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Sample records for accidents traffic

  1. Visualization of Traffic Accidents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jie; Shen, Yuzhong; Khattak, Asad

    2010-01-01

    Traffic accidents have tremendous impact on society. Annually approximately 6.4 million vehicle accidents are reported by police in the US and nearly half of them result in catastrophic injuries. Visualizations of traffic accidents using geographic information systems (GIS) greatly facilitate handling and analysis of traffic accidents in many aspects. Environmental Systems Research Institute (ESRI), Inc. is the world leader in GIS research and development. ArcGIS, a software package developed by ESRI, has the capabilities to display events associated with a road network, such as accident locations, and pavement quality. But when event locations related to a road network are processed, the existing algorithm used by ArcGIS does not utilize all the information related to the routes of the road network and produces erroneous visualization results of event locations. This software bug causes serious problems for applications in which accurate location information is critical for emergency responses, such as traffic accidents. This paper aims to address this problem and proposes an improved method that utilizes all relevant information of traffic accidents, namely, route number, direction, and mile post, and extracts correct event locations for accurate traffic accident visualization and analysis. The proposed method generates a new shape file for traffic accidents and displays them on top of the existing road network in ArcGIS. Visualization of traffic accidents along Hampton Roads Bridge Tunnel is included to demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed method.

  2. Youth and Traffic Accidents

    OpenAIRE

    Simpson, H.M.; Mayhew, D.R.

    1987-01-01

    This paper addresses the problem of traffic accidents involving young adults: specifically, what is known about the causes of their accidents, and what preventive action seems warranted. In this context, we consider what role the family physician might play in dealing with this major public health problem.

  3. Dementia and Traffic Accidents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Jindong Ding; Siersma, Volkert; Nielsen, Connie Thurøe

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: As a consequence of a rapid growth of an ageing population, more people with dementia are expected on the roads. Little is known about whether these people are at increased risk of road traffic-related accidents. OBJECTIVE: Our study aims to investigate the risk of road traffic......-related accidents for people aged 65 years or older with a diagnosis of dementia in Denmark. METHODS: We will conduct a nationwide population-based cohort study consisting of Danish people aged 65 or older living in Denmark as of January 1, 2008. The cohort is followed for 7 years (2008-2014). Individual's personal...... data are available in Danish registers and can be linked using a unique personal identification number. A person is identified with dementia if the person meets at least one of the following criteria: (1) a diagnosis of the disease in the Danish National Patient Register or in the Danish Psychiatric...

  4. [Drugs and traffic accidents].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mravcík, V; Zabranský, T; Vorel, F

    2005-01-01

    The aim of the study was to map the prevalence of alcohol and other psychotropic substances in deceased participants of traffic accidents in the Czech Republic. The studied sample included persons autopsied in the departments of forensic medicine and forensic toxicology that died during traffic accidents and were toxicologically tested in 2003. Case definition involved alcohol cases with blood alcohol concentration (BAC) 0,2 g/kg and higher, with cannabis, detections of active THC metabolites only were taken into account; in cases where volatile substances (solvents) were detected we included into the definition only cases with substances not produced post mortem or in some physiological or pathological statuses. We identified 554 cases of whom 440 (79.4%) were males and 114 (20.6%) were females. 35.5% were in the age group 20 - 34 years. The sample has been classified into 4 categories (average age, % of males): pedestrians (45.4, 76.2), bicyclists (51.1, 82.0), drivers (36.3, 91.2) and others (36.1, 66.2). Alcohol was tested in 548 cases, 214 (39.1%) of those were found positive. 380 cases were tested for other psychotropic substances than alcohol; samples taken from 25 bodies (6.6%) were found positive for at least for one of these substances. 8 cases were positive both for alcohol and some other psychotropic substance - i.e. 3.7% out of 214 cases positive for alcohol were positive for other substance and 32.0% out of 25 cases positive at least for any other psychotropic substance were alcohol-positive. When focusing our analysis at the active participants of road traffic accidents only - pedestrians, bicyclists and drivers (altogether 397 cases) - we have found alcohol to be tested in 394 cases, out of which 158 (39.1%) were positive; as for other psychotropic substances, 314 cases were tested and 23 (7.3%) were positive at least for one of them. 7 cases were found positive for alcohol and other psychotropic substance simultaneously; this represents 4.4% out of

  5. [Smoking and nonfatal traffic accidents].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buñuel Granados, J M; Córdoba García, R; Castillo Pardo Md, M del; Alvarez Pardo, J L; Monreal Hijar, A; Pablo Cerezuela, F

    2003-01-01

    To investigate the possible associations between smoking and nonfatal traffic accidents, and to evaluate the possible influence of other factors on traffic accidents. Cross-sectional study of associations.Setting. Eight health centers in the city of Zaragoza. 1214 drivers between 25 and 65 years of age, who visited the health center during the months of July to September 2001, and who drove on at least 2 days of the week. MAIN MEASURES. We recorded data on sex, age, marital status, level of education, profession, diseases, use of prescription and nonprescription drugs, drinking, smoking, illegal drug use, accidents and traffic infractions. We found accidents to be most common among unmarried men between 25 and 29 years of age. There were no significant differences in accident rates between drinkers and nondrinkers. The accident rate was 50% higher in smokers than in nonsmokers (OR, 2.22; 95% CI, 1.49%-3.09%), and there were no significant differences between smokers who smoked while driving and those who refrained from smoking while driving. CONCLUSIONS. The prevalence of accidents is highest in unmarried men younger than 45 years of age. In statistical terms, smokers have twice as many accidents as nonsmokers. The absence of significant differences between smokers who do and do not smoke while driving suggests that smoking increases the risk of being involved in traffic accidents regardless of whether drivers refrain from smoking at the wheel.

  6. Causes of road traffic accidents in Juba

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2017-05-02

    May 2, 2017 ... Introduction: Road traffic accidents (RTAs) are a major cause of death and disability in South Sudan. The purpose ... Most accidents were caused by male .... Accidents statistics, Nairobi: Ministry for Public works,. Government of Kenya, 1983 – 1990, 1992. 5. Filani and Gbadamosi. Identification of cycles and.

  7. Intersection layout, traffic volumes and accidents.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Poppe, F.

    1988-01-01

    This paper reports on the accident research carried out as a part of a large project started in 1983. For this accident research an inventory was made of a large number of intersections.Recorded were layout features, accident data and estimates of traffic volumes. Attention will be given to the

  8. Analysis of traffic accidents in Romania, 2009.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Călinoiu, Geovana; Minca, Dana Galieta; Furtunescu, Florentina Ligia

    2012-01-01

    This paper aimed to underline the main consequences of traffic accidents in Romania 2009 and their associated causes or circumstances. We identified some problematic geographic areas, some critical months or moments of the day and also the most frequent causes; all these should become targets for the future planning. The current analysis provides some priority criteria for public health interventions. So, the future national road safety strategy should be in line with the EU objectives, but also with the national priorities. Romania is far away from the average EU target for 2010 of halving the death by traffic accidents registered in 2001. To describe the circumstances and the consequences related to traffic accidents registered in Romania, for the year 2009. An ecological study was conducted. The traffic accidents circumstances were analyzed in terms of magnitude, geographic space, time and cause. The consequences were analyzed as affected people and damaged cars. A total of 28,627 traffic accidents were registered in Romania during the year 2009. 2,796 people were killed and 27,968 were hospitalized and 42,443 cars were damaged. 3 of 4 accidents were caused by violations on behalf of the car drivers. Most common violations in car drivers were excess of speed and priority violations (52.4%). Among the pedestrians, 7 of 10 accidents were caused by illegal crossing. A higher number of accidents occurred during the summer months and during the evening hours (from 5.00 pm till 8.00 pm). The traffic accidents represent a real public health problem in Romania and a serious burden for the health system. The gap between Romania and the other EU member states needs to be diminished in the next decade. In this purpose, the future national road safety strategy should be in line with the EU objectives, but also with the national priorities. Research is needed to understand the causes and the socio-economical impact of traffic accidents and to define appropriate national

  9. Fatal traffic accidents and forensic medicine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kazuhiko Kibayashi

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available In the event of a traffic accident fatality, the death is reported as an “unusual death,” an inquest is conducted, and, if necessary, a forensic autopsy is performed to prove any causal relationship between the accident and the death, identify the vehicle at fault, and determine the cause of the accident. A forensic autopsy of a traffic accident fatality needs to both determine the cause of death and identify the mechanism of injury, an analytical task that requires observation of three major traffic accident factors: the body, the vehicles involved, and the scene of the accident. Also crucial to determining the cause of death is the process of looking into whether the people involved in the accident had any diseases that might affect their driving performance or were under the influence of alcohol or drugs. In order to reduce the number of people killed in traffic accidents, it will be important to promote joint research uniting forensic medicine, clinical medicine, automotive engineering, and road engineering, take measures to limit the impact of inebriated pedestrians and pedestrians suffering from dementia, and ensure proper screening of alcohol and illegal drug consumption in drivers.

  10. Epidemiology o.f· Traffic Accidents

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    almost reached the opposite pavement but had miscalcu- lated the speed of oncoming traffic in relation to his own speed. Of the 521 fatal traffic accidents analysed (Table Ill),. 11,7% were due to persons falling from moving vehides- some were due to passengers attempting to alight from moving buses, while others fell from ...

  11. TRAFFIC ACCIDENT-RELATED OPEN GLOBE INJURIES.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okamoto, Yoshifumi; Morikawa, Shohei; Okamoto, Fumiki; Mitamura, Yoshinori; Ishikawa, Hiroto; Ueda, Tetsuo; Sakamoto, Taiji; Sugitani, Kazuhiko; Sawada, Osamu; Mori, Junya; Takamura, Yoshihiro; Oshika, Tetsuro

    2017-12-15

    To evaluate the clinical characteristics and visual outcomes of patients with traffic accident-related open globe injuries, and to examine preoperative factors influencing the visual prognosis after pars plana vitrectomy, as compared with common open globe injuries. Patients with open globe injuries, who underwent pars plana vitrectomy, were identified. Patients' demographic and clinical data were entered into a computerized database for review and analysis; data included age, sex, initial visual acuity, duration between onset of injury and surgery, information about the type and cause of injury, wound location and length, presence of ocular complications, and final visual acuity. Of the 355 open globe injuries, 14 were sustained during a traffic-related accident; the average age was 50.4 years (range: 20-85) and most (78.6%) were men. Of these 14 patients, 9 (64.3%) presented with rupture and 5 (35.7%) with laceration. Injuries were caused while driving (6 eyes; 42.9%), riding a bicycle (5 eyes; 35.7%), involved in car accident while walking (2 eyes; 14.3%), and riding a motorbike (1 eye; 7.1%). Initial visual acuity was significantly related to final visual acuity (P = 0.003, R = 0.80). The final visual acuity in patients with traffic accident-related open globe injuries was significantly better than that of the total group (P = 0.01). Traffic accident-related open globe injuries had better visual outcomes than common open globe injuries. Visual outcomes in patients with traffic accident-related open globe injuries were related to the initial visual acuity. No eyes developed endophthalmitis in patients with traffic accident-related open globe injuries.

  12. Traffic Accidents on Slippery Roads

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fonnesbech, J. K.; Bolet, Lars

    2014-01-01

    Police registrations from 65 accidents on slippery roads in normally Danish winters have been studied. The study showed: • 1 accident per 100 km when using brine spread with nozzles • 2 accidents per 100 km when using pre wetted salt • 3 accidents per 100 km when using kombi spreaders The results...... of accidents in normally Danish winter seasons are remarkable alike the amount of salt used in praxis in the winter 2011/2012. • 2.7 ton NaCl/km when using brine spread with nozzles • 5 ton NaCl/km when using pre wetted salt. • 5.7 ton NaCl/km when using kombi spreaders The explanation is that spreading...

  13. Epidemiology of Deaths from Road Traffic Accidents in Nigeria: A ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The purpose of this study is to examine the epidemiology of deaths from Road Traffic Accidents (RTAs) in Nigeria using Lagos State as a baseline study and to suggest preventive and corrective safety measures towards reducing the traffic accidents in the study area. The reported number of deaths from road traffic accidents ...

  14. Risk of road traffic accidents in children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krzysztof Goniewicz

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Injuries resulting from road accidents are the most common cause of death among children, more common even than cancer and birth defects. There were 135,438 accidents involving children aged 0–14 years in the years 2000–2014 in Poland. A total of 4334 children died and 141,009 were injured. Most fatalities were recorded among children between the ages of 7 and 14 years. The research presents the main problems of road safety and the nature of the causes and consequences of accidents among children in Poland. Injuries to children are one of the biggest problems in modern medicine, which requires vigorous and preventive actions. Children of all ages should be intensively covered by educational activities related to road safety. Raising awareness of the risks associated with participation of children in traffic, with parents and carers, can greatly reduce the number of accidents.

  15. [Traffic accidents associated with emotional stress after divorce].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Li-Juan; Yi, Xu-Fu; Chen, Xiao-Gang

    2009-04-01

    In recent years, the traffic accidents increased gradually, especially those caused by the drivers daily emotional abnormality and in which the drivers were liable. This article reviewed the traffic accidents caused by divorced driver's emotional abnormality, illustrated the features of those accidents from the gender, age, occupation and mileage of drivers. It was considered that the major cause of those accidents was excessive drinking due to drivers' emotional stress. Suggestions about preventing the traffic accidents caused by emotional abnormality were put forward so as to make the corresponding rules and finally decrease the emotional abnormality traffic accidents.

  16. Traffic accident mapping in Bangkok metropolis: a case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayuthya, R S; Böhning, D

    Results from an analysis of traffic accidents from a study of the police records of four police stations in the Bangkok metropolis are presented. The main emphasis in this study was put on the development of a measure for traffic accident density. The traffic flow was estimated at the various study locations by trained experts. By relating the frequency of traffic accidents found in the police records to the independently estimated traffic flow, a measure for traffic accident occurrence, the traffic accident density, was constructed and estimated for the 47 areas in four study locations. The spatial risk structure was estimated and three risk groups were identified. Each area was classified into its associated risk group, and traffic accident maps for the four study locations in the Bangkok metropolis are provided here. The implication for prevention strategies is discussed.

  17. Increase the Safety of Road Traffic Accidents by Applying Clustering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kos Goran

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available In terms of continual increase of number of traffic accidents and alarming trend of increasing number of traffic accidents with catastrophic consequences for human life and health, it is necessary to actively research and develop methods to combat these trends. One of the measures is the implementation of advanced information systems in existing traffic environment. Accidents clusters, as databases of traffic accidents, introduce a new dimension in traffic systems in the form of experience, providing information on current accidents and the ones that have previously occurred in a given period. This paper proposes a new approach to predictive management of traffic processes, based on the collection of data in real time and is based on accidents clusters. The modern traffic information services collects road traffic status data from a wide variety of traffic sensing systems using modern ICT technologies, creating the most accurate road traffic situation awareness achieved so far. Road traffic situation awareness enhanced by accident clusters' data can be visualized and distributed in various ways (including the forms of dynamic heat maps and on various information platforms, suiting the requirements of the end-users. Accent is placed on their significant features that are based on additional knowledge about existing traffic processes and distribution of important traffic information in order to prevent and reduce traffic accidents.

  18. Level of neurotic disorders among drivers causing traffic accidents

    OpenAIRE

    Đurić Predrag; Filipović Danka

    2007-01-01

    Different aspects of driver personality may affect traffic safety. Extended driver reaction time causes deceleration of the reflexes, which is a major cause of traffic accidents. Cornell index was used in 30 drivers responsible for traffic accidents, with the aim to measure their level of neurotic disorder and compare them with results of controls (drivers not responsible for traffic accidents). Reaction time was measured and compared among subjects with normal results of Cornell test and tho...

  19. Pregnancy outcome in women involved in road traffic accidents in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Pregnancy outcome in women involved in road traffic accidents in Sokoto. BA Ekele, DC Nnadi, BB Shehu. Abstract. Background: Road traffic accidents (RTA) are common in Nigeria. Pregnant mothers could be involved in such accidents and this might affect pregnancy outcome. Method: A retrospective analysis of pregnant ...

  20. Spatial Modelling of Road Traffic Accidents in Oyo State, Nigeria ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... on average approximately one accident for the period under study. Travel densities are negatively related to number of accidents, which suggests inhibiting factors in the sense that traffic generated tend to be associated with fewer crashes. Keywords: Road traffic accidents, spill over effect, spatial lag modelling, maximum ...

  1. Road Traffic Accidents in Nigeria: A Public Health Problem

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Worldwide, road traffic accidents lead to death and disability as well as financial cost to both society and the individual involved. The causes of road traffic accidents are not just human error or driver negligence. Unfortunately,. Nigerian highways are arguably one of the worst and most dangerous in the world. Road traffic ...

  2. Some characteristics of drivers having caused traffic accidents

    OpenAIRE

    Đurić Predrag; Miladinov-Mikov Marica

    2008-01-01

    Introduction. Traffic accidents are caused by road, vehicle and human factors, the latter one causing, either by itself or associated with other factors, more than 90% of car accidents. There are three types of human errors: errors in perception, attention and memory. Material and Methods. The study included thirty healthy drivers, aged 28-40, with 500 km driven per a week, who had caused at least one traffic accident, but not being intoxicated by alcohol or drugs during the accident. The sam...

  3. The classic. Review article: Traffic accidents. 1966.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tscherne, H

    2013-09-01

    This Classic Article is a translation of the original work by Prof. Harald Tscherne, Der Straßenunfall [Traffic Accidents]. An accompanying biographical sketch of Prof. Tscherne is available at DOI 10.1007/s11999-013-3011-x . An online version of the original German article is available as supplemental material. The Classic Article is reproduced with permission from Brüder Hollinek & Co. GesmbH, Purkersdorf, Austria. The original article was published in Wien Med Wochenschr. 1966;116:105-108. (Translated by Dr. Roman Pfeifer.).

  4. Simulation Study of Traffic Accidents in Bidirectional Traffic Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moussa, Najem

    Conditions for the occurrence of bidirectional collisions are developed based on the Simon-Gutowitz bidirectional traffic model. Three types of dangerous situations can occur in this model. We analyze those corresponding to head-on collision; rear-end collision and lane-changing collision. Using Monte Carlo simulations, we compute the probability of the occurrence of these collisions for different values of the oncoming cars' density. It is found that the risk of collisions is important when the density of cars in one lane is small and that of the other lane is high enough. The influence of different proportions of heavy vehicles is also studied. We found that heavy vehicles cause an important reduction of traffic flow on the home lane and provoke an increase of the risk of car accidents.

  5. Public transportation development and traffic accident prevention in Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sutanto Soehodho

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Traffic accidents have long been known as an iceberg for comprehending the discrepancies of traffic management and entire transportation systems. Figures detailing traffic accidents in Indonesia, as is the case in many other countries, show significantly high numbers and severity levels; these types of totals are also evident in Jakarta, the highest-populated city in the country. While the common consensus recognizes that traffic accidents are the results of three different factor types, namely, human factors, vehicle factors, and external factors (including road conditions, human factors have the strongest influence—and figures on a worldwide scale corroborate that assertion. We, however, try to pinpoint the issues of non-human factors in light of increasing traffic accidents in Indonesia, where motorbike accidents account for the majority of incidents. We then consider three important pillars of action: the development of public transportation, improvement of the road ratio, and traffic management measures.

  6. Epidemiology of Traffic Accidents | Ferguson | South African Medical ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The epidemiology of traffic accidents is studied. Various factors include the nature of fatal injuries, the racial, sex and age distribution, the scene of accident, the weather and the time, the different categories of commuters and the trip purpose, the types of vehicles and motorways involved. The establishment of a traffic ...

  7. Anatomy of Injury Severity and Fatality in Indonesian Traffic Accidents

    OpenAIRE

    Santosa, Sigit Puji; Mahyuddin, Andi Isra; Sunoto, Febrianto Guntur

    2017-01-01

    There has been a steady increase in traffic accidents with major injuries in Indonesia over the last 10 years, especially those with a score higher than 3 on the Abbreviated Injury Scale (AIS). Frontal, side, and rear collisions, as well as pedestrian impact are modes of accident that contribute to the majority of injuries or fatalities. Based on age classification, the 16-30 age group are the most vulnerable road users in Indonesia. Traffic accidents in Indonesia are dominated by motorcycles...

  8. Road Traffic Accidents: A Wild Life Exterminator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hadiseh Kavandi

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Once commonly traced in various parts of Southwest Asia, the Iranian cheetah (Acinonyx jubatus venaticus, a disparagingly endangered cheetah subspecies, seems to have been driven to extinction. Restricted to its only remained appropriate habitat, The Iranian cheetah has barely survived in Iran's Dasht-e Kavir plateau. Throughout the 1970s, about 200 cheetahs were estimated to live in seven protected areas in Iran (1. Nevertheless, the figures dramatically declined to 50 and 60 individuals in 2005–2006. Over ten years, Iranian researchers captured images of 76 individual cheetahs using 80 camera traps implanted throughout the Dasht-e Kavir plateau (2. Disappointingly in 2011, camera traps captured only 20 individuals in the protected areas (2, 3. What adds insult to the injury is knowing the fact that two-thirds of cheetah deaths in 2012–2013 were due to road accidents(4.      Beside the human fatalities and injuries, road traffic accidents remain as serious threats for wildlife. Although numerous measures are taken to hinder the extinction of this subspecies, efforts should be concentrated on long-term planning at both national and international levels to raise awareness and promote willingness to address this ongoing yet controllable damage.

  9. Traffic accident or dumping? - Striking results of a traffic accident reconstruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nerger, Eric; Bayer, Ronny; Gärtner, Tobias; Dreßler, Jan; Ondruschka, Benjamin

    2017-01-01

    An atypical traffic accident scenario should be investigated directly at the crash site from all concerned professions, especially police men, forensic pathologists and technical experts, to get a personal overview and impression of the situation and the opportunity for interdisciplinary discussion. We present the rare case of a fatal traffic accident on a German motorway which was initially thought to be an accidental discovery of dumping a corpse. Based on autopsy findings, the technical investigation and the accident reconstruction, this case was solved as a spectacular form of a collision between a pedestrian and a bonnet-front car, which was not described elsewhere in scientific literature to the best of our knowledge. The pedestrian was hit in an upright body position, was lifted up by the car, smashed the windscreen and flew over the car with several body rotations. His flight curve ends directly at the roof of the car during brake processing, where the body touched the roof, smashed the rear-window and landed in the trunk. Based on the technical investigation, the driver of the car was not able to hide the accident. However, the pedestrian could have avoided the collision if he did not cross the motorway on foot. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Psychological Factors related to traffic accidents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Serafín Aldea Muñoz

    2002-07-01

    Full Text Available Automobile drivers fine themselves affected by series psychological factors which are directly related to traffic accidents. In this study we intend to investigate these variables, basing our work on the most convenient sources of information, coming from the police, the General Direction of Traffic, the courts, insurance companies, the Red Cross, Social Security, and forensics. Neither could we ignore the influence which certain forces hold over people´s mental health; this can sometimes intensely affect how they drive. In fact, in the most diverse situations we can observe the way in which a person carries out a task can be conditioned by the presence of other person who may have no direct relationship to him. Society has established its limitations and rules, but speed itself feels omnipotence when imposing controls over the most profound behavior in others; man in usually not conscious of these controls. People generally drive their automobiles in a way similar to their habitual behavior and their personality traits. Nevertheless, it is also important to consider the adaptation of their way of driving to their state of mind at any given moment. The majority of subjects tend to adapt their driving to their emotional state.

  11. Do alcohol excise taxes affect traffic accidents? Evidence from Estonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saar, Indrek

    2015-01-01

    This article examines the association between alcohol excise tax rates and alcohol-related traffic accidents in Estonia. Monthly time series of traffic accidents involving drunken motor vehicle drivers from 1998 through 2013 were regressed on real average alcohol excise tax rates while controlling for changes in economic conditions and the traffic environment. Specifically, regression models with autoregressive integrated moving average (ARIMA) errors were estimated in order to deal with serial correlation in residuals. Counterfactual models were also estimated in order to check the robustness of the results, using the level of non-alcohol-related traffic accidents as a dependent variable. A statistically significant (P Estonia has been affected by changes in real average alcohol excise taxes during the period 1998-2013. Therefore, in addition to other measures, the use of alcohol taxation is warranted as a policy instrument in tackling alcohol-related traffic accidents.

  12. Pneumoperitoneum by Inguinal Laceration after Traffic Accident.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Daesung; Lee, Soo Hoon; Lee, Sang Bong; Park, TaeJin

    2017-09-01

    The leading cause of surgical pneumoperitoneum is hollow viscus perforation, which accounts for approximately 90% of cases. A nonsurgical etiology may account for up to about 10% of the causes of pneumoperitoneum. However, a pneumoperitoneum often poses significant management dilemmas for surgeons, especially when signs of peritonitis are absent or when the cause is unknown prior to laparotomy. We present the first case of pneumoperitoneum due to inguinal laceration without viscus perforation after a traffic accident. A 17-year-old male patient was admitted to the emergency department with a deep laceration of 7∼8 cm with bleeding in the right inguinal region after a collision with a passenger car while riding a bicycle. The abdominal examination revealed diffuse abdominal tenderness on deep palpation without peritoneal signs. A chest radiograph showed no free gas below the diaphragm. On computed tomography angiography of the aorta, subcutaneous emphysema in the right inguinal and femoral areas and free air in the peritoneal cavity were observed. There was no bowel perforation in an exploratory laparotomy, but the right femoral sheath ruptured, and exposure of the femoral vessels into the peritoneal cavity was observed. WHY SHOULD AN EMERGENCY PHYSICIAN BE AWARE OF THIS?: A pneumoperitoneum can be caused by femoral sheath rupture without hollow viscus perforation in patients with a penetrating groin injury. Therefore, emergency physicians should not pursue solely abdominal/pelvic sources of a pneumoperitoneum in patients with a penetrating groin injury. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. [Alcohol as a cause of suffering in traffic accidents].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasanicević, E

    1998-01-01

    Alcohol is a cause of traffic accidents quite often. It is a reason for 18% of traffic accidents. Beside the drivers, the assistant drivers and pedestrians also get killed quite often. Children get killed because of the alcoholism of adults (18.7%). In the first place, male drivers consume alcohol beverages. Females, as assistant drivers and pedestrians get killed less often because of alcoholism then males.

  14. [Some characteristics of drivers having caused traffic accidents].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durić, Predrag; Miladinov-Mikov, Marica

    2008-01-01

    Traffic accidents are caused by road, vehicle and human factors, the latter one causing, either by itself or associated with other factors, more than 90% of car accidents. There are three types of human errors: errors in perception, attention and memory. The study included thirty healthy drivers, aged 28-40, with 500 km driven per a week, who had caused at least one traffic accident, but not being intoxicated by alcohol or drugs during the accident. The same number of controls were included. Both the cases and controls were interviewed. We found no difference regarding the marital status, education, conflicts with family members or problems at work, frequency of using the car, speed and habit of fastening seat belts among car drivers who had caused traffic accidents and those who had not. However, we did find significant differences in the frequency of alcohol consumption in general and before driving. Car drivers who had caused traffic accidents used alcohol regularly in greater percentage than those drivers who had not caused any accident--i.e. not a single control claimed to use alcohol regularly. A statistically significant difference was also recorded in alcohol consumption immediately before driving. Such results had been expected, bearing in mind the influence of alcohol on the time needed by drivers to react in emergency. Alcohol consumption is an important factor causing traffic accidents. Since drivers included in our study did not cause a road accident after consuming alcohol, we have found that alcohol consumption, both regular and just before driving, is an important cause of traffic accidents.

  15. [Reaction time of drivers who caused road traffic accidents].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durić, Predrag; Filipović, Danka

    2009-01-01

    Human factor is the single cause of road traffic injuries in 57%, and together with other factors in more than 90% of all road traffic accidents. Human factor includes many aspects, where reaction time is very important. Thirty healthy drivers 28-40 y.o. with 50-500 km passed per week, having caused at least one road traffic accident in the last ten years were selected, provided they were not under the influence of alcohol and drugs during traffic accident. The same number of control were selected. Both cases and controls were tested to reaction time. We found statistically significant difference between car drivers who caused car accidents and those who did not in both simple and choice reaction times. Car drivers who caused road traffic accidents have longer reaction time (both simple and choice reaction time), but as the tasks were more complex, that difference was less visible. Since drivers involved in this study had introductory phase before measuring their reaction times, they faced with unpleasant sound when they made mistake, which forced them to be aware not to make a mistake in further tasks, so they showed longer reaction times. Measuring of reaction time seems to be important, and as we have showed they are different in drivers who have caused road traffic accidents and those who have do not.

  16. Economic development and traffic accident mortality in the industrialized world, 1962-1990

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    E.F. van Beeck (Ed); G.J.J.M. Borsboom (Gerard); J.P. Mackenbach (Johan)

    2000-01-01

    textabstractBACKGROUND: We examined the association between prosperity and traffic accident mortality in the industrialized world in a long-term perspective. METHODS: We calculated traffic accident mortality, traffic mobility and the fatal injury rate of 21

  17. Road Traffic Accident Variations in Lagos State, Nigeria: A Synopsis ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The major objective of this research is to examine the variation patterns of road traffic accident in Lagos State. The study used mostly secondary data; accident records and vehicular situation were obtained from the Nigeria police force and Federal Road Safety Commission. The data were obtained for a period of thirty two ...

  18. Road Traffic Accident Variations in Lagos State, Nigeria: A Synopsis ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    FIRST LADY

    Abstract. The major objective of this research is to examine the variation patterns of road traffic accident in Lagos State. The study used mostly secondary data; accident records and vehicular situation were obtained from the Nigeria police force and Federal Road Safety Commission. The data were obtained for a period of ...

  19. Management of severe pelvic injury following road traffic accident in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A 34 year old woman involved in road traffic accident with severe anterior and posterior pelvic fractures with associated soft tissue injury was referred from Wa Regional Hospital 18 hours after the accident to Tania Specialist Hospital in Tamale. Emergency resuscitative measures such as catheterization and management of ...

  20. pregnancy outcome in women involved in road traffic accidents in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    bbshehu

    Abstract. Background: Road traffic accidents (RTA) are common in Nigeria. Pregnant mothers could be involved in such accidents and this might affect pregnancy outcome. Method: A retrospective analysis of pregnant mothers admitted at Usmanu Danfodiyo University. Teaching Hospital, Sokoto, Nigeria because of road ...

  1. Effects of Pavement Skid Resistance on Traffic Accidents

    OpenAIRE

    Abdullah I. Al-Mansour

    2006-01-01

    The Ministry of Transport (MOT) in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia had collected a massive amount of friction measurements using a Mu-meter covering most of the major highway network in the kingdom. Traffic accident data of 89 high accident rate locations from four main different highway classes were extracted from the MOT accident records. Pavement skid resistance for the selected locations was determined from the pavement skid resistance records. The objective of this paper is to utilize these ...

  2. Traffic accidents on expressways: new threat to China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Jinbao; Deng, Wei

    2012-01-01

    As China is building one of the largest expressway systems in the world, expressway safety problems have become serious concerns to China. This article analyzed the trends in expressway accidents in China from 1995 to 2010 and examined the characteristics of these accidents. Expressway accident data were obtained from the Annual Report for Road Traffic Accidents published by the Ministry of Public Security of China. Expressway mileage data were obtained from the National Statistics Yearbook published by the National Bureau of Statistics of China. Descriptive statistical analyses were conducted based on these data. Expressway deaths increased by 10.2-fold from 616 persons in 1995 to 6300 persons in 2010, and the average annual increase was 17.9 percent over the past 15 years, and the overall other road traffic deaths was -0.33 percent. China's expressway mileage accounted for only 1.85 percent of highway mileage driven in 2010, but expressway deaths made up 13.54 percent of highway traffic deaths. The average annual accident lethality rate [accident deaths/(accident deaths + accident injuries)] for China's expressways was 27.76 percent during the period 1995 to 2010, which was 1.33 times higher than the accident lethality rate of highway traffic accidents. China's government should pay attention to expressway construction and safety interventions during the rapid development period of expressways. Related causes, such as geographic patterns, speeding, weather conditions, and traffic flow composition, need to be studied in the near future. An effective and scientific expressway safety management services system, composed of a speed monitoring system, warning system, and emergency rescue system, should be established in developed and underdeveloped provinces in China to improve safety on expressway.

  3. A community intervention to prevent traffic accidents among bicycle commuters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bacchieri, Giancarlo; Barros, Aluísio J D; Santos, Janaína V dos; Gonçalves, Helen; Gigante, Denise P

    2010-10-01

    To evaluate an educational intervention designed to prevent traffic accidents among workers that use the bicycle for commuting. A longitudinal intervention study with a stepped wedge implementation was carried out between January 2006 and May 2007. Five neighborhoods with distinct geographic characteristics were selected in the city of Pelotas, Brazil, and 42 census tracts were randomly selected from these neighborhoods. All households were screened for male bicycle commuters, resulting in a sample of 1,133 individuals. The outcomes analyzed were "traffic accidents" and "near accidents". The cyclists were interviewed monthly by phone to record traffic accidents and "near accidents". Every 15 days, from the second month of study, a group of about 60 cyclists was invited to attend the intervention meeting that included an educational component (a talk and a video presentation), distribution of a safety kit (reflective belt & sash, reflective tape and an educational booklet) and a bicycle breaks check-up (maintenance performed if necessary). Poisson regression adjusted for time effect was used to assess the intervention effect. Nearly 45% of the cyclists did not attend the intervention. During the study period, 9% of the study individuals reported a traffic accident and 88% reported a "near accident". In total there were 106 accidents and 1,091 near accidents. There was no effect observed from the intervention on either of the outcomes. The intervention tested was not capable of reducing traffic accidents among bicycle commuters. Lack of interest in safety by commuters and external factors, such as road design and motorist behavior, may have together influenced this result.

  4. Traffic Accident, System Model and Cluster Analysis in GIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veronika Vlčková

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available One of the many often frequented topics as normal journalism, so the professional public, is the problem of traffic accidents. This article illustrates the orientation of considerations to a less known context of accidents, with the help of constructive systems theory and its methods, cluster analysis and geoinformation engineering. Traffic accident is reframing the space-time, and therefore it can be to study with tools of technology of geographic information systems. The application of system approach enabling the formulation of the system model, grabbed by tools of geoinformation engineering and multicriterial and cluster analysis.

  5. Identifying traffic accident black spots with Poisson-Tweedie models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Debrabant, Birgit; Halekoh, Ulrich; Bonat, Wagner Hugo

    2018-01-01

    This paper aims at the identification of black spots for traffic accidents, i.e. locations with accident counts beyond what is usual for similar locations, using spatially and temporally aggregated hospital records from Funen, Denmark. Specifically, we apply an autoregressive Poisson-Tweedie model...... considered calendar years and calculated by simulations a probability of p=0.03 for these to be chance findings. Altogether, our results recommend these sites for further investigation and suggest that our simple approach could play a role in future area based traffic accident prevention planning....

  6. Trauma in the elderly caused by traffic accident: integrative review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Maria Ribeiro dos Santos

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE To describe the scientific knowledge produced about trauma in the elderly caused by traffic accidents in healthcare area studies. METHODS Integrative review of studies from 2003 to 2013 searched in LILACS, SciELO, PubMed and CINHAL databases. We used combination of the descriptors injuries, wounds and accidents, in English, Portuguese and Spanish languages. RESULTS 32 studies were selected. In the thematic analysis, three categories emerged: epidemiological data from traffic accidents involving elderly; traffic accidents with elderly pedestrians; and trauma care in the elderly. We observed increased incidence of trauma in most countries and pedestrians represented a large part of the victims. Among these, the elderly are the most vulnerable group. CONCLUSION Studies showed that trauma care in the elderly need protocols and professionals with training in gerontology specialized in trauma care services.

  7. An algorithm for assessing the risk of traffic accident.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng, Kwok-Suen; Hung, Wing-Tat; Wong, Wing-Gun

    2002-01-01

    This study is aimed at developing an algorithm to estimate the number of traffic accidents and assess the risk of traffic accidents in a study area. The algorithm involves a combination of mapping technique (Geographical Information System (GIS) techniques) and statistical methods (cluster analysis and regression analysis). Geographical Information System is used to locate accidents on a digital map and realize their distribution. Cluster analysis is used to group the homogeneous data together. Regression analysis is performed to realize the relation between the number of accident events and the potential causal factors. Negative binomial regression model is found to be an appropriate mathematical form to mimic this relation. Accident risk of the area, derived from historical accident records and causal factors, is also determined in the algorithm. The risk is computed using the Empirical Bayes (EB) approach. A case study of Hong Kong is presented to illustrate the effectiveness of the proposed algorithm. The results show that the algorithm improves accident risk estimation when comparing to the estimated risk based on only the historical accident records. The algorithm is found to be more efficient, especially in the case of fatality and pedestrian-related accident analysis. The output of the proposed algorithm can help authorities effectively identify areas with high accident risk. In addition, it can serve as a reference for town planners considering road safety.

  8. [Traffic accidents: a health problem in primary care].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanquer, J J; Rapa, M; Melchor, A; Jiménez, T; Adam, A; Mulet, M J

    1993-09-15

    To discover the prevalence and most relevant epidemiological characteristics of the victims of traffic accidents which occur in our health area. Hospital Casualty department (HC), Health area 19, Alcoy. This was an observational, crossover study, based on the collection of data from all those patients who had been brought into the HC for attention because of a traffic accident and who were attended between October 1, 1990 and September 31, 1991. During the study period a total of 1,111 traffic accident victims were attended. Their average age was 26.62 (SD +/- 15.95), with 69.6% being men and 30.2% women. 60.7% of the victims were attended on non-working days or the eve of a non-working day. 44.5% of those involved in accidents were in four-wheeled vehicles; 40% on two-wheeled vehicles and 11.1% of the victims were pedestrians. Injuries were light in 73.3% of cases; moderate in 15.9% and in the other 8.8% serious, grave or critical. 43.7% of the total had the accident in an urban area and 40.9% on the open road. The high prevalence of victims of accidents (8.3 per 1000 inhabitants) observed in our health area can be explained by the type of study. It is vital to obtain valid information of the real importance of this health problem. The primary care doctor must take preventive action concerning traffic accidents: a) through full studies of traffic accident levels among primary care centre users; b) primary preventive action, through the spreading of information on norms of safety; and c) secondary and tertiary prevention, by means of effective and efficacious outpatient emergency measures, as well as a thorough rehabilitation of accident victims.

  9. Designing of an emergency call system for traffic accidents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ziya Ekşi

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available In our country, many people have been seriously injured or died in traffic accidents. Fatal accidents often occur because of not complying with traffic rules or carelessness. Except these driver mistakes, heavy injuries can result in deaths because of emergency aid teams failing to arrive to accident scene in time. In this study, an accident emergency call system is designed to help injured people's treatment as soon as possible by notifying emercengy team automatically in accidents. The designed system sends messages, including information such as vehicle location, exploding airbag number, vehicle model, age and registration plate, to emergency aid team using GPS module at the moment of crashed vehicle's airbag explosion.

  10. Predicting Severity and Duration of Road Traffic Accident

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fang Zong

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a model system to predict severity and duration of traffic accidents by employing Ordered Probit model and Hazard model, respectively. The models are estimated using traffic accident data collected in Jilin province, China, in 2010. With the developed models, three severity indicators, namely, number of fatalities, number of injuries, and property damage, as well as accident duration, are predicted, and the important influences of related variables are identified. The results indicate that the goodness-of-fit of Ordered Probit model is higher than that of SVC model in severity modeling. In addition, accident severity is proven to be an important determinant of duration; that is, more fatalities and injuries in the accident lead to longer duration. Study results can be applied to predictions of accident severity and duration, which are two essential steps in accident management process. By recognizing those key influences, this study also provides suggestive results for government to take effective measures to reduce accident impacts and improve traffic safety.

  11. A Public Health Perspective of Road Traffic Accidents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Gopalakrishnan

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Road traffic accidents (RTAs have emerged as an important public health issue which needs to be tackled by a multi-disciplinary approach. The trend in RTA injuries and death is becoming alarming in countries like India. The number of fatal and disabling road accident happening is increasing day by day and is a real public health challenge for all the concerned agencies to prevent it. The approach to implement the rules and regulations available to prevent road accidents is often ineffective and half-hearted. Awareness creation, strict implementation of traffic rules, and scientific engineering measures are the need of the hour to prevent this public health catastrophe. This article is intended to create awareness among the health professionals about the various modalities available to prevent road accidents and also to inculcate a sense of responsibility toward spreading the message of road safety as a good citizen of our country.

  12. Identification of Risk Factors Influencing Road Traffic Accidents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Touahmia

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Road traffic accidents (RTAs are becoming a major problem around the world, incurring enormous losses of human and economic resources. Recent reports from the World Health Organization (WHO reveal that each year more than 1.25 million people are killed and 50 million are injured in road traffic accidents worldwide. In Saudi Arabia, statistics show that at least one traffic accident occurs every minute, causing up to 7,000 deaths and over 39,000 injuries annually. In this study, the main causes of RATs in the province of Hail are examined. The data was collected through the use of a survey which was developed to evaluate the effect of influencing parameters on RTA rate. The results show that 67% of RTAs result from human factors, 29% from road conditions and 4% from vehicle defects. Excessive speed and violation of traffic rules and regulations were found to be the main causes of RATs. Low rates of compliance with speed limit signs and seat-belt regulations were also observed. These findings highlight the need of strengthening effective traffic law enforcement alongside with improving traffic safety and raising public awareness.

  13. Marine traffic, accidents, and underreporting in the Baltic Sea

    OpenAIRE

    Sormunen, Otto-Ville; Hänninen, Maria; Kujala, Pentti

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents an overview of ship traffic volume and accidents in the Baltic Sea with a special focus on the Gulf of Finland. The most common accidents are groundings and collisions, usually reported to be caused by human error. The annual number of Baltic Sea accidents reported to HELCOM varied from 34–54 for collisions and 30–60 for groundings. The number of yearly port calls varied from 468–505 thousand with a peak in 2008. Exact port call data could not be found for all ports and he...

  14. Epidemiological study of fatal road traffic accidents in Ecuador

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Algora-Buenafé AF

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Background Traffic accidents represent a priority for public health since they are responsible for high mortality tolls, elevated economic costs and a significant social impact. Ecuador ranks as the seventh country in the World with a higher mortality rate. Aims To describe the main epidemiologic characteristics of deaths caused by traffic accidents from a time and space perspective. Methods Transversal and descriptive study was conducted using the data from National Transit Agency. The data includes all deaths due to traffic accidents in Ecuador registered from January to December 2016. An analysis of percentages and frequencies of the traffic accident fatalities was performed based on demographic, temporal and geographic components. In addition, Gross Mortality Rates (x100,000 and adjusted (x1,000 per province were calculated. Results From 1,976 fatalities registered in Ecuador in 2016, 81.1 per cent corresponded to men and 18 per cent to women. Mortality Rate resulted as 13.6 per 100,000 inhabitants. With respect to men, the major portion of deaths correspond to drivers (52.1 per cent, when as for women, it correspond to passengers (51 per cent. Saturdays (21 per cent and Sundays (23.1 per cent correspond to the days with greater percentage of deaths. The incidence was greater in highways of Guayas (23.3 per cent and Pichincha (17.1 per cent. Selected by type, cause and implicated vehicles, the accidents that outstand are frontal side collision (28.5 per cent and pedestrian-motor vehicle collision (22.6 per cent, in addition to traffic law violations (46.9 per cent and motorcycle incidents (29.55 respectively. Conclusion The current study provides us, for the first time, a global perspective of the epidemiologic characteristics of fatal car accidents in Ecuador, contributing with better information for the design of national road safety regulations.

  15. Determinants of within-country variation in traffic accident mortality in Italy: A geographical analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    G. La Torre (Giuseppe); E.F. van Beeck (Ed); G. Quaranta (Gianluigi); A. Mannocci (Alice); W. Ricciardi

    2007-01-01

    textabstractObjective: To identify determinants of regional differences in traffic accident mortality in Italy. Data and methods: Multiple linear regression models were conducted assessing the associations between regional differences in traffic mortality, case fatality and accident rates (dependent

  16. IMPACT OF WEATHER ON ROAD TRAFFIC ACCIDENTS IN ONDO STATE, NIGERIA: 2005 - 2012

    OpenAIRE

    Olawole, Moses Olaniran

    2016-01-01

    Road traffic accidents and their related deaths have become a major health problem and concerns. Studies have examined the impact of weather on road traffic accidents and casualties. However, the effect of weather on road traffic accidents in the existing literature is scanty in Nigeria. In the light of the growing interest in understanding the interrelationship between climate change and transportation including road traffic accidents, this study examines the impact of rainfal...

  17. pregnancy outcome in women involved in road traffic accidents in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    bbshehu

    ORIGINAL ARTICLE. Pregnancy outcome in women involved in road traffic accidents in Sokoto. B. A. Ekele, D. C. Nnadi and *B. B. Shehu. Departments of Obstetrics and Gynaecology and *Surgery, Usmanu Danfodiyo University Teaching Hospital,. Sokoto. Reprint requests to: Dr. B. A. Ekele, Departments of Obstetrics and ...

  18. Epidemology of soft tissue injuries in road traffic accidents | Emedike ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A two year study of soft tissue injuries from road traffic accidents was undertaken at the Ebonyi State University Teaching Hospital. Males out-numbered females by a ratio of 2.5 to 1, the commonest types of injuries encountered were lacerations, contusions and abrasions, and the head and neck, the lower and upper ...

  19. Pattern of maxillofacial and associated injuries in road traffic accidents

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Pattern of maxillofacial and associated injuries in road traffic accidents. M K Akama, M L Chindia, F G Macigo, S W Guthua. Abstract. No Abstract. East African Medical Journal Vol. 84 (6) 2007: pp. 287-295. Full Text: EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT.

  20. Relationship between use of mobile phone and road traffic accident ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: Car telephone use has increased against the background of rapid escalation in general mobile phone services and use. The study was designed to determine the relationship between the use of mobile phone while driving and the incidence of road traffic accident amongst motorists in Zaria. Method: The study ...

  1. Pattern And Outcome Of Road Traffic Accidents In A Suburban ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Conclusion: The epidemiology of cases of road traffic accident in this community reveals several areas of prevention. There is the need for health education for the road users to keep to the rules that will ensure road safety. There is also the need to health educate our patients against the common practice of discharge ...

  2. Causes of road traffic accidents in Juba | Cham | South Sudan ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Drivers of private vehicles caused most accidents (37%). Most drivers (46%) were aged 20-30 years. RTAs occurred most often on city roads (89.83%). Conclusion: This leads us to conclude that a comprehensive safety system is needed that are premised on the idea of community-based awareness of traffic rules and safety ...

  3. Risk factors for road traffic accidents in Gulu municipality, Uganda ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    There has been no published study on RTA in Gulu municipality. There is a high frequency of RTA in Gulu municipality with poor road design and inadequate knowledge on road safety precaution among road users. Objectives: To establish the causes of Road Traffic Accidents (RTA), establish the safety measures in place ...

  4. risk factors for road traffic accidents in gulu municipality, uganda

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2012-10-01

    Oct 1, 2012 ... with reckless driving or riding, poor road design, overloading, double parking, inadequate road safety signs and knowledge, were major risk factors. Efforts to reduce. RTA in Gulu municipality should aim at addressing these problems. INTRODUCTION. Road traffic accident (RTA) is sustained following.

  5. Predicting Posttraumatic Stress Symptoms in Children after Road Traffic Accidents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landolt, Markus A.; Vollrath, Margarete; Timm, Karin; Gnehm, Hanspeter E.; Sennhauser, Felix H.

    2005-01-01

    Objective: To prospectively assess the prevalence, course, and predictors of posttraumatic stress symptoms (PTSSs) in children after road traffic accidents (RTAs). Method: Sixty-eight children (6.5-14.5 years old) were interviewed 4-6 weeks and 12 months after an RTA with the Child PTSD Reaction Index (response rate 58.6%). Their mothers (n = 60)…

  6. Epidemiology of Injuries from Road Traffic Accidents in Lagos State ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Epidemiology of injuries from Road Traffic Accidents (RTAs) has become a major public health concern worldwide. However, unlike developed or high-income countries, many developing countries have made very little progress towards addressing this problem. Nonetheless, there are ways to strengthen the reduction of ...

  7. Risk factors for road traffic accidents among drivers of public ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Recent studies have shown an increase in the rate of road traffic accident (RTA). Identifying the risk factors for this problem may provide a clue to possible effective intervention. This study aimed to determine the prevalence and risk factors for self reported RTA among drivers of educational institutions and make suggestions ...

  8. Epidemiology of road traffic accidents in Owerri, Imo state, south ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objectives: This study was designed as a retrospective, descriptive epidemiological analysis of cases of road traffic accidents (RTA) in Owerri within a four-year period 2006-2009. Method and Materials: One hundred and ninety five case notes of RTA patients treated at Federal Medical Centre, Owerri were retrieved from the ...

  9. Psychoactive substance and road traffic accident among commercial ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Family support influence behaviour such as alcohol use and other psychoactive substances. However, few studies have reported on the relationship between family support and road traffic accidents. The present study was to examine whether perceived family support influence the prevalence of psychoactive substances ...

  10. Maxillofacial trauma due to road traffic accidents in Benin City ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: The incidence and causes of road traffic accidents (RTAs) vary with geographical location. The economic and social costs of RTAs are enormous. The knowledge of aetiologic factors and associated injury patterns may be important in planning for prevention and treatment. The aim of this study was to document ...

  11. Readmissions due to traffic accidents at a general hospital

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciana Paiva

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available AbstractObjective: to verify the occurrence and the causes of hospital readmissions within a year after discharge from hospitalizations due to traffic accidents.Methods: victims of multiple traumas due to traffic accidents were included, who were admitted to an Intensive Care Unit. Sociodemographic data, accident circumstances, body regions affected and cause of readmission were collected from the patient histories.Results: among the 109 victims of traffic accidents, the majority were young and adult men. Most hospitalizations due to accidents involved motorcycle drivers (56.9%. The causes of the return to the hospital were: need to continue the surgical treatment (63.2%, surgical site infection (26.3% and fall related to the physical sequelae of the trauma (10.5%. The rehospitalization rate corresponded to 174/1,000 people/year.Conclusion: the hospital readmission rate in the study population is similar to the rates found in other studies. Victims of severe limb traumas need multiple surgical procedures, lengthier hospitalizations and extended rehabilitation.

  12. Road Traffic Accidents in Nigeria: A PublicHealth Problem | Bun ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The causes of road traffic accidents are not just human error or driver negligence. Unfortunately,Nigerian highways are arguably one of the worst and most dangerous in the world. CONCLUSION: Road traffic accident in Nigeria has not received the attention warranted. There is need to view road traffic accident as an issue ...

  13. [Mobility, traffic accidents, and associated factors among Guatemalan university students].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-Guzmán, Sandra; Jiménez-Mejías, Eladio; Martínez-Ruiz, Virginia; Lupiáñez-Tapia, Fernando; Lardelli-Claret, Pablo; Jiménez-Moleón, José Juan

    2014-04-01

    The aim of this study was to identify and quantify the association between the amount of driving (km/year), traffic accidents, and other factors among university students in Guatemala. A cross-sectional study was performed during the 2010-2011 school year in a sample of 1,016 drivers who completed a self-administered questionnaire that assessed mobility patterns, use of safety accessories, driving style, and automobile crashes. The results showed a positive association between amount of driving and greater involvement in risky driving (adjusted regression coefficient 3.25, 95%CI: 2.23-4.27, for the highest level of exposure). More frequent involvement in risky driving and older age showed the strongest associations with traffic accidents. Although the amount of driving was positively associated with a higher accident rate, most of this association was found to be mediated by involvement in risky driving practices.

  14. [Frequency of forensic autopsies after deaths in road traffic accidents].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Igeltjørn, Marit; Nordrum, Ivar Skjåk

    2009-09-24

    In 2007, 224 persons died in road traffic accidents in Norway. According to the instruction for prosecution, the police should request forensic autopsy in such deaths. The police's adherence to this instruction varies. The aim of this study was to document enforcement of the instruction for prosecution among police districts in two Norwegian counties (North and South Trøndelag). Data from forensic autopsies of deaths in road traffic accidents performed at The Department of Pathology and Medical Genetics at St. Olavs Hospital were compared with data from similar deaths in the two counties registered in The Cause of Deaths Statistics in Statistics Norway for the time period 1996-2005. 249 persons died in road traffic accidents in the two counties in the time period assessed; forensic autopsies were performed on 157 (63 %) of them. The forensic autopsy rate decreased from 69 % in the first 5-year period to 57 % in the second period. The largest decrease was in North Trøndelag where the rate dropped from 62 % to 38 %. Drivers of motorized vehicles were to a larger extent autopsied than other road-users; victims of motorcycle accidents were autopsied to a lesser extent than those of car accidents and other types of road traffic accidents. The reduced frequency of autopsy and differences in request practice between police districts may be explained by economical circumstances, different understanding of the importance of forensic autopsies and different interpretation of the instruction for prosecution. It is not known whether there were important differences between those who were autopsied and those who were not.

  15. User Interface for the SMAC Traffic Accident Reconstruction Program

    OpenAIRE

    Rok Krulec; Milan Batista

    2003-01-01

    This paper describes the development of the user interfacefor the traffic accident reconstruction program SMAC. Threebasic modules of software will be presented. Initial parametersinput and visualization, using graphics library for simulation of3D space, which form a graphical user interface, will be explainedin more detail. The modules have been developed usingdifferent technologies and programming approaches to increaseflexibility in further development and to take maximumadvantage of the c...

  16. User Interface for the SMAC Traffic Accident Reconstruction Program

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rok Krulec

    2003-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes the development of the user interfacefor the traffic accident reconstruction program SMAC. Threebasic modules of software will be presented. Initial parametersinput and visualization, using graphics library for simulation of3D space, which form a graphical user interface, will be explainedin more detail. The modules have been developed usingdifferent technologies and programming approaches to increaseflexibility in further development and to take maximumadvantage of the currently accessible computer hardware, sothat module to module communication is also mentioned.

  17. Epidemiology of Fatal Traffic Accidents in Sari, Iran in 2014

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jamshid Yazdani Charati

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction and purpose: Road traffic injuries are one of the most important health problems in recent communities that annually takes the lives of more than 12,000 people around the world. The present study examined the epidemiology of fatal traffic accidents in Sari, Mazandaran province, Iran, in  2014. Methods: This descriptive study was conducted using the information about the people who died due to traffic accidents during early April 2014-March 2015. This information was taken from the Mazandaran Legal Medicine Center. All the required information was collected using the checklist. The age and gender of the population were obtained from the Statistical Center of Iran, which was collected in the population census carried out in 2014. Data analysis was performed using Excel 2013.Results: According to the results, a total of 112 individuals had died due to traffic accidents in Sari, 76 cases of whom were male (68%. The highest number of deaths was found to be between the ages of 15 and 24 years old. Sari-Kaiser and Sari-Juybar road had the maximum (19 cases and minimum (two cases numbers of death, respectively. In addition, the spring and winter with 35 and 19 killed had the most and least numbers of death in Sari in 2014. Conclusion: As the findings of the present study indicated, Sari has a high rate of accidents, particularly among the young people. Regarding this, some measures such as ratifying strict rules, increasing vehicle safety, as well as improving culture and education, especially among the children and adolescents should be taken to reduce this rate.

  18. HOMICIDE BY A ROAD TRAFFIC ACCIDENT : A CASE REPORT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yandra

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Deaths from road traffic accidents need a meticulous autopsy examination and a proper interpretation of injuries, as they can be a source of potential homicide among them. We report a case of homicide which was brought as a death in a ‘hit and run’ case to our mortuary. After our post mortem examination and issuing of our report, the investigative authorities were able to nab the actual culprit involved in the murder.

  19. Rapid and robust traffic accident detection based on orientation map

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Jinglei; Ye, Mao; Ding, Jian; Mao, Songan; Zhang, Huixiong John

    2012-11-01

    Video-based rapid traffic accident detection is very important for intelligent transport systems. Traditional methods are either not fast enough or not stable with working environments. A rapid and environment-adaptive method is proposed. The inspiration of the method is originated from the key observation that the traffic accident brings abundant information on motion directions. This method includes three steps. First, the orientation map for each video frame is constructed based on the optical flows. Then, for each orientation map, the connected regions are formed. An entropy-like energy function is used to measure the orientation information of the connected region. The higher the energy value, the more moving directions exist. The highest measure of these connected regions in each orientation map is considered as its energy measure. Finally, based on the energy sequence of orientation maps, a Gaussian model is established to learn the normal energy fluctuation range for some environment. In the detection process, if the energy of one orientation map burst out of the normal range, it means there exists a traffic accident. The advantages of our method include the fast processing speed, a compact parameter set, and the robustness to the different environments and illuminations. Experimental results confirm the above advantages of the proposed approach.

  20. Road Traffic Accidents - The Number One Killer in Libya

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdulmajid Ahmed Ali

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available To The Editor: It is estimated that 1.26 million people worldwide died in 2000 from road traffic accidents, 90% of them in low and middle-income countries. In 2000, the road traffic injury mortality rate for the world was 20.8 per 100,000 populations (30.8 in males, 11.0 in females [1].The Arab population constitutes 3.6% of the world’s population and it owns 1% of the world’s vehicles. Its human losses as a result of road traffic accidents (RTA account for 4.8% of that of the world’s losses [2]. It is estimated that the annual cost of road crashes is about 1% of the Gross National Product (GNP in developing countries, 1.5 in transitional countries and 2% in highly motorised countries [3].In Libya the situation is worse. It is a sad fact that road traffic accidents are the number one killer in Libya. As a matter of fact I consider it to be an ‘epidemic’ in all sectors of the Libyan society. There is not a day that goes by in Libya without us hearing about families, young men, women and children getting killed in horrific car accidents.It is alarming that young children are knocked down on a daily basis by speeding young drivers, whose understanding of driving skills may have been acquired from "playstation games"! (You can watch some of the shameful video clips sent by some of these drivers on this link http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=doWEDjiHlVoI feel it is our responsibility as physicians observing the situation to raise awareness about the scale of the problem, possible causes, and how to tackle it. POSSIBLE CAUSES:• A driving licence in Libya is not issued on the basis of how much you know. Therefore the majority of drivers know little or nothing about the law.• Wearing seat belts is not compulsory in most parts of Libya. In some places, especially in the Eastern part of Libya, you could be penalised for wearing one. I was stopped many years ago by the traffic police in the Eastern part of Libya because I was wearing sunglasses

  1. Development and application of traffic accident density estimation models using kernel density estimation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seiji Hashimoto

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Traffic accident frequency has been decreasing in Japan in recent years. Nevertheless, many accidents still occur on residential roads. Area-wide traffic calming measures including Zone 30, which discourages traffic by setting a speed limit of 30 km/h in residential areas, have been implemented. However, no objective implementation method has been established. Development of a model for traffic accident density estimation explained by GIS data can enable the determination of dangerous areas objectively and easily, indicating where area-wide traffic calming can be implemented preferentially. This study examined the relations between traffic accidents and city characteristics, such as population, road factors, and spatial factors. A model was developed to estimate traffic accident density. Kernel density estimation (KDE techniques were used to assess the relations efficiently. Besides, 16 models were developed by combining accident locations, accident types, and data types. By using them, the applicability of traffic accident density estimation models was examined. Results obtained using Spearman rank correlation show high coefficients between the predicted number and the actual number. The model can indicate the relative accident risk in cities. Results of this study can be used for objective determination of areas where area-wide traffic calming can be implemented preferentially, even if sufficient traffic accident data are not available.

  2. Curve Estimation of Number of People Killed in Traffic Accidents in Turkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berkhan Akalin, Kadir; Karacasu, Murat; Altin, Arzu Yavuz; Ergül, Bariş

    2016-10-01

    One or more than one vehicle in motion on the highway involving death, injury and loss events which have resulted are called accidents. As a result of increasing population and traffic density, traffic accidents continue to increase and this leads to both human losses and harm to the economy. In addition, also leads to social problems. As a result of increasing population and traffic density, traffic accidents continue to increase and this leads to both human losses and harm to the economy. In addition to this, it also leads to social problems. As a result of traffic accidents, millions of people die year by year. A great majority of these accidents occur in developing countries. One of the most important tasks of transportation engineers is to reduce traffic accidents by creating a specific system. For that reason, statistical information about traffic accidents which occur in the past years should be organized by versed people. Factors affecting the traffic accidents are analyzed in various ways. In this study, modelling the number of people killed in traffic accidents in Turkey is determined. The dead people were modelled using curve fitting method with the number of people killed in traffic accidents in Turkey dataset between 1990 and 2014. It was also predicted the number of dead people by using various models for the future. It is decided that linear model is suitable for the estimates.

  3. Geometric and Road Environmental Effects against Total Number of Traffic Accidents in Kendari

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurdin, M. Akbar; Welendo, La; Annisa, Nur

    2017-05-01

    From the large number of traffic accidents that occurred, the carrying of Kendari as the biggest contributor to accidents in the Southeast. The number of accidents in Kendari row since 2011 was recorded at 18 accidents due to the influence of geometric road, in 2012 registered at 13 accident and in 2013 amounted to 6 accidents, with accident data because of the influence Geometric recorded for 3 consecutive years the biggest contributor to accidents because of the influence of geometric is Abeli districts. This study aimed to determine the road which common point of accident-prone (Black spot) in Kecamatan Abeli as accident-prone areas in Kendari, analyze the influence of geometric and road environment against accidents on roads in Kecamatan Abeli, provide alternative treatment based on the causes of accidents on the location of the accident-prone points (blackspot) to reduce the rate of traffic accidents. From the results of a study of 6 curve the accident-prone locations, that the curve I, II, and VI is the “Black Spot” influenced by the amount and condition of traffic accidents, while at the curve II, a traffic accident that occurred also be caused by unsafe geometric where the type of geometric should be changed from Spiral-Spiral type to Spiral-Circle-Spiral type. This indicates geometric effect on the number of accidents.

  4. Fatal road traffic accidents in Mauritius (2006 – 2011) – A ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Road traffic accidents are becoming alarming in Mauritius and the present study was carried out to analyze the trends of fatal road traffic accidents in Mauritius from January 2006 to December 2011. The data was reviewed from the records of Traffic Management and Road Safety Unit, and the Ministry of Public Infrastructure, ...

  5. Daylight Saving Time Transitions and Road Traffic Accidents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tuuli Lahti

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Circadian rhythm disruptions may have harmful impacts on health. Circadian rhythm disruptions caused by jet lag compromise the quality and amount of sleep and may lead to a variety of symptoms such as fatigue, headache, and loss of attention and alertness. Even a minor change in time schedule may cause considerable stress for the body. Transitions into and out of daylight saving time alter the social and environmental timing twice a year. According to earlier studies, this change in time-schedule leads to sleep disruption and fragmentation of the circadian rhythm. Since sleep deprivation decreases motivation, attention, and alertness, transitions into and out of daylight saving time may increase the amount of accidents during the following days after the transition. We studied the amount of road traffic accidents one week before and one week after transitions into and out of daylight saving time during years from 1981 to 2006. Our results demonstrated that transitions into and out of daylight saving time did not increase the number of traffic road accidents.

  6. [Methodologies for estimating the indirect costs of traffic accidents].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carozzi, Soledad; Elorza, María Eugenia; Moscoso, Nebel Silvana; Ripari, Nadia Vanina

    2017-01-01

    Traffic accidents generate multiple costs to society, including those associated with the loss of productivity. However, there is no consensus about the most appropriate methodology for estimating those costs. The aim of this study was to review methods for estimating indirect costs applied in crash cost studies. A thematic review of the literature was carried out between 1995 and 2012 in PubMed with the terms cost of illness, indirect cost, road traffic injuries, productivity loss. For the assessment of costs we used the the human capital method, on the basis of the wage-income lost during the time of treatment and recovery of patients and caregivers. In the case of premature death or total disability, the discount rate was applied to obtain the present value of lost future earnings. The computed years arose by subtracting to life expectancy at birth the average age of those affected who are not incorporated into the economically active life. The interest in minimizing the problem is reflected in the evolution of the implemented methodologies. We expect that this review is useful to estimate efficiently the real indirect costs of traffic accidents.

  7. Assessment of the responsibility between a road traffic accident and medical defects after the traffic accident injury of knee joint.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jiemin; Xia, Wentao

    2012-04-01

    A 48-year-old Chinese woman was hit by a car in a road traffic accident. Local county hospital considered that her right knee was injured, but didn't find any sign of fracture from X-ray imaging. Then the hospital gave diagnosis of soft tissue contusion and the patient started to exercise with burden 21 days after her right lower limb was fixed by plaster slab. Four months later, she had to go back to the county hospital for recheck due to persistent pain on her right knee. Then, the right tibia outer plateau fracture was found. The patient rejected the advice of open reduction and internal fixation of right tibia plateau fracture. Instead, she accepted the unicompartmental knee arthroplasty in a hospital affiliated to a medical college. The patient felt the knee pain alleviated after surgery However, the joint dysfunction was aggravated even more. The patient used the legal procedure for personal compensation. Both driver and the insurance company disputed that the final consequence of the injured knee was due to not only the traffic accident, but also poor medical practice involved. Therefore the court consigned us to make judicial judgment of expertise. After investigation, we found the earliest X-ray graph after the accident had shown the fracture of right tibia outer plateau and right knee valgum, with articular surface involvement, and the traffic accident was considered as the primary cause of sequelae. At the same time, the county hospital missed the diagnosis of fracture, and led to insufficient fixation of right lower limb, which was not good for rehabilitation from fracture and joint injury. This was the secondary cause of sequelae. Additionally, instead of the standard therapy, the affiliated hospital of medical college made the unicompartmental knee arthroplasty four months later, which also had a little defect. It was the minor reason for the result. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd and Faculty of Forensic and Legal Medicine. All rights reserved.

  8. Significance of chronic toxoplasmosis in epidemiology of road traffic accidents in Russian Federation

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Ekaterina V Stepanova; Anatoly V Kondrashin; Vladimir P Sergiev; Lola F Morozova; Natalia A Turbabina; Maria S Maksimova; Alexey I Brazhnikov; Sergei B Shevchenko; Evgeny N Morozov

    2017-01-01

    .... Our findings also demonstrated a statistically significant relationship between the rate of traffic accidents and the seroprevalence of chronic toxoplasmosis in drivers who were held responsible for accidents. The latter...

  9. Prospective study of post-traumatic stress disorder in children involved in road traffic accidents

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Stallard, Paul; Velleman, Richard; Baldwin, Sarah

    1998-01-01

    .... Setting: Accident and emergency department, Royal United Hospital, Bath. Subjects: 119 children aged 5-18 years involved in road traffic accidents and 66 children who sustained sports injuries...

  10. Patients' Risk of Causing Traffic Violations and Traffic Accidents while Driving.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Šestan, Nevenka; Dodič Fikfak, Metoda; Balantič, Zvone

    2017-09-01

    This study examines whether drivers suffering from epilepsy, chronic alcoholism and/or hazardous drinking, psychoactive substance abuse, other diseases of the nervous system, mental and behavioural disorders, cardiovascular diseases, severe diabetes, and severe eye diseases are at a greater risk of causing traffic accidents and traffic violations than drivers that cause accidents and violations without these diagnoses. A case control study was carried out. The cases were drivers checked by a special medical committee in the period observed suffering from the diseases listed above. Matched controls were taken from the cohort of those that caused accidents and violations during the same period observed. The descriptive statistics were followed by calculation of correlations, t-tests and χ2, and the odds ratio. Drivers with referrals for diseases of the nervous system are five times more likely to cause a traffic accident compared to controls (OR=5.18; 95% CI=2.59-10.34); in addition, a high risk is associated with drivers with mental and behavioural disorders (OR=3.64; 95% CI=1.91-6.94), drivers with epilepsy (OR=1.99; 95% CI=1.01-3.92), and drivers addicted to alcohol (OR=1.71; 95% CI=1.01-2.89). Drivers suffering from addiction, a disease of the nervous system, or epilepsy are more likely to cause a traffic accident, which is a contribution to the inconclusive findings of previous studies. The multiple reasons for risks of patients suffering from mental and behavioural disorders need to be further investigated.

  11. [Injury to body and soul--psychiatric consequences of road traffic accidents in children and adolescents].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Gallo, A

    2005-03-23

    Road traffic accidents are a major cause for severe injury in children and adolescents. Many victims also suffer from psychological consequences, such as posttraumatic stress disorder, traffic-related fears or mood disturbances. High levels of distress during and immediately after the accident are associated with severe posttraumatic stress symptoms. Routine consideration of the psychological impact of road traffic accidents should receive the same priority as screening for physical injury.

  12. Bilateral Carotid Artery Dissection after High Impact Road Traffic Accident

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Kelly

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available A 58 year old man was involved in a high impact road traffic incident and was admitted for observation. Asymptomatic for the first 24 hours, he collapsed with symptoms and signs consistent with a cerebrovascular accident. Computed tomography angiogram (CTA and Magnetic resonance angiogram (MRA demonstrated bilateral internal carotid artery dissections and a left middle cerebral artery infarct. It was not considered appropriate to attempt stenting or other revascularistation. The patient was treated with heparin prior to starting warfarin. He made a partial recovery and was discharged to a rehabilitation facility. This case is a reminder of carotid dissection as an uncommon but serious complication of high speed motor vehicle accident, which may be silent initially. Literature Review suggests risk stratification before relevant radiological screening at risk patients. Significant advances in CTA have made it the diagnostic tool of choice, but ultrasound is an important screening tool.

  13. Factors Associated with Fatal Traffic Accidents in Tirana, Albania: Cross-sectional Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qirjako, Gentiana; Burazeri, Genc; Hysa, Bajram; Roshi, Enver

    2008-01-01

    Aim To assess the prevalence of fatal road traffic accidents in Tirana, Albania, and describe their determinants. Methods This cross-sectional study included all road traffic accidents recorded by the Traffic Police Department of Tirana district for the period 2000-2005. A structured questionnaire included information about the type of traffic accident (fatal vs non-fatal event), year of event, age and sex of the responsible party, reason of accident, location and time of event, and the type of vehicle involved. Multivariable-adjusted binary logistic regression analysis was used to assess the predictors of fatal road traffic accidents. Results Overall, there were 1578 recorded road traffic accidents in Tirana district during 2000-2005. Of these, 272 (17%) were fatal. Multivariable-adjusted models showed that younger age (OR, 3.97; 95% CI, 2.28-6.91), high speed (OR, 2.54; 95% CI, 1.62-3.98), and especially alcohol consumption (OR, 6.15; 95% CI, 3.54-10.66) were strong and significant predictors of fatal accidents. Fatal accidents were more prevalent on intercity roads (OR, 4.25; 95% CI, 3.11-5.82) and involved especially vans and trucks (OR, 4.12; 95% CI, 2.34-7.24). Conclusion Young age, high speed, and alcohol are predictors of fatal road traffic accidents in Tirana district. These findings can serve as a basis for health care professionals and policymakers to create preventive measures for traffic accidents. PMID:19090597

  14. Analyses of Fractures that have Caused Traffic Accidents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvestar Perše

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The paper analyses some fractures of vehicle componentswhich have caused traffic accidents. The methods of analysingthe cause of fracture have been described, as well as the maintypes of fractures. The first analysed cause of a fracture is the excessivelyrough machine finish which leaves cracks (stress concentrators,the starting points of crack propagation. The secondcause is unprofessionally per[01med welding which later inservice causes fracture at the weld. The third cause is the toohigh content of carbon in the material of the railway vehiclewheel rim. Dwing braking, the higher content of carbon causedformation of excessively hard (and brittle martensite in thesurface layer of the rim.

  15. Estimating the causes of traffic accidents using logistic regression and discriminant analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karacasu, Murat; Ergül, Barış; Altin Yavuz, Arzu

    2014-01-01

    Factors that affect traffic accidents have been analysed in various ways. In this study, we use the methods of logistic regression and discriminant analysis to determine the damages due to injury and non-injury accidents in the Eskisehir Province. Data were obtained from the accident reports of the General Directorate of Security in Eskisehir; 2552 traffic accidents between January and December 2009 were investigated regarding whether they resulted in injury. According to the results, the effects of traffic accidents were reflected in the variables. These results provide a wealth of information that may aid future measures toward the prevention of undesired results.

  16. The willingness to pay of parties to traffic accidents for loss of productivity and consolation compensation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jou, Rong-Chang; Chen, Tzu-Ying

    2015-12-01

    In this study, willingness to pay (WTP) for loss of productivity and consolation compensation by parties to traffic accidents is investigated using the Tobit model. In addition, WTP is compared to compensation determined by Taiwanese courts. The modelling results showed that variables such as education, average individual monthly income, traffic accident history, past experience of severe traffic accident injuries, the number of working days lost due to a traffic accident, past experience of accepting compensation for traffic accident-caused productivity loss and past experience of accepting consolation compensation caused by traffic accidents have a positive impact on WTP. In addition, average WTP for these two accident costs were obtained. We found that parties to traffic accidents were willing to pay more than 90% of the compensation determined by the court in the scenario of minor and moderate injuries. Parties were willing to pay approximately 80% of the compensation determined by the court for severe injuries, disability and fatality. Therefore, related agencies can use our study findings as the basis for determining the compensation that parties should pay for productivity losses caused by traffic accidents of different types. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Pattern Recognition and Classification of Fatal Traffic Accidents in Israel A Neural Network Approach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Prato, Carlo Giacomo; Gitelman, Victoria; Bekhor, Shlomo

    2011-01-01

    This article provides a broad picture of fatal traffic accidents in Israel to answer an increasing need of addressing compelling problems, designing preventive measures, and targeting specific population groups with the objective of reducing the number of traffic fatalities. The analysis focuses...... on 1,793 fatal traffic accidents occurred during the period between 2003 and 2006 and applies Kohonen and feed-forward back-propagation neural networks with the objective of extracting from the data typical patterns and relevant factors. Kohonen neural networks reveal five compelling accident patterns......: (1) single-vehicle accidents of young drivers, (2) multiple-vehicle accidents between young drivers, (3) accidents involving motorcyclists or cyclists, (4) accidents where elderly pedestrians crossed in urban areas, and (5) accidents where children and teenagers cross major roads in small urban areas...

  18. Road traffic accident: An emerging public health problem in Assam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pranab Jyoti Bhuyan

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: In the northern states, there is hardly any scientific study except road traffic accidents (RTAs statistics obtained by the Ministry of Home whereas the main way of transportation is by road. There is the increasing load of motor vehicles on the already dilapidated roadways which has resulted in the increasing trend of RTAs in Assam. Objectives: To find out the prevalence, probable epidemiological factors and morbidity and mortality pattern due to RTAs in Dibrugarh district. Materials and Methods: Descriptive study was carried out in Dibrugarh district from September 1998 to August 1999 under the department of Community Medicine. The information was collected from Assam Medical College and Hospital and cross checked with the police report. A medical investigation including interview, clinical and radiological investigation was carried out; in case of fatality, post-mortem examination was examined in details. An on the spot investigation was carried out in accessible RTAs to collect the probable epidemiological factors. Results: RTAs affected mainly the people of productive age group which were predominantly male. Majority of the RTAs were single vehicle accidents and half of the victims were passengers. Accident rate was maximum in twilight and winter season demanding high morbidity and mortality. Head and neck, U.limb and L.limb were commonly involved. Conclusion: RTAs is a major public health problem in Assam which needs more scientific study.

  19. Estimating Traffic Accidents in Turkey Using Differential Evolution Algorithm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akgüngör, Ali Payıdar; Korkmaz, Ersin

    2017-06-01

    Estimating traffic accidents play a vital role to apply road safety procedures. This study proposes Differential Evolution Algorithm (DEA) models to estimate the number of accidents in Turkey. In the model development, population (P) and the number of vehicles (N) are selected as model parameters. Three model forms, linear, exponential and semi-quadratic models, are developed using DEA with the data covering from 2000 to 2014. Developed models are statistically compared to select the best fit model. The results of the DE models show that the linear model form is suitable to estimate the number of accidents. The statistics of this form is better than other forms in terms of performance criteria which are the Mean Absolute Percentage Errors (MAPE) and the Root Mean Square Errors (RMSE). To investigate the performance of linear DE model for future estimations, a ten-year period from 2015 to 2024 is considered. The results obtained from future estimations reveal the suitability of DE method for road safety applications.

  20. Traffic dynamics around weaving section influenced by accident: Cellular automata approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, Lin-Peng; Li, Xin-Gang; Lam, William H. K.

    2015-07-01

    The weaving section, as a typical bottleneck, is one source of vehicle conflicts and an accident-prone area. Traffic accident will block lanes and the road capacity will be reduced. Several models have been established to study the dynamics around traffic bottlenecks. However, little attention has been paid to study the complex traffic dynamics influenced by the combined effects of bottleneck and accident. This paper presents a cellular automaton model to characterize accident-induced traffic behavior around the weaving section. Some effective control measures are proposed and verified for traffic management under accident condition. The total flux as a function of inflow rates, the phase diagrams, the spatial-temporal diagrams, and the density and velocity profiles are presented to analyze the impact of accident. It was shown that the proposed control measures for weaving traffic can improve the capacity of weaving section under both normal and accident conditions; the accidents occurring on median lane in the weaving section are more inclined to cause traffic jam and reduce road capacity; the capacity of weaving section will be greatly reduced when the accident happens downstream the weaving section.

  1. Effective environmental factors on geographical distribution of traffic accidents on pedestrians, downtown Tehran city

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moradi, Ali; Soori, Hamid; Kavousi, Amir; Eshghabadi, Farshid; Nematollahi, Shahrzad; Zeini, Salahdien

    2017-01-01

    Introduction: In most countries, occurrence of traffic causalities is high in pedestrians. The aim of this study is to geographically analyze the traffic casualties in pedestrians in downtown Tehran city. Methods: The study population consisted of traffic injury accidents in pedestrians occurred during 2015 in Tehran city. Data were extracted from offices of traffic police and municipality. For analysis of environmental factors and site of accidents, ordinary least square regression models and geographically weighted regression were used. Fitness and performance of models were checked using the Akaike information criteria, Bayesian information criteria, deviance, and adjusted R2. Results: Totally, 514 accidents were included in this study. Of them, site of accidents was arterial streets in 370 (71.9%) cases, collector streets in 133 cases (25.2%), and highways in 11 cases (2.1%). Geographical units of traffic accidents in pedestrians had statistically significant relationship with a number of bus stations, number of crossroads, and recreational areas. Conclusion: Distribution of injury traffic accidents in pedestrians is different in downtown Tehran city. Neighborhoods close to markets are considered as most dangerous neighborhoods for injury traffic accidents. Different environmental factors are involved in determining the distribution of these accidents. The health of pedestrians in Tehran city can be improved by proper traffic management, control of environmental factors, and educational programs. PMID:28660163

  2. Fatal Road Traffic Accidents (RTA) In Mthatha Area Of South Africa ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Trauma is one the leading causes of deaths in Mthatha area of South Africa. This part of the country is one of the least developed. Road traffic accidents contribute substantially to these traumatic deaths. Objective: To estimate and correlate with age and sex the fatal road traffic accidents in Mthatha area.

  3. Road traffic accidents in children: the 'what', 'how' and 'why'.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Yue Yen; Fang, Eric; Weng, Yanyi; Ganapathy, Sashikumar

    2017-12-07

    Road traffic accidents (RTAs) in Singapore involving children were evaluated, with particular focus on the epidemiology, surrounding circumstances and outcomes of these accidents. Key factors associated with worse prognosis were identified. We proposed some measures that may be implemented to reduce the frequency and severity of such accidents. This was a retrospective study of RTAs involving children aged 0-16 years who presented to the Children's Emergency at KK Women's and Children's Hospital, Singapore, from January 2011 to June 2014. Data was obtained from the National Trauma Registry and analysed in tiers based on the Injury Severity Score (ISS). 1,243 accidents were reviewed. RTA victims included motor vehicle passengers (60.4%), pedestrians (28.5%), cyclists (9.9%) and motorbike pillion riders (1.2%). Disposition of emergency department (ED) patients was consistent with RTA severity. For serious RTAs, pedestrians accounted for 63.6% and 57.7% of tier 1 (ISS > 15) and tier 2 (ISS 9-15) presentations, respectively. Overall use of restraints was worryingly low (36.7%). Not restraining increased the risk of serious RTAs by 8.4 times. Young age, high ISS and low Glasgow Coma Scale score predicted a longer duration of intensive care unit stay. The importance of restraints for motor vehicle passengers or helmets for motorcyclist pillion riders and cyclists in reducing morbidity cannot be emphasised enough. Suggestions for future prevention and intervention include road safety education, regulation of protective restraints, use of speed enforcement devices and creation of transport policies that minimise kerbside parking.

  4. Traffic Accidents And Destiny Relation -In Contex Prayers, Cha-rity And Resignation-

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Osman ORAL

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available There are established rules to avoid traffic Chaos. Failure to do so may result in traffic accidents which are sad events. God tied everything in this world to some reasons. Even though the humans fulfill these reasons, God creates them in accordance with the free will of the person. This is a divine law, that is, fate. Are traffic accidents fate? How much do our will and precautions affect this? With prayer and charity, can we prevent accidents that could happen to us? Do people die in traffic accidents because their life-spans expired? Such questions in people's minds may be a problem. This article will offer solutions to the discussions concerning traffic accidents and fate, within the fra-mework of Islamic theology and creed.

  5. Road Traffic Accident Analysis of Ajmer City Using Remote Sensing and GIS Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhalla, P.; Tripathi, S.; Palria, S.

    2014-12-01

    With advancement in technology, new and sophisticated models of vehicle are available and their numbers are increasing day by day. A traffic accident has multi-facet characteristics associated with it. In India 93% of crashes occur due to Human induced factor (wholly or partly). For proper traffic accident analysis use of GIS technology has become an inevitable tool. The traditional accident database is a summary spreadsheet format using codes and mileposts to denote location, type and severity of accidents. Geo-referenced accident database is location-referenced. It incorporates a GIS graphical interface with the accident information to allow for query searches on various accident attributes. Ajmer city, headquarter of Ajmer district, Rajasthan has been selected as the study area. According to Police records, 1531 accidents occur during 2009-2013. Maximum accident occurs in 2009 and the maximum death in 2013. Cars, jeeps, auto, pickup and tempo are mostly responsible for accidents and that the occurrence of accidents is mostly concentrated between 4PM to 10PM. GIS has proved to be a good tool for analyzing multifaceted nature of accidents. While road safety is a critical issue, yet it is handled in an adhoc manner. This Study is a demonstration of application of GIS for developing an efficient database on road accidents taking Ajmer City as a study. If such type of database is developed for other cities, a proper analysis of accidents can be undertaken and suitable management strategies for traffic regulation can be successfully proposed.

  6. Road Traffic Accidents In Uyo Urban, Akwa Ibom State: The Scourge ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... while radius and ulna bones accounted for 20 each (2.5%). significantly relevant to these accidents were the alarming number of motor cycles on the roads, the personality and comportment of the individual riders, the time or period of occurrence of the accidents. Key words: Road Traffic Accidents, Motor cycles, Trauma

  7. Road traffic accidents in Libya: An undeclared War

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed Salamat

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available To The Editor: In his outstanding article regarding Road Traffic Accidents (RTAs in Libya [1], Dr Abdulmajid Ali has raised awareness and started a debate about this extremely important issue. Before responding to some points in Dr Ali’s article, I would like to tell a real story of a tragic accident that happened last week, which highlights several issues related to RTAs in Libya. A 55 year old driver left after Fajr prayer to the vegetable market to buy a few things for his daughter’s wedding lunch. While trying to avoid a big pothole in the middle of the road, he was hit by a truck without headlights coming from the opposite direction. The truck driver continued driving as if nothing had happened. None of the road users cared to help the victim but he was able to contact his son by mobile phone to come and help him out of the wreckage. His son took him to the main Trauma Hospital in Tripoli. The patient had no external injuries. He was admitted for observation only. A few hours later the patient died as a result of major internal haemorrhage. Further information revealed that the truck driver had no driving licence and the truck was not road worthy.This story is not unique However, it highlights the complex and intermingled issues that need to be addressed to have any real impact on this disastrous problem in Libya. The specific points I would like to add to Dr Ali’s article are:There is no doubt that RTAs are a major killer in Libya especially in the young age group. The annual reporting of road causalities is considered to be the yard stick to measure the effectiveness of any national traffic policy,; in the UK for example the target is to reduce fatalities from RTAs by 50% by 2010 [2]. It is a disgrace not to have accurate official statistics published at least annually of fatalities, injuries, disabilities and the economic consequences of this undeclared war in Libya. There is evidence to support that there could be a positive

  8. Aspects Concerning The Rules And The Investigation Of Traffic Accidents As Work Accidents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarnu, Lucian Ioan

    2015-07-01

    When Romania joined the European Union, it was imposed that the Romanian legislation in the field of the security and health at work be in line with the European one. The concept of health as it is defined by the International Body of Health, refers to a good physical, mental and social condition. The improvement of the activity of preventing the traffic accidents as work accidents must have as basis the correct and accurate evaluation of risks of getting injured. The goal of the activity of prevention and protection is to ensure the best working conditions, the prevention of accidents and occupational diseases and the adjustment to the scientific and technological progress. In the road transport sector, as in any other sector, it is very important to pay attention to working conditions to ensure a workforce motivated and well qualified. Some features make it a more difficult sector risk management than other sectors. However, if one takes into account how it works in practice this sector and the characteristics of drivers and how they work routinely, risks, dangers and threats can be managed efficiently and with great success.

  9. Impact of road traffic accidents on the elderly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Etehad, H; Yousefzadeh-Chabok, Sh; Davoudi-Kiakalaye, A; Moghadam Dehnadi, A; Hemati, H; Mohtasham-Amiri, Z

    2015-01-01

    Older adults are a vulnerable road user group with high mortality and morbidity in road crash. The aim of this study was to show pattern of road traffic injuries in this special aging group. In a cross sectional study, pre-hospital emergency system reports, hospital and police records of all motor vehicle collisions injured above 60 years old who were admitted to Pour-Sina hospital from April 2011 to March 2012 were studied. Demographic data, characteristic of road traffic incidents and in-hospital medical profiles were derived. Data were analyzed with SPSS ver. 18. Differences between demographic and injuries situation were calculated by chi square test. A p-value of road accident injured. Mean age of them was 70.9 ± 6.7 years. Most of them were male (74.7%). 40.5% were pedestrians, 22.1% were car occupants and 19.1% were motorcyclists.76.7% had multiple trauma. Head and neck were the most prevalent regions of injured. Total in-hospital mortality rate was 10.1% that was higher in old elderly pedestrians and motorcyclists in comparison to young elderly (16.1% vs. 7.9%) and other type of victims (ρroad accident injured. Mean age of them was 70.9 ± 6.7 years. Most of them were male (74.7%). 40.5% were pedestrians, 22.1% were car occupants and 19.1% were motorcyclists.76.7% had multiple trauma. Head and neck were the most prevalent regions of injured. Total in-hospital mortality rate was 10.1% that was higher in old elderly pedestrians and motorcyclists in comparison to young elderly (16.1% vs. 7.9%) and other type of victims (ρroad traffic injuries in this group especially in pedestrians should be taken into consideration and strategies aimed at the road-user safety including periodic medical examination and improvement of road structure and facilities. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.

  10. Description of Various Factors Contributing to Traffic Accidents in Youth and Measures Proposed to Alleviate Recurrence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ludovic Gicquel

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Traffic accidents are the leading cause of hospitalization in adolescence, with the 18–24-year-old age group accounting for 23% of deaths by traffic accidents. Recurrence rate is also high. One in four teenagers will have a relapse within the year following the first accident. Cognitive impairments known in adolescence could cause risky behaviors, defined as repetitive engagement in dangerous situations such as road accidents. Two categories of factors seem to be associated with traffic accidents: (1 factors specific to the traffic environment and (2 “human” factors, which seem to be the most influential. Moreover, the establishment of a stronger relation to high speed driving increases traffic accident risks and can also be intensified by sensation seeking. Other factors such as substance use (alcohol, drugs, and “binge drinking” are also identified as risk factors. Furthermore, cell phone use while driving and attention deficit disorder with or without hyperactivity also seem to be important risk factors for car accidents. The family environment strongly influences a young person’s driving behavior. Some interventional driving strategies and preventive measures have reduced the risk of traffic accidents among young people, such as the graduated driver licensing program and advertising campaigns. So far, few therapeutic approaches have been implemented. Reason why, we decided to set up an innovative strategy consisting of a therapeutic postaccident group intervention, entitled the ECARR2 protocol, to prevent recurrence among adolescents and young adults identified at risk, taking into account the multiple risk factors.

  11. Description of Various Factors Contributing to Traffic Accidents in Youth and Measures Proposed to Alleviate Recurrence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gicquel, Ludovic; Ordonneau, Pauline; Blot, Emilie; Toillon, Charlotte; Ingrand, Pierre; Romo, Lucia

    2017-01-01

    Traffic accidents are the leading cause of hospitalization in adolescence, with the 18–24-year-old age group accounting for 23% of deaths by traffic accidents. Recurrence rate is also high. One in four teenagers will have a relapse within the year following the first accident. Cognitive impairments known in adolescence could cause risky behaviors, defined as repetitive engagement in dangerous situations such as road accidents. Two categories of factors seem to be associated with traffic accidents: (1) factors specific to the traffic environment and (2) “human” factors, which seem to be the most influential. Moreover, the establishment of a stronger relation to high speed driving increases traffic accident risks and can also be intensified by sensation seeking. Other factors such as substance use (alcohol, drugs, and “binge drinking”) are also identified as risk factors. Furthermore, cell phone use while driving and attention deficit disorder with or without hyperactivity also seem to be important risk factors for car accidents. The family environment strongly influences a young person’s driving behavior. Some interventional driving strategies and preventive measures have reduced the risk of traffic accidents among young people, such as the graduated driver licensing program and advertising campaigns. So far, few therapeutic approaches have been implemented. Reason why, we decided to set up an innovative strategy consisting of a therapeutic postaccident group intervention, entitled the ECARR2 protocol, to prevent recurrence among adolescents and young adults identified at risk, taking into account the multiple risk factors. PMID:28620324

  12. Description of Various Factors Contributing to Traffic Accidents in Youth and Measures Proposed to Alleviate Recurrence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gicquel, Ludovic; Ordonneau, Pauline; Blot, Emilie; Toillon, Charlotte; Ingrand, Pierre; Romo, Lucia

    2017-01-01

    Traffic accidents are the leading cause of hospitalization in adolescence, with the 18-24-year-old age group accounting for 23% of deaths by traffic accidents. Recurrence rate is also high. One in four teenagers will have a relapse within the year following the first accident. Cognitive impairments known in adolescence could cause risky behaviors, defined as repetitive engagement in dangerous situations such as road accidents. Two categories of factors seem to be associated with traffic accidents: (1) factors specific to the traffic environment and (2) "human" factors, which seem to be the most influential. Moreover, the establishment of a stronger relation to high speed driving increases traffic accident risks and can also be intensified by sensation seeking. Other factors such as substance use (alcohol, drugs, and "binge drinking") are also identified as risk factors. Furthermore, cell phone use while driving and attention deficit disorder with or without hyperactivity also seem to be important risk factors for car accidents. The family environment strongly influences a young person's driving behavior. Some interventional driving strategies and preventive measures have reduced the risk of traffic accidents among young people, such as the graduated driver licensing program and advertising campaigns. So far, few therapeutic approaches have been implemented. Reason why, we decided to set up an innovative strategy consisting of a therapeutic postaccident group intervention, entitled the ECARR2 protocol, to prevent recurrence among adolescents and young adults identified at risk, taking into account the multiple risk factors.

  13. [A spatially explicit analysis of traffic accidents involving pedestrians and cyclists in Berlin].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lakes, Tobia

    2017-12-01

    In many German cities and counties, sustainable mobility concepts that strengthen pedestrian and cyclist traffic are promoted. From the perspectives of urban development, traffic planning and public healthcare, a spatially differentiated analysis of traffic accident data is decisive. 1) The identification of spatial and temporal patterns of the distribution of accidents involving cyclists and pedestrians, 2) the identification of hotspots and exploration of possible underlying causes and 3) the critical discussion of benefits and challenges of the results and the derivation of conclusions. Spatio-temporal distributions of data from accident statistics in Berlin involving pedestrians and cyclists from 2011 to 2015 were analysed with geographic information systems (GIS). While the total number of accidents remains relatively stable for pedestrian and cyclist accidents, the spatial distribution analysis shows, however, that there are significant spatial clusters (hotspots) of traffic accidents with a strong concentration in the inner city area. In a critical discussion, the benefits of geographic concepts are identified, such as spatially explicit health data (in this case traffic accident data), the importance of the integration of other data sources for the evaluation of the health impact of areas (traffic accident statistics of the police), and the possibilities and limitations of spatial-temporal data analysis (spatial point-density analyses) for the derivation of decision-supported recommendations and for the evaluation of policy measures of health prevention and of health-relevant urban development.

  14. Cannabis use and traffic accidents in a birth cohort of young adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fergusson, D M; Horwood, L J

    2001-11-01

    to examine linkages between cannabis use and traffic accident risks in a birth cohort of 907 young New Zealanders studied from 18 to 21 years. during the course of a 21-year longitudinal study of a birth cohort of 907 New Zealand born children information was gathered on (a) annual frequency of cannabis use over the period from 18 to 21 years; (b) annual rates of traffic accidents during the period 18-21 years; (c) measures of driver behaviours and characteristics. The association between cannabis use and traffic accident risk was examined among the 907 sample members who reported driving a motor vehicle between the ages of 18 and 21 years. there were statistically significant relationships between reported annual cannabis use and annual accident rates. This association was present only for 'active' accidents in which driver behaviours contributed to the accident; those using cannabis more than 50 times per year had estimated rates of active accidents that were 1.6 (95% CI 1.2-2.0) times higher than the rate for non-users. However, statistical control for driver behaviours and characteristics related to cannabis use (drink driving behaviour; risky/illegal driving behaviours; driver attitudes; gender) eliminated the association between cannabis use and traffic accident risks. although cannabis use was associated with increased risks of traffic accidents among members of this birth cohort, these increased risks appear to reflect the characteristics of the young people who used cannabis rather than the effects of cannabis use on driver performance.

  15. Injury patterns of seniors in traffic accidents: A technical and medical analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brand, Stephan; Otte, Dietmar; Mueller, Christian Walter; Petri, Maximilian; Haas, Philipp; Stuebig, Timo; Krettek, Christian; Haasper, Carl

    2012-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the actual injury situation of seniors in traffic accidents and to evaluate the different injury patterns. METHODS: Injury data, environmental circumstances and crash circumstances of accidents were collected shortly after the accident event at the scene. With these data, a technical and medical analysis was performed, including Injury Severity Score, Abbreviated Injury Scale and Maximum Abbreviated Injury Scale. The method of data collection is named the German In-Depth Accident Study and can be seen as representative. RESULTS: A total of 4430 injured seniors in traffic accidents were evaluated. The incidence of sustaining severe injuries to extremities, head and maxillofacial region was significantly higher in the group of elderly people compared to a younger age (P accident-related injuries was higher in the group of seniors compared to other groups. CONCLUSION: Seniors are more likely to be involved in traffic injuries and to sustain serious to severe injuries compared to other groups. PMID:23173111

  16. Public Health Profile of Road Traffic Accidents in Kosovo 2010-2015

    OpenAIRE

    Ramadani, Naser; Zhjeqi, Valbona; Berisha, Merita; Hoxha, Rina; Begolli, Ilir; Salihu, Drita; Krasniqi, Pranvera

    2017-01-01

    AIM: To determine the characteristics of the Socio-medical profile of road traffic accidents in Kosovo, between 2010 and 2015 year.STUDY DESIGN: Retrospective study.METHODS: A descriptive method based on the database of road traffic accidents from the National Police of Kosovo.RESULTS: In Kosovo for the period 2010-2015, on average, the yearly number of road traffic accidents is 18437 with mortality rate 7.4 per 100000 and lethality of 1.5%. The highest number of fatal cases are drivers and a...

  17. Analysis of 47 road traffic accident admissions to BMH Shaibah.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ward, N J; Okpala, E

    2005-03-01

    To analyse road traffic accident (RTA) admissions to British Military Hospital (BMH) Shaibah with respect to seatbelt usage, position in vehicle, age, type of injury and mechanism of injury. Retrospective analysis of discharge summaries and hospital notes of all service personnel admitted to BMH Shaibah due to RTA, from August 2003 to January 2004. Results During the study there were 315 reported RTA, 3 fatalities, and 47 inpatient admissions. 87% of admissions were male; in 32% of cases the vehicle had rolled and 28% of individuals admitted had been ejected from the vehicle. 85% of individuals had not been wearing their seatbelts and none of the ejected individuals had been restrained. 92% of those ejected were travelling in the rear of the Land Rover. Of those ejected, 38% suffered more than one type of injury, and 62% suffered a fracture, (accounting for 50% of all fractures admitted). 34% of admissions had sustained a fracture, and were evacuated to the UK. These figures correlate well with previous evidence showing the likelihood of serious injury is increased by more than 300% if the patient is ejected. Those travelling in the rear of a Land Rover would appear to be in the most dangerous position. Seatbelts are the single most effective means of reducing fatal and non-fatal injuries in motor vehicle accidents. Standing orders states that seatbelt use mandatory, but compliance is poor. This may be due to misconceptions on the relative dangers faced by soldiers in Iraq. Education and enforcement needs to be more effective if the Army is to reduce the number and seriousness of injuries attributable to RTA.

  18. The burden of road traffic accidents in Kermanshah province (2010

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neda Izadi

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Disabled-adjusted Life Year (DALY makes it possible to calculate the time and duration of the disease and its non-fatal consequences along with the time lost due to premature death. This study was aimed to estimate the burden of Road Traffic Accidents (RTA in Kermanshah Province. Methods: To determine the mortality related to road-traffic accidents as well as Years of Life Lost (YLL due to premature death and to calculate the incidence of non-fatal injuries and Years Lost due to Disability (YLD, the data from National Death Registration and Forensics Medicine were used. The causes of death and nature of non-fatal injuries were classified using International Classification of Diseases 10 codes (ICD-10 and Global Burden of Diseases 2010 (GBD-2010. The YLL, YLD and DALY were estimated according to the guidelines of GBD 2010, and age and sex composition was taken from the National Statistical Center for the year 2010. Results: The mean age of the patients was 34.2±18.2 years. Overall, 70.8% of the subjects were male and the rest were female. The mortality and non-fatal injury rates of RTAs in Kermanshah province were 51.3 and 283.6 per 100,000 population, respectively. The YLLs due to premature death were 46613 years (24.5 per 1000 and the YLDs were found to be 3404.9 years (1.7 per 1000. The DALYs were found to be 50017.9 years (26.2 per 1000 in both genders. The highest DALY rate in both genders was reported for the age group 30-34 (32.4 per 1000. More than 93% of DALYs were related to YLL (24.5 per 1000. Conclusion: Given the DALY >50000 years attributed to RTAs, the share of more than 93% YLL in the DALY rate, and the fact that most RTAs occur in the men and age group 15-44 years, it is necessary to implement all effective and multisectoral preventive measures, especially for this group, such as use of helmet and seatbelts, speed limit enforcement, better road design, and manufacturing of high quality cars.

  19. Emotional stress and traffic accidents: the impact of separation and divorce.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lagarde, Emmanuel; Chastang, Jean-François; Gueguen, Alice; Coeuret-Pellicer, Mireille; Chiron, Mireille; Lafont, Sylviane

    2004-11-01

    Personal responses to stressful life events are suspected of increasing the risk of serious traffic accidents. We analyzed data from a French cohort study (the GAZEL cohort), including a retrospective driving behavior questionnaire, from 13,915 participants (10,542 men age 52-62 years and 3373 women age 47-62 years in 2001). Follow-up data covered 1993-2000. Hazard ratios for serious accidents (n = 713) were computed by Cox's proportional hazard regression with time-dependent covariates. Separate analyses were also performed to consider only at-fault accidents. Marital separation or divorce was associated with an increased risk of a serious accident (all serious accidents: hazard ratio 2.9, 95% confidence interval = 1.7-5.0; at-fault accidents: 4.4, 2.3-8.3). The impact of separation and divorce did not differ according to alcohol consumption levels. Other life events associated with increased risk of serious accident were a child leaving home (all accidents: 1.2, 0.97-1.6; at-fault accidents: 1.5, 1.1-2.1), an important purchase (all accidents: 1.4, 1.1-1.7; at-fault accidents: 1.6, 1.2-2.1), and hospitalization of the partner (all accidents: 1.4, 1.1-2.0). This study suggests that recent separation and divorce are associated with an increase in serious traffic accidents.

  20. The Relationship between Benzodiazepine Use and Traffic Accidents A Systematic Literature Review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smink, Beitske E.; Egberts, Antoine C. G.; Lusthof, Klaas J.; Uges, Donald R. A.; de Gier, Johan I.

    2010-01-01

    In many countries, benzodiazepines are the most commonly used and misused psychoactive medicinal drugs. Results of epidemiological studies investigating the association between benzodiazepine use and traffic accidents seem to be inconclusive or inconsistent at first sight. However, the outcome of

  1. Fatal road traffic accidents in Mauritius (2006 – 2011) – A ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Arun Kumar Agnihotri

    2016-01-13

    Jan 13, 2016 ... Management and Road Safety Unit, and the Ministry of Public. Infrastructure, Land ... unnecessarily in road traffic accidents, the outcome of this study can help the ..... of elementary school age children.19 Agnihotri et al8 ...

  2. Predictors of children's sleep onset and maintenance problems after road traffic accidents

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Wittmann, Lutz; Zehnder, Daniel; Jenni, Oskar G; Landolt, Markus A

    2012-01-01

    ... psychopathological mechanisms as well as stressors affecting the family system. In 33 children treated for injuries after road traffic accidents, sleep and measures of psychopathology were assessed 10 days, 2 months, and 6 months after hospital admission...

  3. Comparative Analysis of the Pattern of Severe Injury Due to Road Traffic Accidents in Children

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Ye. A. Spiridonova; S. A. Rumyantsev; F. G. Sharshov; D. V. Prometnoy; A. V. Chernozubenko

    2010-01-01

    Objective: to study stepwise differences in the severity and pattern of severe traumatic injuries due to road traffic accidents in patients during the qualified and specialized stages of medical care in the age...

  4. Application of cross-ratio in traffic accident reconstruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, T W; Tao, C H; Cheng, Y K; Wong, K H; Tam, C N

    2014-02-01

    Nowadays, video recording devices such as CCTV, digital cameras, mobile phones and car video recorders are ubiquitous. It becomes more and more frequent that traffic accident scenarios are captured by such video recording devices in one form or another. The present study focuses on the direct extraction of vehicle speeds from video footages by cross-ratio, a well known invariant under specific conditions in projective geometry. The minimum requirements for an accurate and direct determination of vehicle speed by cross-ratio are 2 image frames of the video footage containing the subject vehicle which by and large moves along a straight path from one frame to the other and the time lapsed between the 2 image frames are known. With the aid of a calibrated Doppler radar, a control study has been carried out to validate the method and determine the baseline uncertainty. The validated method has been applied to a small number of real world cases and the results are promising. Experimental results indicate that it is possible to extend its application in speed determination by a car camera. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Chemical Analysis of Tire Traces in Traffic Accidents Investigation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Line Gueissaz

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the forensic investigation of traffic accidents is to help establish the nature and/or the circumstances of the event. This might be done with the purpose of determining the legal responsibilities of each person involved or to provide families, with a reconstruction of the events, to help understand why their relatives were injured or killed. A methodology for the comparison of chemical profiles of tire traces and tire tread samples obtained by pyrolysis-gas chromatography/mass spectrometry has been developed. Chemical profiles are represented by relative abundances of 86 compounds. The variability of the tread within and between 12 tires was assessed. Considering the level of the source as "brand and model" the intra-variability was found to be smaller than the inter-variability, leading to the complete discrimination of the 12 tires of the sample set. Braking tests were carried out on a racetrack in order to produce tire traces which origin was known. The results obtained with a supervised classification method showed that more than 94% of the replicates of the traces were correctly assigned to the class membership (i.e., brand and model of the tire at their origin. These results support that the chemical profile of one trace does not differ from the chemical profile of the tire at its origin but differs generally from the other chemical profiles of the sample set.

  6. STUDY OF ROAD TRAFFIC ACCIDENTS WITH SPECIAL REFERENCE TO THE ACCIDENT VICTIMS ADMITTED IN GAUHATI MEDICAL COLLEGE AND HOSPITAL, ASSAM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rocket Chandra

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND In the present scenario, road traffic accidents have become a major cause of human mortality and morbidity. Accidents are increasing at alarming rates in India. The objective of our study was to assess the socio-demographic profile of road traffic accident victims admitted in a tertiary care setting, and to assess the pattern of injuries. METHODOLOGY The present study is prospective and analytical hospital based study. RESULTS The present studies show that more than 70% of the victims are in the age group of below 45 years (n=3196 and with male preponderance. Out of 14364 accident patients visiting the emergency department of Gauhati Medical College and Hospital, 4953 patients were admitted. The majorities of the patients (n=2995 were admitted in surgery department and 1586 in orthopaedic department. CONCLUSIONS Several factors are responsible for causing road accidents such as drunk driving, lack of awareness of traffic rules, nonadherence to safety measures. To reduce morbidity and mortality following road accidents, comprehensive policy has to be adopted by the government

  7. Higher prevalence of toxoplasmosis in victims of traffic accidents suggest increased risk of traffic accident in Toxoplasma-infected inhabitants of Istanbul and its suburbs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kocazeybek, Bekir; Oner, Yasar Ali; Turksoy, Recep; Babur, Cahit; Cakan, Huseyin; Sahip, Nilgun; Unal, Ali; Ozaslan, Abdi; Kilic, Selcuk; Saribas, Suat; Aslan, Mustafa; Taylan, Aysegul; Koc, Sermet; Dirican, Ahmet; Uner, Huseyin Bulent; Oz, Vecdet; Ertekin, Cemalettin; Kucukbasmaci, Omer; Torun, Müzeyyen Mamal

    2009-05-30

    Reflexes of drivers who have toxoplasmosis have been shown to deteriorate from the actions of the parasitic cysts. The cysts can change the level of the neurotransmitters such as dopamine in the brain and by doing so extend the muscle response time and change personality profiles. In this study, we aimed to determine the frequency of the latent toxoplasmosis (LT) in the driver population who were either injured or died in traffic accidents reported in Istanbul and its suburbs. We compared the results with a control group and discussed the relationship between the LT and the traffic accidents. We included 218 (89.7%) non-fatal, 25 (10.3%) fatal cases in our study as study groups. A total 243 subjects, 234 (96%) male, 9 (4%) female (who were alcohol negative) compared with 191 (95.5%) male and 9 (4.5%) female subjects (control group) who had a traffic accident before but no history of toxoplasmosis were studied. Serologic tests, enzyme immunoassay (EIA) for IgG and IgM, and microimmunoflorescence (MIF) for IgG were used as the reference test, the Sabin-Feldman Dye test (SFDT) was used. According to serologic test results, LT seroprevalence in the study groups was 130 (53.5%) and in the control group 56 (28%) (pcar accident. In a prospective study, Toxoplasma positive and negative subjects can be monitored before they are involved in a traffic accident to clarify the cause and result relationship.

  8. Highway Traffic Accident Influence Area Based on Vehicle Bypass Decision-Making Index

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhenjun Zhu

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to reduce the impact of highway traffic accidents on surrounding road networks, accident influence area should be determined reasonably. According to the relationship between vehicle bypass decision-making index and threshold under accident condition, the vehicles’ route choice behavior at upstream of the accident spot can be divided into two types: bypass and nonbypass. Under nonbypass condition, the method of using traffic wave theory was put forward to determine the upstream influence area. Under bypass condition, the total number of bypass vehicles is determined based on bypass decision-making index being greater than bypass threshold. Assignment algorithms based on routes were proposed. Using improved Logit model to get the selection probability and the traffic flow of each route, then traffic flow of surrounding links could be obtained. At last, the road network influenced by the accident could be determined by comparing with the level of service of each link under normal condition. The paper takes Beijing-Kunming highway as an example, and the results show that the road network formed by the influenced links was highway traffic accident influence area. Comparing with the actual survey results, correctness of the calculation method is verified. Therefore, the analytical method based on bypass decision-making is applicable to determining highway accident influence area.

  9. Epidemiology of deaths due to traffic accidents in Kermanshah province (2012

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azam Malekifar

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The increasing trend of traffic accidents is one of the most serious problems of public health. The aim of this paper was to investigate the fatal traffic accidents in Kermanshah province. Method: All research data required were obtained from Legal Medicine Organization and analyzed by Stata-11 software. Traffic statistics available on the Road Maintenance and Transportation Organization website were used to study the death rate per month and day according to traffic level on suburban highways. Results: The incidence rate of age-standardized deaths due to road traffic accidents was 26.1per 100,000 people, and the mean age of the dead was 39.98±21.60 years. The mortality rate was higher in men, those more than 40 years old, married, illiterate and self-employed. Considering the traffic rate on suburban roads, the highest death rate occurred in the warmest months of the year during the day. Furthermore, most deaths were due to collisions and the highest frequency of death was reported for the car occupants. In most cases, head injuries and head traumas were the final cause of death. A significant correlation was reported between the type of vehicle and the cause of death and how the accident occurred (P<0.05. Conclusion: The mortality rate due to traffic accidents in Kermanshah province is high. Surveillance over the suburban roads in hot seasons and male drivers is of particular importance.

  10. Accident rates related to rural road geometry elements and daily traffic

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Skinner, DG

    1994-02-01

    Full Text Available The available data bases for accidents, road geometry (photolog output) and traffic counts were combined and the accident rates determined for two lane, four lane and six lane road categories as well as for 22 geometric element categories...

  11. Traffic Accident Propagation Properties and Control Measures for Urban Links Based on Cellular Automata

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xian-sheng Li

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available With the rapid development of urban transport and the sharp increase in vehicle population, traffic accidents form one of the most important causes of urban traffic congestion other than the imbalance between traffic supply and demand. Traffic congestion causes severe problems, such as environment contamination and energy dissipation. Therefore, it would be useful to analyze the congestion propagation characteristics after traffic accidents. Numerical analysis and computer simulation were two of the typical methods used at present to study the traffic congestion propagation properties. The latter was more widespread as it is more consistent with the actual traffic flow and more visual than the former. In this paper, an improved cellular automata (CA model was presented to analyze traffic congestion propagation properties and to evaluate control strategies. In order to apply them to urban traffic flow simulation, the CA models have been improved and expanded on. Computer simulations were built for congestion not only extending to the upstream intersection, but also the upstream intersection and the entire road network, respectively. Congestion propagation characteristics after road traffic accidents were obtained, and controls of different severities and durations were analyzed. The results provide the theoretical foundation and practical means for the control of congestion.

  12. Complaints of Poor Sleep and Risk of Traffic Accidents: A Population-Based Case-Control Study

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Philip, Pierre; Chaufton, Cyril; Orriols, Ludivine; Lagarde, Emmanuel; Amoros, Emmanuelle; Laumon, Bernard; Akerstedt, Torbjorn; Taillard, Jacques; Sagaspe, Patricia

    2014-01-01

    .... Odds ratios were calculated for the risk of road traffic accidents. As expected, the main predictive factor for road traffic accidents was having a sleep episode at the wheel just before the accident (OR 9.97, CI 95%: 1.57-63.50, p<0.05...

  13. Appraisals and Cognitive Coping Styles Associated with Chronic Post-Traumatic Symptoms in Child Road Traffic Accident Survivors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stallard, Paul; Smith, Elisabeth

    2007-01-01

    Background: Comparatively little is known about the cognitive appraisals and coping styles of child road traffic accident (RTA) survivors that are associated with chronic post-traumatic reactions. Methods: Seventy-five children and young people aged 7-18 who were involved in a road traffic accident and attended an accident and emergency department…

  14. Epidemiological study of road traffic accident cases from Western Nepal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mishra Badrinarayan

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Road Traffic Accident (RTA is one among the top five causes of morbidity and mortality in South-East Asian countries. [1] Its socioeconomic repercussions are a matter of great concern. Efficient addressing of the issue requires quality information on different causative factors. Research Question: What are different epidemiological determinants of RTA in western Nepal? Objective: To examine the factors associated with RTA. Study Design: Prospective observational. Setting: Study was performed in a tertiary healthcare delivery institute in western Nepal. Participants: 360 victims of RTA who reported to Manipal Teaching hospital in one year. Study Variables: Demographic, human, vehicular, environmental and time factors. Statistical analysis: Percentages, linear and logarithmic trend and Chi-square. Results: Most of the victims i.e. 147 (40.83% were young (15 to 30 years; from low i.e. 114 (31.66% and mid i.e. 198 (55% income families and were passengers i.e. 153 (42.50% and pedestrians i.e. 105 (29.16%. Sever accidents leading to fatal outcome were associated with personal problems (P< 0.01, χ2 - 8.03, recent or on-day conflicts (P< 0.001, χ2 - 18.88 and some evidence of alcohol consumptions (P< 0.001, χ2 - 30.25. Increased prevalence of RTA was also noticed at beginning i.e. 198 (55% and end i.e. 69 (19.16% of journey; in rainy and cloudy conditions (269 i.e. 74.72% and in evening hours (3 to 7 p.m. 159 i.e. 44.16%. Out of 246 vehicles involved; 162 ( 65.85% were old and ill maintained. The contributions of old vehicle to fatal injuries were 33 (50%. Head injury was found in 156 (43.33 % cases and its associated case fatality rate was 90.90%. In spite of a good percentage receiving first aid i.e. 213 (59.16% after RTA; there was a notable delay (174 i.e. 48.33% admitted after 6 h in shifting the cases to the hospitals. The estimated total days lost due to hospital stay was 4620 with an average of 12.83 days per each case. Conclusion

  15. Determinants of traffic accident mortality in The Netherlands: a geographical analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Beeck, E. F.; Mackenbach, J. P.; Looman, C. W.; Kunst, A. E.

    1991-01-01

    In the Netherlands, a country with one of the lowest levels of traffic accident mortality in the world, large regional mortality differences can be observed. An analysis was performed of the contribution of regional differences in traffic mobility (kilometers travelled/person-years), injury rate

  16. Cost of Traffic Accidents in Ghana: Empirical Evidence from Accra ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The paper examines road-related-accidents in the Accra metropolis of Ghana. The Disability Adjusted Life Years (DALY) approach was employed to estimate the social cost of accidents to the city. The estimated cost was noted to be high and also vary with age and sex. Key words: Road, Accidents and Cost Ife Psychologia ...

  17. Developing a Minimum Data Set for an Information Management System to Study Traffic Accidents in Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammadi, Ali; Ahmadi, Maryam; Gharagozlu, Alireza

    2016-03-01

    Each year, around 1.2 million people die in the road traffic incidents. Reducing traffic accidents requires an exact understanding of the risk factors associated with traffic patterns and behaviors. Properly analyzing these factors calls for a comprehensive system for collecting and processing accident data. The aim of this study was to develop a minimum data set (MDS) for an information management system to study traffic accidents in Iran. This descriptive, cross-sectional study was performed in 2014. Data were collected from the traffic police, trauma centers, medical emergency centers, and via the internet. The investigated resources for this study were forms, databases, and documents retrieved from the internet. Forms and databases were identical, and one sample of each was evaluated. The related internet-sourced data were evaluated in their entirety. Data were collected using three checklists. In order to arrive at a consensus about the data elements, the decision Delphi technique was applied using questionnaires. The content validity and reliability of the questionnaires were assessed by experts' opinions and the test-retest method, respectively. An (MDS) of a traffic accident information management system was assigned to three sections: a minimum data set for traffic police with six classes, including 118 data elements; a trauma center with five data classes, including 57 data elements; and a medical emergency center, with 11 classes, including 64 data elements. Planning for the prevention of traffic accidents requires standardized data. As the foundation for crash prevention efforts, existing standard data infrastructures present policymakers and government officials with a great opportunity to strengthen and integrate existing accident information systems to better track road traffic injuries and fatalities.

  18. Man, road and vehicle: risk factors associated with the severity of traffic accidents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almeida, Rosa Lívia Freitas de; Bezerra Filho, José Gomes; Braga, José Ueleres; Magalhães, Francismeire Brasileiro; Macedo, Marinila Calderaro Munguba; Silva, Kellyanne Abreu

    2013-08-01

    To describe the main characteristics of victims, roads and vehicles involved in traffic accidents and the risk factors involved in accidents resulting in death. METHODS A non-concurrent cohort study of traffic accidents in Fortaleza, CE, Northeastern Brazil, in the period from January 2004 to December 2008. Data from the Fortaleza Traffic Accidents Information System, the Mortality Information System, the Hospital Information System and the State Traffic Department Driving Licenses and Vehicle database. Deterministic and probabilistic relationship techniques were used to integrate the databases. First, descriptive analysis of data relating to people, roads, vehicles and weather was carried out. In the investigation of risk factors for death by traffic accident, generalized linear models were used. The fit of the model was verified by likelihood ratio and ROC analysis. RESULTS There were 118,830 accidents recorded in the period. The most common types of accidents were crashes/collisions (78.1%), running over pedestrians (11.9%), colliding with a fixed obstacle (3.9%), and with motorcycles (18.1%). Deaths occurred in 1.4% of accidents. The factors that were independently associated with death by traffic accident in the final model were bicycles (OR = 21.2, 95%CI 16.1;27.8), running over pedestrians OR = 5.9 (95%CI 3.7;9.2), collision with a fixed obstacle (OR = 5.7, 95%CI 3.1;10.5) and accidents involving motorcyclists (OR = 3.5, 95%CI 2.6;4.6). The main contributing factors were a single person being involved (OR = 6.6, 95%CI 4.1;10.73), presence of unskilled drivers (OR = 4.1, 95%CI 2.9;5.5) a single vehicle (OR = 3.9, 95%CI 2,3;6,4), male (OR = 2.5, 95%CI 1.9;3.3), traffic on roads under federal jurisdiction (OR = 2.4, 95%CI 1.8;3.7), early morning hours (OR = 2.4, 95%CI 1.8;3.0), and Sundays (OR = 1.7, 95%CI 1.3;2.2), adjusted according to the log-binomial model. CONCLUSIONS Activities promoting the prevention of traffic accidents should primarily focus on

  19. Road rage and road traffic accidents among commercial vehicle drivers in Lahore, Pakistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaikh, M A; Shaikh, I A; Siddiqui, Z

    2012-04-01

    Road rage and road traffic accidents increase the burden of morbidity and mortality in a population. A cross-sectional survey with convenience sampling was conducted among commercial vehicle drivers in Lahore, Pakistan (n = 901) to record their behaviours/experiences regarding road rage and road traffic accidents. Respondents were asked about incidents of shouting/cursing/rude gestures or threats to physically hurt the person/vehicle, by others or themselves, in the previous 24 hours or 3 months, and their involvement in road traffic accidents in the previous 12 months. Auto-rickshaw drivers were significantly more likely to report various road rage experiences/behaviours and involvement in accidents compared with bus and wagon drivers. A total of 112 respondents (12.4%) reported being involved in a road traffic accident in the previous 12 months but traffic police did not record the accident in 52.7% of cases. The results of this study underline the need to improve road safety in Pakistan.

  20. Mortality Rates of Traumatic Traffic Accident Patients at the University Hospital

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    Atilla Senih MAYDA

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study is to estimate hospitalization and mortality rates in patients admitted to the University Hospital due to traffic accidents, and to determine the mean cost of the applicants in the hospital due to traffic accident. In this retrospective study data were obtained from the records of a university research and practice hospital. There were 802 patients admitted to emergency and other outpatient clinics of the University Hospital because of traffic accidents throughout the year 2012. Out of these patients, 166 (20.7% were hospitalized, and the annual mortality rate was 0.87%. The total cost was 322,545.2 euro and 402.2 euro per patient. Road traffic accident detection reports covered only the numbers of fatal injuries and injuries that happened at the scene of accidents. Determination of the number of the dead and wounded with overall mortality rate would be supposed to reveal the magnitude of public health problem caused by traffic accidents.

  1. Burden of road traffic accidents in Nepal by calculating disability-adjusted life years

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    Ling Huang

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To calculate the burden of road traffic accidents in Kathmandu Valley and then extrapolate this to the national level. Methods: A prospective study was performed to compute the burden of road traffic accidents by quantification of disability-adjusted life years (DALYs using the Global Burden of Disease Study method on the basis of 1-year data from nine hospitals in Nepal and the Department of Forensic Medicine and cross-checked with the Nepal Traffic Directorate. Multiple methods were applied to the extrapolated population metrics of the burden of road traffic accidents in Nepal. Results: The total number of years of life lived in disability, years of life lost, and DALYs in Nepal were 38,848±194, 119,935±1464, and 158,783±1658 (95% confidence interval respectively. The number of years lost because of morbidity and death was similar in Kathmandu Valley. Most (75% of the DALYs resulted from years of life lost in Nepal. Males accounted for 73% of DALYs. Almost half (44% of the DALYs were contributed by the group aged 15–29 years. Conclusion: This study is the first to calculate the burden of road traffic accidents in Nepal using Nepal’s own data. Nepal needs to develop and enhance its own system to identify significant public health issues so as to set national priorities for prevention of road traffic accidents.

  2. Significance of chronic toxoplasmosis in epidemiology of road traffic accidents in Russian Federation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stepanova, Ekaterina V; Kondrashin, Anatoly V; Sergiev, Vladimir P; Morozova, Lola F; Turbabina, Natalia A; Maksimova, Maria S; Brazhnikov, Alexey I; Shevchenko, Sergei B; Morozov, Evgeny N

    2017-01-01

    Studies carried out in Moscow residents have revealed that the prevalence of chronic toxoplasmosis is very close to those in countries of Eastern and Central Europe. Our findings also demonstrated a statistically significant relationship between the rate of traffic accidents and the seroprevalence of chronic toxoplasmosis in drivers who were held responsible for accidents. The latter was 2.37 times higher in drivers who were involved in road accidents compared with control groups. These results suggest that the consequences of chronic toxoplasmosis (particularly a slower reaction time and decreased concentration) might contribute to the peculiarities of the epidemiology of road traffic accidents in the Russian Federation and might interfere with the successful implementation of the Federal Programme named "Increase road traffic safety". Suggestions for how to address overcome this problem are discussed in this paper.

  3. Features of the traffic accidents happened in the province of Aydın between 2005 and 2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dirlik, Musa; Bostancıoğlu, Başak Çakır; Elbek, Tülay; Korkmaz, Bedir; Çallak Kallem, Füsun; Gün, Berk

    2014-09-01

    In this study, it was aimed to analyze the traffic accidents with postmortem examinations and autopsies. From the one thousand eight hundred and fifteen forensic autopsies, reports of 334 traffic accidents were searched. Features such as the scene of the accident, type of the accident, type of the vehicles involved in the accident, the year, season, day and hour of the accident, the positions of the victims in the traffic, concomitant orthopedic injuries, whether autopsy was performed, and cause of death were investigated. Among the one thousand eight hundred and fifteen forensic death cases, observed cause of death was determined to be traffic accidents in 334 (18.4%) cases. Male cases accounted 84.1%, and male to female ratio was 5.3 to 1. From the reports, 32.6% of the accidents happened in summer and most commonly during holidays (33%). The rate of the accidents happened in the city center was 35.3% and 32.9% of these cases died due to pedestrian collision. Moreover, it was determined that the most injured person was the driver. Automobiles took the lead in the causes of the traffic accidents. It is realized that traffic accident-related deaths have a substantial place among forensic deaths and continue to be an important public health problem. It is conspicuous that improving public education on traffic safety, increasing traffic management and control measures are of great significance.

  4. Obstructive sleep apnoea syndrome as a cause of road traffic accidents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguiar, M; Valença, J; Felizardo, M; Caeiro, F; Moreira, S; Staats, R; Bugalho de Almeida, A A

    2009-01-01

    Several studies have demonstrated that obstructive sleep apnoea syndrome (OSAS) patients have a higher rate of road traffic accidents. Our study aimed to analyse any differences in OSAS patients between those who reported having had road traffic accidents and/or near misses and those who did not. We studied 163 patients with OSAS (apnoea- hypopnoea index (AHI)>10/h) diagnosed using nocturnal polysomnography (NPSG), all drivers, 18.4% of whom drove for a living. Patients were asked at their first clinical interview to self-report road traffic accidents and/or near misses over the past 3 years which had been caused by abnormal daytime drowsiness. This allowed patients to be divided into two groups, those who had had road traffic accidents and/or near misses and those who had not. Both were compared as to age, body mass index (BMI), Epworth Sleepiness Scale (ESS), daytime PaO2 and PaCO2, Functional Outcomes of Sleep Questionnaire (FOSQ) test and NPSG data. This latter was total sleep time (TTS), sleep efficiency, sleep stages, arousal index (ARI), AHI, minimal and average SaO2, % of time with SaO2 TDAH) (T test). Group I (no road traffic accidents) No=89 patients; group II (road traffic accidents) No=74 patients. Age (years) was 57.6+/-11.8 vs. 54.7+/-10.9 (ns); male gender, 75% vs. 78.4%; ESS, 12.3+/-5.4 vs. 17.6+/-4.3 (pTDAH (minutes), 98.5+/-63.7 vs. 133.3+/-83.2 (p=0,005). In our experience patients who had road traffic accidents and/or near misses had a more severe OSAS, with higher AHI, excessive daytime sleepiness and lower quality of life.

  5. Types and severity of operated supraclavicular brachial plexus injuries caused by traffic accidents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaiser, Radek; Waldauf, Petr; Haninec, Pavel

    2012-07-01

    Brachial plexus injuries occur in up to 5% of polytrauma cases involving motorcycle accidents and in approximately 4% of severe winter sports injuries. One of the criteria for a successful operative therapy is the type of lesion. Upper plexus palsy has the best prognosis, whereas lower plexus palsy is surgically untreatable. The aim of this study was to evaluate a group of patients with brachial plexus injury caused by traffic accidents, categorize the injuries according to type of accident, and look for correlations between type of palsy (injury) and specific accidents. A total of 441 brachial plexus reconstruction patients from our department were evaluated retrospectively(1993 to 2011). Sex, age, neurological status, and the type and cause of injury were recorded for each case. Patients with BPI caused by a traffic accident were assessed in detail. Traffic accidents were the cause of brachial plexus injury in most cases (80.7%). The most common type of injury was avulsion of upper root(s) (45.7%) followed by rupture (28.2%), complete avulsion (16.9%) and avulsion of lower root(s) (9.2%). Of the patients, 73.9% had an upper,22.7% had a complete and only 3.4% had a lower brachial plexus palsy. The main cause was motorcycle accidents(63.2%) followed by car accidents (23.5%), bicycle accidents(10.7%) and pedestrian collisions (3.1%) (pcar accidents had a higher percentage of lower avulsion (22.7%) and a lower percentage of upper avulsion (29.3%), whereas cyclists had a higher percentage of upper avulsion (68.6%) based on the data from the entire group of patients (pcar accidents (9.3%,pcar and motorcycle accidents),significantly more upper and fewer lower palsies were present. In the bicycle accident group, upper palsy was the most common (89%). Study results indicate that the most common injury was an upper plexus palsy. It was characteristic of bicycle accidents, and significantly more common in car and motorcycle accidents. The results also indicate that it is

  6. Tri-level study of the causes of traffic accidents. Volume 1, Causal factor tabulations and assessments

    Science.gov (United States)

    1977-03-31

    This is the Final Report of the "Tri-Level Study of the Causes of Traffic Accidents," performed by the Indiana University Institute for Research in Public Safety (IRPS), under contract to the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (Contract N...

  7. Public Health Profile of Road Traffic Accidents in Kosovo 2010-2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramadani, Naser; Zhjeqi, Valbona; Berisha, Merita; Hoxha, Rina; Begolli, Ilir; Salihu, Drita; Krasniqi, Pranvera

    2017-12-15

    To determine the characteristics of the Socio-medical profile of road traffic accidents in Kosovo, between 2010 and 2015 year. Retrospective study. A descriptive method based on the database of road traffic accidents from the National Police of Kosovo. In Kosovo for the period 2010-2015, on average, the yearly number of road traffic accidents is 18437 with mortality rate 7.4 per 100000 and lethality of 1.5%. The highest number of fatal cases are drivers and above 19 years old with more than 80%. Among injured significantly highest percentage is among passengers for all years and above 19 years old. Road traffic accident with a vehicle occurs most frequently, with approximately over 70%, mostly on dry road 72.9% and clear weather 71.1%. The driver is the contributing factors of road traffic accidents on average 99.3% whereas climatic conditions only 0.5%, with over 50% of crashes occurring in urban road 56.2%, mostly during Monday 16.0% and in the afternoon rush hours between 14.00-18.00 with 31.0%. There is a slight decrease in the mortality rate of 0.1‰ and lethality rate of 0.1% each year, whereas there is an increase of 21.5‰ for traumatism rate for each year.

  8. Predicting and analyzing the trend of traffic accidents deaths in Iran in 2014 and 2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehmandar, Mohammadreza; Soori, Hamid; Mehrabi, Yadolah

    2016-01-01

    Predicting the trend in traffic accidents deaths and its analysis can be a useful tool for planning and policy-making, conducting interventions appropriate with death trend, and taking the necessary actions required for controlling and preventing future occurrences. Predicting and analyzing the trend of traffic accidents deaths in Iran in 2014 and 2015. It was a cross-sectional study. All the information related to fatal traffic accidents available in the database of Iran Legal Medicine Organization from 2004 to the end of 2013 were used to determine the change points (multi-variable time series analysis). Using autoregressive integrated moving average (ARIMA) model, traffic accidents death rates were predicted for 2014 and 2015, and a comparison was made between this rate and the predicted value in order to determine the efficiency of the model. From the results, the actual death rate in 2014 was almost similar to that recorded for this year, while in 2015 there was a decrease compared with the previous year (2014) for all the months. A maximum value of 41% was also predicted for the months of January and February, 2015. From the prediction and analysis of the death trends, proper application and continuous use of the intervention conducted in the previous years for road safety improvement, motor vehicle safety improvement, particularly training and culture-fostering interventions, as well as approval and execution of deterrent regulations for changing the organizational behaviors, can significantly decrease the loss caused by traffic accidents.

  9. Studying the Epidemiology of Fatal Traffic Accidents in the Khuzestan Province

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    Rajaei Behbahani

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Background Traffic accidents with about 1.24 million deaths and 20 to 50 million cases of injury or disability per year are one of the most important public health challenges around the world. In Iran, traffic accidents, with an annual incidence of 32 cases per 100 thousand people, are considered as the second leading cause of death and the most common cause of injury. Objectives This study aimed to evaluate the epidemiological pattern and mortality rate caused by traffic accidents during year 2012 in the Khuzestan province and its cities. Materials and Methods In this cross-sectional study, all data related to fatal traffic accident referrals to legal medicine center of Khuzestan province during year 2012 were obtained and analyzed. Road traffic accidents mortality rate during this year was calculated for the province and its cities. The data were analyzed using Stata 11 statistical software. Results In 2012, one thousand and twenty deaths related to traffic accidents occurred in Khuzestan province. The incidence of deaths due to accidents in Khuzestan province was 22.5 and the standardized age of incidence was 24.3 per 100 thousand people. Regarding gender, 78.24% of the dead individuals were male and 21.76% were female. The most common final causes of death were head trauma (76.27% cases and bleeding (12.55% cases. The most deceased people were drivers (42.55%, passengers (34.90%, and pedestrians (21.27%. The highest traffic accidents mortality rate in Khuzestan province was observed in Hoveizeh (55.43 per one hundred thousand, Omidiye (55.30 per one hundred thousand and Ramhormuz (53.12 per one hundred thousand, and the lowest incidence rates belonged to Lali (5.35 per one hundred thousand and Shadegan (9.78 per one hundred thousand. Conclusions This study showed that drivers, passengers and pedestrians were the most vulnerable road users. Regarding the fact that most of them were illiterate or had primary education and were self-employed or

  10. GIS based analysis of Intercity Fatal Road Traffic Accidents in Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alizadeh, A; Zare, M; Darparesh, M; Mohseni, S; Soleimani-Ahmadi, M

    2015-01-01

    Road traffic accidents including intercity car traffic accidents (ICTAs) are among the most important causes of morbidity and mortality due to the growing number of vehicles, risky behaviors, and changes in lifestyle of the general population. A sound knowledge of the geographical distribution of car traffic accidents can be considered as an approach towards the accident causation and it can be used as an administrative tool in allocating the sources for traffic accidents prevention. This study was conducted to investigate the geographical distribution and the time trend of fatal intercity car traffic accidents in Iran. To conduct this descriptive study, all Iranian intercity road traffic mortality data were obtained from the Police reports in the Statistical Yearbook of the Governor's Budget and Planning. The obtained data were for 17 complete Iranian calendar years from March 1997 to March 2012. The incidence rate (IR) of fatal ICTAs for each year was calculated as the total number of fatal ICTAs in every 100000 population in specified time intervals. Figures and maps indicating the trends and geographical distribution of fatal ICTAs were prepared while using Microsoft Excel and ArcGis9.2 software. The number of fatal car accidents showed a general increasing trend from 3000 in 1996 to 13500 in 2012. The incidence of fatal intercity car accidents has changed from six in 100000 population in 1996 to 18 in 100000 population in 2012. GIS based data showed that the incidence rate of ICTAs in different provinces of Iran was very divergent. The highest incidence of fatal ICTAs was in Semnan province (IR= 35.2), followed by North Khorasan (IR=22.7), and South Khorasan (IR=22). The least incidence of fatal ICTAs was in Tehran province (IR=2.4) followed by Khozestan (IR=6.5), and Eastern Azarbayejan (IR=6.6). The compensation cost of fatal ICTAs also showed an increasing trend during the studied period. Since an increasing amount of money was being paid yearly for the car

  11. GIS based analysis of Intercity Fatal Road Traffic Accidents in Iran

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alizadeh, A; Zare, M; Darparesh, M; Mohseni, S; Soleimani-Ahmadi, M

    2015-01-01

    Road traffic accidents including intercity car traffic accidents (ICTAs) are among the most important causes of morbidity and mortality due to the growing number of vehicles, risky behaviors, and changes in lifestyle of the general population. A sound knowledge of the geographical distribution of car traffic accidents can be considered as an approach towards the accident causation and it can be used as an administrative tool in allocating the sources for traffic accidents prevention. This study was conducted to investigate the geographical distribution and the time trend of fatal intercity car traffic accidents in Iran. To conduct this descriptive study, all Iranian intercity road traffic mortality data were obtained from the Police reports in the Statistical Yearbook of the Governor’s Budget and Planning. The obtained data were for 17 complete Iranian calendar years from March 1997 to March 2012. The incidence rate (IR) of fatal ICTAs for each year was calculated as the total number of fatal ICTAs in every 100000 population in specified time intervals. Figures and maps indicating the trends and geographical distribution of fatal ICTAs were prepared while using Microsoft Excel and ArcGis9.2 software. The number of fatal car accidents showed a general increasing trend from 3000 in 1996 to 13500 in 2012. The incidence of fatal intercity car accidents has changed from six in 100000 population in 1996 to 18 in 100000 population in 2012. GIS based data showed that the incidence rate of ICTAs in different provinces of Iran was very divergent. The highest incidence of fatal ICTAs was in Semnan province (IR= 35.2), followed by North Khorasan (IR=22.7), and South Khorasan (IR=22). The least incidence of fatal ICTAs was in Tehran province (IR=2.4) followed by Khozestan (IR=6.5), and Eastern Azarbayejan (IR=6.6). The compensation cost of fatal ICTAs also showed an increasing trend during the studied period. Since an increasing amount of money was being paid yearly for the

  12. [The risk of road traffic accidents among primary school children in Kuala Terengganu].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fatimah, M; Osman, A; Masyarakat, J K; Perubatan, F

    1997-12-01

    A case control study was conducted in 1996 among primary school student in Terengganu. The objective of the study is to determine the relationship between road traffic accidents and factors such as socio-economic status, distance from school, number of siblings, behavioural problems, knowledge and attitudes of pupil and their parents towards road safety and parents' educational status. A total of 140 cases was obtained from 3 urban schools and 3 from rural schools. Cases were matched with control according to age sex and locality of residence. There were significant associations between road traffic accidents and pupils' knowledge regarding road crossing (OR = 0.40, 95% CI = 0.19-0.85), parental supervision (OR = 0.43, 95% CI = 0.19, 0.64) and parents having driving licences (OR = 0.99, 95% CI = 0.856-0.999). Road safety education for pupils and parental supervision are key measures in preventing road traffic accidents among primary school children.

  13. [Profiles of resilience and quality of life in people with acquired disability due to traffic accidents].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suriá Martínez, Raquel

    2015-09-01

    To identify distinct profiles of resilience in people with spinal cord injuries due to traffic accidents and to determine whether the profiles identified are related to differences in subjective well-being. The Resilience Scale (Wagnild and Young, 1993) and an adapted quality of life scale (GENCAT) were administered to 98 people with physical disabilities due to traffic accidents. Cluster analyses identified three different resilience profiles: a high-resilience group, a low-resilience group, and a group showing a predominance of high scores in self and life acceptance and social competence. The results also revealed statistically significant differences among profiles in most domains of subjective well-being. The results suggest the need to study resilience in greater depth and to design programs to enhance quality of life among people with disabilities due to traffic accidents. Copyright © 2014 SESPAS. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  14. Application of composite small calibration objects in traffic accident scene photogrammetry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Qiang; Xu, Hongguo; Tan, Lidong

    2015-01-01

    In order to address the difficulty of arranging large calibration objects and the low measurement accuracy of small calibration objects in traffic accident scene photogrammetry, a photogrammetric method based on a composite of small calibration objects is proposed. Several small calibration objects are placed around the traffic accident scene, and the coordinate system of the composite calibration object is given based on one of them. By maintaining the relative position and coplanar relationship of the small calibration objects, the local coordinate system of each small calibration object is transformed into the coordinate system of the composite calibration object. The two-dimensional direct linear transformation method is improved based on minimizing the reprojection error of the calibration points of all objects. A rectified image is obtained using the nonlinear optimization method. The increased accuracy of traffic accident scene photogrammetry using a composite small calibration object is demonstrated through the analysis of field experiments and case studies.

  15. DATA ANALYSIS OF TRAFFIC ACCIDENTS AND THEIR CAUSES IN GOMEL FOR 2013 AND 2014

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    S. A. Azemsha

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Measures undertaken for improvement of road traffic safety presuppose clampdown on violation of road traffic regulations but no attention is paid to the fact that there is no possibility to ensure road traffic safety due to inconformity of roads to the modern safety requirements. Therefore reduction in accident rate is connected with some changes in approaches to designing, construction and maintenance of roads. Nowadays when the number of automobiles is extremely large and their number is increasing with every passing year driver’s professionalism becomes the most significant factor. In these circumstances the professionalism is demonstrated not so much while driving in bad road conditions as it was previously but the professionalism is more revealed in the case when it is necessary to drive in conditions of large workloads and high manoeuvring rate when a special important role is given to the capability to forecast a situation, in other words the capability to read the road. Moral climate on the road is no less important as well and it practically fully depends on a driver.The paper contains an analysis of the Gomel traffic police data on quantitative distribution of road traffic accidents and their victims according to the time of day and month, lighting conditions, weather conditions, age and sex factors, types of violations. Situations of traffic behavior, motivations of drivers and road users, drivers training have been shown in terms of impact on the road traffic accident risk. The paper considers a human factor which rather often causes an accident. An evaluation has been given to such factor as road speed of transport facilities which exerts a significant influence on an accident risk and its severity.

  16. Identification of Drivers in Traffic Accidents and Determination of Passenger Position in a Vehicle by Finger Marks

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    Matej Trapečar

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The following paper aims to illustrate certain investigative activities in the forensic analysis and examination of the scene of traffic accidents. When a traffic accident occurs, the scene must be secured as soon as possible to enable professional and proper forensic investigation. Failure to secure the accident scene might result in losing or contaminating the traces, which makes it more difficult to prove or explain trace evidence in further procedure or even makes such evidence inadmissible. The topic is discussed from the viewpoint of crime scene examination, since analysing and investigating traffic accidents requires a great deal of expertise and attention of the investigators. Complex traffic accidents include feigned accidents, hit-and-run accidents as well as accidents in which the driver and passengers, dead or alive, need to be identified. In identifying the passengers, standard criminal investigation methods as well as police forensic and forensic medicine methods are followed. Such methods include confirming the identities with identity documents, other documents and vehicle ownership, fingerprints, biological traces, fibre traces, contact traces, traces of physical injuries on the driver and passengers, etc. According to the results obtained in fingerprint detection on human skin surfaces, this method can also be applied in confirming physical contact between the driver and the passengers in the accident, e.g. in the event of moving the victims and changing the scene of the accident.   Key words: traffic accidents, accident analysis, driver's identity, passengers' position, finger marks, human skin

  17. Road Safety Barriers, the Need and Influence on Road Traffic Accidents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butāns, Ž.; Gross, K. A.; Gridnevs, A.; Karzubova, E.

    2015-11-01

    Constantly increasing intensity of road traffic and the allowed speed limits seem to impose stronger requirements on road infrastructure and use of road safety systems. One of the ways to improve road safety is the use of road restraint systems. Road safety barriers allow not only reducing the number of road traffic accidents, but also lowering the severity of accidents. The paper provides information on the technical requirements of road safety barriers. Various types of road safety barriers and their selection criteria for different types of road sections are discussed. The article views an example of a road traffic accident, which is also modelled by PC-Crash computer program. The given example reflects a road accident mechanism in case of a car-to-barrier collision, and provides information about the typical damage to the car and the barrier. The paper describes an impact of the road safety barrier type and its presence on the road traffic accident mechanism. Implementation and maintenance costs of different barrier types are viewed. The article presents a discussion on the necessity to use road safety barriers, as well as their optimal choice.

  18. Two-lane traffic simulations with a blockage induced by an accident car

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, H. B.; Lei, L.; Dai, S. Q.

    2009-07-01

    Based on the two-lane traffic model proposed by Chowdhury et al., a highway traffic model with a blockage induced by an accident car is proposed, in which both symmetric lane changing rules and asymmetric lane changing rules are adopted. The fundamental diagrams and spatial-temporal profiles are presented after the numerical simulation and the jam transition is studied. It is shown that the accident car not only causes a local jam behind the accident car, but also causes vehicles to cluster in the bypass lane. The asymmetric lane changing rules are more advantageous in reducing the local jam than the symmetric lane changing rules when the accident car is in the right lane, and the symmetric lane changing rules are superior when the accident car is in the left lane. Furthermore the curves of lane-changing frequency against the total density are given. It is found that the vehicles will change lane more frequently when traffic is inhomogeneous with different types of vehicle or with an accident car.

  19. Alcohol, psychoactive drugs and fatal road traffic accidents in Norway: a case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gjerde, Hallvard; Normann, Per T; Christophersen, Asbjørg S; Samuelsen, Sven Ove; Mørland, Jørg

    2011-05-01

    A case-control study was conducted on 204 drivers fatally injured in road traffic accidents in south-eastern Norway during the period 2003-2008. Cases from single vehicle accidents (N = 68) were assessed separately. As controls, 10540 drivers selected in a roadside survey in the same geographical area during 2005-2006 were used. Blood samples were collected from the cases and oral fluid (saliva) samples from the controls. Samples were analysed for alcohol, amphetamines, cannabis, cocaine, opioid analgesics, hypnotics, sedatives and a muscle relaxant; altogether 22 psychoactive substances. Equivalent cutoff concentrations for blood and oral fluid were used. The risk for fatal injury in a road traffic accident was estimated using logistic regression adjusting for gender, age, season of the year, and time of the week. The odds for involvement in fatal road traffic accidents for different substances or combination of substances were in increasing order: single drug < multiple drugs < alcohol only < alcohol+drugs. For single substance use: medicinal drug or THC < amphetamine/methamphetamine < alcohol. For most substances, higher ORs were found when studying drivers involved in single vehicle accidents than for those involved in multiple vehicle accidents, but confidence intervals were wider. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Psychological Aspects Operating on the Air Traffic Controller in Reintegration into Action After The Accident

    OpenAIRE

    Daniela Čekanová; Žaneta Miženková; Ľubomír Fábry; Róbert Rozenberg

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the article is to analyze the psychological aspects of an air traffic controller who controls aircraft, communicates with the crew and encounters the incidents of different nature or even accidents. The work of the air traffic controller requires a high level of responsibility and tension which can often lead to stress and trauma. The first part of this article is highlighting the complexity of the profession and passes to the next section, which explains the context of workload, s...

  1. An epidemiologic survey of road traffic accidents in Iran: analysis of driver-related factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moafian Ghasem

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available 【Abstract】Objective: Road traffic accident (RTA and its related injuries contribute to a significant portion of the burden of diseases in Iran. This paper explores the as-sociation between driver-related factors and RTA in the country. Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted in Iran and all data regarding RTAs from March 20, 2010 to June 10, 2010 were obtained from the Traffic Police Department. We included 538 588 RTA records, which were classified to control for the main confounders: accident type, final cause of accident, time of accident and driver-related factors. Driver-related factors included sex, educational level, license type, type of injury, duration between accident and getting the driving license and driver’s error type. Results: A total of 538 588 drivers (91.83% male, sex ratio of almost 13:1 were involved in the RTAs. Among them 423 932 (78.71% were uninjured; 224 818 (41.74% had a diploma degree. Grade 2 driving license represented the highest proportion of all driving licenses (290 811, 54.00%. The greatest number of accidents took place at 12:00-13:59 (75 024, 13.93%. The proportion of drivers involved in RTAs decreased from 15.90% in the first year of getting a driving license to 3.13% after 10 years’ of driving experience. Ne-glect of regulations was the commonest cause of traffic crashes (345 589, 64.17%. Non-observance of priority and inattention to the front were the most frequent final causes of death (138 175, 25.66% and 129 352, 24.02%, respectively. We found significant association between type of acci-dent and sex, education, license type, time of accident, final cause of accident, driver’s error as well as duration between accident and getting the driving license (all P<0.001. Conclusion: Our results will improve the traffic law enforcement measures, which will change inappropriate be-havior of drivers and protect the least experienced road users. Key words: Accidents, traffic; Automobile

  2. The age-dependent incidence of injuries due to road traffic accidents in Odense, Denmark from 1980 to 1992

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, L B; Poulsen, T K; Johannsen, H G

    1995-01-01

    The study was based on data concerning persons treated at Odense University Hospital as a result of road traffic accidents in the period 1980-92. Incidence rates of road traffic accident injuries were calculated on the basis of the population in Odense municipality. The study group included persons...

  3. Comparative study on foreign drivers' characteristics using traffic violation and accident statistics in Japan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kento Yoh

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Recently the number of foreign drivers has been rapidly increasing. Hence, the driving safety measures for foreign drivers have become more essential. This study aims to identify the characteristics of foreign drivers through analyzing traffic violation and traffic accident data in Japan. Chi-square test of independence and specialization coefficient were applied, in order to understand the specific violations and accidents with high tendency with respect to the region the foreign driver hails from. Also, multi-regression analysis was utilized to reveal the relationships between traffic violations and accidents. As a result, it was revealed that sense of priority, speed, and comprehension of rules affect traffic violations. Asian drivers tend to violate the rules related to priority in the road space, while North and South Americans violate rules related to speed, and South East Asian drivers violate rules related to priority and comprehension of traffic rules and road signs. Asian drivers tend to cause crossing collision while on the other hand North and South Americans are prone to head-on collision and rear-end collision. It was concluded that driving safety measures based on drivers' characteristics with respect to region were effective. This study seeks to contribute to the improvement of traffic safety for foreigners in Japan.

  4. Traffic accident injuries in a referral Orthopedic Hospital in North West of Iran during summer 2009

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amir Mohammad Navali

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Road traffic injuries are a major public health problem, requiring huge efforts for effective and sustainable prevention. Because of the high occurrence of traffic accidents in Iran, basic data acquisition is highly needed to implement prevention plans. The present research is conducted as an epidemiological study of the traffic accident victims referred to a referral orthopedic center in North West of Iran. Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted during a 3 months period from June to September 2009 in Tabriz, Iran. A total of 16681 patients were admitted to the emergency ward, and 3246 patients (19.5% were hospitalized during this period because of traffic related injuries. After randomization, 630 cases were selected to be enrolled in the study. The location of an accident, position of road users, type of crashed vehicle, cause of accident, type of injury, time interval from accident to hospitalization and treatment outcome were recorded. Statistical analyses were carried out using SPSS software. Results: The mean age of the patients was 31 years (range, 6 months to 98 years and 77.0% of patients (468 cases were men. A total of 193 (36.6% patients sustained traffic accident in open roads and 335 (63.4% in urban corridors. In 67 (12.9% of accidents, there was only a single occupant in the vehicle. The time interval between the accident and admission was 6.6 ± 3.2 hours. Of the 608 cases, 45.7% were drivers, 30.3% passengers, and 24.0% pedestrians. Most cases of the car accident happened in urban areas, and the male victims were largely in the driver group. The most frequent type of injury was knee, leg and head trauma. Conclusion: The large number of traffic-related injuries admitted to our emergency ward that comprise mostly young adults should be considered as an alarming signal to policy makers and health providers in our province. Strict control on drivers’ behavior should be taken into account if increasing human

  5. Road Traffic Accident Rate as an Indicator of the Quality of Life

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Artur Igorevich Petrov

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The paper considers the issues devoted to assessing the connection between the quality of life and road traffic accident rate in different countries. The hypothesis put forward in the paper is based on the idea that the organization and functioning of the state road traffic safety management system and the outcome characteristics of road traffic accident rate in the road complex are closely related and are derived from the level of development of non-governmental institutions in a particular country. In order to determine how true this hypothesis is, the author carried out statistical studies of the relations between the estimates of the Quality of Life presented for 60 countries in the US News & World Report and the Human Risk indicators estimated for these countries. This indicator proposed by R. Smeed in 1949 for assessing the state of affairs in the field of road safety allows us to evaluate adequately the position of countries in the world ranking of road traffic accident rate. The research aims to establish a regularity that identifies the statistical relationship between the characteristics of the quality of life and human risk (by R. Smeed. The method of construction of correlation-regression models of the processes under consideration is used to achieve this goal. It has been established that there exists a noticeable inverse statistical relationship between the variables of the Quality of Life in different countries (according to the US News & World Report and Human Risk (according to the World Health Organization. The paper discusses reasons for a decline in road traffic accident rate when the quality of life becomes better. The main conclusion of the study lies in the understanding that there exists a strong cause and effect relationship between the level of development of social institutions and the level of transport culture of the population; this relationship is implemented in the form of specific cases of transport

  6. Road traffic accidents in Kathmandu--an hour of education yields a glimmer of hope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basnet, Bibhusan; Vohra, Rais; Bhandari, Amit; Pandey, Subash

    2013-03-21

    After the Metropolitan Traffic Police, Kathmandu initiated a "No Drinking and Driving" policy in 2011 in which a major intervention for intoxicated drivers was mandatory 1-hour class to modify drunk driving behaviors, reports show that the number of road traffic accidents in the year 2012 decreased by 23 percent from the year 2011. The injury to fatality ratio decreased by 21 percent in this period. We remain encouraged by these statistics which confirm that increased enforcement of road traffic rules, combined with behavioral change programs, can have positive changes in LMICs which suffer considerably from the global burden of trauma.

  7. Road traffic accidents in Kathmandu—an hour of education yields a glimmer of hope

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    After the Metropolitan Traffic Police, Kathmandu initiated a “No Drinking and Driving” policy in 2011 in which a major intervention for intoxicated drivers was mandatory 1-hour class to modify drunk driving behaviors, reports show that the number of road traffic accidents in the year 2012 decreased by 23 percent from the year 2011. The injury to fatality ratio decreased by 21 percent in this period. We remain encouraged by these statistics which confirm that increased enforcement of road traffic rules, combined with behavioral change programs, can have positive changes in LMICs which suffer considerably from the global burden of trauma. PMID:23517620

  8. Analysis of emergency response procedures and air traffic accidents ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Incessant air transport accidents have been a source of concern to stakeholders and aviation experts in Nigeria, yet the response and process has not been adequately appraised. This study attempts an evaluation of the emergency response procedures in the aviation industry with particular focus on Murtala Muhammed ...

  9. Central nervous system affecting drugs and road traffic accidents ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    These accidents (RTA) have been attributed to various causes including driving under the influence of drugs that affect the central nervous system (CNS). Objective: This study was aimed at determining the role of CNS affecting drugs in the causation of RTA among these motorcyclists and also to make recommendations ...

  10. Spatial and Temporal Perspective on Road Traffic Accident ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study used mostly secondary Data, accident records and vehicular situation which was obtained from Nigerian Police Force and Federal Road Safety Commission. The data was obtained for a period of ten (10) years. The need for re-orientation of the land use pattern in the study area, better road network characteristics ...

  11. Incidence of road traffic accidents and pattern of injury among ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Introduction of road safety education targeted at discouraging alcohol use among these motorcyclists while riding and ensuring periodic visual acuity assessment is recommended. Keywords: commercial motorcyclists, accidents, injuries, risk factors, rural community, Nigeria Journal of Community Medicine and Primary ...

  12. Road traffic accident: The neglected health problem in Amhara ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Results: Almost half (51%) of all crashes involved freight vehicles followed by passenger vehicles which constitute one-third (34.5%) of all the accidents. ... Thus, taking the seriousness of the problem into consideration, ANRS Police Commission and Trade and Transport Bureau have to work aggressively on issues related ...

  13. Drug use and the severity of a traffic accident

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smink, BE; Ruiter, B; Lusthof, KJ; de Gier, JJ; Uges, DRA; Egberts, ACG

    Several studies have showed that driving under the influence of alcohol and/or certain illicit or medicinal drugs increases the risk of a (severe) crash. Data with respect to the question whether this also leads to a more severe accident are sparse. This study examines the relationship between the

  14. Visual Function as a Risk Factor for Road Traffic Accidents among ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: To assess the effect of visual function on the occurrence of road traffic accidents (RTA) amongst Commercial Intercity Vehicle Drivers in Jos, Plateau State, Nigeria. Methodology: A descriptive cross-sectional survey of commercial intercity vehicle drivers at the Bauchi Road Motor Park, Jos, was undertaken in ...

  15. The public health threat of road traffic accidents in Nigeria: A call to ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Annals of Medical and Health Sciences Research ... Public health experts worldwide concede that there is a global epidemic of road traffic accidents (RTA). ... using the advanced features of various databases such as PubMed, Scopus, Embase, Google, and directory of open access journals was carried out using the key ...

  16. Socio-economic determinants of road traffic accident fatalities in low and middle income countries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M. Grimm (Michael); C. Treibich (Carole)

    2010-01-01

    textabstractIn low and middle income countries road traffic accident fatalities will become in the near future one of the three major causes of death. Given that in particular the active population accounts for these fatalities, the potential economic implications are large, on the micro and the

  17. Medico-Legal Deaths From Road Traffic Accidents In Sagamu, Nigeria

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Road Traffic Accidents (RTA's) are a leading cause of death worldwide. Deaths that occur after the first hour of trauma are regarded as preventable deaths. Objectives: To evaluate the pattern and causes of death in the first 24hrs after RTA's. Design: Retrospective study. Setting: Olabisi Onabanjo University ...

  18. Tri-level study of the causes of traffic accidents : interim report 1. Vol. 2 : appendices

    Science.gov (United States)

    1973-08-31

    This is the final report of the first year of activity under a proposed three-year program entitled "Tri-Level Study of the Causes of Traffic Accidents." This study has been performed by the Indiana University Institute for Research in Public Safety ...

  19. [Disability evaluation of 204 cases of children with brain injury in road traffic accidents].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Kuan-lin; Zhang, Xian-guo; Kong, Bin; Huang, Si-xing

    2010-08-01

    To study the types, characteristics and common complications as well as disability assessment for the children with craniocerebral injury in the road traffic accidents. Data from 204 cases of children with cranio-injury in road traffic accidents were collected and were statistically analyzed according to the location injured, complication, the type of complication and the severity of disability. There were 64 cases of simple diffuse primary craniocerebral injury, 80 cases of simple local primary cranio-injury, 24 cases of diffuse secondary craniocerebral injury and 36 cases of local secondary cranio-injury. The main complications included traumatic epilepsy (14, 6.9%), traumatic cerebral infarction (9, 4.4%), traumatic hydrocephalus (7, 3.4%) and traumatic mental disorder (5, 2.5%). Among the children with cranio-injury due to road traffic accidents, simple primary cranio-injury was the most common result, whereas the traumatic epilepsy and traumatic cerebral infarction were the major types of complications. The assessment criteria for body impairment of the children with craniocerebral injury in the road traffic accidents should be broadened accordingly, with addition of certain specific items for children.

  20. Causes and Severity of Fatal Injuries in Autopsies of Victims of Fatal Traffic Accidents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F Panahi

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: In this retrospective study, we decided to determine the death causes and severity of injuries in traffic accidents according to reports of the forensic medical center of Yazd. Methods: A total of 251 fatalities due to traffic accidents that had undergone autopsy examinations at the Yazd forensic medicine center from2006 till 2008 were included in the study by census method. Data regarding gender, road user type, type of vehicle (car, motorcycle, autobus or minibus, consciousness level, and intensive care unit (ICU admission was gathered. For evaluation of injury severity, we used Injury Severity Score (ISS. Results: The population under study consisted of 202 men (80.5% and 49 women (19.5% with an average age of 34.1 years (range: 1-89 years. Motorcycle-pedestrian accidents were the most common type of injury (100, 39.8%. Head (220, 87.6% and face (169, 67.3% were the two most common sites of injuries. Mean (±SD of ISS was 23.2 (±10.4. According to autopsy records, the main cause of death was head trauma (146, 58.1%. Conclusion: Public awareness in terms of primary prevention of road accidents should be considered important. Also, regarding the high prevalence of brain injuries and complications associated with skull fractures, accessibility to neurosurgeons and availability of imaging devices have an important role in decreasing the mortality rate of traffic accidents.

  1. Review of road traffic accident admissions in a Nigerian tertiary ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... 20.6 % of the patients had multiple injuries. The mortality rate was 6.8%. Conclusion: Trauma is an established cause of requiring emergency care and hospital admissions and since the cost of trauma care is enormous. Implementation of road safety legislation will be of tremendous help in reducing road traffic injuries.

  2. The effect of traffic light on accident probability in open and periodic boundaries system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mhirech, Abdelaziz; Alaoui-Ismaili, Assia

    2015-09-01

    In this paper we numerically study the dependence of car accident probability Pac, per site and per time step on cycle time T of traffic light, both in open and periodic boundaries system. In this study one traffic light is placed in the middle of the system. This work is based on Nagel and Schreckenberg (NaSch) model (Nagel and Schreckenberg (1992)) in parallel dynamics. The Pac dependence on T and the (α, β) phase diagrams are established. α and β are the injecting and extracting rates of cars in the traffic lane respectively. The increase of the cycle time light T causes an important decrease of the accident probability Pac both in the open and periodic cases.

  3. Geographic Information System (GIS) capabilities in traffic accident information management: a qualitative approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmadi, Maryam; Valinejadi, Ali; Goodarzi, Afshin; Safari, Ameneh; Hemmat, Morteza; Majdabadi, Hesamedin Askari; Mohammadi, Ali

    2017-06-01

    Traffic accidents are one of the more important national and international issues, and their consequences are important for the political, economical, and social level in a country. Management of traffic accident information requires information systems with analytical and accessibility capabilities to spatial and descriptive data. The aim of this study was to determine the capabilities of a Geographic Information System (GIS) in management of traffic accident information. This qualitative cross-sectional study was performed in 2016. In the first step, GIS capabilities were identified via literature retrieved from the Internet and based on the included criteria. Review of the literature was performed until data saturation was reached; a form was used to extract the capabilities. In the second step, study population were hospital managers, police, emergency, statisticians, and IT experts in trauma, emergency and police centers. Sampling was purposive. Data was collected using a questionnaire based on the first step data; validity and reliability were determined by content validity and Cronbach's alpha of 75%. Data was analyzed using the decision Delphi technique. GIS capabilities were identified in ten categories and 64 sub-categories. Import and process of spatial and descriptive data and so, analysis of this data were the most important capabilities of GIS in traffic accident information management. Storing and retrieving of descriptive and spatial data, providing statistical analysis in table, chart and zoning format, management of bad structure issues, determining the cost effectiveness of the decisions and prioritizing their implementation were the most important capabilities of GIS which can be efficient in the management of traffic accident information.

  4. Correlates of road traffic accident in cases attending IIR hospital Kanpur

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shibajee Debbarma

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Globally, road traffic accidents rank 8th among the leading causes of death. According to WHO data, deaths from road traffic injuries account for around 25% of all deaths from injury.Objective: To study the various correlates of road traffic accident in cases attending LLR Hospital, Kanpur.Materials and Methods: The study was conducted among road traffic accident cases attending Emergency Ward of Lala Lajpat Rai Hospital, Kanpur, Uttar Pradesh during the period of March-September, 2015. Data was recorded in a pre-designed and pre-tested questionnaire and analyzed using SPSS software version 16.0.Results: Out of 609 RTA cases, maximum number (54.19% were in 20-40 years age group. Most of the RTA victims were males (69.95% and majority were literate (90.97%. Maximum number (28.74% of RTA took place between 4.00 p.m-8.00 p.m. Maximum number (36.95% of RTA victims were two-wheeler drivers, followed by two-wheeler riders (26.60%. 16.60% of drivers of motorized vehicles had no driving license. 85.48% of motorized vehicle users were not using any protective gear (helmet, seat belt etc. at the time of accident.Conclusion: Young adults in the economically most productive age group were the commonest victims of RTA. There is need of creating awareness regarding traffic rules among general public and strict enforcement of traffic rules by the concerned authorities.

  5. Combined Prediction Model of Death Toll for Road Traffic Accidents Based on Independent and Dependent Variables

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feng Zhong-xiang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to build a combined model which can meet the variation rule of death toll data for road traffic accidents and can reflect the influence of multiple factors on traffic accidents and improve prediction accuracy for accidents, the Verhulst model was built based on the number of death tolls for road traffic accidents in China from 2002 to 2011; and car ownership, population, GDP, highway freight volume, highway passenger transportation volume, and highway mileage were chosen as the factors to build the death toll multivariate linear regression model. Then the two models were combined to be a combined prediction model which has weight coefficient. Shapley value method was applied to calculate the weight coefficient by assessing contributions. Finally, the combined model was used to recalculate the number of death tolls from 2002 to 2011, and the combined model was compared with the Verhulst and multivariate linear regression models. The results showed that the new model could not only characterize the death toll data characteristics but also quantify the degree of influence to the death toll by each influencing factor and had high accuracy as well as strong practicability.

  6. Combined Prediction Model of Death Toll for Road Traffic Accidents Based on Independent and Dependent Variables

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhong-xiang, Feng; Shi-sheng, Lu; Wei-hua, Zhang; Nan-nan, Zhang

    2014-01-01

    In order to build a combined model which can meet the variation rule of death toll data for road traffic accidents and can reflect the influence of multiple factors on traffic accidents and improve prediction accuracy for accidents, the Verhulst model was built based on the number of death tolls for road traffic accidents in China from 2002 to 2011; and car ownership, population, GDP, highway freight volume, highway passenger transportation volume, and highway mileage were chosen as the factors to build the death toll multivariate linear regression model. Then the two models were combined to be a combined prediction model which has weight coefficient. Shapley value method was applied to calculate the weight coefficient by assessing contributions. Finally, the combined model was used to recalculate the number of death tolls from 2002 to 2011, and the combined model was compared with the Verhulst and multivariate linear regression models. The results showed that the new model could not only characterize the death toll data characteristics but also quantify the degree of influence to the death toll by each influencing factor and had high accuracy as well as strong practicability. PMID:25610454

  7. Vessel traffic safety in busy waterways: A case study of accidents in western shenzhen port.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mou, J M; Chen, P F; He, Y X; Yip, Tsz Leung; Li, W H; Tang, J; Zhang, H Z

    2016-08-03

    Throughout the world, busy waterways near large ports witness heavy vessel traffic in recent decades. The waterways are characterized by high risk in terms of loss of life, property, and pollution to environment. To facilitate maritime safety management with satisfactory efficiency and efficacy, the authors propose a framework of safety indexes to evaluate the risk level in busy waterways according to the accident severity, fatality rate and special indicators of maritime transportation. The safety indexes consist of Safety Evaluation Index (SEI) and Safety Warning Index (SWI), and are derived from the proposed risk criteria of Chinese vessel traffic. As a case study, data on vessel traffic accidents reported in the Western Shenzhen Port, South China from 1995 to 2015 are analyzed. The actual risk level of this area during the period is calculated under the framework. The implementation of the safety indexes indicate that the risk criteria and safety indexes are practicable and effective for the vessel traffic management. The methodology based on long-term accident data can significantly support the risk analysis in the macroscopic perspective for busy ports and waterways, such that SWI can act as threshold to trigger actions, while SEI can act as an indicator to measure safety status. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Time analysis of fatal traffic accidents in Fars Province of Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heydari Seyed Taghi

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available 【Abstract】 Objective: To analyze the time factor in road traffic accidents (RTAs in Fars Province of Iran. Methods: This study was conducted in Fars Province, Iran from November 22, 2009 to November 21, 2011. Victims’ information consisted of age, sex, death toll involving dri-vers or passengers of cars, motorcycles and pedestrians, and site of injury etc. Accidents were analyzed in relation to hour of the day, season of the year, lighting condition in-cluding sunrise, sunset, daytime and nighttime. Results: A total of 3 642 deaths (78.3% were males, and the ratio of males to females was about 3.6:1 were studied regarding their autopsy records. There was a steady in-crease in fatal accidents occurring at midnight to 15:59. The risk of being involved in a fatal traffic accident was higher for those injured between 4:00 to 7:59 than at other times (OR=2.13, 95% CI 1.85-2.44. The greatest number of fatal RTAs took place in summer. Mortalities due to RTA during spring and summer were more pronounced at 20:00 to 23:59 and midnight to 3:59, whereas mortalities in fall and winter were more pronounced from 12:00 to 15:59. Conclusion: The high mortality rate of RTA is a major public health problem in Fars Province. Our results indicate that the time is an important factor which contributes to road traffic deaths. Key words: Accidents, traffic; Epidemiology; Mortality; Iran

  9. [Spatial analysis of road traffic accidents with fatalities in Spain, 2008-2011].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez-Barroso, Diana; López-Cuadrado, Teresa; Llácer, Alicia; Palmera Suárez, Rocío; Fernández-Cuenca, Rafael

    2015-09-01

    To estimate the areas of greatest density of road traffic accidents with fatalities at 24 hours per km(2)/year in Spain from 2008 to 2011, using a geographic information system. Accidents were geocodified using the road and kilometer points where they occurred. The average nearest neighbor was calculated to detect possible clusters and to obtain the bandwidth for kernel density estimation. A total of 4775 accidents were analyzed, of which 73.3% occurred on conventional roads. The estimated average distance between accidents was 1,242 meters, and the average expected distance was 10,738 meters. The nearest neighbor index was 0.11, indicating that there were aggregations of accidents in space. A map showing the kernel density was obtained with a resolution of 1 km(2), which identified the areas of highest density. This methodology allowed a better approximation to locating accident risks by taking into account kilometer points. The map shows areas where there was a greater density of accidents. This could be an advantage in decision-making by the relevant authorities. Copyright © 2014 SESPAS. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  10. Cellular automata model simulating traffic car accidents in the on-ramp system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Echab, H.; Lakouari, N.; Ez-Zahraouy, H.; Benyoussef, A.

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, using Nagel-Schreckenberg model we study the on-ramp system under the expanded open boundary condition. The phase diagram of the two-lane on-ramp system is computed. It is found that the expanded left boundary insertion strategy enhances the flow in the on-ramp lane. Furthermore, we have studied the probability of the occurrence of car accidents. We distinguish two types of car accidents: the accident at the on-ramp site (Prc) and the rear-end accident in the main road (Pac). It is shown that car accidents at the on-ramp site are more likely to occur when traffic is free on road A. However, the rear-end accidents begin to occur above a critical injecting rate αc1. The influence of the on-ramp length (LB) and position (xC0) on the car accidents probabilities is studied. We found that large LB or xC0 causes an important decrease of the probability Prc. However, only large xC0 provokes an increase of the probability Pac. The effect of the stochastic randomization is also computed.

  11. Frequency of alcohol and substance abuse observed in drivers killed in traffic accidents in Hamadan, Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afzali, Saeed; Saleh, Aliehsan; Seif Rabiei, Mohammad Ali; Taheri, Kazem

    2013-04-01

    Human factor is one of the most important causes for traffic accidents. This study has been designed to determine the presence of alcohol and drug abuse among drivers killed in car accidents in Hamadan, Iran during a one year period. This study was conducted as a post-mortem series design. Forensic autopsies were performed on all drivers killed in car accidents who were referred to the Hamadan Medico-legal Center. Alcohol and drug abuse was evaluated in these drivers. Of the 106 drivers killed in car accidents, 98.1% were male. Most were 20-30 years of age. In the majority of cases (83%) the toxicologic tests were negative. Higher level of education (diploma and higher) was related to higher alcohol or drug abuse compared with those whose educational status was less than a diploma (46.7%) or those who were illiterate (16.5%; Chi-square: 7.13; P = 0.008). There was a remarkable difference between drug or alcohol abuse and season. The majority of substance abusers were in the summer (n = 13, 59.1%); the least were in the spring (n = 2; 9.1%). This study shows that alcohol and drug abuse, in particular opiates, could be important factors in traffic accidents in Hamadan, Iran.

  12. [Sleep disorders, risk of accidents and traffic accidents in a group of drivers of public transport].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papalia, L; Goldoni, M; Spaggiari, M C; Roscelli, F; Corradi, M; Mutti, A

    2012-01-01

    In order to evaluate the prevalence of sleep disorders and visuomotor performance, a survey was conducted on 253 drivers of public transport company, aged between 25 and 64 years. Biometric data (BMI, neck circumference and waist, PA) were collected and three questionnaires were administered to investigate sleep disorders. Simple and multiple choice reaction times were administered using a computerized test battery. Records on road accidents in the period 2005-2011 and all accidents in the period 2002-2010 were analyzed. On the basis of clinical and anamnestic questionnaire, workers were divided into two groups: 194 drivers (group 1) without suspicion of sleep disorders and 59 drivers (group 2) with suspected sleep disorders, and 41 with suspected obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS). The drivers with suspicion of sleep disorders, in particular those with suspected diagnosis of OSAS, showed reaction times significantly prolonged as compared to the drivers of the group 1. In group 2, a higher incidence of (all) accidents was found, whereas the incidence of road accidents was significantly increased only in drivers with suspected OSAS. In addition to the sleep disorders, the use of drugs altering vigilance (antihistamines and benzodiazepines) were significant determinants. In-depth clinical examinations are in progress to confirm the suspected diagnosis of sleep disorders.

  13. Traffic accident severity analysis with rain-related factors using structural equation modeling - A case study of Seoul City.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jonghak; Chae, Junghyo; Yoon, Taekwan; Yang, Hojin

    2018-03-01

    Weather conditions are strongly correlated with traffic accident severity. In particular, rain-related factors are an important cause of traffic accidents due to the poor visibility and reduced friction resulting from slippery road conditions. This paper presents a systematic approach to analyze the extent to which the rainfall intensity and level of water depth are responsible for traffic accidents using Seoul City, Korea, as a case study. The rainfall and traffic accident data over a nine-year period (from 2007 to 2015) for Seoul were analyzed through Structural Equation Modeling to identify the relationships among variables by handling endogenous and exogenous variables simultaneously. In the model, four latent variables, namely those representing the road; traffic, environmental, and human factors; and rain and water depth factors, were defined and the coefficients of the latent, endogenous, and exogenous variables were estimated to obtain the level of accident severity. Furthermore, a statistical goodness of fit index was suggested for model fitting. In conclusion, traffic, environmental, and human factors; rain and water depth factors; and road factors are mutually correlated with the level of accident severity. Compact cars, young drivers, female drivers, heavy rain, deep water, and roads with a long drainage length are more likely to be associated with an increase in the level of accident severity, as are features like a tangent, down slope, right-hand curve, and shorter curve length. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Seroepidemiology of Toxoplasma gondii infection in drivers involved in road traffic accidents in the metropolitan area of Guadalajara, Jalisco, Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background The prevalence of toxoplasmosis in the general population of Guadalajara, Mexico, is around 32%. Toxoplasmosis can cause ocular lesions and slowing of reaction reflexes. Latent toxoplasmosis has been related with traffic accidents. We aimed to assess the prevalence of anti-Toxoplasma gondii antibodies and visual impairments related with traffic accidents in drivers from the metropolitan Guadalajara. Methods We prospectively evaluated the prevalence of IgG and IgM anti-T. gondii antibodies in 159 individuals involved in traffic accidents, and in 164 control drivers never involved in accidents. Cases of toxoplasmosis reactivation or acute infection were detected by PCR in a subset of 71 drivers studied for the presence of T. gondii DNA in blood samples. Ophthalmologic examinations were performed in drivers with IgG anti-T. gondii antibodies in search of ocular toxoplasmosis. Results Fifty-four (34%) traffic accident drivers and 59 (36%) controls were positive to IgG anti-T. gondii antibodies (p = 0.70). Among the 113 seropositive participants, mean anti-T. gondii IgG antibodies titers were higher in traffic accident drivers than in controls (237.9 ± 308.5 IU/ml vs. 122.9 ± 112.7 IU/ml, respectively; p = 0.01 by Student’s t test, p = 0.037 by Mann–Whitney U test). In multivariate analyses, anti-T. gondii IgG antibody titers were consistently associated with an increased risk of traffic accidents, whereas age showed an inverse association. The presence of IgM-anti-T. gondii antibodies was found in three (1.9%) subjects among traffic accident drives, and in two (1.2%) controls. Three (4.2%) samples were positive for the presence of T. gondii DNA, all among seropositive individuals. No signs of ocular toxoplasmosis were found in the entire cohort. Moreover, no other ocular conditions were found to be associated with the risk of traffic accidents in a multivariate analysis. Conclusions Anti-T. gondii antibody titers are associated with the risk

  15. Analysis of Individual and Environmental Factors for Road Traffic Accidents in Sirjan-Bandarabbas Road between 2010 and 2011, Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ghorbanali Mohammadi

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Sirjan -Bandarabbas road is one of the important commercial roads in Iran and for Sirjan’s area situation and relevance between Sirjan and other states in Iran so high percentage of goods that forwarded from Bandarabbas to other states transit from Sirjan .Therefore this road is as one important transition road and traffic road too .This study analyzed road traffic accidents were occurred between 2010 and 201in Sirjan- Bandarabbas road. Individual and demographic factors include Time of accidents, Drivers age, time of the days, seat belt and safety laws, Guilty vehicle, Mode of accident and education Level. Time of day analyses suggested that the highest percentage of road traffic injuries occurred in the time group between 12-18 hours. Drivers with the age group of 36-50 had more involvement in death accidents. The findings of this study also revealed that most of the collisions was front to back and front to side. Female drivers were found to be generally safer drivers than their male counterparts; male drivers had a higher involvement rate in road traffic accidents. This study indicated that Observe safety laws, Guilty vehicle and Mode of accidents have a meaningful relationship with Type of accidents in road traffic accidents in Sirjan Bandarabbas road.

  16. Study on Brain Injury Biomechanics Based on the Real Pedestrian Traffic Accidents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Chengjian; Yin, Zhiyong

    This paper aimed to research the dynamic response and injury mechanisms of head based on real pedestrian traffic accidents with video. The kinematics of head contact with the vehicle was reconstructed by using multi-body dynamics models. These calculated parameters such as head impact velocity and impact location and head orientation were applied to the THUMS-4 FE head model as initial conditions. The intracranial pressure and stress of brain were calculated from simulations of head contact with the vehicle. These results were consistent with that of others. It was proved that real traffic accidents combined with simulation analysis can be used to study head injury biomechanics. Increasing in the number of cases, a tolerance limit of brain injury will be put forward.

  17. Uncertainty analysis of accident notification time and emergency medical service response time in work zone traffic accidents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Qiang; Weng, Jinxian

    2013-01-01

    Taking into account the uncertainty caused by exogenous factors, the accident notification time (ANT) and emergency medical service (EMS) response time were modeled as 2 random variables following the lognormal distribution. Their mean values and standard deviations were respectively formulated as the functions of environmental variables including crash time, road type, weekend, holiday, light condition, weather, and work zone type. Work zone traffic accident data from the Fatality Analysis Report System between 2002 and 2009 were utilized to determine the distributions of the ANT and the EMS arrival time in the United States. A mixed logistic regression model, taking into account the uncertainty associated with the ANT and the EMS response time, was developed to estimate the risk of death. The results showed that the uncertainty of the ANT was primarily influenced by crash time and road type, whereas the uncertainty of EMS response time is greatly affected by road type, weather, and light conditions. In addition, work zone accidents occurring during a holiday and in poor light conditions were found to be statistically associated with a longer mean ANT and longer EMS response time. The results also show that shortening the ANT was a more effective approach in reducing the risk of death than the EMS response time in work zones. To shorten the ANT and the EMS response time, work zone activities are suggested to be undertaken during non-holidays, during the daytime, and in good weather and light conditions.

  18. Alcohol, psychoactive substances and non-fatal road traffic accidents - a case-control study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bogstrand Stig

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The prevalence of alcohol and other psychoactive substances is high in biological specimens from injured drivers, while the prevalence of these psychoactive substances in samples from drivers in normal traffic is low. The aim of this study was to compare the prevalence of alcohol and psychoactive substances in drivers admitted to hospital for treatment of injuries after road traffic accidents with that in drivers in normal traffic, and calculate risk estimates for the substances, and combinations of substances found in both groups. Methods Injured drivers were recruited in the hospital emergency department and drivers in normal conditions were taken from the hospital catchment area in roadside tests of moving traffic. Substances found in blood samples from injured drivers and oral fluid samples from drivers in moving traffic were compared using equivalent cut off concentrations, and risk estimates were calculated using logistic regression analyses. Results In 21.9% of the injured drivers, substances were found: most commonly alcohol (11.5% and stimulants eg. cocaine or amphetamines (9.4%. This compares to 3.2% of drivers in normal traffic where the most commonly found substances were z-hypnotics (0.9% and benzodiazepines (0.8%. The greatest increase in risk of being injured was for alcohol combined with any other substance (OR: 231.9, 95% CI: 33.3- 1615.4, p  Conclusion The prevalence of psychoactive substances was higher among injured drivers than drivers in normal moving traffic. The risk of accident is greatly increased among drivers who tested positive for alcohol, in particular, those who had also ingested one or more psychoactive substances. Various preventive measures should be considered to curb the prevalence of driving under the influence of psychoactive substances as these drivers constitute a significant risk for other road users as well as themselves.

  19. Factors associated with access to physical rehabilitation for victims of traffic accidents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kelienny de Meneses Sousa

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE Evaluate the level of access to physical rehabilitation for survivors of traffic accidents and the associated factors. METHODS A cross-sectional study performed in Natal, Northeastern Brazil, through a telephone survey of 155 victims of traffic accidents admitted to an emergency hospital between January and August of 2013, with a diagnosis of fracture, traumatic brain injury or amputation. Participants were identified in the database of the reference hospital for care of traffic accident victims. We calculated point estimates and confidence interval (95%CI for the frequency of subjects who had access, in addition to multivariate analysis (logistic regression between access (dependent variable and sociodemographic, clinical, and assistance variables. RESULTS Among the 155 respondents, the majority were adolescents and adults between 15–29 years of age (47.7%, men (82.6%, education up to high school (92.3%, income of up to two minimum wages (78.0% and bikers (75.5%. Although 85.8% of traffic accident survivors reported the need for physical rehabilitation, there was little access (51.6%; 95%CI 43.7–59.4 and a delay to start the physical rehabilitation (average = 67 days. We classified factors associated with access to physical rehabilitation as: (i unmodifiable individuals in the short term – family income greater than two minimum wages (OR = 3.7, informal worker (OR = 0.11 or unemployed (OR = 0.15 and possession of a private health care plan (OR = 0.07; and (ii assistance modifiable by service management – written referral for physical rehabilitation (OR = 27.5 and perceived need of physical rehabilitation (OR = 10. CONCLUSIONS This study found a low and slow access to physical rehabilitation for individuals potentially in need. The associated factors were the organizational processes of health care (health information and referral and social determinants (income, occupation and private health care plan.

  20. The Characteristics of Traffic Accident Admission Patients in Oriental Medicine Hospital

    OpenAIRE

    Se-Jong Kim; Jun-Hyuk Kang; Jang-Woo Park; Seo-Young Hong; Dong-Suk Heo; Il-Ji Yoon; Min-Seok Oh

    2007-01-01

    Objectives : This study was conducted to classify the TA(traffic accident) patients who admissed in Oriental Medical Hospital. Methods : We divided TA patients who admissed in Oriental Medical Hospital by age, sex, visited period after onset, impact region, disease, and chief complaint according to a patient classification table, and analyzed their characteristics. Results and Conclusion : The patients who visited within 1 week after TA numbered most(65.4%) in classification by period. Most i...

  1. An Epidemiological Study of Road Traffic Accidents in Guilan Province, Northern Iran in 2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohtasham-Amiri, Zahra; Dastgiri, Saeed; Davoudi-kiakalyeh, Ali; Imani, Ali; Mollarahimi, Keyvan

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To determine the epidemiological characteristics of the road traffic injuries (RTIs) in Guilan province, northern Iran. Methods: This study was a cross-sectional study which included all of RTIs admitted to medical centers of Guilan province (northern Iran) during 2012. ICD-10 was used as diagnostic criteria. Demographic variables also injury circumstance and in hospital variables such as length of stay, time of admission, type of surgery, ICU admission, final outcome and mechanism of injury, anatomical part of injury according to Abbreviated Injury Scale (AIS) classification were derives from records by trained research team. Descriptive data is reported. The predictors of mortality were also determined. Results: The prevalence of road traffic injuries in Guilan province was 31 in 10,000 populations. Of total 7671 accidents, 5976 (77.9%) were men and 1695 (22.1%) were women. Mean age of these victims was 33.3 ± 17.289 years (32.64±16.939 for men, 35.62±18.312 for women). Most of them (32.5%) were 20-29 years old. Motorcycle-car accidents had the highest frequency followed by car-car crashes and car accidents involving pedestrians. Most of the patients (85.9%) were hospitalized and 280 injured died (3.7%). Upper extremities were the most sites of injuries. Male sex, length of hospital stay, multiple injuries and increased age were associated with road traffic accident associated mortality. Conclusion: RTIs cause enormous death and disability in this area and more road traffic preventive programs should be enforcement in these areas to reduce incidences RTI. PMID:27878129

  2. Genitourinary injuries after traffic accidents: Analysis of a registry of 162,690 victims.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terrier, Jean-Etienne; Paparel, Philippe; Gadegbeku, Blandine; Ruffion, Alain; Jenkins, Lawrence C; N'Diaye, Amina

    2017-06-01

    Traffic accidents are the most frequent cause of genitourinary injuries (GUI). Kidney injuries after trauma have been well described. However, there exists a paucity of data on other traumatic GUI after traffic accidents. The objective of this study was to analyze the frequency and type of all GUI, by user category, after traffic accidents. Patient cases were extracted from the trauma registry of the French department of Rhone from 1996 to 2013. We assessed the urogenital injuries presented by each of road user's categories. Severity injuries were coded with the Abbreviated Injury Scale and the Injury Severity Score. Kidney trauma was mapped with the classification of the American Association for the Surgery of Trauma. Multivariate prediction models were used for analysis of data. Of 162,690 victims, 963 presented with GUI (0.59%). 47% were motorcyclists, 22% were in a car, 18% on bicycles, and 9% were pedestrians. The most common organ injury was kidney (41%) followed by testicular (23%). Among the 208 motorists with a GUI, kidney (70%), bladder (10%), and adrenal gland (9%) were the most frequent lesions. Among the 453 motorcyclist victims with GUI, kidney (35%) and testicular (38%) traumas were the most frequent and 62% of injuries involved external genitalia. There were 175 cyclists with GUI, 70% of injuries involved external genitalia; penile traumas (23%) were the most frequent. In total, there were 395 kidney injuries, most being low grade. According to the American Association for the Surgery of Trauma kidney injuries were grade I, 59%; grade II, 11%; grade III, 16%; grade IV, 9%; grade V, 3%; and indeterminate, 2%. GUI is an infrequent trauma after traffic accidents, with kidneys being the most commonly injured. Physicians must maintain a high awareness for external genitalia injuries in motorcyclists and cyclists. Prognostic and epidemiologic study, level III.

  3. An Epidemiological Study of Road Traffic Accidents in Guilan Province, Northern Iran in 2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohtasham-Amiri, Zahra; Dastgiri, Saeed; Davoudi-Kiakalyeh, Ali; Imani, Ali; Mollarahimi, Keyvan

    2016-10-01

    To determine the epidemiological characteristics of the road traffic injuries (RTIs) in Guilan province, northern Iran. This study was a cross-sectional study which included all of RTIs admitted to medical centers of Guilan province (northern Iran) during 2012. ICD-10 was used as diagnostic criteria. Demographic variables also injury circumstance and in hospital variables such as length of stay, time of admission, type of surgery, ICU admission, final outcome and mechanism of injury, anatomical part of injury according to Abbreviated Injury Scale (AIS) classification were derives from records by trained research team. Descriptive data is reported. The predictors of mortality were also determined. The prevalence of road traffic injuries in Guilan province was 31 in 10,000 populations. Of total 7671 accidents, 5976 (77.9%) were men and 1695 (22.1%) were women. Mean age of these victims was 33.3 ± 17.289 years (32.64±16.939 for men, 35.62±18.312 for women). Most of them (32.5%) were 20-29 years old. Motorcycle-car accidents had the highest frequency followed by car-car crashes and car accidents involving pedestrians. Most of the patients (85.9%) were hospitalized and 280 injured died (3.7%). Upper extremities were the most sites of injuries. Male sex, length of hospital stay, multiple injuries and increased age were associated with road traffic accident associated mortality. RTIs cause enormous death and disability in this area and more road traffic preventive programs should be enforcement in these areas to reduce incidences RTI.

  4. The Importance of Bloodstain Pattern Analysis in the Investigation of Road Traffic Accidents: A Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Younis M. Albalooshi

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Bloodstain pattern analysis has become a field of specialization in Forensic sciences and plays an important role in the reconstruction of events at a crime scene. Research, books, and articles have been published on the analysis and interpretation of bloodstain patterns We present a case study of a road traffic accident in which bloodstain pattern analysis helped us to solve the discrepancy between reports produced by forensic examiners and by the forensic biology department. The case was of a 22-year-old man who died immediately and a 31- year-old woman who survived a road traffic accident. They were both found outside their overturned car and it was impossible to ascertain from initial observations which of the victims was driving the car at the time of the accident. An external examination of the man revealed multiple injuries, and the cause of his death was severe brain injury. The woman survived with a fracture of the forearm, dislocated clavicle bone, and other minor injuries. After initial examination of the car and based on the pattern of injuries the deceased received, forensic examiner concluded that the man was the driving the car at the time of accident. On the other hand, the forensic DNA analysis of bloodstains obtained from the driver's seat matched that of the woman, suggesting that she was the driver. This apparent discrepancy directed the forensic examiner to carry out a bloodstain pattern analysis on the driver's seat. The bloodstain pattern analysis helped resolve the discrepancy and enabled the investigators to identify the driver correctly. This case report emphasizes the importance of bloodstain pattern analysis in the reconstruction of cases involving road traffic accidents.

  5. Hybrid Models Based on Singular Values and Autoregressive Methods for Multistep Ahead Forecasting of Traffic Accidents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lida Barba

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The traffic accidents occurrence urges the intervention of researchers and society; the human losses and material damage could be abated with scientific studies focused on supporting prevention plans. In this paper prediction strategies based on singular values and autoregressive models are evaluated for multistep ahead traffic accidents forecasting. Three time series of injured people in traffic accidents collected in Santiago de Chile from 2000:1 to 2014:12 were used, which were previously classified by causes related to the behavior of drivers, passengers, or pedestrians and causes not related to the behavior as road deficiencies, mechanical failures, and undetermined causes. A simplified form of Singular Spectrum Analysis (SSA, combined with the autoregressive linear (AR method, and a conventional Artificial Neural Network (ANN are proposed. Additionally, equivalent models that combine Hankel Singular Value Decomposition (HSVD, AR, and ANN are evaluated. The comparative analysis shows that the hybrid models SSA-AR and SSA-ANN reach the highest accuracy with an average MAPE of 1.5% and 1.9%, respectively, from 1- to 14-step ahead prediction. However, it was discovered that HSVD-AR shows a higher accuracy in the farthest horizons, from 12- to 14-step ahead prediction, which reaches an average MAPE of 2.2%.

  6. Road traffic accidents: Global Burden of Disease study, Brazil and federated units, 1990 and 2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ladeira, Roberto Marini; Malta, Deborah Carvalho; Morais, Otaliba Libânio de; Montenegro, Marli de Mesquita Silva; Soares, Adauto Martins; Vasconcelos, Cíntia Honório; Mooney, Meghan; Naghavi, Mohsen

    2017-05-01

    To describe the global burden of disease due to road traffic accidents in Brazil and federated units in 1990 and 2015. This is an analysis of secondary data from the 2015 Global Burden of Disease study estimates. The following estimates were used: standardized mortality rates and years of life lost by death or disability, potential years of life lost due to premature death, and years of unhealthy living conditions. The Mortality Information System was the main source of death data. Underreporting and redistribution of ill-defined causes and nonspecific codes were corrected. Around 52,326 deaths due to road traffic accidents were estimated in Brazil in 2015. From 1990 to 2015, mortality rates decreased from 36.9 to 24.8/100 thousand people, a reduction of 32.8%. Tocantins and Piauí have the highest mortality risks among the federated units (FU), with 41.7/100 and 33.1/100 thousand people, respectively. They both present the highest rates of potential years of life lost due to premature deaths. Road traffic accidents are a public health problem. Using death- or disability-adjusted life years in studies of these causes is important because there are still no sources to know the magnitude of sequelae, as well as the weight of early deaths. Since its data are updated every year, the Global Burden of Disease study may provide evidence to formulate traffic security and health attention policies, which are guided to the needs of the federated units and of different groups of traffic users.

  7. [Direct costs involved in providing medical attention associated with traffic accidents in Bogotá].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez-Restrepo, Carlos; Quitian, Hoover; Maldonado, Patricia; Naranjo-Lujan, Salomé; Rondón, Martín; Acosta, Andrés; Arango-Villegas, Carlos; Hurtado, Jaime; Hernández, Juan C; Angarita, María Del Pilar; Peña, Marcela; Saavedra, Miguel Á

    2014-01-01

    To determine the cost of medical attention associated with traffic accidents in Bogotá, Colombia. Prospective observational study with data from adult patients attended to in the emergency centers of 6 hospitals. Average total cost per patient was $1'112.000 COP. Average daily cost of hospitalized patients was $1'200.000 COP. Average cost of ambulatory treated patients ascended to $247.400 COP. Cost per accident calculated was $2'333.700 COP. In the whole city during study period, total medical costs were around $2.301'028.200 COP. All data was expressed in 2011 Colombian pesos. The medical cost of transit accidents is a significant economic burden.

  8. Effective Factors in Severity of Traffic Accident-Related Traumas; an Epidemiologic Study Based on the Haddon Matrix.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masoumi, Kambiz; Forouzan, Arash; Barzegari, Hassan; Asgari Darian, Ali; Rahim, Fakher; Zohrevandi, Behzad; Nabi, Somayeh

    2016-01-01

    Traffic accidents are the 8(th) cause of mortality in different countries and are expected to rise to the 3(rd) rank by 2020. Based on the Haddon matrix numerous factors such as environment, host, and agent can affect the severity of traffic-related traumas. Therefore, the present study aimed to evaluate the effective factors in severity of these traumas based on Haddon matrix. In the present 1-month cross-sectional study, all the patients injured in traffic accidents, who were referred to the ED of Imam Khomeini and Golestan Hospitals, Ahvaz, Iran, during March 2013 were evaluated. Based on the Haddon matrix, effective factors in accident occurrence were defined in 3 groups of host, agent, and environment. Demographic data of the patients and data regarding Haddon risk factors were extracted and analyzed using SPSS version 20. 700 injured people with the mean age of 29.66 ± 12.64 years (3-82) were evaluated (92.4% male). Trauma mechanism was car-pedestrian in 308 (44%) of the cases and car-motorcycle in 175 (25%). 610 (87.1%) cases were traffic accidents and 371 (53%) occurred in the time between 2 pm and 8 pm. Violation of speed limit was the most common violation with 570 (81.4%) cases, followed by violation of right-of-way in 57 (8.1%) patients. 59.9% of the severe and critical injuries had occurred on road accidents, while 61.3% of the injuries caused by traffic accidents were mild to moderate (p car-motorcycle (13.14%) accidents (p traffic accident-related traumas were age over 50, not using safety tools, and undertaking among host-related factors; insufficient environment safety, road accidents and time between 2 pm and 8 pm among environmental factors; and finally, rollover, car-pedestrian, and motorcycle-pedestrian accidents among the agent factors.

  9. Injuries and absenteeism among motorcycle taxi drivers who are victims of traffic accidents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbosa, Kevan G N; Lucas-Neto, Alfredo; Gama, Bruno D; Lima-Neto, Jose C; Lucas, Rilva Suely C C; d'Ávila, Sérgio

    2014-08-01

    Facial injuries frequently occur in traffic accidents involving motorcycles. The purpose of this study was to determine the prevalence of facial injuries among motorcycle drivers who perform motorcycle taxi service. The study design was cross-sectional. A total of 210 participants who served as motorcycle taxi drivers in a city in northeastern Brazil completed a survey concerning their experience of accidents involving facial injuries and consequent hospitalization and absenteeism from work. The motorcycle drivers included in the study were randomly selected from a list provided by the city. Out of the respondents, 165 (78.6%) who were involved in traffic accidents in the last 12 months, 15 (9.1%) reported facial injuries. The types of facial injury most frequently reported involved soft tissues (n = 8; 53.3%), followed by simple fracture (n = 4; 26.7%) and dentoalveolar fracture (n = 3; 20%). We found an association between facial injuries and absenteeism, as well as an association between the presence of facial injury and the need for hospitalization for a period of 2 days or more. Respondents reported that they had accidents, but due to the use of full face motorcycle helmet the number of facial injuries was low. For most of them, absenteeism was observed for a period of one month or more. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd and Faculty of Forensic and Legal Medicine. All rights reserved.

  10. Decision model support of severity of injury traffic accident victims care by SAMU 192

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rackynelly Alves Sarmento Soares

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Traffic accidents produce high morbidity and mortality in several countries, including Brazil. The initial care to victims of accidents, by a specialized team, has tools for evaluating the severity of trauma, which guide the priorities. This study aimed to develop a decision model applied to pre-hospital care, using the Abbreviated Injury Scale, to define the severity of the injury caused by the AT, as well to describe the features of accidents and their victims, occurred in Joao Pessoa, Paraiba. This is a descriptive epidemiological investigation, sectional, which analyzed all victims of traffic accidents attended by the SAMU 192, João Pessoa-PB, in January, April and June 2010. Data were collected in the medical regulation sheets of SAMU 192. Most of victims were male (76%, aged between 20 and 39 years (60%. Most injuries were classified as AIS1 (62.5%. The model of decision support implemented was the decision tree that managed to correctly classify 95.98% of the severity of injuries. By this model, it was possible to extract 29 rules of gravity classification of injury, which may be used for decision-making teams of the SAMU 192.

  11. Elderly patients attended in emergency health services in Brazil: a study for victims of falls and traffic accidents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariana Gonçalves de Freitas

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The article aims to describe the profile of elderly victims of falls and traffic accidents from the data of the Surveillance Survey of Violence and Accidents (VIVA. The VIVA Survey was conducted in the emergency health-services of the Unified Health System in the capitals of Brazil in 2011. The sample of elderly by type of accident was subjected to the two-step cluster procedure. Of the 2463 elderly persons in question, 79.8% suffered falls and 20.2% were the victims of traffic accidents. The 1812 elderly who fell were grouped together into 4 clusters: Cluster 1, in which all had disabilities; Cluster 2, all were non-white and falls took place in the home; Cluster 3, younger and active seniors; and Cluster 4, with a higher proportion of seniors 80 years old or above who were white. Among cases of traffic accidents, 446 seniors were grouped into two clusters: Cluster 1 of younger elderly, drivers or passengers; Cluster 2, with higher age seniors, mostly pedestrians. The main victims of falls were women with low schooling and unemployed; traffic accident victims were mostly younger and male. Complications were similar in victims of falls and traffic accidents. Clusters allow adoption of targeted measures of care, prevention and health promotion.

  12. Psychological Aspects Operating on the Air Traffic Controller in Reintegration into Action After The Accident

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela Čekanová

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the article is to analyze the psychological aspects of an air traffic controller who controls aircraft, communicates with the crew and encounters the incidents of different nature or even accidents. The work of the air traffic controller requires a high level of responsibility and tension which can often lead to stress and trauma. The first part of this article is highlighting the complexity of the profession and passes to the next section, which explains the context of workload, stress and trauma. Long-term stress and traumatic experience of ATC maybe harmful or contribute to early resignation from work. The selection of suitable candidates and their preparation for the profession of air traffic controller is so demanding that their work and psychological aspects require increased attention from the side of the research.

  13. Road Safety Data, Collection, Transfer and Analysis DaCoTa. Factsheet Traffic safety basic facts 2010 : single vehicle accidents.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yannis, G. Evgenikos, P. Argyropoulou, E. Papantoniou, P. Kirk, A. Broughton, J. Knowles, J. Brandstaetter, C. Candappa, N. Christoph, M. Vis, M. Pace, J.-F. López de Cozar, E. Pérez-Fuster, P. Sanmartín, J. Haddak, M. & Moutengou, E.

    2012-01-01

    In this Basic Fact Sheet, "single vehicle accident" or single vehicle collision is a type of road traffic accident in which only one vehicle and no other road user is involved. Run-off-road collisions, collisions with fallen rocks or debris in the road, rollover crashes within the roadway and

  14. [Ethanol and other psychoactive substances in fatal road traffic accidents in the Czech Republic in 2008].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mravcík, Viktor; Zábranský, Tomás; Vorel, Frantisek

    2010-01-01

    To map the recent prevalence of alcohol and other psychoactive substances in deceased victims of traffic accidents in the Czech Republic. The studied sample consisted of individuals autopsied in the departments of forensic medicine who died during traffic accidents in 2008 and were toxicologically tested for one or more of the following substances: ethanol, volatile substances, cannabis, opiates, stimulants, cocaine, benzodiazepines, and barbiturates. Case definition involved alcohol cases with blood alcohol concentration (BAC) 0.2 g/kg and higher; with cannabis, detections of active THC metabolites only were taken into account; from cases where volatile substances (solvents) were detected we included into the positive cases only those where substances were not produced post mortem or in some physiological or pathological statuses. The sample consisted of 1,040 persons deceased in traffic accidents, of whom 582 (56.0%) were toxicologically tested for one or more of the substances listed above. The sample has been divided into two subsamples--one of 778 (74.8%) active participants of road traffic accidents (pedestrians, bicyclists, and drivers) and other subsample consisting of 262 (25.4%) non-active participants. Ethanol was found in 38.3% of 381 tested and at least one of other psychoactive substances was found in 11.7% of 384 tested active participants--of those, stimulants (mostly methamphetamine) were found most frequently (6.5% of 337 tested), cannabis (5.9% of 203 tested) and benzodiazepines (3.9% of 363 tested active participants). Drivers were positive for ethanol in 29.2% cases, for one or more of other psychoactive substances except ethanol in 12.7% cases, most frequently for stimulants (9.2%) and cannabis (6.2%). Professional drivers were found negative for ethanol and other psychoactive substance except of one case of methamphetamine (6.7%). The study confirms high prevalence of alcohol and other psychoactive substances, especially stimulants

  15. [Differences between males and females in traffic accident risk in France].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, J-L; Lafont, S; Chiron, M; Gadegbeku, B; Laumon, B

    2004-09-01

    In France 7,720 people were killed in traffic accidents in 2001, 75% of which were men; the number of injured people is estimated at 153,945, of which 65% were men. The objective of the study is to describe differences between males and females regarding accidents, and to explain the main reasons for these differences. Analysis is conducted from both national police data (2001) and data from the Rhone medical road accident trauma Register (1996-2001). The male/female incidence rate is 3.1 for mortality (95% CI: 3.0-3.3) and 1.7 for morbidity (95% CI: 1.7-1.8). Two-wheel motorised vehicle accidents are very specific to males, which explains part of this overrepresentation. The fatality rate and the severe injuries rate among survivors are higher for males. This is true for every main user group (car users, motorised two-wheelers, cyclists, pedestrians) after adjusting for accident circumstances and age of casualties. Males are more severely injured for all body regions and have more often severe after-effects. This paper shows the mechanisms leading to this unfavourable outcome for men. They correspond to differences in the number of trips, in the choice of road transport types, and moreover to differences in risk-taking behaviours. Underlying these behaviours, deep-rooted, strong and rather invariant differences between genders are to be found in the values associated with risk-taking on the road.

  16. [Tree collisions in road traffic accidents - mechanism and pattern of injury].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matthes, G; Schmucker, U; Schindel, M; Siebenhühner, S; Ekkernkamp, A; Seifert, J

    2007-04-01

    In Germany, the county of Mecklenburg-Vorpommern has got the highest frequency of traffic accidents. 42 % of all deadly injured car accident victims in Mecklenburg-Vorpommern sustained a tree collision. Aim of this study was to analyze tree collisions regarding typical pattern and severity of injury. During an on-going prospective, non-interventional accident survey within a defined area of the county of Mecklenburg-Vorpommern tree collisions with minimum one victim sustaining a Maximum Abbreviated Injury Scale of 1-6 injury were analyzed. In between January 2001 and June 2004 287 accidents were documented. 19 % (54) were tree collisions. 81 % of drivers were male. 36 of 54 tree collisions (67 %) occurred on straight roadways. The mean ISS was 31.3 (SD +/- 29.8), 30 % (23) of the passengers died. 70 of 78 individuals sustained more than one injury. With that, the combination of head- and chest trauma was most frequent and associated with the highest injury severity. Especially tree collisions lead to severe trauma. Interestingly, most accidents did occur on straight roadways.

  17. Analysis of fatal road traffic accidents in a coastal township of South India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanchan, Tanuj; Kulkarni, Vaman; Bakkannavar, Shankar M; Kumar, Nithin; Unnikrishnan, B

    2012-11-01

    Road traffic accidents (RTAs) are important causes of mortality and morbidity due to the increasing number of vehicles, changes in lifestyle and the risk behaviours among general population. With the aim of exploring various epidemiological characteristics of RTAs, this retrospective analysis of medico-legal autopsies was conducted between January 2005 and December 2009 in the Department of Forensic Medicine, Kasturba Medical College, Manipal in Karnataka, South India. The information was collected from post-mortem registers and inquest documents received from the investigating police officers. The collected information was analysed using SPSS version 11.0. Out of the 879 autopsies conducted during the study period, 39% were due to RTAs. Among the victims, 89.8% were males and 10.2% were females. The mean age of victims was 38.7 years, which was slightly higher in females compared to males. Most of the male victims belonged to the age group 20-29 years. The head injuries were responsible for nearly 3/4th of deaths followed by abdominal injuries (6.7%). The mean duration of survival following road traffic accident was 6-7 days. Occupants of motorized two wheelers (43%) and pedestrians (33%) were the most common victims of RTAs followed by occupants of light motor vehicles (LMVs). The most common offending agents in road traffic accidents were heavy motor vehicles (35.2%) followed by light motor vehicles (31.7%). In view of the above finding, it is apt to conclude that RTAs are important public health hazards and should be addressed through strengthening of emergency healthcare, stricter enforcement of traffic laws and health education. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd and Faculty of Forensic and Legal Medicine. All rights reserved.

  18. Epidemiological characteristics of fatal traffic accidents in Fars province, Iran: a community-based survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heydari, S T; Hoseinzadeh, A; Ghaffarpasand, F; Hedjazi, A; Zarenezhad, M; Moafian, G; Aghabeigi, M R; Foroutan, A; Sarikhani, Y; Peymani, P; Ahmadi, S M; Joulaei, H; Dehghankhalili, M; Lankarani, K B

    2013-08-01

    To determine the epidemiological characteristics of fatal traffic accidents in Fars province, Iran. This cross-sectional study included 3642 traffic accident deaths in Fars province, Iran between November 2009 and November 2011. The data source was the Fars Forensic Medicine Registry, which covers the entire province. According to Iranian law, all deaths resulting from injuries or accidents must be investigated to determine the exact cause of death by autopsy. All such deaths are referred to forensic medicine centres in each city, and all data are sent to the main centre in Shiraz, the capital city of Fars province. Males accounted for 78.3% of the decedents (sex ratio of almost 3.6:1), and the mean ± standard deviation age of all decedents was 32.2 ± 20.3 years. Autopsy reports indicated that head trauma was the most common cause of death. Most collisions were vehicle-vehicle crashes (52.3%), with cars and motorcycles being the most prevalent modes of transport (39.6% and 24.6%, respectively). Fatal accidents were most common during the summer. Most fatal injuries (61.4%) occurred on outer-city roads and 27.4% occurred on inner-city roads. Significant associations were found between decedent's status (car driver, motorcycle driver or passenger, pedestrian or passenger) and interval between injury and death, light conditions at the scene of the accident, place of death, site of injury and cause of death. Although the clinical management of trauma patients has improved in Iran, coordination between trauma system organizations is required to decrease the burden of injuries. Copyright © 2013 The Royal Society for Public Health. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Effectiveness of two interventions in preventing traffic accidents: a systematic review.

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    Porchia, B R; Baldasseroni, A; Dellisanti, C; Lorini, C; Bonaccorsi, G

    2014-01-01

    The prevention of road traffic accidents should be considered a serious public health concern, since they are the eighth leading cause of death globally and the main cause of death for young people aged 15-29. Evidences from many countries show that successes in preventing road traffic injuries can be achieved through concerted efforts at national level. The aim of our study was to assess the effectiveness of two interventions to prevent road traffic accidents: the introduction of graduated driver licensing (GDL) and the interventions to improve pedestrian and cyclist visibility. Our search started with a scoping review on the interventions to prevent road traffic accidents to allow the development of a logical framework of traffic accidents. Specific and answerable questions formulated according to PICO scheme and combinations of keywords were used to perform a systematic search in the following databases: Pubmed, Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, Database of Abstracts of Reviews of Effects (DARE), Health Evidence, Transport Research International Documentation (TRID) and Google. References of selected papers were searched. Only systematic reviews and meta-analyses were eligible. No temporal limits or linguistic filters were applied. 160 systematic reviews and meta-analyses were found for the question of the introduction of GDL program and 188 on the improvement of visibility in cyclists and pedestrians. After selection, four papers were included in qualitative synthesis for each question. All included studies underwent quality evaluation. GDL programs seem to be effective in reducing crash rates among young drivers, in particular in 16 year-old. Programs with more restrictions seem also to reduce fatal events. To improve visibility of pedestrians and cyclists, street lighting has been suggested as an intervention able to improve driver's visual capabilities and ability to detect roadway hazards and to prevent car crashes. Visibility aids (fluorescent

  20. Predictors of children's sleep onset and maintenance problems after road traffic accidents

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    Lutz Wittmann

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Sleep onset and maintenance problems are a frequent complaint after traumatic events in children. However, the association of traumatic experiences and disturbed sleep remains to be explained. Objective: To examine the incidence of sleep onset and maintenance problems in children after road traffic accidents and identify potential predictors of sleep onset and maintenance problems, including putative psychopathological mechanisms as well as stressors affecting the family system. Method: In 33 children treated for injuries after road traffic accidents, sleep and measures of psychopathology were assessed 10 days, 2 months, and 6 months after hospital admission. The predictive value of four clusters of predictor variables for children's sleep onset and maintenance problems was prospectively tested by multiple regression analyses. These clusters included socio-demographic, injury- and accident-related, and psychopathological variable clusters as well as factors reflecting stressors concerning mothers and family. Results: Children suffering from posttraumatic stress reported a prolonged subjective sleep latency. The severity of sleep onset and maintenance problems was predicted by female sex and the child's as well as mothers’ posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD severity. Conclusions: Sleep onset and maintenance problems in children after trauma appear to result from a complex interaction of multiple factors. Our findings support the transactional model of sleep-wake regulation that bears implications for the development of adequate intervention strategies.

  1. Factors associated with prehospital death among traffic accident patients in Osaka City, Japan: A population-based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katayama, Yusuke; Kitamura, Tetsuhisa; Kiyohara, Kosuke; Iwami, Taku; Kawamura, Takashi; Hayashida, Sumito; Ogura, Hiroshi; Shimazu, Takeshi

    2018-01-02

    Although it is important to assess the factors associated with traffic accident fatalities to decrease them as a matter of public health, such factors have not been fully identified. Using a large-scale data set of ambulance records in Osaka City, Japan, we retrospectively analyzed all traffic accident patients transported to hospitals by emergency medical service personnel from 2013 to 2014. In this study, prehospital death was defined as that occurring at the scene or in the emergency department immediately after hospital arrival. We assessed prehospital factors associated with prehospital death due to traffic accidents by logistic regression models. This study enrolled 28,903 emergency patients involved in traffic accidents, of whom 68 died prehospital. In a multivariate model, elderly patients aged ≥75 years (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] = 4.34; 95% confidence interval [CI], 2.29-8.23), nighttime (AOR = 2.75; 95% CI, 1.65-4.70), and type of injured person compared to bicyclists such as pedestrians (AOR = 9.58; 95% CI, 5.07-17.99), motorcyclists (AOR = 2.75; 95% CI, 1.21-6.24), and car occupants (AOR = 2.98; 95% CI, 1.39-6.40) were significantly associated with prehospital death due to traffic accidents. In addition, the AOR for automobile versus nonautomobile as the collision opponent was 4.76 (95% CI, 2.30-9.88). In this population, the factors associated with prehospital death due to traffic accidents were elderly people, nighttime, and pedestrian as the type of patient. The proportion of prehospital deaths due to traffic accidents was also high when the collision component was an automobile.

  2. Toxicological investigations of drivers killed in road traffic accidents in Norway during 2006-2008.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gjerde, Hallvard; Christophersen, Asbjørg S; Normann, Per T; Mørland, Jørg

    2011-10-10

    To study the results from the toxicological investigations of drivers of cars and vans who were fatally injured in road traffic accidents in 2006-2008 and discuss the findings in relation to the proposed legal limits and impairment thresholds for drugs. Analyses for alcohol, illegal drugs and psychoactive medicinal drugs were performed by the Norwegian Institute of Public Health. Information on type of accident (single or multiple vehicles) and type of road (urban or rural) was obtained from Statistics Norway. Toxicological analyses were requested for 59% of the fatally injured drivers. Drivers involved in single vehicle accidents were more often subject to toxicological investigations, so were also young male drivers and drivers killed on urban roads. Alcohol or drugs were found in concentrations above the current (for alcohol) or proposed (for drugs) legal limits in samples from 37.8% of the drivers; from 64.3% those killed in single-vehicle accidents and 17.9% of those killed in multiple-vehicle accidents. In total, alcohol was found in 25.0%, illicit drugs in 10.2%, and psychoactive medicinal drugs in 13.8% of the samples. Combinations of alcohol and drugs were found in 5.1% and multiple drugs without alcohol in 6.1% of the samples. The prevalence of alcohol or drugs was higher in samples from males than females, higher in samples from young drivers, and higher in samples from drivers killed during weekends. Two thirds of the drivers with alcohol or drug concentrations above the current or proposed legal limits had concentrations above the proposed high impairment threshold. About 60% of the latter ones were impaired by alcohol only, 20% by drugs in combination with alcohol, and 20% by drugs only, mainly due to multi-drug use. The use of alcohol or drugs before driving was a significant contributing factor in fatal road traffic accidents, particularly in single vehicle accidents, and particularly among young male drivers. Alcohol was the most significant

  3. Predictors of road traffic accident, road traffic injury and death among commercial motorcyclists in an urban area of Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adogu, P O U; Ilika, A L; Asuzu, A L

    2009-01-01

    Road traffic accidents, injuries and deaths remain important public health problems in both developed and developing countries. These problems have since escalated with the introduction of the new phenomenon of commercial motorcycle transportation such as is found in the urbanizing slum of Nnewi, Anambra state of Nigeria. Using a semi-structured, interviewer-administered questionnaire, relevant data on socio-demographic and motorcycle characteristics were collected from a sample of 291 commercial motorcyclists selected by systematic sampling technique. Data on RTA, RTI and death were also collected from them overa period of three months. The result showed that young commercial motorcyclists { or =30 years of age}, {p 100 cc engine capacity motorcycles had significantly higher RTA incidence rate {478.8/100 MCY}, RTI rate {223.2/100 MCY} and FIR {410/100 MCY} than users of literacy levels to run side by side with road safety informational lessons delivered at their places of work.

  4. Determinants of injuries and Road Traffic Accidents amongst service personnel in a large Defence station.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neelakantan, Anand; Kotwal, Brig Atul; Ilankumaran, Mookkiah

    2017-07-01

    Injuries are assuming epidemic proportions globally; and in India. Also, previous decade witnessed carnage on Indian roads, with nearly 12 lakh people killed and 55 lakhs disabled in road crashes. The trend in Armed Forces is reflective of the aforesaid patterns. Behaviour and socio-demographic background of the victims are significant determinants of injuries and road accidents. Community-based epidemiological information on these aspects is envisaged to contribute in their preventive strategy. Towards this direction, the present study was conducted with aim to generate socio-behavioural profile of injuries and Road Traffic Accidents (RTAs) amongst service personnel in a large defence station; and to evaluate their determinants. A cross sectional descriptive study was carried out among 796 Naval personnel onboard warships in large Naval station. Data on socio-behavioural aspects and determinants of injuries and road accidents was collected using a pre-validated questionnaire; and by scrutiny of relevant records. Data was analysed using MSExcel, Epi-info and SPSS 17. Young and middle-aged persons were predominantly involved in injuries and road accidents. Two-wheeler users sustained maximum road accidents. Human factor was a significant determinant in RTAs and injuries. A majority of victims admitted that human factors were the predominant cause of road accidents; and opined that the events were preventable. Age-specific Behavioural Change Communication strategies aimed at refining user outlook are imperative; tailored to sociodemographic milieu of user/victim. Incorporation of a dynamic feedback/reporting mechanism, creation of 'armed forces-specific road safety and injury prevention policy' and safety audits on injuries and road crashes are measures in this direction.

  5. [Multicystic neonatal encephalopathy after a traffic accident with minor maternal injuries].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Razafintsalama, T; Coiffic, J; Splete, A; Chevrant-Breton, O; Pladys, P; Poulain, P

    1999-09-01

    We report a case of traffic accident at 30 weeks of gestation. The maternal injuries were minor. The fetal heart rate patterns showed tachycardia and decreased modulation. Ultrasound scanning was normal, without abruptio placentae. Ten days after the accident, a cesarean section was done on altered fetal heart rate with a normal infant at birth. This baby died 17 days latter from an ischemic multicystic encephalomalacia. With the view of the literature, we try to explain the pathophysiological mechanism of this severe fetal outcome despite minor maternal injuries. Hypovolemic collapsus, caval syndrome and maternal stress could be the cause of placental hypoperfusion. Abruptio placenta and feto-placental hemorrhage are others explanations. We propose the management for first aid workers and the specialized unit care.

  6. Analysis of Traffic Accidents Leading to Death Using Tripod Beta Method in Yazd, Iran

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    Mehrzad Ebrahemzadih

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This study tried to find the original causes of road accidents to prevent their occurrence. This was a descriptive-analytic retrospective study which assessed 1,000 cases of road accidents leading to death during 2003-2013 using the Tripod Beta method. The latent problems, the contributing preconditions, and corrective strategies for the prevention of occurrence of these accidents were determined. The findings of this study revealed that violation of traffic safety rules, especially deliberate violations and risk-takings decreased with increasing age. In comparative status of the superficial problems, illegal and impermissible speed of drivers accounted for 19.10%, in comparative status of preconditions, violation of safety rules accounted for 32.6% and finally, in comparative status of the latent problems, the presence of financial constraints and time pressure in designing and manufacturing of the cars, and quality of city streets, roads, accounted for 20.1%, of the leading causes of occurrence of accidents in this study.

  7. External Costs to Parties Involved in Highway Traffic Accidents: The Perspective of Highway Users

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    Rong-Chang Jou

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This study explores highway travellers’ willingness to pay (WTP for external costs caused by traffic accidents. There are a number of further external costs, the paper focuses on two externalities: air pollution and time delays. Data collection was performed using the face-to-face survey method, and the surveys were carried out at highway rest areas. Air pollution and time delays were divided into three levels of severity (light, moderate and severe to obtain the interviewees’ WTP according to each level of severity. The result of this study demonstrates that there are many samples with zero WTP because penalties for pollution caused by traffic accidents are not currently enforced in Taiwan. Thus, the spike model was adopted in this study to overcome any estimation error that might be caused by excessive NT$0 WTP samples. The results show that variables such as age, education, income and willingness to participate in activities of environmental protection have a positive effect on WTP for air pollution, whereas variables such as occupation, travel purpose, traveller identity, travel time and travel distance have a significantly positive effect on WTP for time delays. WTP for nitrogen dioxide (NO2 is NT$8862–11,502/metric ton (US$1 = NT$30 and WTP for carbon dioxide (CO2 is NT$1070–2693/metric ton. Moreover, WTP for time delays is NT$960–1320/h. The findings of this study not only demonstrate WTP for air pollution and time delays in the minds of parties to traffic accidents but also help to provide agencies with a basis to formulate applicable penalties in the future.

  8. [Epidemiology of maxillofacial fractures due to traffic accidents in Medellin (Colombia)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agudelo-Suárez, Andrés A; Duque-Serna, Francisco Levi; Restrepo-Molina, Lucas; Martínez-Herrera, Eliana

    2015-09-01

    To characterize maxillofacial fractures due to traffic accidents in patients attending the Hospital Universitario San Vicente Fundación (Medellin-Colombia) from 1998 to 2010. A descriptive study (n =1609) was carried out with information from the medical records of patients meeting the inclusion criteria established by the general objective of the study. The variables consisted of sex, age, year, type and number of fractures, and type of vehicle. A descriptive analysis of the variables was performed and the frequency of fractures due to traffic accidents was calculated according to year and sex. Crude and adjusted odds ratios (aOR) were estimated to establish associations among age, type of vehicle, and the presence of two or more fractures with stratification by sex. The frequency of maxillofacial fractures due to traffic accidents increased in 2007 (men: n=198, women: n=35) and decreased from 2008 to 2010 in both sexes. Fractures were more frequent in persons aged <35 years (80%) and in men (82%). The highest frequency of fractures was observed in motorists. Male users of motorcycles (aOR=1.41; confidence interval 95% [95%CI]: 1.02- 1.94) and bicycles (aOR=1.61; 95%CI: 1.01- 2.56) were more likely to report two or more fractures compared with pedestrians, after adjustment for other variables. Most maxillofacial fractures occurred in men and in motorists. Future studies should analyze other determinants affecting the epidemiology of maxillofacial fractures. Strategies should be designed to improve the use of protective elements and drivers' knowledge and practices. Copyright © 2014 SESPAS. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  9. A drug cost model for injuries due to road traffic accidents.

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    Riewpaiboon A

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: This study aimed to develop a drug cost model for injuries due to road traffic accidents for patients receiving treatment at a regional hospital in Thailand. Methods: The study was designed as a retrospective, descriptive analysis. The cases were all from road traffic accidents receiving treatment at a public regional hospital in the fiscal year 2004. Results: Three thousand seven hundred and twenty-three road accident patients were included in the study. The mean drug cost per case was USD18.20 (SD=73.49, median=2.36. The fitted drug cost model had an adjusted R2 of 0.449. The positive significant predictor variables of drug costs were prolonged length of stay, age over 30 years old, male, Universal Health Coverage Scheme, time of accident during 18:00-24:00 o’clock, and motorcycle comparing to bus. To forecast the drug budget for 2006, there were two approaches identified, the mean drug cost and the predicted average drug cost. The predicted average drug cost was calculated based on the forecasted values of statistically significant (p<0.05 predictor variables included in the fitted model; predicted total drug cost was USD44,334. Alternatively, based on the mean cost, predicted total drug cost in 2006 was USD63,408. This was 43% higher than the figure based on the predicted cost approach.Conclusions: The planned budget of drug cost based on the mean cost and predicted average cost were meaningfully different. The application of a predicted average cost model could result in a more accurate budget planning than that of a mean statistic approach.

  10. European Academy of Paediatrics Statement: Vision zero for child deaths in traffic accidents.

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    Ludvigsson, Jonas F; Stiris, Tom; Del Torso, Stefano; Mercier, Jean-Christophe; Valiulis, Arunas; Hadjipanayis, Adamos

    2017-02-01

    Road traffic accidents are the leading cause of death and disability in children throughout Europe. They remain the leading cause of death among children 5--19 years old in Europe. Children may be injured as pedestrians, bicyclists, motorcyclists or passengers in cars. The European Academy of Pediatrics (EAP) strives to prevent morbidity and death in children. We urge policy-makers to actively work for a "vision zero", where no child is killed in traffic. EAP suggests simple measures such as, secure transport for children between home and school, speed limits, road bumps, wearing bike helmets and seat belts, using child-restraints for small children and enforcement of legislation on road safety.

  11. The Characteristics of Traffic Accident Admission Patients in Oriental Medicine Hospital

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    Se-Jong Kim

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Objectives : This study was conducted to classify the TA(traffic accident patients who admissed in Oriental Medical Hospital. Methods : We divided TA patients who admissed in Oriental Medical Hospital by age, sex, visited period after onset, impact region, disease, and chief complaint according to a patient classification table, and analyzed their characteristics. Results and Conclusion : The patients who visited within 1 week after TA numbered most(65.4% in classification by period. Most impact region was neck(80%. Most of TA patients were suffered and treated by cervical(80% and lumbar(56.9% sprain.

  12. A rare case of Shewanella putrefaciens bacteremia in a patient of road traffic accident

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    Ritesh Ranjan

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Shewanella putrefaciens rarely causes human infection. These are mostly found in environment and food stuffs. Shewanella are often found in mixed culture. It has been implicated in cellulitis, otitis media, and septicemia. It may be found in respiratory tract, urine, feces, and pleural fluid. There is no definite guideline for therapeutic option. In general, these are susceptible to various antimicrobial agents but are often resistant to penicillin and cephalothin. We report a rare case of bacteremia by S. putrefaciens in a patient of head injury with polytrauma after a road traffic accident.

  13. Comparative Analysis of the Pattern of Severe Injury Due to Road Traffic Accidents in Children

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    Ye. A. Spiridonova

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: to study stepwise differences in the severity and pattern of severe traumatic injuries due to road traffic accidents in patients during the qualified and specialized stages of medical care in the age groups of 1 month to 18 years in the Rostov Region. Material and methods. The 2004—2009 case reports were used to make a retrospective comparative assessment of the condition of victims with severe road traffic injury at care stages in 2 groups: 1 one-month- to 18-year-old children who had been primarily admitted to the qualified-stage intensive care units (n=61; 2 one-month-to 18-year-old patients from the intensive care unit of the Regional Children’s Hospital, referred from the qualified-stage intensive care units (n=133. Results. The number of specialized-stage children in grave and extremely extensive grave condition at the specialized stage was 14.7% more than that at the qualified stage (100 and 85.3%, espectively. Concomitant injury was encountered more frequently (by 13% in the specialized-stage patients (73.7 and 60.7%, respectively. The severity of road traffic injury was determined mainly by brain injuries at the qualified irnd specialized stages (96.7 and 96.1%, by skeletal injuries (11.6% more frequently and thoracic ones (9.8% more frequently at the specialized stage. The prevalence of abdominal injuries at the qualified stage was 9.8% higher. The pattern of brain injury in the specialized-stage patients showed a preponderance of brain contusion and epidural hematomas by 18.5 and 6.5%, respectively. Conclusion. Severe thoracic and brain injuries (craniocerebral injuries, brain contusion, and intracranial hematomas are an indication for patient referral to the specialized care stage in order to perform high-technological diagnostic and therapeutic methods. Key words: children, road traffic accidents, severe injury, medical care stages.

  14. Quantification method analysis of the relationship between occupant injury and environmental factors in traffic accidents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ju, Yong Han; Sohn, So Young

    2011-01-01

    Injury analysis following a vehicle crash is one of the most important research areas. However, most injury analyses have focused on one-dimensional injury variables, such as the AIS (Abbreviated Injury Scale) or the IIS (Injury Impairment Scale), at a time in relation to various traffic accident factors. However, these studies cannot reflect the various injury phenomena that appear simultaneously. In this paper, we apply quantification method II to the NASS (National Automotive Sampling System) CDS (Crashworthiness Data System) to find the relationship between the categorical injury phenomena, such as the injury scale, injury position, and injury type, and the various traffic accident condition factors, such as speed, collision direction, vehicle type, and seat position. Our empirical analysis indicated the importance of safety devices, such as restraint equipment and airbags. In addition, we found that narrow impact, ejection, air bag deployment, and higher speed are associated with more severe than minor injury to the thigh, ankle, and leg in terms of dislocation, abrasion, or laceration. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Surgical correction of buried penis after traffic accident – a case report

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    Masuda Hiroshi

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Buried penis, most commonly seen in children, is particularly debilitating in adults, resulting in inability to void while standing and it also affects vaginal penetration. We report a case of buried penis due to a traffic accident, which caused dislocation of the fractured pubic bone that shifted inside and pulled the penis by its suspensory ligament. Case presentation A 55-year-old man was admitted to our hospital with a chief complaint of hidden penis while in the sitting position. He had suffered a pelvic fracture in a traffic accident four years previously, and his penis was covered with suprapubic fat when he was in a sitting position. He was unable to have sexual intercourse. We performed a penile lengthening procedure, including inverse V-Y-plasty of the dorsal skin of the penile root, suspensory desmotomy and fat removal, under general anesthesia. There was a good cosmetic result with satisfactory penile erection, which allowed successful sexual intercourse after surgery. Conculsion We performed penile elongation surgery with inverse V-Y-plasty of the dorsal skin of the penile root, suspensory desmotomy, and fat removal. Surgical treatment of buried penis achieves marked aesthetic and functional improvement, and benefits the majority of patients, resulting in satisfactory erection and successful sexual intercourse.

  16. Profile of non-fatal injuries due to road traffic accidents from a industrial town in India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bayan, Pankaj; Bhawalkar, J. S.; Jadhav, S. L.; Banerjee, Amitav

    2013-01-01

    Background: India has one of the highest road traffic accident rates in the world. To lessen this burden, information on the contributing factors is necessary. Materials and Methods: We studied a series of cases of non-fatal road traffic accidents in two tertiary care hospitals in Pimpri, Pune, India. A total of 212 non-fatal road traffic accidents admitted over a period of one year in these two hospitals constituted the study sample. The study variables were, the gender of the accident victims, mode of accident, days of week on which the accident took place, time of day when the injury was sustained, part of the body injured, nature of injury, and self-reported reasons for the accident. Statistical Analysis: data were summarized using percentages. The Chi-square test for goodness of fit was applied, to see whether there was any association between the different weekdays or time of day and the accidents. Results: Male : female ratio was almost 5 : 1, which was statistically significant (Chi-Square for goodness of fit = 95.11, df = 1, P accidents occurred on Sundays and Mondays and the least around midweek (Wednesday). This pattern was also statistically significant (Chi-square for goodness of fit = 30.09, df = 6, P Traffic Injuries (RTIs). Accidents were more likely in the time zone of 8 pm to midnight, followed by 4 pm to 8 pm (Chi-square for goodness of fit = 89.58, df = 5, P patients sustained multiple injuries followed by injuries to the lower limbs. A majority reported impaired visibility and fatigue as the cause of accident. Almost half (46.22%) of the injured admitted to drinking alcohol on a regular basis. Conclusion: Wide pavements and safe zebra crossings should be provided for pedestrians, as the highest casualty in this study were pedestrians. More accidents occurred on Sundays and Mondays and in the late evenings. Extra supervision by traffic police may be considered on Sundays / Holidays and the day following. Roads should be well lit to improve

  17. Pediatric road traffic accident deaths presenting to a Nigerian referral center.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osifo, Osarumwense David; Osagie, Theophilus Osasumwen; Iribhogbe, Pius Ehiawaguan

    2012-04-01

    Road traffic accident (RTA) is a common cause of pediatric trauma death and disability, constituting a worldwide loss of financial resources and potential manpower. This study was designed to determine the causes, prehospital care, presentation, and injuries that resulted in deaths among pediatric victims of RTA in Nigeria, and to make suggestions, based on the study data, to reduce RTA deaths. This is a retrospective analysis of pediatric RTA presenting to a Nigerian referral center. The records of all pediatric RTA between January 2006 and December 2010 at the University of Benin Teaching Hospital were analyzed for age, gender, causes of death, injury, rescue team prehospital treatment, injury to hospital arrival time, clinical condition on arrival, treatment, duration of hospitalization before death, challenges, and postmortem findings. Twenty-six (18%) of 143 pediatric RTA, comprising 18 males and 8 females, between less than one and 18 (mean 9.3 ± 5.2) years of age died. There was no significant statistical demographic difference observed when 15 (58%) deaths recorded among 67 (46.9%) children involved in motor vehicle accidents were compared with 11 (42%) involved in 76 (53.1%) motorcycle accidents (P = .31). More severe injuries resulting in the majority of deaths were associated with alcohol intoxication (P traffic signs or traffic control. Of the eight vehicle passengers who died, only two wore seat belts or used pediatric car seats, with no statistical significance compared to those who did not use seat belts or car seats (P = .37). Four of 14 front seat passengers and four of 32 rear seat passengers died (P = .222). Of motorcycle passengers, none of those who wore protective crash helmets died, while four died who were not wearing helmets. Passers-by and sympathizers served as rescuers provided emergency treatment, and presented the victims between one hour and four days after the accidents. Head injury in 14 (54%) cases was the most common cause of

  18. Risky driving behaviors for road traffic accident among drivers in Mekele city, Northern Ethiopia

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    Hassen Abrahim

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Due to its perception as a disease of development, road traffic accident and related injuries tend to be under recognized as a major health problem in developing countries. However, majority of the world's fatalities on the roads occur in low income and middle income countries. Since the main cause of road traffic accident is attributed to human risky behaviors, it is important to identify significant factors for risky behaviors of drivers. Methods A quantitative cross-sectional study with a sample size of 350 drivers was conducted in April 2011. The study was conducted among Taxi, Bajaj (three tire vehicles and private owned car drivers. After proportion to size allocation for Taxi (75, Baja (103 and private owned car (172 drivers, we used systematic random sampling method to identify illegible study subjects. Data was collected with face to face interview using a pretested questioner. Univariate, bivariate and multivariate analysis was done using SPSS version 16. Results The mean age of the respondents was 28.7 (SD 9.9. Majority were 339 (96.9% males. Significant number of the study subjects 233 (66.6% had risky driving behaviors. More than a quarter 100 (28.6% had less knowledge about basic traffic signs. Majority of drivers 181 (51.7% had negative attitude towards risky driving behaviors. Significant percent of them 148 (42.3% had a habit of using mobile phone while driving vehicle and 28 (9.7% had experience of driving after drinking alcohol. All the Bajaj, 97(62.6% house car and 58(37.4% taxi unfasten their seat belt while driving. Majority 303 (86.6% followed the recommended speed limit of driving. About 66 (18.9% of them had experience of punishment or warning by traffic polices in the previous 1 year and 77 (22% ever had car accident while driving. Conclusions Drivers of secondary education and with high average monthly income were more likely to have risky driving behavior. Having supportive attitude towards risky

  19. Risky driving behaviors for road traffic accident among drivers in Mekele city, Northern Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassen, Abrahim; Godesso, Ameyu; Abebe, Lakew; Girma, Eshetu

    2011-12-13

    Due to its perception as a disease of development, road traffic accident and related injuries tend to be under recognized as a major health problem in developing countries. However, majority of the world's fatalities on the roads occur in low income and middle income countries. Since the main cause of road traffic accident is attributed to human risky behaviors, it is important to identify significant factors for risky behaviors of drivers. A quantitative cross-sectional study with a sample size of 350 drivers was conducted in April 2011. The study was conducted among Taxi, Bajaj (three tire vehicles) and private owned car drivers. After proportion to size allocation for Taxi (75), Baja (103) and private owned car (172) drivers, we used systematic random sampling method to identify illegible study subjects. Data was collected with face to face interview using a pretested questioner. Univariate, bivariate and multivariate analysis was done using SPSS version 16. The mean age of the respondents was 28.7 (SD 9.9). Majority were 339 (96.9%) males. Significant number of the study subjects 233 (66.6%) had risky driving behaviors. More than a quarter 100 (28.6%) had less knowledge about basic traffic signs. Majority of drivers 181 (51.7%) had negative attitude towards risky driving behaviors. Significant percent of them 148 (42.3%) had a habit of using mobile phone while driving vehicle and 28 (9.7%) had experience of driving after drinking alcohol. All the Bajaj, 97(62.6%) house car and 58(37.4%) taxi unfasten their seat belt while driving. Majority 303 (86.6%) followed the recommended speed limit of driving. About 66 (18.9%) of them had experience of punishment or warning by traffic polices in the previous 1 year and 77 (22%) ever had car accident while driving. Drivers of secondary education and with high average monthly income were more likely to have risky driving behavior. Having supportive attitude towards risky driving behaviors and not getting advice about risky

  20. Complaints of Poor Sleep and Risk of Traffic Accidents: A Population-Based Case-Control Study.

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    Pierre Philip

    Full Text Available This study aimed to determine the sleepiness-related factors associated with road traffic accidents.A population based case-control study was conducted in 2 French agglomerations. 272 road accident cases hospitalized in emergency units and 272 control drivers matched by time of day and randomly stopped by police forces were included in the study. Odds ratios were calculated for the risk of road traffic accidents.As expected, the main predictive factor for road traffic accidents was having a sleep episode at the wheel just before the accident (OR 9.97, CI 95%: 1.57-63.50, p<0.05. The increased risk of traffic accidents was 3.35 times higher in subjects who reported very poor quality sleep during the last 3 months (CI 95%: 1.30-8.63, p<0.05, 1.69 times higher in subjects reporting sleeping 6 hours or fewer per night during the last 3 months (CI 95%: 1.00-2.85, p<0.05, 2.02 times higher in subjects reporting symptoms of anxiety or nervousness in the previous day (CI 95%: 1.03-3.97, p<0.05, and 3.29 times higher in subjects reporting taking more than 2 medications in the last 24 h (CI 95%: 1.14-9.44, p<0.05. Chronic daytime sleepiness measured by the Epworth Sleepiness Scale, expressed heavy snoring and nocturnal leg movements did not explain traffic accidents.Physicians should be attentive to complaints of poor sleep quality and quantity, symptoms of anxiety-nervousness and/or drug consumption in regular car drivers.

  1. Atrial fibrillation, CHA2DS2-VASc score, antithrombotics and risk of traffic accidents: A population-based cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Hui-Chin; Chien, Wu-Chien; Chung, Chi-Hsiang; Lee, Wen-Lieng; Wang, Kuo-Yang; Wu, Tsu-Juey; Liu, Chia-Ning; Liu, Tsun-Jui

    2015-10-15

    Traffic accidents account for a substantial proportion of premature disabilities and deaths. Whether atrial fibrillation (AF) provokes while antithrombotics prevent from such events remains un-investigated. All patients ≥40years with newly diagnosed AF in 2005 were scrutinized from the "Longitudinal Health Insurance Database 2005" (1 million beneficiaries) of Taiwan's National Health Insurance Institute as the AF group. Four-fold number of age-, gender-, and comorbidity-matched patients but without AF served as the Non-AF controls. Patients were followed till occurrence of hospitalization-requiring traffic injury, death, withdrawal from insurance, or the end of 2010. Cumulative incidence of traffic accidents was compared between groups, and predictors and preventive role of antithrombotics for these accidents were identified by Cox regression analysis. Within a mean follow-up of 4.3years, traffic injury occurred significantly more often in patients with AF (N=1724) than those without it (N=6896) (5.4 vs. 4.9 per 1000 person-years, log-rank p=0.012, HR 1.110, 95% CI 1.013-1.572). Cox models identified age ≧65years, hypertension, coronary artery disease, stroke, liver cirrhosis and CHADS2VASC score≧1 as risk factors for traffic injury in AF patients, whereas oral anticoagulants (HR 0.576, 95% CI 0.285-0.791, p=0.002) used in patients with CHADS2VASC score ≧1 but not antiplatelet therapy (p=0.197) as negative predictors. Patients with AF are more vulnerable to traffic accidents especially when with higher CHADS2VASC scores and other comorbidities. This tendency to traffic accidents, however, could be ameliorated by oral anticoagulation in specialized cases but not by antiplatelet therapy. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Estimate of physical sequelae in victims of road traffic accidents hospitalized in the Public Health System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrade, Silvânia Suely Caribé de Araújo; Jorge, Maria Helena Prado de Mello

    2016-03-01

    To describe the profile of the victims of road accidents presenting physical sequelae, according to the criteria established by researchers and analyze the trends in hospitalization for this cause in Brazil, from 2000 to 2013. An ecological time-series study was performed using the data from the Hospital Information System of the National Health System (SUS). Trends in hospitalization were estimated using Prais-Winstein regression. During this period, a total of 1,747,191 hospitalizations for traffic accidents were registered; 410,448 were victims with physical sequelae. About 77.7% of them were male subjects, 26.5% belonged to the age group of 20 - 29 years, 46.4% lived in Southeast Brazil, 44.0% were pedestrians, and 31.1% were motorcyclists. In total, 51,189 cases were "confirmed" sequelae (12.5%), and pedestrians accounted for 43.8% of cases. There were 359,259 hospitalizations for the diagnosis of "possible" sequelae, and motorcyclists accounted for 43.3% of these cases. There was a trend of stability for all the patients with confirmed and possible sequelae, but there was a significant rise in hospitalization rates owing to confirmed sequelae among the men in North and Central-West regions. The hospitalizations associated with physical sequelae were responsible for about one-fourth of the hospitalizations in the Hospital Information System in the studied period. Most events involved men, young adults, residents in Southeast Brazil, and pedestrians. Hospitalization rates for traffic accidents associated with physical sequelae were stable in Brazil and regions, but a significant increase was observed for confirmed sequelae among men in the North and Central-West regions.

  3. Educational level and age as contributing factors to road traffic accidents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sami Ashkan

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available 【Abstract】Objective: This research analyzes data on road traffic accidents (RTA in Fars province, whose roads are among the highly dangerous ones in Iran. It inves- tigates educational level and age involved in RTA in order to discover patterns that can prevent or decrease accidents. Methods: This research made use of data visualization techniques to find hidden patterns. The data included mor- tality rate related to RTA in Fars province and were obtained from Fars Forensic Medicine Registry covering a period of 1 year from March 21, 2010 to March 21, 2011. All data were analyzed using SPSS 11.5. The results were reported as de- scriptive indices such as frequency (percentage. The Chi- square test was applied to the data concerning educational level and age. P value less than 0.05 was considered significant. Results: In the mentioned period, 1 831 people were killed, out of whom un/lowly educated people (69.6% ac- counted for the highest mortality rate. The significant rela- tionship between educational level and mortality rate was found (X2=275.98, P<0.0001. Also three was a significant association between age and mortality rate (X2=371.20, P<0.0001. Young people (age between 20 and 29 years contribute to higher RTA mortality rate compared with other age groups. Conclusion: The educational level and age are signifi- cantly correlated to mortality rate. The youth and un/lowly educated people suffer more fatal RTA. Key words: Accidents, traffic; Mortality; Education; Data mining; Iran

  4. Road traffic accident risk in patients with diabetes mellitus receiving blood glucose-lowering drugs. Prospective follow-up study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skurtveit, S; Strøm, H; Skrivarhaug, T; Mørland, J; Bramness, J G; Engeland, A

    2009-04-01

    To investigate, at a national level, whether patients using insulin or oral glucose-lowering agents had an increased risk of road traffic accidents compared with non-users. All Norwegians aged 18-69 years (3.1 million) were followed from April 2004 until September 2006. Information on drug prescriptions, road traffic accidents and emigration/death was obtained from the following population-based registries: the Prescription Database, the Road Accident Registry and the Central Population Registry. The exposure period was the time from the first prescription of insulin or oral glucose-lowering agent during the study period. The incidence of accidents in the exposed person-time was compared with the incidence of accidents in the unexposed person-time by standardized incidence ratio (SIR). During the study period, 20 494 road traffic accidents with personal injuries were registered in Norway. One hundred and eighty-three accidents were registered for insulin users not taking oral glucose-lowering agents and 219 for users of oral blood glucose-lowering drugs without insulin. The SIR (95% confidence interval) for all ages and both genders combined were: insulin 1.4 (1.2-1.6), oral glucose-lowering agents 1.2 (1.0-1.3) and users of drugs for peptic ulcer and gastro-oesophageal reflux disease (negative comparators) 1.3 (1.2-1.4). The highest SIRs were found among the youngest insulin users (18-34 years old). A slightly increased risk of being involved in a road traffic accident was observed for drivers prescribed insulin, while no increased risk was observed for drivers prescribed oral glucose-lowering agents. The increased risk observed for insulin users was similar to that observed for users of drugs for peptic ulcer and gastro-oesophageal reflux disease.

  5. Virtopsy -- noninvasive detection of occult bone lesions in postmortem MRI: additional information for traffic accident reconstruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buck, Ursula; Christe, Andreas; Naether, Silvio; Ross, Steffen; Thali, Michael J

    2009-05-01

    In traffic accidents with pedestrians, cyclists or motorcyclists, patterned impact injuries as well as marks on clothes can be matched to the injury-causing vehicle structure in order to reconstruct the accident and identify the vehicle which has hit the person. Therefore, the differentiation of the primary impact injuries from other injuries is of great importance. Impact injuries can be identified on the external injuries of the skin, the injured subcutaneous and fat tissue, as well as the fractured bones. Another sign of impact is a bone bruise. The bone bruise, or occult bone lesion, means a bleeding in the subcortical bone marrow, which is presumed to be the result of micro-fractures of the medullar trabeculae. The aim of this study was to prove that bleeding in the subcortical bone marrow of the deceased can be detected using the postmortem noninvasive magnetic resonance imaging. This is demonstrated in five accident cases, four involving pedestrians and one a cyclist, where bone bruises were detected in different bones as a sign of impact occurring in the same location as the external and soft tissue impact injuries.

  6. Increased traffic accident rates associated with shale gas drilling in Pennsylvania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graham, Jove; Irving, Jennifer; Tang, Xiaoqin; Sellers, Stephen; Crisp, Joshua; Horwitz, Daniel; Muehlenbachs, Lucija; Krupnick, Alan; Carey, David

    2015-01-01

    We examined the association between shale gas drilling and motor vehicle accident rates in Pennsylvania. Using publicly available data on all reported vehicle crashes in Pennsylvania, we compared accident rates in counties with and without shale gas drilling, in periods with and without intermittent drilling (using data from 2005 to 2012). Counties with drilling were matched to non-drilling counties with similar population and traffic in the pre-drilling period. Heavily drilled counties in the north experienced 15-23% higher vehicle crash rates in 2010-2012 and 61-65% higher heavy truck crash rates in 2011-2012 than control counties. We estimated 5-23% increases in crash rates when comparing months with drilling and months without, but did not find significant effects on fatalities and major injury crashes. Heavily drilled counties in the southwest showed 45-47% higher rates of fatal and major injury crashes in 2012 than control counties, but monthly comparisons of drilling activity showed no significant differences associated with drilling. Vehicle accidents have measurably increased in conjunction with shale gas drilling. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  7. The Effects of the Daily Driven Distance and Age Factor on the Traffic Accidents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Figen Ş. KALYONCUOĞLU

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Based on Turkish traffic survey data (n=5,520, driver accident rates per million kilometre-driver were compared according to the daily driven distances (DDD for each age group as very old (65+, n=39, old (56-65, n=183, above middle-aged (36-55, n=1,875, middle-aged (26-35, n=2,204, and young (25-, n=1,219. When the accidents-per-km comparison was made in groups matched for daily exposure, there was no evidence of higher risk with increasing age. In all age groups, risk per km decreased with increasing daily driving distance. With this study the accident involvement prediction models have been obtained related to the daily driven distance with and without considering age. These models have been applied to some earlier studies. The results are quite satisfactory. The set of data of this study and the analysis controlling the daily (yearly driving distance might make the “age” effect disappear.

  8. Hybrid and electric low-noise cars cause an increase in traffic accidents involving vulnerable road users in urban areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brand, Stephan; Petri, Maximilian; Haas, Philipp; Krettek, Christian; Haasper, Carl

    2013-01-01

    Due to resource scarcity, the number of low-noise and electric cars is expected to increase rapidly. The frequent use of these cars will lead to a significant reduction of traffic related noise and pollution. On the other hand, due to the adaption and conditioning of vulnerable road users the number of traffic accidents involving pedestrians and bicyclists is postulated to increase as well. Children, older people with reduced eyesight and the blind are especially reliant on a combination of acoustic and visual warning signals with approaching or accelerating vehicles. This is even more evident in urban areas where the engine sound is the dominating sound up to 30 kph (kilometres per hour). Above this, tyre-road interaction is the main cause of traffic noise. With the missing typical engine sound a new sound design is necessary to prevent traffic accidents in urban areas. Drivers should not be able to switch the sound generator off.

  9. Effective Factors in Severity of Traffic Accident-Related Traumas; an Epidemiologic Study Based on the Haddon Matrix

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kambiz Masoumi

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Traffic accidents are the 8th cause of mortality in different countries and are expected to rise to the 3rd rank by 2020. Based on the Haddon matrix numerous factors such as environment, host, and agent can affect the severity of traffic-related traumas. Therefore, the present study aimed to evaluate the effective factors in severity of these traumas based on Haddon matrix. Methods: In the present 1-month cross-sectional study, all the patients injured in traffic accidents, who were referred to the ED of Imam Khomeini and Golestan Hospitals, Ahvaz, Iran, during March 2013 were evaluated. Based on the Haddon matrix, effective factors in accident occurrence were defined in 3 groups of host, agent, and environment. Demographic data of the patients and data regarding Haddon risk factors were extracted and analyzed using SPSS version 20. Results: 700 injured people with the mean age of 29.66 ± 12.64 years (3-82 were evaluated (92.4% male. Trauma mechanism was car-pedestrian in 308 (44% of the cases and car-motorcycle in 175 (25%. 610 (87.1% cases were traffic accidents and 371 (53% occurred in the time between 2 pm and 8 pm. Violation of speed limit was the most common violation with 570 (81.4% cases, followed by violation of right-of-way in 57 (8.1% patients. 59.9% of the severe and critical injuries had occurred on road accidents, while 61.3% of the injuries caused by traffic accidents were mild to moderate (p < 0.001. The most common mechanisms of trauma for critical injuries were rollover (72.5%, motorcycle-pedestrian (23.8%, and car-motorcycle (13.14% accidents (p < 0.001. Conclusion: Based on the results of the present study, the most important effective factors in severity of traffic accident-related traumas were age over 50, not using safety tools, and undertaking among host-related factors; insufficient environment safety, road accidents and time between 2 pm and 8 pm among environmental factors; and finally, rollover, car

  10. Terrorism-related injuries versus road traffic accident-related trauma: 5 years of experience in Israel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peleg, Kobi; Savitsky, Bella

    2009-12-01

    Terrorism victims comprise the minority among trauma injured people, but this small population imposes a burden on the health care system. Thirty percent of the population injured in terrorist activities experienced severe trauma (injury severity score > or =16), more than half of them need a surgical procedure, and 25% of the population affected by terrorism had been admitted to intensive care. Furthermore, compared with patients with non-terrorism-related trauma, victims of terrorism often arrive in bulk, as part of a mass casualty event. This poses a sudden load on hospital resources and requires special organization and preparedness. The present study compared terrorism-related and road accident-related injuries and examined clinical characteristics of both groups of patients. This study is a retrospective study of all patients injured through terrorist acts and road traffic accidents from September 29, 2000 to December 31, 2005, and recorded in the Israel Trauma Registry. Data on the nature of injuries, treatment, and outcome were obtained from the registry. Medical diagnoses were extracted from the registry and classified based on International Classification of Diseases coding. Diagnoses were grouped to body regions, based on the Barell Injury Diagnosis Matrix. The study includes 2197 patients with terrorism-related injuries and 30,176 patients injured in road traffic accidents. All in all, 27% of terrorism-related casualties suffered severe to critical injuries, comparing to 17% among road traffic accident-related victims. Glasgow Coma Scale scores terrorism victims, in contrast with 7.4% among people injured on the roads. The terrorism victims had a significantly higher rate of use of intensive care facilities (24.2% vs 12.4%). The overall inpatient death rate was 6.0% among terrorism victims and 2.4% among those injured in road traffic accidents. Casualties from terrorist events are more severely injured and require more resources relative to casualties

  11. A Simplified Approach to Estimate the Urban Expressway Capacity after Traffic Accidents Using a Micro-Simulation Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hong Chen

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Based on the decomposition of the evolution processes of the urban expressway capacity after traffic accidents and the influence factors analysis, an approach for estimating the capacity has been proposed. Firstly, the approach introduces the Decision Tree ID algorithm, solves the accident delay time of different accident types by the Information Gain Value, and determines congestion dissipation time by the Traffic Flow Wave Theory. Secondly, taking the accident delay time as the observation cycle, the maximum number of the vehicles through the accident road per unit time was considered as its capacity. Finally, the attenuation simulation of the capacity for different accident types was calculated by the VISSIM software. The simulation results suggest that capacity attenuation of vehicle anchor is minimal and the rate is 30.074%; the next is vehicles fire, rear-end, and roll-over, and the rate is 38.389%, 40.204%, and 43.130%, respectively; the capacity attenuation of vehicle collision is the largest, and the rate is 50.037%. Moreover, the further research shows that the accident delay time is proportional to congestion dissipation time, time difference, and the ratio between them, but it is an inverse relationship with the residual capacity of urban expressway.

  12. The role of alcohol in road traffic accidents with fatal outcome: 10-year period in Croatia Split-Dalmatia County.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutlovic, Davorka; Scepanovic, Antonija; Bosnjak, Marinko; Versic-Bratincevic, Maja; Definis-Gojanovic, Marija

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the study was to investigate the relationship between alcohol consumption and fatal road traffic accidents that took place in Split-Dalmatia County (Croatia) during a 10-year period (from August 2001 to August 2011). A retrospective analysis of 474 autopsy reports was performed, with an emphasis on 337 toxicologal findings of blood alcohol concentration (BAC) and the mode of participation in traffic (driver, passenger, pedestrian, or cyclist). Relations between the BAC, the weekday on which death occurred, victim's age and gender, and differences according to 3 successive legislation periods within the observed time frame were analyzed. The BAC was measured by gas chromatography with headspace and flame ionization detection. Alcohol was regarded as a contributive death factor if BAC was positive; that is, higher than 0.5 g/kg. BAC was positive in 177 cases. Most often it was the car driver who had a positive BAC. Victims of traffic accidents were mostly male drivers, and those accidents were more often associated with alcohol consumption. Consumption of alcohol produced a significant increase in culpability. The results of our study show that alcohol remains one of the main contributing factors of traffic accidents in Split-Dalmatia County. Unfortunately, legislation changes regarding the allowed BAC did not cause any reduction in casualties among drivers driving under the influence of alcohol (DUIA). Chi-square test of the number of total driver victims and driver victims who were DUIA revealed no significant difference (P = .173).

  13. Impact of vehicle speeds and changes in mean speeds on per vehicle-kilometer traffic accident rates in Japan

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tanishita, M.; van Wee, G.P.

    2016-01-01

    Speed and speed variation are widely believed to be key issues in the understanding of traffic accidents. However, there has not been a substantial amount of research that focuses on the interaction between the mean speed and the change in the mean speeds. In this paper we use a five-minute

  14. Tri-level study of the causes of traffic accidents : interim report 1. Vol. 1, research findings

    Science.gov (United States)

    1973-08-31

    This is the final report of the first year of activity under a proposed three-year program entitled "Tri-Level Study of the Causes of Traffic Accidents." This study has been performed by the Indiana University institute for Research in Public Safety ...

  15. Injury control strategies: extending the quality and quantity of data relating to road traffic accidents in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henson, R; Hadfield, J M; Cooper, S

    1999-03-01

    This review describes how an extended database of information can provide the opportunity to go beyond the traditionally distinct health, engineering, and education initiatives in order to identify the effectiveness of more overarching policies for injury control. Such information can be used to raise awareness and to encourage community participation in designing a road traffic accident prevention strategy.

  16. Orthodontic reconstruction with autotransplantation and bone grafting after a traffic accident.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mimura, Hiroshi; Fukuyo, Shinho

    2012-04-01

    This case report describes the orthodontic treatment with autotransplantation and bone grafting of the lost maxillary alveolus for a patient injured in a traffic accident. This patient had a severe skeletal Class III relationship because of the loss of 6 maxillary teeth and the adjacent alveolar bone. Autotransplantation of mandibular first premolars and bone grafting of the deficient alveolus were carried out to improve the occlusion and the profile. After orthodontic treatment, the transplanted premolars were reshaped and restored with composite as central incisors. Good occlusion and cosmetic improvement were obtained. Orthodontic treatment is useful for occlusal reconstruction after a traumatic injury, and autotransplantation is an effective option for these patients. Copyright © 2012 American Association of Orthodontists. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. [Orthodontic reconstruction with autotransplantation and bone grafting after a traffic accident].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mimura, Hiroshi; Fukuyo, Shinho

    2013-06-01

    This case report describes the orthodontic treatment with autotransplantation and bone grafting of the lost maxillary alveolus for a patient injured in a traffic accident. This patient had a severe skeletal Class III relationship because of the loss of six maxillary teeth and the adjacent alveolar bone. Autotransplantation of mandibular first premolars and bone grafting of the deficient alveolus were carried out to improve the occlusion and the profile. After orthodontic treatment, the transplanted premolars were reshaped and restored with composite as central incisors. Good occlusion and cosmetic improvement were obtained. Orthodontic treatment is useful for occlusal reconstruction after a traumatic injury, and autotransplantation is an effective option for these patients. © EDP Sciences, SFODF, 2013.

  18. [Public access defibrillation: successful cardiopulmonary resuscitation due to automatic external defibrillator at traffic accident].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wanke, S; Reuter, H; Pfister, R; Michels, G

    2014-03-01

    A 65-year-old man collapsed after he stepped out of his car after a traffic accident. Fortunately, two police officers on a routine patrol in the area were quickly on the scene and started cardiopulmonary resuscitation. A passerby noticed that the patient was in distress and that an automatic defibrillator was nearby. He attached the electrodes of the defibrillator to the chest of the patient in accordance with instructions on the defibrillator and terminated the ventricular fibrillation (200 joule, biphasic). Emergency cardiac catheterization revealed a subtotal stenosis proximally in the right coronary artery, which was successfully treated with a stent. Based on the ideal basic life support, the immediate care by emergency mobile system and coronary angioplasty with successful revascularisation the patient could be released without any neurological deficit. This case illustrates that laypersons can use automatic external defibrillator in case of cardiac resuscitation sufficiently and quickly. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  19. Road traffic accidents to african children: assessment of severity using the injury severity score (ISS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adesunkanmi, A R; Oginni, L M; Oyelami, O A; Badru, O S

    2000-05-01

    The records of 324 children who were injured in road traffic accidents (RTA) between January 1992 and December 1995 were reviewed to determine the pattern, severity and outcome of their injuries. This represented 2% of all attendances at the emergency room. Pedestrians represented the largest group of patients. Head injuries were the most common injury, followed closely by limb trauma. Chest and abdominal trauma accounted for only 2.5 and 1.5% of patients, respectively. Eighty percent of abdominal injuries required a splenectomy, but most chest injuries were managed nonoperatively. In 306 children the ISS was 1-25 with no mortality but significant morbidity. Eighteen patients had an ISS of 26-54 with a 61% mortality rate (11 patients). The highest ISS were found in the group of patients who were passengers in a motor vehicle.

  20. Decrease of morbidity in road traffic accidents in a high income country - an analysis of 24,405 accidents in a 21 year period.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ernstberger, Antonio; Joeris, Alexander; Daigl, Monica; Kiss, Miklos; Angerpointner, Katharina; Nerlich, Michael; Schmucker, Uli

    2015-10-01

    The WHO initiated the "Decade of Action for Road Safety" because the fatality on road traffic accidents could become the fifth leading cause of death in 2030. On the contrary, fatalities continue to decrease in high income countries. The aim of the study was to find evidence for changes in injury severity of passenger car occupants after road traffic accidents in Germany over time, and to find contributing factors. Data from the German In Depth Accident Study (GIDAS), representative for Germany, was used. A total of 24.405 accidents, reported from 1991 until 2011. 44.503 adult passenger car occupants were examined. A multivariable logistic regression model was developed to find reasons for observed trends over time. The relative decrease in mortality was 68.8% from 1991 until 2011. Between 2006 and 2011, the percentage of severely injured traffic victims was less than half, both in terms of the whole body and individual body regions. For injuries with an Abbreviated Injury Scale (AIS) ≥ 2, the percentage of persons with lower leg injuries declined by 72.5%, followed by the percentage of persons with pelvic injuries (61.5%), upper extremity injuries (57.7%), head injuries (54.3%), thorax injuries (50.0%), and abdomen injuries (40.0%). The multivariable regression model found 13 independent variables associated with injury prevention (e.g. seat belt use: OR 0.41, CI 95% 0.32-0.49; airbag: OR 0.86, CI 95% 0.75-0.99). The implementation of protective factors increased over time while accident constellations with a high probability for severe injury decreased over time. The decrease of severe injuries after road traffic accidents can be only attributed to a comprehensive approach including the enforcement of road safety policies and innovations in car engineering and emergency medicine. Traffic related measures and alcohol level control, and seat belt usage enforcement next to other technical advances are considered especially important. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd

  1. Impact of helmet use on traumatic brain injury from road traffic accidents in Cambodia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Saksham; Klaric, Katherine; Sam, Nang; Din, Vuthy; Juschkewitz, Tina; Iv, Vycheth; Shrime, Mark G; Park, Kee B

    2018-01-02

    Rapid urbanization and motorization without corresponding increases in helmet usage have made traumatic brain injury due to road traffic accidents a major public health crisis in Cambodia. This analysis was conducted to quantify the impact of helmets on severity of injury, neurosurgical indication, and functional outcomes at discharge for motorcycle operators who required hospitalization for a traumatic brain injury following a road traffic accident in Cambodia. The medical records of 491 motorcycle operators who presented to a major tertiary care center in Cambodia with traumatic brain injury were retrospectively analyzed using multivariate logistic regression. The most common injuries at presentation were contusions (47.0%), epidural hematomas (30.1%), subdural hematomas (27.9%), subarachnoid hemorrhages (12.4%), skull fractures (21.4%), and facial fractures (18.5%). Moderate-to-severe loss of consciousness was present in 36.3% of patients. Not wearing a helmet was associated with an odds ratio of 2.20 (95% confidence interval [CI], 1.15-4.22) for presenting with moderate to severe loss of consciousness compared to helmeted patients. Craniotomy or craniectomy was indicated for evacuation of hematoma in 20.0% of cases, and nonhelmeted patients had 3.21-fold higher odds of requiring neurosurgical intervention (95% CI, 1.25-8.27). Furthermore, lack of helmet usage was associated with 2.72-fold higher odds of discharge with functional deficits (95% CI, 1.14-6.49). In total, 30.1% of patients were discharged with severe functional deficits. Helmets demonstrate a protective effect and may be an effective public health intervention to significantly reduce the burden of traumatic brain injury in Cambodia and other developing countries with increasing rates of motorization across the world.

  2. Guilt is associated with acute stress symptoms in children after road traffic accidents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haag, Ann-Christin; Zehnder, Daniel; Landolt, Markus A

    2015-01-01

    Although previous research has consistently found considerable rates of acute stress disorder (ASD) in children with accidental injuries, knowledge about determinants of ASD remains incomplete. Guilt is a common reaction among children after a traumatic event and has been shown to contribute to posttraumatic stress disorder. However, its relationship to ASD has never been examined. This study assessed the prevalence of ASD in children and adolescents following road traffic accidents (RTAs). Moreover, the association between peritraumatic guilt and ASD was investigated relying on current cognitive theories of posttraumatic stress and controlling for female sex, age, socioeconomic status (SES), injury severity, inpatient treatment, pretrauma psychopathology, and maternal posttraumatic stress symptoms (PTSS). One hundred and one children and adolescents (aged 7-16 years) were assessed by means of a clinical interview approximately 10 days after an RTA. Mothers were assessed by questionnaires. Three participants (3.0%) met diagnostic criteria for full ASD according to DSM-IV, and 17 (16.8%) for subsyndromal ASD. In a multivariate regression model, guilt was found to be a significant predictor of ASD severity. Female sex, outpatient treatment, and maternal PTSS also predicted ASD severity. Child age, SES, injury severity, and pretraumatic child psychopathology were not related to ASD severity. Future research should examine the association between peritraumatic guilt and acute stress symptoms in more detail. Moreover, guilt appraisals in the acute phase after an accident might be a relevant target for clinical attention.

  3. First objective association between elevated carbohydrate-deficient transferrin concentrations and alcohol-related traffic accidents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bortolotti, Federica; Micciolo, Rocco; Canal, Luisa; Tagliaro, Franco

    2015-11-01

    Carbohydrate-deficient transferrin (CDT) is a well-recognized highly specific marker of chronic alcohol abuse. The association of CDT with alcohol-related traffic accidents was evaluated to objectively validate the use of this marker for certifying the physical fitness for driving license regranting after its confiscation for drunk driving. The study was carried out on 468 injured drivers (InjDr), who underwent mandatory blood alcohol concentration (BAC) and drug analysis in biological fluids. The InjDr group was divided into 2 subgroups on the basis of BAC legal limit adopted in Italy (BAC ≤ 0.5 g/l: InjDr1 ; BAC >0.5 g/l: InjDr2 ). The control group (CntDr) included 236 subjects holding safety-sensitive job positions and undergoing mandatory toxicological analyses. The determination of BAC in blood and CDT in serum were performed using validated analytical methods based on head-space gas chromatography and high-performance liquid chromatography, respectively. The evaluation of CDT distribution in the 3 groups (CntDr, InjDr1 , InjDr2 ) showed that CDT distribution in the InjDr1 group was similar to that observed in the CntDr group (p = 0.159) and different from that observed in the InjDr2 group (p accident while driving under the influence of alcohol. Copyright © 2015 by the Research Society on Alcoholism.

  4. Guilt is associated with acute stress symptoms in children after road traffic accidents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ann-Christin Haag

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Although previous research has consistently found considerable rates of acute stress disorder (ASD in children with accidental injuries, knowledge about determinants of ASD remains incomplete. Guilt is a common reaction among children after a traumatic event and has been shown to contribute to posttraumatic stress disorder. However, its relationship to ASD has never been examined. Objective: This study assessed the prevalence of ASD in children and adolescents following road traffic accidents (RTAs. Moreover, the association between peritraumatic guilt and ASD was investigated relying on current cognitive theories of posttraumatic stress and controlling for female sex, age, socioeconomic status (SES, injury severity, inpatient treatment, pretrauma psychopathology, and maternal posttraumatic stress symptoms (PTSS. Methods: One hundred and one children and adolescents (aged 7–16 years were assessed by means of a clinical interview approximately 10 days after an RTA. Mothers were assessed by questionnaires. Results: Three participants (3.0% met diagnostic criteria for full ASD according to DSM-IV, and 17 (16.8% for subsyndromal ASD. In a multivariate regression model, guilt was found to be a significant predictor of ASD severity. Female sex, outpatient treatment, and maternal PTSS also predicted ASD severity. Child age, SES, injury severity, and pretraumatic child psychopathology were not related to ASD severity. Conclusions: Future research should examine the association between peritraumatic guilt and acute stress symptoms in more detail. Moreover, guilt appraisals in the acute phase after an accident might be a relevant target for clinical attention.

  5. The years lived with disability due to road traffic accidents based on the nature of injuries in Kermanshah province (2010

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neda Izadi

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Traffic accidents, with lots of casualties and injuries, cause a lot of economic loss. This study was conducted to determine the Years Lived with Disability (YLD due to road traffic accidents according to the nature of injuries in Kermanshah province. Methods: following a pilot study, a sample of 3258 people was analyzed in order to calculate the YLD. Then, based on various factors, the age, gender and nature of injury of 10070 people were estimated. The YLD was calculated using the Global Burden of Disease (GBD (2010. The data concerning age and gender of the total population of the province was taken from the Statistical Center of Iran. All calculations were performed based on age and gender in Excel software. Results: The mean age of the injured people was 32.7±17.1. Men constituted 67.7 % of patients. The incidence rate of traffic accidents was 283.6 per 100,000. The highest levels of YLD in outpatients, men and women were reported for patella, tibia, fibula and ankle fractures and fractures of clavicle, scapula, humerus and skull, respectively. The highest rate of inpatient YLDs by nature of injury belonged to the fractures of sternum, ribs and face bone. The years lived with disability was calculated to be 2365.96 years (2.46 per 1000 and 1039.01 years (1.1 per 1000 for men and women, respectively. It was 3404.97 years (1.79 per 1000 in both genders. The highest YLD was in the age group of 15–29. Conclusion: Traffic accidents are high rate of YLD is resulted by traffic accidents. The most affected age group are youngsters and fracture are more frequent.

  6. Prevalence of ethanol and illicit drugs in road traffic accidents in the centre of Portugal: An eighteen-year update.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, Nádia; Silva, Rosário; Mendonça, M Cristina; Real, Francisco Corte; Vieira, Duarte Nuno; Teixeira, Helena M

    2012-03-10

    This study presents the prevalence of ethanol and illicit drugs in fatal road traffic accident victims in the Centre of Portugal between January 1990 and December 2007. Among the violent deaths, road traffic accidents presented the highest percentage (around 35%; n=3095), but decreasing throughout the years. Accidents were preponderant in males (about 80%; n=2402), between 21 and 30 years-old. Accidents involving drivers (55%; n=1310) were of the most common, being the car the main vehicle (45%), followed by the motorcycle (40%). An alcohol analysis request was present in 50% of the cases (n=1687), but increasing each year. Ethanol concentrations >1.2g/L, the legal limit in Portugal, were found in 55% (n=283) of the cases. Concerning drugs of abuse requests, only 4.4% (n=137) and 17.3% (58 cases) of the cases included the analysis at the Forensic Pathology Department (FPD) and at the Medico-Legal Office (MLO), respectively. Among the road accident cases analysed, 18 were positive, mainly in men (84%), between 21 and 30 years-old; opiates (47.1%; n=8) and cannabinoids (50%; n=4) were the most found, at the FPD and at the MLO, respectively. In conclusion, ethanol was identified as a key factor to traffic accidents, which explains the definition of specific legislation and methods of enforcement to prohibit this form of impairing. Nevertheless, ethanol still remains the psychoactive substance most frequently identified in the blood of divers killed in road-traffic crashes, recommending additional actions of supervision and control. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Role of drowsy driving in traffic accidents: a questionnaire survey of Thai commercial bus/truck drivers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leechawengwongs, Manoon; Leechawengwongs, Evelyn; Sukying, Chakrit; Udomsubpayakul, Umaporn

    2006-11-01

    The authors assessed the relationship between traffic accidents and drowsiness. A self-answered questionnaire survey of 4331 commercial bus/truck drivers was done. Sixty-nine percent of the drivers reported accidents and one third of these accidents was attributable to drowsiness. Drowsy driving and microsleeps were experienced by 75% and 28% of drivers respectively. Forty-five percent of drivers had excessive daytime sleepiness based on the Epworth Sleepiness Scale (ESS score > or =11). This excessive daytime sleepiness was strongly associated with feeling drowsy, microsleeps, and accidents. The major causes of drowsiness were sleep deprivation (90%), medications that caused sleepiness (78%), drinking alcohol the previous night (23%), and chronic loud snoring with or without obesity (17%). 61% of drivers worked longer than 12 hours with no days off The feeling of drowsiness at the wheel was also closely related to long hours of driving (>4 hours). Countermeasures that drivers used to keep them awake were talking to someone, drinking coffee or caffeinated-energy drinks, chewing snacks or gum and pulling over to have a nap. There is a strong relationship between accidents and drowsiness in commercial bus/truck drivers. The main cause of drowsiness was sleep deprivation. The authors hope that this information will help the public authority develop a policy to reduce the traffic accidents attributable to drowsy driving in commercial bus/truck drivers.

  8. [Differences in mobility, traffic accidents and associated circumstances in guatemalan and spanish university students].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez Guzmán, Sandra; Jiménez Mejías, Eladio; Martínez Ruiz, Virginia; Jaramillo Mejía, Marta Cecilia

    2015-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare the frequency of involvement in risky driving circumstances between Guatemalan and Spanish university students and identify in both populations the differences between the involvement in such circumstances and road crashes. A cross sectional study was conducted during the academic courses 2007 to 2011 on a sample of 2 130 drivers (1 016 in Guatemala and 1 114 in Spain), who completed a self-administered questionnaire that assessed: mobility patterns, use of safety devices, driving styles and involvement in road traffic crashes. Furthermore, they were involved more frequently in almost all the risky-driving circumstances compared with Spanish students, principally in: mobile use (74.4 % versus 24.3 %), distraction (47.1 % versus 18.8 %) or not using seatbelt (23.9% vs 5.9). Finally, the adjusted analysis yields an accident rate 4.8 times higher among Guatemalans (CI 95% 3.1-7.4). Considering the factors more frequently associated with suffer road traffic crashes dependent on human factor, it is noted physical and social factors as well as that the car-dependent issues, must play an important role in the marked differences detected in both populations.

  9. Risk Factors of Road Traffic Accidents Associated Mortality in Northern Iran; A Single Center Experience Utilizing Oaxaca Blinder Decomposition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sherafati, Faranak; Homaie-Rad, Enayatollah; Afkar, Abolhassan; Gholampoor-Sigaroodi, Ramin; Sirusbakht, Soheil

    2017-04-01

    To investigate the differences in death after receiving emergency services in traffic accidents between urban and rural regions, and decompose factors of the gap in Langerood, Northern Iran. This cross-sectional study was conducted in Langrood, Northern Iran during a 1-year period from 2013 to 2014. The hospital data of traffic crashes were used. Data contained those patients who survived at the scene of accident. Injury severity score, time to admission, age, gender, season of crash and type of collision were variables used in this study. Oaxaca decomposition technique was used to show the amount of inequity. In addition, three regression models were used to show the reason of inequity. Overall 1520 patients with road traffic accidents were admitted to our center during the study period. The mean age of the patients was 35.45 ± 17.9 years, and there were 1158 (76.1 %) men among the victims. Motorbike accidents accounted for 869 (57.1%) injuries and 833 (54.8 %) accidents occurred in rural regions. The in-hospital mortality rate was 60 (3.9%). The results of this study showed that 95% of inequity came from factors used in this study and 2.04% disadvantages were for rural crashes. Severity of crash and time to admission had relationship with death, while the effects of time to admission was higher in rural region and severity of the accident had more effect on mortality in urban regions in comparison with rural ones. The high rate of fatal accidents could be decreased by deleting the gap of access to health care services between urban and rural regions. This study suggested that more efforts of health system are needed to reduce the gap.

  10. Correlation between the Ship Grounding Accident and the Ship Traffic – A Case Study Based on the Statistics of the Gulf of Finland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arsham Mazaheri

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Ship traffic is one of the factors that is presented in almost all of the existing grounding models, and is considered as one of the affecting factors on the likelihood of grounding accident. This effect in grounding accident is mostly accepted by the experts as a common sense or simply by just generalizing the ship-ship collision cases to grounding accidents. There is no available research on the actual causal link between the ship traffic and grounding accident in the literature. In this paper, authors have utilized the statistical analysis on historical grounding accident data in the Gulf of Finland between the years 1989 and 2010 and the AIS data of the same area in year 2010, as the source of ship traffic data, to investigate the possible existence of any correlation between the ship traffic and the grounding accident. The results show that for the studied area (Gulf of Finland there is no correlation between the traffic density and the grounding accident. However, the possibility of the existence of minor relation between the traffic distribution and grounding accident is shown by the result. This finding, however, needs further investigation for more clarification.

  11. Heterogeneity of road traffic accident rate in the Russian cities and the need of usage various methods of transport safety management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrov, A. I.; Petrova, D. A.

    2017-10-01

    The article considers one of the topical problems of road safety management at the federal level - the problem of the heterogeneity of road traffic accident rate in Russian cities. The article analyzes actual statistical data on road traffic accident rate in the administrative centers of Russia. The histograms of the distribution of the values of two most important road accidents characteristics - Social Risk HR and Severity Rate of Road Accidents - formed in 2016 in administrative centers of Russia are presented. On the basis of the regression model of the statistical connection between Severity Rate of Road Accidents and Social Risk HR, a classification of the Russian cities based on the level of actual road traffic accident rate was developed. On the basis of this classification a differentiated system of priority methods for organizing the safe functioning of transport systems in the cities of Russia is proposed.

  12. Motorcycle accident

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    demic proportions “-. Motorcycle accidents are the second most common cause of road traffic accidents in both developed and developing countries 3'5. The proportion of road traffic accident victims made up of motorcycle falls within 9% and 35% 3 '9. Both the case fatality and the injury rate are higher in motorcycle acci~.

  13. Hyperpigmentation in the long bones of the lower limbs as a basis for vehicle identification and traffic accident reconstruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lisowski, Z; Marek, Z

    1982-01-01

    Following the earlier studies on the identification of injuries in unbroken cranial bones, the described method was adapted for the examination of the long bones in fatal casualties of traffic accidents. Two types of bumper injuries might occur: the bumper was found to cause fracturing of limbs [1], and femoral muscle contusions and microtraumas within compact and spongiose parts in the femoral with subsequent maculate hyperpigmentation [2]. The authors show that the correlation of above mentioned traces of the trauma, facilitates the reconstruction of the accident and also the identification of the vehicle.

  14. Epidemiology of road traffic accident deaths in children in Chandigarh zone of North West India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dalbir Singh

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The fatalities from Road Traffic Accidents (RTA constitute a major cause of unnatural deaths among children in Chandigarh zone of North West India. The epidemiology of RTA related deaths in this age group is lacking in our country. This retrospective study (1974–2013 included children (⩽18 years who became victims of RTA and subsequently died during the course of treatment. The postmortem and hospital records of the victims were used to collect the epidemiological data regarding age, sex, area of residence, etc. These deaths constituted 9.4% of total road accident deaths reported at this hospital. Out of a total of 709 RTA deaths in children, about 16% were reported in the block year of 1974–78 and this proportion decreased to 9.4% during the block year of 1984–88 and has remained almost constant since then. The maximum number of victims belonged to the states of Haryana (36% and Punjab (34%. A higher number of deaths were observed in rural population (60%. Most of the fatalities occurred between 12–4 pm (29.9% and pedestrians (47.8% were found to be the most commonly affected. The most common affected was the 16–18 year age group (35.3%. Injury to head and neck region (81.4% was responsible for a majority of deaths. The study concluded that the RTA remains an important cause of unnatural deaths in children. The static proportion of these deaths over the past three decades signifies that the road safety policies have been ineffective in preventing causalities and need further improvements.

  15. A study of a decade of road traffic accidents in Benghazi-Libya: 2001 to 2010.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zuhir Bodalal

    Full Text Available This paper aims to observe and to study the trends of road traffic accidents (RTA's for the past ten years in Benghazi-Libya. A retrospective analysis was done using the patient records of Al-Jalaa hospital (the main trauma center in Benghazi from over 21,753 RTA cases. The annual data were compared to each other and changes of trends were observed. RTA's represented an increasing percentage of Al-Jalaa's case load across the years. Around 41% of these cases needed to undergo surgery. The younger age group (20-29 years of age formed the majority of cases while there was a trend towards an increasing average age of patients involved in an accident. Male patients were found to be younger than their female counterparts. Males comprised 81.5% while females formed 18.5% of RTA patients. In terms of inpatient duration, most patients stayed in the hospital for less than 1 week. Vehicle occupants (drivers and passengers were admitted more often than pedestrians. There was a trend across the years towards an increased involvement of vehicle occupants and decrease in the proportion of pedestrians that had to be hospitalized. Additionally, there was a decrease in the fatalities of pedestrians. Overall, most RTA patients were discharged and made to follow-up in outpatient clinics however there was a startling trend towards increased LAMA and absconded patients. There were both encouraging findings as well as points that needed further emphasis and action. Public education, life support training and diversification of transport (apart from the use of the roads should be looked into, as possible means of improving the current situation.

  16. A Study of a Decade of Road Traffic Accidents in Benghazi - Libya: 2001 to 2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bodalal, Zuhir; Bendardaf, Riyad; Ambarek, Mohammed

    2012-01-01

    This paper aims to observe and to study the trends of road traffic accidents (RTA’s) for the past ten years in Benghazi – Libya. A retrospective analysis was done using the patient records of Al-Jalaa hospital (the main trauma center in Benghazi) from over 21,753 RTA cases. The annual data were compared to each other and changes of trends were observed. RTA’s represented an increasing percentage of Al-Jalaa’s case load across the years. Around 41% of these cases needed to undergo surgery. The younger age group (20–29 years of age) formed the majority of cases while there was a trend towards an increasing average age of patients involved in an accident. Male patients were found to be younger than their female counterparts. Males comprised 81.5% while females formed 18.5% of RTA patients. In terms of inpatient duration, most patients stayed in the hospital for less than 1 week. Vehicle occupants (drivers and passengers) were admitted more often than pedestrians. There was a trend across the years towards an increased involvement of vehicle occupants and decrease in the proportion of pedestrians that had to be hospitalized. Additionally, there was a decrease in the fatalities of pedestrians. Overall, most RTA patients were discharged and made to follow-up in outpatient clinics however there was a startling trend towards increased LAMA and absconded patients. There were both encouraging findings as well as points that needed further emphasis and action. Public education, life support training and diversification of transport (apart from the use of the roads) should be looked into, as possible means of improving the current situation. PMID:22792332

  17. ACCIDENT PREDICTION METHODOLOGY USING CONFLICT ZONE METHOD FOR “TRANSIT TRANSPORT-PEDESTRIAN” CONFLICT SITUATION AND MODELS OF TRAFFIC FLOWS AT CONTROLLED INTERSECTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. V. Kapsky

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Accidents are considered as the most significant cost of road traffic. Therefore any measures for road traffic management should be evaluated according to a minimization  criterion of accident losses. In order to develop a method for evaluation of the accident losses it is necessary to prepare a methodology for cost estimate of road accidents of various severity with due account of their consequences and prediction (economic assessment and severity level of their consequences (quantitative risk assessment. The research has been carried with the purpose to devise appropriate models for accident prediction at a decision-making stage while organizing road traffic in respect of  the “transport-pedestrian” conflict. An interaction of pedestrian and transit road traffic flows  is characterized by rather high risk level. In order to reduce number of road accidents  and  severity of their consequences in the observed conflict, it is necessary to evaluate  proposed solutions, in other words to predict accidents at the stage of object designing and  development of measures.The paper presents its observations on specificity of road traffic and pedestrian flow interactions and analysis of spatial conflict point formation and conflict zone creation in the studied conflict between transport facilities and pedestrians at controlled pedestrian crossings which are located in the area of intersections. Methodology has been developed for accident prediction in accordance with the conflict zone method for various traffic modes at intersections. Dependences of the represented road traffic accidents (according to consequence severity on potential danger of conflicts have been determined for various traffic modes and various conditions of conflict interaction.

  18. Traffic accident reconstruction and an approach for prediction of fault rates using artificial neural networks: A case study in Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Can Yilmaz, Ali; Aci, Cigdem; Aydin, Kadir

    2016-08-17

    Currently, in Turkey, fault rates in traffic accidents are determined according to the initiative of accident experts (no speed analyses of vehicles just considering accident type) and there are no specific quantitative instructions on fault rates related to procession of accidents which just represents the type of collision (side impact, head to head, rear end, etc.) in No. 2918 Turkish Highway Traffic Act (THTA 1983). The aim of this study is to introduce a scientific and systematic approach for determination of fault rates in most frequent property damage-only (PDO) traffic accidents in Turkey. In this study, data (police reports, skid marks, deformation, crush depth, etc.) collected from the most frequent and controversial accident types (4 sample vehicle-vehicle scenarios) that consist of PDO were inserted into a reconstruction software called vCrash. Sample real-world scenarios were simulated on the software to generate different vehicle deformations that also correspond to energy-equivalent speed data just before the crash. These values were used to train a multilayer feedforward artificial neural network (MFANN), function fitting neural network (FITNET, a specialized version of MFANN), and generalized regression neural network (GRNN) models within 10-fold cross-validation to predict fault rates without using software. The performance of the artificial neural network (ANN) prediction models was evaluated using mean square error (MSE) and multiple correlation coefficient (R). It was shown that the MFANN model performed better for predicting fault rates (i.e., lower MSE and higher R) than FITNET and GRNN models for accident scenarios 1, 2, and 3, whereas FITNET performed the best for scenario 4. The FITNET model showed the second best results for prediction for the first 3 scenarios. Because there is no training phase in GRNN, the GRNN model produced results much faster than MFANN and FITNET models. However, the GRNN model had the worst prediction results. The

  19. Determinants of the Cost of Care and Rehabilitation of People Injured in Traffic Accidents in Medellin, Colombia

    OpenAIRE

    Lugo-Agudelo, Luz Helena; Universidad de Antioquia, Medellín, Colombia.; Castro-García, Paula Andrea; Universidad de Antioquia, Medellín, Colombia.; Mejía-Mejía, Aurelio;; Cano-Restrepo, Blanca Cecilia; Universidad de Antioquia, Medellín; Vélez-Jaramillo, Deisy Alejandra; Universidad de Antioquia, Medellín, Colombia.; García-García, Héctor Iván; Universidad de Antioquia

    2017-01-01

    Objective: estimating the determinants of the costs of care and rehabilitation of people injured in traffic accidents in Medellin, Colombia. Materials and Methods: follow-up study for a year on 483 patients treated due to moderate and severe injuries. We included medical costs calculated based on the hospital billing systems and indirect costs associated to the incapacity for patients and caregivers. The determinants of the total cost were estimated by means of a generalized linear model. Res...

  20. Factors associated with access to physical rehabilitation for victims of traffic accidents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sousa, Kelienny de Meneses; Oliveira, Wagner Ivan Fonsêca de; Alves, Emanuel Augusto; Gama, Zenewton André da Silva

    2017-06-22

    Evaluate the level of access to physical rehabilitation for survivors of traffic accidents and the associated factors. A cross-sectional study performed in Natal, Northeastern Brazil, through a telephone survey of 155 victims of traffic accidents admitted to an emergency hospital between January and August of 2013, with a diagnosis of fracture, traumatic brain injury or amputation. Participants were identified in the database of the reference hospital for care of traffic accident victims. We calculated point estimates and confidence interval (95%CI) for the frequency of subjects who had access, in addition to multivariate analysis (logistic regression) between access (dependent variable) and sociodemographic, clinical, and assistance variables. Among the 155 respondents, the majority were adolescents and adults between 15-29 years of age (47.7%), men (82.6%), education up to high school (92.3%), income of up to two minimum wages (78.0%) and bikers (75.5%). Although 85.8% of traffic accident survivors reported the need for physical rehabilitation, there was little access (51.6%; 95%CI 43.7-59.4) and a delay to start the physical rehabilitation (average = 67 days). We classified factors associated with access to physical rehabilitation as: (i) unmodifiable individuals in the short term - family income greater than two minimum wages (OR = 3.7), informal worker (OR = 0.11) or unemployed (OR = 0.15) and possession of a private health care plan (OR = 0.07); and (ii) assistance modifiable by service management - written referral for physical rehabilitation (OR = 27.5) and perceived need of physical rehabilitation (OR = 10). This study found a low and slow access to physical rehabilitation for individuals potentially in need. The associated factors were the organizational processes of health care (health information and referral) and social determinants (income, occupation and private health care plan). Avaliar o nível de acesso à reabilitação física para

  1. Linguistic diversity and traffic accidents: lessons from statistical studies of cultural traits.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seán Roberts

    Full Text Available The recent proliferation of digital databases of cultural and linguistic data, together with new statistical techniques becoming available has lead to a rise in so-called nomothetic studies [1]-[8]. These seek relationships between demographic variables and cultural traits from large, cross-cultural datasets. The insights from these studies are important for understanding how cultural traits evolve. While these studies are fascinating and are good at generating testable hypotheses, they may underestimate the probability of finding spurious correlations between cultural traits. Here we show that this kind of approach can find links between such unlikely cultural traits as traffic accidents, levels of extra-martial sex, political collectivism and linguistic diversity. This suggests that spurious correlations, due to historical descent, geographic diffusion or increased noise-to-signal ratios in large datasets, are much more likely than some studies admit. We suggest some criteria for the evaluation of nomothetic studies and some practical solutions to the problems. Since some of these studies are receiving media attention without a widespread understanding of the complexities of the issue, there is a risk that poorly controlled studies could affect policy. We hope to contribute towards a general skepticism for correlational studies by demonstrating the ease of finding apparently rigorous correlations between cultural traits. Despite this, we see well-controlled nomothetic studies as useful tools for the development of theories.

  2. Traumatic brain injury, dissociation, and posttraumatic stress disorder in road traffic accident survivors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Charlie; Harvey, Allison G; Brewin, Chris R

    2005-06-01

    This study investigated the symptom profiles of acute stress disorder (ASD) and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in participants who did and did not sustain traumatic brain injury (TBI), following a road traffic accident. The participants were assessed at three time points: as soon as possible posttrauma as well as at 6 weeks and 3 months posttrauma. At the first assessment, fewer participants from the TBI group recalled feeling fear and helplessness at the time of the trauma, fewer TBI participants reported recurrent intrusive thoughts and images, and more TBI participants reported dissociation since the trauma, relative to the non-TBI group. At the second assessment, fewer participants from the TBI group recalled feeling intense helplessness at the time of the trauma. Fewer TBI participants also reported reliving and physiological reactions on trauma reminders relative to the non-TBI group. At 3 months posttrauma, there was no difference in PTSD symptom profile between non-TBI and TBI groups. Our findings indicate that the presence of TBI is likely to influence the distribution of certain symptoms, but need not be a significant barrier to diagnosing ASD and PTSD.

  3. Identification of Behavior Based Safety by Using Traffic Light Analysis to Reduce Accidents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mansur, A.; Nasution, M. I.

    2016-01-01

    This work present the safety assessment of a case study and describes an important area within the field production in oil and gas industry, namely behavior based safety (BBS). The company set a rigorous BBS and its intervention program that implemented and deployed continually. In this case, observers requested to have discussion and spread a number of determined questions related with work behavior to the workers during observation. Appraisal of Traffic Light Analysis (TLA) as one tools of risk assessment used to determine the estimated score of BBS questionnaire. Standardization of TLA appraisal in this study are based on Regulation of Minister of Labor and Occupational Safety and Health No:PER.05/MEN/1996. The result shown that there are some points under 84%, which categorized in yellow category and should corrected immediately by company to prevent existing bad behavior of workers. The application of BBS expected to increase the safety performance at work time-by-time and effective in reducing accidents.

  4. Knee injuries in restrained car drivers in German road traffic accidents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haasper, Carl; Otte, Dietmar; Knobloch, Karsten; Probst, Christian; Board, Timothy N; Krettek, Christian; Richter, Martinus

    2008-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to estimate the prevalence of knee injuries in real world car crashes in Germany. Restrained car drivers (RCD) were included in a medical and technical analysis to create a basis for preventive measures. Technical and medical data were collected at the scene, shortly after the crash. Two time periods (group A, 1985-1993; group B, 1995-2003) were compared focusing on knee injuries [abbreviated injury scale (AISKnee)]. Technical analysis included type of collision, impact angle, and relative velocity. Medical analysis included injury pattern and severity (AIS, maximum AIS). About 5,972 RCD were included in this study from a total of 22,804 victims involved in 16,563 crashes. In total, severe injuries (AISKnee 2/3) occurred in 1.2% (82 patients) of all RCD. The knee injury prevalence significantly decreased over time (group A vs. B, p traffic accidents was low and decreased over time. Higher loads were necessary to cause ligamentous injuries of the knee than fractures in the knee region. Because direct impact caused most of the injuries, modifications of the interior and exterior design should reduce the incidence of these injuries. A dashboard injury was very rare.

  5. Determination of methamphetamine in sudden death of a traffic accident inpatient by blood and hair analyses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ago, Mihoko; Ago, Kazutoshi; Ogata, Mamoru

    2009-04-01

    A female in her late thirties, who was hospitalized for 13 days with rib fractures suffered in a traffic accident, was found in supine position on the patient's bed in a state of cardiopulmonary arrest. The resuscitation failed to recover consciousness and her death was confirmed 1.75 h later. The autopsy revealed neither severe injuries nor lesion as a cause of death. Histological examinations revealed contraction band necrosis (CBN) in the cardiac muscle of the left and right ventricles, as well as congestion and edema in both lungs. Toxicological screening of urine using Triage revealed the presence of methamphetamine (MA). By gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC/MS), the concentrations of MA and its metabolite amphetamine (AP) in the heart blood were shown to be 0.178 and 0.051 microg/ml, respectively. From these findings, we conclude that the cause of her death was circulatory failure due to MA poisoning. Further, the stored scalp hair analysis demonstrated both MA and AP in 0-3 cm segments from the scalp. The results suggested that she was a MA abuser at least about 3 months before her death. In this case, preservation of hair samples collected during an autopsy was useful for providing evidence of MA abuse.

  6. Methods of multidisciplinary in-depth analyses of road traffic accidents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larsen, Lotte

    2004-07-26

    A multidisciplinary Road Accident Analysis Group with the objective of conducting in-depth investigations of specific types of accidents has existed in Denmark for some years. The group has analysed head-on collisions, left-turn accidents, truck accidents and single vehicle accidents. The data collection included police reports, the group's investigation of accident sites and vehicles involved, and interviews with the involved road users and witnesses. The main accident factors in the head-on collisions and in the single vehicle accidents were excessive speed, drunk driving and driving under the influence of illegal drugs. The primary accident factors in left-turn accidents were attention errors or misjudging the amount of time available to complete the left turn. In the truck accidents insufficient searching for visual information as well as speeding were major factors. For all the accident themes the primary injury factor was failure to wear seat- belts. The multidisciplinary approach has provided a rather precise knowledge of the contributing factors leading up to the accident. The method requires a lot of resources, which is a limiting factor for the number of accidents to be analysed in this way. However, the method is suitable for analysis of common occurring or very serious types of accidents.

  7. [Secondary victimization of traffic accident victims: getting buried without the declaration of forensic case and without having performed autopsy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erkol, Zerrin; Hekimoğlu, Yavuz; Büken, Bora; Şirin, Gözde; Yılmaz, Rıza; Akkaya, Harun

    2016-01-01

    In this study, it was aimed to analyze the cases of traffic accident related deaths, buried without performing autopsy, in order to increase awareness of the physicians about declaration liability of forensic cases and also emphasize the declaration of the forensic case and autopsy importance. In the First Specialization Board of Council of Forensic Medicine, 542 cases of death, reported between the years 2004-2008, who were involved in traffic accidents and buried without an autopsy performed, were evaluated retrospectively. It was found that 69.4% of the cases (n=376) were males, whereas %30.6 (n=166) were females; mean age was 58.5±20.9 (range, 3-98 years). Age 61 and above was the most frequent age group with 301 cases (55.5%). Of the cases, 336 (62.0%) had died in hospital, 241 (44.5%) had died in 1-12 months following the accident and medico-legal corpse examination was performed only in 123 (22.9%) cases. Three hundred fourty-four (63.5%) of the cases were not reported as forensic cases and death certificate was signed by any physician other than medical examiner without being declared as a legal case. According to the decisions of Board, since an autopsy was not duly performed, the cause of death could not be determined for 95 cases (17.5%) and for 57 cases (10.5%), it was not possible to determine whether there was causality between the accident and death. Our findings emphasize the importance of declaration of forensic cases and performing autopsy in time in traffic accident victims.

  8. Time to death analysis of road traffic accidents in relation to delta V, drunk driving, and restraint systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ju, Yonghan; Sohn, So Young

    2014-01-01

    The main goal of this research is to identify variables related to the expected time to death due to road traffic accidents (RTAs). Such research is expected to be useful in improving safety laws and regulations and developing new safety systems. The resulting information is crucial not only for reducing accident fatalities but for assessing related insurance policies. In this article, we analyze factors that are potentially associated with variation in the expected survival time after a road traffic accident using Weibull regression. In particular, we consider the association with alcohol involvement, delta V, and restraint systems. Our empirical results, obtained based on the NASS-CDS, indicate that the expected survival time for non-alcohol-impaired drivers is 3.23 times longer at a delta V of 50 km/h than that for alcohol-impaired drivers under the same conditions. In addition, it was observed that, even when occupants were alcohol-impaired, if they were protected by both air bags and seat belts, their expected survival time after an RTA increased 2.59-fold compared to alcohol-impaired drivers who used only seat belts. Our findings may be useful in improving road traffic safety and insurance policies by offering insights into the factors that reduce fatalities.

  9. Landing Distance Minimization to Prevent Overrun Accidents Using Field Theory and Stabilizing Air Traffic - A Novel Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krishna Kumar, R.; Navaneeth, M.; Shachin Shibi, R.

    2017-09-01

    Airplane is considered to be the pinnacle of engineering as it has proven that it is possible for a manmade object to fly. Before its invention, flying was just a dream for mankind. In such an esteemed domain, landing is the most challenging part and it is where a large number of accidents occur, especially due to overrun. As the name suggests, overrun accidents occur due to insufficient runway length. In the present study, the concept of planar electromagnetic fields is incorporated to minimize the landing distance of an aircraft, thus preventing the overrun accidents. As a result, unexpected losses can be avoided. In addition to this, the stability of air traffic control can be perpetuated and the fuel consumed during loitering time can be diminished.

  10. Framework for consistent traffic and accident statistical data bases = Cadre pour des bases de données statistiques cohérentes sur la circulation et les accidents.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    OECD Scientific Expert Group T8

    1988-01-01

    The OECD Road Transport Research Scientific Expert Group T8 "Framework for Consistent Traffic and Accident Statistical Data Bases" was confronted with the old problem of the inconsistency of data between countries, and the lack of some data altogether, especially traffic data for use as a measure of

  11. COMPARISON OF TREND PROJECTION METHODS AND BACKPROPAGATION PROJECTIONS METHODS TREND IN PREDICTING THE NUMBER OF VICTIMS DIED IN TRAFFIC ACCIDENT IN TIMOR TENGAH REGENCY, NUSA TENGGARA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleksius Madu

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to predict the number of traffic accident victims who died in Timor Tengah Regency with Trend Projection method and Backpropagation method, and compare the two methods based on the degree of guilt and predict the number traffic accident victims in the Timor Tengah Regency for the coming year. This research was conducted in Timor Tengah Regency where data used in this study was obtained from Police Unit in Timor Tengah Regency. The data is on the number of traffic accidents in Timor Tengah Regency from 2000 – 2013, which is obtained by a quantitative analysis with Trend Projection and Backpropagation method. The results of the data analysis predicting the number of traffic accidents victims using Trend Projection method obtained the best model which is the quadratic trend model with equation Yk = 39.786 + (3.297 X + (0.13 X2. Whereas by using back propagation method, it is obtained the optimum network that consists of 2 inputs, 3 hidden screens, and 1 output. Based on the error rates obtained, Back propagation method is better than the Trend Projection method which means that the predicting accuracy with Back propagation method is the best method to predict the number of traffic accidents victims in Timor Tengah Regency. Thus obtained predicting the numbers of traffic accident victims for the next 5 years (Years 2014-2018 respectively - are 106 person, 115 person, 115 person, 119 person and 120 person.   Keywords: Trend Projection, Back propagation, Predicting.

  12. [Positional asphyxia as a cause of death in a traffic accident with the driver--in the "upside-down car position"].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jankowski, Zbigniew; Wilmanowska, Anita; Pieśniak, Dorota; Kubiak, Anna

    2004-01-01

    We demonstrate a case of positional asphyxia of the car with the driver in the upside-down position following a traffic accident. The discussion shows the confirmity of this type of death mechanism with the facts estimated during the investigation of the place of the accident and autopsy.

  13. Multiplicative models of analysis : a description and the use in analysing accident ratios as a function of hourly traffic volume and road-surface skidding resistance.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oppe, S.

    1977-01-01

    Accident ratios are analysed with regard to the variables road surface skidding resistance and hourly traffic volume. It is concluded that the multiplicative model describes the data better than the additive model. Moreover that there is no interaction between skidding resistance and traffic volume

  14. Accident-related risk behaviors associated with motivations for motorcycle use in Iran: a country with very high traffic deaths.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zamani-Alavijeh, Fereshteh; Niknami, Shamsaddin; Bazargan, Mohsen; Mohammadi, Eesa; Montazeri, Ali; Ahmadi, Fazlollah; Ghofranipour, Fazlollah

    2009-06-01

    Injuries caused by motor vehicle accidents in Middle East countries are among the highest in the world. Several successful interventions preventing road traffic injuries in developed countries have been practiced; however, these interventions have not been tailored to the cultural, behavioral, and environmental milieu of low- and middle-income countries. Scientifically based efforts to understand risk factors for traffic injury in these countries are needed and they must be translated into prevention programs that are well designed and assessed. This qualitative study is designed to delineate motorcycle use among Iranian motorcyclists and identify motivational correlates for risk behaviors that may result in accidental injury and death. Focus groups and in-depth interviews were conducted among motorcyclists, motorcycle passengers, and police officers. Seven accident-related risk behaviors were identified: (1) performing stunts, (2) disobeying traffic rules, (3) driving while under the influence of drugs or alcohol, (4) riding without proper skills or qualifications, (5) illegally transporting passengers, (6) illegally transporting cargo, and (7) not wearing a helmet. These behaviors correspond with four main motivational themes for motorcycle-riding that emerged from our data: (1) convenient commuting, (2) occupational transportation, (3) recreation and sensation seeking, and (4) criminal activity. This study indicates that Iranian motorcyclists can be categorized into distinct groups according to motivation for motorcycle use. The results of this study indicate that motorcyclist risky behaviors are related to motivational factors. Furthermore, regardless of the motivational factors, disobedience of traffic rules was a common risk behavior among all four motivational groups. The relationship between motivation to ride and associated risk behaviors is important because it begins to build a general framework that will help researchers target specific groups that are

  15. An autopsy-based study of death due to road traffic accidents in metropolis of Karachi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirza, Farhat Hussain; Hassan, Qudsia; Jajja, Nadia

    2013-02-01

    To study the demographic distribution of the victims of road traffic accidents that were presented for medico-legal autopsy in Karachi, identify fatal injuries, the identity of road users autopsied and the month-wise variation in performing autopsies. Descriptive cross-sectional study of autopsies conducted at the mortuaries of Civil Hospital Karachi, Jinnah Postgraduate Medical Centre and Abbasi Shaheed Hospital between March 1,2008 and February 28, 2009. Bodies brought in by police for partial/external autopsy were excluded. Data was collected on pre-designed proformas and was statistically analysed using SPSS 15. Of the total 2090 autopsies performed in Karachi, 581 (27.8%) cases were victims of RTA. Of these RTA victims, 324 (55.8%) autopsies were of those between the ages of 19 and 40 years. There were 510 (87.8%) males and 71 (12.2%) females with a ratio of male: female being 7:1.This ratio was 4.2:1 for those aged 0-18 years and 11:1 for those aged 19-40 years (p = 0.05). Death was due to injury to the head in 386 (66.4%) victims, to the chest in 84 (14.5%) cases, multiple traumatic injuries in 50 (8.6%) and pelvis in 17 (2.9%) cases. The majority of the victims on whom autopsy was performed were pedestrians (n = 389, 67%) followed by motorcyclists (n = 122, 21%). On an average 48.4 +/- 7.46 autopsies were performed every month, and there was no statistically significant variation in autopsies on this count. There was a male preponderance, but the significant differences in two age groups need to be correlated with the incidence of RTAs in each sex in that age group and the compliance levels of getting females autopsied.

  16. Spread of Water-Borne Pollutants at Traffic Accidents on Roads.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olofsson, Bo; Rasul, Hedi; Lundmark, Annika

    2017-01-01

    Traffic accidents sometimes lead to the spread of hazardous compounds to the environment. Accidental spills of hazardous compounds on roads in the vicinity of vulnerable objects such as water supplies pose a serious threat to water quality and have to be assessed. This study compared three different assessment methods, electrical resistivity measurements, analytical flow calculations, and 1D and 2D dynamic flow modeling, to describe rapid transport processes in the road shoulder and roadside verge after a major spill. The infiltration and flow paths of water-borne substances were described during simulated discharge of pollutants on different road types. Full-scale tracer tests using sodium chloride were carried out at nine different road locations in Sweden. Analysis of grain size distribution and infiltrometer tests were carried out at the road shoulder and verges. The pathways and travel times were traced using resistivity measurements and 3D inverse modeling. The resistivity measurements were compared to analytical flow calculations and 1D and 2D dynamic modeling. All measurement sites were highly heterogeneous, which caused preferential flow. Vertical flow velocities of 1.4-8.6 × 10(-4) m/s were measured. The results of the analytical calculations and flow modeling were of the same order of magnitude. The measurements showed that almost all infiltration goes directly into the road embankment, hence the composition and structure of the built-up road must be considered. The non-destructive resistivity measurements and 3D modeling provided useful information for clarifying the infiltration and flow pattern of water-borne compounds from road runoff.

  17. FALLACIES IN CRITERIA FOR ASSESSMENT OF PERMANENT PHYSICAL DISABILITIES IN ROAD TRAFFIC ACCIDENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sumanta Dutta

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Disability and disability certificates are like double-edged swords. On one hand, a non-qualifying individual may avail certain benefits and privileges reserved for disabled person due to over calculation; and on other hand, a deserving disabled may not be able to get benefit out of the granted opportunities due to under calculation. This study was thus undertaken to analyse the disability certificates issued at our institution to determine the fallacies that are evident in the criteria for disability assessment. METHODOLOGY 500 cases of permanent physical disability (PPD resulting from road traffic accidents (RTA satisfying the inclusion and exclusion criteria were re-examined after final assessment of disability and the assessed disability was reviewed in terms of the defect in function of body; the total percentage of disability allotted to the candidate and the appropriateness of the assessed value in relation to the hindrance caused to daily routine. OBSERVATIONS No discrepancy was noted in 355 cases, but in rest of 145 cases a number of discrepancies were noted in relation to the above said criteria of comparison. Out of these, in 20% cases, the percentage of disability did not include a note of the total impact of the disability on physical, mental, social life of the disabled person resulting in more non-functioning as compared to the calculated resulting permanent disability. In rest 30% cases with discrepancies, calculated percentage had ill correlation between malfunctioning of the body part and its overall calculation in relation to the body as a whole. Rest 50% cases were those where similar malfunctioning resulting from different lesions was assessed differently resulting in different percentages of permanent physical disabilities. CONCLUSION A serious revision of these guidelines in lieu of discrepancies must be ensued to benefit one and all equally and to ensure uniformity in the process which is a gateway to

  18. The Epidemilogical Characteristics of Motorcyclists Associated Injuries in Road Traffics Accidents; A Hospital-Based Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghaffari-fam, Saber; Sarbazi, Ehsan; Daemi, Amin; Sarbazi, Mohammad Reza; Nikbakht, Hossein Ali; Salarilak, Shaker

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: To determine the epidemiology of injuries of the motorcyclists in road traffic accidents (RTIs) between 2008 and 2014 in East Azarbayejan province of Iran. Methods: A cross-sectional study was performed in East Azerbaijan province in Imam Reza hospital on motorcyclists subjected to injuries in RTIs between 2008 and 2014. Demographic characteristics (age, sex), duration of hospitalization, final status of injured people after discharge from the hospital, admission ward, number of admissions due to injuries in RTIs, nature of injury, and the clinical services provided to injured people were gathered from hospital information system (HIS). Demographic characteristics (age, sex), duration of hospitalization, final status of injured people after discharge from the hospital, admission ward, number of admissions due to injuries in RTIs, injured site of the body, nature of injury, and the clinical services provided injured people were gathered from HIS. Standardized data collection form was used for uniform handling of the data. Results: Most of the victims (94.4%) were male. The most frequent injuries pertained to the age group of 18-30 with 1676 (51.4%) injuries. Head, abdomen, lower back, lumbar spine, and pelvis, were the most common injured sites, respectively. Reduction of fracture and dislocation and cranial puncture were the most common provided services. The lowest survival time belonged to the age group over 60 years old.   Conclusion: Injuries to the head are the most prevalent injuries among motorcyclists in RTIs. So it is suggested that proper interventions be implemented to ensure wearing helmet by motorcyclist and pillion passengers. PMID:27878128

  19. Epidemiological Study of Fatal and Nonfatal Road Traffic Accidents and Their Outcomes on Children and Adolescents in Shahroud, Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hossein Ebrahimi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Traffic accidents are among the important health issues that threaten human life. Children are among the main victims of these accidents. This research aimed to study the epidemiology of fatal and nonfatal road traffic accidents and their outcomes in children and adolescents in Shahroud, Iran. Materials and Methods: This descriptive and analytical study was conducted from July to December 2011. Data were collected through a researcher-made questionnaire. After verifying its content validity and reliability, the questionnaire was completed by emergency medical technicians. The data were analyzed using descriptive and inferential statistics (the Chi-square test. Results: Of 363 studied cases, the majority of accidents happened in July with 108 (29.8% cases and on Thursdays (18.7%. About 89.3% of drivers were male and aged 39 to 40 years (44.6%. Most accidents happened during 8 to 12 AM (23.7%. Moreover, 21.28% (1161 persons of all injured people and 18.75% (48 persons of all deceased victims were children under 14 years old. None of the victims under 14 years of age used protective tools. Head and spine trauma, respectively, were reported as the most common injury in this age group. There was no significant differences between victims aged less and more than 14 years old in terms of spinal cord injury (P=0.03. Conclusion: Based on the results of this study, it is recommended to take some basic actions such as improving roads, identification of black spots, installation of warning signs at those points, and extending controls and supervisions by police. It is also very important to use standard protective tools for children and adolescents, force rules for using appropriate safety equipment for this age group, and provide public trainings for the people to raise their level of awareness.

  20. State Traffic Safety Information - 2010-2015 FARS Accident File data

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Transportation — The State Traffic Safety Information (STSI) portal is part of the larger Fatality Analysis Reporting System (FARS) Encyclopedia. STSI provides state-by-state traffic...

  1. Latin American Clinical Epidemiology Network Series - Paper 5: Years of life lost due to premature death in traffic accidents in Bogota, Colombia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quitian-Reyes, Hoover; Gómez-Restrepo, Carlos; Gómez, Maria Juliana; Naranjo, Salome; Heredia, Patricia; Villegas, John

    2017-06-01

    This study aimed to quantify the number of years of life lost in traffic accidents in Bogota, Colombia. The years of life lost were calculated using the 'age-standardized expected years of life lost' method, the table of Japanese adjusted life expectancy and the database of the Institute of Legal Medicine and Forensic Science between September 2012 and August 2013. During a period of 1 year, 430 people died and 10,056.3 years of life were lost in Bogota due to traffic accidents. The mortality burden of traffic accidents in Bogota is high. Further studies are required in order to characterize the accidents and develop effective policy decisions. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Road traffic accidents and self-reported Portuguese car driver's attitudes, behaviors, and opinions: Are they related?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bon de Sousa, Teresa; Santos, Carolina; Mateus, Ceu; Areal, Alain; Trigoso, Jose; Nunes, Carla

    2016-10-02

    This study aims to characterize Portuguese car drivers in terms of demographic characteristics, driving experience, and attitudes, opinions, and behaviors concerning road traffic safety. Furthermore, associations between these characteristics and self-reported involvement in a road traffic accident as a driver in the last 3 years were analyzed. A final goal was to develop a final predictive model of the risk of suffering a road traffic accident. A cross-sectional analytic study was developed, based on a convenience sample of 612 car drivers. A questionnaire was applied by trained interviewers, embracing various topics related to road safety such as driving under the influence of alcohol or drugs, phone use while driving, speeding, use of advanced driver assistance systems, and the transport infrastructure and environment (European Project SARTRE 4, Portuguese version). From the 52 initial questions, 19 variables were selected through principal component analysis. Then, and in addition to the usual descriptive measures, logistic binary regression models were used in order to describe associations and to develop a predictive model of being involved in a road traffic accident. Of the 612 car drivers, 37.3% (228) reported being involved in a road traffic accident with damage or injury in the past 3 years. In this group, the majority were male, older than 65, with no children, not employed, and living in an urban area. In the multivariate model, several factors were identified: being widowed (vs. single; odds ratio [OR] = 3.478, 95% confidence interval [95% CI], 1.159-10.434); living in a suburban area (vs. a rural area; OR = 5.023, 95% CI, 2.260-11.166); having been checked for alcohol once in the last 3 years (vs. not checked; OR = 3.124, 95% CI, 2.040-4,783); and seldom drinking an energetic beverage such as coffee when tired (vs. always do; OR = 6.822, 95% CI, 2.619-17.769) all suffered a higher risk of being involved in a car accident. The results obtained with

  3. Minor increase in risk of road traffic accidents after prescriptions of antidepressants: a study of population registry data in Norway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bramness, Jørgen G; Skurtveit, Svetlana; Neutel, C Ineke; Mørland, Jørg; Engeland, Anders

    2008-07-01

    Experimental studies have shown that both depression and the use of antidepressants may impair the ability to drive a motor vehicle. Population-based studies have been inconclusive. Differences in results have been shown for cyclic, sedating antidepressants and newer, nonsedating antidepressants. The objective of the present study was to examine whether the use of antidepressants by drivers increased the risk of being involved in traffic accidents. From April 2004 to September 2006, information on prescriptions, road accidents, and emigrations/deaths was obtained from 3 Norwegian population-based registries. Data on people between the ages 18-69 (N = 3.1 million) were linked. Exposure consisted of receiving prescriptions for any antidepressants. Standardized incidence ratios (SIRs) were calculated by comparing the incidence of accidents during time exposed with the incidence over the time not exposed. Sedating antidepressants (tricyclic antidepressants, mianserin, and mirtazapine) were studied together as one group, and newer, nonsedating antidepressants (selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors, moclobemide, venlafaxine, and reboxetine) as another. During the study period, 20,494 road accidents with personal injuries occurred, including 204 and 884 in which the driver was exposed to sedating antidepressants or newer, nonsedating antidepressants, respectively. The traffic accident risk increased slightly for drivers who had received prescriptions for sedating antidepressants (SIR = 1.4, 95% CI = 1.2 to 1.6) or nonsedating antidepressants (SIR = 1.6, 95% CI = 1.5 to 1.7). The SIR estimates were similar for male and female drivers and slightly higher for young drivers (18-34 years of age) using older sedative antidepressants. SIR estimates did not change substantially for different time periods after dispensing of the prescription, for concomitant use of other impairing drugs, or for new users. There was a slightly increased risk of being involved in a traffic

  4. Sleep apnea-related risk of motor vehicle accidents is reduced by continuous positive airway pressure: Swedish Traffic Accident Registry data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karimi, Mahssa; Hedner, Jan; Häbel, Henrike; Nerman, Olle; Grote, Ludger

    2015-03-01

    Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is associated with an increased risk of motor vehicle accidents (MVAs). The rate of MVAs in patients suspected of having OSA was determined and the effect of continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) was investigated. MVA rate in patients referred for OSA was compared to the rate in the general population using data from the Swedish Traffic Accident Registry (STRADA), stratified for age and calendar year. The risk factors for MVAs, using demographic and polygraphy data, and MVA rate before and after CPAP were evaluated in the patient group. Clinical sleep laboratory and population based control (n = 635,786). There were 1,478 patients, male sex 70.4%, mean age 53.6 (12.8) y. CPAP. The number of accidents (n = 74) among patients was compared with the expected number (n = 30) from a control population (STRADA). An increased MVA risk ratio of 2.45 was found among patients compared with controls (P risk was most prominent in the elderly patients (65-80 y, seven versus two MVAs). In patients, driving distance (km/y), EDS (Epworth Sleepiness score ≥ 16), short habitual sleep time (≤5 h/night), and use of hypnotics were associated with increased MVA risk (odds ratios 1.2, 2.1, 2.7 and 2.1, all P ≤ 0.03). CPAP use ≥ 4 h/night was associated with a reduction of MVA incidence (7.6 to 2.5 accidents/1,000 drivers/y). The MVA risk in this large cohort of unselected patients with OSA suggests a need for accurate tools to identify individuals at risk. Sleep apnea severity (e.g., apnea-hypopnea index) failed to identify patients at risk. © 2015 Associated Professional Sleep Societies, LLC.

  5. Trend and Seasonal Patterns of Injuries and Mortality Due to Motorcyclists Traffic Accidents; A Hospital-Based Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosseinpour, Marjan; Mohammadian-Hafshejani, Abdollah; Esmaeilpour Aghdam, Mohammad; Mohammadian, Mahdi; Maleki, Farzad

    2017-01-01

    To investigate trend and seasonal pattern of occurrence and mortality of motorcycle accidents in patients referred to hospitals of Isfahan. This cross-sectional study was carried out using traffic accidents data of Isfahan province, extracted from Ministry of Health (MOH) database from 2006 to 2010. During the study period, 83648 people injured due to motorcycle traffic accidents were referred to hospitals, all of them entered in the study. Logistic regression model was used to calculate the hospital mortality odds ratio, and Cochrane-Armitage test was used for assessment of linear trend. During the study period, the hospital admission for motorcycle accident was 83,648 and 89.3% (74743) of them were men. Mean age in accidents time was 26.41±14.3 years. The injuries and death sex ratio were 8.4 and 16.9, respectively. Lowest admission rate was during autumn and highest during summer. The injury mortality odds ratio was 1.01 (CI 95% 0.73-1.39) in the Spring, 1.34 (CI95% 1.01-1.79) in summer and 1.17 (CI95% 0.83-1.63). It was also calculated to be 2.51 (CI95% 1.36-4.64) in age group 40-49, 2.39 (CI95% 1.51-5.68) in 50-59 and 4.79 (CI95% 2.49-9.22) in 60-69 years. The mortality odds ratio was 3.53 (CI95% 2.77-4.5) in rural place, 1.33 (CI95% 1.15-1.54) in men, and 2.44 (CI95% 2.09-2.85) in the road out of town and village. In addition, trend of motorcycle accidents mortality was increasing (p<0.001). Motorcycle accidents injuries are more common in men, summer, young age and rural roads. These high risk groups need more attention, care and higher training.

  6. Traffic collisions between electric mobility devices (wheelchairs) and motor vehicles: Accidents, hubris, or self-destructive behavior?

    Science.gov (United States)

    LaBan, Myron M; Nabity, Thomas S

    2010-07-01

    This study had its genesis in a personally observed collision between a motor vehicle and a motorized wheelchair (electric mobility device) on a busy street in the middle of the block at an unmarked crossing. To the observer, at the time, this appeared to be a suicidal act. This investigation was initiated to both delineate the number of these crashes nationally and understand this phenomena as a potentially planned act of self-destruction. An initial survey of police reports was immediately frustrated by an inability to separate motor vehicle and electric mobility device collisions from the much larger group that involved ambulatory citizens because both types were classified together as "pedestrian" accidents. Instead, the search engine NexisLexis was used to identify 107 newspaper articles each of which described a motor vehicle and electric mobility device accident. In the motor vehicle and electric mobility device collisions, men predominated women (3:1 ratio) with an average age of 56 yrs. Sixty of these accidents were fatal. Ninety-four percent involved an electric mobility device and 6% a manual wheelchair. In 50% of the cases, the motor vehicle was a truck, van, or sport utility vehicle. Fifty percent occurred at dusk or dawn or at night. The electric mobility device occupant was cited as the guilty party in 39% of the cases and the driver of the motor vehicle in 27%. Twenty percent were unwitnessed hit-and-run accidents, whereas "no fault" was found in 8% of the cases. Although many accidents do happen by chance, when an electric mobility device operator openly challenges busy traffic by attempting to traverse it in the middle of the block at an unmarked crossing, predisposing psychosocial factors must also be considered. Hubris or premeditated self-destructive behavior or both need to be explored as preeminent issues with reference to the prodromal of the "accident process."

  7. Personality, Driving Behavior and Mental Disorders Factors as Predictors of Road Traffic Accidents Based on Logistic Regression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alavi, Seyyed Salman; Mohammadi, Mohammad Reza; Souri, Hamid; Mohammadi Kalhori, Soroush; Jannatifard, Fereshteh; Sepahbodi, Ghazal

    2017-01-01

    Background: The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of variables such as personality traits, driving behavior and mental illness on road traffic accidents among the drivers with accidents and those without road crash. Methods: In this cohort study, 800 bus and truck drivers were recruited. Participants were selected among drivers who referred to Imam Sajjad Hospital (Tehran, Iran) during 2013-2015. The Manchester driving behavior questionnaire (MDBQ), big five personality test (NEO personality inventory) and semi-structured interview (schizophrenia and affective disorders scale) were used. After two years, we surveyed all accidents due to human factors that involved the recruited drivers. The data were analyzed using the SPSS software by performing the descriptive statistics, t-test, and multiple logistic regression analysis methods. P values less than 0.05 were considered statistically significant. Results: In terms of controlling the effective and demographic variables, the findings revealed significant differences between the two groups of drivers that were and were not involved in road accidents. In addition, it was found that depression and anxiety could increase the odds ratio (OR) of road accidents by 2.4- and 2.7-folds, respectively (P=0.04, P=0.004). It is noteworthy to mention that neuroticism alone can increase the odds of road accidents by 1.1-fold (P=0.009), but other personality factors did not have a significant effect on the equation. Conclusion: The results revealed that some mental disorders affect the incidence of road collisions. Considering the importance and sensitivity of driving behavior, it is necessary to evaluate multiple psychological factors influencing drivers before and after receiving or renewing their driver’s license. PMID:28293047

  8. Personality, Driving Behavior and Mental Disorders Factors as Predictors of Road Traffic Accidents Based on Logistic Regression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyyed Salman Alavi

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of variables such as personality traits, driving behavior and mental illness on road traffic accidents among the drivers with accidents and those without road crash. Methods: In this cohort study, 800 bus and truck drivers were recruited. Participants were selected among drivers who referred to Imam Sajjad Hospital (Tehran, Iran during 2013-2015. The Manchester driving behavior questionnaire (MDBQ, big five personality test (NEO personality inventory and semi-structured interview (SADS were used. After two years, we surveyed all accidents due to human factors that involved the recruited drivers. The data were analyzed using the SPSS software by performing the descriptive statistics, t-test, and multiple logistic regression analysis methods. P values less than 0.05 were considered statistically significant. Results: In terms of controlling the effective and demographic variables, the findings revealed significant differences between the two groups of drivers that were and were not involved in road accidents. In addition, it was found that depression and anxiety could increase the odds ratio (OR of road accidents by 2.4- and 2.7-folds, respectively (P=0.04, P=0.004. It is noteworthy to mention that neuroticism alone can increase the odds of road accidents by 1.1-fold (P=0.009, but other personality factors did not have a significant effect on the equation. Conclusion: The results revealed that some mental disorders affect the incidence of road collisions. Considering the importance and sensitivity of driving behavior, it is necessary to evaluate multiple psychological factors influencing drivers before and after receiving or renewing their driver’s license.

  9. Tacit Driving Knowledge, Emotional Intelligence, Stressful Events and Accident Risk: Traffic Safety Implications

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Legree, Peter

    1999-01-01

    ... and the driver's internal or emotional state. The tests were administered with a battery of conventional cognitive tests, personality instruments and situational variables chosen to predict accident involvement...

  10. Burden, pattern and causes of road traffic accidents in Bhutan, 2013-2014: a police record review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wangdi, Chador; Gurung, Mongal Singh; Duba, Tashi; Wilkinson, Ewan; Tun, Zaw Myo; Tripathy, Jaya Prasad

    2017-07-10

    Road traffic accidents (RTAs) are a major cause of death and injury globally. There was little information on the burden and causes of RTAs in Bhutan. The study estimates the burden and characteristics of RTAs and describes the victims of RTAs in Bhutan. A descriptive cross-sectional study conducted analysing police case records. In 2013-2014, 1866 accidents resulted in 1143 injuries and 157 deaths. We identified 39% more deaths from RTAs than that submitted to WHO in 2013 as the 30-day mortality. The main causes were careless driving and drunk-driving. Drivers and passengers constituted 86% of the deaths with few pedestrian deaths. Data for in-hospital deaths or after discharge were not available. Productivity loss due to RTA is around 1% of national GDP. There is significant mortality and morbidity from RTAs in Bhutan. There is no coordinated system for data collection and surveillance to monitor SDG goal 3.6.

  11. Alcohol intoxication in road traffic accidents leads to higher impact speed difference, higher ISS and MAIS, and higher preclinical mortality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stübig, Timo; Petri, Maximilian; Zeckey, Christian; Brand, Stephan; Müller, Christian; Otte, Dietmar; Krettek, Christian; Haasper, Carl

    2012-11-01

    Alcohol is one of the most important personal risk factors for serious and fatal injuries, contributing to approximately one third of all deaths from accidents. It is also described that alcohol intoxication leads to a higher mortality in the clinical course. In this study, we hypothesized that alcohol intoxication leads to different accident kinematics, a higher ISS (Injury Severity Score), and higher preclinical mortality compared to sober patients. A technical and medical investigation of alcohol intoxicated road users was performed on the scene of the crash and at the primary admitting hospital. Alcohol testing was performed with either breath alcohol tests or measurement of blood alcohol concentration (BAC) in a standard laboratory test. Between 1999 and 2010, 37,635 road traffic accidents were evaluated by the Accident Research Unit. Overall 20,741 patients were injured, 2.3% of the patients were killed. Among the injured patients, 2.2% with negative BAC were killed, compared to 4.6% fatal injuries in patients with a positive BAC (p MAIS, and relative speed, but a correlation of increasing age of patients with higher alcohol concentrations. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Prevention of pedestrian accidents.

    OpenAIRE

    Kendrick, D.

    1993-01-01

    Child pedestrian accidents are the most common road traffic accident resulting in injury. Much of the existing work on road traffic accidents is based on analysing clusters of accidents despite evidence that child pedestrian accidents tend to be more dispersed than this. This paper analyses pedestrian accidents in 573 children aged 0-11 years by a locally derived deprivation score for the years 1988-90. The analysis shows a significantly higher accident rate in deprived areas and a dose respo...

  13. Post-traumatic stress disorder in children following road traffic accidents: a comparison of those with and without mild traumatic brain injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mather, Fiona J; Tate, Robyn L; Hannan, Timothy J

    2003-12-01

    It is now recognized that post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) can occur following road traffic accidents, but controversy exists about the possibility of PTSD in people sustaining traumatic brain injury (TBI). The present investigation examined the frequency, course and comorbidity of PTSD in children with and without mild TBI after traffic accidents. Interviews were conducted with 43 children and their parents 6 weeks after a traffic accident,assessing PTSD and associated symptomatology. Fourteen children sustained mild TBI and 29 had no TBI. A sub-set (n=32) was re-interviewed 7 weeks later. Children both with and without TBI reported PTSD symptomatology, but no significant group differences were found. At initial assessment, 74% of children were classified as having clinically significant PTSD symptomatology (86% and 69% in groups with and without TBI, respectively), which was strongly associated with report of general anxiety. At follow-up, PTSD symptomatology decreased, but 44% remained symptomatic (38% and 46% for those with and without TBI, respectively). Child and parental report of PTSD symptomatology were not significantly correlated. Presence of mild TBI did not influence the likelihood of experiencing PTSD symptomatology following a traffic accident. Given that PTSD symptomatology is a common consequence of traffic accidents in children, there is a clear need for provision of systematic assessment and, where appropriate, the implementation of intervention strategies to treat children.

  14. Workers in transport prone to twice as many traffic-related accidents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bakhuys Roozeboom, M.M.C.; Venema, A.

    2008-01-01

    Work-related accidents occur more than twice as often among workers in transport occupations (7.7%) compared with the average (2.9%). Bus drivers as well as truck drivers are among the top 10 high risk occupations concerning dangerous work and occupational accidents. Recent findings from the

  15. Video-recorded accidents conflicts and road user behaviour: A step forward in traffic safety research

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Horst, A.R.A. van der

    2008-01-01

    TNO Human Factors conducted long-term video observations to collect data on the pre-crash phase of real accidents (what exactly happened just before the collision?). The video recordings of collisions were used to evaluate and validate the safety value of indepth accident analyses, road scene

  16. Video-recorded accidents conflicts and road user behaviour: A step forward in traffic safety research

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Horst, A.R.A. van der

    2013-01-01

    TNO conducted long-term video observations to collect data on the pre-crash phase of real accidents (what exactly happened just before the collision?). The video recordings of collisions were used to evaluate and validate the safety value of in-depth accident analyses, road scene analyses, and

  17. Causative Chain Difference for each Type of Accidents in Japanese Maritime Traffic Systems (MTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wanginingastuti Mutmainnah

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Causative chain (CC is a failure chain that cause accident as an outcome product of the second step of MOP model, namely line relation analysis (LRA. This CC is a connection of several causative factors (CF, an outcome product of first step of MOP model, namely corner analysis (CA. MOP Model is an abbreviation from 4M Overturned Pyramid, created by authors by combining 2 accident analysis models. There are two steps in this model, namely CA and LRA. Utilizing this model can know what is CF that happen dominantly to the accidents and what is a danger CC that characterize accidents in a certain place and certain period. By knowing the characteristics, the preventive action can be decided to decrease the number of accident in the next period. The aim of this paper is providing the development of MOP Model that has been upgraded and understanding the characteristics of each type accident. The data that is analyzed in this paper is Japanese accidents from 2008 until 2013, which is available on Japan Transportation Safety Board (JTSB’s website. The analysis shows that every type of accidents has a unique characteristic, shown by their CFs and CCs. However, Man Factor is still playing role to the system dominantly.

  18. 32 CFR 634.30 - Use of traffic accident investigation report data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... are senior equipment operators, maintenance officer, and medical officers. However, specific qualifications of the additional board members may be dictated by the nature of the accident. (f) The CAIG... accident review board. The board will consist of law enforcement, engineer, safety, medical, and legal...

  19. Analysis of factors associated with traffic accidents of cyclists attended in Brazilian state capitals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sousa, Carlos Augusto Moreira de; Bahia, Camila Alves; Constantino, Patrícia

    2016-12-01

    Brazil has the sixth largest bicycles fleet in the world and bicycle is the most used individual transport vehicle in the country. Few studies address the issue of cyclists' accidents and factors that contribute to or prevent this event. VIVA is a cross-sectional survey and is part of the Violence and Accidents Surveillance System, Brazilian Ministry of Health. We used complex sampling and subsequent data review through multivariate logistic regression and calculation of the respective odds ratios. Odds ratios showed greater likelihood of cyclists' accidents in males, people with less schooling and living in urban and periurban areas. People who were not using the bike to go to work were more likely to suffer an accident. The profile found in this study corroborates findings of other studies. They claim that the coexistence of cyclists and other means of transportation in the same urban space increases the likelihood of accidents. The construction of bicycle-exclusive spaces and educational campaigns are required.

  20. Characteristics of maxillofacial injuries resulting from road traffic accidents – a 5 year review of the case records from Department of Maxillofacial Surgery in Katowice, Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Drugacz Jan

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In spite of employing numerous devices improving the safety in motor vehicles, traffic accidents are still among the main reasons of maxillofacial injuries. The maxillofacial injuries remain the serious clinical problem because of the specificity of this anatomical region. The knowledge of etiologic factors and mechanisms of injuries can be helpful in a satisfactory trauma prevention. The aim of this study was to find out the incidence and the pattern of maxillofacial injuries resulting from traffic accidents in the patients treated in the Department of Maxillofacial Surgery (Silesian Medical Academy in Katowice, Poland from January 2001 to December 2005. Methods The material consisted of 1024 case records of patients with maxillofacial injuries treated in the Maxillofacial Surgery Department of Silesian Medical Academy. The detailed analysis was carried out on the case records of 198 patients in the age of 3 to 68 with maxillofacial injuries resulting from traffic accidents. On the basis of data from a history, examination on admission, consultations and radiological examinations, patients' age and gender, we obtained the information on a pattern of injury and detailed description of an accident (the date and the time of an accident, the role of the patient in an accident. Results The traffic accidents were the cause of 19,93% maxillofacial injuries in the analyzed period of time. Most of the patients had injuries to the soft tissues of the face (22,21%, followed by tooth and alveolar process injuries (20,71% and mandibular fractures (18,69%. All the types of injuries were more common in men than in women. The majority of the patients were car drivers followed by car passengers, pedestrians, cyclists and motor cyclists. The peak age of the patients was between 18 to 25 years. The prevalent number of accidents resulting in injuries to this region took place in spring, especially between noon and 4 PM. Conclusion Our results

  1. Characteristics of maxillofacial injuries resulting from road traffic accidents – a 5 year review of the case records from Department of Maxillofacial Surgery in Katowice, Poland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malara, Piotr; Malara, Beata; Drugacz, Jan

    2006-01-01

    Background In spite of employing numerous devices improving the safety in motor vehicles, traffic accidents are still among the main reasons of maxillofacial injuries. The maxillofacial injuries remain the serious clinical problem because of the specificity of this anatomical region. The knowledge of etiologic factors and mechanisms of injuries can be helpful in a satisfactory trauma prevention. The aim of this study was to find out the incidence and the pattern of maxillofacial injuries resulting from traffic accidents in the patients treated in the Department of Maxillofacial Surgery (Silesian Medical Academy in Katowice, Poland) from January 2001 to December 2005. Methods The material consisted of 1024 case records of patients with maxillofacial injuries treated in the Maxillofacial Surgery Department of Silesian Medical Academy. The detailed analysis was carried out on the case records of 198 patients in the age of 3 to 68 with maxillofacial injuries resulting from traffic accidents. On the basis of data from a history, examination on admission, consultations and radiological examinations, patients' age and gender, we obtained the information on a pattern of injury and detailed description of an accident (the date and the time of an accident, the role of the patient in an accident). Results The traffic accidents were the cause of 19,93% maxillofacial injuries in the analyzed period of time. Most of the patients had injuries to the soft tissues of the face (22,21%), followed by tooth and alveolar process injuries (20,71%) and mandibular fractures (18,69%). All the types of injuries were more common in men than in women. The majority of the patients were car drivers followed by car passengers, pedestrians, cyclists and motor cyclists. The peak age of the patients was between 18 to 25 years. The prevalent number of accidents resulting in injuries to this region took place in spring, especially between noon and 4 PM. Conclusion Our results exhibit that road traffic

  2. RESEARCH OF VEHICLE’S BRAKING DYNAMICS AT TRAFFIC ACCIDENT ANALYSIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Turenko

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The problem of vehicles braking process after the road accident is reviewed. The inaccuracies are analyzed for the purpose of deceleration determination occurance at the application of out-of-date statistical database by experts.

  3. An epidemiological study on pattern of thoraco-abdominal injuries sustained in fatal road traffic accidents of Bangalore: Autopsy-based study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N Bayapa Reddy

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The statistical profile reflects a global estimate of 5.1 million deaths in 2000, which was due to injuries that accounted for 10% of deaths due to all causes. Out of this, a quarter of injury-related deaths occurred in the South-East Asian region. Road Traffic Accident (RTA is one among the top 5 causes of morbidity and mortality in South-East Asian countries. Most common cause of blunt abdominal trauma in India is road traffic accident followed by pedestrian accidents, abdominal blows, and fall from heights. Aims: To analyze the epidemiology and pattern of fatal thoraco-abdominal injuries in road traffic accidents. Materials and Methods: An autopsy-based cross-sectional study conducted. A purposive sampling technique was applied to select the study sample of 100 post-mortems of road traffic accident between November 2008 and May 2010 subjected to medico-legal autopsy at the department of Forensic Medicine, KIMS Hospital Bangalore. Results: The majority of the victims were aged 21 to 40 years, 50 (50.0%, most of the victims were male 92 (92.0%; and male/female ratio was 11.5:1. Commonest offending agents in heavy motor vehicles were 54 (54.0%. Bony cage sustained injuries were observed in 71; out of this, fractures of ribs were observed in 45 (63.3% victims, clavicle in 14 (19.7%, sternum was 6 (8.4%, and vertebrae 6 (8.4% of fatal road traffic accidents. Internal thoracic injuries were observed in 26 cases. Among internal thoracic injuries, lungs were the most commonly involved organ 24 (92.3% followed by the heart 2 (7.6%. Lung sustained more lacerations 19 (79.1% than contusions 5 (20.8%. Internal abdominal injuries were observed in 49 cases. In road traffic accidents, the most commonly injured abdominal organs were solid organs such as liver 16 (32.6% followed by spleen 9 (18.3%. Conclusions: Majority of the times in road traffic accidents, young and productive males were injured or lost their life. This study may help the

  4. Evaluation of care for traffic accidents victims made by on duty emergency physicians and surgeons in the emergency room

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    VLAUDIMIR DIAS MARQUES

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Objective: to evaluate the care for victims of traffic accidents by on call emergency physicians and/or surgeons in the emergency room. Methods: we conducted a retrospective, descriptive and exploratory study on the care for traffic accidents victims in the urban area of Maringá-PR, between July 2013 and July 2014 in reference hospitals. We assessed demographics and vocational training through a questionnaire sent to the attending physicians. Results: of the 688 records evaluated, 99% of patients had a prehospital Revised Trauma Score of 12. Statistical analysis showed that in the cases conducted by the emergency physicians (n=187, the recording of the Glasgow Coma Scale and the performance of surgical procedures were less common, whereas the recording of blood pressure values was performed in greater numbers when compared with cases led by surgeons (n=501. There was a statistically significant relationship (p<0.01 between the length of hospital stay and surgical specialty, with a greater chance (crude OR=28 in the period from one to six hours for the group treated by emergency doctors. Most physicians participating in the study were young, with emergency room time of up to one to two years, and with ATLS training. Among those who had attended the ATLS course, 60% did so in the last four years. Surgeons performed 73% of hospital treatments. Conclusion: in the care of traffic victims with minor injuries, the Glasgow Coma Scale, the blood pressure levels, the type of treatment in the emergency room and hospital stay had different approaches between emergency physicians and surgeons.

  5. Simulation study of car accidents at the intersection of two roads in the mixed traffic flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marzoug, R.; Ez-Zahraouy, H.; Benyoussef, A.

    2015-05-01

    Using cellular automata (CA) Nagel-Schreckenberg (NaSch) model, we numerically study the probability Pac of the occurrence of car accidents at nonsignalized intersection when drivers do not respect the priority rules. We also investigated the impact of mixture lengths and velocities of vehicles on this probability. It is found that in the first case, where vehicles distinguished only by their lengths, the car accidents start to occur above a critical density ρc. Furthermore, the increase of the fraction of long vehicles (FL) delays the occurrence of car accidents (increasing ρc) and increases the risk of collisions when ρ > ρc. In other side, the mixture of maximum velocities (with same length for all vehicles) leads to the appearance of accidents at the intersection even in the free flow regime. Moreover, the increase of the fraction of fast vehicles (Ff) reduces the accident probability (Pac). The influence of roads length is also studied. We found that the decrease of the roads length enhance the risk of collision.

  6. Self-reported accidents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Katrine Meltofte; Andersen, Camilla Sloth

    2016-01-01

    The main idea behind the self-reporting of accidents is to ask people about their traffic accidents and gain knowledge on these accidents without relying on the official records kept by police and/or hospitals.......The main idea behind the self-reporting of accidents is to ask people about their traffic accidents and gain knowledge on these accidents without relying on the official records kept by police and/or hospitals....

  7. Driving habits and risk factors for traffic accidents among sleep apnea patients--a European multi-centre cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karimi, Mahssa; Hedner, Jan; Lombardi, Carolina; Mcnicholas, Walter T; Penzel, Thomas; Riha, Renata L; Rodenstein, Daniel; Grote, Ludger

    2014-12-01

    Obstructive sleep apnea is associated with increased motor vehicle accident risk, and improved detection of patients at risk is of importance. The present study addresses potential risk factors in the European Sleep Apnea Database and includes patients with suspected obstructive sleep apnea [n = 8476, age 51.5 (12.5) years, body mass index 31.0 (6.6) kg m(-2) , 82.4% driver's licence holders]. Driving distance (km year(-1) ), driver's licence type, sleep apnea severity, sleepiness and comorbidities were assessed. Previously validated risk factors for accident history: Epworth Sleepiness Scale ≥16; habitual sleep time ≤5 h; use of hypnotics; and driving ≥15 000 km year(-1) were analysed across European regions. At least one risk factor was identified in male and female drivers, 68.75 and 51.3%, respectively. The occurrence of the risk factors was similar across Europe, with only a lower rate in the eastern region (P = 0.001). The mean number of risk factors increased across classes of sleep apnea severity. Frequent driving was prevalent [14.0 (interquartile range 8.0-20.0) × 10(3)  km year(-1) ] and 32.7% of drivers had severe obstructive sleep apnea [apnea-hypopnea index 50.3 (38.8-66.0) n h(-1) ]. Obesity, shorter sleep time and younger age were associated with increased traffic exposure (P ≤ 0.03). In conclusion, the risk factors associated with accident history were common among European patients with suspected obstructive sleep apnea, but varied between geographical regions. There was a weak covariation between occurrence of risk factors and clinically determined apnea severity but frequent driving, a strong risk factor for accidents, was over-represented. Systematic evaluation of accident-related risk factors is important to detect sleep apnea patients at risk for motor vehicle accidents. © 2014 European Sleep Research Society.

  8. Epidemiological study of road traffic accident cases in Greater Noida: Hospital Based Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rupali Roy

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Road accidents are associated with numerous problems each of which needs to be addressed separately [1]. Accidents, therefore, can be studied in terms of agent, host and environmental factors and epidemiologically classified into time, place and person distribution [2]. Objectives: 1.To assess the prevalence of RTAs coming to hospital and 2.To know the epidemiological factors related to RTAs and associated prevalence in hospital based study. Methodology: This cross sectional study was conducted at SMSR, Gr Noida, in 2012. The study group consisted of all the RTA victims reporting to casualty in the last one year. The victims of the accidents were interviewed on a pretested semi structured performa. Results: In that one year period total number of reported accident cases was 144. The age groups of the study subjects were between 13-65 years. Out of total study subjects, only 16 were female. Again out of the total accident cases 45% were attended by police and of all injured, 45.8% were driver by occupation (7% without driving license. Among these drivers, 11% were not attentive during driving because of various reasons. Ambulance services had reached in 46.5% cases. Fracture was the most common type (60% of injury among all types of injuries. Among the applicable population only 33% wore helmet or seat belts. Conclusions: Only half of the total accident cases were attended by police and again only half of them received ambulance services. One third injuries were because of not wearing seat belt and helmets.

  9. Medico-Legal Deaths From Road Traffic Accidents In Sagamu, Nigeria

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Design: Retrospective study. Setting: Olabisi Onabanjo University Teaching Hospital, Sagamu, Nigeria. Participants: Patients that died within ... Motor vehicle drivers with their passengers accounted for 346 (84.2%). Three hundred and four patients (74%) were BID from accident scene. The most common causes of death in ...

  10. Suicide mortality in comparison to traffic accidents and homicides as causes of unnatural death. An analysis of 14,441 cases in Germany in the year 2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lukaschek, Karoline; Erazo, Natalia; Baumert, Jens; Ladwig, Karl-Heinz

    2012-03-01

    To assess suicide mortality in comparison to traffic accidents and homicide deaths in Germany in the year 2010 and to compare years of life lost (YLL) due to these unnatural deaths. Mortality data were provided by the Federal Statistical Office giving death rates (related to 100,000 inhabitants) and proportions (related to 100 deaths of individuals) for suicide, traffic accidents and homicide as well as YLL data. A total of 14,441 unnatural deaths (suicide, traffic accidents, homicide) were reported in 2010 in Germany. Of those, 10,021 subjects (69.4%) committed suicide, 3,942 (27.3%) died in traffic accidents, 478 (3.3%) were murdered. Suicide death rates were by far the highest, with rates for men (18.6) three times higher than for women (6.1). For both sexes, suicide rates increased with age, whereas suicide as a proportion of all causes of death was higher in younger age groups. In both sexes, suicide was the leading cause of YLL (men: 314 YLL, women: 90 YLL). Suicide is the leading cause of unnatural death and YLL. The sex- and age- specific patterns in suicide mortality call for different action plans to target high risk groups.

  11. Differences between attendance in emergency care of male and female victims of traffic accidents in Porto alegre, Rio Grande do Sul state, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raquel Forgiarini Saldanha

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Driving under the influence of alcohol/ drugs (DUI is a well-established risk factor for traffic accidents, and men and women have different consumption patterns. The scope of this paper is to analyze differences in alcohol and drug consumption, as well as on behavior associated with traffic accidents among men and women. A cross-sectional study was conducted with 609 sequential traffic accident victims attended in emergency care from Porto Alegre. Subjects gave a structured interview, were breathalyzed and had a saliva test for alcohol/drug screening. Results showed that women were mainly passengers or pedestrians (p < 0.001. There was no significant difference in positive blood alcohol concentration. However, men reported more binge drinking and THC use, while women had more benzodiazepine in their saliva (p<0.05. This is the first Brazilian study to compare alcohol and drug use among men and women who were the victims of traffic accidents. Results point to differences in the pattern of substance abuse, as well on risk behavior. Data may be useful for specific prevention strategies that take gender differences into consideration.

  12. Analyzing the response to traffic accidents in Medellín, Colombia, with facility location models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolina P. Castañeda

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we analyze the emergency medical service (EMS devoted to attend the victims of traffic accidents in Medellín (Colombia. This work was motivated by the steep increase in injuries derived from these events over the last years. This project has been developed in a partnership with the local authorities of Medellín. In our analysis we used several facility location models to evaluate different courses of improvement. The impact of the proposed measures (a larger fleet of ambulances and different alternatives for their location is evaluated in terms of the reduction in the number of uncovered districts, the decrease in the busyness of the system, and the resulting improvement in the quality of service. The results of the analysis suggest that to improve the service of the EMS, it is more important to increase the size of the fleet of ambulances than to change their locations at the fire stations.

  13. What are the differences in injury patterns of young and elderly traffic accident fatalities considering death on scene and death in hospital?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heinrich, Daniela; Holzmann, Christopher; Wagner, Anja; Fischer, Anja; Pfeifer, Roman; Graw, Matthias; Schick, Sylvia

    2017-07-01

    Older traffic participants have higher risks of injury than the population up to 65 years in case of comparable road traffic accidents and further, higher mortality rates at comparable injury severities. Rib fractures as risk factors are currently discussed. However, death on scene is associated with hardly survivable injuries and might not be a matter of neither rib fractures nor age. As 60% of traffic accident fatalities are estimated to die on scene, they are not captured in hospital-based trauma registries and injury patterns remain unknown. Our database comprises 309 road traffic fatalities, autopsied at the Institute of Legal Medicine Munich in 2004 and 2005. Injuries are coded according to Abbreviated Injury Scale, AIS© 2005 update 2008 [1]. Data used for this analysis are age, sex, site of death, site of accident, traffic participation mode, measures of injury severity, and rib fractures. The injury patterns of elderly, aged 65+ years, are compared to the younger ones divided by their site of death. Elderly with death on scene more often show serious thorax injuries and pelvic fractures than the younger. Some hints point towards older fatalities showing less frequently serious abdominal injuries. In hospital, elderly fatalities show lower Injury Severity Scores (ISSs) compared to the younger. The number of rib fractures is significantly higher for the elderly but is not the reason for death. Results show that young and old fatalities have different injury patterns and reveal first hints towards the need to analyze death on scene more in-depth.

  14. Road traffic accidents prediction modelling: An analysis of Anambra State, Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ihueze, Chukwutoo C; Onwurah, Uchendu O

    2018-01-04

    One of the major problems in the world today is the rate of road traffic crashes and deaths on our roads. Majority of these deaths occur in low-and-middle income countries including Nigeria. This study analyzed road traffic crashes in Anambra State, Nigeria with the intention of developing accurate predictive models for forecasting crash frequency in the State using autoregressive integrated moving average (ARIMA) and autoregressive integrated moving average with explanatory variables (ARIMAX) modelling techniques. The result showed that ARIMAX model outperformed the ARIMA (1,1,1) model generated when their performances were compared using the lower Bayesian information criterion, mean absolute percentage error, root mean square error; and higher coefficient of determination (R-Squared) as accuracy measures. The findings of this study reveal that incorporating human, vehicle and environmental related factors in time series analysis of crash dataset produces a more robust predictive model than solely using aggregated crash count. This study contributes to the body of knowledge on road traffic safety and provides an approach to forecasting using many human, vehicle and environmental factors. The recommendations made in this study if applied will help in reducing the number of road traffic crashes in Nigeria. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. 0BOccupational Risk Factors in Iranian Professional Drivers and their Impacts on Traffic Accidents

    OpenAIRE

    MEHDI JAHANGIRI; ALI KARIMI; SAMIRA SLAMIZAD; MOHAMMAD OLYAEI; SEKHAVAT MOOSAVI; FATEMEH AMIRI

    2015-01-01

      In many countries road crashes are the main cause of fatal accidents related to job. The aim of our study was to characterize a population of Iranian professional drivers with regard to history of drivers’ road crash incidents and some occupational factors. Using Swedish version of the Nordic Questionnaire information about musculoskeletal pain prevalence in last 12 months, demographic features, smoking habits, age, job experience, road crash, job consent, self-perceived job stress, working...

  16. Mortality rate in children caused by traffic accidents according to geographical regions - Brazil, 1997 - 2005.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loffredo, Maria; Arruda, Celso; Loffredo, Leonor de Castro Monteiro

    2012-06-01

    Fatal injuries in children caused by motor vehicle accidents represent a common situation in many countries worldwide. The present study addresses the mortality rate in children as vehicle passengers in Brazil, from 1997 to 2005. To evaluate mortality rates, the number of deaths was collected from the National Mortality Information System (SIM) and the population size was obtained using the Brazilian Bureau Census (IBGE) data available at DATASUS. Mortality rates were estimated in three-year periods and analyzed according to age groups (younger than 1 year old, 1-4 years old, 5-9 years old) and geographical regions using a 95% confidence interval. Overall results showed mortality rates of 5.68, 7.32 and 6.78 (per 1,000,000) for the 1997-1999, 2000-2002 and 2003-2005 periods, respectively for the whole country. Children younger than 1 year old had a mortality rate of 10.18 (per 1,000,000), which was higher than for the other age groups. For the period analyzed, the highest rates were observed for the Mid-West and South regions of Brazil, with rates of 13.88 and 11.47 (per 1,000,000), respectively. These results show the risk of fatal injury in children caused by motor vehicle accidents and may contribute to the establishment of educational campaigns aiming injury prevention in children as vehicle passengers.

  17. [Prevention of road accidents involving non-motorized traffic participants (pedestrians and cyclists) in Germany].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zwipp, H; Ernstberger, A; Groschupf, V; Günther, K P; Haase, M; Haasper, C; Hagemeister, C; Hannawald, L; Juhra, C; Leser, H; Lob, G; Maier, R; Seeck, A; Winkler, R; Otte, D

    2012-06-01

    During a 1-day workshop organized by the German Society of Orthopaedics and Traumatology (DGOU) 15 German accident researchers used different approaches to improve the effectiveness of accident prevention for pedestrians and bicyclists on German roads. The main results of this analysis show: Fatal injuries of pedestrians have been significantly reduced by 82% between 1970 (n=6.056) and 2007 (n=695). Similarly, fatalities of bicyclists have been reduced during the same time period from 1,835 to 425 which amount to almost 80%. However, the total number of injured cyclists increased almost twice, i.e. from 40,531 (in 1979) to 78,579 (in 2007) a fact that needs to be analyzed in more detail. Although scientifically proven to provide protection against severe head injuries, helmets are worn less frequently by adolescents and women as compared to younger children and men. Fatalities of bicyclists might be reduced by using Dobli mirrors which allow the truck driver to see the bicyclist when turning right. Recently developed sensors are able to detect pedestrians walking closely (systems in cars like ESP (electronic stability program), BAS (brake assist system), special light systems for curves, and night vision utilities are most effective to prevent collision with pedestrians and bicyclists. TV spots for bicyclists could help to point out dangerous situations and the proven benefits of wearing a helmet in the same way as previous campaigns, e.g."The 7th Sense" for car drivers.

  18. Comparison of the effects of two legal blood alcohol limits: the presence of alcohol in traffic accidents according to category of driver in Izmir, Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karakus, Akan; İdiz, Nuri; Dalgiç, Mustafa; Uluçay, Tarik; Sincar, Yasemin

    2015-01-01

    Under existing Turkish road traffic law, there are 2 different blood alcohol concentration (BAC) limits allowed for drivers in 2013: zero blood alcohol and ≤0.50 g/L. All public transport, taxi, commercial, and official vehicle drivers must maintain a zero blood alcohol concentration while driving. Private vehicle drivers must maintain a BAC of 0.50 g/L or lower. The aim of the recent study was to evaluate the effect of these 2 legal blood alcohol limits on nonfatal traffic accidents that occurred due to the driver being under the influence of alcohol. This retrospective study was performed to evaluate the blood alcohol concentration of 224 drivers in nonfatal road accidents between June 2010 and July 2011 using headspace gas chromatography at the Izmir Forensic Medicine Group Presidency, Turkey. All cases evaluated by the toxicology department were entered into a database. We used descriptive statistics, χ(2) test, and independent sampling test to analyze the data. The total number of drivers involved in nonfatal traffic accidents was 224; 191 were private vehicle drivers and 33 were public transport, taxi, commercial, and official vehicle drivers. In the present study, alcohol was detected in the blood of about 27.2% (n = 61) of the 224 drivers. Sixty (31.4%) private vehicle drivers involved in nonfatal traffic accidents tested positive for alcohol. BAC values were also above the legal limit (0.50 g/L) in 27.7% (n = 53) of private vehicle drivers. However, the BAC was above the legal limit in only 3% (n = 1) of public transport, commercial, and official vehicle drivers involved in nonfatal traffic accidents. These results showed that private vehicle drivers subject to a BAC limit of ≤0.50 g/L were significantly associated with an increased risk of nonfatal accident involvement than drivers subject to a zero BAC limit (odds ratio [OR] = 12.29, 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.64-92.22; Fisher's exact test, P private vehicle drivers subject to a 0.50 g/L level

  19. Coordination of Emergency Medical Services for a Major Road Traffic Accident on a Swiss Suburban Highway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dami, Fabrice; Fuchs, Vincent; Péclard, Etienne; Potin, Mathieu; Vallotton, Laurent; Carron, Pierre-Nicolas

    2009-06-01

    On 9th April 2008 at 2:14 p.m., on the highway between Lausanne and Vevey in western Switzerland, there was a 72-car pileup including five trucks that caused one death and injured 26 others. The relatively light toll was attributed to reduced vehicular speeds on account of foggy weather, together with the quick actions and effectiveness of the first responders and the excellent collaboration between the various rescue groups (medical rescue services, fire and police departments). For the first time, we used an innovative on-site medical command and control system, based on a binomial team. Two hours after the accident, the last of the injured had been evacuated and first aid on the site had ended. This article describes how the Emergency Medical Services from the State of Vaud, Switzerland, handled the situation and how the binomial team is structured.

  20. Road traffic accidents and posttraumatic stress disorder in an orthopedic setting in south-eastern Nigeria: a controlled study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Uwakwe Richard

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Psychiatric liaison services are rare in trauma units of various hospitals in Nigeria and other sub-Saharan African countries. The occurrence of road traffic accidents (RTAs resulting from low standard of road construction and inadequate maintenance have been on the increase in Nigeria. While the physical consequences of such RTAs are obvious, the psychological consequences are often not apparent. This study assessed the prevalence of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD among victims of RTAs and compared same with controls drawn from a population who have not experienced RTAs. It also assessed the associated socio-demographic variables. Method Study population consisted of one hundred and fifty RTA victims and two different control groups drawn from the population consisting of staffs of Federal Neuropsychiatric Hospital, Enugu, Nigeria and that of National Orthopedic Hospital, Enugu, Nigeria, 150 people in each control group were matched for age and sex with the RTA victims and they were interviewed with PTSD module of Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview (MINI and their socio-demographic variables obtained with socio-demographic questionnaire. Results The prevalence of PTSD among RTA victims and the two control groups were 26.7%, 8.0% and 8.7% respectively. The difference in prevalence was statistically significant with RTA victims more likely to experience PTSD compared to the two control groups (X2 = 27.23, df = 2, p = 0.001. Gender influenced the prevalence of PTSD among victims of RTAs and the controls, with females more likely to experience PTSD when compared to the males. Among victims of RTAs, being gainfully employed prior to the accidents increased the likelihood of developing PTSD and this was statistically significant (X2 = 20.09, df = 1, p = 0.000. Conclusions There is urgent need to pay more attention to developing consultation-liaison psychiatry services in trauma units of Nigerian hospitals

  1. Road traffic accidents and posttraumatic stress disorder in an orthopedic setting in South-Eastern Nigeria: a controlled study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iteke, Obiora; Bakare, Muideen O; Agomoh, Ahamefule O; Uwakwe, Richard; Onwukwe, Jojo U

    2011-06-22

    Psychiatric liaison services are rare in trauma units of various hospitals in Nigeria and other sub-Saharan African countries. The occurrence of road traffic accidents (RTAs) resulting from low standard of road construction and inadequate maintenance have been on the increase in Nigeria. While the physical consequences of such RTAs are obvious, the psychological consequences are often not apparent. This study assessed the prevalence of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) among victims of RTAs and compared same with controls drawn from a population who have not experienced RTAs. It also assessed the associated socio-demographic variables. Study population consisted of one hundred and fifty RTA victims and two different control groups drawn from the population consisting of staffs of Federal Neuropsychiatric Hospital, Enugu, Nigeria and that of National Orthopedic Hospital, Enugu, Nigeria, 150 people in each control group were matched for age and sex with the RTA victims and they were interviewed with PTSD module of Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview (MINI) and their socio-demographic variables obtained with socio-demographic questionnaire. The prevalence of PTSD among RTA victims and the two control groups were 26.7%, 8.0% and 8.7% respectively. The difference in prevalence was statistically significant with RTA victims more likely to experience PTSD compared to the two control groups (X² = 27.23, df = 2, p = 0.001). Gender influenced the prevalence of PTSD among victims of RTAs and the controls, with females more likely to experience PTSD when compared to the males. Among victims of RTAs, being gainfully employed prior to the accidents increased the likelihood of developing PTSD and this was statistically significant (X² = 20.09, df = 1, p = 0.000). There is urgent need to pay more attention to developing consultation-liaison psychiatry services in trauma units of Nigerian hospitals, including orthopedic hospitals located in different geographical

  2. A fatal impaling injury in a road traffic accident: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rautji, R; Girdhar, S; Lalwani, S; Dogra, T D

    2004-04-01

    A 17-year old, thin-built male was sitting in a bus on the right side of the rear seat. The same side of the bus accidentally hit some iron rods, meant for construction work, projecting from the tail end of a small truck. The incident happened when the bus driver tried to manoeuvre the bus towards the left side of the truck, standing at a red traffic light intersection. One of the iron-rods entered the bus through the glass window next to which the victim had been sitting and penetrated his chest cavity from the side, lacerating both the lungs and exiting through the left shoulder blade. The individual died on his way to hospital.

  3. Incidental CT Findings of Patients Who Admitted to ER Following a Traffic Accident.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yigit, Yavuz; Ayhan, Harun

    2014-03-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate and analyze incidental CT findings of traffic injury patients discharged from the ER, and to determine overall notification rates. All traffic injury-related patient records between 01.06.2013-01.03.2013 were obtained from Derince Training and Research Hospital Emergency Service using patient files and the hospital database. Brain, thorax and/or abdominal CT images of 340 patients aged between 0 to 84 years were included in the study. ER observation forms were investigated for the patients who had incidental findings on CT scanning and overall notification rates were recorded. Mean age of the 363 cases was 31.2 (SD 17.9, min 0, max 84) and 35.5% of patients were female (n=129) and 64.5% were male (n=234). A total of 537 CT scans were performed on 363 patients. 147, 319 and 71 CT scans were performed on the thorax, brain and abdominal, respectively. 27.3% (n=99) of scan results showed the presence of a coincidental pathology. The most common disease on scans were bone lesions (8%, n=29), followed by sinus abnormalities (7.7%, n=28). Incidental findings ratio in patients aged over 60 was 60.8%, while under 60 was 24.8%. It was found that seven patients (7.1%) were informed about the imaging results. Most of the incidental findings were found to be benign; however, 16.5% of them were considered to require in-depth investigation. Further investigations are needed to understand the clinical relevance of these findings and their effects on patients.

  4. Does the prevalence of latent toxoplasmosis and frequency of Rhesus-negative subjects correlate with the nationwide rate of traffic accidents?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flegr, Jaroslav; Dama, Madhukar

    2014-12-01

    Latent toxoplasmosis is probably the most common protistan parasitic disease with many indirect negative impacts on human health. One of the important impacts is impaired psychomotor function leading to reduced driving efficiency in Toxoplasma-seropositive subjects. Numerous case-control studies have established a positive relation between the seroprevalence of Toxoplasma gondii (Nicolle et Manceaux, 1908) and probability of traffic accidents in study populations. The prevalence of toxoplasmosis varies between populations according to local geographical conditions, hygienic practices and kitchen habits. Similarly, we see a striking variation in the incidence of traffic accidents across countries. Hence, we compiled the largest ever data set on the seroprevalence of toxoplasmosis and tried to understand its role in traffic accident-related deaths and disabilities across 87 countries. Simple non-parametric analysis showed a positive and strong relation of T. gondii seroprevalence and traffic accident related disabilities. Further, we conducted multivariate analysis to control for confounding factors. After controlling for wealth, geographical latitude, health of population, length of roads and number of vehicles, the correlation disappeared. When the frequency of RhD negativity and its interaction with toxoplasmosis were included into the model, the effects of toxoplasmosis seemingly returned. However, the analysed data suffered from the problem of multicollinearity. When a proper method of analysis, ridge regression, was applied, the effects of toxoplasmosis prevalence and RhD negativity frequency disappeared again. The existence of a strong correlation between the prevalence of toxoplasmosis and health of population in particular countries, which was the probable cause of multicollinearity and possible reason for the negative result of the present study, suggests that 'asymptomatic' latent toxoplasmosis could have a large impact on public health.

  5. A longitudinal follow-up of posttraumatic stress: from 9 months to 20 years after a major road traffic accident

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rydelius Per-Anders

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Although road traffic accidents (RTA are a major cause of injury and a cause of posttraumatic stress (PTS in the aftermath, little is known about the long-term psychological effects of RTA. Methods This prospective longitudinal study assessed long-term PTS, grief, and general mental health after a bus carrying 23 sixth-grade schoolchildren crashed on a school outing and 12 children died. Directly affected (i.e., children in the crash and indirectly affected children (i.e., all pupils in the sixth grade who were not in the crash were surveyed at 9 months (N = 102, 4 years (N = 51, and 20 years (N = 40 after the event. Psychological distress was assessed by single items, including sadness, avoidance, intrusions, and guilt. After 20 years, PTS was assessed by the Impact of Event Scale-Revised. Results Stress reactions were prevalent 9 months after the event, with sadness (69% and avoidance (59% being highly represented in both directly and indirectly affected groups, whereas, nightmares (60% and feelings of guilt (50% were only frequent in those directly affected. The frequency of sadness and avoidance decreased after 4 years in the indirectly exposed (ps p = .003, but not decreased general mental health (p = .14, than those indirectly affected. Conclusions The limitations preclude assertive conclusions. Nonetheless, the findings corroborate previous studies reporting traumatic events are associated with long-term PTS, but not with decreased general mental health.

  6. Application of 3D documentation and geometric reconstruction methods in traffic accident analysis: with high resolution surface scanning, radiological MSCT/MRI scanning and real data based animation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buck, Ursula; Naether, Silvio; Braun, Marcel; Bolliger, Stephan; Friederich, Hans; Jackowski, Christian; Aghayev, Emin; Christe, Andreas; Vock, Peter; Dirnhofer, Richard; Thali, Michael J

    2007-07-20

    The examination of traffic accidents is daily routine in forensic medicine. An important question in the analysis of the victims of traffic accidents, for example in collisions between motor vehicles and pedestrians or cyclists, is the situation of the impact. Apart from forensic medical examinations (external examination and autopsy), three-dimensional technologies and methods are gaining importance in forensic investigations. Besides the post-mortem multi-slice computed tomography (MSCT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) for the documentation and analysis of internal findings, highly precise 3D surface scanning is employed for the documentation of the external body findings and of injury-inflicting instruments. The correlation of injuries of the body to the injury-inflicting object and the accident mechanism are of great importance. The applied methods include documentation of the external and internal body and the involved vehicles and inflicting tools as well as the analysis of the acquired data. The body surface and the accident vehicles with their damages were digitized by 3D surface scanning. For the internal findings of the body, post-mortem MSCT and MRI were used. The analysis included the processing of the obtained data to 3D models, determination of the driving direction of the vehicle, correlation of injuries to the vehicle damages, geometric determination of the impact situation and evaluation of further findings of the accident. In the following article, the benefits of the 3D documentation and computer-assisted, drawn-to-scale 3D comparisons of the relevant injuries with the damages to the vehicle in the analysis of the course of accidents, especially with regard to the impact situation, are shown on two examined cases.

  7. Frequency, causes and human impact of motor vehicle-related road traffic accident (RTA) in Lubumbashi, Democratic Republic of Congo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nangana, Luzitu Severin; Monga, Ben; Ngatu, Nlandu Roger; Mbelambela, Etongola Papy; Mbutshu, Lukuke Hendrick; Malonga, Kaj Francoise

    2016-09-01

    Road traffic accident (RTA)-related trauma remains a public health issue. The aim of this study was to determine the frequency, causes and human impact of motor vehicle-related RTA in Lubumbashi, Democratic Republic of Congo. A prospective cross-sectional study was conducted in the first semester of the year 2015 in which 288 drivers (144 RTA-causing drivers and 144 control drivers who have been declared not guilty by road safety agents) involved in 144 motor vehicle-related RTA were interviewed, and only data on all RTA involving two motor vehicles with at least four wheels were recorded and analyzed. Results showed a total of 144 RTA that involved two motor vehicles with four wheels occurring during the study period which affected 104 people, including 93 injury and 11 fatality cases. The mean age of RTA-causing drivers was 33.8 ± 7.4, whereas it was 35 ± 8.8 for control drivers. The majority of RTA-causing drivers (53.4 %) did not attend a driving school. Over speeding (32 %), distracted driving (22 %), overtaking (16 %) and careless driving/risky maneuver (15 %) and driving under the influence of alcohol (9 %) were the main causes of RTA occurrence. In addition, the absence of a valid driving license [aOR = 12.74 (±2.71); 95 % CI 3.877-41.916; p = 0.015], unfastened seat belt for the RTA-causing driver [aOR = 1.85 (±0.62); 95 % CI 1.306-6.661; p = 0.048] and presence of damages on RTA-causing vehicle [aOR = 33.56 (24.01); 95 % CI 1.429-78.352; p = 0.029] were associated with the occurrence of RTA-related fatality. This study showed a relatively high frequency of RTA occurring in Lubumbashi and suggests the necessity to reinforce road traffic regulation.

  8. Epidemiological Profile of Extremity Fractures and Dislocations in Road Traffic Accidents in Kashan, Iran:a Glance at the Related Disabilities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehrdad Mahdian

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: Apart from the mortality, road traffic injuries are associated with significant morbidities. This study has aimed to examine the pattern of traffic accident-related extremity fractures/dislocations and their related disabilities. Methods: A retrospective hospital-based study was conducted to assess the characteristics of limb fractures/dislocations among road traffic accident victims registered in Trauma Research Center registry of Kashan University of Medical Sciences, Kashan, Iran, during 2012-2013. Age and sex distribution, cause of injury, and site of fractures/dislocations were recorded. Years lived with disability (YLD was calculated as a scale to measure the disability. One-way ANOVA and chi-square tests were used for data analysis. Results: From a total of 962 subjects, 812 (84.4% were males (the male/female sex ratio: 5.4:1. The mean age of victims was 32.7±17.9. Leg (37% and forearm (19% fractures were the most frequent fractures. Shoulder dislocations were among the most affected joints accounting for 36.6% of the cases. The total calculated YLD was 135.6 (34.4 for temporal and 101.2 for lifelong disabilities, and totally 117.3 and 18.3 for males and females, respectively. The highest YLD was for motorcyclists (104 and while the most YLD was for 15-29 years (68.2. Conclusion: Young men motorcyclist accidents are a major problem in Kashan region. Generally, they have been accounted for the highest YLD due to fractures/dislocations, especially in lower extremity. Although the calculated YLD will be decreased with increasing age, the elder people also had the high rate of traffic-related limb injuries.

  9. Road mobility and the risk of road traffic accident as a driver. The impact of medical conditions and life events.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parmentier, G; Chastang, J-F; Nabi, H; Chiron, M; Lafont, S; Lagarde, E

    2005-11-01

    We conducted a longitudinal investigation of the impact of self-reported life events and medical conditions on changes in road mobility on the wheel between 2000 and 2002 in order to assess whether these changes would affect the risk of road traffic accident (RTA). Data are from a cohort of workers and retirees from the French national gas and electricity companies (the Gazel cohort). In the present study, 10,483 participants were included (7843 men aged 51-61 years and 2640 women aged 46-61 years, in 2000). The link between mobility and the risk of RTA was approximated using data on RTA number during lifetime and reported mobility in 2000. We then compared changes in road mobility between 2000 and 2002 resulting from life events and medical conditions reported to have occurred in the year 2001 or changed when compared to year 2000. We also compared road mobilities in 2000 in order to assess any pre-existing differences before life events and medical conditions. This led to estimation of the effect of road mobility changes on the risk of RTA. Changes in road mobility associated with life events and medical conditions were only found among men. These changes in road mobility were minimal. Ensuing changes in the risk of RTA were estimated to be small (odds-ratios ranged from 0.94 to 1.01). The only life events found to be associated with increased road mobility was an important purchase. Hospitalization, serious RTA, and retiring were associated with reduced road mobility. Concerning medical conditions, men who reported cataract, angina pectoris, diabetes, anxiety and stress, sleep disorder, and depression decreased their road mobility. We found no or moderate changes in road mobility resulting from life events and medical conditions, suggesting that results from previous published studies that assessed the impact of life events or medical conditions on RTA were not jeopardized by improper adjustment for road mobility.

  10. How bicycle level of traffic stress correlate with reported cyclist accidents injury severities: A geospatial and mixed logit analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Chen; Anderson, Jason C; Wang, Haizhong; Wang, Yinhai; Vogt, Rachel; Hernandez, Salvador

    2017-11-01

    Transportation agencies need efficient methods to determine how to reduce bicycle accidents while promoting cycling activities and prioritizing safety improvement investments. Many studies have used standalone methods, such as level of traffic stress (LTS) and bicycle level of service (BLOS), to better understand bicycle mode share and network connectivity for a region. However, in most cases, other studies rely on crash severity models to explain what variables contribute to the severity of bicycle related crashes. This research uniquely correlates bicycle LTS with reported bicycle crash locations for four cities in New Hampshire through geospatial mapping. LTS measurements and crash locations are compared visually using a GIS framework. Next, a bicycle injury severity model, that incorporates LTS measurements, is created through a mixed logit modeling framework. Results of the visual analysis show some geospatial correlation between higher LTS roads and "Injury" type bicycle crashes. It was determined, statistically, that LTS has an effect on the severity level of bicycle crashes and high LTS can have varying effects on severity outcome. However, it is recommended that further analyses be conducted to better understand the statistical significance and effect of LTS on injury severity. As such, this research will validate the use of LTS as a proxy for safety risk regardless of the recorded bicycle crash history. This research will help identify the clustering patterns of bicycle crashes on high-risk corridors and, therefore, assist with bicycle route planning and policy making. This paper also suggests low-cost countermeasures or treatments that can be implemented to address high-risk areas. Specifically, with the goal of providing safer routes for cyclists, such countermeasures or treatments have the potential to substantially reduce the number of fatalities and severe injuries. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  11. Prevention of traffic accidents: the assessment of perceptual-motor alterations before obtaining a driving license. A longitudinal study of the first years of driving.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martín, Fermina Sánchez; Estévez, M Angeles Quiroga

    2005-03-01

    A longitudinal study was designed with two objectives: first, to provide a wide cognitive, personality and social description of new drivers before they started to drive cars. Second, to examine the relationship between cognitive and other characteristics drivers had before obtaining their driving license and the number and type of accidents they were involved in during the first years as drivers. The longitudinal study started in 1997 and ended in 2002. The first assessment was made up of 241 individuals at the time they enrolled on the driving course. The follow-up evaluation in the year 2002 was carried out on 144 components of the initial sample after five years driving. Age, gender and education level were matched to represent the population of Spain. Participants were assessed with the Bender Test for visual-motor ability, the B101 Test for practical intelligence, the B19 Test for visual-motor bi-manual coordination, and the TKK-1108 for speed anticipation. Personality was also evaluated with the Rorschach test and the PSY (Psychological Assessment Questionnaire). Five years later, a new examination of all those variables was made as well as a structured interview with each participant in order to collect data relating to significant life events during that time, driving habits, opinions in relation to certain traffic rules and information on accidents, incidents and/or sanctions. Serious and/or minor accidents are concentrated on a few drivers. Accidentality is not related to gender or age, but educational level is related to serious accidents. The number of accidents (severe or minor ones) cannot be predicted if considered as a continuous variable, but it is possible if considered as a discrete variable. In this case two different cognitive profiles account for the number and type of accidents. The number and type of accidents during their first years of driving are related to the cognitive profiles of drivers assessed before they obtained their driving

  12. [The significance of the results of crash-tests with the use of the models of the pedestrians' lower extremities for the prevention of the traffic road accidents].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smirenin, S A; Fetisov, V A; Grigoryan, V G; Gusarov, A A; Kucheryavets, Yu O

    The disabling injuries inflicted during road traffic accidents (RTA) create a serious challenge for the public health services and are at the same time a major socio-economic problem in the majority of the countries throughout the world. The injuries to the lower extremities of the pedestrians make up the largest fraction of the total number of the non-lethal RTA injuries. Most of them are responsible for the considerable deterioration of the quality of life for the participants in the accidents during the subsequent period. The objective of the present study was to summarize the currently available results of experimental testing of the biomechanical models of the pedestrians' lower extremities in the framework of the program for the prevention of the road traffic accidents as proposed by the World Health Organization (WHO, 2004). The European Enhanced Safety Vehicle Committee (EEVC) has developed a series of crash-tests with the use of the models of the pedestrians' lower extremities simulating the vehicle bumper-pedestrian impact. The models are intended for the assessment of the risk of the tibia fractures and the injuries to the knee joint ligaments. The experts of EEVC proposed the biomechanical criteria for the acceleration of the knee and talocrural parts of the lower limbs as well as for the shear displacement of the knee and knee-bending angle. The engineering solution of this problem is based on numerous innovation proposals being implemented in the machine-building industry with the purpose of reducing the stiffness of structural elements of the bumper and other front components of a modern vehicle designed to protect the pedestrians from severe injuries that can be inflicted in the road traffic accidents. The activities of the public health authorities (in the first place, bureaus of forensic medical expertise and analogous facilities) have a direct bearing on the solution of the problem of control of road traffic injuries because they are possessed of

  13. Accident: Reminder

    CERN Multimedia

    2003-01-01

    There is no left turn to Point 1 from the customs, direction CERN. A terrible accident happened last week on the Route de Meyrin just outside Entrance B because traffic regulations were not respected. You are reminded that when travelling from the customs, direction CERN, turning left to Point 1 is forbidden. Access to Point 1 from the customs is only via entering CERN, going down to the roundabout and coming back up to the traffic lights at Entrance B

  14. A feasibility study of the use of incidents and accidents reports to evaluate effects of team resource management in air traffic control

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, V.; Bove, T.

    2000-01-01

    to the domain of Air Traffic Control under the heading of 'Team Resource Management'. In this adaptation phase, it is important to obtain knowledge concerning the effectiveness of such training programmes in relation to enhancing human factors awareness and knowledge. This requires a methodology for detecting...... training effects. For this purpose a feasibility study has been conducted concerning the use of paper cases - short written reports on real or fictitious incidents or accidents - to discriminate air traffic controllers with regard to their ability to identify 'human factors' determinants involved......Valuable improvements in performance have been obtained by 'Crew Resource Management' (CRM) courses performed in the domain of aviation related to the crew in a cockpit, and in the maritime domain related to the crew on the bridge of large ships. CRM courses are currently being adapted...

  15. Dynamic Traffic Congestion Simulation and Dissipation Control Based on Traffic Flow Theory Model and Neural Network Data Calibration Algorithm

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Li; Lin, Shimin; Yang, Jingfeng; Zhang, Nanfeng; Yang, Ji; Li, Yong; Zhou, Handong; Yang, Feng; Li, Zhifu

    2017-01-01

    Traffic congestion is a common problem in many countries, especially in big cities. At present, China’s urban road traffic accidents occur frequently, the occurrence frequency is high, the accident causes traffic congestion, and accidents cause traffic congestion and vice versa. The occurrence of traffic accidents usually leads to the reduction of road traffic capacity and the formation of traffic bottlenecks, causing the traffic congestion. In this paper, the formation and propagation of tra...

  16. Bicycle accidents among teenagers

    Science.gov (United States)

    2001-10-01

    The report shows that knowledge of traffic rules does not contribute to reduce the accident risk, or injury risk of young cyclists. Running red lights and cycling in the wrong direction in one-way traffic increase accident and injury risk. Using cycl...

  17. An evaluation of speed management measures in Bangladesh based upon alternative accident recording, speed measurements, and DOCTOR traffic conflict observations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Horst, A.R.A. van der; Thierry, M.C.; Vet, J.M.; Fazlur Rahman, A.K.M.

    2017-01-01

    With 21,000 people annually killed in road traffic (estimated figure by World Health Organization), Bangladesh has one of the highest fatality rates in the world. Vulnerable road users (VRUs) account for over 50% of road traffic casualties, and 70% of casualties occur in rural areas. As in many Low

  18. An evaluation of speed management measures in Bangladesh based upon alternative accident recording, speed measurements, and DOCTOR traffic conflict observations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Horst, A.R.A. van der; Thierry, M.C.; Vet, J.M.; Rahman, A.F

    2016-01-01

    With 21,000 people annually killed in road traffic (estimated figure by World Health Organization), Bangladesh has one of the highest fatality rates in the world. Vulnerable road users (VRUs) account for over 50% of road traffic casualties, and 70% of casualties occur in rural areas. As in many Low

  19. Alcohol consumption as an incremental factor in health care costs for traffic accident victims: evidence in a medium sized Colombian city.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez-Restrepo, Carlos; Gómez-García, María Juliana; Naranjo, Salomé; Rondón, Martín Alonso; Acosta-Hernández, Andrés Leonardo

    2014-12-01

    Identify the possibility that alcohol consumption represents an incremental factor in healthcare costs of patients involved in traffic accidents. Data of people admitted into three major health institutions from an intermediate city in Colombia was collected. Socio-demographic characteristics, health care costs and alcohol consumption levels by breath alcohol concentration (BrAC) methodology were identified. Generalized linear models were applied to investigate whether alcohol consumption acts as an incremental factor for healthcare costs. The average cost of healthcare was 878 USD. In general, there are differences between health care costs for patients with positive blood alcohol level compared with those who had negative levels. Univariate analysis shows that the average cost of care can be 2.26 times higher (95% CI: 1.20-4.23), and after controlling for patient characteristics, alcohol consumption represents an incremental factor of almost 1.66 times (95% CI: 1.05-2.62). Alcohol is identified as a possible factor associated with the increased use of direct health care resources. The estimates show the need to implement and enhance prevention programs against alcohol consumption among citizens, in order to mitigate the impact that traffic accidents have on their health status. The law enforcement to help reduce driving under the influence of alcoholic beverages could help to diminish the economic and social impacts of this problem. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Incidental detection of a small solid pseudopapillary neoplasm of the pancreas after a traffic accident in a 12-year-old girl: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kim Y

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Younglim Kim, Suk-Bae MoonDepartment of Surgery, Kangwon National University Hospital, Kangwon National University School of Medicine, Chuncheon, South KoreaAbstract: Solid pseudopapillary neoplasm (SPN is a rare tumor of the pancreas that tends to grow silently in patients at a young age, to a large size and mass. We report here a case of a small-sized SPN detected incidentally in a 12-year-old girl following a traffic accident. The tumor was 3.5 cm in maximal diameter and was found to have hemorrhagic necrosis without a solid component. Laparoscopic spleen-preserving distal pancreatectomy was performed which cured the patient. SPN is generally accepted to be a low grade malignant tumor, but its clinical behavior is sometimes unpredictable. Tumor size and the proportion of solid portion of the tumor have both recently been identified as predictors of malignancy. Although the initial presentation in this case was that of the traffic accident, the subsequent detection of a small, totally cystic SPN, and then the complete eradication of the lesion, led to a favorable outcome for the patient. Long-term monitoring should prevent any chance of recurrence.Keywords: pancreatic neoplasm, children, distal pancreatectomy

  1. [Effect of post-traumatic disorders of the victims and causes of traffic accidents in the early stages of treatment].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scigała, Dawid Konrad; Ziołek, Jakub; Kwiatkowski, Krzysztof

    2013-12-01

    Poland is a country in which every year there is a lot of motor vehicle accidents, number of victims is one of the highest in European union. Helping patients after motor vehicle accidents should base on cooperation of doctors and psychologists because holistic approach to patient enables rapid and effective rehabilitation. To show connection between physical damage cause in motor vehicle accident with mental trauma, which increase on process of full recovery. There were 31 victims who were involved in motor vehicle accidents not more than one month ago. In the second group there were people who was never involved in motor vehicle accident. The procedure consisted on filling demographic questionnaire, state traite anxety inventory and aqute stress disorder questionnare. In the second part of the research was to accomplish the emotional Stroop task, which based on selecting the name of the color of a word, which was on the screen. There were two types of the words: negative related to motor vehicle accident and neutral. Participants from the research group had higher level of anxiety than participants from control group and they had significantly longer reaction time in particular on words associated to accident, which could be the signal of problems with cognitive processes because of the anxiety. Furthermore participants with head injuries and upper limbs (whitout dominant limb) have had longer reaction times in Stroop test than participants with leg injuries, it indicating on higher level of anxiety and feeling of insecurity. It should be noted that looking on a character an range of a injuries, role that participant attend in accident (victims have more emotional disturbance), because it could determinate rate of recovery and the way communication with the patient.

  2. [Fatal traffic accidents vs. alcohol consumption in the victims in the archival material collected by the Institute of Forensic Medicine, Collegium Medicum, Jagiellonian University in Cracow, in the years 2000- 2003].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kłys, Małgorzata; Grzeszczuk, Sabina; Majchrzak, Tomasz

    2006-01-01

    The report presents the issue of fatal traffic accidents, emphasizing in particular blood alcohol levels in victims involved in such fatalities. According to data provided by the Central Police Headquarters, in recent years, the annual number of traffic accidents in Poland has been in excess of 50000; of this number, more than 10% have resulted in fatalities. The number of traffic accidents in the Małopolska province has amounted to 5000, and more than 7% of these accidents have been fatal. In the years 2000-2003, at the Department of Forensic Medicine, Collegium Medicum, Jagiellonian University, a total of 884 victims of fatal traffic accidents that occurred in the Cracow region were autopsied. In the group, car drivers accounted for 26%, passengers - for 16%, while the most numerous subgroup, represented by more than 57% of victims, included pedestrians hit by moving vehicles. In the autopsied car drivers, individuals being under the influence of alcohol and intoxicated accounted for 40-42% in the years 2000-2002 (as compared to the total number of investigated subjects); in 2003, the percentage decreased reaching 31%. Among the passengers, the mean percentage of those being under the influence of alcohol and in drunk was slightly higher in this period, ranging between 27 and 57%. However, the highest percentage of victims included individuals under the influence of alcohol, and especially alcohol intoxicated pedestrians hit by moving vehicles, whose number exceeded 50% of the total group of the autopsied corpses.

  3. Description of a SWOV pilot study on integral registration in hospitals of road traffic accidents. Prepared for the OECD International Symposium on counter measures to driver behaviour under the influence of alcohol and other drugs, London, 22-23 September 1971.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aarts, J.H.

    1971-01-01

    A pilot study on an integral registration of road traffic accidents in the city of Rotterdam was done. The method and the task of the participants in the study, are outlined. The criterion for a road traffic accident is every injury sustained on a public road not being the result of some other

  4. Queueing and traffic

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Baër, Niek

    2015-01-01

    Traffic jams are everywhere, some are caused by constructions or accidents but a large portion occurs naturally. These "natural" traffic jams are a result of variable driving speeds combined with a high number of vehicles. To prevent these traffic jams, we must understand traffic in general, and to

  5. A Study to Assess the Factors and Out of Pocket Expenditures in the Patients of Road Traffic Accidents Admitted in a Tertiary Care Hospital in a Central India District

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Srivastava DK

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Road traffic injuries are estimated to be the eighth leading cause of death globally, with an impact similar to that caused by many communicable diseases, such as malaria. road traffic injuries are estimated to cost low- and middle-income countries between 1–2 % of their Gross Domestic Product (GDP, an estimate of about US$ 100 billion a year. Objectives: To study the epidemiological profile of Road Traffic Injuries among the patients admitted in a tertiary care centre and too find out the various out of pocket expenditure in the patients of Road Traffic Accidents. Material and Method: The present study was a hospital based Descriptive Prospective Study. A list of all the patients admitted due to Road Traffic Accident in last one week was obtained from the ward sisters of Orthopedic Department. All the selected participants were interviewed on the two fixed days. A pre tested structured open ended questionnaire was used for data collection. Results: Of the 48 participants interviewed, 34male and 14 females. Most common age group affected was 21-25 years followed by 16-20 years. The rate of accidents was most common on the weekends. The rate of accidents was more in users of two wheelers. Majority of the expenditure in the First week of admission was on the purchase of medicines followed by diagnosis. Majority of the victims also suffered huge financial loss due to loss of salary, closure of shop, loss due to daily wages etc. Conclusion: The present study hereby concludes that there is an urgent need for creating awareness about Road Traffic Accident. The study also concludes that majority of the out of pocket expenditure in the first week of admission is on the medication.

  6. Commentary: why is the odds ratio for involvement in serious road traffic accident among drunk drivers in Norway and Finland higher than in other countries?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gjerde, Hallvard; Bogstrand, Stig Tore; Lillsunde, Pirjo

    2014-01-01

    Recent Norwegian and Finnish studies have found high odds ratios for serious or fatal injury in road traffic accidents among drivers after drinking alcohol. In this report we have compared the odds ratios with results from studies in other countries. A literature review was conducted. The odds ratios were significantly higher than in countries where drunk driving is more common. The calculated odds ratios are not only related to alcohol use or blood alcohol concentration per se but also related to the study design-for example, the inclusion of nonculpable drivers among cases-and confounding factors not included in statistical analysis; for example, risk-taking behavior. Those two issues may contribute to explaining why the reported odds ratios are higher for Norway and Finland.

  7. PTSD in post-road traffic accident patients requiring hospitalization in Indian subcontinent: A review on magnitude of the problem and management guidelines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chaitanya Undavalli

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Traumatic events after a road traffic accident (RTA can be physical and/or psychological. Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD is one of the major psychological conditions which affect accident victims. Psychological issues may not be addressed in the emergency department(ED immediately. There have been reports about a mismatch between the timely referrals from ED to occupational or primary care services for these issues. If left untreated, there may be adverse effects on quality of life (QOL and work productivity. Hospital expenses, loss of income, and loss of work could create a never ending cycle for financial difficulties and burden in trauma victims. The aim of our review is to address the magnitude of PTSD in post-RTA hospitalized patients in Indian subcontinent population. We also attempted to emphasis on few management guidelines. A comprehensive search was conducted on major databases with Medical Subject Headings (MeSH term ′PTSD or post-traumatic stress′ and Emergency department and vehicle or road or highway or automobile or car or truck or trauma and India. Out of 120 studies, a total of six studies met our inclusion criteria and were included in the review. Our interpretation of the problem is that; hospital expenditure due to trauma, time away from work during hospitalization, and reduction in work performance, are three major hits that can lead RTA victims to financial crisis. Proposed management guidelines are; establish a coordinated triage, implementing a screening tool in the ED, and provide psychological counseling.

  8. Late-onset secondary nocturnal enuresis in adolescents associated with post-traumatic stress disorder developed after a traffic accident

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Serkan Akan

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Secondary nocturnal enuresis is generally seen between 5 and 7 years of age and it is rarely encountered when compared with the primary incontinence. Patients with suggested diagnosis of secondary nocturnal enuresis should be examined for neurological and spinal anomalies and diabetes mellitus, diabetes insipidus, renal failure and urinary tract infection should be ruled out in differential diagnosis (1-3. Herein, we are presenting case reports of adolescent patients with secondary nocturnal enuresis refractory to medical therapy and developed after in-vehicle and extravehicular accidents.

  9. Latin American Clinical Epidemiology Network Series - Paper 6: The influence of alcohol in traffic accidents and health care costs of it in Bogotá-Colombia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez-Restrepo, Carlos; Naranjo-Lujan, Salomé; Rondón, Martín; Acosta, Andrés; Maldonado, Patricia; Arango Villegas, Carlos; Hurtado, Jaime; Hernández, Juan Carlos; Angarita, María Del Pilar; Peña, Marcela; Saavedra, Miguel Ángel; Quitian, Hoover

    2017-06-01

    In Colombia, some studies have estimated medical costs associated to traffic accidents. It is required to assess results by city or region and determine the influence of variables such as alcohol consumption. The main objective of this study was to identify health care costs associated to traffic accidents in Bogota and determine whether alcohol consumption can increase them. Cross-sectional costs study conducted in patients over 18 years treated in the emergency rooms of six different hospitals in Bogota, Colombia. The average total cost of medical care per patient was 628 USD, in Bogota-Colombia. The average cost per accident was estimated at 1,349 USD. On average, the total cost for health care for patients with positive blood alcohol level was 1.8 times higher than those who did not consume alcohol. The indirect costs were on average 115.3 USD per injured person. Numbers are expressed in 2011 U.S. dollars. Alcohol consumption increases the risk of traffic accidents and direct medical health costs. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Evaluation of factors associated with the difficulty in finding receiving hospitals for traffic accident patients at the scene treated by emergency medical services: a population-based study in Osaka City, Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katayama, Yusuke; Kitamura, Tetsuhisa; Kiyohara, Kosuke; Iwami, Taku; Kawamura, Takashi; Hayashida, Sumito; Ogura, Hiroshi; Shimazu, Takeshi

    2017-10-01

    Although the prolongation of the time between injury and hospital arrival of traffic accident patients can influence their prognosis, factors associated with the difficulty in hospital acceptance of these patients have not been sufficiently evaluated in Japan. We retrospectively analyzed the population-based ambulance records of all traffic accident patients for whom the Osaka Municipal Fire Department (Osaka City, Japan) dispatched an ambulance in 2013. We defined "cases with difficulty in hospital acceptance" as cases that required ≥4 calls by emergency medical service personnel at the scene before receiving hospital acceptance. We included patient characteristics (age, sex, coma status, and trauma severity judged by emergency medical service personnel), time factors (day/night or weekday/holiday and weekends), and accident location for multivariable logistic regression analysis to assess factors associated with the difficulty in hospital acceptance. Among 13,427 traffic accident patients, 2,033 (15.1%) were cases with difficulty in hospital acceptance. Pediatric patients (adjusted odds ratio [OR], 1.265; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.060-1.509), male sex (adjusted OR, 1.260; 95% CI, 1.135-1.398), moderate-grade trauma (adjusted OR, 2.241; 95% CI, 1.972-2.547), severe-grade trauma (adjusted OR, 2.057; 95% CI, 1.249-3.388), holidays and weekends (adjusted OR, 1.702; 95% CI, 1.539-1.882), and night-time (adjusted OR, 2.720; 95% CI, 2.443-3.027) were positively associated with difficulty in hospital acceptance. Using population-based ambulance records from a large urban community in Japan, we showed that the difficulty in hospital acceptance of patients at the scene of traffic accidents was positively associated with several prehospital factors.

  11. Actividades intersectoriales en la prevención de accidentes de tráfico Intersectorial activities for traffic accident prevention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Peiró

    2003-07-01

    Full Text Available Se describen las líneas de trabajo priorizadas y algunos resultados obtenidos en la implantación del programa de prevención y reducción de lesiones por accidentes de tráfico en un área de salud. A partir de 1999 el Centro de Salud Pública priorizó la identificación y búsqueda de aliados en otros sectores (Asociación de policías locales y educación, la construcción de la capacidad de trabajo conjunta y la formación de un grupo intersectorial. Se llevaron a cabo actividades docentes y jornadas. Se formó una red de personas en 17 de un total de 39 ayuntamientos que participan con actividades en el grupo intersectorial. Un total de 10 de estos ayuntamientos participaron con actividades educativas y siete, además, exigieron al cumplimiento de la legislación. El grupo intersectorial potenció la visibilidad de sus actividades a través de los medios de comunicación local. Estas actividades no están dirigidas a reducir las lesiones por tráfico, sino a crear un marco de trabajo para la movilización de los sectores implicados. Se pretende potenciar más el compromiso entre los niveles políticos, técnicos y civiles incidiendo en valores sociales de respeto para una vida más saludable.We describe priority issues and some of the results obtained from the implementation of the «Prevention and Reduction of Traffic Accident Injuries» program in a health area. Since 1999 the public health center has made a priority of identifying and recruiting partners from other sectors (the local police association and the local education authority, increasing its capacity for working together, and setting up an intersectorial working group. Teaching activities and meetings were held. A network of people was created from 17 of a total of 39 town halls that participate in activities supported by the intersectorial group. Ten are involved in educational activities and a further seven focus on ensuring compliance with the law. The intersectorial group

  12. A mulher e o acidente de trânsito: caracterização do evento em Maringá, Paraná Women and traffic accidents: characterization of occurrences in Maringá, Paraná

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro Paulo Davantel

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Os acidentes de trânsito são atualmente a primeira causa de mortalidade no conjunto de causas externas entre as mulheres. A mulher atual, pelas mudanças em seu papel na sociedade, vem se expondo a novos riscos. Este estudo teve como objetivo caracterizar a mulher envolvida em acidente de trânsito, assim como os eventos. Foi realizado um estudo transversal, com dados secundários obtidos nos Boletins de Ocorrência de Acidente de Trânsito - BOAT, do 4º Batalhão da Polícia Militar de Maringá, Setor de Trânsito. Os dados foram categorizados e analisados por meio de testes não-paramétricos, de correlações (Spearman e teste de independência entre as variáveis (qui-quadrado. As mulheres envolvidas em acidente de trânsito eram em sua maioria solteiras (34,0%, com idade entre 21 e 30 anos (49,0%, nível de escolaridade acima do ensino médio (58,0% e predominantemente condutoras (65,0%. Os eventos ocorreram principalmente em dias úteis e nos período da tarde e da noite. As lesões foram mais frequentes em mulheres até os 20 anos e acima dos 51. Maior envolvimento em colisões com automóveis (69,%, com grande proporção de atropelamentos (14,2%, envolveram mulheres acima dos 50 anos e com menor nível de escolaridade. Foram mais atentas ao uso de dispositivos de segurança quando casadas e com maior nível de escolaridade. Estes dados sugerem novo perfil da mulher no trânsito, devendo o acompanhamento destas características e das consequências destes acidentes serem mais constantes em pesquisas, direcionando medidas e campanhas preventivas.Today traffic accidents are the first cause of morbidity in the group of external causes among women. Modern women have changed their role, exposing themselves to new risks. So, this study had as its purpose, characterize women involved in traffic accidents and to describe these accidents. A cross-sectional survey was conducted with information obtained from the Traffic Accident Report

  13. Police recording of road accident in-patients : investigation into the completeness, representativity, and reliability of police records of hospitalized traffic victims. Article published in Accident Analysis and Prevention, 1984/06. 16(3) pp167-184.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maas, M.W. & Harris, S.

    1984-01-01

    Many road safety research projects make use of the official police road accident data. Their use is often restricted to the data of fatal accidents and fatalities because it is the only complete registration, and the extent of underreporting of injury accidents is unknown. The need to extend the use

  14. Accidents - Chernobyl accident; Accidents - accident de Tchernobyl

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2004-07-01

    This file is devoted to the Chernobyl accident. It is divided in four parts. The first part concerns the accident itself and its technical management. The second part is relative to the radiation doses and the different contaminations. The third part reports the sanitary effects, the determinists ones and the stochastic ones. The fourth and last part relates the consequences for the other European countries with the case of France. Through the different parts a point is tackled with the measures taken after the accident by the other countries to manage an accident, the cooperation between the different countries and the groups of research and studies about the reactors safety, and also with the international medical cooperation, specially for the children, everything in relation with the Chernobyl accident. (N.C.)

  15. [The use of the sequential mathematical analysis for the determination of the driver's seat position inside the car passenger compartment from the injuries to the extremities in the case of a traffic accident].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Habova, K; Smirenin, Eksp; Fetisov, D; Tamberg, Eksp

    2015-01-01

    The objective of the present study was to determine the diagnostic coefficients (DC) for the injuries to the upper and lower extremities of the vehicle drivers inflicted inside the passenger compartment in the case of a traffic accident. We have analysed the archival expert documents collected from 45 regional bureaus of forensic medical expertise during the period from 1995 to 2014 that contained the results of examination of 200 corpses and 300 survivors who had suffered injuries in the traffic accidents. The statistical and mathematical treatment of these materials with the use of sequential mathematical analysis based on the Bayes and Wald formulas yielded diagnostic coefficients that make it possible to elucidate the most informative features characterizing the driver of a vehicle. In case of a lethal outcome, the most significant injuries include bleeding from the posterior left elbow region (DC +7.6), skin scratches on the palm surface of the right wrist (DC +7.6), bleeding from the postrerior region of the left lower leg (DC +7.6), wounds on the dorsal surface of the left wrist (DC +6.3), bruises at the anterior surface of the left knee (DC +6.3), etc. The most informative features in the survivals of the traffic accidents are bone fractures (DC +7.0), tension of ligaments and dislocation of the right talocrural joint (DC +6.5), fractures of the left kneecap and left tibial epiphysis (DC +5.4), hemorrhage and bruises in the anterior right knee region (DC + 5.4 each), skin scratches in the right posterior carpal region (DC +5.1). It is concluded that the use of the diagnostic coefficients makes it possible to draw the attention of the experts to the above features and to objectively determine the driver's seat position inside the car passenger compartment in the case of a traffic accident. Moreover such an approach contributes to the improvement of the quality of expert conclusions and the results of forensic medical expertise of the circumstance of traffic

  16. Motociclistas de entrega: algumas características dos acidentes de trânsito na região sul do Brasil Motorcycle couriers: characteristics of traffic accidents in southern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dorotéia Fátima Pelissari de Paula Soares

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: conhecer características dos acidentes de trânsito ocorridos com motoboys nos municípios de Londrina e Maringá, Estado do Paraná. MÉTODOS: Foram considerados 327 motoboys que relataram, em 2005/2006, acidentes de motocicleta nos 12 meses anteriores à pesquisa (147 de Londrina e 180 de Maringá. RESULTADOS: Dos entrevistados, 39,6% relataram mais de um acidente de trânsito. Os acidentes foram percebidos como graves por 21,4% dos motoboys e 56,3% relataram conhecer motoboy afastado do trabalho por acidente. A maioria dos acidentes (82,9% ocorreu durante o trabalho. Foram observadas diferenças significativas, entre os municípios, para condições climáticas (p=0,013, período do dia (p=0,002, atendimento pré-hospitalar (p=0,032 e necessidade de internação hospitalar (pOBJECTIVE: This study aimed at understanding characteristics of traffic accidents with motorcycle couriers in the cities of Londrina and Maringá, in the State of Paraná (Brazil. METHODS: A total of 327 couriers who reported, in 2005/2006, motorcycle accident in the previous 12 months took part in the study (147 in Londrina and 180 in Maringá. RESULTS: Of all the interviewed, 39.6% reported more than one traffic accident. The accidents were perceived as serious by 21.4% of them and 56.3% reported knowing a convalescing courier due to a traffic accident. Most injuries (82.9% occurred during work hours. Significant differences were observed between the cities concerning climatic conditions (p=0.013, time of the day (p=0.002, pre-hospital care (p=0.032 and hospital admission (p<0.001. CONCLUSION: The high incidence and the recurrence of traffic accidents highlight the susceptibility of motorcycle couriers to these events and the need for strategies and specific prevention policies.

  17. Trucks involved in fatal accidents factbook 2008.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-01

    This document presents aggregate statistics on trucks involved in traffic accidents in 2008. The : statistics are derived from the Trucks Involved in Fatal Accidents (TIFA) file, compiled by the : University of Michigan Transportation Research Instit...

  18. Trucks involved in fatal accidents factbook 2007.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    This document presents aggregate statistics on trucks involved in traffic accidents in 2007. The : statistics are derived from the Trucks Involved in Fatal Accidents (TIFA) file, compiled by the : University of Michigan Transportation Research Instit...

  19. Police recording of road accident in-patients : investigation into the completeness, representativity, and reliability of police records of hospitalized traffic victims.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maas, M.W. & Harris, S.

    1984-01-01

    Many road safety research projects make use of the official police road accident data. Their use is often restricted to the data of fatal accidents and fatalities because it is the only complete registration, and the extent of underreporting of injury accidents is unknown. The need to extend the use

  20. Persistence of airline accidents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barros, Carlos Pestana; Faria, Joao Ricardo; Gil-Alana, Luis Alberiko

    2010-10-01

    This paper expands on air travel accident research by examining the relationship between air travel accidents and airline traffic or volume in the period from 1927-2006. The theoretical model is based on a representative airline company that aims to maximise its profits, and it utilises a fractional integration approach in order to determine whether there is a persistent pattern over time with respect to air accidents and air traffic. Furthermore, the paper analyses how airline accidents are related to traffic using a fractional cointegration approach. It finds that airline accidents are persistent and that a (non-stationary) fractional cointegration relationship exists between total airline accidents and airline passengers, airline miles and airline revenues, with shocks that affect the long-run equilibrium disappearing in the very long term. Moreover, this relation is negative, which might be due to the fact that air travel is becoming safer and there is greater competition in the airline industry. Policy implications are derived for countering accident events, based on competition and regulation. © 2010 The Author(s). Journal compilation © Overseas Development Institute, 2010.

  1. Detection and analysis of accident black spots with even small accident figures.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oppe, S.

    1982-01-01

    Accident black spots are usually defined as road locations with high accident potentials. In order to detect such hazardous locations we have to know the probability of an accident for a traffic situation of some kind, or the mean number of accidents for some unit of time. In almost all procedures

  2. Are falls more common than road traffic accidents in pediatric trauma? Experience from a Level 1 trauma centre in New Delhi, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babu, Annu; Rattan, Amulya; Ranjan, Piyush; Singhal, Maneesh; Gupta, Amit; Kumar, Subodh; Mishra, Biplab; Sagar, Sushma

    2016-04-01

    The epidemiology of pediatric trauma is different in different parts of the world. Some re- searchers suggest falls as the most common mechanism, whereas others report road traffic accidents (RTAs) as the most common cause. The aim of this study is to find out the leading cause of pediatric admissions in Trauma Surgery in New Delhi, India. Inpatient data from January 2012 to September 2014 was searched retrospectively in Jai Prakash Narayan Apex Trauma Centre Trauma Registry. All patients aged 18 years or less on index presentation admitted to surgical ward/ICU or later taken transfer by the Department of Trauma Surgery were included. Data were retrieved in predesigned proformas. Information thus compiled was coded in unique alphanumeric codes for each variable and subjected to statistical analysis using SPSS version 21. We had 300 patients over a 33 month period. Among them, 236 (78.6%) were males and 64 (21.3%) females. Overall the predominant cause was RTAs in 132 (43%) patients. On subgroup analysis of up to 12 years age group (n = 147), the most common cause was found to be RTAs again. However, falls showed an incremental upward trend (36.05% in up to 12 age group versus 27% overall), catching up with RTAs (44.89%). Pediatric Trauma Score (PTS) ranged from 0 to 12 with a mean of 8.12 ± 2.022. 223 (74.33%) patients experienced trauma limited to one anatomic region only, whereas 77 (25.66%) patients suffered polytrauma. 288 patients were discharged to home care. Overall, 12 patients expired in the cohort. Median hospital stay was 6 days (range 1-182). Pediatric trauma is becoming a cause of increasing concern, especially in the developing countries. The leading cause of admissions in Trauma Surgery is RTAs (43%) as compared to falls from height (27%); however, falls from height are showing an increasing trend as we move to younger age groups. Enhancing road safety alone may not be a lasting solution for prevention of pediatric trauma and local injury patterns

  3. Children's accidents, accident causation, and remedy : examples from OECD countries.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Levelt, P.B.M.

    1996-01-01

    In this paper children's accident data are presented. These data were drawn from the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) International Road Traffic and Accident Database (IRTAD), completed with data on separate countries drawn from other sources. Gender differences in

  4. Acidentes de trânsito: uma visão qualitativa no Município de Campinas, São Paulo, Brasil Traffic accidents: a qualitative approach from Campinas, São Paulo, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcos S. Queiroz

    2002-10-01

    Full Text Available Este artigo focaliza, numa perspectiva interdisciplinar qualitativa, o problema de acidentes de trânsito no Município de Campinas. Ele começa analisando o processo de municipalização do transporte e trânsito no município, com base nas representações sociais de técnicos da Secretaria Municipal de Transporte. Alguns números são trazidos à tona para mostrar uma queda significativa de mortes no trânsito em Campinas nos últimos dez anos. Esses números demonstram que as políticas públicas implementadas nesse setor têm sido positivas em vários aspectos. Atenção especial é dada aos objetivos, estratégias e obstáculos encontrados pelo poder local no processo de municipalização do trânsito. O artigo conclui enfatizando que, além da municipalização, o Estado necessita implementar políticas públicas específicas consistentes, principalmente aquelas voltadas à revitalização do transporte coletivo e a programas de educação no trânsito, a fim de se poder avançar no controle do problema.This article takes an interdisciplinary qualitative approach to the problem of traffic accidents in Campinas, São Paulo, Brazil. The authors begin by analyzing the "municipalization" (i.e., decentralization to the municipal level of transport and traffic management in Campinas based on social representations by members of the local government's technical staff. Data demonstrate a significant drop in traffic accident mortality in Campinas in the last ten years. The findings illustrate how new transport and traffic policies had several positive effects. Special attention is given to the objectives, strategies, and obstacles dealt with by local government in the "municipalization" of traffic. The paper concludes by emphasizing the need for specific public policies to revitalize urban mass transportation, including special traffic safety educational programs.

  5. German aircraft accident statistics, 1930

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weitzmann, Ludwig

    1932-01-01

    The investigation of all serious accidents, involving technical defects in the airplane or engine, is undertaken by the D.V.L. in conjunction with the imperial traffic minister and other interested parties. All accidents not clearly explained in the reports are subsequently cleared up.

  6. Autorreporte de accidentes de tránsito en una encuesta nacional en la población urbana de Perú Self-reporting of road traffic accidents in a national survey of urban population in Peru

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paolo Wong

    2010-06-01

    accidents in the previous year in the general population and to determine the associated factors. Materials and methods. We conducted a secondary analysis of the data of the III National Survey of Drug Use in the General Population of Peru, 2006. We measured socio-demographical variables: age, gender, place of origin, educational level and marital status. We also evaluated the use of legal, illegal and medical drugs. The independent variable was the self-reporting of a road traffic accident. We performed the descriptive, bivariate and multivariate analysis of the socio-demographical variables and the drug use (legal and illegal, together with the self-reporting of the traffic accident. Results. The frequency of reporting of road traffic accidents in the last year according to the survey was 2.93% (95%CI: 2.92-2.94. The associated factors for self-reporting of a road traffic accident were: to live in the jungle areas (OR: 2.03; 95%CI:1.55-2.65, male gender (OR: 1.79; 95%CI: 1.46-2.22, legal drugs use in the last year (OR: 1.98, 95%CI: 1.53-2.55, alcohol consumption in the last year (OR: 1.82; 95%CI: 1.44-2.32 and medical drugs use in the last year (OR: 2,45, 95%CI 1,63-3,68. Conclusions. The prevalence of self-reporting of road traffic accidents in the last year was very high compared to similar studies and other reporting sources. The variables associated with having had a traffic accident were: living in the jungle area, being male, legal drug use in the last month, especially alcohol and medical drug use in the last month. It is necessary to think carefully about the information system of the road traffic accidents in order to achieve a better picture of the problem putting emphasis in the legal drugs use.

  7. How do user experiences with different transport modes affect the risk of traffic accidents? From the viewpoint of licence possession status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakai, Hiroshi; Usui, Shinnosuke

    2017-02-01

    Road accidents between different modes of transport-such as between automobiles and pedestrians, automobiles and bicycles, or automobiles and motorcycles-are frequent. In such cases, it is important to consider the other side's perspective. This involves the ability to correctly judge, for every given situation, how other people on the road perceive their surroundings and what they intend to do next. In this paper, we conduct two types of studies assuming that this kind of ability to consider perspectives is higher when the person is licenced to drive the mode of transport used by the other party. For Study 1, we analysed accidents involving senior citizens between the ages of 65 and 74 years, who collided with automobiles as pedestrians or cyclists (1656 and 3192 cases respectively), in terms of the accident category and type of road at the accident spot. The results indicate that possession or non-possession of a licence was irrelevant for accidents involving cyclists, but for accidents with pedestrians, senior citizens who did not possess a licence are likely to be involved in a greater number of accidents in places that require interaction with automobiles, such as while crossing at crosswalks or at intersections. For Study 2, we reviewed 875 ordinary first-class licence practical test examinees, categorised them according to their licence possession status (motorcycle licence, moped licence, or no licence), and made a category-wise comparison of the test instructor's assessment of their ability to make a left turn. The results showed that those who had a motorcycle or moped licence tended to make a left turn more safely. Thus, the results indicate that experience with different modes of transport is likely to reduce the risk of accidents. These findings may be used to popularise educational interventions encouraging users of various transport modes to consider the perspective of others (i.e. via perspective-taking). Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights

  8. Concussion in Motor Vehicle Accidents: The Concussion Identification Index

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-08-03

    Motor Vehicle Accidents; TBI (Traumatic Brain Injury); Brain Contusion; Brain Injuries; Cortical Contusion; Concussion Mild; Cerebral Concussion; Brain Concussion; Accidents, Traffic; Traffic Accidents; Traumatic Brain Injury With Brief Loss of Consciousness; Traumatic Brain Injury With no Loss of Consciousness; Traumatic Brain Injury With Loss of Consciousness

  9. Características da mortalidade por acidentes de trânsito em localidade da região Sul do Brasil Characteristics of mortality in traffic accidents in an area of Southern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marlene Bonoto Scalassara

    1998-04-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Discutir a situação da mortalidade por acidentes de trânsito a partir da caracterização das vítimas fatais. MATERIAL E MÉTODO: A população de estudo foi constituída por 65 vítimas de acidentes de trânsito ocorridos, no Município de Maringá, Paraná (Brasil, em 1992, e que faleceram nesse mesmo ano. RESULTADOS E CONCLUSÕES: Dos 65 óbitos, houve predominância de vítimas do sexo masculino, na faixa etária de 20 a 49 anos e que se encontravam na condição de pedestre (29%, usuário de motocicleta (34%, sendo 28% condutores e 6% passageiros e ciclista (18%. Os acidentes ocorreram, principalmente, no início da tarde e da noite e nos cruzamentos das avenidas de maior fluxo. Concluiu-se que mesmo em áreas urbanas do interior, as conseqüências de acidentes de trânsito constituem-se em um dos principais agravos à saúde da população e revelam um padrão de comportamento distinto a exigir também medidas específicas de prevenção.OBJECTIVE: The mortality by traffic accidents is discussed by means of the characterization of residents who died as a result of accidents in 1992. MATERIAL AND METHOD: The study population was made up of all the victims of accidents which occurred in 1992 and who died in the same year. RESULTS AND CONCLUSIONS: The majority of victims were males between the ages of 20 and 49 years who were pedestrians (29%, motorcycle riders (34% or cyclists (18%. The accidents occurred mostly in the early afternoon and evening at crossroads of the busiest avenues. It may be concluded that even in the interior towns the consequences of traffic accidents constitute one of the principal hazards to the population's health and reveal a distinct pattern that calls for measures specific prevention.

  10. Theoretical Considerations of Interdisciplinary Expertise in Traffic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zdravko Peran

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Jnterdisciplinwy traffic expertise is being increasingly appliedin road traffic. It is not possible to determine whether anaccident had been intentionally set up without such expertise.The interdisciplinary expertise is the result of mutual work ofseveral different interdisciplinary experts. The paper analysesthe basic characteristics of interdisciplinary investigation ofset-up traffic accidents. Special attention has been paid to interdisciplinwyexpertise of set-up traffic accidents involving injuredpersons or fatalities.

  11. Traffic incidents analysis on Slovenian motorway network

    OpenAIRE

    Jakše, Bojan

    2013-01-01

    In my bachelor thesis we were analysing traffic incidents (such as accidents, congestions, heavy snow, etc.) on Slovenian road network, specifically we focused on incidents on motorways. We were starting from database of incidents provided by Prometno-informacijski center (Traffic information center) and added information about hourly traffic at the moment of incident. We were also researching possible correlations between weather and traffic congestions and accidents as well as behaviour of ...

  12. Some Aspects of Car Pedestrian Accidents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tibor Varga

    1996-02-01

    Full Text Available The occurrence of road accidents involving injuries and related mortality is a rather unfortunate but inevitable concomitant consequence of motorized traffic. Besides admitting this fact, among others, we have to endeavour to reveal the causes of car accidents at the same time, and also to introduce active and passive defensive methods suitable to decrease accident morbidity and mortality.

  13. Comportamentos de risco para acidentes de trânsito: um inquérito entre estudantes de medicina na região sul do Brasil Risky behavior for traffic accidents: a survey among medical students in Southern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Selma Maffei de Andrade

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Os acidentes de trânsito são um dos principais responsáveis pela mortalidade de jovens brasileiros. Assim, o presente estudo objetivou verificar a prevalência de comportamentos de risco para esses acidentes em uma população jovem. MÉTODOS: Questionários contendo questões sobre comportamentos de risco para acidentes de trânsito foram respondidos por alunos da primeira à quarta série do curso de Medicina da Universidade Estadual de Londrina, em outubro e novembro de 2000. Para a análise das diferenças de comportamentos entre os sexos usou-se o teste do qui quadrado, com um nível de significância de 5%. RESULTADOS: Em comparação às jovens, os rapazes relataram maior freqüência, estatisticamente significativa, para: locomoção como condutor de carro, possuir carteira de habilitação, ter aprendido a dirigir automóvel com 16 anos ou menos e ter ingerido bebida alcoólica previamente à direção de veículo nos últimos 30 dias. Entre os condutores regulares de automóvel, observou-se também menor proporção de comportamentos desej��veis entre os alunos do sexo masculino. Falta de atenção (59,3%, desrespeito à sinalização (33,5% e excesso de velocidade (22,5% foram os fatores mais citados como determinantes para a ocorrência do último acidente, sem diferença entre os sexos. CONCLUSÕES: Os resultados indicam a necessidade de medidas visando à redução de fatores que favorecem a ocorrência de acidentes de trânsito entre esses jovens, especialmente os do sexo masculino.BACKGROUND: Traffic accidents are one of the most frequent cause of mortality among Brazilian youths. Therefore, this study aimed at detecting the prevalence of risk factors for such accidents in a young population. METHODS: Questionnaires containing questions about risky behavior for traffic accidents were answered by students from the first to the fourth year of the Medical course of the Sate University of Londrina, Paraná State

  14. Análisis edad-periodo-cohorte de la mortalidad por accidentes de tráfico en España Age-period-cohort analysis of traffic accident mortality in Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmen Saiz-Sánchez

    1999-05-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO. Estudiar la evolución de la mortalidad por accidentes de tráfico en España y su posible aplicación a un modelo edad-periodo-cohorte, así como el efecto que pueden tener algunas medidas de seguridad vial seleccionadas. MATERIAL Y MÉTODOS. Se obtuvieron las tasas de mortalidad por accidentes de tráfico y las tasas en intervalos quinquenales de edad para cada sexo, lo que permite su estudio como tasas específicas de edad por cohortes de nacimiento. Para determinar la asociación entre las medidas de seguridad vial seleccionadas y la mortalidad se han construido modelos de regresión de Poisson. RESULTADOS. Se observaron dos ondas evolutivas en la mortalidad por accidentes de tráfico. Respecto a la edad, no podemos hablar de un efecto claro; tampoco se encontró un efecto cohorte ni para varones ni para mujeres. En relación con las medidas de seguridad vial, se discutió la consistencia que guardaban los modelos seleccionados con los resultados gráficos, y se obtuvo que el uso obligatorio del casco y de las luces de cruce en motocicletas se ha asociado significativamente a la reducción de la mortalidad (RR 0.73, pOBJECTIVE. To study the evolution of traffic accidents mortality in Spain and its possible application to an age-period-cohort analysis, as well as the effect of selected road safety measures. MATERIAL AND METHODS. Road accidents rates of mortality were obtained, and five-year interval age rates for each sex, which allows the study of specific rates of age by birth cohorts. To determine the association between the selected road safety measures and mortality, Poisson regression models were adjusted. RESULTS. Two waves emerge in the evolution of traffic accidents. There was no clear effect with respect to age, nor was there a cohort effect for men or women. As to the road safety measures, we discuss the consistency between the selected models and graphic results. The compulsory use of helmet and of crossing lights is

  15. Traffic fatalities and economic growth

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003-04-01

    As countries develop death rates usually fall, especially for diseases that affect the young and result in substantial life-years lost. Deaths due to traffic accidents are a notable exception: the growth in motor vehicles that accompanies economic gr...

  16. The study of technological prevention method of road accident ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... may be associated with the occurrence of the accident was conducted. This paper also discussed about road accident prevention method based on the factors studied. The study of this paper can provide forceful data analysis support for the road traffic safety related research. Keywords: road accident; accident prevention; ...

  17. Perfil epidemiológico de los accidentes de tránsito en el Perú, 2005-2009 Epidemiological profile of road traffic accidents in Peru, 2005-2009

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Víctor Choquehuanca-Vilca

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo. Determinar las características del perfil epidemiológico de los accidentes de tránsito (AT en el Perú, en el periodo 2005 -2009. Materiales y métodos. Estudio descriptivo, retrospectivo, se analizó fuentes secundarias de información de AT de la Policía Nacional del Perú y la Estrategia Sanitaria Nacional de Accidentes de Tránsito (ESNAT del Ministerio de Salud. Resultados. En el quinquenio estudiado se produjeron 404 120 AT, el 63,8% de éstos sucedió en Lima. Los automóviles y las camionetas representan los tipos de vehículo más veces involucrados en estos accidentes. El exceso de velocidad y la imprudencia del conductor son las principales causas de la siniestralidad. El tipo de accidente más común es el choque (57%. Los varones de 20 a 34 años son la población más vulnerable. Los AT han provocado 17 025 muertos y 235 591 lesionados en el Perú durante este periodo. Conclusiones. Los AT son un problema emergente de salud pública en el Perú. La tendencia de las cifras de mortalidad y morbilidad por accidentes de tránsito en el Perú ha seguido una curva ascendente entre los años 2005 y 2008; sin embargo, estas cifras durante el 2009 se han reducido de manera muy poco significativa. Los sistemas de información deben integrarse para proporcionar información confiable a las instituciones nacionales involucradas en esta problemática, de manera que sirvan de referencia para futuras decisiones políticas.Objective. To determine the characteristics and epidemiological profile of road traffic injuries (RTI in Peru during the period 2005-2009. Materials and methods. Descriptive, retrospective study, secondary sources of information on RTI from the National Police of Peru and the National Sanitary Strategy for the Control of Traffic Accidents (ESNAT of the Ministry of Health were analyzed. Results. During the 5 years of study, there were 404120 TA, of which 63.8% occurred in Lima. Cars and vans are the types of vehicle

  18. Spatial analysis of deaths due to traffic accidents, before and after the Brazilian Drinking and Driving Law, in micro-regions of the state of São Paulo, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nunes, Marcela Neves; Nascimento, Luiz Fernando Costa

    2012-01-01

    To identify special micro-region clusters according to mortality rates resulting from traffic accident in the state of São Paulo, Brazil, during the period of one year before and one year after the enactment of the Brazilian Drinking and Driving Law. Ecological and exploratory study in the period of 2007 and 2009 in 63 micro-regions of the state of São Paulo. Geoprocessing tools were used with data from DATASUS (Database of the Brazilian Unified Health System), in order to analyze deaths resulting from traffic accidents at rates per 100,000 inhabitants and to build choropleth maps. New statistics were obtained by subtracting the 2009 rate from the 2007 rate, and regions with improvement or deterioration were observed. In 2007, there were 5,204 deaths, averaging 83 deaths/micro-region, and ranging from 1 to 1,440. In 2009, there were 5,065 deaths, averaging 80 deaths/micro-region, and ranging from 1 to 1453. In 2007, the Moran's coefficient was I = 0.09 (p = 0.04), with positive spatial correlation; in 2009, the coefficient was I = 0.04 (p = 0.16), with no correlation. The difference between rates was I = 0.23 (p = 0.007), indicating spatial association. In 2007, Presidente Prudente, Rio Claro, Campinas, Bragança Paulista, Osasco, and São Paulo presented high mortality rates. Of these regions, only Osasco did not stand out in 2009. Ribeirão Preto, Ourinhos, and Avaré deteriorated in 2009. The difference between the 2009 and 2007 rates showed that Amparo, Bragança Paulista, and Campinas improved, and that Presidente Prudente and Ourinhos deteriorated. It was possible to identify the places with higher mortality rates, pointing out locations where enforcement actions should be reviewed.

  19. An analysis of the traffic safety phenomenon.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Asmussen, E. & Kranenburg, A.

    1982-01-01

    The lack of traffic safety is a combination of the critical coincidence of circumstances in the traffic of incidents (near-accidents) and accidents with unwanted (permanent) consequences, such as fatalities, injured and disabled persons and material damage. This definition covers the whole of the

  20. [The pediatrician and traffic safety].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waksman, Renata D; Pirito, Regina M B K

    2005-11-01

    To instruct children and teenagers about safe transportation and about their behavior as cyclists and pedestrians. The MEDLINE and LILACS databases were searched, using the following terms, from 1995 to 2005: traffic accidents, child, adolescent, morbidity, mortality, age, and gender. Scientific articles on morbidity and mortality from traffic accidents, children in a pedestrian situation, as cyclists or as motor vehicle passengers, were selected. More than 300 scientific articles were found, but only the studies that addressed those issues in a broad manner were selected. Traffic-related mortality rates are still very high and show the necessity to intensify educational campaigns for community awareness, in addition to encouraging investments in effective pedestrian safety. The pediatrician s role is to decrease the number of children and adolescents who get involved in traffic accidents by providing them with traffic guidance and education.

  1. The epidemiology of bicyclist's collision accidents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, L. B.

    1994-01-01

    The number of bicyclists injured in the road traffic in collision accidents and treated at the emergency room at Odense University Hospital has increased 66% from 1980 to 1989. The aim of this study was to examine the epidemiology of bicyclist's collision accidents and identify risk groups...... of collision accidents with motor vehicles it is necessary to separate the bicyclists from the 'hard road traffic' especially at crossings. Preventive measures must also be directed at the bicyclists. Information must be given to warn the bicyclists against the risks, not only for collisions with motor...... injured in collision accidents, and 1502 bicyclists injured in single accidents was used as a reference group. The young bicyclists 10-19 years of age had the highest incidence of injuries caused by collision accidents. The collision accidents had different characteristics according to counterpart. One...

  2. Safety effects of traffic restraint.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Janssen, S.T.M.C.

    1986-01-01

    In recent years the effectiveness and acceptability of traffic restraint measures in residential areas has been investigated. Results of accident investigations indicate that a new layout of residential areas has a positive effect on traffic safety. Research into road safety should not be restricted

  3. Síndroma de apneia obstrutiva do sono como causa de acidentes de viação Obstructive sleep apnoea syndrome as a cause of road traffic accidents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Aguiar

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Vários estudos demonstram que os doentes com síndroma de apneia obstrutiva do sono (SAOS têm um risco aumentado de acidentes de viação. O objectivo do presente trabalho consistiu em analisar, nestes doentes, se há diferenças nos que referem acidentes e/ /ou quase acidentes e aqueles que o não fazem. Material e métodos: Estudaram-se prospectivamente 163 doentes com SAOS (índice apneia/hipopneia (IAH>10/h diagnosticados por polissonografia nocturna (PSG, todos condutores de veículos, 18,4% do quais profissionais. Na altura da entrevista clínica foi inquirido se tinham tido, nos três anos antes acidentes e/ou quase acidentes devido a hipersonia diurna (Grupo II = 74 ou não (Grupo I = 89. Estes dois grupos foram comparados quanto a: idade, índice de massa corporal (IMC, escala de sonolência de Epworth (ESE, PaO2 e PaCO2 diurnas, avaliação da qualidade de vida pelo inquérito Functional Outcomes of Sleep Questionnaire (FOSQ teste e dados da polissonografia - tempo total de sono (TTS, eficiência do sono, estádios do sono, índice de microdespertares (IMD, índice de apneia/hipopneia (IAH, SaO2 mínima e média, % tempo SaO2Several studies have demonstrated that obstructive sleep apnoea syndrome (OSAS patients have a higher rate of road traffic accidents. Our study aimed to analyse any differences in OSAS patients between those who reported having had road traffic accidents and/or near misses and those who did not. Methods: We studied 163 patients with OSAS (apnoea-hypopnoea index (AHI>10/h diagnosed using nocturnal polysomnography (NPSG, all drivers, 18.4% of whom drove for a living. Patients were asked at their first clinical interview to self-report road traffic accidents and/or near misses over the past 3 years which had been caused by abnormal daytime drowsiness. This allowed patients to be divided into two groups, those who had had road traffic accidents and/or near misses and those who had not. Both were compared as to age

  4. Aspectos metodologicos de la medición en el sitio de ocurrencia de lesiones por accidentes de tráfico Methodological aspects of measuring injuries from traffic accidents at the site of occurrence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martha C. Híjar-Medina

    1997-02-01

    Full Text Available Os acidentes de trânsito de veículos a motor representam problema de saúde pública, em nível mundial. No México, a pesquisa, nesse campo, é limitada e a metodologia para seu estudo é pouco desenvolvida. Na literatura científica internacional são escassos os artigos que discutem os aspectos metodológicos de pesquisa nesse campo. Assim, realizou-se estudo com o objetivo de apresentar alguns aspectos metodológicos úteis para os interessados em pesquisar lesões por acidentes de trânsito. Foram discutidos aspectos sobre como medir, no local de ocorrência, as variáveis básicas para o estudo dessas lesões, tais como: se o motorista sofreu ou não lesões, uso de cinto de segurança, velocidade e consumo de álcool.Los accidentes de tráfico de vehículos de motor, representan un problema de Salud Pública a nivel mundial. En México la investigación en este campo es limitada y la metodología para su estudio está poco desarrollada. Por otro lado, son relativamente escasos los artículos publicados en revistas científicas internacionales que abunden, en la discusión sobre aspectos metodológicos de la investigación. El objetivo del trabajo es el presentar algunas consideraciones metodológicas que pueden ser de utilidad para los investigadores interesados en el tema de las lesiones por accidentes de tráfico. Se discuten aspectos que deben tenerse en cuenta cuando se miden en el sitio de ocurrencia algunas variables fundamentales para el estudio de las lesiones, como son: Si el conductor está o no lesionado, uso de cinturón de seguridad, velocidad y consumo de alcohol.Traffic accidents are a well-known public health problem worldwide. In Mexico research into risk factors for motor involving vehicles accidents and their consequences has recentlly been taken into account. The relevant literature does not normally describe the methodological aspects involved in the collection of primary data, since most studies have used secondary

  5. Urban road accidents in Dhaka, Bangladesh

    OpenAIRE

    Ishtiaque, A.; Ahmed, B

    2013-01-01

    Dhaka, the capital city of Bangladesh, is the most vulnerable city both in terms of total number of accidents and accident rates. A total number of 2,720 accidents occurred during 2007-2011. This has caused a total of 1,481 numbers of pedestrian fatal accidents with 1,562 pedestrian fatal casualties. The primary objective of the paper is to study the characteristics of the road traffic accidents in Dhaka. The study area for this study is Dhaka Metropolitan Area. The paper focused on a few sel...

  6. Squeal Those Tires! Automobile-Accident Reconstruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caples, Linda Griffin

    1992-01-01

    Methods use to reconstruct traffic accidents provide settings for real life applications for students in precalculus, mathematical analysis, or trigonometry. Described is the investigation of an accident in conjunction with the local Highway Patrol Academy integrating physics, vector, and trigonometry. Class findings were compared with those of…

  7. 32 CFR 634.40 - General off installation traffic activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... reports received from civil authorities on serious traffic violations, accidents, and intoxicated driving... 32 National Defense 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true General off installation traffic activities. 634... (CONTINUED) LAW ENFORCEMENT AND CRIMINAL INVESTIGATIONS MOTOR VEHICLE TRAFFIC SUPERVISION Traffic Supervision...

  8. Risk factors for road traffic accidents in cats up to age 12 months that were registered between 2010 and 2013 with the UK pet cat cohort ('Bristol Cats').

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, J L; Gruffydd-Jones, T J; Murray, J K

    2017-02-25

    Road traffic accidents (RTAs) are a common cause of death and injury in domestic cats, and a concern to many owners. This study assessed potential risk factors for RTAs in cats up to 12 months of age within a UK cat cohort known as 'The Bristol Cats study'. Data were obtained from three questionnaires, completed by cat owners when their cats were approximately 8-16 weeks old, 6 months old and 12 months old. Information was gathered regarding environmental conditions, cat characteristics and owner management factors. Univariable and multivariable logistic regression models were used to assess associations between these factors and RTAs. Of 1264 eligible study cats, 49 (3.9 per cent) had been involved in an RTA, of which 71.4 per cent (35/49) were known to result in fatal injuries. Rural locations were associated with a higher odds of RTAs than towns, cities or suburban locations. An increased odds of an RTA was also associated with cats that were reported by their owners to hunt at the roadside, as well as cats whose owners classified the road by their house as being a 'long straight section of road'. No significant associations were found between coat colour, breed, sex or neuter status and the odds of an RTA. British Veterinary Association.

  9. Statistical modelling of the frequency and severity of road accidents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Janstrup, Kira Hyldekær

    Under-reporting of traffic accidents is a well-discussed subject in traffic safety and it is well-known that the degree of under-reporting of traffic accidents is quite high in many countries. Nevertheless, very little literature has been made to investigate what causes the high degree of under...... management tool.Initially models were built by using existing traffic accident data collected by the police and emergency rooms in Denmark. The data registered by the police was collected on traffic accidents occurred on Danish roads in the period between 2002 and 2008. The emergency room data were collected...... the barriers for the intention to report a bicycle incident can help in designing policy measures for improving the reporting rate for bicycle incidents and in that connection also the traffic safety for bicyclist (Paper 3). 6) A new and innovative method is found to evaluate the service quality and is tested...

  10. Economical Video Monitoring of Traffic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houser, B. C.; Paine, G.; Rubenstein, L. D.; Parham, O. Bruce, Jr.; Graves, W.; Bradley, C.

    1986-01-01

    Data compression allows video signals to be transmitted economically on telephone circuits. Telephone lines transmit television signals to remote traffic-control center. Lines also carry command signals from center to TV camera and compressor at highway site. Video system with television cameras positioned at critical points on highways allows traffic controllers to determine visually, almost immediately, exact cause of traffic-flow disruption; e.g., accidents, breakdowns, or spills, almost immediately. Controllers can then dispatch appropriate emergency services and alert motorists to minimize traffic backups.

  11. evaluation of morbidity and epidemiology of two wheelers accidents ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    accidents in Central India. Methods: There were about 1514 patients who came to Accident and Emergency department of Acharya. Vinobha Bhave Hospital from September 2014 to August 2015 with history of RTA, out of which 100 cases of road traffic accidents involving two wheelers were interviewed, using interview ...

  12. Spatial Analysis of Accident Spots Using Weighted Severity Index ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ADOWIE PERE

    Spatial analysis of the distribution of these accident spots using Weighted Severity Index (WSI) was carried out. A Density-based Clustering Algorithm for. Traffic Accident Risk (DBCTAR) was used to determine accident concentrations with severity levels in a Geospatial Information Systems (GIS) environment. This work is ...

  13. Mapping patterns and characteristics of fatal road accidents in Israel

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Prato, Carlo Giacomo; Gitelman, Victoria; Bekhor, Shlomo

    2010-01-01

    of reducing the number of traffic fatalities and accidents. The analysis focuses on 1,793 fatal accidents occurred during the four-year period between 2003 and 2006, and applies data mining techniques with the objective of extracting from the data relevant information about accident patterns and major factors...

  14. Epidemiology of traffic crash mortality in west of Iran in a 9 year period

    OpenAIRE

    Hamzeh, Behrooz; Najafi, Farid; Karamimatin, Behzad; Ahmadijouybari, Tuoraj; Salari, Aresh; Moradinazar, Mehdi

    2016-01-01

    Purpose In Iran, the most common cause of injuries and the second leading cause of deaths are traffic accidents, and those problems impose a substantial financial burden on the society. This study aims to determine traffic accident mortality trends and their epidemiologic characteristics in the Kermanshah province, west of Iran. Methods In a cross sectional study, road traffic fatality data from 2004 to 2013 were analyzed to determine the epidemiological pattern of traffic accident mortality....

  15. Fatores associados ao óbito de motociclistas nas ocorrências de trânsito Factores asociados al fallecimiento de motociclista en accidentes de tránsito Factors associated with the death of motorcyclists in traffic accidents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nelson Luiz Batista de Oliveira

    2012-12-01

    factors associated with death among motorcyclists involved in traffic accidents in Maringá - PR, a retrospective study was performed, including motorcyclists involved in accidents in the year 2004. Data were collected from the Military Police records, the Integrated System for Emergency Trauma Care (Sistema Integrado de Atendimento ao Trauma em Emergência -SIATE and the Institute of Legal Medicine. Bivariate analyses and binary logistical regression were performed. A total of 2,362 motorcyclists were identified in the Police Reports, 1,743 of whom also had records in the Emergency Responders reports. Victims who succumbed to their injuries differed from victims who survived in terms of age, place of residence, time elapsed since obtaining a driver's license, and their physiological condition at the scene of the accident. The following variables were maintained in the final model: Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS, Revised Trauma Score (RTS, pulse, and blood oxygen saturation. The physiological conditions of the victims at the scene of the accidents were highlighted in the final model, with GCS surpassing RTS in regards to association with death.

  16. Tendência dos acidentes de trânsito em Campinas, São Paulo, Brasil: importância crescente dos motociclistas Trends in traffic accidents in Campinas, São Paulo State, Brazil: the increasing involvement of motorcyclists

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leticia Marín-León

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Com o objetivo de descrever a tendência de ocorrência de acidentes de trânsito, sua mortalidade, tipo de veículo envolvido, tamanho da frota e perfil das vítimas em Campinas, São Paulo, Brasil, entre 1995 e 2008, foram estimadas taxas de motorização e ocorrência de acidentes, letalidade, mortalidade proporcional, taxas de mortalidade e razões entre taxas. A frota de motocicletas cresceu 241%. Apesar da queda da letalidade dos acidentes de ocupantes de motos entre 2000 e 2008, esta categoria representou 49,3% do total de acidentes fatais em vias públicas em 2008. As motos foram responsáveis pelas maiores taxas de atropelamento (66,7 atropelados/mil acidentes e de atropelamentos seguidos de morte (4 óbitos/mil acidentes. Os homens mantiveram risco de morrer no trânsito muito superior ao das mulheres. Nos atropelamentos, predominaram elevadas taxas de mortalidade em idosos; entre os ocupantes de veículos, os mais atingidos foram os de 15 a 29 anos. Na faixa de 15 a 39 anos, entre 2006 e 2008, quase 80% eram ocupantes de moto. Ações pluri-institucionais devem priorizar a prevenção de acidentes entre motociclistas.In order to describe trends in traffic accidents, mortality, vehicle types, fleet sizes, and victims' characteristics in Campinas, São Paulo State, Brazil, from 1995 to 2008, this study analyzed vehicle rates, traffic accident rates per inhabitant and per vehicle, case-fatality rates, proportional mortality, mortality rates, and rates ratios. The motorcycle fleet increased 241%. Although the case-fatality rate of motorcycle users from 2000 to 2008 decreased, in 2008 they accounted for 49.3% of fatal accidents on public byways in Campinas. Motorcycles were responsible for the highest run-over rate (66.7 pedestrians/1,000 accidents and highest pedestrian fatality rate (4 deaths/1,000 accidents. Men showed much higher mortality rates than women. Pedestrian victims were mainly elderly; most vehicle occupants in traffic

  17. Disability related to road traffic crashes among adults in Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rocío Palmera-Suárez

    2015-09-01

    Conclusions: The prevalence of disability due to road traffic accidents in Spain is lower than in other developed countries, with middle-aged and socio-economically underprivileged persons being the most affected. Disability due to road traffic accidents is related to a greater demand for social/health care support, problems of accessibility/commuting, and major changes in economic activity.

  18. A Retrospective Study on the Unseen Epidemic of Road Traffic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Conclusion and Recommendation: Among all RTAs the leading cause of injuries is Motor cycle traffic accidents followed by motor vehicle. RTAs are on increase particularly the motor cycle traffic accidents and has claimed a good number of innocent people's lives however most of them are preventable, therefore driving ...

  19. Accident Statistics

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — Accident statistics available on the Coast Guard’s website by state, year, and one variable to obtain tables and/or graphs. Data from reports has been loaded for...

  20. Sports Accidents

    CERN Multimedia

    Kiebel

    1972-01-01

    Le Docteur Kiebel, chirurgien à Genève, est aussi un grand ami de sport et de temps en temps médecin des classes genevoises de ski et également médecin de l'équipe de hockey sur glace de Genève Servette. Il est bien qualifié pour nous parler d'accidents de sport et surtout d'accidents de ski.

  1. [Epidemiological characteristics of road traffic injuries in AP Vojvodina].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durić, Predrag; Miladinov-Mikov, Marica

    2009-01-01

    Traffic accidents are one of the leading epidemiological problems in developed countries as well as in developing ones. It is estimated that every day in the world 1308 person die in car accidents. Causes of traffic accidents are factors of road, vehicle and human factors, the latter one being the cause of more than 90% car accidents, isolated or linked with other factors. Data from the Ministry of Internal Affairs - Department in Novi Sad were collected for the period 1992-2001 and analyzed. All road traffic accidents were divided into those with and without injured persons. All injured were divided in three categories: slightly injured, severely injured and killed. Categorization was done by the Ministry of Internal Affairs (police). Average number of road traffic accidents in AP Vojvodina is 13,191, and 3502 with injured persons per year. Avarage incidence is 174 accidents per 100,000 population, and 301 injured per 100,000 population. Mortality rate is 30.6 per 100,000 population. Number of killed in road traffic accidents per 10,000 vehicles is 6.91. During the 1992-2001 period, morbidity and mortality rates of traffic accidents in AP Vojvodina were high. Participating of bicycle drivers, car passengers and pedestrians is higher than in developed countries. Injured persons are mostly 20-29 y.o., but rates of killed persons are the same in all age groups older than 19. Men are more in danger than women. Majority of accidents happen during the early autumn months, on Fridays and Saturdays, in early evening hours. Most persons have been injured or killed in city accidents, along Subotica-Belgrade highway. AP Vojvodina had the highest mortality rate of road traffic injuries per ten thousand vehicles in Europe -- 6.91. Effective preventive measures are needed to decrease rates of road traffic accidents.

  2. Factors contributing to young moped rider accidents in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Mette; Haustein, Sonja

    2016-01-01

    Young road users still constitute a high-risk group with regard to road traffic accidents. The crash rate of a moped is four times greater than that of a motorcycle, and the likelihood of being injured in a road traffic accident is 10-20 times higher among moped riders compared to car drivers...... was made between accident factors related to (1) the road and its surroundings, (2) the vehicle, and (3) the reported behaviour and condition of the road user. Thirteen accident factors were identified with the majority concerning the reported behaviour and condition of the road user. The average number...... of accident factors assigned per accident was 2.7. Riding speed was assigned in 45% of the accidents which made it the most frequently assigned factor on the part of the moped rider followed by attention errors (42%), a tuned up moped (29%) and position on the road (14%). For the other parties involved...

  3. Uso da prótese e retorno ao trabalho em amputados por acidentes de transporte Use of prosthesis and return to work by amputees involved in traffic accidents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lílian de Fátima Dornelas

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Verificar o uso de prótese de membro inferior e o retorno ao trabalho em amputados por acidentes de transporte (AT. MÉTODO: Estudo de série de casos por meio de uma entrevista, com amputados por AT, cadastrados no período de dezembro de 2002 a dezembro de 2004, após a alta da reabilitação na AACD/MG. A amostra foi composta por 26 amputados, 22 homens e quatro mulheres, com média de idade de 37,7 anos. Quinze amputações eram transfemorais e 11 transtibiais. Dezoito (69,2% pessoas tinham grau de instrução fundamental. RESULTADOS: Todos os amputados receberam a prótese e 16 (61,5% deles, relataram utilizá-la para passeio. Todos os indivíduos permaneceram afastados do trabalho após o acidente, sendo que 16 (66,7% afastaram pelo INSS, seis (25% aposentaram por invalidez e dois (8,3% por idade. Cinco das pessoas afastadas pelo INSS retornaram ao trabalho e três aposentadas por invalidez e uma por idade, declararam que praticam atividade para suplementar à aposentadoria. CONCLUSÃO: O uso da prótese é comumente para passeio e é baixa a taxa de retorno ao trabalho após a reabilitação.. O baixo nível de instrução e qualificação podem ter sido responsáveis por estes resultados.OBJECTIVE: To detect the use of a prosthetic leg and the return to work in amputees by traffic accidents (TA. METHOD: A case series by means of an interview with AT amputees who were registered between December 2002 and December 2004, after discharge from rehabilitation at the AACD/MG. The sample consisted of 26 amputees, 22 men and four women, mean age of 37.7 years. Fifteen amputations were above the knee and 11 below the knee. Eighteen (69.2% people had completed elementary education. RESULTS: All amputees received prostheses and 16 (61.5% of them reported using it for walking. All subjects remained off work after the accident, and 16 (66.7% remained off work by utilizing the INSS, six (25% retired due to disability and two (8.3% retired

  4. Data mining and visualization of the Alabama accident database

    Science.gov (United States)

    2000-08-01

    The Alabama Department of Public Safety has developed and maintains a centralized database that contain traffic accident data collected from crash report completed by local police officers and state troopers. The Critical Analysis Reporting Environme...

  5. Modeling accident frequency in Denmark for improving road safety

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lyckegaard, Allan; Hels, Tove; Kaplan, Sigal

    the infrastructure characteristics and the traffic conditions of the road. The model can be used to point out high risk road segments and support road authorities in planning interventions for the improvement of road safety on Danish roads. The number of accidents on a road link was modeled using a count model after......Traffic accidents result in huge costs to society in terms of death, injury, lost productivity, and property damage. The main objective of the current study is the development of an accident frequency model that predicts the expected number of accidents on a given road segment, provided...... concerning police recorded accidents, link characteristics of the road network, traffic volumes from the national transport models are merged to estimate the model. Spatial correlation between road sections is taken into account for correcting for unobserved correlation between contiguous locations....

  6. Unrecorded Accidents Detection on Highways Based on Temporal Data Mining

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shi An

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Automatic traffic accident detection, especially not recorded by traffic police, is crucial to accident black spots identification and traffic safety. A new method of detecting traffic accidents is proposed based on temporal data mining, which can identify the unknown and unrecorded accidents by traffic police. Time series model was constructed using ternary numbers to reflect the state of traffic flow based on cell transmission model. In order to deal with the aftereffects of linear drift between time series and to reduce the computational cost, discrete Fourier transform was implemented to turn time series from time domain to frequency domain. The pattern of the time series when an accident happened could be recognized using the historical crash data. Then taking Euclidean distance as the similarity evaluation function, similarity data mining of the transformed time series was carried out. If the result was less than the given threshold, the two time series were similar and an accident happened probably. A numerical example was carried out and the results verified the effectiveness of the proposed method.

  7. [Prevention of bicycle accidents].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zwipp, H; Barthel, P; Bönninger, J; Bürkle, H; Hagemeister, C; Hannawald, L; Huhn, R; Kühn, M; Liers, H; Maier, R; Otte, D; Prokop, G; Seeck, A; Sturm, J; Unger, T

    2015-04-01

    For a very precise analysis of all injured bicyclists in Germany it would be important to have definitions for "severely injured", "seriously injured" and "critically injured". By this, e.g., two-thirds of surgically treated bicyclists who are not registered by the police could become available for a general analysis. Elderly bicyclists (> 60 years) are a minority (10 %) but represent a majority (50 %) of all fatalities. They profit most by wearing a helmet and would be less injured by using special bicycle bags, switching on their hearing aids and following all traffic rules. E-bikes are used more and more (145 % more in 2012 vs. 2011) with 600,000 at the end of 2011 and are increasingly involved in accidents but still have a lack of legislation. So even for pedelecs 45 with 500 W and a possible speed of 45 km/h there is still no legislative demand for the use of a protecting helmet. 96 % of all injured cyclists in Germany had more than 0.5 ‰ alcohol in their blood, 86 % more than 1.1 ‰ and 59 % more than 1.7 ‰. Fatalities are seen in 24.2 % of cases without any collision partner. Therefore the ADFC calls for a limit of 1.1 ‰. Some virtual studies conclude that integrated sensors in bicycle helmets which would interact with sensors in cars could prevent collisions or reduce the severity of injury by stopping the cars automatically. Integrated sensors in cars with opening angles of 180° enable about 93 % of all bicyclists to be detected leading to a high rate of injury avoidance and/or mitigation. Hanging lamps reduce with 35 % significantly bicycle accidents for children, traffic education for children and special trainings for elderly bicyclists are also recommended as prevention tools. As long as helmet use for bicyclists in Germany rates only 9 % on average and legislative orders for using a helmet will not be in force in the near future, coming up campaigns seem to be necessary to be promoted by the Deutscher

  8. Impacto de un programa de detección de conductores bajo los efectos del alcohol en la prevención de accidentes de tráfico: provincia de Villa Clara [Cuba] Impact of a drink-driving detection program to prevent traffic accidents: Villa Clara Province, Cuba

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Humberto Guanche Garcell

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo: Determinar la efectividad de una metodología dirigida a la reducción de los accidentes de tráfico y sus consecuencias en la provincia de Villa Clara (Cuba. Diseño: Durante el período de mayo-octubre del año 2003, se realizó vigilancia activa sobre la ingestión de bebidas alcohólicas por parte de los conductores. Se utilizaron técnicas de análisis de series cronológicas. Resultados: Se detectaron 805 (12,46% conductores bajo los efectos del alcohol. Se constató un descenso de los accidentes (29,9%, las defunciones (70,8% y los lesionados (58,7% en comparación con un período similar del año 2002. La reducción de los accidentes fue inferior al límite histórico en mayo, junio, julio, septiembre y octubre, mientras que las defunciones fueron menores en mayo, agosto y septiembre. Los lesionados disminuyeron por debajo del límite histórico en el mes de julio. Conclusión: La intervención realizada es una medida útil para la prevención de accidentes de tráfico y sus consecuencias.Objective: To determine the effectiveness of a method to reduce road traffic accidents and their consequences in the province of Villa Clara (Cuba. Design: From May to October 2003, active surveillance of drink-driving was carried out. Analysis of chronological series was used. Results: A total of 805 (12.46% drivers were found to be under the effect of alcohol. Traffic accidents, deaths, and injuries decreased by 29.9%, 70.8% and 58.7%, respectively, in comparison with a similar period in 2002. The number of accidents in May, June, July, September and October fell below the historical low. The number of deaths was lowest in May, August and September. The number of injuries in July fell below the historical low. Conclusion: The interventions carried out proved useful in preventing traffic accidents and their consequences.

  9. Spatial Analysis of Accident Spots Using Weighted Severity Index ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ADOWIE PERE

    A Density-based Clustering Algorithm for. Traffic Accident Risk (DBCTAR) was used to determine accident concentrations with severity levels in a Geospatial Information Systems (GIS) environment. This work is only limited to highways and expressways, and does not cover access roads and core engineering road design.

  10. Causes and consequences of commercial motorcycle accidents in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Accident associated with the use of motorcycle for commercial transportation in Makurdi metropolis was studied. Data obtained from the police, hospitals and questionnaire administered on commercial motorcycle riders involved in accident and personnel of traffic law enforcement agencies, was used in the study.

  11. Mortality in the accident and emergency unit of Nnamdi Azikiwe ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Cardiovascular accident due to hypertension is the commonest single medical cause of death while head injury from road traffic accident is the commonest single surgical cause of death. The highest incidence (when medical and surgical causes are combined) occurred between the 5th and 6th decades while the lowest ...

  12. Pattern of injuries from motorcycle accidents in Abia State, Nigeria ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Motorcycle accidents are very common and cause major injuries. The Abia State government banned commercial motorcyclists from operating in the major cities of the state in July, 2009. Objectives: To determine the influence of this ban on the cause and pattern of injuries due to road traffic accidents. Design: ...

  13. mortality in the accident and emergency unit of nnamdi azikiwe ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Medical causes of death accounted for 203 cases while surgical causes accounted for 135 cases. Cardiovascular accident due to hypertension is the commonest single medical cause of death while head injury from road traffic accident is the commonest single surgical cause of death. The highest incidence (when medical ...

  14. Median Light Rail Crossing: Accident Causation And Countermeasures

    OpenAIRE

    Coifman, Benjamin; Bertini, Robert L.

    1997-01-01

    This paper focuses on accident causation and countermeasures at arterial median light rail grade crossings. It synthesizes accident causation and prevention literature from several fields, including traffic engineering, human factors and cognitive psychology, as it relates to the complex LRT grade crossing.

  15. Children's accidents, accident causation, and remedy : examples from Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development OECD-countries.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Levelt, P.B.M.

    1996-01-01

    In this paper children's accident data are presented. These data were drawn from the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) International Road Traffic and Accident Database (IRTAD), completed with data on separate countries drawn from other sources. Gender differences in

  16. Traffic accidents and road surface skidding resistance : an investigation into the statistical relationship between the skidding resistance of the road surface and relative road risk. Summary of the research report of Sub-committee V of the Working Group on Tyres, Road Surfaces and Skidding Accidents of the Institute for Road Safety Research, SWOV

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schlösser, L.H.M

    1975-01-01

    This study forms part of an extended research programme of the Working Group on Tyres, Road-surfaces and Skidding accidents. According to the terms of reference a statistical relationship had to be established between the skidding resistance of a road-surface and the number of accidents per million

  17. Accidents, aberrant behaviours, and speeding of young moped riders

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Steg, L.; Van Brussel, A.

    Moped riders, particularly youngsters, are amongst the highest risk group in traffic. We used an adapted version of the Driver Behaviour Questionnaire to examine why moped riders are often involved in traffic accidents. We conducted a questionnaire study among 146 young moped riders in the

  18. Mortalidade por acidentes de transporte terrestre no Brasil na última década: tendência e aglomerados de risco Mortality due to road traffic accidents in Brazil in the last decade: trends and risk clusters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Otaliba Libânio de Morais Neto

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Analisar a tendência temporal da mortalidade por Acidentes de Transporte Terrestre (ATT e identificar a existência e a localização de aglomerados de alto risco de mortes por ATT. METODOLOGIA: Estudo descritivo de tendência da mortalidade por ATT, pedestre, ocupante de motocicleta e de veículo, de 2000 a 2010 e análise espacial para 2000 e 2010. Os dados foram obtidos do Sistema de Informações sobre Mortalidade; calcularam-se as taxas padronizadas por idade, para Unidades Federadas (UF e municípios por porte populacional. RESULTADOS: A taxa de mortalidade por ATT entre 2000 e 2010 variou de 18 para 22,5 óbitos/100 mil habitantes. O risco de morte para pedestre reduziu, os de ocupantes de veículos e de motocicletas apresentaram crescimento. O maior risco de morte por ATT ocorreu nos municípios com até 20 mil habitantes e nos de 20 a 100 mil. A análise espacial mostrou os aglomerados de risco para ATT e para ocupantes de motocicletas com aumento destes entre 2000 e 2010 e ampliação das áreas com maior risco na região Nordeste. CONCLUSÃO: Aumento das taxas de mortalidade por ATT principalmente na região Nordeste. Faz-se necessário uma atuação coordenada do governo, da sociedade civil e dos próprios cidadãos no enfretamento desta realidade.OBJECTIVE: To analyze the temporal trends of mortality due to Road Traffic Accidents (RTA as well as identify the existence and location of high risk death clusters for RTA using spatial analysis. METHODOLOGY: Descriptive study of temporal trends by RTA, pedestrians, motorcyclists, motorists and passengers and spatial analysis for 2000 and 2010. The data was obtained from the Mortality Information System, and standardized rates were calculated by age in Brazilian states and municipalities grouped by population size. RESULTS: The mortality rates due to RTA between 2000 and 2010 varied from 18 to 22.5 deaths/100,000 inhabitants. The risk of death for pedestrians decreased in recent

  19. Automobile Accidents Attended by Mobile Emergency Care Service

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Virgínia Gomes Barros

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: Automobile accidents are increasing every day and are becoming a serious public health problem due to the high morbidity and mortality rate. The goal of the current study was to characterise the traffic accidents attended by the Mobile Emergency Care Service (MECS in Ibiara, PB. Methods: This exploratory, descriptive, documentary study adopted a quantitative approach and analysis of data. The population consisted of all victims of traffic accidents attended by MECS in the city of Ibiara, PB, from June 2015 to June 2016. The following variables were studied: age, gender, time and day of the week the accident occurred, nature of the incident, substance ingested by the victim, wearing personal protective equipment (PPE or not, the anatomical lesions on the victim and the body regions hit during the accident. Results: The sample consisted of 49 accident victims, and the majority (81.6% were male, predominately 30 to 59 years. Events occurring at night (63.3% and during the week (65.3% predominated. The most frequent type of accident was motorcycle fall (71.4%, with almost half having consumed alcohol (46.9% and most not wearing PPE (77.6%. The regions of the body most affected were the lower limbs (67.3% and upper limbs (53.1%. Conclusion: The main factor/cause of these accidents was due to imprudence and violation of traffic laws, highlighting the need to invest in traffic education policies, to direct campaigns for the prevention of traffic accidents, as well as expand the surveillance of traffic laws by authorities.

  20. [Current situation of accidents in the world].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguilar-Zinser, José Valente

    2010-01-01

    According to the World Health Organization (WHO), the number of traffic accidents is of concern. About 1.2 million people die every year on the roadways and about 20 to 50 million suffer from non-lethal trauma. Countries with low or medium incomes have higher rates of lethality by traffic accidents (21.5 and 19.5 per 100,000 habitants, respectively) than countries with higher incomes (10.3 per 100,000). It is estimated that the cost of traffic accidents in countries that are members of the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD), escalate to rates that are between 2-5% of the gross domestic product (GDP). According to data from the health sector in Mexico, these rates are equivalent to 1.3 of GDR The WHO foresees that traffic accident traumas will rise to be the third cause of mortality in 2030. Because of the high complexity of the transport sector, it is necessary that the Transport and Communication Ministry works in a multidisciplinary and intersectorial fashion to ensure that the land transportation systems operate effectively in accordance with national economic development and the quality of life of the Mexican people.

  1. Social control of traffic accidents and social empowerment. Risk groups: young people and older people / Control social del tráfico y empoderamiento social. Grupos de riesgo: jóvenes y mayores

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Juan de Dios Izquierdo; Rubén Darío Torres Kumbrían; Laura Martínez

    2013-01-01

    .... Although many punitive policies have been introduced and seem quite effective, governments need to acknowledge that only the social traffic control and the society itself are capable of putting...

  2. Relationship between accidents and road user behaviour : an integral research programme.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Noordzij, P.C. & Horst, A.R.A. van der

    1996-01-01

    The analysis of accident statistics and the study of road user behaviour are the traditional methods of road safety research. Neither of these involve direct observation of accidents. A research programme has been designed to gain insight in the generation process of traffic accidents as well as to

  3. Temporal Patterns of Road Traffic Injuries in Iran

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khorshidi, Ali; Ainy, Elaheh; Hashemi Nazari, Seyed Saeed; Soori, Hamid

    2016-01-01

    Background Road traffic injuries (RTIs) are the main causes of death and disability in Iran. However, very few studies about the temporal variations of RTIs have been published to date. Objectives This study was conducted to investigate the temporal pattern of RTIs in Iran in 2012. Materials and Methods All road traffic accidents (RTAs) reported to traffic police during a one-year period (March 21, 2012 through March 21, 2013) were investigated after obtaining permission from the law enforcement force of the Islamic Republic of Iran. Distributions of RTAs were obtained for season, month, week, and hour scales, and for long holidays (more than one day) and the day prior to long holidays (DPLH). The final analysis was carried out using the Poisson regression model to calculate incidence rate ratios for RTIs. All analyses were conducted using STATA 13.1 and Excel software; statistical significance was set at P traffic accidents on DPLH was 1.20, compared to workdays as a reference category, and it was 1.40 for fatal crashes. The rate of fatal road traffic accidents in outer cities was 3.2 times higher than in inner ones. Conclusions Our findings reveal that there are temporal variations in traffic accidents, and long holidays significantly influence accident rates. Traffic injuries have different patterns on outer/inner city roads, based on weekday and holiday status. Thus, these findings could be used to create effective initiatives aimed at traffic management. PMID:27703958

  4. Accident simulation with two commercial vehicles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berg, F.A.

    1985-11-01

    Simulations of real accidents help to provide deeper insight into the dynamics of traffic accidents. Whereas collisions between passenger cars and ones between passenger cars and motorcycles have been simulated and analyzed often, hardly any such experiments involving commerical vehicles have been carried out until now. Under the sponsorship of the Deutscher Verband Fluessiggas e.V., the Accident Reasearch Department of the German Motor Vehicle Inspection Association e.V. (DEKRA) performed an experiment crashing a rubbish truck against the right side of a parked liquified-gas tanker at a speed of about 40 km/h. Analysis of the experiment provided both new knowledge for the experts on liquified gas and more general findings on the dynamics of collisions between commercial vehicles relevant to the reconstruction of traffic accidents. This article is a report on how the experiment was carried out and described results of the analysis with reference to accident reconstruction concentrating on kinematic sequences-especially those during the impulse-exchange phase. The author concludes with initial findings on the accuracy of accident reconstruction when conventional simple models are used. In this case, it was possible to calculate the rubbish truck's collision speed with an acceptable degree of deviation from its actual collision speed assuming that the impact was at 90, on the level and that it hit an absorbent object centrally. (orig.).

  5. Fluctuations in Urban Traffic Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yu-Dong; Li, Li; Zhang, Yi; Hu, Jian-Ming; Jin, Xue-Xiang

    Urban traffic network is a typical complex system, in which movements of tremendous microscopic traffic participants (pedestrians, bicyclists and vehicles) form complicated spatial and temporal dynamics. We collected flow volumes data on the time-dependent activity of a typical urban traffic network, finding that the coupling between the average flux and the fluctuation on individual links obeys a certain scaling law, with a wide variety of scaling exponents between 1/2 and 1. These scaling phenomena can explain the interaction between the nodes' internal dynamics (i.e. queuing at intersections, car-following in driving) and changes in the external (network-wide) traffic demand (i.e. the every day increase of traffic amount during peak hours and shocking caused by traffic accidents), allowing us to further understand the mechanisms governing the transportation system's collective behavior. Multiscaling and hotspot features are observed in the traffic flow data as well. But the reason why the separated internal dynamics are comparable to the external dynamics in magnitude is still unclear and needs further investigations.

  6. Acute subdural hematoma and diffuse axonal injury in fatal road traffic accident victims: a clinico-pathological study of 15 patients Hematoma subdural agudo e lesão axonal difusa em vítimas fatais de acidente de trânsito: estudo clínico-patológico de 15 pacientes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sebastião Nataniel Silva Gusmão

    2003-09-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Although acute subdural hematoma (ASDH and diffuse axonal injury (DAI are commonly associated in victims of head injury due to road traffic accidents, there are only two clinico-pathological studies of this association. We report a clinical and pathological study of 15 patients with ASDH associated with DAI. METHOD: The patients were victims of road traffic accidents and were randomly chosen. The state of consciousness on hospital admission was evaluated by the Glasgow coma scale. For the identification of axons the histological sections of the brain were stained with anti-neurofilament proteins. RESULTS: Twelve of the 15 patients were admitted to hospital in a state of coma; in three patients, the level of consciousness was not evaluated, as they died before hospital admission. CONCLUSION: The poorer prognosis in patients with ASDH who lapse into coma immediately after sustaining a head injury, as described by several authors, can be explained by the almost constant association between ASDH and DAI in victims of fatal road traffic accidents.OBJETIVO: Embora o hematoma subdural agudo (HSDA e a lesão axonal difusa (LAD estejam frequentemente associados em vítimas de trauma crânio-encefálico causado por acidentes de trânsito, há somente dois estudos clínico-patológicos sobre esta associação. Relatamos o estudo clínico-patológico de 15 pacientes com HSDA associado com LAD. MÉTODO: Os pacientes, vítimas de acidentes de trânsito, foram selecionados aleatoriamente. O estado de consciência à admissão hospitalar foi avaliado pela escala de coma de Glasgow. Para a identificação dos axônios, os cortes histológicos do cérebro foram corados com antisoro anti-proteínas do neurofilamento. RESULTADOS: Doze dos 15 pacientes foram admitidos no hospital em estado de coma; em três pacientes, o nível de consciência não foi avaliado, pois eles faleceram antes da admissão hospitalar. CONCLUSÃO: O pior prognóstico em pacientes

  7. Analysis of vehicular traffic flow in the major areas of Kuala Lumpur utilizing open-traffic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manogaran, Saargunawathy; Ali, Muhammad; Yusof, Kamaludin Mohamad; Suhaili, Ramdhan

    2017-09-01

    Vehicular traffic congestion occurs when a large number of drivers are overcrowded on the road and the traffic flow does not run smoothly. Traffic congestion causes chaos on the road and interruption to daily activities of users. Time consumed on road give lots of negative effects on productivity, social behavior, environmental and cost to economy. Congestion is worsens and leads to havoc during the emergency such as flood, accidents, road maintenance and etc., where behavior of traffic flow is always unpredictable and uncontrollable. Real-time and historical traffic data are critical inputs for most traffic flow analysis applications. Researcher attempt to predict traffic using simulations as there is no exact model of traffic flow exists due to its high complexity. Open Traffic is an open source platform available for traffic data analysis linked to Open Street Map (OSM). This research is aimed to study and understand the Open Traffic platform. The real-time traffic flow pattern in Kuala Lumpur area was successfully been extracted and analyzed using Open Traffic. It was observed that the congestion occurs on every major road in Kuala Lumpur and most of it owes to the offices and the economic and commercial centers during rush hours. At some roads the congestion occurs at night due to the tourism activities.

  8. Traffic enforcement strategies in The Netherlands : developments in the fields of drinking-and-driving.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Goldenbeld, C.

    2016-01-01

    The majority of all traffic accidents are caused by human factors (Lewin, 1982; Evans, 1991 ). One of these human factors that is well known to be associated with increased accident risk is the committing of various traffic law violations (Reason et al., 1990, Parker et al. 1995; Zaidel, 2001 ).

  9. Evaluating the effects of traffic noise on reaction time and rate of error in drivers′ movement time estimation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iraj Alimohammadi

    2015-01-01

    Conclusion: The results suggest that traffic noise may be associated with poorer mental processing, which can result in longer RT during driving. Therefore, traffic noise would expose drivers to consequent accidents and incidents.

  10. Traffic safety information in South Africa : how to improve the National Accident Register. Submitted to the National Department of Transport, Republic of South Africa and the Ministry of Transport, Public Works and Water Management, The Netherlands.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sluis, J. van der (ed.)

    2001-01-01

    This report describes a project that was carried out to investigate ways and means to improve the problems experienced with the South African National Accident Register (NAR) system, and to determine a long term strategy on road safety information in South Africa. Within the framework of the Road

  11. Regional issues on road accidents and trafic injury in Ukraine

    OpenAIRE

    Anatolii Kornus; Olesia Kornus; Volodymyr Shyschuk

    2017-01-01

    This paper aims to analyse death and injury frequencies caused by road accidents in different regions of Ukraine. Types of road accidents and their degree of severity are analyzed, in addition to the level of road accidents in Ukraine compared to the same parameters in Europe. 2007 and 2013 death rates and injury rates due to car crashes or traffic accidents are considered as ratio per 1,000 inhabitants and 1,000 cars. An overall geographically featured assessment of road injuries has also be...

  12. Tobit analysis of vehicle accident rates on interstate highways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anastasopoulos, Panagiotis Ch; Tarko, Andrew P; Mannering, Fred L

    2008-03-01

    There has been an abundance of research that has used Poisson models and its variants (negative binomial and zero-inflated models) to improve our understanding of the factors that affect accident frequencies on roadway segments. This study explores the application of an alternate method, tobit regression, by viewing vehicle accident rates directly (instead of frequencies) as a continuous variable that is left-censored at zero. Using data from vehicle accidents on Indiana interstates, the estimation results show that many factors relating to pavement condition, roadway geometrics and traffic characteristics significantly affect vehicle accident rates.

  13. Acidentes de trânsito no Brasil de 1998 a 2010: muitas mudanças e poucos resultados Accidentes de tránsito en Brasil de 1998 a 2010: muchos cambios y pocos resultados Traffic accidents in Brazil from 1998 to 2010: many changes and few effects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giancarlo Bacchieri

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available O artigo descreve a situação dos acidentes de trânsito no Brasil, desde a implementação do Código de Trânsito Brasileiro de 1998 até o ano de 2010. Foi realizada análise dos principais trabalhos científicos e publicações não acadêmicas nacionais. A revisão de literatura incluiu periódicos indexados, não indexados, relatórios técnicos, busca específica por autores, referências bibliográficas de artigos e contato com pesquisadores. Os principais problemas do trânsito brasileiro identificados foram aumento do número absoluto de mortos e das taxas de mortalidade, ampliação da frota de motocicletas e o uso de álcool. Foram identificados autores influentes e ilhas de produção de conhecimento nas áreas pesquisadas. Os autores apresentam algumas possíveis soluções e sugerem que o poder público não tem assumido a responsabilidade que lhe cabe no controle e redução dos acidentes de trânsito.El articulo describe la situación de los accidentes de tránsito en Brasil, desde la implementación del Código de Transito Brasileño de 1998 hasta el año de 2010. Se realizó análisis de los principales trabajos científicos y publicaciones no académicas nacionales. La revisión de literatura incluyó periódicos indexados, no indexados, informes técnicos, búsqueda especifica por autores, referencias bibliográficas de artículos y contacto con investigadores. Los principales problemas de tránsito brasileño identificados fueron aumento del número absoluto de muertos y de las tasas de mortalidad, ampliación de la flota de motocicletas y el uso de alcohol. Se identificaron autores influyentes e islas de producción de conocimiento en las áreas investigadas. Los autores presentaban algunas posibles soluciones y sugieren que el poder público no ha asumido la responsabilidad que le cabe en el control y reducción de los accidentes de tránsito.The paper describes the situation of road traffic accidents in Brazil since

  14. Evolução dos acidentes de trânsito em um grande centro urbano, 1991-2000 Traffic accidents in a metropolitan area in Brazil, 1991-2000

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zenaide Calazans de Oliveira

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Este estudo descreve a evolução dos acidentes de trânsito em Salvador, Bahia, Brasil, entre 1991 e 2000, utilizando-se dados do Departamento Estadual de Trânsito do Estado da Bahia. Calculou-se taxas globais dos acidentes de trânsito, vítimas e taxas padronizadas de mortalidade por habitante e por veículos, e comparou-se médias destes indicadores para antes (1991 a 1994 e após (1995 a 2000 a adoção de medidas de intervenção como o uso do cinto de segurança e o Código Nacional de Trânsito. As taxas de acidentes de trânsito e de vítimas apresentaram-se elevadas e estáveis. A mortalidade reduziu entre 1995 e 1998, (25,7/100 mil habitantes e 18,1/100 mil, respectivamente estabilizando-se posteriormente. A diferença entre médias das taxas de mortalidade foi estatisticamente significante (p A time series study described the trend in motor vehicle accidents from 1991 to 2000, using data from the State Transit Department in Salvador, Bahia State, Brazil. Rates were calculated for total motor vehicle accidents, number of casualties, and standardized mortality based on population and number of vehicles, comparing two periods (1991-1994 and 1995-2000, before and after the adoption of safety measures including compulsory seat belt use and the new National Transit Code (NTC. Vehicle accident and casualty rates were high and showed little variation during the study period. The mortality rate decreased from 25.7/100,000 inhabitants in 1995 to 18.1/100,000 in 1998 and remained stable thereafter. The only significant difference (p < 0.001 was in the mean motor vehicle accident mortality rate before and after the intervention. The case fatality rate decreased from 10.7% (1995 to 7% (2000. Although still representing a major public health problem in this important metropolitan area, the decrease in motor vehicle accident mortality was possibly due to interventions in 1995 and expanded NTC measures in 1998. Greater efforts to change driver and

  15. Short sleep duration and long spells of driving are associated with the occurrence of Japanese drivers' rear-end collisions and single-car accidents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abe, Takashi; Komada, Yoko; Nishida, Yasushi; Hayashida, Kenichi; Inoue, Yuichi

    2010-06-01

    Sleepiness and fatigue are important risk factors for traffic accidents. However, the relation between the accident type and lack of sleep as well as spells of driving has not been examined sufficiently. This study aimed to clarify that short sleep duration and long spells of driving are more associated with rear-end collisions and single-car accidents as compared with accidents of other types in cases of people who cause accidents. After removing drunken driving as a cause of accidents, 1772 parties involved in accidents were questioned. The quantities of rear-end collisions and single-car accidents were, respectively, 240 and 293. Logistic regression analysis showed that short nocturnal sleep (car accidents as compared with accidents of other types. Furthermore, younger age (car accidents as compared with accidents of other types. To prevent such accidents, countermeasures must be considered in light of the characteristics of drivers involved in each type of accident described above.

  16. Structure of road traffic injuries at residents of the industrial city

    OpenAIRE

    Karpov Sergey Mihailovich; Ulyanchenko Maxim; Hodzhayan Anna; Apaguni Artur; Vishlova Irina; Dolgova Irina; Shevchenko Petr; Karpova Elena

    2015-01-01

    We analyzed the number of road traffic injuries in 10 years, residents of the city of Stavropol including road accidents and the number of resident population from 2010 to 2012. Mortality rates were estimated with the accident. It was found that the annual numerical increase in victims of road traffic accidents, which provided medical assistance for emergency medical care, is due to the injury of the adult population. Among the victims were most of those aged 16 to 50 years old, mostly male, ...

  17. Urban Traffic Dilemma and Potential Remedy: Example from Ilorin ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ilorin is one of the major cities in Nigeria today and its growing strength in both socio-economic affiliations is admirable. However, the city is potently tainted with traffic bottleneck which occasionally results into traffic dilemma accidents and clogging, stampede and free-fight between and among road users include drivers, ...

  18. Road lighting and traffic safety : a functional approach.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schreuder, D.A.

    1970-01-01

    Requirements to be made on the traffic facilities in order to reduce the number of night-time accidents are covered. Traffic facilities include apart from public lighting and road lighting by means of headlamps of vehicles, also road markings and signs, marker lights, catadioptric devices and

  19. Patterns of Injuries After Road Traffic Crashes Involving Bodabodas

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2010-01-12

    Jan 12, 2010 ... currently a leading cause of accident scene fatalities in. Kampala (2). Road traffic crashes generally affect young people and this is most evident in bodaboda crashes because the. Patterns of Injuries After Road Traffic. Crashes Involving Bodabodas. Kigera J.W.M. MBChB, Naddumba E.K. MBChB (MUK), ...

  20. Vehicle-class Specific Control of Freeway Traffic

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schreiter, T.

    2013-01-01

    The increase of mobility of the past decades has led to substantial congestion on the freeways. Traffic jams emerge both on a daily basis at the same location, as well as during accidents when a part of the freeways is temporarily blocked. In those cases, traffic management centers intervene into

  1. Intervenção comunitária para prevenção de acidentes de trânsito entre trabalhadores ciclistas Intervención comunitaria para la prevención de accidentes de tránsito entre trabajadores ciclistas A community intervention to prevent traffic accidents among bicycle commuters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giancarlo Bacchieri

    2010-10-01

    resultado.OBJECTIVE: To evaluate an educational intervention designed to prevent traffic accidents among workers that use the bicycle for commuting. METHODS: A longitudinal intervention study with a stepped wedge implementation was carried out between January 2006 and May 2007. Five neighborhoods with distinct geographic characteristics were selected in the city of Pelotas, Brazil, and 42 census tracts were randomly selected from these neighborhoods. All households were screened for male bicycle commuters, resulting in a sample of 1,133 individuals. The outcomes analyzed were "traffic accidents" and "near accidents". The cyclists were interviewed monthly by phone to record traffic accidents and "near accidents". Every 15 days, from the second month of study, a group of about 60 cyclists was invited to attend the intervention meeting that included an educational component (a talk and a video presentation, distribution of a safety kit (reflective belt & sash, reflective tape and an educational booklet and a bicycle breaks check-up (maintenance performed if necessary. Poisson regression adjusted for time effect was used to assess the intervention effect. RESULTS: Nearly 45% of the cyclists did not attend the intervention. During the study period, 9% of the study individuals reported a traffic accident and 88% reported a "near accident". In total there were 106 accidents and 1,091 near accidents. There was no effect observed from the intervention on either of the outcomes. CONCLUSIONS: The intervention tested was not capable of reducing traffic accidents among bicycle commuters. Lack of interest in safety by commuters and external factors, such as road design and motorist behavior, may have together influenced this result.

  2. Determinantes e padrões de utilização da bicicleta e acidentes de trânsito sofridos por ciclistas trabalhadores da cidade de Pelotas, Rio Grande do Sul, Brasil Determinants and patterns of bicycle use and traffic accidents among bicycling workers in Pelotas, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giancarlo Bacchieri

    2005-10-01

    required by the Brazilian Traffic Code, and 15.0% did not even have brakes. Nearly 6.0% of workers who commuted by bicycle had suffered accidents resulting in injuries during the previous 12 months. The authors conclude that bicycling workers are a priority for interventions aimed at reducing traffic accidents.

  3. Distribuição da mortalidade por acidentes de trânsito no município do Rio de Janeiro Distribución de la mortalidad por accidentes de tránsito en la ciudad de Rio de Janeiro Distribution of the mortality by traffic accidents in the city of Rio de Janeiro

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    Luana dos Passos Gomes

    2007-06-01

    urgente de emprendieren acciones preventivas para el tránsito, a través de acciones intersectorialesThis study described the evolution of the mortality rate by traffic accidents and analyzed its distribution in the city of Rio de Janeiro. Was analyzed the data about mortality by extern causes occurred in the period between January of 1996 and December of 2004 using the Information System of Mortality data. The analysis was made using the TABWIN program, software developed by the DATASUS which make easy the construction of mortality indicators. It could be observed a significant decrease in the mortality coefficient by traffic accidents in the analyzed period, which seems been related to the implantation of the new Brazilian Traffic Code (21.4 8.7/100,000 inhabitants. The male young grow up population showed itself widely affected (40.6%, and the more frequent kind of accident was the overthrowing (65%. The obtained data indicates the forcing need of preventives actions to the traffic, trough intersectorial actions.

  4. Physics of Traffic Flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, L. C.

    2015-03-01

    The Texas A&M Transportation Institute estimated that traffic congestion cost the United States 121 billion in 2011 (the latest data available). The cost is due to wasted time and fuel. In addition to accidents and road construction, factors contributing to congestion include large demand, instability of high-density free flow and selfish behavior of drivers, which produces self-organized traffic bottlenecks. Extensive data collected on instrumented highways in various countries have led to a better understanding of traffic dynamics. From these measurements, Boris Kerner and colleagues developed a new theory called three-phase theory. They identified three major phases of flow observed in the data: free flow, synchronous flow and wide moving jams. The intermediate phase is called synchronous because vehicles in different lanes tend to have similar velocities. This congested phase, characterized by lower velocities yet modestly high throughput, frequently occurs near on-ramps and lane reductions. At present there are only two widely used methods of congestion mitigation: ramp metering and the display of current travel-time information to drivers. To find more effective methods to reduce congestion, researchers perform large-scale simulations using models based on the new theories. An algorithm has been proposed to realize Wardrop equilibria with real-time route information. Such equilibria have equal travel time on alternative routes between a given origin and destination. An active area of current research is the dynamics of connected vehicles, which communicate wirelessly with other vehicles and the surrounding infrastructure. These systems show great promise for improving traffic flow and safety.

  5. New Evidence on the Casual Effect of Traffic safety Laws on Drunk Driving and Traffic Fatalities

    OpenAIRE

    Wright, Nicholas Anthony; Lee, La-troy

    2017-01-01

    In the United States, about 28 lives are lost daily in motor vehicle accidents that involve an alcohol-impaired driver. The conventional wisdom is that these accidents can be prevented through the use of strict traffic laws that are robustly enforced, though no consensus exists on the causal impact of these laws in reducing motor vehicle-related fatalities. This paper exploits quasi-random variation in state-level driving and road safety restrictions to estimate the causal effect of select ...

  6. AN AUTOMATED RAILWAY STATION TRAFFIC CONTROL SYSTEM

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Majority of accidents experienced with railway transportation involve collision with automobiles or other vehicles and collision with other trains. These collisions can be averted by putting safety measures in place. Part of the measures can be achieved by using computerized railway station traffic control systems that use ...

  7. Review on Driverless Traffic from Management Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen Tingting

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The move towards automated driving is gaining ground. This paper reviews the development process of self-driving technology and discusses the safety and efficiency advantages of autonomous vehicles. The discussion shows that the existing traffic management system, including transport infrastructures and regulations, should be changed accordingly to maximize the advantages of autonomous driving. Thus, this paper subsequently gives an insight of the traffic management from three aspects: fully self-driving traffic infrastructures, mixed traffic infrastructures and regulations. First, it is summarized in detail what should be adjusted in intersections, parking lots, pedestrian crossings, ramps, signs and markings. With the transformation of traffic infrastructures, the advantages of driverless car will be more pronounced on account of increased capacity, reduced delay and land use. Also, this paper indicates that the implementations of strict product liability for self-driving car manufacturers and no-fault tort liability for users are applicable to automated vehicle accidents.

  8. An epidemiological analysis of drunk driving accidents in Kagawa Prefecture - comparison of 1997-2000 and 2003-2006.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujita, Yoshitsugu; Inoue, Ken; Sakuta, Akira; Seki, Nobuhiko; Miyazawa, Teruomi; Eguchi, Kenji

    2008-10-01

    In this study, we examined the number of drunk driving accidents and drunk driving accident toll in 1997-2000 and 2003-2006 for Kagawa Prefecture, which had Japan's highest number of traffic accident fatalities per 100,000 population.

  9. TRAFFIC SAFETY AND DRIVER EDUCATION IN SAN JUAN ARGENTINA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arístides Osvaldo Fernández DE CIEZA

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available With over 8,100 traffic fatalities in 1997 and an accident rate per 100 million vehicle kilometres travelled, approximately five times that of United States, Argentinean road authorities are now beginning to focus attention on traffic safety and driver education. One of the main problems in the search of causes for car accidents in Argentina is the lack of a reliable and updated data base. The results and conclusions presented in this paper are based on a thorough analysis of car accidents in the Province of San Juan, Argentina. A seven-year data base of car accidents has been compiled from police reports, including the results of traffic counts at intersections and other collision locations. In addition, topographic and filmed reports of such places and their surroundings bring about parameters such as stop lines, visibility triangles, road size, traffic light performance, etc., which allow to carrying out of a traffic flow analysis for proposing measures aiming to minimize accidents. For San Juan province, in general, the main causes are: high absolute car speeds, speed differences between vehicles, lack of good lighting, poor driving habits, lack of traffic control devices such as signs, signals, and an absence of road markings.

  10. Accident proneness, does it exist? A review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Visser, Ellen; Pijl, Ysbrand J; Stolk, Ronald P; Neeleman, Jan; Rosmalen, Judith G M

    2007-05-01

    Accident related health problems have been suggested to cluster within persons. This phenomenon became known as accident proneness and has been a subject of many discussions. This study provides an overview of accident proneness. Therefore, 79 articles with empirical data on accident rates were identified from databases Embase, Medline, and Psychinfo. First, definitions of accidents varied highly, but most studies focused on accidents resulting in injuries requiring medical attention. Second, operationalisations of accident proneness varied highly. Studies categorised individuals into groups with ascending accident rates or made non-accident, accident, and repetitive accident groups. Third, studies examined accidents in specific contexts (traffic, work, and sports) or populations (children, students, and patients). Therefore, we concluded that no overall prevalence rate of accident proneness could be given due to the large variety in operationalisations. However, a meta-analysis of the distribution of accidents in the general population showed that the observed number of individuals with repeated accidents was higher than the number expected by chance. In conclusion, accident proneness exists, but its study is severely hampered by the variation in operationalisations of the concept. In an effort to reach professional consensus on the concept, we end this paper with recommendations for further research.

  11. The introduction of a statutory BAC limit of 50mg/100 ml in The Netherlands and its effect on drinking and driving habits and traffic accidents. Paper presented to the 7th International Conference on Alcohol, Drugs and traffic Safety, Melbourne, Australia, January 23-28, 1977.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Noordzij, P.C.

    1977-01-01

    On November 1st, 1974 a 0,5 limit was introduced in the Netherlands. The effect on drinking and driving was measured by a series of road-side surveys and the effect on accidents is discussed. In the before-period, surveys were conducted on weekend nights during the autumn of 1971, 1971 and 1973. The

  12. Possível impacto da "Lei Seca" nos atendimentos a vítimas de acidentes de trânsito em uma unidade de emergência Posible impacto de la "ley seca" en la asistencia a las víctimas de los accidentes de tránsito en una unidad de emergencia Possible impact by the "dry law" (prohibition law in attendance to victims of traffic accidents in an emergency unit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Paula Pereira de Oliveira

    2013-03-01

    la prevención de accidentes de tránsito en el país.It's a quantitative and descriptive study. The goals were designated to determine the number of subjects, victims of traffic accidents attended at an emergency department of a Municipal Hospital in Rio de Janeiro, before and after implementation of the "Prohibition"(Lei Seca, and identify the profile of this population and the characteristics of traffic accidents, estimating its prevalence before and after the term of "Prohibition" (Lei Seca. There were analyzed 1531 records relating to traffic accidents occurred in 2007 and 2009. There was a prevalence of young adult male, mostly victims of hit-and-accidents involving motorcycles in both periods of study mentioned above. Concerning the impact of "Prohibition" (Lei Seca was not observed a significant reduction in the number of victims on traffic accidents during the study period. However, there's no question about the importance of the law on a permanent basis, as this is a strong tool for the prevention of traffic accidents in the country.

  13. Factores de riesgo de lesión por accidentes de tráfico y el impacto de una intervención sobre la carretera Risk factors of injury by traffic accidents and the impact of an intervention on the road

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martha C Híjar-Medina

    1999-10-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Evaluar el efecto de intervenciones realizadas en la autopista, tanto en la ocurrencia de lesiones por accidentes de tráfico, como en la gravedad de las mismas. MÉTODOS: Se realizó un análisis comparativo de dos estudios transversales realizados en 1994 y 1996 en los que se investigó la ocurrencia de lesiones en los conductores de vehículos a motor que sufrieron accidente en la autopista, Cuernavaca, México. RESULTADOS: Para 1994 la tasa de accidentes fue de 7,96 / 100.000 vehículos y para 1996 fue de 8,49 / 100.000 vehículos, incremento no significativo (p>0,05. Para 1994 la tasa de lesionados fue de 2,10 / 100.000 vehículos y para 1996 de 1,35 / 100.000 vehículos, disminución significativa (pOBJETIVO: Avaliar o efeito das intervenções em uma rodovia, na ocorrência e gravidade de ferimentos por acidente. MÉTODOS: Foi feita uma análise comparativa de dois estudos transversais em 1994 e 1996. RESULTADOS: Em 1994 a taxa foi de 7,96 acidentes/100.000 veículos e em 1996, 8,49/100.000 veículos. O aumento não foi significante (p>0.05. O índice de motoristas feridos em 1994 foi de 2,10/100.000 veículos e de 1,35/100.000 veículos em 1996, o que representa uma redução significante (pOBJECTIVE: To evaluate the effect of interventions at a highway, in the occurrence and severity of injuries by traffic accidents. METHOD: It was made a comparative analysis of two cross-sectional studies in 1994 and 1996. RESULTS: In 1994 the rate was 7.96 accidents/ 100,000 vehicles and in 1996 8.49 / 100,000 vehicles. The increase was not significant (p>0.05. The rate of injured drivers in 1994 was of 2.10 / 100,000 vehicles and of 1.35 / 100,000 vehicles in 1996, which was a significant decrease (p<0.000. The self-report of use of seat belt (63.46% versus 76.6%, the small vehicles involved in accidents (7.9% versus 37.7%, nocturnal schedule (23.7% versus 31.8% and in Mexico-Cuernavaca direction (45% versus 66.7%, were more frequent in

  14. Indicadores psicossociais relacionados a acidentes de trânsito envolvendo motoristas de ônibus Indicadores psicosociales relacionados a accidentes de tráfico envolviendo conductores de ómnibus Psychological and social indicators associated to traffic accidents involving bus drivers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andréa Carla Ferreira de Oliveira

    2007-04-01

    retraso y problemas familiares. La perspectiva temporal de presente no mostró relación con envolvimiento en accidentes. Se concluyó que la incidencia del envolvimiento de conductores de ómnibus en accidentes de tráfico puede ser evitada, o al menos disminuida, por medio de mejorías de aquellas condiciones de trabajo y de políticas públicas de salud y seguridad pública.Psychological and social conditions potentially related to traffic accidents involving bus drivers are identified. Participants were 457 drivers, males and employees of local public transportation companies of Natal, RN, Brazil. Questionnaire contained items on professional performance comprising potentially stressing situations, effects of organizational policies and socio-demographic characteristics, in addition to Zimbardo Time Perspective Inventory and Epworth Sleepiness Scale. Variables highly associated to accident occurrences included extra work hours, work during vacations, medical leave, passengers' complaints, excessive daytime sleepiness, and concern about sleep, arriving late and family problems. Present time perspective was not related to involvement in accidents. Results suggest that involvement in traffic accidents may be avoided, or at least diminished, by an improvement in work conditions and through public policies of health and safety.

  15. Incapacidade por traumatismo raquimedular secundário a acidentes de trânsito Incapacidad por lesiones de la médula espinal debido a accidentes de tráfico Disability by spinal cord injuries due to traffic accidents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jon Mark Praga Xavier De Brito

    2011-01-01

    : De los 32 casos de incapacidad total (4,5%, 11 pacientes tenían lesiones de médula espinal (34,37% (RR = 13,245, 95% CI 0,267 a 0.966. La discapacidad funcional se observó en 360 pacientes (50,1%, y 7 tenían TRM (1,9% (RR = 0.508 IC 95%: 0,267 a 0,966. Hubo una discapacidad funcional en 327 pacientes (45,48%, y 6 de estas víctimas sufrieron TRM (1,83% (RR = 0,398, IC 95% 0,211 a 0,765. Coches representaron el 70,83% de estos pacientes, mientras que las motocicletas y peatones 20,83 % y 12,5 % respectivamente. CONCLUSIONES: Lo TRM es la segunda causa de discapacidad entre los supervivientes de accidentes de tráfico , y la dispacidad funcional ocupa un segundo plano. La incidencia de las secuelas debidas a lesión medular fue de 0,38%, la mayor parte en los ocupantes de coches (70,83%.OBJECTIVE: To analyze the victims of traffic accidents that have disability due to spinal cord injury. METHODS: We evaluated the records of 719 victims of traffic accidents that requested benefit arising from injuries causesd by traffic accidents and selected victims who suffered spinal cord injury. The variables age, sex, type of accident, injury resulting, and degree of disability according to the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health were then analyzed. RESULTS: A total disability was found in 32 (4.5% patients, 27 (84.37% male and 5 (15.62% females (RR = 0.780, 95% CI of 0.306 to 1.990. Of this total, 11 patients had spinal cord injuries (34.37% (RR = 13.245, 95% CI 0.267 to 0.966. Functional disability was observable in 360 (50.1% patients, 307 (85.27% were male and 53 (14.72% female. Of these, 7 (1.9% had SCI (RR = 0.508, 95% CI 0.267 to 0.966. There was mild disability in 327 patients (45.48%, and 6 of these victims suffered SCI (1.83% (RR = 0.398, 95% CI 0.211 to 0.765. Car crashes accounted for 70,83% of these patients, while motorcycles and pedestrians 30,83 % and 12,5% respectively. CONCLUSIONS: The SCI represents the second largest cause of

  16. Uso de anfetaminas por motoristas de caminhão em rodovias do Estado de São Paulo: um risco à ocorrência de acidentes de trânsito? Amphetamine use by truck drivers on highways of Sao Paulo State: a risk for the occurrence of traffic accidents?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mauricio Yonamine

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available No Brasil, é comum o uso de anfetaminas por motoristas de caminhão, o que pode culminar na ocorrência de acidentes de trânsito. O objetivo deste artigo é estimar a prevalência do uso de anfetaminas entre caminhoneiros. Motoristas (N = 134 foram abordados em duas rodovias do Estado de São Paulo e solicitados a responder um questionário, assim como a fornecer uma amostra de urina para realização de análises toxicológicas. Todos os dados foram analisados em Stata 8.0. Todos os participantes eram do sexo masculino, de idade média de 40,8 anos e de baixa escolaridade. A presença de anfetaminas foi detectada em 10,8% das amostras de urina, cujo uso foi justificado para manter a vigília durante o trabalho. O uso de anfetaminas foi detectado entre caminhoneiros em rodovias de São Paulo. Cessado o efeito estimulante, a sonolência advinda de uma possível privação de sono diminui a atenção e o bom desempenho na direção, predispondo o condutor aos acidentes de trânsito e seus custos relacionados.The use of amphetamines in Brazil is common among truck drivers, which may be an important factor in the occurrence of traffic accidents. This article seeks to estimate the prevalence of amphetamine use among truck drivers. Drivers (N = 134 were stopped on two different highways in Sao Paulo state and they were asked to answer a questionnaire and provide a urine sample for toxicological analysis. All data were analyzed on Stata 8.0. All participants were males with low levels of schooling, whose mean age was 40.8 years. The presence of amphetamines was detected in 10.8% of all urine samples collected, being commonly justified in order to make truck drivers able to maintain their state of awareness. Amphetamine use was detected among truck drivers on Sao Paulo highways. The problem is that when the stimulant effects wear off, sleepiness due to sleep deprivation reduces concentration and good driver performance, making drivers vulnerable to

  17. Automatic road traffic safety management system in urban areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oskarbski Jacek

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Traffic incidents and accidents contribute to decreasing levels of transport system reliability and safety. Traffic management and emergency systems on the road, using, among others, automatic detection, video surveillance, communication technologies and institutional solutions improve the organization of the work of various departments involved in traffic and safety management. Automation of incident management helps to reduce the time of a rescue operation as well as of the normalization of the flow of traffic after completion of a rescue operation, which also affects the reduction of the risk of secondary accidents and contributes to reducing their severity. The paper presents the possibility of including city traffic departments in the process of incident management. The results of research on the automatic incident detection in cities are also presented.

  18. A knowledge-based system for controlling automobile traffic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maravas, Alexander; Stengel, Robert F.

    1994-01-01

    Transportation network capacity variations arising from accidents, roadway maintenance activity, and special events as well as fluctuations in commuters' travel demands complicate traffic management. Artificial intelligence concepts and expert systems can be useful in framing policies for incident detection, congestion anticipation, and optimal traffic management. This paper examines the applicability of intelligent route guidance and control as decision aids for traffic management. Basic requirements for managing traffic are reviewed, concepts for studying traffic flow are introduced, and mathematical models for modeling traffic flow are examined. Measures for quantifying transportation network performance levels are chosen, and surveillance and control strategies are evaluated. It can be concluded that automated decision support holds great promise for aiding the efficient flow of automobile traffic over limited-access roadways, bridges, and tunnels.

  19. [Risk factors for road traffic injury in agricultural vehicle drivers].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, M J; Chen, Y; Li, Y; Hu, J; Zhang, X J

    2017-08-20

    Objective: To examine the risk factors for road traffic injury in agricultural vehicle drivers. Methods: A total of 103 drivers (who had suffered agricultural vehicle road traffic injury within the past year based on the road traffic injury registrar from the Traffic Management Bureau) who were involved in the annual agricultural vehicle inspection from December 2014 to January 2015 were randomly sampled from the Yixing Agricultural Vehicle Station as the case group for this study. Based on a 1∶2 assignment ratio and matched for sex, age, and education, a total of 206 drivers who had not suffered any agricultural vehicle road traffic injury within the past year were selected as the control group. The general information, vehicle information, driving information, driving behavior, and accident details of the agricultural vehicle drivers were analyzed. Results: The incidence rate of road traffic injury was 7.24% given the 103 agricultural vehicle drivers who had suffered agricultural vehicle road traffic injury in the past year. Univariate logistic regression analysis showed that drinking, debt, pressure, history of car accident, history of drunk driving, smoking and phone use during driving, fatigue driving, and driving with illness were the risk factors for road traffic injury in agricultural vehicle drivers (OR=2.332, 2.429, 19.778, 5.589, 8.517, 2.125, 3.203, 10.249 and 5.639, respectively) . Multivariate logistic regression analysis also demonstrated that pressure, history of car accident, history of drunk driving, fatigue driving, and driving with illness were the risk factors for road traffic injury in agricultural vehicle drivers (OR=12.139, 11.184, 6.729, 5.939, and 6.544, respectively) . Conclusion: Pressure, history of car accident, history of drunk driving, fatigue driving, and driving with illness are the major risk factors for road traffic injury in agricultural vehicle drivers.

  20. Continuum modeling for two-lane traffic flow with consideration of the traffic interruption probability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Chuan; Sun, Di-Hua

    2010-12-01

    Considering the effects that the probability of traffic interruption and the friction between two lanes have on the car-following behaviour, this paper establishes a new two-lane microscopic car-following model. Based on this microscopic model, a new macroscopic model was deduced by the relevance relation of microscopic and macroscopic scale parameters for the two-lane traffic flow. Terms related to lane change are added into the continuity equations and velocity dynamic equations to investigate the lane change rate. Numerical results verify that the proposed model can be efficiently used to reflect the effect of the probability of traffic interruption on the shock, rarefaction wave and lane change behaviour on two-lane freeways. The model has also been applied in reproducing some complex traffic phenomena caused by traffic accident interruption.

  1. ROAD ACCIDENT AND SAFETY STUDY IN SYLHET REGION OF BANGLADESH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. K. BANIK

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Roads, highways and streets are fundamental infrastructure facilities to provide the transportation for passenger travel and goods movement from one place to another in Sylhet, north–eastern division of Bangladesh with rapid growth of road vehicle, being comparatively developed economic tourist prone area faces severe road traffic accident. Such severe road accidents cause harsh safety hazards on the roads of Sylhet area. This research work presents an overview of the road traffic accident and degraded road safety situation in Sylhet zone which in particular, discusses the key road accident problem characteristics identifying the hazardous roads and spots, most responsible vehicles and related components, conditions of drivers and pedestrians, most victims of accident, effects of accident on society, safety priorities and options available in Sylhet. In this regard, a comprehensive questionnaire survey was conducted on the concerned groups of transportation and detailed accident data was collected from a popular local newspaper. Analysis of the study reveals that Dhaka- Sylhet highway is the most hazardous in road basis and Sylhet Sador thana is the most vulnerable in thana basis in Sylhet region.

  2. Alcohol and accidents in Switzerland--a critical review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fahrenkrug, H; Klingemann, H K

    1993-07-01

    The analysis of alcohol-related traffic accidents points to a negative relationship between the average amount of alcohol consumed and the percentage of alcohol-related accidents. The data show that the officially registered problem-rates among drivers under the influence of alcohol depend primarily neither on consumption trends nor on general preventive factors, but, rather on the capacity for accident detection, the recording practices of the authorities and a less tolerant public opinion. Regional differences in the willingness to enforce control measures are related to varying cultural drinking contexts. The under-reporting of occupational accidents reflects an undue emphasis in insurance statistics which are based on a guilt/moral concept which is used to justify sanctions, such as cuts in insurance benefits. It is clear from the empirical evidence, that the broad press coverage on 'alcohol-related' ski accidents proves to be a typical case of problem amplification.

  3. Dutch in-depth accident investigation: first experiences and analysis results for motorcycles and mopeds

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mooi, H.G.; Galliano, F.

    2001-01-01

    In September 1999 the Dutch Accident Research Team (DART) within TNO Automotive started with the in-depth investigation of traffic accidents. In this paper, the methodology, working procedures and experiences of the team are described and explained in detail. Furthermore, an elaborate description of

  4. Accident prediction models for urban and rural carriageways : based on data from The Hague region Haaglanden.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reurings, M.C.B. & Janssen, S.T.M.C.

    2007-01-01

    In this report accident prediction models are discussed for carriageways of urban and rural distributor roads in the region Haaglanden. They express the number of injury accidents on a carriageway in its length and its average amount of daily traffic. Not only distinction is made between urban and

  5. Relationship between accidents and road user behaviour : an integral research programme.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Noordzij, P. & Horst, A.R.A. van der

    1993-01-01

    The analysis of accident statistics and the study of road user behaviour are the traditional methods of road safety research. Neither of these involve direct observation of accidents. A research programme has been designed in order to: (1) gain insight into the generation process of traffic

  6. ALCOHOL RELATED TRAFFIC SAFETY LEGISLATION

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    E.B.R. DESAPRIYA

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available There is a substantial amount of evidence from experimental studies to indicate that a variety of individual skills are impaired at blood alcohol concentrations (BACs well below 0.05%. Epidemiological studies indicate that the risk of a crash increases sharply for drivers with BACs below 0.05%. The correlation between drunk driving and the risk of traffic accidents has been established on the individual as well as the aggregate level. The BAC level legally permitted is a public policy decision by legislators, while scientists can present experimental and epidemiological evidence indicating the BAC level at which psychomotor skills deteriorate and accident probabilities increase. There is considerable epidemiological evidence to support the fact that the risk of alcohol impaired drivers being involved in traffic crashes rises with increasing BAC's. By contrast, the evidence on the BAC at which a driver should be regarded as committing an offence has been the subject of much debate and various legislative decisions. Historically, per se laws specify BAC levels which are a compromise figure intended to reflect both the point at which a driver becomes significantly more likely to be involved in an accident than a comparative driver with a zero BAC and that which is politically acceptable, but falls within the BAC region of increased accident liability. Therefore, the per se legislation in most countries has not kept pace with scientific progress. This study suggests that if saving lives on the road is an important issue, then, passing laws that incorporate scientific and epidemiological studies, is necessary.

  7. Traffic Monitor

    Science.gov (United States)

    1995-01-01

    Intelligent Vision Systems, Inc. (InVision) needed image acquisition technology that was reliable in bad weather for its TDS-200 Traffic Detection System. InVision researchers used information from NASA Tech Briefs and assistance from Johnson Space Center to finish the system. The NASA technology used was developed for Earth-observing imaging satellites: charge coupled devices, in which silicon chips convert light directly into electronic or digital images. The TDS-200 consists of sensors mounted above traffic on poles or span wires, enabling two sensors to view an intersection; a "swing and sway" feature to compensate for movement of the sensors; a combination of electronic shutter and gain control; and sensor output to an image digital signal processor, still frame video and optionally live video.

  8. Vítimas fatais e anos de vida perdidos por acidentes de trânsito em Minas Gerais, Brasil Víctimas fatales y años de vida perdidos por accidentes de tráfico en Minas Gerais, Brasil Fatal traffic accidents victims and potential years of life lost in Minas Gerais, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernanda Carolina Camargo

    2012-03-01

    áfico. Complejo es su impacto en el sector de la salud, principalmente por la pérdida de personas en edad productiva. Ante los resultados presentados, se espera contribuir para el fomento de nuevas posibilidades de enfrentamiento de ese agravo.Study aims to analyze the profile of fatal traffic accidents victims and quantify the impact of these deaths by the potential years of life lost (PYLL, in Minas Gerais, Brazil. We used an epidemiological approach for records of the Mortality Information from the Department of the Brazilian Unified Health. Between 1996 and 2007, there were 38.395 deaths, an annual average of 17.61 deaths per 100.000 inhabitants. There were 8894.46 PYLL per 100,000 inhabitants, performing 43.24 PYLL per death. Men, 20 to 59 years old, were the main casualties. This mortality ascended among the elderly. Generally, traffic accidents result from disorders in urban infrastructure, risky behavior of drivers and pedestrians, inefficiencies in the regulation/supervision of traffic. It is Complex, the impact on the health sector, mainly the loss of people of working age. Facing the results presented, it is expected to contribute to the development of new possibilities for confronting this disease

  9. Epidemiologic study on accidents among children under five years old during 2006 to 2016-Qazvin

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    K. Hosseinzadeh

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: Children, due to their insufficient risk detection, are more vulnerable to accidents than adults. Objective: The present study has been done to explore the prevalence of accidents and related factors among children under five years old from 2006 to 2016 in Qazvin. Methods: This descriptive-analytic study concluded all 18184 children who had exposure to accidents during study time section from 2006 to 2016. All recorded data in Health Information System (HIS of Qazvin Health Management Office were probed to explore the target figures, and then were entered in a qualified checklist. All data were analyzed by descriptive statistical methods and Multinomial Logistic Regression. Findings: The prevalence rate of accidents in the target children was eight percent, which more than half (62.9 % were taken place in boys. Accidents in children before one year old (31.4 %, and home accidents (46.5% were the most prevalent one. In addition to these, the rates of Trauma, Fallings, and Traffic accidents were 31.8%, 15.6%, 14.9%, respectively. The most prevalent time of accident was summer (29.7%, especially in July (12.1%. Conclusion: The risk of accidents in the young children, and boys are more than others. Unsafe home environment, motor vehicles accidents, and doing unsafe behaviors are the main causes for increasing the risk. Yet, application of some programs such as; mothers’ education, administration of traffic rules may decrease the risk of accidents in the children.

  10. Accident Prediction Models for Akure – Ondo Carriageway, Ondo ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Factors such as driver's behavior, poorly maintained vehicles, non adherence to traffic rules, poorly maintained road and verges, and over-speeding are causatives factors to road accident. However, road safety plans and road safety audit that are effective strategies that could be used by the authorities concerned for ...

  11. Behavioral accident avoidance science : understanding response in collision incipient conditions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hancock, P.A.; Ridder, S.N. de

    2003-01-01

    Road traffic accidents are the single greatest cause of fatality in the workplace and the primary cause of all accidental death in the U.S. to the age of seventy-eight. However, behavioral analysis of response in the final seconds and milliseconds before collision has been a most difficult

  12. Analysis of the On the Spot (OTS) Road Accident Database

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mansfield, H.; Bunting, A.; Martens, M.; Horst, A.R.A. van der

    2008-01-01

    The UK Government is seeking to substantially reduce the number of road traffic accidents (RTAs) leading to injury or loss of life. Specifically, relative to the average figures for 1994–98, the Government would like to meet the following road casualty reduction targets by 2010: • a 40% reduction in

  13. The anatomic pattern of fractures and dislocations among accident ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    note any differences from previous reports. METHODS: This was a retrospective study of all patients with accidental fractures and dislocations treated at the Federal Medical Centre Owerri between January 2000 and December 2003. RESULTS: A change in the major causative factors was observed as Road Traffic Accident ...

  14. The effect of roundabout design features on cyclist accident rate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hels, Tove; Orozova-Bekkevold, Ivanka

    2007-01-01

    Roundabouts are known to result in fewer traffic accidents than traditional intersections. However, this is to a lesser degree true for bicycles than for vehicles. In this paper, we aimed at establishing statistical relationships through Poisson regression and logistic regression analyses between...

  15. Mortality Patterns In The Accident And Emergency Department Of An ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Some of the deaths (3.4%) could not be traced to any cause. Probably due to incomplete records or ignorance to the cause of death. Road traffic accidents and assaults were the commonest causes of traumatic death, accounting for 57.8% and 11.1% respectively. Bulk of the non traumatic deaths (25.2%) was from ...

  16. Maxillofacial skeletal injuries following boat accidents in a Coastal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Since most of the maxillofacial injuries are usually severe and life threatening, the traffic agents in coastal areas should therefore, be prpared for any eventuality while the maxillofacial surgeons should also brace up to the challenges associated with the management of maxillofacial injuries resulting from boat accidents.

  17. Analyzing the severity of accidents on the German Autobahn.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manner, Hans; Wünsch-Ziegler, Laura

    2013-08-01

    We study the severity of accidents on the German Autobahn in the state of North Rhine-Westphalia using data for the years 2009 until 2011. We use a multinomial logit model to identify statistically relevant factors explaining the severity of the most severe injury, which is classified into the four classes fatal, severe injury, light injury and property damage. Furthermore, to account for unobserved heterogeneity we use a random parameter model. We study the effect of a number of factors including traffic information, road conditions, type of accidents, speed limits, presence of intelligent traffic control systems, age and gender of the driver and location of the accident. Our findings are in line with studies in different settings and indicate that accidents during daylight and at interchanges or construction sites are less severe in general. Accidents caused by the collision with roadside objects, involving pedestrians and motorcycles, or caused by bad sight conditions tend to be more severe. We discuss the measures of the 2011 German traffic safety programm in the light of our results. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. [Medicolegal and compensation scientific approach to automobile accident].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamanouchi, Haruo

    2002-09-01

    Multiple injuries are frequently observed over the whole body of traffic victims in medico-legal autopsy cases. The assessment of a traffic casualty must include not only the victim but also the vehicle and the circumstances of the accident. Only consideration of all available data permits a better assessment of the mechanism of the crash and causation of injuries. J. M. Thevenet drove the first car carried from France to Japan on February 6, 1898. On October 28th, 1905, the first death by a road traffic accident occurred in Osaka. We performed a retrospective analysis of 279 traffic fatalities examined by medico-legal autopsy in Niigata that occurred over a twenty-two-year period from 1980 to 2001. All persons who had an ICD-10 code were grouped by 153 pedestrians, 43 pedal cyclists, 20 motorcycle riders, 45 car occupants, 11 occupants of pick-up trucks or vans, 4 occupants of heavy transport vehicles and 3 others. The average of ISS (injury scale score) is 40.7 in pedestrians, 26.7 in pedal cyclists, 32.4 in motorcycle riders, 25.1 in car occupants, 16.5 in occupants of pick-up trucks or vans, 24.0 in heavy transport vehicles and 69.0 in others. Rib fractures were observed in 170 cases (60.9%) and the frequency of other injuries was shown in Table 2. Criminal Punishment for drivers involved in 261 traffic accidents amounted to 35 sentences of imprisonment (13.4%), 46 suspension of execution of sentence (17.6%) and 60 sentence of fine (23.0%). Forty prone pedestrians run over by cars showed high ethanol levels in their blood. It was necessary to identify the driver of a vehicle in twelve car accidents and simulation with a computer is very useful. The average of ISS was 34.0 in ten drivers and 22.0 in fourteen fellow passengers. Four sudden natural deaths of drivers at the wheel, eight cases of death immediately after and from one day to five months after road traffic accidents, nine suicides and one intentional accident are excluded from traffic death. Both a

  19. Overview of main accident parameters in car-to-cyclist accidents for use in AEB-system test protocol

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Uittenbogaard, J.; Camp, O.M.G.C. op den; Montfort, S. van

    2016-01-01

    The number of fatalities in road traffic accidents in Europe is decreasing. Unfortunately, the number of fatalities among cyclists does not follow this trend with the same rate [1]. The au-tomotive industry is making a significant effort in the development and implementation of safety systems in

  20. Road traffic safety on the roundabouts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    О. В. Степанчук

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The growth of automobilization and the noncompliance of the city central parts with the modern vehicles requirements create the preconditions for the increase of the road traffic accidents. the intersections, of the main streets of the district value are the most accidental. It is noted that to develop a set of measures to improve road safety at the intersections it is necessary to know the degree of their security. it is found that that the intersections of highways significantly reduce the capacity, creating significant delay of traffic flows, as a result of which they become places of high concentration of automobile emissions, noise and other adverse effects on the environment