processes of symbiont change and acute thermal stress are likely to act in concert on coral growth as reefs acclimatize to more stressful warmer conditions, further compromising their regeneration capacity following climate change.

  16. A community change in the algal endosymbionts of a scleractinian coral following a natural bleaching event: field evidence of acclimatization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, A M; Berkelmans, R; van Oppen, M J H; Mieog, J C; Sinclair, W

    2008-06-22

    The symbiosis between reef-building corals and their algal endosymbionts (zooxanthellae of the genus Symbiodinium) is highly sensitive to temperature stress, which makes coral reefs vulnerable to climate change. Thermal tolerance in corals is known to be substantially linked to the type of zooxanthellae they harbour and, when multiple types are present, the relative abundance of types can be experimentally manipulated to increase the thermal limits of individual corals. Although the potential exists for this to translate into substantial thermal acclimatization of coral communities, to date there is no evidence to show that this takes place under natural conditions. In this study, we show field evidence of a dramatic change in the symbiont community of Acropora millepora, a common and widespread Indo-Pacific hard coral species, after a natural bleaching event in early 2006 in the Keppel Islands (Great Barrier Reef). Before bleaching, 93.5% (n=460) of the randomly sampled and tagged colonies predominantly harboured the thermally sensitive Symbiodinium type C2, while the remainder harboured a tolerant Symbiodinium type belonging to clade D or mixtures of C2 and D. After bleaching, 71% of the surviving tagged colonies that were initially C2 predominant changed to D or C1 predominance. Colonies that were originally C2 predominant suffered high mortality (37%) compared with D-predominant colonies (8%). We estimate that just over 18% of the original A. millepora population survived unchanged leaving 29% of the population C2 and 71% D or C1 predominant six months after the bleaching event. This change in the symbiont community structure, while it persists, is likely to have substantially increased the thermal tolerance of this coral population. Understanding the processes that underpin the temporal changes in symbiont communities is key to assessing the acclimatization potential of reef corals.

  17. Acclimatation de vitroplants de bananier Musa sp. en culture hydroponique: impact de différentes concentrations en cuivre sur la croissance des vitroplants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mazinga, MK.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Acclimatation of Banana's Vitroplants (Musa sp. in Hydroponic Culture: Effects of Different Concentrations Copper on Growth of Vitroplants. Constraints due to copper and consequences of its accumulation in acclimatized banana in vitroplants have been studied in hydroponic culture. 0-100- 500-1000 ppm copper was added to the nutrient medium in hydroponic culture. At 1000 ppm, copper was accumulated in the roots but not in the aerial parts. Surprisingly, biomass of shoots and roots was augmented significantly at this concentration (with leaves as an exception. Plant height was reduced strongly even at 100 ppm CuSO4, although the copper content in shoots and leaves was very low.

  18. Post-capture immune gene expression studies in the deep-sea hydrothermal vent mussel Bathymodiolus azoricus acclimatized to atmospheric pressure

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Barros, I.; Divya, B.; Martins, I.; Vandeperre, F.; Santos, R.S.; Bettencourt, R.

    , symbiosis is considered the most important driving factor to overcome limited metabolic capabilities in extreme habitats [6,7] conferring a clear nutritional advantage to most Bathymodiolid mussels, allowing them to obtain energy from either sulfide.... azoricus immune genes tran- scriptional activity and symbiont bacteria prevalence, in view of the lack of chemical-based energy sources during acclimatization to aquaria. Given the chemosynthetic nature of B. azoricus sym- bionts, changes...

  19. Plasma arginine vasopressin, atrial natriuretic peptide and brain natriuretic peptide responses to long-term field training in the heat: effects of fluid ingestion and acclimatization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mudambo, K S; Coutie, W; Rennie, M J

    1997-01-01

    The maintenance of blood volume during exercise, especially in a hot environment, is of major importance for continued performance. In order to investigate the relationships between exercise, type and amount of fluid intake and the degree of acclimatization to heat stress and on responses of arginine vasopressin (AVP), atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP) and brain natriuretic peptide (BNP), we studied 24 soldiers during and after jogging/walking exercise both before and after acclimatization to field training at [mean (SE)] 40 (0.7) degrees C and 32 (3)% relative humidity. The running exercise was carried out under three conditions, i.e., (1) without any fluid intake, (2) with intake of water or (3) with intake of a dextrose/electrolyte solution. Venous blood samples were drawn before exercise, at the end of exercise and at 15 min and 60 min afterwards. Acclimatization resulted in significant losses of body mass, total body water, plasma volume, ANP and increases in plasma osmolality, packed cell volume and AVP at rest but without any significant changes in BNP. During exercise with no fluid intake, there was a significant rise in plasma osmolality, Na+ and AVP, but no significant alterations in plasma ANP and BNP were observed. When subjects ingested water or dextrose/electrolyte solution during exercise, ANP rose by 234% and 431% respectively and BNP rose by 398% and 583% respectively without any significant increase in AVP. The results suggest that, during acclimatization, the subjects became slightly dehydrated. Alterations in response to changes in body water status appear to be greater for AVP than ANP or BNP at rest. During exercise in the heat ANP and BNP may play complementary roles. PMID:9088840

  20. Micropropagation of Achillea millefolium L. on half-strength ms medium and direct rooting and acclimatization of microshoots in hydroponic culture

    OpenAIRE

    Marković Marija; Skočajić Dragana; Grbić Mihailo; Đukić Matilda; Obratov-Petković Dragica; Đunisijević-Bojović Danijela; Borovica Milica

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the possibility of micropropagation of the medicinal plant A. millefolium on half-strength MS medium and ex vitro rooting and acclimatization of the obtained microshoots in hydroculture in order to establish an efficient production method. Two explant types were used: basal and terminal cuttings, and better results were achieved when terminal cuttings were used. The development of shoots in the multiplication phase was...

  1. Effects of 60 Hz sinusoidal magnetic field on in vitro establishment, multiplication, and acclimatization phases of Coffea arabica seedlings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isaac Alemán, Elizabeth; Oliveira Moreira, Rafael; Almeida Lima, Andre; Chaves Silva, Samuel; González-Olmedo, Justo Lorenzo; Chalfun-Junior, Antonio

    2014-09-01

    The influence of extremely low frequency electromagnetic fields on net photosynthesis, transpiration, photosynthetic pigment concentration, and gene expression of ribulose 1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase small subunit (RBCS1), during in vitro establishment, in vitro multiplication and acclimatization phases of coffee seedlings were investigated. Untreated coffee plants were considered as control, whereas treated plants were exposed to a 60 Hz sinusoidal magnetic field of 2 mT of magnetic induction during 3 min. This magnetic field was generated by an electromagnet, connected to a wave generator. The results revealed that magnetically treated plants showed a significant increase in net photosynthesis (85.4% and 117.9%, in multiplication and acclimatization phases, respectively), and in photosynthetic pigment concentration (66.6% for establishment phase, 79.9% for multiplication phase, and 43.8% for acclimatization phase). They also showed a differential RBCS1 gene expression (approximately twofold) and a decrease of transpiration rates in regard to their control plants. In conclusion, the findings suggest that the application of 60 Hz magnetic field to in vitro coffee plants may improve the seedlings quality by modifying some photosynthetic physiological and molecular processes, increasing their vigor, and ensuring better plant development in later stages.

  2. Why is VO2 max after altitude acclimatization still reduced despite normalization of arterial O2 content?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Calbet, J A L; Boushel, Robert Christopher; Radegran, G;

    2003-01-01

    Acute hypoxia (AH) reduces maximal O2 consumption (VO2 max), but after acclimatization, and despite increases in both hemoglobin concentration and arterial O2 saturation that can normalize arterial O2 concentration ([O2]), VO2 max remains low. To determine why, seven lowlanders were studied at VO2...... max (cycle ergometry) at sea level (SL), after 9-10 wk at 5,260 m [chronic hypoxia (CH)], and 6 mo later at SL in AH (FiO2 = 0.105) equivalent to 5,260 m. Pulmonary and leg indexes of O2 transport were measured in each condition. Both cardiac output and leg blood flow were reduced by approximately 15......% in both AH and CH (P <0.05). At maximal exercise, arterial [O2] in AH was 31% lower than at SL (P <0.05), whereas in CH it was the same as at SL due to both polycythemia and hyperventilation. O2 extraction by the legs, however, remained at SL values in both AH and CH. Although at both SL and in AH...

  3. Temperature mapping of trucks transporting fertile eggs and day-old chicks: Efficiency and/or acclimatization?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aérica C. Nazareno

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the thermal profiles of trucks used for transporting fertile eggs and day-old chicks. This study was carried out in a broiler hatchery in the State of Sao Paulo. The experiment was conducted during three months, in which six egg loads and 11 chick loads were observed. Thermal profile assessments were performed in an environmental controlled trucks with thermal control and following dimensions: 7.5 x 2.6 x 2.5 m for eggs, and 8.0 x 2.5 x 2.5 m for chicks. The maximum transport capacities were approximately of 592 boxes of eggs and 630 boxes of chicks, distributed all over the lorry. The thermal profiles were assessed at five-minutes-interval for eggs and in ten-minutes-interval for chicks, using thermal variables such as temperature, relative humidity and specific enthalpy. Geostatistics was used to model spatial dependency (by kriging. The results showed that the acclimatization in trucks was deficient. The loads were found to be submitted to an incompatible temperature, showing a huge thermal variety in the body trucks.

  4. Acclimatization and leaf anatomy of micropropagated fig plantlets Aclimatização e anatomia foliar de plântulas de figo micropropagadas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chrystiane Fráguas Chirinéa

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The survival of micropropagated plants during and after acclimatization is a limiting process to plant establishment. There is little information on how the anatomy of vegetative organs of Ficus carica can be affected by culture conditions and acclimatization. The present research aimed to study the effects of time on culture medium and substrates during the acclimatization of fig tree plantlets produced in vitro, characterizing some leaf anatomy aspects of plantlets cultured in vitro and of fig trees produced in field. Plantlets previously multiplied in vitro were separated and transferred into Wood Plant Medium (WPM where they were kept for 0, 15, 30, 45 and 60 days. Different substrates were tested and studies on leaf anatomy were performed in order to compare among plantlets grown in vitro, plantlets under 20, 40 and 60 days of acclimatization, and field grown plants. Keeping plantlets for 30 days in WPM allowed better development in Plantmax during acclimatization. Field grown plants presented higher number of stomata, greater epicuticular wax thickness and greater leaf tissue production compared to in vitro ones. The leaf tissues of in vitro plantlets show little differentiation and have great stomata number compared with acclimatized plants, which reduce the number of stomata during the acclimatization process.A sobrevivência de plantas micropropagadas durante e após a aclimatização é um processo limitante para o estabelecimento de plantas. Poucas informações são encontradas de como a anatomia de órgãos vegetativos de Ficus carica pode ser afetada pelas condições de cultivo e aclimatização. O presente trabalho teve por objetivo estudar os efeitos do tempo em meio de cultura e substratos durante a aclimatização de plântulas de figueira produzidas in vitro e cultivadas no campo. Plântulas multiplicadas in vitro foram separadas e transferidas para meio WPM, onde foram mantidas por 0; 15; 30; 45 e 60 dias. Diferentes

  5. Aspectos morfofisiológicos na pré-aclimatização in vitro e aclimatização de plantas de caroá Morpho-physiological aspects of in vitro pre-acclimatization and acclimatization of the caroá plant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela Garcia Silveira

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi estudar a influência da sacarose (0; 15 e 30 g L-1, tipo de vedação (filme de PVC e tampão de algodão dos tubos de ensaio, e a concentração dos sais do meio MS (50; 75 e 100% sobre os aspectos morfofisiológicos das plantas de caroá durante a fase de pré-aclimatização in vitro visando otimizar a taxa de sobrevivência e reduzir o tempo de aclimatização das mudas. A análise das características de comprimento, produção de matéria seca, taxa de sobrevivência e enraizamento mostraram que as plantas de Neoglaziovia variegata nas fases de pré-aclimatização in vitro e aclimatização foram dependentes das concentrações de sacarose e nutrientes inorgânicos, além da aeração. Melhores resultados foram obtidos quando as mudas de caroá foram inoculadas em meio MS com a concentração original dos sais do MS, suplementado com 15 ou 30 g L-1 de sacarose e vedadas com tampão de algodão.This work aimed to evaluate the influence of sucrose (0; 15 and 30g L-1, the type of seal used in the test tubes (PVC film or cotton plug, and salt concentration in the MS medium (50%; 75% and 100% on the morphological and physiological traits of caroá plants during in vitro pre-acclimatization phase aiming to optimize the survival rate and shorten the acclimatization period of the seedlings. The analysis of characteristics such as length, dry matter production, survival rate and rooting, showed that Neoglaziovia variegata plants at pre-acclimatization and acclimatization stages were dependent on sucrose concentrations, inorganic nutrients from MS medium and aeration. The best results in the acclimatization stage were obtained when the caroá seedlings were inoculated in MS medium with the full salt concentration, supplemented with 15 or 30g L-1 sucrose, and sealed with cotton plugs during the pre-acclimatization stage.

  6. Organogênese direta e aclimatização de plantas de patchouli Direct organogenesis and acclimatization of patchouli

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria de Fátima Arrigoni-Blank

    2011-06-01

    aromatic species whose essential oil is largely employed by perfume industry. This conventional propagation is carried out using cuttings. Micropropagation is an alternative for clonal propagation of pathogens free individuals in large scale. We analyzed the influence of different combinations of auxins and kinetin in patchouli organogenesis and different kinds of substrate mixtures for the acclimatization of micropropagated plantlets. Two tests of organogenesis induction were carried out. In the first, five kinetin concentrations (0.0; 1.0; 2.0; 4.0 and 6.0 mg L‑1 and four IAA concentrations (0.0; 0.5; 1.0 and 2.0 mg L-1 were tested, and in the second, five kinetin concentrations (0.0; 0.5; 1.0; 2.0 and 4.0 mg L-1 and three NAA concentrations (0.0; 0.1 and 0.5 mg L-1. For acclimatization the following substrates were analyzed: coconut dust + formulated fertilizer (NPK 3-12-6 + Ca, S, Zn, B, Cu, Fe, Mn and B at 3.0; 2.5; 0.1; 0.025; 0.01; 0.075; 0.05 and 0.0015%, respectively at the concentration of 12 g L-1 + limestone (1 g L-1 [PBC]; coconut dust + vermiculite (2:1 + formulated fertilizer at the concentration of 12 g L-1 + limestone (1 g L-1 [PBCV (2:1]; coconut dust + vermiculite (1:1 v/v + formulated fertilizer at the concentration of 12 g L-1 + limestone (1 g L-1 [PBCV (1:1]; coconut dust + limestone (1 g L-1 + MS salts [PCMS]; vermiculite added with MS salts, using 15 mL of the salt mixture per plant [VMS]; vermiculite + formulated fertilizer at the concentration of 12 g L-1 [VMB]. Direct organogenesis can be promoted by MS medium supplemented with 2.47 mg L-1 of kinetin and 0.1 mg L-1 of NAA. The shoot elongation, individualization and shoot rooting steps, however, were promoted in MS medium without growth regulators. For acclimatization one of the best results was obtained using PBCV (1:1.

  7. Amadurecimento da banana-prata climatizada em diferentes dias após a colheita Characterization of 'prata' bananas, acclimatized at different time intervals after the harvest

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cíntia de Souza Silva

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available O amadurecimento induzido por climatização em bananas, é um procedimento que tem sido largamente utilizado. Ele proporciona uma maturação uniforme, já que a fruta apresenta maturação desuniforme em vista da formação dos frutos em pencas com diferentes idades. No entanto, não há para todas as cultivares de banana, estudos específicos em relação ao tempo entre a colheita e a climatização que possa afetar a qualidade dos frutos. Desta forma, com o presente trabalho objetivou-se avaliar mediante as características físicas, químicas e fisiológicas a qualidade da banana - prata climatizada em diferentes dias entre a colheita e a climatização. Foram testados três diferentes dias de climatização sendo 1, 2 e 3 dias após a colheita. Ao final da climatização, os frutos foram armazenados em temperatura ambiente por um período de 5 dias. As análises realizadas foram: perda de massa, coloração da casca, respiração, firmeza, pH, sólidos solúveis, acidez titulável e amido. Frutas climatizadas 1 dia após a colheita apresentaram-se, no 1º dia de armazenamento, com menor perda de massa, mais verdes, com maior liberação de CO2, mais firmes, com menores teores de sólidos solúveis e maior porcentagem de amido, quando comparados àqueles climatizados aos 2 e 3 dias após a colheita. Essa diferença foi reduzida com o decorrer do armazenamento praticamente se igualando os tratamentos ao final do armazenamento.The ripening of bananas, as induced by acclimatization, it is a procedure that has been used widely. It provides an uniform maturation, so overcoming the irregular maturation due to the formation of the fruits in bunches with different ages. Nonetheless, there are no specific studies relating the quality of the fruits and the time between the harvest and the acclimatization. In this sense, the present work used the physico-chemical characteristics of the 'prata' bananas to evaluate their quality when submitted to

  8. Hemoglobina y testosterona: importancia en la aclimatación y adaptación a la altura Hemoglobin and testosterone: importance on high altitude acclimatization and adaptation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gustavo F. Gonzales

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Los diferentes tipos de mecanismos que emplea el organismo cuando se enfrenta a una situación de hipoxia incluyen la acomodación, la aclimatación y la adaptación. La acomodación es la respuesta inicial a la exposición aguda a la hipoxia de altura y se caracteriza por aumento de la ventilación y de la frecuencia cardiaca. La aclimatación se presenta en los individuos que están temporalmente expuestos a la altura y, que en cierto grado, les permite tolerar la altura. En esta fase hay un incremento en la eritropoyesis, se incrementa la concentración de hemoglobina y mejora la capacidad de transporte de oxígeno. La adaptación es el proceso de aclimatación natural donde entra en juego las variaciones genéticas y la aclimatación que les permiten a los individuos vivir sin dificultad en la altura. La testosterona es una hormona que regula la eritropoyesis y la ventilación, podría estar asociada con los procesos de aclimatación y adaptación a la altura. La eritrocitosis excesiva que conduce al mal de montaña crónico es causada por una baja saturación arterial de oxígeno, una ineficiencia ventilatoria y reducida respuesta ventilatoria a la hipoxia. La testosterona se incrementa en la exposición aguda en la altura y en los nativos de altura con eritrocitosis excesiva. Los resultados de las investigaciones actuales permitirían concluir que el incremento de la testosterona y de la hemoglobina son buenas para la aclimatación adquirida pues mejoran el transporte de oxígeno pero no para la adaptación a la altura, dado que valores altos de testosterona en suero se asocian con eritrocitosis excesiva.The different types of response mechanisms that the organism uses when exposed to hypoxia include accommodation, acclimatization and adaptation. Accommodation is the initial response to acute exposure to high altitude hypoxia and is characterized by an increase in ventilation and heart rate. Acclimatization is observed in individuals

  9. Aclimatação ao frio e dano por geada em canola Acclimatization to cold and frost-injury in canola

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Genei Antonio Dalmago

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a influência da aclimatação ao frio sobre o dano causado pela geada em diferentes estádios fenológicos de genótipos de canola. Foram realizados cinco experimentos em ambiente controlado, em 2006, 2007 e 2008. Os fatores avaliados foram: genótipos, aclimatação (com; sem, intensidades de geada, estádios de desenvolvimento de plantas, regimes de aclimatação e regimes de geada. As variáveis avaliadas foram: queima de folhas, massa de matéria seca, estatura de plantas, duração de subperíodo, componentes de rendimento e rendimento de grãos. A aclimatação ao frio, antes da geada, resultou em menor queima de folhas e maior massa de matéria seca, em comparação a plantas não aclimatadas. As geadas foram prejudiciais a partir de -6°C no início do ciclo de desenvolvimento, principalmente em plantas não aclimatadas, e a partir de -4ºC na floração, com redução do número de síliquas e do número de grãos por síliqua. A aclimatação após as geadas não contribuiu para a tolerância da canola a esse evento. Geadas consecutivas não acarretaram maior prejuízo à canola. A aclimatação de plantas de canola antes da geada reduz os danos, principalmente quando a geada ocorre no início do desenvolvimento das plantas.The objective of this work was to evaluate the influence of cold acclimatization on frost damage at different phenological stages of canola genotypes. Five experiments were carried out under controlled conditions, in 2006, 2007, and 2008. The evaluated factors were: genotypes, acclimatization (with; without, frost gradient, plant developmental stages, acclimatization regimes and frost regimes. The evaluated variables were: leaf scorching symptoms, dry weight, plant height, length of subperiod, yield components and grain yield. The acclimatization before frost resulted in lesser leaf scorching symptoms and higher dry matter in comparison to plants not acclimated. Frosts were

  10. Preconditioning in the reef-building coral Pocillopora damicornis and the potential for trans-generational acclimatization in coral larvae under future climate change conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Putnam, Hollie M; Gates, Ruth D

    2015-08-01

    Coral reefs are globally threatened by climate change-related ocean warming and ocean acidification (OA). To date, slow-response mechanisms such as genetic adaptation have been considered the major determinant of coral reef persistence, with little consideration of rapid-response acclimatization mechanisms. These rapid mechanisms such as parental effects that can contribute to trans-generational acclimatization (e.g. epigenetics) have, however, been identified as important contributors to offspring response in other systems. We present the first evidence of parental effects in a cross-generational exposure to temperature and OA in reef-building corals. Here, we exposed adults to high (28.9°C, 805 µatm P(CO2)) or ambient (26.5°C, 417 µatm P(CO2)) temperature and OA treatments during the larval brooding period. Exposure to high treatment negatively affected adult performance, but their larvae exhibited size differences and metabolic acclimation when subsequently re-exposed, unlike larvae from parents exposed to ambient conditions. Understanding the innate capacity corals possess to respond to current and future climatic conditions is essential to reef protection and maintenance. Our results identify that parental effects may have an important role through (1) ameliorating the effects of stress through preconditioning and adaptive plasticity, and/or (2) amplifying the negative parental response through latent effects on future life stages. Whether the consequences of parental effects and the potential for trans-generational acclimatization are beneficial or maladaptive, our work identifies a critical need to expand currently proposed climate change outcomes for corals to further assess rapid response mechanisms that include non-genetic inheritance through parental contributions and classical epigenetic mechanisms. PMID:26246609

  11. Enraizamento e aclimatização de plantas micropropagadas de amoreira-preta cv. Brazos Rooting and acclimatization of micropropagated plants of blackberry cv. Brazos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolina Smanhotto Schuchovski Augusto

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available O presente trabalho estudou as fases finais do processo de micropropagação, incluindo o enraizamento e a posterior aclimatização da amoreira-preta cv. Brazos. Os experimentos foram realizados no Laboratório de Micropropagação de Plantas da UFPR, Curitiba-PR, no período de março de 2000 a julho de 2001. No enraizamento in vitro com ou sem imersão em AIB, obteve-se mais de 95% de enraizamento nos dois tratamentos. No experimento de enraizamento ex vitro, com microestacas provenientes da multiplicação com diferentes citocininas, as taxas de enraizamento e sobrevivência foram de 100%. Na fase final, testou-se a influência da sacarose do meio de cultura de enraizamento in vitro na posterior aclimatização. Em todos os tratamentos, houve 100% de sobrevivência. Conclui-se que pode ser realizado um eficiente enraizamento in vitro sem AIB e sem a adição de sacarose ao meio de cultura, com posterior aclimatização em túnel plástico ou, ainda, realizar o enraizamento ex vitro e aclimatização em casa de vegetação com nebulização intermitente.The present work studied the final stages of blackberry cv. Brazos micropropagation, including rooting and acclimatization. The experiments were carried out in the Plant Micropropagation Laboratory at UFPR, Curitiba-PR, during March 2000 until July 2001. In the in vitro rooting with or without immersion in IBA, the percentage of rooting was higher than 95% in both treatments. In the experiment of ex vitro rooting, with micro-shoots proceeding from the multiplication with different cytokinins, the rooting and survival rates were of 100%. In the final stage it was tested the influence of sucrose of the in vitro rooting media on the acclimatization. All the treatments showed 100% of survival. It can be concluded that an efficient in vitro rooting can be realized without both IBA and sucrose in the culture media with acclimatization under plastic tunnel or ex vitro rooting and acclimatization

  12. Heat acclimatization does not improve VO2max or cycling performance in a cool climate in trained cyclists

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karlsen, Anders; Racinais, S; Jensen, M V;

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated if well-trained cyclists improve V ˙ O 2 m a x and performance in cool conditions following heat acclimatization through natural outdoor training in hot conditions. Eighteen trained male cyclists were tested for physiological adaptations, V ˙ O 2 m a x , peak aerobic power...... was associated with marked improvements in TT performance in the heat. However, for the well-trained endurance athletes, this did not transfer to an improved aerobic exercise capacity or outdoor TT performance in cool conditions....

  13. Thermal performance in layer hen house with natural acclimatization/ Desempenho térmico de aviário de postura acondicionado naturalmente

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Antônio Targa

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available The work aimed at presenting analyses and comparisons of the thermal performance of a laying hens housing in the region of Bastos, in the state of São Paulo, adapted from natural alternatives of acclimatization, having a not adapted housing as reference, that is, of a more common typology in the area, and another one, artificially acclimatized. The index evaluated was the temperature and humidity (THI, the black globe temperature and humidity index (GTHI and the thermal radiation charge (TRC. It was calculated from the measurement of the temperature of dry bulb, temperature of wet bulb, temperature of black globe and air speed. The measurements were made both in the intern and the extern environment, at four times (5 a.m, 11a.m., 3 p.m. and 4 p.m. o´clock and in two seasons (late spring and early summer, for ten days in a row. The results allow to conclude that the house naturally acclimatized (NA has presented intermediate performance as compared with the others, making it to possible to control environment at adequate levels only during spring.O objetivo do trabalho foi apresentar análises e comparações sobre o desempenho térmico de um galpão para aves de postura, na região de Bastos, estado de São Paulo, adaptado a partir de alternativas naturais de acondicionamento, tendo como referências um galpão não adaptado, ou seja, de tipologia mais comum na região e outro acondicionado artificialmente. Os parâmetros avaliados – Índice de Temperatura e Umidade (ITU, o Índice de Temperatura de Globo Negro (UTGU, Umidade e a Carga Térmica de Radiação (CTR – foram calculados a partir de medidas de temperatura de bulbo seco, temperatura de bulbo úmido, temperatura de globo negro e velocidade do ar. As medições foram realizadas, nos ambientes internos e externos, em quatro horários (5, 11, 15 e 16 horas na estação primavera e verão, durante dez dias consecutivos. Os resultados obtidos permitiram concluir que o sistema de

  14. Variation in metabolic enzymatic activity in white muscle and liver of blue tilapia, Oreochromis aureus, in response to long-term thermal acclimatization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Younis, Elsayed M.

    2015-05-01

    The effects of rearing temperature on white muscle and hepatic phosphofructokinase (PFK), pyruvate kinase (PK), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and alanine aminotransferase (ALT) were examined in fingerlings of blue tilapia, Oreochromis aureus. The experiment was conducted for 14 weeks at temperatures of 18, 22, 26, 30, and 34°C. The activity of the glycolytic enzymes PFK, PK, and LDH in white muscle increased significantly with increase in water temperature. A reverse trend was observed for these enzymes in the liver, except for LDH, which behaved in the same manner as in white muscle. Cytosolic AST and ALT activity increased in both white muscle and liver in response to warm thermal acclimatization, while a reduction in mitochondrial AST and ALT activity was noticed at high temperatures in comparison with those at a lower temperature.

  15. Aclimatização de germoplasma de capim-elefante, pós cultivo in vitro Acclimatization of elephantgrass germplasm after in vitro growth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fausto de Souza Sobrinho

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available Entre as forrageiras tropicais, o capim-elefante (Pennisetum purpureum Schum. se destaca pelo grande potencial de produção de forragem e ampla adaptação ambiental. A utilização de acessos do banco de germoplasma mantidos in vitro requer a prévia aclimatização das plantas. No caso específico do capim-elefante, não existem informações a respeito das condições ideais e variabilidade para a aclimatização. Por isso, objetivou-se com este trabalho verificar a existência de variabilidade para aclimatização entre os genótipos de capim-elefante, utilizando-se diferentes substratos. Foi utilizado o delineamento inteiramente casualizado, em esquema fatorial, com três repetições e parcelas de quatro vasos com uma planta cada. Os tratamentos foram constituídos por quatro genótipos de capim-elefante [Cameroon, Mineiro, Pioneiro e um híbrido triplóide (P. purpureum x P. glaucum], quatro substratos [substrato comercial Plantmax; Areia irrigada com adubo Ouro Verde (1 g/l; Vermiculita irrigada com adubo Ouro Verde (1 g/l e mistura de solo, areia e esterco (1:1:1] e dois tempos de introdução in vitro (permanência de 15 e 90 dias in vitro. Os resultados evidenciaram que os substratos estudados não interferiram na porcentagem de pegamento das plantas de capim-elefante aclimatizadas. De um modo geral, quanto maior o período in vitro das plantas de capim-elefante, menor a porcentagem de pegamento na aclimatização.Among the tropical forages, elephantgrass (Pennisetum purpureum Schum. is noted due its high potential of forage production as well as the wide environmental adaptability. The utilization of accessions from in vitro germoplasm bank requires previous acclimatization of the plants. In the specific case of elephantgrass, there is no information regarding the ideal conditions and the variability for acclimatization. The objective of this study was to verify the existence of variability in elephantgrass genotypes for

  16. Effect of carbon source on acclimatization of nitrifying bacteria to achieve high-rate partial nitrification of wastewater with high ammonium concentration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mousavi, Seyyed Alireza; Ibrahim, Shaliza; Aroua, Mohamed Kheireddine

    2014-08-01

    Experiments in two laboratory-scale sequential batch reactors were carried out to investigate the effect of heterotrophic bacteria on nitrifying bacteria using external carbon sources. Partial nitrification of ammonium-rich wastewater during short-term acclimatization enriched the activity of ammonia-oxidizing bacteria in both reactors. Heterotrophic bacteria exhibited a minor effect on nitrifying bacteria, and complete removal of ammonium occurred at a rate of 41 mg L-1 h-1 in both reactors. The main strategy of this research was to carry out partial nitrification using high-activity ammonia-oxidizing bacteria with a high concentration of free ammonia (70 mg L-1). The NO2 -/(NO3 - + NO2 -) ratio was greater than 0.9 in both reactors most of the time.

  17. Echinometra sea urchins acclimatized to elevated pCO2 at volcanic vents outperform those under present-day pCO2 conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uthicke, Sven; Ebert, Thomas; Liddy, Michelle; Johansson, Charlotte; Fabricius, Katharina E; Lamare, Miles

    2016-07-01

    Rising atmospheric CO2 concentrations will significantly reduce ocean pH during the 21st century (ocean acidification, OA). This may hamper calcification in marine organisms such as corals and echinoderms, as shown in many laboratory-based experiments. Sea urchins are considered highly vulnerable to OA. We studied an Echinometra species on natural volcanic CO2 vents in Papua New Guinea, where they are CO2 -acclimatized and also subjected to secondary ecological changes from elevated CO2 . Near the vent site, the urchins experienced large daily variations in pH (>1 unit) and pCO2 (>2000 ppm) and average pH values (pHT 7.73) much below those expected under the most pessimistic future emission scenarios. Growth was measured over a 17-month period using tetracycline tagging of the calcareous feeding lanterns. Average-sized urchins grew more than twice as fast at the vent compared with those at an adjacent control site and assumed larger sizes at the vent compared to the control site and two other sites at another reef near-by. A small reduction in gonad weight was detected at the vents, but no differences in mortality, respiration, or degree of test calcification were detected between urchins from vent and control populations. Thus, urchins did not only persist but actually 'thrived' under extreme CO2 conditions. We suggest an ecological basis for this response: Increased algal productivity under increased pCO2 provided more food at the vent, resulting in higher growth rates. The wider implication of our observation is that laboratory studies on non-acclimatized specimens, which typically do not consider ecological changes, can lead to erroneous conclusions on responses to global change. PMID:26762613

  18. Silver Nitrate and Different Culture Vessels Influence High Frequency Microrhizome Induction In Vitro and Enhancement Growth of Turmeric Plantlet During Ex Vitro Acclimatization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dikash Singh THINGBAIJAM

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Eleven cultivars of C. longa var. Lakadong were collected from Manipur having different topography. Curcumin content in different cultivars has been analyzed by using UV-Visible Spectrophotometer (100 Bio-Carry Spectrophotometer. The curcuminoids content were analyzed and quantified for identification of best quality cultivar. Thoubal Cultivar with highest curcumin content (9.44% was subjected for tissue culture technique using different culture vessels and silver nitrate for rapid multiplication and scaling up of microrhizome production. High multiplication rate of 27.40�0.47 were obtained in Murashige and Skoog�s medium supplemented with 3% sucrose + 1 mg L-1 ?-napthalene acetic acid, 4 mg L-1 6-benzyl-amino-purine and 11 ?M silver nitrate. Effect of different culture vessels and silver nitrate were studied for microrhizome and multiple shoots formation. Relatively higher rate of shoots along with microrhizome (17.5�0.32 can be seen in Growtek which was grown without any plant growth regulator. Growtek was used for scaling up of microrhizome production in vitro and utmost microrhizome was produced in liquid Murashige and Skoog�s medium supplemented with 8% sucrose, 1 mg L-1 ?-napthalene acetic acid, 4 mg L-1 6-benzyl-amino-purine and 11 ?M silver nitrate (36.25�0.27. Addition of silver nitrate in the medium resulted in improvement of microrhizome induction in vitro. Higher concentration of silver nitrate (33, 44, 66, 88 ?M negatively affected the microrhizome and shoot multiplication and shows inhibition of tissue response completely. Analysis of in vitro derived plantlets during acclimatization shows that the exogenous applied of silver nitrate shows superior growth as compared to control. 90-95% of plantlets with and 75-80% plantlets without silver nitrate treatment were successfully established under ex vitro acclimatization. The protocol could be utilized for large scale production of true-to-type plantlets and as alternative

  19. Benefits of automated acclimatization during the pre-milking phase of lactating girolando cows Benefícios da climatização automatizada na pré-ordenha de vacas girolando em lactação

    OpenAIRE

    Irenilson M. da Silva; Héliton Pandorfi; Gledson L. P de Almeida; Cristiane Guiselini; Hugo M. Henrique

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this paper was to evaluate the automated acclimatization effects during pre-milking of cows on thermal conditioning, physiology, milk production and cost-benefit of the automated adiabatic evaporative cooling system (AECS). The treatments 20; 30; 40 min and control consisted of exposure time of pre-milking cows to the automated AECS. Sixteen cows were used with an average daily milk yield of 19 kg, distributed in a 4 x 4 Latin square design. The Tukey's test (P

  20. Short-term captivity influences maximal cold-induced metabolic rates and their repeatability in summer-acclimatized American goldfinches Spinus tristis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David L. SWANSON, Marisa O. KING

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Studies of metabolic variation in birds have involved both wild and captive individuals, but few studies have investigated whether captivity directly influences metabolic rates, despite such variation potentially confounding conclusions regarding how metabolic rates respond to the conditions under study. In addition, whether short-term captivity influences metabolic rate repeatability in birds is currently uninvestigated. In this study, we measured Msum (maximal cold-induced metabolic rates in summer acclimatized American goldfinches Spinus tristis directly after capture from wild populations, after approximately 2 weeks of indoor captivity (Captive 1, and again after an additional 1–2 weeks of captivity (Captive 2. Msum increased significantly (16.9% following the initial captive period, but remained stable thereafter. Body mass (Mb also increased significantly (9.2% during the initial captive period but remained stable thereafter, suggesting that muscle growth and/or remodeling of body composition produced the observed metabolic variation. Mb and Msum were not significantly repeatable between wild and Captive 1 birds, but were significantly repeatable between Captive 1 and Captive 2 groups. These data suggest that caution must be exercised when extrapolating metabolic rates from short-term captive to wild populations. In addition, Msum was a repeatable trait for birds under conditions where mean metabolic rates remained stable, but Msum repeatability disappeared during acclimation to conditions promoting phenotypically flexible metabolic responses. This suggests that the capacity for phenotypic flexibility varies among individuals, and such variation could have fitness consequences [Current Zoology 59 (4: 439–448, 2013].

  1. Micropropagação e aclimatização de gerânio (Pelargonium graveolens L. Micropropagation and acclimatization of geranium (Pelargonium graveolens L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.F Arrigoni-Blank

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available O gerânio (Pelargonium graveolens L. é uma planta medicinal e aromática nativa do sul da África, cujo óleo essencial é amplamente empregado nas indústrias de perfumaria e cosmético, além de ser usado como terapêutico. Avaliou-se o efeito da luminosidade e dos reguladores de crescimento BAP e ANA na multiplicação in vitro e o uso de diferentes substratos na aclimatização de mudas micropropagadas. Foram avaliadas as concentrações 0; 0,5; 1,0 e 2,0 mg L-1 de BAP, 0; 0,1 e 0,5 mg L-1 de ANA e duas condições de luminosidade (ausência e presença de luz, em esquema fatorial 4x3x2; para a aclimatização foram utilizados quatro substratos, pó de coco + Biosafra® (3-12-6 (12 g L-1 + calcário (1 g L-1 (PCBC; pó de coco + Biosafra® (3-12-6 (12 g L-1 + calcário (1 g L-1 + vermiculita (1:1 (PCBCV 1:1; pó de coco + Biosafra® (3-12-6 (12 g L­-1 + calcário (1 g L-1 + vermiculita (PCBCV 2:1 e vermiculita e adição semanal de sais MS (VS. Para a micropropagação de P. graveolens a utilização de 1,3 mg L-1 de BAP e 0,5 mg L-1 de ANA é eficiente na regeneração direta de plantas de gerânio, sendo a condição de escuro a mais indicada por proporcionar o maior número de brotos por explante. Para a aclimatização das mudas de gerânio, os melhores resultados foram obtidos em mudas aclimatizadas no substrato vermiculita com adição semanal de sais de MS seguido do substrato PCBCV 1:1.Geranium (Pelargonium graveolens L. is a medicinal and aromatic plant native to the south of Africa and whose essential oil is widely used by perfume and cosmetic industries, as well as in therapeutics. The effect of luminosity and growth regulators BAP and NAA on in vitro multiplication was evaluated, together with the use of different substrates on the acclimatization of micropropagated seedlings. The evaluated concentrations were 0, 0.5, 1.0 and 2.0 mg L-1 BAP; 0, 0.1 and 0.5 mg L-1 NAA; and two luminosity conditions (absence and presence of

  2. Transcriptional regulation of metal transport genes and mineral nutrition during acclimatization to cadmium and zinc in the Cd/Zn hyperaccumulator, Thlaspi caerulescens (Ganges population).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Küpper, Hendrik; Kochian, Leon V

    2010-01-01

    We investigated changes in mineral nutrient uptake and cellular expression levels for metal transporter genes in the cadmium (Cd)/zinc (Zn) hyperaccumulator, Thlaspi caerulescens during whole plant and leaf ontogenesis under different long-term treatments with Zn and Cd. Quantitative mRNA in situ hybridization (QISH) revealed that transporter gene expression changes not only dependent on metal nutrition/toxicity, but even more so during plant and leaf development. The main mRNA abundances found were: ZNT1, mature leaves of young plants; ZNT5, young leaves of young plants; MTP1 (= ZTP1 = ZAT), young leaves of both young and mature plants. Surprisingly different cellular expression patterns were found for ZNT1 and ZNT5, both belonging to the ZIP family of transition metal transporters: ZNT1, photosynthetic mesophyll and bundle sheath cells; ZNT5, nonphotosynthetic epidermal metal storage cells and bundle sheath cells. Thus, ZNT1 may function in micronutrient nutrition while ZNT5 may be involved in metal storage associated with hyperaccumulation. Cadmium inhibited the uptake of Zn, iron (Fe) and manganese (Mn), probably by competing for transporters or by interfering with the regulation of transporter gene expression. Cadmium-induced changes in cellular expression for ZNT1, ZNT5 and MTP1 could also be part of plant acclimatization to Cd toxicity. Defence against Cd toxicity involved enhanced uptake of magnesium (Mg), calcium (Ca) and sulphur (S). PMID:19843304

  3. Pulmonary gas exchange and acid-base state at 5,260 m in high-altitude Bolivians and acclimatized lowlanders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wagner, Hans Peter; Araoz, Mauricio; Boushel, Robert Christopher;

    2002-01-01

    exchange and acid-base balance at rest and during peak exercise when breathing room air and 55% O2. Despite 9 wk at 5,260 m and considerable renal bicarbonate excretion (arterial plasma HCO3- concentration = 15.1 meq/l), resting arterial pH in L was 7.48 +/- 0.007 (significantly greater than 7......Pulmonary gas exchange and acid-base state were compared in nine Danish lowlanders (L) acclimatized to 5,260 m for 9 wk and seven native Bolivian residents (N) of La Paz (altitude 3,600-4,100 m) brought acutely to this altitude. We evaluated normalcy of arterial pH and assessed pulmonary gas...... hyperoxic work, capacity was 73% greater in N. Buffering of lactic acid was greater in N, with 20% less increase in base deficit per millimole per liter rise in lactate. These data show in L persistent alkalosis even after 9 wk at 5,260 m. In N, the data show 1) insignificant reduction in exercise capacity...

  4. Micropropagation of Achillea millefolium L. on half-strength ms medium and direct rooting and acclimatization of microshoots in hydroponic culture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marković Marija

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to determine the possibility of micropropagation of the medicinal plant A. millefolium on half-strength MS medium and ex vitro rooting and acclimatization of the obtained microshoots in hydroculture in order to establish an efficient production method. Two explant types were used: basal and terminal cuttings, and better results were achieved when terminal cuttings were used. The development of shoots in the multiplication phase was successful with a regeneration percentage of 100%. Ex vitro rooting in a modified Hoagland nutrient solution was successful (83%, but the percentage of in vitro rooting on half-strength MS medium without hormones was higher (95%. However, bearing in mind that mass production of A. millefolium is more efficient when the phase of in vitro rooting is excluded, this method could be recommended for commercial propagation of this medicinal plant. It is necessary to conduct additional research in order to optimize the composition, EC and pH value of the hydroponic nutrient solution. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 43007

  5. VIGOR OF PLANTLET FROM MICROPLANTLET TREATED BY FILTRATE AND CELL SUSPENSION OF SOME ISOLATES OF BACILLUS AND RESISTANCE TO BANANA WILT PATHOGEN AFTER ACCLIMATIZATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hadi wiyono

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Blood Disease Bacterium (BDB and Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. cubense (FOC is a couple wilt pathogen  of  banana.  These pathogens are the most important constraint in cultivation of banana in Indonesia.  In the integrated control strategy of the disease, the use of healthy seedlings produced from tissue culture technique is recommended.  The seedling produced by tissue culture technique however leads to lower vigor and susceptibility to the disease due to the aseptic work in vitro causing the beneficial bacterial endophytic to be eliminated. Therefore, the utility of the beneficial endophytic bacteria should be studied for recovering the vigor and resistance of the seedling.     Three isolates of endophytic Bacillus (B04, B05, B10 have been effective as growth promoter of microplantlet and antagonist of BDB and FOC in vitro.   Here then, this article reports the study results of the vigor of the plantlet (treated microplantlet by filtrate or cell suspension of the Bacillus after 3 months in acclimatization. The results were similar to the previous results on microplantlet in vitro, that Bacillus isolates B04, B05, and B10 were capable of promoting the growth and inducing the resistance to wilt pathogens on banana plantlets.  The treatments with bacterial cell inoculums were more effective than those bacterial filtrate. Isolate B10 was most potential followed by B05 and B04 respectively.

  6. Short-term captivity influences maximal cold-induced metabolic rates and their repeatability in summer-acclimatized American goldfinches Spinus tristis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    David L.SWANSON; Marisa O.KING

    2013-01-01

    Studies of metabolic variation in birds have involved both wild and captive individuals,but few studies have investigated whether captivity directly influences metabolic rates,despite such variation potentially confounding conclusions regarding how metabolic rates respond to the conditions under study.In addition,whether short-term captivity influences metabolic rate repeatability in birds is currently uninvestigated.In this study,we measured Msum (maximal cold-induced metabolic rates) in summer acclimatized American goldfinches Spinus tristis directly after capture from wild populations,after approximately 2 weeks of indoor captivity (Captive 1),and again after an additional 1-2 weeks of captivity (Captive 2).Msum increased significantly (16.9%) following the initial captive period,but remained stable thereafter.Body mass (Mb) also increased significantly (9.2%) during the initial captive period but remained stable thereafter,suggesting that muscle growth and/or remodeling of body composition produced the observed metabolic variation.Mb and Msum were not significantly repeatable between wild and Captive 1 birds,but were significantly repeatable between Captive 1 and Captive 2 groups.These data suggest that caution must be exercised when extrapolating metabolic rates from short-term captive to wild populations.In addition,Msum was a repeatable trait for birds under conditions where mean metabolic rates remained stable,but Msum repeatability disappeared during acclimation to conditions promoting phenotypically flexible metabolic responses.This suggests that the capacity for phenotypic flexibility varies among individuals,and such variation could have fitness consequences.

  7. Anatomia foliar de Tabebuia serratifolia (Vahl Nich. (Bignoniaceae propagadas in vitro, in vivo e durante a aclimatização Leaf anatomy of Tabebuia serratifolia (Vahl Nich. (Bignoniaceae propagated in vitro, in vivo and during the acclimatization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara Dousseau

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available As mudas propagadas por técnicas de micropropagação geralmente apresentam alterações significativas induzidas pelas condições in vitro, que diminuem a capacidade de sobrevivência após a transferência para o ambiente ex vitro, sendo fundamental a avaliação da mudança estrutural durante o processo de adaptação. Objetivou-se com este trabalho, identificar as diferenças anatômicas foliares entre plantas de Tabebuia serratifolia (Vahl Nich. (ipê amarelo, cultivadas in vitro, in vivo e durante a aclimatização. Foram utilizadas plântulas mantidas por 43 dias em sala de crescimento, com 20, 40, 60 e 80 dias de aclimatização e mudas de 90 dias cultivadas em viveiro. As plântulas foram obtidas via cultura de embriões em meio MS e transplantadas para tubetes contendo plantmax®, para aclimatização em viveiro, sob 50% de sombreamento. Nas mesmas condições da aclimatização, foram produzidas as mudas in vivo. Cortes transversais e paradérmicos foram preparados de acordo com técnicas usuais em microtecnia vegetal. As plântulas in vitro apresentam os tecidos foliares pouco diferenciados e estômatos maiores e mais abertos, exigindo maiores cuidados na etapa inicial de aclimatização. Aos 60 dias de aclimatização as novas folhas produzidas possuem alguns aspectos anatômicos que podem conferir maior eficiência fotossintética e maior capacidade de regulação hídrica das plantas.The seedlings spread by micropropagation techniques, usually show significant alterations induced by the conditions in vitro, which decrease the survival capacity after the transfer to conditions ex vitro. The evaluation of the structural change during the acclimatization is necessary for the understanding of this adaptation process. The objective of this research was to identify the anatomical differences among the seedlings cultivated in vitro, in vivo and acclimatized plants of Tabebuia serratifolia (Vahl Nich. (yellow ipe, species with great

  8. Adição de torta de mamona em substratos na aclimatação de mudas micropropagadas de bananeira Effect of addition of castor bean pie in substrates in acclimatization of micropropagated banana plantlets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana Novais Martins

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available A utilização de mudas micropropagadas de bananeira que oferecem qualidade genética e fitossanitária, favorecendo o desenvolvimento, instalação e uniformidade do pomar, é importante para a exploração comercial da bananicultura. O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a influência da adição da torta de mamona nos substratos na aclimatação de mudas micropropagadas de bananeira da cv. Willians. O delineamento estatístico utilizado foi o inteiramente casualizado, com 10 tratamentos, sendo 2 substratos e 5 dosagens de torta de mamona (0; 6; 12; 18 e 24 g vaso-1. O substrato Vivatto Slim Plus® possibilitou o melhor desenvolvimento das plantas na aclimatação. Não são recomendadas doses superiores a 12 g planta-1 de torta de mamona misturadas ao substrato na aclimatação de mudas de bananeira.The use of micropropagated banana tree seedlings offer genetic and phytosanitary qualities, favoring the development, installation and uniformity of the yield and it is very important for the commercial exploration of banana fruits. The objective of this study was to evaluate the influence of castor oil plant pie added to the substrate in the acclimatization of micropropagated banana plantlets cv. 'Willians'. It was use the completely randomized, with 10 treatments, being 2 substrates and 5 dosages of castor oil plant pie (0; 6; 12; 18 and 24 g for each recipient. The substrate Vivatto Slim Plus® showed the best development of the plants in acclimatization processes. Dosages above 12 g of castor oil plant pie for each plant are not recommended mixed to the substrate in the acclimatization of banana tree seedlings

  9. Aclimatização de Cattleya (Orchidaceae, em substratos alternativos ao xaxim e ao esfagno = Acclimatization of the Cattleya (Orchidaceae in alternative substrates to tree fern fiber and sphagno

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandro Borini Lone

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available O xaxim desfibrado e o esfagno são os substratos mais utilizados pelosprodutores brasileiros para aclimatização de orquídeas, porém ambos correm o risco de serem extintos e a coleta está proibida pelo Ibama. Desta forma, o objetivo do trabalho foi avaliar a eficiência de substratos alternativos no desenvolvimento de plântulas de Cattleyaintermédia, durante a etapa de aclimatização. Os substratos testados foram: xaxim desfibrado; esfagno; casca de arroz carbonizada; casca de pínus + fibra de coco (1:1 v v-1; casca de pínus; fibra de coco. Após dez meses, foram avaliados: comprimento de parte aérea; comprimento da maior raiz; número de pseudobulbos; número de raízes; massa fresca total; pH do substrato; condutividade elétrica do substrato. Verificou-se que o substrato fibra de coco e a mistura de casca de pínus + fibra de coco (1:1 v v-1 são os mais indicados comoalternativa ao xaxim e ao esfagno para o cultivo de Cattleya intermédia, durante a etapa de aclimatização.The tree fern fiber and sphagno are the most utilized substrates by Brazilian producers for the acclimatization of orchids; however, bothare considered endangered species and their collection is forbidden by the authorities. Therefore, the objective of this work was to evaluate the efficiency of alternative substratesin the development of Cattleya intermedia plantules during the acclimatization stage. The tested substrates were: tree fern fiber; sphagno; carbonized rice hull; pinus bark + coconut fiber (1:1 v v-1; pinus bark; coconut fiber. After 10 months, the following were evaluated: length of aerial part; length of the bigger root; number of pseudobulbs; number of roots; total fresh mass; pH of the substrate; electric conductivity of the substrate. It was verifiedthat the substrate of coconut fiber and the mixture of pinus bark + coconut fiber (1:1 v v-1 are the most indicated as alternatives to tree fern fiber and sphagno for the cultivation of Cattleya

  10. Aclimatização de mudas micropropagadas de Bastão do Imperador em diferentes volumes de recipientes Acclimatization of micropropagated seedlings of Torch Lily in containers of different capacities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisangela Maria dos Santos

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available É crescente o mercado de flores tropicais no Brasil. No nordeste, por causa do clima, torna-se difícil a aclimatização dessas plantas. Portanto, este trabalho tem por objetivo determinar o recipiente mais adequado para aclimatizar mudas micropropagadas de bastão do imperador cv. Porcelana, em ambiente protegido. O experimento foi realizado em estufa e as mudas utilizadas foram obtidas por micropropagação. O delineamento experimental utilizado foi de blocos ao acaso, com quatro tratamentos (volumes e cinco repetições. Os volumes dos recipientes testados foram: V1 - 50 cm³ (Copo pequeno - CP; V2 - 150 cm³ (Tubete pequeno - TP; V3 - 300 cm³ (Tubete grande - TG; V4 - 450 cm³(Vaso pequeno - VP. Foram coletados dados correspondentes ao número de folhas (NF, altura da muda (AM, diâmetro do pseudocaule (DP, massa fresca da parte aérea (MFPA, massa fresca do sistema radicular (MFSR, massa seca da parte aérea (MSPA e massa seca do sistema radicular (MSSR. Foi realizada a análise de variância e os resultados de natureza qualitativa foram submetidos ao teste de média. O vaso de 450 cm³ é o recipiente mais adequado para aclimatização de bastão do imperador, pois proporcionou melhor desenvolvimento das mudas.The Brazilian market of tropical flowers is in a rapid growth stage. The climate of the Brazilian northeastern region, however, tends to hamper plant acclimatization. Considering this, our study aims at determining the most appropriate container (concerning to capacity to acclimatize micropropagated Torch Lily (cultivar Porcelana in a greenhouse. The experimental design was randomized blocks with four treatments (container capacities and five replications. The tested container capacities were: V1 = 50cm³ (small glass - CP; V2 = 150cm³ (small plastic tube - TP; V3 = 300 cm³ (large plastic tube - TG; V4 = 450cm³ (small vase - VP. The characteristics evaluated were: the number of leaves (NF, seedling height (AM, stem diameter (DP

  11. Changes of erythrocyte deformability in rats acclimatized to hypoxia and its molemechanism%高原低氧习服大鼠红细胞变形性的变化规律及其分子机制

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    聂鸿靖; 田云梅; 张东祥; 汪海

    2011-01-01

    acclimatized to hypoxia and its molemechanism. Methods: Male rats were randomly divided into three groups(n= 10): normal control group, acute hypoxia group and hypoxia acclimatization group. Animals were exposed to hypoxia for0, 1, 28 d, blooded from their hearts after anaesthetized, respectively. Erythrocyte deformability,membrane fluidity, cholesterin and total lipid, lipid components of erythrocyte membrane, erythrocyte membrane ATPase and the concentrations of Na+ and Ca2 + were measured respectively. The two-dimensional electrophoresis maps of the rats erythrocyte membrane protein were achieved. The different protein spots were founded by image master 2D elite and identified by mass spectrum. Results: ①In acute hypoxia group, the deformability, membrane fluidity, the content of membrane cholesterin and total lipid were declined. The content of phosphatidylserines(PS), sphingomyelin(SM) in erythrocyte membrane lipids were increased, phosphatidylcholine(PC) reduced. The activity of ATP enzymes reduced end the concentration of Na + and Ca2 + in erythrocyte increased. The two-dimensional electrophoresis maps of the rats erythrocyte membrane protein were achieved. Four of the seven protein spots selected increased and three of them showed no change. ②In hypoxia acclimatization group, the deformability, membrane fluidity, the content of membrane cholesterin and total lipid were increased than those in acute hypoxia group, similar to normal group. The content of PS、SM in erythrocyte membrane lipids were reduced, PC increased. The activity of ATP enzymes induced and the concentration of Na + and Ca2 + in erythrocyte increased after hypoxia acclimatization. Four of those protein spots mentioned increase and three declined after hypoxia acclimatization. They were respectively proved by mass spectrum to be alexin binding protein, aquaporin chip, membrane inhibitor reactive lysis, phospholipids scramblase, glucose transferase, aminophospholipid translocases, ATP

  12. Effects of Heat Acclimatization on the Erythropoietin of Kidney in Rats%热习服对大鼠肾脏促红细胞生成素的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李松仑; 王忠超; 刘焕; 张海军; 白云刚; 徐玫

    2012-01-01

    Objective: The aim of this work is to investigate the effects of heat acclimatization on the Erythropoietin (Epo) of Kidney in Rats. Methods: Twenty one male healthy SD rats were divided into three groups (n=7) randomly, a control group (CON), a acute heat stress group (HS) and heat acclimatization group (HA). Acute heat stress rats exposed to heat stress once at the end of the experiment, and heat acclimatization rats exposed to heat stress daily, while control rats were kept in normal room temperature for whole period of experiment. Ten days later, rats were anesthetized, the kidney was removed for test. ELISA was used to detect the Epo content of kidney, Western blot and RT-PCR were applied to test the protein expression and mRNA expression of Epo in kidney. Results: The results were as follows: there were no differences of the Epo content of kidney between HA rats and HS rats, but compared with that of CON rats, the Epo content of kidney increased markedly in HA rats and HS rats; Both the mRNA expression and protein expression of Epo increased significantly in kidney of HA rats and HS rats, compared with that of CON. And the expression of both the mRNA expression and protein expression of Epo in HA rats were lower thant those of HS rats. Conclusion: These data indicated that heat acclimatization can result in increasing of Epo of kidney in rats, and these increases may contribute to production of red blood cells in heat acclimatization.%目的:探讨热习服对大鼠肾脏促红细胞生成素的影响.方法:雄性SD大鼠21只,按体重配对随机分为对照组、单次高温暴露组(高温组)和热习服组,每组7只,各组在各自的实验条件下进行10天,对照组大鼠第11天留取肾脏组织标本;高温组和热习服组第11天进行相同条件的标准热负荷实验后留取肾脏组织标本.采用用酶联免疫吸附法(ELISA)定量测定肾脏组织中促红细胞生成素(Epo)含量,采用实时荧光定量PCR(RT-PCR)方法检

  13. Morpho-physiological changes in pineapple plantlets [Ananas comosus (L. merr.] during acclimatization Mudanças morfofisiológicas em plântulas de abacaxi [Ananas comosus (L. Merr.] durante a aclimatização

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    Ariel Villalobo

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Pineapple producing countries lack good quality propagation material to expand cultivars into new areas. Previously, research protocols may increase the offer of high quality plantlets and speed the introduction of new pineapple cultivars. The present work is to evaluate the morpho-physiological changes in plantlets of pineapple [Ananas comosus (L. Merr. 'MD-2'] during the acclimatization phase. Plantlets were acclimatized under 80% relative humidity, 25.5 °C temperature and photosynthetic photon flux of 400-500 µmol m-2 s-1 as average for 45 d under natural photoperiods. All measurements (plant length, number of leaves and roots, fresh weight, width and length of leaf 'D', net photosynthesis and total transpiration rate were carried out at the end of in vitro rooting phase coincident with 0 d of acclimatization and at 15, 30 and 45 d thereafter. Photosynthetic activity of in vitro plantlets did not increase during the first 30 d of the acclimatization phase. After 30 d, photosynthetic activity ranged from 5.72 to 9.36 µmol CO2 m-2 s-1 while total transpiration ranged from 6.0 to 1.42 mmol H2O m-2 s-1. During the first 30 days there were no significant differences in number of leaves, length or width of the longest ('D' leaf (cm or plant length (cm. However, after 45 days plant fresh weight (g, length and width of the 'D' leaf (cm and root number all increased significantly, while transpiration (mmol H2O m-2 s-1 declined. There were small but significant decreases in chlorophyll a and b (µg g-1 mf.. Increased photosynthetic activity after 30 d shows that the increase in light intensity and the reduction of relative humidity during acclimatization did not constitute inhibitory factors.Os países produtores do abacaxi precisam de mudas de boa qualidade para a introdução de novas culturas nas áreas de cultivo. Os protocolos de pesquisa podem aumentar a oferta de mudas de alta qualidade e acelerar a introdução de novas culturas do abacaxi

  14. Alterações morfofisiolócias de plantas de abacaxizeiro influenciadas por diferentes substratos durante o processo de aclimatização Morphophysiological changes of pineapple plants influenced by different substrates during the process of acclimatization

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    Francyane Tavares Braga

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se determinar um substrato adequado para aclimatização de plantas micropropagadas de abacaxizeiro 'Gomo de Mel' e a sua caracterização anatômica, durante este processo. O enraizamento dos brotos foi realizado em meio MS acrescido de 30 g L-1 de sacarose e 6 g L-1 de ágar. As culturas foram mantidas em sala de crescimento a 25±1º C, 36µmol m-2 s-1 durante 16 horas diárias. Após 60 dias, brotos enraizados foram removidos dos frascos e distribuídos em tubetes, contendo os seguintes tratamentos: 1 A+X+H (areia, xaxim e húmus (1:1:1; 2 substrato comercial plantmax®; 3 vermiculita e 4 combinação 1:1 de plantmax® + vermiculita. As características anatômicas foram avaliadas nas plântulas ainda in vitro e aos 7; 15; 30 e 60 dias de aclimatização. As folhas de transição também foram caracterizadas. O experimento foi instalado em delineamento inteiramente casualizado, com quatro tratamentos e quatro repetições com cinco plantas. Maiores comprimentos da parte aérea, massa fresca e seca da parte aérea e raízes, foram observados com o uso de areia + xaxim + húmus. Para número de folhas, massa fresca de raízes e massa seca de parte aérea, não houve diferença entre os substratos. Quanto às características anatômicas, o substrato vermiculita, no período de 60 dias de aclimatização, promoveu as maiores espessuras dos tecidos que compõe o limbo foliar.This work aimed to determine a right substrate for acclimatization of pineapple 'Gomo de Mel' plantlets and its anatomical characterization during this process. Rooting of the shoots was done in MS medium supplemented with 30 g L-1 sucrose and 6 g L-1 agar. Cultures were maintained in growth room at 25±1º C, 36µmol m-2 s-1 during 16 hours. After 60 days, rooted shoots were removed from the bottles and distributed in tubes containing the following treatments: 1 A+X+H (sand, fern tree fiber and humus (1: 1: 1; 2 commercial substrate Plantmax®; 3 vermiculite and 4

  15. 硫酸盐还原型甲烷厌氧氧化菌群驯化及其群落特征%Acclimatization and Characteristics of Microbial Community in Sulphate-Dependent Anaerobic Methane Oxidation

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    席婧茹; 刘素琴; 李琳; 刘俊新

    2014-01-01

    The greenhouse effect of methane is 26 times worse than that of carbon dioxide, and wastewater containing high concentrations of sulfate is harmful to water, soil and plants. Therefore, anaerobic oxidation of methane driven by sulfate is one of the effective ways for methane reduction. In this paper, with sulfate as the electron accepter, a microbial consortium capable of oxidating methane under anaerobic condition was cultured. The diversity and characteristics of bacterial and archaeal community were investigated by PCR-DGGE, and phylogenetic analysis of the dominant microorganisms was also carried out. The DGGE fingerprints showed that microbial community structure changed distinctly, and the abundance of methane-oxidizing archea and sulfate-reducing bacteria increased in the acclimatization system added sulfate. After acclimatization, the bacterial diversity increased, while archaea diversity decreased slightly. The representative bands in the DGGE profiles were excised and sequenced. Results indicated that the dominant species in the acclimatization system were Spirochaetes, Desulfuromonadales, Methanosarcinales, Methanosaeta. Methane converted into carbon dioxide while sulfate transformed into hydrogen sulfide and sulfur in the process of anaerobic methane oxidation accompanied by sulphate reduction.%甲烷的温室效应是二氧化碳的26倍,高浓度硫酸盐废水对水体、土壤和植物均有危害。硫酸盐为氧化剂的甲烷厌氧氧化是减少甲烷的主要途径之一。本研究以硫酸盐作为电子受体,驯化培养硫酸盐还原型甲烷厌氧氧化菌群,采用 PCR-DGGE技术分析细菌和古菌菌群多样性和群落结构特征,并对其中的优势菌进行系统发育分析。 DGGE 指纹图谱结果表明,硫酸盐的加入使微生物群落结构和优势种群数量发生了明显的改变,其增强了甲烷氧化古菌和硫酸盐还原细菌的丰度,加入硫酸盐驯化的菌群,其细菌

  16. Inoculação micorrízica e aclimatização de dois porta-enxertos de macieira micropropagados Mycorrhizal inoculation and acclimatization of two micropropagated apple rootstocks

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    Lucir Maria Locatelli

    2002-02-01

    Full Text Available A micropropagação e a inoculação de fungos micorrízicos arbusculares (FMA podem melhorar a qualidade de mudas produzidas comercialmente. Essas técnicas permitem a produção de plantas homogêneas e de alta qualidade em curtos períodos de tempo, mas isso exige o conhecimento da interação entre fungos e plantas, substratos e técnicas de aclimatização e inoculação. Foi realizado um estudo em condições controladas a fim de desenvolver procedimentos para aclimatizar e inocular FMA nos porta-enxertos de macieira (Malus spp. Marubakaido, vigoroso e com forte sistema radicular, e M.9, nanizante e com sistema radicular pouco desenvolvido. Plantas oriundas de micropropagação foram imersas em ácido indolebutírico (5miM e transferidas para substrato à base de solo, a fim de serem enraizadas ex vitro. Antes ou após o enraizamento, inoculou-se uma mistura de isolados de Scutellospora pellucida, Glomus etunicatum e Glomus sp. A fase de enraizamento durou 21 dias, e após 51 e 81 dias avaliaram-se colonização micorrízica, altura, peso da matéria fresca e seca da parte aérea e relação entre raiz e parte aérea das plantas. A colonização micorrízica variou entre 50% e 70% para ambos porta-enxertos, tendo efeito positivo sobre o crescimento do porta-enxerto Marubakaido, enquanto o porta-enxerto M.9 teve seu desenvolvimento inibido pela presença dos FMA.The combination of micropropagation and inoculation with arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF can improve the quality of seedling plants produced on a commercial scale. These techniques allow high quality and homogeneous seedling production in a shorter period of time, but they require understanding of the interaction among fungi, plants, substrates, acclimatization and inoculation techniques. A study was performed under controlled conditions to develop procedures to acclimatize and inoculate AMF in two apple (Malus spp. rootstocks: vigorous strong-rooted Marubakaido and the dwarfing

  17. Aclimatização de mudas micropropagadas de helicônia em ambiente protegido em função do tipo de substrato Acclimatization of micropropagated heliconia plants in different substrates

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    Eliana Lee Jorge Rocha

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available A etapa de aclimatização é uma fase crítica da micropropagação vegetal, podendo ser responsável por altos índices de mortalidade, baixas taxas de crescimento e desuniformidade das plantas. Um fator fundamental na aclimatização é tipo de substrato a ser utilizado. Nesse trabalho, objetivou-se avaliar o efeito de diferentes substratos na aclimatização de mudas micropropagadas de helicônia (Heliconia lingulata Ruiz & Pav.. A pesquisa foi conduzida em um túnel alto de cultivo forçado pertencente à Embrapa Agroindústria Tropica,l situada no município de Fortaleza - CE, Brasil (3º44'S e 38º33'W. O delineamento experimental utilizado foi em blocos casualizados com cinco tratamentos e cinco repetições. Os substratos testados foram: T1 -pó-de-coco seco + húmus de minhoca + solo (PCS+H+S; T2 -pó-de-coco verde + vermiculita + composto de cama de frango (PCV+V+CCF; T3 -pó-de-coco verde + húmus de minhoca + solo (PCV+H+S; T4 -pó-de-coco seco + vermiculita + composto de cama de frango (PCS+V+CCF; e T5 - substrato comercial Hortimix® (HORT. As variáveis agronômicas, avaliadas no experimento foram: altura da planta, número de folhas e diâmetro do pseudocaule. Os resultados do experimento evidenciaram o maior desenvolvimento das mudas micropropagadas de helicônia, quando o substrato utilizado foi a combinação pó de coco verde + húmus de minhoca + solo (PCV + H + S.Acclimatization is the most important and critical plant micropropagation phase. It can be responsible for high mortality rate, low growth rate, and plant heterogeneity. One of the limiting factors in plant acclimatization is the substrate. The objective of this work was to evaluate the effect of different substrates on the acclimatization of micropropagated heliconia plants (Heliconia lingulata Ruiz & Pav.. The research was carried out in a greenhouse at the Embrapa Tropical Agroindustry located in Fortaleza, Ceará, Brazil (3º44' S and 38º33' W. The

  18. 高性能战斗机飞行员前庭习服训练效果观察%Effects of vestibular acclimatization training on high-performance fighter pilots

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    黄炜; 季思菊; 李交杰; 张刚林

    2010-01-01

    目的 通过前庭习服训练,提高高性能战斗机飞行员前庭稳定性,以降低空晕病的发生.方法 应用VTS-0型电动转椅对45例前庭稳定性评定等级为D、E级的高性能战斗机飞行员进行每天1次,持续2周的前庭习服训练,记录训练前后前庭稳定性评定中的Coriolis加速度耐受值及训练耐受时间.结果 训练后,45例高性能战斗机飞行员的前庭稳定性较训练前有不同程度提高,均达到C级以上,Coriolis加速度耐受值和训练耐受时间明显提高,且有统计学意义(t=14.55、12.66,P<0.01).结论 前庭习服训练对提高高性能战斗机飞行员的前庭稳定性效果明显.%Objective To explore the effects of vestibular accliratization training of highperformance fighter pilots for improving their vestibular stability and reducing airsickness. Methods Forty-five high-performance fighter pilots, who were graded as D and E in vestibular stability evaluation, performed vestibular acclimatization training by VTS-0 rotational chair once a day for 2weeks. In vestibular stability evaluation, tolerated Coriolis acceleration value and endurable duration of rotation were compared between the states before and after training.Results All 45 pilots'vestibular stability was variously improved and reached or exceeded grade C by training. Tolerated Coriolis acceleration value and endurable duration were significantly increased (t=14.55, 12.66, P<0.01).Conclusions Vestibular acclimatization training shows significant effects on improving the vestibular stability of high-performance fighter pilots.

  19. 不同热习服条件对大鼠湿热环境下运动能力的影响%Effects of different heat acclimatization conditions on the physical activity of rats in hot and humid environment

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    李玉祥; 陈新民; 梁涵; 安合定; 马文领; 史仍飞

    2016-01-01

    目的 观察不同热习服条件对大鼠热习服能力及湿热环境下运动能力的影响. 方法 将64只雄性SD大鼠按数字表法随机分为常温常湿安静(LLQ)组、常温常湿运动(LLE)组、常温高湿安静(LHQ)组、常温高湿运动(LHE)组、高温常湿安静(HLQ)组、高温常湿运动(HLE)组、高温高湿安静(HHQ)组和高温高湿运动(HHE)组共8组,每组8只. 安静组大鼠每天在相应环境中安静放置2 h,运动组在相应环境中安静放置1 h后运动(14 m/min)1 h,连续14 d. 每天实验前后称量大鼠体质量并计算体质量丢失率,实验结束后立即测定大鼠肛温. 第16天所有大鼠在高温(36℃)高湿(85%)条件下运动30 min (28 m/min),记录运动期间力竭大鼠的数量与力竭时间,并记录力竭即刻或运动结束后大鼠肛温,第17天统计动物死亡数量.结果 在热习服过程中,除高温安静组外,其余各组从第4天开始体质量丢失率明显下降(P0.05). 高温高湿条件下运动刺激后,HLE组和HHE组的肛温、中途力竭数量和死亡数量明显低于LLQ组和HHQ组(P0.05). 结论 高温高湿和高温常湿条件下运动训练均能达到最好的习服效果;从训练期间对人体体温和体质量丢失率影响较小且体感更舒适的角度考虑,选择在高温常湿环境条件下进行运动训练是较为适宜的热习服训练方法.%Objective To investigate the effects of different thermal conditions on the heat acclimatization and physical ability of rats in hot and humid environment .Methods Sixty-four male SD rats were randomly divided into 8 groups:the normal temperature and humidity rest group ( or the NTHR group );the normal temperature and humidity exercise group ( or the NTHE group );the normal temperature and high humidity rest group ( or the NTHHR group ); the normal temperature and high humidity exercise group ( or the NTHHE group);the high temperature and normal humidity rest group (or the HTNHR group); the high

  20. Assessment of hypoxia right heart remodeling after acclimatization at high different altitude areas%高海拔地区高原习服后缺氧性右心重构情况评价

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    赖小今; 张开强; 彭燕; 马宽军; 肖欣荣; 郭进春; 廖明松; 梁燕; 邓旦; 陶杰; 黄跃; 李伟

    2012-01-01

    目的 综合评价高海拔地区高原习服后的缺氧性右心重构情况.方法 随机选择从内地低海拔地区空运进藏的100名志愿者列为对照组,从低海拔地区移居海拔3000m以上且对高原完全习服的100名驻藏部队官兵列为高原组.后者根据移居高原的海拔高度再分为移居高度Ⅰ组(海拔高度3000~4000m,n=67)和移居高度Ⅱ组(海拔高度4000~5500m,n=33);根据受试者移居高原时间的不同又分为移居时间Ⅰ组(进藏1~2年,n=72)和移居时间Ⅱ组(进藏2年以上,n=28).应用便携式多功能复合超声心动图技术测量静息状态下的右心结构与功能,综合分析与评价高海拔地区高原习服后的缺氧性右心重构情况.结果 与对照组比较,移居高海拔地区后右心重构主要表现为右室、右房增大,右室壁增厚,三尖瓣反流程度增加,肺动脉主干及分支增宽(P<0.0l)等.随着海拔高度增加,右心重构更加明显,移居海拔4000m以上受试者的右心重构程度明显高于4000m以下者(P<0.01),4500m以上者尤甚.随着移居时间延长,右心重构亦更加明显,移居时间2年以上的受试者右心重构程度明显高于2年以下者(P<0.01),5年以上者尤甚.结论 海拔高度和时间是影响缺氧性右心重构的主要因素,高原习服仅仅是机体对高原低氧环境的一种调节性适应.应用便携式多功能超声技术能早期、及时地评价缺氧性右心重构情况,对保障移居高原部队官兵的身体健康具有重要意义.%Objective To assess hypoxic right heart remodeling after acclimatization at high altitude area. Methods One hundred volunteers who came to Tibet from the low-altitude areas by plane were randomly selected to serve as control group, and another 100 servicemen, who were dispatched from low altitude area to a station in Tibet area 3000m above sea level and got acclimatized to serve as altitude group. The altitude group was divided into

  1. Influence of substrates and in vitro preconditioning treatments on ex vitro acclimatization of Arachis retusa Influência de substratos e de pré-tratamentos in vitro na aclimatização ex vitro de Arachis retusa

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    Georgia Pacheco

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to evaluate the influence of substrate and preconditioning treatments on the acclimatization of in vitro plants of Arachis retusa. Plants were transferred to Plantmax or sand, and fertilized with Hoagland's nutrient solution. Plants maintained in sand, with or without fertilizer, showed the highest survival rates. In order to evaluate the influence of in vitro preconditioning treatments, stem segments were cultured on MS medium supplemented with different sucrose concentrations. The highest survival and developmental rates were observed in plants from two accessions cultured on MS supplemented with 1.5% and 3% sucrose. Flowering and fruit production were observed after five months.O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a influência de diferentes substratos e pré-tratamentos in vitro, na aclimatização de plantas in vitro de Arachis retusa. As plantas foram transferidas para Plantmax ou areia e adubadas com solução de Hoagland. Plantas mantidas em areia, com adubação ou sem adubação, apresentaram maiores taxas de sobrevivência. Para avaliação da influência de pré-tratamentos in vitro, segmentos de caule foram cultivados em meio MS suplementado com diferentes concentrações de sacarose. As maiores taxas de sobrevivência e desenvolvimento foram observadas em plantas cultivadas em sacarose a 1,5% e 3%. Depois de cinco meses, foram observadas a floração e a produção de frutos.

  2. Impact of high altitude acclimatization-deacclimatization on menstruation of female attendants on trains to Tibet%进藏列车女乘务员高原习服-脱习服过程对月经的影响

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    冯平; 张雪峰; 王胜玉; 周其全

    2014-01-01

    Objective To explore the correlation between high altitude acclimatization-deacclimatization and menstrual disorder in female attendants on trains to Tibet .Methods 58 female attendants on trains to Tibet from Beijing ,Shanghai and Chengdu were selected for the questionnaire on abnormity in menstruation since their work as attendants in 2007 and a correlated analysis was made.Results The total incidence of abnormal menstruation was 72.41%,and the rates of the 5 symptoms of abnormal menstruation ranged as follows:hypomenorrhea (41.38%),menstrual disorder (27.59%),menstrual period advanced (20.69%),menstrual period postponed(13.79%)and hypermenorrhea(10.34%);of the 5 symptoms,abnormity of one took up 41.38%and abnormity ≥two took up 31.03%;there existed a positive correlation between above 5 symptoms and the abnormal conditions , such as hypodynamia , sinsomnia,anorexia,hypomnesia,total working time on train,etc.,caused by acclimatization-deacclimatization (r=0.369-0.730,P=0.000-0.041);the total working time of the attendants with menstrual disorder was longer than that of the attendants without menstrual disorder,averagely 13.13 months longer(t=2.218,P<0.05).Conclusions There exists a high incidence of abnormal menstruation in female attendants on trains from plain to high altitude due to their working environments ,various factors caused by acclimatization-deacclimatization and the total working time may cause certain harm to the health;prevention measures should be explored and taken .%目的:调查进藏列车女乘务员高原习服-脱习服过程中,月经失调情况与高原习服、高原脱习服程度的关系。方法选择北京、上海、成都籍进藏列车女乘务员58人,通过问卷调查自2007年出乘以来的月经异常率,并与高原习服-脱习服水平及症状做相关分析。结果全组月经异常检出率为72.41%,其中月经异常5项表现的检出率依次为:经量减少41.38%、月经紊乱27.59

  3. Efeito de substratos na aclimatização de mudas micropropagadas de abacaxizeiro cv. Pérola Acclimatization of micropropagated pineapple plants cv. "Pérola": substrata effect

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Aparecida Moreira

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se com este trabalho verificar o efeito da matéria orgânica como componente de substratos para mudas micropropagadas de abacaxizeiro cv. Pérola em fase de aclimatização. Mudas micropropagadas de abacaxizeiro cv. Pérola, selecionadas de acordo com o peso (aproximadamente 2 g, foram plantadas em bandejas de isopor de 72 células de 120 cm³ contendo proporções de substratos com terra, esterco bovino, Plantmax e matéria orgânica. O delineamento estatístico utilizado foi o inteiramente casualizado com 4 repetições e 3 plantas por parcela. As avaliações foram feitas 90 dias após o plantio, quando se avaliou: altura da planta, comprimento de raiz, peso de matéria fresca de raiz e parte aérea, peso de matéria seca de raiz e parte aérea e número de folhas. Com os resultados obtidos, conclui-se que a matéria orgânica tem efeito significativo no desenvolvimento das mudas. Com o substrato contendo terra, esterco e Plantmax foi obtido o melhor desenvolvimento das raízes e parte aérea.The objective of this work was to evaluate the effect of the organic matter as component of substrata for micropropagated plants of pineapple cv. Pérola in the acclimatization phase. Micropropagated plants were selected according to the weight (approximately 2g and planted in trays with 72 cels of 120 cm³, containing substrata made of soil, bovine manure, Plantmax and organic matter at different proportions. At 90 days after planting, the following parameters were evaluated: height of the plant, root length, weight of fresh matter of root and aerial part, dry matter weight of root and aerial part and number of leaves. The obtained results allowed to conclude that the organic matter has significant effect on the development of the seedlings. The best results for the development of the roots and aerial part were obtained with substratum containing soil, manure and Plantmax.

  4. Benefits of automated acclimatization during the pre-milking phase of lactating girolando cows Benefícios da climatização automatizada na pré-ordenha de vacas girolando em lactação

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    Irenilson M. da Silva

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper was to evaluate the automated acclimatization effects during pre-milking of cows on thermal conditioning, physiology, milk production and cost-benefit of the automated adiabatic evaporative cooling system (AECS. The treatments 20; 30; 40 min and control consisted of exposure time of pre-milking cows to the automated AECS. Sixteen cows were used with an average daily milk yield of 19 kg, distributed in a 4 x 4 Latin square design. The Tukey's test (PObjetivou-se com esta pesquisa avaliar os efeitos da climatização na pré-ordenha sobre o acondicionamento térmico, fisiologia, produção de leite e relação custo/benefício do sistema de resfriamento adiabático evaporativo (SRAE automatizado. Os tratamentos adotados foram os tempos de exposição dos animais ao SRAE no curral de espera, 20; 30; 40 min e o tratamento-controle. Utilizaram-se 16 vacas com produção de 19 kg de leite dia-1, adotando-se delineamento em quadrado latino 4 x 4 e comparação entre as médias pelo teste de Tukey (P<0,05. Foram registradas as variáveis ambientais temperatura de bulbo seco (Tbs e umidade relativa (UR a cada minuto, o que permitiu determinar a eficiência do sistema por meio do índice de temperatura e umidade (ITU. A frequência respiratória (FR, temperatura retal (TR e temperatura de pelame (TP foram medidas antes e depois da climatização. O tratamento 40 min permitiu manter as variáveis ambientais e os índices de conforto entre os limites recomendados. As variáveis fisiológicas (FR, TR e TP mostraram valores inferiores no tratamento 40 min, com aumento de 3,66% na produção de leite, quando comparado com o controle. O investimento promoveu acréscimo na receita mensal de R$ 1.992,67 com tempo de retorno do capital de 43 dias.

  5. Micropropagação da amoreira-preta (Rubus spp. e efeito de substratos na aclimatização de plântulas = Blackberry micropropagation (Rubus spp. and effects of substrates in plants acclimatization

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    Fabíola Villa

    2006-01-01

    , supplemented with five activated charcoal concentrations and five BAP concentrations. Both experiments were entirely performed in a designrandomized complete block, using in vitro 3 explants by repetition and 4 replications for treatment and in greenhouse, a factorial 4x4. The pH of the culture medium was adjusted to 5.8 before the additionof 6 g L-1 of agar and the sterilization to 121ºC and 1 atm for 20 minutes. After 70 days, several parameters in the explants were evaluated. A greater number of leaves and roots were obtained with0.5 mg L-1 of BAP. The number of roots and their length were larger in the presence of 3 g L-1 of activated charcoal. A larger weight of the fresh matter was obtained in the absence of activated charcoal. The second experiment consisted of plants cv. Cherokee maintained in in vitro conditions and transplanted to plastic trays, containing the substrates and kept in greenhouse. Four types of substrates were tested. After 100 days of acclimatization, the leaf number, root length and aerial part, cool and dry root weight and cool and dry aerial part weight had been evaluated. It was concluded that the acclimatization can be successfully performed using Plantmax. followed by the Plantmax. + vermiculita + rind rice carbonized mixture. There was a 92% rate of the plants' survival in allsubstrates.

  6. Fungos micorrízicos arbusculares e rizobactérias promotoras de crescimento na aclimatização de zingiber spectabile Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi and plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria in the acclimatization of zingiber spectabile

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    João Ricardo Gonçalves de Oliveira

    2010-01-01

    mycorrhizal fungi (AMF and plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR, isolated and/or combined (in dual inoculation on acclimatization of Zingiber spectabile Griff. The experiment was carried out in a greenhouse using containers of 300 mL and dust from coconut shell (Amafibra® as substrate. The experimental design was completely randomized with two AMF treatments [Glomus etunicatum (Ge and the mixture of G. etunicatum and Gigaspora margarita (Ge/Gm], two treatments with PGPR inoculation [Bacillus thuringiensis (HPF14 and B. pumilus (HPS6], four treatments combining these microorganisms [Ge+HPS6, Ge+HPF14, Ge/Gm+HPS6 and Ge/Gm+HPF14] and a control treatment (not inoculated, with eight replicates. After 90 days survival percentage, height, leaf area, fresh and dry biomass of shoots (FBS and DBS and roots (FBR and DBR, mycorrhizal colonization and content of macro and micronutrients in the shoot were evaluated. Co-inoculation (Ge/Gm+HPS6 benefited significantly the mycorrhization when compared to the other treatments, resulting in higher FBS than that produced by HPF14 inoculation. Although with 100% survival after the acclimatization period, the development of Z. spectabile inoculated with HPF14 isolated and/or combined with AMF is lower than the observed for control plants. The results suggest that the use of plant growth-promoting microorganisms should be done carefully, considering the cost/benefit of the application.

  7. Micropropagation and acclimatization of Stevia rebaudiana Bertoni.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chotikadachanarong, Kittisak; Dheeranupattana, Srisuluk

    2013-09-01

    Multiple shoot induction of Stevia rebaudiana Bertoni was studied by node explants that were cultured on solidified MS media and supplemented with 0, 1, 2, 3 and 4 mg L-1 kinetin for 4 weeks. The results showed the maximum amount of multiple shoot induction (9.31+/-4.17 shoots/explant) when cultured on MS media supplemented with 3 mg L-1 kinetin. In vitro shoots were rooted on solidified MS media supplemented with 0, 0.1, 0.5 and 2 mg L-1 Naphthaleneacetic Acid (NAA) for 4 weeks. The highest number of roots (11.18+/-1.34 roots/shoot) was detected on a concentration of 0.1 mg L-1 NAA while the high survival rate (80%) was obtained when the rooted plantlets were transferred to greenhouse conditions.

  8. Le long cheminement vers l’acclimatation

    OpenAIRE

    Tabeaud , Martine

    2013-01-01

    « Lutter contre le changement climatique », selon l’expression impropre mais « consacrée », serait une réponse nécessaire au réchauffement de la planète depuis le milieu du XIX e siècle. Le terme de réchauffement a d’ailleurs été remplacé progressivement par « changement climatique », ce qui élargit la problématique à toutes sortes de conséquences directes ou indirectes de la hausse thermique. Ces dernières étant envisagées comme négatives, alors qu’antérieurement toute période chaude était q...

  9. Influência do substrato e do tipo de fertilizante na aclimatação de mudas de bananeira 'Prata-Anã' Influence of substrate and fertilizer type on the acclimatization of 'Prata-Anã' banana plantlets

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    Edson Shigueaki Nomura

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Objetivando-se avaliar a influência do substrato e tipo de fertilizante na aclimatação de mudas de bananeira 'Prata-Anã', provenientes de micropropagação, foi instalado um experimento em blocos casualizados, no esquema fatorial 5 x 3, com quatro repetições. Os substratos utilizados foram: S1 - Terra de subsolo + casca de arroz carbonizada + substrato comercial Rendimax Floreira®; S2 - Terra de subsolo + casca de arroz carbonizada + composto orgânico Organifol®; S3 - Terra de subsolo + casca de arroz carbonizada + composto orgânico Organifol® 9% SiO; S4 - substrato comercial Technes Vivatto®; S5 - Areia grossa + casca de arroz carbonizada + Rendimax Floreira®, todos na proporção 1:1:1 (v/v/v. Os fertilizantes utilizados foram: SF - sem fertilizante; FLL - fertilizante de liberação lenta, 14-14-14 (5,0 kg m-3 misturado ao substrato; e FLN - fertilizante de liberação normal, 14-14-14 (5,0 kg m-3 aplicado em cobertura, 30 dias após o plantio. As mudas foram plantadas em sacos de polietileno quando apresentavam quatro a cinco folhas, sendo mantidas em viveiro com 50% de sombreamento. Foram feitas medidas de altura, diâmetro do colo e número de folhas, e determinada a massa seca das mudas. As diferenças químicas das misturas utilizadas como substrato, juntamente com o tipo de fertilizante utilizado, proporcionaram crescimento diferenciado das mudas. O substrato S4 pode ser utilizado sem fertilização. Os substratos S2 e S3 devem ser utilizados com fertilizante de liberação normal ou lenta de nutrientes, e S1 e S5, sendo pobres em nutrientes, com fertilizante de liberação lenta.With the aim of evaluating the influence of the substrate and fertilizer type on the acclimatization of plantlets of 'Prata-Anã' banana obtained from micropropagation, a complete randomized block design was installed, in a 5 x 3 factorial structure, with four replications. The substrates used were: S1 - subsoil dirt + carbonized rice hull

  10. Desempenho do abacaxizeiro 'Vitória' em resposta à aplicação de ácidos húmicos durante a aclimatação Performance of 'Vitória' pineapple in response to humic acid application during acclimatization

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    Lílian Estrela Borges Baldotto

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available A aclimatação de mudas de abacaxizeiro propagadas por cultura in vitro é um processo lento. A promoção do crescimento radicular pelo uso de ácidos húmicos pode ser útil durante esse processo. O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar o desempenho do abacaxizeiro 'Vitória' propagado por cultura de tecidos em resposta à aplicação de diferentes doses de ácidos húmicos isolados de vermicomposto e de torta de filtro durante o período de aclimatação em casa de vegetação. Foram avaliadas as características anatômicas da lâmina foliar, o teor de pigmentos fotossintéticos, o crescimento da parte aérea e do sistema radicular, e o conteúdo de nutrientes foliares. Os resultados mostraram incrementos no crescimento e desenvolvimento da parte aérea e do sistema radicular com a aplicação de ácidos húmicos, bem como acúmulo significativo de N, P, K, Ca e Mg e aumento na relação clorofila a/clorofila b. A promoção do crescimento das mudas durante o período de aclimatação, em resposta à aplicação de ácidos húmicos, pode melhorar a adaptação do abacaxizeiro ao ambiente ex vitro.The acclimatization of pineapple plantlets propagated by plant tissue culture is slow. The intensification of root growth by the use of humic acids may be useful during this process. The aim of this study was to evaluate the greenhouse acclimatization of 'Vitória' pineapple propagated by plant tissue culture in response to different doses of humic acids isolated from vermicompost and filter cake. Leaf anatomy, photosynthetic pigment content, shoot and root growth, and leaf nutrients were evaluated. An increase in growth and development of shoots and root system with the application of humic acids as well as a significant accumulation of N, P, K, Ca, and Mg and increase in the chlorophyll a / chlorophyll b ratio were found. Growth promotion by the application of humic acids to plantlets during the period of acclimatization can improve their

  11. BAP e substratos na aclimatização de plântulas de gloxínia (Sinningia speciosa Lood. Hiern. provenientes de cultura de tecidos BAP and substrates on gloxinia (Sinningia speciosa Lood. Hiern. plantlets from tissue culture acclimatization

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    Adriano Bortolotti da Silva

    2003-04-01

    Full Text Available A gloxínia é uma planta ornamental cultivada pela exoticidade e variação de coloração de suas flores. Objetivou-se avaliar a influência residual da citocinina 6-Benzilaminopurina (BAP usada durante a cultura in vitro sobre o processo de aclimatização de gloxínia (Sinningia speciosa Lood. Hiern.. As concentrações de 0,0; 0,5; 1 e 2,0 mg L-1 de BAP, em cultivo in vitro, foram combinadas com os substratos: vermiculita, plantmax® e vermiculita + plantmax®, durante o processo de aclimatização. Após o processo de inoculação in vitro, o material foi transferido para sala de crescimento com temperatura de 26 ± 1ºC, intensidade luminosa de 35 m mol m² s-1 e fotoperíodo de 16 horas, permanecendo nessas condições por 60 dias. Após esse período, as plantas obtidas foram plantadas nos diferentes substratos. As avaliações foram efetuadas após 120 dias, em casa-de-vegetação, registrando-se o número de brotos, peso da matéria fresca do sistema radicular, peso da matéria seca da planta e número de flores. Os melhores resultados foram obtidos com o cultivo em substrato plantmax® ou plantmax�� + vermiculita advinda de meio de cultura in vitro isento de BAP.The present work aimed to evaluate the influence of concentrations of 6-benzylaminopurine (BAP used in acclimatization of gloxinia (Sinningia speciosa Lood. Hiern. Concentrations of BAP (0.0; 0.5; 1.0 and 2.0 mg L-1 in vitro and substrates (vermiculite, plantmax®, and vermiculite+plantmax® were tested for acclimatization in every possible combination. After in vitro inoculation, the material was transferred to a growth chamber with temperature of 26±1ºC and light intensity of 35 m mol m-2 s-1 for 16 hours, remaining under these conditions for 60 days. After that period, the plants obtained were transferred to pots containing substrates in a greenhouse. The evaluations were performed 120 days after cultivation. It were measured number of shoots, roots dry weight, above

  12. Crescimento de mudas micropropagadas de bananeira aclimatizadas nas condições da Amazônia Sul Ocidental sob a influência de diferentes substratos e recipientes Growth of micropropagated banana plantlets acclimatized on conditions of South West Amazon under the influence of different substrates and recipients

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    Janiffe Peres de Oliveira

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Para laboratórios que produzem milhares de plantas micropropagadas regularmente, a otimização da fase de aclimatização é de fundamental importância para evitar perdas excessivas de plantas, bem como favorecer seu crescimento. O trabalho teve por objetivo avaliar o crescimento de mudas micropropagadas de bananeira na aclimatização, sob a influência de diferentes substratos e recipientes, nas condições da Amazônia Sul-Ocidental. Após o sexto subcultivo, brotações de bananeira, cv. Grand Naine (AAA, foram enraizadas em meio MS básico sendo, posteriormente, transferidas para viveiro onde foram plantadas em tubetes de 115 cm³ e 180 cm³ preenchidos com seis diferentes substratos, formulados a partir da combinação de terra de encosta, esterco bovino e casca de arroz carbonizada. Avaliações sobre sobrevivência, altura da parte aérea e diâmetro do pseudocaule foram realizadas quinzenalmente, sendo que, ao final de 75 dias, também foi determinada a massa fresca e seca das plantas. Observou-se que a sobrevivência das plantas não foi influenciada pelo uso de tubetes de 115 cm³ ou 180 cm³, no entanto, plantas aclimatizadas em tubetes de 180 cm³ apresentam maior crescimento em altura e diâmetro do pseudocaule e, conseqüentemente, maior acúmulo de massa fresca e seca das partes aérea e raízes, durante a aclimatização, quando comparados aos tubetes com 115 cm³ de capacidade. Entre os substratos, verificou-se que aqueles que continham esterco bovino na sua composição, proporcionaram resultados superiores quando comparados aos demais substratos testados para todas as variáveis analisadas, sendo este, portanto, um importante componente no desenvolvimento das plantas durante a fase de aclimatização.For laboratories that produce thousands of micropropagated plants regularly, the optimization of the acclimatization phase is of fundamental importance to avoid excessive losses and to promote the development of the plants

  13. Autonomic nervous system activity during acclimatization after rapid air travel across time zones: A case study [Aktivita autonomního nervového systému během aklimatizace po rychlém přeletu časových pásem: Kazuistika

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    Michal Botek

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The rapid transition across time zones also known as jet lag syndrome leads to desynchronization of our endogenous "biological" clock and causes a transient decrease in the adaptation capacity of an athlete. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to verify the use of the spectral analysis of heart rate variability (SA HRV method as a tool for classification of the answer of the body to both the rapid transition across time zones and the training intensity level during the following acclimatization. METHODS: Changes in autonomic activity were assessed by SA HRV during acclimatization after eastward (+6 hours and westward (–7 hours flights in two elite athletes. RESULTS: The results revealed that the athlete, who undertook a flight from Prague to Beijing (China, was able to start with intensive training during the fourth day of his acclimatization. No acute decrease in training ability (adaptability was found in the athlete after the flight from Prague to Bogota (Columbia. Significant modifications in her training load level were made only on the third day in Columbia. The study confirmed that the reaction of the body to the rapid transition across time zones is highly individual. CONCLUSIONS: Therefore, in the future, the SA HRV method could become a promising tool for solving questions of both the acclimatization strategy and the optimizing of sport performance in elite athletes. [VÝCHODISKA: Vlivem rychlého přesunu přes časová pásma dochází k poruše vnitřních regulací organismu, které mohou být u sportovců příčinou přechodného poklesu jejich tréninkové adaptační kapacity. CÍLE: Cílem práce bylo ověřit možnost využití metody spektrální analýzy variability srdeční frekvence (SA HRV jako nástroje pro hodnocení aktivity autonomního nervového systému (ANS, který se podílí na regulaci těchto změn souvisejících s aklimatizací. METODY: U dvou vrcholových sportovců, kteří absolvovali p

  14. Avaliação de substratos e adubos orgânicos na aclimatização de plântulas de Heliconia psittacorum Evaluation of substrates and organic fertilizers in the acclimatization of plantlets of Heliconia psittacorum

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    Maurício Reginaldo Alves dos Santos

    2004-10-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a eficiência de três substratos orgânicos - casca de arroz carbonizada, pó de casca de coco seco e verde - e dois adubos -Vitasolo® e húmus de minhoca -, na aclimatização de plântulas de Heliconia psittacorum L., provenientes da micropropagação. Aos 75 dias, avaliaram-se a altura das plantas, o diâmetro do pseudocaule, o número de folhas e a área da terceira folha. A casca de arroz foi mais eficiente que o pó de casca de coco, verde ou seco; o pó de casca de coco verde foi mais eficiente que o pó de casca de coco seco; e o húmus foi mais eficiente que o Vitasolo®.The objective of this work was to evaluate the efficiency of three organic substrates, carbonised rice hull, dry and green coir dust, and two fertilizers, Vitasolo® and earthworm humus, in the acclimatization of plantlets of Heliconia psittacorum L., obtained from micropropagation. After 75 days, the height of the plants, diameter of pseudo-stem, number of leaves and area of the third leaf were evaluated. The rice hull was more efficient than the coir dust (dry or green; the green coir dust was more efficient than dry coir dust; and the humus was more efficient than Vitasolo®.

  15. Vegetative development of orchids submitted to different macronutrient formulations and fertilization frequencies during the acclimatization phase Desenvolvimento vegetativo de orquídeas submetidas a diferentes formulações de macronutrientes e freqüências de adubação durante a fase de aclimatização

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    Adriane Marinho Assis

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The macronutrient concentration, the dose and the fertilizing application frequency affect the vegetative development of the plants in a significant way. The aim of this work was to evaluate the vegetative development of plants of Cattleya intermedia x Laelia purpurata in the acclimatization phase, fertirrigated with different formulations of N-P-K and with different fertilizing frequencies. The formulations of N-P-K (nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium, applied to the plants with the irrigation water, were 10:10:10 and 6:6:8, to each seven or fifteen days, in the concentration of 2 g.L-1, during 10 months, mantaining a control group of plants that did not receive the fertilizers. After that period, the following parameters were appraised: length of the aerial part; length of the largest root; pseudobulbs number; number of roots; total fresh mass; pH, and electric conductivity (µS of the substratum. Considering all parameters, the fertirrigation with N-P-K 10:10:10 in the interval time of 15 days, in the concentration of 2 g.L-1, provided the best vegetative development of the intergeneric hybrid Cattleya intermedia x Laelia purpurata during the acclimatization phase.A concentração de macronutrientes, a dose e a freqüência da aplicação da adubação afetam de maneira significativa o desenvolvimento vegetativo das plantas. O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar o desenvolvimento vegetativo de plantas de Cattleya intermedia x Laelia purpurata, na fase de aclimatização, fertirrigadas com diferentes formulações de N-P-K e com diferentes freqüências de adubação. As formulações de N-P-K (nitrogênio, fósforo e potássio aplicadas às plantas, juntamente com a água de irrigação, foram 10:10:10 e 6:6:8, a cada sete e quinze dias, na concentração de 2 g.L-1, durante o período de 10 meses, mantendo-se um grupo controle, que não recebeu adubação. Após esse período foram avaliados os seguintes parâmetros: comprimento da parte a

  16. 树麻雀代谢率和器官重量在季节驯化中表型的可塑性变化%Phenotypic flexibility of metabolic rate and organ masses among tree sparrows Passer montanus in seasonal acclimatization

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    柳劲松; 李铭

    2006-01-01

    Acclimatization to winter conditions is an essential prerequisite for survival of small passerines of the northern temperate zone. In this study, we measured seasonal changes in basal metabolic rate (BMR) and organ mass, and evaluated the relationship between BMR, organ mass in tree sparrows Passer montanus. The results were used to test the 'energy demand' hypothesis for adjustments in metabolic rate. The energy demand hypothesis posits that birds adjust the size of their internal organs relative to food intake, a correlate of energy demand. Winter and autumn sparrows demonstrated significantly higher BMR than their spring and summer counterparts. Winter and autumn birds also had higher liver, heart, gizzard, small intestine, rectum and total digestive tract than spring and summer birds. These data support the view that prominent winter increases in BMR are components of winter acclimatization in tree sparrows and that seasonal changes in metabolism in sparrows are similar to those for other small temperate-wintering birds. Meanwhile, these data test the hypothesis that central organs have a significant positive relationship with BMR. The relationship between BMR and internal organs could be due to either (or both) increased energy demand or seasonal shifts in diet[Acta Zoologica Sinica 52(3):469-477,2006].%动物能量代谢的生理生态特征与物种的分布和丰富度密切相关,基础代谢率(BMR)是内温动物能量预算的重要组成部分.北温带的小型鸟类,通过增加产热来适应低温环境.增加BMR的基础之一是中心器官(代谢机器)发生明显的变化.本研究中我们测定了树麻雀(Passer montanus)的BMR、体重和各器官的重量,分析了麻雀各器官的季节性变化及与BMR的关系.方差分析表明:麻雀的BMR存在明显的季节性变化,在冬季和秋季较高.麻雀内部器官的变化同样有明显的季节性,冬季和秋季麻雀的肝脏、心脏、肌胃、小肠、直肠和整体消化道

  17. Micropropagação, aclimatização, teor e composição química do óleo essencial de genótipos de hortelã japonesa Micropropagation, acclimatization, essential oil content and chemical composition of japanese mint genotypes

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    Maria de Fátima Arrigoni-Blank

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available A hortelã japonesa (Mentha arvensis é uma espécie aromática, originária do sul da China, o seu óleo essencial é rico em mentol, o qual é empregado nas indústrias farmacêuticas, de alimentos e de cosméticos. Este trabalho teve como objetivo desenvolver um protocolo para a micropropagação e aclimatização de genótipos de hortelã japonesa, além de analisar a composição química dos óleos essenciais de plantas micropropagadas e não micropropagadas. Segmentos nodais são os mais indicados para a micropropagação dos genótipos de M. arvensis. A concentração de 4,4 µM de AIA promoveu um maior número de brotos e folhas por explante do genótipo MA701-02, em relação aos demais genótipos. A utilização de 4,4 µM AIA e 9,3 µM CIN + 8,9 µM BAP + 2,2 µM AIA proporcionou maior acúmulo de massa seca no genótipo MA701-02, e no MA701-04 foi a concentração de 8,9 µM BAP + 5,4 µM ANA. O substrato pó de coco + 1 g L-1 de calcário + 12 g L-1 de Biosafra® (3-12-6 pode ser indicado para a aclimatização de mudas micropropagadas dos genótipos de hortelã japonesa avaliados. A micropropagação não alterou o teor de óleo essencial e foram identificados 17 constituintes químicos, perfazendo um total de 92 a 99%.Japanese mint (Mentha arvensis L. is an aromatic species originated from South China and its essential oil is rich in menthol, which is used in the pharmaceutical, food and cosmetic industries. The aim of this work was to develop a protocol for micropropagation and acclimatization of japanese mint genotypes and analyze the chemical composition of the essential oils from micropropagated and not micropropagated plants. Nodal segments are the most indicated for micropropagation of the M. arvensis genotypes. The concentration of 4.4 µM of IAA promoved higher number of shoots and leaves per explant of the MA701-02 genotype when compared with the others. The use of 4,4 µM of IAA and 9,3 µM of KIN + 8,9 µM of BAP + 2

  18. 热习服对高温力竭运动大鼠体液调节激素及下丘脑抗利尿激素合成的影响%Heat Acclimatization Promotes Exercise Capacity of Rats in a Warm Environment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    董柔; 封文平; 曾凡星; 陈宜威

    2012-01-01

    Objective The purpose of this paper was to observe the effect of heat acclimatization on serum Na+, K+, antidiuretic hormone (ADH), and atrial natriuretic peptide(ANP) after prolonged exercise in a warm environment. Methods 24 male Wistar rats were randomly divided into 3 groups: control group (A) .prolonged exercise in warm environment group(B) and prolonged exercise in warm environment after heat acclimatization group(C). The temperature and humidity of normal environment were set at 25℃ and 50% .respectively. The warm environment was created in a chamber with 38℃ of temperature and 50% of humidity. Rats in group C underwent exhaustive treadmill training at the speed of 18m/min and slope of 0° for 14 days in warm environment. Then,rats in groups B and C carried on treadmill training at the speed of 20m/min and slope of 0° in warm environment till exhaustion. Body weight and rectal temperature of the rats were measured before and after the experiment, and exhaustive exercise duration of groups B and C was recorded. Immediately after exhaustion,serum Na+,K+,ANP,aldosterone(ALD), ADH in hypothalamus were tested. Results (l)The exhaustive exercise duration of group C (75.20+15.39 min) was significantly longer than group B (27.67±4.80 min)(P < 0.01). (2)The weight loss in % of group G was greater than that of group B(P < 0.01) ; plasma osmotic pressure of group C(316.50 ±3.63 mmol/L) was significantly higher than that in group B (304.75±5.90 mmol/L) (P < 0.01).(3)After exhaustive exercise in warm environment, the concentration of serum ADH in groups B and C was higher than that in group A(P < 0.05) ,and in group C was lower than that in group B(P < 0.05); The concentration of serum ALD of groups B and C was higher than that of group A (P < 0.01), The concentration of serum ANP of group B and C was lower than that of group A (P < 0.05).(4)The expression of ADH mRNA in hypothalamus of group B( 1.51+0.18) increased more significantly than that of group A(1.04

  19. Crescimento de plântulas de Pfaffia glomerata (Spreng. Pedersen cultivadas in vitro sob dois níveis de nitrogênio e sacarose, durante seis subculturas sucessivas e aclimatização Growth of Pfaffia glomerata (Spreng. Pedersen in vitro cultured plantlets on two levels of nitrogen and sucrose, during six successive subcultures and acclimatization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joseila Maldaner

    2007-02-01

    úmero de folhas por planta.The present research was aimed at evaluating the growth of brazilian ginseng (Pfaffia glomerata (Spreng. Pedersen in vitro cultured plantlets under two levels of nitrogen and sucrose, during six successive subcultures and acclimatization. Two nutritional treatments were tested: nitrogen at 100% strength of the MS medium + 30g L-1 sucrose; and nitrogen at 50% strength + 45g L-1 sucrose. During six successive subcultures, the explants of 30-day-old plantlets grown under both treatments were transferred, respectively to the next subculture on the same treatment conditions. At 6th subculture, plantlets were transferred to substrate Plantmax® Hortaliças and submitted to acclimatization in a growth chamber. Throughout the subcultures, fluctuations in growth response due to nutritional conditions tested were observed. The height of the higher sprout, the average height of sprouts, and the total number of nodal segments per plantlet, respectively for four, four and three subcultures were greater in 100% strength of the MS medium + 30g L-1 sucrose than in 50% strength + 45g L-1 sucrose. On the other hand, dry matter of roots, of shoots and of the whole plant, respectively for two, two and three subcultures, were greater in 50% strength + 45g L-1 sucrose. In conclusion, the increase of sucrose associated with reduction of N level in the culture medium enhanced the biomass production, while the MS at full strength enhanced the growth based in sprout length and number of nodal segments. These differences concerning the biomass production observed during in vitro culture did not persisted in the acclimatization process ex vitro, where MS at full strength give rise greater growth in sprout length and number of leaves per plant.

  20. Análise do desempenho reprodutivo e do uso de energia elétrica em instalações climatizadas de cachaços Analysis of reproductive performance and use of electrical energy in the acclimatized facilities of boars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz A. Rossi

    2012-10-01

    there was no improvement in the mean values of seminal volume and sperm concentration. It is worthwhile to mention that monthly increase in energy costs due to use of acclimatization and automation equipments were not significant as the equipments are of low energy consumption.

  1. Aclimatação do camarão marinho Litopenaeus vannamei (Boone, 1931 à água doce com diferentes estratégias de alimentação e calagem = Acclimatization of the marine shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei (Boone, 1931 to the freshwater with different feeding and liming strategies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo de Paula Mendes

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Pós-Larvas do camarão Litopenaeus vannamei, na fase de PL9-10 e PL25-26 foram aclimatadas à água doce (0,0 ‰, objetivando promover cultivos em regiões interioranas. Para isso, foram realizados dois experimentos conduzidos em aquários com capacidade útil de 44 litros e densidade de estocagem de 11,36 pós-larvas/L. No experimento 1, foram testadas diferentes concentrações de cal hidratada (0,018 g a 0,031 g e 2 dietas, formuladas à base de ração comercial para camarão e biomassa de artêmia. No experimento 2, foram testadas 5dietas com diferentes concentrações de biomassa de artêmia (0% a 100%, inseridas em rações de peixes e camarões. No final do processo de aclimatação, a sobrevivência das póslarvas variou de 40,44% a 98,04%. Concluiu-se que pós-larvas do Litopenaeus vannamei podem ser aclimatadas à água doce e que o aumento da concentração de cal e de artêmia na ração melhoraram significativamente (pLitopenaeus vannamei postlarvae with 9-10 (PL9-10, 25-26 days old (PL25-26 were acclimated to freshwater (0 ppt for the purpose of attending the inland cultures. Two experiments were conducted in 44 liter aquariums with stocking density of 11.36 postlarvae/L. In experiment 01, different concentrations of hydrated lime (0.018 g a 0.031 g and two diets, formulated with commercial shrimp ration and artemia biomass, were tested. In experiment 02, five diets, withdifferent concentrations of artemia biomass (0 to 100% inserted in fish and shrimp rations, were tested. At the end of the acclimatization process, the postlarvae survival varied from40.44 to 98.04%. Results showed that Litopenaeus vannamei postlarvae can be acclimated to freshwater. Also, the increase of lime concentration and the artemia biomass in the ration improved (p<0.05 the zootechnic parameters of the species in a significant way.

  2. Estudo de simulações de microclimas em casas de vegetação visando à aclimatação de mudas micropropagadas de bananeira cv Grande Naine Simulations of microclimate in greenhouses aiming the acclimatization of micropropagated seedlings of banana cv. Grande Naine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ciro Scaranari

    2008-12-01

    fotovoltaicos de silício, por volta das 9h, 12h e 15h, sob condições de céu claro e encoberto, durante o verão de 2004/05 e inverno de 2005. As malhas vermelhas apresentam transmitâncias diferenciadas ao longo do espectro da radiação fotossinteticamente ativa, constituindo-se assim em interessantes materiais para os pretendidos estudos sobre aclimatação. Resultados mostram maiores reduções na faixa RFA para as telas vermelhas, independentes do horário, insolação e estação do ano, concordantes com aqueles obtidos por espectro-radiômetro.In acclimatization processes, the environment control takes over a part of vital importance, since in in vitro condition banana seedlings do not efficiently operate the absorption of light, water and nutrients. Therefore, they should be submitted to controlled environments under feasible conditions of luminosity, temperature (around 28ºC, with minimum of 18ºC and maximum of 34ºC, and relative humidity above 75%. For this purpose, it was installed five mini tunnels with controlled temperature and relative humidity. For the control of temperature it was used pad-fan evaporative coolers at 28/25ºC. For the control of relative humidity it was used fogging during the day at 75% under intermittence of 6s at each 40s. For temperature and relative humidity monitoring, it was installed three aspirate psychrometers in each mini tunnel connected to a data logger for daily acquisition every 60s. Temperature and relative air humidity were adequate for plants development, however significant differences were observed between the different environment conditions. For luminosity study, under transparent plastic film (low density polyethylene of 100µm thickness, it was used four meshes with average shading in the PAR spectrum band (400 to 700nm of 69.92%, 50.73%, 29.73%, and 57.77%, being the first three in red color (with top level at 580nm, and abrupt reduction after that, the fourth mesh was black (linear behavior. The fifth tunnel had

  3. In vitro development and acclimatization of dendezeiro (Elaeis guineensis)

    OpenAIRE

    Marlúcia Souza Souza Pádua; Luciano Viela Paiva; Luis Gustavo Texeira da Silva; Luciano Coutinho Silva; Vanessa Cristina Stein

    2014-01-01

    Fruits and almond from the dendezeiro, oil palmbelonging to the Elaeis genus,are widely used for the production of cookingoils or for the pharmaceutical and cosmetic industries.In the last decade, this oil palm also emerged as a promising source for commercialbiofuel production. This study evaluated the effect of different culture media, MS (MURASHIGUE AND SKOOG) and Y3 (EEUWENS)and carbohydrates duringin vitro germination of zygotic embryos, the effect of growth regulators GA3, NAA and BA Po...

  4. Crescimento in vitro e aclimatização de Cattleya loddigesii Lindley (Orchidaceae com carvão ativado sob dois espectros luminosos In vitro growth and acclimatization of Cattleya loddigesii Lindley (Orchidaceae with actived charcoal in two light spectra

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renato Fernandes Galdiano Júnior

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar a adição de concentrações de carvão ativado em meio de cultura ½ MS (com metade da concentração dos macronutrientes sob dois espectros luminosos para a obtenção de plântulas in vitro de Cattleya loddigesii. Plântulas com aproximadamente 90 dias foram subcultivadas em oito tratamentos, nos quais foi testada a adição ao meio de cultura ½ MS com carvão ativado (0; 0,5; 1,0 e 2,0g L-1 e combinados sob espectro de luz branca e luz vermelha. Após 180 dias da germinação, foram mensurados dados biométricos (raiz e parte aérea, massa fresca e teores de pigmentos fotossintéticos. Em plântulas aclimatizadas em casa de vegetação, foram avaliadas a taxa de sobrevivência após 120 dias. As concentrações de clorofila total, clorofila a e carotenoides foram maiores nos tratamentos sob luz branca, enquanto a luz vermelha influenciou significativamente maior clorofila b, plântulas com menos raízes e de menor comprimento e elevada mortalidade ex vitro. A adição de 2,0g L-1 de carvão ativado ao meio de cultura e o uso de luz branca proporcionaram maior eficiência de desenvolvimento tanto para as culturas in vitro quanto para a sobrevivência ex vitro das plantas.The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of different concentrations of activated charcoal in ½ MS (half concentration of macronutrients culture medium under two light spectra on the in vitro growth of Cattleya loddigesii seedlings. Plantlets with approximately 90 days were subcultured under eight treatments, consisting of different active charcoal concentrations (0; 0.5; 1.0 and 2.0g L-1 in ½ MS medium combined with white and red light spectra. After 180 days of germination, biometric data, fresh weight, and the level of photosynthetic pigments were evaluated. Plantlets acclimatized in a greenhouse were evaluated for survival after 120 days. Total chlorophyll, chlorophyll a, and carotenoid concentrations were higher in

  5. Aclimatação do camarão marinho Litopenaeus vannamei (Boone, 1931 à água doce com diferentes estratégias de alimentação e calagem - DOI: 10.4025/actascianimsci.v28i1.668 Acclimatization of the marine shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei (Boone, 1931 to the freshwater with different feeding and liming strategies - DOI: 10.4025/actascianimsci.v28i1.668

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruno Leonardo da Silva Santos

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Pós-Larvas do camarão Litopenaeus vannamei, na fase de PL9-10 e PL25-26 foram aclimatadas à água doce (0,0 ‰, objetivando promover cultivos em regiões interioranas. Para isso, foram realizados dois experimentos conduzidos em aquários com capacidade útil de 44 litros e densidade de estocagem de 11,36 pós-larvas/L. No experimento 1, foram testadas diferentes concentrações de cal hidratada (0,018 g a 0,031 g e 2 dietas, formuladas à base de ração comercial para camarão e biomassa de artêmia. No experimento 2, foram testadas 5 dietas com diferentes concentrações de biomassa de artêmia (0% a 100%, inseridas em rações de peixes e camarões. No final do processo de aclimatação, a sobrevivência das póslarvas variou de 40,44% a 98,04%. Concluiu-se que pós-larvas do Litopenaeus vannamei podem ser aclimatadas à água doce e que o aumento da concentração de cal e de artêmia na ração melhoraram significativamente (p Litopenaeus vannamei postlarvae with 9-10 (PL9-10, 25-26 days old (PL25-26 were acclimated to freshwater (0 ppt for the purpose of attending the inland cultures. Two experiments were conducted in 44 liter aquariums with stocking density of 11.36 postlarvae/L. In experiment 01, different concentrations of hydrated lime (0.018 g a 0.031 g and two diets, formulated with commercial shrimp ration and artemia biomass, were tested. In experiment 02, five diets, with different concentrations of artemia biomass (0 to 100% inserted in fish and shrimp rations, were tested. At the end of the acclimatization process, the postlarvae survival varied from 40.44 to 98.04%. Results showed that Litopenaeus vannamei postlarvae can be acclimated to freshwater. Also, the increase of lime concentration and the artemia biomass in the ration improved (p < 0.05 the zootechnic parameters of the species in a significant way.

  6. Maximal exercise and muscle oxygen extraction in acclimatizing lowlanders and high altitude natives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lundby, Carsten; Sander, Mikael; van Hall, Gerrit;

    2006-01-01

    O(2) extraction at maximal exercise was 90.0+/-1.0% in the Danish lowlanders at sea level, and remained close to this value in all situations. In contrast to this, fractional arterial O(2) extraction was 83.2+/-2.8% in the high altitude natives, and did not change with the induction of normoxia...

  7. The debate about acclimatization in the Dutch East Indies (1840-1860).

    OpenAIRE

    A. de Knecht-van Eekelen

    2000-01-01

    Around the middle of the nineteenth century, conflicting views were put forward on the influence of climate on health and disease in the Dutch East Indies. In this part of the world, old Hippocratic ideas influenced views on the cause of disease much longer than in the Netherlands. Moreover, Brunonian theories--which had been discarded in the Netherlands--fitted the discussion about the effect of temperature on the body. Additionally, scientific medicine was introduced. Scientific methods, su...

  8. The debate about acclimatization in the Dutch East Indies (1840-1860).

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Knecht-van Eekelen, A

    2000-01-01

    Around the middle of the nineteenth century, conflicting views were put forward on the influence of climate on health and disease in the Dutch East Indies. In this part of the world, old Hippocratic ideas influenced views on the cause of disease much longer than in the Netherlands. Moreover, Brunonian theories--which had been discarded in the Netherlands--fitted the discussion about the effect of temperature on the body. Additionally, scientific medicine was introduced. Scientific methods, such as the collection of meteorological and statistical data, were promoted by a small group of military health officers. However, the use of scientific data did not guarantee a clear-cut opinion on the causes of disease. Numbers proved as disputable as other, less objective, medical observations. Mortality statistics and numbers of patients especially were used as arguments in various discussions. The example of Bosch, who changed his views on the dangers of tropical climate, demonstrates that statistics could be used for different purposes. At first, in his position as General Inspector, he used them as an argument to provide better care for the military personnel; later, when retired and a civilian, he used them as justification for colonization in relation to an intended improvement of the living conditions of the natives. The dangers of tropical climate for the health of Europeans were played down as soon as other--primarily economic--motives for living in the tropics became strong enough. PMID:11769938

  9. Diversity of Araliaceae in Sulasih Talang Nature Reserve, West Sumatra and its acclimatization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DWI MURTI PUSPITANINGTYAS

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Sulasih Talang Nature Reserve is a conservation area in West Sumatra Province, which contains high diversity of plants including Araliaceae. Araliaceae mostly consist of attractive plants which have potentiallity as ornamental plants. The aim of this research is to record the diversity of Araliaceae in Sulasih Talang Nature Reserve. The result of the study indicates that there are, species of Araliaceae found in Sulasih Talang Nature Reserve, which are : Arthrophyllum diversifolium, Brassaiopsis glomerulata, Brassaiopsis sumatrana var. variaefolia, Macropanax dispermus, Schefflera elliptica, S. farinosa, S. lucescens, S. scandens, Schefflera sp., and Trevesia beccarii, in which Bogor Botanic Garden collected 6 species of them, i.e.: Brassaiopsis glomerulata, Brassaiopsis sumatrana var. variaefolia, Macropanax dispermus, Schefflera elliptica, S. scandens, Schefflera sp. Most of the collections are successfully acclimated in the gardens.

  10. Acclimatization of microbial consortia to alkaline conditions and enhanced electricity generation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Enren; Zhai, Wenjing; Luo, Yue; Scott, Keith; Wang, Xu; Diao, Guowang

    2016-07-01

    Air-cathode microbial fuel cells (MFCs), obtained by inoculating with an aerobic activated sludge, were activated over a one month period, at pH 10.0, to obtain alkaline MFCs. The alkaline MFCs produced stable power of 118mWm(-2) and a maximum power density of 213mWm(-2) at pH 10.0, using glucose as substrate. The performance of the MFCs was enhanced to produce a stable power of 140mWm(-2) and a maximum power density of 235mWm(-2) by increasing pH to 11.0. This is the highest pH for stably operating MFCs reported in the literature. Power production was found to be suppressed at higher pH (12.0) and lower pH (9.0). Microbial analysis indicated that Firmicutes phylum was largely enriched in the anodic biofilms (88%), within which Eremococcus genus was the dominant group (47%). It is the first time that Eremococcus genus was described in bio-electrochemical systems. PMID:27061261

  11. Sex Differences in Physiological Acclimatization after Transfer in Wistar Rats Animals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Arts, J.W.M.; Kramer, K.; Arndt, Saskia; Ohl, Frauke

    2014-01-01

    Most laboratory animals used in research are vendor-bred and transferred to research facilities. Transfer procedures might have considerable and unintended effects on research results. In the present study we compared physiological and behavioral parameters before and after external and internal tra

  12. An inquiry into the role of cardiac filling pressure in acclimatization to heat.

    OpenAIRE

    Senay, L. C.

    1986-01-01

    During the first exposure of exercising subjects to hot environments (30-50 degrees C), cardiac output, heart rate, and body temperature increase over that seen in cool environments, while stroke volume decreases. If daily heat exposures occur, during the second heat exposure, heart rates and rectal temperatures are decreased from day 1 while cardiac output is maintained. This decrease in physiological strain occurs with little or no increase in evaporative heat loss. The alleviating agent ap...

  13. Dexamethasone mimics aspects of physiological acclimatization to 8 hours of hypoxia but suppresses plasma erythropoietin

    OpenAIRE

    LIU, CHUN; Croft, Quentin P P; Kalidhar, Swati; Jerome T Brooks; Herigstad, Mari; Smith, Thomas G.; Dorrington, Keith L.; Robbins, Peter A.

    2013-01-01

    Dexamethasone ameliorates the severity of acute mountain sickness (AMS) but it is unknown whether it obtunds normal physiological responses to hypoxia. We studied whether dexamethasone enhanced or inhibited the ventilatory, cardiovascular, and pulmonary vascular responses to sustained (8 h) hypoxia. Eight healthy volunteers were studied, each on four separate occasions, permitting four different protocols. These were: dexamethasone (20 mg orally) beginning 2 h before a control period of 8 h o...

  14. The Use Heat Acclimatization to Improve the Growth Performance of Heat Stressed Buffaloes Using Radioimmunoassay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heat acclimation is a slowly developing response evoked by chronic exposure to moderate heat under controlled environment. the objective of the present study was to elucidate the feasibility and validity of heat acclimation in Egyptian buffaloes. eight male buffalo calves were exposed to adjustment period of mild climate for 3 weeks (20 C and 75% Rh), then exposed to heat treatment period for 4 days(40 C and 45% Rh). after the end of heat exposure period, the animals were acclimated by exposing them to warm climate for 3 weeks at (30 C and 55% Rh). to test the validity of heat acclimation, the animals were exposed to (43 C and 45% Rh) for 4 days.then the heat-induced change % before acclimation were compared with those after acclimation to find out if the latter are less in magnitude. blood samples were taken at different intervals for each period .the biochemical parameters estimated were glucose, kidney function (urea and creatinine), liver function (ALT and AST) , total proteins, total lipids, cortisol, T4 hormones and digestibility . the physiological parameters estimated were rectal temperature (RT) , respiration rate (RR) and body weight (BW)

  15. Organogênese direta e aclimatização de plantas de patchouli Direct organogenesis and acclimatization of patchouli

    OpenAIRE

    Maria de Fátima Arrigoni-Blank; Aline V Santos; Arie F. Blank

    2011-01-01

    O patchouli é uma espécie aromática cujo óleo essencial é largamente empregado pela indústria de perfumes. A propagação convencional desta espécie é por estaquia, sendo a micropropagação uma alternativa para propagação clonal de indivíduos livres de patógenos em larga escala. O objetivo deste trabalho foi analisar a influência de combinações de diferentes fontes de auxinas com cinetina sobre a organogênese de patchouli, assim como diferentes tipos de composição de substratos na aclimatização ...

  16. Microbial decolorization of reactive black-5 in a two-stage anaerobic-aerobic reactor using acclimatized activated textile sludge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohanty, Sagarika; Dafale, Nishant; Rao, Nageswara Neti

    2006-10-01

    A two-stage anaerobic-aerobic treatment process based on mixed culture of bacteria isolated from textile dye effluent was used to degrade reactive black 5 dye (RB-5). The anaerobic step was studied in more detail by varying the dye concentration from 100 to 3000 mg l(-1). The results showed that major decolorization was achieved during the anaerobic process. The time required for decolorization by > 90% increased as the concentration of the dye increased. It was also found that maintaining dissolved oxygen (DO) concentration below 0.5 mg l(-1 )and addition of a co-substrate viz., glucose, facilitates anaerobic decolorization reaction remarkably. An attempt was made to identify the metabolites formed in anaerobic process by using high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and UV-VIS spectrophotometry. A plate assay was performed for the detection of dominant decolorizing bacteria. Only a few bacterial colonies with high clearing zones (decolorization zones) were found. The results showed that under anaerobic condition RB-5 molecules were reduced and aromatic amines were generated. The aromatic amine metabolite was partly removed in subsequent aerobic bio-treatment. It was possible to achieve more than 90% decolorization and approximately 46% reduction in amine metabolite concentration through two-stage anaerobic-aerobic treatment after a reaction period of 2 days.

  17. Extensive phenotypic plasticity of a Red Sea coral over a strong latitudinal temperature gradient suggests limited acclimatization potential to warming

    OpenAIRE

    Yvonne Sawall; Abdulmoshin Al-Sofyani; Sönke Hohn; Eulalia Banguera-Hinestroza; Voolstra, Christian R.; Martin Wahl

    2015-01-01

    Global warming was reported to cause growth reductions in tropical shallow water corals in both, cooler and warmer, regions of the coral species range. This suggests regional adaptation with less heat-tolerant populations in cooler and more thermo-tolerant populations in warmer regions. Here, we investigated seasonal changes in the in situ metabolic performance of the widely distributed hermatypic coral Pocillopora verrucosa along 12 degrees latitudes featuring a steep temperature gradient be...

  18. Calcium homeostasis in low and high calcium water acclimatized Oreochromis mossambicus exposed to ambient and dietary cadmium

    OpenAIRE

    Pratap, H.B.; Wendelaar Bonga, S.E.

    2007-01-01

    The effects of cadmium administered via ambient water (10 mg/l) or food (10 mgCd/fish/day) on plasma calcium, corpuscles of Stannius and bony tissues of Oreochromis mossambicus acclimated to low calcium (0.2 mM) and high calcium (0.8 mM) water were studied for 2, 4, 14 and 35 days. In low calcium water acclimated fish, ambient cadmium induced significant hypocalcemia, while the structure and morphometry of type-1 and type-2 cells of corpuscles of Stannius were not affected on day 2 and 4. Sub...

  19. Calcium homeostasis in low and high calcium water acclimatized Oreochromis mossambicus exposed to ambient and dietary cadmium

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pratap, H.B.; Wendelaar Bonga, S.E.

    2007-01-01

    The effects of cadmium administered via ambient water (10 mg/l) or food (10 mgCd/fish/day) on plasma calcium, corpuscles of Stannius and bony tissues of Oreochromis mossambicus acclimated to low calcium (0.2 mM) and high calcium (0.8 mM) water were studied for 2, 4, 14 and 35 days. In low calcium wa

  20. A community change in the algal endosymbionts of a scleractinian coral following a natural bleaching event : field evidence of acclimatization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jones, A. M.; Berkelmans, R.; van Oppen, M. J. H.; Mieog, J. C.; Sinclair, W.

    2008-01-01

    The symbiosis between reef-building corals and their algal endosymbionts (zooxanthellae of the genus Symbiodinium) is highly sensitive to temperature stress, which makes coral reefs vulnerable to climate change. Thermal tolerance in corals is known to be substantially linked to the type of zooxanthe

  1. 京藏铁路列车乘务人员高原习服调查研究%Altitude Acclimatization of Coach Attendants Serving Beijing-Tibet Railway

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    姚晶磊; 肖林; 金恩忠; 任骁芳; 石红; 储刚

    2013-01-01

    [Objective] To assess the high altitude adaptability of railway coach crew members and its influencing factors by monitoring their physiological parameters,and to provide reference for future occupational health supervision and work arrangement guidance.[Methods] Pulse oximeter,tonometer,fundus photography,and Lake Louise self-assessment questionnaires were performed on 98 randomly selected coach attendants during the entire journey to examine saturation oxygen (SaO2),intraocular pressure,fundus conditions,and occurrence of acute mountain sickness (AMS).[Results] The oxygen partial pressures of the coach compartments and the blood oxygen pressures of the attendants were negatively correlated with altitude.In the 98 studied subjects,AMS was presented in varying degrees in 94 attendants,and the AMS scores were obviously higher for the attendants with shorter on-duty hours and higher workload (P < 0.05).Moreover,83 subjects presented retinal vascular engorgement and 21 subjects presented retinal hemorrhage and papilledema.[Conclusion] Existing coach oxygen-rich measures cannot sufficiently prevent occurrence of AMS.Both on-duty hours and workload may affect coach attendants' altitude adaptation.Retinal vascular changes can be used as an important indicator of AMS in railway coach attendants.%[目的]通过跟踪监测高原列车乘务人员相关生理指标变化,分析乘务人员高原适应性及影响因素,为高原乘务人员的健康监护及指定作业方式提供依据. [方法]随机对一列京藏线列车98名乘务人员全程监测血氧饱和度(SaO2)、眼压、眼底情况及Lake Louise急性高原病(AMS)自评评分. [结果]车厢内氧分压及乘务员血氧饱和度与海拔高程呈负相关性,94人发生不同程度AMS,在岗时间短及劳动强度大的人群AMS较明显(P<0.05),83人出现视网膜静脉扩张,21人出现视乳头充血水肿. [结论]现行列车富氧措施不能完全防止AMS的发生;在岗时间及劳动强度均对乘务员高原适应性有影响;视网膜血管改变可作为AMS重要指征.

  2. Brassinosteróide e substratos na aclimatização do abacaxizeiro ‘Imperial’ = Brassinosteroid and substrates in acclimatization of ‘Imperial’ pineapple

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Henrique Aragão Catunda

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar o efeito da aplicação de diferentes concentrações de um análogo de brassinosteróide (BIOBRAS – 16 e de dois substratos sobre o crescimento de mudas micropropagadas do abacaxizeiro ‘Imperial’. O experimento foi conduzido em DBC, em esquema fatorial 2 x 5 x 4, no qual foram avaliadas cincoconcentrações do BIOBRAS - 16 (0; 0,1; 0,3; 0,5 e 1 mg L-1, dois tipos de substratos e quatro épocas de amostragem (60, 90, 120 e 150 dias após transplantio. Os substratos utilizados foram o Plantmax® e outro substrato obtido pela compostagem de uma mistura entre o bagaço-de-cana e torta de filtro (BT. As plântulas foram transplantadas para tubetes cônicos em casa-de-vegetação equipada com nebulizadores intermitentes. As plantas cultivadas no substrato BT e pulverizadas com 0,1 mg L-1 do BIOBRAS - 16 apresentaram maior crescimento da parte aérea, com maior número de folhas, diâmetro de roseta, largurade folha, massa fresca e massa seca, aos 150 dias após transplantio. Nas plantas cultivadas no substrato BT as pulverizações com o BIOBRAS-16 a 0,1 mg L-1 proporcionaram acúmulo de matéria seca 2,8 vezes superior ao valor da testemunha cultivada no substrato Plantmax®. A massa fresca e seca de raízes foram superiores no substrato Plantmax® em relação ao BT, nas últimas épocas de amostragem.This work aimed to evaluate the effects of different concentrations of a brassinoesteroid analogue (BIOBRAS-16 and two substrates on the growth of micropropagated seedlings of ‘Imperial’ pineapple. A randomized block design was used in a 2 x 5 x 4 factorial scheme, evaluating five concentrations of BIOBRAS-16 (0; 0.1; 0.3; 0.5and 1 mg L-1, two types of substrates and four sampling periods (60, 90, 120 and 150 day safter planting. The substrates used were Plantmax® and another obtained from a mix of composting sugar-cane bagasse and filter cake (CC. The seedlings were transplanted tosmall conic tubes and allocated in a greenhouse equipped with an intermittent mist. The plants cultivated in CC substrate and sprayed with 0.1 mg L-1 of BIOBRAS-16 showed higher growth of shoots with greater numbers of leaves, rosette diameter, leaf width, freshand dry matter production at 150 days after planting. The plants that were cultivated on CC substrate and sprayed with BIOBRAS-16 at a 0.1 mg L-1 produced 2.8 times more dry matter than the control cultivated in Plantmax® substrate. The fresh and dry matter of roots were superior in Plantmax® when compared to CC at late sampling periods.

  3. Introduction and Acclimatization of Wild Forgae-- Ⅰ. Ceratoides arborescens%野生牧草的引种驯化——Ⅰ华北驼绒藜

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵书元; 阿拉塔

    2012-01-01

    Ceratoides arborescend is preferred by livestock such as sheep,horses and camels because of its luxuriant foliages, abundant nutrition, rich protein and calcium. It's stem and leaf preserved well in cold season, and the characteristics of drought resistance,cold resistance, barren tolerance made it a kind of excellent xerophil semi-shrub in arid area. It's also a kind of important grass seed for building and planting in non-irrigated pasture. This paper introduces Ceratoides arborescens' exploitation and utilization, morphological characteristics, ecological types and cytology researches, growth and development, adaptation and habitats,building and planting technology,grassland management,nutritional value ;it also gives reference plants ofthe same genus as Ceratoides arborescens for extending plantation, exploitation and utilization.%华北驼绒藜枝叶繁茂,营养丰富,富含蛋白质及钙,为羊、马、骆驼等家畜所喜食。其茎叶在冷季保存良好,并具有抗旱、抗寒、耐瘠薄的特性,是干旱地区的优等半灌木饲草,也是建植灌草结合旱作草地的重要草种之一。概述了华北驼绒藜的开发利用、形态特征、生态型与细胞学研究、生长发育、适应性和生境条件、建植技术与草地管理、营养价值,并介绍了华北驼绒藜的同属植物,以期为更好地推广种植和合理开发利用华北驼绒藜提供参考。

  4. Transcriptional regulation of metal transport genes and mineral nutrition during acclimatization to cadmium and zinc in the Cd/Zn hyperaccumulator, Thlaspi caerulescens (Ganges population)

    OpenAIRE

    Küpper, Hendrik; Kochian, Leon V.

    2010-01-01

    - We investigated changes in mineral nutrient uptake and cellular expression levels for metal transporter genes in the cadmium (Cd)/zinc (Zn) hyperaccumulator, Thlaspi caerulescens during whole plant and leaf ontogenesis under different long-term treatments with Zn and Cd.- Quantitative mRNA in situ hybridization (QISH) revealed that transporter gene expression changes not only dependent on metal nutrition/toxicity, but even more so during plant and leaf development. The main mRNA abundances ...

  5. Influência do tempo de aclimatação na resposta do cajueiro à salinidade Influence of acclimatization time on response of cashew plant to salinity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean C. A. Brilhante

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available A resposta das plantas à salinidade depende de fatores fisiológicos, bioquímicos e genéticos. Com este trabalho, objetivou-se estudar o impacto do tempo de aclimatação à solução nutritiva sobre a resposta do cajueiro à salinidade. Plantas de Anarcadium occidentale L., CCP06, cultivadas em vermiculita durante 28 dias, foram transferidas para solução nutritiva de Hoagland com 1/10 de sua força iônica, onde permaneceram por 1 e 7 dias. Ao final dos dois tempos, a solução nutritiva foi suplementada com 200 mM de NaCl, condições em que as plantas foram cultivadas por 0, 12, 24, 48 e 72 h. As plantas aclimatadas por 7 dias á solução de Hoagland apresentaram sinais fisiológicos mais compatíveis com a tolerância ao NaCl, como menor acumulação de Na+ e, também, menores danos nas membranas, peroxidação dos lipídeos, degradação de proteínas, acumulação de aminoácidos livres e acumulação de prolina. A amônia livre foi o melhor indicador da intensidade do estresse salino. Os danos de membranas aumentaram com a acumulação de Na+ nas folhas. Os resultados evidenciam que o tempo de aclimatação das raízes à solução nutritiva influencia a expressão de fatores capazes de atenuar os efeitos do estresse salino.The plant response to salinity depends on physiological, biochemical and genetic factors and on their interaction with external environment. This work aimed to study the impact of adaptation time in nutrient solution on the cashew response to salinity. Seedlings of Anacardium occidentale L (CCP06 grown in vermiculite, for 28 days, were placed to grow in 1/10 ionic strength Hoagland solution for 1 and 7 days. At the end of each time the solution was supplemented with 200 mM NaCl, and under this condition the plants were monitored for 0, 12, 24, 48 and 72 h. The 7 days Hoagland solution acclimated plants had physiological index more compatible to tolerance to NaCl such as low Na+ accumulation and also low membrane damage, lipid peroxidation, protein degradation and free amino acids and proline accumulation. The free ammonia was the best index to predict the salt stress intensity. Membrane damage increased with Na+ accumulation in the leaves. The results evidence that the root adaptation time in Hoagland solution has influence on the expression of factors capable to alleviate the salt stress effects.

  6. Adaptation and acclimatization to ocean acidification in marine ectotherms : an in situ transplant experiment with polychaetes at a shallow CO2 vent system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Calosi, Piero; Rastrick, Samuel P. S.; Lombardi, Chiara; de Guzman, Heidi J.; Davidson, Laura; Jahnke, Marlene; Giangrande, Adriana; Hardege, Joerg D.; Schulze, Anja; Spicer, John I.; Gambi, Maria-Cristina

    2013-01-01

    Metabolic rate determines the physiological and life-history performances of ectotherms. Thus, the extent to which such rates are sensitive and plastic to environmental perturbation is central to an organism's ability to function in a changing environment. Little is known of long-term metabolic plas

  7. Acclimatization to 4100 m does not change capillary density or mRNA expression of potential angiogenesis regulatory factors in human skeletal muscle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lundby, Carsten; Pilegaard, Henriette; Andersen, Jesper L.;

    2004-01-01

    growth factor (VEGF), a known target gene for hypoxia inducible factor 1 (HIF-1). We hypothesised that prolonged exposure to high altitude increases muscle capillary density and that this can be explained by an enhanced HIF-1alpha expression inducing an increase in VEGF expression. We measured m......RNA levels and capillary density in muscle biopsies from vastus lateralis obtained in sea level residents (SLR; N=8) before and after 2 and 8 weeks of exposure to 4100 m altitude and in Bolivian Aymara high-altitude natives exposed to approximately 4100 m altitude (HAN; N=7). The expression of HIF-1alpha...

  8. Aclimatação ao frio e dano por geada em canola Acclimatization to cold and frost-injury in canola

    OpenAIRE

    Genei Antonio Dalmago; Gilberto Rocca da Cunha; Anderson Santi; João Leonardo Fernandes Pires; Alexandre Luiz Müller; Laise Maria Bolis

    2010-01-01

    O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a influência da aclimatação ao frio sobre o dano causado pela geada em diferentes estádios fenológicos de genótipos de canola. Foram realizados cinco experimentos em ambiente controlado, em 2006, 2007 e 2008. Os fatores avaliados foram: genótipos, aclimatação (com; sem), intensidades de geada, estádios de desenvolvimento de plantas, regimes de aclimatação e regimes de geada. As variáveis avaliadas foram: queima de folhas, massa de matéria seca, estatura d...

  9. Análise do conforto térmico em galpões avícolas com diferentes sistemas de acondicionamento Thermal comfort analysis in poultry houses with different acclimatization systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dermeval A. Furtado

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available A base deste trabalho foi a análise da influência da tipologia e das condições de conforto térmico ambiental em sete sistemas de acondicionamento de aviários de frangos de corte, localizados na mesorregião do Agreste paraibano. Os sistemas foram os seguintes: telha de amianto sem ventilação artificial; telha de barro sem ventilação artificial; telha de amianto com ventilação artificial; telha de barro com ventilação artificial; telha de amianto com ventilação artificial e nebulização; telha de barro com ventilação artificial e nebulização e telha de amianto com ventilação artificial e aspersão sobre a cobertura. A avaliação foi feita com base na temperatura do ar (TA, na umidade relativa (UR, no índice de temperatura de globo negro e umidade (ITGU e na carga térmica de radiação (CTR em diferentes horários, durante o período de verão. Constatou-se influência da tipologia nas condições de conforto térmico e que em todos os sistemas os índices de conforto variaram ao longo do dia, sendo que a TA, o ITGU e a CTR, apresentaram valores considerados acima do ideal, enquanto a UR ficou dentro da zona de conforto térmico.The study had the objective of analyzing the influence of seven types of roofs on thermal comfort in poultry-house, in the region of "Paraíba Agreste’. The systems were: asbestos tiles and clay tiles without forced ventilation, asbestos tiles and clay tiles with forced ventilation, asbestos tiles and clay tiles with artificial ventilation and fogging and asbestos tiles with forced ventilation, fogging and sprinkling on the roof. The evaluation was based on the results of air temperature (AT, relative humidity (RH, black globe temperature (BGT and the radiation thermal charge (RTC, measured at different diurnal times during the summer. Influence of the roof types on the thermal comfort was observed. In all systems the comfort index evaluated varied during the day and that AT, BGT and RTC showed values higher than those considered optimum. The RH values were within the thermal comfort zone.

  10. Influência do substrato e do tipo de fertilizante na aclimatação de mudas de bananeira 'Prata-Anã' Influence of substrate and fertilizer type on the acclimatization of 'Prata-Anã' banana plantlets

    OpenAIRE

    Edson Shigueaki Nomura; Juliana Domingues Lima; Domingos Sávio Rodrigues; Valéria Augusta Garcia; Eduardo Jun Fuzitani

    2009-01-01

    Objetivando-se avaliar a influência do substrato e tipo de fertilizante na aclimatação de mudas de bananeira 'Prata-Anã', provenientes de micropropagação, foi instalado um experimento em blocos casualizados, no esquema fatorial 5 x 3, com quatro repetições. Os substratos utilizados foram: S1 - Terra de subsolo + casca de arroz carbonizada + substrato comercial Rendimax Floreira®; S2 - Terra de subsolo + casca de arroz carbonizada + composto orgânico Organifol®; S3 - Terra de subsolo + casca d...

  11. Fungos micorrízicos-arbusculares no desenvolvimento de mudas de helicônia e gérbera micropropagadas Application of arbuscular mycorrhiza to micropropagated heliconia and gerbera plants during acclimatization period

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aurora Yoshiko Sato

    1999-03-01

    Full Text Available Plântulas micropropagadas de helicônia (Heliconia sp gérbera (Gerbera sp de vaso, foram aclimatadas em substrato (torta de filtro 50%, solo 30% e areia 20%, inoculado com três espécies de fungo micorrízico (Glomus clarum Nicolson. & Schenck, Glomus etunicatum Becker & Gerdemann e Gigaspora margarita Becker & Hall e uma mistura destas espécies (inóculo múltiplo. As avaliações quanto ao desenvolvimento da parte aérea e do sistema radicular e porcentagem de colonização, foram feitas aos 60 dias para gérbera e aos 90 dias para helicônia, após transplante. As duas espécies comportaram-se de modo diferente em resposta à micorrização. Glomus etunicatum não colonizou bem nenhuma das duas espécies estudadas. Apesar da elevada colonização, a helicônia não se beneficiou da inoculação, enquanto que a gérbera beneficiou-se da inoculação com G. clarum, G. etunicatum e do inóculo misto.Heliconia (Heliconia sp. and pot gerbera plantlets (Gerbera sp. obtained by in vitro micropropagation on Murashige and Skoog (MS medium were inoculated with 3 vesicular arbuscular mycorrhiza (VAM species and a mixture of three species. A control treatment without inoculation was also included. The plantlets were acclimated in a mixture of soil 30%, sand 20% and "torta de filtro" 50%. The fungal species were Glomus clarum, Glomus etunicatum and Gigaspora margarita. At 60 days for gerbera and 90 days for heliconia after the inoculation, fresh and dry matter of the aerial and root parts were determined, and the percentage of mycorrhizal colonization of the roots was obtained. Both species behaved different to mycorrhization. Glomus etunicatum did not show to be effective in colonization of heliconia and gerbera. Colonization was high, but heliconia did not benefit from this inoculation, however Gerbera was benefited by G. clarum, G. etunicatum and mixture inoculation.

  12. Micropropagação da amoreira-preta (Rubus spp.) e efeito de substratos na aclimatização de plântulas = Blackberry micropropagation (Rubus spp.) and effects of substrates in plants acclimatization

    OpenAIRE

    Fabíola Villa; Moacir Pasqual; Aparecida Gomes de Araújo; Leila Aparecida Salles Pio

    2006-01-01

    O objetivo do presente estudo foi aprimorar técnicas de propagação in vitro e determinar um melhor substrato para a amoreira-preta. O primeiro experimento consistiu de gemas axilares com cerca de 2 cm, oriundas de plântulas preestabelecidas in vitro da cv. Ébano, excisadas e inoculadas em meio MS, suplementado com 5 concentrações de carvão ativado e 5 de BAP. Ambos os experimentos foram inteiramente casualisados, utilizando-se in vitro 3 explantes por repetição e 4 repetições por tratamento e...

  13. Aclimatização de mudas micropropagadas de helicônia em ambiente protegido em função do tipo de substrato Acclimatization of micropropagated heliconia plants in different substrates

    OpenAIRE

    Eliana Lee Jorge Rocha; Ana Cristina Portugal Pinto de Carvalho; Benito Moreira de Azevedo; Albanise Barbosa Marinho; Thales Vinicius de Araujo Viana; Denise Vieira Vasconcelos

    2009-01-01

    A etapa de aclimatização é uma fase crítica da micropropagação vegetal, podendo ser responsável por altos índices de mortalidade, baixas taxas de crescimento e desuniformidade das plantas. Um fator fundamental na aclimatização é tipo de substrato a ser utilizado. Nesse trabalho, objetivou-se avaliar o efeito de diferentes substratos na aclimatização de mudas micropropagadas de helicônia (Heliconia lingulata Ruiz & Pav.). A pesquisa foi conduzida em um túnel alto de cultivo forçado pertencente...

  14. Fungos micorrízicos-arbusculares no desenvolvimento de mudas de helicônia e gérbera micropropagadas Application of arbuscular mycorrhiza to micropropagated heliconia and gerbera plants during acclimatization period

    OpenAIRE

    Aurora Yoshiko Sato; Dulcimara Carvalho Nannetti; José Eduardo Brasil Pereira Pinto; José Oswaldo Siqueira; Maria de Fátima Arrigoni Blank

    1999-01-01

    Plântulas micropropagadas de helicônia (Heliconia sp) gérbera (Gerbera sp) de vaso, foram aclimatadas em substrato (torta de filtro 50%, solo 30% e areia 20%), inoculado com três espécies de fungo micorrízico (Glomus clarum Nicolson. & Schenck, Glomus etunicatum Becker & Gerdemann e Gigaspora margarita Becker & Hall) e uma mistura destas espécies (inóculo múltiplo). As avaliações quanto ao desenvolvimento da parte aérea e do sistema radicular e porcentagem de colonização, foram feitas aos 60 ...

  15. Análise comparativa do ambiente de aviários de postura com diferentes sistemas de acondicionamento Comparative analysis of the environment of poultry sheds with different systems of acclimatization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guilherme Vitorasso

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available As tipologias dos galpões de galinhas poedeiras e os materiais utilizados principalmente na cobertura são determinantes para uma condição térmica apropriada com vistas à produção. Neste contexto, o objetivo deste trabalho foi identificar diferenças no ambiente interno de dois galpões de poedeiras, utilizando monitoramento e posterior comparação estatística das variáveis do ambiente. A análise dos dados não evidenciou maior conforto térmico no galpão recoberto com telhas de barro, em razão da ausência de lanternim que dificultou a renovação do ar por "efeito chaminé". A concentração de amônia medida no interior de ambas as instalações ficou dentro do limite de conforto. O índice de temperatura e umidade do galpão recoberto com telhas de cerâmica apresentou valores maiores que do galpão recoberto com telha de cimento amianto, mesmo se verificando temperaturas de superfície menores nas telhas de cerâmica, evidenciando os efeitos positivos do lanternim na instalação. Com base nos resultados desta pesquisa, recomendam-se, para a região de Bastos, SP, que os aviários para galinhas de postura sejam construídos com lanternim e prolongamento do beiral e que sejam recobertos com telhas de cerâmica.Poulty house typology and the materials used (mainly for roofing are the determining factors for an appropriate thermal condition aiming at production. In this context, the main point of this paper was to identify differences in the internal environment of two poultry houses, using monitoring and afterwards using statistics for comparing the environmental variables. The data analyzed did not show evidence of better thermal comfort for the house which was covered with ceramic roofing tile, because this house did not have ridged vents, making the hot air exit from the house difficult by the "chimney effect". The ammonia concentration measured inside both houses was within the comfort limit. The temperature and humidity index of the house covered with ceramic roofing tiles was higher than the house which was covered with cement asbestos roofing tile, even though lower temperature on the tiles' surfaces was verified, showing the positive effects of the use of ridge vents at the housing. Based on the results obtained it is recommended for the Bastos, SP region, that poulty houses should be built with the ridge vent and long eaves beyond the roof of ceramic tiles.

  16. Spatial Disorientation Training – Demonstration and Avoidance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bles, W.

    2008-01-01

    Acclimatization ; Aerospace medicine ; Attitude indicators ; Aviation accidents ; Flight maneuvers ; Flight simulators ; Human factors engineering ; Orientation ; Perception ; Physiological effects ; Pilot training ; Pilots (personnel) ; Responses ; Reviews ; Situational awareness ; Spatial disorien

  17. Effects of temperature, salinity and NH3-N on survival, reproduction and population growth of Moina mongolica acclimatized for different periods%温度、盐度、非离子氨对不同驯化时间蒙古裸腹溞存活、生殖和种群增长的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    魏杰; 赵文; 李多慧

    2010-01-01

    为了进一步了解在室内海水中长期培养对蒙古裸腹溞Moina mongolica 种群增长能力所产生的影响,研究了晋南品系不同采集时间的两溞种(1982溞和2006溞)对极端环境的耐受性,以及在温度为25~32 ℃、盐度为15~35、非离子氨(NH3-N)为1.05 ~6.62 mg/L条件下两溞种的生殖和种群增长能力.结果表明:1982溞较2006溞更具有较强的耐极端环境的能力;温度对两溞种生殖和种群增长的影响差异均显著,两溞种的生殖指标和内禀增长率无明显差异,其最适温度均为28 ℃;在盐度为15~35时,两溞种的生殖和种群增长差异不显著;非离子氨的影响显著,驯化时间增长能改变溞对非离子氨的适应能力.这说明在海水中长期培养蒙古裸腹溞对该溞的种群增长能力不会产生明显的不良影响,但在高温、高盐、高非离子氨条件下,1982溞表现出较强的耐受性,更适合作为海水大规模培养的对象.

  18. Acclimatization of bananas ‘Prata-Anã’: methods and times for degreening after cold storage. = Climatização de bananas ‘Prata-Anã’: métodos e tempos para o desverdecimento após o armazenamento refrigerado.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcos André de Souza Prill

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available The control and standardization of the ripening of bananas brings economic advantages for the agricultural marketing. Thus, the aim of this study was to evaluate the application of methods (Muffling and Ethrel® and times of degreening aimed on the standardization and uniformity of bananas ‘Prata-Anã’ produced in Boa Vista/RR. After harvested, the fruits were selected in the form of bouquets, sanitized and stored under refrigeration for four periods of time, 0, 10, 20 and 30 days at 12 ± 1°C and 93 ± 2% RH. The treatments were: T1–muffling + 0 days of cold storage (CS, T2–Ethrel® + 0 days of cold storage,T3–muffling + 10 days of cold storage; T4–Ethrel® + 10 days of cold storage; T5–muffling + 20 days of cold storage; T6–Ethrel ® + 20 days of cold storage; T7–muffling + 20 days of cold storage; T8–Ethrel ® + 30 days of cold storage. After each period of cold storage, the fruits were subjected to degreening and analyzed with 1, 2, 3 and 4 days thereafter. The following analyses were performed: lesions in the skin, ethylene production, pH, titratable acidity (TA total and reduced sugars. There were no significant effects to determine what is the best method of muffling, however, it was found that the longer the period of cold storage, the lower was the period of maintaining the bananas ‘Prata-Anã’ quality after the degreening. It is thereforerecommended that the degreenning be carried out safely for up 20 days (12 ± 1oC e 93 ± 2% de R.U. It is expected, in this situation, the maintenance of the sensory quality attributes in bananas for at least three days, average marketing. =O controle e padronização do amadurecimento em bananas trazem vantagens econômicas para o setor agrícola de comercialização. Assim, objetivou-se com o presente trabalho avaliar a aplicação de métodos (Abafamento e Ethrel® e tempos de desverdecimento visando à padronização e uniformização de bananas ‘Prata-Anã’ produzidas em Boa Vista/RR. Depois de colhidos, os frutos foram selecionados no formato de buquês, sanitizados e armazenados sob refrigeração (AR por quatro períodos de tempo, com 0, 10, 20 e 30 dias em refrigeração a 12 ± 1 oC e 93 ± 2% de U.R. Os tratamentos foram: T1–abafamento + 0 dias de AR; T2–Ethrel® + 0 dias de AR; T3–Abafamento + 10 dias de AR; T4–Ethrel® + 10 dias de AR; T5–Abafamento + 20 dias de AR; T6–Ethrel® + 20 dias de AR; T7–Abafamento + 30 dias de AR; T8–Ethrel® + 30 dias de AR. Após cada período de armazenamento refrigerado (AR, os frutos foram analizados com 1, 2, 3 e 4 dias após cada tratamento. As análises realizadas foram: lesões na casca, concentração de etileno, pH, acidez titulável (AT e açúcares totais e redutores. Independentemente dos métodos de desverdecimento, verificou-se que quanto maior o período de AR, menor o período de manutenção da qualidade das bananas ‘Prata-Anã’ após o desverdecimento. Assim, recomenda-se que o desverdecimento sejarealizado com segurança por até 20 dias (12 ± 1oC e 93 ± 2% de U.R. Espera-se, nessa situação, a manutenção dos atributos de qualidade sensorial nas bananas por no mínimo três dias, período médio de comercialização.

  19. Micropropagação, aclimatização, teor e composição química do óleo essencial de genótipos de hortelã japonesa Micropropagation, acclimatization, essential oil content and chemical composition of japanese mint genotypes

    OpenAIRE

    Maria de Fátima Arrigoni-Blank; Andréa Santos Costa; Valéria Oliveira Fonseca; Pericles Barreto Alves; Arie Fitzgerald Blank

    2011-01-01

    A hortelã japonesa (Mentha arvensis) é uma espécie aromática, originária do sul da China, o seu óleo essencial é rico em mentol, o qual é empregado nas indústrias farmacêuticas, de alimentos e de cosméticos. Este trabalho teve como objetivo desenvolver um protocolo para a micropropagação e aclimatização de genótipos de hortelã japonesa, além de analisar a composição química dos óleos essenciais de plantas micropropagadas e não micropropagadas. Segmentos nodais são os mais indicados para a mic...

  20. Study on rectal temperature and scores of comprehensive sensation during heat acclimatization training in artificial hot-humid environment%人工湿热环境热习服训练中肛温和综合感受评分的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邓元; 党晨珀; 张雷; 刘小冬

    2013-01-01

    目的 研究接受人工湿热环境下热习服训练前后肛温、心率、综合感受评分变化与人体对湿热环境适应改善情况的关系.方法 在温度39.0℃、湿度80.00%的湿热条件下,以某高校30名男性健康志愿者为对象,进行为期1周的湿热环境训练和测试,监测每次训练前后肛温、心率、综合感受评分.对所得数据进行方差分析并做Tukey检验,分别以肛温、综合感受评分为衡量标准计算每次训练后对热环境适应的改善率.结果和结论 肛温和综合感受评分对反映热环境适应的改善状况具有一致性.建议将肛温和综合感受评分一同作为判定对湿热环境适应改善的参考标准.不支持将心率作为参考标准,但仍支持将其与肛温、综合感受评分一同作为安全控制标准.%Objective To study the relationship between adaptability improvement to hot-humid environment with the changes of rectal temperature,heart rate,and scores of comprehensive sensation before and after training in hot-humid environment.Methods Thirty healthy male university students were trained and tested under a temperature of 39.0℃ and a relative humidity of 80.00% for a week.Their rectal temperature,heart rate,and scores of comprehensive sensation were monitored every time before and after training.The obtained data were subjected to ANOVA analysis and Tukey-tests.The improvement rate of rectal temperature and improvement rate of comprehensive sensation scores were calculated each time after training in hot-humid environment.Results and conclusion We found that rectal temperature and scores of comprehensive sensation were consistent in demonstrating the improvement of the adaptability to hot-humid.It is suggested that rectal temperature and scores of comprehensive sensation should be used as reference standards for adaptability improvement to hothumid environment,and heart rate is not recommended,but the combination of three indices should be used as safety control standard.

  1. Aclimatação do híbrido da tilápia vermelha Oreochromis niloticus sp. e utilização em ambientes marinhos como isca viva para a pesca de tunideos - Acclimatization of red tilápia hybrids, Oreochromis niloticus sp., and use in sea environments as lively bait in the baitboat fishery of tuna

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hilton Amaral Junior

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available ResumenLa tilápia roja de Florida Oreochromis sp, obtenido mediante el cruce de O.mossambicus y O. urulepis hornorum, se caracteriza por tener altaresistencia a la salinidad y ser muy tolerante a una variedad de condiciones climáticas. Por lo tanto, es ampliamente utilizado en los cultivos comerciales en algunas partes del mundo tanto en agua dulce y salobre. Se enfrenta actualmente a un problema importante en relación a la disponibilidad de cebo vivo, que usa sardina como atracción a los atunes. Además, crea un conflicto con los pescadores industriales que utilizan el mismo recurso, así como los pescadores artesanales y la sociedad. Este trabajo consistió en una evaluaciónde la resistencia a la salinidad de la tilápia roja, lo que sugiere una nueva técnica para la aclimatación de los juveniles de esta especie. Los lotes de alevines de tilápia roja sexualmente invertido se crearon en el Campo Experimental de Piscicultura de Camboriú - CEPC/Epagri y recreado en el laboratorio de maricultura UNIVALI - EMC, Penha SC. Los parámetros analizados fueron: la tolerancia a la salinidad, la supervivencia y la capacidad de almacenamiento. Los resultados de esta experiencia indican que esta especie responde a las necesidades requeridas para este tipo de pesca. Losjuveniles adaptados a la salinidad, se han utilizado para los ensayos como cebo vivo en la pesca de atún. Este trabajo ofrece una alternativa a cebo vivo en la pesca de atún.ResumoA tilápia vermelha da Flórida (Oreochromis sp, obtida através do cruzamento de O. mossambicus e O. urulepis hornorum, se caracteriza por apresentar grande resistência à salinidade e ser bastante tolerante a uma diversidade de condições climáticas. Sendo assim, é bastante utilizada em cultivos comerciais em algumas partes do mundo, tanto em água doce como salobra. A pesca de atum e afins com vara e isca-viva, atualmente vem enfrentando um grande problema em relação à disponibilidade da isca propriamente dita, que utiliza juvenis de sardinha como atrativo dos cardumes. Também, gera um conseqüente conflito com os pescadores industriais que utilizam o mesmo recurso quando adultos, bem como com os pescadores artesanais e a sociedade. O presente trabalho consistiu em realizar uma avaliação da resistência a salinidade da tilápia vermelha, sugerindo uma nova técnica de aclimatação para juvenis desta espécie. Lotes de alevinos de tilápias vermelhas revertidas sexualmente foram criadas no Campo Experimental de Piscicultura de Camboriú – CEPC/Epagri e recriados no Laboratório de Maricultura da UNIVALI – CEM, Penha SC. Os parâmetros analisados foram: Tolerância à salinidade, sobrevivência e capacidade de estocagem. Os resultados deste experimento, indicam que esta espécie atende as necessidades exigidas para este tipo de pesca. Os alevinos adaptados à salinidade, foram utilizados em testes como isca viva na pesca de tunídeos. Este trabalho oferece uma alternativa de isca viva na pesca de tunídeos

  2. Avaliação de substratos e adubos orgânicos na aclimatização de plântulas de Heliconia psittacorum Evaluation of substrates and organic fertilizers in the acclimatization of plantlets of Heliconia psittacorum

    OpenAIRE

    Maurício Reginaldo Alves dos Santos; Ana Luiza de Oliveira Timbó; Ana Cristina Portugal Pinto de Carvalho; João Paulo Saraiva Morais

    2004-01-01

    O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a eficiência de três substratos orgânicos - casca de arroz carbonizada, pó de casca de coco seco e verde - e dois adubos -Vitasolo® e húmus de minhoca -, na aclimatização de plântulas de Heliconia psittacorum L., provenientes da micropropagação. Aos 75 dias, avaliaram-se a altura das plantas, o diâmetro do pseudocaule, o número de folhas e a área da terceira folha. A casca de arroz foi mais eficiente que o pó de casca de coco, verde ou seco; o pó de casca...

  3. Neurophysiological Problems in Snow Bound High Altitude Areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. Selvamurthy

    1984-10-01

    Full Text Available A series of studies have been conducted to evaluate the neurophysiological responses in young healthy soldiers during acclimatization at 3,500m altitude in Western Himalayas. The responses of autonomic nervous system, electroencephalogram hypothalamic thermoregulatory efficiency, orthostatic tolerance, sleep profile and effects of sleep deprivation have been studied in fresh inductees during three to five weeks of acclimatization at high altitude and compared with those of one year acclimatized lowlanders and high altitude natives. Physiological significance of these neurophysiological responses in the process of altitude adaptation is discussed in the light of current knowledge in the field.

  4. Antioxidant responses in Mesopodopsis zeylanica at varying salinity to detect mercury influence in culture ponds

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Verlecar, X.N.; Das, P.B.; Jena, K.; Maharana, D.; Desai, S.R.

    Antioxidant responses in the estuarine mysid, Mesopodopsis zeylanica, were used to assess mercury (Hg) metal contamination in relation to salinity. Natural mysids acclimatized at 5 psu were subjected to laboratory exposures of 5, 15, and 25 psu...

  5. Sex-dependent regulation of hypoxic ventilation in mice and humans is mediated by erythropoietin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Soliz, Jorge; Thomsen, Jonas Juhl; Soulage, Christophe;

    2009-01-01

    Acclimatization to hypoxic exposure relies on an elevated ventilation and erythropoietic activity. We recently proposed that erythropoietin (Epo) links both responses: apart from red blood cell production, cerebral and plasma Epo interact with the central and peripheral respiratory centers. Knowing...

  6. Acclimation to different thermal conditions in a northerly wintering shorebird is driven by body mass-related changes in organ size

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vezina, Francois; Jalvingh, Kirsten M.; Dekinga, Anne; Piersma, Theunis

    2006-01-01

    Seasonal acclimatization and experimental acclimation to cold in birds typically results from increased shivering endurance and elevated thermogenic capacity leading to improved resistance to cold. A wide array of physiological adjustments, ranging from biochemical transformations to organ mass vari

  7. Simulação e análise custo-benefício de sistemas energéticos para uma habitação unifamiliar em clima português, com foco em sistemas geotérmicos

    OpenAIRE

    Ginjeira, Ana Sara Gonçalves

    2010-01-01

    Tese de mestrado, Engenharia da Energia e do Ambiente, Universidade de Lisboa, Faculdade de Ciências, 2010 In order to minimize the high energetic consumption it has grown, in the last years, the implementation of acclimatization systems in residential buildings, in order to improve the thermal comfort conditions without high energetic needs. With the growing demand for different kind of acclimatization systems that follows up this work, which as for basis the evaluation of their potential...

  8. The effect of combined glutamate receptor blockade in the NTS on the hypoxic ventilatory response in awake rats differs from the effect of individual glutamate receptor blockade

    OpenAIRE

    Pamenter, Matthew E.; Nguyen, Jetson; Carr, John A.; Powell, Frank L.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Ventilatory acclimatization to hypoxia (VAH) increases the hypoxic ventilatory response (HVR) and causes persistent hyperventilation when normoxia is restored, which is consistent with the occurrence of synaptic plasticity in acclimatized animals. Recently, we demonstrated that antagonism of individual glutamate receptor types (GluRs) within the nucleus tractus solitarii (NTS) modifies this plasticity and VAH (J. Physiol. 592(8):1839–1856); however, the effects of combined GluR antag...

  9. Exercise in the heat: strategies to minimize the adverse effects on performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terrados, N; Maughan, R J

    1995-01-01

    Exercise in the heat is usually associated with reduced performance; both dehydration and hyperthermia adversely affect mental and physical performance. For athletes from temperate climates, the negative effects of heat had humidity can be attenuated by a period of acclimatization. This requires up to 10-14 days. Endurance-trained individuals already show some of the adaptations that accompany acclimatization, but further adaptation occurs with training in the heat. Prior dehydration has a negative effect even on exercise of short duration where sweat losses are small. The athlete must begin exercise fully hydrated and regular ingestion of fluids is beneficial where the exercise duration exceeds 40 min. Dilute carbohydrate-electrolyte (sodium) drinks are best for fluid replacement and also supply some substrate for the exercising muscles. Post-exercise rehydration requires electrolyte as well as volume replacement. In extreme conditions, neither acclimatization nor fluid replacement will allow hard exercise to be performed without some risk of heat illness.

  10. In vitro propagation of rare species Ruscus aculeatus L. and histological peculiarities of the regenerants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anca AIFTIMIE-PĂUNESCU

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The present study belongs to the international efforts for plant conservation in the areas endangered by human activities. Ruscus aculeatus L. is one of the threatened plants (included in all national red list of vascular plants from Romania that grow in the Natural Park Comana, Southern Romania.Seedlings and fragments of rhizome, from plants grown in the natural habitat have been used for in vitro plant regeneration and multiplication. After successfully rooting and acclimatization of the regenerated plantlets, histological studies have been performed in order to compare the regenerants from in vitro cultures with plants from natural habitat. The results indicated that this plant species can be multiplicated, rooted and acclimatized on synthetic medium (MS supplemented with NAA, IBA, kinetin and BAP with a good efficiency and the regenerants develop a only a few structural modification under vitroculture conditions, with no major consequences for a normal physiology and plant acclimatization.

  11. The emergence of cold-induced brown adipocytes in mouse white fat depots is determined predominantly by white to brown adipocyte transdifferentiation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barbatelli, G.; Murano, I.; Madsen, Lise;

    2010-01-01

    The origin of brown adipocytes arising in white adipose tissue (WAT) after cold acclimatization is unclear. Here, we demonstrate that several UCP1-immunoreactive brown adipocytes occurring in WAT after cold acclimatization have a mixed morphology (paucilocular adipocytes). These cells also had...... enhanced expression of the thermogenic genes and of genes expressed selectively in brown adipose tissue (iBAT) and in both interscapular BAT and WAT. ß3-adrenoceptor suppression blunted their expression only in WAT. Furthermore, cold acclimatization induced an increased WAT expression of the gene coding...... a mixed mitochondrioma with classic "brown" and "white" mitochondria, suggesting intermediate steps in the process of direct transformation of white into brown adipocytes (transdifferentiation). Quantitative electron microscopy disclosed that cold exposure (6°C for 10 days) did not induce an increase...

  12. On the mechanisms that limit oxygen uptake during exercise in acute and chronic hypoxia: role of muscle mass

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Calbet, José A L; Rådegran, Göran; Boushel, Robert;

    2009-01-01

    (dye dilution with Cardio-green), leg blood flow (thermodilution), intra-arterial blood pressure and femoral arterial-to-venous differences in blood gases were determined in nine lowlanders studied during incremental exercise using a large (two-legged cycle ergometer exercise: Bike) and a small (one...... altitude acclimatization. Acclimatization improved Bike peak exercise Pa,O2 from 34 +/- 1 in AH to 45 +/- 1 mmHg in CH(P Bike. Acute hypoxia resulted in reduction...... of systemic O2 delivery (46 and 21%) and leg O2 delivery (47 and 26%) during Bike and Knee, respectively, almost matching the corresponding reduction in VO2,peak. Altitude acclimatization restored fully peak systemic and leg O(2) delivery in CH (2.69 +/- 0.27 and 1.28 +/- 0.11 l min(-1), respectively) to sea...

  13. PHYSIOLOGICAL RESPONSES OF ECKLONIA RADIATA (LAMINARIALES) TO A LATITUDINAL GRADIENT IN OCEAN TEMPERATURE

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stæhr, Peter Anton; Wernberg, Thomas

    2009-01-01

    We tested the ability of sporophytes of a small kelp, Ecklonia radiata (C. Agardh) J. Agardh, to adjust their photosynthesis, respiration, and cellular processes to increasingly warm ocean climates along a latitudinal gradient in ocean temperature (~4°C). Tissue concentrations of pigment...... and nutrients decreased with increasing ocean temperature. Concurrently, a number of gradual changes in the metabolic balance of E. radiata took place along the latitudinal gradient. Warm-acclimatized kelps had 50% lower photosynthetic rates and 90% lower respiration rates at the optimum temperature than did...... cool-acclimatized kelps. A reduction in temperature sensitivity was also observed as a reduction in Q10-values from cool- to warm-acclimatized kelps for gross photosynthesis (Q10: 3.35 to 1.45) and respiration (Q10: 3.82 to 1.65). Respiration rates were more sensitive to increasing experimental...

  14. Timing the arrival at 2340m altitude for aerobic performance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schuler, B; Thomsen, JJ; Gassmann, M;

    2007-01-01

    This study tested the hypothesis that maximal oxygen uptake (VO2max) and performance increase upon altitude acclimatization at moderate altitude. Eight elite cyclists were studied at sea level, and after 1 (Day 1), 7 (Day 7), 14 (Day 14) and 21 (Day 21) days of exposure to 2340 m. Capillary blood...... samples were taken on these days before performing two consecutive maximal exercise trials. Acclimatization reased hemoglobin concentration and arterial oxygen content. On Day 1, VO2max and time to exhaustion (at 80% of sea-level maximal power output) decreased by 12.8% (P<0.05) and 25.8% (P<0...

  15. Removal and fate of micropollutants in a sponge-based moving bed bioreactor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Yunlong; Guo, Wenshan; Ngo, Huu Hao; Nghiem, Long Duc; Hai, Faisal Ibney; Kang, Jinguo; Xia, Siqing; Zhang, Zhiqiang; Price, William Evan

    2014-05-01

    This study investigated the removal of micropollutants using polyurethane sponge as attached-growth carrier. Batch experiments demonstrated that micropollutants could adsorb to non-acclimatized sponge cubes to varying extents. Acclimatized sponge showed significantly enhanced removal of some less hydrophobic compounds (log Dmicropollutants. Particularly, carbamazepine, ketoprofen and pentachlorophenol were found at high concentrations (7.87, 6.05 and 5.55 μg/g, respectively) on suspended biosolids. As a whole, the effectiveness of MBBR for micropollutant removal was comparable with those of activated sludge processes and MBRs. PMID:24658104

  16. Recovering vitrified carnation (Dianthus caryophyllus L.) shoots using Bacto-Peptone and its subfractions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, S; Hagimori, M; Iwai, S

    1993-05-01

    Vitrified shoots regenerated from carnation petals (Dianthus caryophyllus L. cv. Scania) were recovered by culturing them in a medium containing 3.0 g/l Bacto-Peptone. Wax structures not found on vitrified shoots developed on the abaxial surface of leaves of recovered shoots and on those of normal leaves. Recovered shoots were rooted and successfully acclimatized while vitrified shoots could not survive the acclimatization process. The Bacto-Peptone solution was fractionated and the efficiency of each fraction for the recovery of vitrification was examined. Only basic, non high molecular fractions whose molecular weight was less than 10,000 were effective.

  17. Selecting the best inoculation for anaerobic thermophilic treatment in sewage plants; Seleccion de inoculo para el tratamiento anaerobio termofilico de lodos de depuradora

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Riau, V.; Rubia, M. A. de la; Forster, T.; Perez, M.

    2009-07-01

    The objective of the present work is to propose a suitable method to obtain an thermophilic inoculum source able for the anaerobic thermophilic digestion of sludge raw. Also, the acclimatization period to the temperature and the substrate is study as well as the thermophilic process at different solids retention of solids is analyzed. (Author) 18 refs.

  18. Cloning: plants – micropropagation/tissue culture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clonal micropropagation is the multiplication of the buds and shoots that occur in leaf axils on a defined nutrient medium in an aseptic in vitro environment. The resulting shoots are either subdivided for continued multiplication or rooted and acclimatized to the greenhouse or field. Micropropagati...

  19. Biodegradation Characteristics of Environmental Endocrine Disruptor Di-n-butyl Phthalate

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIN WANG; QI-FANG LUO

    2005-01-01

    Objective The biodegradation characteristics of di-n-butyl phthalate (DBP), an environmental endocrine disruptor, were studied by the method of dominant bacteria and immobilized microorganisms. Methods Taking DBP as the only carbon source to acclimatize the collected activated sludge, the concentration of DBP increased progressively in the process of acclimatization. Plate streaking was used to separate 1 strain of the degradation dominant bacteria after acclimatization. Better conditions to degrade DBP by the bacterium could be obtained through orthogonal experiments and the bacterium was identified. Then the acclimated activated sludge was made to immobilize the microorganism using polyvinyl alcohol as entrapment agent. The immobilized microorganism degraded DBP at different conditions. Results The appropriate conditions to degrade DBP by the dominant bacteria were: degradation time, 32 h; DBP concentration, 200 mg/L; rate of shaking incubator, 100 r/min; pH, 7 and temperature, 30℃. DBP could be degraded by more than 95% under such conditions. The bacteria were identified as pseudomonas. The proliferated immobilized microorganisms degraded DBP more effectively and more adapted to temperature and pH than the free acclimated activated sludge. Conclusion One strain of DBP degradation dominant bacteria was separated from the acclimatized activated sludge. It could grow with DBP as the only carbon source and energy, and degraded DBP effectively. After having been immobilized and proliferated, the dominant bacteria could keep a higher biological activity and degrade DBP more effectively than activated sludge.

  20. Modelling the effects of dietary methionine level and form on postprandial plasma essential amino acid profiles in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rolland, Marine; Feekings, Jordan P.; Dalsgaard, Anne Johanne Tang;

    2015-01-01

    essential amino acid (EAA) in rainbow trout. Twelve diets were formulated with pea and soya protein concentrate or fish meal as the main protein ingredients and were supplemented or not with increasing amount of either crystalline or agar-coated methionine. Fish were acclimatized to one of the 12 diets...

  1. ПАРАЗИТОЛОГИЧЕСКИЕ ПРОБЛЕМЫ АККЛИМАТИЗАЦИИ ОТДЕЛЬНЫХ ВИДОВ ДИКИХ КОПЫТНЫХ

    OpenAIRE

    Пельгунов А.Н.; Маклакова Л.П.

    2013-01-01

    Data on long-term monitoring of wild unlulate helminths in “Zavidovo” National Park are presented. Acclimatization of new to the locality ungulates, introduction of animals from other parts of the area for increase of their numbers resulted in changes in ungulate helminth fauna complex Species of practical importance were observed among parasites introduced.

  2. Oligofructans content and yield of yacon (Smallanthus sonchifolius) cultivated in Mississippi

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smallanthus sonchifolius (Poepp. & Endl.) H. Robinson (Asteraceae), also known as yacon, is an herbaceous tropical species native to the high mountains of Andes. It has been introduced to several countries, including Japan and Brazil. We are attempting to acclimatize yacon to Mississippi as a poten...

  3. Interaction between the blood fluke, Sanguinicola inermis and humoral components of the immune response of carp, Cyprinus carpio

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roberts, M.L.; Lewis, J.W.; Wiegertjes, G.F.; Hoole, D.

    2005-01-01

    The effect of Sanguinicola inermis on serum antibody and complement activity in Cyprinus carpio was assessed using an ELISA and haemolytic assays. Possible immune evasion strategies were assessed using immunodetection of host proteins on the surface of the parasite. Carp acclimatized to 20 or 25 °C

  4. INFLUENCIA DE DIFERENTES SUBSTRATOS E FERTILIZANTES NA ACLIMATIZAÇÃO DE PLANTAS DE FIGUEIRA (FICUS CARICA L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ester Alice Ferreira

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Due to a great amount of environmental differences between in vitro and ex vitro conditions, the acclimatization phase of plantlets is one of the essential points to guarantee the success in obtaining micropropagated plants. Using a substrate with chemical and organic composition is important on this phase, because it will influence in the nutritional state of the seedlings. The present paper aimed to evaluate the effects of different substrate on acclimatization of fig plants 'Roxo de Valinhos'. It were selected uniform plantlets within a 5 cm of height which were transferred to the greenhouse, with an intermittent mist system, with 50% mesh of shadow by sombrite® planted in stereo foam trays where were submitted to the following treatments: Plantmax®; carbonized rice husk; soil in combination with Osmocote®; manure (3:1:1; NPKMg. The experimental design adopted was randomized blocks in factorial scheme and the evaluation was done one hundred and twenty days after the acclimatization by the following characteristics: plant high (cm, number of leaves/plant, dry weight of aerial part and roots and total weight (g/plant. As results, it was verified that on the acclimatization of fig plantlets 'Roxo de Valinhos' using of substrate soil + carbonized rice husk+ manure promotted highest number of leaves and largest weight of aerial dry matter were obtained Plantmax® substrate without any addition of fertilizers.

  5. Daily variation in body mass and thermoregulation in male Hwamei(Garrulax canorus) at different seasons

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lidan; Zhao; Runmei; Wang; Yunan; Wu; Mengsi; Wu; Weihong; Zheng; Jinsong; Liu

    2015-01-01

    Background: Acclimatization to winter conditions is an essential prerequisite for survival of small passerines of the northern temperate zone. In the present study, we measured diurnal variations in body mass, body temperature and basal metabolic rate(BMR) for seasonally acclimatized Hwameis(Garrulax canorus).Methods: Body mass was determined with a Sartorius balance. Metabolic rates of Hwameis were measured with an open-circuit respirometry system.Results: Body masses varied with time of day and were higher in daytime for Hwameis in both summer and winter, and body masses in winter were higher compared to that in summer. Body temperatures of Hwameis were higher in daytime, and the summer acclimatized birds had significantly higher body temperatures compared to the winter acclimatized birds. BMRs of Hwameis were significantly higher during the daytime compared to the nighttime of the daily cycle in both summer and winter, and Hwameis in winter had significantly higher BMRs than that in summer.Conclusions: This result showed that Hwameis rely mostly on metabolic capacity to maintain their body temperature in cold weathers, and Hwameis exhibited daily and seasonal flexibility in morphology and physiology which is important under changing environmental conditions.

  6. Spatial Disorientation Training – Demonstration and Avoidance

    OpenAIRE

    Bles, W.

    2008-01-01

    Acclimatization ; Aerospace medicine ; Attitude indicators ; Aviation accidents ; Flight maneuvers ; Flight simulators ; Human factors engineering ; Orientation ; Perception ; Physiological effects ; Pilot training ; Pilots (personnel) ; Responses ; Reviews ; Situational awareness ; Spatial disorientation ; Spatial information ; Spatial orientation ; Visual displays. Abstract Recent accident statistics reveal that Spatial Disorientation (SD) is still a major threat to flight safety in many NA...

  7. Daily variation in body mass and thermoregulation in male Hwamei (Garrulax canorus) at different seasons

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lidan Zhao; Runmei Wang; Yunan Wu; Mengsi Wu; Weihong Zheng; Jinsong Liu

    2015-01-01

    Background:Acclimatization to winter conditions is an essential prerequisite for survival of small passerines of the northern temperate zone. In the present study, we measured diurnal variations in body mass, body temperature and basal metabolic rate (BMR) for seasonally acclimatized Hwameis (Garrulax canorus). Methods:Body mass was determined with a Sartorius balance. Metabolic rates of Hwameis were measured with an open-circuit respirometry system. Results:Body masses varied with time of day and were higher in daytime for Hwameis in both summer and winter, and body masses in winter were higher compared to that in summer. Body temperatures of Hwameis were higher in daytime, and the summer acclimatized birds had significantly higher body temperatures compared to the winter acclimatized birds. BMRs of Hwameis were significantly higher during the daytime compared to the nighttime of the daily cycle in both summer and winter, and Hwameis in winter had significantly higher BMRs than that in summer. Conclusions:This result showed that Hwameis rely mostly on metabolic capacity to maintain their body temperature in cold weathers, and Hwameis exhibited daily and seasonal flexibility in morphology and physiology which is important under changing environmental conditions.

  8. Children of Torture Victims: Reactions and Coping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montgomery, Edith; And Others

    1992-01-01

    Evaluation of 11 children from 5 exile families with at least 1 parent having been subjected to torture found children were anxious, depressive, and regressive with psychosomatic symptoms, sleep disorders, and family and school problems. Coping strategies including isolation and withdrawal, mental flight, eagerness to acclimatize, and strength of…

  9. Inoculum and zeolite synergistic effect on anaerobic digestion of poultry manure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fotidis, Ioannis A; Kougias, Panagiotis G; Zaganas, Ioannis D; Kotsopoulos, Thomas A; Martzopoulos, Gerasimos G

    2014-01-01

    Poultry manure is an ammonia-rich substrate due to its high content of proteins and amino acids. Ammonia is the major inhibitor of anaerobic digestion (AD) process, affecting biogas production and causing great economic losses to the biogas plants. In this study, the effect of different natural zeolite dosages on the mesophilic AD of poultry manure inoculated with a non-acclimatized to ammonia inoculum (dairy manure) was investigated. Additionally, a comparative analysis was performed between the data extracted from this study and the results of a previous study, which has been conducted under the same experimental conditions but with the use of ammonia acclimatized inoculum (swine manure). At 5 and 10 g zeolite L(-1), the methane yield of poultry manure was 43.4% and 80.3% higher compared with the experimental set without zeolite addition. However, the ammonia non-acclimatized inoculum was not efficient in digesting poultry manure even in the presence of 10 g zeolite L(-1), due to low methane production (only 39%) compared with the maximum theoretical yield. Finally, ammonia acclimatized inoculum and zeolite have demonstrated a possible 'synergistic effect', which led to a more efficient AD of poultry manure. The results of this study could potentially been used by the biogas plant operators to efficiently digest poultry manure. PMID:24701918

  10. The acceptable air velocity range for local air movement in the Tropics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gong, Nan; Tham, K.W.; Melikov, Arsen Krikor;

    2006-01-01

    The perception of locally applied airflow was studied with tropical subjects who had become passively acclimatized to hot conditions in the course of their day-to-day life. During the experiments, 24 subjects (male and female) performed normal office work in a room equipped with six workstations....

  11. 40 CFR 799.9120 - TSCA acute dermal toxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... tester must provide justification and reasoning for its selection. (B) Age. Young adult animals, rats...) Preparations. Healthy young adult animals are acclimatized to the laboratory conditions for at least 5 days... is available at the address in paragraph (f) of this section. (c) Definitions. The...

  12. The Documentation Process: The Administrator's Role and the Interplay of Necessity, Support and Collaboration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charlton, Donna; Kritsonis, William Allan

    2008-01-01

    Traditional teacher documentation procedures pit the administrator against the teacher. The process is adversarial and erodes the quality of the intervention. Teachers who are unsuccessful in meeting campus/school district expectations can be successfully acclimatized to the campus culture through a documentation process that combines affective…

  13. Truth in politics : rhetorical approaches to democratic deliberation in Africa and beyond

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Salazar, P.J.; Osha, S.; Binsbergen, van W.M.J.

    2004-01-01

    Democracy is about competing "truths". This is why "rhetoric"- the study of public deliberation and the training in public debate and argumentation - is part of democracy in development. This volume acclimatizes "rhetoric" to the philosophical scene in South Africa, and more in general in Africa as

  14. Length determination on industrial polymer parts from measurement performed under transient temperature conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dalla Costa, Giuseppe; Madruga, Daniel González; De Chiffre, Leonardo;

    2016-01-01

    A way to reduce the cost of metrology in manufacturing is to perform dimensional verification directly in the production environment, avoiding a long and expensive acclimatization phase. In this work the effect of a transient temperature state, typical of the production environment, was investiga...

  15. Reduced heterotrophy in the stony coral Galaxea fascicularis after life-long exposure to elevated carbon dioxide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Joy N; Strahl, Julia; Noonan, Sam H C; Schmidt, Gertraud M; Richter, Claudio; Fabricius, Katharina E

    2016-01-01

    Ocean acidification imposes many physiological, energetic, structural and ecological challenges to stony corals. While some corals may increase autotrophy under ocean acidification, another potential mechanism to alleviate some of the adverse effects on their physiology is to increase heterotrophy. We compared the feeding rates of Galaxea fascicularis colonies that have lived their entire lives under ocean acidification conditions at natural carbon dioxide (CO2) seeps with colonies living under present-day CO2 conditions. When provided with the same quantity and composition of zooplankton as food, corals acclimatized to high CO2 showed 2.8 to 4.8 times depressed rates of zooplankton feeding. Results were consistent over four experiments, from two expeditions and both in field and chamber measurements. Unless replenished by other sources, reduced zooplankton uptake in G. fascicularis acclimatized to ocean acidification is likely to entail a shortage of vital nutrients, potentially jeopardizing their health and survival in future oceans. PMID:27255977

  16. Reduced heterotrophy in the stony coral Galaxea fascicularis after life-long exposure to elevated carbon dioxide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Joy N.; Strahl, Julia; Noonan, Sam H. C.; Schmidt, Gertraud M.; Richter, Claudio; Fabricius, Katharina E.

    2016-01-01

    Ocean acidification imposes many physiological, energetic, structural and ecological challenges to stony corals. While some corals may increase autotrophy under ocean acidification, another potential mechanism to alleviate some of the adverse effects on their physiology is to increase heterotrophy. We compared the feeding rates of Galaxea fascicularis colonies that have lived their entire lives under ocean acidification conditions at natural carbon dioxide (CO2) seeps with colonies living under present-day CO2 conditions. When provided with the same quantity and composition of zooplankton as food, corals acclimatized to high CO2 showed 2.8 to 4.8 times depressed rates of zooplankton feeding. Results were consistent over four experiments, from two expeditions and both in field and chamber measurements. Unless replenished by other sources, reduced zooplankton uptake in G. fascicularis acclimatized to ocean acidification is likely to entail a shortage of vital nutrients, potentially jeopardizing their health and survival in future oceans. PMID:27255977

  17. Consensus recommendations on training and competing in the heat

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Racinais, Sébastien; Alonso, Juan-Manuel; Coutts, Aaron J;

    2015-01-01

    Exercising in the heat induces thermoregulatory and other physiological strain that can lead to impairments in endurance exercise capacity. The purpose of this consensus statement is to provide up-to-date recommendations to optimize performance during sporting activities undertaken in hot ambient...... conditions. The most important intervention one can adopt to reduce physiological strain and optimize performance is to heat acclimatize. Heat acclimatization should comprise repeated exercise-heat exposures over 1-2 weeks. In addition, athletes should initiate competition and training in an euhydrated state...... and minimize dehydration during exercise. Following the development of commercial cooling systems (e.g., cooling vests), athletes can implement cooling strategies to facilitate heat loss or increase heat storage capacity before training or competing in the heat. Moreover, event organizers should plan for large...

  18. The characterization of regenerative processes on grapevine culture under DDW influence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In order to study the influence of DDW (Deuterium Depleted Water) on regenerative processes in grapevine a culture of explants, taken out from plants belonging to Feteasca Alba and Feteasca Neagra sorts, was made in a DDW medium and compared with to usual medium. During three subculture (90-100 days of culture), the influence of DDW on the regenerative processes and the biochemical composition of biological material were observed. It was investigated the possibility of using DDW like a sterile agent for explants (in initialization stage) and in treatment against mould (in acclimatization stage). Without excluding the endogen factor, our observations on biological materials cultivated in vitro, demonstrated a positive influence of DDW, by the increase of growth and acclimatization rate. (authors)

  19. The characterization of regenerative processes on grapevine culture under DDW influence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In order to study the influence of DDW on regenerative processes in grapevine culture, an explants culture, with plants belonging to Feteasca Alba and Feteasca Neagra varieties was made, which was growth on medium with DDW, and compared with the usual water medium. During three subculture (90-100 days of culture), the influence of DDW on the regenerative processes and the biochemical composition of biological material were observed. It was investigated the possibility of DDW use like sterile agent for explants (in initialization stage) and in treatment against mould (in acclimatization stage). Without excluding the endogenous factor, our observations on biological material coming from in vitro, demonstrated a positive influence of DDW, namely an increase of multiplication and acclimatization rate. (authors)

  20. Mitochondrial function in human skeletal muscle following high-altitude exposure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobs, Robert A; Boushel, Robert; Wright-Paradis, Cynthia;

    2013-01-01

    Studies regarding mitochondrial modifications in human skeletal muscle following acclimatization to high altitude are conflicting, and these inconsistencies may be due to the prevalence of representing mitochondrial function through static and isolated measurements of specific mitochondrial...... characteristics. The aim of this study, therefore, was to investigate mitochondrial function in response to high-altitude acclimatization through measurements of respiratory control in the vastus lateralis muscle. Skeletal muscle biopsies were obtained from 10 lowland natives prior to and again after a total of 9......-11 days of exposure to 4559 m. High-resolution respirometry was performed on the muscle samples to compare respiratory chain function and respiratory capacities. Respirometric analysis revealed that mitochondrial function was largely unaffected, because high-altitude exposure did not affect the capacity...

  1. Sleep apneas and high altitude newcomers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldenberg, F; Richalet, J P; Onnen, I; Antezana, A M

    1992-10-01

    Sleep and respiration data from two French medical high altitude expeditions (Annapurna 4,800 m and Mt Sajama 6,542 m) are presented. Difficulties in maintaining sleep and a SWS decrease were found with periodic breathing (PB) during both non-REM and REM sleep. Extent of PB varied considerably among subjects and was not correlated to the number of arousals but to the intercurrent wakefulness duration. There was a positive correlation between the time spent in PB and the individual hypoxic ventilatory drive. The relation between PB, nocturnal desaturation, and mountain sickness intensity are discussed. Acclimatization decreased the latency toward PB and improved sleep. Hypnotic benzodiazepine intake (loprazolam 1 mg) did not worsen either SWS depression or apneas and allowed normal sleep reappearance after acclimatization.

  2. Reduced heterotrophy in the stony coral Galaxea fascicularis after life-long exposure to elevated carbon dioxide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Joy N.; Strahl, Julia; Noonan, Sam H. C.; Schmidt, Gertraud M.; Richter, Claudio; Fabricius, Katharina E.

    2016-06-01

    Ocean acidification imposes many physiological, energetic, structural and ecological challenges to stony corals. While some corals may increase autotrophy under ocean acidification, another potential mechanism to alleviate some of the adverse effects on their physiology is to increase heterotrophy. We compared the feeding rates of Galaxea fascicularis colonies that have lived their entire lives under ocean acidification conditions at natural carbon dioxide (CO2) seeps with colonies living under present-day CO2 conditions. When provided with the same quantity and composition of zooplankton as food, corals acclimatized to high CO2 showed 2.8 to 4.8 times depressed rates of zooplankton feeding. Results were consistent over four experiments, from two expeditions and both in field and chamber measurements. Unless replenished by other sources, reduced zooplankton uptake in G. fascicularis acclimatized to ocean acidification is likely to entail a shortage of vital nutrients, potentially jeopardizing their health and survival in future oceans.

  3. Fixed allocation patterns, rather than plasticity, benefit recruitment and recovery from drought in seedlings of a desert shrub

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Yao; Li, Yan; Xie, Jiang-Bo

    2016-01-01

    The response of plants to drought is controlled by the interaction between physiological regulation and morphological adjustment. Although recent studies have highlighted the long-term morphological acclimatization of plants to drought, there is still debate on how plant biomass allocation patterns respond to drought. In this study, we performed a greenhouse experiment with first-year seedlings of a desert shrub in control, drought and re-water treatments, to examine their physiological and m...

  4. Epigenetics and Nutritional Environmental Signals

    OpenAIRE

    Mazzio, Elizabeth A.; Soliman, Karam F. A.

    2014-01-01

    All terrestrial life is influenced by multi-directional flows of information about its environment, enabling malleable phenotypic change through signals, chemical processes, or various forms of energy that facilitate acclimatization. Billions of biological co-inhabitants of the earth, including all plants and animals, collectively make up a genetic/epigenetic ecosystem by which adaptation/survival (inputs and outputs) are highly interdependent on one another. As an ecosystem, the solar system...

  5. Withania Coagulans (Stocks Dunal: Biotechnological Achievements And Perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teixeira da Silva Jaime A.

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Withania coagulans (Stocks Dunal is an important medicinal plant of the Solanaceae. Biotechnological studies on this plant started in 2009 and are still in a nascent phase of development. Even so, some important advances have been made, particularly in the field of tissue culture, which is an important means for its large-scale propagation and in vitro conservation. This review focuses on methods for surface sterilization, culture initiation, multiplication, rooting and acclimatization of W. coagulans.

  6. Sleep-disordered breathing and oxidative stress in preclinical chronic mountain sickness (excessive erythrocytosis)

    OpenAIRE

    Julian, Colleen Glyde; Vargas, Enrique; Gonzales, Marcelino; Dávila, R. Daniela; Ladenburger, Anne; Reardon, Lindsay; Schoo, Caroline; Powers, Robert W.; Lee-Chiong, Teofilo; Moore, Lorna G.

    2013-01-01

    Chronic mountain sickness (CMS) is considered to be a loss of ventilatory acclimatization to high altitude (>2500 m) resulting in marked arterial hypoxemia and polycythemia. This case-control study explores the possibility that sleep-disordered breathing (SBD) and associated oxidative stress contribute to the etiology of CMS. Nocturnal respiratory and SaO2 patterns were measured using standard polysomnography techniques and compared between male high-altitude residents (aged 18–25) with precl...

  7. Flight muscle shape reliably predicts flight muscle mass of migratory songbirds: a new tool for field ornithologists

    OpenAIRE

    Bauchinger, Ulf; McWilliams, Scott R.; Kolb, Harald; Popenko, Vladimir M.; Price, Edwin R.; Biebach, Herbert

    2011-01-01

    Abstract The pectoral muscle is the biggest organ within a passerine bird. It provides flight locomotion and is known to act as a protein source during periods with increased protein demands or decreased protein availability. The mass of the flight muscle is dynamic and changes during juvenile growth, reproduction, seasonal acclimatization, fasting and migration. Thus, a tool that accurately and non-invasively quantifies this phenotypic flexibility in flight muscle mass is of inter...

  8. Alternative substrates to substitute xaxim in the cultivation of the primary hybrid Miltonia regnellii Rchb. f. X Oncidium concolor Hook. (Orchidaceae) /
    Substratos alternativos ao xaxim no cultivo do híbrido primário Miltonia regnellii Rchb. f. X Oncidium concolor Hook. (Orchidaceae)

    OpenAIRE

    Jenniffer Aparecida Schnitzer; Lúcia Sadao Takahashi; Ricardo Tadeu de Faria; Mauren Sorace; Lilian Yukari Yamamoto

    2009-01-01

    The paper had the purpose of evaluating root formation and vegetative development of the acclimatized plants of the primary hybrid Miltonia regnellii Rchb. f. X Oncidium concolor Hook., using alternative substrates to substitute xaxim. Seedlings, with approximately eight months, obtained by in vitro culture with medium height of 6.4 ± 0.5 cm, were grown up in greenhouse with 60% of shadowness, using pots of polipropilene number one, containing the following substrates as treatments: XD= defib...

  9. [Presence in France of a selvatic Xenopsylla: X. cunicularis Smit, 1957 (Siphonaptera, Pulicidae), a parasite of wild rabbits].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beaucournu, J C; Launay, H

    1977-01-01

    The authors point out, for the first time in France, a selvatic Xenopsylla: X. cunicularis Smit, 1957, parasite on the European rabbit, well-known in Morocco and Spain until today. The paleogeographical, ecological, and epidemiological interest of this parasite is laid stress on. The other fleas linked to the European rabbit are evoked, and the acclimatization of Euphoplopsyllus glacialis affinis (Baker, 1904), in France and Italy, introduced with its host Sylvilagus? floridanus is related. PMID:580913

  10. The physiology of ex vitro pineapple ( Ananas comosus L. Merr. var MD-2) as CAM or C3 is regulated by environmental conditions: proteomic and transcriptomic profiles

    OpenAIRE

    Aragón, C.; Pascual, P.; González, J.; Escalona, M.; Carvalho, L.; Amâncio, S.

    2013-01-01

    Pineapple is one of the most important tropical crops worldwide. The use of Temporary Immersion Bioreactors (TIB) for the first stages of pineapple propagation enables precise control of plant growth, increases the rate of plant multiplication, decreases space, energy and labor requirements for pineapple plants in commercial micropropagation. Once the plantlets are ready to be taken from the reactors, they are carefully acclimatized to adapt to natural environmental conditions, and a facultat...

  11. Milk residues and performance of lactating dairy cows administered high doses of monensin

    OpenAIRE

    Bagg, Randal; Vessie, Gordon H.; Dick, C. Paul; Duffield, Todd; Wilson, Jeff B.; Aramini, Jeff J

    2005-01-01

    Milk residues and performance were evaluated in lactating cows that were fed up to 10 times the recommended dose of monensin. Following an acclimatization period of 14 d, during which cows were fed a standard lactating cow total mixed ration containing 24 ppm monensin, 18 lactating Holstein dairy cows were grouped according to the level of feed intake and then randomly assigned within each group to 1 of 3 challenge rations delivering 72, 144, and 240 ppm monensin. Outcome measurements include...

  12. Herbo Mineral Formulations (Rasaoushadhies) of Ayurveda an Amazing Inheritance of Ayurvedic Pharmaceutics

    OpenAIRE

    Chaudhary, Anand; Singh, Neetu

    2010-01-01

    The one of the oldest system of medicine, Ayurveda is momentous in audience of worldwide on virtue of its holistic approach of life. Formulations of Ayurveda consist of substances of herbal, mineral/metal and animal origin which are processed pharmaceutical to have therapeutic effects. This is attribute of processes of Shodhan (purification/potentiation), Bhavana (impregation /levigation) and Marana (incineration/calcinations) of Rasa Shastra which acclimatize these toxic industrial matter to...

  13. IN-VIVO EVALUATION OF HEXAVALENT CHROMIUM INDUCED DNA DAMAGE BY ALKALINE COMET ASSAY AND OXIDATIVE STRESS IN CATLA CATLA

    OpenAIRE

    Kantha Deivi Arunachalam; Sathesh Kumar Annamalai; Jaya Krishna Kuruva

    2013-01-01

    In the present study, the acute toxicity of Chromium in fingerlings of Catla catla, an Indian major carp, was evaluated with renewal bioassay method. In vivo studies were designed to assess the extent of Micronucleus Assay, Comet Assay under the exposure of common heavy-metal compounds, namely, Chromium Nitrate, using Catla catla (2n = 20), as a test model. The laboratory acclimatized fishes were divided into four groups. Group I served as positive control and the other three as exposed group...

  14. Effect of mixed liquor volatile suspended solids (MLVSS) and hydraulic retention time (HRT) on the performance of activated sludge process during the biotreatment of real textile wastewater

    OpenAIRE

    Kapil Kumar; Gaurav Kumar Singh; M.G. Dastidar; T.R. Sreekrishnan

    2014-01-01

    Adequate information is available on colour and organics removal in batch mode using pure microbial cultures from dye contaminated wastewater. There was a need to develop environment friendly and cost effective treatment technique for actual field conditions. Therefore, the present study was undertaken with an aim to evaluate the potential of acclimatized mixed microbial consortia for the removal of colour and organics from real textile wastewater. Experiments were performed in laboratory sca...

  15. Evolutionary adaptation to high altitude: a view from in utero

    OpenAIRE

    Julian, Colleen Glyde; Wilson, Megan J.; Moore, Lorna G.

    2009-01-01

    A primary focus within biological anthropology has been to elucidate the processes of evolutionary adaptation. A. Roberto Frisancho helped move anthropology towards more mechanistic explanations of human adaptation by drawing attention to the importance of the functional relevance of human variation. Using the natural laboratory of high altitude, he and others asked whether the unique physiology of indigenous high-altitude residents was the result of acclimatization, developmental plasticity ...

  16. Early fruit setting from tissue culture-derived mangosteen tree

    OpenAIRE

    Sompong Te-chato; Mongkol Lim

    2004-01-01

    Vitro-plantlets of mangosteen derived from culturing young leaves were acclimatized in 1993. Small and large polybag seedlings were carefully raised under controlled environmental conditions until 1994 when they were ready to be transferred to the field. During this stage, morphological abnormalities of the seedlings were recorded. After transferring to the field for 5-6 years (1994-1999) at Yi Ngo District, Narathiwat Province and Klong Hoi Khong District, Songkhla Province, morphological ch...

  17. A fuzzy system for cloacal temperature prediction of broiler chickens Sistema fuzzy para a predição da temperatura cloacal de frangos de corte

    OpenAIRE

    Leandro Ferreira; Tadayuki Yanagi Junior; Wilian Soares Lacerda; Giovanni Francisco Rabelo

    2012-01-01

    Cloacal temperature (CT) of broiler chickens is an important parameter to classify its comfort status; therefore its prediction can be used as decision support to turn on acclimatization systems. The aim of this research was to develop and validate a system using the fuzzy set theory for CT prediction of broiler chickens. The fuzzy system was developed based on three input variables: air temperature (T), relative humidity (RH) and air velocity (V). The output variable was the CT. The fuzzy in...

  18. Arbuscular mycorrhiza technology applied to micropropagated Prunus avium and to protection against Phytophthora cinnamomi

    OpenAIRE

    Cordier, Christelle; Trouvelot, A; GIANINAZZI, Silvio; Gianinazzi-Pearson, Vivienne

    1996-01-01

    Deux champignons endomycorhizogenes a arbuscules (Glomus intraradices, Glomus caledonium), introduits pendant la periode d'acclimatation, ont ete testes pour leur pouvoir infectieux et leur effet sur la croissance de plants micropropages de merisiers (Prunus avium L) transplantes dans deux differents sols neutres, prealablement desinfectes ou non. Les vitroplants endomycorhizes presentent une meilleure croissance que les plantes temoins sur les deux sols desinfectes. L'importance de l'augment...

  19. Fulminant high altitude blindness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mashkovskiy, Evgeny; Szawarski, Piotr; Ryzhkov, Pavel; Goslar, Tomaz; Mrak, Irena

    2016-06-01

    Prolonged altitude exposure even with acclimatization continues to present a physiological challenge to all organ systems including the central nervous system. We describe a case of a 41-year-old Caucasian female climber who suffered severe visual loss that was due to possible optic nerve pathology occurring during a high altitude expedition in the Himalayas. This case is atypical of classic high altitude cerebral oedema and highlights yet another danger of prolonged sojourn at extreme altitudes. PMID:27601532

  20. The effect of high- to low-altitude adaptation on the multifocal electroretinogram

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kofoed, Peter Kristian; Sander, Birgit; Zubieta-Calleja, Gustavo;

    2009-01-01

    .028) to a level of 73.2% to 87.0% higher in the highlanders than in the lowlanders (P < 0.0008). The increase in numerical amplitudes was proportional to the decrease in erythrocyte concentration (P = 0.023, 0.053, and 0.12 for N1, P1, and N2, respectively). CONCLUSIONS: On arrival at sea level, the...... intrinsic retinal mechanisms and that acclimatization was not complete by the end of the study....

  1. Hibernation, stress, intestinal functions, and catecholoamine turnover rate in hamsters and gerbils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Musacchia, X. J.

    1973-01-01

    Bioenergetic studies on hamsters during depressed metabolic states are reported. External support of blood glucose extended the survival times of hibernating animals. Radioresistance increased in hibernating as well as in hypothermic hamsters. Marked changes in hamster catecholamine turnover rates were observed during acclimatization to high temperature stress. High radioresistance levels of the gerbil gastrointestinal system were attributed in part to the ability of the gut to maintain functional integrity.

  2. Chov agapornise škraboškového

    OpenAIRE

    Schölzigová, Tereza

    2012-01-01

    This bachelor´s thesis deals with the breeding of agapornis personata. Agapornis personata comes from northeastern Tanzania. It inhabits savannas with open stands. It is not demanding for breeding and that is why it is suitable for beginners. It has been kept in captivity since 1925 (imported to the USA), after import birds are sensitive for temperature and food changes but after acclimatization they are resistant and also handle low temperatures. It is possible to keep agapornis individ...

  3. Multiple Environmental Stressors: Biological Interactions Between Parameters of Climate Change and Perfluorinated Alkyl Substances in Fish

    OpenAIRE

    Olufsen, Marianne Opsahl

    2016-01-01

    Aquatic organisms continuously acclimatize to fluctuations in environment parameters and contaminant insult. The aim of this thesis was to investigate effects of combined exposure to quantifiable measures of climate change (hypercapnia and hypoxia) and perfluorinated alkyl substances (PFASs) on oxidative stress, lipid homeostasis and endocrine disruption in fish. The thesis consists of four papers (Paper I-IV). In Paper I and II, Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua) juveniles was expose...

  4. Physiological and performance adaptations to an in-season soccer camp in the heat: Associations with heart rate and heart rate variability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buchheit, M; Voss, S C; Nybo, Lars;

    2011-01-01

    -trained but non-heat-acclimatized male adult players performed a training week in Qatar (34.6¿±¿1.9°C wet bulb globe temperature). HRex, HRR, HRV (i.e. the standard deviation of instantaneous beat-to-beat R-R interval variability measured from Poincaré plots SD1, a vagal-related index), creatine kinase (CK...

  5. Diversity in transcripts and translational pattern of stress proteins in marine extremophiles

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Nath, I.V.A.; LokaBharathi, P.A.

    -shocked cells by decreasing the membrane fluidity and acting as RNA chaperones (Yamanaka et al., 1998). They are different from CAPs. CSPs are induced in response to a sudden shock to a low temperature, whereas CAPs are specifically synthesized to acclimatize.... Lipid desaturases and genes involved in the maintenance of cell membrane fluidity have been found in the P. haloplanktis genome. Proteins concerned with membrane fluidity- β-keto-acyl-carrier proteins, β-keto-acyl-CoA synthetases and fatty acid cis...

  6. Mycorrhizal synthesis between Pisolithus arhizus and adult clones of Arbutus unedo in vitro and in nursery

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Filomena Gomes; Helena Machado; Esteban San Martin; A. Portugal; Jorge M. Canhoto

    2013-01-01

    Arbutoid mycorrhizae were synthesized between adult se-lected clones of Arbutus unedo L. and Pisolithus arhizus. Two micro-propagated clones were tested:AL1, in vitro and C1 (acclimatized plants) in nursery and later in a field trial. In vitro, rooted shoots were trans-ferred to test tubes containing the substrate previously inoculated with mycelium cultured on agar. In the nursery, two inoculation treatments were tested (vegetative inocula or dry sporocarps) and compared to con-trol plants. In the field trial, plants from nursery inoculation treatments were compared and an additional control treatment using seedlings was implemented. Plant height was evaluated 4 months later in the nursery and 20 months later in the field trial. Roots were examined by morpho-logical and histological studies: a) in vitro plantlets one month after inoculation and nine months after acclimatization;and b) 20 months after the field trial was established. Arbutoid mycorrhizae were observed in vitro one month after inoculation, indicating compatibility between A. unedo and P. arhizus. These showed the presence of a mantle, Hartig net, and intracellular hyphal complexes confined to the epidermal root cells. Arbutoid mycorrhizae were also observed nine months after acclimatiza-tion in inoculated and control plants. In order to confirm the identity of mycorrhizae, molecular techniques were used, in previously inoculated in vitro plants, 12 months after acclimatization. Thelephora and Hebeloma mycorrhizae, two types of highly competitive and widespread my-corrhizae on nurseries were identified. In the nursery, dry sporocarp treatment improved plant height after four months. In a field trial (20 months later), plants growth did not show significant differences. By this time, mycorrhized roots with Cenococcum geophilum and other types were identified. These results and their implications on A. unedo breed-ing program are discussed.

  7. Mercury Removal From Petroleum Based Industries Wastewater By P. Putida

    OpenAIRE

    A. A. M. Azoddein; R. M. Yunus; N. M. Sulaiman; A. B. Bustary; F. A. Azli

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Mercury pollution is one of a primary environmental issue and public health problem. The purpose of this research is to remove the mercury using pure culture Pseudomonas putida ATCC 49128 at optimum growth parameters such as technique of culture acclimatization time and speed of incubator speed. In this study the optimum growth parameters ofP. putida were obtained to achieve the maximum of mercury removal. Thus a field study were carried out at two different location based on petrole...

  8. Translational environmental biology: cell biology informing conservation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Traylor-Knowles, Nikki; Palumbi, Stephen R

    2014-05-01

    Typically, findings from cell biology have been beneficial for preventing human disease. However, translational applications from cell biology can also be applied to conservation efforts, such as protecting coral reefs. Recent efforts to understand the cell biological mechanisms maintaining coral health such as innate immunity and acclimatization have prompted new developments in conservation. Similar to biomedicine, we urge that future efforts should focus on better frameworks for biomarker development to protect coral reefs.

  9. Fermentation Kinetics for Xylitol Production by a Pichia stipitis d-Xylulokinase Mutant Previously Grown in Spent Sulfite Liquor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigues, Rita C. L. B.; Lu, Chenfeng; Lin, Bernice; Jeffries, Thomas W.

    Spent sulfite pulping liquor (SSL) contains lignin, which is present as lignosulfonate, and hemicelluloses that are present as hydrolyzed carbohydrates. To reduce the biological oxygen demand of SSL associated with dissolved sugars, we studied the capacity of Pichia stipitis FPL-YS30 (xyl3Δ) to convert these sugars into useful products. FPL-YS30 produces a negligible amount of ethanol while converting xylose into xylitol. This work describes the xylose fermentation kinetics of yeast strain P.stipitis FPL-YS30. Yeast was grown in rich medium supplemented with different carbon sources: glucose, xylose, or ammonia-base SSL. The SSL and glucose-acclimatized cells showed similar maximum specific growth rates (0.146 h-1). The highest xylose consumption at the beginning of the fermentation process occurred using cells precultivated in xylose, which showed relatively high specific activity of glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (EC 1.1.1.49). However, the maximum specific rates of xylose consumption (0.19 gxylose/gcel h) and xylitol production (0.059 gxylitol/gcel h) were obtained with cells acclimatized in glucose, in which the ratio between xylose reductase (EC 1.1.1.21) and xylitol dehydrogenase (EC 1.1.1.9) was kept at higher level (0.82). In this case, xylitol production (31.6 g/l) was 19 and 8% higher than in SSL and xylose-acclimatized cells, respectively. Maximum glycerol (6.26 g/l) and arabitol (0.206 g/l) production were obtained using SSL and xylose-acclimatized cells, respectively. The medium composition used for the yeast precultivation directly reflected their xylose fermentation performance. The SSL could be used as a carbon source for cell production. However, the inoculum condition to obtain a high cell concentration in SSL needs to be optimized.

  10. Hydration in soccer: a review

    OpenAIRE

    Monteiro Cristiano Ralo; Guerra Isabela; Barros Turíbio Leite de

    2003-01-01

    Hydration should be considered before, during and after the exercise. This review intends to approach the main points of hydration process in soccer. The replacement of fluids during exercise is proportional to some factors, such as: exercise intensity; climatic conditions; the athlete's acclimatization; the athlete's physical conditioning; physiologic individual characteristics and the player's biomechanics. Performance is improved when players ingest not only water but also carbohydrate. Th...

  11. Temperature Tolerance of Large Yellow Croaker, Pseudosciaena Crocea ( Richardson ) Associated with Summer Season

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Quanzhen; ZENG Jiangning; LIAO Yibo; GAO Aigen; YANG Hefu

    2005-01-01

    Lethal temperature tolerance was determined for about 8 cm, age 0 Pseudosciaena crocea using both slow heating and rapid transfer protocol. The acclimatization temperature was 28 ℃ with summer season, lethal temperature ( LT50 value ) of slow heating protocol ( CTMax ) was 35.0 ℃, and the upper and lower incipient lethal temperatures of rapid transfer protocol were 34.2 ℃ and 17.5 ℃ respectively.

  12. Langkawi's Sustainable Regeneration Strategy and Natural Heritage Preservation

    OpenAIRE

    Rugayah Hashim; Zulkiflee Abd Latif

    2015-01-01

    In the face of climate change and increased development, environmental acclimatization includes looking for alternatives for socio-economic improvement. For the island resort of Langkawi, Malaysia, agriculture is no longer a sustainable income generating venture. Eco-tourism has taken over paddy planting and artisanal fishing. The state government and local authorities are aware of the need to realign their development strategies to suit the environment. By engaging in sustainable regeneratio...

  13. The effect of altitude and intensity of physical activity on the exergy efficiency of respiratory system

    OpenAIRE

    Henriques, Izabela Batista; Mady, Carlos Eduardo Keutenedjian; Albuquerque Neto, Cyro; Yanagihara, Jurandir Itizo; Oliveira Junior, Silvio

    2014-01-01

    The effect of altitude on exercise performance of lowlanders has long been discussed, but it is still unclear whether the performance reduction is related to inefficiency of the respiratory system, body tissues or both. In the present work, exergy analysis was applied to the human body in order to compare its exergy efficiency under basal conditions and during physical activity at sea level and high altitudes for different periods of acclimatization. Two control volumes were analyzed: respira...

  14. Prior altitude experience of climbers attempting to summit Aconcagua.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borm, Nicholas; Van Roo, Jon D; Pesce, Carlos; Courtney, D Mark; Malik, Sanjeev; Lazio, Matthew P

    2011-01-01

    Aconcagua (6962 m) is one of the seven summits and the highest mountain outside of Asia. Climbers of varying experience are drawn to its nontechnical route. Our objective was to detail the prior altitude experience of climbers attempting to summit Aconcagua. We asked all climbers on the normal route of Aconcagua to complete questionnaires with demographics and prior high altitude experience while acclimatizing at Plaza de Mulas base camp during 9 nonconsecutive days in January 2009. 127 volunteers from 22 countries were enrolled. Mean age was 39.8 years and 88.2% were male. Median altitude at place of residence was 200 m (IQR: 30, 700). Median previous maximum altitude reached was 5895 m (IQR: 5365, 6150). 7.1% of climbers had never been above 4000 m. Median previous maximum sleeping altitude was 4800 m (IQR: 4300, 5486). 12.6% of climbers had never slept above 4000 m. Climbers who performed acclimatization treks spent a mean of 3.6 (2.5, 4.7) days at>3000 m in the previous 2 months. However, 50.4% of climbers performed no acclimatization treks. Although the majority of mountaineers who attempt Aconcagua have prior high altitude experience, a substantial minority has never been above 4000 m. PMID:22206564

  15. MIKROPROPAGASI ANGGREK ALMA Grammatophyllum scriptum Blume

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    Elizabeth Handini

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Grammatophyllum scriptum is a beautiful wild orchid that has an interesting economic value. However, the existence of this ornamental plant species is at risk because of irresponsible exploitation of the natural population and insufficient cultivation efforts. Currently, the Bogor Botanic Garden is developing a program of orchid propagation for enhancing the conservation of all potential orchid collections. The propagation of G. scriptum was basically carried out by culturing the seeds in a modified Hyponex or Vacin & Went medium, transplanting the plantlets into a more suitable medium and finally acclimatizing the resulting seedlings. A study was done to observe the effect of fertilizer application on the growth of acclimatized G. scriptum seedlings, as a means to improve the propagation technique of the species. The result showed that the application of 1 and 2 m1/I organic fertilizer (Sugih as well as 1 and 2 g/I inorganic fertilizer (Hyponex increased the seedling mortality, in which the application of 2 g/ml Hyponex fertilizer was being the most damaging treatment, leaving 12,5 % seedlings to survive. However, in terms of seedling growth, the application of 1 m1/I Sugih fertilizer was slightly beneficial to the formation of root and the elongation of stem of the acclimatized seedlings. It may be suggested, therefore, that G. scriptum seedlings require no (or very little amount of supplementary fertilizer to boost their vegetative growth.

  16. Kuidas võõras muutub omaks: kaks taime eesti rahvameditsiinis

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    Renata Sõukand

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to become relevant in a given culture, the imported phenomena (e.g. medicinal plants have to be integrated into own, while also remaining ‘foreign’ in some respect (which, in the case of medicinal plants, gives additional potency to their healing power. The paper takes as examples two imported species of herbs introduced into Estonian ethnomedicine before the 19th century: arnica and camomile. Camomile was already described as a medicinal plant in the first medicinal magazine in Estonian (in 1776, whereas arnica emerged in the popular medicinal literature in the middle of the 19th century. In the folklore collection of Jakob Hurt arnica seems to be more popular than camomile and is described there as a local plant. Indeed, according to the information of Gustav Vilbaste, the first Estonian ethnobotanist, there where altogether 19 local plants known by the phytonym. Arnica montana (the prototype of arnica name did not get acclimatized in the Estonian climate and thus became ‘own’ by extending its name to locally grown plants, a process that could be called cultural acclimatization; Matricaria sp. acclimatized here, shifted from the cultural sphere to natural and from there into the medical use of the common people. In the more recent tradition, camomile exceeded arnica in popularity; this might have been influenced by its popularity in the 20th-century medical literature.

  17. Decolorization of Mordant Orange-1 by Marinobacter algicola MO-17

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    R. S. Shertate

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: The textile industries use different types of dyes in their processing units which are liberated in natural marine water bodies. This release of dyes in turn affect the marine flora and fauna very adversely. Approach: The release of textile dyes into the environment is a matter of concern due to the toxicity, mutagenicity, carcinogenicity and xenobiotic nature. Hence, considerable attention has been given in determining the ability of marine microorganism in decolorization and degradation of textile dyes. Results: The present study deals with the decolorization of Mordant Orange-1 was carried out using the acclimatized Marinobacter algicola MO-17 isolated from natural marine environment. The acclimatized strain was capable of decolorizing 800 μg mL-1 of the dye at high salt concentration (12% in 24 h. The percent decolorization of the dye was moderated by spectroscopy at 385 nm (λmax. Conclusion/Recommendations: The spectrophotometric analysis showed 78.78% decolorization in Nutrient Broth and 76.78% decolorization in Half Strength Nutrient Broth. The percent Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD reduction of the dye by the strain was 90%. From the study performed, we conclude that, this acclimatized strain can prove better option for bioremediation of textile dyes in wastes containing high salts and in marine environment.

  18. Comparison of microhabitats and foraging strategies between the captive-born Zhangxiang and wild giant pandas: implications for future reintroduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lei, Miaowen; Yuan, Shibin; Yang, Zisong; Hong, Mingsheng; Yang, Xuyu; Gu, Xiaodong; Huang, Feng; Zhang, Zejun

    2015-10-01

    The female giant panda Zhangxiang (pedigree number 826) was born on August 20, 2011 in Wolong Nature Reserve, China. On November 6, 2013, Zhangxiang was transported into the acclimatization enclosure in the Liziping Nature Reserve. Before Zhangxiang left the enclosure into the wild, we conducted the first study to compare microhabitats and foraging strategies between Zhangxiang in the enclosure and giant pandas in the wild. Compared with the latter, microhabitats of Zhangxiang in the enclosure are characteristic of gentler slope, more trees, higher canopy, smaller tree DBH, and lower density of living bamboos. Diet composition and foraging behaviors significantly differed between Zhangxiang and wild giant pandas, perhaps reflecting the combined consequence of environmental conditions (e.g., bamboo species) and individual status (e.g., age, mastication ability, etc.). The difference in microhabitats and foraging strategies between Zhangxiang and wild giant pandas implied that after being released into the natural habitat in the reserve, Zhangxiang will have to adapt to the environmental conditions once again. For future reintroduction, the enclosure can be extended to the Bashania spanostachya forest in the reserve, and captive giant pandas for release can thus normally transit into the wild without human intervention during acclimatization period. For other acclimatization enclosures to be constructed in the future, ecological environment inside, including topography, forests, and bamboos as well, should as possible as can match the habitat that the giant panda to-be-reinforced populations inhabit. PMID:26003090

  19. Ex situ Conservation of Three Endemic and/or Endangered Dianthus Species

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    Victoria CRISTEA

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Within the current context of declining biodiversity, the botanical gardens play an essential role in its conservation. Dianthus callizonus, D. glacialis ssp. gelidus and D. spiculifolius are the species that we seek to preserve in "Alexandru Borza" Botanical Garden of Cluj-Napoca (Romania. Several replicates were collected for each taxon from different populations in order to avoid the genetic uniformity. The material collected from the natural sites, was planted on a rockery, specially designed for this collection in the Botanical Garden. At the time of planting, each individual was sampled for setting up an in vitro collection and further biochemical and molecular analyses. In case of ex situ outdoor conservation of the three Dianthus species, 80.6% of the individuals collected in the field survived during the first year but the percentage decreased drastically after four years. In the case of in situ collected individuals, as well as in the case of in vitro individuals, D. spiculifolius had the best ability to acclimatize in the Botanical Garden, and D. callizonus presented the lowest number of surviving individuals. The ex vitro acclimatization of the plantlets had 80% efficiency at 10ºC, using three different substrates: soil and pearl stone mix 1/1, soil and sand mix 1/1 and pearl stone. All the three species are preserved in vitro, whereas the plantlets are acclimatized outdoors. Ex situ conservation of these species will have a positive impact on the biodiversity conservation.

  20. Exercise training hypotension - Implications for plasma volume, renin, and vasopressin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenleaf, J. E.; Sciaraffa, D.; Shvartz, E.; Keil, L. C.; Brock, P. J.

    1981-01-01

    The relation of changes in plasma volume, plasma renin activity and arginine vasopressin to changes in resting blood pressure during exercise training is investigated. Resting supine, sitting, and standing systolic and fifth-phase diastolic blood pressures were measured in ten men before and after an eight-day training period on a cycle ergometer in either a hot (39.8 C) or cool (23.8 C) environment, and compared with plasma volume, renin and vasopressin levels, heart rates, maximal oxygen uptakes, rectal temperatures and sweat rates. Following acclimatization, resting supine and sitting diastolic pressures are observed to decrease by 6 and 9 mm Hg, respectively, while no significant changes are found in the diastolic pressures of the control group or the systolic pressures of either group. Resting plasma volume is found to increase by 12.2% in the controls and by 17.6% after acclimatization following the exercise training. Results suggest that the resting hypotension produced is not attributable to changes in resting plasma volume, renin or vasopressin, although heat acclimatization, which leads to large decreases in plasma volume and increases in vasopressin and renin activity, may be useful in the treatment of hypertension.

  1. Thermal and metabolic adaptation to first cold-water immersion in juvenile penguins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barré, H; Roussel, B

    1986-09-01

    Juvenile king and macaroni penguins are terrestrial seabirds and must face an intensive and prolonged energetic demand during their passage from shore to marine life in cold subantarctic seawater. Evidence for progressive thermal adaptation was sought by measurement of metabolic rate (MR) and body (Tb) and skin (Tsk) temperatures in unrestrained, fully immersed penguins. Steady-state responses obtained after the 3rd h of immersion in never-immersed (NI) penguins were compared with those of penguins acclimatized to seawater temperature (A). NI macaroni penguins, unlike NI king penguins, showed a fall in Tb on their first immersion but, once acclimatized, were able to maintain their homeothermy due to an increase (greater than 3.2 W/kg) in regulatory thermogenesis. In NI king penguins, during a simulation of seawater adaptation by 10 successive immersions, MR at 7 degrees C water temperature (Tw) rose from 6.0 to 9.4 W/kg (becoming 3-5 times higher than in air), whereas Tb rose from 37.6 to 38.4 degrees C. In both species occurrence of peak MR at much lower Tw, progressive increase in thermogenesis capacity, and lower conductance in water after adaptation to marine life (28 and 36% less in A king and macaroni penguins, respectively) showed that the passage from shore to marine life consisted of a true cold acclimatization. PMID:3752279

  2. Effects of High Altitude on Sleep and Respiratory System and Theirs Adaptations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Turhan San

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available High-altitude (HA environments have adverse effects on the normal functioning body of people accustomed to living at low altitudes because of the change in barometric pressure which causes decrease in the amount of oxygen leading to hypobaric hypoxia. Sustained exposure to hypoxia has adverse effects on body weight, muscle structure and exercise capacity, mental functioning, and sleep quality. The most important step of acclimatization is the hyperventilation which is achieved by hypoxic ventilatory response of the peripheral chemoreceptors. Hyperventilation results in increase in arterial carbondioxide concentration. Altitude also affects sleep and cardiac output, which is the other determinant of oxygen delivery. Upon initial exposure to HA, the resting pulse rate increases rapidly, but with acclimatization, heart rate and cardiac output tend to fall. Another important component that leads to decrease in cardiac output is the reduction in the stroke volume with acclimatization. During sleep at HA, the levels of CO2 in the blood can drop very low and this can switch off the drive to breathe. Only after the body senses a further drop in O2 levels breathing is started again. Periodic breathing is thought to result from instability in the control system through the hypoxic drive or the response to CO2.

  3. Influence of repeated daily diving on decompression stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zanchi, J; Ljubkovic, M; Denoble, P J; Dujic, Z; Ranapurwala, S; Pollock, N W

    2014-06-01

    Acclimatization (an adaptive change in response to repeated environmental exposure) to diving could reduce decompression stress. A decrease in post-dive circulating venous gas emboli (VGE or bubbles) would represent positive acclimatization. The purpose of this study was to determine whether four days of daily diving alter post-dive bubble grades. 16 male divers performed identical no-decompression air dives on 4 consecutive days to 18 meters of sea water for 47 min bottom times. VGE monitoring was performed with transthoracic echocardiography every 20 min for 120 min post-dive. Completion of identical daily dives resulted in progressively decreasing odds (or logit risk) of having relatively higher grade bubbles on consecutive days. The odds on Day 4 were half that of Day 1 (OR 0.50, 95% CI: 0.34, 0.73). The odds ratio for a >III bubble grade on Day 4 was 0.37 (95% CI: 0.20, 0.70) when compared to Day 1. The current study indicates that repetitive daily diving may reduce bubble formation, representing a positive (protective) acclimatization to diving. Further work is required to evaluate the impact of additional days of diving and multiple dive days and to determine if the effect is sufficient to alter the absolute risk of decompression sickness.

  4. Symbiotic propagation of seedlings of Cyrtopodium glutiniferum Raddi (Orchidaceae

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    Fernanda Aparecida Rodrigues Guimarães

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available In nature, orchid seeds obtain the nutrients necessary for germination by degrading intracellular fungal structures formed after colonization of the embryo by mycorrhizal fungi. Protocols for asymbiotic germination of orchid seeds typically use media with high concentrations of soluble carbohydrate and minerals. However, when reintroduced into the field, seedlings obtained via asymbiotic germination have lower survival rates than do seedlings obtained via symbiotic germination. Tree fern fiber, the ideal substrate for orchid seedling acclimatization, is increasingly scarce. Here, we evaluated seed germination and protocorm development of Cyrtopodium glutiniferum Raddi cultivated in asymbiotic media (Knudson C and Murashige & Skoog and in oatmeal agar (OA medium inoculated with the mycorrhizal fungus Epulorhiza sp., using non-inoculated OA medium as a control. We also evaluated the performance of tree fern fiber, pine bark, eucalyptus bark, corncob and sawdust as substrates for the acclimatization of symbiotically propagated plants. We determined germination percentages, protocorm development and growth indices at 35 and 70 days of cultivation. Relative growth rates and the effects of substrates on mycorrhizal formation were calculated after 165 days of cultivation. Germination efficiency and growth indices were best when inoculated OA medium was used. Corncob and pine bark showed the highest percentages of colonized system roots. The OA medium inoculated with Epulorhiza sp. shows potential for C. glutiniferum seedling production. Corncob and pine bark are promising substitutes for tree fern fiber as substrates for the acclimatization of orchid seedlings.

  5. Transcriptomic plasticity in brown adipose tissue contributes to an enhanced capacity for nonshivering thermogenesis in deer mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velotta, Jonathan P; Jones, Jennifer; Wolf, Cole J; Cheviron, Zachary A

    2016-06-01

    For small mammals living at high altitude, aerobic heat generation (thermogenesis) is essential for survival during prolonged periods of cold, but is severely impaired under conditions of hypobaric hypoxia. Recent studies in deer mice (Peromyscus maniculatus) reveal adaptive enhancement of thermogenesis in high- compared to low-altitude populations under hypoxic cold stress, an enhancement that is attributable to modifications in the aerobic metabolism of muscles used in shivering. However, because small mammals rely heavily on nonshivering mechanisms for cold acclimatization, we tested for evidence of adaptive divergence in nonshivering thermogenesis (NST) under hypoxia. To do so, we measured NST and characterized transcriptional profiles of brown adipose tissue (BAT) in high- and low-altitude deer mice that were (i) wild-caught and acclimatized to their native altitude, and (ii) born and reared under common garden conditions at low elevation. We found that NST performance under hypoxia is enhanced in wild-caught, high-altitude deer mice, a difference that is associated with increased expression of coregulated genes that influence several physiological traits. These traits include vascularization and O2 supply to BAT, brown adipocyte proliferation and the uncoupling of oxidative phosphorylation from ATP synthesis in the generation of heat. Our results suggest that acclimatization to hypoxic cold stress is facilitated by enhancement of nonshivering heat production, which is driven by regulatory plasticity in a suite of genes that influence intersecting physiological pathways. PMID:27126783

  6. In vitro rescue of interspecific embryos from Elaeis guineensis x E. oleifera (Arecaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angelo, Paula Cristina da Silva; Moraes, Larissa Alexandra Cardoso; Lopes, Ricardo; Sousa, Nelcimar Reis; da Cunha, Raimundo Nonato Vieira; Quisen, Regina Caetano

    2011-09-01

    The African oil palm (Elaeis guineensis) is the most effective oil producer in tons per hectare. Nevertheless, its increasing cultivation in Latin America is harmed by the "lethal yellowing". Genetic resistance to this anomaly can be found in the germplasm of American oil palm or caiaué (E. oleifera), a native species from the Amazon rainforest. However, the procedures adopted to induce seeds of E. guineensis to germination frequently result mild for interespecific hybrids. Embryo in vitro cultivation can be a viable option. This work was aimed initially to test liquid MS medium supplemented with different glucose or sucrose concentrations for the in vitro cultivation of zygotic embryos from E. guineensis x E. oleifera controlled pollinations. Additionally we investigated different compost mixtures to acclimatize the regenerated hybrid plantlets. Concentrations of 10, 20 and 30g/L of both sugars were tested on flasks containing five mature zygotic embryos, with 15 repetitions per treatment in a total of 450 explants. The number of embryos displaying shoots and radicles at least 2mm in length per experimental unit was evaluated during phase one of in vitro cultivation. Plantlets displaying shoots and radicles were transferred to phase two of in vitro cultivation and subsequently to acclimatization, under 70% shading with manual water supply. The experiments of acclimatization were conducted with 130 plantlets randomly distributed in pure horticultural compost, 3:1 or 1:1 compost:sand mixtures and each plantlet was defined as an experimental unit. Data were submitted to ANOVA, t test and analyzes of correlation (p < or = 0.05). Highest emergence rates were 97% for shoots and 73% for radicles, observed in MS medium supplemented with 20g/L (110mM) of glucose. This sugar in concentrations of 20 or 30g/L provided balanced shoot/root development, and this was considered one of the reasons for the higher frequency of plantlet establishment. The survival percentage was 55

  7. Kesintasan Undur-Undur pada Media Aklimatisasi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mayang Arundina

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui kesintasan undur-undur pada media aklimatisasi. Penelitian dilakukan di rumah teduh Jalan Tumpang I/82 Semarang dan Laboratorium Jurusan Biologi FMIPA UNNES. Variabel utamanya kesintasan undur-undur, berat dan panjang undur-undur, sedangkan variabel pendukungnya jenis media aklimatisasi, meliputi tanah kering, abu dan serbuk batu bata. Tahap awal, disiapkan media hidup undur-undur, media kemudian dimasukkan kedalam kotak aklimatisasi, diberi cangkup dan dibiarkan selama 10 hari. Undur-undur ditimbang dan diukur panjang tubuhnya kemudian dimasukkan kedalam kotak aklimatisasi, masing-masing kotak diisi15 undur-undur. Kesintasan hidup undur-undur pada masing-masing media diamati selama 45 hari, data diambil seminggu sekali. Undur-undur diberi makan 2 - 3 ekor semut sehari 3 kali. Setelah 45 hari undur-undur ditimbang dan diukur panjang tubuhnya kembali. Data kesintasan hidup undur-undur dianalisis menggunakan Anava Dua jalur. Berat dan panjang undur-undur dianalisis menggunakan t-test. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan undur-undur dapat sintas pada media aklimatisasi, yaitu tanah kering dan abu. Undur-undur mengalami pertambahan berat dan panjang sesudah penelitian. Berdasarkan hasil penelitian dapat disimpulkan bahwa undur-undurdapat sintas pada media aklimatisasi yaitu tanah kering dan abu. Ukuran berat dan panjang undur-undur mengalami pertambahan sesudah penelitian. This research was aimed to know the survival of gratus at the acclimatization media. The research was held in the shady house at Jalan Tumpang I/82 Semarang and in the Laboratory of Biology Departement of FMIPA UNNES. The main variables were the survival of gratus, the weight and length of gratus, whereas the supporting variable was the acclimatization media, that is the dry sandy soil, the dust and the powder of bricks. Initially, the acclimatization media was prepared for the gratus, then the media was distributed into the boxes of

  8. Changes of gill and hemocyte-related bio-indicators during long term maintenance of the vent mussel Bathymodiolus azoricus held in aquaria at atmospheric pressure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bettencourt, Raul; Dando, Paul; Rosa, Domitília; Riou, Virginie; Colaço, Ana; Sarrazin, Jozée; Sarradin, Pierre-Marie; Santos, Ricardo Serrão

    2008-05-01

    The deep-sea hydrothermal vent mussel Bathymodiolus azoricus has been the subject of several studies aimed at understanding the physiological adaptations that vent animals have developed in order to cope with the particular physical and chemical conditions of hydrothermal environments. In spite of reports describing successful procedures to maintain vent mussels under laboratory conditions at atmospheric pressure, few studies have described the mussel's physiological state after a long period in aquaria. In the present study, we investigate changes in mucocytes and hemocytes in B. azoricus over the course of several months after deep-sea retrieval. The visualization of granules of mucopolysaccharide or glycoprotein was made possible through their inherent auto-fluorescent property and the Alcian blue-Periodic Acid Schiff staining method. The density and distribution of droplets of mucus-like granules was observed at the ventral end of lamellae during acclimatization period. The mucus-like granules were greatly reduced after 3 months and nearly absent after 6 months of aquarium conditions. Additionally, we examined the depletion of endosymbiont bacteria from gill tissues, which typically occurs within a few weeks in sea water under laboratory conditions. The physiological state of B. azoricus after 6 months of acclimatization was also examined by means of phagocytosis assays using hemocytes. Hemocytes from mussels held in aquaria up to 6 months were still capable of phagocytosis but to a lesser extent when compared to the number of ingested yeast particles per phagocytic hemocytes from freshly collected vent mussels. We suggest that the changes in gill mucopolysaccharides and hemocyte glycoproteins, the endosymbiont abundance in gill tissues and phagocytosis are useful health criteria to assess long term maintenance of B. azoricus in aquaria. Furthermore, the laboratory set up to which vent mussels were acclimatized is an applicable system to study physiological

  9. Increased hemoglobin O2 affinity protects during acute hypoxia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yalcin, Ozlem; Cabrales, Pedro

    2012-08-01

    Acclimatization to hypoxia requires time to complete the adaptation mechanisms that influence oxygen (O(2)) transport and O(2) utilization. Although decreasing hemoglobin (Hb) O(2) affinity would favor the release of O(2) to the tissues, increasing Hb O(2) affinity would augment arterial O(2) saturation during hypoxia. This study was designed to test the hypothesis that pharmacologically increasing the Hb O(2) affinity will augment O(2) transport during severe hypoxia (10 and 5% inspired O(2)) compared with normal Hb O(2) affinity. RBC Hb O(2) affinity was increased by infusion of 20 mg/kg of 5-hydroxymethyl-2-furfural (5HMF). Control animals received only the vehicle. The effects of increasing Hb O(2) affinity were studied in the hamster window chamber model, in terms of systemic and microvascular hemodynamics and partial pressures of O(2) (Po(2)). Pimonidazole binding to hypoxic areas of mice heart and brain was also studied. 5HMF decreased the Po(2) at which the Hb is 50% saturated with O(2) by 12.6 mmHg. During 10 and 5% O(2) hypoxia, 5HMF increased arterial blood O(2) saturation by 35 and 48% from the vehicle group, respectively. During 5% O(2) hypoxia, blood pressure and heart rate were 58 and 30% higher for 5HMF compared with the vehicle. In addition, 5HMF preserved microvascular blood flow, whereas blood flow decreased to 40% of baseline in the vehicle group. Consequently, perivascular Po(2) was three times higher in the 5HMF group compared with the control group at 5% O(2) hypoxia. 5HMF also reduced heart and brain hypoxic areas in mice. Therefore, increased Hb O(2) affinity resulted in hemodynamics and oxygenation benefits during severe hypoxia. This acute acclimatization process may have implications in survival during severe environmental hypoxia when logistic constraints prevent chronic acclimatization. PMID:22636677

  10. Contrary seasonal changes of rates of nutrient uptake, organ mass, and voluntary food intake in red deer (Cervus elaphus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnold, Walter; Beiglböck, Christoph; Burmester, Marion; Guschlbauer, Maria; Lengauer, Astrid; Schröder, Bernd; Wilkens, Mirja; Breves, Gerhard

    2015-08-01

    Northern ungulates acclimatize to winter conditions with restricted food supply and unfavorable weather conditions by reducing energy expenditure and voluntary food intake. We investigated in a study on red deer whether rates of peptide and glucose transport in the small intestines are also reduced during winter as part of the thrifty phenotype of winter-acclimatized animals, or whether transport rates are increased during winter in order to exploit poor forage more efficiently. Our results support the latter hypothesis. We found in a feeding experiment that total energy intake was considerably lower during winter despite ad libitum feeding. Together with reduced food intake, mass of visceral organs was significantly lower and body fat reserves were used as metabolic fuel in addition to food. However, efficacy of nutrient absorption seemed to be increased simultaneously. Extraction of crude protein from forage was higher in winter animals, at any level of crude protein intake, as indicated by the lower concentration of crude protein in feces. In line with these in vivo results, Ussing chamber experiments revealed greater electrogenic responses to both peptides and glucose in the small intestines of winter-acclimatized animals, and peptide uptake into jejunal brush-border membrane vesicles was increased. We conclude that reduced appetite of red deer during winter avoids energy expenditure for unproductive search of scarcely available food and further renders the energetically costly maintenance of a large gut and visceral organs unnecessary. Nevertheless, extraction of nutrients from forage is more efficient in the winter to attenuate an inevitably negative energy balance. PMID:26017492

  11. Hematological and physiological adaptations following 46 weeks of moderate altitude residence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brothers, Michael D; Doan, Brandon K; Zupan, Michael F; Wile, Al L; Wilber, Randall L; Byrnes, William C

    2010-01-01

    Although acclimatization to moderate altitude (MA) is thought to be unnecessary or to require minimal adaptation, retrospective data from the U.S. Air Force Academy (USAFA), a military college located at 2210 m, suggested otherwise. To further examine the utility of USAFA as a model for MA acclimatization, a longitudinal experimental design was prospectively utilized to determine the magnitude and time course of selected hematological and performance parameters following 46 weeks at this unique MA setting. Incoming USAFA male freshmen (n=55) were divided into experimental groups based on prior residence at sea level (SL) or MA. Hematological and performance parameters were repeatedly assessed during their entire first year at MA. Hematological data consisted of a complete blood count (CBC) with reticulocyte parameters, as well as determination of serum levels of ferritin, erythropoietin, and soluble transferrin receptor (sTfR). Performance testing included aerobic (1.5-mile run) and physical (push-ups, sit-ups, pull-ups, and standing long jump) fitness tests, maximal aerobic capacity, and running economy. Significant (ppeers. Although both serum ferritin and sTfR demonstrated a significant altitude group x time interaction, [Hb] and hematocrit did not. A significant main effect of altitude without interaction was also observed for performance parameters, with SL subjects having a significantly lower Vo2peak (-5.9%), slower 1.5- mile run time (+5.4%), poorer running economy (+6.6%), and lower composite physical fitness test score (-13.9%) than MA subjects. These results suggest that complete acclimatization to 2210 m by former SL residents may require lengthy physiological adaptations, as both hematological and physical performance differences persisted between groups. Further research at this uniquely well controlled MA setting is warranted. PMID:20919886

  12. The effect of climbing Mount Everest on spleen contraction and increase in hemoglobin concentration during breath holding and exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engan, Harald K; Lodin-Sundström, Angelica; Schagatay, Fanny; Schagatay, Erika

    2014-04-01

    Release of stored red blood cells resulting from spleen contraction improves human performance in various hypoxic situations. This study determined spleen volume resulting from two contraction-evoking stimuli: breath holding and exercise before and after altitude acclimatization during a Mount Everest ascent (8848 m). Eight climbers performed the following protocol before and after the climb: 5 min ambient air respiration at 1370 m during rest, 20 min oxygen respiration, 20 min ambient air respiration at 1370 m, three maximal-effort breath holds spaced by 2 min, 10 min ambient air respiration, 5 min of cycling at 100 W, and finally 10 min ambient air respiration. We measured spleen volume by ultrasound and capillary hemoglobin (HB) concentration after each exposure, and heart rate (HR) and arterial oxygen saturation (Sao2) continuously. Mean (SD) baseline spleen volume was unchanged at 213 (101) mL before and 206 (52) mL after the climb. Before the climb, spleen volume was reduced to 184 (83) mL after three breath holds, and after the climb three breath holds resulted in a spleen volume of 132 (26) mL (p=0.032). After exercise, the preclimb spleen volume was 186 (89) mL vs. 112 (389) mL) after the climb (p=0.003). Breath hold duration and cardiovascular responses were unchanged after the climb. We concluded that spleen contraction may be enhanced by altitude acclimatization, probably reflecting both the acclimatization to chronic hypoxic exposure and acute hypoxia during physical work. PMID:24673535

  13. Spatio-Temporal Analyses of Symbiodinium Physiology of the Coral Pocillopora verrucosa along Large-Scale Nutrient and Temperature Gradients in the Red Sea

    KAUST Repository

    Sawall, Yvonne

    2014-08-19

    Algal symbionts (zooxanthellae, genus Symbiodinium) of scleractinian corals respond strongly to temperature, nutrient and light changes. These factors vary greatly along the north-south gradient in the Red Sea and include conditions, which are outside of those typically considered optimal for coral growth. Nevertheless, coral communities thrive throughout the Red Sea, suggesting that zooxanthellae have successfully acclimatized or adapted to the harsh conditions they experience particularly in the south (high temperatures and high nutrient supply). As such, the Red Sea is a region, which may help to better understand how zooxanthellae and their coral hosts successfully acclimatize or adapt to environmental change (e. g. increased temperatures and localized eutrophication). To gain further insight into the physiology of coral symbionts in the Red Sea, we examined the abundance of dominant Symbiodinium types associated with the coral Pocillopora verrucosa, and measured Symbiodinium physiological characteristics (i.e. photosynthetic processes, cell density, pigmentation, and protein composition) along the latitudinal gradient of the Red Sea in summer and winter. Despite the strong environmental gradients from north to south, our results demonstrate that Symbiodinium microadriaticum (type A1) was the predominant species in P. verrucosa along the latitudinal gradient. Furthermore, measured physiological characteristics were found to vary more with prevailing seasonal environmental conditions than with region-specific differences, although the measured environmental parameters displayed much higher spatial than temporal variability. We conclude that our findings might present the result of long-term acclimatization or adaptation of S. microadriaticum to regionally specific conditions within the Red Sea. Of additional note, high nutrients in the South correlated with high zooxanthellae density indicating a compensation for a temperature-driven loss of photosynthetic

  14. Mitochondrial DNA response to high altitude: a new perspective on high-altitude adaptation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Yongjun; Yang, Xiaohong; Gao, Yuqi

    2013-08-01

    Mitochondria are the energy metabolism centers of the cell. More than 95% of cellular energy is produced by mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation. Hypoxia affects a wide range of energy generation and consumption processes in animals. The most important mechanisms limiting ATP consumption increase the efficiency of ATP production and accommodate the reduced production of ATP by the body. All of these mechanisms relate to changes in mitochondrial function. Mitochondrial function can be affected by variations in mitochondrial DNA, including polymorphisms, content changes, and deletions. These variations play an important role in acclimatization or adaptation to hypoxia. In this paper, the association between mitochondrial genome sequences and high-altitude adaptation is reviewed.

  15. Isolation of Pseudomonas pickettii strains that degrade 2,4,6-trichlorophenol and their dechlorination of chlorophenols.

    OpenAIRE

    Kiyohara, H.; Hatta, T; Ogawa, Y.; T Kakuda; H. Yokoyama; Takizawa, N

    1992-01-01

    Three strains of Pseudomonas pickettii that can grow with 2,4,6-trichlorophenol (2,4,6-TCP) as the sole source of carbon and energy were isolated from different mixed cultures of soil bacterial populations that had been acclimatized to 2,4,6-TCP. These strains released 3 mol of chloride ion from 1 mol of 2,4,6-TCP during the complete degradation of the TCP. Of these strains, P. pickettii DTP0602 in high-cell-density suspension cultures dechlorinated various chlorophenols (CPs). Cells that wer...

  16. 挑战首份工

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李茜

    2007-01-01

    <正>Generally speaking,most of what you learned in school will not prepare you for this job.Perhaps you did an internship or participated in some other type of cooperative education experience.In that case,you were fortunate;you are a small step ahead of your peers.However,there is a big difference between being a student at work,and being an employee.Certainly,more will be expected of you.Here are some rules that will help you get acclimatized to the world of

  17. A comparison of motor behaviours in groups of rats distinguished by their climbing response to apomorphine.

    OpenAIRE

    Davis, A.S.; Jenner, P.; Marsden, C. D.

    1986-01-01

    Administration of apomorphine hydrochloride (0.5 mg kg-1 s.c.) to adult male or female Wistar rats previously acclimatized to the test environment induced climbing behaviour in approximately 50% of animals examined. The proportion of animals climbing was related to age, being maximal at 8-9 weeks. Those animals showing an initial climbing response to apomorphine (0.5 mg kg-1 s.c.), climbed when challenged with this dose of apomorphine on subsequent occasions. In 'climbing' animals the intensi...

  18. Some bio-morphological particularities of hop (Humulus lupulus L. cultivated near Cluj

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandru SALONTAI

    1977-08-01

    Full Text Available Le houblon est l' une des plantes avec une grande plasticite biologique presentant, en fonction de l'acclimatation, differentes particularites morphologiques, anatomiques et fonctionnelles (1, 2, 3, 6. Bien que le houblon soit cultive depuis tres longtemps dans notre pays les etudes scientifiques portant sur la morpho-biologie sont peu nombreuses (4, 5. Dans cette etude sont presentes les resultats de certaines recherches portant sur la structure morpho - biologique des sortes de houblon, comparativement aux sortes plus valeureuses en culture a la Station experimentale de l'Institut Agronomique de Cluj-Napoca.

  19. Transcriptome and gene expression analysis of DHA producer Aurantiochytrium under low temperature conditions

    OpenAIRE

    Zengxin Ma; Yanzhen Tan; Guzhen Cui; Yingang Feng; Qiu Cui; Xiaojin Song

    2015-01-01

    Aurantiochytrium is a promising docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) production candidate due to its fast growth rate and high proportions of lipid and DHA content. In this study, high-throughput RNA sequencing technology was employed to explore the acclimatization of this DHA producer under cold stress at the transcriptional level. The overall de novo assembly of the cDNA sequence data generated 29,783 unigenes, with an average length of 1,200 bp. In total, 13,245 unigenes were annotated in at least o...

  20. Establishment of suspension cell culture of Gymnema sylvestre R.Br.- A threatened anti-diabetic plant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karthic Raju

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available A cell suspension culture was established from leaf explants of wild Gymnema sylvestre plants collected from Muniyankudisai,Tamilnadu, India. Murashige and Skoog medium supplemented with 9.0 μM l-1 of 2, 4- Dichlorophenoxy acetic acid and 2.1 μM l-1Benzyl adenine produced yellow friable callus with green patches.The cells were subcultured conscientiously twelve times to getconsistent growth of the cells in suspension. From the 10thsubculture onwards callus cells acclimatized to grow in suspensionwith aggregation and reached 168.6 g l-1 fw and 5.16 g l-1 dw of cellbiomass.

  1. Modeling and simulation of energy consumption inside greenhouses aiming at energy saving in Spain and Brazil; Modelado y simulacion del consumo de energia invernaderos: aplicacion para el ahorro de energia en Espana y Brasil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oliveira, Celso Eduardo Lins de; Rabi, Jose Antonio [Universidade Federal de Sao Paulo (USP), Pirassununga, SP (Brazil). Fac. de Zootecnia e Eng. de Alimentos. Dept. de Engenharia de Alimentos], E-mail: celsooli@usp.br; Navas Gravia, Luis Manoel [Universidad de Valladolid (UVa) (Spain). Dept. de Engenharia Agricola e Florestal

    2009-07-01

    The study was accomplished taking into account the model framework development by authors in order to simulate acclimatized greenhouses for 10 cities in Brazil and Spain. Results showed that the use of a versatile energy source (such as electricity) has a higher cost in both countries. Particularly in Brazil, the use of heating systems to prevent losses in protected crops is only feasible for high-added value crops while in Spain heating systems are mandatory so as to make several crops possible during no-harvest periods. (author)

  2. Micropropagation of Madhuca longifolia (Koenig) MacBride var. latifolia Roxb.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rout, G R; Das, P

    1993-07-01

    Bud break and multiple shoots were induced in apical and axillary meristems derived from 10-d old seedlings of Madhuca longifolia var. latifolia on Murashige and Skoog (MS) medium supplemented with 1.0 mg/l N(6)-benzyladenine (BA) singly or in combinatiobn with 1-naphthalene acetic acid (NAA), indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) and indole-3-butyric acid (IBA). Excised shoots were rooted on half-strength MS with IBA (1.0 mg/l) after 18d of culture. Regenerated plantlets were acclimatized and successfully transferred to soil. PMID:24196112

  3. Physiologic simulator to predict the arterial oxygen saturation at extreme heights

    OpenAIRE

    Arturo Reyes Lazalde; María Eugenia Pérez Bonilla; Olga Leticia Fuchs Gómez; Marleni Reyes Monreal

    2011-01-01

    A simulator («Alturas») was developed to calculate the levels of arterial oxygen saturation (SaO 2 ) at heights ranging from small to extreme. The results of the simulations were compared to published experimental data in order to validate the accuracy of the simulator. Three types of cases were used in the comparison: (1) non acclimatized people at heights ranging from 20 m to 4,162 m above sea level, (2) inhabitants of mountain zones living at heights between 1,692 m and 4,230 m, (3) ...

  4. Micropropagation of Madhuca longifolia (Koenig) MacBride var. latifolia Roxb.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rout, G R; Das, P

    1993-07-01

    Bud break and multiple shoots were induced in apical and axillary meristems derived from 10-d old seedlings of Madhuca longifolia var. latifolia on Murashige and Skoog (MS) medium supplemented with 1.0 mg/l N(6)-benzyladenine (BA) singly or in combinatiobn with 1-naphthalene acetic acid (NAA), indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) and indole-3-butyric acid (IBA). Excised shoots were rooted on half-strength MS with IBA (1.0 mg/l) after 18d of culture. Regenerated plantlets were acclimatized and successfully transferred to soil.

  5. Physical performance and environmental conditions: 2014 World Soccer Cup and 2016 Summer Olympics in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veneroso, Christiano E; Ramos, Guilherme P; Mendes, Thiago T; Silami-Garcia, Emerson

    2015-01-01

    This editorial is for the special issue "Temperature sciences in Brazil" of the journal Temperature. It focuses on the physical performance and environmental conditions during the 2014 World Cup and the coming 2016 Summer Olympics. It emphasizes that a hot and humid environment imposes a great challenge to the human thermoregulation system, can lead to performance decrements, and increases the risk of developing hyperthermia. Adequate hydration, acclimatization, and body cooling strategies are effective interventions to minimize the risks associated with exercise in the heat.

  6. The Harmony of Eco-translation in Chinese Version of“Of Studies”

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    青岛滨海学院,山东青岛266555

    2014-01-01

    A study on Eco-translatology starting at the beginning of the 2000s aims at studying the harmony and unity between a translator and eco-translation. It requires translators to acclimatize themselves to translating ecosystem so that their translation as adaptation and selection may follow the dynamic variation of eco-translatology, which is the prerequisite for the balance between the original text and the version, the translator and the writer, the translator and readers, the culture of the original language and the target language. This paper shows the harmony of eco-translation by analyzing Wang Zuoliang ’s translation of Of Studies in light of eco-translatology.

  7. Climate Change Effects on Heat Waves and Future Heat Wave-Associated IHD Mortality in Germany

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefan Zacharias

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The influence of future climate change on the occurrence of heat waves and its implications for heat wave-related mortality due to ischemic heart diseases (IHD in Germany is studied. Simulations of 19 regional climate models with a spatial resolution of 0.25° × 0.25° forced by the moderate climate change scenario A1B are analyzed. Three model time periods of 30 years are evaluated, representing present climate (1971–2000, near future climate (2021–2050, and remote future climate (2069–2098. Heat waves are defined as periods of at least three consecutive days with daily mean air temperature above the 97.5th percentile of the all-season temperature distribution. Based on the model simulations, future heat waves in Germany will be significantly more frequent, longer lasting and more intense. By the end of the 21st century, the number of heat waves will be tripled compared to present climate. Additionally, the average duration of heat waves will increase by 25%, accompanied by an increase of the average temperature during heat waves by about 1 K. Regional analyses show that stronger than average climate change effects are observed particularly in the southern regions of Germany. Furthermore, we investigated climate change impacts on IHD mortality in Germany applying temperature projections from 19 regional climate models to heat wave mortality relationships identified in a previous study. Future IHD excess deaths were calculated both in the absence and presence of some acclimatization (i.e., that people are able to physiologically acclimatize to enhanced temperature levels in the future time periods by 0% and 50%, respectively. In addition to changes in heat wave frequency, we incorporated also changes in heat wave intensity and duration into the future mortality evaluations. The results indicate that by the end of the 21st century the annual number of IHD excess deaths in Germany attributable to heat waves is expected to rise by factor 2

  8. Some like it hot: heat tolerance of the Crab-eating Frog, Fejervarya cancrivora (Note

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bennett, W.A.

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available We used Critical Thermal Methodology to quantify thermal tolerance of the crab-eating frog, Fejervarya cancrivora,from Hoga Island, southeast Sulawesi, Indonesia. The critical thermal maximum of F. cancrivora was 42.1 ± 0.76°C, and is perhaps the highest thermal tolerance value known in an anuran acclimatized to 25°C. The frogs’ ability to tolerate extreme high temperatures allows them to exploit abiotically harsh mangal habitats and accounts for their wide distribution across the tropical Pacific.

  9. Pengaruh penambahan auxin terhadap pertunasan dan perakaran kopi arabika perbanyakan Somatic Embryogenesis (The effects of shooting and rooting of arabica coffee propagation through Embryogenesis Somatic auxin uses).

    OpenAIRE

    Rina Arimarsetiowati; Fitria Ardiyani

    2012-01-01

    Plantlet that has developed shoots and roots will have a high level adaptation in the field. The objective of this experiment was to improve the ability of planlet in shooting and rooting so that it is ready for acclimatization in the field. The increase ability in shooting and rooting of the planlet were conducted by adding various types of auxin in the media. The arabica coffee embryo of clone AS 2K which has entered the phase of the cotyledons was transfered into the treatment media contai...

  10. Effect of Different Levels of L-Carnitine on the Productive Performance, Egg Quality, Blood Parameters and Egg Yolk Cholesterol in Laying Hens

    OpenAIRE

    Kazemi-Fard M; Yousefi S; Dirandeh E; Rezaei M

    2015-01-01

    This experiment was conducted to investigate the effects of different levels of L-carnitine on productive performance, egg quality and blood parameters in laying hens. Forty-eight Hy-Line W-36 egg Layers were weighed at 90 weeks of age and randomly allocated into 16 cages (three hens per cage). Four dietary treatments were prepared by supplementing L-carnitine (0, 50, 100 and 150 mg/kg of diet) to corn-soybean meal diet and offered ad libitum to hens. After two weeks of acclimatization, the e...

  11. Dicty_cDB: SSB177 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available strain AX4, complete sequence. 428 e-116 1 CB293485 |CB293485.1 UCRCS01_06ag01_g1 Washington Navel orange cold acclimate...ered pieces. 42 4.0 1 CB291576 |CB291576.1 UCRCS01_03af02_b1 Washington Navel orange cold acclimated flavedo...42 4.0 1 CB293416 |CB293416.1 UCRCS01_06ac11_b1 Washington Navel orange cold acclimated flavedo & albedo cDN...dg03_g1 Washington Navel orange cold acclimated flavedo & albedo cDNA library Cit

  12. Factors for consideration in the interpretation of the adverse effects of elevated environmental temperatures on reproduction in the male rat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bedrak, E.; Chap, Z.; Fried, K.

    1980-06-01

    Continuous exposure of male rats to an elevated environmental temperature (33 35° C) for 3 weeks led to heat-acclimatized (HA) rats whose serum testosterone concentratrion was significantly lower (Phypothalamic content of thyrotropin-releasing hormone (THR), gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) and prostaglandin E2 (PGE2). However, the prostaglandin F2α(PGF2α) content of the hypothalamus of HA rats was significantly lower (P hypothalamic contents of TRH, GnR H and PGE2. The physiological significance in the response of PGF2α awaits further clarification.

  13. Engineering Design Activities (EDA) of the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER) Project: January 1993 progress report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The task of selecting and assembling the Joint Central Team (JCT) is the authors top priority, and he has instructed the Deputy Directors and Division Heads to diligently pursue the selection of qualified team members. Several steps are involved in assembling the JCT: specification of posts, nomination of candidates, selection of team members, arrival and startup of work, and completion of secondment procedures. Only after these steps have been completed are staff able to take up their full responsibilities within the management structure of the JCT. Even then, a period of some months of acclimatization and adjustment may be required before the staff can be expected to work fully effectively

  14. Engineering Design Activities (EDA) of the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER) Project: January 1993 progress report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rebut, P.H.

    1994-09-01

    The task of selecting and assembling the Joint Central Team (JCT) is the authors top priority, and he has instructed the Deputy Directors and Division Heads to diligently pursue the selection of qualified team members. Several steps are involved in assembling the JCT: specification of posts, nomination of candidates, selection of team members, arrival and startup of work, and completion of secondment procedures. Only after these steps have been completed are staff able to take up their full responsibilities within the management structure of the JCT. Even then, a period of some months of acclimatization and adjustment may be required before the staff can be expected to work fully effectively.

  15. Enzymatic activity of rodents acclimated to cold and long scotophase

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fourie, F. Le R.; Haim, A.

    1980-09-01

    Rodents representative of a diurnal species ( Rhabdomys pumilio) as well as a nocturnal species ( Praomys natalensis) were acclimated to cold (Ta = 8°C) at a photoperiod of LD 12:12 and a long scotophase (LD 8; 16) at a temperature of 25° C(Ta). Control groups were kept for both species at Ta = 25° C and LD 12:12 and winter acclimated individuals were obtained during July and August to serve as further reference. Blood samples obtained from the tail were analysed for enzymes representative of three major biochemical pathways. The enzymatic activity of LDH (glycolytic pathway), MDH (Krebs cycle) and G6PDH (hexose monophosphate shunt, as an indicator of gonadal activity) were monitored to represent metabolic activity of the respective cycles. Cold acclimated as well as winter acclimatized mice revealed similar enzymatic patterns for both species and significant increases in LDH and MDH were recorded with a concurrent decrease in G6PDH activity. Specimens exposed to long scotophase exhibited similar enzymatic patterns for both species studied, but enzymatic activity was higher than those of cold acclimated individuals. From these results it is concluded that cold as well as long scotophase induce metabolic adaptations through biochemical activity in the experimental animals. The effect of long scotophase is assumed to be an important factor in the induction of winter acclimatization.

  16. Highly contrasted responses of Mediterranean octocorals to climate change along a depth gradient

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pivotto, I. D.; Nerini, D.; Masmoudi, M.; Kara, H.; Chaoui, L.; Aurelle, D.

    2015-01-01

    Climate change has a strong impact on marine ecosystems, including temperate species. Analysing the diversity of thermotolerance levels within species along with their genetic structure enables a better understanding of their potential response to climate change. We performed this integrative study on the Mediterranean octocoral Eunicella cavolini, with samples from different depths and by means of a common garden experiment. This species does not host photosynthetic Symbiodinium, enabling us to focus on the cnidarian response. We compared the thermotolerance of individuals from 20 m and 40 m depths from the same site and with replicates from the same colony. On the basis of an innovative statistical analysis of necrosis kinetics and risk, we demonstrated the occurrence of a very different response between depths at this local scale, with lower thermotolerance of deep individuals. Strongly thermotolerant individuals were observed at 20 m with necrosis appearing at higher temperatures than observed in situ. On the basis of nine microsatellite loci, we showed that these marked thermotolerance differences occur within a single population. This suggests the importance of acclimatization processes in adaptation to these different depths. In addition, differences between replicates demonstrated the occurrence of a variability of response between fragments from the same colony with the possibility of an interaction with a tank effect. Our results provide a basis for studying adaptation and acclimatization in Mediterranean octocorals in a heterogeneous environment. PMID:26064654

  17. Combining zygotic embryo culture and mutation induction to improve salinity tolerance in avocado (Persea americana Mill)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mutation induction and biotechnological techniques are some of the current approaches used in plant breeding. In the present work radiation-induced mutation followed by in vitro culture of zygotic embryos and high osmotic pressure selection methods to improve salt tolerance in avocado are investigated. The in vitro germination, rooting, bud multiplication and plantlet acclimatization of Cuban avocado varieties were recorded. The germination rates of whole embryos in vitro were found to be higher when using mature rather than immature embryos. Almost 80% of the whole embryos derived plantlets produced were successfully acclimatized under greenhouse conditions. An in vitro propagation method for avocado breeding purposes was optimized and documented. However, in vitro multiplication results indicated the need to improve bud multiplication methods in avocado. The survival rates of gamma rays irradiated and salt pressured avocado embryos were also investigated. Both mutagenic (LD50 = 27-28 Gy) and selective (LD20 = 157 mM of NaCl) doses were established. A procedure combining zygotic embryo culture and mutation induction was used to obtain. Putative mutant lines derived from salt tolerant rootstocks were developed. Putative M1V3 progenies were planted in the field for segregation analysis. An avocado gene bank was established under the same study. Therefore this methodology appears as an alternative to traditional breeding methods, particularly for improving agronomic characteristics such as salt tolerance in avocado. (author)

  18. Research on optimal domestication of thiobacillus ferooxidans and desulfurization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gong, G.; Tao, X.; Zhang, X.; ??? Luo, Z. [China University of Mining and Technology, Xuzhou (China)

    2006-07-15

    In order to increase the efficiency of biodesulfurization and reduce the reaction time, based on the high selectivity adsorption and oxidation characteristic of thiobacillus ferooxidans (T.f.) for pyrite (FeS{sub 2}) in coal, the strain of T.f. was acclimatized by changing concentration of Fe{sup 2+}, H{sup +} and NH{sub 4}{sup +} and adding FeS{sub 2} and glucose in the 9 K medium. The optimal conditions of growth were investigated and used in the biodesulfurization experiments. The results show that the normal growth of T.f. was achieved after two turns of acclimatization. The desulfurization efficiency is the best under the conditions of 10% inoculation, 1.85 pH value and 27{sup o}C. The smaller the size of coal particle is, the effective the biodesulfurization is. The maximum sulphur removal from coal of 76.2% was obtained after reaction time of 7 days. The mechanisms of desulfurization with T.f. can be explained by the cooperation reaction of dissolved oxygen, bacteria and Fe{sup 3+}. 9 refs., 6 figs.

  19. Bioremediation: Technology for treating hydrocarbon-contaminated wastewater

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Towprayoon, S.; Kuntrangwattana, S. [King Mongkut`s Institute of Technology, Bangkok (Thailand)

    1996-12-31

    Cutting oil wastewater from an iron and steel factory was applied to the soil windrow. Self-remediation was then compared with remediation with acclimatized indigenous microbes. The incremental reduction rate of the microorganisms and hydrocarbon-degradable microbes was slower in self-remediation than in the latter treatment. Within 30 days, when the acclimatized indigenous microbes were used, there was a significant reduction of the contaminated hydrocarbons, while self-remediation took longer to reduce to the same concentration. Various nitrogen sources were applied to the soil pile, namely, organic compost, chemical fertilizer, ammonium sulfate, and urea. The organic compost induced a high yield of hydrocarbon-degradable microorganisms, but the rate at which the cutting oil in the soil decreased was slower than when other nitrogen sources were used. The results of cutting oil degradation studied by gas chromatography showed the absence of some important hydrocarbons. The increment of the hydrocarbon-degradable microbes in the land treatment ecosystem does not necessarily correspond to the hydrocarbon reduction efficiency. 3 refs., 3 figs.

  20. Efficient somatic embryogenesis and molecular marker based analysis as effective tools for conservation of red-listed plant Commiphora wightii

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ASHOK KUMAR PARMAR

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available A refined and high efficiency protocol for in vitro regeneration of Commiphora wightii, a red-listed medicinal plant of medicinal importance, has been developed through optimized somatic embryogenesis pathway. Cultures from immature fruits were induced and proliferated on B5 medium supplemented with 2.26 µM 2,4-D. Embryogenic calli were obtained and then maintained for extended periods by alternately subculturing on modified MS medium supplemented with 1.11 µM BAP, 0.57 µM IBA and with 0.5% activated charcoal or without PGR every 3-4 weeks. Cyclic embryogenesis was obtained. Late torpedo and early cotyledonary stages somatic embryos were regularly harvested from PGR-free modified MS medium. It was found that percent moisture available in culture containers play a critical role in maturation and subsequent germination of somatic embryos of C. wighti. Maximum germination of more than 80% was achieved through media recycling. Somatic embryo derived plants (emblings were acclimatized. After 5 months, acclimatized plants were out-planted in experimental field. These morphologically normal plants have been surviving for over 3 years. Molecular polymorphism was clearly evident when these plants were tested using RAPD primers, making the plants suitable for use in its species restoration program.

  1. Effect of Different Photoperiods on Cold Hardiness in Cherry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.Z. Makaraci

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available In this research we have investigated the effects of different photoperiods on cold hardiness of cherry trees (Prunus avium cv. Ulster. One year old, cherry trees were exposed 8 hours of day length and 16 hours of dark period for short day conditions and 16 hours of light and 8 hours of dark period for long day conditions. We also compared the acclimatization pattern of cherry trees with hybrid aspen (Populus tremula ×Populus tremuloides trees. LT50 values indicated that short day and long day conditions did not alter the cold hardiness of cherry trees. Under the same experimental conditions hybrid aspen trees were affected from different photoperiods. Aspen trees exposed to short day conditions were hardier than the trees exposed to long day conditions. We also investigated the acclimatization the patterns of basal and apical parts of the branches both in cherry and aspen trees. There were no significant differences in cold hardiness of the basal and apical parts of the branches in aspen and cherry trees.

  2. Pathophysiology and pathological findings of heatstroke in dogs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Romanucci M

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Mariarita Romanucci, Leonardo Della SaldaDepartment of Comparative Biomedical Sciences, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Teramo, Teramo, ItalyAbstract: Canine heatstroke is a life-threatening condition resulting from an imbalance between heat dissipation and production, and characterized by a nonpyrogenic elevation in core body temperature above 41°C (105.8°F. Several exogenous and endogenous factors may predispose dogs to the development of heatstroke; on the other hand, adaptive mechanisms also exists which allow organisms to combat the deleterious effects of heat stress, which are represented by the cellular heat-shock response and heat acclimatization. The pathophysiology and consequences of heatstroke share many similarities to those observable in sepsis and are related to the interaction between the direct cytotoxicity of heat, the acute physiological alterations associated with hyperthermia, such as increased metabolic demand, hypoxia, and circulatory failure, and the inflammatory and coagulation responses of the host to the widespread endothelial and tissue injuries, which may culminate in disseminated intravascular coagulation, systemic inflammatory response syndrome, and multiple organ dysfunction.Keywords: thermoregulation, acclimatization, heat shock proteins, hyperthermia, systemic inflammatory response, multiple organ dysfunction

  3. Central Sleep Apnea at High Altitude.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burgess, Keith R; Ainslie, Philip N

    2016-01-01

    The discovery of central sleep apnea (CSA) at high altitude is usually attributed to Angelo Mosso who published in 1898. It can occur in susceptible individuals at altitude above 2000 m, but at very high altitude, say above 5000 m, it will occur in most subjects. Severity is correlated with ventilatory responsiveness, particularly to hypoxia. Theoretically, it should spontaneously improve with time and acclimatization. Although the time course of resolution is not well described, it appears to persist for more than a month at 5000 m.It occurs due to the interaction of hypocapnia with stages 1 and 2 NREM sleep, in the presence of increased loop-gain. The hypocapnia is secondary to hypoxic ventilatory drive. With acclimatization, one might expect that the increase in PaO2 and cerebral blood flow (CBF) would mitigate the CSA. However, over time, both the hypoxic and hypercapnic ventilatory responses increase, causing an increase in loop gain which is a counteracting force.The severity of the CSA can be reduced by descent, supplemental oxygen therapy, oral or intravenous acetazolamide. Recent studies suggest that acute further increases in cerebral blood flow will substantially, but temporarily, reduce central sleep apnea, without altering acid based balance. Very recently, bi-level noninvasive ventilation has also been shown to help (mechanism unknown). Sleep quality can be improved independent of the presence of CSA by the use of benzodiazepine sedation. PMID:27343103

  4. In vitro propagation of critically endangered species Scilla autumnalis L. – biochemical analyses of the regenerants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristian BANCIU

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available The present study belongs to the international efforts for plant conservation from the areas threatened by human activities. The saline soils areas are restricting for agriculture and in some cases for fishery facilities and the plant species are extinct from those areas. Scilla autumnalis L. is one of the threatened plants (rare on the national red list of vascular plants from Romania that grows in the Natural Park Comana, Giurgiu County, South Romania. Seeds from plants grown in the natural habitat have been used for in vitro plant regeneration and multiplication. After successfully rooting and acclimatization of the regenerated plantlets from germinated seeds, biochemical studies have been performed in order to compare the regenerants from in vitro cultures with native plants from genetically point of view. Peroxydase and esterase’s spectra were the biochemical markers used.The results indicated that this plant species can be multiplicated, rooted and acclimatized on synthetic medium (MS supplemented with NAA, IBA, IAA, kinetin and BAP with a good efficiency and the regenerants had no genetic alterations determinated by culture conditions.

  5. Cytogenetics of Anodonta cygnea (Mollusca: Bivalvia) as possible indicator of environmental adversity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrilho, J.; Leitão, A.; Vicente, C.; Malheiro, I.

    2008-11-01

    Anodonta cygnea is a freshwater clam, belonging to the Unionidae family, which can be found in rivers and lagoons all over Europe and Northern America. As they appear as important case studies for ecological damage assessments, the various species of the Unionidae family have been submitted to a sort of recent studies on their chromosomal or cytogenetic status. In this study we confirmed the diploid chromosome number of 2 n = 38 for this species, and established for the first time the karyotype, which comprised six metacentric, 12 submetacentric and one subtelocentric chromosome pairs. We also found a high percentage of cells with an abnormal number of chromosomes. Considering that karyotype disturbances in Unionids have been previously related with exposure to chemicals, either natural or produced by human activity, we determined the aneuploidy index for our population. The aneuploidy index is an excellent marker for pollutant presence/effect. The animals acclimatized in tap water and in natural water from the lake where the individuals were collected showed different levels of aneuploidy. The higher values were found in tap water. Chromosome analysis techniques seem a suitable tool to study the impact of contaminants referred above, and making A. cygnea a suitable organism for assessment of an eugenic damage in aquatic systems. On the other hand, our results also point out to the importance of doing the acclimatizing process of the collected animals in their own natural water.

  6. Efeitos do pH, acidez e alcalinidade na microbiota de um reator anaeróbio de manta de lodo (UASB tratando efluentes de suinocultura

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erlon Lopes Pereira

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The anaerobic processes used for treating wastewater have been often applied mainly for optimizing treatment systems. Among many of these systems, the UASB is one of the most successfully used. This type of reactor presents a good condition for microorganisms development, and therefore, for organic matter degradation. As a result, the goal of this research was to evaluate the effect of parameters, such as: temperature, pH, acidity and alkalinity on the microorganisms consortia, acclimatized in an UASB reactor, and simultaneously, observing the sludge morphology through a scanning electronic microscopy (SEM, in order to identify the response of the bacteria consortia under this environmental circumstances. The biomass operated under a mesophilic temperature, varying from 190C to 210C. The maximum concentration of volatile acids was 100 mg L-1, and the volumetric organic loading rate was 59 kgCOD m-3d-1. The total alkalinity concentration values were between 2500 and 5550 mgCaCO3 L-1. The average pH value of the sludge was 7.3. Under these conditions it was observed the development of a well acclimatized granular biomass, composed mainly of filamentous bacteria.

  7. Effects of pH, acidity and alkalinity on the microbiota activity of an anaerobic sludge blanket reactor (UASB treating pigmanure effluents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabricio Moterani

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The anaerobic processes used for treating wastewater have been often applied mainly for optimizing treatment systems. Among many of these systems, the UASB is one of the most successfully used. This type of reactor presents a good condition for microorganisms development, and therefore, for organic matter degradation. As a result, the goal of this research was to evaluate the effect of parameters, such as: temperature, pH, acidity and alkalinity on the microorganisms consortia, acclimatized in an UASB reactor, and simultaneously, observing the sludge morphology through a scanning electronic microscopy (SEM, in order to identify the response of the bacteria consortia under this environmental circumstances. The biomass operated under a mesophilic temperature, varying from 190C to 210C. The maximum concentration of volatile acids was 100 mg L-1, and the volumetric organic loading rate was 59 kgCOD m-3d-1. The total alkalinity concentration values were between 2500 and 5550 mgCaCO3 L-1. The average pH value of the sludge was 7.3. Under these conditions it was observed the development of a well acclimatized granular biomass, composed mainly of filamentous bacteria.

  8. Characterization of Active Dry Wine Yeast During Starter Culture (Pied de Cuve) Preparation for Sparkling Wine Production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benucci, Ilaria; Liburdi, Katia; Cerreti, Martina; Esti, Marco

    2016-08-01

    The preparation of yeast starter culture (Pied de Cuve) for producing sparkling wine with the traditional method is a key factor for manufacturing a good Prise de mousse. In this paper, the evolution of total yeast population, its viability during Pied de Cuve preparation, and the pressure profile during the 2nd fermentation in 2 different base wines made from Bombino bianco and Chardonnay grapes were investigated using 4 different commercial active dried yeasts. The study proves that despite the initial differences observed throughout the acclimatization phase, all the tested strains showed similar results on either the total population (from 8.2 × 10(7) cells/mL to 1.3 × 10(8) cells/mL) or cellular viability (from 70% to 84%). Independently from the base wine tested, the kinetic of sugar consumption was faster during the gradual acclimatization to the alcoholic medium (phase II) and slower during the preparation of starter culture in active growth phase (phase III). During both of these phases Saccharomyces cerevisiae bayanus Vitilevure DV10(®) (Station œnotechnique de Champagne) proved to have a higher sugar consumption rate than the other strains. During the Prise de mousse, S. cerevisiae bayanus Lalvin EC-1118(®) (Lallemand) reached the maximum pressure increase within time in both base wines.

  9. Plant regeneration from in vitro-selected salt tolerant callus cultures of solanum tuberosum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This research work reports In vitro direct selection of salt-tolerant callus cultures and subsequent plant regeneration in two potato cultivars (Cardinal and Desiree). Results have shown more than 50% reduction in relative fresh callus mass in the two potato cultivars exposed to 120 mM NaCl. Callus morphology correspondingly changed from off-white to blackish-brown at 120 mM to acutely-necrotic at 140 mM NaCl. Regeneration potential of recurrently-selected callus cultures (100 mM NaCl-treated) on salt-free regeneration medium (MS + 2.64 meu M NAA and 1.00 meu M TDZ) was not much different as compared to the control (non-selected ones). Regenerated plants from salt-tolerant callus cultures of both the cultivars after selection were transferred to soil and organic matter (50:50, v/v) for acclimatization in the greenhouse. It was observed that the recurrently-selected plants had higher fresh/dry weight and number of tubers compared with the control ones in both the cultivars. Likewise the protein, peroxidase (POD), catalase (CAT) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) activities have shown an increasing trend in salt-treated plants of both the cultivars. The results from this study highlighted a strong possibility for the selection of salt-tolerant callus lines of potato followed by an efficient plant regeneration and further acclimatization. (author)

  10. Development of a vinasse culture medium for plant tissue culture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vinasse is the main pollutant (effluent) obtained from the distillation of sugarcane in the production of fuel alcohol. However, this residue is rich in nutrients that are required by plants. We developed a new culture medium using vinasse for the In vitro propagation of an orchid. The vinasse was treated (decanted and filtered), and the nutrients were determined and quantified. Different formulations using vinasse were tested for an In vitro culture. The vinasse dilutions demonstrated a good buffering effect. The ideal vinasse dilution for media formulation was 2.5%. The best KC formulations with vinasse were KCV1 and KCV5. Compared to KC medium, these formulations demonstrated similar results for In vitro multiplication, with the exception of protocorm-like body number, which was inferior in the vinasse formulations. Conversely, for In vitro elongation and rooting, these vinasse media were superior to KC medium. KC medium promotes a low rooting rate (8%) compared to 68 and 100% obtained by KCV1 and KCV5, respectively. Moreover, plantlets cultured on KC medium become protocorm-like body clusters, which impeded the acclimatization of these explants. Plantlets elongated and rooted on KCV1 and KCV5 were successfully acclimatized with a 91% survival rate for both KC vinasse formulations. This study shows the great potential of this technology as a rational alternative to vinasse disposal and adds value to what is currently considered a waste product. (author)

  11. Ammonium-oxidizing bacteria facilitate aerobic degradation of sulfanilic acid in activated sludge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Gang; Ginige, Maneesha P; Kaksonen, Anna H; Cheng, Ka Yu

    2014-01-01

    Sulfanilic acid (SA) is a toxic sulfonated aromatic amine commonly found in anaerobically treated azo dye contaminated effluents. Aerobic acclimatization of SA-degrading mixed microbial culture could lead to co-enrichment of ammonium-oxidizing bacteria (AOB) because of the concomitant release of ammonium from SA oxidation. To what extent the co-enriched AOB would affect SA oxidation at various ammonium concentrations was unclear. Here, a series of batch kinetic experiments were conducted to evaluate the effect of AOB on aerobic SA degradation in an acclimatized activated sludge culture capable of oxidizing SA and ammonium simultaneously. To account for the effect of AOB on SA degradation, allylthiourea was used to inhibit AOB activity in the culture. The results indicated that specific SA degradation rate of the mixed culture was negatively correlated with the initial ammonium concentration (0-93 mM, R²= 0.99). The presence of AOB accelerated SA degradation by reducing the inhibitory effect of ammonium (≥ 10 mM). The Haldane substrate inhibition model was used to correlate substrate concentration (SA and ammonium) and oxygen uptake rate. This study revealed, for the first time, that AOB could facilitate SA degradation at high concentration of ammonium (≥ 10 mM) in an enriched activated sludge culture.

  12. Discordant coral-symbiont structuring: factors shaping geographical variation of Symbiodinium communities in a facultative zooxanthellate coral genus, Oculina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leydet, Karine Posbic; Hellberg, Michael E.

    2016-06-01

    Understanding the factors that help shape the association between corals and their algal symbionts, zooxanthellae ( Symbiodinium), is necessary to better understand the functional diversity and acclimatization potential of the coral host. However, most studies focus on tropical zooxanthellate corals and their obligate algal symbionts, thus limiting our full comprehension of coral-algal symbiont associations. Here, we examine algal associations in a facultative zooxanthellate coral. We survey the Symbiodinium communities associated with Oculina corals in the western North Atlantic and the Mediterranean using one clade-level marker ( psbA coding region) and three fine-scale markers ( cp23S- rDNA, b7sym15 flanking region, and b2sym17). We ask whether Oculina spp. harbor geographically different Symbiodinium communities across their geographic range and, if so, whether the host's genetics or habitat differences are correlated with this geographical variation. We found that Oculina corals harbor different Symbiodinium communities across their geographical range. Of the habitat differences (including chlorophyll a concentration and depth), sea surface temperature is better correlated with this geographical variation than the host's genetics, a pattern most evident in the Mediterranean. Our results suggest that although facultative zooxanthellate corals may be less dependent on their algal partners compared to obligate zooxanthellate corals, the Symbiodinium communities that they harbor may nevertheless reflect acclimatization to environmental variation among habitats.

  13. The effect of environmental temperature on olfactory perception in Drosophila melanogaster.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riveron, Jacob; Boto, Tamara; Alcorta, Esther

    2009-10-01

    Olfaction provides chemical information to an animal about its environment. When environmental conditions change, individuals should be able to adequately maintain function. Temperature may influence olfaction in a double manner, as it modifies the concentrations of gaseous compounds and affects biological processes. Here, we address acclimatization to environmental temperature in the olfactory system of Drosophila melanogaster using heat and cold treatments. Because the consequences of temperature shifts persist for some time after the treatment's end, comparison of olfactory behaviors at the same temperature in treated and untreated flies allows us to infer the biological effects of temperature in olfaction. At intermediate odorant concentrations heat always generates a reduction of olfactory sensitivity, as they would be expected to compensate for the increase of volatiles in the air. Cold produces the opposite effect. These changes are observed in both sexes and in natural populations as well as in standard laboratory stocks. Short applications suffice to cause detectable olfactory perception changes, but even prolonged temperature treatments have only a transitory effect. Together, these results suggest that olfaction in Drosophila underlies acclimatization to environmental temperature. However, sensitivity changes are not immediate and may cause imperfect adjustment of olfactory function for short time periods.

  14. Assessment of mint (Mentha spp. species for large-scale production of plantlets by micropropagation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hugo Teixeira Gomes

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Species of the genus Mentha produce essential oils which are widely used in pharmaceutical and cosmetic industries. Current study evaluates the potential for in vitro propagation and estimates mass production of plantlets of Mentha species. Nine species (M. piperita, M. suaveolens, M. canadensis, M. longiflora, M. aquatica, M. arvensis, Mentha x gracilis, M. gracilis and M. spicata were propagated with five successive 30-day subcultures in MS medium supplemented with NAA (0.05 µM and BAP (4.4 µM. Shoots were rooted in MS with IBA, IAA or NAA (0.0; 0.25; 0.5; 2.5 or 5.0 µM. The rooted plantlets were finally acclimatized in a greenhouse. Studied species increased in multiplication rates between 4.2 and 9.0-fold per month. M. piperita, M. longiflora, M. arvensis, M. x gracilis and M. gracilis showed the greatest potential for plantlet production since the estimated production varied between 6,000 and 27,000 plantlets after five 30-days subcultures. The addition of auxin to the medium did not influence root induction. However, IAA at a concentration of 5 µM provided the best results for root length and fresh weight, with averages 11.1 cm and 0.16 g, respectively. Survival of plantlets reached 100% during the greenhouse acclimatization process.

  15. Consensus recommendations on training and competing in the heat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Racinais, S; Alonso, J M; Coutts, A J; Flouris, A D; Girard, O; González-Alonso, J; Hausswirth, C; Jay, O; Lee, J K W; Mitchell, N; Nassis, G P; Nybo, L; Pluim, B M; Roelands, B; Sawka, M N; Wingo, J E; Périard, J D

    2015-06-01

    Exercising in the heat induces thermoregulatory and other physiological strain that can lead to impairments in endurance exercise capacity. The purpose of this consensus statement is to provide up-to-date recommendations to optimize performance during sporting activities undertaken in hot ambient conditions. The most important intervention one can adopt to reduce physiological strain and optimize performance is to heat acclimatize. Heat acclimatization should comprise repeated exercise-heat exposures over 1-2 weeks. In addition, athletes should initiate competition and training in a euhydrated state and minimize dehydration during exercise. Following the development of commercial cooling systems (e.g., cooling vest), athletes can implement cooling strategies to facilitate heat loss or increase heat storage capacity before training or competing in the heat. Moreover, event organizers should plan for large shaded areas, along with cooling and rehydration facilities, and schedule events in accordance with minimizing the health risks of athletes, especially in mass participation events and during the first hot days of the year. Following the recent examples of the 2008 Olympics and the 2014 FIFA World Cup, sport governing bodies should consider allowing additional (or longer) recovery periods between and during events for hydration and body cooling opportunities when competitions are held in the heat.

  16. Parasites, politics and public science: the promotion of biological control in Western Australia, 1900-1910.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deveson, Edward

    2016-06-01

    Biological control of arthropods emerged as a scientific enterprise in the late nineteenth century and the orchard industry of California was an early centre of expertise. In 1900, as the Australian colonies prepared for federation, each had a government entomologist attached to its agriculture department. The hiring of George Compere from California by the Western Australian Department of Agriculture began a controversial chapter in the early history of biological control that was linked to a late, local popularization of acclimatization. Compere became known as the 'travelling entomologist' and for a decade brought 'parasites' of pest insects from overseas and released them in Perth. His antagonistic disciplinary rhetoric and inflated claims for the 'parasite theory' created conflict with his counterparts in the eastern states. The resulting inter-state entomological controversy was played out in the press, revealing the political use of science for institutional and even state identity. It is a story of transnational exchanges, chance discoveries and popular public science: popular because of the promise of a simple, natural solution to agricultural insect pests and because of the public nature of the disputes it generated between the experts. This microcosm contributes to the global historiography of acclimatization, biological control, scientific exposition and the professionalization of agricultural science.

  17. An efficient system for in vitro propagation of Bouchea fluminensis (Vell. Mold. (Verbenaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristiano Ferrara de Resende

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to establish and propagate in vitro plants of Bouchea fluminensis, a medicinal species known in Brazil as gervão-falso ("false verbena", evaluating the influences of different growth regulators on in vitro multiplication and rooting stages, as well as examining ex vitro acclimatization of rooted plants. Explants were established on Murashige and Skoog medium at half strength of salts and vitamins without growth regulators. For multiplication, the explants were subjected to combinations of 6-benzyladenine (BA; 0, 2.5, 5.0 and 7.5 µM and α-naphthalene-acetic acid (NAA; 0, 0.2, 0.4 and 0.6 µM. The medium found to induce the greatest number of shoot was that containing 5 µM of BA (NAA-free. For rooting, we evaluated three auxins (NAA, indole-3-acetic acid and indole-3-butyric acid; 0.1, 0.2, 0.3 and 0.4 µM, as well as a control. No differences were observed between the control and the other treatments. The auxin-free medium was deemed the most suitable, because it ensures the lowest cost in the micropropagation procedures. We obtained 100% survival of the acclimatized seedlings, and the plants showed normal vegetative and reproductive development, suggesting that the micropropagation did not alter the biological cycle of this species. The results show the importance and potential of micropropagation for biodiversity conservation of Bouchea fluminensis.

  18. Parasites, politics and public science: the promotion of biological control in Western Australia, 1900-1910.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deveson, Edward

    2016-06-01

    Biological control of arthropods emerged as a scientific enterprise in the late nineteenth century and the orchard industry of California was an early centre of expertise. In 1900, as the Australian colonies prepared for federation, each had a government entomologist attached to its agriculture department. The hiring of George Compere from California by the Western Australian Department of Agriculture began a controversial chapter in the early history of biological control that was linked to a late, local popularization of acclimatization. Compere became known as the 'travelling entomologist' and for a decade brought 'parasites' of pest insects from overseas and released them in Perth. His antagonistic disciplinary rhetoric and inflated claims for the 'parasite theory' created conflict with his counterparts in the eastern states. The resulting inter-state entomological controversy was played out in the press, revealing the political use of science for institutional and even state identity. It is a story of transnational exchanges, chance discoveries and popular public science: popular because of the promise of a simple, natural solution to agricultural insect pests and because of the public nature of the disputes it generated between the experts. This microcosm contributes to the global historiography of acclimatization, biological control, scientific exposition and the professionalization of agricultural science. PMID:27264494

  19. 耳鸣习服治疗进展%The research progress of tinnitus retraining therapy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    余斌

    2016-01-01

    One of tinnitus is a common disease and frequently encountered disease in otology, the serious influence the patient's quality of life, to the patient's psychological and mental caused problems. Many clinical treatment, the tinnitus acclimatization therapy is a simple, safe, effective and without side effects. In this paper the mechanism oftinnitus retraining therapy and clinical application were reviewed, aimed at making tinnitus acclimatization therapy in clinical application of further promotion.%耳鸣是耳科的常见病、多发病之一,严重影响患者的生活质量,给患者的心理和精神上造成困扰。临床上治疗方法很多,其中耳鸣的习服疗法是一种简便、安全、有效并无副作用的有效治疗方法。本文对耳鸣习服疗法的机制及临床应用等进行了综述,旨在提高耳鸣习服疗法在临床上的应用得到进一步的推广。

  20. Heart rate variability changes at 2400 m altitude predicts acute mountain sickness on further ascent at 3000-4300 m altitudes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heikki Mikael Karinen

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available ObjectiveIf the body fails to acclimatize at high altitude, acute mountain sickness (AMS may result. For the early detection of AMS, changes in cardiac autonomic function measured by heart rate variability (HRV may be more sensitive than clinical symptoms alone. The purpose of this study was to ascertain if the changes in HRV during ascent are related to AMS.MethodsWe followed Lake Louise Score (LLS, arterial oxygen saturation at rest (R-SpO2 and exercise (Ex-SpO2 and HRV parameters daily in 36 different healthy climbers ascending from 2400 m to 6300 m altitudes during five different expeditions.ResultsAfter an ascent to 2400 m, standard deviation (RMSSD2 min, high-frequency power (HF2 min of HRV were 17-51 % and Ex-SpO2 was 3% lower in those climbers who suffered from AMS at 3000- 4300 m than in those only developing AMS later (≥ 5000 m or not at all (all p < 0.01. At the altitude of 2400 m RMSSD2 min ≤ 30 ms and Ex-SpO2 ≤ 91% both had 92% sensitivity for AMS if ascent continued without extra acclimatization days.ConclusionsChanges in supine HRV parameters at 2400 m were related to AMS at 3000-4300 m Thus, diverse analyses of HRV could offer potential markers for identifying the climbers at risk for AMS.

  1. Blood Volume: Importance and Adaptations to Exercise Training, Environmental Stresses and Trauma/Sickness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sawka, Michael N.; Convertino, Victor A.; Eichner, E. Randy; Schnieder, Suzanne M.; Young, Andrew J.

    2000-01-01

    This paper reviews the influence of several perturbations (physical exercise, heat stress, terrestrial altitude, microgravity, and trauma/sickness) on adaptations of blood volume (BV), erythrocyte volume (EV), and plasma volume (PV). Exercise training can induced BV expansion; PV expansion usually occurs immediately, but EV expansion takes weeks. EV and PV expansion contribute to aerobic power improvements associated with exercise training. Repeated heat exposure induces PV expansion but does not alter EV. PV expansion does not improve thermoregulation, but EV expansion improves thermoregulation during exercise in the heat. Dehydration decreases PV (and increases plasma tonicity) which elevates heat strain and reduces exercise performance. High altitude exposure causes rapid (hours) plasma loss. During initial weeks at altitude, EV is unaffected, but a gradual expansion occurs with extended acclimatization. BV adjustments contribute, but are not key, to altitude acclimatization. Microgravity decreases PV and EV which contribute to orthostatic intolerance and decreased exercise capacity in astronauts. PV decreases may result from lower set points for total body water and central venous pressure, which EV decrease bay result form increased erythrocyte destruction. Trauma, renal disease, and chronic diseases cause anemia from hemorrhage and immune activation, which suppressions erythropoiesis. The re-establishment of EV is associated with healing, improved life quality, and exercise capabilities for these injured/sick persons.

  2. Degradation of Tectilon Yellow 2G by hybrid technique: combination of sonolysis and biodegradation using mutant Pseudomonas putida.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srinivasan, Raman; Kathiravan, Mathur Nadarajan; Gopinath, Kannappan Panchamoorthy

    2011-02-01

    Degradation of Tectilon Yellow 2G (TY2G), an azo dye has been studied by hybrid technique involving pretreatment by sonochemical method and further biological treatment by Pseudomonas putida mutant. Pretreatment experiments were carried out by sonolysis of the dye solution at different concentrations (100-1000 mg/L). Wild type Gram-negative P. putida species isolated from the textile effluent contaminated soil, which was found to be effective towards dye degradation, has been acclimatized so as to consume TY2G as the sole source of nutrition. Mutant strain was obtained from the acclimatized species by random mutagenesis using the chemical mutagen ethidium bromide for various time intervals (6-30 min). The optimum mutagenesis exposure time for obtaining the most efficient species for dye degradation was found to be 18 min. An efficient mutant strain P. putida ACT 1 has been isolated and was used for growth experiments. The mutant strain showed a better growth compared to the wild strain. The substrate utilization kinetics has been modeled using Monod and Haldane model equations of which the Haldane model provided a better fit. The enzyme kinetics of the mutant and wild species was obtained using Michaelis-Menten equation. The mutated species showed better enzyme kinetics towards the degradation of TY2G.

  3. Mice Do Not Habituate to Metabolism Cage Housing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kalliokoski, Otto; Jacobsen, Kirsten Rosenmaj; Darusman, Huda Shalahudin;

    2013-01-01

    The metabolism cage is a barren, non-enriched, environment, combining a number of recognized environmental stressors. We investigated the ability of male BALB/c mice to acclimatize to this form of housing. For three weeks markers of acute and oxidative stress, as well as clinical signs of abnorma......The metabolism cage is a barren, non-enriched, environment, combining a number of recognized environmental stressors. We investigated the ability of male BALB/c mice to acclimatize to this form of housing. For three weeks markers of acute and oxidative stress, as well as clinical signs...... of abnormality were monitored. Forced swim tests were conducted to determine whether the animals experienced behavioral despair and the serotonergic integrity was tested using an 8-OH-DPAT challenge. The metabolism cage housed mice excreted approximately tenfold higher amounts of corticosterone metabolites...... in feces throughout the study when compared to controls. Urinary biomarkers confirmed that these mice suffered from elevated levels of oxidative stress, and increased creatinine excretions indicated increased muscle catabolism. Changes in the core body temperature (stress-induced hyperthermia) and the fur...

  4. A Model of Genome Size Evolution for Prokaryotes in Stable and Fluctuating Environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bentkowski, Piotr; Van Oosterhout, Cock; Mock, Thomas

    2015-08-04

    Temporal variability in ecosystems significantly impacts species diversity and ecosystem productivity and therefore the evolution of organisms. Different levels of environmental perturbations such as seasonal fluctuations, natural disasters, and global change have different impacts on organisms and therefore their ability to acclimatize and adapt. Thus, to understand how organisms evolve under different perturbations is a key for predicting how environmental change will impact species diversity and ecosystem productivity. Here, we developed a computer simulation utilizing the individual-based model approach to investigate genome size evolution of a haploid, clonal and free-living prokaryotic population across different levels of environmental perturbations. Our results show that a greater variability of the environment resulted in genomes with a larger number of genes. Environmental perturbations were more effectively buffered by populations of individuals with relatively large genomes. Unpredictable changes of the environment led to a series of population bottlenecks followed by adaptive radiations. Our model shows that the evolution of genome size is indirectly driven by the temporal variability of the environment. This complements the effects of natural selection directly acting on genome optimization. Furthermore, species that have evolved in relatively stable environments may face the greatest risk of extinction under global change as genome streamlining genetically constrains their ability to acclimatize to the new environmental conditions, unless mechanisms of genetic diversification such as horizontal gene transfer will enrich their gene pool and therefore their potential to adapt.

  5. Effects of ozone on kraft process pulp mill effluent

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mohammed, A. (Stanley Industrial Consultants, Edmonton, Alberta (Canada)); Smith, D.W. (Univ. of Alberta, Edmonton, (Canada))

    1992-12-01

    Effluent from a kraft process pulp mill was studied in a batch reactor for ozone doses between 50 and 200 mg O[sub 3]/L to identify the suitability of ozone application locations in the treatment process and see the improvements in biotreatability of wastewaters from a kraft process pulp mill. Laboratory acclimatized seed were used for (Biochemical Oxygen Demand) BOD tests for ozonated and unozonated samples. The inhibitory effects were minimized by using optimum dilutions. The studies were divided into three major sections: characterization of mill effluent; ozone system calibration, and reactor design; and ozonation of mill effluent. Seed for BOD tests were acclimatized in batch units for primary, bleach and secondary effluents separately. The results were analyzed using the [open quote]t[close quote] test for paired experiments and an ANOVA table for statistical confirmation. Residuals were plotted to check the assumptions of constant variance and normal distribution. It was concluded that ozone is most effective for the removal of color and the increase of BOD in secondary effluent. 21 refs., 9 figs., 7 tabs.

  6. Biochemical and anatomical responses related to the in vitro survival of the tropical bromeliad Nidularium minutum to low temperatures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carvalho, Camila Pereira; Hayashi, Adriana Hissae; Braga, Marcia Regina; Nievola, Catarina Carvalho

    2013-10-01

    Nidularium minutum is a tropical bromeliad that grows in natural environment with temperatures ranging from 2 to 30 °C. In the present work we cultivated this species in vitro at 5, 10, 15, and 25 °C for 3 and 6 months aiming at assessing biochemical and morphological responses that allow its survival under low temperatures. No survival was observed for plants cultured constantly at 5 °C and the lowest biometric parameters were found for those grown at 10 °C. A thick aquiferous parenchyma, accumulation of reducing sugars, and increased pectin content in the cell walls were observed in plants grown at 10 and 15 °C when compared to those maintained at 25 °C. In plants cultured at 10 °C, leaf bleaching correlated with low chlorophyll content and lower survival rate after 6 months when compared to those grown at 15 °C. The best in vitro culture condition for slow growth and plant acclimatization was found to be at 15 °C. This probably correlated with the immediate availability of carbon to restore growth during acclimatization and also with higher root initiation under this condition. This study brings information about the responses related to functional adaptation to low temperatures in N. minutum cultured in vitro that can also be implicated in its survival under natural conditions. Additionally, it suggests the best temperature to form a minimal growth collection to be used in restocking and conservation programs for endangered tropical bromeliads.

  7. Peranan Jamur Rhizoctonia sp. Asal Taman Nasional Rawa Aopa Watumohai Sulawesi Tenggara terhadap Keberhasilan Aklimatisasi dan Laju Pertumbuhan Planlet Anggrek Macan (Grammatophyllum scriptum BL.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rita Ningsih

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this research was to know the role of Rhizoctonia sp. fungus from Taman Nasional Rawa Aopa Watumohai (TNRAW to the successfully acclimatization and growth rate of tiger orchid planlet (Grammatophyllum scriptum Bl. as well to know successfully infection of fungus Rhizoctonia sp. at the planlet root. The procedure of this research consists 3 main steps, they were fungus inoculation on orchid’s growing media, growth test and verification of successfully infection on planlet root. Growth test consisting of 3 treatments namely control (without nutrition and fungi (K0; Rhizoctonia sp. application (R1; Rhizoctonia sp. + nutrition Potato Dextrose Borth (PDB (R2 with the repetition for 8 times, then the growth data was analysed by statistics utilizes to F-test and continue by BNT-test on 95% trusty level. The result of the research showed that R2 treatment increase high planlet, leaf and root number. All the mean score of research indicator R2 was highest compared R1 and K0. The result of F-test showed R1 and R2 treatment gave significant influence toward the high planlet, leaf and root number growth. Except, fresh and dry weight planlet. Eventhough, fresh and dry weight was higher compared than K0 acclimatization period for a month.  Rhizoctonia sp. fungus infected planlet root through velamen to eksodermis and cortex by forming hifa scroll (pelotons.

  8. Mood Sensitivity to Seasonal Changes in African College Students Living in the Greater Washington D.C. Metropolitan Area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alvaro Guzman

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to estimate the degree of seasonality and prevalence of winter- and summer-type seasonal affective disorder (SAD in African immigrant college students in comparison with African American peers. A convenience sample of 246 African immigrants and 599 African Americans studying in Washington, D.C. completed the Seasonal Pattern Assessment Questionnaire (SPAQ, which was used to calculate a global seasonality score (GSS and to estimate the prevalence of winter- and summer-type SAD. Degree of seasonality was related to a complex interaction between having general awareness of SAD, ethnicity, and gender. A greater percentage of African students reported experiencing a problem with seasonal changes relative to African American students, and had summer SAD, but the groups did not differ on GSS and winter SAD. African students reported more difficulties with seasonal changes than their African American peers, which could represent a manifestation of incomplete acclimatization to a higher latitude and temperate climate. As Africans also had a greater rate of summer SAD, this argues against acclimatization to heat.

  9. Time required to stabilize thermographic images at rest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marins, João Carlos Bouzas; Moreira, Danilo Gomes; Cano, Sergio Piñonosa; Quintana, Manuel Sillero; Soares, Danusa Dias; Fernandes, Alex de Andrade; Silva, Fabrício Sousa da; Costa, Carlos Magno Amaral; Amorim, Paulo Roberto dos Santos

    2014-07-01

    Thermography for scientific research and practical purposes requires a series of procedures to obtain images that should be standardized; one of the most important is the time required for acclimatization in the controlled environment. Thus, the objective of this study was to identify the appropriate acclimatization time in rest to reach a thermal balance on young people skin. Forty-four subjects participated in the study, 18 men (22.3 ± 3.1 years) and 26 women (21.7 ± 2.5 years). Thermographic images were collected using a thermal imager (Fluke®), totaling 44 images over a period of 20 min. The skin temperature (TSK) was measured at the point of examination which included the 0 min, 2, 4, 6, 8, 10, 12, 14, 16, 18 and 20. The body regions of interest (ROI) analyzed included the hands, forearms, arms, thighs, legs, chest and abdomen. We used the Friedman test with post hoc Dunn's in order to establish the time at rest required to obtain a TSK balance and the Mann-Whitney test was used to compare age, BMI, body fat percentage and temperature variations between men and women, considering always a significance level of p body region of the abdomen obtained a significant variance (p body analysis it is recommended at least 10 min for both sexes.

  10. Micropropagação de sucupira-preta por meio de gemas axilares Sucupira-preta micropropagation through axillary buds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciana Coelho de Moura

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar o uso de reguladores de crescimento, aditivos antioxidantes, tipo de explantes e intensidade de cobertura de mudas aclimatizadas, na micropropagação de sucupira-preta (Bowdichia virgilioides por meio de gemas axilares. Os explantes foram cultivados para a multiplicação em meio de cultura básico WPM, suplementado com concentrações de benzilaminopurina (BAP. No alongamento, os tratamentos foram combinações de ácido naftalenoacético (ANA e BAP adicionadas ao meio. Para o enraizamento, as brotações foram colocadas em meio com concentrações de ácido indolbutírico, ou em meio com combinações dos aditivos polivinilpirrolidona e carvão ativado, em diferentes concentrações de ANA. As plantas foram transplantadas para copos de plástico, com substrato, e cobertas com saco de polietileno. Posteriormente, esses sacos foram retirados, ou perfurados, ou não retirados, o que constituiu os tratamentos de pré-aclimatização in vitro. A aclimatização ex vitro foi realizada após o período de pré-aclimatização in vitro. A sucupira-preta apresentou melhor micropropagação com emprego de: segmentos cotiledonares e 0,3 mg L-1 de BAP, na multiplicação; 0,3 mg L-1 de ANA e 0,03 mg L-1 de BAP, no alongamento; e carvão ativado (2,0 mg L-1, no enraizamento e na pré-aclimatização in vitro, com uso de cobertura de plástico transparente em torno da muda.The objective of this work was to evaluate the use of growth regulators, antioxidant additives, type of explants, and coverage intensity of acclimatized seedlings in the micropropagation of sucupira-preta (Bowdichia virgilioides through axillary buds. Explants were cultured for multiplication on WPM medium, supplemented with concentrations of benzylaminopurine (BAP. In the elongation phase, treatments consisted of naphthaleneacetic acid (NAA and BAP combinations added to the medium. For rooting, shoots were inoculated in medium containing

  11. Anatomia comparada das folhas e raízes de Cymbidium Hort. (Orchidaceae cultivadas ex vitro e in vitro Comparative leaf and root anatomy of ex vitro and in vitro cultured Cymbidium Hort. plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliana Lischka Sampaio Mayer

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Na fase de cultivo in vitro, as plantas são mantidas em ambiente com alta umidade relativa do ar, baixa luminosidade e trocas gasosas restritas, o que resulta em taxa de transpiração reduzida. Portanto, quando essas mudas são expostas ao meio ex vitro, sofrem estresse que pode causar a morte. O objetivo desse trabalho foi comparar a estrutura anatômica das mudas de Cymbidium 'Joy Polis' cultivadas ex vitro (planta matriz e aclimatizada e in vitro e verificar se a estrutura anatômica das plantas in vitro influencia no processo de aclimatização. As plantas ex vitro foram mantidas em casa-de-vegetação, em vasos individuais com o substrato fibra de coco em pó combinada com fibra de coco, e as plantas in vitro foram mantidas em meio de cultura MS. Para a análise anatômica qualitativa foram coletadas amostras de folhas e raízes de plantas ex vitro e in vitro. As plantas aclimatizadas apresentaram estrutura morfoanatômica semelhante à da planta matriz. A estrutura anatômica das plantas in vitro não influenciou a sobrevivência das mudas durante a aclimatização devido à plasticidade fenotipica desse cultivar. As plantas de Cymbidium 'Joy Polis' possuem grande capacidade de aclimatização ao ambiente, sendo provavelmente este um dos fatores responsáveis pela sobrevivência de 100% das mudas.During in vitro culture plants are kept in an atmosphere with high relative humidity, low light intensity and reduced gas exchange, resulting in low transpiration rates. Therefore, when these plants are exposed to ex vitro conditions, they suffer stress, which can induce mortality. The purpose of this study was to compare the anatomical structure of Cymbidium 'Joy Polis' plants from ex vitro (mother plant and acclimatized plants and in vitro cultures and to verify if the anatomical structure of in vitro cultured plants affects acclimatization. The ex vitro plants were kept in a greenhouse in pots containing a mixture of coconut-fiber powder and

  12. Effects of continuous drought and immersion on hatchability of Ochlerotatus albifasciatus (Diptera: Culicidae eggs stored at low temperature Efecto de la sequía continua y la inmersión sobre la respuesta de eclosión de los huevos de Ochlerotatus albifasciatus (Diptera: Culicidae almacenados a baja temperatura

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raúl E Campos

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available The role of environmental factors on the hatching response of O. albifasciatus (Macquart eggs is studied by simulating winter conditions in the laboratory. The hypothesis tested was that hatching response is affected by: (1 time that eggs remain at low temperature, (2 storage conditions, and (3 acclimatization time. Eggs were stored at 5ºC in drought and immersion conditions during 7, 21, 35, 90 and 146 days, immediately after, they were acclimatized at 22ºC during 24, 72, and 168 hours, and then eggs were flooded to induce hatching. Percent of hatched eggs was analyzed with a Generalized Lineal Model with a binomial distribution. Results show that: (1 a long storage period at cold temperature and long acclimatization periods improve the hatching response; (2 storage conditions have a moderate effect on hatching, being more evident in eggs stored dry; (3 a long time of acclimatization favors the hatching response in submerged eggs more than in eggs stored dry; (4 long time at cold favors the hatching response in eggs stored dry more than in submerged eggs; (5 the hatching response of eggs that remain for a long time at low temperature is higher when the time of acclimatization is long.Se estudió el rol de los factores ambientales sobre la eclosión de los huevos de O. albifasciatus (Macquart, simulando condiciones de invierno. La hipótesis planteada fue que la respuesta de eclosión de los huevos depende de: (1 tiempo de permanencia a baja temperatura, (2 condiciones de almacenamiento, y (3 tiempo de aclimatación. Los huevos fueron almacenados a 5º C en condiciones de sequía y sumergidos durante 7, 21, 35, 90 y 146 días; luego fueron aclimatados a 22º C durante 24, 72, y 168 horas y posteriormente inundados para inducir la eclosión. El porcentaje de huevos eclosionados se analizó con un Modelo Lineal Generalizado con distribución binomial. Los resultados mostraron que: (1 largos períodos de almacenamiento en frío y largos tiempos

  13. Evidence for an apical Na-Cl cotransporter involved in ion uptake in a teleost fish

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hiroi, J.; Yasumasu, S.; McCormick, S.D.; Hwang, P.-P.; Kaneko, T.

    2008-01-01

    Cation-chloride cotransporters, such as the Na+/K +/2Cl- cotransporter (NKCC) and Na+/Cl - cotransporter (NCC), are localized to the apical or basolateral plasma membranes of epithelial cells and are involved in active ion absorption or secretion. The objectives of this study were to clone and identify 'freshwater-type' and 'seawater-type' cation-chloride cotransporters of euryhaline Mozambique tilapia (Oreochromis mossambicus) and to determine their intracellular localization patterns within mitochondria-rich cells (MRCs). From tilapia gills, we cloned four full-length cDNAs homologous to human cation-chloride cotransporters and designated them as tilapia NKCC1a, NKCC1b, NKCC2 and NCC. Out of the four candidates, the mRNA encoding NKCC1a was highly expressed in the yolk-sac membrane and gills (sites of the MRC localization) of seawater-acclimatized fish, whereas the mRNA encoding NCC was exclusively expressed in the yolk-sac membrane and gills of freshwater-acclimatized fish. We then generated antibodies specific for tilapia NKCC1a and NCC and conducted whole-mount immunofluorescence staining for NKCC1a and NCC, together with Na+/K+-ATPase, cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) and Na+/H+ exchanger 3 (NHE3), on the yolk-sac membrane of tilapia embryos acclimatized to freshwater or seawater. The simultaneous quintuple-color immunofluorescence staining allowed us to classify MRCs clearly into four types: types I, II, III and IV. The NKCC1a immunoreactivity was localized to the basolateral membrane of seawater-specific type-IV MRCs, whereas the NCC immunoreactivity was restricted to the apical membrane of freshwater-specific type-II MRCs. Taking account of these data at the level of both mRNA and protein, we deduce that NKCC1a is the seawater-type cotransporter involved in ion secretion by type-IV MRCs and that NCC is the freshwater-type cotransporter involved in ion absorption by type-II MRCs. We propose a novel ion-uptake model by MRCs in

  14. Impact of high altitude on the hepatic fatty acid oxidation and synthesis in rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ni, Qian [Department of General Surgery, Hepatic-biliary-pancreatic Institute, Lanzhou University Second Hospital, Lanzhou (China); Department of Pediatrics, Lanzhou University Second Hospital, Lanzhou (China); Shao, Yuan; Wang, Ying Zhen [Department of General Surgery, Hepatic-biliary-pancreatic Institute, Lanzhou University Second Hospital, Lanzhou (China); Jing, Yu Hong [Institute of Anatomy, School of Basic Medicine, Lanzhou University, Lanzhou (China); Zhang, You Cheng, E-mail: zhangychmd@126.com [Department of General Surgery, Hepatic-biliary-pancreatic Institute, Lanzhou University Second Hospital, Lanzhou (China)

    2014-04-04

    Highlights: • Acute exposure to high altitude (HA) increased hepatic fatty acid (FA) β-oxidation. • Acute exposure of rats to HA increased hepatic FA synthesis. • PPARα and AMPK can regulate the FA metabolism. • FA may be a key energy fuel and a compensation for CHO during acute exposure to HA. • The acute changes of FA metabolism may be a mechanism of acclimatization. - Abstract: High altitude (HA) affects energy metabolism. The impact of acute and chronic HA acclimatization on the major metabolic pathways is still controversial. In this study, we aimed to unveil the impact of HA on the key enzymes involved in the fatty acid (FA) metabolism in liver. Rats were exposed to an altitude of 4300 m for 30 days and the expressions of two key proteins involved in FA β-oxidation (carnitine palmitoyl transferase I, CPT-I; and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha, PPARα), two proteins involved in FA synthesis (acetyl CoA carboxylase-1, ACC-1; and AMP-activated protein kinase, AMPK), as well as the total ketone body in the liver and the plasma FFAs were examined. Rats without HA exposure were used as controls. We observed that the acute exposure of rats to HA (3 days) led to a significant increase in the expressions of CPT-I and PPARα and in the total hepatic ketone body. Longer exposure (15 days) caused a marked decrease in the expression of CPT-I and PPARα. By 30 days after HA exposure, the expression levels of CPT-I and PPARα returned to the control level. The hepatic ACC-1 level showed a significant increase in rats exposed to HA for 1 and 3 days. In contrast, the hepatic level of AMPK showed a significant reduction throughout the experimental period. Plasma FFA concentrations did not show any significant changes following HA exposure. Thus, increased hepatic FA oxidation and synthesis in the early phase of HA exposure may be among the important mechanisms for the rats to respond to the hypoxic stress in order to acclimatize themselves to the

  15. The physiology of global change: linking patterns to mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Somero, George N

    2012-01-01

    Global change includes alterations in ocean temperature, oxygen availability, salinity, and pH, abiotic variables with strong and interacting influences on the physiology of all taxa. Physiological stresses resulting from changes in these four variables may cause broad biogeographic shifts as well as localized changes in distribution in mosaic habitats. To elucidate these causal linkages, I address the following questions: What types of physiological limitations can alter species' distributions and, in cases of extreme stress, cause extinctions? Which species are most threatened by these physiological challenges--and why? How do contents of genomes establish capacities to respond to global change, notably in the case of species that have evolved in highly stable habitats? How fully can phenotypic acclimatization offset abiotic stress? Can physiological measurements, including new molecular ("-omic") approaches, provide indices of the degree of sublethal stress an organism experiences? And can physiological evolution keep pace with global change? PMID:22457968

  16. Highly efficient transformation protocol for plum (Prunus domestica L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petri, César; Scorza, Ralph; Srinivasan, Chinnathambi

    2012-01-01

    A high-throughput transformation system for plum has been developed using hypocotyl slices excised from zygotic embryos as the source of explants. The hypocotyl slices are infected in an Agrobacterium tumefaciens suspension and then cocultivated for 3 days in shoot regeneration ¾ MS basal medium supplemented with 9 μM 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid. Transgenic shoots are regenerated in a medium containing 7.5 μM thidiazuron and elongated in a medium containing 3 μM benzyladenine in the presence of 80 mg/L kanamycin in both media. Transformed shoots are rooted in ½ MS basal medium supplemented with 5 μM NAA and 40 mg/L kanamycin. The transgenic plants are acclimatized in a growth chamber and transferred to a temperature-controlled greenhouse. This protocol has allowed transformation efficiencies up to 42% and enabled the production of self-rooted transgenic plum plants within 6 months of transformation.

  17. Reduced heat stress in offices in the tropics using solar powered drying of the supply air

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gunnarsen, Lars; Santos, A M B

    2002-01-01

    Many solutions to indoor climate problems known from developed countries may have prohibitive installation and running costs in developing countries. The purpose was to develop a low-cost solution to heat stress in a hot and humid environment based on solar powered drying of supply air. Dry supply...... air may facilitate personal cooling by increased evaporation of sweat. Heat acclimatized people with efficient sweating may in particular benefit from this cooling. A prototype solar powered supply system for dried-only air was made. Air from the system was mixed with room air, heated to six different...... content of room air, temperature of supply air and moisture content of supply air was developed based on the experiments. Reduction of moisture content in the supply air by 1.6 g/kg had the same effect as lowering the operative temperature by 1 degree C. The solar-powered system for supplying dry air...

  18. SATISFAÇÃO DOS USUÁRIOS DE APARELHO DE AMPLIFICAÇÃO SONORA INDIVIDUAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrícia Arruda de Souza Alcarás

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The present study aimed to verify the level of satisfaction appliances fitted with Individual Sound Amplification and followed at a hearing center in the state of Sao Paulo - SP. The sample consisted of 30 participants, of both genders, aged 50 years, adapted with digital hearing aid technology and realizes that currently the monitoring process of adaptation. The materials used understand the Hearing Handicap Questionnaire for Elderly - HHIE, containing 25 multiple choice questions and applied directly. The results revelead that of the 30 study participants 46.6% have perceived hearing handicap, and that 36.7% had mild to moderate perception and 50% had severe or perception significant. Regarding the time of fitting adaptation were 66.7% made use of individual hearing aids for more than six months. Through the results we conclude that though most participants are adapted for more than six months, minimum period of acclimatization, many still feel limited as to the benefits of hearing aids.

  19. Anaerobic degradation of azo dye Drimaren blue HFRL in UASB reactor in the presence of yeast extract a source of carbon and redox mediator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baêta, B E L; Aquino, S F; Silva, S Q; Rabelo, C A

    2012-04-01

    This paper presents results on anaerobic degradation of the azo dye blue HFRL in a bench scale Upflow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB) reactor operated at ambient temperature. The results show that the addition of yeast extract (500 mg/L) increased color removal (P dye removal increased along the operational phases and depended on the presence of yeast extract, suggesting progressive biomass acclimatization. Analysis of bacterial diversity by Polymerase Chain Reaction-Denaturing Gradient Gel Electrophoresis (PCR-DGGE) method showed there was biomass selection along the bioreactor operation and no evidence of azo dye degrading bacteria predominance. This strengthens the hypothesis that color removal happens extracellularly by the reduction of azo bond by reduced redox mediators, such as riboflavin, which is present in high amount in the yeast extract.

  20. Study on rapid propagation of Zanhuang Chinese jujube by tissue culture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zanhuang jujube is a very precious and rare variety of Chinese jujube. Its development was restricted by the under-developed propagate technique in history. The rapid propagation by tissue culture was studied and the optimum media were screened out. Through studying the condition of initial, proliferating, acclimatizing and rooting culture, 4 media, MS +6-BA 0.5 mg/L+IBA 0.1 mg/L, MS+6-BA 1.5 mg/L+IBA 0.1-0.2 mg/L, MS+KT 0.5 mg/L+NAA 0.2 mg/L and 1/2 MS+IBA 0.6 mg/L+NAA 0.2-0.3 mg/L were selected respectively

  1. APPARENT DIGESTIBILTY EXPERIMENT WITH NILE TILAPIA (OREOCHROMIS NILOTICUS FED DIETS CONTAINING CITRULLUS LANATUS SEEDMEAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wasiu Adeyemi JIMOH

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Apparent digestibility coefficients of nutrients in Citrullus lanatus based diets were determined for Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus using AIA as marker or indicator. 150 tilapia fingerlings of average weight 6.12±0.05g were acclimatized for a week, weighed and allotted into five dietary treatments; CTR, DT2, DT3, DT4 and DT5 containing 0, 15, 30, 45 and 60% Citrullus lanatus respectively. The diets were isonitrogenous, isocaloric and isolipidic. Each treatment was replicated three times with ten fish per replicate. Fish were fed 5% body weight on two equal proportions per day. The results from the study indicated that there was no significant variation (p>0.05 in the apparent organic matter and gross energy digestibility coefficients of the diets; that there was significant (p0.05 in the apparent digestibility coefficients of nutrients (protein, energy, lipid and carbohydrates between the diets up to 30% replacement levels for tilapia.

  2. Indirect organogenesis from various explants of Hildegardia populifolia (Roxb. Schott & Endl. – A threatened tree species from Eastern Ghats of Tamil Nadu, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.R. Lavanya

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Hildegardia species are an important resource for fiber industry. This investigation was conducted to develop a plant regeneration protocol for Hildegardia populifolia (Roxb. Schott & Endl. via indirect organogenesis Callus was obtained from leaf, internode and petiole explants, among these explants internode explant gave best result on MS medium supplemented with different concentrations of 2,4-Dichlorophenoxy acetic acid (2,4-D. The highest percentage (100% of regeneration was obtained with benzyladenine (BA (2.0 mg/l + indole-3-acetic acid (IAA (0.1 mg/l + glutamine (25 mg/l + thidiazuron (TDZ (0.5 mg/l from internode explants. Shootlets were highly rooted on MS medium supplemented with 3.0 mg/l indole-3-butyric acid (IBA. In vitro rooted seedlings were successfully acclimatized. This in vitro regeneration system will facilitate further development of reliable procedures for this genus.

  3. Toxicological effects of ammonia on gills of Cyprinus carpio var. communis (Linn.)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Senthamilselvan Devaraj; Chezhian Arulprakasam; Arul Pandian Kandhan; Kabilan Neelamegam; Rajalakshmi Kalaiselvan

    2014-01-01

    Objective:To monitor the response of gills of Cyprinus carpio var. communis to LC50 levels of ammonia over a period of 96 h by bath exposure, using scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Methods: Cyprinus carpio procured from a local fish farm in Vadalore, Cuddalore District, Tamil Nadu, India were acclimatized under laboratory conditions for 20 d. Fish were placed into experimental tanks with 20 L of water and 22 mg/L ammonia. A total of 10 fish were collected from each experimental tank every 24 h for histopathological studies. Results:Histopathological studies showed these changes in the gills:secondary lamellar fusion, haemorrhage, oedema, epithelial hyperplasia, and chloride cell proliferation. Occasionally, multifocal necrosis of inter-lamellar regions of gill filaments but with no apparent haemorrhage was observed under electron microscopy. Conclusion:The present study shows that histopathological and ultrastructural alterations in gills are useful indicators for ammonia toxicity in Cyprinus carpio.

  4. Monitoring of pests of Coccinea suborder in the collection greenhouses at Polar-Alpine Botanical Garden

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rak Natalja

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The main field of research carried out in the Polar-Alpine botanical garden-institute is the plant introduction and acclimatization. The problem of particular complexity is the protection of plant introducents from pests. The representatives of the Coccinea suborder are found in the Far North exclusively in greenhouses. Monitoring of a phytosanitary condition of Polar-Alpine Botanical Garden plant collection fund revealed the most stable pest species in relation to local conditions and methods used to fight against species of the Coccinea suborder. Сomposition of forage plants is defined and species of plant-reserves, on which pest population is formed, are selected. List of tropical and subtropical plants populated by Coccinea in the collection of the Polar-Alpine Botanical Garden is compiled (data on the years of 2004-2013

  5. Hidden impacts of ocean acidification to live and dead coral framework.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hennige, S J; Wicks, L C; Kamenos, N A; Perna, G; Findlay, H S; Roberts, J M

    2015-08-22

    Cold-water corals, such as Lophelia pertusa, are key habitat-forming organisms found throughout the world's oceans to 3000 m deep. The complex three-dimensional framework made by these vulnerable marine ecosystems support high biodiversity and commercially important species. Given their importance, a key question is how both the living and the dead framework will fare under projected climate change. Here, we demonstrate that over 12 months L. pertusa can physiologically acclimate to increased CO2, showing sustained net calcification. However, their new skeletal structure changes and exhibits decreased crystallographic and molecular-scale bonding organization. Although physiological acclimatization was evident, we also demonstrate that there is a negative correlation between increasing CO2 levels and breaking strength of exposed framework (approx. 20-30% weaker after 12 months), meaning the exposed bases of reefs will be less effective 'load-bearers', and will become more susceptible to bioerosion and mechanical damage by 2100.

  6. Application of statistical experimental methodology to optimize bioremediation of n-alkanes in aquatic environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Response surface methodology (RSM) was employed to optimize nitrogen and phosphorus concentrations for removal of n-alkanes from crude oil contaminated seawater samples in batch reactors. Erlenmeyer flasks were used as bioreactors; each containing 250 mL dispersed crude oil contaminated seawater, indigenous acclimatized microorganism and different amounts of nitrogen and phosphorus based on central composite design (CCD). Samples were extracted and analyzed according to US-EPA protocols using a gas chromatograph. During 28 days of bioremediation, a maximum of 95% total aliphatic hydrocarbons removal was observed. The obtained Model F-value of 267.73 and probability F < 0.0001 implied the model was significant. Numerical condition optimization via a quadratic model, predicted 98% n-alkanes removal for a 20-day laboratory bioremediation trial using nitrogen and phosphorus concentrations of 13.62 and 1.39 mg/L, respectively. In actual experiments, 95% removal was observed under these conditions.

  7. The Influence of Explant Types and Orientation on in Vitro Culture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamnoon KANCHANAPOOM

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Inflorescence, apical and lateral buds of Musa balbisiana ‘Kluai Hin’ (BBB group were used to culture on MS medium supplemented with 22 μM BA and 15% (v/v coconut water. Comparison of bud orientation showed that the best response of in vitro shoot tip proliferation was obtained with abaxial surface of buds lying down i.e. one side touching the medium (tilt. Mass propagation of shoot tips was obtained when cultured buds on MS medium containing 44 μM BA. Rooting was achieved by transferring the isolated shoots to MS basal medium without growth regulators. Rooted plantlets were acclimatized and successfully established in soil.

  8. Herbo mineral formulations (rasaoushadhies) of ayurveda an amazing inheritance of ayurvedic pharmaceutics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaudhary, Anand; Singh, Neetu

    2010-07-01

    The one of the oldest system of medicine, Ayurveda is momentous in audience of worldwide on virtue of its holistic approach of life. Formulations of Ayurveda consist of substances of herbal, mineral/metal and animal origin which are processed pharmaceutical to have therapeutic effects. This is attribute of processes of Shodhan (purification/potentiation), Bhavana (impregation /levigation) and Marana (incineration/calcinations) of Rasa Shastra which acclimatize these toxic industrial matter to a effective remedies known as herbo mineral formulations (Rasaoushadhies) of Ayurveda. In recent past there is prevalence of some doubt on safety and efficacy of these medicines. In this review paper we tried to justify application of these medicines as these are time tested and showed wonderful clinical adaptability. We also attempted to establish new facts of figures of core science in explanation of these medicines. PMID:22557419

  9. Integration of biotechnology, robot technology and visualisation technology for development of methods for automated mass production of elite trees

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Find, Jens

    Biotechnology has become an integrated part of plant breeding, and in recent years new methods have been developed for breeding and propagation of important plants in the agricultural-, ornamental- and forestry sector. One of the promising methods is somatic embryogenesis (SE), where plants....... The method is, for several plant species, the preferred basis for development of additional biotechnological breeding technologies as e.g. genetic transformation. Elite clones can be stored over extended periods in liquid nitrogen at -196°C However, commercial application of the technology has until now been...... & germination' and 'ex-vitro acclimatization'). The aim of the present project is to reduce labour costs associated with the late stages of the production of cloned plants through development of robot- and visualisation technologies. (From Afreen & Zobayed, p. 96, 2005)   The presentation will report on two...

  10. Jacques Roubaud, piéton de Paris - échantillons de mémoire urbaine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christophe Reig

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Jacques Roubaud sillonne depuis plus de cinquante ans le labyrinthe parisien en forme d’escargot. La prose de mémoire du Grand Incendie de Londres, les poèmes de La Forme d’une ville change plus vite, hélas, que le cœur des humains… chantent une capitale tour à tour honnie et acclimatée, un Paris pluriel qui suscite le pari d’un art poétique prouvant le mouvement en marchant, sans faire l’économie du rythme. Après Baudelaire, Apollinaire, Queneau et bien d’autres encore, Roubaud court et recourt les rues de Paris, en quête de lui-même, planifiant dans la Capitale autant de parcours de mémoire que de trajets poétiques.

  11. Comparative leaf anatomy of long pepper (Piper hispidinervum C. DC. and spiked pepper (Piper aduncum L. cultured in vitro, ex vitro and in vivo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simone de Alencar Maciel

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Piper hispidinervum and Piper aduncum contain the secondary metabolites safrole and dilapiol, and there is commercial interest in their essential oils. The study aimed to compare anatomical aspects related to physiological responses of leaves from P. hispidinervum and P. aduncum propagated in vitro, in vivo and during acclimatization. Paradermal sections and cross-sections of leaves from in vitro, ex vitro and in vivo culture, were obtained for the measurement of anatomical structures using a light microscope. The thickness of the epidermis and hypodermis of P. hispidinervum and P. aduncum underwent changes in the transition from in vitro to ex vitro. Mesophyll tissues and stomatal pore opening of both species were inluenced by the environment in vitro. Different cultivation environments promote the plasticity of the cellular structures of the leaf blade and underlie the success of micropropagation of both species.

  12. A novel combination of plant growth regulators for in vitro regeneration of complete plantlets of guar [Cyamopsis tetragonoloba (L.) Taub].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verma, S; Gill, K S; Pruthi, V; Dhugga, K S; Randhaw, G S

    2013-12-01

    A novel combination of plant growth regulators comprising indole-3-butyric acid (IBA), 6-benzylaminopurine (BA) and gibberellic acid (GA3) in Murashige and Skoog basal medium has been formulated for in vitro induction of both shoot and root in one culture using cotyledonary node explants of guar, (Cyamopsis tetragonoloba). Highest percentages of shoot (92%) and root (80%) induction were obtained in the medium containing (mg/L) 2 IBA, 3 BA and 1 GA3. Shoot regeneration from the cotyledonary node explants was observed after 10-15 days. Regeneration of roots from these shoots occurred after 20 to 25 days. The regenerated plantlets showed successful acclimatization on transfer to soil. This protocol is expected to be helpful in carrying out various in vitro manipulations in this economically and industrially important legume.

  13. Biofunctional characteristics of lignite fly ash modified by humates: a new soil conditioner.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chassapis, Konstantinos; Roulia, Maria; Vrettou, Evangelia; Fili, Despina; Zervaki, Monica

    2010-01-01

    Fly ash superficially modified with humic substances from the Megalopolis lignitic power plant was prepared and evaluated for agricultural uses. UV-vis spectrophotometry and IR spectroscopy revealed that fly ash shows high sorption efficiency towards humic substances. Adsorption proceeds stepwise via strong Coulombic and hydrophophic forces of attraction between guest and host materials. Langmuir, Freundlich, BET, Harkins-Jura, and Dubinin-Radushkevich isotherm models were employed to evaluate the ongoing adsorption and shed light to the physicochemical properties of the sorbent-adsorbate system. Humic substances desorption and microbial cultivation experiments were also carried out to examine the regeneration of the humates under washing and explore the possibility of this material acclimatizing in real soil conditions, both useful for biofunctional agricultural applications.

  14. Identification and analysis of polyaromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs)--biodegrading bacterial strains from refinery soil of India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaudhary, Priyanka; Sahay, Harmesh; Sharma, Richa; Pandey, Alok Kumar; Singh, Shashi Bala; Saxena, A K; Nain, Lata

    2015-06-01

    Polyaromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) utilizing bacteria were isolated from soils of seven sites of Mathura refinery, India. Twenty-six bacterial strains with different morphotypes were isolated. These strains were acclimatized to utilize a mixture of four polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, i.e., anthracene, fluorene, phenanthrene, and pyrene, each at 50 mg/L concentration as sole carbon source. Out of total isolates, 15 potent isolates were subjected to 16S rDNA sequencing and identified as a member of diverse genera, i.e., Bacillus, Acinetobacter, Stenotrophomonas, Alcaligenes, Lysinibacillus, Brevibacterium, Serratia, and Streptomyces. Consortium of four promising isolates (Acinetobacter, Brevibacterium, Serratia, and Streptomyces) were also investigated for bioremediation of PAH mixture. This consortium was proved to be efficient PAH degrader resulting in 40-70 % degradation of PAH within 7 days. Results of this study indicated that these genera may play an active role in bioremediation of PAHs. PMID:26026847

  15. Study on submerged anaerobic membrane bioreactor (SAMBR) treating high suspended solids raw tannery wastewater for biogas production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Umaiyakunjaram, R; Shanmugam, P

    2016-09-01

    This study deals with the treatment of high suspended solids raw tannery wastewater using flat sheet Submerged Anaerobic Membrane (0.4μm) Bioreactor (SAMBR) acclimatized with hypersaline anaerobic seed sludge for recovering biogas. The treatability of SAMBR achieved higher CODremoval efficiency (90%) and biogas yield (0.160L.g(-1) CODremoved) coincided with high r(2) values between permeate flux and TSS (0.95), biogas and COD removed (0.96). The acidification of hypersaline influent wastewater by biogas mixing with high CO2, achieved quadruplet benefit of gas liquid and solid separation, in-situ pH and NH3 control, in-situ CH4 enrichment, and prevention of membrane fouling. The initial high VFA became stable as time elapsed reveals the hydrolysing ability of particulate COD into soluble COD and into biogas, confirms the suitability of SAMBR for high suspended solids tannery wastewater. PMID:27309773

  16. Lightning and severe thunderstorms in event management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walsh, Katie M

    2012-01-01

    There are a few national position stands/guidelines that address environmental conditions in athletics, yet they do not govern all outdoor sports. Extreme heat and cold, lightning, and severe wind can all be fatal, yet the majority of outdoor sports have no published guidelines addressing these conditions in relation to activity. Available research on extreme heat and cold conditions in athletics provides prevention strategies, to include acclimatization. Lightning and severe wind are two environmental conditions to which humans cannot accommodate, and they both can be deadly. There are strong positions on extreme heat/cold and lightning safety in athletics, but none affiliated with severe winds. Medical personnel involved in planning large outdoor sporting events must know of the presence of nationally published weather-related documents and apply them to their event. In addition, research needs to be expanded in the realm of establishing guidelines for safety to participants and spectators in severe wind conditions. PMID:22580490

  17. Partial Restoration Of Skeletal Strength In Ovariectomized Rats By Treatment With Strontium Salts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Jens Enevold Thaulov; Andersen, Pernille/Høegh; Christgau, Stephan

    administration of non-radioactive elemental strontium for up to two years. Our goal was to assess whether short term treatment with strontium in ovariectomized rats would affect biochemical markers of bone turnover as well as promote a bone strength. METHODS The study was performed in 48 female 5 months old...... Sprague-Dawley rats. After 4 weeks acclimatization, 12 rats were subjected to sham operation and the remaining 36 were ovariectomized (OVX). After 4 weeks, the 36 OVX rats were randomized into three groups and subjected to treatment by oral gavage with vehicle alone or vehicle + 533 mg/kg/day strontium...... glutamate (S-G) or 300 mg/kg/day strontium malonate (S-M)(both doses correspond to 137 mg ionic strontium/kg/day). The treatment period was five weeks, and at the end we analyzed circulating levels of calcium, strontium magnesium and iron and bone turnover by measuring the resorption marker CTX (Rat...

  18. Micropropagation of an elite F1 watermelon (Citrullus lanatus hybrid from the shoot tip of field grown plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Khalekuzzaman

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was to develop a protocol for rapid micropropagation of an elite F1 hybrid watermelon cultivar using shoot tip of field-grown plants. Maximum frequency (73% of shoot tip showed growth response in MS medium supplemented with 5 mg l-1 benzyl adenine (BA and 0.1 mg l-1 indole-3 acetic acid (IAA. Upon transfer to cytokinin-enriched medium, the cultures produced multiple shoots and 2.0 mg l-1 BA was optimum in this respect. Addition of gibberellic acid (GA3 in the multiplication medium resulted in better growth of shoots. Rooting rate was 100% when shoots were obtained from second subculture were cultured in medium with 1.0 mg l-1 indole-3 butyric acid (IBA. The shoots produced more roots with increasing number of subcultures. About 72% of the regenerated plantlets acclimatized successfully and survived in the soil condition.

  19. Micropropagation and Phenolic exudation protocol for Excoecaria agallocha-an important mangrove

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Manickam Arumugam; Rajaram Panneerselvam

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To develop a standard micropropagation protocol for an important vulnerable mangrove Excoecaria agallocha. Methods: Collection of explants, surface sterilization, phenolic exudation and medium was standardized. Shoot induction, shoot multiplication and rooting were carried out in MMS medium supplemented with BAP, Kinetin, Zeatin, 2ip, NAA, IAA and IBA. Hardening was carried out after root well established. Results: The best phenolic exudation removal was resulted in 4 g/L activated charcoal. The maximum shoot induction response showed in MMS medium and better shoot induction was performed in the concentration of BAP (3.9 μmol) and NAA (1.34 μmol). Rooting induction was performed high range at 5.02 μmol of IAA. Well rooted micro-shoots were hardened and acclimatized. Conclusions: From the present investigation, it can be concluded that a standard micropropagation protocol was developed for an important vulnerable mangrove species.

  20. Stress free oral medication in captive cervids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G.M. Das

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Efficacy of oral administration of fenbendazole was studied against gastrointestinal helminthes in captive Cheetal (Axis axis at Hisar Deer Park from November 2006- January 2007. A novel method of administration of oral medication that included acclimatizing cheetal to feed individually from specific containers and providing drugs in feed after habituation was developed. Efficacy of fenbendazole was assessed by egg per gram EPG count of faecal sample on day 11 and 19 post 1st treatment and 4 days after 2nd treatment i.e. on 22nd day and compared with pre-treatment counts. Fenbendazole was efficacious against Strongyles sp., Strongyloides sp., Ascaris sp., Trichuris sp. and Moniezia sp. and significantly reduced the mean EPG of faeces, decreasing p< 0.01 after provision of drug at doses of 7.5 mg/kg body weight. The method was efficacious and provided adequate dosage to individual animals irrespective of their social hierarchy.

  1. BIOPHYSICOCHEMICAL EVALUATION AND MICROPROPAGATION STUDIES ON NEEM FOR BIODIESEL PRODUCTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prithviraj Bhandare

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available In this experiment the seed oils of 30 Neem (Azadirachta indica. A. juss biotypes were screened and evaluated for their physio-chemical parameters for oil content, biodiesel yield, density, viscosity, iodine value , free fatty acid, saponification value, flash point and fire point which were estimated for selection of the elite neem biotype. The best shoot regeneration (60%-80% was observed in Murashige and Skoog (MS medium supplemented with naphthalene acetic acid NAA (0.2-0.4 mg/L and benzyl amino purine BAP (0.2-0.4 mg/L. Root induction (80% was successfully obtained in MS medium supplemented with IBA (0.05 mg/L and IAA (0.05 mg/L. Acclimatization and hardening was quite successful with survival rate of 60%.

  2. Environmental Physiology at the Johnson Space Center: Past, Present, and Future

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conkin, Johnny

    2007-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation reviews the work in environmental physiology done at Johnson Space Center (JSC). The work is aimed at keeping astronauts healthy. This is a different approach than treating the sick, and is more of an occupational health model. The reduction of risks is the main emphasis for this work. They emphasis is to reduce the risk of decompression sickness (DCS) and acute mountain sickness (AMS). The work in environmental physiology encompasses the following areas: (1) Pressure: hypobaric and hyperbaric (2) Gases: hypoxia and hyperoxia, hypercapnia--closed space issues, inert gas physiology / respiration (3) Temperature: hypothermia and hyperthermia, thermal comfort, Protective clothing diving, aviation, mountaineering, and space (4) Acceleration (5) Noise and Vibration (6) Exercise / Performance (6) Acclimatization / Adaptation: engineering solutions when necessary. This presentation reviews the work done at JSC in the areas of DCS and AMS.

  3. AgNO3 boosted high-frequency shoot regeneration in Vigna mungo (L.) Hepper.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mookkan, Muruganantham; Andy, Ganapathi

    2014-01-01

    In order to further increase shoot regeneration frequency of Vigna mungo (L.) Hepper., the effects of AgNO3 on this process was investigated in this study. The shoot tip and cotyledonary node explants were cultured on MS salts B5 Vitamins medium containing BA+TDZ+Ads+AgNO3 for multiple shoot induction. AgNO3 influenced the shoot bud formation and their subsequent proliferation. The best medium composition for multiple shoot induction was BA, TDZ combination with Ads and AgNO3 in MSB5 medium. Maximum 39 shoots in cotyledonary node and 22 shoots in shoot tip were obtained per explants after 4 - 6 wk. of culture. Elongation and rooting were performed in GA3 (0.6mg/l) and IBA (0.4mg/L) containing media respectively. The in vitro raised plantlets were acclimatized in green house and successfully transplanted to the field with a survival rate of 78%.

  4. Improving methane production and phosphorus release in anaerobic digestion of particulate saline sludge from a brackish aquaculture recirculation system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xuedong; Ferreira, Rui B; Hu, Jianmei; Spanjers, Henri; van Lier, Jules B

    2014-06-01

    In this study, batch tests were conducted to examine the effects of trehalose and glycine betaine as well as potassium on the specific methanogenic activity (SMA), acid and alkaline phosphatase activity of anaerobic biomass and phosphorus release in anaerobic digestion of saline sludge from a brackish recirculation aquaculture system. The results of ANOVA and Tukey's HSD (honestly significant difference) tests showed that glycine betaine and trehalose enhanced SMA of anaerobic biomass and reactive phosphorus release from the particulate waste. Moreover, SMA tests revealed that methanogenic sludge, which was long-term acclimatized to a salinity level of 17 g/L was severely affected by the increase in salinity to values exceeding 35 g/L. Addition of compatible solutes, such as glycine betaine and trehalose, could be used to enhance the specific methane production rate and phosphorus release in anaerobic digestion from particulate organic waste produced in marine or brackish aquaculture recirculation systems.

  5. Rapid in vitro propagation of medicinally important Aquilaria agallocha

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HE Meng-ling; QI Shu-yuan; HU Lan-juan

    2005-01-01

    Aquilaria agallocha can produce fragrant agarwood used for incense, traditional medicine and other products. An efficient plant regeneration system was established via organogenesis from shoots developed from seedlings ofAquilaria agallocha. Shoots generated many buds on MS medium supplemented with 1.3 μmol/L BA (6-benzylaminopurine) in the first 7 weeks,and the buds elongated on MS medium with 1.3 μmol/L BA+0.5 μmol/L NAA (naphthaleneacetic acid) in another 7 weeks, 2.3shoots 2 cm in length per explant were obtained within 14 weeks. Plantlets were rooted on 1/2 MS medium after being immersed in5 μmol/L NAA for 48 h, 96.7% of the roots grew up two weeks later. All plantlets that survived acclimatization grew well in the pots.

  6. AUTEKOLOGI PURNAJIWA (EUCHRESTA HORSFIELDII (LESCH. BENN. (FABACEAE DI SEBAGIAN KAWASAN HUTAN BUKIT TAPAK CAGAR ALAM BATUKAHU BALI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sutomo -

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Purnajiwa, which lives in highland jungles in Bali, is a famous medicinal plant in Bali and its presence in the wild is now under threat due to over exploitation and the destruction of its habitat. Batukahu nature reserves are one of its remaining habitats. This preliminary study aimed to describe purnajiwa’s habitat in Batukahu nature reserves. Purnajiwa was found in shaded areas with light intensity range from 55-65%. It grows under the shading of Laportea sp., Ficus sp., Syzygium zollingerianum, and Sauraria sp. Purnajiwa grows on soil with 6,7-6,8 range of pH with litter thickness of 3-7 cm. Purnajiwa also associated with the surrounding understorey vegetation such as Diplazium proliferum (IVI = 54,6 and Oplismenus compositus L. (IVI = 40. Result from this study gave usefull information for the purpose of its acclimatization and propagation in ex-situ conservation for its sustainable resources.

  7. Ammonia tolerant enriched methanogenic cultures as bioaugmentation inocula to alleviate ammonia inhibition in continuous anaerobic reactors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fotidis, Ioannis; Wang, Han; Angelidaki, Irini

    . The bioaugmentation was performed without pausing the continuous operation of the CSTR reactor and without excluding the ammonia-rich substrate from the feedstock. Thus, bioaugmentation with mixed methanogenic cultures could potentially support the development of an efficient and cost-effective biomethanation process...... of a pure culture, to be used as bioaugmentation inoculum, poses technical difficulties due to the required sterile conditions and the special growing media. On the contrary acclimatized enrichment methanogenic cultures have lower requirements to sterility. In the present study, we used an enriched ammonia...... tolerant methanogenic culture as potential bioaugmentation inoculum in a continuous stirred tank reactor (CSTR) operating under “inhibited steady-state”, triggered by high ammonia levels (5 g NH4+-N L-1). The results of the current study established for the first time that bioaugmentation of an enriched...

  8. Chestnut, European (Castanea sativa).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corredoira, Elena; Valladares, Silvia; Vieitez, Ana M; Ballester, Antonio

    2015-01-01

    Development of a system for direct transfer of antifungal candidate genes into European chestnut (Castanea sativa) would provide an alternative approach to conventional breeding for production of chestnut trees that are tolerant to ink disease caused by Phytophthora spp. Overexpression of genes encoding PR proteins (such as thaumatin-like proteins), which display antifungal activity, may represent an important advance in control of the disease. We have used a chestnut thaumatin-like protein gene (CsTL1) isolated from European chestnut cotyledons and have achieved overexpression of the gene in chestnut somatic embryogenic lines used as target material. We have also acclimatized the transgenic plants and grown them on in the greenhouse. Here, we describe the various steps of the process, from the induction of somatic embryogenesis to the production of transgenic plants.

  9. Decolorization of Orange Ⅱ using an anaerobic sequencing batch reactor with and without co-substrates

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Soon-An Ong; Eiichi Toorisaka; Makoto Hirata; Tadashi Hano

    2012-01-01

    We investigated the decolorization of Orange Ⅱ with and without the addition of co-substrates and nutrients under an anaerobic sequencing batch reactor (ASBR).The increase in COD concentrations from 900 to 1750 to 3730 mg/L in the system treating 100 mg/L of Orange H-containing wastewater enhanced color removal from 27% to 81% to 89%,respectively.In the absence of co-substrates and nutrients,more than 95% of decolorization was achieved by the acclimatized anaerobic microbes in the bioreactor treating 600 mg/L of Orange Ⅱ.The decrease in mixed liquor suspended solids concentration by endogenous lysis of biomass preserved a high reducing environment in the ASBR,which was important for the reduction of the Orange Ⅱ azo bond that caused decolorization.The maximum decolorization rate in the ASBR was approximately 0.17 g/hr in the absence of co-substrates and nutrients.

  10. Induction of Embryogenic Callus and Plant Regeneration in Carnation (Dianthus caryophyllus L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Omid Karami

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, efficient plant regeneration through somatic embryogenesis is achieved in four cultivars of carnation (Nelson, Sagres, Spirit and Impulse. Embryogenic calli were induced on petal explants only, all the calli established on leaf, sepal, receptacle and style explants were not embryogenic. Embryogenic calli were obtained on Morashige and Skoog basal medium (1962 containing sucrose 9%, 2.0 mg L-1 2,4-dichlorophenoxy acetic acid (2,4-D, 0.2 mg L-1 6-benzyladenine (BA. After transfer of embryogenic calli to growth regulator free MS medium or medium containing low amount of 2, 4-D (0.2-0.4 mm L-1 resulted in successful somatic embryogenesis. A high frequency (80-85% of Somatic embryo germination and development into normal plantlets was observed on half-strength MS medium supplement with 3% sucrose without growth regulator. About 95% of somatic embryo-derived plantlets were acclimatized in the greenhouse conditions.

  11. Micropropagation of Dianthus deltoides L. through shoot tip and nodal cuttings culture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marković Marija

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Micropropagation (shoot tip and nodal cuttings culture was used for the rapid propagation of the non-invasive, decorative, native plants of maiden pink (Dianthus deltoides L. in order to preserve their genetic diversity. In vitro culture was successfully established on Murashige and Skoog medium (MS using seeds as the initial material. In the shoot multiplication phase, the explants were cultured on MS medium supplemented with different concentrations of 6-benzylaminopurine (BAP and naphthaleneacetic acid (NAA. The highest multiplication rate was achieved on a medium containing 0.1 mgL-1 of BAP and 0.1 mgL-1 of NAA. The rooting was successful on a hormone-free medium (100%, and the highest percentage of microplant acclimatization (97% was recorded in a 4: 1 mixture of peat and sand. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. TR 31041: Establishment of wood plantations intended for a forestation of Serbia

  12. Redefining thermal regimes to design reserves for coral reefs in the face of climate change.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iliana Chollett

    Full Text Available Reef managers cannot fight global warming through mitigation at local scale, but they can use information on thermal patterns to plan for reserve networks that maximize the probability of persistence of their reef system. Here we assess previous methods for the design of reserves for climate change and present a new approach to prioritize areas for conservation that leverages the most desirable properties of previous approaches. The new method moves the science of reserve design for climate change a step forwards by: (1 recognizing the role of seasonal acclimation in increasing the limits of environmental tolerance of corals and ameliorating the bleaching response; (2 using the best proxy for acclimatization currently available; (3 including information from several bleaching events, which frequency is likely to increase in the future; (4 assessing relevant variability at country scales, where most management plans are carried out. We demonstrate the method in Honduras, where a reassessment of the marine spatial plan is in progress.

  13. Redefining thermal regimes to design reserves for coral reefs in the face of climate change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chollett, Iliana; Enríquez, Susana; Mumby, Peter J

    2014-01-01

    Reef managers cannot fight global warming through mitigation at local scale, but they can use information on thermal patterns to plan for reserve networks that maximize the probability of persistence of their reef system. Here we assess previous methods for the design of reserves for climate change and present a new approach to prioritize areas for conservation that leverages the most desirable properties of previous approaches. The new method moves the science of reserve design for climate change a step forwards by: (1) recognizing the role of seasonal acclimation in increasing the limits of environmental tolerance of corals and ameliorating the bleaching response; (2) using the best proxy for acclimatization currently available; (3) including information from several bleaching events, which frequency is likely to increase in the future; (4) assessing relevant variability at country scales, where most management plans are carried out. We demonstrate the method in Honduras, where a reassessment of the marine spatial plan is in progress.

  14. Mineral nutrition and adventitious rooting in microcuttings of Eucalyptus globulus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwambach, Joséli; Fadanelli, Cristina; Fett-Neto, Arthur G

    2005-04-01

    We characterized the adventitious rooting response of Eucalyptus globulus Labill. to various concentrations of calcium, nitrogen, phosphorus, iron, manganese, zinc, boron and copper. The parameters analyzed were percent rooting, root number, root length and mean rooting time. Root number and root length were significantly affected by mineral nutrition, whereas mean rooting time and rooting percentage seemed to be closely related to auxin availability. Root number was affected by calcium, nitrogen source and zinc, whereas root length was influenced by concentrations of phosphorus, iron and manganese, and by nitrogen source. Based on these results, we evaluated various combinations of several concentrations of these minerals in each rooting phase. Cuttings that were rooted in an optimized mineral nutrient medium and acclimatized to ex-vitro conditions for two months showed significantly higher survival after transplanting and drought stress than cuttings rooted in basal medium and treated in the same way.

  15. Effect of sucrose, benzylaminopurine and culture condition on in vitro propagation of curcuma xanthorrhiza roxb and zingiber aromaticum val

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Curcuma xanthorrhiza and Zingiber aromaticum, are important medicinal species of the Zingiberaceae family. They are used in traditional medicine known as Jamu. This study reports on the presence of sucrose and BA (benzylaminopurine) supplements in the culture medium and also the effect of varying culture condition on In vitro propagation of these two species. Murashige and Skoog (MS) medium supplemented with 5 mg L-1 BA and 30 g L-1 sucrose, incubated under total darkness, induced the highest number of multiple shoots in C. xanthorrhiza while the Z. aromaticum produced the highest number of multiple shoot in the same medium incubated under continuous light. The increase in sucrose concentration reduced shoot height in both species. Rooting of micro-shoots was not affected by the different culture treatments. The acclimatized plantlets of C. xanthorrhiza and Z. aromaticum were normal with 83.3-100% percentage when transferred to the outside environment.(author)

  16. Water and electrolytes. [in human bodies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenleaf, J. E.; Harrison, M. H.

    1986-01-01

    It has been found that the performance of the strongest and fittest people will deteriorate rapidly with dehydration. The present paper is concerned with the anatomy of the fluid spaces in the body, taking into account also the fluid shifts and losses during exercise and their effects on performance. Total body water is arbitrarily divided into that contained within cells (cellular) and that located outside the cells (extracellular). The anatomy of body fluid compartments is considered along with the effects of exercise on body water, fluid shifts with exercise, the consequences of sweating, dehydration and exercise, heat acclimatization and endurance training, the adverse effects of dehydration, thirst and drinking during exercise, stimuli for drinking, and water, electrolyte, and carbohydrate replacement during exercise. It is found that the deterioration of physical exercise performance due to dehydration begins when body weight decreases by about 1 percent.

  17. Exploring characteristics of bioelectricity generation and dye decolorization of mixed and pure bacterial cultures from wine-bearing wastewater treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Jing-Long; Liu, Ying; Chang, Chang-Tang; Chen, Bor-Yann; Chen, Wen-Ming; Xu, Hui-Zhong

    2011-04-01

    This study uncovered microbial characteristics of bioelectricity generation and dye decolorization in single-chamber microbial fuel cells (MFCs) using activated sludge for wine-containing wastewater treatment. Phylogenetic tree analysis on 16S rRNA gene fragments indicated that the predominant strains on anodic biofilm in acclimatized MFCs were Gamma-Proteobacteria Aeromonas punctata NIU-P9, Pseudomonas plecoglossicida NIU-Y3, Pseudomonas koreensis NIU-X8, Acinetobacter junii NIU-Y8, Stenotrophomonas maltophila NIU-X2. Our findings showed that the current production capabilities of these pure strains were only ca. 10% of those of their mother activated sludge, indicating that synergistic interactions among microbes might be the most influential factor to maximize power generation in MFCs. Plus, these electrochemically active strains also performed reductive decolorization of C.I. reactive blue 160, suggesting that bioelectricity generation might be directly associated to azo dye decolorization to deal with electron transfer on anodic biofilm in MFCs.

  18. Bioaccumulation of aluminum by Lemna gibba L. from secondary treated municipal wastewater effluents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obek, Erdal; Sasmaz, Ahmet

    2011-02-01

    In this study, Lemna gibba as a sample aquatic plant was used to remove Al from a municipal secondary waste water effluence. Lemna gibba was acclimatized to the effluent in situ. The concentration of Al in the plant samples was examined for 7 days. Lemna gibba accumulated 500 μg Al g⁻¹ on the first day and reached saturation level with an increase of 100 μg g⁻¹ on the second day. The results indicated that Lemna gibba can be used as an effective aquatic plant at low costs for the treatment of municipal secondary waste water effluent. It was also noted that the plant should be harvested every 2 days for obtaining maximum efficiency. PMID:21253699

  19. In vitro micropropagation of Stevia rebaudiana Bertoni in Malaysia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ummi Nur Ain Abdul Razak

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Stevia rebaudiana Bertoni is a medicinal plants and commercially use as non-caloric sweetener for diabetic patient. In the present study, a protocol was developed for in vitro micropropagation using 6-benzylamino purine (BAP and Kinetin (Kn for the formation of multiple shoot proliferation and Indole-3-acetic acid (IAA, Indole-3-butyric acid (IBA and 1-Naphthaleneacetic acid (NAA for the induction of roots. Maximum shoot formation (7.82 ± 0.7 shoots per explants was observed on a Murashige and Skoog (MS medium supplemented with 0.5 mg L-1 BAP and 0.25 mg L-1 Kn. The maximum number of roots (30.12 ± 2.1 roots per explants was obtained on a MS medium containing 1.0 mg L-1 IBA. The well rooted plantlets were successfully weaned and acclimatized in plant soil with survival rate of 83.3 %.

  20. Evaporative Heat Loss form the Human Body in Different Thermal Environments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. L. Ramanathan

    1967-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper studies the relation of the evaporative heat loss to theraal stress in naturally acclimatized subjects under Indian conditions. The environmental conditions under which the subjects were made to perform light exercise ranged from 18.9Degree C E.T to 30Degree C E.T. The evaporative heat was found to be significantly correlated to the 1% level with the air and effective temperatures, with correlation constants of 0.79 & 0.80 respectively. The average rate of change of the evaporative heatloss with air temperature was 15.4 K cal/Hr/Degree C and with the effective temperature 9.1 K cal/Hr/Degree C.

  1. Mitochondrial coupling and capacity of oxidative phosphorylation in skeletal muscle of Inuit and Caucasians in the arctic winter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gnaiger, E; Boushel, R; Søndergaard, H;

    2015-01-01

    During evolution, mitochondrial DNA haplogroups of arctic populations may have been selected for lower coupling of mitochondrial respiration to ATP production in favor of higher heat production. We show that mitochondrial coupling in skeletal muscle of traditional and westernized Inuit habituating...... northern Greenland is identical to Danes of western Europe haplogroups. Biochemical coupling efficiency was preserved across variations in diet, muscle fiber type, and uncoupling protein-3 content. Mitochondrial phenotype displayed plasticity in relation to lifestyle and environment. Untrained Inuit...... and Danes had identical capacities to oxidize fat substrate in arm muscle, which increased in Danes during the 42 days of acclimation to exercise, approaching the higher level of the Inuit hunters. A common pattern emerges of mitochondrial acclimatization and evolutionary adaptation in humans at high...

  2. In-Vitro Seed Germination and Effect of Growth Regulators on Subsequent Development of Protocorms of Eulophia Nuda Lindl

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Varsha Dawande

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Asymbiotic seed germination of Eulophia nuda Lindl. was observed on Knudson C medium. About 90% seeds germinated within 8-10 weeks and formed green protocorms in 11-12 weeks. Effect of BA and IBA was studied on plantlet development from protocorms. BA shows the best results with respect to number and length of shoots. Maximum number (6.45±1.36 and length (3.90±0.99 was observed on MS medium supplemented with 4.44μM.BA. Maximum root growth was also observed on same medium (4.8±0.99 number of roots and 1.43±0.13cm length. The regenerated plantlets were successfully acclimatized and transferred to earthen pots. The results presented here show that in vitro seed germination and plantlet development in Eulophia nuda Lindl., an endangered orchid, can be achieved at a higher rate by this method.

  3. Effect of hypoxaemia on water and sodium homeostatic hormones and renal function

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Niels Vidiendal

    1995-01-01

    the advantage of opposing excessive sodium and water retention, which characterizes acute mountain sickness. Short-term isocapnic or hypocapnic hypoxaemia in spontaneously breathing humans causes moderate if any increases in renal blood flow and only minor changes in GFR. In contrast, renal blood flow and GFR......Changes in body fluid homeostasis during acute hypoxaemia suggest a crucial role of renal function in acclimatization processes. Hypoxaemia stimulates sympathetic nervous activity, and also the cardiovascular system is affected with increases in heart rate and cardiac output. In most subjects......, a hypoxic ventilatory response produces hypocapnia and respiratory alkalosis. Acute hypoxaemia depresses aldosterone secretion secondary to a direct effect on adrenal cells. Also plasma renin is decreased in resting hypoxaemic conditions, but the mechanism remains unknown. These hormonal changes may have...

  4. Clonal fidelity of chrysanthemum regenerated from long term cultures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jevremović Slađana

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Morphological characteristics of flowers of long term regenerated chrysanthemum, cv. "White Spider", after ten years of micropropagation are investigated. Shoot cultures are established and maintained more than ten years by stem segment culture on MS medium supplemented with BAP and NAA (1.0, 0.1 mgL-1, respectively. Rooting of shoots (100 % has done on MS medium without hormones and it was very successful after ten years, as well as, after two or eight years of micropropagation. Acclimation of rooted chrysanthemum plantlets at greenhouse conditions was excellent and after appropriate photoperiod "in vitro" plants flowered 90.3 % and have the same flower color, shape and size as mother plants. Flower color changes of "in vitro" plants are observed during another flowering cycle one year after acclimatization. Observed variations of chrysanthemum flowers could be attributed to epigenetic factors.

  5. Effect of ultraviolet radiation absorbing film on pollination work of foreign bumblebee [Bombus terrestris

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The transmitted light through the ultraviolet radiation absorbing (UVA) film has a preventing effect of disease and pest occurrence. To develop the agriculture harmonized with the ecosystem, we attempted to research a further possible utilization of the UVA film. Pollination work of foreign bumblebee (Bombus terrestris) in the greenhouses roofed with UVA film and with common film for agriculture was examined in growing fruit-vegetables. The bumblebees used were not acclimatized to environmental conditions of the greenhouses. They visited flowers and gathered pollen from flowered crops grown in both houses, irrespective of the kind of film covering over the greenhouse roof, and the pollen quantity gathered was far greater in crops which produced in large quantity of pollen. Thus, the bumblebees were capable to work under the condition lacking in ultraviolet radiation. This pollinating behavior is different from that of honeybees. Then we concluded that bumblebees functioned well as an efficient pollinator under the condition without ultraviolet radiation

  6. Morphological changes in the pituitary-adrenocortical axis in natives of La Paz

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gosney, John; Heath, Donald; Williams, David; Rios-Dalenz, Jaime

    1991-03-01

    Increased activity of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenocortical axis is part of the response to the stress of initial exposure to hypoxia, but there is evidence to suggest that it persists after homeostatic stability has been regained and acclimatization achieved. The adrenal glands of five lifelong residents of La Paz, Bolivia, who had lived at altitudes in the range 3600 3800 m, were significantly larger than those in age-matched controls from sea level (15.3g vs 10.4g; Paxis in man and animals exposed to a hypoxic environment, these data suggest that greater amounts of adrenocorticotrophic hormone (ACTH) are required to maintain normal adrenocortical function under such circumstances, probably as a result of hypoxic inhibition of adrenocortical sensitivity to stimulation. Physiological hyperplasia of the adrenal cortex may be common in people living at high altitude.

  7. Hemoglobin isoform differentiation and allosteric regulation of oxygen binding in the turtle, Trachemys scripta

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Damsgaard, Christian; Storz, Jay F.; Hoffmann, Federico G.;

    2013-01-01

    When freshwater turtles acclimatize to winter hibernation, there is a gradual transition from aerobic to anaerobic metabolism, which may require adjustments of blood O2 transport before turtles become anoxic. Here, we report the effects of protons, anionic cofactors, and temperature on the O2......-binding properties of isolated hemoglobin (Hb) isoforms, HbA and HbD, in the turtle Trachemys scripta. We determined the primary structures of the constituent subunits of the two Hb isoforms, and we related the measured functional properties to differences in O2 affinity between untreated hemolysates from...... turtles that were acclimated to normoxia and anoxia. Our data show that HbD has a consistently higher O2 affinity compared with HbA, whereas Bohr and temperature effects, as well as thiol reactivity, are similar. Although sequence data show amino acid substitutions at two known β-chain ATP-binding site...

  8. SEASONAL CHANGES OF VITAL SIGNS IN RELATION TO THE WORKING THERMAL CONDITIONS AMONG WORKERS OF TEHRAN BAKERIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Goebabai ; K. Parwizpoor M. Mahmoudi

    1987-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to determine the seasonal changes of vital signs (body temperature, pulse rate and blood pressure in relation to the working thermal conditions. In this study a total number of 202 permanent workers of bakeries were studied during summer and winter. The results showed the body temperature and pulse rate raised more in summer than in winter in all workers except who worked under favorable thermal conditions and are involved in light duties too (P< 0.005. No significant seasonal changes, however, was noticed concerning systolic and diastolic blood pressure. It was concluded that acclimation does not totally eliminate the seasonal changes in thermoregulatory set point. Furthermore the results indicated that the natural acclimatization is preferred over the artificial process.

  9. Exploring action dynamics as an index of paired-associate learning.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rick Dale

    Full Text Available Much evidence exists supporting a richer interaction between cognition and action than commonly assumed. Such findings demonstrate that short-timescale processes, such as motor execution, may relate in systematic ways to longer-timescale cognitive processes, such as learning. We further substantiate one direction of this interaction: the flow of cognition into action systems. Two experiments explored match-to-sample paired-associate learning, in which participants learned randomized pairs of unfamiliar symbols. During the experiments, their hand movements were continuously tracked using the Nintendo Wiimote. Across learning, participant arm movements are initiated and completed more quickly, exhibit lower fluctuation, and exert more perturbation on the Wiimote during the button press. A second experiment demonstrated that action dynamics index novel learning scenarios, and not simply acclimatization to the Wiimote interface. Results support a graded and systematic covariation between cognition and action, and recommend ways in which this theoretical perspective may contribute to applied learning contexts.

  10. Micropropagación de plantas de lechosa en recipientes de inmersión temporal a partir de brotes axilares Micropropagation of papaya plants in temporary immersion recipients from axilary shoots

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ariadne Vegas García

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Título en ingles: Micropropagation of papaya plants in temporary immersion recipients from axilary shootsTítulo corto: Micropropagación de lechosa en recipientes de inmersión temporal.Resumen: Se estandarizaron las condiciones de iniciación, multiplicación, enraizamiento y aclimatización de plantas hermafroditas de lechosa cv Maradol provenientes de brotes axilares, producidos en recipientes de inmersión temporal RITA®. En cada envase, contentivo de 200 ml de medio de cultivo líquido de Fitch, se colocaron cuatro brotes de 2 a 3 cm de longitud. Los biorreactores se conectaron a tres líneas de inmersión de 5, 2 y 1 min cada 4h y se colocaron 6 envases en promedio por línea, en condiciones de fotoperíodo de 16 h. Transcurridos 30 a 45 días, se cuantificaron los brotes y se clasificaron de acuerdo al tamaño: < 2 cm (pequeños, entre 2 a 3 cm (medianos,  ˃ 3 cm con y sin raíz (grandes. Los dos primeros tipos de brotes se continuaron multiplicando en los mismos medios; y los más elongados se aclimatizaron utilizando el Sistema Autotrófico Hidropónico (SAH. Se determinó la sanidad y la fidelidad de las plantas producidas mediante pruebas de ELISA y RAPD, respectivamente. Durante un periodo de 6 meses se reciclaron un total de 47 recipientes, los cuales produjeron 1.091 brotes: 377  pequeños; 482 medianos; 175 grandes sin raíz y 57 con raíz. Usando el SAH se obtuvo 89,5% de plantas aclimatizadas cuando se usaron brotes enraizados, y 41,6% a partir de brotes sin  raíces. Con la combinación de las técnicas RITA y SAH se logró un sistema continuo y eficiente de producción de plantas sanas y fieles al tipo, en comparación con los métodos convencionales de micropropagación y aclimatización.Palabras clave: Carica papaya, RITA®, sistema autotrófico, estabilidad genética.Abstract: We standardized initiation, multiplication, rooting and acclimatization conditions of papaya cv Maradol hermaphrodite plants from axillary

  11. Biofunctional Characteristics of Lignite Fly Ash Modified by Humates: A New Soil Conditioner

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Konstantinos Chassapis

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Fly ash superficially modified with humic substances from the Megalopolis lignitic power plant was prepared and evaluated for agricultural uses. UV-vis spectrophotometry and IR spectroscopy revealed that fly ash shows high sorption efficiency towards humic substances. Adsorption proceeds stepwise via strong Coulombic and hydrophophic forces of attraction between guest and host materials. Langmuir, Freundlich, BET, Harkins-Jura, and Dubinin-Radushkevich isotherm models were employed to evaluate the ongoing adsorption and shed light to the physicochemical properties of the sorbent-adsorbate system. Humic substances desorption and microbial cultivation experiments were also carried out to examine the regeneration of the humates under washing and explore the possibility of this material acclimatizing in real soil conditions, both useful for biofunctional agricultural applications.

  12. Insecticide toxicity to Trichogramma pretiosum (Hymenoptera: Trichogrammatidae) females and effect on descendant generation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vianna, Ulysses R; Pratissoli, Dirceu; Zanuncio, José C; Lima, Eraldo R; Brunner, Jay; Pereira, Fabrício F; Serrão, José E

    2009-02-01

    The effect of nine insecticides used in tomato production was evaluated on adults of two Trichogramma pretiosum Riley (Hymenoptera: Trichogrammatidae) populations from Rive and Afonso Cláudio, Espírito Santo State, Brazil. The experiment was developed in an acclimatized chamber at 25 +/- 1 degrees C, 70 +/- 10% relative humidity and 14 h photophase. Eggs of Anagasta kuehniella (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae), previously immersed in insecticides solutions were offered to females of both T. pretiosum populations. Bacillus thuringiensis, lufenuron and triflumuron had lowest negative effects on parasitism and viability of individuals of these populations; however, abamectin and pyrethroids (betacyflurin 50 and 125 g/l and esfenvalerate) insecticides reduced parasitism rates. T. pretiosum emerged from A. kuehniella eggs treated with esfenvalerate but were not able to parasitize non treated eggs of this host. B. thuringiensis, lufenuron and triflumuron may be used in integrated pest management programs to control tomato pests, because they have moderated negative effect on parasitoid wasps. PMID:18931909

  13. MATLAB WEB SERVER AND ITS APPLICATION IN REMOTE COLLABORATIVE DESIGN OF MAGNETIC BEARING SYSTEMS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    Acclimatizing itself to the development of network,Math Works Inc constructed a MATLAB Web Server environment by dint of which one can browse the calculation and plots of MATLAB through Internet directly.The installation and use of the environment is introduced.A code established on the platform of MATLAB,which deals with the modal analysis of magnetic bearing system(MBS) supporting rotors of five degrees of freedom and considering the coupling of thrust bearing with radical bearings is modified to work in the environment.The purpose is to realize a remote call of the code by users through Internet for the performance analysis of the system.Such an application is very important to the concurrent design of MBS and for the utilization of distributive knowledge acquisition resources in collaborative design.The work on modification and realization is described and the results are discussed.

  14. Cold Temperature Effects on Long-Term Nitrogen Transformation Pathway in a Tidal Flow Constructed Wetland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pang, Yunmeng; Zhang, Yan; Yan, Xingjun; Ji, Guodong

    2015-11-17

    The present study investigated long-term treatment performance and nitrogen transformation mechanisms in tidal flow constructed wetlands (TFCWs) under 4, 8, and 12 °C temperature regimes. High and stable ammonium (NH4(+)-N) removal efficiency (93-96%) was achieved in our TFCWs, whereas nitrate (NO3(-)-N) was accumulated at different levels under different temperatures. Quantitative response relationships showed anammox/amoA, (narG+napA)/amoA, and (narG+napA)/bacteria were the respective key functional gene groups determining 4, 8, and 12 °C NO3(-)-N reduction. Pathway analysis revealed the contribution of these functional gene groups along a depth gradient. In addition, denitrification process increased, while anammox process decreased consistent with a rise in temperature from 4 to 12 °C. Furthermore, cold temperatures exhibited different effects on anammox and denitrification and their long-term acclimatization capacities changed with temperature. PMID:26460580

  15. Respirometry applied for biological nitrogen removal process; Aplicacion de la respirometria al tratamiento biologico para la eliminacion del nitrogeno

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Serrano, E.

    2004-07-01

    In waste water treatment plants, the Biological Nitrogen Removal (BNR) has acquired a fundamental importance. The BNR processes are Nitrification ( aerobic) and Denitrification (anoxic). Since both processes are carried on living microorganisms, a lack of their bioactivity information might cause serious confusion about their control criteria and following up purposes. For this reason, the Re spirometry applied to those processes has reached an important role by getting an essential information in a timely manner through respiration rate measurements in static and dynamic modes and applications such as AUR (Ammonium Uptake Rate), Nitrification Capacity. RBCOD (Readily Biodegradable COD) as well as AUR related to SRT (Sludge age), RBCOD related to NUR (Specific Nitrate Uptake Rate) and others. By other side in this article we have introduced a not very well known applications related to denitrification, about the methanol acclimatization and generated bioactivity. (Author) 6 refs.

  16. Effect of ammonium and acetate on methanogenic pathway and methanogenic community composition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fotidis, Ioannis; Karakashev, Dimitar Borisov; Kotsopoulos, T. A.;

    2013-01-01

    Methanogenesis from acetate (aceticlastic methanogenesis or syntrophic acetate oxidation (SAO) coupled with hydrogenotrophic methanogenesis) is the most important step for the biogas process. The major environmental factors influencing methanogenesis are volatile fatty acids, ammonia, p......H, and temperature. In our study, the effect of acetate and ammonia concentration on the methanogenic pathway from acetate and on the methanogenic communities was elucidated in two experiments: one where inocula were gradually exposed to increasing concentrations of acetate or ammonia, and another with direct...... exposure to different ammonia concentrations. The methanogenic pathway was determined by following the production of (14) CH(4) and (14) CO(2) from acetate labeled in the methyl group (C-2). Microbial communities' composition was determined by fluorescence in situ hybridization. Upon acclimatization...

  17. Detection of antibodies to Oropouche virus in non-human primates in Goiânia City, Goiás

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marize Moreira Gibrail

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: INTRODUCTION Arboviruses are associated with human disease, and non-human primates (NHPs are important primary hosts. This study shows the detection of antibodies to Oropouche virus (OROV in NHPs either living in urban parks or acclimatized at the Wild Animal Screening Center, Goiânia city. METHODS: Fifty blood samples were analyzed by hemagglutination-inhibition and neutralization assays. RESULTS: Two monkeys (Alouatta caraya had antibodies to OROV by both techniques. CONCLUSIONS This is the first report demonstrating the detection of OROV antibodies in Goiás State and may represent the introduction/circulation of OROV in the region and a potential risk to the human population.

  18. Plant regeneration from petiole and leaf of African violet (Saintpaulia ionantha Wendl. cultured in vitro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wichada Sunpui

    2002-07-01

    Full Text Available A regeneration procedure was developed for in vitro grown African violet (Saintpaulia ionantha Wendl.. Adventitious shoot regeneration was compared among petioles, leaves and stems cultured on MS basal medium. High frequency regeneration was obtained from leaves and petioles supplemented with plant growth regulators (BA, KN, 2,4-D, and NAA. Regeneration media that induced the highest number of shoots in petiole explants was either MS medium supplemented with 3 mg/l BA alone or 1 mg/l NAA plus 3 mg/l BA. Adventitious shoots were also regenerated from callus that was derived from leaf explants cultured on MS medium containing several concentrations of TDZ. Callus induced on medium with 0.5 mg/l TDZ showed the best shoot induction. Regenerated shoots could be rooted on 1/2 MS medium or MS medium supplemented with 3 mg/l IBA. Complete plantlets were acclimatized and successfully transplanted to glasshouse conditions.

  19. AGROBACTERIUM MEDIATED TRANSFORMATION OF PIGEONPEA (CAJANUS CAJAN L MILLLSP VAR LRG-41 FROM AXILLARY BUD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Raghavendra

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available A reliable method of plant regeneration has been achieved from Axillary buds. Shoots appeared from explants when cultured on Murashige and skoog (MS medium supplemented with BAP (Benzyl amino purine, Napthalene acetic acid (NAA and Kinetin at various combinations. Elongated shoots were rooted with 70.6% rooting frequency in MS medium with indole buteric acid (IBA at 1.0mg/l. The rooted plantlets were established well in soilrite mixture medium with 91% success and days taken for acclimatization were 12.8 days. This protocol was used in Agrobacterium mediated transformation. The transformation was carried out using the Agrobacterium strain LBA4404 containing the binary vector pCAMBIA2301 harboring npt II as selectable marker and GUS as reporter gene.

  20. AGROBACTERIUM MEDIATED TRANSFORMATION OF PIGEONPEA (CAJANUS CAJAN L MILLLSP VAR LRG-41 FROM AXILLARY BUD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Raghavendra

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available A reliable method of plant regeneration has been achieved from Axillary buds. Shoots appeared from explants when cultured on Murashige and skoog (MS medium supplemented with BAP (Benzyl amino purine, Napthalene acetic acid (NAA and Kinetin at various combinations. Elongated shoots were rooted with 70.6% rooting frequency in MS medium with indole buteric acid (IBA at 1.0mg/l. The rooted plantlets were established well in soilrite mixture medium with 91% success and days taken for acclimatization were 12.8 days. This protocol was used in Agrobacterium mediated transformation. The transformation was carried out using the Agrobacterium strain LBA4404 containing the binary vector pCAMBIA2301 harboring npt II as selectable marker and GUS as reporter gene.

  1. Ceiling-mounted personalized ventilation system integrated with a secondary air distribution system - a human response study in hot and humid climate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bin, Yang; Sekhar, S.C.; Melikov, Arsen Krikor

    2010-01-01

    The benefits of thermal comfort and indoor air quality with personalized ventilation (PV) systems have been demonstrated in recent studies. One of the barriers for wide spread acceptance by architects and HVAC designers has been attributed to challenges and constraints faced in the integration of...... PV systems with the work station. A newly developed ceiling-mounted PV system addresses these challenges and provides a practical solution while retaining much of the apparent benefits of PV systems. Assessments of thermal environment, air movement, and air quality for ceiling-mounted PV system were...... performed with tropically acclimatized subjects in a Field Environmental Chamber. Thirty-two subjects performed normal office work and could choose to be exposed to four different PV airflow rates (4, 8, 12, and 16 L/s), thus offering themselves a reasonable degree of individual control. Ambient...

  2. Alginate-encapsulation of shoot tips of jojoba [Simmondsia chinensis (Link) Schneider] for germplasm exchange and distribution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Sunil; Rai, Manoj K; Singh, Narender; Mangal, Manisha

    2010-12-01

    Shoot tips excised from in vitro proliferated shoots derived from nodal explants of jojoba [Simmondsia chinensis (Link) Schneider] were encapsulated in calcium alginate beads for germplasm exchange and distribution. A gelling matrix of 3 % sodium alginate and 100 mM calcium chloride was found most suitable for formation of ideal calcium alginate beads. Best response for shoot sprouting from encapsulated shoot tips was recorded on 0.8 % agar-solidified full-strength MS medium. Rooting was induced upon transfer of sprouted shoots to 0.8 % agar-solidified MS medium containing 1 mg l(-1) IBA. About 70 % of encapsulated shoot tips were rooted and converted into plantlets. Plants regenerated from encapsulated shoot tips were acclimatized successfully. The present encapsulation approach could also be applied as an alternative method of propagation of desirable elite genotype of jojoba.

  3. Altered antibiotic tolerance in anaerobic digesters acclimated to triclosan or triclocarban.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carey, Daniel E; McNamara, Patrick J

    2016-11-01

    Bench-scale anaerobic digesters were amended to elevated steady-state concentrations of triclosan (850 mg/kg) and triclocarban (150 mg/kg) using a synthetic feed. After more than 9 solids retention time (SRT) values of acclimatization, biomass from each digester (and a control digester that received no antimicrobials) was used to assess the toxicity of three antibiotics. Methane production rate was measured as a surrogate for activity in microcosms that received doses of antibiotics ranging from no-antibiotic to inhibitory concentrations. Biomass amended with triclocarban was more sensitive to tetracycline compared to the control indicating synergistic inhibitory effects between this antibiotic and triclocarban. In contrast, biomass amended with triclosan was able to tolerate statistically higher levels of ciprofloxacin indicating that triclosan can induce functional resistance to ciprofloxacin in an anaerobic digester community.

  4. Strategies for recovering inhibition caused by long chain fatty acids on anaerobic thermophilic biogas reactors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Palatsi, J.; Laureni, M.; Andres, M.V.;

    2009-01-01

    and reducing the bioavailable LCFA concentration, were found to be the best recovery strategies, improving the recovery time from 10 to 2 days, in semi-continuously fed systems. Moreover, acclimatization was introduced by repeated inhibition and process recovery. The subsequent exposure of the anaerobic......Long chain fatty acids (LCFA) concentrations over 1.0 g L1 were inhibiting manure thermophilic digestion, in batch and semi-continuous experiments, resulting in a temporary cease of the biogas production. The aim of the work was to test and evaluate several recovery actions, such as reactor feeding...... patterns, dilution and addition of adsorbents, in order to determine the most appropriate strategy for fast recovery of the reactor activity in manure based plants inhibited by LCFA. Dilution with active inoculum for increasing the biomass/LCFA ratio, or addition of adsorbents for adsorbing the LCFA...

  5. Micropropagation and callogenesis in Mandevilla guanabarica (Apocynaceae, an endemic plant from Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra Zorat Cordeiro

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Mandevilla guanabarica is an endemic plant from Brazil, with pharmacological and ornamental potential, both unexplored. This study established the best culture medium for in vitro plant maintenance, efficient protocol for its regeneration, and callogenesis from different explants excised from in vitro-grown plants. Woody plant medium with double boron concentration (WPMB plus 2.27 µM thidiazuron or 0.49 µM 2-isopentenyladenine provided multiplication rates higher than 1:6. Shoots were 100% rooted on WPMB. After acclimatization, plants showed 83% survival. For callogenesis, the use of MS media supplemented with high concentrations of picloram or 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid produced, respectively, friable or compact non-morphogenic calluses from different types of explants. This micropropagation protocol allows the production of seedlings of M. guanabarica for ornamental or commercial uses, and for conservation purposes; calluses can be used to establish suspension cultures in prospecting for bioactive compounds

  6. Morphological changes in the pituitary-adrenocortical axis in natives of La Paz

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gosney, John; Heath, Donald; Williams, David; Rios-Dalenz, Jaime

    1991-03-01

    Increased activity of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenocortical axis is part of the response to the stress of initial exposure to hypoxia, but there is evidence to suggest that it persists after homeostatic stability has been regained and acclimatization achieved. The adrenal glands of five lifelong residents of La Paz, Bolivia, who had lived at altitudes in the range 3600 3800 m, were significantly larger than those in age-matched controls from sea level (15.3g vs 10.4g; Phormone (ACTH) are required to maintain normal adrenocortical function under such circumstances, probably as a result of hypoxic inhibition of adrenocortical sensitivity to stimulation. Physiological hyperplasia of the adrenal cortex may be common in people living at high altitude.

  7. AltitudeOmics: Decreased reaction time after high altitude cognitive testing is a sensitive metric of hypoxic impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roach, Emma B; Bleiberg, Joseph; Lathan, Corinna E; Wolpert, Lawrence; Tsao, Jack W; Roach, Robert C

    2014-04-01

    Humans experiencing hypoxic conditions exhibit multiple signs of cognitive impairment, and high altitude expeditions may be undermined by abrupt degradation in mental performance. Therefore, the development of psychometric tools to quickly and accurately assess cognitive impairment is of great importance in aiding medical decision-making in the field, particularly in situations where symptoms may not be readily recognized. The present study used the Defense Automated Neurobehavioral Assessment (DANA), a ruggedized and portable neurocognitive assessment tool, to examine cognitive function in healthy human volunteers at sea level, immediately after ascending to an elevation over 5000 m, and following 16 days of acclimatization to this high altitude. The DANA battery begins with a simple reaction time test (SRT1) which is followed by a 20-min series of complex cognitive tests and ends with a second test of simple reaction time (SRT2). Tabulating the performance scores from these two tests allows the calculation of an SRT change score (dSRT=SRT1 - SRT2) that reflects the potential effect of mental effort spent during the 20-min testing session. We found that dSRT, but not direct SRT in comparison to sea-level baseline performance, is highly sensitive to acute altitude-related performance deficits and the remission of impairment following successful acclimatization. Our results suggest that dSRT is a potentially useful analytical method to enhance the sensitivity of neurocognitive assessment.This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution- Non Commercial License, where it is permissible to download, share and reproduce the work in any medium, provided it is properly cited. The work cannot be used commercially. PMID:24722229

  8. Characterization of Arabidopsis sterol glycosyltransferase TTG15/UGT80B1 role during freeze and heat stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mishra, Manoj K; Singh, Gaurav; Tiwari, Shalini; Singh, Ruchi; Kumari, Nishi; Misra, Pratibha

    2015-01-01

    Sterol glycosyltransferases regulate the properties of sterols by catalyzing the transfer of carbohydrate molecules to the sterol moiety for the synthesis of steryl glycosides and acyl steryl glycosides. We have analyzed the functional role of TTG15/UGT80B1 gene of Arabidopsis thaliana in freeze/thaw and heat shock stress using T-DNA insertional sgt knockout mutants. Quantitative study of spatial as well as temporal gene expression showed tissue-specific and dynamic expression patterns throughout the growth stages. Comparative responses of Col-0, TTG15/UGT80B1 knockout mutant and p35S:TTG15/UGT80B1 restored lines were analyzed under heat and freeze stress conditions. Heat tolerance was determined by survival of plants at 42°C for 3 h, MDA analysis and chlorophyll fluorescence image (CFI) analysis. Freezing tolerance was determined by survival of the plants at -1°C temperature in non-acclimatized (NA) and cold acclimatized (CA) conditions and also by CFI analysis, which revealed that, p35S:TTG15/UGT80B1 restored plants were more adapted to freeze stress than TTG15/UGT80B1 knockout mutant under CA condition. HPLC analysis of the plants showed reduced sterol glycoside in mutant seedlings as compared to other genotypes. Following CA condition, both β-sitosterol and sitosterol glycoside quantity was more in Col-0 and p35S:TTG15/UGT80B1 restored lines, whereas it was significantly less in TTG15/UGT80B1 knockout mutants. From these results, it may be concluded that due to low content of free sterols and sterol glycosides, the physiology of mutant plants was more affected during both, the chilling and heat stress. PMID:26382564

  9. Adaptation of microalgae to a gradient of continuous petroleum contamination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In order to study adaptation of microalgae to petroleum contamination, we have examined an environmental stress gradient by crude oil contamination in the Arroyo Minero River (AMR), Argentina. Underground crude oil has constantly leaked out since 1915 as a consequence of test drilling for possible petroleum exploitation. Numerous microalgae species proliferated in AMR upstream of the crude oil spill. In contrast, only four microalgal species were detected in the crude oil spill area. Species richness increases again downstream. Microalgae biomass in the crude oil spill area is dominated by a mesophile species, Scenedesmus sp. Effects of oil samples from AMR spill on photosynthetic performance and growth were studied using laboratory cultures of two Scenedesmus sp. strains. One strain (Se-co) was isolated from the crude oil spill area. The other strain (Se-pr) was isolated from a pristine area without petroleum contamination. Crude oil has undetectable effects on Se-co strain. In contrast crude oil rapidly destroys Se-pr strain. However, Se-pr strain can adapt to low doses of petroleum (≤3% v/v total hydrocarbons/water) by means of physiological acclimatization. In contrast, only rare crude oil-resistant mutants are able to grow under high levels of crude oil (≥10% v/v total hydrocarbons/water). These crude oil-resistant mutants have arisen through rare spontaneous mutations that occur prior to crude oil exposure. Species richness in different areas of AMR is closely connected to the kind of mechanism (genetic adaptation vs. physiological acclimatization) that allows adaptation. Resistant-mutants are enough to assure the survival of microalgal species under catastrophic crude oil spill.

  10. Exploring the response of West Siberian wetland methane emissions to future changes in climate, vegetation, and soil microbial communities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. J. Bohn

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available We ran the VIC land surface model over the West Siberian Lowland (WSL, forced with outputs from 32 CMIP5 models for the RCP4.5 scenario, and compared the effects of changes in climate and vegetation (leaf area index in particular on predicted wetland CH4 emissions and other fluxes for the period 2071–2100, relative to the period 1981–2010. We also explored possible responses of soil microbial communities to these changes. Our results suggest that, if soil microbial communities acclimatize to elevated temperatures without changes in species abundances, end-of-century CH4 emissions from the WSL will only rise to 3.6 Tg CH4 yr−1 (6% above historical emissions. In contrast, if microbial species abundances in the north additionally shift to resemble those in the south, CH4 emissions will more than double, to 7.3 Tg CH4 yr−1. Crucially, while historical emissions were concentrated in the southern half of the domain, acclimatization plus microbial population shifts concentrate almost 3/4 of future emissions in the northern half of the domain, where the possible release of carbon with permafrost thaw is a concern. In addition, microbial population shifts disproportionately increase microbial activity in the period during and immediately following snowmelt, when highly labile carbon is first thought to be released from the soil. This work indicates the importance of better constraining the responses of soil microbial communities to changes in climate and vegetation as they are critical determinants of the region's future methane emissions.

  11. Effects of test media on reproduction in Potamopyrgus antipodarum and of pre-exposure population densities on sensitivity to cadmium in a reproduction test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sieratowicz, Agnes; Schulte-Oehlmann, Ulrike; Wigh, Adriana; Oehlmann, Jörg

    2013-01-01

    Molluscan species can be affected by various anthropogenic substances. Yet, these effects are disregarded in chemical risk assessment as molluscs are unrepresented in standard OECD guidelines. The project "validation of a mollusc reproduction test" (Federal Environment Agency, code 371165417) deals with the development of a test method with the mudsnail Potamopyrgus antipodarum for OECD purposes. In this context, the influence on reproduction of both, different media and varying snail density, has been observed in independent experiments. Further, the impact of density on the outcome of subsequent cadmium (Cd) toxicity in a test has been investigated to refine the existing methodology. First, adult snails were kept in different test media for 12 weeks. Second, snail density was increased for 4 weeks to induce stress. Snails from each density scenario were used for another 4 weeks in a reproduction test at an equal density with 12 μg Cd/L, respectively. Significant differences in reproduction between medium groups were noted after 4 and 8, but not 12, weeks. Further, reproduction was significantly altered by snail density in the beakers but after subsequent 4 weeks at a constant density, no differences were observed between control groups. Cd reduced reproduction and this effect increased with snail density in the pre-exposure period, demonstrating that a previous stress factor may result in increased sensitivity to chemicals and underlines the need for more standardized breeding conditions to minimize effect variations. Based on the outcome of this study, an acclimatization period of 12 weeks must be guaranteed for specimens transferred to another medium. Further, 4 weeks of acclimatization are necessary after density stress. An additional 12 weeks density experiment showed that medium volume in each replicate can be decreased by half to save on chemicals, water and space during tests.

  12. The red coral (Corallium rubrum) transcriptome: a new resource for population genetics and local adaptation studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pratlong, M; Haguenauer, A; Chabrol, O; Klopp, C; Pontarotti, P; Aurelle, D

    2015-09-01

    The question of species survival and evolution in heterogeneous environments has long been a subject for study. Indeed, it is often difficult to identify the molecular basis of adaptation to contrasted environments, and nongenetic effects increase the difficulty to disentangle fixed effects, such as genetic adaptation, from variable effects, such as individual phenotypic plasticity, in adaptation. Nevertheless, this question is also of great importance for understanding the evolution of species in a context of climate change. The red coral (Corallium rubrum) lives in the Mediterranean Sea, where at depths ranging from 5 to 600 m, it meets very contrasted thermal conditions. The shallowest populations of this species suffered from mortality events linked with thermal anomalies that have highlighted thermotolerance differences between individuals. We provide here a new transcriptomic resource, as well as candidate markers for the study of local adaptation. We sequenced the transcriptome of six individuals from 5 m and six individuals from 40 m depth at the same site of the Marseilles bay, after a period of common garden acclimatization. We found differential expression maintained between the two depths even after common garden acclimatization, and we analysed the polymorphism pattern of these samples. We highlighted contigs potentially implicated in the response to thermal stress, which could be good candidates for the study of thermal adaptation for the red coral. Some of these genes are also involved in the response to thermal stress in other corals. Our method enables the identification of candidate loci of local adaptation useful for other nonmodel organisms.

  13. Interactive effects of ocean acidification and warming on coral reef associated epilithic algal communities under past, present-day and future ocean conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vogel, N.; Cantin, N. E.; Strahl, J.; Kaniewska, P.; Bay, L.; Wild, C.; Uthicke, S.

    2016-06-01

    Epilithic algal communities play critical ecological roles on coral reefs, but their response to individual and interactive effects of ocean warming (OW) and ocean acidification (OA) is still largely unknown. We investigated growth, photosynthesis and calcification of early epilithic algal community assemblages exposed for 6 months to four temperature profiles (-1.1, ±0.0, +0.9, +1.6 °C) that were crossed with four carbon dioxide partial pressure (pCO2) levels (360, 440, 650, 940 µatm), under flow-through conditions and natural light regimes. Additionally, we compared the cover of heavily calcified crustose coralline algae (CCA) and lightly calcified red algae of the genus Peyssonnelia among treatments. Increase in cover of epilithic communities showed optima under moderately elevated temperatures and present pCO2, while cover strongly decreased under high temperatures and high-pCO2 conditions, particularly due to decreasing cover of CCA. Similarly, community calcification rates were strongly decreased at high pCO2 under both measured temperatures. While final cover of CCA decreased under high temperature and pCO2 (additive negative effects), cover of Peyssonnelia spp. increased at high compared to annual average and moderately elevated temperatures. Thus, cover of Peyssonnelia spp. increased in treatment combinations with less CCA, which was supported by a significant negative correlation between organism groups. The different susceptibility to stressors most likely derived from a different calcification intensity and/or mineral. Notably, growth of the epilithic communities and final cover of CCA were strongly decreased under reduced-pCO2 conditions compared to the present. Thus, CCA may have acclimatized from past to present-day pCO2 conditions, and changes in carbonate chemistry, regardless in which direction, negatively affect them. However, if epilithic organisms cannot further acclimatize to OW and OA, the interacting effects of both factors may change

  14. Calcification, photosynthesis and mucus production of the coral Pocillopora verrucosa along the nutrient and temperature gradient of the Red Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sawall, Yvonne; Al-Sofyani, Abdulmohsin

    2013-04-01

    The Red Sea is characterized by a large latitudinal gradient, most important an increase in nutrients and in temperature (21-33°C) from N to S, featuring challenging conditions during summer in the S. The metabolism of the widely distributed coral species Pocillopora verrucosa was investigated in situ along the gradient in summer and in winter to evaluate its acclimatization mechanisms to these variable and partly extreme environmental conditions. Calcification rates revealed clear seasonal pattern with more than 2-fold increased rates in the Northern reefs during summer and more than 1.5-fold increased rates in the Southern reefs during winter. This pattern strongly relates with temperature, where maximum calcification rates occurred at ~29°C independent of latitude and nutrients in the water. Furthermore, diel calcification rates decreased with light intensity during summer in the S, indicating energy allocation towards stress mitigation, possibly caused by co-occurring high SST and high light intensity. Photosynthesis, as the main energy supply, followed the gradient stronger during winter with a 3-fold increase from N to S and was generally higher in winter than in summer, except at the most Northern site. Hence, energy consuming calcification could only partly be related to photosynthesis with a higher correlation during winter than in summer. Mucus release increased >5-fold from N to S during winter and summer, while mucus release was generally higher during summer. This indicates that a substantial amount of energy in Southern corals was allocated towards protection from sedimentation in nutrient enriched waters and possibly towards the protection from heat-related stressors, e.g. enhanced bacterial pressure. These acclimatization mechanisms of P. verrucosa to varying temperature and nutrient regimes explain its success and wide physiological niche in the Red Sea, although conditions may be rather marginal for coral growth in some areas.

  15. Use of gamma radiation cobalt 60 for disinfestation of Lasioderma serricorne (Fabricius, 1972) (Coleoptera: Anobiidae) in Cymbopogon citratus stapf and Ocimun basillicum L. dehydrated

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ramos, Amanda C.O.; Potenza, Marcos R.; Alves, Juliana N.; Justi Junior, Joao [Instituto Biologico, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Centro de Pesquisa e Desenvolvimento de Sanidade Vegetal]. E-mail: potenza@biologico.sp.gov.br; Arthur, Valter [Centro de Energia Nuclear na Agricultura (CENA), Piracicaba, SP (Brazil)]. E-mail: arthur@cena.usp.br

    2007-07-01

    Stored products such as grains, flours, dry fruits and spices are normally infested by pests as beetles (Lasioderma serricorne), mites and moths, depreciating the product visually and promoting its deterioration. To improve the quality of spices, medicinal plants, seasoning and others foodstuffs there is a need for adequate methods of handling, correct identification of the species, adequate collection, pre and post-treatment procedures and adequate storage. The objective of this work was to determine the dose of gamma radiation for the disinfestations of medicinal and aromatic plants dehydrated infested by L. serricone. The plants used in this study were Cymbopogon citratus stapf (lemon grass) and Ocimun basillicum L. (basil) in this dehydrated form. The experiment was carried out in the Arthropods Laboratory of the Instituto Biologico/SP, during the months of January and May 2006, and the irradiations were carried out in the Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares-IPEN/CNEN/SP, using an experimental Cobalt 60 irradiator, model Gammacell 220. Each treatment consisted of 5 parcels containing 10g of dehydrated products infested with 20 last instar larvae of L. serricorne, conditioned in plastic 10x10 cm containers with small punctures in the cover to allow internal aeration. The substratum previously infested was kept for 1 day in a acclimatized room at 27 {+-} 2 deg C, after this period the substratum was submitted to increasing doses of gamma radiation: 0; 0,5; 0,75; 1,0; 1,25; 1,50; 1,75; 2,0; 2,25; 2,50 e 2,75 kGy. After irradiation, the samples were kept in a acclimatized room at 27 {+-} 2 deg C of temperature and relative humidity of 70 {+-} 5 % and after a 45 days period the number of adults insects emerged was evaluated. The lethal dose of gamma radiation for L. serrricorne last instar larvae on Cymbopogon citratus stapf and Ocimun basillicum L. was 1,75 kGy. (author)

  16. Response of branchial Na(+)/K(+) ATPase to changes in ambient temperature in Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua) and whiting (Merlangius merlangus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michael, Katharina; Koschnick, Nils; Pörtner, Hans-O; Lucassen, Magnus

    2016-05-01

    The maintenance of ion and pH homeostasis despite changes in ambient temperature is crucial for ectothermic organisms. Thermal sensitivity of Na(+)/K(+) ATPase mRNA expression, protein expression and activity was determined in gills of North Sea cod (NC) and Northeastern Arctic cod (NEAC), acclimated for 6 weeks at 4 and 10 °C and compared to field samples of North Sea cod (sNC), acclimatized to early spring (4 °C) and summer (18 °C) conditions. The same analyses were conducted in gills of the confamiliar whiting, acclimated at 4 and 10 °C. Branchial Na(+)/K(+) ATPase capacities remained uncompensated at functional and protein levels in NC and NEAC at both acclimation temperatures. Na(+)/K(+) ATPase mRNA expression in NEAC acclimated at 10 °C was about twofold higher compared to NC, indicating some population-specific differentiation at this level. Lower Na(+)/K(+) ATPase capacities in gills of warm-acclimatized sNC at common assay temperatures indicate thermal compensation between seasonal extremes, and post-translational modifications contributed to this mitigation at high assay temperature. Together, cod compensates Na(+)/K(+) ATPase capacities on the warm edge of the thermal window and below 4 °C, respectively. In contrast, whiting Na(+)/K(+) ATPase capacities were cold compensated at 4 °C, supported by 1.5-fold higher mRNA and protein expression. Besides, capacities were lower in whiting compared to NC and NEAC at optimum temperature, which may be advantageous in terms of reduced maintenance cost, but at temperatures ≤4 °C, compensation may represent an energy trade-off to maintain homeostasis. The species-specific response of gadid Na(+)/K(+) ATPase indicates certain threshold temperatures beyond which compensation of the pump is elicited, possibly related to the different biogeography of these species.

  17. New tendencies in the application of altitude training in sport preparation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    RANISAVLJEV IGOR

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Competitive athletes frequently use altitude training (AT to improve sea-level performance. ATbecame interesting for sport scientists and athletes since Olympic Games in Mexico City in 1968. Exercise ataltitude may increase the training stimulus and enlarge the effects of endurance training. The first notedadaptation induced by staying at altitude is an increase in red blood cell mass that improves aerobic power andsea-level performance. Currently, there are several types of AT modalities: traditional ‘live high-train high’,contemporary ‘live high-train low’, intermittent hypoxic exposure during rest, live low-train high andintermittent hypoxic exposure during continuous session. Despite several substantial differences between thesemethods of hypoxic all of them have the same goal: to stimulate an improvement in athletic performance at sealevel. A proper distinction must be made between altitude acclimatization during preparation for competitions ataltitude and AT and acclimatization for improvement of the sea-level performances. Former scientific researchesidentified two longer phases of enhanced work capacity after AT. First phase of enhanced work capacityoccurring between days 3-7 and 12-13, while the best results are achieved during 18 and 20 days after AT.Second phase of enhanced work capacity is reported between days 36 and 48 after AT. The further developmentof practical knowledge in area of AT should predominantly include recommendations about application ofdifferent AT methods in training periodization in different sports. Improvement of the work capacity andduration of enhanced work capacity at the sea level after AT stimuli are the main questions opened for futurescientific researches.

  18. Mice do not habituate to metabolism cage housing--a three week study of male BALB/c mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalliokoski, Otto; Jacobsen, Kirsten R; Darusman, Huda S; Henriksen, Trine; Weimann, Allan; Poulsen, Henrik E; Hau, Jann; Abelson, Klas S P

    2013-01-01

    The metabolism cage is a barren, non-enriched, environment, combining a number of recognized environmental stressors. We investigated the ability of male BALB/c mice to acclimatize to this form of housing. For three weeks markers of acute and oxidative stress, as well as clinical signs of abnormality were monitored. Forced swim tests were conducted to determine whether the animals experienced behavioral despair and the serotonergic integrity was tested using an 8-OH-DPAT challenge. The metabolism cage housed mice excreted approximately tenfold higher amounts of corticosterone metabolites in feces throughout the study when compared to controls. Urinary biomarkers confirmed that these mice suffered from elevated levels of oxidative stress, and increased creatinine excretions indicated increased muscle catabolism. Changes in the core body temperature (stress-induced hyperthermia) and the fur state of the mice also indicated impaired well-being in the metabolism cage housed mice. However, monitoring body weight and feed intake was found misleading in assessing the wellbeing of mice over a longer time course, and the forced swim test was found poorly suited for studying chronic stress in mice in the present setup. In conclusion, the mice were found not to acclimatize to the metabolism cages whereby concern for animal welfare would dictate that mice should be housed in this way for as short periods as possible. The elevated degree of HPA axis activity, oxidative stress, and increased overall metabolism warrant caution when interpreting data obtained from metabolism cage housed mice, as their condition cannot be considered representative of a normal physiology. PMID:23505511

  19. In Vitro Propagation of Muña-Muña (Clinopodium odorum (Griseb. Harley

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Soledad Diaz

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available A micropropagation protocol was developed which may assist in the safeguarding and augmentation of dwindling natural populations of Clinopodium odorum (Griseb. Harley, a critically and endangered medicinal plant. Factors affecting culture initiation bud sprouting and growth, rooting, and acclimatization were studied, using nodal segments of in vitro germinated seedling as primary explants on six media supplemented with different concentrations and combinations of 6-benzylaminopurine (BAP (0.5–1.5 and 2-Naphthalene acetic acid (NAA (0.5–1.5. Best results for culture initiation with sustainable multiplication rates (100% were obtained on WP medium without any growth regulator. WP with the addition of 0.5 : 1 or 0.5 : 1.5 of BAP and NAA promoted a higher elongation; however, the optimum number of nodes were obtained in plantlets grown on 1/2 MS with the addition of 1 : 1.5 of BAP and NAA. Culture of sectioned individual nodes transferred to the media with different rates of BAP and NAA 1/2 MS-9 (1.5 : 1.5, SH-8 (1.5 : 1.0, and 1/2 B5-4 (1.0 : 0.5 media resulted in no proliferated shoots. The in vitro plants were successfully acclimatized garden soil and sand (2 : 1 in the greenhouse, with over 90% survival rate. The in vitro-grown plants could be transferred to ex vitro conditions and the efficacy in supporting ex vitro growth was assessed, with a view to develope longer-term strategies for the transfer and reintroduction into natural habitats.

  20. A high-frequency in vitro multiplication, micromorphological studies and ex vitro rooting of Cadaba fruticosa (L.) Druce (Bahuguni): a multipurpose endangered medicinal shrub.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lodha, Deepika; Patel, Ashok Kumar; Shekhawat, N S

    2015-07-01

    An efficient and reproducible in vitro propagation protocol has been established for Cadaba fruticosa (L.) Druce. Surface-sterilized nodal stem segments of mature plant were used as explants for culture establishment. Multiple shoots were optimally differentiated from the nodal stem explants through bud breaking on Murashige and Skoog (1962) medium containing 3.0 mg l(-1) benzyladenine (BA). The effect of different plant growth regulators and minerals were studied on different stages of micropropagation procedure (i.e., explant establishment, shoot multiplication/growth and ex vitro rooting). Additionally, for enhancing shoot multiplication during subculture, MS medium was modified (MMS) with higher levels of magnesium, potassium and sulphate ions. Out of these, MMS3 medium containing 0.25 mg l(-1) each of BA and Kin (N6-furfuryladenine), with 0.1 mg l(-1) NAA (α-naphthalene acetic acid) was found the best for shoot multiplication (42.45 ± 3.82 per culture vessel). The in vitro regenerated shoots were rooted under ex vitro conditions on treating the shoot base with 500 mg l(-1) of IBA (indole-3 butyric acid) for 3 min on sterile Soilrite®. The ex vitro rooted plants were hardened in the greenhouse and transferred to the field with ≈85 % survival rate. There were not any visual differences between wild and micropropagated plants in the field, although the later underwent significant changes during acclimatization. Micromorphological changes on leaf surface characters from in vitro to acclimatized plantlets were studied in terms of development of glandular trichomes, changes in vein spacing and vein structure in order to understand the nature of plant responses towards environmental conditions. The method developed and defined can be applied for commercial cultivation, which may be important for extraction of bioactive compounds and may facilitate conservation of this multipurpose endangered medicinal shrub. PMID:26261405

  1. 处理木薯淀粉废水的厌氧反应器初次启动方法研究%Study on the initial start-up method of anaerobic reactor for treating cassava starch wastewater

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    任伯帜; 韦兴浩; 侯保林

    2012-01-01

    对处理木薯淀粉废水的EGSB厌氧反应器初次启动时的接种污泥选择、污泥驯化方法、厌氧反应器控制条件进行研究.当选用木薯酒精厂厌氧发酵污泥作为接种污泥,控制pH在6.8~7.6,VFA<1 000 mg/L,温度在26~28℃时,采用阶段进水驯化方式,经过近100 d的实际运行,成功培养出适应木薯淀粉废水的颗粒污泥,系统COD去除率达86%以上,厌氧反应器启动成功,运行状况良好,处理效果稳定.%everal factors such as the selection of inoculated sludge,method of sludge acclimatization and the condition of the anaerobic reactor control for treating cassava starch wastewater when initially started-up have been studied. When the anaerobic fermented sludge of the cassava alcohol plant is selected as inoculated sludge,its pH should be controlled at 6.8-7.6,VFA<1 000 mg/L,and temperature at 26-28 ℃ ,the influent water acclimatization in phasic mode is used. After running for almost 100 d,the granular sludge that is suitable for cassava starch has successfully been cultivated. Under these conditions,the removing rate of COD could be higher than 86% ,and the anaerobic reactor has started up smoothly and fluently, with stable treatment effect.

  2. Hypoxia induces no change in cutaneous thresholds for warmth and cold sensation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malanda, U L; Reulen, J P H; Saris, W H M; van Marken Lichtenbelt, W D

    2008-09-01

    Hypoxia can affect perception of temperature stimuli by impeding thermoregulation at a neural level. Whether this impact on the thermoregulatory response is solely due to affected thermoregulation is not clear, since reaction time may also be affected by hypoxia. Therefore, we studied the effect of hypoxia on thermal perception thresholds for warmth and cold. Thermal perception thresholds were determined in 11 healthy overweight adult males using two methods for small nerve fibre functioning: a reaction-time inclusive method of limits (MLI) and a reaction time exclusive method of levels (MLE). The subjects were measured under normoxic and hypoxic conditions using a cross-over design. Before the thermal threshold tests under hypoxic conditions were conducted, the subjects were acclimatized by staying 14 days overnight (8 h) in a hypoxic tent system (Colorado Altitude Training: 4,000 m). For normoxic measurements the same subjects were not acclimatized, but were used to sleep in the same tent system. Measurements were performed in the early morning in the tent. Normoxic MLI cold sensation threshold decreased significantly from 30.3 +/- 0.4 (mean +/- SD) to 29.9 +/- 0.7 degrees C when exposed to hypoxia (P 0.05). Neither was there a significant change in MLE warm threshold comparing normoxic (32.8 +/- 0.9 degrees C) with hypoxic condition (32.9 +/- 1.0 degrees C) (P > 0.05). Exposure to normobaric hypoxia induces slowing of neural activity in the sensor-to-effector pathway and does not affect cutaneous sensation threshold for either warmth or cold detection.

  3. High-frequency in vitro plantlet regeneration from apical bud as a novel explant of Carum copticum L.

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mansoureh Salehi; Bahman Hosseini; Zohreh Jabbarzadeh

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To develop an in vitro regeneration system to increase the recovery of Carum copticum L. plantlets as a part of developing a metabolic engineering program.Methods:3-acetic acid and indole butyric acid on direct shoot regeneration and rooting of ajowan from apical bud explants were assessed. All explants were cultured on Murashige and Skoog (MS) medium supplemented with different combinations of 6-benzyl amino purine (BAP) (0, 2.2, 4.4, 8.8µ The efficacy of different concentrations and combinations of 6-benzyladenine, indole-Results: The maximum shoot regeneration frequency (97.5%) and the highest number of shoots produced from apical buds (34 shoots per explant) were obtained on MS medium fortified with BAP (4.4 µmol/L) and IAA (0.5 µmol/L). Low shoot regeneration frequency was observed in BAP free treatments. The effects of different strengths of MS medium and various concentrations of IAA and indole-3- butyric acid on rooting rate, length and average number of roots were also investigated. Application of indole-3- butyric acid (6 µmol/L) in full-strength MS medium, was more effective than IAA and resulted in highest shoot regeneration frequency with the rooting rate of 100% and highest mean number of roots per shoot (41.8). The rooted plantlets were acclimatized successfully in greenhouse conditions with a survival rate of 90%. mol/L) and indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) (0, 0.5, 1.1, 2.2 µmol/L). Conclusion: In this study, a simple and reliable regeneration and acclimatization protocol for Carum copticum has been presented. This protocol can be found very advantageous for a variety of purposes, including mass multiplication of Carum species, medicinal plant breeding studies and transgenic plant production.

  4. 青蒿栽培技术研究%Study on the Planting Technology ofArtemisia annua L.

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    韦中强; 李成东; 肖杰易; 杨成前; 韩凤

    2011-01-01

    目的 通过青蒿不同种源,生育期的不同处理栽培比较,寻找青蒿的栽培技术措施.方法 开展野生青蒿与家种青蒿栽培,青蒿播种量,移栽期,青蒿不同苗龄移栽,青蒿摘尖等试验.结果 青蒿应野生驯化栽培,育苗亩用种150 g较为合适,移栽期为6月下旬,生育期生长至1 m时摘尖,可提高产量.结论 青蒿应野生驯化栽培,加强管理.采用有性繁殖育苗移栽,应育苗亩用种控制在150 g以内较为经济,移栽期应在6月下旬,青蒿生长至1 m高时打顶摘尖,可促进青蒿经济生物产量的积累.%Objective Comparing the different cultivation treatment of Artemisia annua L. from different provenance and growth period to find planting technology measure. Methods Study on the cultivation of wild and cultivated Artemisia annua L. by developing the seeding rate test, transplanting period test, seedling age test, picking point test, etc. Results The yield of Artemisia annua L. will be increased by wild acclimatization cultivation. Seeding with 150g per acreage, transplanting at June and picking point when it grow to 1m.Conclusion It can promote the accumulation of conventional economic biological yield of Artemisia annua L.through the wild acclimatization cultivation.

  5. Establishment of an efficient protocol for micropropagation of some pakistani cultivars of date palm (phonex dactylifera l.) using novel inflorescence explants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An efficient protocol for rapid and large scale In vitro propagation of some Pakistani cultivars of date palm has been established using inflorescence explants at Date Palm Research Institute (DPRI), Shah Abdul Latif University (SALU), Khairpur, Pakistan. Immature inflorescences of desired cultivars of date palm detached from mother palms followed by surface sterilization with low torrent of current tap water and then 30 percentage NaOCl/sub 2/ solution, the outer cover were removed in order to get spike explants and cut into the 2-3 cm small pieces and cultured on modified MS medium supplemented with 0.1 mg l-1 2, 4-D + 0.1 mg l-1 IAA + 5.0 mg l-1 NAA for initiation and establishment of cultures. The obtained somatic embryos were subjected to multiplication medium involved 0.1 mg l-1 NAA + 0.05 mg l-1BA. Rooting was achieved using quarter strength MS medium containing 0.1 mg l-1NAA without activated charcoal (AC) initially and then with 3 g l-1 AC. Strong rooted plantlets with 2-3 leaves were transferred to pots contained sand and peat moss mixture (1:1 v/v) with more than 95 percentage success in acclimatization. The acclimatized plants with at least one compound leaf were shifted to the open field conditions at SALU campus for further studying morphological and fruit characterization to ensure the true-to-type nature of tissue culture derived plantlets. High multiplication efficiency and survival percentage with no any somaclonal variation ensured the efficacy of the protocol developed for the production of elite cultivars of date palm of Pakistan and can be used to optimize production of other cultivars of date palm worldwide. (author)

  6. Hydration in soccer: a review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monteiro Cristiano Ralo

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Hydration should be considered before, during and after the exercise. This review intends to approach the main points of hydration process in soccer. The replacement of fluids during exercise is proportional to some factors, such as: exercise intensity; climatic conditions; the athlete's acclimatization; the athlete's physical conditioning; physiologic individual characteristics and the player's biomechanics. Performance is improved when players ingest not only water but also carbohydrate. The rates that carbohydrate and water are absorbed by the organism are limited by the rates of gastric emptying and intestinal absorption. The composition of drinks offered to the players should be influenced by the relative importance of the need of supplying carbohydrates or water; it should be remembered that the depletion of carbohydrate can result in fatigue and decrease of performance, but it is not usually a life-threatening condition. The addition of carbohydrate in these drinks increases the concentrations of blood glucose, increases the use of external fuel through the increase of the glucose oxidation in the muscles and it spares muscle glycogen. So, the ingestion of carbohydrate before and during the exercise can delay the emergence of fatigue and increase the players' performance. Several tactics can be used to avoid dehydration, like hyperhydration before exercise and player's acclimatization. The ideal situation to restore the player's fluid losses is between the sessions of exercises. Since soccer is a sport with quite peculiar characteristics related to hydration, the players should be concerned and educated about the importance of fluid ingestion before, during and after the exercise.

  7. Mice do not habituate to metabolism cage housing--a three week study of male BALB/c mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Otto Kalliokoski

    Full Text Available The metabolism cage is a barren, non-enriched, environment, combining a number of recognized environmental stressors. We investigated the ability of male BALB/c mice to acclimatize to this form of housing. For three weeks markers of acute and oxidative stress, as well as clinical signs of abnormality were monitored. Forced swim tests were conducted to determine whether the animals experienced behavioral despair and the serotonergic integrity was tested using an 8-OH-DPAT challenge. The metabolism cage housed mice excreted approximately tenfold higher amounts of corticosterone metabolites in feces throughout the study when compared to controls. Urinary biomarkers confirmed that these mice suffered from elevated levels of oxidative stress, and increased creatinine excretions indicated increased muscle catabolism. Changes in the core body temperature (stress-induced hyperthermia and the fur state of the mice also indicated impaired well-being in the metabolism cage housed mice. However, monitoring body weight and feed intake was found misleading in assessing the wellbeing of mice over a longer time course, and the forced swim test was found poorly suited for studying chronic stress in mice in the present setup. In conclusion, the mice were found not to acclimatize to the metabolism cages whereby concern for animal welfare would dictate that mice should be housed in this way for as short periods as possible. The elevated degree of HPA axis activity, oxidative stress, and increased overall metabolism warrant caution when interpreting data obtained from metabolism cage housed mice, as their condition cannot be considered representative of a normal physiology.

  8. The second Summer Youth Olympic Games in Nanjing, People's Republic of China: preparing youth athletes to compete in the heat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brito J

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Joao Brito,1 Sebastien Racinais,2 George P Nassis,1,3 1National Sports Medicine Programme, Excellence in Football Project, Aspetar – Qatar Orthopaedic and Sports Medicine Hospital, Doha, Qatar; 2Athlete Health and Performance Research Centre, Aspetar – Qatar Orthopaedic and Sports Medicine Hospital, Doha, Qatar; 3School of Physical Education and Sport Science, National and Kapodistrian University of Athens, Athens, Greece  All authors contributed equally to this manuscript Abstract: The second Summer Youth Olympic Games will take place August 16–28, 2014 in Nanjing, People's Republic of China during the peak of the summer. Nanjing has been reported as one of the hottest cities in the People's Republic of China, with temperatures reaching as high as 40°C. There is limited clinical evidence of the real risks that youth athletes face when training and competing in the heat, but some recommendations can be made. The estimated average wet bulb globe temperature for Nanjing in August is 32°C, which has been classified as a very high risk/stop play condition for heat illness and injury. Training and competing under extreme heat conditions could stress the thermoregulatory system and adversely affect health and performance. However, current guidelines appear to be inadequate or too conservative, and mostly focus on adult elite athletes. Therefore, proper preventive measures are warranted to reduce the risks of heat illness and injury. With proper heat acclimatization and monitoring, youth athletes can exercise reasonably well and safely in the heat. During the second Summer Youth Olympic Games in Nanjing, People's Republic of China, special attention should be devoted to athletes exposed to long and extensive sunny and hot conditions. Keywords: youth sports, heat acclimatization, thermoregulation

  9. [Hormonal variation during physical exertion at high altitude].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutton, J; Garmendia, F

    1977-01-01

    The influence of the physical exercise at high altitude on the endocrine function was studied in 8 normal native men of sea level and in 8 natives men of high altitude. The sea level dwellers were studied both, at sea level, during an acute exposure to low barometric pressure and after 3 months of acclimatization to altitudes over 3,500 meters above the sea level. The experiments at high altitude were conducted at an altitude of 4,500 meters above the sea level. Two types of exercise were carried out, sub-maximal and maximal, at fasting state, between 8 and 10 a.m. During an acute exposure to altitude the physical exercise produced a marked rise of glucose, cortisol and growth hormone and a fall in the insulin content of plasma. In the sea level dwellers, acclimatized to altitude during 3 months, an elevation of growth hormone was observed only during maximal physical effort. Marked variation in glucose and cortisol were observed during both types of exercise. This shows that in these subjects some adaptative changes have ocurred but of lesser extent as those observed in altitude natives. In the high altitude native higher basal concentrations of growth hormone and glucagón as well as a lower glucose concentration in blood, were found. During exercise the high altitude dweller showed no significant changes in somatotropin, meanwhile an important elevation of cortisol occurred. These findings indicate that the high altitude native has metabolic and endocrine responses to exercise similar to those found in well fitted atletes of sea level. The exposure to altitude provoked a rise in glucagon concentration directly proportional to the time of exposition ot altitude. The physical exercise did not elucidate any change in the glucagon content of blood. PMID:753199

  10. Coral thermal tolerance: tuning gene expression to resist thermal stress.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anthony J Bellantuono

    Full Text Available The acclimatization capacity of corals is a critical consideration in the persistence of coral reefs under stresses imposed by global climate change. The stress history of corals plays a role in subsequent response to heat stress, but the transcriptomic changes associated with these plastic changes have not been previously explored. In order to identify host transcriptomic changes associated with acquired thermal tolerance in the scleractinian coral Acropora millepora, corals preconditioned to a sub-lethal temperature of 3°C below bleaching threshold temperature were compared to both non-preconditioned corals and untreated controls using a cDNA microarray platform. After eight days of hyperthermal challenge, conditions under which non-preconditioned corals bleached and preconditioned corals (thermal-tolerant maintained Symbiodinium density, a clear differentiation in the transcriptional profiles was revealed among the condition examined. Among these changes, nine differentially expressed genes separated preconditioned corals from non-preconditioned corals, with 42 genes differentially expressed between control and preconditioned treatments, and 70 genes between non-preconditioned corals and controls. Differentially expressed genes included components of an apoptotic signaling cascade, which suggest the inhibition of apoptosis in preconditioned corals. Additionally, lectins and genes involved in response to oxidative stress were also detected. One dominant pattern was the apparent tuning of gene expression observed between preconditioned and non-preconditioned treatments; that is, differences in expression magnitude were more apparent than differences in the identity of genes differentially expressed. Our work revealed a transcriptomic signature underlying the tolerance associated with coral thermal history, and suggests that understanding the molecular mechanisms behind physiological acclimatization would be critical for the modeling of reefs

  11. Low symbiont diversity as a potential adaptive strategy in a marginal non-reefal environment: a case study of corals in Hong Kong

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng, Tsz Yan; Ang, Put

    2016-09-01

    Symbiosis with genetically diverse Symbiodinium has been shown to affect host coral physiological responses to environmental stresses. Hong Kong, located in a subtropical region, is a marginal environment for coral growth largely due to its wide annual temperature fluctuation with low mean winter sea water temperature (~16 °C) and variable salinity conditions. The symbiont diversity in Hong Kong corals is therefore worth investigating to enrich our understanding on symbioses in marginal and fluctuating environments. Examination of 56 scleractinian coral species and five soft coral species using denaturing gel gradient electrophoresis of the internal transcribed spacer region 2 found only five distinct subclades of Symbiodinium with C1 the dominant type occurring in all but one scleractinian coral and all soft coral species investigated. C15 and C21 Symbiodinium were found in Porites spp. and Montipora peltiformis, respectively, both of which are vertical transmitters. D8-12 was found in Oulastrea crispata, a stress-tolerant species, and D1 in a single sample of Goniastrea aspera. No spatial differences in Symbiodinium composition were found among different regions of Hong Kong. Seasonal monitoring of tagged Platygyra acuta and Porites spp. colonies also revealed no changes in their symbiont types despite wide ranges of in situ temperature fluctuation. Hong Kong scleractinian corals hosted a remarkably low symbiont diversity compared with corals in the surrounding regions. The predominance of a single subclade, C1 Symbiodinium, suggests that this subclade is best acclimatized to local fluctuating conditions and/or low winter temperature. Forming symbiosis with the best acclimatized symbiont, instead of with a diverse group of symbionts with different physiological performances, either sequentially or simultaneously, may be a strategy used by Hong Kong corals to cope with stressful conditions.

  12. Adaptation of microalgae to a gradient of continuous petroleum contamination

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carrera-Martinez, Daniel; Mateos-Sanz, Aranzazu [AlgasGen Biotecnologia, EBT-UCM, Facultad de Veterinaria, Universidad Complutense de Madrid, Puerta de Hierro s/n, E-28040 Madrid (Spain); Lopez-Rodas, Victoria [AlgasGen Biotecnologia, EBT-UCM, Facultad de Veterinaria, Universidad Complutense de Madrid, Puerta de Hierro s/n, E-28040 Madrid (Spain); Genetica, Facultad de Veterinaria, Universidad Complutense de Madrid, Puerta de Hierro s/n, E-28040 Madrid (Spain); Costas, Eduardo, E-mail: ecostas@vet.ucm.es [AlgasGen Biotecnologia, EBT-UCM, Facultad de Veterinaria, Universidad Complutense de Madrid, Puerta de Hierro s/n, E-28040 Madrid (Spain); Genetica, Facultad de Veterinaria, Universidad Complutense de Madrid, Puerta de Hierro s/n, E-28040 Madrid (Spain)

    2011-01-25

    In order to study adaptation of microalgae to petroleum contamination, we have examined an environmental stress gradient by crude oil contamination in the Arroyo Minero River (AMR), Argentina. Underground crude oil has constantly leaked out since 1915 as a consequence of test drilling for possible petroleum exploitation. Numerous microalgae species proliferated in AMR upstream of the crude oil spill. In contrast, only four microalgal species were detected in the crude oil spill area. Species richness increases again downstream. Microalgae biomass in the crude oil spill area is dominated by a mesophile species, Scenedesmus sp. Effects of oil samples from AMR spill on photosynthetic performance and growth were studied using laboratory cultures of two Scenedesmus sp. strains. One strain (Se-co) was isolated from the crude oil spill area. The other strain (Se-pr) was isolated from a pristine area without petroleum contamination. Crude oil has undetectable effects on Se-co strain. In contrast crude oil rapidly destroys Se-pr strain. However, Se-pr strain can adapt to low doses of petroleum ({<=}3% v/v total hydrocarbons/water) by means of physiological acclimatization. In contrast, only rare crude oil-resistant mutants are able to grow under high levels of crude oil ({>=}10% v/v total hydrocarbons/water). These crude oil-resistant mutants have arisen through rare spontaneous mutations that occur prior to crude oil exposure. Species richness in different areas of AMR is closely connected to the kind of mechanism (genetic adaptation vs. physiological acclimatization) that allows adaptation. Resistant-mutants are enough to assure the survival of microalgal species under catastrophic crude oil spill.

  13. The effect of combined glutamate receptor blockade in the NTS on the hypoxic ventilatory response in awake rats differs from the effect of individual glutamate receptor blockade.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pamenter, Matthew E; Nguyen, Jetson; Carr, John A; Powell, Frank L

    2014-08-01

    Ventilatory acclimatization to hypoxia (VAH) increases the hypoxic ventilatory response (HVR) and causes persistent hyperventilation when normoxia is restored, which is consistent with the occurrence of synaptic plasticity in acclimatized animals. Recently, we demonstrated that antagonism of individual glutamate receptor types (GluRs) within the nucleus tractus solitarii (NTS) modifies this plasticity and VAH (J. Physiol. 592(8):1839-1856); however, the effects of combined GluR antagonism remain unknown in awake rats. To evaluate this, we exposed rats to room air or chronic sustained hypobaric hypoxia (CSH, PiO2 = 70 Torr) for 7-9 days. On the experimental day, we microinjected artificial cerebrospinal fluid (ACSF: sham) and then a "cocktail" of the GluR antagonists MK-801 and DNQX into the NTS. The location of injection sites in the NTS was confirmed by glutamate injections on a day before the experiment and with histology following the experiment. Ventilation was measured in awake, unrestrained rats breathing normoxia or acute hypoxia (10% O2) in 15-min intervals using barometric pressure plethysmography. In control (CON) rats, acute hypoxia increased ventilation; NTS microinjections of GluR antagonists, but not ACSF, significantly decreased ventilation and breathing frequency in acute hypoxia but not normoxia (P NTS significantly decreased ventilation in normoxia and breathing frequency in hypoxia. A persistent HVR after combined GluR blockade in the NTS contrasts with the effect of individual GluR blockade and also with results in anesthetized rats. Our findings support the hypotheses that GluRs in the NTS contribute to, but cannot completely explain, VAH in awake rats.

  14. Field study of cyclic hypoxic effects on gene expression in grass shrimp hepatopancreas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Tiandao; Brouwer, Marius

    2013-12-01

    Grass shrimp, Palaemonetes pugio, are widely used for ecological and toxicological research. They commonly experience cyclic hypoxia in their natural habitats. The response of grass shrimp to laboratory-controlled cyclic hypoxia has been studied in detail, but little is known about how field acclimatized grass shrimp regulate the gene expression and response to cyclic hypoxia. In this study we examined morphometric parameters, relative fecundity and gene expression of grass shrimp collected from two areas in Weeks Bay (Mobile, Alabama). One is a traditionally normoxic location (WBM), and the other is a traditionally cyclic hypoxic location (WC). In the week preceding grass shrimp collection dissolved oxygen (DO) at the field sites was measured continuously. DO was shrimp were significantly greater than weight and length of WC shrimp. WBM shrimp had more eggs than WC shrimp, but the difference was not significant. Shrimp from WC had a significant higher number of parasites than those from WBM. A cDNA microarray was utilized to investigate the changes in gene expression in grass shrimp hepatopancreas. Five genes, previously identified as hypoxia/cyclic hypoxia-responsive genes in laboratory exposure studies, were significantly up-regulated in WC shrimp relative to WBM. A total of 5 genes were significantly down-regulated in the field study. Only one of those genes, vitellogenin, has been previously found in chronic and cyclic hypoxic studies. Up and down-regulation of 7 selected genes was confirmed by qPCR. The overall pattern of gene expression in wild shrimp from cyclic DO sites in Weeks Bay showed only weak correlations with gene expression in shrimp from chronic and cyclic hypoxic laboratory studies. It appears therefore that transcriptome profiles of laboratory acclimated animals are of limited utility for understanding responses in field acclimatized animals that are exposed to a broader array of environmental variables.

  15. 用高压氧治疗高原脱习服症的效果分析%Improving effects of hyperbaric oxygenation therapy on plateau soldiers deacclimatization symptoms

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    哈振德

    2014-01-01

    Objective:To investigate the use of hyperbaric oxygen therapy altitude acclimatization off disease clinical results. Methods:The clinical data recently went to defensive duties after the end of the plateau Lintong sanatorium treatment of 31 cases were convalescent soldiers plateau were retrospectively studied. We see this 31 cases were divided into groups and recuperation hyperbaric oxygen group, which hyperbaric oxygen group had 18 patients, rehabilitation and convalescent group had 13 patients. Convalescent hospital for rehabilitation of patients convalescent rehabilitation group, on this basis, the group of patients with hyperbaric oxygen hyperbaric oxygen therapy. When we patient admission, 15 days and 30 days after treatment were recorded clinical symptoms, and scored its improvement of clinical symptoms, the patient's score results were compared. Results:In the first 15 days after treatment, hyperbaric oxygen group of patients with symptoms of altitude acclimatization off scores were significantly lower in patients with rehabilitation and convalescent group, both of which had significant difference compared (P <0.05). Conclusion:On the basis of convalescence during rehabilitation treatment with hyperbaric oxygen plateau de acclimatization disease can significantly improve the symptoms of patients. However, pending further study the therapeutic effect of the method and mature treatment programs.%目的:探讨用高压氧治疗高原脱习服症的临床效果。方法:对近期结束高原防守任务后赴临潼疗养院进行疗养治疗的31例高原官兵的临床资料进行回顾性研究。我们将这31例患者分为高压氧组和康复疗养组,其中,高压氧组有18例患者,康复疗养组有13例患者。我院对康复疗养组的患者进行康复疗养,在此基础上,对高压氧组的患者进行高压氧治疗。我们在患者入院时、进行治疗后的15天及30天记录其临床症状,并对其临床症状的改善

  16. Application gamma radiation of cobalt-60 in disinfestation of some types of rations for feeding small animals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The pests as beetles, mites, moths and mushrooms among other, usually infest products stored as: grains, crumbs, flours, coffee, tobacco, dried fruits, animal rations, spices, dehydrated plants, causing the visual depreciation and promoting to deterioration of the products. The present research had as objective the use of the gamma radiation in the disinfestation of some types of rations used for feeding animals of small size. In the first experiment packing of free samples were used measuring 10 cm x 20 cm with capacity of 70 grams of substrate (ration) with 4 types of existent marks in the trade: (1), (2), e (3), and (4). Each treatment consisted of 10 repetitions, that were irradiated with doses of: 0 (control) 0,5; 1,0 and 2,0 kGy, to do the disinfestation of the samples. After the irradiation (disinfestation) of the all irradiated packing and more the control was conditioned in plastic boxes of 80 cm x 50 cm with cover, where the insects were liberated Lasioderma serricorne, Plodia interpuctella, Sitophilus zeamais and Sitophilus oryzae, in a total of 400 for each box and maintained at room acclimatized with 27 ± 2 Deg C and relative humidity of 70 ± 5%. In the second experiment packing were used made with the materials of packing of the first experiment. Each packing was made of 10 cm x 15 cm, with capacity of 30 grams of substrate (ration). In each repetition was inoculated 10 insects of each species, in a total of 400 insects for experiment per box. The packing with substrate and insect, were stamped in commercial machine and irradiated with doses of: 0 (control) 0,5; 1,0 and 2,0 kGy. The irradiated packing and the control were maintained at room acclimatized same the mentioned in the first experiment. The counting of the number of insects and holes in the packing were made after 60 days. Concluded that only the packing of the ration type number 4 was susceptive to attack of all species of insects. The dose of 0,5 kGy was sufficient to induce the

  17. Hormetic response triggers multifaceted anti-oxidant strategies in immature king penguins (Aptenodytes patagonicus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rey, Benjamin; Dégletagne, Cyril; Bodennec, Jacques; Monternier, Pierre-Axel; Mortz, Mathieu; Roussel, Damien; Romestaing, Caroline; Rouanet, Jean-Louis; Tornos, Jeremy; Duchamp, Claude

    2016-08-01

    Repeated deep dives are highly pro-oxidative events for air-breathing aquatic foragers such as penguins. At fledging, the transition from a strictly terrestrial to a marine lifestyle may therefore trigger a complex set of anti-oxidant responses to prevent chronic oxidative stress in immature penguins but these processes are still undefined. By combining in vivo and in vitro approaches with transcriptome analysis, we investigated the adaptive responses of sea-acclimatized (SA) immature king penguins (Aptenodytes patagonicus) compared with pre-fledging never-immersed (NI) birds. In vivo, experimental immersion into cold water stimulated a higher thermogenic response in SA penguins than in NI birds, but both groups exhibited hypothermia, a condition favouring oxidative stress. In vitro, the pectoralis muscles of SA birds displayed increased oxidative capacity and mitochondrial protein abundance but unchanged reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation per g tissue because ROS production per mitochondria was reduced. The genes encoding oxidant-generating proteins were down-regulated in SA birds while mRNA abundance and activity of the main antioxidant enzymes were up-regulated. Genes encoding proteins involved in repair mechanisms of oxidized DNA or proteins and in degradation processes were also up-regulated in SA birds. Sea life also increased the degree of fatty acid unsaturation in muscle mitochondrial membranes resulting in higher intrinsic susceptibility to ROS. Oxidative damages to protein or DNA were reduced in SA birds. Repeated experimental immersions of NI penguins in cold-water partially mimicked the effects of acclimatization to marine life, modified the expression of fewer genes related to oxidative stress but in a similar way as in SA birds and increased oxidative damages to DNA. It is concluded that the multifaceted plasticity observed after marine life may be crucial to maintain redox homeostasis in active tissues subjected to high pro-oxidative pressure

  18. EFFECTS OF PLANT GROWTH REGULATORS ON SHOOT MULTIPLICATION AND ROOT INDUCTION OF CASSAVA VARIETIES CULTURE IN VITRO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    HERNI WIDHIASTUTI

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available A study on propagation of three superior cassava ( Crant varieties i.e.Darul Hidayah, Malang-6 and Adira-4 through tissue culture technique was conducted at theTissue Culture Lab of SEAMEO BIOTROP, Bogor. The objective of the experiment was tostudy effect of plant growth regulators on propagation, which can be used in cassavamicropropagation protocol. Plant materials used were auxiliary shoots of a stem node. Theexperiment consisted of (i shoot multiplication, (ii roots induction, and (iii acclimatization.The multiple shoot regeneration was observed by using Murashige & Skoog (MS basal mediasupplemented with 0, 0.1, 1.0 and 5.0 mg/L of benzylaminopurine (BAP combined with 0.0,0.1 and 1.0 mg/L of thidiazuron. The root induction was observed by using 0.1 and 1.0 mg/Lof IBA and NAA. The resulting plantlets were transplanted into plastic polybags containingsoil mixed with organic fertilizer (1:1 covered with plastic sheets and transferred to agreenhouse. The result of the study showed that the highest number of shoots for DarulHidayah, Malang-6 and Adira-4 varieties were 4.93 shoots treated with BAP 1 mg/L +thidiazuron 0.1 mg/L, 4.20 shoots at BAP media of 1 mg/L, and 7.20 shoots at the mediaof BAP 1 mg/L + thidiazuron 0.1 mg/L respectively. The highest number of nodes producedwas 2.9 nodes for Darul Hidayah at BAP 5 mg/L, 5.13 nodes for Malang-6 at BAP 0.1 mg/L,and 6.18 nodes for Adira-4 at BAP 5 mg/L + thidiazuron 1 mg/L. The utilization of auxin IAAor NAA could induce and accelerate the growth of roots which finally could increase thesuccess of acclimatization process. With an average of four multiplication factors of eachculture period, the potency of each cassava shoot propagated through tissue culture couldproduce around 37 000 plants/year.

  19. Hormetic response triggers multifaceted anti-oxidant strategies in immature king penguins (Aptenodytes patagonicus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rey, Benjamin; Dégletagne, Cyril; Bodennec, Jacques; Monternier, Pierre-Axel; Mortz, Mathieu; Roussel, Damien; Romestaing, Caroline; Rouanet, Jean-Louis; Tornos, Jeremy; Duchamp, Claude

    2016-08-01

    Repeated deep dives are highly pro-oxidative events for air-breathing aquatic foragers such as penguins. At fledging, the transition from a strictly terrestrial to a marine lifestyle may therefore trigger a complex set of anti-oxidant responses to prevent chronic oxidative stress in immature penguins but these processes are still undefined. By combining in vivo and in vitro approaches with transcriptome analysis, we investigated the adaptive responses of sea-acclimatized (SA) immature king penguins (Aptenodytes patagonicus) compared with pre-fledging never-immersed (NI) birds. In vivo, experimental immersion into cold water stimulated a higher thermogenic response in SA penguins than in NI birds, but both groups exhibited hypothermia, a condition favouring oxidative stress. In vitro, the pectoralis muscles of SA birds displayed increased oxidative capacity and mitochondrial protein abundance but unchanged reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation per g tissue because ROS production per mitochondria was reduced. The genes encoding oxidant-generating proteins were down-regulated in SA birds while mRNA abundance and activity of the main antioxidant enzymes were up-regulated. Genes encoding proteins involved in repair mechanisms of oxidized DNA or proteins and in degradation processes were also up-regulated in SA birds. Sea life also increased the degree of fatty acid unsaturation in muscle mitochondrial membranes resulting in higher intrinsic susceptibility to ROS. Oxidative damages to protein or DNA were reduced in SA birds. Repeated experimental immersions of NI penguins in cold-water partially mimicked the effects of acclimatization to marine life, modified the expression of fewer genes related to oxidative stress but in a similar way as in SA birds and increased oxidative damages to DNA. It is concluded that the multifaceted plasticity observed after marine life may be crucial to maintain redox homeostasis in active tissues subjected to high pro-oxidative pressure

  20. Effects of maturation, artery size, and chronic hypoxia on 5-HT receptor type in ovine cranial arteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teng, G Q; Williams, J; Zhang, L; Purdy, R; Pearce, W J

    1998-09-01

    To test the hypothesis that variations in cerebrovascular reactivity to 5-HT among arteries of different size or type, during maturation, or during acclimatization to high altitude involve differences in serotonergic receptor subtype, we determined relative agonist potency orders and antagonist affinities in common carotid (Com), main branch middle cerebral (Main), and second branch middle cerebral (2BR) arteries from term fetal lambs and nonpregnant adult sheep acclimatized at sea level or at an altitude of 3,820 m for approximately 110 days. In normoxic adult Com segments, agonist potency order was 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) > 5-carboxamidotryptamine (5-CT) >/= 8-hydroxy-2(di-n-propylamino)tetraline (8-OH-DPAT); sumatriptan (Suma) produced no contractile response; and antagonist dissociation constant (pKb) values were 9.4 and 9.5 for ketanserin against 5-HT and 5-CT, 7.5 for GR-127935 against 5-HT, and 7.2 for SB-206553 against 5-HT. In normoxic adult Main segments, agonist potency order was 5-HT > 5-CT >/= Suma >/= DPAT, and pKb values were 9.1 and 9.2 for ketanserin against 5-HT and 5-CT and 7.4 and 8.5 for GR-127935 against 5-HT and Suma, respectively. In the 2BR segments from normoxic adults, agonist potency order was 5-CT > 5-HT > Suma > DPAT and pKb values were 7.4 and 7.2 for ketanserin against 5-HT and 5-CT and 10.0 and 8.7 for GR-127935 against 5-HT and Suma, respectively. Compared with normoxic adults, none of these values were significantly different in hypoxic adults and in fetuses only the pKb values for ketanserin against 5-HT in the 2BR segments (8.8) were greater. From these results we propose that the ratio of 5-HT2 to 5-HT1 receptors is greatest in the Com and decreases progressively to its smallest values in 2BR or smaller segments. Because this gradient appears stable and relatively resistant to the effects of maturation and chronic hypoxia, changes in reactivity associated with these perturbations may involve alterations in receptor density

  1. Associação de fungos micorrízicos arbusculares e cultivares micropropagadas de antúrio Mycorrhizal fungi and micropropagated cultivars of Anthurium associations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giulio Cesare Stancato

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Para a formação de mudas, plântulas micropropagadas de antúrio (Anthurium andraeanum são submetidas a uma das etapas mais críticas na cultura de tecidos de plantas que é a da aclimatização. Uma forma de se estimular a autotrofia pode ser o estabelecimento da associação de fungos micorrízicos e as raízes das plântulas de antúrio. Assim, com o objetivo de avaliar o efeito da associação micorrízica em plântulas de antúrio, foi realizado um experimento, em casa de vegetação, empregando-se as cultivares IAC Astral, IAC Eidibel, IAC Juréia, IAC Luau, IAC Netuno e IAC Ômega e os fungos micorrízicos arbusculares Glomus intraradices, Glomus etunicatum e Acaulospora sp., em substrato orgânico, na fase de aclimatização das plântulas micropropagadas. Os resultados permitiram concluir que houve resposta das cultivares de antúrio à micorrização, em termos de produção de matéria seca, e que a eficiência simbiótica variou com a cultivar e o fungo micorrízico associado.One of the most important steps on micropropagated Anthurium plantlets is the acclimatization. Mycorrhization could be a process that helps the plantlets to change to the autotrophic state. The objective was to evaluate the effect of the mycorrhizal association on the growth of Anthurium cultivars. A experiment was conducted under greenhouse conditions, using the cultivars IAC Astral, IAC Eidibel, IAC Juréia, IAC Luau, IAC Netuno and IAC Ômega and the arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi Glomus intraradices, Glomus etunicatum and Acaulospora sp., in organic substrate, at the plantlets acclimatization stage. The results showed that there was increase in shoot dry matter in mycorrhizal plantlets and that the symbiotic efficiency varied according to the cultivar and arbuscular mycorrhizal fungus.

  2. Application gamma radiation of cobalt-60 in disinfestation of some types of rations for feeding small animals; Emprego da radiacao gama do cobalto-60 na desinfestacao de alguns tipos de racoes para alimentacao de animais de pequeno porte

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arthur, Paula Bergamin

    2012-07-01

    The pests as beetles, mites, moths and mushrooms among other, usually infest products stored as: grains, crumbs, flours, coffee, tobacco, dried fruits, animal rations, spices, dehydrated plants, causing the visual depreciation and promoting to deterioration of the products. The present research had as objective the use of the gamma radiation in the disinfestation of some types of rations used for feeding animals of small size. In the first experiment packing of free samples were used measuring 10 cm x 20 cm with capacity of 70 grams of substrate (ration) with 4 types of existent marks in the trade: (1), (2), e (3), and (4). Each treatment consisted of 10 repetitions, that were irradiated with doses of: 0 (control) 0,5; 1,0 and 2,0 kGy, to do the disinfestation of the samples. After the irradiation (disinfestation) of the all irradiated packing and more the control was conditioned in plastic boxes of 80 cm x 50 cm with cover, where the insects were liberated Lasioderma serricorne, Plodia interpuctella, Sitophilus zeamais and Sitophilus oryzae, in a total of 400 for each box and maintained at room acclimatized with 27 {+-} 2 Deg C and relative humidity of 70 {+-} 5%. In the second experiment packing were used made with the materials of packing of the first experiment. Each packing was made of 10 cm x 15 cm, with capacity of 30 grams of substrate (ration). In each repetition was inoculated 10 insects of each species, in a total of 400 insects for experiment per box. The packing with substrate and insect, were stamped in commercial machine and irradiated with doses of: 0 (control) 0,5; 1,0 and 2,0 kGy. The irradiated packing and the control were maintained at room acclimatized same the mentioned in the first experiment. The counting of the number of insects and holes in the packing were made after 60 days. Concluded that only the packing of the ration type number 4 was susceptive to attack of all species of insects. The dose of 0,5 kGy was sufficient to induce the

  3. Arginine-vasopressin marker copeptin is a sensitive plasma surrogate of hypoxic exposure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ostergaard L

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Louise Ostergaard,1,2,* Alain Rudiger,3,* Sven Wellmann,2,4,5 Elena Gammella,6 Beatrice Beck-Schimmer,2,3 Joachim Struck,7 Marco Maggiorini,2,8 Max Gassmann,1,2,9 1Institute of Veterinary Physiology, Vetsuisse Faculty, University of Zürich, 2Zürich Center for Integrative Human Physiology, 3Institute of Anesthesiology, 4Division of Neonatology, University Hospital Zürich, Zürich, 5Department of Neonatology, University Children's Hospital Basel, Basel, Switzerland; 6Department of Human Morphology and Biomedical Science, University of Milan, Milan, Italy; 7Research Department, B•R•A•H•M•S Biomarkers, Thermo Fisher Scientific, Hennigsdorf, Germany; 8Medical Intensive Care Unit, University Hospital Zürich, Zürich, Switzerland; 9Universidad Peruana Cayetano Heredia, Lima, Peru *These authors contributed equally to this work and share first authorship Background: A reduced oxygen supply puts patients at risk of tissue hypoxia, organ damage, and even death. In response, several changes are activated that allow for at least partial adaptation, thereby increasing the chances of survival. We aimed to investigate whether the arginine vasopressin marker, copeptin, can be used as a marker of the degree of acclimatization/adaptation in rats exposed to hypoxia. Methods: Sprague-Dawley rats were exposed to 10% oxygen for up to 48 hours. Arterial and right ventricular pressures were measured, and blood gas analysis was performed at set time points. Pulmonary changes were investigated by bronchoalveolar lavage, wet and dry weight measurements, and lung histology. Using a newly developed specific rat copeptin luminescence immunoassay, the regulation of vasopressin in response to hypoxia was studied, as was atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP by detecting mid-regional proANP. Results: With a decreasing oxygen supply, the rats rapidly became cyanotic and inactive. Despite continued exposure to 10% oxygen, all animals recuperated within 16 hours and

  4. Micropropagação de Croton antisyphiliticus Mart. Micropropagation of Croton antisyphiliticus Mart.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taíce Gonçalves de Oliveira

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Croton antisyphiliticus Mart. ex M. Arg., conhecido popularmente como pé-de-perdiz, é uma planta medicinal nativa do Cerrado, cuja raiz é utilizada na forma de decoctos para combater infecções do aparelho reprodutor masculino e feminino. A coleta da planta é realizada de forma extrativista e não há trabalhos a respeito da sua conservação. O objeto do trabalho foi estabelecer um protocolo de micropropagação de Croton antisyphiliticus. Foram avaliados o efeito de diferentes concentrações das citocininas, o tamanho do recipiente para o cultivo in vitro, o co-cultivo e a posição da gema em relação ao desenvolvimento dos explantes, bem como a influência do AIB no enraizamento in vitro e a aclimatização dos explantes. O melhor desenvolvimento in vitro foi obtido com explantes do tipo gema apical, co-cultivadas em meio MS suplementado com BAP (1µM, em frasco tipo pote. O enraizamento foi obtido em meio MS sem regulador vegetal e a aclimatização pode ser realizada em solo do cerrado com brotações sem a presença de raízes desenvolvidas in vitro.Croton antisyphiliticus Mart. ex M. Arg., popularly known as "pé-de-perdiz", is a native medicinal plant of Cerrado, whose root is used in the form of decoctions against infections of the male and female reproductive. The collection of the plant is carried through of extractives form and there are no studies regarding its conservation. The aim of this study was to establish a micropropagation protocol of C. antisyphiliticus. The effect of different concentrations of cytokinins, the size of the container for the in vitro culture, co-cultivation and bud position in relation to the development of the explants, as well as the influence of AIB on in vitro rooting and acclimatization of explants were evaluated. The best development in vitro was obtained with apical explants co-cultivated on MS medium supplemented with BAP (1µM in bottle type pot. Rooting was achieved on MS medium without

  5. Testicular pathology, gonadal and epididymal sperm reserves of Yankasa rams infected with experimental Trypanosoma brucei brucei and Trypanosoma evansi

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wada, Yunusa A.; Oniye, Sonnie J.; Rekwot, Peter I.; Okubanjo, Oluyinka O.

    2016-01-01

    Aim: The study was conducted to evaluate the pathological effects of trypanosomosis on the testes, gonadal, and epididymal sperm reserves of Yankasa rams for 98 days. Materials and Methods: A total of 16 Yankasa rams, aged between 24 and 30 months and weighed between 22 and 25 kg, were acclimatized for a period of 2-months in a clean fly proof house and were adequately fed and given water ad-libitum. Of the 16 rams, 12 that were clinically fit for the experiment at the end of the acclimatization period were randomly divided into four groups: Groups I, II, III, and IV, each having 3 rams. Groups I and II were each challenged singly with experimental Trypanosoma brucei brucei (Federer strain) and Trypanosoma evansi (Sokoto strain), respectively, while Group III was challenged with mixed T. brucei brucei and T. evansi parasites (50% of each species in the infective inoculum) and Group IV was left as an uninfected control. Each infected ram received 2 mL of the infected blood containing 2×106 trypomastigotes via the jugular vein, while the control group received 2 mL each, normal saline. Results: All the infected rams developed clinical signs typical of trypanosomosis at varying pre-patent periods. The gross lesions observed in the infected rams in Group II were moderate and more severe in those of Groups I and III. Histological sections of the testes of infected rams (Groups I, II, and III) showed moderate (T. evansi-infected group) to severe (mixed and T. brucei brucei-infected groups) testicular degenerations with reduction in number of spermatogenic cell layers, degenerated seminiferous tubules, congested interlobular spaces, loss of tissue architecture with significant (p<0.01) depletion, and loss of gonadal and epididymal sperm reserves in Groups I and III in comparison to Group II and the control Group IV. No observable clinical signs and histopathological lesions were found in those rams of the control Group IV. Conclusion: The study concluded that

  6. Micropropagação de plântulas de erva-mate obtidas de embriões zigóticos Micropropagation of holly plantlets obtained from zygotic embryos

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    Micheli Angélica Horbach

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar o potencial de micropropagação de erva-mate (Ilex paraguariensis Saint Hilaire a partir de plântulas assépticas oriundas de embriões zigóticos imaturos. Ápices caulinares foram inoculados em meio base, formado por ¼ da concentração dos sais do meio MS, com diferentes doses de 6-benzilaminopurina (BAP. Ápices caulinares foram enraizados em meio base com diferentes doses de ácido indolbutírico (AIB e avaliado o efeito do AIB do meio de enraizamento in vitro na aclimatização das plantas. O meio base com 8,88µM de BAP foi o mais efetivo para a multiplicação, promovendo o maior número e comprimento de brotações adventícias. Ápices caulinares enraizaram em 30 dias de cultivo em meio base, acrescido de 7,38µM de AIB. A dose de AIB utilizada no enraizamento in vitro interfere na aclimatização das plantas. A técnica de micropropagação descrita pode ser utilizada para a produção massal de plantas de erva-mate.The aim of this research was to evaluate the micropropagation potential of holly (Ilex paraguariensis Saint Hilaire aseptic plantlets derived from immature zygotic embryos. Shoot tip were inoculated in a quarter-strength MS basal medium with different doses of 6-benzylaminopurine (BAP to induce multiple shoots. Shoot tips were inoculated in a basal medium with different doses of indol-butiric acid (IBA for in vitro rooting and to test their effects in plantlet acclimatization. The addition of 8.88µM BAP to the basal medium increased the number of adventitious shoots and shoot height. Shoot tip rooted in basal medium with 7.38µM IBA in 30 days of culture. The IBA doses of the rooting medium affect plantlet acclimatization. The described micropropagation protocol might be used to produce a high number of holly plants.

  7. Testicular pathology, gonadal and epididymal sperm reserves of Yankasa rams infected with experimental Trypanosoma brucei brucei and Trypanosoma evansi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yunusa A. Wada

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The study was conducted to evaluate the pathological effects of trypanosomosis on the testes, gonadal, and epididymal sperm reserves of Yankasa rams for 98 days. Materials and Methods: A total of 16 Yankasa rams, aged between 24 and 30 months and weighed between 22 and 25 kg, were acclimatized for a period of 2-months in a clean fly proof house and were adequately fed and given water ad-libitum. Of the 16 rams, 12 that were clinically fit for the experiment at the end of the acclimatization period were randomly divided into four groups: Groups I, II, III, and IV, each having 3 rams. Groups I and II were each challenged singly with experimental Trypanosoma brucei brucei (Federer strain and Trypanosoma evansi (Sokoto strain, respectively, while Group III was challenged with mixed T. brucei brucei and T. evansi parasites (50% of each species in the infective inoculum and Group IV was left as an uninfected control. Each infected ram received 2 mL of the infected blood containing 2×106 trypomastigotes via the jugular vein, while the control group received 2 mL each, normal saline. Results: All the infected rams developed clinical signs typical of trypanosomosis at varying pre-patent periods. The gross lesions observed in the infected rams in Group II were moderate and more severe in those of Groups I and III. Histological sections of the testes of infected rams (Groups I, II, and III showed moderate (T. evansi-infected group to severe (mixed and T. brucei brucei-infected groups testicular degenerations with reduction in number of spermatogenic cell layers, degenerated seminiferous tubules, congested interlobular spaces, loss of tissue architecture with significant (p<0.01 depletion, and loss of gonadal and epididymal sperm reserves in Groups I and III in comparison to Group II and the control Group IV. No observable clinical signs and histopathological lesions were found in those rams of the control Group IV. Conclusion: The study concluded

  8. Desenvolvimento de Opuntia ficus-indica (L. Mill., em diferentes substratos, após micropropagação in vitro - DOI: 10.4025/actascianimsci.v28i1.659 The development of Opuntia ficus-indica (L mill., in different substrates, after in vitro micropropagation - DOI: 10.4025/actascianimsci.v28i1.659

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacob Silva Souto

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Com o objetivo de avaliar o desenvolvimento de Opuntia ficus-indica (L. Mill, em diferentes substratos, utilizaram-se plantas micropropagadas nas seguintes etapas: indução, crescimento, multiplicação e enraizamento dos brotos. Após o enraizamento, as plântulas foram aclimatizadas em casa de vegetação, usando-se os seguintes substratos: solo não adubado, solo adubado de acordo com análise de solo, solo + pó de coco (1:1 e 2:1, solo + esterco de bovino (1:1 e 2:1, solo + bioadubo (1:1 e 2:1, em delineamento inteiramente ao acaso com quatro repetições. As plântulas possuíam entre 1 a 2 cm de comprimento e foram enterradas a dois terços no solo. Semanalmente, foram medidas as alturas das plantas e contado o número de brotações. Verificou-se diferença significativa ao nível de 5% de probabilidade pelo Teste t quando comparados os efeitos dos diferentes substratos. Conclui-se que deve-se utilizar o substrato à base de esterco bovino na aclimatização da palma forrageira.The study aimed to evaluate the development of Opuntia ficus-indica (L. Mill, in different substrates, using micropropagated plants in the following stages: induction, growth, multiplication and bud rooting. After rooting, seedlings were acclimatized in greenhouse, by means of the following potting mixture: unfertilized soil, fertilized soil according to soil analysis, soil + coconut dust (1:1 and 2:1, soil + bovine manure (1:1 and 2:1, soil + biofertilizer (1:1 and 2:1, randomly applied with four replications. The seedlings had between 1 and 2 cm of length and were planted two thirds under the soil. There were weekly measures of the plants’ height and the number of shoots. Significant difference to the level of 5% of probability for test was verified when comparing the effects of different substrates. Results show that the potting mixture must be based on bovine manure in the acclimatization of palm grass.

  9. Sinoatrial tissue of crucian carp heart has only negative contractile responses to autonomic agonists

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hälinen Mervi

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In the anoxia-tolerant crucian carp (Carassius carassius cardiac activity varies according to the seasons. To clarify the role of autonomic nervous control in modulation of cardiac activity, responses of atrial contraction and heart rate (HR to carbacholine (CCh and isoprenaline (Iso were determined in fish acclimatized to winter (4°C, cold-acclimated, CA and summer (18°C, warm-acclimated, WA temperatures. Results Inhibitory action of CCh was much stronger on atrial contractility than HR. CCh reduced force of atrial contraction at an order of magnitude lower concentrations (EC50 2.75-3.5·10-8 M in comparison to its depressive effect on HR (EC50 1.23-2.02·10-7 M (P -8 M and 10-7 M CCh, respectively (P + current, IK,CCh, with an EC50 value of 3-4.5·10-7 M and inhibited Ca2+ current (ICa by 28 ± 8% and 51 ± 6% at 10-7 M and 10-6 M, respectively. These currents can explain the shortening of AP. Iso did not elicit any responses in crucian carp sinoatrial preparations nor did it have any effect on atrial ICa, probably due to the saturation of the β-adrenergic cascade in the basal state. Conclusion In the crucian carp, HR and force of atrial contraction show cardio-depressive responses to the cholinergic agonist, but do not have any responses to the β-adrenergic agonist. The scope of inhibitory regulation by CCh is increased by the high basal tone of the adenylate cyclase-cAMP cascade. Higher concentrations of CCh were required to induce IK,CCh and inhibit ICa than was needed for CCh's negative inotropic effect on atrial muscle suggesting that neither IK,CCh nor ICa alone can mediate CCh's actions but they might synergistically reduce AP duration and atrial force production. Autonomic responses were similar in CA winter fish and WA summer fish indicating that cardiac sensitivity to external modulation by the autonomic nervous system is not involved in seasonal acclimatization of the crucian carp heart to cold and anoxic

  10. Protein evolution in two co-occurring types of Symbiodinium: an exploration into the genetic basis of thermal tolerance in Symbiodinium clade D

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    Ladner Jason T

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The symbiosis between reef-building corals and photosynthetic dinoflagellates (Symbiodinium is an integral part of the coral reef ecosystem, as corals are dependent on Symbiodinium for the majority of their energy needs. However, this partnership is increasingly at risk due to changing climatic conditions. It is thought that functional diversity within Symbiodinium may allow some corals to rapidly adapt to different environments by changing the type of Symbiodinium with which they partner; however, very little is known about the molecular basis of the functional differences among symbiont groups. One group of Symbiodinium that is hypothesized to be important for the future of reefs is clade D, which, in general, seems to provide the coral holobiont (i.e., coral host and associated symbiont community with elevated thermal tolerance. Using high-throughput sequencing data from field-collected corals we assembled, de novo, draft transcriptomes for Symbiodinium clades C and D. We then explore the functional basis of thermal tolerance in clade D by comparing rates of coding sequence evolution among the four clades of Symbiodinium most commonly found in reef-building corals (A-D. Results We are able to highlight a number of genes and functional categories as candidates for involvement in the increased thermal tolerance of clade D. These include a fatty acid desaturase, molecular chaperones and proteins involved in photosynthesis and the thylakoid membrane. We also demonstrate that clades C and D co-occur within most of the sampled colonies of Acropora hyacinthus, suggesting widespread potential for this coral species to acclimatize to changing thermal conditions via ‘shuffling’ the proportions of these two clades from within their current symbiont communities. Conclusions Transcriptome-wide analysis confirms that the four main Symbiodinium clades found within corals exhibit extensive evolutionary divergence (18.5-27.3% avg

  11. Organic Additives Improves the in Vitro Growth of Native Orchid Vanda helvola Blume

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Devina DAVID

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available In vitro seed germination has been proven to be the most efficient technique to propagate orchid. The application of this aseptic technique has contributed to conservation of many endangered orchid species. In this study, undehisced capsules of Vanda helvola Blume were collected from Orchid Conservation Centre in Lagud Sebrang Agriculture Park, after 120 days from hand pollination and aseptically cultured on three types of basal media such as Murashige and Skoog (MS, Knudson C (KC and Vacin and Went (VW. After 90 days of culture, 66.40 ± 4.14% of seeds successfully germinated on KC medium. The effect of organic additives such as tomato juice, coconut water, peptone and yeast extract at different level of concentrations in KC basal medium were also tested on seed germination and seedling development of this native orchid. After 90 days of culture, over 90% of seeds were tremendously germinated on KC medium supplemented with 10% or 15% (v/v of tomato juice. The incorporation of peptone at 0.1% (w/v in KC basal media promoted rapid development of protocorm to seedling. Seedlings on this treatment produced an average of three leaves and two roots after 90 days of culture and were successfully acclimatized.

  12. Standardization of micropropgation techniques for Aloe vera: a pharmaceutically important plant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zakia, Shehnaz; Zahid, Najma Yousaf; Yaseen, Mehwish; Abbasi, Nadeem Akhtar; Hafiz, Ashfaq Ahmad; Mahmood, Nasir

    2013-11-01

    Aloe vera (Syn Aloe barbadensis Mill.), a medicinal plant, has a great potential in cosmetic and drug industry due to presence of more than 200 bioactive compounds. Natural propagation of Aloe vera, by means of suckers, is very slow and insufficient to meet the increasing demand of pharmaceutical and cosmetic industries. Shoot tip was used as an explant for in vitro regeneration of Aloe vera. Explants were disinfested with the use of 0.1% mercuric chloride and 0.5% sodium hypochlorite, and washed thoroughly with autoclaved distilled water. Solid MS medium was used with addition of different concentrations of 6-benzyl aminopurine and α-naphthalene acitic acid. After 7 weeks of inoculation, greatest number of shoots (11.18) and highest shoot length (12.15cm) were found in MS medium supplemented with 0.5 mg l-1 6-benzylaminopurine (BAP) along with same concentration of α-naphthalene acitic acid (NAA). Best rooting (84.67%) was found in medium supplemented with 1.5 mg l-1 of indole butyric acid (IBA). The rooted explants were then gradually acclimatized and shifted to green house.

  13. Air to muscle O2 delivery during exercise at altitude

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Calbet, J.A.; Lundby, C.

    2009-01-01

    saturation (Sao2) 6 to 12 percentage units. Pulmonary gas exchange (PGE) is efficient at rest and, hence, the alveolar-arterial Po2 difference (Pao2-Pao2) remains close to 0 to 5mm Hg. The (Pao2-Pao2) increases with exercise duration and intensity and the level of hypoxia. During exercise in hypoxia......, diffusion limitation explains most of the additional Pao2-Pao2. With altitude, acclimatization exercise (Pao2-Pao2) is reduced, but does not reach the low values observed in high altitude natives, who possess an exceptionally high DLo2. Convective O2 transport depends on arterial O2 content (Cao2), cardiac...... output (Q), and muscle blood flow (LBF). During whole-body exercise in severe acute hypoxia and in chronic hypoxia, peak Q and LBF are blunted, contributing to the limitation of maximal oxygen uptake (Vo2max). During small-muscle exercise in hypoxia, PGE is less perturbed, Cao2 is higher, and peak Q...

  14. Gamma radiation in the control of insects in animal feed

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arthur, Paula B.; Arthur, Valter; Silva, Lucia C.A.S.; Franco, Suely S.H., E-mail: paula.arthur@hotmail.com, E-mail: arthur@cena.usp.br [Centro de Energia Nuclear na Agricultura (CENA/USP), Piracicaba, SP (Brazil); Franco, Jose G.; Villavicencio, Anna Lucia, E-mail: gilmita@uol.com.br, E-mail: villavic@ipen.br [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Harder, Marcia N.C., E-mail: marcia.harder@fatec.sp.gov.br [Centro Paula Souza, Curso Superior de Tecnologia em Biocombustiveis (FATEC), Piracicaba, SP (Brazil)

    2015-07-01

    The pests as beetles, acarids, moths and mushrooms among other, usually infest products stored as: grains, crumbs, flours, coffee, tobacco, dried fruits, animal feeds, spices and dehydrated plants, causing the visual depreciation and promoting the deterioration of the products. The objective of this study was to use gamma radiation of Cobalt-60 in the disinfestation of some types of commercial feeds used for animals of small size. In the experiment, packages measuring 10 cm x 15 cm, with capacity of 30 grams of substrate with 4 types of trademarks were irradiated with doses of: 0 (control) 0.5; 1.0 and 2.0 kGy. Each treatment had 10 repetitions, infested with 10 insects for each package with the following species: Lasioderma serricorne, Plodia interpuctella, Sitophilus zeamais and S. oryzae. After the irradiation, all the packages were maintained at acclimatized room with 27 ± 2ºC and relative humidity of 70 ± 5%. The number of insects and holes in all packages were assessed after 60 days. The results showed that the dose of 0.5 kGy was sufficient to control all the species of insects in the tested feeds. (author)

  15. Micropropagation of Asparagus by in vitro shoot culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stajner, Nataša

    2013-01-01

    Asparagus officinalis is most extensively studied species within the genus Asparagus, which is well known as garden asparagus. This species is dioecious with unisexual flowers, which means that generative propagation gives roughly equal number of male and female plants. Male plants are high yielders and preferred commercially over female plants. Tissue culture techniques could efficiently promote vegetative propagation of male plants and pave the way for efficient plant breeding.This chapter describes an efficient micropropagation protocol for developing rapid growing in vitro Asparagus shoot cultures. The source of explants, inoculation, and shoot proliferation, followed by shoot propagation, rooting, and acclimatization is described. The optimal medium for Asparagus micropropagation described in this chapter is composed of MS macro- and microelements and a combination of auxins and cytokinins. Plant growth regulators NAA, kinetin, and BA were used in various concentrations. Three different media representing the whole micropropagation protocol of Asparagus are described; medium for shoot initiation, medium for shoot multiplication, and medium for root formation. By in vitro propagation of Asparagus, root initiation is difficult, but can be promoted by adding growth retardant ancymidol which also greatly promotes shoot development and suppresses callus formation.

  16. Barcroft's bold assertion: All dwellers at high altitudes are persons of impaired physical and mental powers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    West, John B

    2016-03-01

    Barcroft's bold assertion that everyone at high altitude has physical and mental impairment compared with sea level was very provocative. It was a result of the expedition that he led to Cerro de Pasco in Peru, altitude 4300 m. Although it is clear that newcomers to high altitude have reduced physical powers, some people believe that this does not apply to permanent residents who have been at high altitude for generations. The best evidence supports Barcroft's contention, although permanent residents often perform better than acclimatized lowlanders. Turning to neuropsychological function, newcomers to high altitude certainly have some impairment, and there is evidence that the same applies to highlanders. However the notion that permanent residents are impaired is anathema to many people. For example the eminent Peruvian physician Carlos Monge took great exception to Barcroft's remark and even attributed it to the fact that Barcroft was suffering from acute mountain sickness when he made it! Monge referred to 'climatic aggression', by which he meant the negative consequences of the inevitable hypoxia of high altitude. Recent technological advances such as oxygen enrichment of room air can overcome this 'aggression'. This might be useful in some settings at high altitude such as a nursery where newborn babies are cared for, and possibly operating rooms where the surgeon's dexterity may be enhanced. Other situations might be dormitories, conference rooms, and perhaps some school rooms. These constitute possible ways by which the effects of Barcroft's assertion might be countered. PMID:25962370

  17. Hydrogen Peroxide and Polyamines Act as Double Edged Swords in Plant Abiotic Stress Responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Kamala; Sengupta, Atreyee; Chakraborty, Mayukh; Gupta, Bhaskar

    2016-01-01

    The specific genetic changes through which plants adapt to the multitude of environmental stresses are possible because of the molecular regulations in the system. These intricate regulatory mechanisms once unveiled will surely raise interesting questions. Polyamines and hydrogen peroxide have been suggested to be important signaling molecules during biotic and abiotic stresses. Hydrogen peroxide plays a versatile role from orchestrating physiological processes to stress response. It helps to achieve acclimatization and tolerance to stress by coordinating intra-cellular and systemic signaling systems. Polyamines, on the other hand, are low molecular weight polycationic aliphatic amines, which have been implicated in various stress responses. It is quite interesting to note that both hydrogen peroxide and polyamines have a fine line of inter-relation between them since the catabolic pathways of the latter releases hydrogen peroxide. In this review we have tried to illustrate the roles and their multifaceted functions of these two important signaling molecules based on current literature. This review also highlights the fact that over accumulation of hydrogen peroxide and polyamines can be detrimental for plant cells leading to toxicity and pre-mature cell death. PMID:27672389

  18. Knowledge on adaptation process of users of hearing aid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sant'Anna, Leandro Machado

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Professionals that work in this area know how important the orientation to the use of auditory device is, which involves the care required to handle and use the equipment and aspects aiming at the adaptation. Objective: To compare the knowledge of both long-term and new users about the adaptation process to the use of auditory device, so as to provide speech and language pathologists with a greater knowledge about the aspects that most influence the adaptation process. Method: This research is an observational, descriptive, cross-sectional, contemporary, retrospective study. The new and old users answered a questionnaire with information on the auditory device conservation and the adaptation process. The results were compared quantitatively through statistical review and qualitatively. Results: The age of the individuals in this study varied between 28 and 90 years. In some aspects, old and new users presented the same knowledge level. Conclusion: New users of auditory devices have been looking for hearing (re habilitation increasingly later. The action of phonoaudiology in the process of selection and adaptation to auditory devices among experienced and new users is extremely important to an effective acclimatization.

  19. Death study of Spartina alteniflora in a phyto remediation process with landfarming soil; Estudo da mortalidade da Spartina alteniflora no processo de fitorremediacao em solo 'landfarming'

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Correia, Thayna M. Brandao; Viana, Francine; Machado, Maria Isabel; Baisch, Paulo; Costa, Cesar [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte (UFRN), Natal, RN (Brazil)

    2008-07-01

    The oil pollution and its products is, nowadays, the major preoccupation of modern society, the environmentalists and, predominantly, the companies, because, beside loose money, the pollute companies can be pressed by the society and damage their image. Therefore, many techniques to repair oil impacted environments have being studied and improved. Into the most utilized techniques, phyto remediation, technique that uses vegetable species to make the process of degradation of oil organic and inorganic components faster, is a good alternative, because it's cheaper and the risk of second contamination is lower. In an acclimatized greenhouse, were transplanted in a landfarming soil, samples of a salt marsh specie, Spartina alteniflora, a very common specie in South of Brazil. The experiment had duration of 90 days and for about 20% of the samples died, three times the value of the control experiment. The conclusion of this paper is that even with high values of mortality, this salt marsh specie is very strong and can be use in remediation processes. (author)

  20. Microbiological Safety of Chicken Litter or Chicken Litter-Based Organic Fertilizers: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhao Chen

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Chicken litter or chicken litter-based organic fertilizers are usually recycled into the soil to improve the structure and fertility of agricultural land. As an important source of nutrients for crop production, chicken litter may also contain a variety of human pathogens that can threaten humans who consume the contaminated food or water. Composting can inactivate pathogens while creating a soil amendment beneficial for application to arable agricultural land. Some foodborne pathogens may have the potential to survive for long periods of time in raw chicken litter or its composted products after land application, and a small population of pathogenic cells may even regrow to high levels when the conditions are favorable for growth. Thermal processing is a good choice for inactivating pathogens in chicken litter or chicken litter-based organic fertilizers prior to land application. However, some populations may become acclimatized to a hostile environment during build-up or composting and develop heat resistance through cross-protection during subsequent high temperature treatment. Therefore, this paper reviews currently available information on the microbiological safety of chicken litter or chicken litter-based organic fertilizers, and discusses about further research on developing novel and effective disinfection techniques, including physical, chemical, and biological treatments, as an alternative to current methods.

  1. Comportamento alimentar do camarão de agua doce, Macrobrachium rosenbergii (De Man (Crustacea, Palaemonidae durante a fase larval: análise qualitativa Feeding behavior of the prawn, Macrobrachium rosenberch (De Man (Crustácea, Palaemonidae, during the larval phase: qualitative analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helenice P Barros

    1997-12-01

    Full Text Available Feeding behavior of the larvae's prawn, Macrobrachium rosenbergii De Man, 1879, in each stage of development was studied face alArtemia Linnaeus, 1758 nauplii, dry and wet diets. Groups of ten larvae in each stage were placed in 500 ml beakers at 29ºC in filtered brackish water. After the fasting period of acclimatization, the three types of food were offered separately to the larvae and the feeding behavior was observed during 30 min. Feeding perception, capture, grasp and ingestion of food were used to determine feeding pattern. Stage I lawac do not eat. The feeding behavior of larvae was similar on the stages II - XI. The perception in distance does not occur in most individuais; the feeding process generally started with the physrcal contact of food with the animal. Food is captured by thoracic appendages (maxillipeds until stage III, and maxillipeds + pereopods in stages IV - XI and particles are grasped and handled by maxillipeds. Inopposition at the capture, the ingestion is a seletive process. Selective responses decrease in later stages and larvae become omnivorous in greater degree.

  2. Implications of Genotype by Environment Interactions in Dairy Sheep Welfare

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dinu Gavojdian

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Small ruminants are the most extensively farmed livestock species in Europe, as a result being extremely exposed to natural hazards which leads to strong interactions between genotype and environment. Aim of the current review was to outline and discuss the main welfare issues and economic implications with regards to the genotype by environment interactions in dairy sheep. Researches concerning the additive genetic effect on milk yield, shown that this accounts only for 10%, while the milk production is 90% influenced by environmental factors, highlighting the major role that management and nutrition play in the dairy production of sheep. Nowadays, dairy sheep breeds (e.g. Eastern Friesian and Lacaune, are being introduced and reared in various countries under an extremely wide range of rearing conditions, without adequate knowledge on their acclimatization to the new specific conditions. It was concluded that a welfare assessment protocol for dairy sheep does not exist up today, moreover, there is a serious lack of data concerning the genetic and environmental factors affecting the welfare status of dairy sheep at farm level under different production systems.

  3. Effect of Basal Medium, Explants Size and Density on the In Vitro Proliferation and Growth of Date Palm (Phoenix dactylifera L. Cultivar ‘16-bis’

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mouaad Amine MAZRI

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available The effect of basal medium, explant size and density on shoot multiplication, growth, rooting and acclimatization of date palm cv. ‘16-bis’ was evaluated. Bud clusters of different sizes (2, 3, 4 and 5 buds per cluster were cultured at density of 1, 2, 3 and 4 clusters on Murashige and Skoog medium (MS, woody plant medium (WPM and Nitsch medium (NM supplemented with 0.5 mg/L 2-naphthoxyacetic acid and 0.5 mg/L kinetin for three months (multiplication phase. Separated shoots of different sizes (<3 cm; 3 to 4.5 cm and 4.5 to 6 cm were cultured at density of 1, 2, 3 and 4 shoots on hormone free MS medium, WPM or NM for three months (Elongation-rooting phase. The proliferation and development of shoots were affected by the basal medium, explant size and density. The optimal shoot proliferation (18.1 was observed when 4 buds clusters were cultured at the density of 2 clusters per jar in MS medium. Separated shoots of 4.5 to 6 cm length exhibited the optimal in vitro development in terms of leaf length and greening, and root number and length when cultured on MS medium. In addition, these shoots reached the highest acclimation frequency with 80%. Our results would be utilized for an efficient propagation of plantlets of cv. ‘16-bis’, a selected date palm cultivar resistant to the bayoud disease.

  4. Effects of relative irradiance on the leaf structure of Fagus sylvatica L. seedlings planted in the understory of a Pinus sylvestris L. stand after thinning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beech seedlings were established in the understory of a Pinus sylvestris plantation close to one of the southernmost populations of beech in Europe, the beech-oak forest of Montejo de la Sierra. Four years later, the overstory was partially reduced by removing pine trees. Solar radiation in the understory was evaluated by hemispherical canopy photographic technique and the effects of relative irradiance increment on the leaf anatomy of beech seedlings were analyzed during the two years after opening the stand. The increase in specific leaf mass (SLM) in seedlings during both years runs in parallel with the increase in relative irradiance estimated by the global light factor (GLF) which expresses the proportion of global radiation relative to that in the open. There were significant relationships between the light index as a surrogate of light environment and the morphological and anatomical characteristics of the leaves. In the first year, SLM increase was more related to total blade thickness. In the second year, thickness of palisade parenchyma (PP) appears more relevant than that of spongy tissue (SP) as indicated by the absence of significance in the relationship between SP and SLM. Moreover, stomatal density was also higher according to increasing relative irradiance. The shift response of beech seedlings to the overstory opening makes evident their capability of acclimatization to light increase through changes in leaf anatomy. (author)

  5. Epigenetics and nutritional environmental signals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazzio, Elizabeth A; Soliman, Karam F A

    2014-07-01

    All terrestrial life is influenced by multi-directional flows of information about its environment, enabling malleable phenotypic change through signals, chemical processes, or various forms of energy that facilitate acclimatization. Billions of biological co-inhabitants of the earth, including all plants and animals, collectively make up a genetic/epigenetic ecosystem by which adaptation/survival (inputs and outputs) are highly interdependent on one another. As an ecosystem, the solar system, rotation of the planets, changes in sunlight, and gravitational pull influence cyclic epigenetic transitions and chromatin remodeling that constitute biological circadian rhythms controlling senescence. In humans, adverse environmental conditions such as poverty, stress, alcohol, malnutrition, exposure to pollutants generated from industrialization, man-made chemicals, and use of synthetic drugs can lead to maladaptive epigenetic-related illnesses with disease-specific genes being atypically activated or silenced. Nutrition and dietary practices are one of the largest facets in epigenetic-related metabolism, where specific "epi-nutrients" can stabilize the genome, given established roles in DNA methylation, histone modification, and chromatin remodeling. Moreover, food-based "epi-bioactive" constituents may reverse maladaptive epigenetic patterns, not only prior to conception and during fetal/early postnatal development but also through adulthood. In summary, in contrast to a static genomic DNA structure, epigenetic changes are potentially reversible, raising the hope for therapeutic and/or dietary interventions that can reverse deleterious epigenetic programing as a means to prevent or treat major illnesses. PMID:24861811

  6. Study on the biological effect of radiation-degraded alginate and chitosan on plant in tissue culture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The solution of chitosan (10%) and alginate (4%) were irradiated at doses of 10-250 kGy for degradation and the products were used for testing of plant growth promotion effect. The chitosan and alginate irradiated at 100 kGy and 75 kGy, respectively showed the strongest growth-promotion effect for plants namely L. latifolium, E. grandiflorum and C. morifolium in tissue culture. For shoot multiplication, the suitable concentrations are found to be ca. 50-200 mg/l for C. morifolium, 70-100 mg/l for L. latifolium and 30-100 mg/l E. grandiflorum with irradiated chitosan, while with irradiated alginate, it was 30-200 mg/l, 30-50 mg/l and 10-200 mg/l, respectively. The optimum concentrations for C. morifolium, E. grandiflorum, L. latifolium incubated on rooting medium are ca. 100 mg/l, 30 mg/l and 40 mg/l, respectively for irradiated chitosan and 100 mg/l for irradiated alginate. After acclimatizing for 30 days in the greenhouse, the survival ratio of the transferred C. morifolium, E. grandiflorum, L. latifolium plantlets treated with irradiated chitosan was improved 18%, 39% and 13%, respectively. (author)

  7. 1. Improving Strawberry Through Gamma Irradiation and Tissue Culture; 2. Characterization of some Induced Mutants in the M1V2 Generation of Irradiated Population Derived Tissue Culture Using Morphological and Genetic Markers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The plantlets obtained from multiplicated meristems of strawberry variety chandleron the MS medium provided with 15μM 2ip in vitro were irradiated with gamma ray doses of 0 (control) and 55 gray (mutational dose). The survived plantlets were multiplied by subculturing 4 times on the same medium. The plantlets of M1V2 generation were cultured on the rooting medium (MS + 2μM IBA). After root formation, they were transferred to pots in the greenhouse to be acclimatized. When the plantlets become healthy, they were transferred to the open field. Results indicated that irradiated population showed a significant increase in total soluble solids content, anthocyanin content, number of fruits/plant and fruit weight /plant in comparison with un-irradiated control. However, no significant difference was obtained between the irradiated population and the control for other studied traits. Five different morphological variants were selected in the M1V2 generation. These were characterized by multirunner, monofoliate leaves, long flower peduncle, fruit of spherical shape and late flowering. Concerning the fractionated protein in the SDS-PAGE gels in the induced mutants, results indicated that bands 2, 3, 4, 5, 7, 9, 12 and 14 did not appear in control plants. The densities in bands 1, 8 and 13 were higher in the control plants than those of the mutants. The lowest similarity index was recorded between the round fruit and the late flowering plants (0.588). (Authors)

  8. Tissue culture of black pepper (piper nigrum l.) in Pakistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Black pepper (Piper nigrum L.) the 'King of Spices' is a universal table condiment. It is extensively used in Pakistani cuisines and herbal medicines and imported in bulk from neighboring countries. The black pepper vine is generally cultivated by seed because other vegetative propagation methods are slow and time consuming. Therefore the tissue culture technique is considered more efficient and reliable method for rapid and mass propagation of this economically important plant. The present study was initiated to develop protocol for micro-propagation of black pepper vine. The stem, leaf and shoot tip explants from mature vine were cultured on MS medium supplemented with different concentrations of plant growth regulators (2,4-D, BA, IBA). Best callus was produced on MS medium with 1.5 mg/l BA by shoot tip explant. Shoot regeneration was excellent on MS medium with 0.5 mg/l BA. The plantlets formed were rooted best on 1.5 mg/l IBA. The rooted plants were transplanted in soil medium and acclimatized in growth room. The plants raised were test planted under the local conditions of Hattar. (author)

  9. Protoplast-to-plant regeneration of American elm (Ulmus americana).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, A M P; Shukla, M R; Biswas, G C G; Saxena, P K

    2015-05-01

    This study describes a protocol for regeneration of plants from cell suspension-derived protoplasts of American elm (Ulmus americana). Efficient protoplast isolation was achieved from a two-phase culture system through the incorporation of 100 μM 2-aminoindan-2-phosphonic acid, with a yield of approximately 2 × 10(6) protoplasts/ml packed cell volume. Isolated protoplasts failed to survive in liquid or alginate bead culture systems but initiated and continued to divide when embedded in low melting point agarose beads. Protoplast-derived callus proliferated and differentiated into shoot buds in response to 10 or 20 μM thidiazuron. Differentiated buds elongated and continued to proliferate on elm shoot medium supplemented with 3.0 μM GA3. The protoplast-derived shoots rooted and acclimatized to greenhouse conditions and continued to grow. This system provides the first protoplast-to-plant regeneration system for American elm and provides a framework for the development of protoplast fusion or genome editing technologies. PMID:25359187

  10. Influence of moderate hypoxia on vaccine efficacy against Vibrio anguillarum in Oreochromis niloticus (Nile tilapia).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallage, Sanchala; Katagiri, Takayuki; Endo, Makoto; Futami, Kunihiko; Endo, Masato; Maita, Masashi

    2016-04-01

    Hypoxia is known as a potential immunomodulator in fish. This study therefore assesses the impact of chronic, moderate hypoxia on vaccine efficacy in Oreochromis niloticus. Serum antibody titer was used as a surrogate marker to detect vaccine efficacy. The fish were acclimatized to either moderate hypoxia (55 ± 5% DO) or normoxia (85 ± 5%DO) and immunized with formalin inactivated Vibrio anguillarum. Significantly, a higher antibody titer was found in normoxic fish than in moderate hypoxia. The normoxic group titer peaked at 14th dpv (days post vaccination) while the moderate hypoxic group peaked at 21st or 28th dpv. The absolute blood lymphocyte counts and serum bactericidal activities against V. anguillarum were significantly higher in normoxic fish. Serum killing of V. anguillarum appeared to be mainly via antibody-dependent classical complement pathway. Furthermore, the first week following vaccination appears critical for antibody production. This view was further supported by results obtained from gene expression assay, where the transcription level of all the detected immune related genes (IgM, IL-1 β, TCR-β, MHC-II β), except B cell activating factor, were significantly suppressed following exposure to moderate hypoxia. The overall results highlight that even though moderate hypoxia is not easily detectable in Oreochromis niloticus, it negatively affects antibody production by suppressing and delaying antibody response, ultimately affecting vaccine efficacy.

  11. Treatment of hydrocarbon-rich wastewater using oil degrading bacteria and phototrophic microorganisms in rotating biological contactor: Effect of N:P ratio

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Treatment of hydrocarbon-rich industrial wastewater in bioreactors using heterotrophic microorganisms is often associated with various operational problems. In this study, a consortium of phototrophic microorganisms and a bacterium is developed on the discs of a rotating biological contactor (RBC) for treatment of wastewater containing diesel oil. The reactor was fed with oil degrading bacterium, Burkholderia cepacia and oil tolerant phototrophic microorganisms. After biofilm formation and acclimatization to 0.6% (v/v) diesel, continuous-mode operation was initiated at 21 h hydraulic retention time (HRT). Residual diesel in the effluent was 0.003%. Advantages of this system include good total petroleum hydrocarbon (TPH) removal, no soluble carbon source requirement and good settleability of biosolids. Biofilm observations revealed the predominance of B. cepacia and cyanobacteria (Phormidium, Oscillatoria and Chroococcus). The N:P ratio affected the relative dominance of the phototrophic microorganisms and bacterial culture. This ratio was a critical factor in determining the performance efficiency of the reactor. At 21 h HRT and organic loading of 27.33 g TPH/m2 d, the N:P ratio 28.5:1 and 38:1 both yielded high and almost comparable TPH and COD removal efficiencies. This study presents a feasible technology for the treatment of hydrocarbon-rich wastewater from petrochemical industries and petroleum refineries

  12. Photoinhibition of cyanobacteria and its application in cultural heritage conservation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsieh, Paul; Pedersen, Jens Z; Bruno, Laura

    2014-01-01

    Light has bilateral effects on phototrophic organisms. As cyanobacteria in Roman hypogea are long acclimatized to dim environment, moderate intensity of illumination can be used to alleviate biodeterioration problems on the stone substrata. Moderate intensity of light inactivates cyanobacteria by causing photoinhibition, photobleaching and photodamage to the cells. The effectiveness of light depends not only on its intensity but also on the composition and pigmentation of the component cyanobacteria in the biofilms. Red light is the most effective for the species rich in phycocyanin and allophycocyanin, such as Leptolyngbya sp. and Scytonema julianum, whereas green light is effective to inhibit the species rich in phycoerythrin, like Oculatella subterranea. White light is effective to control the grayish and the black cyanobacteria, such as Symphyonemopsis sp. and Eucapsis sp. abundant in all of these pigments. Blue light is the least effective. 150 μmol photons m(-2)  s(-1) of blue light cannot cause biofilm damage while the same intensity of red, green or white irradiation for 14 days can severely damage the cyanobacterial cells in the biofilms due to ROS formation. Electron spin resonance spectroscopy detected the formation of radicals in different cyanobacterial cellular extracts exposed to 80 μmol photons m(-2)  s(-1) of light.

  13. Lipid-induced thermogenesis is up-regulated by the first cold-water immersions in juvenile penguins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teulier, Loïc; Rey, Benjamin; Tornos, Jérémy; Le Coadic, Marion; Monternier, Pierre-Axel; Bourguignon, Aurore; Dolmazon, Virginie; Romestaing, Caroline; Rouanet, Jean-Louis; Duchamp, Claude; Roussel, Damien

    2016-07-01

    The passage from shore to marine life is a critical step in the development of juvenile penguins and is characterized by a fuel selection towards lipid oxidation concomitant to an enhancement of lipid-induced thermogenesis. However, mechanisms of such thermogenic improvement at fledging remain undefined. We used two different groups of pre-fledging king penguins (Aptenodytes patagonicus) to investigate the specific contribution of cold exposure during water immersion to lipid metabolism. Terrestrial penguins that had never been immersed in cold water were compared with experimentally cold-water immersed juveniles. Experimentally immersed penguins underwent ten successive immersions at approximately 9-10 °C for 5 h over 3 weeks. We evaluated adaptive thermogenesis by measuring body temperature, metabolic rate and shivering activity in fully immersed penguins exposed to water temperatures ranging from 12 to 29 °C. Both never-immersed and experimentally immersed penguins were able to maintain their homeothermy in cold water, exhibiting similar thermogenic activity. In vivo, perfusion of lipid emulsion at thermoneutrality induced a twofold larger calorigenic response in experimentally immersed than in never-immersed birds. In vitro, the respiratory rates and the oxidative phosphorylation efficiency of isolated muscle mitochondria were not improved with cold-water immersions. The present study shows that acclimation to cold water only partially reproduced the fuel selection towards lipid oxidation that characterizes penguin acclimatization to marine life.

  14. Physical performance in kidney transplanted patients: a study on desert trekking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mosconi, G; Colombo, D; Graziani, E; Franceschelli, N; Roi, G S; Totti, V; Nanni Costa, A; Stefoni, S

    2011-01-01

    Physical performance of kidney transplanted patients in challenging environments, such as deserts, has been poorly studied. Six kidney transplanted (T: 5 males, 1 female; 45±6 yrs) and 8 control (C: 5 males, 3 females; 49±13 yrs) subjects participated in a 5-day desert trek. Blood pressure, hydration status (Height2/Rz by bioimpedance), heart rate, energy expenditure (by SenseWear Pro Armband) and walking velocities were recorded during each daily trekking stage (GPS-assisted wearable devices). Systo-diastolic blood pressure did not differ between C (119/77±12/8 mmHg) and T (121/77±10/6 mmHg) groups throughout the study. The hydration status was stable from day 1 (Ht2/Rz: 64±13 cm2/Ohm in T and 59±12 cm2/Ohm in C subjects) to day 5 (66±11 cm2/Ohm in T and 61±13 cm2/Ohm in C subjects) in both groups. Two patients on steroid treatment showed a relative hyperhydration. Mean heart rate did not differ between T (135±10 bpm) and C (136±5 bpm) subjects throughout the study, although a reduction from day 1 to day 5 was observed in T subjects only (p 55 ml/min showed acceptable physical performance and acclimatization to desert environment, suggesting a good long-term outcome of transplantation. PMID:22023766

  15. NMR-based metabolomic studies on the toxicological effects of cadmium and copper on green mussels Perna viridis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu Huifeng [Section of Marine Ecology and Biotechnology, Division of Life Science, Hong Kong University of Science and Technology (HKUST), Clear Water Bay, Kowloon (Hong Kong); Wang Wenxiong, E-mail: wwang@ust.hk [Section of Marine Ecology and Biotechnology, Division of Life Science, Hong Kong University of Science and Technology (HKUST), Clear Water Bay, Kowloon (Hong Kong)

    2010-11-15

    Traditional toxicology studies have focused on selected biomarkers to characterize the biological stress induced by metals in marine organisms. In this study, a system biology tool, metabolomics, was applied to the marine mussel Perna viridis to investigate changes in the metabolic profiles of soft tissue as a response to copper (Cu) and cadmium (Cd), both as single metal and as a mixture. The major metabolite changes corresponding to metal exposure are related to amino acids, osmolytes, and energy metabolites. Following metal exposure for 1 week, there was a significant increase in the levels of branched chain amino acids, histidine, glutamate, glutamine, hypotaurine, dimethylglycine, arginine and ATP/ADP. For the Cu + Cd co-exposed mussels, the levels of lactate, branched chain amino acid, succinate, and NAD increased, whereas the levels of glucose, glycogen, and ATP/ADP decreased, indicating a different metabolic profile for the single metal exposure groups. After 2 weeks of exposure, the mussels showed acclimatization to Cd exposure based on the recovery of some metabolites. However, the metabolic profile induced by the metal mixture was very similar to that from Cu exposure, suggesting that Cu dominantly induced the metabolic disturbances. Both Cu and Cd may lead to neurotoxicity, disturbances in energy metabolism, and osmoregulation changes. These results demonstrate the high applicability and reliability of NMR-based metabolomics in interpreting the toxicological mechanisms of metals using global metabolic biomarkers.

  16. Expansion and Function of Repeat Domain Proteins During Stress and Development in Plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Manisha; Pandey, Girdhar K

    2015-01-01

    The recurrent repeats having conserved stretches of amino acids exists across all domains of life. Subsequent repetition of single sequence motif and the number and length of the minimal repeating motifs are essential characteristics innate to these proteins. The proteins with tandem peptide repeats are essential for providing surface to mediate protein-protein interactions for fundamental biological functions. Plants are enriched in tandem repeat containing proteins typically distributed into various families. This has been assumed that the occurrence of multigene repeats families in plants enable them to cope up with adverse environmental conditions and allow them to rapidly acclimatize to these conditions. The evolution, structure, and function of repeat proteins have been studied in all kingdoms of life. The presence of repeat proteins is particularly profuse in multicellular organisms in comparison to prokaryotes. The precipitous expansion of repeat proteins in plants is presumed to be through internal tandem duplications. Several repeat protein gene families have been identified in plants. Such as Armadillo (ARM), Ankyrin (ANK), HEAT, Kelch-like repeats, Tetratricopeptide (TPR), Leucine rich repeats (LRR), WD40, and Pentatricopeptide repeats (PPR). The structure and functions of these repeat proteins have been extensively studied in plants suggesting a critical role of these repeating peptides in plant cell physiology, stress and development. In this review, we illustrate the structural, functional, and evolutionary prospects of prolific repeat proteins in plants. PMID:26793205

  17. Metabolic Profiles in Ovine Carotid Arteries with Developmental Maturation and Long-Term Hypoxia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ravi Goyal

    Full Text Available Long-term hypoxia (LTH is an important stressor related to health and disease during development. At different time points from fetus to adult, we are exposed to hypoxic stress because of placental insufficiency, high-altitude residence, smoking, chronic anemia, pulmonary, and heart disorders, as well as cancers. Intrauterine hypoxia can lead to fetal growth restriction and long-term sequelae such as cognitive impairments, hypertension, cardiovascular disorders, diabetes, and schizophrenia. Similarly, prolonged hypoxic exposure during adult life can lead to acute mountain sickness, chronic fatigue, chronic headache, cognitive impairment, acute cerebral and/or pulmonary edema, and death.LTH also can lead to alteration in metabolites such as fumarate, 2-oxoglutarate, malate, and lactate, which are linked to epigenetic regulation of gene expression. Importantly, during the intrauterine life, a fetus is under a relative hypoxic environment, as compared to newborn or adult. Thus, the changes in gene expression with development from fetus to newborn to adult may be as a consequence of underlying changes in the metabolic profile because of the hypoxic environment along with developmental maturation. To examine this possibility, we examined the metabolic profile in carotid arteries from near-term fetus, newborn, and adult sheep in both normoxic and long-term hypoxic acclimatized groups.Our results demonstrate that LTH differentially regulated glucose metabolism, mitochondrial metabolism, nicotinamide cofactor metabolism, oxidative stress and antioxidants, membrane lipid hydrolysis, and free fatty acid metabolism, each of which may play a role in genetic-epigenetic regulation.

  18. Methane gas generation from waste water extraction process of crude palm oil in experimental digesters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dillon, A.; Penafiel, R.; Garzón, P. V.; Ochoa, V.

    2015-12-01

    Industrial processes to extract crude palm oil, generates large amounts of waste water. High concentrations of COD, ST, SV, NH4 + and low solubility of O2, make the treatment of these effluents starts with anaerobic processes. The anaerobic digestion process has several advantages over aerobic degradation: lower operating costs (not aeration), low sludge production, methane gas generation. The 4 stages of anaerobic digestion are: hydrolysis, acidogenic, acetogenesis and methanogenesis. Through the action of enzymes synthesized by microbial consortia are met. The products of each step to serve as reagents is conducted as follows. The organic load times and cell hydraulic retention, solids content, nutrient availability, pH and temperature are factors that influence directly in biodigesters. The objectives of this presentation is to; characterize the microbial inoculum and water (from palm oil wasted water) to be used in biodigestores, make specific methanogenic activity in bioassays, acclimatize the microorganisms to produce methane gas using basal mineral medium with acetate for the input power, and to determine the production of methane gas digesters high organic load.

  19. Effect of Thermal Stress and Workload on Oxygen Debt in Healthy Subjects

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    G. P. Dimri

    1996-07-01

    Full Text Available The influence of thermal load on oxygen debt has been investigated. The experimental data were collected on six young healthy male subjects who were naturally acclimatized to heat. They were Studied under three environmental conditions which may be classified for convenience sake as comfortable (C,hot humid (HH, and every hot humid (VHH, The subjects were given exercise on a bicycle ergometer for 6 min at 6rpm, and their oxygen consumption was measured during rest, throughout exercise period (6min and for 30 min post-exercise period. The oxygen debt was determined at three different   submaximal  Workloads of 400,500 and 600 Kgm/min (equivalent 65, 82 and 98 W under each environmental condition. The results indicate a significant increase in oxygen debt with increase in thermal stress (p <.001 as well as workload (p <.001. Liner regression equations have been constructed as suggestive alternative method for the prediction of oxygen debt from thermal load or/and workload

  20. Elevated temperature alters the lunar timing of Planulation in the brooding coral Pocillopora damicornis.

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    Camerron M Crowder

    Full Text Available Reproductive timing in corals is associated with environmental variables including temperature, lunar periodicity, and seasonality. Although it is clear that these variables are interrelated, it remains unknown if one variable in particular acts as the proximate signaler for gamete and or larval release. Furthermore, in an era of global warming, the degree to which increases in ocean temperatures will disrupt normal reproductive patterns in corals remains unknown. Pocillopora damicornis, a brooding coral widely distributed in the Indo-Pacific, has been the subject of multiple reproductive ecology studies that show correlations between temperature, lunar periodicity, and reproductive timing. However, to date, no study has empirically measured changes in reproductive timing associated with increased seawater temperature. In this study, the effect of increased seawater temperature on the timing of planula release was examined during the lunar cycles of March and June 2012. Twelve brooding corals were removed from Hobihu reef in Nanwan Bay, southern Taiwan and placed in 23 and 28°C controlled temperature treatment tanks. For both seasons, the timing of planulation was found to be plastic, with the high temperature treatment resulting in significantly earlier peaks of planula release compared to the low temperature treatment. This suggests that temperature alone can influence the timing of larval release in Pocillopora damicornis in Nanwan Bay. Therefore, it is expected that continued increases in ocean temperature will result in earlier timing of reproductive events in corals, which may lead to either variations in reproductive success or phenotypic acclimatization.